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SIXTIETH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1930-31 BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1932

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Full Text

 SESSIONAL PAPERS
FOURTH SESSION, SEVENTEENTH PARLIAMENT
OF   THE
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
SESSION 1932
VOLUME TWO
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF  THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to tbe King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1932.
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY,
VICTORIA, B. C.  CONTENTS.
Volume   2.
Page.
ESTIMATES, 1932-33  Y 1
Do. 1931-32  (Supplementary)  Y 125
PAPERS PRESENTED:
Final Report of Royal Commission on State Health Insurance and Maternity Benefits  X 1
Report of Royal Commission on Chiropractic and Drugless Healing  Q 1
Report on Acts BB 1
REPORTS, OFFICIAL:
Agriculture, Report of Department for Year ending December 31st, 1931 U 1
Comptroller-General, Report for 1931-32  W 1
Forest Branch, Report for Year ending December 31st, 1931  V 1
Health, Report of Provincial Board for Year ending June 30th, 1931  P 1
Lands, Report of Minister for Year ending December 31st, 1931  Z 1
Liquor Control Board, Report for Fiscal Year ending March 31st, 1931.... M 1
Mental Hospitals, Report for Fiscal Year ending March 31st, 1931 AA 1
Public Accounts for Fiscal Year ending March 31st, 1931 ..'. N 1
Public Schools, Report of Superintendent for Year ending June 30th, 1931 L 1
Superannuation,  Report  of  Superannuation  Commissioner  for  Fiscal
Year ending March 31st, 1931 -  R 1
Teachers' Pensions, Report of Superannuation Commissioner for Fiscal
Year ending March 31st, 1931  S 1
Tranquille  Sanatorium,  Report of Medical  Superintendent  for Fiscal
Year ending March 31st, 1931  T 1
Vital Statistics, Report for Year ending December 31st, 1930  O 1
y U "Si, & M  SIXTIETH ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OF  THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1930-31
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chaples F. Banfield, Printer to tbe King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1931.
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY,
VICTORIA, B. C.  To His Honour J. W. Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg respectfully to present the Sixtieth Annual Report of the Public  Schools  of the
Province.
JOSHUA HINCHLIFFE,
Minister of Education.
November, 1931.  DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
Minister of Education:
Hon. JOSHUA HINCHLIFFE, B.A.
Superintendent of Education: Assistant Superintendent of Education:
S. J. Willis, B.A., LL.D. J. D. Gillis.
Inspectors of High Schools:
A. Sullivan, B.A., Victoria.
J. B. DeLong, B.A., Vancouver.
Inspectors of Elementary Schools:
L. J. Bruce, Vancouver. T. W. Hall, B.A., Kamloops.
F. G. Calvert, Vancouver. V. Z. Manning, B.A., Cranbrook.
A. F. Matthews, M.A., Kamloops. W. H. M. May, Victoria.
T. G. Carter, Penticton. A. E. Miller, Revelstoke.
*H. C. Fraser, M.A., Prince Rupert. H. H. Mackenzie, B.A., Vancouver.
*W. G. Gamble, B.A., Prince George. J. T. Pollock, Vancouver.
G. H. Gower, M.A., Courtenay. P. H. Sheffield, B.A., Nelson.
T. R. Hall, Kelowna.                                               A. C. Stewart, Victoria.
* These men also inspect the High Schools in their districts.
SPECIAL OFFICIALS.
Organizer of Technical Education:
John Kyle, A.R.C.A.
Director of Home Economics:
Miss J. L. McLenaghen, B.Sc.
Welfare Officer of Rural Teachers (Women) :
Miss Lottie Bowron.
Director in Charge of High-school Correspondence Courses:
J. W. Gibson, M.A., B.Paed.
Officer in Charge of Elementary-school Correspondence Courses:
James Hargreaves.
Registrar:
J. L. Watson, B.A.
Officer in Charge of Free Text-books:
J. A. Anderson.
Chief Clerk:
R. D. Smith.
NORMAL SCHOOL STAFFS.
Vancouver:
D. M. Robinson, B.A., Principal.
A. Anstey, B.A.
W. P. Weston.
H. B. MacLean.
J. A. Macintosh, B.Sc.
A. E. C. Martin, B.Sc.
Miss L. G. Bollert, B.A.
Miss E. M. Coney.
Miss N. V. Jones, B.A.
Victoria:
D. L. MacLaurin, B.A., Principal.
V. L. Denton, B.A.
H. Dunnell.
B. S. Freeman, B.A.
H. L. Campbell, B.A.
Miss G. G. Riddell.
Miss L. B. Isbister.
Miss Isabel Coursier.
Model School:
Miss Kate Scanlan.
Miss 1. M. F. Barron.
Municipal Inspectors of Schools:
R. S. Shields, B.A., New Westminster. E. G. Daniels, B.A., Burnaby.
George H. Deane, Victoria.
J. M. Paterson, B.A., Saanich. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PART I.
Page.
Superintendent's Report  9
Report on Normal Schools—
Vancouver  24
Victoria :  25
Report of the Director of the Summer School for Teachers  27
Report of the Organizer of Technical Education  34
Report of the Director of Home Economics -  40
Report of the Rural Female Teachers' Welfare Officer  40
Report of Superintendent of Schools, Vancouver  41
Reports of Municipal Inspectors—■
New Westminster  43
Victoria  43
Burnaby -  45
Saanich  46
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind  47
Report of Director of High School Correspondence Courses _  49
Report of Director of Elementary School Correspondence Courses  53
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Free Text-book Branch  54
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust  55
PART II.
Statistical Returns—■
High Schools  (Cities)  2
High Schools (Rural Municipalities)  0
High Schools (Rural Districts)  11
Superior Schools  13
Junior High Schools  14
Elementary Schools  (Cities) 17
Elementary Schools  (Rural Municipalities)  53
Elementary Schools (Regularly Organized Rural Districts)  72
Elementary Schools (Assisted Rural Districts)  78
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each City  92
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each Rural Municipality  95
Enrolment  (Recapitulation)  98
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts  99
PART III.
High School Entrance Examination Papers  103 PART I.
GENERAL REPORT.  REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF
EDUCATION, 1930-31.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., October, 1931.
To the Honourable Joshua Hinchliffe, B.A.,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Sixtieth Annual Report of the Public Schools of British
Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1931.
ENROLMENT.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 111,017 to
113,914 and the average daily attendance from 96,196 to 99,375. The percentage of regular
attendance was 87.23.
The number of pupils enrolled in the various classes of schools is shown hereunder:—
Schools.
Cities.
Rural
Municipalities.
Rural
Districts.
Total.
High schools	
Superior schools	
Junior high schools	
Elementary schools	
Totals, 1930-31
Totals, 1029-30
12,841
25
5,515
51,235
2,442
71
234
19,194
914
638
61
20,744
16,197
734
5,810
91,173
69,616
21,941
22,357
113,914
68,707
20,989
21,321
111,017
In addition to the numbers given above, there were enrolled in the— students.
High School Correspondence classes   1,055
Elementary School Correspondence classes   681
Night-schools    7,179
Normal School, Vancouver   287
Normal School, Victoria   169
Victoria College  256
University of British Columbia  2,044
Total  11,671
The pupils of each sex were distributed by grades as follows:—■
Grade.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
Grade I	
7,172
6,458
6,636
6,691
6,323
5,498
5,305
4,990
3,898
2,815
1,612
278
6,504
5,819
5,889
6,252
5,955
5,481
5,299
5,477
4,083
3,157
2,038
284
13,676
Grade II	
12,277
Grade III	
12,525
Grade IV	
12,943
Grade V	
12,278
Grade VI	
10,979
Grade VII	
10,604
Grade VIII.         	
10,467
Grade IX	
7,981
Grade X                    	
5,972
Grade XI                  	
3,650
562
57,676
56,238
113,914 L 10
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
The number of teachers employed in the different classes of schools, the number of pupils
and the percentage of the pupils that were enrolled in each class, and also the average number
of pupils per teacher are shown below:—
Schools.
OS
O aj
•&z
§32
a> o g
S** — ^ H
^h£h
High schools   (cities)	
High schools   (rural municipalities)	
High schools  (rural districts)	
Junior high  schools	
Superior  schools	
Elementary schools (cities)	
Elementary  schools   (rural municipalities)
Elementary schools  (rural districts)	
All schools .-.
379
87
42
163
41
1,446
559
1,006
76
3
2
46
73
25
12,841
2,442
914
5,810
734
51,235
19,194
20,744
11.28
2.14
0.80
5.10
0.64
44.98
16.85
18.21 ■
3,723
225
113,914
100.00
34
28
22
36
18
35
34
21
31
29
25
19
32
15
32
30
18
28
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES.
The following table shows the number of teachers of each sex employed and also the
number of certificates of each class held by the teachers:—
Schools.
■a
4->
m
u
U
T3
B
©
o
m
•6
u
s
a
51
'8
B
to
o3
M
a
P5
a
o
367
84
42
14
85
124
14
13
16
27
68
670
223
139
253
5
592
310
169
395
43
12
3
7
11
3
5
11
76
3
2
46
73
25
1
17
281
47
24
31
105
307
131
97
140
174
43
20
10
104
1,212
453
227
542
455
High schools   (rural munic.)	
High schools  (rural districts)
Superior  schools	
90
44
41
209
1,519
Elementary schools (rural munic.)
Regularly organized rural schools.
584
324.
682
Total,  1930-31	
759
1,380
1,471
65
30
225
18
1,163
2,785
3,948
Total,  1929-30	
730
1,244
1,534
83    ■
35
215
13
1,116
2.738     3.854
NEW SCHOOLS.
High schools were opened at North Bend, Squamish, and Telkwa; junior high schools at
Kelowna, Nanaimo, and Ocean Falls; and superior schools at Blakeburn, Cobble Hill, Copper
Mountain, James Island, McBride, Procter, and Queen Charlotte. Forty-two new class-rooms
were opened in graded schools throughout the Province.
Schools were opened for the first time in twenty-eight pioneer districts, of which fourteen
are in the Peace River section of the Province.    The names of the districts follow:—
Name of School District. Electoral District.
Bradley Creek and Lilypad  Cariboo.
Lakeshaw    Cowichan-Newcastle.
Hurlingham    Cranbrook.
Pitt Lake Dewdney.
Arras, Clayton, Crystal Spring, Devereaux, Ferndale, Fish
Creek, Ground Birch, Hays, North Pine, Riverside,
Sunnybrook, Sweetwater, Tupper Creek, and Willow
Brook   Fort George. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
L 11
Name of School District. Electoral District.
Brocklehurst and Upper Louis Creek  Kamloops.
Fraser View  Lillooet.
Bliss Landing and Jackson Bay  Mackenzie.
Hubert and Walcott  Omineca.
Twelve Mile Ferry  Revelstoke.
Sealey Lake  Skeena.
The following table shows the enrolment during the last twelve years and also the cost to
the Provincial Government of each pupil:—
Year.
Enrolment
at High
Schools.
Enrolment
at other
Public
Schools.
Total
Enrolment.
Percentage at
High Schools
of the Total
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Average
Daily
Attendance.
1919-20	
6,636
7,259
8,634
9,220
9,889
10,597
11,779
12,906
13,516
14,545
14,675
16,197
72,607
78,691
83,285
85,668
86,315
87,357
89,909
92,102
94,663
95,013
96,342
97,717
79,243
85,950
91,919
94,888
96,204
97,954
101,688
105,008
108,179
109,558
111,017
113,914
8.37
8.44
9.39
9.71
10.27
10.81
11.58
12.29
12.49
13.27
13.22
14.21
$27.20
29.01
29.33
27.92
27.30
27.17
26.09
26.40
20.92
28.32
28.07
28.03
$36.05
1920-21	
36.38
1921 22               	
35.70
1922-23    	
34.07
1923-24    	
33.21
1924-25    	
32.17
1925-26     	
31.06
1926 27
31.41
1927-28     	
31.74
1928-29	
33.03
1929-30 	
32.79
1930-31	
32.74
The gradual growth of the schools and also the cost to the Provincial Government of
maintaining them are shown in the following exhibit:—
Year.
No. of
Teachers
employed.
Number
of School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Daily-
Attendance.
Percentage
of
Attendance.
Government
Expenditure for
Education.
1877-78    	
56
69
128
267
429
607
S16
1,597
2,246
3,118
3,668
3,784
3,854
3,948
45
59
104
109
213
268
189
359
575
744
788
792
803
811
2,198
2,693
0,372
11,490
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
67,516
94,888
108,179
109,588
111,017
113,914
1,395
1,383
3,093
7,111
11,055
16,357
23,195
43,274
54,746
77,752
91,760
94,410
90,196
99,375
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
81.09
81.94
84.82
86.17
S6.65
87.23
$43,334.01
1882 83
50,850.63
99,902.04
190,558.33
1887 88
1892-93	
1897-98	
247,756.37
1902-03 	
1907-08	
1912-13 -	
1917-18	
1922-23	
307,003.46
464,473.78
1,032,038.60
1,529,058.93
3,176,686.28*
1927-28	
1928-29	
3,532,518.95*
3,765,920.60*
1929-30	
1930-31	
3,743,317.08*
3,834,727.19*
* This amount includes the annual grant to the Provincial University. L 12                                            PUBLIC SCHOOLS
REPORT, 1930-31.
The  number  of  children  of foreign  parentage  who  attended
Province during the year was as follows:—
the  public  schools  of  the
o>
a
s
0>
to
0)
a
a
c
a
Ha
us
s
B
S.2
3 >
o a
on a
o5
n
o
m
a
oj
a
u
o
a
a;
High  schools	
City  elementary  schools	
Elementary schools in rural municipalities
Rural elementary schools	
164
951
90
120
415
1,754
1,506
453
8
64
9
25
178
759
301
567
9
15
24
27
61
122
27
55
40
301
128
194
26
89
42
78
Total	
1,325
4,128
100
1,805
75
205
063
235
73
a •
DQ
O
a
DD
V
«3
00
s
a
a
a
CO
s
03
d
O
3
C
a
'3
h
J4
a
03 03
ii)C
■"(
fe
M
M
0
P
Ofe
75
234
11
79
64
81
65
347
103
681
7
42
25
172
73
City  elementary  schools	
541
Elementary schools in rural municipalities	
63
30
78
105
136
6
76
312
Rural elementary schools	
99
81
179
103
318
704
141
427
Total	
471
201
402
620
1,238
759
414
1,353
HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city high schools during the year was 12,841. Of this number, 6,227
were boys and 6,614 were girls.
The number of divisions and the enrolment for 1930-31 and for 1929-30 in each city are
shown in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1930-31.
Enrolment,
1029-30.
Armstrong	
Chilliwack	
Courtenay	
Cranbrook	
Cumberland	
Duncan	
Enderby	
Fernie	
Grand Porks	
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Kelowna	
Lady smith	
Merritt	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster.
Port Alberni	
Port Coquitlam	
Port Moody	
Prince George	
Prince   Rupert	
Revelstoke	
Rossland	
Salmon Arm	
Slocan	
Trail	
Vancouver	
Vancouver,  North
Vernon	
Victoria	
Total	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
1
1
1
41
26
3
2
1
3
8
5
3
4
1
6
185
13
7
36
115
326
74
196
66
108
28
156
72
272
21
136
81
60
227
221
958
81
42
21
76
218
139
72
112
12
198
6,941
436
183
1,193
383
12,841
110
298
87
190
59
107
24
115
76
262
27
191
70
49
252
220
871
76
32
17
65
213
137
71
86
9
180
6,163
377
181
1,240
11,855 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
L 13
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the rural municipal high schools during the year was 2,442. Of this
number, 1,058 were boys and 1,384 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the year 1930-31 and the
year 1929-30 are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1930-31.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
17
4
3
2
4
6
5
3
9
1
4
5
8
3
4
6
572
97
84
31
102
147
129
78
270
12
US
151
269
70
139
173
486
Delta	
91
Esquimau	
Kent .'	
73
30
94
155
102
69
Oak Bay                  	
258
Penticton	
112
141
Saanich--	
Summerland -	
Surrey :	
Vancouver, West	
143
74
109
132
Total	
18
84
2,442
2,076
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural high schools for the year was 914. Of this number, 377 were
boys and 537 were girls.
The number of schools arid of divisions and the enrolment for the years 1930-31 and 1929-30
are given in the table below:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1930-31.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
o
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
o
1
2
1
3
1
2
21
39
64
19
24
21
26
19
23
23
79
29
24
22
21
25
11
82
57
30
36
47
29
95
14
34
18
30
50
18
Golden	
23
26
Harewood	
Howe Sound	
21
20
24
13
67
Kitsumgallum	
31
24
New Denver	
21
33
19
76
42
Qualicum Beach	
Saanich, North	
22
18
39
Squamish	
76
Telkwa	
Tsolum	
33
Total	
26
42
914
744 L 14
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the superior schools was 734.    The number of boys was 333, of girls 401.
The following table gives the names of the schools and the enrolment for the school-year
1930-31 and for 1929-30:—
School.
Enrolment,
1930-31.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
School.
Enrolment,
1930-31.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
20
17
8
15
25
13
11
22
42
21
12
24
25
9
9
15
12
11
29
24
17
14
21
20
17
17
20
27
9
14
17
20
51
20
31
15
29
7
14
33
31
25
19
10
20
40
19
14
11
30
20
24
31
27
Rolla  	
19
26
Cobble Hill          	
16
19
34
29
25
14
25
14
Michel-Natal  	
734
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the junior high schools was 5,810. The number of boys enrolled was
2,898, of girls 2,912.
The following table gives the number of divisions and the enrolment in each school for
the years 1930-31 and 1929-30:—
District.
School.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1930-31.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
6
6
8
10
3
6
4
43
34
35
230
234
266
354
61
234
209
1,623
1,225
1,374
215
328
229
198
1,590
1,283
1,343
Total	
155
5,810
5,186
* Five hundred and eighteen pupils enrolled in the Central, Lister-Kelvin, and Richard McBride Schools
were taught the Course of Studies prescribed for Grades VII. and VIII. of the Junior High Schools. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
L 15
SUMMARY OP ENROLMENT IN HIGH, SUPERIOR, AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
The following is a summary of the enrolment in high, superior, and junior high schools:-
Number
of
Pupils
enrolled.
Boys.
Girls.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Number of Pupils in Grades.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
High schools :
Cities	
Rural  municipalities.
12,841
2,442
914
734
5,810
6,227
1,058
377
333
2,898
6,614
1,384
537
401
2,912
11,219.89
2,178.99
811.05
612.74
5,250.85
2,171
218
2,337
4,834
1,093
370
279
1,302
4,645
817
297
166
2,847
505
234
64
515
27
13
7
Total	
22,741
10,893
11,848
20,073.52
2,171 | 2,555
■1
7,878
5,925
3,650
562
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 51,235. The number of boys was 26,358,
of girls 24,877.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, and the enrolment in each city are shown
in the table below :—
City.
Number
of   '
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1930-31.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
2
5
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
3
55
1
3
1
16
4
13
11
8
19
13
12
3
18
8
2
16
3
17
8
8
20
21
73
12
7
6
11
26
16
12
5
2
36
771
10
39
22
133
141
495
425
284
606
•452
428
106
675
308
49
608
76
679
269
300
790
734
2,688
397
236
188
417
909
580
499
182
50
1,273
29,224
85
1,437
873
4,772
129
490
434
283
631
449
436
Enderby	
100
698
292
55
606
74
772
Ladysmith	
Merritt	
289
289
1,026
715
2,801
399
249
201
407
877
593
460
192
Slocan	
Trail-Tadanac	
52
1,228
29,369
86
1,456
843
4,914
Total	
120
1.3S5
51,235
51,895 L 16
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
ELEMENTARY   SCHOOLS—RURAL   MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the rural municipality elementary schools was 19,194. The number of
boys enrolled was 9,856, of girls 9,338.
The following table gives the enrolment and the number of schools in operation in each
municipality during the school years 1930-31 and 1929-30:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1030-31.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
Burnaby	
Chilliwack	
Coldstream	
Coquitlam	
Cowichan, North-
Delta	
Esquimau	
Kent	
Langley	
Maple Ridge	
Matsqui	
Mission	
Oak Bay	
Peachland	
Penticton	
Pitt Meadows	
Richmond	
Saanich	
Salmon Arm	
Sumas	
Summerland	
Surrey	
Vancouver, North
Vancouver, West-
Total	
19
15
2
5
3
10
1
2
15
9
10
8
2
1
1
1
6
15
7
4
1
22
116
35
4
11
8
19
14
6
29
29
18
19
17
2
13
5
36
55
9
8
9
47
23
21
4,420
1,119
130
343
200
571
513
201
949
913
556
663
632
49
574
155
1,370
1,925
273
332
324
1,447
747
788
4,234
1,064
115
316
200
567
511
199
927
885
546
037
626
54
562
135
1,340
1,894
260
278
334
1,408
770
771
167
553
19,194
1S,633
I
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The number of pupils that were enrolled and the number of teachers employed in the
elementary schools of the rural districts were as follows:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Pupils.
Boys.
Girls.
Number of
Teachers
employed.
172
579
8,981
11,763
4,547
6,022
4,434
5,741
324
682
Total	
751
20,744
10,569
10,175
1,006 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
L 17
The following table shows the highest,
the school-year 1930-31 :—
SALARIES,
lowest, and average salary paid to teachers during
High Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Cities.
Alberni	
Armstrong	
Chilliwack	
Courtenay	
Cranbrook.-	
Cumberland	
Duncan	
Enderby	
Fernie	
Grand Porks	
Greenwood	
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Kelowna	
Ladysmith	
Merritt	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster	
Port Alberni	
Port Coquitlam	
Port Moody	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke	
Rossland	
Salmon Arm	
Slocan -	
Trail	
Vancouver	
Vancouver, North	
Vernon	
Victoria 	
For all cities	
Rural Municipalities
Burnaby	
Chilliwack	
Coldstream	
Coquitlam	
Cowichan, North	
Delta	
Esquimalt	
Kent	
Langley	
Maple Ridge--	
Matsqui	
Mission	
Oak Bay	
Peachland	
Penticton	
Pitt Meadows	
Richmond	
Saanich	
Salmon Arm	
Sumas	
$2,500
2,275
2,200
2,850
2,250
2,240
1,750
3,600
2,400
3,000
1,950
2,600
2,250
1,750
3,000
3,800
3,750
2,200
2,400
2,250
2,400
3,400
3,100
2,650
2,800
1,600
3,500
4,280
3,120
2,650
3,900
$4,280
$3,200
3,000
2,600
1,700
2,500
2,500
1,900
1,860
3,400
1,500
3,000
2,240
2,800
$1,600
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,375
1,700
1,550
1,740
1,600
1,650
1,800
1,600 .
1,300
1,750
1,500
1,700
1,600
1,500
1,200
2,250
1,750
1,500
1,800
1,950
1,900
1,600
1,700
1,450
1,500
1,600
1,715
$1,200
$1,900
1,650
2,145
1,300
1,400
1,500
1,200
1,500
1,890
1,500
1,800
1,540
1,800
$1,875
1,925
1,850
1,921
1,708
1,885
1,650
2,158
1,900
2,077
1,875
1,910
1,562
1,750
1,945
2,278
2,588
1,850
1,800
2,250
1,983
2,189
2,083
2,233
2,225
1,600
2,257
2,676
2,274
1,943
2,492
$2,437
$2,265
2,162
2,296
1,500
1,687
1,850
1,580
1,720
2,763
1,500
2,124
1,880
2,100
$1,500
2,500
1,950
2,200
2,700
2,500
2,150
1,750
1,950
2,000
1,600
2,400
1,450
2,800
2,000
2,750
1,560
2,730
3,100
2050
1,400
1,900
2,250
2,705
2,700
2,200
2,200
1,300
2,800
3,760
3,000
2,700
2,925
$2,850
1,800
1,450
1,300
1,600
2,500
2,800
1,350
1,300
1,800
1,250
2,200
3,500
1,300
1,900
1,600
2,500
2,400
1,350
1,200
$1,000
050
950
1,050
1,050
975
950
950
1,050
1,050
1,100
1,045
1,100
1,050
950
1,050
940
1,072
960
1,080
900
1,100
1,100
1,155
1,000
1,100
1,100
1,100
950
900
960
900
975
$3,760
$900
$1,150
1,346
1,227
1,381
1,291
1,229
1,150
1,300
1,426
1,225
1,273
1,416
1,233
1,344
1,316
1,372
1,374
1,394
1,473
1,182
1,050
1,375
1,359
1,640
1,341
1,330
1,343
1,200
1,382
1,801
1,641
1,332
1,598
$1,547
$800
$1,362
850
1,061
1,100
1,262
900
1,054
950
1,163
900
1,168
1,030
1,506
950
1,075
800
995
850
1,038
800
075
840
1,112
1,150
1,850
1,100
1,200
900
1,397
900
1,160
850
1,203
700
1,310
1,000
1,110
960
1,066 L 18
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
SALARIES—Continued.
High Schools.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Rural Municipalities—Continued.
$2,400
2,100
$1,500
1,400
$1,866
1,720
$2,300
1,580
2,710
2,600
$1,000
760
954
1,140
$1,351
949
Vancouver, North	
1,548
Vancouver, West	
3,000
1,500
2,067
1,487
For all rural municipalities
$3,400
$1,200
$2,056
$3,500
$700
$1,261
Rural Districts.
$2,900
2,300
$1,200
1,200
$1,802
1,598
$2,800
51 150
$780
854
$1,135
1,091
For all rural districts	
$2,900
$1,200
$1,781
$2,800                $780
I
$1,105
The average salary paid teachers employed in the public schools (elementary and high) of
the Province was $1,534; to teachers employed in elementary schools, $1,401; and to teachers
employed in high schools, $2,335.
EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL-YEAR 1930-31.
Minister's Office:
Salaries 	
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses	
General Office:
Salaries 	
Office supplies	
Travelling expenses 	
Text-book Branch:
Salaries 	
Office supplies 	
Free text-books, maps, etc	
Text-books, additional office supplies, and temporary assistance 	
Correspondence Courses, High Schools:
Salaries 	
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses 	
Science equipment 	
Incidentals 	
Correspondence Courses, Elementary Schools:
Salaries 	
Office supplies 	
Industrial Education:
Salaries	
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses 	
Grants in aid 	
Night-schools 	
$10,860.00
281.66
1,515.72
22,570.10
6,396.96
347.01
10,937.46
5,264.17
64,853.56
3,186.62
20,492.10
9,569.39
54.75
1,353.38
75.00
6,786.09
1,308.39
9,644.15
913.58
2,817.56
20,905.63
36,471.28 95,247.19
37,124.66
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries   $74,978.75
Office supplies       3,881.79
Travelling expenses      25,299.81
$104,160.35
Less amount paid by School Boards       8,913.16
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries   $37,881.17
Office supplies   2,331.67
Travelling expenses   877.07
Fuel, light, and water  2,541.58
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)  1,971.42
Students' mileages   1,390.80
Incidentals   690.95
$47,684.66
Less Normal School fees      10,560.00
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries (part by Public Works)   $38,037.60
Office supplies   1,643.05
Travelling expenses   137.82
Fuel, light, and water (by Public Works)   1,997.92
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)   7,869.36
Students' mileages   4,246.35
Incidentals   692.10
$54,624.20
Less Normal School fees      6,350.00
School for the Deaf and the Blind :
Salaries   $24,377.48
Office supplies   912.21
Fuel, light, and water  2,353.66
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)  2,632.74
Furniture, fixtures, and equipment  1,000.09
Provisions     3,000.08
Incidentals   381.24
$34,657.50
Less amount received for board  and  tuition of pupils from
Alberta and Saskatchewan       5,100.00
High,
Junior High,
and „,
Superior. Elementary.
Per capita grants to cities  $396,853.45 $817,234.05 1,214,087.50
Per capita grants to rural municipalities       73,308.75 358,878.10 432,186.85
Per capita grants to rural school districts      39,840.05 206,781.75 246,621.80
Salaries of teachers in assisted schools       33,951.30 709,323.35 743,274.65
48,274.20
29,557.50
$543,953.55      $2,092,217.25
School buildings, erection and maintenance and special aid to school districts  91,939.72
Rural Female Teachers' Welfare Officer, salary and expenses   3,364.80 L 20
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
Education of soldiers' dependent children and expenses        $11,708.00
Grants to libraries   2,980.45
Examination of High School and Entrance classes   $42,142.31
Less fees for examination and certificates      30,503.54
  11,638.77
Conveying children to central schools   67,895.96
Summer Schools   $11,777.53
Less Summer School fees        1,540.30
  10,237.23
Incidentals and contingencies   4,532.45
University of British Columbia          547,450.00
Total cost to Government    $3,834,727.19
High,
Junior High,
Amount expended by districts:                                                Superior. Elementary.
Cities     $1,752,560.04 $2,799,380.14 4,551,940.18
Rural municipalities        235,467.71 800,375.37 1,035,843.08
Rural school districts          57,019.95 392,295.09 449,315.04
Assisted school districts             6,683.70 182,878.S0 189,562.50
$2,051,731.40      $4,174,929.40
Grand total cost of education  $10,061,387.99
EXAMINATIONS.
High School Entrance Examination, June, 1931.
The High School Entrance Examination was held on June 26th, 29th, and 30th at 205 centres
throughout the Province.
Under the regulations of the Department, pupils attending a public school in a district
where a high school or a superior school is in operation are promoted on the recommendation
of a committee composed of the Principal of the school, the Principal of the high school or
superior school, and the Provincial Inspector of Schools.
The number of pupils who were successful in obtaining certificates follows:—
On recommendation  4,194
On  examination    1,278
Total  5,472
Winnifred O. Hicks, a pupil of the Agassiz Public School, had the honour of leading the
Province with an aggregate mark of 527 out of a possible 600.
The names of the winners of His Excellency the Governor-General's bronze medals are:—
District.
Name.
School.
Marks
obtained.
No.   1
No.   2
Frank Ormond Morris	
Georgette Albertine Lennartz	
Gladys Eileen Corcoran	
Nancy Doris Draper Bentley	
Winnifred Odetta Hicks -
Douglas James Strnthers	
Willows School, Oak Bav 	
513
492
No.   3
494
No.   4
No.   5
Klngsway West  School,  Burnaby	
495
527
No.   6
476
No.   7
496
No.   8
494
No.   9
No. 10
Margaret Elizabeth Forbes	
Passmore School 	
505
59.6
i PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
L 21
._
High School Examinations, 1931.
The following are the results of the examinations held in June in the various high schools
and superior schools throughout the Province:—
No. of
Candidates.
No. passed
in all
Subjects.
No. granted
Supple-
mentals.
No. granted
Partial
Standing.
Grade IX	
Grade X	
Grade XI. (Normal Entrance)	
Grade XI. (Junior Matriculation)	
Grade XI. (Normal Entrance and Junior Matriculation)
Grade XII	
Third-year Commercial	
Third-year Home Economics	
Third-year Technical	
Totals	
247*
156*
372
2,8S2
103
752
269
36
4,883
94
59
130
1,426
61
232
175
4
26
31
20
75
525
17
112
33
1
22
2,207
836
119
75
162
910
25
405
61
31
18
1,806
* Under the regulations of the Council of Public Instruction, the teachers of high schools have the
right to determine promotion in Grades IX. and X. As a result, the number of candidates sitting for
examination in these two grades is comparatively small. A student who is granted standing in four or
more subjects on the June Examinations, and satisfies his principal by oral or written examination before
the opening of school in September that he has gained a fair standard of proficiency in the subjects in
which he failed in June, may be promoted by the principal to the next grade without further Departmental
Examination.
The following summary shows the average mark obtained in each paper at the June
Examinations by Junior.and Senior Matriculation candidates:—■
Subject.
Average Mark.
Junior
Matriculation.
Senior
Matriculation.
55.3
53.9
59.6
53.2
61.4
48.9
58.7
50.3
64.9
01.3
64.3
32.0
56.8
60.7
70.6
51.2
58.4
60.0
55.1
59.9
59.9
53.0
55.8
55.1
52.6
54.6
66.4
Greek	
63.1
53.5
48.1
77.9
52.2
66.5
Biology  	
46.2
His Excellency the Governor-General's silver medals which are awarded annually to the
five leading Junior Matriculation students were won this year by the following:—■
Name.
High School.
Percentage.
Geoffrey Lionel Bodwell	
Donald Campbell MacPhail
Howard Russell Hone	
Margaret Mary Buchanan...
Marjorie Mildred Wilson....
John Oliver, Vancouver	
Prince of Wales, Vancouver	
Duke of Connaught, New Westminster
Magee, Vancouver 	
Britannia, Vancouver 	
3.2 1
3.2 }
86.4
85.8 L 22
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
The Royal Institution Scholarships awarded annually by the University of British Columbia
to the student obtaining the highest marks in the Junior Matriculation Examination and to the
six other students who lead in their respective districts were won by the following:—
District.
Name.
High School.
Percentage.
Scholarship.
Province-
f Geoffrey Lionel Bodwell
| Donald Campbell MacPhail.
Eugonie Alice Cantwell	
John Oliver, Vancouver 	
88.2 |
88.2 j
83.3
84.0
85.8
88.2 )
88.2 j
82.9
85.2
$150
No. 1	
100
„    2	
100
„    3	
100
[ Geoffrey Lionel Bodwell
) Donald Campbell MacPhail.
»    4
„     5	
Prince of Wales, Vancouver 	
Merritt                    	
100
100
„    6	
Josephine Elizabeth Smith
Trail 	
100
Malcolm Ross MacPhail, Magee High School, Vancouver, was the winner of the Royal
Institution Scholarship of $150, which is awarded annually by the University of British Columbia on the results of the Senior Matriculation Examination.
EDUCATION OP SOLDIERS' DEPENDENT CHILDREN.
The sum of $12,000 was voted by the Legislature in March, 1930, to assist in providing
high-school education for children of men who joined in this Province for service in the Great
War and who were engaged in active service in connection with the war either at home or
abroad. Under the terms of the Act, students applying for assistance must at the time of their
applications be under 16 years of age and have reached at least the standard of education
required for entrance to high school. They must also produce evidence to show that their
parents or guardians are without income sufficient to provide for their education. Every child
in receipt of assistance is required to attend school regularly and to apply himself earnestly
to his studies. The principal of the school which he attends is required to send from time to
time to the Commission administering the Act reports regarding his attendance, educational
progress, and conduct. The reports are taken into consideration by the Commission in deciding
whether the assistance shall be continued or withheld.
During the school-year 1930-31, eighty-six students received assistance under the Act. Of
that number, two completed the High School Commercial Course in June last, six completed
Junior Matriculation, seventy-one were promoted to a higher grade, and three left the Province.
In 1931 the Legislature voted $15,000 for a similar purpose and there are at the time of
writing 130 high-school students receiving benefit under the Act—ninety-seven at $125 per
annum and thirty-four at $100 per annum. Thirty-eight applications had to be rejected for one
or more of the following reasons: (a) Applicants were over age; (6) applicants' fathers
enlisted outside of British Columbia; (c) applicants had not reached Grade VIII. standing;
(d) applicants had completed Grade XI. standing.
The grants this year are distributed geographically as follows:—
Alberni    2
Armstrong    3
Black Pool   1
Burnaby   3
Cloverdale    2
Cobble Hill    4
Courtenay  2
Duncan   1
Evelyn  2
Pernie   2
Fort Langley   1
Ganges  2
Hatzic   1
Kamloops   2
Kelowna      1
Langford     1
Merritt      1
Nakusp      1
Naramata     1
New Westminster     4
Peachland        2
Port Kells	
Penticton	
Qualicum Beach 	
Revelstoke 	
Robson   	
Rossland	
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
Saanich   3 Sardis   1
Slocan City   1
Smithers   1
Sidney   2
Sorrento   1
Stewart   3
Taghum     2
Vancouver     35
Vancouver, North  3
Vancouver, West   2
Victoria   27
Westbank   1
Westwold   1
White Rock   1
Winner    1
RETIREMENT OP OFFICIALS.
At the end of the school-year Mr. A. C. Stewart and Mr. W. H. M. May, Inspectors of
Schools, and Mr. H. Dunnell, Art Master at the Victoria Normal School, retired from the service
of the Department. They had been connected with educational work in the Province in various
capacities for over thirty years. These men served the Department and the public faithfully
and well. They were at all times alive to their responsibilities, showed a sound knowledge of
school organization, and exercised good judgment in carrying out their duties. On their
retirement they were presented with tokens of good-will and esteem by the Inspectors, the
Normal School Instructors, and the staff of the Education Office.
Mr. George Cruickshank, Chief Clerk of the Department for many years, retired at the end
of March. Mr. Cruickshank was an employee of the Government for thirty-seven years and
during that long period of time rendered most satisfactory service. He was faithful and
efficient.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education. L 24
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF D. M. ROBINSON, B.A, PRINCIPAL.
The session of 1930-31 opened on September 10th. During the term, September to December,
280 students—217 young women and 63 young men—were in attendance. During this term two
students withdrew. At the close of the term in December four students with previous Normal
School training and two with teaching experience in Eastern Canada were granted diplomas;
four students discontinued the course and twenty-seven whose work was far below standard were
advised to withdraw.
At the opening of the new term in January, 241 of those who had attended during the
autumn term returned. These were joined by seven students with previous training. Thus the
total enrolment for the advanced term was 248. The session closed in June with an attendance
of 247.
The following will show the enrolment and results of the session:—
Young
Women.
Young
Men.
Total.
Regular students	
Special   (School of Art)	
Total  enrolment	
Withdrew—illness, unsatisfactory work, etc
Recommended for interim  certificates	
Recommended for special certificates   (Art).
Pailed	
220
3
223
28
175
3
17
64
64
6
52
284
3
287
34
227
3
23
The only change in the personnel of the staff occurred at the opening of the session.
Mr. A. R. Lord returned to his work as instructor in geography, Inspector T. R. Hall resuming
his work as Inspector in the Okanagan. I regret to report that Mr. W. P. Weston was compelled
to leave his work in April because of ill-health.
The instruction in physical education was conducted by Sergeant-Major Frost. Of the 242
students examined, 238 qualified for Grade B certificate.
Classes in First Aid were organized in January. These classes were conducted by officials
of the St. John Ambulance Association. Of the 245 students who attended the classes, 239 were
granted first-aid diplomas.
Swimming and Life-saving classes were organized at the opening of the session. During the
year eleven students were awarded instructors' diplomas and sixty-three received bronze medallions.    These awards were made by the Royal Life Saving Society.
During the session eight weeks were devoted to observation and practice-teaching. During
the autumn term the following schools were used for practice-teaching: Mount Pleasant,
Aberdeen, Simon Fraser, Moberley, Franklin, Seymour, Dawson, and Central. During the
winter term, Point Grey Junior High, MacKenzie, Langara, Kerrisdale, Norquay, Laura Secord,
David Lloyd George, Lord Kitchener, and Lord Nelson. At all of these schools we met with the
most hearty co-operation; principals and teachers were most anxious to help in every possible
way. In addition to this observation and practice-teaching in graded municipal schools, each
student spent a week in some small school in an adjoining municipality. Small one- and two-
roomed schools in Burnaby, Surrey, Langley, Matsqui, Delta, Richmond, Coquitlam, Maple
Ridge, North Vancouver, Chilliwack, and small rural schools along the coast and on Vancouver
Island were visited. Through these visits our students-in-training acquired considerable insight
into teaching and managing small ungraded schools. Our thanks are due to the teachers of
these small schools for their very hearty co-operation in this important branch of teacher-
training.
There has been during recent years considerable agitation for the extension of the time
devoted to teacher-training. " Make the Normal School Course a two-year course " has become
a somewhat common resolution from meetings of School Boards, Teachers' Conventions, and
Parent-Teacher Associations. We believe that the period for teacher-training should be extended,
but the matter is deserving of the most careful consideration. We emphatically do not approve
of extending the course to two consecutive years of training.    Under present conditions the PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 25
great majority of our students have received their elementary-school education in regularly
organized municipal schools. These students are entirely unacquainted with conditions in
ungraded rural schools. To attempt to instruct them in the successful solution of the very
numerous problems of organization, management, and teaching in ungraded rural schools is a
most difficult task owing to their lack of background. They cannot acquire this background
through instruction in the Normal School. While something can be done to help them in these
problems, it is well known that infinitely more could be accomplished if these students-in-
traiuing had the opportunity of actually experiencing the extremely varied and puzzling problems
of school management. Normal School training can go so far, and beyond that it is of little
use to extend such training. It is just here that the extending of the course to two consecutive
years falls short. In the early years of Normal Schools in this Province temporary certificates
were granted to students on the successful completion of the preliminary term's work, August
to December. This certificate was valid for three years. Many of our students of those times
took advantage of this certificate. They went into the rural districts and after three years of
teaching returned to Normal School, January to May, in order to secure their permanent
certificate. Three years of teaching had given these young people a fairly rich background.
They were always outstanding in their classes. They had been face to face with the problems
of management and teaching; they knew what they wanted to obtain from their course; they
were keen and anxious.
AVith the great increase in the number of fully qualified teachers the above-mentioned
temporary certificate was abolished.
Could not some extension of training along this line be again instituted? We would
suggest that present training continue as now organized, but that on completing the two years
of actual teaching on the interim certificate the young teacher be required to return to Normal
School for an advanced course in order to obtain her permanent certificate. These young
teachers would then be in a position to obtain full value from their training. Six months
should be ample time in which to complete the advanced course.
We believe that the extension of teacher-training along the above lines would far surpass
the extension of the training period to two consecutive years.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VICTORIA.
REPORT OF D. L. MacLAURIN, M.A., PRINCIPAL.
The session began on September 10th, 1930, and ended on June 12th, 1931. The total enrolment for the year was 169 students. This was 29 more than the enrolment for the year 1929-30.
Of the 169 students in attendance, 107, or 63.3 per cent., had taken either Senior Matriculation
or one or more years of University work. In 1929-30 only 01 per cent, of the total enrolment
had this grade of academic standing. Of the 107, there were 16 who had two or more years of
University work. Forty-seven towns and districts in all parts of the Province were represented
by these 169 students.
Of the 169 students enrolled, one was a British-trained teacher who took only a short
refresher course. Six discontinued attending at various times during the year. Six who were
graduates of the University of British Columbia took the autumn session only and transferred
in January to complete their work in the high-school teacher-training class at that institution.
Seven who were repeating the course were awarded diplomas after having completed the autumn
session. One hundred and thirty-nine were awarded diplomas in June, 1931, and ten failed to
qualify.    Of those awarded diplomas in June, eight obtained honour standing.
The following table presents the details of enrolment:—
Women.
Men.
Totals.
Awarded  diplomas -  97
Failed  8
Discontinued   attending  6
Transferred to University of British Columbia i 6
Took refresher course ! 1
49
2
146
10
6
6
1
Totals  118
169 L 26 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
The usual course in the Strathcona Trust physical training was given and all students
except three obtained Grade B certificates. Two received certificates marked " Distinguished."
Mr. Victor Montaldi, of Victoria, was awarded the gold medal for greatest proficiency in physical
training.
Under the auspices of the St. John Ambulance Association, classes were conducted in First
Aid. Lectures were delivered by Dr. A. B. Hudson, who was assisted in the practical demonstrations by Physical Instructors Wallace, Pink, and Bain. One hundred and forty-nine students
obtained St. John Ambulance First-aid Certificates. This is most valuable instruction and I
hope it may be possible to give similar courses each year.
Changes in the personnel of the staff for the year made changes in the apportionment of
subjects of instruction necessary. Mr. C. B. Wood returned after a year's absence devoted to
postgraduate study. Mr. H. L. Campbell, Provincial Inspector of Schools at Kamloops, was
appointed to the staff to replace Mr. A. F. Matthews, who resumed his duties as Provincial
Inspector of Schools. Mr. Campbell's wide experience as a teacher, as a principal, and as
inspector of elementary schools admirably fitted him for the work of a Normal School instructor.
The return of Mr. Wood and the appointment of Mr. Campbell added much to the success of the
year's work. Instruction was apportioned during the year as follows: The Principal—Educational psychology, measurements and statistics, school administration, and school law. Mr. V. L.
Denton—Geography and history. Mr. H. Dunnell—Penmanship, art, and woodwork. Mr. B. S.
Freeman—Literature and nature-study. Mr. C. B. Wood—Language, reading, and history of
education. Mr. H. L. Campbell—Arithmetic and English grammar. Miss G. G. Riddell—Vocal
music, primary work, and manual arts. Miss L. Isbister—Home economics and nutrition.
Miss I. Coursier—Health education. Sergeant-Major Wallace, Sergeant-Major Bain, and
Sergeant Pink—Physical training.
To all inspectors, supervisors, principals, and teachers of elementary schools who assisted
us with the practical teaching of our students I wish to express my genuine appreciation and
sincere thanks. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 27
SUMMER SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., DIRECTOR.
The courses which were given at the 1931 Summer School were confined entirely to those
which would qualify teachers to become instructors of the following subjects : Physical education
in elementary schools and in junior and senior high schools; commercial subjects in high
schools; music in elementary schools and in junior and senior high schools; manual training
in elementary schools; technical training in junior and senior high schools; and technical and
vocational subjects for technical schools.
There was a total attendance of 162 students, and credits were awarded to all who completed
the course;   these were recorded by the Registrar at   the Department of Education.
The teaching staff consisted of the following:—•
AV. K. Beech, M.A., B.Paed Commercial Course.
W. G. Brandreth, B.P.E Physical Education Course.
Graham Bruce, B.A Commercial Course.
Miss Ethel Coney Music Course.
John Fraser  Sheet-metal Work.
Alex. S. Hamilton Manual Training for Elementary Schools.
Harry A. Jones  Machine-shop Work.
Miss S. E. MacKenzie Commercial Course.
Miss Louie Stirk, B.A Folk-dancing.
Wm. Steele  Manual Training for Elementary Schools.
F. T. C. Wickett, A.R.C.O Music Course.
Miss Dorothea Hambly Accompanist.
A. Wishart Industrial Design.
COURSE FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA CERTIFICATE IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
As will be seen from the courses outlined below, physical education has been treated from
its broad educational aspect, and in accordance with the Programme of Studies it was considered
as a school activity in which every pupil should participate.
Games and exercises for all grades and suitable for class-rooms, halls, and playgrounds
occupied an important part of the course.
Remedial exercises for individual pupils having postural defects and abnormal developments
were also studied. .
Folk-dancing was included in the programme, and nothing but praise was heard on all sides
for the way in which the instructors conducted the class.
The work done during Summer School will be continued on Saturday mornings in Vancouver
during the winter months.
The subjects embracing Course I. for the elementary-school certificate are as follows:—
Hours.
(a.)  Physical Education I.—Practice      50
(6.)  Physical Education I.—Theory     25
(c.)  Teaching Practice I. included in {a) and (B).
(d.)  School Games I. included in (a) and (6).
(e.)  Folk-dancing I.     25
(/.)  Swimming I. (unless exempted by medical advice)     15
(g.)  School Remedial Exercises 1     10
(h.)  Physiology 1     25
(i.)  Anatomy 1    25
(j.)  Hygiene 1     25
(fc.)  First Aid 1     10
Total  210 L 28 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
The requirements for a special certificate entitling the holder to teach physical education
in junior and senior high schools include the following:—
Prerequisite.—Hold the Physical Education Certificate for elementary schools.
Hours.
(a.)  Physical Education II.—Practice  50
(6.)  Physical Education II.—Theory  25
(c.)  Teaching Practice II. included in (a) and (6).
(d.)  School Games II  25
(e.)  Folk-dancing II  25
(/.)   Swimming  II.   (medallion  of  Royal  Life  Saving  Society)    (unless
exempted by medical advice).
(jr.-)  School Remedial Exercises II  10
(ft.)   Physiology II  25
(i.)  Applied Anatomy   25
(;.)  Hygiene II  25
(fc.)  First Aid II. (St. John Ambulance Certificate)  10
Total  220
The  supervisor's  certificate,   which  embraces  the  two  certificates  previously   named,   is
awarded after the student has taken the following:—
(a.)  Psychology of Physical Education.
(b.)  Educational Gymnastics—Practice.
(o.)  Educational Gymnastics—Theory.
{d.)  Teaching Practice III. included in (6) and (c).
(e.)   School Games III.
(/.)  Folk-dancing III.
(g.)  Swimming III. (unless exempted by medical advice),
(ft.)   School Remedial Exercises III.
(i.)  Physiology III.
COURSES  FOR  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  CERTIFICATES   IN
COMMERCIAL SUBJECTS.
Courses were held in order to qualify teachers holding academic or first-class certificates
for the following:—
(a.)  High School Assistant Commercial Teacher's Certificate  (Interim).
(,&.)  Commercial Specialist's Certificate (Permanent).
The training for the High School Assistant Commercial Teacher's Certificate   (Interim)
embodies the following subjects:—
Stenography (Theory) :   The principles of the Isaac Pitman system as covered by the
main text-book of that system, the "Phonographic Instructor"   (Isaac Pitman &
Co., New York).
Stenography (Practical) :   The writing from dictation, in Isaac Pitman Shorthand, at
a speed of not less than eighty words per minute from matter having a syllabic
intensity of 1.5, with typewritten transcript at a rate of not less than twelve words
per minute.
Typewriting (Theory and Practice) :  The mechanism and manipulation of the standard
machines, with ability to write at a rate of at least forty words per minute for
ten or more minutes from standard test material.
Book-keeping (Theory)—Single and Double Entry.
Book-keeping (Practice).
Business Practice and Statute Law.
Penmanship (Theory and Practice).
Arithmetic of Commerce and Finance.
Economics and Economic Geography. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 29
For the Commercial Specialist's Certificate (Permanent), candidates must hold the High
School Assistant Commercial Teacher's Certificate and pass the examinations set by the Department on any four of the subjects specified hereunder:—
Auditing.
Business Finance.
Office Practice and Organization.
History of Commerce and Industry.
Commercial Correspondence and Filing.
Commercial French or Spanish.
Shorthand: A speed of at least 120 words per minute from matter having an intensity
of 1.5 words per minute.
Typewriting:   A speed of sixty words per minute from standard test material.
Two Years' Approved Business Experience.
COURSES   FOR  BRITISH   COLUMBIA  CERTIFICATES   IN
SCHOOL MUSIC.
(a.)  Class for teachers who desire to teach music in the elementary schools.
(6.)  Class for school-teachers who desire to teach music in junior and senior high
schools.
Course (a) consisted of the following:—■
1. Entrance Requirements:   Elementary Sight Reading, Time and Ear.
2. Psychology and Pedagogy applied to Music Teaching.. 1 unit   of 50 hrs. = 50
3. Advanced Sight Reading, Time and Ear  2        ,,       25    „    =50
4. Rudiments of Music   2        „       25    „   =50
5. Melody and Harmony 1  2        „       25    „   =50
6. Choral Singing in Schools  1        „       25    „    =25
Course  (b)  was composed of the undermentioned sections:—
Prerequisite.—Possess School Music Certificate, elementary schools.
1. Melody and Harmony II  4 units of 25 hrs. = 100
2. Instrumentation   1        „       25 „    =  25
3. Music Appreciation (including Form)   1        „        25 „    =  25
4. History of Music   2       „       25 „    =  50
5. Instrumental Qualifications, High School Music Credits II. or its equivalent.
6. Two Years' Successful Teaching on an Interim Certificate.
The aim in the Vocal Music Courses was to give a good sound fundamental knowledge of
singing according to the requirements as found in the Course of Studies for elementary and
junior and senior high schools, together with a serious study of teaching methods in imparting
this knowledge to children attending the various grades.
This latter point is not always fully appreciated by music-teachers who are accustomed to
instructing musical children. The problem of the school-teacher who undertakes to teach music
is hard, inasmuch as he meets all types of children, musical and non-musical. Teaching methods
are therefore important in the Teacher-training Course.
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   CERTIFICATE   IN  MANUAL  TRAINING
FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
Applicants who desire training for this certificate must be either craftsmen who are bona-fide
tradesmen of not less than five years' experience or persons who are the holders of British
Columbia Teachers' Certificates of the First Class and have at least two years' satisfactory
teaching experience.
All applicants, other than those named above, shall obtain instructions as to special supplementary studies from the Examining Committee before being admitted to any course of training.
Applicants must not suffer from any physical defect which in the opinion of the Examining
Committee would impair their efficiency as teachers.
Age-limit on entry:   19 to 40 years, excepting teachers now in service.
Applicants must take advantage of every reasonable opportunity to complete training, and
satisfy the Examining Committee as to inability to maintain regular attendance. L 30
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
Successful completion of the following course of training, credits being allowed for similar
courses previously taken under the direction of the Department of Education:—■
English I. (4 units of 25 hours) ;  Mathematics I.
Woodwork (4 units of
TRAINING COURSE.
Compensatory Course.
Craftsmen.— (Bona-fide Tradesmen.)
(4 units of 25 hours).*
Teachers.— (First-class Certificate with successful experience.)
50 hours).
The above is a compensatory course calculated to balance the attainments of the craftsmen
and the school-teacher candidate.
Fob Craftsmen.
Pedagogy.^
I. Theories and History of Education  2 units of 25 hrs. =  50
II. Teaching Methods and M.T. Class Management,
including Blackboard Drawing   2
III. Practice and Observation  2
Draiving.
I.   (a.)  Practical Geometry  (Elementary) '.  2
I.  (&.)  Practical Geometry (Advanced)  2
II. Draughting (Elementary)   1
IV. Design for Manual Training   1
VI. Designing Course of Projects   2
Woodwork.
I. Manual Training Woodwork  4
VII. Making Course of Projects  2
25 ,
, = 50
25 ,
, = 50
25 ,
, = 50
25 ,
, = 50
50 ,
, = 50
25 ,
, = 25
50 ,
, =100
25 .
. =100
50 ,
, =100
20 units 625
After two years' successful teaching in an elementary school on an Interim Certificate, a
certificate of a permanent nature will be granted.
Note.—These hours and units are included in the requirements for a High School Technical
Certificate.
HIGH SCHOOL TECHNICAL CERTIFICATE  (a)  AND  (o).
(Qualifying to teach in Junior High or High Schools.)
The holder must possess the Matriculation
(a.)  This Certificate is of Academic Standard.
Certificate or Technical Leaving Certificate.
Note.—Junior  Matriculation  in   English,   Mathematics,   Chemistry
accepted in lieu of full Certificate from those already teaching.
(&.)  This Certificate is not of Academic Standard.
and  Physics  will  be
TRAINING COURSE.
Pedagogical Group.
1. Theories and History of Education  2 units of 25 hrs. = 50
2. Teaching Methods and Class Management  2        „
3. Teaching Practice and  Observation  2        „
4. Junior High School Philosophy  1        „
5. Special Teaching Method re Major Subject  1        „
6. Thesis    2
25
, =50
25
, =50
25
, =25
25
, =25
25
, =50
10 units 250
N.B.— (a.) All of the foregoing are required of Craftsmen candidates.
(&.)  Certificated teachers are exempt from No. 1 and 50 per cent, of Nos. 2 and 3.
(o.)  Item No. 5 is taken along with the related shop-work.
(d.)  The thesis, No. 6, must be on a topic bearing on High School Technical Education.
* Holders of Junior Matriculation exempt.
f First-class Certificated Teachers are exempt from No   I. and 50 per cent, of Nos. II. and III. Technological Group (1)—Drawing.
1.  (a.) Practical Geometry  (Elementary)    2 units of 25 hrs. =   50
1. (&.)  Practical  Geometry   (Advanced)  2
2. Draughting (Elementary)   1
3. Draughting   (Advanced)  4
4. Design (Manual Training)  1
5. Design  (Technical High School)  3
6. Course of Draughting (T.H.S. Projects)  2
7. Theory re item No. 3  1
25
, = 50
50
, = 50
50
, =200
25
, = 25
25
, = 75
50
, =100
25
, = 25
16 units 575
N.B.—Items Nos. 1 (a), 1  (6), 2, 4, and 5 are required of all candidates for High School
Technical Certificate.
For the special draughting qualification items 1  (a)  to 7, inclusive, are required;   except
from draughtsmen who are exempt from items 1 (a) and 2 and from 50 per cent, of item 3.
Technological Group (2)—Woodwork.
1. Educational Woodwork   4 units of 25 hrs.
2. Bench-work Practice   4
3. Cabinetmaking  (Elementary)     2
4. Woodwork  (Advanced)    3
5. Wood-turning   (Elementary)     1
6. Wood-turning  (Advanced)     1
7. Original Course of Projects  (M.T.)  2
8. Original Course of Projects  (T.H.S.)  2
9. Theory relating to items Nos. 4 and 5  1
ts of 25 hrs. = 100
50
, =200
50
, =100
50
, =150
50
, = 50
50
, = 50
50
, =100
50
, =100
25
, = 25
20 units 875
N.B.—Re High School Technical qualifications:   Items 1, 2, 3,  and 5 are required,  but
Woodworking Craftsmen are exempt from item 2.
For the Woodwork Specialist qualification items Nos. 4, 6, 8, and 9 are required in addition
to those indicated in preceding note.
Technological Group (3)—Metalwork.
1. Sheet Metal (75 hrs.), Art Metal (50 hrs.)  5 units of 25 hrs. = 125
2. Machine-shop  Bench-work     3
3. Sheet Metal   (Advanced)  2
4. Machine-shop (Advanced)   2
5. Original Course of Projects  2
6. Theory relating to Nos. 3 and 4     1
7. Metalwork Practice  (General)  4
19 units 725
N.B.—Re High School Technical qualifications:   Metalwork Craftsmen are required to take
items Nos. 1 and 2, others take No. 7 in addition.
For the Metalwork Specialist qualification items Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 6 are required in addition
to those indicated in preceding note.
Technological Group (4)—Electricity.
1. Elementary (Practice)    1% units of 50 hrs. =  75
2. Elementary (Theory)   1 „ 25    „    =  25
3. Advanced   (Practice)     3 „ 50    „    =150
4. Advanced   (Theory)     2 „ 25    „    =  50
5. Original Course of Projects  (T.H.S.)    2 „ 50    „    =100
25
, = 7o
50
, =100
50
, =100
50
, =100
25
, = 25
50
, =200
N.B.—Re High School Technical qualifications
1 and 2.
9% units 400
All candidates are required to take items L 32 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
For the Electrical Specialist qualification all candidates except electricians take items Nos.
3, 4, and 5 in addition to those indicated in preceding note. Electrician candidates take one-
third of item No. 3 and items Nos. 4 and 5.
REQUIREMENTS FOR A TECHNICAL SCHOOL TEACHER'S  CERTIFICATE
(a)  AND  (6).
(Qualifying to teach in Technical and Vocational Schools.    For Men having Trade
Training of 100 per Cent. Standard Analysis.)
(a.) This Certificate is of Academic Standard for those who possess the Matriculation
Certificate or Technical Leaving Certificate or equivalent Academic standing.
Note.—Junior  Matriculation  in  English,   Mathematics,   Chemistry,   and   Physics   will   be
accepted in lieu of full Matriculation Certificate from those already teaching.
(6.)  This Certificate is not of Academic Standard.
Trade Experience.—All applicants must have served an apprenticeship at a trade and show
proof that they have reached 100 per cent, of the requirements included in the analysis of the
trade.
TRAINING COURSE.
Pedagogical Training.
(a.)  Educational Psychology  (2 units of 25 hours).
(6.)  History of Education (2 units of 25 hours).
(c.)  Science of Education (2 units of 25 hours).
(d.)  Teaching Methods and Class Management (2 units of 25 hours),
(e.)  Practice Teaching and Observation (2 units of 25 hours).
(Total, 10 units, 250 hours.)
Note.—Pedagogical Training is required with all Shop Courses.
Shop Course for Cabinetmaking.
(a.)  Furniture Construction (Practice)  (10 units of 50 hours).
(6.)  Furniture Construction (Theory)   (5 units of 25 hours).
(c.)  Design  for   Industrial  Arts   applied   to   Furniture   Design,   including   Lettering
(5 units of 25 hours).
(d.)  Geometry, Plane and Solid  (8 units of 25 hours).
(e.)  Mechanical Drawing, Development of Surfaces, etc.  (5 units of 25 hours).
(/.)  Preparation of Courses of Work for teaching   (a),   (6),   (o),   (d),   (e).    Trade
analysis, job sheets, etc.    (5 units of 50 hours).
(Total, 38 units, 1,325 hours.)
Shop Course for Building Construction.
(a.)  Building Construction (Practice)   (10 units of 50 hours).
(6.)  Building Construction (Theory), including Mensuration and Taking of Quantities
(5 units of 25 hours),
(o.)  Design for Industrial Arts applied  to Building  Construction and  Architecture,
including Lettering  (8 units of 25 hours).
(d.)  Geometry, Plane and Solid  (5 units of 25 hours).
(e.)  Mechanical Drawing, Development of Surfaces, etc.  (5 units of 25 hours).
(/.)  Preparation of Courses of AVork for teaching in (a),  (&),  (c),  (d), (e)   (5 units
of 50 hours).
(Total, 38 units, 1,325 hours.)
Shop Course for Sheet-metal Work.
(a.)  Sheet-metal Practice  (10 units of 50 hours).
(6.)  Sheet-metal Theory, including Mensuration (5 units of 25 hours).
(c.)  Geometry, Plane and Solid, Development of Surfaces, etc.  (8 units of 25 hours).
(d.) Design for Industrial Arts applied to Metalwork, including Lettering (5 units of
25 hours),
(e.)  Art Metalwork (5 units of 25 hours).
(/.)  Preparation of Courses of AA'ork for teaching in  (a),  (b),  (c),  (d),  (e).    Trade
analysis, job sheets, etc. (5 units of 50 hours).
(Total, 38 units, 1,325 hours.) PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 33
Shop Course for Machine-shop Work.
(a.) Machine-shop Practice  (10 units of 50 hours).
(ft.)  Machine-shop Science, Mathematics, Mechanics, Heat Treatment, etc.   (10 units
of 25 hours),
(c.)  AA'orkshpp Drawing and Lettering (2 units of 25 hours).
(d.)  Geometry, Plane and Solid  (3 units of 25 hours),
(e.)  Machine Drawing, Stages I. and II.  (8 units of 25 hours).
(/.)  Preparation of Courses of Work for teaching in  (a),  (5),  (c),  (d),  (e).    Trade
analysis, job sheets, etc.  (5 units of 50 hours).
(Total, 38 units, 1,325 hours.)
Shop Course for Motor Engineering.
(a.) Automobile Construction and Repairs  (Practice)   (10 units of 50 hours).
(6.)  Automobile Construction and Gas-engine Principles (Theory) (5 units of 25 hours).
(c.)  Mechanical Drawing and Lettering (5 units of 25 hours).
(<?.)  Electricity, including Ignition (8 units of 25 hours).
(e.)  Physics and Mechanics (5 units of 25 hours).
(/.)  Preparation of Courses of Work for teaching in  (a),  (6),  (c),  (d),  (e).    Trade
analysis, job sheets, etc.  (5 units of 50 hours).
(Total, 38 units, 1,325 hours.)
Shop Course for Draughting.
(a.) Building Construction and AA7orkshop Drawing (5 units of 50 hours).
(b.) Machine Construction and AVorkshop Drawing  (5 units of 50 hours).
(o.) Design for Industrial Arts applied to Wood, Metal, Printing, etc., including Lettering (6 units of 50 hours).
(d.)  Sheet-metal Draughting, Development of Surfaces, etc.  (6 units of 25 hours).
(e.)  Geometry, Plane and Solid  (6 units of 25 hours).
(/.) Preparation of Courses of AVork for teaching boys in (a), (6), (c), (d), (e).
Making job sheets, etc.  (5 units of 50 hours).
(Total, 33 units, 1,350 hours.)
Shop Course for Printing.
(a.)  Printing Practice (10 units of 50 hours).
(6.)  Printing Theory (5 units of 25 hours).
(c.)  Design for Industrial Arts applied to Printing, including Lettering  (10 units of
25 hours).
(d.)  Wood or Linoleum Block Making and Printing (4 units of 50 hours),
(e.) Preparation of Courses of Work for teaching boys in  (a),   (ft),   (c),   (d),   (e).
Trade analysis, job sheets, etc.  (5 units of 50 hours).
(Total, 34 units, 1,325 hours.)
The success of training courses for instructors in the subjects referred to in this report
has been amply borne out by experience during the past ten or twelve years.    No stability or
sound progress is possible without them, and therefore a continuance of this policy is much to
be commended for the future. TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., ORGANIZER.
The duties of the Provincial Organizer of Technical Education are varied and yet comprehensive. They include the supervision of the following: {a) The establishing of manual-
training centres in elementary schools, and Industrial Arts centres in junior and senior high
schools; (ft) the establishing and maintenance of technical schools where vocational and trade
classes are held; (c) the equipping of commercial courses and agricultural courses in the high
schools; (d) the organizing of night-schools for adult education; (e) the training and certification of teachers for the courses leferred to above with the exception of agriculture.
MANUAL TRAINING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
Manual training in this Province is characterized by freedom of expression, both for
teachers and pupils; that is, the same course of work is not demanded of all instructors, but
each is encouraged to draw up a course suitable for the type of pupils and to the locality in
which the school is placed. AVhile the early fundamental exercises are similar in both rural and
urban districts, the basic exercises are worked out in projects that vary in character. Moreover, boys are permitted, after the first few exercises, to work at their own pace, the skilful
boy being given additional and more difficult models. Due attention is paid to the theory of
materials and to drawing and design, which gives the student power and confidence to do
creative work.
Manual training in elementary schools consists mainly of woodwork, but in junior and
senior high schools the name of Industrial Arts would be more appropriate because the training
consists of diversified courses in wood and metalwork, electricity, and printing. It would be
well to decide on the nomenclature of the three distinct groups of hand-work as manual training, industrial arts, and technical education.
The following districts have manual-training centres in operation: Armstrong, Burnaby,
Cassidy, Chilliwack City, Chilliwack Municipality, Cranbrook, Courtenay, Cumberland, Esquimau, Fernie, Harewood, loco, Kamloops, Kaslo, Kelowna, Ladysmith, Maple Ridge, Merritt,
Nanaimo, Nelson, New AVestminster, North Vancouver City, North Vancouver Municipality, Oak
Bay, Ocean Falls, Penticton, Pitt Meadows, Port Moody, Powell River, Prince Rupert, Richmond,  Summerland, Surrey, Trail, Vancouver, Vernon, Victoria, and A\Test Vancouver.
The total number of centres in the Province in which elementary-school manual training is
taught, together with the number of pupils attending, are given hereunder:—
Elementary-school manual-training shops    101
Elementary-school manual-training instructors       59
Elementary-school pupils attending 8,475
High-school pupils attending elementary-school centres     619
INDUSTRIAL ARTS AND TECHNICAL WORK IN JUNIOR AND
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
The three-year manual-training courses are extended and enriched in schools of the above
type. While woodwork alone characterizes most of the manual training in elementary schools,
the courses in junior and senior high schools, as I have already explained, include metalwork,
electricity, and in some cases printing.
The high-school technical options in woodwork and metalwork promise to become very
popular. Already these are established in Britannia High School; John Oliver High School;
King Edward High School; King George High School; Kitsilano Junior and Senior High
School; Magee High School, Point Grey—all in Vancouver City; T. J. Trapp Technical High
School, New Westminster; and in the High Schools at Penticton, Kelowna, and Nelson.
While the technical work in these schools, as far as it goes, reaches a high order of attainment, yet the time allocated to shop-work precludes it from becoming of vocational standard.
The shop-work should be classified as Industrial Arts to distinguish it from purely technical or
trade courses. Moreover, it is not necessary in equipping for such Industrial Arts courses to
make large expenditures on machinery. Hand-work and hand-skill are the educational features;
handling a machine is of secondary importance. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 35
The City of Victoria has a two-year Industrial Arts Course, and I understand the school
trustees are considering extending this to three years. There are no opportunities for trade
courses in this city, and much might be done in this respect.
The total number of centres where Industrial Arts and technical work is taught in junior
and senior high schools, together with the number of pupils attending, are given hereunder:—
Number of junior and senior high-school centres      21
Number of junior and senior high-school workshops at centres      38
Number of junior and senior high-school instructors       40
Number of junior and senior high-school pupils taking courses 5,889
As the same shops are used at some centres for the work of elementary schools and of
junior and senior high schools, it will be necessary to add to this statement in order that one
may know how many individual shops, instructors, and students there are in the Province.
These are as follows :—
Total  number  of  individual  elementary  and  junior  and  senior  high-
school workshops       139
Total number  of individual  elementary  and  junior  and  senior  high-
school instructors          96
Total number of individual elementary and junior and senior high-school
pupils    14,983
THE TECHNICAL SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.
The Technical School in Vancouver is the school where specific trade courses may be
obtained. As soon as a young man knows what trade he intends to follow, he should, unless
he intends to go to the University, make contact with the Technical School.
Courses of one, two, three, and four years' duration are provided.
Great care has been taken in drawing up the courses to preserve educational values and to
avoid giving undue importance to machine skill. At the same time students should not be
diverted too much from the activity they select when they really know at what trade they
intend to work.
There is a distinct tendency to load up practical courses with theoretical text-book material
which might almost be called irrelevant matter. To avoid this and to make for the finest type
of correlation, each teacher on the academic side should be required to take a shop course in
order that he may have the correct attitude towards industrial education. Since the Department requires each workshop instructor to attend lectures on psychology and study teaching
methods, no reasonable objection could be made by teachers of academic subjects to the course
proposed.
When the Technical School course was of three years' duration and students elected to try
matriculation examinations, their shop-work was neglected even to the extent of being omitted
altogether. Now, however, with a four-year course, there should be little reason for objecting
to preparing a class of selected students for the science course in the University. During the
three years spent at Technical School, boys develop considerably, and intelligent students think
of their future. While at first their intention might not have been to attend University, they
realize that training of University standard, especially in the science course, is helpful in
obtaining and holding the higher professional positions, and when there is no class in the
school for the purpose of preparing for University entrance, they are handicapped and feel as
if they had been guided off the track. Moreover, boys who have taken the technical course are
in a finer position to work their own way through University than those who have taken the
academic course. They can commercialize their school training to better advantage; therefore
matriculation should have its rightful place in the Technical School.
It is interesting to find a school orchestra in the Technical School. The distinctly educational accomplishment to play an instrument should be encouraged, and the rank and file of
students attending school might well have an opportunity to listen and understand good music.
A symphony orchestra and male voice choir could be organized in the school, and an opportunity to listen to both could be given during the usual Friday afternoon assembly, when films
are shown from an excellent moving-picture machine. L 36 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
Last year attention was drawn to the great field of technical work which was as yet
untouched, and yet credentials for which were demanded from individuals by the Statutes of
the Provincial Government.    The following examples may be enumerated :—
(a.)  Qualifications for Provincial and Dominion papers as engineers of the first, second,
third, and fourth classes,
(ft.)  Qualifications  for   Provincial  papers   as   miners,   plumbers,   and  moving-picture
operators,
(c.)  Qualifications in navigation for masters, mates, and seafaring men.
(d.)  Qualifications in aeronautics.
It is along these lines that the Technical School should mainly develop in order to carry on
industrial education successfully.    The Arancouver Technical School must not be merely a high
school, btit an institution where advanced industrial and vocational training may be obtained.
The equipment is too valuable and the shop experience of the instructors too expansive to
have the shops filled with pupils of elementary-school grade. Industry calls for the finest minds
and intellect in the country, intelligent men of foresight and ambition who will take their
places as leaders in the community.
Day students in the Technical School number 1,010. Night students in the Technical
School number 824. The total number of day students in Vancouver taking technical subjects
is 1,383.
The T. J. Trapp Technical School, New Westminster, has a wonderfully varied programme.
This includes junior high, technical high (including matriculation), technical (to a limited
degree), commercial, home economics, and agriculture. The work in the shops is of a high
standard, and to a limited extent special vocational students are admitted for work-shop
courses. The organization of this difficult problem is splendidly carried out and speaks well
for all concerned.    The total enrolment numbers 508.
AGRICULTURE.
Agriculture as a school subject is taught in the following high schools: Chilliwack, Courte-
nay, Kelowna, Maple Ridge, New AVestminster, Penticton, Richmond, Salmon Arm, Summerland,
and Victoria.
The character of the course is of a very general nature, as may be judged from the
manuals on the subject published for high schools. The grave danger is that the teacher will
work from text-books instead of from practical experience on the home-farm, home-garden, or
even school-garden.
Judging from the requirements for grants previously insisted upon by the Dominion Government, the practical work will require to be definitely stressed, even to spending on it 50 per cent.
of the time.
The fundamental importance of the subject cannot be questioned, but the educational
approach from a pre-vocational, vocational, or purely academic standpoint has long been a moot
point. From any standpoint the subject is one of a scientific and educational nature, but the
guiding motto should be: " Learn to know by doing."
SCHOOL OF DECORATIVE AND APPLIED ART.
This school is doing excellent work in decorative and applied art. The standard of accomplishment is extremely high in applique and embroidery, illumination and lettering, pottery,
modelling, show-card and poster work, figure drawing and composition. It will bear comparison
with that in larger centres which have been established for many years.
The training for the school diploma, which requires attendance for four years, is all that
could be desired. The school is worthy of having more desirable and commodious quarters in
which students could take greater pride, but they may console themselves with the fact that
all great schools began in a similar humble way, and that it is not the building which is
responsible for the standard of work accomplished.
Arrangements have wisely been made by which students may qualify for a Provincial certificate to teach art in the schools of the Province.
Students attending the day classes number 86, and those attending night classes number 358. A full list of cities participating in the work of technical education is appended, and this
shows an enrolment of 5,856 students.
City or Municipality.
Course.
No. of
Students.
Average
Attendance.
166
17
43
152
183
23
149
78
281
74
44
31
30
15
41
107
50
20
15
1,775
1,393
467
86
343
176
97
149.00
Delta	
15.46
43.00
Technical - -
152.00
183.00
23.00
138.84
71.66
261.64
66.76
Oak Bay  ■..    .
41.00
Oak Bay	
31.00
Oak Bay :	
Home Economics	
Art    	
30.00
Oak Bay	
15.00
38.11
104.04
Technical	
Commercial	
Technical	
48.00
Revelstoke	
18.40
14.22
1,624.10
1,344.34
450.50
Art	
78.76
309.84
167.30
87.00
Totals
5,856
5,505.97
Teacher-training Courses : Enrolment, 166 ; staff, 14. Correspondence Department: Enrolment, 301;
staff, 11.
APPRENTICESHIP COUNCIL.
No report on technical work should be completed without reference to the work of the
Apprenticeship Council in Arancouver City.
Employers and unions of most building trades have agreed to place their apprentices under
the Council on a proper system of indenture, which provides definite scale of wages to be paid
and sets out clearly the obligations of both parties.
The Council seeks to extend its plan of bringing to an end. the loose form of apprenticeship
so general in Vancouver, and in this the larger contracting firms are lending generous support.
The group of public-spirited men on the Arancouver Apprenticeship Council has been brought
together from a small beginning chiefly by the persistent and unselfish efforts of one or two
prominent contractors.
The Council assists in finding the most suitable type of boy, keeps him under observation,
and provides special evening trade classes with periodical examinations. This boy is encouraged
to improve his technical knowledge and is advised and guided during his most impressionable
years.
Once a month the Council receives reports of boys' progress in work and school studies,
passes upon applications for indentures, confers with technical-school authorities, and arbitrates
on any disagreements that may arise between the apprentice and his employer.
Keeping in touch with apprentices who are under the wing of the Vancouver Apprenticeship
Council is the particular duty of the Superintendent of Apprentices. He assists and guides
them from the first, stimulating their desire to become skilled workmen and from his own
experience drawing understanding of their mental attitude and of the work itself in all its
phases.
The Superintendent sees that the boys attend their Technical School classes regularly. He
obtains reports from the instructors and receives applications from boys desiring to be apprenticed in a trade, interviewing employers on their behalf. It is recommended that the age for a beginner should be between 16 and 18. He should
preferably have high-school or technical-school education and have a natural interest and ability
towards construction-work.
When placed with a contractor the apprentice is on trial for a time, and, if satisfactory,
is then indentured for four years.
In this indenture he binds himself to give faithful attention to his duties, to make all possible
efforts towards learning his trade, and to make regular attendance each winter at the evening
trade classes in the Technical School.
At the end of his four years the apprentice's record is considered by the Council. If his
employer's report and those of others vouch for his fitness, he is qualified as a competent
tradesman. If it is considered that further training is necessary, the boy is given an extension
of six months or one year.
Under the guidance of the Vancouver Apprenticeship Council the apprentice benefits by a
more contented mind, knowing he will receive equitable treatment. He also develops a sense
of responsibility and takes a greater interest in his work.
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
No educational money is better expended than that on adult education. The extent of the
training may be judged from the subjects enumerated below, and the type of training may be
termed twofold, for it includes both education for working-hours and education for hours of
leisure. As things have been in the past, leisure has represented the short hours of life—work,
the long hours; but machinery is fast altering the situation, until leisure will soon occupy the
larger proportion of the hours of life. Then the important question will be, and indeed is now:
" What is the best way to spend one's leisure-hours?"
Dr. L. P. Jacks, one of the world's finest philosophers, is convinced that the right direction
is towards a form of education in which the chief object is skill rather than mere knowledge.
In the words of this well-known philosopher: " The need is for a form of education in which
creative skill is the chief objective. It is a thing that may take 10,000 forms, but the form
with which we should begin, I think, is in the direction of the arts and crafts. Man, as I understand him, is essentially a skill-hungry animal, and until that desire is satisfied in one way or
another, he will never be satisfied."
That British Columbia is, in a small way, doing her part in this respect may be judged from
the following:—
Night-schools, with a total enrolment of 7,179 students, were conducted in the following
cities, municipalities, and rural districts in the Province: Anyox and Granby Bay, Armstrong,
Blakeburn, Britannia Beach, Britannia Mines, Burnaby, Champion Creek, Chilliwack Municipality, Comox, Gourtenay, Denman Island, Fernie, Fraser Mills, Glade, Kaslo, Kelowna,
Kimberley, Ladysmith, Maple Ridge, Michel and Natal, Mission, Mitchell Bay, New AVestminster,
North Vancouver Municipality, Ocean Falls, Okanagan Centre, Peachland, Pioneer Mines, Port
Coquitlam, Powell River, Rutland, Saanich, Shoreacres, Silverton, Summerland, Surrey, Vancouver, Vernon, Victoria, West Vancouver, and Winfield.
The undermentioned subjects were included in the night-school courses: Academic courses
for junior and senior matriculation, physics, chemistry, general science, mathematics, history,
algebra, geometry, trigonometry, French, Latin, singing and choral, English for new Canadians,
commercial English, commercial French, commercial Spanish, public speaking, psychology,
shorthand, typewriting, secretarial practice, business correspondence, book-keeping and accounting, cost accounting, salesmanship, commercial arithmetic, technical drafting, machine construction and drawing, machine-shop practice, motor mechanics, automotive electricity, electrical
engineering, stationary engineering, Diesel engineering, mining engineering, acetylene welding
and cutting, heating and welding for steam-fitting trade, building construction for carpenters
and mill-workers, sheet-metal work, general and decorative concrete-work, plumbing, painting
and decorating, sign and pictorial painting, plain and ornamental plastering, radio course,
wireless telegraphy and telephony, printing and presswork, show-card writing, cabinetmaking,
carpentry and joinery, art metalwork, cookery, dressmaking, millinery, china-painting.
TEACHER-TRAINING CLASSES.
The manual and technical work of the Province has been greatly facilitated by the determination of the Department of Education to see that all instructors are  trained to  teach. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 39
Consequently, classes were started years ago at which men could be trained as manual and
technical teachers.
These classes are held in Vancouver Technical School, and are well attended, both on
Saturdays during the year and at Summer School.
Classes to train as commercial teachers are organized at Summer School and the work is
carried on by correspondence during the year.
(a.)  Manual instructors for Elementary Schools—drawn from the ranks of craftsmen
and the teaching profession.
(6.) Manual instructors for Junior and Senior High Schools—drawn mainly from the
ranks of craftsmen.    The same high industrial efficiency as required for technical
teachers is not demanded,
(c.)  Technical  School  teachers  from  the ranks  of  craftsmen  having 100  per  cent.
industrial efficiency.
(d.)  Commercial Teachers (Assistant's Certificate),
(e.)  Commercial Teachers (Specialist's Certificate).
The enrolment in (a), (6), and (c) numbered 116, and in (d) and (e) numbered 50.    The
teaching staff numbered 14.
The total amount expended on teacher-training by the Department from July 1st, 1930, to
June 30th, 1931, amounted to $7,514.17.
Information regarding the correspondence lessons in coal-mining and mine surveying is
given in the report of James Hargreaves, instructor in coal-mining subjects.
The enrolment of students taking commercial subjects numbered 254, which, together with
29 students taking home economics, make a total enrolment of 283.
A great field of expansion lies in teaching technical subjects by correspondence. There is
no logical reason why such practical work as physics, commercial subjects, and the subjects
included in home economics should be taught and the High School Technical Course should be
neglected.
There are courses prepared in machine-shop work, sheet-metal work, carpentry and joinery,
cabinetmaking, industrial design, electricity, and auto mechanics.
The total amount expended in correspondence instruction from July 1st, 1930, to June 30th,
1931, amounted to $3,564.
ADMINISTRATION.
The total amount spent on the administration of technical work from July 1st, 1930, to
June 30th, 1931, amounted to $7,829.39, making a grand total on technical education of $173,470.72
for the year:—
Day-schools    $114,342.09
Night-schools        32,325.28
Teacher-training           7,514.17
Teaching by correspondence          3,564.00
Technical equipment          7,895.79
Administration          7,829.39
Total  $173,470.72 L 40 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
TECHNICAL EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS.
REPORT OF MISS JESSIE McLENAGHEN, B.Sc, DIRECTOR.
The new centres opened during the past year consisted of Richmond, Oak Bay, Powell River,
and Nanaimo Bay. Both Oak Bay and Powell River have established matriculation courses in
home economics, and Nanaimo City has extended the work to include a Junior and Senior High
School programme, necessitating a second full-time teacher. Ocean Falls has equipped an up-to-
date foods centre and has also launched a matriculation course in Home Economics (A).
This June we had 108 students writing the ^matriculation examinations with the home
economics option. These students came from the T. J. Trapp Technical School, New Westminster, and from the following high schools in Vancouver: King Edward, Magee, Kitsilano,
John Oliver, and Lord Byng. Since the courses are now being offered in the following additional
centres: King George High School, Vancouver; Britannia High School, Vancouver; North
Vancouver High School, Prince Rupert, Ocean Falls, Powell River, Oak Bay, and Nanaimo, we
expect this number to be gradually increased in the next three years.
Home economics for boys has continued to grow in popularity, particularly with the senior
boys. North Vancouver High School had an enthusiastic group of Grade XI. boys, while a class
of Grade XII. boys at King Edward High School, ATancouver, were close rivals in enthusiasm.
During the past year the first year's work of the matriculation course in Home Economics
(A) has been adapted for correspondence classes. A total of twenty-nine students have enrolled
for the course.
In spite of the general wave of depression, it has been most gratifying to note that no
School Board has felt that home economics should be dispensed with. To have survived this
test is to assume that at last we have outlived the stage when home economics as a school
subject might be called a " frill."
The  total number  of home-economics centres  that were in  operation
during the year was         86
The total number of home-economics teachers was         79
The total number of pupils taking home economics in elementary schools
was   7,238
The total number  of students taking home  economics  in junior high
schools was   3,070
The total number of students taking home economics in high schools was 2,170
The total number of students taking home economics in Normal Schools
was       422
The total number of high-school boys taking home economics was        48
RURAL TEACHERS' WELFARE  OFFICER   (WOMEN'S).
REPORT OF MISS LOTTIE BOAAHRON.
During the past year I have visited over 260 teachers in the rural districts, dividing my time
as seemed wisest in the different inspectorates and as transportation would allow.
Speaking generally, I have found conditions fairly satisfactory, although in a few cases
recommendations have been made to improve them. In certain districts I have recommended
that for the present only men or older women should be appointed.
The teachers have, almost without exception, a splendid attitude towards their surroundings,
but they generally seem grateful for a visit. From time to time I have been asked to make a
special visit to assist in smoothing out difficulties and am often asked for advice.
In June I visited both Normal Schools, addressing the students and acquainting them with
my work, as well as making a personal contact, which I have found has been of great assistance
when we met later on.
I endeavour to meet one or more of the trustees when it is feasible and usually find them
willing to co-operate when recommendations are made. SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF J. S. GORDON, B.A., SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS.
SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION, 1930-31.  *
The school accommodation in Vancouver for the school-year 1930-31 was, generally speaking,
good as a result of the building activities of the previous year, when $800,000 were spent on
tile erection of new schools. This satisfactory condition of school accommodation, coupled with
unusual economic conditions, not unnaturally resulted in a cessation of school-building, despite
the fact that the school population showed an increase of 1,293 for the previous year, with the
prospects of a similar increase for the year now under review.
One remarkable feature of the increase in school population at the beginning of the past
school-year was that over 75 per cent, of it was in the high-school classes, whereas there was
a noticeable decrease in enrolment in the lower grades of the elementary schools. AA7ith
continuing business depression, and greater difficulties presenting themselves for students wishing to enter the University, we may expect a continuing large increase in high-school enrolment.
This was recognized at the opening of the present calendar year by the School Board, and
tentative plans were formulated for an extensive high-school building programme for the coming
school-year. This programme, of course, can be undertaken only with the consent of the ratepayers ; and such consent can be hoped for only when a considerable majority of ratepayers
regard the meeting of these school needs as equally urgent, or. nearly as urgent, as the meeting
of personal needs that cannot easily be met. How soon this will be it is impossible to forecast.
At any rate, it is thought the time for submitting further school-building by-laws is not yet.
It would seem, therefore, that Vancouver may not, in the near future, build in advance of its
school needs, as it would gladly do;  but after its needs become most pressing.
SCHOOL-SITES.
AVhile school-building ceased during the past school-year, it is gratifying to report that the
activity of the previous year in the improvement of school-grounds continued. Much was done
to make several playgrounds not only more useful, but in many cases more beautiful. This
policy evidently met with general approval, for a school money by-law of $50,000 for the
construction of suitable playing-fields at strategic high-school centres particularly received very
generous support from the ratepayers in December last. The by-law money thus secured,
together with $22,500 provided by the Government for relief-work, was expended, for the most
part, on the grounds of Magee High School, King Edward High School, John Oliver High School,
Technical School, Point Grey Junior High School, and the following elementary schools: Begbie,
Grandview, McBride, Mackenzie, Model, Open Air, and Queen Mary. If the Board can continue
its programme of improvement for a few years on school-grounds, unsightliness will give place
to beauty and comparative uselessness to utility for Arancouver school-children.
SCHOOL ORGANIZATION.
The enrolment of pupils in the various grades of the different types of schools showed a
remarkable increase over that of the preceding year, particularly in the higher grades, where
the per capita cost of education is highest. These increases are indicated in the following
table:—■
■Enrolment,
Sept., 1929.
Enrolment,
Sept.,  1930.
Change.
4,532
4,107
4,271
3,750
3,353
3,308
3,284
3,617
3,063
2,022
1,281
292
342
4,471
4,042
4,041
4,154
3,719
3,363
3,169
3,428
3,337
2,439
1,509
324
519
61
Grade 11     -
65
Grade III	
230
Grade IV.	
404
Grade V  	
366
Grade VI	
Grade VII  	
Grade VIII.     '.	
Grade IX.             	
55
—115
—189
274
Grade X  	
417
Grade XI  	
228
Grade XII	
32
177
Totals   1	
37,222
38,515
1,293 L 42
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
In last year's report it was pointed out that there was a tendency towards smaller classes
and fewer pupils per teacher in junior high and high schools. At the opening of the school-year
1930-31 an attempt was made, and with some success in the case of high schools, to check this
unwarranted tendency. The organization of classes in the various types of schools, at the
reopening of schools in September, 1929 and 1930, may be briefly summarized as follows:—
Year.
Pupils.
Teachers.
Classes.
Pupils per Pupils per
Teacher.       Class.
In elementary schools  (regular classes)
In elementary schools  (special classes)
In   junior  high   schools	
In  high schools	
Art School 	
1929
1930
1929
1930
1929
1930
1929
1930
1929
1930
27,131
27,247
391
416
4,363
4,351
6,012
6,801
90
83
755
763
24
25
150.5
150.5
217.5
232
4
726
730
24
25
117
116
175
185
6
6
35.93
35.71
16.29
16.64
28.99
28.91
27.64
29.31
22.50
10.37
37.37
37.32
16.29
16.64
37.29
37.50
34.25
36.76
15.00
13.83
CHANGES DURING THE YEAR.
During the year further economies were effected, without losing efficiency, by reducing the
Home Economics supervisory staff from three to one, and the Music supervisory staff from
four to three.
In the appointment of a Director of Vocational Guidance a definite step was taken, early in
the year, in an endeavour to prepare boys and girls better for fitting into occupations on leaving
school. It is still too early to expect anything remarkable as a result of work along this line.
Suffice it to say, not only a very definite but a very satisfactory beginning has been made.
It has been gratifying to note the keen interest taken in this new work by teachers. The
extent of that interest was indicated by the large numbers who joined classes, organized and
conducted by the Director, to study vocational guidance in the opening term of the year. There
was an enrolment of 116 in the high-school group and 103 from the elementary schools.
AVith an extension of school-time for both elementary- and high-school students, there is no
good reason why they should not all receive hereafter definite and valuable instruction in
occupational information. This, as the first, and possibly the most important, step in our
Vocational Guidance programme, we shall look for in future. If it is taken, as it should be and
can be, with the facilities now afforded by the School Board, our pupils will be better prepared
to make intelligent choice of their life-work. Other steps in the programme we shall look for
later;  but laying the foundations well and truly must be our first concern. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 43
REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF NEW WESTMINSTER.
REPORT OF R.  S. SHIELDS, B.A, MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF  SCHOOLS.
The school-year 1930-31 was one of the most successful school-years in the history of New
AVestminster; all departments—elementary, junior high, and senior high schools—worked with
a deep sense of responsibility and encouraging progress resulted.
We feel justly proud of our school system in New Westminster. Our buildings are, for the
most part, new and kept strictly up to date; our equipment is of the finest; our playing-fields
are spacious and carefully looked after; our pupils come from homes where parents keenly feel
their responsibility toward their children and the State; and our teachers are fully qualified,
able, and willing to bear fully the responsibility which is theirs in shaping to some extent at
least the future of our boys and girls.
All phases of student development, we believe, received careful attention.
Our elementary schools, Grades I. to ArL, carried out fully with pronounced success the
programme of studies as issued by the Department, passing into our junior high schools pupils
carefully prepared to do the higher work.
Our junior high schools, at present Grades ArII. and ArIII. only, with fully qualified teachers
and every opportunity to carry out successfully the suggestions offered by the Department, have
met a long-felt want.
Our senior high schools, with an enrolment of over 25 per cent, of our school enrolment,
are ably maintaining the records of the past. This year Howard Hone, of the Duke of Con-
naught High School, was successful in winning the Governor-General's silver medal. The T. J.
Trapp Technical High School was also outstanding on the Junior Matriculation Examinations.
All schools entered various phases of athletics, inter-class, inter-school, and inter-city, and
again special mention is due the Duke of Connaught High School on winning the basket-ball
inter-city championship and the Technical for its success in rugby.
Music received its proper attention in all schools.
The importance of physical development was felt and received due attention; all pupils
receiving careful instruction under competent supervision.
" May Day " celebrated its Diamond Jubilee on May 15th; about 2,000 children assisted in
making it a memorable event. We were happy in entertaining, with the May Queens of other
days, the " Exchange Teachers " of the Lower Mainland.
The Medical Department, in charge of Dr. D. A. Clarke and Miss A. Stark, R.N., has, as in
other years, closely supervised the general health of the pupils and a most satisfactory condition
has been maintained.
The value to the health and progress of the youth of our schools by the Dental Clinic,
Dr. J. A. Sampson and Miss Marion Rennie, need not be enlarged upon in this report.
Evening-school instruction was given two evenings per week from October to the end of
March at the T. J. Trapp Technical High School, in all subjects for which there was a sufficient
demand.
Consistent with its expressed policy, the School Board has ever been alert to the needs of
the pupils of this city; and to them for their business ability, foresight, and high ideals a debt
of gratitude is owed.
The guidance and assistance of the Department of Education at all times has been
appreciated.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VICTORIA.
REPORT OF G. H. DEANE, MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The total enrolment of pupils was about the same as the previous year, and a high percentage of attendance was maintained throughout the school-year.    There were very few changes L 44 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
in the organization of the schools for instructional purposes and the efficiency of instruction as
measured by inspections and tests reflected credit on the staff generally.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
The importance of organizing class-room instruction to meet differences of ability received
greater attention. There is still, however, too great a tendency to teach a large class as one
group irrespective of individual attainments. A sound classification is essential for satisfactory
progress and reducing retardation to a minimum. In a few instances young pupils were
advanced too rapidly and had not the foundation necessary for satisfactory progress in the
higher grade.
The teachers in the elementary schools are finding difficulty in using effectively the authorized text for Senior Grade arithmetic. For pupils' use this book contains too few suitable
exercises involving the principles which have been taught. Difficulty is also being experienced
in securing satisfactory results in the subject of history. It is considered that the prescribed
course and the Entrance Examination place too much emphasis on constitutional history, the
detailed study of which is, on the whole, uninteresting to elementary pupils. Instruction in
history should carry the appeal which will interest pupils and lead them to become intelligent
readers of the subject. It is doubtful if the present British history text-book and the prescribed
limits in both Canadian and British history are achieving this objective.
HIGH SCHOOL.
The new Programme of Studies for high schools has created greater opportunities for the
student to elect courses of study adapted to his aptitudes. It is a distinct educational advancement to have increasing recognition given to such subjects as art, music, and dramatics. At
our high school last year music and dramatics made a very definite contribution to the groups
of students who took these subjects for credit. This year seventy-five gk-ls are taking the
music option and are getting a great deal of benefit from it. The changes governing the subject
of art are a decided improvement. The fact that this subject may be continued from year to
year, and that the course includes practical application of the principles of design and the
development of art appreciation, is commending the course to an increasingly large number of
students.
Undoubtedly the importance of the subject of health justifies its being prescribed as a compulsory subject. Its principal objective is to lead students to form intelligently correct habits
of health, and the achievement of this end will be determined by the interest and appeal
aroused by the teaching. This objective will be defeated by prescribing a too ambitious course
of study, and particularly by making the subject an examination one.
The inclusion of English grammar in the first and second year curriculum is approved by
all our teachers of English, but these same teachers unanimously regret that it has been made
an examination subject for junior matriculation.
The authorized History Course is extremely heavy, and it is the general opinion that, in
covering so broad a field as is prescribed in the new Social Studies Course, too much detailed
knowledge is required. Such conditions promote the practice of dictating notes and outlines to
be memorized and reproduced at examinations. It is also felt that our young students in the
early high-school grades are given too much constitutional history. This assumes more mature
minds than they possess to study the development of great constitutional, social, and political
principles.
The new Commercial Course emphasizes the value of giving commercial students a good
general educational background, but the wide choice of electives makes the economical organization of our high school more difficult. There is a growing feeling that commercial courses are
elected by many students who are too young and immature to commence these studies. At the
same time it is a fact that the majority of commercial students do not remain in attendance for
more than two years. To meet the requirements of this group, a carefully prescribed short
course of one or two years is necessary. Such course should emphasize the subject of English
as much as possible and include an intensive study of a few commercial subjects without
attempting to cover wide limits in the field of business practice and procedure. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 45
VICTORIA COLLEGE.
A^ictoria College has continued to develop during the past year. The enrolment for the
session 1931-32 is 281, an increase of 25 over the previous session. There are 198 students in
the first year and 83 in the second. In addition to this enrolment, 36 students are in attendance
in the special classes held during the late afternoons and evenings. The increased attendance
has necessitated the holding of classes on Saturday mornings.
Considerable improvements have been made in the building and equipment and about 500
new volumes have been added to the College library by the Board of School Trustees and by
private donors.    The apparatus for practical work in the sciences is now quite adequate.
The success of students who have left this college to pursue their studies elsewhere continues to bring credit to the local institution, and there is no doubt that A'ictoria College is
meeting a real need in this district at a minimum cost to Victoria ratepayers.
RETIREMENT OF TEACHERS.
The close of the school-year was marked by the retirement of the following teachers:
Misses E. A. F. Barron, C. A. Dowler, A. Keast, E. G. Lawson, S. A. Robinson, M. AArilliams,
Mrs. E. E. Menkus, and Mr. W. H. Gee.
These teachers have left a record of faithful and efficient service covering a period of
many years, and it is difficult to estimate the value of their splendid influence on the hundreds
of pupils whom they taught.
The Victoria Board also regretted to lose the services of Mr. F. Waddington, Supervisor
of Music, who accepted a more responsible position on the Arancouver staff.
SCHOOLS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF BURNABY.
REPORT OF E. G. DANIELS, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The year 1930-31 has been a period of considerable growth in attendance at the elementary and high schools of this municipality. In the elementary schools 4,420 pupils were
enrolled, as compared with 4,234 pupils for the preceding year. A corresponding increase
was noticeable in the high schools, where the attendance rose from 486 to 572 pupils. As this
growth was spread quite generally over the district, the additional enrolment was accommodated without any increase in staff, although some class-rooms were slightly overcrowded
during the second term of the year. In addition to the above facts, it should be noted that
permits were issued by the Board for the attendance of 172 pupils at the Technical Schools
of Vancouver and New AA'estminster, the annual fee being $100 per pupil. The total of 5,164
children of the municipality provided with educational facilities is 2S9 above that of any
previous year.
So far as academic standing is concerned, the results of the matriculation and other
examinations held by your Department in June would indicate that standards are being well
maintained.
Changing economic conditions are reflected in the apparent disinclination of teachers to
change either occupation or position. The staff of 1029-30 carried on during 1930-31 with very
few exceptions.    This tends to give continuity and added effectiveness to the teaching process.
In the Musical Festival Competition the excellent record of Kingsway West School is worthy
of note. Classes under the direction of Miss Rose Mould won the AA7elsh Male Voice Choir
shield, the Province shield, and the Lions' Club shield—the latter being awarded for highest
marks received by any school choir in the festival. This shield carries with it a $50 scholarship, which is awarded at the discretion of Principal Blair of this school.
The interest shown by the Board of School Trustees of Burnaby in everything pertaining
to the welfare of the schools is, as you are aware, very active and sincere. This Province owes
to the men and women serving gratuitously on its School Boards a debt that cannot be easily
estimated.
May I be permitted to express to you and all others connected with your Department my
sincere thanks for your friendly and helpful attitude which has been evident during the past,
year in every phase of our relations and for the clear-cut decisions which have been made in
every problem referred to you for solution. SCHOOLS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF SAANICH.
REPORT OF J. M. PATERSON, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
This has been for me a very busy year, mainly because of the high-school situation in this
municipality. Because of the failure to pass a by-law to provide adequate high-school accommodation last year and as it was imperative that provision be made to house Grades IX. and X.
(about 250 pupils), it became necessary to find class-rooms for all Tolmie elementary-school
pupils, so that the high school might be conducted in one building. This was done with great
difficulty. Then, because of the approaching necessity of having to accommodate all high-school
pupils, the School Board was faced with the task of submitting another by-law, entailing a great
deal of preparatory work.
However, the by-law to provide money for three high schools, one in the northern portion
of the municipality, one in the south-eastern portion, and one in the south-western, was put
before the people in May and carried.
The preliminary planning and necessary organization which this project entailed has been
strenuous, to say the least. However, the heavy work is now done and two of the schools
at the time of writing are functioning, and the third—the largest—is in process of construction
and should be ready by February. Over 400 high-school students are in attendance this fall-
about seventy more than our estimate.
The work spoken of above I found interfered considerably with my work in the class-room,
but I was able to keep in fairly close touch with it all. I tried to devote most of the time in
the class-room to those teachers who most needed attention and direction. I have found my
earlier efforts to reduce retardation producing satisfactory results, and I believe retardation
is nearing the proper minimum.
Might I express my gratification at the opportunity given during July to have school
problems discussed by the Educational staff as a whole. The Minister of Education at these
meetings expressed his desire to have suggestions tendered by the Inspectors or others. In
this connection, might I refer to a point introduced at the first meeting. In discussing the
further training of teachers, it was proposed to give the prospective teacher a year's training
at Normal School, allow him to teach for two years, and then require his further attendance at
Normal School for at least a session.
I can foresee that a hardship will be imposed on some teachers and some school districts
if this is carried out. In many cases a good teacher, who has given every satisfaction, will be
compelled to leave his school, which will lose a satisfactory teacher. To offset this, might
I suggest that the second Normal period of training, which is, I agree, very necessary, be
taken during summer months, two or more summer terms being required. In this way no
hardship will be imposed upon teacher or district.
Recent accidents to pupils on school-grounds and on roads to and from schools, and
attempts on the part of parents to have the School Boards shoulder the consequent expenses,
whether or not there was contributory negligence on the part of the Board, has made Saanich
School Board consider placing insurance to protect themselves. Even if the Board was in no
way guilty of negligence, there is always the possibility of having to meet legal fees.
I believe that the Department is being asked by the Trustees' Federation to organize a
fire-insurance scheme. If this is being considered," might I be allowed to suggest that an
accident-insurance scheme for the protection of School Boards receive consideration at the
same time. j .    i PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 47
SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND.
REPORT OF S. H. LAAVRENCE, PRINCIPAL.
The number of pupils enrolled during the year was eighty-five, of whom fifty-four were
boys and thirty-one girls. Of this number, sixty-four were in the department for the deaf
and twenty-one in the department for the blind.
The health of all was remarkably good until Easter, when an outbreak of diphtheria
occurred. It came like a bolt out of the blue, and we have never been able to trace its origin.
We had eleven cases in all, which for a time seriously interrupted the regular school-work, but
none of them proved fatal, nor did they leave any bad after-effects.
During the year the regular class-room work was carried along lines very similar to those
of former years. We followed, as closely as circumstances would allow, the course of study as
authorized for the public schools. In the classes for the blind we taught the subject-matter
of the prescribed text-books, which had to be first transcribed into the braille for the convenience
of the blind pupils.
With the deaf, however, more simplified lessons had to be used, as these children enter
school unable either to use or understand the English language. It requires several years
before they can understand the language of the text-books, or even express ideas of their own.
With both the deaf and the blind we have to make haste slowly, and it is very essential that
the work be done by highly trained and efficient instructors, particularly in the early stages
of their education.
It seems practically impossible to retain teachers for more than a year or two. These
changes have a more detrimental effect upon progress among deaf or blind children than among
normal pupils in the public schools. A new teacher cannot begin at the point where the other
left off.
At the end of last year the school lost the services of a valued teacher by the resignation
of Miss W. D. Armitage, who is this year pursuing further study at the University of British
Columbia. It is to be hoped that Miss Armitage will return to her first love and carry on what
she has so successfully begun.
It is encouraging to me and hopeful for the children that I was able to secure a very promising successor to her in the person of Miss Eva McKay, who comes to us after some years of
successful teaching in the schools in Manitoba, and a year's special training at the School for
Improved Instruction for the Deaf in New York City.
Another change on the teaching staff was caused by the resignation of Miss Miller to accept
a similar position in the new school for the deaf recently established in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Miss Miller's place has been filled by the appointment of Mrs. Madge MeKinnie, who
formerly taught in the School for the Deaf in Doncaster, England.
Special efforts were made to promote, as far as circumstances would admit, the training of
pupils along domestic and vocational lines. The girls received training in general housework,
and were given both instruction and practice in cooking, dressmaking, and millinery under a
fully qualified teacher. Others were taught typing. Any boys who desired had opportunity to
become familiar with farming, gardening, and the care of poultry. Manual training is taught to
all boys who are old enough to work at it, and Mrs. Burke continued her pupils in music, particularly pianoforte-playing.
One boy attended the Vancouver Technical School and I was able to place a few other boys
in shops in the city, where they can work after regular school-hours and fit themselves for something useful after they quit school. One boy has become quite expert at shoemaking, and I have
no doubt but he will follow it at his home.
As the blind cannot engage in these occupations, I would urge that a part-time teacher be
engaged to teach them reed-work, and perhaps cane-seating.
I would like to impress upon the Department the urgent need there is for a physical
instructor. Both the blind and the deaf need graded lessons along this line even more than
normal children.
A further recommendation would be the renewal of the one I made last year, the appointment of a part-time teacher to instruct a class in shoemaking. I feel confident that it would be
money well spent and in after-years prove a saving to the Government. L 48 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
I think it is fitting that I should here make mention of the deep interest that is taken
in the school by the various service clubs in the city. The Elks' Club, the Lions' Club, and
the Kiwanis Club have especially favoured us. The ladies' organizations have remembered us
in a very practical way by bringing musical entertainment to the children.
We were all honoured by and delighted in the visits last year of both yourself and the
Honourable the Minister of Education. I would that more connected with the Government
could find it convenient to pay us an occasional visit. I feel sure that the result would be
like the effect of the quality of mercy, blessing both the giver and the receiver.
In closing, I desire to extend my thanks to you, sir, and through you to the Honourable
the Minister of Education, for your many kindnesses that I have experienced and for your
patient dealing with my shortcomings. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 49
HIGH SCHOOL CORRESPONDENCE COURSES.
REPORT OF J. AV. GIBSON, M.A., B.Paed., DIRECTOR.
AVith the conclusion of our second year of High School Correspondence Instruction we are
able to report certain gains growing out of greater experience in the work. Our instructors
have devoted themselves whole-heartedly and with ever-increasing interest to the important
and difficult task of guiding a large body of students, individually, through courses of study
none too easy under the best of conditions. The quality of the instruction papers is steadily
being improved, and as time permits they are being revised in order to bring them into harmony
with the new four-year High School Curriculum. This is being done in part by the members
of our present staff, but it will be necessary to have a few additional courses prepared by
trained experts in some of the subjects.
In addition to the regular instruction papers, we have undertaken the preparation of a
series of term tests which the students write under examination conditions. These tests correspond to the Christmas, Easter, and June examinations in the high schools. In most cases
these tests are written under the supervision of the local elementary-school teacher. In the
case of adult students and in all cases where the student lives over 3 miles from the school the
tests are written in the home. These tests serve in part as a teaching device, as the students
always receive their corrected papers with advice as to the perfecting of their work. They also
serve to acquaint the instructor with the true status of the student in the work from time to
time as it progresses.
During the year the work of instruction was carried on by four full-time instructors and
nine part-time instructors, all of whom were chosen for their special knowledge of the subjects
assigned to them.
ORGANIZATION AND CONDITIONS OF REGISTRATION.
The courses offered may be grouped as follows: (1) Courses leading to Junior Matriculation; (2) Entrance to Normal; (3) High School Commercial; (4) Personal Improvement. The
requirements for the first three are fully specified in the official Programme of Studies for the
Province, but no particular course has been mapped out for Personal Improvement. It is a
matter of arrangement and the subjects chosen are largely a matter of personal preference or of
expediency on the part of the student. Our two years' experience in this work has shown the
need of more definite educational and vocational guidance for our students and, indeed, for the
people of the Province as a whole. Many letters have been received from parents as well as
from young folk asking for advice as to the possibilities afforded by different vocations and as
to the best courses to follow under different circumstances. There is evident need at the present
time for more vocational courses than we have yet been able to offer. For those who are not
aiming to attend university or to enter the teaching profession we have little to offer outside
of the commercial courses, and I would strongly urge that more vocational courses be added.
It is a matter of common occurrence to receive letters from young men and young women from
16 to 20 years of age stating that they can manage so as to devote a year or two to study by
correspondence if by so doing they can prepare themselves to go out and earn a living. The
State of New South AVales has gone a long way towards meeting similar requests from young
men and women in Australia. The Department of Education at Sydney offers by correspondence
through its Technical Education Branch more than a score of technical and vocational courses,
including the various branches of agriculture, applied art, draughting, building construction,
carpentry and joinery, printing and composing, millinery, dressmaking, cookery and household
management, country drainage and plumbing, practical sanitation, stenography, and business
courses. It is to be hoped that we can offer at least a few more definitely vocational courses in
the very near future.
The conditions of registration are substantially the same as those established two years ago.
No age-limit has been imposed and under the section on enrolment it will be seen that quite
a large number, approximately one-third, of our students are over 18 years of age. In a general
way most of those who have taken advantage of the opportunity of studying under correspondence instruction are included in the following:—
D (1.) Strong and thoroughly capable young people of the ordinary high-school age (12 to 18
years) whose parents are engaged in pioneer work, living at considerable distances from high
schools and who cannot afford to meet the expense of paying for board and lodging in town.
From this large group we draw many of our very best students.
(2.) Older boys and girls who completed the elementary-school course some years ago, but
who had to remain at home to help with the work there and to help to earn a living for the
family.
(3.) Those suffering from physical disability or abnormalities—cripples, nervous cases,
serious injury requiring months for recovery, and sanatorium patients.
(4.) Those who must remain in the home to care for younger members of the family
because of ill-health of one or both parents.
(5.) Those who have reached the adult stage and who, perchance, neglected to improve
themselves when of school age or who now wish to prepare themselves for a change of
vocation.
(6.) Those younger students who require only one or two subjects in order to complete
a high-school course.
(7.) Emergency cases of all kinds—especially where students through accident or illness,
either to themselves, to parent, brother, or sister at home, must immediately leave school for
the balance of the term or for an indefinite period.
These circumstances and variations of them are in some measure met by our high-school
correspondence courses. Many are the expressions of appreciation coming in from both
parents and students, and with the improvements in courses and in management which we
hope to effect there will presently be built up an educational service along the line of secondary
and vocational education that will bring to a great many people in British Columbia new
opportunities, increased power, and happier living.
STUDENT ENROLMENT FOR THE YEAR.
At the close of the last school-year, June 30th, 1929, there were 522 students on the roll,
and during the twelve months following a total of 533 new students enrolled, so that the total
enrolment during the year reached a maximum of 1,055. A number of students completed the
courses for which they were registered and others withdrew to attend high school or for other
reason. During the entire year covered by this report a total of 208 students withdrew, leaving
a net total of 847 students enrolled on June 30th, 1931. The proportion of new students registering for the different courses this year varies somewhat from those registering last year.
Those registering for Junior Matriculation last year were 60 per cent, of the total, whilst this
year's entrants for that course make up only 49 per cent. For Normal Entrance last year we
had 16 per cent, and this year 12 per cent. For Commercial Courses last year 25 per cent, and
this year 33.5 per cent.    Only 5.5 per cent, specified Personal Improvement as their objective.
As to the number of subjects carried by the individual students, the following percentages
are close approximations :—
Students taking a full course (8 or 9 subjects)    48.5
Students taking 7 subjects      1.0
Students taking 6 subjects      3.5
Students taking 5 subjects    7.5
Students taking 4 subjects     7.0
Students taking 3 subjects   10.0
Students taking 2 subjects      7.5
Students taking 1 subject  15.0
So far we have permitted the students to decide for themselves the number of subjects to
be carried, with the result that in some cases students have registered for more subjects than
they could hope to finish in a year. From now on the number of subjects to be carried will be
determined chiefly by the number of hours per week for which the student registers. AVe have
gained sufficient knowledge during the last two years to be able to say that a student of good
ability who will devote full school-time (six or seven hours per day) to correspondence-work
will readily complete the entire work of a grade in ten months—or, in other words, he can just PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 51
keep up with a student of equal ability in the average high school. It is possible that with
improved methods of instruction and with added facility in handling the work the better class
of student will go a little faster. It is, of course, sheer folly to think, as some of our pupils
and also some parents have thought, that a boy or girl can put in an eight-hour day in manual
labour or in household duties and still make a whole grade in. one year by studying an hour or
two in the evening, if, perchance, they are not too tired when supper is over. Our courses are
so planned as to meet the full requirements of the High School Curriculum, and to meet those
requirements as thoroughly and completely as is done in the best high schools in the Province.
Probably a certain disillusionment that has doubtless occurred in many cases explains the
withdrawal of quite a number who registered, but who later withdrew either through inability
to give the necessary time or disinclination to make the necessary sacrifice in hard work.
In order to have a clear understanding with the student from the start, we propose to adopt
a weekly schedule of work for each student, depending on the amount of time assigned to study,
and so prevent as far as possible the disappointment that inevitably results from failure to meet
an educational objective. This is one of the reasons for advocating that all 'teen-age boys and
girls who register for full correspondence courses attend their local elementary school, where
they will at least be assured regular hours for study. Of course, if the school is noisy and
poorly managed, the benefits to be derived from attendance may be more than offset by distractions. Such cases, however, are exceptional, and I have had ample evidence to prove that
high-school correspondence students derive real benefit from attendance at the local elementary
school not only from the point of view of regularity in hours of work, but also because of the
encouragement and practical assistance rendered by the presiding teacher.
Of the new students enrolled during the year, 45 per cent, were over 18 years of age and
55 per cent, under. Last year 33 per cent, of the students enrolled were over 18 years and
67 per cent, under 18. It would appear that a proportionately larger number of adults are
becoming interested in home study. About 60 per cent, of those enrolled were born in British
Columbia, and of the remaining 40 per cent., almost 16 per cent, were born in other Canadian
Provinces, 13 per cent, in the British Isles, and 3 per cent, in the United States.
THE WORK OF INSTRUCTION.
Teaching by correspondence is much more than examining, correcting, and evaluating
papers. It calls for very competent and resourceful instructors, who strive to form a real
acquaintance with their students and who develop a genuine interest in their progress. AVe
have been fortunate in securing from the beginning instructors, both men and women, who
possess these qualifications. In all correspondence instruction the lack of personal contact
with the students is one of the drawbacks that cannot altogether be overcome. Our instructors
do a good deal to minimize this difficulty by the way in which they treat the requests for help
that come from the students, who are always encouraged to raise questions on all points not
fully understood by them. Still there is need of some further means for closer personal contact.
It is to be hoped that radio communication can soon be established. There is also great need
for library facilities for many who are now quite beyond the reach of local or district library
service.
Already some of the students have urged the value of a high-school magazine as a medium
whereby they would be enabled to keep in touch with school interests generally. Such a
magazine going out to our students monthly would make possible a great many social and
educational benefits that are at present hard to secure. Furthermore, such a magazine would
be of great value to many others who are in regular attendance in the high schools of the
Province and even outside of the Province. In Australia and New Zealand correspondence-
school magazines are used a great deal and evidently meet an important need in the system of
correspondence schools now so well established in those countries. In six of the States of the
Australian Commonwealth there are enrolled at the present time in elementary and secondary
correspondence courses almost 15,000 students, the highest percentage of the school population
so engaged in any country in the world. As several of the Canadian Provinces are now carrying
on extensive systems of correspondence instruction—-notably Saskatchewan and Manitoba in
secondary-school work—we may presently rival even our sister dominion in this new educational
enterprise. L 52 PUBLIC  SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
THE COST OF INSTRUCTION.
Expenditures for the period covered by this report were as follows:—
(1.)   Salaries—
(a.)  Permanent (office staff and instructors)   $13,769.19
(ft.)  Temporary (office-help and instructors)       4,794.94
	
Total paid in salaries  $18,564.13
(2.)  Printing and mimeographing        7,095.50
(3.)  Preparation and revision of instruction papers by outside help  687.50.
(4.)  For students' science sets (50 per cent, of cost)       1,327.26
(5.)  Miscellaneous office supplies and travelling          974.47
Total   $28,648.86
A\re have undertaken a complete revision of all courses in order to bring them into line with
the four-year High School Programme, and this work will continue throughout the coming year
until completed. Part of this reorganization of instruction papers is being done, as time permits,
by our full-time instructors and part by paid specialists outside the Department. AVhen this
work of revision is completed we shall have all of our courses in better condition; the results
of which will be reflected in the progress of the students.
Last year the total expenditure for High School Correspondence Instruction was approximately $47 per student enrolled. This year it is a little more than $27 per student enrolled,
but if all students had worked continuously this would have run a few dollars higher.
AArith the increase in student enrolment and the reorganization of courses on the four-year
basis, we are feeling the need of more adequate accommodation both in office-room and in
instructors' rooms. Our present quarters are extremely cramped and inconvenient and by
another year the situation will become still more difficult. We are in urgent need of at least
three adjoining rooms in which to conduct all of the work of administration and instruction.
AA7ith such added facilities for carrying on the work, and with a reasonable schedule of fees,
we would be in a position to further extend the work to include courses leading to Senior
Matriculation and also a number of vocational courses. There is at the present time a strong
demand for both. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 53
CORRESPONDENCE COURSES IN COAL-MINING AND
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUBJECTS.
REPORT OF JAMES HARGREAVES, OFFICER IN CHARGE.
The total number of pupils enrolled were as follows:—
Grade 1  109 Grade A'l     67
Grade II  100 Grade VII     53
Grade III     98 Grade VIII     76
Grade IV ,     96 	
Grade V     82 Total  681
Sixteen of our students were successful in entering high school last term.
The total number of lessons corrected was 10,494.
Salaries amounted to $7,154; office supplies, $1,159.86; postage, approximately, $225. The
approximate cost per pupil is $14.60.
Extracts from letters of parents expressing appreciation are given below:—
" The strong point about your course is that it's thorough.    The student has time to reflect
and absorb all that's in it.    Then every lesson is thoroughly checked;   this gives the child the
maximum benefit;   besides, the returned lessons afford an everlasting record of all work."
" May I take this opportunity of thanking you very much indeed for your help and time
given to John. I consider the Correspondence Course gives a very thorough grounding and is
a real help to boys and girls unable to attend school."
" The Correspondence Course has been such a help to my daughter. She is very interested
in her work and anxious to obtain good marks. It really is a wonderful system. I am most
grateful to you for all the trouble you take with her lessons."
CORRESPONDENCE LESSONS  IN COAL-MINING  AND  MINE  SURVEYING.
This work is conducted to prepare men for the examinations demanded by the Department
of Mines in the interest of public safety.    The course embraces the following:—
No. 1. Preparatory mining course for boys over 15 years of age who have left school.
No. 2. Course in arithmetic and mathematics.
No. 3. Course for fireboss, shiftboss, or shotlighter's papers (third class).
No. 4. Course for overmen's papers (second class).
No. 5. Course for mine manager's papers.
No. 6. Course in mine-survey work.
The enrolment in the mining courses numbers eighteen, and the lessons are so arranged
that a boy on leaving school can continue his studies until he reaches the age of 23, at which
age he is permitted to compete for his Provincial mining papers. Course No. 1 is divided into
six separate sections of carefully graded work, and regular application will fit a young man
thoroughly for the examinations held for shotlighters. With a continuance of his studies his
papers as overman will not be difficult to obtain, and following these two the aspiring coal-miner
may rise to the highest position in his calling. FREE TEXT-BOOK BRANCH.
REPORT OF J. A. ANDERSON, OFFICER IN CHARGE.
The total number of free text-books, etc., issued during 1930-31 to the public schools
(elementary, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence Courses for
High School and Elementary School pupils, was as follows: 11,697 Canadian Reader, Book I.;
11,856 Canadian Reader, Book II.; 12,017 Canadian Reader, Book III.; 12,416 Canadian Reader,
Book IV.; 12,492 Canadian Reader, Book Y.; 8,248 Poems, Chiefly Narrative; 19,567 New
Canadian Arithmetic, Book I.; 17,900 New Canadian Arithmetic, Book II.; 1,398 Smith and
Roberts' Arithmetic, Book I.; 595 Smith and Roberts' Arithmetic, Book II.; 9,639 Thorndike
Junior High School Mathematics, Book I.; 12,146 Thorndike Junior High School Mathematics,
Book II.; 7,739 Lang's Introductory Grammar; 2,076 Physiology and Hygiene; 13,639 Spelling
for the Grades; 3,384 Latin for Young Canadians, Junior Lessons; 10,931 AVallace's History of
Great Britain and Canada; MacLean Method of AA'riting Books—9,190 Compendium No. 1;
10,350 Compendium No. 2; 10,670 Compendium No. 3; 12,685 Compendium No. 4; 9,578 Senior
Manual; 1,366 Commercial Manual; 237 Teachers' Manual; 45 Citizenship in British Columbia;
170 History of Canada, Gammell; 1,446 A New AVorld, or The League of Nations; 95 Sir James
Douglas and British Columbia; Supplementary Readers—340 Progressive Road to Reading,
Book I.; 211 Everyday Canadian Primer; 248 Progressive Road to Reading, Book II.; 313
Silent Study Readers, Book III.; 167 B.C. Third Reader; 223 Silent Study Readers, Book IV.;
366 20th Century Fifth Reader; 136 Trees and Shrubs, Food, Medicinal, and Poisonous Plants
of British Columbia; 202 Syllabus of Physical Exercises; 202 Teachers' Manual of Drawing
and Design; 43 Flora of Southern B.C.; 1,018,354 sheets of Drawing Paper, 6 by 9 inches;
115,896 sheets of Drawing Paper, 9 by 12 inches; 29 Maps of the World; 52 Maps of North
America, Plain Roller; 40 Maps of the Dominion of Canada, Plain Roller; 57 Maps of British
Columbia; 53 Maps of British Isles; 21 Maps of the Dominion of Canada, Spring Roller; 33
Maps of the AATorld, Spring Roller;   168 Flags.
Six thousand three hundred and ninety-three requisitions were filled by this Branch during
the school-year 1930-31 for free text-books and free supplies. In addition to these, 3,607 orders
were filled for teachers and pupils from the outlying districts who wished to secure text-books,
other than those supplied free, which could not be purchased in their vicinity, and for private
institutions desirous of purchasing books supplied free to the public schools. The sum of
$18,289.45 was received from these sales and deposited in the Treasury.
To purchase the free books listed above and to distribute them and the books sold required
an expenditure made up as follows:—
Text-books (publishers' price)      $79,179.49
Freight and distribution costs         6,335.08
Salaries of staff         6,774.96
Temporary assistance         4,141.33
Office supplies         6,087.05
Total  $102,497.91
The increase in the salary and temporary assistance amounts was due to the larger number
of free and sales orders filled by the Free Text-book Branch during the school-year 1930-31.
The free orders filled increased by 1,324 over those filled during the preceding school-year and
the number of sales increased by 984.
The increase in the amount expended for office supplies is due to the additional supplies and
equipment required for the increase in the volume of business.
During the past school-year the practice of compensating pupils who supplied themselves
with second-hand free books was followed as in the preceding year. Under this plan claims for
payment were received from 108 schools. The amount of money distributed under this system
was $487.20.
Requests were received from several schools dealing with the purchase of library books
through the Text-book Branch.    These books were ordered and sold at cost to the schools.
RETURNS FOR 1930-31.
The annual reports of free text-books for the school-year 1930-31 have been received and
are now on file at this office. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31. L 55
THE STRATHCONA TRUST.
REPORT OF J. L. WATSON, B.A., SECRETARY, LOCAL COMMITTEE.
INSTRUCTION OF TEACHERS IN PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1930-31.
During the past year 385 prospective teachers were added to the list of holders of the Grade
B Strathcona Trust Certificate. Approximately 7,885 teachers and prospective teachers have
now qualified as physical-training instructors.
A very keen interest was shown by the students at both Normal Schools in the competition
at the close of the session for the gold medals awarded annually by the Local Committee to the
two students who hold first rank in instructional ability in physical training. These medals
were won by Bessie M. Moore, Vancouver, and Victor Montaldi, Victoria. It is worthy of note
that the winners of these awards are invariably students who have attained a very high standing
in the other branches of work during the Normal School session.
PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1930-31.
At the annual meeting held on October 21st, 1930, provision was made for the granting of
eighty-three prizes of $7 each for competition among the various schools for the year 1930-31.
A total of eighty-three recommendations were received from Government and Municipal
Inspectors and the sum of $581 distributed as prizes.
PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1931-32.
For competition among the various schools during 1931-32 eighty-three prizes of $6 each
have been granted. These prizes are to be allocated as follows: Three prizes to each of the
eighteen inspectorates; eighteen to Greater Vancouver; four to Arictoria; three to the Municipality of Burnaby; and two each to New AA'estminster and the Municipality of Saanich. For
purposes of competition and inspection the schools in each of the eighteen inspectorates are to
be divided, where possible, into three groups, namely: Group A, of five divisions or more;
Group B, of two to four divisions, inclusive; Group C, of schools containing only one room or
division. In any inspectorate or municipality where this classification is not applicable, the
matter of deciding what schools or divisions of schools are entitled to receive awards is to be
left to the discretion of the Inspector in charge.
The full amount of the award is to be expended for a picture or some piece of apparatus
(suitably inscribed) for the room or school in which the prize was won. Only those teachers
who are the holders of physical-training certificates granted under the Strathcona Trust are
eligible to compete.   '
SCHOOL, CADET CORPS, 1930-31.
During the past year 6,078 cadets received training, a decrease of 185 as compared with the
year 1929-30.    There was also a decrease of one in the number of active cadet corps.
The annual inspections were made during the months of April, May, and June. Kitsilano
High School Cadet Corps, in charge of Major H. B. King, gained the highest number of marks
for general efficiency and thus became the holder of the I.O.D.E. cup for the next year. King
Edward High School Cadet Corps, in charge of Captain P. C. Tees, M.M., won second place.
A total of $323, divided into twenty-one prizes, was distributed in accordance with the
schedule adopted at the last annual meeting, November 10th, 1931. The following schedule was
adopted : 1st prize, $30; 2nd prize, $25 ; two prizes, $20 each; two prizes, $18 each ; two prizes,
$16 each;   two prizes, $14 each;   eleven prizes, $12 each.
Continued interest in instruction in first aid is evident. Large numbers of cadets received
training in this important work during the past year.
The Britannia High School Cadet Corps, winner last year of the AVallace Rankine Nesbitt
Dominion Trophy in the First-aid Competition, won the district trophy this year and was
selected to represent the Province in the Dominion Champion Competition, in which it
succeeded in winning second place.
In the Dominion Competition for the Wallace Nesbitt (Junior) First-aid Trophy, seventh,
eighth, and twelfth places were won by Armstrong, Nelson, and Britannia School Cadet Corps
respectively. L 56 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1930-31.
In the Provincial Competition for the Leonard Shield, the Junior Provincial Shield, Armstrong Cadet Corps won first place and Nelson Cadet Corps second. This was the first occasion
on which teams from the Interior entered this competition.
RIFLE SHOOTING.
From the grant for rifle shooting, 1930-31, the following prizes were provided: 50 prizes of
$1.50 each; 51 prizes of $1.25 each; and 52 prizes of $1 each. The amount expended under this
head was $190.75.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Committee for the year 1930-31 amounted to $1,636.47
and the expenditure for the year $1,129.49, leaving a balance of $540,32. Of this amount, $498
has been voted for physical-training prizes for 1931-32.
Receipts.
1930-31. Balance on hand from 1929-30   $600.09
Interest to November 30th, 1930   17.01
Interest to May 31st, 1931  9.24
Allowance to Secretary added to fund  10.00
Grant for 1930-31   1,033.47
$1,669.81
Expenmtures.
1930-31. Prizes for physical training   $581.00
Prizes for cadet-training  323.00
Prizes for rifle shooting   190.75
Gold medals (two) for Normal Schools   33.00
Revenue stamps  1.74
$1,129.49
Balance on hand     $540.32

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