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Printed by Williah H. Cullin, Printer to tlie King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1923.  To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Eeport
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1922.
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., June 20th, 1923.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture—Dr. D. Warnock       7
Report of Departmental Secretary—W. J. Bonavia       9
Report of Departmental Secretary re Fall Fairs—AV. J. Bonavia      15
Report of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests—W. H. Robertson     19
Report of District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, Vancouver Island and Gulf
Islands—E.  W.  White        22
Report of District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.  Lower  Mainland—G.  E.
W. Clarke     30
Report of District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, Okanagan Valley—W. T.
Hunter         33
Report of Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon—H. H. Evans      42
Report of Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon, re Codling-moth Control—H. H. Evans       46
Report of District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm and Canadian Pacific Railway Main Line
Districts—C.  R.  Barlow        47
Report of District Field Inspector, Kelowna—T. M. Anderson     50
Report of District Field Inspector, Summerland—J. Tait      52
Report of District Field Inspector, Southern Okanagan and Similkameen Districts—R. P.
Murray    l     55
Report of District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, Boundary and East and West
Kootenay Districts—E. C. Hunt       57
Report of District Agriculturist and Field Inspector, Grand Forks—P. C. Black     61
Report of District Field Inspector, Creston—C. B. Twigg      64
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver—J. W. Eastham      66
Report of Assistant Entomologist, Vernon—M. H. Ruhmann      70
Report of Chief Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Vancouver—W. H. Lyne...    72
Report of Assistant Potato Inspector, Vancouver—A. Irving     78
Report of Prairie Markets Commissioner, Calgary—J. A. Grant      79
Report of Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria—W. T. McDonald      86
Report of District Agriculturist, Kamloops—Geo. C. Hay      90
Report of District Agriculturist, East Kootenay District—Angus L. Hay     93
Report of District Agriculturist, Duncan—W. M. Fleming     95
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria—Dr. A. Knight      96
Report of Chief Poultry Instructor, Victoria—J. R. Terry      97
Report of Dairy Commissioner, Victoria—H. Rive   101
Report of Acting Chief Soil and Crop Instructor and Potato Specialist, Victoria—C. Tice....  105
Report of Statistician, Victoria—G. H. Stewart    109
Report of Provincial Apiarist, Nelson—W. J. Sheppard     Ill
Report of Assistant Provincial Apiarist, Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island Districts—
A. W. Finlay     113
Report of Assistant Provincial Apiarist, Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valley Districts
—J. F. Roberts     115
Report of Secretary of Women's Institutes, Victoria—Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan   116
Appendix No.—
1. Total Correspondence received and dispatched, Years 1921 and 1922   127
2. Women's Institute Flower-shows in 1922 127
3. Grants to Agricultural Fairs   128
4. Packing-schools  in  1922      130
5. Pruning-schools in 1922  >   130
6 Berry Acreage in 1922   131
7. Thinning Demonstrations in Okanagan Valley     131
8. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., inspected at Ports of Entry   134 Page.
9. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at Ports of Entry   135
10. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., inspected at Vancouver    135
11. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at Vancouver    136
12. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Vancouver   137
13. Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver    138
14. Imported Rice, Beans, etc., inspected at Vancouver   139
15. Imported Rice, Beans, etc., inspected at Victoria   140
16. Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which no Certificates were issued   140
17. Districts and Herds tested for Tuberculosis, showing Reactors   142
18. Final Report, Eleventh International Egg-laying Contest at Willows, B.C 145
19. Summary of Results at Eleventh International Egg-laying Contest    146
20. Individual Egg Records at Eleventh International Egg-laying Contest   147
21. Winter Egg Production, etc., at Eleventh International Egg-laying Contest   148
22. Spare Bird Record at Eleventh International Egg-laying Contest   149
23. Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act "     150
24. Creamery or Dairy Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act" 151
25. Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia     152
26. Potato  Inspection and Certification      153
27. Field Inspections where Crops had not been entered for Certification    153
28. Field Inspections in Certified Seed-potato Districts    154
29. Average Percentage of Diseases, also Impurities in Varieties under Certification. .. . 154
30. List of Provincial Demonstration Apiaries     155
31. List of Provincial Demonstration Apiaries, with Crop Reports for Season   156 J  -*V'M ;   :»^:*^:^n;
D. Warnock, F.R.O.V.S., O.B.E.
Hon. E. D. Barrow,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of Agriculture for
the year 1922.
General Conditions.
A review of the agricultural situation in British Columbia during the past year reveals the
fact that the whole industry has been adversely affected by conditions largely beyond the control
of tbose engaged in agriculture in this Province. Deflated values of many products of the farm
and the reduced purchasing power of the Prairie consumers have militated against tbe profitable
disposal of much of our agricultural output. On the other hand, the abnormal weather conditions
prevailing throughout the growing season reduced the yields of field crops and small fruits in
all but the irrigated districts. However, despite these adverse factors several branches of the
industry show gratifying progress.
Marked increases are shown in the value of dairy products, poultry, vegetables, and honey,
while the chief decreases occurred among grains and fodders, which suffered from insufficient
moisture during the growing season and subsequent wet weather at harvest-time. Agricultural
production for the past year is shown in value as $55,322,971, against §59,742,994 for the year
1921, representing a shrinkage of $4,420,023, or 7.39 per cent., which loss is largely attributable
to the prevailing low prices on all agricultural products. A parallel decline is noticed in the
value of agricultural commodities imported during the same period, when imports fell to
$12,970,001 from other Provinces and $4,173,321 from foreign points, as compared with $15,329,479
and $5,640,943, respectively, in 1921, a total decrease of $3,827,100 in the value of imports.
Live Stock.
Live-stock statistics show $14,550,494 as the value of all domestic animals coming under this
heading, indicating an increase of $397,745 over the year 1921. Horses increased in numbers
from 44,558 in 1921 to 51,083 in 1922, an increase of 6,525. Dairy cattle have made a gain of
3,552 in the same period and now total 105,070. The number of beef cattle in the Province
showed a reduction from 159,854 to 156,901, a total of 2,953 during the twelve months.
Sheep have been reduced in numbers from 51,457 in 1921 to 49,745 an 1922, due, no doubt,
to reverses suffered by those engaged in sheep-raising owing to the unsatisfactory prices obtained
for wool and mutton.
Swine show a slight increase over 1921. Goats have passed the 7,500 mark, increasing
by 25 per cent.
Poultry and eggs show satisfactory increases, the former 'being 32.05 per cent, and the
latter 35.35 per cent, over 1921.
Dairy Products.
Dairy production has achieved an enviable position in the agricultural pursuits of the
Province. This year's output is the largest on record and represents a value of $8,001,135, as
against $6,596,208 in 1921, a very substantial gain of $1,404,927. This suggests a healthy
development in the industry and indicates the general trend towards mixed farming in almost
every part of the Province. The quantities of butter, cheese, ice-cream, etc., manufactured
during 1922 all exceed those of 1921.
The 1922 fruit-crop, the largest ever recorded in the Province, totalled 176,802,927 lb., an
advance of 3,327,590 lb. over 1921, when 173,475,337 lb. were produced. The apple-crop was
5.05 per cent, greater than that of the previous year, which totalled 147,788,262 lb. In spite of
the heavy yield of apples and other tree-fruits the value of the 1922 crop amounted to only
$4,915,604, being a decrease of 24.43 per cent, from the returns of 1921.   The average price of Department op Agriculture.
88 cents per box for apples was 38 cents less than in 1921, when growers received an average
of $1.26 per box. This represents a reduction of 30.15 per cent, in returns. With the exception
of plums and prunes, all tree-fruits showed an increased production in 1922 over that of the
preceding year. The acreage under small fruit was considerably increased this year and fruit
set abundantly, but the yield was reduced owing to insufficient rainfall. Small fruits amounting
to 9,867,862 lb. valued at $1,150,874 were grown in 1922, as compared with 10,097,223 lb. valued
at $1,185,442 in 1921, indicating a reduction of 2.27 per cent, in yield and 2.91 per cent, in value.
Both in area and acre yield the potato-crop shows an advance over 1921, there being 14.86
per cent, larger acreage, with an average yield of 6 tons per acre, as compared with 5.28 tons in
1921. The average price to the grower was 22 per cent, less than last year. The total yield of
field roots exceeded that of last year by 17.92 per cent, and the acreage was 7.9 per cent, greater.
In other vegetables an increase of 6.74 per cent, is reported, while statistics show that the
tomato-crop made a gain in yield of 96.24 per cent. In 1922 vegetable-crops amounted to 244,884
tons, being 23.93 per cent, heavier than the previous year.
Grains and Fodders.
The area occupied -by fodder-crops now totals 267,728 acres and the yield this year aggregated
518,804 tons valued at $12,467,332. Of this total area alfalfa covers 15,918 acres, an increase
of 3,133 acres over the previous year. Owing to the unfavourable weather much of the 1922
grain-crop was cut green and made into hay. The production of 4,172,095 bushels of grain
valued at $3,486,726 shows a decrease in yield of 11.02 per cent, and in value of 7.88 per cent.
Apiary Products.
The honey yield of 1922 was more than double that recorded in 1921, amounting to 711,356
l*., as compared with 309,074 lb. in 1921, an increase of 130.15 per cent., and the product was
of exceptionally fine quality, receiving favourable comment from points outside the Province.
In addition, it is estimated that 10,000 lb. of beeswax were produced.
The demonstration apiaries established at a number of points in the Province and conducted
under the supervision of Departmental Officials are proving to be of great educational value
and the hee-keeping industry rapidly expanding.
Appended hereto are reports from officials of the several branches of the Department outlining in detail the activities of each branch.
Respectfully submitted.
D. Warnock,
Deputy Minister. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 9
Wm. J. BonjWia.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report as Departmental Secretary
for the year 1922.
The Estimates for the fiscal year ending March 31st, provided for seventy-two staff appointments, apportioned as follows:—
Deputy Minister's Office and general clerical staff   27
Horticultural  and Inspection Branches      24
Live Stock Branch   15
Dairy Branch      3
District Agriculturists      3
Total   72
Neiv Appointments.—G. E. W. Clarke, April 1st, District Horticulturist for Lower Mainland;
M. H. Ruhiinann, April 1st, Assistant Entomologist, Vernon (transferred from " Agricultural
Instruction Act") ; H. Stanley French, May 1st, District Field Inspector, Vernon; Ross J. Quirie,
June 19th, Dairy. Instructor; Win. M. Fleming, July 1st, District Agriculturist, Duncan.
Resignations.—R. A. Newman, District Field Inspector, Vernon, March 31st.
Temporary Appointments.—A number of temporary appointments were made for the season,
including H. D. Greenwood and F. J. Welland, who were attached to the Soil and Crop Division
from May 1st to the close of the season;  also A. W. Finlay and J. F. Roberts, Apiary Inspectors.
The total letters received were 27,370, practically the same as those for the year 1921, but
outward letters, which totalled 22,538, showed a considerable decrease. This is largely accounted
for by the practice of not invariably acknowledging letters asking for bulletins, but by simply
mailing the publications asked for or a list of same.
There was considerable increase in letters received from Farmers' Institutes, as well as from
Agricultural Associations, whilst in letters dispatched the Soil and Crop Division and general
section of the Live Stock Branch showed the largest increase. (See Appendix No. 1 for full
Circular Letters.—Stencilled circular letters were sent out to the total of 34,397, as follows:—
Agricultural Associations        595
Farmers' Institutes      3,250
Dairy Branch       4,150
Horticultural Branch       1,600
Live Stock Branch—
Brand Recorder         150
British Columbia Goat-breeders' Association      3,670
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association         900
Soil and Crop Division     4,985
Poultry Division      4,190
Miscellaneous     3,430
Statistics        2,695
Women's Institutes •    4,782
Total  34,397
Pound Districts and Grazing Districts.
Pound Districts.—During the year seven applications for new pound districts were received,
and following the usual procedure pound districts were organized at Hedley (June 16th),
Okanagan Centre (July 27th), Powell River (July 27th), and Ladysmith  (August 21st). w 10
Department op Agriculture.
At the close of the year correspondence was proceeding in the cases of Ainsworth, Columbia
Valley, and Kaslo, in all of which cases objection had been lodged with the Department.
At the close of the year a questionnaire was issued to the thirty-seven pound districts in
active operation, the replies received being condensed in the following table:—
Pound District.
Horses.   Cattle.
No. of
Sales of
Total Pees
paid to
charged for
East  Kelowna   	
Mission City 	
Perry Siding and Appledale . . .
25 other pound districts   	
Total (37 in operation)
1 00
81 20
82 00
10 00
86 20
28 75
3 50
40 20
2 00
74 70
21 00
$ 10 00
20 00
2 50
47 00
25 10
27 60
283 00
S2 00
3 00
7 35
$164 20
$436 00
$456 70
No prosecutions were advised during the year.
Grazing Districts.—Under the authority of the " Animals Act Amendment Act, 1920," a
grazing district was established at Barrett Lake, in the Bulkley Valley, a Proclamation'being
made in December, whilst following a petition to the Honourable Minister the Order in Council
relative to the Pend d'Oreille Valley Grazing District was rescinded on December 4th, it being
conclusively shown by residents that the running at large of bulls at all seasons of the year in
the district was against the best interests of the community.
Agricultural Poisons.
During the course of the year forty-six wholesale and retail firms handling agricultural and
horticultural poisons which come under the provisions of the regulations based on the " Pharmacy
Act, 1911," took out licences.
Farmers' Institutes.
The general revival and forward movement amongst Farmers' Institutes has continued
during the past year, fourteen new institutes having received charters of incorporation, as
„      10
„      27
April    4
„      27
Aug.   15
Sept. 21
„      25
Nov.   13
Dec.    12
„      22
Hall's Prairie 	
Nichol and Isle de Pierre
Fanny Bay  	
Prince George 	
Horse Creek  	
Otter District	
Bear Creek District   ....
In the case of the Francois Lake Institute this was reorganized at Burns Lake, being named
after the locality. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 11
The total membership of the fourteen new institutes at the time of organization was 443,
which speaks well for the interest evidenced in the new districts in! which they were organized.
The total number of Farmers' Institutes in good standing at the close "of the year w7as 139,
being a net increase of four over the previous year. The total membership was 5,498, as against
a total of 5,261 in 1921. Teh institutes had a membership exceeding 100; and the following list
will show some of the strongest institutes:—
Surrey    173       Nanaimo-Cedar     116
Delta      172       Central Park    109
Islands      141       Cowichan        99
Maple Ridge  133       Strawberry Hill        98
Metchosin     133       Kitsumgallum        94
Aldergrove     132       Mission        93
Coquitlam    128       Nechako        93
Victoria     126       North Vancouver        91
Fairs held hy Farmers'' Institutes.—Ten Farmers' Institutes held fall fairs, as follows:
Howe Sound (Gibson's Landing), September 1st and 2nd; Squamish, September 4th; Whonnock
and District, September Sth; McBride, September 12th; Metchosin, September 14th and 15th;
Boswell, September 18th; Denman Island, September 22nd; Arrow Park, September 23rd;
Kootenay Lake (at Kaslo), October 4th; Rock Creek, October 6th.
In several cases these have become well-established annual events, as at Denman Island,
Howe Sound, Squamish, Boswell, and Rock Creek. It was found possible for the Department
to supply judges in all cases, the dates being run in with the regular fairs held by agricultural
Lectures and Demonstrations.—Although no elaborate itinerary was arranged for departmental officials in connection writh institute meetings, a considerable number of institutes having
made application to the Department, it was found possible to send out officials in groups of one
and two during the months of January, February, and March to the following: Aldergrove,
Cobble Hill, Coombs, Coghlan District, Cowichan, East Sooke, Fern Ridge, Harrop, Ladysmith,
Langley, Mission, Northern Okanagan, Procter, Qualicum, Strawberry Vale, Whaletown, and
Meetings under the auspices of United Farmers Locals were also held at Bayview, Diamond
Crossing, Lazo, and Oyster.
In the case of Central British. Columbia the services of R. G. Sutton, District Agriculturist,
Land Settlement Board, were requisitioned, meetings being given at McBride and Dome Creek.
Gopher-control.—Following strong representations made by farmers and1 orchardists to the
Department in 1921 with regard to the increasing depredations! of gophers and ground-squirrels
in certain portions of the Province, a vote of $500 was placed in the Estimates for 1922-23 for
" Gopher-extermination competitions," this being supplemented by a further sum of $1,000.
The following is a synapsis of the regulations governing the competitions which were sent
to Farmers' Institutes, United Farmer Locals, and similar organizations in the Arrow Lake,
Slocan, and Kootenay River Districts, Kootenay Lake, Boundary District, and Columbia Valley,
these being the worst-affected areas :—
" It is urged that in those Southern Interior districts where both the brown pocket-gopher
and Columbian ground-squirrel, are proving such pests and involving considerable loss to the
orchard and mixed-farming industries, strong effort be made to supplement individual action
along the lines of trapping, poisoning, shooting, etc., by interesting not only the school-children
and young people of the district but persons of all ages in entering gopher-killing competitions,
which should be organized as soon as possible.
" The local institute or any farmers association should therefore arrange for such competitions, making provision for the prize-money to be graduated on the highest number of gopher-
tails turned in. It is recommended that a committee of three should be appointed by each
organization to keep records and certify to applications for bounties. It is confidently anticipated
that the organizers of these competitions will supplement the sums paid by the Department
effectively, so that the young people in particular will have every incentive to do their best.
" Suggestions.— (a.) The competitions shall be open from April 1st to March 31st, 1923.
" (6.) The competitions shall be open to persons of all ages, as well as school-children and
young people. W 12
Department of Agriculture.
" (e.) The gopher-tails should be turned in to the secretary or other responsible officer each
Monday or on certain fixed dates.
" (d.) Children under 10 are usually most successful with snares, traps, dogs, and drowning,
whilst children from 10 to 14 can carefully and successfully use gopher poisons.
" (e.)  All tails turned in periodically should be burned at once by the recording official.
" Bounties paid by the Department of Agriculture.—Bounties will be paid by the Department
to individuals upon proper certification being received as follows: Up to 250 at 2 cents each;
for the next 250 the rate will be 3 cents each; for the second 500 payment will be made at 4
cents each, whilst on all over 1,000 the maximum rate of 5 cents each will be applicable. It is
urged that the farmer organizations that are interested should advise the Department as soon
as passible as to whether they intend to co-operate in the manner indicated."
Considerable correspondence showed that the campaign inaugurated by the Department had
been most efficacious in stimulating local action with regard to these pests, and by the close of the
year bounties had been paid on 94,935 gophers destroyed, as evidenced by tails submitted in proof.
The greatest number reported as killed by one person was 3,016 destroyed hy R. Faulds,
Burton, and 2,352 by M. Raher, Elk Prairie.
Co-operative Activities of Farmers' Institutes.—The data relating to- co-operative trading by
Farmers' Institutes for 1921 not having been published, the following table is of interest, showing,
as it does, that the receipts and expenditures of twenty Farmers' Institutes exceed the sum of
$1,000 as against twelve which came within this category the previous year. The column for
feed, flour, hay, etc., shows that considerable supplies have been bought by members of institutes.
Other interesting items were the sum of $665 spent for fruit-boxes 'by the institute at Nakusp,
and over $1,300 raised by the Qualicum District Institute in connection with their community
hall, etc.
Table of Twenty Farmers' Institutes ichose Receipts xcere over $1,000, shoioing Chief Lines of
Crawford Bay .
Bella Coola ...
Kootenay River.
Maple Ridge ...
Coquitlam and   Agricultural Association	
Strawberry Hill 	
Northern Okanagan
White Creek Valley.
Elk Valley	
Gray Creek	
Arrow Lakes	
Qualicum District
Columbia Valley .
$10,906 59
10,514 15
10,310 61
8,872 62
7,613 73
6,714 82
4,148 66
3,976 68
3,858 03
3.620 90
2,811 46
2,657 68
2.621 94
2,459 45
2,189 87
1,603 41
1,545 45
1,091 92
1,068 66
1,013 82
Totals     889,629 45     $86,060 30     $37,701 75
$10,723 68
10,531 64
10,207 29
8,764 15
7,212 05
5,831 73
4,103 09
3,837 62
3,433 47
3,241 05
2,767 74
2,537 52
2,507 45
2,371 52
1,972 62
1,443 60
1,447 91
1,060 79
963 60
1,001 88
Ease, and
Caps sold
$    913 40
10,002 39
149 43
6,450 25
4,767 95
2,107 39
2,499 58
3,198 52
107 72
2,213 99
1,508 17
1,737 12
674 50
929 87
386 25
55 22
Seed sold
$514 08
153 50
$667 58
Peed, Flour,
Hay, and
sold to
$10,723 68
4,928 46
8,448 83
1,257 19
966 55
2,387 45
2,188 23
266 69
885 68
$35,116 76
$2,261 25
1,430 69
433 50
665 00
1,374 45
$7,929 32
Potatoes sold.
Beef sold.
Subscriptions to   journals for members.
Expenses of district exhibit and fall fair.
Payments on pure-bred
Fruit-boxes for members.
Building of community
Islands and Lower Mainland, 9; Kootenays, 7; Okanagan, 3; Central British Columbia, 1.
Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes.—A meeting of the Advisory Board was held at
Victoria, November 1st to 4th, whilst the dates for district conferences were as follows: January 13 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 13
20th, Victoria, District A; January 27th, New Westminster, District E ; February 1st, Kamloops,
District D; February Sth, Cranbrook, District I; February 13th, Nelson, District H; February
18th, Vernon, District G.
Women's Institutes.
Although the record set up in the previous year for the organization of new institutes was
not equalled, nine new Women's Institutes were organized, with an initial membership of 277,
as follows:—
Jan. 26
Feb. 13
Mar. 14
„ 14
„ 24
May 29
July 18
Dec. 9
Point Grey   .
Whaletown .
Castlegar   .. .
Poplar Grove
The total number of institutes in existence at the close of the year was 104, whilst the total
membership was 3,724.
Three institutes exceeded the 100 mark in membership, as follows: Cranbrook, 138; Vernon
and District, 148; Nelson and District, 200, the latter being a record. There are also many
institutes that maintain an average membership of from fifty to seventy.
Fall Fairs, Flower-shows, Exhibits of Women's Work, etc.—The fall fair for the southern
part of Saltspring Island was held at Fulford Harbour on September 1st by the local Women's
Institute, judges being furnished by the Department, who reported very favourably on the
exhibits and general management.
All records were again broken for the number of institutes holding flower-shows, exhibits
of women's and school-children's work, or combinations of the same, the total being fifty-nine as
against fifty-four the previous year. It was not found possible to supply horticultural judges
except in one or two instances, as the majority of these shows are held from June to August,
when officials are busy in the field and unable to spare time for this work, especially in view
of the later call upon their time in connection with the regular fall fairs. Classifying these
shows roughly: One institute held a rose-show, twelve held flower-shows only, thirty-four held
flower-shows combined with women's and school-children's work, whilst six held exhibits of
women's work only. Better-baby clinics were held at Colwood, North Saanich, Nelson, Vernon,
Rutland, and Kaslo.    (See Appendix No. 2 for details.)
New publications and reprints issued during the year were much less in number than those
in 1021.
Important horticultural circulars on loganberry and raspberry culture were issued for the
first time, also an issue by the Soil and Crop Division on " Peat and Muck Soils."
Agricultural Journal.—The average issue of this Journal has been 2,360 copies per month,
with an edition of 3,000 in September to provide for special distribution of copies at fall fairs.
Efforts have heen made during the year to increase the paid subscription-list, but without much
success. Printed and stencilled circulars drawing attention to the articles in the Journal and to
the low rate of charge in the case of members of Farmers' and Women's Institutes and other
farm organizations have been prepared, and at the close of the year were meeting with favourable response. W 14
Department of Agriculture.
Bulletins and Circulars mailed or otherwise distributed during 1922.—A grand total of
100,839 were sent out during the year. The following statement shows the total number of
bulletins, circulars, etc., printed 'by the Department during 1922:—
Mar.     1
„      11
May     3
„      20
Nov.   10
Jan. 4
Mar. 13
„ 29
„ 29
„ 29
„ 29
Aug. 16
„ 16
„ 22
Care and Feeding of Dairy Cattle (2nd Ed.)
Clearing Bush Lands in B.C.  (2nd Ed.)   	
Guide to Bee-keeping (Reprint)   	
Silos and Silage (2nd Ed.)   	
Climate of B.C. (7th Ed.)   	
Agricultural Statistics, 1921  	
Practical Poultry-raising  (7th Ed.)   	
Preservation of Food (2nd Ed.)   	
Horticultural Circulars.
Spray Calendar  	
Spray Calendar (Reprint)   	
Loganberry Culture	
Raspberry Culture	
Currant and Gooseberry Culture (2nd Ed.)
Making Lime-sulphur at Home	
Top-working of Fruit-trees   	
Varieties of Fruit recommended	
Circular Bulletins.
Management of Turkeys (2nd Ed.)
Breeding Stock Hints	
Hatching Hints  (2nd Ed.)   	
Profitable Ducks   	
Agricultural Department Circulars.
Potato Certification in B.C	
Peat and Muck Soils   	
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands   (2nd Ed.)
Dairy Circulars.
Care of Milk and Cream  	
Varying Butter fat Tests  (2nd Ed.)   	
16th Annual Report of Department of Agriculture
Proceedings of the B.C. Entomological Society  . . .
Field-crop Varieties recommended
Flora suitable for Bees  	
Bee-keepers' Calendar	
Locust or Grasshopper Control . . .
Imported Onion-maggot  	
Useful Spraying Suggestions	
Cabbage and Cauliflower Insects  .
List of Publications  	
Sumas Reclamation  Scheme   	
30 . . .
66 . . .
27 . . .
89 . . .
26 . . .
83 . . .
For 1922
Hort. Circ.
No. 54 .
61 .
No.    4
Circ. No.
No. 6 .
Circ. Bull.
Agr. Dept.
Dairy Circ
Year 1921
Jan. 14
Feb. 13
Mar. 21
April 20
Agricultural Journal.
Agricultural Journal	
Month  of January
,,       February
,,       March  ..
,,        April   .. .
Carried forward
106,000 13 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 15
Bulletins and Circulars distributed—Continued.
Agricultural Journal—Continued.
Brought forward	
Index for Agricultural Journal
Agricultural Journal	
Month of June  ....
,, August . .
„ September
October .
„ November
,.       December
Respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to- present herewith a report respecting the fall fairs held in the
Province during the year 1922.
The total number of fairs held in 1922 was sixty-five, of which sixty-three were fall fairs,
one summer live-stock show at Knutsford, and one winter live-stock show at Windermere, in
the Columbia Valley. (It is of interest to note that of the sixty-five fairs held, forty-two of
these were held by members of the British Columbia Fairs Association.)
A voluminous report has been compiled from judges' reports sent in to the Department
and is attached herewith, which shows that a considerably higher standard of exhibits was
noticeable during the past year, this being especially the case in fruit and vegetables; the
somewhat unusual weather conditions during the growing season did not materially affect the
quality and appearance of exhibits staged at the majority of events.
Several of what might be termed the "second rank" fairs showed marked improvement,
making a big stride forward; a case in point is Prince Rupert, which now holds a five-day fair,
with receipts totalling $12,000.
Judges.—Following the usual procedure, judges were supplied free of cost to the number of
eighty by the Department, an improved feature of their work being the time given to public
explanations and demonstrations, especially with regard to live-stock exhibits. The number of
judges supplied establishes a record, the highest total so far being seventy-three in 1921. The
following table shows the personnel:—
Staff. Outside.
Horticulture and floral   13 7
Field crops      1 1
Live stock     7 16
Poultry      2 11
Dairy products     2 1
Honey products      4 3
Domestic science   12
Totals   29 51
Valuable assistance in judging was rendered again by the University of British Columbia
officials, by the Soldier Settlement Board, and by S. G. Freeborn (Dominion Live Stock Branch),
Who again judged goats at Vancouver and New Westminster Exhibitions.
. * W 16
Department of Agriculture.
Women's Work, Domestic Science, etc.—The importance of the sections at fairs devoted to
women's and children's work, canning, etc., continues to increase. No less than twelve lady
judges were required during the past year, thirty-nine associations having made application
for same, as against thirty-three in 1921.
At Duncan, Armstrong, Salmon Arm, and Creston two lady judges were kept fully occupied,
one each being supplied to other points.
School and Children's Exhibits.—A feature which was noticeably prominent at many fairs
this season was the encouragement given to school and children's exhibits of horticultural
products. The general excellence of many entries was high, and in some instances could be
taken as models for future fair exhibits by exhibitors of a much more mature age. This feature
is worthy of strong support by fair executives and of further extension.
Grants.—The Provincial Estimates for the year 1922-23 provided for a vote of $42,000 in
aid of Agricultural Associations, as against $41,000 the previous year. Of this sum, $4,000 was
specifically set aside for poultry-shows, leaving $38,000 for grants, judges' fees, travelling
expenses, and miscellaneous administration.
It was at first thought that this sum would allow a grant to each fair on a basis of 37 per
cent, of the cash prize-money paid the previous year, but this was finally reduced to 35 per cent,
so as to provide for contingencies unforeseen.    (For full list of grants made sea Appendix No. 3.)
Exhibits by Canadian Manufacturers' Association at Fall Fairs.—A chance inquiry early in
the year with regard to the possibility of getting space at a local fall fair led to considerable
correspondence with the Secretary of the Vancouver Island Branch of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association, also with Mr. Hugh Dalton at Vancouver, Secretary for the British Columbia
Division. A number of Fair Associations were advised to get in touch with this body so that
arrangements might be made in good time for " Made in Canada" exhibits if desired. The
associations most interested, other than the three large Coast exhibitions, were Agassiz, Armstrong, Burquitlani, Courtenay, Ganges, Grand Forks, Ladysmith, Maple Ridge, Nakusp, Nelson,
Parksville, Prince George, Salmon Arn>\ Slocan Valley, Smithers, Trail, and Windermere.
At the close of 1922 Mr. Hugh Dalton wrote as follows: " It is the policy of our association
to induce our members to take full advantage of the opportunity offered them in making known
Canadian products to the consuming public through the medium of these exhibitions, and another
year full details of the results will be available for the Department."
Annual Returns of Associations.—In cheeking over the annual returns of associations, some
interesting figures are noted as per the following table, a very encouraging feature being that
the total annual receipts of Fair Associations have increased from $265,533 to $283,265 between
1919 and 1921, and membership fees from $7,365 to $12,633 during the same period:—
Grants by Department
Total receipts	
Total expenditure   . ..
Fees paid by members
Cash prize-money ....
Goods, etc	
Fairs  held  	
$ 28,335 00
265,533 35
227,929 62
217,058 01
48,028 26
7,365 70
52,992 41
3,645 53
?  31,948 00
262,386 21
237,314 08
234,210 07
43,779 06
11,934 95
77,786 99
7,279 74
$ 31,826 00
283,265 37
263,536 30
160,178 67
35,397 79
12,633 00
107,807 44
Note.—Figures for year 1922 not yet available.
Lack of Interest in Agricultural Fairs.—In spite of the undoubted improvement in the
majority of fairs during recent years, there has been evident a certain lack of interest in these
events by farmers generally. A number of judges) have referred to this matter in their reports.
Probably the reason is not so much a lack of interest in the fairs as it is a lack of interest in
the Agricultural Societies. Very few societies are doing anything to stimulate interest. The
annual fair seems to be their only function, whereas their chief object is " the advancement of
agriculture in all its branches, etc." In connection with this, and in order to acquaint fail-
managements with the possibilities of increased activity and the proper functioning of such bodies 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 17
in a wider sphere, an article was prepared on " The Need of Efficient Local Agricultural Associations " and mailed to each secretary.
Recommendations and Suggestions.
Some of the most interesting and practical of the judges' recommendations for the further
improvement of fairs were as follows:—
Horticulture—District Fruit Exhibits.—In district fruit exhibits at present too much
advantage is given to the number of varieties of fruit therein. At several of the larger fairs
many varieties of little or no commercial value were shown, also many seedlings given any
name which the exhibitor fancied. As such displays should appeal to all from the commercial,
educational, and artistic standpoint, it is suggested that the different kinds of fruits be limited
to a definite number of varieties, better-known commercial varieties taking the higher rating.
Greater allowance in points also should be made for display and arrangement.
Score-cards.—Score-cards for both district exhibits and district fruit exhibits have at present
no stabilization, varying greatly in their requirements according to the view-point of different
fair executives. It is suggested that the score-cards for the above and for all horticultural
exhibits be gone into thoroughly by the Department officials and in their opinion revised to meet
as nearly as possible all conditions; these to be submitted to the various fair executives for
their approval or suggestions, and when complete, standardized for the Province.
Prize-cards.—At present some of the prize-cards at fairs are so large that they hide the
exhibits. A small card, say of a size about 2 by 4 inches, would be ample, and with distinct
colours of " first" in blue, " second" red, and " third " white would be far neater than the
present ones of varying size used by so many associations.
Delay in placing Exhibits.—There appeared to be a tendency to delay at some of the fairs
in placing exhibits, especially the larger displays. The importance of placing all exhibits in
good time should be brought to the notice of all exhibitors. At all fairs, also, the tendency to
delay in staging box exhibits of fruit is regrettable. Judging of box fruit entails taking considerable from each box for examination; for this purpose it is necessary to have a table in
the passage-ways, thereby causing inconvenience to both the public -and the judges in their
work. It is suggested that all fair executives insist that all box exhibits be staged the day
before the first official fair-day, and that judges make this the first feature of their work in
fruit divisions.
Field-crops—Potatoes.—Potatoes should come under one head and not be divided up between
the horticultural and field-crop classes. Potatoes are a field crop in this Province and should
be shown under the field-crop classes and not under vegetables, and this matter should be drawn
to the attention of Agricultural Associations throughout the Province.
Certified Seed-potatoes.—As the Department of Agriculture is encouraging the growing of
certified seed-potatoes, classes should be provided to accommodate certified-seed exhibits. The
fairs are held too early to put up exhibits of certified seed. However, classes for those who have
used certified seed as foundation stock should be provided. To overcome any difficulties
exhibitors in these classes should be asked to provide a tag or some other official document
to show that the potatoes exhibited were grown from certified seed. At many of the larger
fairs across the line and in the East prizes are given for both certified and uncertified seed-
potatoes. As things stand now judges often give prizes to varieties of potatoes which are
not correctly named. This is through no fault of theirs, as it is practically impossible to tell
varieties of potatoes by merely examining the tubers. (Before a farmer can take up the
certified-seed work he has to provide himself with foundation stock which is true to variety.
This is followed up by two inspections during the growing season and two alter harvest by
competent officials.)
Live-stock.—Many districts are capable of putting up much better exhibits. This seems to
be the case pretty much all over and constitutes the chief live-stock problem confronting exhibition managements. It might be a good thing for the Department to compile for Fair Associations
some hints towards the improvement of live-stock exhibits. The Pig Club competition greatly
strengthened the Armstrong exhibit for instance, and' it would seem that this is one line that
is capable of increase.
Demonstration and judging classes are another line that can stand considerable development.
The work of a judge should extend beyond the mere placing of animals in-a class. This judge,
2 W 18
department of Agriculture.
should be made to go over an individual animal to point out the things desired in this animal,
and this is best done by making it a preliminary to a judging competition to follow. The
competitions should go beyond the boy and girl stage and should include classes for adults.
If some responsible man or firm in the district offered a substantial prize for the competition
it should be a success. We cannot expect exhibits to be much improved until public interest
is aroused, and this would seem to be one of the best ways of getting the public interested.
Every convenience and method should be used by the management to see that when a judge
comes on the ground he does not leave it until he is pumped dry of all the information he has
concerning the classes he has to judge, and that this information is gotten out of him in such
a way that it- may be absorbed by the interested public. If an exhibition management is
desirous of improving the quality, usefulness, and scope of its live-stock exhibits, this is a
sound line to follow and is in keeping with the purposes for which the fairs were instituted.
If not, the public must turn its attention towards things that it better understands, such as •
hot-dog vendors and hula-hula dancers.
There are no doubt a great many difficulties to face in starting a programme of this nature,
but some form of it may be developed to advantage.
Prize-lists.—It is suggested that prize-lists from the different associations of the Province
should be revised by the Department. There should be a greater uniformity in the prize-lists
and this can only be done by assistance from the Department.
Suggestions re Women's Section of Prize-lists.
Needlework.—Awards are still being offered for old-fashioned work in embroideries and
plain needlework which are not required at the present time.
Canning.—Greater success would have been achieved at many points if there was more
opportunity for single entries. Collections of preserves are only popular when preceded by a
large number of individual exhibits.
General.—The prize-lists should be revised so as to lay more stress on real handicrafts,
such as rug-making, basket-making, children's clothes made from cast-off garments, novel household conveniences, etc. There are countless avenues into which the ingenuity and inventive
genius of our women should flow, and who knows what talent might be discovered. How would
it be to have a committee from the various Women's Institutes in each district get together
and draw up a model prize-list in each class of women's work and children's work also? This
last seems even more important than the former, but not only the prize-lists need revising and
expanding, but parents, teachers, and Women's Institutes should be urged to keep the matter
before the children right through the year and help them to persevere. At Arrow Park there
was an excellent exhibit of dried and mounted wild flowers, giving both the common name and
botanical name. Weeds thus collected and mounted would be equally useful in training the
children. Children should learn more about our trees and minerals, and a collection of leaves
of trees, shrubs, and vines native to British Columbia, pressed, mounted, and named, would
help along one line, while by cultivating the acquaintance of some of the old prospectors, who
are soon to be a thing of the past, any child could get together a small collection of minerals.
All these things are educative and help to instil a love of nature in a child's life. A competition
for the best bird-house would surely interest the boys, or for the best-made article of household
use, etc.
Girls might be taught to take a greater interest in flowers by a competition for the most
artistic and graceful arrangement of sweet peas or wild flowers or grasses.
Finally, every prize-list should print and draw attention to the score-card by which the
exhibits are judged.
Respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Secretary.. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 19
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit my annual report as Provincial Horticulturist and
Inspector of Fruit Pests for the year 1922.
Horticultural Conditions in British Columbia.
The fruit-growing industry in the Province of British Columbia may be divided into two
classes—the small-fruit industry and the tree-fruit industry. While the acreage devoted to small
fruits in the Province has been materially increased, the production per acre was lower than for
1921. The season in the principal small-fruit sections was very dry, and while the plants were
in excellent condition in the spring, the excessive drought in the early part of the picking season
materially reduced the yield of both raspberries and strawberries. Prices, however, for both
crate and jam berries were better than during the previous year. This to a certain extent offset
the seriousness of the crop-shortage. In the tree-fruit districts the conditions have been most
unsatisfactory. The crop produced was equal in quantity to the 1921 crop, but there was a
serious breaking-down of certain apple varieties which resulted in heavy losses. This, coupled
with most unsatisfactory marketing conditions, will result in a very small return to the growers,
and has awakened them to the fact that a more satisfactory system of marketing is necessary.
With this idea in mind a meeting of growers has been called and an organization committee
formed. The committee is at present engaged in drawing up an outline for a co-operative movement which wil embrace all the fruit-growing areas of the Okanagan and the Kootenay and
may possibly extend to other sections of the Province. The success will depend upon the support
which it receives from the growers, and upon its success is based the future development of the
fruit industry of the Province.
The vegetable acreage in the Province was much larger than in 1921 and the production
much heavier than during previous years.
Changes in Staff.
During the past year your staff of the Horticultural Branch has undergone a number of
changes. The position of District Horticulturist for the Lower Mainland, made vacant through
the resignation of F. L. Goodman, B.S.A., was filled by the appointment of G. E. W. Clarke,
B.S.A. The appointment of II. S. French, B.S.A., to the position of District Field Inspector
at Vernon was made.    This fills the vacancy caused through the resignation of R. A. Newman.
Through changes in the staff of the Education Department the part-time services of J. E.
Britton and B. Robinson in the Vernon and Kelowna Districts respectively were discontinued,
their full time now being used by the Education Department.
Packing and Pruning Schools.
A phase of the horticultural work that has proven of great benefit to the growers throughout
the Province, and which was again carried out in 1922, are the packing and pruning schools.
The total number of packing-schools held in 1922 was eleven, with an attendance of 116
pupils. Through these schools the grower is taught the rudiments of commercial packing and
should be capable of packing the product of his own ranch or, if necessary, of accepting a
position as commercial packer in one of the fruit-packing organizations. Pruning-schools numbering eighteen, with a total attendance of 166, were also held. These schools are usually conducted
by some member of the Horticultural staff and serve as a means of bringing to the grower the
best systems of pruning of both tree and bush fruits. Work along the line of grafting and budding
is also demonstrated. These schools have proved of great benefit and will be continued. A full
list of packing and pruning schools is appended.    (See Appendices Nos. 4 and 5.)
Gordon Head Straicberry-plot.—As pointed out in your official's report for 1921, the work
on this plot was inaugurated with the idea of effecting an efficient system for the control of W 20
)epartment of Agriculture.
the strawberry-root weevil (Otiorhynchus ovatus Linn.). Work has been carried out during the
last three years by E. W. White, District Horticulturist, and W. Downes, Assistant Dominion
Entomologist. The results obtained show that it is possible for the grower to prevent the depredations of this insect.    Further work will be carried out and reported on as occasion demands.
Spraying Demonstrations.
In order to demonstrate the advisability of various sprays in control-work, your Branch
has carried out demonstration-work of various kinds. On Vancouver Island the spraying-work
in the control of apple-tree anthracnose (Neofabrwa rnalicorticis) was completed and new work
undertaken ih an attempt to control a form of blight which is causing considerable loss to the
cherry-growers. Definite results were not secured and it is proposed to carry on this work
again during the coining season.
At Salmon Arm and in the Kootenays sprays were applied to determine the possibility of
weak lime-sulphur solutions in the control of apple-scab. As the season was very dry it is
advisable that this work be continued further before recommendations can be made to the
growers. In the Okanagan a series of sprays were applied to determine the best time to spray
in order to check the increase of the blister-mite. Work was also carried out in the Vernon
District in the use of miscible oil in the control of oyster-shell scale and the use of various
nicotine solutions, both alone and in combinations, for the control of aphis. Most satisfactory
results were obtained, as shown in the report of Assistant District Horticulturist for Vernon.
Soil-demonstration Work.
This work was continued from last year and, as before, was carried out from the Vernon
office, being under the direct supervision of the District Representative and District Horticulturist. Much valuable information was secured regarding the use of cover-crops and commercial
fertilizers.    It is hoped that it will be possible to continue this phase of the work.
. Thinning Demonstrations.
Thinning as a means of improving the size and appearance of the fruit was undertaken in
1921 and continued in 1922. A continuance of this work is proposed. A full report may be
found in the report of the District Horticulturist for the Okanagan.
Strawberry-packing Demonstrations.
This work was started in 1921 with the idea of familiarizing the grower with the best
method of packing his shipping strawberries. At the same time the working of the " Fruit Marks
Act" was explained.
These demonstrations have proven very popular, as shown by the attendance, which in
1921 totalled 383 and in 1922 an attendance of 697.
Pest-control and Inspection Work.
Codling-moth (Carpocapsa pomonella Linn.).—One of the most important features of the
pest-control work undertaken in the Province at the present time are the measures that are being
taken to control the spread of codling-moth. The areas under quarantine have been until this
fall located in the northern portion of the Okanagan Valley This fall, however, the discovery
of an infestation was made at Kaleden and also at Grand Forks, in the Boundary Country.
Your Department has always undertaken the control measures, and to meet the expenses in the
past the pest-control vote has been increased to meet requirements. As it was thought that it
would be advisable for the growers to assume a share of this cost, the Legislative Assembly
at the last sitting introduced a Bill for the '; Control of the Codling-moth." This Bill empowers
the taxation in any one district or districts in whiqh money is expended for the control of
codling-moth, either in whole or part, to the total of $20,000 in one year. Control measures will
be carried on next year and every attempt made to check the further spread of this pest.
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorous).—Fire-blight in 1921 was very widespread. It was
therefore decided that it would be advisable to institute a clean-up campaign during the fall
of 1921 and the early part of 1922. Each grower in every district was* urged to make an
inspection of his orchard and cut out all blighted limbs or cankers, and in the case of trees
which were badly affected to remove the trees entirely, all infected wood to be burned.   When 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 21
the 'grower had done this he notified the local Horticultural Office and an Inspector was sent
out to inspect the orchard. If the inspection was satisfactory a card stating that the orchard
was free from blight was posted in a prominent place. Considerable interest and rivalry was
aroused between the growers. The result was that over 13,000 acres passed inspection, and the
losses from fire-blight during the summer of 1922 were reduced to the minimum.
Leaf-roller (Cacwcia argyrospila).—There has been rather a severe outbreak of this pest
in the Kelowna District during the past year. This insect has been the cause of serious losses
in the States of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, and in order that our growers be given the
best information possible as to control methods, it will be necessary that some work be carried
out to ascertain satisfactory control measures.
Blister-mite (Eriophyes sp.).—The spread of this insect pest has been very rapid throughout
the southern section of the Okanagan Valley and it may now be found in certain portions of
the northern section. Fall and spring dormant sprays of lime-sulphur have been tried with
varying success. The results on the whole, however, warrant a continuation of this work not
only with lime-sulphur, but with other sprays as well, in order that satisfactory control measures
may be drawn up.
Nursery Inspection.—As far as possible a careful inspection of all nursery stock produced
in the Province was made by your Horticultural staff. This entails considerable work, as an
inspection of this kind constitutes a careful examination of each individual tree. A system
such as this guarantees to the grower a tree that is free from any insect pest or disease. This
inspection service will be continued during the coming year.
Short Courses.
It was decided that the previous success of the short courses as conducted by your officials
of the Horticultural Branch warranted a continuation of this work. Assisted by Dominion and
University officials, as well as by officials from other branches of your Department, short courses
were held in the Okanagan and also in the Boundary and Kootenay Districts. There was a
total of 2,659 in attendance at the Okanagan courses, while the total attendance at the Kootenay
courses was 911.
Another feature of this work was the summer field meetings which were held for the first
time in the Okanagan.   Meetings were held at nine points, with a total attendance of 535.
Your official believes that the success of these meetings warrant their continuance during the'
coming year.
Smaxl-fruit Survey.
In 1920 a survey of the small-fruit acreage in the Province was made. As the small-fruit
areas are subject to decrease or increase from year to year, it was deemed advisable that a
survey of the small-fruit acreage be made in 1922. The officials of this Branch, therefore,
co-operating with the Statistics Branch, made a complete survey of the Province, the results
showing that there had been a remarkable increase in acreage in the last two years. The total
acreage according to this survey amounts to 6,252 acreas, an increase over the 1920 survey of
2,922 acres, or 85 per cent. From this survey also your officials would point out that there
are approximately 2,386 growers who are devoting their attention either wholly or in part
to small-fruit production. It is also interesting to note that of the total number of growers
mentioned 308 are Orientals, controlling 1,517 acres.
A table giving the acreage devoted to the different fruits in the various districts is appended.
(See Appendix No. 6.)
Conventions and Fall Fairs.
Dominion Fruit Conference.—In February your official attended the Dominion Fruit Conference which was held in Ottawa. At this conference were Government Horticultural officials, as
well as delegates from the fruit organizations of the various fruit-producing Provinces. As a
result of that conference there will in all probability be changes made in the Dominion " Fruit
Marks Act" at the next sitting of the Dominion House.
Western Horticultural Convention.—A meeting of the Western Horticulturists was held in
Yakima, Washington, during the month of July. This was composed of officials from the various
States in the Pacific North-west, as well as from the Province of British Columbia.   Matters of W 22
Department of Agriculture.
horticultural interest were discussed and your officials were able to gather a great deal of
information that will be of value to our growers.
Fall Fairs.—As during previous years, your officials of the Horticultural Branch were called
upon to act as judges for horticultural produce at the majority of fairs held in the Province.
This work was, I believe, carried out to the satisfaction of the various fair authorities, and
it is not unlikely that your Branch will again be called upon to supply judges to the extent of
its personnel.
No new publications have been issued during the past year. A number of the old publications
have, however, been revised and reissued and the present list of publications kept up to date in
every way.
During the past summer the Weekly News Letter and the Horticultural District Bulletin
were again issued. As during the previous years, these were issued from the Vernon office.
As the Weekly News Letter is contributed to by the District Horticulturists and Field Inspectors
located in various parts of the Province, it forms a valuable source of information for those who
are interested in Provincial horticultural conditions. That it is appreciated is shown by the
extensive mailing-list. It is proposed to continue the publication of these two mediums of
Ackno wledg ment.
This report would be incomplete if your official failed to express his appreciation of the
co-operation and assistance which he has received from the office and field staff of this Branch.
Acknowledgment and thanks are also due to members of both the Dominion and University
of British Columbia staffs for their co-operation in many phases of the horticultural work which
has been undertaken during the past year.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Robertson.
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
E. W. White, B.S.A.
W. H. Robertson, Esq.,
.   Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report as District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit
Pests for Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands for the year 1922.
Horticultural Conditions.
During the season of 1922 market conditions were more stabilized than in 1921 in regard
to small fruits and growers received better prices. However, climatic conditions were very
unfavourable, especially for strawberries and raspberries. A period of drought extending from
the last week in May to the second week in August, or approximately eighty days, was one of
the longest on record and materially reduced the crop,
One slight shower which occurred on June 22nd really did more damage than good, as it
was followed by excessive heat which caused considerable blistering and consequent loss of the
fruit. A severe frost on May Sth and 9th destroyed a large percentage of the early strawberry-
bloom, but this did not seriously diminish the crop as a very small percentage of the bloom
had opened.
The severe winter conditions in January, February, and March, 1922, which resulted in the
ground being frozen solid for a period of almost eight weeks, caused a great deal of heaving
to strawberry-plants, leaving them in a weakened condition to withstand the unfavourable spring
and severe drought which followed. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 23
Loganberries, while they suffered, seemed to stand up under the unusual conditions better
than the other small fruits. There was a wonderful show of bloom on this fruit and the rains
the first part of August helped the tail end of the crop. The increase in production of loganberries over 1921 will amount to approximately 200 per cent. The first straight car-load of
precooled loganberries which was ever shipped from British Columbia was rolled from this district during the past season to Prairie points.   The fruit arrived in excellent condition.
With the unusual drought conditions prevailing during 1922, a good many growers turned
their attention to some means of irrigation. This was particularly the case in the Gordon Head
District, where a municipal domestic water-supply was put into operation on June 26th. At
that time the strawberry-crop was suffering extremely from drought and was practically over,
but where water was applied the plants revived and produced a great deal more fruit. The
experience gained during 1922 will be of great value for future seasons.
In. other parts of Saanich growers used their own water-supplies and put into operation
by different means some system by which they were able to get water to the various small
fruits and other crops.
Tree-fruits were an excellent crop during the past season and were extremely clean and
free from blemishes of all kinds. Prices for apples, pears, and plums, however, were among
the worst on record, and growers with excellent crops found difficulty in disposing of the fruit
at a satisfactory price. Sour cherries, while only bringing an average price, were disposed of
satisfactorily.   The majority of the crop was shipped to the Prairie market in straight car-loads.
The Gordon Head Fruit-growers' Association and the Saanich Fruit-growers' Association
again combined in making ear-lot shipments to the Prairies, the following shipments being
made:   Strawberries, 19 cars;  loganberries, 1 car;  sour cherries, 5 cars.
The taking-over of the old Hamsterley Farm Jam Company's plant in Victoria by Beaeh-
Eakins, Limited, was a very decided benefit to the fruit-growers of the district, as it opened
up an outlet for a large quantity of fruit right at home.
The Comox Creamery, acting as sales agents for the Comox Valley Fruit-growers' Association, established a small jam-factory in connection with the creamery at Courtenay to take care
of the surplus fruit in that district.
Greenhouse crops, especially tomatoes, were somewhat later in coming in during the past
season owing to the cold weather of January, February, and March. Fuel expenses during that
period were extremely high. The crop was»an excellent one, but prices broke very quickly
and dropped to a lower level than for a good many years past. However, there has been a
great increase in greenhouse-construction during the past year; several new firms have started
up and additions have been made to the premises of existing firms.
An organization of greenhouse-men has been formed for mutual benefit and to investigate
the possibilities of car-lot shipments for 1923.
Weather conditions during September, October, and November were exceptional for the
amount of bright clear weather experienced and the absence of rain. Quite a severe freeze-up
occurred during the last week of November, followed by a heavy fall of snow, with real winter
weather for over two weeks. A very rapid thaw began on the ISth instant which cleared the
snow and ice away in a few days. The climate then remained quite normal until the end of
the year.
Demonstration  Strawberry-plot,  Gordon  Head.
This 6-acre plot, which was established in March, 1919, and reported on in 1919, 1920, and
1921, was again operated during 1922. This work required a great deal of attention during
the year by your District Horticulturist.
The opportunity is taken at this time to express appreciation of the conscientious and earnest
way in which Councillor G. A. Vantreight, on whose farm the plot is situated, co-operated in the
work of the plot.
A brief description will here be given of the operations carried out on the various lots
during 1922.
Lot 1.—This lot was in clover in 1919, potatoes in 1920, planted to strawberries in 1921,
and the first crop of strawberries was harvested in 1922.
The spring work on this lot consisted of four hoeings, three cultivations, cutting of runners
just before strawing, and the strawing of the patch. There were forty-four small bales and
iy2 large bales of straw used. W 24
Department of Agriculture.
The result of the crop is the most important thing to report on this lot during 1922. The
following table will show the dates of picking and the quantities of both crate and jam berries
harvested :—-
Lb. Jam-
„     18  	
„     19  	
„     23  	
„     24  	
„     25 	
„     29  	
July    1	
At the approximate average prices prevailing in 1922 this would give the following gross
return per acre:—
160% crates at average price of $2.10     $337 40
1,350 lb. jam-berries at 10 cents       135 00
Total      $472 40
The approximate average yield per plant was 0.356 lb.
As soon as the crop was harvested the plants were cut down, the straw and leaves raked
and three good-sized loads were hauled off to be used for bedding down stock.
Cultivation and hoeing was kept up as late as possible in the fall and the plants went into
the winter in good condition.
The weevil-barriers around this and the other lots were kept in good shape during the season
by Wm. Downes, Assistant Dominion Entomologist, and no evidence of weevil was found.
X,ot 2.—This lot was in potatoes in 1919, planted to strawberries in 1920, first crop harvested
in 1921, and second crop harvested in 1922.
As with Lot 1, this lot received four hoeings, three cultivations, and the runners were cut
just before strawing.    There were thirty-three large bales of straw used on this lot.
The following table will show the dates of picking and the production on this lot in 1922.
As reported in 1921, this lot was made up of thirty-three rows of Magoons and eleven rows
of Paxtons.
Magoon   (33 Rows).
Paxton (11 Rows).
Lb. Jam-
'Lb. Jam-
„     18  	
„     22  	
„     23  	
„     28  	
„     29  	
„     30   	
July    1   	
835 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 25
Magoons      152 crates 14 hallocks    545 lb. jam-berries.
Paxtons     48       „       . .        „ 835   „
Totals    200      „      14       „        1,380   „
At the prices allowed for Lot 1, the gross return on this acre would be as follows:—
200'/I2 crates at average price of $2.10   $421 22y2
1,380 lb. jam-berries at 10 cents      138 00
Total    $559 22y2
In 1921 the yield on Lot 2 was as follows:—
393 crates valued at $1.50  $589 50
1,405 lb. of jam-berries valued at 8 cents   112 40
Total     $701 90
It will be seen that though the prevailing prices were higher iu 1922 than in 1921 the yield
was much lower, due to unfavourable climatic conditions, and consequently the gross receipts
were much lower.
If the 1921 yield on Lot 2 is compared with the 1922 yield on Lot 1, an idea will be gained
of how the 1-year-old patches yielded in each year and how disastrously the drought affected
the crop in 1922. The plants were carrying the fruit' in 1922, but the unfavourable conditions
caused the fruit to shrivel and it never reached maturity.
In 1921 the north-east corner of Lot 2 was reported as being infested with June-bug, which
caused the loss of approximately 1,500 Magoon plants. This condition was still further aggravated in 1922 and probably another 500 plants were lost. This made the picking area on Lot 2
in 1922 approximately only % acre.
The approximate average yield per plant on the Paxtons was 0.577 lb. and on the Magoons
0.499 lb.
According to the original rotation of crops adopted on the demonstration plot, the strawberry-
plants on Lot 2 were to be removed after the second crop was harvested. This policy was
adhered to. The straw was removed on August 18th, but the plants were not cut down and
they were not ploughed out until September 29th. After burning all plants the land was harrowed
four times and seeded with 125 lb. of fall wheat on October 9th. Ten days later the lot was
seeded with 14 lb. of red clover and 7 lb. of alsike. This was more or less as an experiment, in
an endeavour to find out the possibilities of fall seeding to clover.
Lot 3.—This lot was in fall wheat in 1919, oats and vetch in 1920, potatoes grown as
certified seed in 1921, and planted to strawberries in 1922.
The lot was ploughed and harrowed on March 16th and 17th. On April 10th and 12th the
new weevil-barrier was erected. Owing to the fact that this lot lies immediately east of Lot 2,
it was only necessary to erect the barrier on the north and south ends and the east side. The
barrier on the east side of Lot 2 served as the barrier for the west side of Lot 3.
The new portion of the barrier protecting Lot 3 was of the oil type, while the portion on the
west side was of the tanglefoot type. Selected common fir lumber, 2 by 10 inches by 10 feet
and grooved to order, was used. A groove % inch wide and iy2 inches deep was tried this year,
but it was not as satisfactory as a V-shaped groove 1 inch wide at top and iy2 inches deep.
Lumber prices were cheaper than in 1921, which materially reduced the cost per acre of erecting
the oil barrier.
There was some little difficulty and misunderstanding in the securing and ordering of the
proper grade of oil and the troughs were not filled until April 29th.
An oil barrier built of 2- by 10-inch lumber and held in place at the joints by 2- by 6-inch
by 2-foot posts and machine-bolts can now be erected at an approximate total cost of $75 per
acre, and this would be good for three years, or even four years if three crops were harvested.
Some growers who did not use the bolts or posts figured that they could erect the oil barrier for
about $60 per acre.
After the erection of the barrier the lot was disked twice, harrowed twice, and floated on
April 29th. On May 1st the lot was marked out and three rows planted in 1 hour by two men.
On May 4th two men planted twelve rows in three hours each, and on May 5th two men planted W 26
Department of Agriculture.
twenty-nine rows in 6y2 hours each. The total of forty-four rows, containing approximately
11,000 plants, were set by two men in 10% hours each.
This lot was hoed four times and cultivated five times during the season. The blossoms and
runners were also kept cut as required. The plants made fairly satisfactory growth during the
season, considering the late planting and unfavourable climatic conditions.
Lot h-—This lot was planted to strawberries in 1919; the first crop was harvested in 1920;
in the spring of 1921 the plants had to be removed before the second crop was harvested, and
potatoes were planted and grown as certified seed. In 1922 the lot was ploughed and harrowed
on March 10th and seeded to oats on March 15th. Five days later 12 lb. of red clover and 8 lb.
of alsike were sown.    A light crop of oat-hay was cut.
The clover-seed was a good catch, but the extreme heat of the summer killed it practically
all out, so that the lot was reseeded to clover and alsike on October 4th. This seed germinated
and the young plants looked in a fairly satisfactory condition at the end of the year.
This lot should be the clover lot in 1923 and it is hoped that the fall seeding will be
successful and give a fair yield.
Lot 5.—This lot was in fall oats in 1919; it was seeded to spring oats and clover in 1920;
in 1921 a good crop of clover was cut, and the land manured in the fall in preparation for
potatoes.    In 1922 this lot grew an acre of potatoes under the certified-seed plan.
This lot was ploughed and harrowed on March 11th. A week later it was harrowed again.
On May 17th it was disked twice and on May 20th, 1,420 lb. of potato-sets were ploughed in
by a man and one horse in ten hours. Two men dropped the sets in the same length of time.
In planting in 1922 an endeavour was made to space the rows closer together, so that there
were fifty-four rows to the acre, or approximately 2% feet apart. In 1921 and previous years
only forty-nine rows had been planted. It is estimated that 14,000 sets were planted. Hoeing
and cultivation were kept up during the season.
On July 20th the first roguing was made for mosaic, leaf-roll, and impurities. There were
405 plants, or 2.9 per cent., destroyed for mosaic and 355, or 2.5 per cent., for leaf-roll. Only
10 plants, or 0.07 per cent, were dug as impurities. This is in marked contrast to 1921, when
Lot 3 showed 274 plants of the other variety and Lot 4 showed 404 plants. No tubers were
saved at this roguing.
On August 23rd the second roguing was made, when 193 plants, or 1.4 per cent, were dug
for mosaic; 60 plants, or 0.45 per cent., for leaf-roll; and 66 plants, or 0.5 per cent., for streak
and Fusarium wilt. No impurities were found. At this roguing 92 lb. of potatoes were dug
and sold at $2 per hundredweight.
This lot passed the two field inspections of the Soil and Crop Branch for the certified seed-
potato work.
Digging took place on November 9th and 10th and the yield was as follows: Selected in
field for certified seed, 11,755 lb.; balance commercial stock and culls, 4,402 lb.; or a total of
16,157 lb. This yield, plus the 92 lb. dug ou August 23rd, makes a total yield of 16,249 lb. It
may be stated that all sacks were weighed as they came from the field and before they were
dumped in the bins. Gross weights were taken and then a deduction of 2 lb. for each sack
was made from the gross weight. There was a gross weight of 16,537 lb. hauled from the field
in 190 sacks.
Lot 6.—This lot was in fall oats in 1919; in 1920 it was seeded to English Wonder peas,
which were ploughed down on June 10th and potatoes were planted. In the fall of 1920 it was
planted to fall wheat and seeded to clover in the spring of 1921. In 1922 this lot was in clover
and produced a light to fair crop. During the fall months this lot was manured with eight
5-yard loads of horse-manure in preparation for potatoes in 1923.
This completes a brief summary of operations on the demonstration strawberry-plot for 1922.
No young cockerels were used on the plot in 1922 after the strawberry-crop was harvested, as
was done in 1921 and 1920. It is believed that they did a great deal of good in destroying
weevils, but they also interfered to a certain extent with the barriers and for this reason their
use was abandoned. Where barriers are not in use it is believed that poultry, if given the run
of the patches after the harvesting of the crop, will do an immense amount of good in helping
to keep the weevil under control. 13 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 27
Notices of five-day pruning-schools were again sent out in the fall of 1921 and applications
were received from a number of points. An itinerary was arranged and your District Horticulturist personally conducted all the pruning-schools during the past season.
The following table will show briefly the details of these various schools:—
Place held.
Under Auspices of.
Vananda,  Texada Island
North Saanich  	
Cobble Hill  	
Whaletown, Cortes Island
5 to 11
23 to 27
30 to Feb. 3
6 to 10
20 to 24
6 to    8   ..
13 to 17
Texada  Island Farmers'  Institute.
North Saanich Local U.F.  of B.C.
Cedar Local U.F. of B.C.
Shawnigan Lake Farmers' Institute.
Diamond Crossing Local U.F. of B.C.
Whaletown Farmers' Institute.
Bayview Local U.F. of B.C.
In addition to these schools an application was received from the Islands Agricultural
Association, Ganges, Saltspring Island, and a date was set, February 13th to 17th. On February
10th a letter was received from the Secretary cancelling this school owing to weather conditions.
The Nanaimo-Cedar Farmers' Institute also applied for a school, but the application was
received too late. Hbwever, a half-day's pruning demonstration was arranged at T. Mitchell's
orchard, Nanaimo, for Friday morning, March 10th. There was an attendance of sixty-five
and a successful demonstration was held.
It will be noted that only a three-day school was held at Whaletown. This was due partly
to the difficulties of transportation and the inability of the institute to guarantee a minimum
attendance of eight.
All of the above schools were held in new districts, with the exception of Diamond Crossing
Local U.F. of B.C., Ladysmith, where a school was held in 1921.
It may be said that these pruning-schools were much appreciated by the pupils, and it is
thought that the information given out will help considerably to place the practice of pruning
on a more uniform basis.
Under your supervision notices were again sent out offering strawberry-packing demonstrations at the beginning of the season in the various small-fruit centres. The offer was accepted
and demonstrations were held in practically every district.
Your District Horticulturist conducted the following demonstrations: June 14th, North
Saanich Local U.F. of B.C., 3 demonstrations, attendance, 41; June 16th, Saanich Fruit-growers'
Association, 4 demonstrations, attendance 84.
In addition to the above, Professor F. E. Buck, of the University of British Columbia,
conducted demonstrations at the following Island points: June 14th, Cobble Hill, attendance 16;
June 15th, Duncan, 3 demonstrations, attendance 56; June 17th, Merville, 34 present; Lazo,
20 present; June 20th and 21st, Parksville, 4 demonstrations, attendance 37. There was a total
attendance of 288 at the 17 demonstrations which were held.
This work was appreciated in all districts and both growers and pickers gained a clearer
idea of the requirements of a first-class pack.
Small-fruit Survey.
During the past summer and fall a survey has been made of the acreage in the various small
fruits on Vancouver Island. This wofk was undertaken and completed entirely by your District
Horticulturist, with the exception of the Duncan District, where the work was largely done by
Wm. Melvin Fleming, District Agriculturist.
In 1920 a small-fruit survey was made which showed a total of 295 growers and 518% acres.
The 1922 survey shows a total of 585 growers and 1,034'/jo acres, or an increase in acreage of
99.6 per cent. These figures give an idea of the development which has taken place in the
small-fruit industry during the past two years. This work occupied a great deal of time during
the latter part of the year.   The survey did not include any of the Gulf Islands. Experimental Spraying.
Stewart Bros.' Orchard, Keating.—The experimental spraying for anthracnose or black-spot
canker carried on in this orchard during 1919, 1920, and 1921 was actually completed when
J. W. Eastham made the final counts of infection on June 1st and 2nd, 1922. An account of.
this work will be found in the report of the above official.
The results obtained from this work have proved conclusively that anthracnose can be
controlled absolutely if the proper spray is applied at the proper time.
A. C. Macdonald's Orchard, Gordon Head.—During the past few seasons a trouble has
developed on Olivet cherries which has caused considerable loss. This trouble! takes the form
of a blossom-blight which causes the death of the bloom and usually the death of the twig, so
that no fruit sets. On several occasions J. W. Eastham, Plant Pathologist, has examined the
Olivets on the above-named orchard and in other orchards, and in each case has stated that in
his opinion the trouble was caused by the spores of plum-rot.
In an endeavour to gather some information relative to control measures to be adopted for
this trouble a small experiment was outlined on the above-named orchard early in the spring.
Four plots were laid out with a check-tree in each. No. 1 was sprayed with 4-4-40 Bordeaux;
No. 2, 1-9 lime-sulphur; No. 3, 1-20 lime-sulphur; and No. 4, 1-30 lime-sulphur. All the spraying was done on April Sth just as the buds were bursting. No injury was done to any of the
trees. However, examination at a later date showed that the spraying had not controlled the
trouble.   Other experiments along this line are anticipated for 1923.
Horticultural Competitions.
The Metchosiu Farmers' Institute organized a farm-garden competition in their district
during the past season. There were six entries and your District Horticulturist was called on
to do the judging.   Two judgings were made, the first on July Sth and the second on August 23rd.
Flower-shows and Fall Fairs.
The following .flower-shows were attended in the capacity of judge: Sooke, July 7th;
Colwood, July 26th.
The following fall fairs were attended in the capacity of judge of fruit and vegetables:
Gibson's Landing, September 2iwl; Squamish, September 4th; Langley (Milner), September
6th, in conjunction with Geo. Boving; Burquitlam, September 7th and Sth, in conjunction with
P. W. Anketell-Jones; Provincial Exhibition, New Westminster, September 11th to 16th, assisted
with the judging at this fair; Matsqui (Gifford), September 19th and 20th; Maple Ridge (Port
Haney), September 20th and 21st, in conjunction with J. G. McAdam; Aldergrove, September
27th, in conjunction with J. A. Goatham and Wm. Knight; Ladysmith, September 2Sth and
29th, assisted by John Tait.    A detailed report on this work has been submitted.
Inspection of Nurseries.
This work was carried on according to regulations as far as possible. Inspections were made
in the spring at shipping-time, during the summer, and again in the fall, when some stock is dug
for shipment. At the spring inspection valuable assistance was rendered by G. E. W. Clarke,
District Horticulturist. Individual inspection was made of each tree and those found diseased
or infested were discarded and destroyed.
The supply of nursery stock is now fairly normal and prices have dropped slightly, giving
impetus to growers to improve their holdings by filling in the blanks in orchards and making
a certain amount of new plantings.
Insect Pests and Diseases.
No serious outbreak has occurred during the past year, but a number of pests have been
very troublesome.
In the spring the raspberry-cane maggot, attacking the young shoots of loganberry, was
very prevalent and occasioned a great many inquiries. The damage, however, was not serious,
as in many cases the injured canes began to grow again and made satisfactory development
by fall. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 29
A leaf-roller on currants and gooseberries was very destructive during the past season,
many bushes being practically defoliated. Loganberries and raspberries were also attacked.
The infection seemed to be worse in gardens in the City of Victoria.
The currant-maggot attacking the fruit of black currants particularly was especially bad.
Jam-manufacturers complained that a considerable portion of the black currants was unfit for
use owing to this infestation.    Red currants and gooseberries were also attacked.
The strawberry-root weevil was more prevalent than in 1921, due to the extremely dry
conditions which prevailed and which favoured its development. Considerable loss was
occasioned by the ravages of this pest.
The work carried on at the demonstration strawberry-plot with the weevil-barriers is
beginning to bear fruit, as in the spring of 1922 a number of individual growers erected barriers
to protect their new plantings and have expressed themselves as well satisfied with the results.
Wm. Downes, Assistant Dominion Entomologist, reports that one grower at Keating using
the tanglefoot barrier with coal-oil traps suggested by him had excellent results in the destruction of weevil. The barrier was only greeted on two sides of an acre plot. Trap No. 1 at the
corner was placed in position the first week of July; traps 2 and 3 at the ends were set August
12th. Mr. Downes examined these traps and collected the weevils on September 1st. Six
thousand weevils were carefully counted and weighed and the number left were estimated by
weight. Trap No. 1 gave a total of approximately 44,660 weevils, with 17,000 in trap No. 2.
Trap No. 3 was not counted, but contained apparently as many as trap No. 2. Mr. Downes
estimate's that approximately 80,000 weevils were destroyed in these three traps. In addition
to the weevils destroyed in the traps there were a great many more which died natural deaths
at the base of the barrier.
It is believed that growers would be well advised to erect barriers around their new
plantings where they believe there is danger of infection from adjoining plantations.
The pear-thrip was fairly numerous this year, but where proper control sprays were applied
this pest was kept in check.
Bud-moth, which is a common pest on apple and one which is difficult to control, was very
numerous in 1922 and caused considerable damage.
Apple-scab was practically absent from the orchards this year owing to the extremely dry
spring and summer, conditions being unfavourable for its development. Fruit was cleaner than
for a number of years past.
The extremely wet fall of 1921, however, was favourable for the development of anthracnose
and the disease was quite prevalent during the spring and early summer of 1922. Where the
proper fall spray is applied at the proper time this disease can be controlled absolutely.
Conventions and Meetings.
The annual convention of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association was held in
Victoria on January 18th, 19th, and 20th, and all sessions were attended.
During the year a large number of meetings held under the auspices of various farmers'
organizations were attended and talks given on various horticultural subjects.
Demonstrations and General AVork.
Demonstrations in various branches of horticultural work and personal visits to growers
occupied a great deal of time during the year; although this type of work is extremely popular
and much appreciated, there is very little to show for the same at the end of each year.
During the year your District Horticulturist has travelled the following distance in the
performance of his duties: By automobile, 9,860 miles; by boat, 991 miles; by train, 343 miles ;
making a total of 11,194 miles for the year.
Fruit and Vegetable Crop Statistics.
During the fall of the year considerable time is occupied in collecting fruit and vegetable
crop production figures for the Statistics Branch. These figures are used in compiling the total
yearly agricultural production for the province. W 30
department of Agriculture.
Publications, Correspondence, and Office-work.
During the  year  horticultural  articles  have been prepared  for the  agricultural  press.
Correspondence  and  office-work has  required considerable  attention  during the year.    Many
visitors  and prospective  settlers  have  called  at  the  office  seeking  information  and  all  the
assistance possible has been given.
Respectfully submitted.
E. W. White,
District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A.
W. H. Robertson, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
■Sir,—I herewith beg to submit my report for 1922. Your District Horticulturist for the
Lower Mainland received this appointment due to the resignation of F. L. Goodman.
Horticultural Conditions.
Due to the late and continued growth of the small fruits on the Lower Mainland during the
autumn of 1921 and the sudden and severe winter conditions, considerable damage was noted.
The spring this year was late and it was therefore impossible in many places for the land
to be worked until later than is usually the case. Frosts were prevalent until the second week
in May, and after the 15th of this month there was no rain except for showers on June 21st
and 22nd. Agassiz and Chilliwack had about an inch of rainfall, while in other sections it was
considerably less, moisture being scarcely noticeable below the surface. There were a few
showers during the second week in August, but it was in September that the rain became more
prevalent, and plantings, which up to this time had been showing the effects of the continued
dry season and smoky conditions (forest fires were numerous throughout the summer), assumed
a healthier condition and are giving evidence of fairly satisfactory prospects for the coming
Small Fruits.
Strawberry-plants showed considerable heaving as spring advanced. In some cases the
plants lay exposed and the crowns were frozen; in other instances, though heaved, the root
systems were not entirely severed, and by the use of a roller or other means of firming the ground
the ill effects were practically negligible. Dark centres we're noticeable in the earlier blossoms,
some blossoms being touched before they opened. The continued dry season did more toward
reducing the crop than did the combination of other causes, for there was a fairly heavy setting
of fruit throughout the valley. When picking commenced about June 13th, the berries, though
of medium and small size, were firm and of good quality. Later on in the " pick " a little
sun-scald showed up and the berries did not handle so well. The yield would probably have
been a 60-per-cent. crop, but the dry weather lowered this to about 40 per cent.
Raspberries showed very definitely the effects of the previous winter, the canes being
cracked and in many instances killed back to within a couple of feet of the ground. The growth
was slow at first, but came along rapidly with the warm weather. The picking season started
about July 11th and continued up to the middle of August. The fruit was borne low down on
the canes, was small but firm and of good quality during the first part of the season. In those
patches which had been well handled and picked up clean the berries showed a tendency to size
up later in the season. It was noted that as the picking season advanced the evenings became
cooler and fairly heavy dews helped to some extent to supply the required need for moisture.
The yield was very materially affected, due to the winter and continued dry weather, and the
average crop would not be more than 35 per cent. It might be noted here that the newer
plantings suffered less injury than did the older ones.   With regard to varieties, probably the 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 31
Herbert suffered the least in places where there was very little protection. This should not
influence one to discontinue the planting of the Cuthbert, as in many parts of the valley it does
remarkably well and has many outstanding qualities.
The loganberries suffered from the severe winter to a greater extent than did the other
small fruits, the canes, when not sheltered, being killed back to the ground.
Blackberries suffered the least and produced a very heavy crop, but the market demand,
except for a few of the earlier varieties, was small and consequently a large percentage of the
crop was not picked.
The acreage in currants and gooseberries is small and the crop this year was light. The
fruit was small in nearly every instance.
During the past berry season many growers were handicapped in getting the crop picked,
due to the shortage of pickers. The keeping of patches well "picked up" and the careful
handling of the berries is a very important factor and growers wrould do well to give the picker
problem careful consideration.
Tree-fruits in general did well throughout the Lower Mainland, but this year has been
an exception and consideration should be given to this fact.
Cherries, plums, and prunes gave good yields and the fruit was of good size and quality,
practically no splitting, and the brown-rot of stone-fruits was not so prevalent.
Apples yielded heavily and the crop was remarkably clean and free from disease, showing
good colour and a quality above the average.
Pears cropped heavily this year,-were clean and of good quality. There is a tendency on
the part of many growers to allow pears to remain on the tree too long and consequently the
shipping and keeping qualities are very materially affected. In general, it might be said that
too little attention is paid to the proper time of picking both stone and pome fruits, and were
more consideration given much better results could be expected.
Demon str ation s .
At the beginning of the berry season requests were received by the Provincial Horticulturist
from many parts of the Lower Mainland for instructions regarding the picking, packing, and
handling of strawberries and other small fruits. An itinerary was arranged, giving each locality
as nearly as possible the dates requested. Between June 15th and 26th over thirty demonstrations were given at Haney, Hammond, Mission, Hatzic, Dewdney, Abbotsford, Port Kells,
Willoughby, and Strawberry Hill. In the Chilliwack District one of the growers took charge
of the demonstration-work.   These field demonstrations were well attended in every instance.
During the raspberry season as many as possible of the growers were visited, those in
particular who were not acquainted with the requirements, and shown what was required for
shipping, cannery, and jam berries and the advocated method of handling.
Insect Pests and Diseases.
The past season was not so favourable for the development and spread of the diseases,
infestations of the mildeWs being more noticeable in the home-gardens than in the orchards.
Anthracnose is prevalent throughout the Lower Mainland and much damage is to be noted,
particularly on the apples. Apples showed very little scab this year and pears were very free
of the pear-scab.
The red spider was noticeable early in the season and the bud-moth was at work and caused
many buds to open prematurely.
The tent and forest caterpillars showed a decided increase this year and the defoliation in
many orchards was very marked. The aphids during the past season appeared rather late and
no serious injury could be attributed to them. The hop-aphis when proper control measures
were not carried out caused considerable damage among the hops.
The currant-fruit fly apparently suffered from the severe winter conditions as it was not
noted in many sections of the Lower Mainland.
The raspberry-cane maggot and the borer is present in many of the plantings, but if
ordinary care is exercised this pest can be kept well in hand and no appreciable damage will
result. The satin-moth (a full report of which has been forwarded to the Horticultural Branch by
Mr. Glendenning, of the Entomological Station at Agassiz) has been noted on the poplars in
the vicinity of Vancouver and New Westminster particularly and is doing considerable damage.
Nursery Inspection.
Your District Horticulturist for the Lower Mainland assisted E. W. White in the spring
inspection-work at the Layritz Nursery.
During the past year the nursery stock grown on the Lower Mainland has been inspected
at the time of digging. The stock on tlie whole is of good size, clean, and comparatively free
from insect pests and diseases and showing good condition. This year the trees have gone into
the winter in excellent shape. ♦
The growing of stock is becoming very important in this district; besides the growing of
fruit-tree stock, bush and cane fruits, there is a fairly large demand for conifers and deciduous
trees grown here.    The growing of roses is coming very much to the front.
Conventions and Meetings.
The annual convention of the C.S.T.A. was attended on April 4th and Sth.
During the past season talks on the growing and handling of small fruits and other phases
of horticulture were given at Port Kells, Promontory Heights, Burnaby, Strawberry Hill, and
Fall Fairs, 1922.
Assistance was given in the judging of fruit and vegetables at Strawberry Hill, Chilliwack,
and New Westminster.
Small-fruit Survey.
A survey was made this year of the small-fruit areas and shows a marked increase in the
number of growers and acreage in small fruits over that taken in 1920. Several new districts
have made very rapid progress and are giving indications of becoming important factors in this
industry on the Lower Mainland. G. H. Stewart and Mr. Welland conducted the survey on the
north side of the Fraser River and part of the Chilliwack District, and the south side of the
river and the remainder of the survey was conducted by Mr. Stewart and your District
During the past year attention has been given to the many requests for information and
instruction throughout the district. It has been impossible to give as much attention as your
official would like to the outlying districts, but when possible meetings have been arranged and
are being arranged to get in touch with the individual and let him know that the Department
is at his service to help him in every way possible.
Throughout the shipping season your official spent evenings at the shipping-points, meeting
the growers and noting the methods of packing and handling and assisting when required. New
Westminster, South A'ancouver, and Arancouver markets were visited from time to time.
Bulletins and Press.
Throughout the season information regarding crops, prospects, general conditions, and items
of interest have been furnished the Arernon office for the Horticultural Bulletin and News Letter
and also the various papers throughout the valley.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
G. E. W. Clarke,
District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 33
W. T. Hunter, B.S.A.
W. H. Robertson; Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report for the Okanagan Horticultural District
for the year 1922.
This report covers: (1) General fruit and vegetable crop conditions; (2) cover-crops and
fertilizer demonstrations; (3) apple-thinning demonstrations; (4) lectures and meetings;
(5) pruning-schools; (6) packing-schools; (7) agricultural fairs and exhibitions; (S) AVeekly
News Letter; (9) District Horticultural Bulletin; (10) codling-moth control, etc.; (11) control
and inspection work other than codling-moth; and includes the reports of Assistant District
Horticulturist H. H. Evans, A^ernon; District Inspector C. R. Barlow, Salmon Arm; District
Inspector T. M. Anderson, Kelowna; District Inspector J. Tait, Summerland; and District
Inspector R. P. Murray, Penticton.
(1.) General Fruit and Vegetable Crop Conditions.
The fruit-crop of the Okanagan District for 1922 was larger in volume than was anticipated
early in the season, and wrhile records are not yet completed, tentative figures place the tonnage
at approximately the same as the tonnage figures for 1921. Early blossom-season estimates
gave indications that the tonnage would be 10 per cent, below the figures for 1921, but owing
to the splendid set of fruit in practically all districts this estimate has been exceeded. The
soft-fruit tonnage was average, but the quality was decidedly below par. The quality of the
apple-crop was good as to size, but the quality, especially in certain varieties, such as Jonathan
and Northern Spy, was decidedly inferior. A very heavy shrinkage occurred in these varieties
and the cause of this trouble is being attributed to several sources. Undoubtedly your staff
will be required to deal with this problem in the future.
The vegetable acreage was heavier than in 1921, an increase being noticeable with respect
to onions and tomatoes. The potato acreage was rather a little under average. The tomato
tonnage harvested established a record from the poiut of production, both as to volume and
quality, and the canneries operating in this district report a record pack. The quality of the
onions was a little below par, due chiefly to the fact that at the time of harvesting market
conditions were such as to deter the growers from handling this crop to its best advantage,
and much loss was occasioned.
The fruit-growers of this district will not receive as remunerative returns for their fruit
this season as perhaps prevailed in previous seasons. This in part, particularly in the case of
Jonathans, may be due to the fault of the apples, but on the whole the poor results are attributable to the chaotic conditions of the markets, particularly the Prairie market. Consignment
by shippers and growers who ship their own fruit is largely responsible for this condition. At
the present time a movement is on foot to reorganize the entire marketing system in this
connection, and it is expected that a large co-operative movement will result, to which will
belong the majority of the growers of this district and the entire Province.
(2.)   Cover-crops and Fertilizer Demonstrations.
Considerable attention has been paid'to this work by your officials during the past season,
and in particular the work conducted by V. B. Robinson at Arernon was featured. Unfortunately
this official severed his connection with this Branch on September 1st, and plans for the future
development of this work have not as yet been taken up by your staff owing to their inability
to handle the details in addition to their regular duties. A perusal of his report, which is
submitted at this time, will show that some very valuable information was gathered as a result
of the extra effort which was expended in this direction. Moreover, the results have fully
justified the time and labour expended from the view-point of the growers of the district.
Briefly summarized, the work covered by this official dealt with:—
The Use of Hairy Vetch as a Cover-crop, and particularly Investigations relating to Conclusions with reference to the Proper Time of Seeding.—It has been maintained in the past that
3 W 34 Department of Agriculture. 1923
this crop should be fall-sown in order that the method of handling might be such as to produce
each season a maximum of growth and a crop of seed in July or August. Upon disking this
cover-crop down it would germinate that fall and produce a crop for the fall and spring; in
other words, so that a perpetual cover-crop can be secured with one seeding. A desire on the
part of many growers was expressed for information as to the absolute necessity of fall seeding,
as it was the desire of many to seed this crop early in the spring months and to work it in as
a perpetual crop from this one seeding. It was doubted by many that the crop would produce
seed the same, year from planting, and the investigations of your staff have demonstrated that
under certain conditions, and with careful handling combined with early seeding, it is possible
to secure seed and growth the same season after seeding in the spring. In this way the ground
can be reseeded without repurchasing seed again that year. However, in order that this can
be fully tested, this work should be checked for another season.
The Use of Alfalfa as a Permanent Cover-crop.—A considerable amount of time was devoted
to the study of this plant as a permanent cover-crop, particularly with reference to its adaptability under the varying soil conditions which pertain, also the varying supplies of water which
are used in the different sections. On the whole it may be said that alfalfa succeeded quickly
only on soils which had a fair amount of humus and where the supply of water was abundant.
Where the soils had become deficient in humus and showed signs of considerable burning-out
it was found that the alfalfa would not start quickly. As a consequence of these investigations
it has been generally decided by your officials that alfalfa as a permanent cover-crop can only
be seeded on soils of first-class quality, containing a fair amount of natural humus, or in the
event of the ground having been previously prepared by cover-crops or manure in order that
this humus content should have been built up.
The Use of Commercial Fertilizers, particularly 'Nitrate, Phosphoric Acid, Potash, and
Ground Sulphur.—It was found in all cases under investigation with reference to phosphorous
and potash that the addition of these chemicals gave negative results. Nitrate of soda, on the
other hand, gave both negative and positive results. On soils which were in fair condition and
contained considerable humus good results were obtained from the use of nitrate in one form
or another, but where the soil was lighter or did not contain sufficient humus or vegetable
matter the results were absolutely negative in practically all cases investigated. Therefore your
officials are prepared to recommend that nitrate of soda can only be used on soils which already
possess an abundance of humus, if the best results are to be secured from the application of
this material.
Common sulphur was tested in reference to its effect on alfalfa, but the results secured
were negligible, and consequently such a practice will not be encouraged.
An attempt was made in connection with these soil investigations to ascertain the varying
temperatures of orchard soils under different conditions, but unfortunately, owing to the inability
of your officials to secure the necessary equipment, these investigations did not proceed very far.
This work undoubtedly calls for considerable laboratory-work to be handled by a fully qualified
soil investigator, as the details in this connection are of such a nature as to render such investigations by a layman of negligible value. However, it was found that temperatures of the soil
at various depths on clean-cultivated orchards ranged considerably higher than those which
were obtained on soils under cover-crops. This is important from the standpoint of the soil
investigator, inasmuch as the shading properties of cover-crops to the soil is very clearly
(3.)   Apple-thinning Demonstrations.
At the request of the Okanagan United Growers and the British Columbia Traffic and Credit
Association some very comprehensive demonstration plots dealing with the value of proper
thinning of apples were started in the Arernon District in 1922 Following the introductory
work which was done during the summer of 1921 under the supervision of Ar. B. Robinson, seven
blocks were chosen in different locations and the following varieties dealt with: Mcintosh,
Jonathan, Grimes Golden, and Rome Beauty. Sixteen trees in each case were taken, and every
other tree in each block was thinned by your officials, the balance of the block being thinned
by the owner. The results obtained were very gratifying and are indicated in detail in the
tables which are appended. (See Appendix No. 7.) These blocks will be further improved
the coming season, if present plans materialize and the growers in each case are willing, by
the addition of four trees to each block which will be left entirely unthinned.    The work will 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 35
be carried over a series of several years, and it is expected that from the second season material
results of a very positive nature will be secured which should prove conclusively to the growers
of this district that thinning is beneficial and good business policy. A decided effort will be
made by your staff to add to the number of these plots which will be conducted by the inclusion
of blocks at Kelowna, Summerland, and Penticton for the coming season. The cost of this work
is very little and the value to the growers inestimable.    (Note appended tables.)
(4.)   Lectures and Meetings.
General Horticultural Meetings.—Your officials attended various meetings throughout the
district held under the auspices of Farmers' Institutes, Fruit-growers' Associations, and other
agricultural organizations, and discussed different horticultural subjects at these meetings.
A considerable time during the late winter months was taken up in attending the public
meetings of fruit-growers in official capacity as representative of the Department of Agriculture,
in order that a check could be obtained as to the general attitude of the fruit-growers of the
valley towards their marketing problems. Owing to the particularly low prices which were
returned to the growers last year, these meetings were largely attended and much dissatisfaction was expressed by the growers in connection with these returns. Advice as to tonnage in
the various districts was frequently requested at these meetings of your staff, and the information freely given. Your servant was accorded the privilege of attending many of the meetings
of the British Columbia Traffic and Credit Association, and their deliberations were of much
Winter Series Horticultural Meetings.—In the district report of 1921 mention was made
of a very successful series of meetings which were held during the months of February and
March, 1921, throughout all points in the valley, and in this report further mention was made
of a series of meetings which were being planned for Ifebruary, 1922. A separate detailed report
of these meetings, which were held from February 10th to 21st, 1922, inclusive, has already been
forwarded to, but a brief summary may be of interest at this time.
Your permanent staff in this valley were assisted during these meetings by the following
list of officials, which list follows, together with the subjects discussed by the different
W. Newton, " Soils; Fertilizers—their Value to the Grower " ; J. A. Grant, " What Cull
Fruit is doing to the Markets"; C. W. Traves, "Poultry Hints"; M. L. Dean, "The Economic
Aspect of the Codling-moth and the Losses to the State of Washington from this Pest"; Professor
A. F. Barss, " Growth of Fruits ; Water Content of same throughout the Season " ; R. H. Helmer,
"Irrigation Problems and the Penetration of Water in the Soil"; Ben Hoy, " AVinter Injury of
Fruit-trees" (first half of series); M. S. Middleton, "AVinter Injury of Fruit-trees" (second
half of series) ;   F. L. Goodman, " Small-fruit Culture (.Salmon Arm)."
These meetings were very satisfactory both to the growers and to those taking part in the
lectures, but on the whole the attendance was not as large as was the case in the year 1921.
However, this might be explained by the very severe weather which was prevailing at the time,
as on many occasions it was impossible for even those living near the point of meeting to attend.
The itinerary and arrangement of the speakers and their transportation over the district was
arranged to better advantage this season, and practically no time was lost by any of the
In conclusion, it might be said that, owing to the fact that summer meetings are invariably
found to be of much greater interest to the growers, it has been decided by your staff and our
co-workers in this regard, R. H. Helmer and staff of the Dominion Experimental Station, that
it would be to the advantage of all concerned that no winter series of meetings be held during
the winter of 1922-23, and in their place special attention could be given to a series of summer
meetings to be held during the summer of 1923.
Summer Field Meetings.—During the past two or more seasons numerous requests were
received by your staff for field meetings at various points, and where it was thought advisable
to hold these, such meetings were generally conducted, with great satisfaction to all concerned;
the growers in such instances testifying that as a general rule such meetings were more satisfactory to them than lectures held during the winter. Accordingly, with the kind co-operation
of R. H. Helmer and the staff of the Dominion Experimental Station, Summerland, arrangements
were completed this year for the holding of a series of summer meetings at various points throughout the valley. These arrangements resulted in there being conducted a very successful
series of field meetings during the month of August. Detailed statements covering the cost of
advertising, attendance, etc., have previously been forwarded to your office. Your staff were
assisted at these meetings by R. H. Helmer, of Summerland, who discussed " The Use of Irrigation-water "; W. Newton, Soil and Crops Division, Victoria, " Fertilizers and their Use " and
" Soil Types " ; M. H. Ruhmann, " Insect and Disease Injuries " ; AT. B. Robinson, " Cover-crops."
Much use was made at these meetings of demonstration plots established by your staff at various
points, dealing with the subject of fertilizers, cover-crops, and the thinning of apples. Meetings
where practical reference could be made to such plots were much more successful on the whole
than where no plots existed. A total attendance of 530 growers was recorded at these meetings,
and it is the intention of your officials to elaborate next season along this line. An endeavour
will be made to hold more meetings in different localities in order that more growers can be
reached in this manner, as by the favourable reports which were received from time to time at
this office the growers were very much impressed with the value of this work.
(5.) Pruning-schools.
During January and February five pruning-schools were held, with a recorded attendance
of fifty-three pupils. A separate report dealing with the details in this connection has been
already submitted to your office. However, at this time it might be stated that these were held
at the following points:  Tappen, Keremeos, >South Canoe, Salmon Arm, and Broadview.
Announcements were made through the local press during the month of November of this
year that pruning-schools would again be held wherever desired during November and December
of 1922 and January, February, and March of 1923. However, due to factors over which your
staff have no control, chief of which was that the growers were indisposed to consider orcharding
problems while concerned with the more important matter of price returns, no schools were
requested during November and December. At this date applications are being considered for
several schools to be held during the coming months of January and February, and as soon as
the required attendance is secured at each place these schools will be conducted.
(6.) Packing-schools.
Only two packing-schools were held in this district during 1922, these being held in March
at Salmon Arm and South Canoe. A separate report has already been submitted in this connection. No interest has been manifested to date by the growers of this district with reference
to the announcement of your Department that packing-schools would again be conducted where
requested during the fall and AVinter months.
(7.)  Agricultural Fairs and Exhibitions.
Your officials attended at a number of agricultural fairs and exhibitions throughout the
different districts during 1922, and separate reports have already been submitted covering these
duties. Your assistant acted as judge of fruit and vegetables at Kelowna, Armstrong, and
(8.) Weekly News Letter.
The publication of the Weekly News Letter was conducted by this office during the past
season, and the publication of this letter again proved of great interest to the general public
and to those interested in the fruit business. The mailing-list shows that approximately 300
copies of this letter were issued each week throughout the growing season. This report during
the season covered estimates of the probable tonnage and details in connection with the condition
and movement of different varieties of fruit and vegetables. Recommendations to growers were
issued from time to time dealing with acute problems of interest.
(9.) District Horticultural Bulletin.
Tht Horticultural Bulletin was issued from this office and proved of much value to the
officials in every district throughout the Province, and enabled each of your officials to keep in
close touch with the work being carried out in every district. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 37
(10.)  Codling-moth Control Work, Okanagan District, 1922.
The problem of handling the areas under quarantine in this district for the suppression of
codling-moth is becoming more complex each year, as can be seen from a perusal of the appended
statements dealing with this work in detail. Whereas in 1921 there was a total of 727 acres
all told under quarantine for this pest, there were 1,329 under quarantine in 1923; with a
possible increase of at least 335 acres in 1923. Several other sections are under suspicion at
the present time, in any of which there might be discovered a new infestation.
Status of the Situation at Present Date, by Districts.
Vernon District.—The acreage under quarantine in 1921 was 295 acres and this was increased
during the past season to 375 acres. Referring to the degree of infestation as reported in the
appended report of the official in charge of this district, there has been an increase this year in
the amount of material captured in the entire Vernon District, but it is gratifying to note that
this increase has only occurred in the Okanagan Landing section, which section has varied each
year for a number of years in the amount of material Captured. On the other hand, in the Swan
Lake section, which may be termed a strictly commercial section, only an exceedingly small
amount of material was captured this year. No increase of the amount of acreage under
quarantine is contemplated in 1923 for this district.
Kelowna District.—The acreage in this district has increased from 110 in 1921 to 958 acres
in 1922, and the amount of material captured in both areas from 443 to 2,382 respectively.
This heavy increase in acreage and material captured is due to the fact that there was brought
under quarantine this season 728 acres on the K.L.O. Benches at Kelowna, and while some
material was captured very late in the season of 1921, the outbreak was not discovered in time
for a good check to be taken of the fruit that season; consequently the amount of material
captured was very low that season (1921). Therefore the figure of 1,883 larva? and pup.'e
captured in 1922 in the K.L.O. alone does not necessarily indicate that the infestation has become
more serious there than in 1921. An increase in acreage will probably have to be considered
this coming season in this district to the extent of nearly 390 acres, owing chiefly to a spread
in the city quarantine area. Of this total increase, 90 acres will be added on the K.L.O. area,
due to the present area not embracing enough orchards in one direction. The additional area
will be in the nature of a protective belt.    The area known to be infected has not been affected.
Summerland District.—One hundred and sixteen acres of orchard were brought under
quarantine at Summerland in the spring of 1922 owing to the discovery of the codling-moth
on the Experimental Farm in the fall of 1921. Only three worms were taken on this area,
and these were captured on the area originally infested, the Experimental Farm. No increase
in area is contemplated in this district.
Walhachin District.—No quarantine was conducted at AValhachin this year owing to the
fact that that section, which was under quarantine in 1921 for codling-moth, had been abandoned
by the owners in the spring of this year.    Quarantine abandoned altogether.
Westbanlc District.—At Westbank a check was taken to again ascertain if any trace could
be found of the pest in this district, and it is pleasing to note that no material was captured
and this area can be considered as being definitely out of quarantine.
Kaleden District.—A very light infestation was discovered in the fall of this season in the
Kaleden District and approximately 50 acres will have to go under quarantine in this district
in 1923. Only five larvce were taken however, and these were captured in a very restricted area,
and it is to be hoped that the infestation is in its incipient stages.
Other Districts.—Codling-moth material was reported and confirmed at Penticton, and again
at Kelowna, late in the season, and a very determined effort was made in either case to ascertain,
if possible, the source of the codling-moth larvse in each case. Unfortunately it was not possible
to isolate these captures in any particular orchard, and your staff is confronted with a very
serious problem for the spring of 1923. In the case of the Penticton discovery, the fact was
established that the larvse might have come from one of several orchards situated in the southern
end of the district, on what is known as the Dog Lake Bench. In the Kelowna outbreak, however, the material is reported to have come from either an orchard situated near the Bankhead
Subdivision in Glemnore Municipality or from a property situated in the heart of the above
district. It is to be regretted that this discovery was only reported very recently and little
could be done to determine the source of this material. W 38
Department of Agriculture.
This constitutes a summary of the situation as it stands in the different sections of this
district, and these acreages are tabled in the tables referred to above for your information.
Seasonal Activities.
Vernon District.—The work of this district was under the direct supervision of H. H. Evans
and his assistant, H. S. French, and is fully covered in the report appended. The Vernon office
also conducted the work in car inspection and superheating at Revelstoke, and car inspection
at Kamloops, Okanagan Landing, Keremeos, and Penticton.
This work was very satisfactorily conducted and the work of superheating was productive
of excellent results. It was found by your staff that if this work is to be brought to a state
of highest efficiency an improvement in the handling of the cars at Revelstoke will be necessary
in order that the required heat can be delivered. It will also be necessary for the cars to be
superheated each time they are in this valley. The time at which this work was concluded in
the fall of 1922 should be extended slightly in future.
Kelowna District.—The work in the Kelowna District was directed under the supervision
of your servant, and was conducted with the able assistance of B. Hoy, formerly District Horticulturist, with the co-operation of T. M. Anderson, District Field Inspector for the District of
Kelowna. In the Kelowna section, particularly the K.L.O. Benches, it was possible to bring
the codling-moth control work to its state of highest efficiency in the Okanagan District. This
was possible not by virtue of the personnel of those responsible or engaged in the work, but
rather by the commercial nature of the orchards in the quarantine area. Whereas in the past,
in many of the quarantine sections, your staff have had to deal with isolated orchards, small,
individual, and in many cases neglected properties, and in some sections with town lots, it has
not always been possible to conduct the work with the greatest expediency. However, in the
K.L.O. section the problem was one of control oh commercial orchards entirely, so that your
staff were enabled to distribute the work and plan it to much better advantage than possibly
has ever been the case before. The situation in the City of Kelowna quarantine district was
much the same as in 1921. The growers on the new quarantine district on the K.L.O. Benches
were exceedingly cordial in their relations with your officials and the men under their charge,
and it is the opinion of your staff that the work was conducted to the satisfaction of the great
majority of the individual orchardists.
The entire acreage on both the city and K.L.O. quarantine areas was banded and the bands
inspected five and six times throughout the season. Three control sprays were applied over
all the area.
In order to facilitate the work of the large crew which was necessary on the K.L.O.
quarantine area, it was found advisable early in the season to establish a camp in the area
in order that the men necessary could be accommodated right on the job. Arrangements were
accordingly made with the shipping-houses conducting a camp in that vicinity for the necessary
eating accommodations, and a tent was erected to provide sleeping-quarters for the men. In
this way it was possible for the crew engaged in this work to get on the job each day with the
least possible delay and loss of time. Had such a camp not been established it would have
been impossible during the spraying season for the men engaged on spraying to give a ten-hour
day with the growers, inasmuch as the majority of the crew would have to travel 7 miles or
more to and from work. This camp relieved the labour problem to a very great extent in this
area and it will be advisable to continue such arrangements in much the same manner in future.
Summerland.—The control-work in Summerland District was under the supervision of
J. Tait, District Field Inspector for Summerland, and the work conducted by the Horticultural
Department consisted of banding and spraying on the area adjacent to the actual area of
infestation. This was an area of approximately 100 acres and was situated north of the
Experimental Farm and across a deep ravine. As this work was only protective in its scope
only two sprays were applied, the calyx and the second cover spray. No worms were captured
on this area and no increase is anticipated in the size of this area for the coming season. On
the area of actual infestation—i.e., the Dominion Experimental Farm—the w7ork was conducted
directly and solely by the Experimental Farm officials under the direction of Mr. Tait. Three
sprays were applied and the regular banding and inspection work was carried out over the entire
orchards of the farm, about 15 acres in extent. Only three larva? were taken this season and
it must be inferred that the infestation is very light. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 39
Kaleden.—This infestation was discovered rather late in the season, and all that could be
done was to isolate the infestation as closely as possible and to regulate any further movement
of fruit from the particular orchards affected. Fortunately the Jonathan apples had not all at
that time been hauled to the packing-houses, and this variety as well as all later varieties were
packed entirely on the area which was immediately brought into quarantine. In addition to
the above precautions, a limited area was banded and a close inspection given all fruit and
trees within the area suspected of being infected. Five larvffi were captured in all, and present
indications would tend to confirm suspicions that this infestation was in its incipient stages.
This work was conducted by R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, Penticton, with the assistance
of T. H. Jones, temporary assistant.
Regulation of the Movement of Orchard-boxes.
In compliance with the resolution passed by the January, 1922, convention of the British
Columbia Fruit-growers' Association at Arictoria, that information be collected as to the feasibility of superheating orchard-boxes or otherwise treating them in such manner that their
movement would not be a menace to districts not infested with codling-moth, considerable work
was done in this direction. The Vernon Fruit Union very kindly co-operated in this matter
by consulting with a Arancouver engineer with reference to the cost of installation, operation, etc.
Data assembled, which are already in your possession, very quickly disposed of the argument
in favour of superheating of orchard boxes, inasmuch as it was found that the cost per box
per year of such treatment would be altogether too high. The cost of installing the necessary
equipment was relatively high, and the cost of handling boxes through such an equipment several
times during the operating season would be at such a high figure that it was quickly apparent
that it would be unworkable.
Consequently it was necessary that regulations be enacted covering the movement of orchard-
boxes in districts where quarantine areas existed, and these were accordingly issued from time
to time throughout the season, as follows:—
In Vernon, owing to the location of the quarantine districts, no general regulations covering
the use of orchard-boxes in the Vernon District were issued, although regulations pertaining to
this matter have always operated within the quarantine areas. These regulations state that
no orchard-boxes are to be used in the handling of fruit in these areas.
Kelowna.—In the Kelowna District your staff were confronted with the difficulty of dealing
with the situation on an entirely different basis. In this district all the packing-houses for the
entire Kelowna District are located within quarantine areas, and it was necessary to enact
regulations which would make possible the handling of the fruit from clean districts into these
districts, as well as the fruit from the quarantine districts, in such manner that the clean
sections would not be menaced by any fruit movements. In consequence of this situation all
growers and all packing-houses were advised that no orchard-boxes could be moved within the
entire Kelowna District until after July 1st, at which date it was felt that all danger of
emergence was over. Consequently, previous to that date, any codling-moth larvae which might
have pupated in the boxes the previous fall would then have emerged. As practically all the
boxes were in the packing-houses at this time, such emergence would not endanger the clean
sections. After July 1st orchard-boxes were permitted to be used in the entire Kelowna District
for the handling of soft fruits such as plums and prunes, and such vegetables as tomatoes, but
were not used for the handling of apples, pears, and crab-apples until after- October 1st. These
regulations were submitted to all shippers in the district and to all commercial growers in the
quarantine area, as well as being advertised in the local papers. It is very gratifying to your
staff to report that these, regulations were strictly adhered to by all shippers and met with
the kindly co-operation of the growers of the entire district, and it is the belief of your staff
that the regulations were most strictly adhered to by all concerned.
Summerland.—Regulations similar in nature to those in force in A'ernon were issued in
connection with the use of orchard-boxes in the Summerland District during the past season.
Packing-house, Vernon District, Okanagan Landing Quarantine Area.
In the appended report of the official in charge of the work in this district mention has been
made of the packing-house which was erected by the Department of Agriculture at this point
for the use of the orchardists in the quarantine area in the above section.   The necessity for the W 40
department of Agriculture.
erection of such a house has been apparent for some time, and although its erection was delayed
until rather late in the season this year, in the future it is anticipated that the house will prove
valuable to the growers and enable your officials to cut the costs of operations in this district
quite materially.
Reward for the Detection of Codling-moth in Neiv Sections or Districts.
In the spring of 1921 it was decided by your office to offer a reward of $100 for the detection
of codling-moth in new districts, and a further reward of $20 in the case of any orchards adjacent
to' present quarantine areas.   This reward was worded as follows:—
Reward !
The Horticultural Branch, Department of Agriculture, Province of British Columbia, will pay
$100 and $20 reward for the detection of codling-moth.
Conditions under which Reward will be paid.
1st. For the detection of the codling-moth in any orchard outside the boundaries of actual quarantine, but adjacent to and in the same district, the Department of Agriculture will pay to any person
the sum of twenty dollars ($20) in case of proven infestation.
2nd. For the detection of the codling-moth in any orchard situated in a district or section of the
Okanagan A'alley where there exists no quarantine for codling-moth, the Department of Agriculture
will pay a reward of one hundred dollars ($100) in case of proven infestation.
These rewards are payable to any person except Department of Agriculture officials. In case a
reward is claimed for the same outbreak by two or more persons, the reward will be paid only to the
person first reporting the infestation.
For further information apply to the manager of any packing-house or to the nearest local
Inspector of the Horticultural Branch of the Department of Agriculture.
One reward for the detection of a new outbreak in the Okanagan A'alley was awarded to a
grower at Kaleden, who in this case detected the moth on his own property. Only one reward
for the discovery of the moth in an orchard adjacent to the present quarantine areas was made,
this being an award in the Kelowna District for a discovery adjacent to the Kelowna City areas.
A very large amount of wormy fruit was submitted to the various offices of this Branch
in the valley throughout the fruit-picking season as a result of this policy of paying an award
being posted, and it is felt that the action of your office in sanctioning this move has been sound
policy. The growers, shippers, and all those engaged in handling the fruit were fully alert
throughout the entire season and the results of the publicity were very gratifying.
(11.) Control and Inspection Work other than Codling-moth.
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorus).—As outlined in the district report for 1921, a very decided
effort was directed by your officials towards reducing the damage which is annually being
incurred in this district through the ravages of fire-blight, and such effort has been very
effective. While the campaign inaugurated by your officials during that season was not 100
per cent, effective, the work was, as a whole, productive of splendid results, as indicated by
the lessened degree of infection which is apparent at this season. In some districts it is gratifying to know that the growers responded to the eradication campaign practically 100 per cent.
In other districts it was more difficult for your staff to secure such hearty co-operation from
the growers, and it may be stated that this indifference on the part of certain growers is still
very noticeable at this time, as it is found that there is still more fire-blight in such districts
at the present time than in other sections where the campaign was liberally supported.
The campaign of last season is being supplemented by a similar campaign this season.
A change was made in the colour of the inspection-cards which are posted, these having been
changed from white to blue. Owing to adverse conditions which have pertained^ during this
season, the growers, as a result of poor returns which were received, are rather apathetic
toward their orchard operations, and the amount of work which is being left undone in the
orchards at this time is very noticeable. At the time of writing your officials are bending every
effort towards securing a good clean-up again this season. However, it is very doubtful if the
work of fire-blight eradication will be as effectually carried out before growing season in 1923,
as was the case a year ago. Your staff are confident that the campaign is a step in the right
direction, and backed with such a conviction are pushing this feature of their duties to its
fullest extent. 13 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 41
Blister-mite (Eriophyes sp.).—Again it must be reported that blister-mite will have to be
considered as a major fruit pest in the Okanagan District in the future. The infestation has
spread north to the Vernon District. In the southern sections of the district its spread has
been very alarming, and during the past season practically every orchard in the section referred
to showed more or less infestation.
As referred to in the report of 1921, further effort was directed by your officials towards
determining an effective control for this pest, and as will be noticed from the different district
reports, these investigations are being carried further during the fall of 1922 and spring of
1923, in order to determine whether fall application of dormant lime-sulphur is more effective
than a spring application. Miscible oil will also be used, as it is the opinion of your officials
that this material may have good possibilities. Dormant lime-sulphur has been applied during
the fall of 1922 on plots at Penticton, Summerland, Kelowna, and Vernon. A spring application
will be made on these same plots with lime-sulphur and also with miscible oils, and it is expected
that such a series of experiments will enable your officials to draw up recommendations for
future control more accurately.
Oyster-shell Scale (Lcpidosa-phes ulmi).—A special report dealing with the results of control
sprays for this pest is submitted in the report of the official in charge of operations in the
Vernon District and is included in the report for this district. It is very gratifying to note that
splendid results were obtained by the use of miscible-oil sprays for the control of this pest, and
these results will be used as a basis of the recommendations of your staff in the future. These
results will be further checked in a series of experiments again this season in this district.
These experiments, it may be stated, were necessary in view of the fact that negative results
have been reported from the use of dormant lime-sulphur in the past, and unsatisfactory results
were also secured from the use of lime-sulphur plus Black Leaf 40 as a summer application at
hatching-time. Dormant lime-sulphur is effective in securing control in Eastern apple districts,
but has proved ineffective in this section. The summer application was unsatisfactory, inasmuch
as it was difficult for growers to apply this spray at the correct time. Therefore the work of
your officials in this connection should prove of great benefit to the growers of this and other
Leaf-roller (Archips argyrospila).—During this season a rather severe outbreak of this pest
was reported at Kelowna, and a survey of the entire district by your staff brought to light the
fact that this very serious apple pest is distributed to a limited extent in several other sections.
As leaf-roller in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon has caused very serious losses to the fruitgrowers of these States, your officials are considerably alarmed over the present situation.
Strong remedial measures are advocated for the immediate suppression in the several sections
affected. These recommendations are based entirely upon the work in experimental and commercial control which has been carried out by the officials of the different States affected to
the south of British Columbia. However, the miscible oils which are recommended by these
officials will probably be almost prohibitive in price in this district, and it is imperative that
work be undertaken at once in an effort to determine how the cost of control can be reduced
for the Okanagan growers. As a first step an effort will be made to encourage the manufacture
locally of a miscible oil, and every manufacturer undertaking the manufacture of such material
will be given the hearty support of your staff towards determining the merits of such material.
It is felt that a very great deal of attention will have to be directed towards this pest immediately
in order that the orchards of this district may be protected.
Other Pests and Diseases.—The damage done by woolly aphis, green aphis, peach-worm,
apple powdery mildew, apple-scab, etc., was, if anything, less severe during 1922 than for several
seasons preceding. Apple powdery mildew and apple-scab were in particular conspicuous by
their absence. This undoubtedly was due to the peculiar climatic conditions which prevailed
throughout the growing season. The experiments in apple-scab control which are being conducted by your official at Salmon Arm. will be conducted for another season, as owing to the
light infestation which has occurred in that district for the past two or three seasons rather
negative results were again obtained. It is the recommendation of your staff that this experiment, which does not call for the expenditure in any one year of any large amount of money,
should be continued until such time as results are positive.
This concludes the report of the activities of this office for the year 1922, and appended will
be found separate reports of the officials in charge of each of the various districts.    In closing, ^^^^&l H%t^^^"^mi^^^S^^6^k
W 42
Department of Agriculture.
your assistant desires to take this opportunity of expressing his deep appreciation to all those
affiliated or associated with him iu carrying out the work of the Horticultural Branch in this
district for the kindly spirit of co-operation and whole-hearted support which was given. Without this spirit having prevailed through this season and the past seasons the work outlined above
could never have been accomplished, and it is to these officials who by their faithful attention
to the administration of the different work under their charge in their particular districts to
whom most of the credit for the successful carrying-out of your instructions is due.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
W. T. Hunter,
.   District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
H. H. Evans.
W. T. Hunter, Esq.
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg herewith to submit a brief report of general horticultural activities for the past
season;   also detailed report of codling-moth control work.
Fall Fairs.
Your assistant had much pleasure in sharing the duties of judging at the following fall
fairs: Chilliwack, New AVestminster, A'ictoria, Salmon Arm, and Summerland. A detailed report
of the above has already been submitted.
Lectures and Meetings.
In January your assistant was in attendance at the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association Convention held in Victoria. In February last, at the series of horticultural meetings held
throughout the valley, your assistant attended the same, taking up the subject of " Fruit-worms,
their Life-history, Habits, and Control."
In August a series of field demonstrations were conducted throughout the valley, the writer
being detailed for the practical application of sprays- and spreaders. These meetings were well
attended and created considerable interest and expressions of appreciation from those growers
in attendance.    Field demonstrations of this nature are worthy of extension.
Meetings were also attended during the summer at Winfield, Oyama, and Armstrong, at
the request of associations.
Fire-blight Control.—The system inaugurated last winter of individual inspection and
carding of each orchard in the clean-up campaign gave excellent results, both from a practical
and moral standpoint.
Apple-scab and powdery mildew during the past season gave little concern to growers.
Leaf-worm, bud-worm, aphides, blister-mite, oyster-shell scale, and the injurious effects of root-
freezing last winter gave rise to many calls from growers for visits to their orchards for advice
arid recommendations.   Codling-moth control work is detailed in a separate report.
Experimental Work.
The five-year pruning experiment being carried on by the Department at Arernon is now
entering its fourth year".   All records possible are being kept in connection with the same.
Oyster-shell Scale.—Owing to the alarming increase of this pest during the past few years,
coupled with the non-success in control by the application of lime-sulphur sprays, numbers of
growers appealed to the Horticultural Branch of the Department of Agriculture at Vernon for
recommendations of a more satisfactory means of control.
Acting on the result of a small experiment^with an oil spray conducted in 1921 by officials
of the Entomological Branch, and after conferring on the subject with the above officers and
W. T. Hunter, District Horticulturist, the writer decided to conduct an extended experiment this
spring.    Two oils were  chosen for the experiment:     (1)   The ordinary  commercial  fuel-oil; 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 43
(2) a miscible oil preparation known as Dormoil put up by the Hood River Spray Company,
Hood River, Oregon, U.S.A.; this preparation having given good results in leaf-roller control in
experiments conducted in that State.
Formula: used and Results obtained.—Plot 1: Formula 1—Dormoil, 10 gallons; water, .100
Plot 2:  Formula 2—Fuel-oil, 10 gallons; whale-oil soap, 10 lb.; water, 100 gallons.
Plot 3:   Check.
Formula 1 was applied in the orchard of S. O'Neil on Rome Beauty and Baldwins, the trees
being 20 years old and over. Formula 2 was applied on the orchard of F. Mitchell, containing
several varieties, trees being over 20 years old.
Date of applications, April 21st, 1922; weather conditions ideal. We would here remark
that applications were delayed to the latest possible stage of the dormant period. Trees in the
experiment were swelling their buds, but none were showing green". A power-sprayer was used,
spray being applied with a spray-gun at 250 lb. pressure.
Results.—Plot 1: Six days after application all eggs examined were found destroyed, the
eggs being completely broken down by action of the oil. At no period during later examinations
were normal eggs found. Effect of oil on trees—a slight check on bud-development was noted,
but no apparent injury. Examinations were continued until July 12tb. At this final examination it was evident, where perfect contact with the spray had been effected, 100 per cent, control
was obtained.
Plot 2: Six days after application all eggs examined were distinctly covered with a film of
oil, normal aeration being thereby prevented. Frequent examination until the hatching period
(June 5th) showed a gradual increase in the number of eggs killed; eggs had turned brown
but had not collapsed, as was the case in the Dormoil application. At hatching-time 87 per cent,
of the eggs examined were killed. A final examination on July 12th revealed the following
Under fifty scales examined. 316 dead larva? were found; all eggs remaining had either
shrivelled up or turned brown. A terminal twig 6 inches long under examination was found
to have 863 adult scales attached; the number of larva? which had escaped from these scales
and were attached to the twig was twenty-seven. From the above facts this material might
be considered a satsfactory commercial control spray.
Check-plot: On June 21st examination was made of branches from trees in the check-plot.
These were found to be heavily coated with young scales. Fifty adult scales were examined
and the following observations made: One apparently normal egg was still present, ninety-four
live larva? and thirty-eight dead larva? were still under, the scales examined. It is quite evident
from these observations that there is a slight natural mortality under normal conditions; of
the ninety-four live larva? still under the adult scales, a considerable percentage would undoubtedly have succeeded in making their escape.
The hatching period commenced on June 5th and extended to approximately June 21st. or
a period of sixteen days. As the young scales are known to attach themselves to the bark in a
period of three to four days, and are protected against contact sprays by their first exuvia within
a week, it is quite evident a single contact spray applied during the hatching period cannot give
satisfactory control in seasons when hatching is extended over a period exceeding eight to
ten days.
The writer has observed in some trees in the Dormoil plot a certain degree of chlorosis or
yellowing of the foliage; it might be feared this was caused by action of the oil. In our opinion
such a fear would be hardly justified, as other trees in the plot are perfectly normal, and trees
in the check-plot are showing this trouble to an even greater extent. Nearly all trees in this
orchard show signs of low vitality, due in some degree to the ravages of the scale in past years
and the effects of winter-injury. Generally speaking, trees in sprayed plots showed healthier
foliage than unsprayed plots.
Summary.—Results obtained in the above experiments suggest to us the recommendation
of one of the'above oil sprays to be applied in the spring months, but while trees are still dormant.
Growers who wish to follow the above suggestion must realize there a possibility of
injury to the trees by oil sprays, and must govern themselves accordingly. It would be advisable
to extend the present tests over a period of years, extending the scope of the work to other pests W 44
)epartment of Agriculture.
and solutions, to ascertain if climatic conditions or variations in specific gravity of various oil
sprays are liable to cause serious injury to trees on which they are used.
Note.—Dormoil mixes freely with water under agitation.
.Fuel-oil, Whale-oil Soap Solution.—It is necessary to dissolve soap by boiling; take
liquid from fire and while still hot pour in the necessary quantity of fuel-oil and thoroughly
emulsify by agitation; sufficient water may then be added to make required dilution. Use
gasolene-power outfit and 250 lb. pressure to ensure a fine driving spray. Cover every portion
of the tree thoroughly, but avoid waste. Spray in spring months, but in dormant stage of
the tree.
Do not use oil sprays year after year until experimental work has proven the advisability
of such a course, and such recommendations are forthcoming from the Department of Agriculture
or other bodies qualified to pass along such information.
Comparative Cost per Gallon of Dilute Spray.—Dormoil: Dilution, 1 to 10; cost, 7 cents.
Fuel-oil and whale-oil soap: Dilution, 1 to 10; cost, 3 cents. Lime-sulphur and lye: Dilution,
1 to 8; cost, 5 cents.
The above costs are only approximate and would vary according to cost of concentrates f.o.b.
point of delivery.    The ratio of cost in any event would correspond closely to the above table.
We wish to extend to the following our thanks for co-operation and assistance in the above
experiments: S. O'Neil and F. Mitchell for use of orchards; Hood River Spray Company, Hood
River, Oregon, for donation of Dormoil; M. H. Ruhmann, Entomologist, for making counts and
comparisons of scale material during the experiment.
Blister-mite of the Apple.—This pest is rapidly increasing. A control experiment has been
commenced this fall at Oyama and will be continued with spring applications.
Casein Spreaders.—Some local experimental demonstrations were conducted in early May at
Vernon and Okanagan Centre, demonstrating the value of spreaders for raising the standard of
efficiency in the use of spray mixtures; the object of the work being to obtain quick information
for growers to benefit in their 1922 spraying operations.
Green Apple-aphis.—Material experiments for control of this pest were conducted during the
past summer.    Following is report of same in detail:—-
Aphis Spray Experiments, 192%.— (Conducted by H. II. Evans. Orchard-owner, J. AV. Black,
South A'ernon.) Applications made June 21st and August 30th; age of trees, 4 to 6 years;
number of plots, 8; total trees treated, 80. All counts taken two days after applications. Results
were totalled and averaged for the two sprays.
These experiments were conducted for comparative tests of Black Leaf 40, an imported
product of nicotine sulphate, and Maxatine, a locally made tobacco extract. The experiments
followed similar lines to a series conducted in previous years. Number of trees treated in each
plot, 10. In making counts for results, limbs were selected showing most freedom from leaves
badly curled up by aphis-injury;  by so doing we felt greater uniformity would result.
Table I.—Table of Materials tested and Results.
Materials tested.
Counts taken
of Aphis.
Black Leaf 40, 1 gal. to 1,000 gals	
B.L. 40, 1 gal. to 1,200 gals.;  whale-oil soap, 4 lb. to 100 gals.
B.L. 40, 1 gal. to 2,000 gals.;   slaked lime, 2 lb. to 100 gals.
Maxatine, 1 gal. to 800 gals	
Maxatine, 1 gal. to 800 gals.;  whale-oil soap, 4 lb. to 100 gals.
Maxatine, 1 gal. to 600 gals.;  whale-oil soap, 4 lb. to 100 gals.
Maxatine, 1 gal. to 800 gals.;  slaked lime, 2 lb. to 100 gals. .
Maxatine, 1 gal. to 1,600 gals.;  slaked lime, 2 lb. to 100 gals.
Cost of Materials.—Black Leaf 40, per gallon, $14.50; Maxatine, per gallon, $6.50; whale-
oil soap, per pound, 7 cents;  stone-lime, per pound, 2 cents. 13 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 45
Table II.—Cost per 100 Gallons Dilute Spray for all Plots.
Plot.   J
Cost per 100
Black Leaf 40 at 1 to 1,000 gals	
B.L. 40 at 1 to 1,200 gals.;  whale-oil soap, 48 lb.
B.L. 40 at 1 to 2,000 gals. ;   stone-lime, 40 lb.	
Maxatine at 1 to 800 gals	
Maxatine at 1 to 800 gals. ;   whale-oil soap, 32 lb.
Maxatine at 1 to 600.gals.;  whale-oil soap, 24 lb.
Maxatine at 1 to 800 gals.; stone-lime, 16 lb	
Maxatine at 1 to 1,600 gals.;   stone-lime, 32 lb.  . .
The above tables are self-explanatory. For actual comparison of results and costs we would
draw particular attention to Plots 1 and 4, Tables I. and II. These are comparable inasmuch
as the application on either plot was made at the strength recommended by the manufacturers,
being minus any other factor of influence which might add to or detract from the merits of
either compound.
Our conclusions gathered from the above work, which materially substantiates the results
of our previous experiments, are as follows :—
(1.) From a commercial and economic standpoint, first cost of materials should hot be the
first consideration.
(2.) Cheap materials or equipment giving low efficiency are ultimately the most expensive;
whereas more expensive materials giving high efficiency will generally be found cheaper in the
final analysis when labour costs are taken into consideration.
Export Inspection-work.
Inspection of Fruits and Vegetables.—-There have been no calls during the past season for
export certificates on fruit shipments from the A'ernon District; considerable tonnage was moved
to Great Britain and the United State's, export certificates not being demanded for such
In the work of inspection of export potatoes between the dates of January 10th and May
20th, certificates were issued for 22 cars, divided as follows: Armstrong, 10 cars; Verhori,
12 cars. From October 1st to December 15th certificates have been issued as follows: Armstrong, 2; Vernon, 6; a total to date of 30, the greater portion being straight cars of potatoes,
balance in mixed cars. In addition approximately 5 cars were refused certificates as not being
up to necessary requirements.
The calls for advice and assistance from our growers in handling problems of their horticultural and agricultural activities are many, necessitating numerous visits to all parts of the
The necessary detail work of the office demands considerable attention throughout the year,
in correlation with our field activities.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
H. H. Evans,
Assistant District Horticulturist. W 46
Department of Agriculture.
H. H. Evans.
W. T. Hunter, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit for myself and H. S. French as assistant the following report in
detail of operations, results, and costs of codling-moth control work for 1922 in the districts above
enumerated. The tables attached hereto are self-explanatory, but a few remarks on observations made during the season may be of some use as a digest on operations.
Experience gained in previous years' field-work enabled operations this season to be conducted with greater efficiency.
Seasonal Weather Conditions.
The early part of last spring remained cold, retarding commencement of blossoming; a
sudden spell of warm bright weather brought the trees into blossom with a rush, resulting in
a short blossom period and early closing of the calyx-cups. This condition interfered in a large
degree with a satisfactory application of the calyx spray, as before this application was
completed the calyx-cups were closed tight. The two cover sprays were applied at opportune
dates. Steady weather conditions during the winter of 1921-22 appeared ideal for the overwintering stage of the pest; the hot, dry summer following was ideal for a maximum and rapid
increase in the summer broods. By information gathered in the Wenatchee and Yakima
Districts similar conditions prevailed, resulting in a greater degree of worm-injury in those
Acreage and Degree of Infestation.
The quarantine area in the Vernon District was increased by 80 acres, giving a total of
375 acres. In the Swan Lake section our records show a decrease in captures of 60 per cent,
from 1921. In the Okanagan Landing section there was an increase of 61.12 per cent, over
1921. Two band inspections in the Vernon City area gave negative results on captures; this
section has now been proven clean for three seasons and will be dropped from our work in the
coming season.
South A'ernon Packing-house.
The packing-house erected last fall by the Department of Agriculture in the Okanagan
Landing section, though not completed early enough to handle all the crop for this area, gave
good service for the latter portion of the crop; this building should prove of very material
benefit to the work in future seasons.
Inspection and Superheating of Refrigerator-cars.
Inspection of refrigerator-cars, both foreign and domestic, was carried out at Revelstoke,
Kamloops, Penticton, Keremeos, West Summerland, and Okanagan Landing. There were 376
foreign and 615 C.P.R. reefers inspected at the various points, resulting in the capture of 184
larva? and pupa?. Superheating of cars for the destruction of codling-moth was introduced during
the past season.. Our records show 249 cars superheated out of a total of 990 which passed
through our Inspector's hands at the stations enumerated. Superheating was conducted chiefly
at Revelstoke and Vancouver; also a few at Penticton. We have no record of the total number
of cars superheated at Arancouver, there being no Department Inspector stationed at that point.
At Revelstoke our records show 149 cars treated.
From tests and observations made in the Canadian Pacific Railway yards at Vancouver in
September by W. H. Robertson, Provincial Horticulturist, and your assistant, we found the
system there employed was efficient and successful; a locomotive engine supplied superheated
steam, the pressure-gauge reading showing a pressure of 170 to 190 lb. at the engine, this giving 13 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 47
within a reasonable period of time temperatures inside the cars sufficiently high to ensure
satisfactory results.   The following three examples may be of interest:—
Thermometer Reading.
CP. 287199	
CP. 286708	
Deg. F.
Deg. F.
CP. 280454 	
The above temperatures were taken with self-registering clinical thermometers with a range
up to 300° F. Any of the temperatures recorded above would give satisfactory killing results
on the codling-moth larva? or pupa?. On opening up the cars after treatment there was observed
a minimum degree of condensation on the inside of cars.
For superheating-work at Revelstoke steam was supplied by the round-house boilers,
carrying a varied pressure of from 80 to 100 lb., giving a low efficiency of the steam at point
of delivery, which ranged from 300 to 600 feet from the source of supply. The distance from
the boilers, combined with low and intermittent pressure, gave unsatisfactory conditions for
efficient superheating, as it required from fifteen to twenty-five minutes to attain temperatures
inside the cars ranging from 116° to 149%° F. Such temperatures are too low to be efficient
for killing purposes and results in an extreme degree of condensation in the car. Moisture
conditions are much heavier inside cars treated under low temperatures and pressures than
is the case with heavier pressures and correspondingly high temperatures reached in a shorter
period of time. Excess moisture is neither necessary nor desirable in superheating refrigerator-
Of the total number of C.P.R. cars inspected, sixteen were found infested with codling-moth
All of which is respectfully submitted.
H. H. Evans,
Assistant District Horticulturist.
C. R. Barlow.
W. T. Hunter, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Field Inspector for the Districts
of Salmon Arm and Main Line Points.
Field-work, Inspection, and Pest-control.
Codling-moth.—In 1921 approximately 17 acres were placed under quarantine for this pest
at Walhachin, and during that season control measures were carried out. This season, however,
chiefly owing to the fact that no irrigation-water was available, the trees on this and all adjacent
areas died and produced no fruit; consequently it was not necessary to continue the work. At
Kamloops codling-moth was discovered last summer in many of the city gardens near the C.P.R.
station. Unfortunately, as control in this case entailed the destruction of the fruit and payment
of compensation, for which funds were not available, nothing could be done in the way of
control this year. It is very necessary, however, that steps should be taken to control this
outbreak, as there is grave danger of the commercial orchards at North Kamloops becoming
infested.   These orchards are only 2 miles distant from the present centre of infection.
Apple-seab.—The past season has been very dry and spraying has been thoroughly carried
out, with the result that the loss from this disease has not been serious. The experimental
work begun in 1919 in control of scab was continued this year, and a report on same, together
with the season's results, are included elsewhere in this report.
Anthracnose.—Although this disease is to be found in quite a number of orchards, it does
not appear to make any great headway.   It was planned to carry out some experimental work W 48
Department of Agric
on control in collaboration with Air. McLarty, Pathologist, of the Summerland Exxierimental
Station, but owing to adverse weather conditions at the time the sprays should have been applied
the work had to be abandoned;  it is hoped, however, that this work can be carried out next year.
Fire-blight.—This disease has given considerable trouble again this year in the Salmon Arm
and Sorrento Districts. Although in the early part of the season the outbreak showed every sign
of becoming as severe as that of 1921, the disease was much more quickly got under control,
as the majority of growers, realizing the seriousness of the trouble, lost no time in getting to
work. The clean-up campaign last fall was, in your assistant's opinion, largely responsible for
the improved efficiency on the part of the growers in the control of this year's outbreak, as
it put them on their guard against the reappearance of the disease in the spring, and also
brought them closely in touch with the best methods of controlling same.
This fall, although there are a considerable number of " hold-over " cankers in the orchards,
they are chiefly confined to certain sections of the district and are not as widely distributed as
at this time last year. It is confidently expected that by a repetition of the clean-up campaign
this winter a still further improvement will be made in the blight situation here.
San Jose Scale.—The situation at Spences Bridge with regard to this pest remains much
the same as has obtained during the last four years. The orchards continue to be free of the
scale, while the annual cutting and burning-over of the wild growth near the orchards seems to
effectually keep the pest in check.
Bruce's Measuring-worm.—This pest caused considerable damage to blossom-buds in some
sections of the district last spring, and growers will be urged to adopt control measures in the
coming season.
General inspection-work has been carried out throughout the season, and the discussion of
the problems of individual growers has taken up much of your assistant's time and involved
a great number of personal visits to growers.
Experimental Work.
Control of Apple-scab.—The experimental work for the determination of strengths of
solutions of lime-sulphur used in the control of apple-scab was carried on again this summer.
The season was extremely dry, however, and consequently scab-infection was reduced to a
minimum, and practically perfect results were obtained on all plots, even those on which the
weakest solutions were used. An extra plot was added this year, using " Kayso " as a spreader,
but this season no appreciable benefit was derived from its use, although in a wet season good
results would probably be obtained. The crop on the plots was very light, due largely to the
fact that the trees overbore considerably in 1921, when they set a very heavy crop, and it was
inadvisable to thin the fruit, as by so doing the records of the work would have been rendered
unreliable through thinners removing the infected fruits.
As the results obtained from these experiments can hardly be considered a safe guide for
growers owing to the abnormally dry conditions which have occurred for the last few seasons,
your assistant recommends that they be continued next year. Tabulated results of the season's
work are as follows :—
Results of Spraying
Experiments, Salmon Arm, 1921.
Date applied.
L.S.   1-30,   May   19;    1-35,   June   6;
June 27
Early infection.
L.S.   1-30,   May   19;    1-35,   June   6;
•Tunc 27 ;   1-35, July 17
98.90   .
L.S.   1-35,   May   19;    1-40,   June   6;
June 27
L.S.   1-40,   May   19;    1-45,   June   6;
June 27
L.S.   1-40,   May   19;    1-45,   June   6;
June 27
Infection at all stages.
Early infection.
L.S.   1-40,   May   19 ;    1-50,   June   6;
June 27, plus Kayso 1 lb-100 gals 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 49
Demonstration Plots.—Notwithstanding that the growth made on the plots seeded to hairy
vetch in July last year showed considerable improvement over that made in 1921, the amount of
green matter disked in was not satisfactory. The trees in the orchard in which these plots are
situated are 13 years old and bearing heavily; for this reason the demand for moisture by the
trees is very heavy during the late summer, and the vetch is unable to make much growth until
late in the fall, when there is more available moisture ; by the time this takes place, however, the
growing season is nearly at a close and the vetch has time to make only a small growth before
the freeze-up.
In the spring the time during which the vetch may safely be left is short, as the soil, being
a stiff clay loam, is very liable to bake and crack where exposed to the sun, and as the growth
of vetch is not thick enough to completely shade the ground at this time unless the crop is
disked in fairly early, serious loss of moisture takes place. However, the physical condition of
the soil on the plots shows some improvement over that in the check-plot and the growth of
the vetch has improved each year.
The cost of upkeep of these plots is very small and your assistant would recommend that
this work be continued, as, if the present rate of improvement is maintained, in two years at
the most it should be possible to obtain a very satisfactory stand of vetch in spite of the heavy
drain on the soil-moisture by the trees.
Meetings, etc
Your assistant attended two meetings of the Board of Directors of the Salmon Arm Farmers'
Exchange, three meetings of the Directors of the Salmon Arm Agricultural Association, and four
meetings of the local Branch of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association. Meetings were
addressed on various horticultural subjects at Kamloops, Salmon Arm, Solsqua, Malakwa, and
Notch Hill.
Your assistant also served on various committees appointed to deal with problems of
agricultural and horticultural interest in the district.
Four pruning-schools were held in the district at Tappen, Salmon Arm, South Canoe, and
Broadview. The first mentioned was taken by M. S. Middleton, of A'ernon, and the remainder
by your assistant. All these schools were well attended and much appreciated by the growers.
A full report thereon has been already submitted. A large number of demonstrations were also
given by your assistant to individual growers requesting same.
Small-fruits Survey.
A survey of the acreage under small fruits was carried out during the summer months,
and although assistance was obtained for two weeks, the w-ork took up a considerable portion
of your assistant's time.    Statistics relative to this survey have already been submitted.
Land Settlement Board.
Your assistant has acted as appraiser for the Land Settlement Board during the past year
in the Salmon Arm and Shuswap Lake District. Since midsummer a considerable number of
applications for loans have been received and appraisals made.
Up to the present your assistant has been able to accomplish this work without undue
neglect of his other duties, but should the number of applications received increase to any
extent they might in that case seriously interfere with the regular horticultural work of the
Fall Fairs.
Your assistant acted as judge of fruits at Penticton in conjunction with Air. Hunt and at
Salmon Arm with Messrs. Evans and Anderson.
With an increasing volume of correspondence and other necessary office duties, it is at
times very difficult for your assistant to keep all branches of his work up to date.
A large number of growers and others seeking information are annually interviewed in
the office.
4 W 50
Department of Agriculture.
The correspondence dealt with by this office has increased in volume nearly 50 per cent,
during the past year.
One of the most notable features of the past season has been the extreme drought during
the summer months. This factor, together with some degree of root-injury to the trees which
took place last winter, is probably the chief contributory cause of the " core-rot" trouble which
occurred in many of the apples this year. Notwithstanding the adverse conditions, the district
as a whole produced a fairly heavy crop of fruit of good quality.
Your assistant is somewhat apprehensive that further injury may have been sustained by
the trees this winter, as a very severe freeze occurred when the trees were not well matured
and only a very light covering of snow on the ground.
The small-fruit crop was light, largely owing to the dry season. Prices obtained were good,
however, and growers are well satisfied with their returns.
Given normal weather conditions, there should be a material increase in the production of
small fruits next year.
A^egetables were an average crop and prices have not been very satisfactory.
All.of which is respectfully submitted.
C. R. Barlow,
District Field Inspector.
T. M. Anderson.
W. T. Hunter, Esq..
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Field Inspector for the District
of Kelowna for the season 1922.
General Crop Conditions.
The season of 1922 has been, on the whole, very disappointing to the fruit-growers of the
Kelowna District. This was not due to any failure of the orchards to produce a good crop, but
rather to the maimer in which the crop was bandied from the time it left the orchards. The
apple-crop was above early estimates and much delay was experienced in the handling of the
Jonathan crop in particular, and as a result of it being held too long around the warehouses
even after it was packed, coupled with the late picking in many cases and the inability of the
warehouses to handle the tonnage expeditiously, this variety broke down very badly. General
lack of organization in the distribution of the crop caused a further amount of grief among
the growers. It is very gratifying to note in passing that as a result of the unfortunate condition
of the fruit business, particularly the past season, a very decided effort Is being made by the
growers to completely reorganize their marketing systems, and it is felt by all that this is a
step in the right direction to ensure future prosperity.
The fruit-crops, both soft fruits and apples, were above the early forecasts in respect to
tonnage. This was occasioned by the high percentage of blossom which set, and also to the fact
that the apples in particular sized remarkably well during the latter part of the season. The
quality, size, and growth of the apple-crop during the entire season was particularly high.
Vegetable Production.
About 900 acres of tomatoes were grown in the Kelowna District in the 1922 season. Owing
to the splendid weather which prevailed through October the tonnage harvested constituted a
record over any previous crop for a great many years; in fact, phenomenal yields per acre are
reported in a great many cases. The great percentage of this crop was of course for cannery
purposes, and only a very small percentage was shipped this year as semi-ripes. Those interested in the canning business report the pack as being the largest on record and the growers
appear satisfied with the returns received. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 51
Onions were grown to the extent of about 500 acres, but this acreage was quite heavily
reduced by the depredations of the onion-maggot. It is to be regretted that control measures
as advised by your officials for the control of this pest are not being as generally adopted as
should be the case. This is not due to the fact that this method of control is impracticable
(either from a labour or financial point of view), but rather to the careless attitude of the
average grower towards the method. The crop on the whole was light and not as well sized
as could be desired.
Fire-blight.—-Fire-blight was less conspicuous throughout the district this year than in
former years. This was due, no doubt, to the excellent response of the growers to the clean-up
campaign inaugurated by your officials during the early months of the year. It is estimated
that 90 per cent, of the orchards had been inspected and passed as being completely cleaned up
at the time the growing season commenced. Some blight was noticeable throughout the season,
particularly after the picking of the fruit. This applies more generally to pear-orchards. Acting
under instructions from your office, your officials are again organizing the clean-up campaign
for the fall of 1922 and the spring of 1923. The general attitude of the fruit-growers throughout
this district to this campaign is very favourable and meets with their unanimous support.
Your official desires to acknowledge the excellent support given by A. L. McLarty, Plant
Pathologist, Summerland Experimental Station, for his very valuable assistance in the problem
of dealing with fire-blight in this district.
Blister-mite.—This pest has spread at what is almost an alarming rate throughout the
Kelowna District this past summer. Your officials made a decided effort early in the spring to
have a dormant spray applied for the control of blister-mite, but owing to the financial stringency
which prevailed generally among the growers very little spraying was done. It is to be hoped
that this condition will not prevail during the spring of 1923, as failure to control this pest at
that time may result in a more serious condition than at present. Acting under your instructions,
arrangements were made for conducting an experiment co-operatively with one of the growers
in this district for the control of blister-mite. According to your instructions, a fall spray of
lime-sulphur was applied at the following strengths: 1 to 9; 1 to 15; 1 to 20; 1 to 25. As it
is your intention to follow these fall sprays with other comparative applications in the spring,
much useful information should be gathered along this line.
Leaf-roller.—During the month of April, 1922, suspicious egg-masses were discovered in an
orchard in this district. On submitting these to the Entomological Office, Vernon, for identification, they were found to be the egg-masses of the leaf-roller (Arehips argyrospila). A survey
was made of the entire district to ascertain, if possible, the extent to which this pest had spread,
and it was found that while certain definite areas were affected quite seriously, the general
infestation of the district was rather light. As this is prevalent very seriously in the districts
of Washington where it has become established, the recommendations as outlined at the December
meeting of the Okanagan Horticultural Club with reference to the use of miscible oils for the
control of this pest will be generally advised throughout this district and a determined effort
made to clean up the particular centres of infestation.
Codling-moth.—A separate report dealing with this pest is being submitted by Ben Hoy, the
official in charge of codling-moth-operations in the Kelowna area. As the time of your official
was entirely taken up with routine and general duties in the district, the work in connection
with the control of codling-moth was directed from your office at Arernon, and your official
endeavoured to assist as far as possible to the best of his ability.
Other Pests and Diseases.—Powdery mildew of the apple was almost non-existent this year
throughout this District, owing no doubt to the climatic conditions which prevailed. Aphides
and lesser fruit-insects were of minor importance during 1922. Mention, however, must be again
made of the serious losses occasioned by drought-spot of the apple. Your official has again very
strongly advised this season the use of some cover-crop in the orchards, in order that the water-
holding capacity of the soil might be improved by the addition of the decaying vegetable matter.
Irrigation-water was ample throughout the early part of the season, but at one time during
August it was feared that the supply would give out and occasion much loss in the orchards.
Fortunately heavy rains occurred in August and relieved the situation. Acknowledgment is
hereby given to R. H. Helmer, Superintendent, Dominion Experimental Farm. Summerland, for W 52
ient of Agriculture.
"his  able assistance in demonstrating with  your  official  at various  times  the proper  use  of
irrigation-water to the growers of this district.
Statistical and Office AVork.
Crop estimates and crop reports for publication in the Weekly News Letter of the Department
of Agriculture, have been compiled at various times throughout the season, and a full detailed
report as to tonnage shipped from this district will be submitted at the close of the season.
The compilation and collection of such data takes up a considerable amount of your official's
time.' The number of growers w-ho have called at this office during the past, season for advice
on various problems has been greatly in excess of the number of such calls during previous
years. The time of your official has therefore been greatly taken up in this direction. Your
official begs to acknowledge his indebtedness to B. Hoy, who has been in charge of the codling-
moth operations in the Kelowna area the past season, for his very able assistance in handling
much of the office and field work from time to time during the past season. The amount of
work which is conducted at this office is more than can be handled by one official throughout
the season.
Fall Fairs.
Your official has already submitted a detailed report as to his activities in judging the
fall fairs.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
T. M. Anderson,
District Field Inspector.
J, Tait.
W. T. Hunter, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Field Inspector for the Summer-
land, Peachland, Naramata, and AVestbank Districts for the year 1922.
General Orchard and Crop Conditions.
The fruit-crop of 1922 for these districts will, taken on the whole, run higher than early
season estimates. While the extreme heat and dryness of the early summer hastened the
ripening season of soft fruits, such as cherries, apricots, and peaches, causing these crops to
be below normal as to size and quality harvested, the apple and pear crop averaged splendid
size and volume. This was no doubt a result of the heavy rains which occurred about the second
week of August, thereby relieving a rather acute water-shortage throughout these districts.
The winter was very severe on the trees in some locations, the root systems in many orchards
being severely injured. As a result considerable drought-spot was apparent later on in the
apples in many sections. The apple-harvest continued late into the season and the late varieties
were harvested in splendid condition; due to the ideal weather which prevailed tree-growth was
above normal as judged from the splendid colour of foliage and good bud-development late in
the season, and consequently a good crop is promised for next season. Cover-crops are in good
condition owing to the splendid supply of moisture.
Field-work—Pests and Disease Control.
Codling-moth.—Inspection of bands at Westbank was conducted this year from the Kelowna
office, and a report as to conditions in that district with regard to this pest may be found in the
report of that office.
Following the discovery of codling-moth on the Dominion Experimental Farm in the fall of
1921, a quarantine area has been established at that point. The Dominion Experimental Farm
orchards were placed under quarantine and the usual control measures were carried out with
the able assistance of the Superintendent and staff, and it is very gratifying indeed to all
concerned that only three larva? were captured in this area. This area of actual quarantine
was further augmented  by  the establishing of a  protective  zone comprising those  orchards 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 53
situated near to the area of actual infestation on the Experimental Farm. Seventeen lots
comprising approximately 101 acres bordering on this area were placed under quarantine and
the usual spraying, banding, and inspection-work was carried out. Two applications of arsenate
of lead were applied, the first being the calyx spray commencing May 30th, the second being
a covering spray commencing July 10th. Inspection of the bands was made every three weeks,
the last inspection being completed on November 15th, 1922. No larva? or other suspicious
material was taken in this protective area.
Following the announcement from your office that the Department was prepared to pay a
reward for the detection of codling-moth in new areas or on orchards adjacent to old areas,
it is very gratifying to report that no rewards were paid in this district this season, although
much material was submitted throughout the apple-harvest.
Leaf-roller.—Considerable injury was noted this year from leaf-roller, but apparently this,
injury was caused by the species " rosaceana," which is considered less serious than the related
species Argyroploce. Evidence that this last species existed in the district, however, was found
throughout the season, but at this time its spread is not noticeable to any extent. Sprays for
the control of leaf-rollers will be recommended this coming season where the injury is likely to
be serious, and it is expected that such a spray will assist materially in reducing the injury
from lesser apple-worm, bud-moth, measuring-worm, etc.
Pear and Cherry Slug.—This pest was quite serious in certain sections, particularly on
cherries, and growers will be advised to pay more strict attention to the proper control measures
for this pest.
Aphides.—Both woolly and green aphis were present to some extent, although not so serious
as to render them worthy of special consideration. The usual control measures were advised
in all cases where necessary.
Peach-twig Borer.—Very slight injury was reported from this pest, as control measures
generally practised throughout the district are proving very efficient.
Peach-root Borer.—This pest is still very serious and the (PC Benzene) Paradichlorobenzene
treatment is being generally recommended. While this treatment has not been applied to any
extent as yet, it gives promise for controlling this trouble in the future.
Fire-blight.—During the first three months of this year practically the entire time of your
official was devoted to the inspection of orchards for this disease. The support which the
growers generally gave to the clean-up campaign was remarkable and the results were very
gratifying indeed, as the districts have never been as free from fire-blight as they are the
fall of 1922. Acting on the instructions of your office, this campaign will again be continued
in these districts during the coming spring and it is hoped that equally good results will be
Apple Powdery Mildew.—During 1922 mildew did not develop to any extent in these districts
owing in all probability to the general atmospheric conditions which prevailed. During the
spring of this season, acting on your instructions, an endeavour was made in co-operation with
A. L. McLarty, Dominion Plant Pathologist, Summerland Experimental Station, to conduct
experiments in spraying for the control of Powdery Mildew. Owing to the difficulty which was
experienced in securing an orchard which was suffering from this disease the experiment had to
be dropped. There is no reason to expect that such conditions will prevail during the coming
season, and every effort will be made by your assistant to have the early control sprays applied
during the spring of 1923.
Blister-mite.—Blister-mite appears to be coining thoroughly established in all sections of
these districts, affecting particularly the apples. Control measures will be necessary in practically all districts in the future. At the present moment your official is having difficulty in
knowing just what is the proper spray which should be recommended, as both good and poor
results are being reported by different growers from the application of the recommended spray
during the dormant season in the spring. According to the report of this office for 1921, it was
found that a very early application of lime-sulphur 1-9 gave splendid results on the experimental
plots observed at that time. This experimental work was conducted under your instructions
during the fall of 1921 and spring of 1922, and the results secured are confusing. While the
fall application gave splendid results, the spring application gave very poor results. The
following report will further elucidate the condition under which your official is working at
the present time with reference to the best control which should be advocated:— - i"~^l^^^^^^^^^^^^ -^^
W 54
Department of Agriculture.
Acting on your instructions, the experiments for the control of blister-mite on apples were
conducted during the spring of this season. On November 11th, 1921, an application of lime-
sulphur, strength 1 to 9, was made at the Balcomo Ranch by your assistant with the co-operation
of the manager, R. V. Agur. The trees were still carrying some leaves, and those trees selected
were trees which had not been sprayed for several seasons and were badly infested with blister-
mite. A check during the month of June, 1922, showed 97 per cent, control. On March 4th a
block of Rome Beauty trees in the orchard of C. J. Rippin at Summerland were sprayed with
lime-sulphur, strength 1 to 9. With the co-operation of the owner further sprays were applied
as follows: March 10th, March 18th, and March 25th. All trees were badly infested during
1921 with blister-mite and all buds were perfectly dormant in all applications. A check as to
results during the month of June showed only 50 per cent, control in this case, as compared
with 97 per cent, control where the fall applications were applied.
Acting on the instructions of your office in November of this season, two.separate experiments
were inaugurated in connection with the control of blister-mite—one on the Balcomo Ranch and
the other on the ranch of C. J. Rippin. According to your instructions, it is the intention of
your official to apply sprays at different dates in the spring of 1923 and to check the results
later in the season.    Lime-sulphur, strength 1 to 9, was used in both these fall applications.
Fall Fairs.
Your assistant attended fall fairs in Circuit 5 and judged at Prince George, Prince Rupert,
Houston, Terrace, aud Smithers. Also assisted E. AV. White at Ladysmith. Separate reports
have already been submitted to the Department at A'ictoria in connection with this work.
Winter Meetings.
During the month of February meetings were held by the officials of your office, assisted
by several outside authorities, throughout these districts, and from the attendance which was
recorded and the general opinion expressed among the growers, these meetings were very
successful aud were a source of real benefit to the growers of the district. AVhile the attendance
was not as large as during a similar series which were held in 1921, the results on the whole
were very satisfactory.
Summer Field Meetings.
A series of summer field meetings were held throughout these districts during the month
of August, and these proved very popular with the growers and a splendid attendance was
recorded in each of the several districts. Subjects of vital interest to the growers were taken
up by the different speakers, and judging from the number of questions which were asked the
speakers at the close of each address and the interest taken must have been very gratifying to
all concerned with the inauguration of this series of meetings. The subjects discussed were
diseases and pest-control; the handling and care of orchard soils and the general principles of
fertilizing and soil-building by means of cover-crops; the use of spreaders in spraying operations ; and the proper methods of thinning fruits. A very keen desire on the part of a great
many of the growers has already been registered in favour of a continuance of these field
meetings during the coming season, as it is felt by all that they will do a tremendous lot
of good.
The office-work of your assistant has increased very materially during the past season
and the number of inquiries from growers is becoming larger every season.    A considerable
amount of your assistant's time was devoted each week throughout the season of crop movements to the report of conditions in these districts for the Weekly News Letter.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
J. Tait,
District Field Inspector. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 55
R. P. Murray.
W. T. Hunter, Esq.
District Horticulturist, Vernon. B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Field Inspector for the Southern
Okanagan and Similkameen Districts.
General Conditions. {
The season of 1922 was very favourable from the standpoint of production. The early
spring was dull and quite cool for a considerable period, followed by higher temperatures,
and fruit-blossoms, particularly apples, opened fully in three days. During the early season a
heavy crop seemed unlikely, due largely to the large crop of the previous year and a rather
severe winter for this section. None of the fruit-trees this year showed the abundance of bloom
that is ordinarily seen. However, in most cases a very heavy percentage of this bloom set,
due possibly to very favourable weather conditions. Therefore the crop harvested was higher
than early estimates predicted.
The growers in the district have for the past three or four years been paying a good deal
of attention to soil fertility, pruning, and thinning, which is now giving results.
Insects and Diseases.
Codling-moth.—On October 2nd two specimens of codling-moth larva? were discovered at
Kaleden. This infestation was substantiated by the Entomological Branch at Vernon. Temporary quarantine measures were enforced on an area of 10 acres and two additional worms
were found when the fruit was being packed. A considerable area was banded with the idea
of capturing additional worms, but due to the lateness of the season nothing more was found.
It is very difficult at this time to explain the origin of the outbreak, Kaleden being a more or
less isolated section and with no railway connection. Steps have been taken to extend the
quarantine area and measures are being taken to control this pest next season.
The reward offered by the Department of Agriculture has brought to the attention of every
person in the fruit business the seriousness of this pest, and a great many specimens of injured
apples were sent in for identification. Fortunately, only those from the Kaleden section proved
to be codling-moth, although a larva of this pest was submitted for identification late in the
season, and it was presumably found in fruit from Penticton orchards.
Blister-mite.—AVhere no control measures have been adopted this very serious pest has been
on the increase throughout the district, resulting in considerable loss of fruit. In the Keremeos
section, where the infestation was particularly severe, due largely to the fact that no proper
control measures have been carried out in the past, serious losses were sustained.
It has been demonstrated in this section that blister-mite can be controlled with fair satisfaction with lime-sulphur spray, strength 1 to 9, applied before the bud-scales lift. Last season
in nearly all cases where this spray was applied good controls generally resulted and the
district is now pretty well cleaned up.
In order to demonstrate the efficiency of dormant spray with lime-sulphur a rather badly
infested plot at Vaseaux Lake Avas selected, a block of forty-eight trees being taken. Spray was
applied at intervals of three days. The block was divided into three sections. The first block
was sprayed on March 27th, the second block on March 31st, and the third block on April 3rd.
Due to delays in obtaining a spray-machine, controls were not entirely satisfactory, although
considerable control resulted.
Acting under your instructions, arrangements were made for conducting an experiment
co-operatively with one of the growers in this district for the control of blister-mite. According
to your instructions, a fall spray of lime-sulphur was applied at the following strengths: 1 to
9, 1 to 15, 1 to 20, 1 to 25. As it is your intention to follow these fall sprays with other comparative applications in the spring, much useful information should be gathered along this line.
Woolly Aphis.—During the early season this insect was very little in evidence. However,
late in the summer there was a light general infestation in the Penticton area. W 56
Department op Agriculture.
Spraying for this insect when the foliage is on the trees has given somewhat negative
results. Swabbing with kerozene emulsion or Black Leaf 40 during the early season before
the aphis has migrated to the upper portion of the trees has given good results. This work
comes at a season of the year when other work is pressing, and as the aphis is not readily seen
at this time it is very often neglected. There have been numerous inquiries regarding controls
for this pest during the past season, aud from present indications more thorough control measures
will be adopted. •
Fruit-tree Leaf-roller.—This insect was noted in the Penticton District for the first time
during the season of 1922. The damage resulting did not amount to much, but due to the
seriousness of this pest the growers have been advised that prompt measures are very necessary
to eradicate this Insect before it becomes established in the district.
Peach-twig Borer.—Peach-twig borer is still causing some losses in the district. AVhere
control measures have been applied practically no loss has resulted. Spraying with arsenate
of lead, 2 lb. of paste or 1 lb. of powder, applied when the husks are falling, will give excellent
control if the regular semi-dormant lime-sulphur spray applied iu the pink has been neglected.
Bud-moth.—Considerable injury was noted this season. Where thinning had been carried
out the injury to the fruit was greatly reduced, and more thorough spraying will be necessary
if this pest is to be controlled.
Powdery Mildeic.—Due to considerable loss during the season of 1921 from this disease,
experimental work was started at Araseaux Lake. A block of sixty trees where this disease
had been particularly severe was selected. This was divided into three blocks of twenty trees
each. The aim of the experiment was to determine when the best control could be obtained.
The first spray was applied when the buds were bursting; the second when the buds were in
the pink; and the third after the petals had fallen. Due to the peculiar weather conditions
which prevailed this season, under which practically no powdery mildew was present even on
unsprayed trees, this experiment gave negative results the past season. On all three blocks no
mildew was seen, and on unsprayed trees there was a slight infestation, but this was so light
as to be negligible, proving that seasonal conditions contribute very largely in controlling this
disease.    Your assistant would recommend that this experiment be repeated next season.
Fire-blight.—During the winter season of 1921-22 a thorough " clean-up " campaign was
inaugurated to clean up this disease, which in previous years had caused a great deal of injury.
A close personal inspection of all orchards was made, and although this work entailed considerable time, the results obtained fully justified the time and labour expended. During the past
season in Penticton fire-blight has caused very little damage, and of the whole district only
an area of about 30 acres was infected. On two lots pears of the Dr. Gules Guyot variety
were infected; susceptible varieties, such as Clapp's Favourite and Bartlett, being practically
untouched.    On apples Spitzenberg was the only variety infected.
Peach-leaf Curl.—This disease was noticed but very little during 1922. A good deal of
dormant spraying, lime-sulphur 1 to 9, had been done the previous season. Climatic conditions
were not favourable to the development of the disease, and on the unsprayed orchards practically
no leaf-curl was observed.
Fall Fairs.
Your Inspector attended and judged at the following fall fairs: North A'ancouver, Courtenay, Hilliers, Ganges, Duncan, Victoria, and Grand Forks; report of which has already been
submitted. Your Inspector, with John Tait, District Field Inspector at Summerland, judged
the Women's Institute vegetable-garden competition at West Summerland.
Field Meetings.
During the summer field meetings were held at Oliver on planting plans of orchards,
irrigation and the proper use of water, and soil conservation and building. The meetings were
conducted by W. T. Hunter, District Horticulturist; H. H. Evans, of Vernon; and R. H. Helmer,
Superintendent, Dominion Experimental Farm, Summerland. A field meeting at Penticton was
held by officials of the Horticultural Branch of the Department of Agriculture, co-operating
with R. II. Helmer, on soils, thinning, cover-crops, and general orchard practice. These meetings
were very well attended and the growers in the districts visited have expressed a wish that this
practice be continued each year.  An orchard home in the Coldstream District, Vernon, B.C. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 57
With the rapid development of the new section at Oliver, your Inspector has been more
or less handicapped in attending to the older and established districts. The new district has a
large number of inexperienced men, and it was thought advisable to devote more time to the
Oliver section in order to prevent mistakes in planting, etc., that had occurred in other parts
of the valley. A small quantity of sweet-potato plants were distributed in the Oliver District,
with the idea of testing the suitability of this crop for the district. Three varieties were
selected—Nancy Hall, Big Stem Jersey, and Yellow Jersey—and although planted rather late
in the season, the Nancy Hall did exceptionally well. The other two varieties do not show
much promise for this district, evidently requiring a longer growing season than occurs in the
Oliver section. From the results obtained from these small co-operative experiments it is
expected that this crop will succeed in this district. This work, with your approval, will be
continued further.
Nursery Stock.
Inspections were carried out at the Government nursery at Oliver during the early spring
and again in November last. In all, some 50,000 trees were examined. Reports of these
inspections have been previously submitted.
Meetings of the Okanagan Horticultural Club were attended when possible. These meetings
are serving a very useful purpose in bringing the officials of the Department in closer touch
and resulting in more unity of action. Meetings were addressed at Oliver on " The Growing
and Handling of Cannery Tomatoes " ; also at Kelowna and Salmon Arm on " Vegetable Growing
and Storage."
All of which is respectfully submitted.
R. P. Murray,
District Field Inspector.
E. C. Hunt, B.Sc.
W. II. Robertson, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir.—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Horticulturist and Inspector of
Fruit Pests for the BQundary and East and West Kootenay Districts for the year 1922.
Crop Conditions.
The apple-crop of the Kootenay and Boundary Districts for the year 1922 was the heaviest
on record. While the returns at this time are not complete, it is estimated that the output of
apples will run at least 35 per cent, more than in 1921, which was the previous high record year.
Sweet cherries also show a record crop. The output will be about 40 per cent, more than in
1921.   The production of other tree-fruits was about normal.
On the whole the output of small fruits from the district will be much larger than last year
when both crate- and jam-berry tonnage are taken into consideration. Crated stock will show
little, if any, increase over the output in 1921, while the tonnage taken to the jam-factories will
show a very large increase. The yield per acre of strawberries was not up to the yield in 1921,
taking the district as a whole, but the increase in bearing acreage more than made up for the
lighter yields per acre. Raspberries have been an excellent crop and show quite a large increase
in production over last year.
The potato-crop was much better than last year, the production of other vegetables about
normal, and sold for good prices on the local markets. Prices for small fruits have been quite satisfactory; crated stock being slightly less than
last year, while prices for jam-berries were 1 to 2 cents per pound higher than in 1921. The
returns on apples are not complete, but from reports they are not going to be any too good; in
fact, about the lowest for a number of years. Sweet cherries brought a fair price, but less than
last year. Little demand for plums and prices only fair. Pears, when of good quality, were in
good demand and prices received were about the same as last year.
Pruning and Packing Schools.
During March and April of 1922 five pruning-schools were held in the Kootenay District,
with a total attendance of forty pupils. Classes were held at the following places: Canyon
City (for the Camp Lister District), Boswell, Nakusp, Burton, and Nelson. Most of the schools
were well attended and this work is always appreciated by the pupils. A report of each school
has been submitted to your office by the Instructors. Besides the regular pruning-schools, a
number of pruning demonstrations of one-day duration were given at various orchards in the
district. These demonstrations were always well attended and much appreciated by the fruitgrowers.
Most of the apple packing-schools in the district were again conducted by Mr. Greenwood,
of AVillow Point. These schools were held at Boswell, Balfour, Creston. Camp Lister (2),
Nakusp, Perry Siding, and Appledale. Nine in all, with a total attendance of ninety-two pupils.
These schools have been a great help to the fruit-growers in the Kootenay District, and this
season a number of the pupils taking the classes found work as packers in the packing-houses
of the district.    Reports covering these schools have been submitted to the Department.
Notices were again sent out in November of this year offering five-day pruning and six-day
packing-schools, and at the present time applications are on file for four pruning and four
packing schools. Arrangements have beenanade to hold these schools during January, February,
and March, 1923.
Short Courses.
At the request of a large number of farmers throughout the Kootenay District for lectures
on agricultural subjects, a series of meetings were arranged by your assistant for this purpose.
These meetings were held under the auspices of the Farmers' Institutes, United Farmers, and
other farmers' organizations, and offered by the Horticultural Branch with the co-operation
of the Dominion Department of Agriculture and other branches of the Provincial Department
of Agriculture. The series of meetings were opened at Grand Forks on March 9th and closed
at Passmore on March 20th. Two meetings were held at Grand Forks, Willow Point, Shirley,
Sunshine Bay, Appledale, South Slocan, and Creston, and one meeting at Robson, Crawford Bay,
Boswell, Kaslo, and Passmore. Nineteen meetings in all were held, with a total attendance
of 911 people, or an average of 48 per meeting.
The various subjects discussed and the speakers were as follows: R. II. Helmer, Superintendent, Dominion Experimental Farm, Summerland, " Distribution of Water in the Soil and
Soil-fertility " ; W. H. Robertson, Provincial Horticulturist, Alctoria, " Small Fruits " ; R. G. L.
Clarke, Dominion Fruit Inspector for British Columbia,"A'ancouver, "Proposed New Grades aud
Packages for Fruit"; C. W. Traves, Poultry Instructor, Provincial Department of Agriculture,
Grand Forks, " Feeding for Egg Production " and " General Poultry Conditions in the Interior
of British Columbia " ; J. A. Grant, Markets Commissioner. Provincial Department of Agriculture, Calgary, Alta., " Markets and Marketing "; and E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, Nelson,
" Apple-scab Control."
Diseases and Insect Tests.
Apple-Scab.—Apple-scab, which is at the present time the most important disease affecting
the apple-crop in the Kootenay District, was not so prevalent this season as usual owing to
the very dry weather during the last spring and summer months. Most of the growers only
applied two sprays this year for the control of scab and secured excellent results.
A series of experiments were started in 1920 with the object of determining if weaker
solutions of lime-sulphur could not be used than those at present recommended in the control
of scab without sacrificing efficiency in control. While the three-year results of these experiments indicate that weaker strengths of lime-sulphur will effectively control scab in this district,
the writer does not feel, owing to the last three years, 1920, 1921, and 1922, being very dry and 13 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 59
unfavourable for the development of scab, that these weaker solutions should be recommended
too strongly to the growers.
Dry lime-sulphur was also tested out again this season for the control of scab and the
results were quite satisfactory, but the strength used was about double that recommended by
the manufacturers of this material.
The results of this year's experiments are as follows:—
Experiments conducted at Sunshine Bay, Appleton. Bros.' Ranch;   Variety, Mcintosh Red.
Date applied.
No. of
L.S. 1-40, pink, May 17:   L.S. 1-40, calyx, June 5;
L.S. 1-40, later, June 28
Late infection.
L.S. 1-50. pink, May 17 ;   L.S. 1-50, calyx, June 5 ;
L.S. 1-50, later, June 28
Dry  L.S. 4  lb.-40, pink, May 17;   D.L.S.  4  lb.-40,
calyx, June 5 ;   D.L.S. 4 lb.-40, later, June 28
Check   -.	
Fire-blight.—Fire-blight has not as yet become very prevalent in the Kootenay District.
Slight outbreaks of the disease were found for the first time this year at Carroll Landing.
Slocan City, and Sunshine Bay. Slight infections were again present in the Nelson and Harrop
sections. A thorough clean-up was made of the blight found last year at Nakusp, Fauquier,
Willow Point, and Slocan Park, and as a result these sections were free from blight-infections
this season. Practically all orchards infected have received the regular fall clean-up and
further inspection will be made of trees infected this winter and early spring.
Codling-moth.—During the month of October codling-moth was found for the first time
in the Grand Forks District. The area infested covers about 125 acres, but is quite isolated
from the main orchard area of the district. The area placed under quarantine at the present
time covers about 135 acres. The degree of infestation was very heavy, over 75 acres in this
area, which would indicate that the moth had been present in the district for the past two years
at least. As far as it was possible to ascertain, the source of infestation can be attributed to
fruit-cars. The regular quarantine regulations will be carried out for the coming year, and it
is hoped that this pest may be eradicated in a short time.
Colorado Potato-beetle.—This beetle has become well established in British Columbia,
-although it has not as yet reached the main potato-producing areas of the Province. At the
present time the beetle can be found in most of the potato-fields south of Elko to the Montana
line and from Elko west as far as Wardner. One slight infestation of the beetle was also found
at Camp Lister, in the Creston area. As yet the beetle has not been found in the potato-fields
of the Cranbrook and Windermere sections. Meetings were held at Gateway, Baynes Lake, and
Wardner, at which the question of control of this pest was taken up with the potato-growers
and farmers of the district, as well as the advisability of combating the advance of the beetle
into other parts of the Province. Wherever possible and where potato-growers could not get
spray material, a quantity of arsenate of lead was provided and a number of spraying demonstrations were given in the control of this pest. Your officials were assisted at these meetings
.and in this work by A. L. Hay, District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, and J. W. Eastham, Plant
Pathologist, Arancouver.
Blister-mite on the Apple.—This pest was quite bad the past season and is spreading
rapidly in the district, due to the fact that dormant spraying with lime-sulphur has not been
required for the control of other fruit pests in this district. AVherever growers have applied the
dormant spray of lime-sulphur 1 to 9 before the buds open, satisfactory control of the mite has
been obtained. This means added expense to the growers in this district, but in order to keep
this pest from causing serious damage to the apple-crop in the future it will be necessary that
growers put on a dormant spray of lime-sulphur to keep this mite under control in their orchards.
Tent-caterpillars.—Although extremely prevalent this year, this pest did not do a great
deal of damage in the commercial orchards of the district.    Where growers used arsenate of lead W 60 Department of Agriculture. 1923
in the pink spray this insect was kept well under control. Indications are that this pest will
appear in greater number next year.
Leaf-roller.—This pest has made its appearance in the Kootenay within the last two years
and is now causing a great deal more damage to the apple-crop than is generally thought by
the average grower. So-far there has been very little work done in the way of testing out
different spray materials for the control of this pest, but it is hoped that some work the coming
year may be started, so that in the future reliable control measures can be given to keep this
pest in check.
Bud-moth is very bad in the Creston area and is causing considerable damage to the apple-
crop. Arsenate of lead is recommended for the control of this pest, but from the results of an
experiment carried on at Creston last year it would seem that the present strength of arsenate
of lead (1 lb. to 40 gallons of water) now being recommended is not strong enough to get any
very quick control of this serious insect. The experiment has not been carried out as far as
it should be, and it is the intention to test out stronger solutions of arsenate of lead and other
spray material for the control of this pest the coming year.
Cover-crop Demonstrations.
Cover-crop demonstration plots were continued for another year at Grand Forks and Creston
with hairy vetch. All plots have made excellent growth during the late summer and fall.
Seeding was done this year from June 15th to 30th, which accounts to a large extent for the
much more satisfactory growth than last year's, when seeding was done in late July and August.
Where irrigation can be had, July 1st to 15th seems to be the best time to seed hairy vetch in
the Kootenay. Some of the plots seeded in June came on too fast when irrigated and quite a
large portion of the vetch came out in bloom. As the result of these cover-crop demonstrations
carried on by the Department, a great many growers have become interested in the growing of
cover-crops to keep up the fertility of their orchard soils, and to-day you will find a number
of orchards throughout tlie district seeded to vetch for the first time.
Fall Fairs.
Your assistant acted as judge of fruit and vegetables at the following places: Cranbrook,
Penticton, assisted by C. R. Barlow; Creston, assisted by P. C. Black; and assisted W. T.
Hunter and Ben Hoy at the Kelowna Fair. A separate report of the fairs has been submitted
to the Department. Your assistant also judged the fruit and vegetables at the Nelson Annual
Rose-show and at the Harrop Women's Institute Flower-show.
Orchards visited and Demonstrations.
Many personal visits to different orchards throughout the district were made during the
year, a great number of requests coming in from growers for demonstrations and advice on
various horticultural subjects. This work takes up a great deal of your assistant's time, but
is work much appreciated by the growers, although not much to show for it at the end of
the year.
A number of thinning demonstrations were given during the year for the purpose of showing
to the growers the system that should be followed to increase the size and quality of the fruit.
These demonstrations were well attended, and from reports that have reached this office they
were greatly appreciated.   This work will have to be carried on again next year.
Your officials made a small-fruit survey of the Kootenay and Boundary Districts during
the year. This work was carried out along with the regular work and very few special trips
were made to get this data. A complete survey of the district has been submitted to your office,-
and your report which has just been made on the small-fruit acreage in the Province is very
useful information to have.
Inspection of Nurseries.
The Riverside Nurseries at Grand Forks is the only nursery operating at the present time
in this district. As in previous years, the work of inspecting ,the nursery stock was carried out
according to the regulations laid down by the Department.  Your officials made the regular tree 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. AV 61
inspection at the fall digging-time, also a summer inspection was made during the growing
season. Crown-gall and hairy root were the main troubles for which any of the trees were
condemned. The stock on the whole was quite clean and of good growth. All trees condemned
were destroyed at the time of inspection and a report covering the work was submitted to
your office.
Chop Reports.
Crop estimates and reports are furnished to your office from time to time during the
growing season and at the end of the shipping season a detailed report is made of the total
production of fruit and vegetables in the district. Information and data are also collected in
a similar way from the jam-factories of the district. These reports are now being prepared
for your office.
Office-work has been steadily on the increase and necessarily had to be attended to. This
takes up a great deal of your assistant's time that should be spent in field-work.
During the year your assistant had the privilege of being able to attend the annual
convention of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association held at A'ictoria and the annual
meeting of the North-west Horticulturists, Entomologists, and Plant Pathologists held at Yakima,
Wash., in July.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
E. C. Hunt,
District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
Paul C. Black.
E. C. Hunt, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report as follows:—
; General Seasonal Conditions.
The spring of 1922 opened up late. Conditions for growth, however, of both orchards and
field crops were most favourable. The previous year's abundant fall rains and an ample blanket
of snow during the winter, followed by a gradual thawing in spring, which permitted the melting
snow to soak thoroughly into the soil, afforded a generous supply of moisture.
Fall-sown grain came through the winter in fine shape; potatoes and other field crops were
got in under ideal conditions. The show of bloom in apple-orchards was unusually heavy,
especially so in Jonathans, and this was followed by an excellent set of fruit, without an undue
amount of the usual June drop.
All this served to put the farmers and fruit-growers in a most optimistic frame of mind, but
these ideal spring conditions were followed by an unusually hot., dry summer. No rain fell after
the first week in May, and as week succeeded week of intense heat and drought the ranchers'
hopes of bumper crops gave place to gloomy forebodings. Considerable fall grain was cut for
hay and many fields of potatoes appeared to be an almost total failure.
Orchards generally suffered severely during the long dry period and the prospect for a
fruit-crop looked extremely poor.
It had been confidently hoped that the irrigation plant in process of construction would be
in operation in time to save the crops, but owing to various unavoidable delays water was not
turned on the land until late in the season. The formal opening of the system did not take
place until September 28th, although water had been turned on a short time previous to that
date. However, a heavy rain occurred during the first week in September, and this was followed
by showers at frequent intervals, with the result that the apple-crop was not only saved, but
gave an abundant yield. Potato-fields responded wonderfully to the belated rains and a fair
crop was harvested, though a great deal of second growth was inevitable, and the growers will
have an unusually small proportion of marketable potatoes to dispose of. AV 62
Department of Agriculture.
Ideal weather prevailed during apple-picking and harvesting of field crops, but after these
operations were over there was very little fall rain and orchards have consequently gone into
winter quarters lacking the usual amount of soil-moisture. At the present time, however (the
latter part of December), the land is fairly well protected with snow, and notwithstanding the
prevailing cold weather there is little likelikood of deep frost penetration in the soil. AArith
ample water assured by irrigation during the coming season, soil and crop conditions should
be most satisfactory.
Diseases and Insect Pests.
Some fire-blight has again shown up this year, not, however, in a virulent form, being
generally confined to twig-blight. There has, however, been more or less body-blight in a few
orchards and the growers have been urged to thoroughly cut out all infected parts during the
dormant season. There is little doubt but that this work will be done, as every orchardist is
well aware of the importance of combating this serious disease.
As heretofore, but little scab has been in evidence in the orchards of the district.
Insect pests, however, have increased to a very marked degree, and it has been pointed out
to growers that they must at once inaugurate a more thorough and general campaign of spraying to keep these in check.
Blister-mite, which appeared last year to a considerable extent in some orchards, was much
less in evidence this season. This was no doubt due to fairly thorough late dormant spraying
with lime-sulphur.
Tent-caterpillars were extraordinarily prevalent and appeared unusually early in the season,
hatching out as early as April 20th. Large numbers of webs were observed on choke-cherries
and other wild growth throughout the district, and as these were left comparatively undisturbed
there is every probability of a serious visitation of tent-caterpillars this coining season.
Forest and red-hump caterpillars were also in evidence to a small extent.
Leaf-roller and the green fruit-worm did a great deal of damage in some orchards, as also
did the tussock-moth. More attention to spraying with arsenical poison will have to be undertaken to fight these pests. Leaf-hoppers were again quite prevalent and the growers will have
to use tobacco spray more generally in order to keep these in check.
Codling-moth.—An outbreak of this most serious of insect pests was found this season in
one of the largest orchards in the district and further search revealed its presence in two
adjoining orchards. AVhile the worms were not discovered until the present season, they were
so generally distributed throughout the orchard in which they were first noted that there is
little doubt that they have been there for the past two or three years.
If the owner of the orchard in which codling-moth was first discovered this year knew
of its presence in previous seasons his attitude in not making its occurrence known to the
Department of Agriculture is, to say the least, most reprehensible.
Fortunately the area in which this pest has appeared is in an isolated position and situated
at a considerable distance away from the main orchard area of the district, and quarantine
measures are therefore made more easily effective. Thorough banding, scraping, and spraying
operations will be undertaken by the Department this coming season, and it is hoped that the
pest will not only be kept within the bounds of the quarantined area, but completely eradicated
within the next two or three years.
Crane-fly Larwe.—A strawberry plantation in the district was this season attacked by the
larva? of the crane-fly. The worms were present in great numbers and much damage was done
to the fruit. At the suggestion of M. H. Ruhmann, Assistant Entomologist at Arernon, an
application of Barrett's Soil Insecticide (crude naphthaline 33% per cent.) will be applied at
the rate of 300 lb. per acre to this plantation to ascertain what effect it will have upon the
Potato-diseases.—A certain amount of common potato-scab is present in the district, but
not much is in evidence, doubtless owing to the fact that Netted Gem comprises the bulk of
the crop grown, and this variety, as is well known, is particularly resistant to scab. Rhizoctonia,
however, is quite widespread in the potato-fields and greater vigilance will have to be exercised
in treating seed and with corrosive sublimate. Leafroll and mosaic are present to a considerable
extent, but it is hoped that the educational campaign in the thorough roguing of infected plants
in connection with the growing of certified seed will have the effect of keeping these diseases
down to the minimum, if not eliminating them entirely, in the near future. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 63
-» Thinning Fruit.
Increased attention is being given to the proper thinning of fruit, more particularly apples,
and growers who at first undertook this operation with more or less apprehension as to whether
or not they were largely destroying their crop are now enthusiastic converts of thinning, and are
prepared to be even more drastic and thorough In their work in this direction in the future.
The same remarks as applied to thinning the fruit are equally applicable to pruning the
trees. Orchardists are beginning to realize that No. 1 fruit can only be grown on trees which
have been well pruned to promote greater development of fruit-spurs and which have been
thoroughly thinned out to allow access to air and sunlight.
The need of humus content in the soil is being more and more appreciated by the growers
and greater attention is being given to the growing of cover-crops. The two demonstration plots
of hairy vetch planted by your representative last year were again continued this season. Last
year the plots (of 2% acres each) were sown late in July, but owing to the lack of moisture in
the soil at that time the seed did not germinate as well as could be wished, though a good growth
ensued later as a result of early fall rains. This year the plots were seeded on June 15th and
growth has been much more satisfactory. As a result of these demonstration plots it is gratifying to note that a considerable acreage of orchard land has been seeded to hairy vetch.
Small-fruit Survey.
A small-fruit survey of the district was made during the past season, and in addition several
days were spent by your representative in this work during July in the Slocan Aralley.
Inspection of Nursery Stock.
As the quantity of nursery stock to be inspected this year at the Riverside Nurseries was
larger than usual, your representative was very kindly assisted in a portion of this work by
C. B. Twigg, District Agriculturist at Creston. Reports of the small-fruit survey and nursery
inspection have been submitted to the Department.
Trial plots of eight varieties of potatoes were grown by your representative this season
and some interesting results were obtained. It is hoped to continue this work during the
coming year.
Your representative gave some assistance to C. Tice, of the Soil and Crop Branch at
Arictoria, in both field and tuber inspection in connection with the growing of certified seed-
potatoes. Much interest is being taken in improved methods in potato-growing in the district,
and this has been further stimulated by the holding of the recent Provincial Potato Fair at
Grand Forks.
Your representative acted as judge in a potato-growing competition among a number of the
growers, and several practical educative features were brought out as a result of this contest.
Your representative judged a Boys' and Girls' crop competition in corn and potatoes in
the Rock Creek District.
Judging was also done at the following fall fairs: Boswell, Nelson (with C. B. Twigg),
Arrow Park, Appledale. Creston (with E. C. Hunt), Grand Forks (with R. P. JIurray), and
Rock Creek.
Thirty-one meetings of farmers and fruit-growers were attended during the year, at several
of which your representative either read papers or gave short talks on timely topics.
A greater number of farmers have visited the office during the past season, and while the
major part of your representative's time has been spent out-of-doors among the ranchers, the
amount of office-work has increased during the past year. W 64
Department of Agriculture.
Contributions to both the local and outside press have been, made from time to time upon
subjects which were thought to be of interest.
Respectfully submitted.
Paul C. Black,
District Agriculturist and Field Inspector.
C. B. Twigg, B.S.A.
E. C Hunt, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report as follows :—
Pruning-schools were conducted by your assistant in the early spring at Boswell and Canyon
City. The class at the latter place was composed of settlers from Camp Lister, situated about
4 miles farther south, and as there are no bearing orchards in the soldiers' settlement area
various owners at Canyon kindly allowed me to conduct the classes in their orchards; also,
later in the season, pruning-schools were conducted at Nakusp and Burton City, on the Arrow
Lakes.   A separate report of each was forwarded to your office at the close of these schools.
Camp Lister.
Your assistant was engaged in superintending further planting of fruit-trees during the
spring and early summer throughout the soldiers' settlement area. The various 5-acre lots
were marked out square method and planted 30 feet apart. Demonstrations in pruning were
given in many of the young orchards planted the year before. AVhat remained in the former
nursery rows were overhauled and the more promising ones replanted. The area was visited
several times during the year and, accompanied by the Superintendent, many of the farms were
Field Inspection.
Many orchards throughout the valley were visited. A cherry-tree was discovered with
several outbreaks of black-knot on its limbs, which were cut out and burnt. This is the first
instance known of the presence of this fungous disease in the valley. The larva? of the bud-moth
is still the chief cause for complaint among the growers. These do considerable damage during
the blossoming stage, and together with the depredations of the larva? of the green fruit-worm
and the tussock-moth are the cause of many of the culls in the fall in the packing-houses. Ah
experiment was carried out with arsenate of lead at the rate of 1 lb. of powder to 40 gallons
of water in W. Jackson's orchard on his Mcintosh trees, about 12 years old. Three sprays were
applied—delayed dormant, pink, and calyx stages of growth. Four rows were chosen, with
twelve trees to the row, and were sprayed with lime and sulphur 1-40 on all three occasions
to prevent scab. This spray was mixed in the tank, the agitator started, then the arsenical
poison added. This was previously mixed in a separate vessel with an equal weight of lime
slaked at the rate of 1 lb. of lime to 1 gallon of water.
Row 1.
Row 2.
Row 3.
Row 4.
Mav 8,1922	
Arsenic and
L. and S.
Arsenic and
L. and S.
Arsenic and
L. and S.
Arsenic and
L. and S.
L. and S.
L. and S.
L. and S.
Arsenic and
L. and S.
L. and S.
L. and S.
Arsenic and
L. and S.
Arsenic and
L. and S.
June 6,1922	
The table shows at which stage each row received an application of arsenate of lead, as well
as the lime and sulphur, or the lime and sulphur alone. The block was examined several times
during the spring while the larva? were active and little difference was noted as to results on 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 65
the different rows. It might be said that the subsequent movement of larva? on to the new
growth was not so apparent in the first row. The trees were very heavily infested, and after
examining several hundred specimens half a dozen that were positively dead were found; thus
the effect of the spraying was not noticeable on any row, and to all appearances very little
difference could be found in regard to mortality among the larva? on the trees examined. The
effect was more noticeable in the fall when picking the fruit; less damage from the young
brood on the surface of the apple, also from fruit-worms and other leaf-eating larva?, was in
evidence. Your assistant was not present when the apples were picked, as he was absent judging
at various fall fairs, but Mr. Jackson said the fruit from No. 1 row was the cleanest and there
was little difference in the other three, but all four were freer from blemishes than fruit from
trees in other parts of his orchard which had received only the lime and sulphur sprays; therefore he was of the opinion that trees receiving arsenical poison, with the two early sprayings
at the rate applied, would keep it in check, but to get quicker results one would have to at
least double the quantity of poison used. Thus it becomes a practical question of expense
compared with other means of control.
Potato Inspection.
The Colorado potato-beetle was found around AVardner and south towards the boundary,
and for the first time in the Creston Aralley an outbreak was reported at Camp Lister. All traces
of this infestation were removed at once, but there is a possible danger from further infestation
from pupa-cases buried in the soil hatching out and hibernating in the district and emerging
next spring. Assistance also was rendered in the field inspection of certified seed plots of
potatoes in the Windermere District. Leaf-roll, mosaic, and streak were found around the
Creston District in the potato-fields.
Crop Reports.
A survey was made to ascertain the acreage in bearing and recently planted to small fruits
in the valley, and the report was furnished your office when work was completed. Monthly
reports were forwarded to the office at A'ictoria relating to crop estimates throughout the
growing season.
Fall Fairs and Garden Competitions.
Your assistant acted as judge at a flower-show in Cranbrook under the auspices of the
Women's Institute and at the garden competition at Natal, which were judged early during the
growing season and later in the fall; also as judge or assistant judge at fall fairs held at
Invermere, Trail, Fruitvale, Nelson, New Denver, Slocan City, and Kaslo. Reports of same
were furnished the office at A^ictoria at the close of the judging season.
Inspection of Nursery.
Assistance was rendered in the inspection of the nursery stock of the Riverside Nursery at
Grand Forks during the fall when the trees were being removed from the nursery rows to the
Last season seed was furnished P. Truscott, Creston, to sow an acre of ground with hairy
or winter vetch. Two lanes between tree-rows were sown in the middle of June, two more
the first of July, and another couple the middle of July. That fall, after growth had taken
place, it was apparent that the earlier planting presented a more uniform stand and vigorous
growth. This spring the same ratio was noticed, the earlier the planting the more vigorous
the growth. It may be said that the catch was patchy and uneven, as under the shade of the
tree-rows the stand was poorer, but what slight difference there was noticeable was in favour
of the earlier sowings. The three lots were allowed to ripen their seeds and were disked in
during the first week of July on the same day. Growth did not show up much until after the
rain on October 4th, which was followed by a continued spell of warm weather, resulting in a
very good stand, especially down the centre of the rows, establishing this year the fact that
hairy vetch will ripen early enough to reseed itself in this area under conditions like the past
season. Another allotment of seed was furnished this spring and P. Truscott sowed another
acre of ground in his orchard on June 8th immediately after a shower of rain, and this fall it. W 66
Department of Agriculture.
looks very promising, even advanced in growth far enough to develop a sprinkling of bloom.
Seed was also furnished F. Putnam and he sowed about 2 acres of orchard land at Erickson on
June 15th and applied two irrigations and a third to part of it. This fall there was a heavy
mat and a vigorous growth, many flowers showing and individual vines attained the length
of nearly 6 feet, two or three times the growth compared with the non-irrigated sowing. This
season many growers in the district have seeded their orchards for the first time to hairy vetch
as the result of the Department's experiment in introducing the seed into the valley.
This year's apple-crop was the largest yet harvested, partly due to the trees still increasing
in size and partly to the increase in acreage under irrigation. The winter's precipitation was
lost as the frost was well down in the soil before the snow fell. There was ample rain the fall
before, but this spring, summer, and fall were the driest ever experienced. The frost in the
soil damaged the roots of the small fruits. The strawberry-crop at AVynndel amounted to about
two-thirds of what it should have been; the plants did not bloom in full quantity owing to the
damage to their root system by heaving of the soil and winter-injury. During the growing
season the benefits derived from irrigation were very noticeable in all crops grown under field
conditions. Where drought-spot appeared on apples early in the year it was reduced in subsequent growth under irrigation; alfalfa-fields yielded more in the second cut than in the first,
clearly demonstrating that the ranchers in the older-settled parts of the valley have begun to
recognize and are fully convinced that it is necessary to have irrigation in this valley to ensure
crop returns, if the seasons are going to continue dry as they have been the last four years. On
the other hand, the dry conditions prevailing during the spring largely resulted in the apple-crop
being totally free from scab, and this fall the hay cut on the Kootenay flat was put up in excellent condition. In the orchards the larva? of the forest tent-caterpillars and the invasion of a
number of squirrels proved to be positive pests and required stern measures on the part of many-
owners to keep them in check.
During the year an office was opened at Creston, which was necessary as a bureau of
information to the agricultural public. Messrs. Tice, Eastham, Helmer, Newton, and Robertson,
of various branches of the Department of Agriculture, visited the valley during the past year.
Respectfully submitted.
C. B. Twigg,
District Field Inspector.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for 1922.
New Diseases noticed during 1922.
Sclerotinia Disease of Sunflowers.—Two cases of this disease were sent in from points in
the Eraser Valley in the fall. The stems are apparently killed by girdling at or near the crown,
while extending up the stem is a white web of fungus mycelium, thickly scattered through
which are great numbers of black sclerotia. Most of these are small, about the size of a pin-head,
but a few may be several times this size. So far only a small percentage of the stand is reported
as being attacked. A similar disease, possibly identical in its nature, was reported some years
ago from the State of Washington and last year from Manitoba, but does not seem to have
become of serious economic importance.
Mosaic of Red Raspberry.—This member of the group of diseases known as " mosaics " has
been known for many years in Eastern Canada and United States and recently has been reported
as very serious, dwarfing the plants, whilst the berries are not only few and small, but practically
worthless in quality. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 67
Last year several plantations in Burnaby were found to contain plants whose foliage showed
the mottling so characteristic of mosaic, but these plants were normal in size and, according to
the growers, had shown normal fruiting up to the present. Specimens of the leaves were
diagnosed by an Eastern plant pathologist as apparently identical with Eastern mosaic. It
would appear, therefore, that this disease is present in our small-fruit areas. Just how serious
it is likely to be cannot be foreseen. Judging by the history of potato mosaic in the Province
since the time it was first noticed, it may become a serious factor in the small-fruit industry.
In a recent circular from the Laboratory of Plant Pathology at St. Catharines, Ont, it is
stated that " mosaic has increased rapidly in the last two years in the Niagara District and is
now epidemic." In the East the Cuthbert seems to be the most susceptible variety, with the
exception of the Marlborough. Should this prove to be the case here it will be particularly
unfortunate, since the Cuthbert has shown itself not only a good commercial berry, but resistant
to those unfavourable moisture and drainage conditions liable to bring about. " wet feet," and
which are somewhat frequent in parts of the Fraser Valley. Cuthberts, for instance, will often
come through the winter in good condition where Antwerps are killed outright.
White-pine Blister-rust.
A considerable amount of attention was given to this disease, especially in the spring, since
the period during which conditions are most favourable to scouting for the disease on pines is
generally short and it was important to discover the extent and severity of the disease on
this host
Early in May it was evident that the disease was abundant on both cultivated and wild
five-leaved pine in the vicinity of A'ancouver. About the middle of May a specimen with a?cia
was sent in from A'aldes Island, over 100 miles north of A'ancouver. I immediately visited this
area and found the disease severe and abundant at Bold Point, and also present at Heriot Bay,
both on A'aldes Island. I also found the disease near Whaletown, on Cortes Island. In all cases
the disease was on wild white pine growing under natural conditions, but in the immediate
vicinity of cultivated black currants.
In order to determine whether the outbreak on Valdes and Cortes Islands represented an
isolated area of infection, or whether the disease was more or less continuous up the Coast,
I next visited the district of Pender Harbour. Here the disease could not be located in the
vicinity of the main settlement, but across the harbour a number of young trees were found
producing a?cia. Further investigation along an old logging-road showed the disease to be present
on trees remote from cultivation. Infection could not have come directly, at least, from cultivated Ribes.
Further scouting-work by the Dominion scouts and the Forest Branch showed the disease to
be present over the area west of the Cascades, north to Grassy Bay, 150 miles north-west of
A'ancouver, anci almost at the northern limit of the white pine, some of the severest infestations
being quite remote from cultivation. The origin of the disease is still uncertain, and will
probably remain so, but it seems probable that it was brought in with an importation of
ornamental five-leave pines from France in 1910 and planted out in Point Grey. If so, however,
the spread of the disease has been very rapid, as some of the infections on A'aldes Island are
of a date apparently not much later than this.
In July I made a careful examination of black-currant plantations on the Kootenay Lake,
including Nelson, Willow Point, Harrop, Mirror Lake, and Kaslo. No indication of the disease
was found, confirming the observations made last fall in the same area. Examination of some
fairly large plantations at Nakusp also gave no sign of the disease. This entire area was also
scouted later by Dominion and Forest Branch scouts with negative results. There would seem
to be grounds, therefore, for believing this area still free from the disease. At the same time
it is noteworthy that the past season was not favourable to the development of the disease on
Ribes. As an example, a plantation of cultivated black currants in the vicinity of A'ancouver
which the previous fall showed 100 per cent, infection, when examined on approximately the
same date this year showed no signs of infection. This was certainly not due to lack of
a?ciospores in the spring. Probably the abnormally dry weather throughout much of the growing
season had much to do with checking the development on this host. This observation is
important in showing that negative results from one season's scouting cannot be regarded as
conclusively establishing the absence of the disease in a given area. W 68
Department of Agriculture.
Until August 2Sth no indications were found of the disease east of the Cascades. On that
date the disease was discovered at Revelstoke and Beaton. The nature of the season, already
commented upon, probably accounts for the disease not having been found before, as both
A. T. Davidson, in charge of blister-rust work in the Province for the Dominion, and myself
had done a certain amount of scouting at Revelstoke previously. Further scouting showed the
disease to be present in the Railway Belt as far east as Notch Hill. AA'hile the disease was
mostly on cultivated black currants, infection was also found on pines at several points. This
new area of infection is particularly unfortunate, as it threatens, if it does not actually involve,
the watershed between the Arrow and Okanagan Lakes, where some of the most valuable stands
of white pine in the Province are located. The disease was found too late in the season for
the whole area to be scouted again this year. Earlier scouting-work in the Mabel Lake and
Sugar Lake sections has shown negative results, but in the light of the season and the later
findings in the Railway Belt these cannot now be regarded as final.
The policy to be adopted will depend upon the conditions found next spring. At the
International Blister-rust Convention held at Portland in December, 1921, opinion amongst the
United States delegates was for eradication of cultivated black currants in the area infected
or threatened by the disease. The Canadian delegates were not convinced of the desirability
of adopting such drastic measures until at least we were in possession of more data as to the
extent and severity of the disease as it already exists here. The findings of the past season have
justified our attitude. If a campaign had been undertaken for eradication of black currants
in the Coast belt the Province would simply have been the loser by the economic value of these
bushes and the cost of eradication, and would have gained little or nothing in control of the
disease. Should a similar situation be found to exist in the Arrow Lakes area it would also
not be possible to do much on a large scale. We should probably have to fall back on what
is known in the Eastern part of the continent as "local control," which consists in protecting
valuable stands or plantations by removing all Ril>es, wild or cultivated, from the stand and
a strip around it. On the other hand, if the disease is not found extensively on pine, the
removal of infected pines and elimination of the cultivated black currant might do much to check
the progress of the disease in the area already affected and slow down its spread into territory
now free. The white pine is a much more valuable asset, actual and potential, in the Arrow
and Kootenay Lake Districts than at the Coast, being worth many times the cultivated black
currants in those areas. If, therefore, the white pine can be protected by eliminating the black
currant, it is probable that with due publicity given to the reasons for it the necessary measures
might be taken without arousing much opposition. Of course there are always individuals who
have no consideration for the general welfare, and others who, for various reasons, suffer more
severely than others as a result of drastic measures.
In the State of Washington, where eradication of cultivated black currants has been carried
on the past season, considerable opposition has developed, so that it seems probable that some
degree of compensation will have to be granted there if the work is to be continued.
In Idaho, on the other hand, where the white pine furnishes industries and employs labour
to an extent obvious to all, no objection to such eradication-work has apparently been registered.
Pending the results of next season's scouting, it is desirable that the quarantine against
the moving of Ribes and five-leaved pines from the areas of the Province west of the Cascades
to those east should be maintained.
A considerable amount of time was given to this work, which included the revision of the
regulations for seed certification, the instructing of the new Inspectors for seed-certification work,
and the carrying-out of actual inspection. In conjunction with Mr. Hay, District Agriculturist
of Cranbrook, I made the first growing-crop inspection of all the plots grown for certified seed
in the Columbia Valley. The varieties grown for certified seed in this area;—namely, Cambridge
Russet and Wee McGregor—were notably free from Fusarium wilt.
From the observations of the past two years it appears that the bacterial disease known
as black-leg (Bacillua phytophthorus) is much more abundant than previously supposed. It is
found both in the irrigated and non-irrigated sections.
Mr. Greenwood, one of the Potato Inspectors, carried on some cultural work in the laboratory
until the field-work claimed all his time.    A considerable number of cultures were made from 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 69
the discoloured tissue of potato-tubers showing stem-end browning. Nearly all this discoloured
tissue was found to be sterile. This has an important bearing on the generally recommended
practice of cutting the stem-end of seed-tubers and discarding those showing stem-end browning,
as being liable to produce plants infected with wilt. It would seem that such potatoes are not
necessarily so infected. This bears out what we have observed in the field. A field of potatoes,
especially in the irrigated sections, which has shown little or no wilt in the growing crop may
have a considerable percentage of mature tubers showing the brown ring. AVe feel, therefore,
that the inspection of the growing crop is of more importance in the control of this disease
than tuber inspection.
Colorado Beetle.
In 1920 a careful survey was made of the territory from the International Boundary along
the Kootenay and Elk River Valleys and westward as far as Cranbrook and St. Mary Prairie,
but time did not permit of scouting north or east. This year a careful search was made for the
pest to the north, commencing with Fort Steele and Wasa. A special look-out was also kept
for any signs of it whilst carrying out field inspection of potatoes in the Windermere District.
No sign of it was discovered nor had it been observed by any of the growers.
On my return from the Columbia A'alley I paid a visit, to Fernie and inspected a large
number of potato-patches in and around this town. No trace of the beetle was discovered, as
would certainly be the case if it had entered British Columbia via the Crowsnest Pass from
infested areas on the Prairies. This evidence confirms the conclusion drawn from, last year's
observations, that the invasion has come from the State of Montana and gradually spread
north and east. During the last week of April a number of meetings were held in this district,
in which A. Hay and E. C. Hunt took part, in addition to myself. Later in the season a quantity
of arsenate of lead was distributed by Mr. Hay and instructions given as to how to apply it.
It is evident, however, that some stronger measures are necessary if the pest is to be held in
check. There was an area of 20 acres of potatoes held by one Chinaman near Wardner with
scattering infestation through it. He had been making an attempt to control the beetle in the
most thickly infested spots by applying Paris green. As the apparatus he possessed for this
purpose consisted of a coal-oil can with a number of holes punched in the bottom, it will be
realized that the results were unsatisfactory. A quantity of arsenate of lead, however, was given
him and an attempt made to instruct him in the use of it. It is essential, however, that proper
spraying or dusting machinery be introduced into the district if adequate results are to be
The area infested was not found to have extended this year, nor were there any new
outbreaks that could be traced to insects carried from this area. The most disturbing event
was the discovery of a very small infestation, consisting of only a few larva?, south of Creston.
It is hardly probable that the parent insect, or insects, would have got a foothold so far from
the railway if transported from the East Kootenay area, or that they had come over from
Idaho, seeing that there is no infestation in between. This grower got his seed from Alberta
and the most probable explanation appears to be that a beetle or two bad hybernated with
these potatoes and been shipped with them. It is hardly possible for the Province of British
Columbia to ask the Dominion to enforce a quarantine against other Provinces and States where
the pest exists, as this would mean an embargo on practically the whole of Canada and the
United States. Now that seed certification is being carried out in the Province, the grade of
seed available within the Province is equal to anything obtainable from outside sources, and
there is no danger of introducing this or certain other pests by its use. If for any reason it
is necessary to go outside the Province for seed, growers would be well advised to secure it, if
possible, from localities free from Colorado beetle or to treat it on arrival with disinfectants
instead of waiting until planting-time.
The matter of the embargo placed on fruit from this Province by the Commonwealth of
Australia on account of the presence of fire-blight was again taken up. There seems no possibility
of the disease being carried in the fruit, but it is a difficult matter to establish a negative proposition in a convincing way. At any rate, the Australian Government is apparently not disposed
to take any risks. At the time of the visit of the Dominion Minister of Trade and Commerce
en route to Australia I prepared a memorandum on the subject for the use of the fruit-growers' W 70
stment of Agriculture.
delegation appointed to take up the matter of reciprocity in fruit. It is hoped that negotiations
conducted by the Minister of Trade and Commerce in person may bring about more favourable
results than have been obtained by correspondence.
In addition to my regular work, I gave a course of lectures in plant pathology at the
University during the spring term; two lectures on plant-diseases at the short course in agriculture given under the auspices of the A'ancouver Y.M.C.A.; collaborated in the Dominion plant-
disease survey and in preparing abstracts of British Columbia publications for Botanical
Respectfully submitted.
J. AV. Eastham,
Provincial Plant Pathologist.
D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The following is a report of the entomological work conducted during the past year
from this office :—
R. C. Treherne, Field Officer for British Columbia, of the Dominion Entomological Branch,
who has been in charge of the entomological work in this Province for a number of years, left
British Columbia early in April to take up his new duties at Ottawa as Chief of the Division
of Field and Garden Crop Insects for Canada. The Province is greatly indebted to him for his
close co-operation with this office in the entomological problems of this Province.
The Entomological staff during the past year consisted of Max H. Ruhmann, Senior Assistant
Entomologist, and E. R. Buckell, Assistant Entomologist.
The entomological projects for the year 1922, as outlined in our report for the year 1921,
were as follows :—
(1.)  Preliminary investigations and experiments in the control of wireworms.
(2.) Field investigations regarding the injury to apples supposed to be due to thrips.
Experiments on the control of the black peach-aphis in the Southern Okanagan.
Investigations and control experiments on the blister-mite of the apple.
Experiments on the control of the crown-borer of peach and prune.
Experiments on the control of the oyster-shell scale during the dormant season.
Preliminary investigations regarding the life-history and distribution of the corn-
ear worm in the Southern Okanagan and Boundary District.
Investigations on the distribution of species and the supervision of control-work
of the locust-infestation in the Douglas Lake range area  (this will be conducted
in co-operation with the Range Commissioner, Department of Lands).
Testing the efficiency of two new insecticides for soil-insects about to be placed
on the British Columbia market.
Rearing and preparing economic insect material in all stages for the purpose of
recording the descriptions of immature stages for identification purposes and for
demonstration mounts for the horticultural offices.
(11.) The preparation of exhibition material.
The entire time of E. R. Buckell was given to project No. 8, of which a separate report will
be presented by Mr. Buckell.
Work was started as soon as the seasonal conditions permitted on projects Nos. 1, 4, 6, 8,
and 9, but owing to our inability to obtain office and temporary field help and means of transportation, all except projects Nos. 6 and 8 had to be abandoned by June 1st. Project No. 2 was
undertaken by E. P. Venables, Junior Assistant Entomologist of the Dominion Entomological
Branch, and good progress is being made.
As a result of preliminary experiments on project No. 6 during the spring of 1921, in which
the oyster-shell scale had been fully controlled with oil sprays, it was thought desirable that
(10.) 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 71
commercial tests be made during the spring of 1922. H. H. Evans, Assistant District Horticulturist at Vernon, B.C., having the machinery available to carry out this work undertook to
make the applications as outlined, Dormoil (a new miscible oil) and fuel-oil plus whale-oil soap
being respectively used. The results were very satisfactory with both sprays. Dormoil showed
caustic action on the eggs of the scale; no injury to the trees was, however, apparent. The
fuel-oil plus the whale-oil soap gave no evidence of any caustic action.
Further commercial tests over a number of years are necessary to ascertain the physical
effects of these oil sprays on the fruit-trees if regularly used. H. H. Evans has submitted a
report on this experiment which was published in the September number of the Agricultural
In connection with the eradication of the codling-moth in city quarantine areas, a series of
preliminary experiments to deblossom apple-trees with sprays were undertaken by this office
at the request of the Horticultural Branch; the results warrant a continuation of these experiments during the spring of 1923.
The codling-moth situation in the Dry Belt is assuming rather serious proportions; the new
outbreak reported in Kelowna during the late fall of 1921 and during the summer of 1922 give
a quarantine area for this section of approximately 1,000 acres. A small proven infestation was
placed under quarantine in the Kaleden District in the fall of 1922.
Several reports of infestation were received from Penticton, but although every effort was
made to prove infestation, no direct evidence of infestation was found in this district.
A report of infestation from Grand Porks proved, on investigation, to have been present for
a period of not less than three years.    A full report fin this matter was submitted during October.
The old outbreak at Okanagan Landing, although it has not increased in area is still present,
due to continuous reinfestation from foreign reefers held at the Landing.
The C.P.R. has now installed superheating plants, both at Vancouver and Revelstoke, for
the purpose of superheating all reefers before they are permitted to enter the Okanagan Valley;
the codling-moth situation in the Okanagan A'alley is, however, now so serious that total eradication of this pest is practically impossible.
A new leaf-roller (Archips argyrospila) was recorded in various sections of the Okanagan
Valley for the first time in 1922; this new pest and the bud-moth (Tmetocera ocellana) were
responsible for extensive losses to the fruit-growers during 1922. Satisfactory control measures
for these pests have not yet been established.
The blister-mite on the apple has become a serious problem in the.Dry Belt and definite
control measures must be established. Present experiences show that good control may be
obtained with a late fall spray of lime-sulphur; in some cases very good results have been
obtained with the usual dormant spring sprays, but these cannot always be depended upon; it
is therefore desirable that a dependable semi-dormant spray be found.
The annual convention of the Association of the Western Technical Horticulturists, Plant
Pathologists, and Entomologists, held at Yakima, Oregon, July 24th to 26th, was attended.
The codling-moth situation and control measures employed in this section were thoroughly
studied. The leaf-roller [Archips argyrospila), which has been a serious problem in Oregon
for a number of years, was taken up; good results have recently been obtained with this pest
by the use of Dormoil. The problem of physical injury to the trees from the regular use of oils
has not yet been satisfactorily solved.
A new pest has made its appearance in Oregon orchards; this is the citrus-mite; its control
appears to be a serious problem in deciduous orchards. This pest has not yet appeared in
British Columbia, but may become a problem for us in the near future.
The practical examination, in the field, of potato-diseases was an excellent subject taken
up at this convention, in that it will tend to unify the field inspection of certified seed-potatoes
throughout the Western States and British Columbia.
The possibilities of wireworm injury was well illustrated in a field of approximately 50 acres,
in which the entire crop of potatoes, corn, and other truck-crops had been completely destroyed
for two consecutive years.
During August, in co-operation with the Horticultural Branch, field talks were given on
entomological problems at various points in the Okanagan Valley and Salmon Arm; these
meetings were very well attended and appeared to be greatly appreciated. In co-operation with H. R. McLarty, Plant Pathologist at the Dominion Experimental Farm
at Summerland, joint exhibits were displayed at a number of the Okanagan fall fairs. This
office was represented at the Kelowna and Penticton Fall Fairs, but owing to other duties we
were unable to attend the fairs held at Peachland, Naramata. and Summerland; Mr. McLarty,
however, kindly took charge of the entomological exhibits at these points.
During the assizes held at Vernon in November we were called upon to give technical
evidence in the civil case of Ross Johnson v. the Vernon Irrigation District; this case, on completion of the evidence for the prosecution, was withdrawn and settled out of Court.
The pressure of office and laboratory routine made it impossible to undertake any new
constructive work. Requests for personal investigation in the field could frequently only be
undertaken on the condition that the applicant provide transportation for such purpose. AVhen
time permitted, E. P. A'enables, Junior Assistant Entomologist of the Dominion staff, kindly
placed himself and his car at our disposal.
Max H. Ruhmann,
Assistant Entomologist in Charge.
P.S.—E. R. Buckell resigned his position as Assistant Entomologist on the Provincial staff
in November for the purpose of taking up a similar position on the Dominion Entomological staff
at Ottawa.
Entomological Projects for the Tear 1923.—In addition to the entomological projects which
were outlined for the year 1922, but which were not taken up for the reasons explained, the
following problems need Immediate attention :—
(1.)  Life-history investigations of the codling-moth in the infested areas of the Interior,
with particular reference to the time of application of the cover sprays.
(2.)  Life-history in relation to the control and control experiments of the leaf-roller
(Archips argyrospila).
(3.)  Life-history   in   relation   to   control   and   control   experiments   of   the   bud-moth
(Tmetoccra ocellana).
(4.) Experimental tests of oil sprays in regard to specific gravity and its relation to
fruit-tree injury.
W. H. Lyne.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report herewith the work of the Inspector of Imported and
Exported Horticultural and Field Products and his staff of assistants during the year ending
December 31st, 1922.
There was very little variation in the routine as compared with that of the last few years.
A steady increase in the number of deep-sea boats arriving at A'ancouver and Victoria has added
to the volume of our work. These were from Europe by way of the Panama Canal and others
from Australia, China, Japan, Pacific Islands, and Coast ports.
Transportation of miscellaneous plant products from so many parts of the world where
certain objectionable pests and disease exist necessitates continuous vigilance.
Tourist and other traffic crossing the boundary from the United States by rail, wagon-road,
and boat was subject to inspection by our Quarantine Officers. Passengers and cargoes arriving
from Pacific Ocean ports also received attention.
Imported Fruit and Vegetables.
Fruit, vegetables, rice, corn, peas, and beans entering the Province were iuspected at the
several entry ports as usual. The amounts and varieties are included with this report on
separate tabulated sheets, including the 1921 importations for comparison. The sheets also
record the products condemned. .
13 Geo. 5
British: Columbia.
AV 73
Reason for Condemnation.
Codling-moth was the principal reason for many apples and pears from the United States
being condemned. The peach-worm (Anarsia lineatella) was responsible for a similar fate to
many of the peaches, apricots, and plums. Some of the cherries were condemned for brown-rot.
Oranges were rejected for brown-rot, scale-insects, and frost-injury, two straight car-loads being
rejected for the latter defect.
The so-called frost-injury of the orange is not necessarily a decomposed or rotten condition.
It is the breaking-down of the juice-cells resulting from exposure to freezing temperatures while
the fruit is still on the trees during the latter stage of development. This results in a dry
juiceless orange and is a rank imposition on those who unwittingly buy them. They are
condemned for the same degree of defect as that established by the California State Department
of Agriculture; i.e., cases containing over 15 per cent, of the fruit showing over 20 per cent,
of dry juice-cells exposed on the cut surface of half an orange. The extremely low temperatures
in the California citrus belt during the fall and early winter of 1921 accounted for a large
percentage of the crop being unfit for market. Under the circumstances the systematic inspection of the oranges appeared to stimulate the buyers, as their risks were not so great as they
would have been had no inspection been in operation.
Anacortes Ferry.
The new Anacortes to Sidney ferry which was operating from May until October necessitated
providing an official at Sidney to inspect any plant products -which tourist or other passengers
might bring from the United States side. Mr. White, the Customs Officer stationed at Sidney,
A'.L, was accordingly appointed temporary Plant Quarantine Officer for the new port of entry
during the time the ferry was in operation.
Inspection of Coastwise Shipments.
Owing to the difficulty of stowing fruit aud vegetable shipments on the boats from Seattle
in a way convenient for inspection at certain ports north a change of procedure was made.
Shipments for all ports north of A'ancouver, except Prince Rupert, are now inspected at Vancouver during the time the boats discharge their Vancouver freight. This applies particularly to
fruit billed to Swanson Bay, Ocean Falls, Anyox, and Stewart. Prince Rupert shipments are
inspected at that port by the Quarantine Officer stationed there.
Pacific Highway.
Apple-growers in the Ferndale District just across the United States boundary in the State
of Washington made considerable use of the A'ancouver market. The apples were brought in
through the Pacific Highway entry-port in auto-trucks. They were inspected at that port by
Mr. Westland, of the Canadian Customs, who also acts as our Fruit Quarantine Officer. The
auto traffic through this particular port was very heavy and often taxed the energy and patience
of the officials.
Australian Oranges.
Three trial shipments of Australian navel oranges from New South Wales arrived during
the months of August, September, and October, amounting to 4,999 boxes; 3,062 were consigned
to Vancouver, 40O to Edmonton, 400 to Montreal, and 1,137 to Seattle. The oranges in the first
shipment were larger and somewhat attractive in appearance, but thick in the skin, coarse, and
lacking sugar, juice, and flavour. There was considerable improvement in the quality of the
later shipments, but the shrinkage was much heavier, containing a number of rotten ones that
had failed to survive the journey. A large amount of the shrinkage appeared to be the result
of the oranges having been packed and shipped in a heated and perhaps wet condition. The
inflexible nature of the wood of which the boxes were constructed did not allow the necessary
bulge which would provide ventilation and also prevent the fruit becoming loose and bruised.
Owing to the possibility of fruit-fly the oranges were very carefully inspected.
Bananas from Suva.
A trial shipment of bananas from Suva, the Fiji Islands, arrived at A'ancouver by the
S.S.   "Canadian  Scottish"  on  February  9th.    This  particular shipment  created  considerable W 74
department of Agriculture.
interest with the wholesale trade, as did the Australian oranges. It proved very disappointing,
however, with regard to condition, and the quality did not seem equal to those from Cuba and
West Indies or our regular trade banana. AVe were informed there was a better grade in
the Fiji Islands that could be shipped provided the right accommodation was available. The
accommodation provided by the S.S. " Canadian Scottish" was somewhat crude and the way
the fruit was shipped did not give it a fair trial. Three or four methods of shipping were tried.
Those in whole bunches with ample ventilation arrived in best condition. Many were too green
and did not mature after arrival; others had started to rot owing to lack of proper ventilation,
crude handling and packing, and the way they were stowed.
Importation of Apples. !
A noticeable detail on the tabulated sheet attached to this report shows the number of
apples imported during the year to be less than half the amount imported the previous year.
The importation of pears and apricots was considerably in excess of the previous year.
It was disappointing to note so many imported pears, in view of the fact of there being a
good crop throughout our Gulf Islands and Coast districts. Our own pears were exceptionally
clean, free from scab, etc., due to the long spell of dry weather. Had they been picked and
placed on the market properly packed and graded just previous to turning colour they should
have taken the place of many that were imported.
More than double the quantity of tomatoes was imported as compared with the year before.
Apparently this was the result of certain jobbers importing in competition with our British
Columbia hothouse tomatoes. Those who imported gained very little owing to heavy shrinkage
and the amount condemned.
Imported Nursery Stock.
Complying with the Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest Act" and the Provincial
Horticultural Regulations, all nursery stock (trees, shrubs, etc.) imported into Canada by way
of British Columbia or into British Columbia through other Canadian ports and from any
other Province in Canada was inspected at the A'ancouver Fumigation and Inspection Station.
Stock subject to fumigation as provided in the regulations was treated accordingly.
There was an increase in the number of standard fruit-trees imported, but a decrease in the
small-fruit stock, with the exception of strawberry-plants, as compared with 1921.
Stock from Holland.
Quite a large shipment of ornamental trees and shrubs arrived from Holland in December.
The shipment consisted of nine car-loads, divided among a dozen consignees. The stock was in
very fair condition, bar a few cases that had been touched with frost. A'ery little had to be
condemned. Just a few trees infested with European scale (Asjndiotus ostrawformis) and some
box-bushes infested with oyster-shell scale (Lepidosaphes).
Nursery Stock from Japan.
About one car-load of nursery stock arrived from Japan in January and another in December,
also several cases during the spring and fall season. There were 30,617 fruit-trees, 300 grapevine and 10,300 fruit seedlings, 7,400 ornamental shrubs, and several thousand bulbs. It was
necessary to condemn several fruit-trees and vines, flowering cherry and maple trees, also some
camellia and azalea shrubs, owing to their being infested with Aspidiotus, Chionaspis. and
Diaspis scale-insects.
Dirt on Roots.
One of the objectionable details in connection with the Japanese nursery stock is that a
great deal arrives with its roots balled with the earth in which it is grown. This entails
considerable trouble to the Inspectors in order to make sure no subterraneous insects are
contained therein. It was just such a source by which the Japanese beetle (Papillia japonica)
was supposed to have been imported to the Eastern United States. One shipment that recently
arrived at Vancouver contained two acer, two azalea, and one wistaria, in the roots of which 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 75
the Inspectors found over sixty beetle larva of the Anomala species, somewhat related to the
destructive Japanese beetle referred to. Your Inspector has been informed that the Advisory
Board of the Dominion Destructive Insect and Pest Act Regulations is seriously considering the
prohibition of stock imported with earth on the roots.
Stock from United States.
Most of the standard fruit-trees and small-fruit stock was imported from the United States.
Miscellaneous varieties and quantities were condemned for scale-insects, Aspidiotus, Lepidosaphes,
Diaspis, Alacaspis, and Lecaniwm. Other pests were Phylloxera vastatrix on roots of grape
stock, woolly aphis on roots of apple and pear; peach-root borer on roots of peach, apricot, and
plum; blackberry-root borer (Bembecia marginata). Diseases and physical defects were principally root and crown gall, hairy root, bark-canker, sour-sap, and frost-injury.
Stock from all Parts of the World.
Stock from France.—About the only important shipments from France consisted of 12,950
ornamental seedlings and a few thousand bulbs.
Stock from England and Ireland.—A comparatively small number of shipments arrived from
England, Ireland, and Scotland. There were a few fruit-trees and raspberry-canes, but ornamental stock, principally rose-bushes and standard rose-trees, were most in evidence.
Australia and New Zealand.—A mere handful of ornamental shrubs arrived from the above
India.—The only stock from India consisted of one solitary tea-shrub.
China.—A few shrubs and plants arrived from China, principally those carried by passengers,
but there were a considerable number of bulbs.
Eastern Canada.—A very small quantity of nursery stock arrived from any of the Provinces
east of British Columbia, principally ornamental stock.
Nursery Stock exported.
Very little nursery stock was exported, although there are indications that much larger
quantities will be going out in the near future. Some of our nurserymen have proved they can
propagate the finest class of stock, such as standard fruit-trees, ornamental, and rose varieties.
The exportations during 1922 were as follows: To China, 4 apple-trees, 12 grape-vine, 75
ornamental shrubs, 6 ornamental trees (beech and maple), 5 standard rose-trees, 2 rose-bushes,
96 perennial plants, 650 strawberry-plants, and 12 rhubarb-roots; to Japan, 2 cherry and 2 pear
trees, 2 mountain-ash, and 2 flowering currant; to United States, 12 dahlia tubers and 154 lb.
Douglas fir seed; to New Zealand, 1 date-prune tree and 25 raspberry-canes; to Australia,
4 thornless-blackberry shrubs; to France, 3 lb. hemlock, 10 lb. Douglas fir, and 5 lb. Sitka spruce
seed;  to Germany, 100 lb. Picea sitchensis and 5 lb. western hemlock seed.
The New Fumigation Station.
On March 27th your Inspector was notified by Mr. Bateman, of the C.P.R. Right-of-way and
Lease Department, that the lease of the land occupied by the Government Fumigation Station
would be cancelled the following month. Owing to so short a notice interfering very seriously
with the season's work at the station the cancellation of the lease was postponed till June 1st,
1922. Negotiating for a desirable new site on which to erect another station proved much more
difficult than was anticipated. It was not until November that final arrangements were made
to build the new station on Lots 4, 5, and 6 of the C.N.R. industrial site between the passenger
and freight depots.
The C.P.R. again extended our lease of the old site until November 1st, 1922. After that
date we were requested to make any other arrangements with the Marshall-Wells Company, to
whom, we were informed, the lease had been transferred.
The existing frame building or series of six rooms, two cyanide chambers, and lean-to shed,
situated on the east side of the C.P.R. local freight-yards, will shortly be discarded. An up-to-
date substantial building is about to be erected on the C.N.R. property between the passenger
1 and freight depots to take the place of the old fumigation station.
The present station has been in operation in the C.P.R. yards since 1900; previous to that
it consisted of a little two-room shack near the water-front which was moved to the present W 76
Department of Agriculture.
site. The four other larger rooms were added, one in 1900 and the three others between that
date and 1910. The north room is a separate building 48 by 48 built by the Dominion Government and contains the two cyanide fumigating-chambers.
The fumigation station is jointly owned by the Dominion and Provincial Governments. The
details of operation conform to the Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest Act" and the
Provincial Horticultural Regulations referring to imported plant products.
In order to prevent imported destructive insects and plant-diseases being distributed
throughout the country, all nursery stock, trees, or shrubs imported into Canada by way of
British Columbia or into British Columbia from other parts of Canada must go direct to the
fumigation station at Vancouver. The stock is thoroughly inspected and certain varieties
fumigated. Any found to be infested or infected with pest or disease of economic importance
is condemned and destroyed or returned to the shippers..
Imported stored products that arrive infested with injurious insects are also sent to the
fumigation station or are refused entry into the Province, according to economic importance.
Since 1905 to the end of 1922 the following imported nursery stock has passed through
the station: 3,184,643 standard fruit-trees; 34,405 nut-trees; 1,889,933 small-fruit bushes and
vines;   2,627,006 ornamental trees and shrubs;   15,515,009 seedlings, fruit and ornamental.
During the same period thousands of tons of imported stored products, such as corn, peas,
beans, and rice, have been fumigated with carbon bisulphide owing to moth or weevil infestation, etc.
The new fumigation and inspection station will consist of a one-story, reinforced, hollow-tile
and cement building. It will have a floor-space of 5,000 feet, divided into eight sections, which
will include four cyanide fumigating-chambers. A railway delivery-track will run lengthwise
on one side of the building and a team-track on the other.
Apples to New Zealand.
Your Inspector issued export certificates covering 24,801 boxes of apples to New Zealand.
The apples were all grown in the Okanagan District and complied with the New Zealand
Horticultural Regulations, which also demand that a certificate of inspection accompany each
Apples to China.
Some 4,073 boxes of apples were exported to China. Export certificates were issued on
most of the shipments as a matter of discretion, but there are no Chinese regulations demanding
inspection certificates.
No Apples to Australia.
The embargo against British Columbia apples to Australia is still in operation owing to
ruling with regard to fire-blight.
Potato Inspection.
In order to preserve the reputation of British Columbia potatoes competing with those in
foreign markets, and also comply with certain foreign quarantine regulations, all potatoes for
export were inspected. Practically all exported potatoes were bought subject to Government
inspection, and nothing but sound, well-graded shipments were allowed to go out.
Exported Potatoes.
Following is a list of 1921 crop of potatoes exported from the Province during the first six
months of 1922 for which export certificates were issued: To Alberta and Eastern Canada,
375 tons 1,300 lb.; to United States, 210 lb.; to Manila, Philippine Islands, 753 tons; to China,
25 tons 1,000 lb.;  to Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, 100 tons;  total, 1,254 tons 510 lb.
Also list of 1922 crop exported during the last six months of 1922 for which export certificates
were issued: To Alberta, 126 tons 1,900 lb.; to Manila, Philippine Islands, 125 tons; to China,
12 tons 1,100 lb.;   total, 264 tons 1,000 lb.
Imported Potatoes.
Potatoes imported into the Province during the year were as follows: From United States,
266 tons; from Alberta, 395 tons; from Japan, 350 lb. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 77
District Inspection.
Complying with the request of several growers and shippers, your Inspector instructed
Mr. Gutteridge to proceed to the Lillooet District and Mr. Irving to the Kamloops and Ashcroft
District to instruct the growers and inspect their potatoes.
Mr. Gutteridge and Mr. Irving arrived in the districts allotted to them on October 1st and
remained until November 1st. During that time they accomplished some very useful work.
Their presence was very much appreciated by some of the growers owing to the new Dominion
" Potato Grade Act" going into effect on October 1st. R. G. Clarke, of the Dominion Fruit and
Vegetable Division, and your Inspector arranged for the co-operation of our respective staffs to
instruct both growers and shippers regarding the'new Dominion Act.
Mr. Irving's report is appended to that of your Inspector's and supplies some other details
of the potato inspection that are of interest. Your Inspector also received the hearty co-operation
of W. H, Robertson, Provincial Horticulturist, and his staff in the inspection of potatoes for
export and several local shipments in the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts.
" Eggs Marks Act."
Mr. Gutteridge and Mr. Irving, attached to your Inspector's staff and specially appointed
Eggs Marks Inspectors, carried out their duty with regard to systematic inspection of eggs in
wholesale warehouses, retail stores and bakeries, open markets and peddlers. Further notes
regarding the eggs marks inspection will be found in Mr. Irving's appended report.
Plant Quarantine Co-operation.
L. S. McLaine, Chief, Division of Foreign Pests Suppression, Ottawa, visited British Columbia
in June and in company with your Inspector attended the annual conference of the Western
Plant Quarantine Board at Sacramento, California. The conference was attended by the chief
quarantine officials from all the Western States, Hawaiian Islands, Mexico, and the United
States Federal Horticultural Board, AVashington, D.C. Mr. McLaine represented the Canadian
Dominion Department and your Inspector had the honour of representing British Columbia.
There were also in attendance representatives from the several transportation companies and
Western Nurserymen's Association. A unique opportunity was afforded those present to obtain
valuable information regarding many problems connected with plant-quarantine work.
On returning to British Columbia Mr. McLaine spent several days with your Inspector
going over the many details connected with the co-operative work of the Dominion and Provincial
plant quarantine. One detail in particular was that of negotiating for a new site for the
fumigation and inspection station.
General Office-work.
All details of work carried out by your Inspector and his staff were recorded at his headquarters office situated in the Court-house, A'ancouver.
Horticultural, poultry, live-stock, and dairy bulletins were on hand and available to the
There was a steady demand for general information relating to horticultural and agricultural
practice, regulations, insects and diseases, markets, etc.
Inspection reports covering individual shipments of imported or exported products were
issued to consignees, shippers, or transportation companies when applied for, provided such
applications were justifiable.
All correspondence was carefully and promptly attended to; 1,003 letters were received
and 1,390 were sent out.
All monthly inspection reports and returns from the Quarantine Officers stationed at the
several entry-ports to the Province were received, checked, and recorded.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Lyne,
Chief Inspector of Imported and Exported Horticultural and Field Products. W 78
Department of Agriculture.
A. Irving.
W. H. Lyne, Esq.,
Inspector of Imported and Exported Horticultural and Field Products,
Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report herewith as Assistant Potato Inspector and Inspector under the " Eggs
Marks Act" attached to your staff.
Markets were such throughout the past year as to throw practically all of the British
Columbia crop on the domestic market. The United States, which in former years took a
considerable part of the British Columbia crop, had adequate home supplies, and even if the
existing duty imposed by the United States on imported potatoes had been removed it is
extremely doubtful whether any movement would have developed to points south of the International Line.
The Prairie Provinces, which in former years had also bought British Columbia potatoes,
were more than able to take care of their own needs, and as a result the movement in that
direction was much diminished.
The only exports of note took place in the early part of the year. They consisted of crated
Lower Mainland stock and were exported to Manila, P.I.
Buying for the domestic market was on a hand-to-mouth basis, very little stock being held
in city storage. Thus the grower was compelled to hold his crop until there was a consumer's
demand for it. This condition created what is known as a " buyer's " market, which means that
the buyer was in a position to dictate price and terms to the grower. This naturally resulted
in a minimum price to the grower.
During the months of June and July it became apparent that No. 1 old stocks were depleted,
although there were plentiful offerings of the lower grades. In order to meet the demand for
No. 1 stock eleven car-lots of Yakima potatoes were imported from Washington. These shipments constituted the total imports from the United States for the year, bar small lots.
On September 30th the Federal " Root A'egetable Act" came into force. Among other things,
this Act requires that all potatoes be sold on specified grades and that containers be marked
with the name and address of the packer and the grade of the contents.
On October 1st your assistant proceeded to the Kamloops and Ashcroft Districts for the
purpose of inspecting export shipments of potatoes, and incidentally to do any other work which
would be to the benefit of the potato-growing industry.
As practically no export movement developed, your assistant devoted his time to the
instruction of growers as to the requirements of the new Grading Act. This work involved
innumerable field inspections, the inspection of shipments for the local markets, and demonstrations in grading and marking. This work was found to be most essential as most of the growers
were quite ignorant of the requirements of the Act, while even those who were aware of the
requirements had placed a wrong interpretation on them.
Although at first some of the growers looked upon the enforced grading as being an undue
interference, this feeling soon passed and your assistant found his services as instructor in much
demand. By the end of the month grading and marking were general, and as no export movement had developed your assistant returned to Vancouver. During the remainder of the year
your assistant was occupied with headquarters routine.
It became apparent to your assistant whilst in the Interior that, as far as quality was
concerned, the crop left much to be desired. Out of thirty-five car-lots shipped, only two came
up to Canada A requirements and only one to the requirements of Canada B grade. The
remaining thirty-two car-lots were Canada C grade.
Field inspections showed that the different fields ran from 15 to 80 per cent. Canada A
grade, with the majority running about 45 per cent. In many cases what would have been a
field running Canada A at a fairly high percentage had been considerably reduced by injury
caused by careless or unskilful digging. This reduction in some cases was as much as 20
per cent. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 79
It is quite apparent that it would not pay the grower of a 15-per-cent. field to grade out
the Canada A's.    The labour involved would not meet with adequate repayment.
There is no doubt that grading out the Canada A's would be profitable in a high-grade field.
This was not always done, however. The reasons given were lack of equipment, lack of time,
or inability to get the labour to exercise the required care.
Your assistant believes that these difficulties present no great problem and will be overcome
by a little forethought on the part of the growers. The greater problem, is the elimination of
the low-grade crops.
It was noted that many of the growers were saving small, misshapen, and apparently
run-down potatoes for the next year's planting. This practice undoubtedly contributes heavily
to the prevalence of low-grade crops in the districts.
Unskilful handling of water had also contributed to a large degree. This fault made itself
apparent in abnormal growth, hollow-heart, and growth-cracks, which were very common and
accounted for the low average in many fields. Lack of plant-food in the soil was also apparent
in many cases.
Your assistant believes that if these growing difficulties are overcome one of the most serious
problems connected with the Dry Belt potato industry will have been solved. Dry Belt potatoes
sell at a premium on all markets and in order to hold their position must be of good quality.
" Eggs Marks Act " Enforcement.
With the exception of the prosecution of the management of a local bakery for using canned
Chinese eggs while neglecting to display the required signs, this work has been a matter of
routine throughout the year.
New Federal regulations which require that imported eggs pass a rigid inspection has tended
to discourage importations and removed much trouble from the local market.
The prosecution before referred to was successful. This was the first case in which a
bakery had been prosecuted for a violation of the requirements of the " Eggs Marks Act," and
with a realization of the importance of precedence in such matters efforts were directed to
secure a conviction more than to have a heavy fine imposed.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Irving,
Assistant Potato Inspector.
J. A. Grant.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report for the year 1922.
The season of 1922 may be considered from the farmers' view-point one of the worst in
many years. Crops were considerably above the average. Markets have been restricted by
unsettled exchanges, high freight and express rates.
The farmers of the North American Continent have faced rock-bottom prices in all they
had to sell, without any material compensating circumstance to help them. Everything they
bought was far above the average of the deflated agricultural produce value. Labour and
business organizations combated every effort to reduce their prices, while the disorganized state
of the farmers' organizations has resulted in their present condition.
In British Columbia the small-fruit industry was fairly successful in centralizing to sell.
The centralizing effort was endangered and hurt by some of the organizations allowing themselves to be brought into competition with the rest instead of acting together. The berrymen
estimate an unsaleable surplus over the demand for raw and jam berries for 1923, which will
have to be processed during the picking season for sale at intervening times. They have outgrown local and Prairie markets aud are seeking an outlet in Eastern Canada and Great Britain.
In view of the fact that there is an oversupply for Canadian needs grown in Canada, the flooding
of the Canadian market by imported berries ahead of our season should be regulated. W 80
Department of Agriculture.
The activities of your Markets Commissioner commenced in 1922 by attending a series of
meetings of the executives of Berry-growers' Associations, when a review of the 1921 shipping
of berries to Prairie points was given. Following these meetings a meeting of the British
Columbia Fruit-growers' Association in A'ictoria was attended. Later in January a meeting of
the Western Jobbers' Association was attended at Edmonton and marketing matters discussed
with them. Early in February a series of meetings under the auspices of the Agricultural
Department was held in the Okanagan A'alley; at these meetings stress was laid on the lack
of unity among fruit-shippers which allowed the fruit-selling control to pass from them to
jobbers on consignment. Warning was given to growers that unless they corrected this state
of affairs the result in 1922 would be disastrous. As a result of this warning growers demanded
a right to be represented on the Traffic and Credit Association Advisory Board. Later a similar
campaign was conducted in the Kootenays; all important fruit-growing points were visited
excepting Arrow Lakes, where communication was cut off owing to severe weather.
On April 4th a visit to Seattle, Tacoma, Puyallup, Portland, Salem, Lewiston, and Spokane
was made. In Seattle and Puyallup the berry deal for the season was under review with the
sales managers for Washington. At Salem the loganberry situation was canvassed. At Lewiston
the famous " Cherry Lane " situation head-lettuce was investigated. This lettuce caused a mild
sensation on the Middle West American and Canadian markets. Lewiston has a section particularly adapted for head-lettuce growing, and we found that the name " Cherry Lane " referred
to this section and not to the lettuce which turned out to be the old New York head-lettuce.
After this visit a report on the Washington jam-berry deal was sent to the President of the
British Columbia Berry-growers' Association, which assisted him in making his jam contract
for 1922. The contract was satisfactory to the growers, as it closed at a minimum price of
10 cents per pound and was the basis of the price prevailing on the Prairies. When Prairie
prices fell below 10 cents per pound to the grower, picking for jam was resorted to until the
Prairie market cleaned up. On return from Spokane, AVindermere was visited and an address
delivered to the potato-growers there. Returning to Calgary on April 17th, a study was made
of the early vegetable and rhubarb market.
Rhubarb and Early A'egetables.
Many cars of rhubarb were imported into the Prairies from AValla AValla during the British
Columbia rhubarb-shipping season. While the British Columbia rhubarb is admittedly the best,
the growers fail to grow asparagus, lettuce, carrots, spinach, and early potatoes to ship with
the rhubarb. Walla Walla cars are more attractive to the trade, even at a higher price, because
they have mixed vegetables to offer in them, while British Columbia cars contain straight
Vegetable-growers in British Columbia would be well advised to ascertain the Prairie market
prospects for their produce before going extensively into growing crops, expecting to find a
market on the Prairies. For some years past Chinese market-gardeners have increased in and
around Alberta cities; they have hot-beds and cold-frames on a more' extended plan than is
usually found in British Columbia; by this means they have plants ready to bed out immediately
the weather permits; they have already taken a large portion of the late-vegetable trade.
Winter cabbage grown at Reymond, Medicine Hat, and Lethbridge has been sufficient for the
Alberta supply and will likely shut out British Columbia importation until May. There has
also been a big increase in potato acreage on the Prairies and more attention given to varieties
suited to this climate. The British Columbia outlet for potatoes on the Prairies is now confined
to fancy stock for high-class trade and certified seed. There should be a good market here for
certified seed-potatoes in the three Prairie Provinces. In Manitoba vegetables are grown in
increasing quantity and good qaulity by white growers. The potato-crop there in 1922 was in
excess of the demand and prices ruled in December at 20 cents per bushel. Vegetables such as
early spinach, asparagus, head-lettuce, early potatoes, and rhubarb will find a good market here.
Walla Walla at present is our real competitor in this line and British Columbia should be able
to secure this trade.
Steps will be taken early in the spring of 1923 to establish an early-vegetable industry near
Hatzic, so that mixed cars can be furnished fully as attractive to the trade as those now rolling
in from Walla Walla. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 81
Berry-growers were more fortunate than the tree-fruit growers in their 1922 sales, as their
organizations united and marketed their product under one central selling scheme. Several
strawberry-growers' organizations refrained from joining the others and were competitors against
the centralized growers by rival brokerages; added to this the independent shippers and growers
sent increased amounts of L.C.L. strawberries to independent jobbers, with the result that
prices were forced below what the market would pay. This was aggravated by poor arrangement
in loading cars at shipping end, which resulted in some of the centralized organizations shipping
L.C.L. against their centralized stuff and breaking their own market. Early in the shipping
season British Columbia strawberries were sold in Regina L.C.L. on the first week of shipping
at $2, which was the lowest price of the season; this was forced by L.C.L. shipments from the
central organizations. When these organizations reached the point of car-lot shipments prices
became steady and averaged $3.03 for the season in Saskatchewan.
The strawberry-crop of the Southern States was abnormally large and just ahead of the
British Columbia shipping season. In May Winnipeg imported from Southern points thirty-five
cars of strawberries, and in June, up to the 21st, forty-one cars more of American strawberries
arrived in AVinnipeg, principally from Missouri. On June 22nd the first car of British Columbia
strawberries arrived in Winnipeg. Our correspondent, writing under date of June 28th, states:
" British Columbia strawberries arriving in good condition, but owing to large quantities of
berries having been brought in from the States they are hard to move."
The first car of British Columbia strawberries rolled on June 13th to Regina. We were
aware that an unusual amount of American berries were being brought into Manitoba, and in
order to prevent dumping against our rolling cars we wired to Ottawa as follows: " Is dumping
clause enforceable this year?   Please wire information for bulletin to-morrow."
The following answer was received: " Your wire 15th. Old dumping clause based on selling-
price at point of shipment still in effect, but amendment of last year repealed May 23rd last."
This information left us powerless to prevent importation at dumping-prices and our total
shipments from British Columbia to Winnipeg of strawberries in car-lots were less than fifteen
It might be pointed out that Missouri berries were quoted at $1.50 per crate, quart containers,
which means 75 cents per crate in pints as shipped from British Columbia. They ship many
or almost all the Winnipeg berries by freight, which lands them in Winnipeg at a rate impossible
for us to meet. The express rate from Missouri to AVinnipeg is $3.25 as against $7.01 to Calgary.
It might be wisdom for British Columbia shippers of strawberries to look into the shipping of
strawberries by freight to Calgary and even to Regina and other points. The strawberry-crop
of British Columbia was very short and was mostly distributed in Alberta and Saskatchewan,
as the following will show:—
Car-lot Distribution.—Manitoba, 10,481 crates, average price per crate, $2.64; Saskatchewan,
23,110 crates, average price per crate, $3.03; Alberta, 19,431 crates, average price per crate,
Early reports from British Columbia indicated a short crop of raspberries; persistent warm
weather at picking-time also reduced the tonnage. In spite of all adverse circumstances, the
increased acreage planted pulled up the number of cars shipped to one-half more than at first
estimated. The berries were not as large as in 1921, but for most of the time they arrived in
excellent condition upon the Prairie markets. Heavy L.C.L. shipments were made from Hammond, Chilliwack, Hatzic, and Mission, as well as from other points in the Interior; these were
centred in Calgary and car-lot stuff moved east, where L.C.L. had no unsteadying effect.
The Mutual Brokers handled the distribution of strawberries, raspberries, and other berries
in car-lots. They engaged a trained man to secure a thorough distribution; by this means the
exact situation regarding the supply and demand of every city was known daily, and care taken
not to oversupply or undersupply any of them. The distributing brokers had control of all the
markets in Saskatchewan and Manitoba; the result was very satisfactory to car-lot shippers.
The following illustrates the effect of L.C.L. shipments upon the Alberta market; it also proves
the efficiency of controlled selling with knowledge of the market needs:—
B AV 82
Department of Agriculture.
Car-lot Distribution.—Manitoba, 14,022 crates, average price per crate, $3.59; Saskatchewan,
16,587 crates, average price per crate, $3.53;  Alberta, 9,266 crates, average price per crate, $2.92.
Car-lot crates netted about 50 cents per crate over L.C.L. even on the Alberta market.
The marketing outlook can be made hopeful only by consolidating the growers and shipping
their respective commodities as a unit; without unity of at least 90 per cent, of the Provincial
growers in each class of produce, we can only see disaster to the industry. Extension of markets
is now being investigated and receiving the attention of your Markets Commissioner.
Loganberries were shipped in mixed cars with raspberries and arrived in good condition.
Fair prices were realized for them. A car-lot arrived from A'ictoria and found slow sale owing
to their being placed in the strawberry-crate instead of the raspberry-crate. The Prairie market
has not yet been educated to the fine qualities of the loganberries to enable any of the Prairie
cities to handle car-lots of fresh berries.
Gooseberries, Black and Red Currants.
Gooseberries are still overshipped to the Prairies. The demand at best is very limited and
this demand is far oversupplied. Red and black currants sell better, but the methods of packing
vary too much; too many different containers and far too many grades of fruit; the quality
runs from good to very bad. The supply is too great to permit of the sale of poor-quality berries
at a profit to the grower.
The cherry season overlapped the raspberry season to a considerable extent this year. Many
more cherries were shipped in 1922 than in 1921. They were sent to market in mixed cars and
L.C.L. Our record of cars shipped heavy to cherries only amount to thirty-six in 1922, as against
forty-four in 1921. Four of the above number of cars were sour cherries shipped by express from
A'ictoria. Only one car of American cherries was shipped in by express just ahead of our season
to Alberta. Bing and Lambert cherries were favoured and usually arrived in good condition.
The 4-basket crate containers were better filled than usual. Prices were not as good as formerly
to the wholesaler, but retailers sold few good cherries under 25 cents per pound. The cherries
grown in Kootenay that came on the market after the Okanagan cherries had cleaned up, and
after the raspberry season was passed, retailed around 35 cents per pound. The Kootenay grade
and pack showed a marked improvement over other years. We consider that the Okanagan
cherries overlapping the raspberries and being handled by rival brokers was largely responsible
for the poor sales at wholesale this season.
Peaches and Apricots.
Plums were a disappointment to British Columbia growers this year. The Prairie market
was loaded with plums of fine quality from California, Oregon, and Washington before the
British Columbia plums were ready, and while the volume of plums consumed is not proportionately large, the consumers were getting tired of them before British Columbia plums arrived
on the market. Our British Columbia product, especially from the Okanagan, is far inferior
to imported plums, being as a rule much under the average size. Some fine Pond's Seedling,
Black Diamond, and Burbanks were shipped from Vancouver Island; unfortunately they
developed plum-rot and this interfered with their sale. If the Okanagan plum-growers would
give the cultural attention necessary to plums they would secure a better market, otherwise
plum-growing there should be discouraged. The California Tragedy prune is the favourite with
the fancy trade. Italian prunes were shipped into the Prairie market on consignment from the
United States this year for the first time in the six years we have been watching the deal. The
supply from British Columbia was sufficient for the strength of the market, and the quality
and pack of the British Columbia Italian prune is about equal with Washington. The market
was demoralized, due to this consigned stuff from the United States, and we sawi about 1,000
crates of British Columbia and AVashington prunes jobbed at from 25 to 35 cents per peach-box
• Bartlett pears were forced upon the Prairie market from United States points without any
regard to the supply available in British Columbia;  they came in slightly ahead of the earliest 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 83
of the Okanagan stuff and were fed to the market right through our Bartlett season, also through
our Flemish Beauty season. This was possible by placing their unsold surplus in cold storage.
They were sold in Calgary at prices far below cost and completely demoralized our Bartlett and
Flemish Beauty market. We are informed that the Canadian North-west market was being used
to bring some money for Washington fruit already loaded and impossible to ship East, due to
trouble with the United States railways. Prices steadied when the D'Anjou pears commenced
to come in.
Peaches and Apricots.
Practically the same story might be told of the dumping of American peaches on the Prairie
market as has been already told of the plums, prunes, and pears. It is becoming an annual
custom of Eastern AVashington shippers, whose shipping season is parallel with British Columbia,
to ship the surplus plums, prunes, peaches, apricots, and pears to the AVestern Canadian market
in direct competition with British Columbia shipments. They seem to have a surplus of this
class of fruit, over the United States markets need, and so far have not established dehydrating
plants to take care of it. British Columbia shippers will have to reckon with this problem
About seventy-five cars of mixed fruit rolled unsold to this market from Yakima and
surrounding country, mostly in the British Columbia shipping season. It was at this junction
that selling of British Columbia fruit became competely demoralized, and it kept getting worse
as the shippers were forced on a consignment, basis without any semblance of control. Peaches
of the Elberta variety were reported as rotting at Penticton, while large quantities of the same
variety were stored in a Calgary jobber's warehouse consigned from Yakima. The Calgary
market at this time was made to reflect the chaos existing in Washington, but, unlike them,
we were unable to regain stability when apples commenced to roll. After control was lost to
the shippers in British Columbia they were so divided that further control was impossible.
On September- 7th we sent the following wire to Ottawa: " American cantaloupes demoralizing Calgary market. Selling retail five for twenty-five cents. Six cars mixed fruit here on
consignment from Yakima and six more reported rolling unsold. May route back to States via
Moose Jaw if not sold. Brokers advised from Yakima dumping price peaches fifty cents. Is
this correct? "
We received the following answer: " Your wire seventh. Customs Department have matter
in hand and keeping close touch situation Calgary and other points. No truth report regarding
dumping price peaches."
There is a good market on the Prairies for well-grown British Columbia peaches, especially
for the Elberta variety grown south of Penticton. We designate this locality because of its
situation for early ripening. British Columbia does not grow one-tenth of the peaches consumed
at Prairie points. The same applies to well-grown apricots. The want of sufficient peaches and
apricots gives the Prairie jobbers reason for bringing them in from Washington, and when they
roll, the cars are mixed with plums, prunes, and pears that are not wanted, but wished upon
jobbers in the mixed cars.
The apple yield of 1922 was a record one, being considerably over 4,000 cars. The Duchess
variety is overplanted for the demand; all Prairie jobbers agree that at least one-half of the
planting will have to be top-worked or pulled out. The returns on this variety have been poor
for several seasons, due to dumping the surplus on an unwilling market.
The AVealthy apple is being hit very hard by the more popular Mcintosh Red. It is easy
to see that future plantings of fall apples should be of the Mcintosh instead of the Wealthy
variety. The Mcintosh comes in within two weeks of the Wealthy and given proper storage
will keep as long. While the Mcintosh lasts it has a decided preference over all varieties in
its season. Jonathan apples are getting unpopular owing to physical break-down both in transit
and in storage. It would be unwise to increase the acreage of this variety. The Duchess,
Wealthy, and Jonathan varieties suffered most in the marketing .landslide of 1922. Rome
Beauty is increasing in favour. Yellow Newtowns and Spitzenbergs are the favourites for the
spring trade; these varieties will show a profit on the 1922 yield. The Winesaps, both Staymen
and ordinary,' are excellent sellers from March to May.    British  Columbia  is  still short  on AV 84
Department of Agriculture.
Winesaps and Newtowns; we recommend planting these where conditions are right for profit.
The new Osoyoos District will find these varieties suited to it.
We would gladly remain silent on the apple-market debacle of 1922, because the result of
it in compelling a thorough reorganization on the lines we have advocated for some years past
will more than offset the great loss sustained. We quote a few notes from our diary, showing
the actualities as observed in Calgary on September 29th, 1922:—
" Market crowded with American soft fruit. Mcintosh apples wholesaling $2 for No. 1,
wrapped stock; some reports lower. Gravensteins and AVealthys on the bargain-counter. No
curb on wholesale shipments from A'ernon; apparently all on consignment, although reported
as sold by the Traffic and Credit Association. Something wrong. Growers' sales powerless.
Chinese peddlers selling cheaper than retailers can buy; these are job-lots sold to them by
jobbers. Independents from the valley trying to sell at cut price. Jobbers have a bomb-proof
contract with big organizations, preventing being undersold by independents. Market is not
overstocked to any extent, trouble lies in giving jobbers control. Edmonton, AVinnipeg, Saskatoon, and Regina send same reports. October 1st, Messrs. Taylor and Harman arrive to
The following prices prevailed in December in Calgary: No. 1 Jonathans," 75 cents to $1,
showing texture decay; crates, 75 cents (these were good). Wageners showing decay sold at
$1 to $1.25. All varieties crated apples, 75 cents per crate; some less. Wismer Dessert No. 1
(in good shape), 85 cents to $1. Mcintosh Red No. 1 and No. 2, cleaning up at $1.15. Mclntoshes
selling so low it was impossible to sell other varieties. Soon after the first of the year the
market steadied and was on a buying f.o.b. shipping-point basis by the middle of January, 1923.
The same unstability that characterized the apple market upset the onion deal to a considerable degree. Onions were being offered as low as $10 per ton f.o.b. shipping-point. We made
inquiries at competitive cities and found that stocks were on the low side and immediately
advised growers to hold for better prices. This was on October 28th and had the desired effect,
increasing the shipping-point price to $25 per ton. On November 11th the price had advanced
to $30 per ton. Onions are now, under the " Root and A'egetable Act, 1922," subject to compulsory grading.
We have received many inquiries from the Oliver, Osoyoos, and Keremeos Districts as to
the prospect for a market for cantaloupes, and have advised that a limited market in mixed
cars will be available for their early sorts. Southern California takes the cream of the market.
Eastern Washington and the above British Columbia districts come in about the same time.
There is no reason why the early districts of British Columbia should not supply the Prairie
trade in their season. Up to two years ago the British Columbia supply has been uncertain in
quantity, grade, and quality. Care should be taken to maintain a high grade at all Prairie
points where keen competition is met; shipping any other than No. 1 size and quality will not
pay. The cantaloupe is the most difficult product to handle; considerable experience is needed
to handle them successfully. The Cantaloupe Growers' Association, of Kelowna, has been very
successful since its inception.
All British Columbia cantaloupe-shippers should unite to control distribution; if this is done
there is a considerable future for the cantaloupe-shippers of British Columbia. This being an
annual crop, there is danger of overproduction; only by organized control of the market can
this be offset.
The tomato-growing industry in British Columbia is assuming large proportions. Tomatoes
are running riot on the Prairie markets at all points and from all points during the shipping
season. Ontario shipped many car-lots last season to the Prairies on chance; most of these did
not return anything to the growers. This industry to succeed must be fully organized, both east
and west, and a working understanding between the sales manager of both ends arrived at;
the trade can be systematized and made staple by this means, otherwise tomato-marketing is
a poor gamble, with the odds against the growers. Neither Ontario nor British Columbia
managed to get the cost of production for their tomatoes sold on the Prairies in 1922.    The 13 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
AV 85
tomato lug and 4-lb. basket were both used.    The 4-lb. basket is preferred for table tomatoes
and should be made a standard package.    The pear-box is the favourite for green tomatoes.
Greenhouse-men organize.
In December last the greenhouse-men of A'ictoria organized to ship tomatoes in car-lots to
the Prairies. Later on the A'ancouver greenhouse-men organized and these associations are now
standing together. The matter of mixing cars for Prairie markets, rhubarb and vegetables with
hothouse tomatoes and cucumbers, has been discussed with Prairie jobbers; they favour this
method of shipment and think iced refrigerator-cars by freight would be satisfactory. This
matter needs the sanction of the railway companies to allow of a car being partially loaded at a
point and completed at another point. The matter of berry-loading during the first week of
shipping of each variety should be attended to; many cars are lost to the Prairies and the
market demoralized by L.C.L. shipping at the beginning of each season because the district
cannot alone get enough ripe berries daily to make up a car-lot; these have to be sent
forward L.C.L.
The British Columbia berry-growers decided to send a representative to watch their interests
in their berry-distribution. A. F. Landry, of Mission, was sent to AVinnipeg, where he did
valuable work for his association as well as at other Prairie points. Mr. Landry worked in
co-operation with this office and was of valuable assistance in helping to keep out imported
berries We think that this plan could be made profitable to the tree-fruit growers. While we
maintain a representative at all the chief Prairie centres to act under instructions in the
growers' interests, still the assistance of a direct representative of the growers has a decidedly
better influence.
Last season application was made for several cars of British Columbia strawberries from
Port Arthur jobbers. Tlie blanket rate from British Columbia ends at AVinnipeg. The Western
American blanket rate apparently ends at Duluth. Hood River strawberries were landed at Port
Arthur at $2.S5 per crate, while at the same f.o.b. shipping-point rate British Columbia berries
cost $3.50 to land there. Application was made through Mr. Macintosh, Ottawa, to Mr. Burr, of
the Dominion Express Company, to meet the American express rate; this was refused because
they declined to meet the water competition from Duluth.
While dealing with express matters I would point out the arbitrary rate existing against
A'ancouver Island in berry shipments. It is difficult to understand why A'ancouver Island is not
included in the flat express rate existing in other parts of British Columbia. Another grievance
of the A'ancouver Island shippers is the fact that single crates of berries can be sent to Prairie
points at less than they charge per crate for car-lot shipments; this is due to the fact that
crates can be shipped by express from Vancouver Island by Gulf steamer twice daily, while
car shipments are sent by freight via Ladysmith and there by ferry to Vancouver. Apart from
the added cost, delay sometimes occurs, or is likely to occur, due to tide conditions at Ladysmith.
This matter needs attention and remedy and will no doubt be brought to the attention of the
express company concerned by the Island growers.
Joint Routing over C.P.R. and C.N.R.
The Canadian National Express Company has consented to concur in joint rates from
Dominion Express points common or exclusive in British Columbia to Canadian National exclusive Prairie territory, basis of $3.20 per 100 lb. This of course applies to car-load traffic and
tariffs will be issued immediately. Under this arrangement facilities for the distribution of
British Columbia fruits will be greatly improved.
New Processing Method.
The processing of berries in sugar and kept in cold storage without cooking will mean a
decided advantage to all berry-growing sections, especially small districts. This process will
do away with the necessity of erecting small jam and canning plants to take care of the surplus.
The uncooked process has two distinct advantages: First, the natural flavour is preserved;
second, expensive jam plants can be done without. Publications.
The.Markets Bulletin is issued weekly from this office during the shipping season. The
circulation is increasing each year, the number now being near the 4,000 mark. We also mail
from this office the British Columbia Fruit Booklet and during the canning season have many
applications for same.
During this as in other seasons the Dominion Fruit Branch and the Chief Inspectors under
it have co-operated with us in every way possible. We also wish to thank our correspondents
at various points for their care in reporting market prices, and to the leading brokerage houses
for furnishing us the f.o.b. shipping-point prices quoted from competitive points.
Respectfully submitted.
J. A. Grant,
Markets Commissioner.
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report for the Live Stock Branch for
the year ending December 3.1st, 1922.
General Conditions.
The past year has not been a profitable year for farmers generally. Dry weather prevailed
in most sections of the Province during the growing season, with resultant low yields of pasture,
grain, hay, and silage crops. Accompanying this condition was an extremely low market for
beef cattle and a very limited demand for dairy cattle. Fortunately, a favourable autumn
assisted materially in relieving the feed situation.
Following an active campaign for the removal of the British embargo on Canadian store
cattle, success has been achieved and definite and final arrangements have been made for the
admission of Canadian cattle into Great Britain as feeders. Just what the effect will be is
difficult to estimate. -The cost of transportation at the present time—approximately $47 per head
from Toronto—would make it appear that only first-class cattle can be. profitably shipped to the
British market. In order to establish a good reputation for Canadian cattle the Federal Live
Stock Branch is undertaking to inspect all cattle offered for export and to allow only cattle of
satisfactory quality to be sent to the Old Country market. According to the agreement reached
between representatives of the Canadian and Imperial Governments,, the Imperial Minister of
Agriculture shall have the right to state the time at which cattle for breeding purposes shall
be admitted from Canada. During the period of the present high tariff on cattle going-from
Canada to the United States the British market should afford some relief and cause some increase
in the prices paid to Canadian farmers. Organizations representing live-stock men in the West
are endeavouring to secure the removal or modification of the United States tariff on Canadian
cattle in order to admit them to their logical market. Even with an open market the number
of Canadian-cattle going into the United States would form such a small percentage of the total
number marketed there as to be practically negligible in influencing the price of cattle in that
country, and Canadian cattlemen are hoping that when American farmers see the matter from
this view-point they will assist in having the duty removed or modified.
A combination of a dry season and a plague of locusts seriously affected the range and the
meadows in the grazing areas south of the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The
damage from locusts was particularly serious in the Nicola District and the rangemen found
it necessary to buy a great deal of hay to carry their cattle through the winter. Conditions
north of the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway were more favourable. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. AV 87
Owing to a general shortage of hay outside of the Okanagan A'alley many anticipated that
hay would reach an exorbitant price, but an open fall and a large crop of hay in Washington
and Idaho caused the price to drop rather than advance during the early winter.
The price of farm-labour dropped somewhat during the past year, but considering the
price which the farmer is receiving for his produce it is still comparatively high.
For the first time in several years, 1922 has witnessed a distinct revival in the Coast market
for good heavy draught horses. The renewed activity in the lumber industry has created a
demand for horses for the logging camps and some high-class draught horses have been purchased
at good prices for that trade. It is stated that first-class draught horses of show quality have
sold in Vancouver for as high as $1,200 a pair in more than one instance. The draught-horse
show, both in harness and on the halter, at the last Vancouver Exhibition was one of the best,
if not the best, ever seen in British Columbia. Many firms are finding that the draught-horse
surpasses the motor-truck in many lines of work, both from the standpoint of economy and
advertising value.
Dominion Horse-breeders' Clubs were formed in the Chilliwack-Agassiz District and in the
Richmond District during the past year. Unfortunately, in both cases the stallions had to be
retired from service before the season was over because of illness.
The aged Clydesdale stallion show at the 1922 New Westminster Exhibition was the largest
I have ever seen in British Columbia and the interest shown was very gratifying. Unfortunately,
the present business depression will greatly retard the logical expansion of the horse-breeding
industry. Anticipating improved conditions in 1923, some dealers in the Prairie Provinces and
in British Columbia have recently imported Clydesdale stallions from Scotland.
The Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz and H. S. Currie, of Steveston, showed Clydesdale horses at the recent Pacific International Live Stock Exposition held at Portland, Oregon,
and both were markedly successful in the' winnings. British Columbia exhibitors also contributed largely to the entries in the horse-show at the above exposition and captured a large
share of the prizes. We are convinced that more of our breeders should take advantage of the
opportunity of exhibiting at the Pacific International, and even those who can only go as visitors
will find it to be of great educational value.
Due in part to the opening-up of new agricultural lands and to activity in the lumber
industry, the number of horses has increased from 44,558 in 1921 to 51,083 in 1922.
The past year has been a particularly trying one for the breeders of beef cattle. While
the cost of production has not materially decreased, prices for beef cattle have fallen to a low
ebb. This fall the . cattleman found himself placed between two unpleasant alternatives—
namely, that of purchasing high-priced hay with a seriously depleted bank account, and that
of selling his cattle on a low market which would pay much less than the cost of production.
As previously mentioned, an open fall gave some relief. Aside from the loss to the individual,
such a condition creates a loss to the community as a whole in bringing about a tendency to
reduce the total number of breeding cattle. Conditions throughout all of Western Canada have
been equally serious.
As was to be expected, there was a slight reduction in beef cattle in the Province during
1922 as against 1921, the reduction being from 159,854 to 156,901. This is unfortunate in view
of the fact that for the same period we imported 27,453 head (mostly for slaughter) of beef
cattle and 2,155,718 lb. of beef and veal during the year.
The number of dairy cattle in the Province increased from 101,518 in 1921 to 105,070 in
1922. Even a greater increase was anticipated because of the expansion of the dairy industry
in several of the newer districts. The dry season, however, with the resultant shortage of
pasture and hay, together with a quiet market for dairy products, caused many farmers to
curtail their plans. Contrary to expectations, early in the season comparatively few dairy
cattle were imported into the Province.
The market for pure-bred dairy cattle has been very dull, and this is to be expected,
following a period of particular activity, which in the present case is coexistent with a depressed
■uarket for dairy products. In spite of the many excellent herds of the four leading breeds of dairy cattle, we find that
approximately only 50 per cent, of the dairy bulls in service are registered. Of course, part of
the non-registered animals would be pure-bred and eligible for registration, but the fact remains
that many herds are being headed by inferior bulls. Efforts are being made by the Live Stock
Branch to encourage farmers generally to pay more attention to the selection of the herd sire.
Our pure-bred breeders are paying keen attention to the improvement of their herds, and
particularly to the selection of sires, but we not infrequently find a grade bull whose claim to
merit is that he is out of a high-producing dam. It is usual to find the progeny of such a bull
very disappointing. The Branch has adopted a policy of trying to place proven sires which can
no longer be used in a certain herd. Too often such bulls find their way to the block and young
untried bulls given the preference for the simple reason that they are easy to handle.
During the past year the Ayrshire-breeders and the Guernsey-breeders formed Provincial
associations. We now have an organization representing the interests of each of the four
leading dairy breeds, and such societies are able to accomplish good in many ways, and particularly in co-ordinating the work of the respective breeders of any one breed.
There has been a decrease in the number of sheep in the Province from 51,457 in 1921 to
49,745 in 1922. This decrease was doubtless due to the very low prices obtained for wool and
mutton in 1921. The past year has been much more satisfactory than the previous one and
many farmers are planning to start new flocks or increase the ones they already have. Compared
with other farm commodities, both wool and mutton brought fair prices during 1922.
Owing to low prices obtained for wool in 1921 and the fact that the market had a distinct
upward tendency, private buyers were able to purchase much of the wool and a considerably
lower quantity was handled by the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers' Association than
during the previous year. However, those who sold through the association averaged almost
twice as much for their wool as those who sold to private buyers. Most of the wool sold to
private dealers was eventually purchased by the Co-operative AVool-growers at a figure considerably below the price they paid to their members for the same class of wool.
The wool market has continued to improve and during 1922 the trade purchased 696,000,000
lb. of wool more than the estimated clip for the world for the coming season. The surplus which
accumulated during the war has largely been disposed of, and unless unforeseen conditions arise
there will be an excellent market for wool for the coming year.
In addition to the sheep produced in British Columbia, we imported in 1922 a total of
58,709 head and 1,S53,072 lb. of mutton. This condition ensures a good home market and offers
encouragement to farmers to raise more sheep.
Fewer losses from predatory animals are reported and it is hoped that continued improvement of conditions in this respect will be noted.
The swine population shows a very slight increase of 216 over the year 1921. There has
been remarkable freedom from disease and there has been practically no recurrence of the
outbreaks of hog-cholera which occurred during the previous year. At our larger fairs the
exhibits of swine have been more numerous than during any other recent year and breeders
of purebred stock have reported ready sales for their stock. There is fortunately a growing
feeling among farmers that it is well to diversify within cartain limits and the swine and sheep
populations will increase as the result of such a policy.
The buying of hogs on a graded basis, which was inaugurated during the past year, caused
a good deal of dissatisfaction at first owing to difference of opinion as to what constituted a
prime bacon-pig, but gradually the problem is being solved and the policy will doubtless prove
beneficial to the industry and our export trade. The Western Canada Live Stock Union has
urged that the Federal Government grade all cured bacon before it leaves the abattoir in order
that the grading system be made complete and the industry derive full benefit. At first obstacles
were met, but these have been removed and we are assured that such a grading system will be
inaugurated at an early date.
During 1922 we imported 89,887 head of swine (mostly for immediate slaughter) and
2,322,104 lb. of pork and pork products. Grassy Plains, south-west of Burns Lake.    Part Lot 408, Land Settlement Board land.
Natural country, Central B.C., near Smithers.    Showing poplar and flveweed growth.  13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. AV 89
The number of milk goats in the Province is estimated at 7,500. Several importations have
been made from Great Britain and the United States during the past year. In sympathy with
the general depression, there has been a downward tendency in the prices obtaining, but this
should eventually prove beneficial to the industry in placing goats within reach of a larger
number of people. Excellent production is noted among many of the goats in the Province
and rapid improvement has been made. Exhibits at the fairs indicate an improved and more
uniform standard.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
During the year 1922 the interest in Boys' and Girls' Clubs centred mainly in Calf, Pig,
and Poultry Clubs. The following is a list of clubs organized during the year: Five Calf
Clubs, thirteen Pig Clubs, thirty-four Poultry Clubs, two Potato Clubs, and one Corn Club.
Four of the Calf Clubs handled pure-bred calves of dairy breeds and one grade beef calves.
Where possible, the boys and girls exhibited at the fall fairs, and invariably these classes aroused
a very keen interest and the entries were usually brought out in very creditable condition. Phis
feature of our work is doing much good, not only in creating an agricultural interest on the
part of boys and girls, but also in stimulating a desire for better methods and better live stock
on the part of the adults of the respective communities where club-work has been organized.
Pure-bred Sires. '
Particularly in the newer sections of the Province, Farmers' Institutes are continuing to
take advantage of our pure-bred sire policy. Merely the existence of such a policy has called
attention to the importance of good sires and to general improvement of live stock. In many
communities we have found that efforts have been put forth to secure a better grade of females
and in some such cases pure-bred herds and flocks have been established. During 1922 the
following pure-bred sires were sold to Farmers' Institutes: Two Ayrshire bulls, two Oxford
rams, two Shropshire rams, one Dorset ram, and two Berkshire boars.
During the past year 140 horse-brands and 234 cattle-brands were allotted, 378 horse-brands
and 473 cattle-brands were renewed, and 40 hide-buyers' licences were issued.
In Spite of depressed conditions, the live-stock exhibits, particularly at the larger fairs,
were excellent. The four dairy breeds made a strong show at A'ancouver, New Westminster,
and A'ictoria, and the sheep and swine show was the largest we have seen at these three fairs.
I judged at several of the British Columbia fairs and also at two of the summer exhibitions
and one spring show in the Prairie Provinces. With the exception of A'ancouver Exhibition,
all of the fairs visited were unfortunate in regard to weather conditions. General conditions
had a marked effect in reducing gate receipts and fair managements bad a trying year from a
financial standpoint.
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association.
The annual meeting was held in Kamloops on March 29th in conjunction with the bull-sale.
Marketing problems have continued to receive the attention of the association, as well as freight
rates. Live-stock freight rates are still 25 to 50 per cent, higher than they were prior to
the war.
The Federal Department has complied with the request of the British Columbia Stockbreeders' Association to investigate market conditions within the Province, and the question of
a public stockyards has been urged if found to be at all feasible.
The fourth annual bull-sale and show was held in Kamloops on March 30th and 31st, when
132 head of cattle sold for a total of $12,403.50. Prices were lower than at previous sales. This
was accentuated by the fact that a considerable number of animals were of unsuitable ages and
many were not well conditioned. The Directors have decided that in future animals consigned
to the sale shall be inspected and culled prior to the sale. W 90
Department of Agriculture.
The show held in connection with the bull-sale has for its purpose the encouragement of
better breeding and better feeding and is being made as educational as possible. The judging
is done from the standpoint of market requirements and market classifications.
I wish to express appreciation of the appointment of Angus L. Hay as District Representative, with headquarters at Cranbrook.    His appointment enables the Department to better
serve the East and West Kootenay Districts.
Respectfully submitted.
AV. T. McDonald,
Live Stock Commissioner.
Geo. C. Hay, B.S.A.
TV. T. McDonald, M.S.A.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows :—
,    Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited.
Over 19,500,000 lb. of Canadian wool have been handled by the Canadian Co-operative Wool-
growers, Limited, since it. was organized in the year 1918. This quantity of wool has been
marketed in Canada, in England, and in the United States; every pound effectively graded by
the Dominion Live Stock Branch before being offered for sale. The organization's salesmen and
representatives in foreign markets keep in close touch with all markets, so that wools can be
placed to best advantage and to the best interests of the Canadian grower. The results are:
A marked confidence and increasing demand for Canadian graded wool; an improved Canadian
wool-clip; the placing of the grower's own company as the leading wool-house in Canada handling
Canadian fleece-wools. Universities, Government offices, and individuals obtain statistics and
other information required on Canadian wool from the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers,
Limited.    Such is the position the wool-growers' organization holds to-day in the wool trade.
The market for wool has steadily improved. In the styles and grades of wool such as
grown in British Columbia the improvement is most marked of late. For months the most
advantage in improved prices-went to the finer inerino-class wools; of late it has turned to the
medium and lower grades of wools, and the margin which has been so great between the various
grades is now becoming less, with the lower grades or coarser-fibred wools coming into more
normal position in their price relationship to finer wools. The whole statistical position of wool
to-day is strong, stocks are reduced, world consumption is ahead of production, and the demand
now covers all grades.   The 1923 season, therefore, is looked forward to with every confidence.
As Director of this company for the Province of British Columbia your Agriculturist has
endeavoured to do all possible to advance the interests within this Province.
The volume of business from the commencement of the British Columbia Wool-growers'
Association in Kamloops in 1917 increased steadily from, in round numbers, 10,000 lb. to 176,000
lb. In 1920 the association did its record volume of business. The season of 1920 and 1921
presented a crisis in wool-marketing. Owing to the accumulation of wool in the world's markets
it became most difficult to find any market whatsoever. Dealers were conspicuous by their
absence and the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited, remaining the only big concern
endeavouring to assist the sheepmen in securing a market for their wool. The situation during
this crisis in wool-marketing was that the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited, found
a market "for approximately 5,000,000 lb. of the Canadian clip, and paid the Canadian sheepmen
in round figures $1,000,000 for this wool, the greater part of which would never have found a
market at all.   True, the prices were low, but nevertheless exceeded the average price of dealers.
The following year—namely, the'past season—presented a different situation to British
Columbia wool-growers. In the first place, the volume of business of the association decreased
from 176,000 lb. to 80,000 lb.; the reason for this was because the minds of the sheepmen were
polluted with scandalous information by factions that militated against the best interests of 13 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 91
the members of the British Columbia AVool-growers' Association. Misleading reports published
from time to time by parties posing as authorities on wool matters caused the sheepmen to
believe the association was sapping the life-blood out of the sheep industry by paying the
growers ridiculously low prices for their, wool. True, the prices were low, but the more
reasonable growers realized that the association was not responsible for a demoralized worldwide wool market; and, further, that the association had performed a valuable service to the
industry by paying in the neighbourhood of $1,000,000 to Canadian sheepmen for wool the
greater part of which, but for the organization, would have had no market whatsoever. The
more reasonable growers, therefore, continued to pin their faith to the co-operative organization
they had worked so hard to establish, and by doing so have reaped their reward in dollars and
cents. A comparison of prices realized for the 1922 clip brings out this point. The association
keeps in touch with market conditions, and reviewing the British Columbia wool market, it is
found that prices received by the growers who sold privately or outside the association ranged
from 7 cents per pound to 15 cents per pound, a very conservative average being 11 cents per
pound. The average net price to the growers who sold through the British Columbia Wool-
growers' Association, after deducting all expenses, including shipment from their nearest
railway-station, is 19% cents per pound. This represents a difference of 8% cents per pound
in favour of co-operative marketing, and at the same time represents the loss the growers
assumed who sold outside the association.
A further point to be mentioned is that had the association received the support it deserved
its average to the grower undoubtedly would have been considerably higher: First, because
practically the same necessary overhead expense will market 175,000 lb. or more of wool as is
required to market 80,000 lb. This expense spread over a greater volume of business reduces
the handling costs per pound of wool. Secondly, the wool lost to the association during the
past season reduced the quality of the British Columbia clip very materially, since the best-
quality wools were sold privately, thereby reducing the association's average net price to
19% cents, which, according to the previous year's grading statements, would have been in the
neighbourhood of 22 cents.
The estimated value of this association to the British Columbia wool-grower during the
past season may be calculated as follows:—
(1.) The wool-growers who marketed their wool through the British Columbia Wool-growers'
Association this season saved an average of 8% cents per pound net. The volume of business
done being 80,298 pounds, the saving by co-operation was 80,298 X 8%, or $6,825.33.
(2.) The wool-growers who sold outside the association, representing in round numbers
219,702 lb. (300,000 lb. less 80,298 lb.), lost $18,674.67 (219,702 X 8% cents, or $18,674.67).
A handsome gift from the wool-growers of British Columbia to the wool-dealers.
(3.) Provincial statistics estimate the British Columbia clip at approximately 300,000 lb.
Therefore, provided there was 100 per cent, co-operation, the value of this organization to the
British Columbia sheepmen this season would have been 300,000 at 8!4 cents, of $25,500.
Kamloops 1922 Bull-sale.
As Secretary of the 1922 Kamloops Bull-sale your Agriculturist has had considerable to do
in this connection throughout the year. The average prices realized were considerably lower
than previous years, but were quite in keeping with prevailing live-stock marketing conditions.
The following is a statement of the sale :—
Bull-sale, March 30th and 31st, lf>
No. sold.                                                             Breed.
$171  11
80 34
94 71
75 00
80 00
$260 00
205 00
305 00
Red Polled	
75 00
80 00 AV 92
Department op Agriculture.
Stock sold    : .  $12,767 28
Balance from 1921 sale   211 62
Donation from F. B. Ward   35 00
Entry fees    •  550 00
Memberships to B.CS.B.A  25 00
Exchange on cheques, etc  9 28
Freight, incoming .-  589 06
Freight, outgoing  -.  290 75
Commission on sales   374 77
Loading charges   57 75
Straw      74 50
Advertising in catalogue    235 85
Pedigrees transfer  49 00
Feed sold    1 75
Cash, Dr. Jagger    161 60
Rebate on labour  ,  1 75
Banquet    •  176 75
$15,611 71
Stock bought     $12,767 28
Membership fees to Victoria  25 00
Exchange and registering .. .. •  16 04
Freight, incoming    (  686 04
Freight, outgoing    279 75
Straw      42 50
Pedigrees     49 67
Printing and advertising   226 45
Printing catalogue    262 35
Licence     10 00
Auctioneers     200 00
Trip to Cornwall's ranch   8 00
Banquet    •  181 25
Feed   3 15
Lighting and wiring stables      '      15 25
Special prizes    55 00
Fixing stable and temporary building   200 00
Labour    94 25
Postage, telegrams, phone  30 03
Rebate, Dr. Jagger    161 60
Engraving challenge cups    9 00
Sundry accounts   16 93
Balance on hand     272 17
$15,611 71
The British Columbia Shorthorn and Hereford Breeders' Associations.
The British Columbia Shorthorn and Hereford Breeders' Associations have each endeavoured
to encourage the production of the breeds they represent. As Secretary of these associations
your Agriculturist has from time to time dealt with the various problems of concern to each.
Boys' and Girls' Club Work.
A very successful Pig Club competition was conducted in this district during the past year,
in which upwards of forty boys and girls contested. The club stood second in the Provincial
scoring and the prize-money received, together with a fairly good market price, made the work
quite profitable to the contestants. .
13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. AV 93
Stock-judging demonstrations and competitions were held on different occasions and great
interest was shown on the part of the younger people. A district judging team was taken to
A'ancouver and New Westminster Fairs and won first and third places at the respective fairs.
Land Settlement Board.
Throughout the year numerous reports and appraisals on farm loans have been made for
the Land Settlement Board. This work has grown considerably and entails much more travelling
in connection with same. On account of the series of dry years in the district more calls were
made for loans from the Land Settlement Board.
The infestation of grasshoppers throughout the dry-farming and range areas of the Interior
has been serious this last season. Assistance in organization and poisoning was given and the
results were noticeably effective. A thousand pounds of Paris green was given to the farmers
by the Department of Agriculture, for which they were particularly grateful.
Throughout the year various meetings have been arranged and on different occasions
addresses were given on agricultural topics. Farmers' Institute meetings, wool-growers' meetings, breed associations' meetings, Boys' and Girls' Club meetings, etc., have been arranged
for  and assistance given.
Kamloops District Creamery Association.
The Agricultural Office, Kamloops, has become the headquarters of the Kamloops District
Creamery Association and to this association a great deal of time was given. At the beginning
of the season the creamery was disposed of to the Purity Dairy Products, Limited, which
company after about seven months' operating, came to financial difficulties and again the
creamery had to revert to the original owners. A lot of work and trouble in connection with
the creamery has arisen, all of which has been successfully conducted.
The various lines of work mentioned, together with frequent visits at the office, has kept
the Department of Agriculture busy in Kamloops. The increasing correspondence and personal
visits is significant that the work of the Department in the Kamloops District is more and
more appreciated.
Respectfully submitted.
Geo. C. Hay,
District Agriculturist.
Angus L. Hay.
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report as District Agriculturist for the East Kootenay
District for 1922.
General Activities.
About the first of the year 1922 your District Agriculturist arrived in Cranbrook to assume
the duties of District Agriculturist for the East Kootenay District. Being unfamiliar with the
prevailing conditions, it was decided to cover the district just as completely as possible, and
while doing so meet the farmers and discuss their local conditions and problems. During the
month of January a tour was made through the Columbia A'alley, visiting the farmers and at
the same time looking over the dairy situation in that district. It was" an unfortunate time
to make such a survey, as the weather was extremely cold and it was almost impossible to hire
livery.    It was then decided to spend most of the time for the rest of the winter months in the 94
Department of Agriculture.
vicinity of Cranbrook, meeting the farmers in that part, establishing an office, and preparing
work for the summer months, as the outlying districts could be covered much more easily and
with less expense in the summer.
In the month of February your Agriculturist attended the meetings of the British Columbia
Dairymen's Association in Chilliwack. The latter part of March and the early part of April
was spent in Kamloops assisting with the Kamloops Bull-sale. During the latter part of April
a car was supplied by the Department and arrangements were made to make a complete tour
of the district, and in this way during the summer months your Agriculturist has gone thoroughly
over the district, and in doing so has gained a general idea of the agricultural conditions and
agricultural needs of the district. This together with work in the interests of the creamery
at Golden, the British Columbia Wool-growers' Association, and the potato industry, made the
months of May, June, and July busy months. The early part of August was spent in the vicinity
of Cranbrook, assisting with arrangements for the Cranbrook Fair, of which your Agriculturist
was a Director. On August 14th a trip was made to Golden in the interests of the British
Columbia Land Settlement Board to dispose of a car of dairy cattle to the dairymen of that
district and to complete the potato-inspection work in the Windermere District. Such is, in
short, the way the time was spent until the fair circuit opened at Invermere on September 1st
and finished on October 4th at Creston. During the months of November and December considerable time was spent in the interests of the Land Settlement Board, a second car-load of
cattle being distributed in the AA'indermere District. Also considerable time was spent in the
office in Cranbrook completing reports and details of the summer's work.
Live Stock.
The East Kootenay District is undoubtedly a mixed-farming district, in which the live-stock
industry plays a very prominent part. At the present time the farmers in general are fairly
heavily stocked, but unfortunately many of them are overstocked with unsaleable animals. Too
many of the horse-breeders have for the last number of years been breeding, or allowing to be
bred, that small type of horse locally known as the cayuse, for which there is no sale, with
the result that the ranges are overrun with this type of horse.
In several sections of the district considerable interest is being taken in the dairy business
and the number of dairy stock is steadily increasing. There are a few very good pure-bred
herds in the District, but, on the other hand, a great many farmers who claim to be in the dairy
business are feeding cows that are simply boarders and many are still holding to the scrub bull.
In such districts your Agriculturist has endeavoured to form breeders' clubs, encouraging these
farmers to club together and get one good pure-bred bull in their district. To date five clubs
have been formed, which have or will have pure-bred bulls in their district in the near future.
This will no doubt show good results in the coming few years.
The sheep industry has been promoted to some little extent in a few sections of the district,
but in this industry there is also a lack of interest shown by the breeders in breeding-work.
Also the coyote has been troublesome in several sections, which has no doubt held back progress
in this industry.
Most of the farmers, especially those carrying on any dairy-work, are raising a few hogs,
and as the dairy industry advances no doubt more attention will be paid to hog-raising.
A means of marketing farm produce is one of the most serious problems confronting the
East Kootenay farmer to-day. This is to some extent at least due to the fact that the farmers
are not producing the quality of produce demanded by the market, as large shipments of butter,
cream, beef, etc., are continually being brought in from the prairie; also several car-loads of
heavy horses are brought from the Prairie for the lumber camps, while the ranges here are
overstocked with light unsaleable horses.
The season of 1922 being unusually dry was very unfavourable to the production of crops
throughout the East Kootenay District, with the result that several farmers, particularly the
dairymen, will have to purchase hay.   Practically all varieties of field crops are grown in some 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 95
parts of the district, and where irrigation is featured most crops grow exceptionally well, but
on unirrigated land this year crops were poor.
Fall Fairs.
The fall fairs attended during the season were Invermere, Cranbrook, Penticton, Kelowna,
Grand Forks, and Creston, at which your Agriculturist judged live stock and field crops at
Invermere, Penticton, Cranbrook, and Creston, and live stock at Grand Forks. At Invermere,
Cranbrook, and Creston a keen interest was taken in the live-stock exhibits not only by the
exhibitors, but by the general public as well, while at Penticton and Grand Forks the interests
of the general public were centred in the fruit exhibits. .
Meetings attended.
Throughout the year twenty-two Farmers' Institute and other agricultural meetings were
attended, at fifteen of which addresses were given on live stock and other agricultural topics.
These meetings were for the most part well attended and those present appeared to be keenly
interested in the promotion of agriculture.
The office-work in connection with this Department has always been considered of secondary
importance to personal visits through the district, but the number of callers at the office is
steadily increasing, which is encouraging, as it shows that some interest is being taken in the
work by the farmers, and any steps the Department take to further the interests of agriculture
in this district is always greatly appreciated by the agricultural public.
Respectfully submitted.
Angus L. Hay,
District Agriculturist.
AV. M. Fleming.
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A.,
Live Slock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit for your consideration the following report of my work as District
Agriculturist at Duncan :—
From January 1st, 1920, until June 30th, 1922, work has been carried on as District Supervisor of Agricultural Education at Duncan. By a special arrangement with the Department of
Agriculture half-time service was given to that Department. An office was opened in the
Agricultural Hall, Duncan, where farmers might obtain advice on various phases of intensive
agriculture. Publications of the Department of Agriculture were kept for distribution. This
office is now recognized as the regular meeting-place for the majority of agricultural organizations of the district. Where time permitted, personal visits were made to many of the farms
in the district. An effort was made to act as a connecting-link between the farmer and those
engaged in agricultural research. Travelling and office expenses were paid by the Department
of Agriculture.
From July 1st the dual work was discontinued and the office of District Agriculturist
established, whereby the same work was carried on full time under the Department of
Organization has been a regular feature of the work. Early in the year considerable study
was devoted to the question of seed-growing and finally the seed-growers were organized as
the seed-growers' branch of the Cowichan Agricultural Society. Pure stock seed was distributed
and assistance given in growing and marketing the produce of this seed.
In 1921 the Cowichan Stock-breeders' Association was organized. This is a co-operative
organization for marketing pure-bred live stock. It. is incorporated under the " Societies Act."
Listings are kept on file in the office of the Secretary and a regular plan of advertising is
followed. Commissions are charged on all sales made through the association, the proceeds
being  devoted  to  advertising.    Cow-testing  has  been  encouraged.    The  number  of  herds  on R.O.P. test has been increased from less than a dozen in 1920 to over thirty-five at the present
time. Monthly lists are published of all pure-bred cows on test in the district. These lists
are eagerly read by all stockmen and are attracting favourable comment from outside districts.
A card-index has been prepared of all pure-bred animals in the district. A list of all
Cowichan record of merit cattle is being prepared. The organization is managed by a Board
of nine Directors.    Your representative acted as Secretary since its inception.
Boys' and Girls' Club work received much attention. One Pig and three Poultry Clubs
were organized. In addition, Pig and Calf Clubs were inspected for the summer inspection
at Merville, Grantham, Courtenay, Comox, Cumberland, and Denman Island.
One day was spent judging live stock at Alberni Fair. Numerous addresses have been given
to local organizations, U.F.B.C. Locals, Farmers' Institutes, Women's Institutes, Seed-growers'
Associations, etc., in all parts of the district.
Assistance was given in assembling and arranging the Cowichan District exhibit at the
Victoria Fair. This exhibit took first prize and the challenge cup. Many new settlers came to
the district during the year. Several of these requested personal visits for advice on soil
management, fertilizers, or planting methods;  all of these were answered.
A close check was kept on insect pests and plant-diseases and suggestions issued for
combating the same.
Under the head of " Farm Topics," general items of information were published weekly in
the Cowichan Leader.
Many requests for information were received by mail, entailing a large correspondence.
Over 700 letters, 300 circulars, and 150 post-cards were mailed from the office. An effort was
made to keep a record of those coming to the office for information and advice. These averaged
over 150 per month.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. Melvin Fleming,
District Agriculturist.
Dr. A. Knight, V.S.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy, Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the report of the Veterinary staff for the year commencing January 1st
to December 31st, 1922.
I am pleased to report that there has been very little disease outside of tuberculosis affecting
the stock throughout the Province during this past year. In a few cases we have been called
upon to investigate what turned out to be internal parasites amongst sheep and cattle. The
chief among these was stomach-worm (Hwmonchus contortus) found to be the cause. Also
liver-fluke was found among two flocks of sheep which had been allowed to pasture over low
ground for the past two or three years. A number of fatalities occurred, especially among ewes,
during the winter months. As in the past, we have advised other parties under similar conditions
to keep sheep off such pasture land if at all possible; to apply lime and have ground put under
crop. I am pleased to state, however, that the losses occurring among sheep are very small,
as the affected areas are limited in extent. A'erminous bronchitis was also found affecting a
number of young stock and cattle pasturing over the same areas. Remedial measures were
advised and adopted with a fair degree of success.
Certain areas along the Fraser Valley were more affected this past year than usual with
this trouble, especially among newly born calves. In a number of herds it was more pronounced
than in others, although the water-supply and other conditions were identical on several farms
in the same neighbourhood; yet the stock on some farms were very lightly affected. By past
experience it has been found that some seasons goitre is much more prevalent than in others,
which would lead one to believe that climatic conditions are a factor in the prevalence of this '
Geo. 5
British Columbia.
AV 97
trouble. I have also noticed that the iodine treatment has proven quite successful in the
prevention of this trouble when conscientiously administered. This remedy has been advised
whenever goitre is reported.
Only three cases have been reported during the past year, in the vicinity of Chase and the
Cariboo;   these animals were destroyed by the owner.
A number of fatalities amongst herds was reported along the Fraser A'alley; upon investigation these were found due to dietetic troubles. It is just possible forage-poisoning also played
a part in the death of a number of herds on one farm in the vicinity of Abbotsford.
During the year 2,734 premises were visited, 19,452 head of cattle were tuberculin-tested,
and 1,062 reactors were found.
The testing has been carried on only on receipt of requests from stock-owners, particularly
those engaged in the dairy business and selling milk for public consumption within the cities,
towns, and municipalities of the Province.
On Vancouver Island 838 premises were visited, 4,939 cattle were tested, and 267 reactors
were found.    Eighty-two premises were Grade A, 286 Grade B, and 454 Grade C.
The Gulf Islands, I am pleased to note, are comparatively free of tuberculosis; a few cases
were found, but upon investigation it was found that these animals had been recently imported
from the neighbourhood of infected areas; all native-born cattle on these islands are apparently
free. I also note that the percentage of reactors is greater among the large herds adjacent to
our large cities. This is evidently due to the fact that such animals comprising these herds
are confined more closely than farm stock. Also the milkman when purchasing cattle does not
always take the precaution to purchase from clean herds, but picks up an animal here and there,
wherever one is offered for sale.
In the Lower Fraser 1,404 premises have been visited, 11,882 cattle tested, and 685 reactors
were found. In the Okanagan, Kootenays, Kamloops, Cariboo, Cranbrook, and Lillooet 462
premises were visited, 2,443 cattle were tested, and 80 reactors were found. In Central British
Columbia 30 premises were visited, 188 cattle were tested, and 30 reactors were found.
Appendix No. 17 gives a list of the districts and premises visited, with the number of cattle
tested and reactors in each locality.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Chief Veterinary Inspector.
J. R. Terry.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
-I have the honour to submit herewith the report for the year 1922.
General Conditions.
During the year the conditions in the industry were almost the exact parallel of those
which obtained in 1915. The prices of feed were still above normal, and owing to the stagnant
nature of practically all markets in the Province the prices received were away below normal.
This condition of affairs tended to further sift out those whose financial standing was precarious.
This Branch has steadfastly and continuously deprecated the launching into the industry of
those without experience and, in many instances, with less than a quarter of the capital necessary
to ensure at least a fighting chance to prove successful.
As in past periods of depression, the increase in the number of chicks is to be recorded, and
in consequence practically all day-old-chick sellers report an increase in operations, although
the prices for chicks were slightly lower than for the year previously. W 98
Department of Agriculture.
Prices of Eggs.
Following is a comparison of prices  (wholesale) from 1905-1922, inclusive :-
• 24%
• 57%
Co-operative Marketing of Eggs.
During the first three-quarters of the year the Poultrymen's Co-operative Organization
reported matters as dull as concerning its organizations. Towards the end of the year, however,
the Directorate reorganized affairs, and with the advent of lower prices for eggs many breeders
were forced to turn towards the organization to find a market for their eggs. By engaging noted
lecturers on co-operation from the Pacific Coast States the Department assisted very greatly in
increasing the membership of the organization. The Poultrymen's Exchange is now probably
the biggest egg-selling agency in the British Empire.
An aggressive policy was inaugurated, with the result that half a dozen cars of eggs were
shipped out of the Province. This assisted greatly in maintaining. and in certain instances
increasing the price of eggs.
Importations. I
As usual, the main source of eggs arriving in the Province was the United States and Eastern
Provinces. Owing partly to the slackness in demand and the increase in home production fewer
eggs were imported into the Province from foreign points. Last year there was a drop of
358,296 dozen imported eggs, or nearly 1,000 dozen a day, but there was a slight increase of
eggs from Eastern Provinces, amounting to 3,470 dozen, or a little over 100 cases.
The total of importations into the'Province for the year shows a decrease of 354,S26 dozen.
There was a decided drop in the importations of dressed poultry into the Province from
outside points during the year. The importations in 1921 totalled $10,657, against only $3,443
during the past year.
From other Provinces the poultry importations dropped from a value of $179,837 to $144,689.
Weather Conditions.
The winter months were the direct antithesis of the previous year. Breeders from all parts
of the Province reported unprecedented low egg yields from light-weight birds, which were more
seriously affected by the cold snaps than the heavy-weight birds or those with heavier plumage.
As a consequence of the severe weather conditions many cases of disease of a catarrhal
nature were reported, and as showing the effect of the severity of the cold, it may be mentioned
that during the twelve years that the Department has been running an Egg-laying Contest here
this was the first one in which the light-weight fowls were outlayed by the heavy-weight birds.
Less trouble was experienced from the use of artificial light, possibly owing to the cold
weather. Owing to the success of what is known as the " Late-lunch " method of feeding, more
breeders using artificial lighting have adopted this plan. Several breeders reported very
excellent results from the use even of only stable lanterns during the winter months from
December 1st to February 1st. .   •
Breeding Operations.
A considerable number of old, as well as new, breeders took up trap-nesting and pedigree-
work during the year. Unfortunately a very large proportion of those commencing this work
do not find time or inclination to continue with it more thau a few months.    The difficulty is
* Figures supplied by ranchers from 1905 to 1911.    From 1912 onwards the prices are those received for
contest eggs. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. AV 99
that the best time  for trap-nesting  is  in  the  spring,  just  when  all  the  other  activities  of
the farm are commencing.
The Dominion Government Record of Performance work is steadily going ahead and
breeders of this Province had the distinction of forming the first Record of Performance Breeders'
Association in Canada. Many reports have been received of fowls being exported at remunerative prices owing to the Government supervision of the trap-nested stock.
Departmental Work.
During the year the Instructors attached to -this Branch have been kept extremely busy,
particularly in the sections where poultry-keeping is just starting up. The fact that co-operative
poultry-selling agencies have been established in the Okanagan and Kootenay testifies to the
great increase, in the keeping and breeding of fowls by those hitherto engaged solely in fruitgrowing. It is not too much to say, in fact, that in many instances the fruit-growers have
received their only income from their poultry products during the past year.
In the past the Branch has been handicapped by the fact that the staff were unable to
cover the Province as frequently as desired. During the past few years visits to the central
portion of the Province have been very few and far between. Now that an additional Instructor
has been arranged for, this section of the Province will be able to have more frequent visits.
It is the intention of the Branch to change the location of the Interior Instructor from Grand
Forks to Nelson and make a separate district of the Kootenay Division.
The additional Instructor is to be located at the north end of the Okanagan A'alley on the
main line of the railway, so that both the central portions of the Province and the valley can
be easily reached.
Many demonstrations and lectures were given to members of Farmers' and AVomen's
Institutes, United Farmers' Clubs, Poultry Associations, and other organizations during the
Despite the high cost of feed and the low price of products, it is encouraging to record the
fact that, in practically all districts in the Province, farmers engaged in mixed farming have
paid more attention to the scientific care and feeding of the poultry-flocks than possibly during
any other period.
The members of the Branch judged at many fall fair poultry exhibits, and in addition
attended many fairs for the purpose of meeting as many ranchers as possible and discussing
their problems.
Provincial Poultry Association.
The Provincial Poultry-show was held in A'ancouver early in January and was the last of
twelve shows held in the Province during the winter months. These shows, as usual, were
assisted by a departmental grant.
The exhibits at the Provincial Show were in excess of the year previously, and owing to
the fact that visitors were admitted free many more persons attended the show. In addition
to the Department's officials, Dominion, University, and the feed companies' poultry experts were
in attendance waiting on the many poultry-breeders drawn to the show.
During the year new local Poultry Associations were formed at Strawberry Hill, Nanaimo,
Enderby, Tynehead, and New Westminster, while two associations became defunct. There is
a total of thirty-eight active Poultry Associations now in the Province affiliated with the Provincial Association. It is perhaps of interest to note that the association at Nanaimo is a
reorganization of the old original association which had been in existence nearly thirty years.
As in many mining sections, the members are very enthusiastic poultry-breeders.
The Provincial Association published an edition of 2,000 copies of its Breeders' Directory,
and copies were distributed to all the farmers' associations in the Province, as well as to many
■breeders in the Prairie Provinces.
A poultry account and record book was given to the members as a premium, and in addition
over 300 copies were sold to breeders in all parts of Canada. Several copies were sold in Newfoundland, as well as in the United States.
Egg-laying Contest.
The Eleventh Egg-laying Contest concluded on September 10th, 1922, having run for eleven
months.    The twin-bird system was used again.    The contest is divided into two classes, one AV 100
Department of Agriculture.
being known as the heavy-weights or general-purpose birds, and the other as light-weights or
birds kept primarily for egg production. Two birds are sent by each competitor and one of
them is placed in a pen with a bird belonging to another contestant. The birds are so housed
that in each pen there is one bird from Class 1 and one from Class 2. As the birds in each
pen lay one brown egg and one white egg, this plan obviates the use of trap-nests and is an
adaptation of the single-bird contests held for years in Australia. In addition to the two birds
competing, each contestant sends a spare bird which is housed according to its class and a
trap-nest record is kept of each bird.
The eighty birds during the eleven months of the contest laid 13,251 marketable eggs; the
light-weights totalling 6,830 eggs and the heavy-weights 6,421. There were forty birds in each
The heaviest layer in either class was a Barred Plymouth Rock hen in Class 2, which laid
240 eggs in eleven months. The heaviest layer in Class 1 was a White Leghorn, which laid
232 eggs.
In Class 1 eleven birds laid over 200 eggs each and the poorest layer laid 50 eggs in eleven
months.    In Class 2 four birds laid over 200 eggs each and the poorest layer laid 47 eggs.
One pen only was disqualified for laying eggs which were less than 24 oz. to the dozen,
average weight.
The Provincial Poultry Association presented monthly diplomas for the highest pens and
bronze medals monthly to the highest layer in each class, in addition to the usual cash prizes
at the conclusion of the contest.
Owing possibly to the abnormally dry season less mortality was reported among young
chicks. The drought experienced in all sections of the Province proved very acceptable to
breeders of turkeys especially. In fact, it may be safely said that there could hardly have
been more favourable conditions for turkey-raising than those that existed during the year.
Unfortunately the heavy crop of turkeys forced down the price for these fowls to a very low
figure, but notwithstanding this turkey-breeders reported an excellent year.
The usual number of what might be called March, April, and May diseases were recorded.
These diseases are those affecting the egg-organs, and as the three months mentioned are the
highest for egg production the heaviest losses are experienced then.
Many diseased fowls were sent to the Branch here for post-mortem examination, but
unfortunately many of the birds arrived in such a condition that it was impossible to make
the examination.
Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs.
During the year the number of clubs was in excess of the year previously, twenty-two clubs
having been organized. It is interesting to note that many of the best chicks were raised in
and around the larger towns of the Province. This perhaps could be accounted for by the
fact that the children have other live-stock interests around a farm, whereas in the city no
other form of live stock is kept.
The inspection and judging work was carried out by members of the Branch during the
For the coming year alterations have been made in the running of the clubs.
/    Conventions.
The International Association of Poultry Instructors held its annual convention at Seattle,
Portland, and Salem, Oregon, during the month of July. The writer attended, together with
six other Canadian members representing different branches of the industry, both Federal and
Provincial. Very interesting and instructive visits were made during the convention to some-
of the largest commercial poultry plants possibly in the world. At one ranch a White Leghorn
cockerel was shown for which $500 had been paid solely on account of the record made by its
dam and grandam.
Possibly the most interesting visit made was to the Poultry Department at the State Hospital
at Salem. Here 4,000 layers are kept of the Oregon breed and all hospitals and other institutions
throughout the State are supplied with eggs from this institute.    By the use of mental patients .
13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. AV 101
at the hospital the work is carried on very profitably. During the previous year $9,000 clear
profit was made after paying all labour, feed costs, depreciation, interest on investments, etc.
Here were shown nine hens who had each laid over 300 eggs during the year.
New editions of the Department bulletins were again issued during the year, and in addition
several leaflets were published—a stencil bulletin on poultry-houses and two leaflets entitled
" Hints on Egg Hatching " and " Breeding Stock Hints."
Each member of the Branch regularly supplies poultry articles to farm journals of the
Province, Provincial newspapers, and also to the departmental magazine, the Agricultural
Journal. Also the contest monthly records were sent regularly to various parts of the eastern
and western hemispheres.
An increase in the mail received and sent out is recorded at the head office of the Branch
and also in the district offices. A circular letter was issued during the year to persons in
Great Britain, China, and all parts of the British Empire, as well as to other parts of the
Dominion, regarding conditions in the business and openings for those intending to take up
poultry-ranching as a commercial proposition or as a side-line.
In.conclusion, the Branch considers that the present ebb in poultry prices is about finished
and that from now on, with perhaps occasional set-backs, brighter prospects are in sight.
Respectfully submitted.
J. R. Terry,
Chief Poultry Instructor.
H. Rive, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as Dairy Commissioner for the year 1922.
In spite of the drought experienced throughout, an appreciable increase in dairy production
is to be recorded. The fall rains promoted a growth highly favourable to the industry and
the season terminated with yields unexpected earlier in the year. Stores of the bulky dairy
fodders are smaller than usual.
Prices for dairy produce remained fairly stable, tending downwards during the year and
stiffening somewhat towards the close.    Prices of dairy feeds have steadily risen.
The staff of this Branch has been augmented by the appointment in June as Dairy Instructor
and Inspector of R. J. Quirie, B.S.A., with several years' experience in butter and ice-cream
manufacture in Ontario.
More frequent calls on all creameries aDd creamery patrons have been made during the
year than has been possible for many years. Excellent practice on the farm and in the factory
is frequently found in all directions, but the methods followed on the average dairy-farm still
show room for improvement. Every stage of development, from the long-settled dairy district
with experienced farmers to the pioneer locality with new-comers on the soil sending to the
newly erected creamery the cream from the first cows they have ever milked, with every variety
possible of cows, barns, and equipment, are to be met with in British Columbia, making rapid
improvement and standardization of ideas extremely difficult.
The grading of milk and cream has for several years been attempted by most of the
creameries and the need for the introduction of measures to render this practice compulsory
is daily becoming greater. The approach of the time, now distant some five to ten years, when
a sufficiency of dairy produce for its population is supplied by British Columbia means that
other Provinces and countries must be excluded from its markets.    To do this effectively the
Department of Agriculture.
standards of quality shown by butter from Alberta and New Zealand must be more thoroughly
imitated than is at present accomplished in every-day practice by our creameries. In several
instances butters of British Columbia manufacture have obtained a premium of several cents
per pound over that from elsewhere, explainable only by reasons of sentiment, and this condition
has prevented in these cases the improvement in keeping quality, mildness of flavour, and
uniformity that has occurred to the rest.
Through the departmental scheme for assistance to new districts a creamery was established
at Golden. It commenced operations in July under the name of the Columbia A'alley Co-operative
Creamery Association and has met with fair success to date. More dairy cattle are required
in the neighbourhood to ensure its success, but more land must be prepared for the growing of
fodders to support these.
The work of F. Overland, Dairy Instructor and Inspector, has been chiefly confined to the
Lower Mainland.    An extract from his report is as follows:—
" Creameries.—A'isits were made to all the creameries on the Lower Mainland. Many
improvements have been introduced in the form of new machinery and storages. Good improvement also has taken place in the quality of creamery butter manufactured and the interest
taken by creamery-men and butter-makers is very encouraging. The samples contributed for
the Dominion Scoring Contest and for the Provincial Fairs showed a marked increase in quality-
over former years.
" Visits to Dairy-farms.—About 800 visits were made to dairies, stables, etc., on the Lower
Mainland, but there are still many districts that the writer has been unable to visit owing to
the large area to be covered. Sanitary conditions have improved and new stables have been
erected along modern lines, with improved devices for the handling of stock and the cooling
of milk.
" In order to check up the quality of milk received considerable sampling has been done in
the distributing plants in Vancouver. Some plants are now taking sediment samples of all the
milk received and notifying the producers as to its condition from time to time. Where trouble
occurred with milk received the producers' establishments have been visited by the writer and
good improvement has been noted subsequently in most cases. Calls have been made regularly
on all the dairies in Vancouver and assistance given whenever possible.
" Examinations for testers' licences have been given to a number of applicants in A'ancouver
and elsewhere.
" Ice-cream.—The year 1922 has been most favourable and more ice-cream was manufactured
and consumed than for several years previous. Many of the smaller creameries and dairies
have engaged in its manufacture, while new and improved machinery has been installed at the
larger ice-cream plants in Vancouver.
" Cheese and other Factories.—Calls have been made regularly on these plants and assistance
given whenever possible. Calls were also made at the factories and on the patrons' establishments of the F.V.M.P.A. Cheese Factory at Sardis and the Ferrara Cheese Company at
Chilliwack, as well as at the Pacific Milk Condensing Company at Ladner and the Borden
Condensery at South Sumas, the last of which operated only for a short time during the summer.
" Transportation.—Where milk is hauled in by truck to A'ancouver from the outlying districts
it frequently suffers considerably in transit during the warm summer months. In some cases it
is picked up in the early morning and does not reach Vancouver until late in the afternoon,
much delay being caused by the carrying of other freight besides milk. The practice of carrying
live fowl and the carcasses of animals with the milk should be discontinued on account of the
likelihood of contamination of the milk, and regulations to this effect. should be made."
The work of R. J. Ouirie, Dairy Instructor and Inspector, has taken him throughout the
Province.    He reports as below:—
" Creamery Instruction.—Owing to the fact that the writer did not commence work with
this Department until the middle of June it was impossible to accomplish as complete a series
of inspections as was anticipated. However, with the exception of a few creameries, calls were
made and producers were also called on whenever suggested by the creameries.
" The newer creameries, located in the Nechako Valley at A'anderhoof and in the Cariboo
section at Quesnel respectively, were both visited. The Nechako Valley Creamery is expanding
considerably, much of the cream now coming from the locality of Telkwa, in the Bulkley A'alley,
a distance of some 160 miles.    It is extremely interesting to note the excellent quality of cream xTS
13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 103
received after travelling this distance. A number of producers were visited in the locality of
Telkwa and Smithers.
" At Quesnel the conditions were similar to those found at Vanderhoof. It too had
experienced a dry season, but in spite of this fact cows were being purchased and the production
of butter had increased to a very large extent. The cream received at this creamery also comes
from a considerable distance, much coming from the vicinity of Williams Lake and Lone Butte.
This cream comes to the creamery on a speeder operated for that purpose by the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway, and when received the cream is not in as good condition as it should be.
Many of the producers are pioneers and have not had a great deal of experience in the production
of dairy products.
" The creameries located on Vancouver Island, which are five in number, were all visited
and a more complete inspection of their patrons made. Owing to the lack of assistance in this
Department in the past many had not been called on for some time and consequently were found
with rather Indifferent dairy equipment and practice. It was necessary to warn some of these
shippers that a more cleanly kept dairy was essential. It is anticipated that another inspection
of this section will be made again as soon as weather and roads permit, at which time more
complete inspections can be carried out.
" Inspection of Farms of Milk-shippers.-.—Some 200 milk and cream shippers' premises were
inspected and criticism and suggestions made as seen fit. Some good work in this connection
has been done, especially in conjunction with the Vancouver Island Milk-producers at its plant,
where some time was spent on the weigh-stand, after which delinquent shippers were visited and
suggestions made. The improvement through this method has been gratifying indeed. It is
hoped that in the future more work of this nature can be carried out.
" In connection with the inspection of milk on arrival at the plant the following procedure
was followed:—
"(1.) Samples were tested for acidity by using a known quantity of alkali and indicator.
Such milk as caused a disappearance of the colour was considered as unfit for delivery.
"(2.) Temperature was taken of all cans, night's and morning's milk. This gave an idea
of the number of shippers who were taking sufficient time and care to cool the milk sufficiently.
"(3.)  Sediment tests were made from the various cans of milk.
" In connection with the work of milk inspection at milk plants, only such tests as are
comparatively rapid can be used to advantage unless a bacteriologist is. employed permanently."
Dominion Educational Butter-scoring Contest.
Though only four of the six samples required were sent from! British Columbia, the quality
shown by these was most creditable to the manufacturers. The samples secured placing as
follows: June, second; July, first; August, seventh; September, fourth. It is evident that
a good appreciation of the requirements of the butter market exists in the Province and needs
to be made the rule.
The manufacture of cheese (factory) remains, as in previous years, confined to the Lower
Mainland, affording an outlet for surplus milk of the Fraser Valley. Besides Cheddar, some
foreign types are also produced in small quantity.
Here and there throughout the Province are to be found farm cheese-makers, but their
number is limited and the amount of cheese thus produced is of little commercial importance.
Information as to several types of cheese well suited to be manufactured commercially in
British Columbia can be obtained from the Department of Dairying, University of British
The Pacific Milk Company, Limited, of Drake Street, Vancouver, with condenseries at
Ladner and Abbotsford, continues alone in the manufacture of evaporated milk in the Province.
The Borden Milk Company operated its plant at South Sumas for a short time only in the
early summer.
The milk-powder manufacturing company after the erection of its plant at Chilliwack proceeded no further. AV 104
cment of Agriculture.
Dairy Legislation.
Nothing has been done in 1922 under this head. The action of the authorities at Ottawa
in relinquishing control of milk standards, etc., calls for the amendment of the Provincial
" Milk Act " in several respects.
Testers'  Licences.
Ten applicants were examined by the Dairy Branch and seventy-seven licences were Issued.
(For the list of testers holding licences during 1922 see Appendix No. 23.)
Dairy and Creamery Licences.
To forty-eight persons, firms, or companies buying milk or cream on the butter-fat basis
licences for businesses were issued. (For the list of creameries and dairies so licensed see
Appendix No. 24.)
Cow-testing—Milk-record Work.
Supervision of this work has devolved, as during the past two years, on G. H. Thornbery.
Herewith find extract from his report:—
" As in previous years, much time has been spent in visiting the various districts in which
there are Cow-testing Associations, for the purpose of giving assistance, where possible, with
regard to the operation of these organizations. Problems dealing with the care and feeding of
dairy cows have been studied and suggestions offered for their solution.
" Practically all members of associations have been visited twice during the past year, with
the exception of those in the Okanagan, who were called on in the early summer.
" Three hundred and forty-three certificates of production have been issued in respect to
cows with records completed before January 1st, 1923. A full report of these is published as
Dairy  Circular No.  7.
" The average production of all cows reported for 1921 again shows an increase over that
of the previous year. In 1915 6,517 lb. of milk and 265.2 lb. of fat was the average of all
lactation periods sent in. In 1921 the average yield was 6,862 lb. of milk and 307.1 lb. of fat,
showing an increase of 41.9 lb. of butterfat per cow in seven years. There are approximately
2,000 cows on the books of the various Cow-testing Associations each year, so that the above
figures indicate that 2,000 cows in 1921 produced 80,000 lb. more butter-fat than did the same
number of cows in 1915.
" The steady increase in production thus shown is a good illustration of the results that can
be accomplished by joining a Cow-testing Association and systematically weeding out the poor
" In conclusion, testing-work in general and association work in particular have shown some
very good results during the past year. AVe hope to increase the benefits to be obtained along
these lines largely through the medium of certificates of production and by tattooing heifer
calves from cows which have qualified for certificates."
Fall Fairs.
The dairy exhibits at A'ancouver, Victoria, and New Westminster, Chilliwack, Richmond,
and several of the smaller fairs were judged by officials of this Branch. At the three larger
■exhibitions a steady increase in number and quality of exhibits is found each year.
British Columbia Dairymen's Association.
Matters pertaining to this association have been during 1922 much as in previous years.
Refunds for transportation charges of pure-bred dairy cattle have been continued, as well as
prizes for milk records in R.O.P. and Cow-testing Association classes.
The summer meetings were held in the Columbia Valley in June. The principal meeting
took place at Parson. The annual convention is to be held at New Westminster on Tuesday
from the Secretary and clerical assistant
and AVednesday, January 16th and 17th, in connection with which a competition is being promoted amongst schools calling for original drawings or copies of designs illustrating the food
value of milk. Films on dairy topics are being secured from the National Dairy Council for
this occasion.    The transactions of the association demand each year more time and attention ■
13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 105
Short Course.
A short course for those employed in dairy factories is being held by this Branch from
February 19th to 28th, inclusive, at the premises of the Fraser A'alley Dairies, Limited,
Vancouver. This is to be regarded as an attempt to make up for the lack of a dairy school in
British Columbia and nothing but essentials will be dealt with owing to lack of time and
The College of Agriculture of the University of British Columbia will, it is hoped, in the not
distant future be fully equipped for dairy-manufacturing demonstrations; meanwhile the staging
of this course occurs with the full co-operation of University and! Provincial dairy officials.
Practical work in cream-grading, cream-testing, butter-scoring, moisture and salt determination will be carried out by students. Lectures and discussions on acidimetry, neutralizers, cold
storage, creamery accounting, creamery mechanics, and bacterial relation will also take place.
Two circulars have been prepared and issued during the year—" A'arying Butter-fat Tests "
and an abridged edition of a former bulletin, " The Care of Milk and Cream." Both have been
furnished in large numbers to creameries for distribution to their patrons.
Office work.
The use of certificates by Cow-testing Associations has added considerably to the duties of
the assistant in charge of cow-testing work and to those of the stenographer-clerk of this' Branch.
Bulletins, circulars, imilk-record sheets, herd-record books, and dairy-farm balance-sheets to
the number of several thousands have been requested and sent out.
The establishment of creameries in remote portions of the Province will mean that, owing
to the immense distances to be covered, more assistance will be required before long in order to
make a requisite number of calls and inspections during the year.
The interest in the work of this Branch, capacity for their respective duties, and assiduity
displayed by the dairy instructors, the assistant in charge of cow-testing, and the stenographer-
clerk are worthy of notice and practical commendation.
Respectfully submitted.
Henry Rive,
Dairy Commissioner.
C. Tice, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock. F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Soil and Crop Branch.
Changes in Staff.
On October 1st your Assistant Soil and Crop Instructor was appointed Acting Chief Soil
and Crop Instructor. AV. Newton, Chief Soil and Crop Instructor, was granted leave of absence
for several months early in September in order to take up post-graduate work at Berkeley,
California. The position of Assistant Soil and Crop Instructor has been ably filled by J'; B.
Munro, B.S.A., Who previous to this was 'Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction work in the
Armstrong District. H. D. Greenwood, a graduate of the University of British Columbia, and
F. J. Welland, a third-year student of the same institution, were temporarily appointed for
certified seed-potato inspection work during the year. --^|f^^ ■■':...
W 106
Department of Agriculture.
Soil Investigations.
Investigations in relation to the character of the soils in different parts of the Province
have been continued. Up to the present these investigations have been of a general nature, the
results of which have been presented in separate reports and to public meetings in the districts
where the investigations have been made.
Sufficient data and field experience have now been secured to outline a more definite system
for classifying soils. This classification has been prepared and copies have been forwarded to
all officials of the Department of Agriculture who are likely to be called upon to describe the
soils in the districts they cover. The object of so doing is to secure definite information in
relation to soils that will enable the Department of Agriculture to deal more accurately with
problems of soil-fertility and crop-management.
The continuance of the arrangement with the Department of Mines is reported, whereby
the chemical analysis of soil samples are undertaken upon the approval of this Branch. The
indiscriminate forwarding of samples for analysis has been discouraged, for there are so many
factors that may account for low yields, apart from the chemical composition of the soil, that
we consider a chemical analysis alone as valueless. In order to deal with samples of soil
forwarded to the Soil and Crop Branch for examination a special report on field conditions
must be submitted. The forms may be secured upon application. Upon the receipt of the field
report a physical analysis of the sample is made, and when a chemical analysis is considered
to be of value arrangements are made to have the work done.
The problems connected with underdrainage are becoming more important each year. The
officials of this Branch from time to time give every assistance possible in solving these problems.
Unfortunately, at the present time we are only in a position to give advice as to the probable
value and type of drainage system most suitable for the area in question. A much larger staff
than we now have would be required if large areas were to be surveyed and plans drawn of
the drainage system recommended.
During the past year attention has been given to the adaptability of many Interior sections
to the production of alfalfa-seed. Arrangements are being made to keep in closer touch with
alfalfa-seed growers than has taken place in the past.
The growing of flower-seeds, particularly sweet peas, on Vancouver Island has received
much consideration. During the summer months AV. Newton, Chief Soil and Crop Instructor, and
F. E. Buck, of the Horticultural Department of the University of British Columbia, visited
most of the sweet-pea growers on the Island and collected much valuable information regarding
cultural methods,- varieties being grown, etc. The sweet-pea industry is comparatively in its
infancy in this Province and much experimental work needs to be carried on in this connection.
It is interesting to note that the Dominion Experimental Ifarm at Sidney is undertaking some
experiments with sweet peas which should be of very great value to tlie industry.
The necessity of securing the highest-quality stock seed and that special attention be paid
in maintaining the purity of such stock seed by careful " roguing " has been advocated by this
Branch as the means of building up the flower-seed production industry of A'ancouver and
adjacent islands. That high-quality flower-seed, particularly sweet peas, can be produced has
been clearly proven. The future of the flower-seed industry depends upon the demand for
British Columbia grown seed on the English market. It is at this time, when the industry
is in its infancy, that it is possible to build up a reputation with the English seed-houses.
Fall Fairs. ,
The principal fairs held on A'ancouver Island and the Lower Mainland were attended.
The officials of this Branch acted as judges at several of these. A full report has already been
submitted to the Secretary of the British Columbia Fairs Association.
At New Westminster, Vancouver, and Victoria a special display consisting of recommended
varieties of potatoes, certified seed, and potato-diseases was arranged. This proved to be very
interesting and of much educational value to all who attended the fairs. '
13 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
AV 107
Lectures relating to the management of soils and the production of crops were given from
time to time at various points throughout the Province.
Conventions and Meetings.
Besides attending and giving addresses at the Dairymen's Convention held in Chilliwack
and other local conventions, representatives of this Branch also were present at the Pacific
North-west Potato-growers' Conference at Spokane. The annual meeting of the United Seed-
growers, Penticton, was also attended.
British Columbia Society of Agronomists.
The British Columbia Society of Agronomists held its annual meeting at the Agassiz
Experimental Farm on April 3rd. This society, which is composed of officials of the Agronomy
Department of the University of British Columbia, the Superintendents of the Dominion Experimental Farms, and officials of this Branch, meets annually to discuss matters of general
importance to field and soil husbandry in this Province.
Potato-improvement Work.
Through an increased appropriation the seed-potato certification work commenced in 1921
was extended considerably this year. A number of fields not entered for certification purposes
were also inspected once.
Extent and Progress.—Two hundred and fifty-seven fields covering twelve districts were
inspected for certification purposes. In other words, nearly three times as many fields were
inspected in 1922 as compared with 1921. The total number of acres inspected was ISO, as
compared with 195 last year. The reason for this decrease in acreage is due to the fact that
this Branch is now strongly recommending that growers of certified seed start with a small
acreage. Too many of our farmers were taking up the certification-work because they thought
that little additional work was required and a good price would be obtained for the seed. The
result was that a far larger acreage was being planted for certification purposes than could be
properly cared for.
One hundred and sixty acres passed the first field inspection and 105 passed the second field
inspection. As a result of the first tuber inspection made last fall it is estimated that approximately 300 tons of certified seed will be offered for sale by the growers in the spring of 1923.
(See Appendix No. 26.)
Districts and Varieties.—The districts and the varieties of potatoes certified in each in
1922  were:—
Comox:   Green Mountain, Burbank, Up-to-Date, and Irish Cobbler.
Chilliwack:  Netted Gem, Jersey Royal, Green. Mountain, and Early St. George.
Windermere:  Netted Gem and AVee McGregor.
Grand Forks:  Netted Gem, Green Mountain, and Irish Cobbler.
Malakwa:   Gold Coin and Netted Gem.
Cowichan:   Netted Gem, Green Mountain, and Irish Cobbler.
Kelowna:  Green Mountain, Irish Cobbler, and Netted Gem.
A'ictoria:   Sir Walter Raleigh.
Errington:   Up-to-Date.
Keating (two growers) :   Sir AValter Raleigh and Green Mountain.
Vernon (one grower) :   Netted Gem and Green Mountain.
Kamloops (one grower) :  Ormandy.
Inspection of Ordinary Fields.—Two hundred and twenty fields comprising 786 acres planted
with the ordinary run of seed were inspected in the following districts: Revelstoke, Arrowhead,
Rock Creek, Enderby, Essondale, Armstrong, Thrums, Lulu Island, Ladner, Cloverdale, Comox,
Coombs, Victoria, Matsqui, Langley, Metchosin, Agassiz, Mission, Denman Island, Aldergrove,
and Sardis.    (See Appendix No. 27.)
Certified v. Uncertified Seed.—During the past season comparisons between certified and
uncertified seed of the same variety on the same farm and grown under identically the same soil
conditions have been made.   On one farm where Sir Walter Raleigh seed had been used the W 108
Department of Agriculture.
certified seed showed 2.7 per cent, leaf-roll; the uncertified seed showed 11 per cent, leaf-roll.
On another farm certified Netted Gem seed showed 2.75 per cent, mosaic and 2.75 per cent,
leaf-roll; uncertified seed produced 8 per cent, leaf-roll and 20 per cent, mosaic. On a third
farm certified seed of Green Mountain showed 12 per cent, mosaic and uncertified seed 44 per
cent, mosaic. Examples such as these are sufficient evidence to show that selected seed-potatoes
are just as important to the potato industry as a selected sire is to the dairy industry, particularly so since both leaf-roll and mosaic reduce the yield considerably—from 50 to 75 per cent.
That like produces like applies to the plant world as well as to the animal world.
Markets for Certified Seed.—At the present time the certified seed produced is being
marketed in the Province. We shall continue to concentrate our attention on home markets
as long as the supply is smaller than the demand. The demand for certified seed will increase
as the public becomes educated to its value.
Fee for Certification.—In the spring of 1922 a fee for inspection and certification was levied
for the first time. This fee, based on acreage and number of sacks certified, was as follows:
For 1 acre or less, $1; 1 to 5 acres, 50 cents per acre; 5 acres and up, 25 cents per acre.
Besides this, 5 cents for each sack certified was charged.
This idea of charging a fee for inspection has worked out well. The growers all seem to
be in favour of same and realize its importance.
Outside Official's Visit.—Dr. G. K. K. Link, Specialist in Market Pathology of the Bureau
of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C, visited the
Province during the month of August. His visit was in connection with certified-seed work
and leaf-roll and mosaic diseases. Dr. Link spent a week in company with the writer, visiting
some of the more important certified-seed districts of the Province. Much valuable information
was gained by officials of this Department as well as by the farmers. Field demonstrations were
given in many of the districts visited, among which were Comox, A'ictoria, Cowichan, and
Your Potato Specialist spent one week in the State of AA'ashington with Dr. Link and other
officials of the State Department of Agriculture at the conclusion of the Doctor's visit to this
Province. An opportunity was therefore given to obtain first-hand information as to the progress
of seed certification in that State, method of certifying, and varieties being recommended.
The field-day arranged by the Western AVashington Horticultural and Pathological Association and held in Yakima, was attended and much valuable information was obtained regarding
potato diseases and varieties.
Co-operation of Officials.—The co-operation of J. AA'. Eastham, Plant Pathologist, has always
been very helpful not only in drawing up the standards for certification, but also in making the
inspections of the crops in various districts. A'aluable assistance has also been rendered by
A. L. Hay, District Agriculturist, Cranbrook; W. Fleming, District Agriculturist, Duncan;
P. C. Black, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks; H. D. Greenwood and F. J. Welland, of the
University of British Columbia. The co-operation of the Agronomy Department of the University
and the Dominion Experimental Farms throughout the Province has been very much appreciated.
General.—The Province of British Columbia is well adapted to the production of large crops
of high-quality potatoes. There is no reason, therefore, through the assistance which is being
rendered in the inspection and certification work, why a profitable potato industry cannot be
Provincial Potato Fair.
Two Provincial Potato fairs were held during the past year. The first, which was held in
connection with the Dairymen's Convention at Chilliwack in February, was for the 1921 crop.
The second, held in Grand Forks from November 30th to December 2nd for the 1922 crop, was
entirely independent of any other industry.
These potato fairs were the first of their kind to be held in this Province. Both fairs were
successful and particularly the one held in Grand Forks. At Chilliwack there were eighty-seven
exhibits and at Grand Forks 270. It is interesting to note that at the seed fair held in A'ictoria
in 1921 there were only nine entries of potatoes. The increased number of entries during the
past year is almost entirely due to the seed-potato improvement work which has been carried
on by this Branch;   the majority of exhibitors at both fairs being certified-seed growers.
Some of the outstanding features of the Grand Forks Fair are worth reporting at this time.
Thirteen entries of potatoes from along the line of the Grand Trunk Pacific in Central British 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. AV 109
Columbia were on display.    These creditable exhibits speak well for the future of the industry
in that part of the Province.
A donation of a silver cup by the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes for British Columbia
for the best district display was gratefully received. The interest which this body of farmers
has taken is greatly appreciated.
The district potato display, although a new feature, was keenly contested. Six out of the
seven districts exhibiting were districts specializing in certifying seed. The silver cup was won
by the Comox District with a score of 792% points out of a possible 800. (A full report of
the fair, with the results of the judging, is being furnished in the January, 1923, issue of the
Agricultural Journal.)
Potato-growers' Associations.
The number of Potato-growers' Associations is steadily increasing each year. During 1922
associations were formed in the following districts: Nanoose, Comox, Cowichan, and Saanich.
Many other districts are contemplating forming an association in the very near future.
Potato-starch Factory.
The recently erected factory at New Westminster for the manufacture of starch and other
products from potatoes was visited during the month of December. Although not quite ready
for operation at the time of our visit, much valuable information was obtained.
Such a factory as this should prove of great advantage not only to the farmers in the
Fraser Valley, but to the whole Province. It will be a means whereby the farmer will be able
to dispose of his cull potatoes instead of allowing the same to rot in the field. Since millions
of pounds of potato products are imported every year, a factory which can make these same
products right at home should be encouraged.
Some of the products which will be manufactured are potato-starch, potato-flour, glucose,
tapioca, and sago.
Timely articles on soil and crop management have been published in the Agricultural Journal.
Bulletin No. 66 on " Silos and Silage" has been revised and a circular on " Peat and Muck
Soils" has also been printed.    A chart on potato-diseases was also prepared.    Appended are
reports on potato inspection.
Respectfully submitted.
C. Tice,
Acting Chief Soil and Crop Instructor and Potato Specialist.
Geo. H. Stewart.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Statistics Branch for the year ending
December 31st, 1922.
During the past year most of the time of your Statistician was devoted to the collection of
data relating to agricultural production, imports, and exports.
Statistics relating to agricultural production in British Columbia are collected by joint
effort of the Federal and Provincial Governments, thereby doing away with much duplication
of effort and conflicting results. By the adoption of this method the collection of statistics is
not only placed on the most economical basis, but the results obtained form a sound basis on
which to determine the annual progress of the agricultural industry. This system was first
tried out in the Province of British Columbia in 1917, and since that time has been generally
adopted by all the Provinces in the Dominion, and has been approved by the International
Agricultural Institute at Rome. W 110
Department of Agriculture.
Figures relating to crop areas and numbers of live stock were collected by means of a postal
census made during the month of June. The system provided for the mailing of card schedules
direct from the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, to all agriculturists in the Province.
Returns were required to be forwarded to this Department, where the sorting and compilation
was carried on.
The greatest difficulty that had to be contended with in the past was in obtaining an
up-to-date list of the names of all farmers, as our previous list was out of date. This difficulty
has now been overcome, as we were able to obtain a revised list of all settlers as a result of the
decennial census taken last year.
In all, 19,674 cards were distributed in British Columbia, which total represents the number
of actual landholders in the Province, Of this total, S26 were returned through the Dead Letter
Office owing to " enlistment," " dead," " removed," etc.; whilst 9,048 returns were duly filled
out and forwarded to this office, which represents 48 per cent, of the estimated number of actual
farmers in the Province at the time. This is considered a very satisfactory response and is
the highest percentage secured by any of the Provinces. With improved details, an up-to-date
mailing-list, and an effective campaign toward educating farmers in the importance of statistics
which will be carried on during the early spring, we feel that future results will undoubtedly
prove much more satisfactory.
In order to obtain information regarding the dairying industry, special printed forms are
mailed to all creameries, condenseries, cheese-factories, etc., in operation within the Province,
calling for a complete statement covering their operations for the year. These forms have all
been dispatched and are returnable to this office early in the New Year.
Statistics concerning the fruit industry are obtained from the staff of the Horticultural
Branch, who are located in all the fruit-growing sections of the Province, and also from the
transportation officials.
Other returns in connection with the production of hops, honey, wool, etc., are being secured
and will soon be ready for publication.
Imports and Exports.
In order to obtain information concerning the volume of interprovincial trade, particularly
inward movements, printed forms were mailed to all wholesale establishments and farmers'
organizations within the Province.
Forms were mailed to over 900 establishments, asking for a return of the total quantity and
value of all agricultural food products imported from the other Provinces in the Dominion for
the year ending September 30th, 1922. To date over 95 per cent, of the recipients have responded
and efforts are being made to obtain the remaining outstanding returns.
Data concerning importations from foreign countries are obtained from the Customs Department of the Dominion Government at Ottawa. Export data are being supplied from the various
shippers, Department officials, and transportation officials.
Crop Correspondents.
At the commencement of the year the voluntary services of 120 crop correspondents were
secured. Their duties in brief consisted in rendering monthly reports to this office dealing
with the condition of crops, climatic conditions as affecting crops, average yields, prices, condition
of live stock, etc. This enabled the Department to furnish accurate information at all times
regarding the agricultural industry in all sections of the Province.
The Federal office appointed an equal number, entirely different from the ones reporting
to this office, who reported to Ottawa direct. Separately compiled results from these two sets
of correspondents were then exchanged by the two offices, and the average result mutually
agreed upon, adopted, and published.
Farm Accounting.
Considerable time was spent by your Statistician in connection with farm accounting and
the results of this work have been most gratifying. Not only have the farmers become very
much interested in the work, but farmers' organizations in many centres have taken the matter
up and showed their interest by requesting a supply of the books and distributing the same
to interested parties. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. AV 111
Several banking institutions with branches in the agricultural districts are helping along
the good work, not only by the distribution of copies of the book, but by actual instruction in
the keeping of the accounts.
To those farmers taking up this work the benefits will soon be manifested by showing the
economic status of the farm and serving to stimulate greater interest in better management.
During the summer months, with the assistance of G. E. W. Clarke, Assistant Horticulturist
for the Lower Mainland, and F. J. Welland, a small-fruit survey of the entire Lower Mainland
section of the Province was made, the results of which have been submitted to you.
The total number of letters received by this Branch during the year was 1,924, while the
total number of letters dispatched was 1,202. During the year nine circular letters, comprising
2,580 letters in all, were sent out to Farmers' Institutes, manufacturers of dairy products, etc.
In addition to these, over 1,000 crop-report forms were sent out to crop correspondents.
The Agricultural Statistics Bulletin for the year 1921 was.issued early in the year. Of
the 1,200 copies printed but a few remain for distribution.
Weekly reports have been prepared for banking concerns and numerous reports have been
supplied to manufacturing and financial interests in the United States and Canada.
With the compilation of the June census returns, the monthly returns of crop correspondents,
together with the attention given to correspondence and other routine matters, the entire time
of your Statistician was taken up.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
George H. Stewart,
Report of provincial apiarist, nelson.
W. J. ShepPjUrd.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report as Provincial Apiarist, together with the estimated honey-
crop and demonstration apiaries reports, and also the reports of A. W. Finlay and J. F. Roberts,
Assistant Apiarists, for the past season.
General Conditions.
The season of 1922 has been the best so far for honey production in British Columbia, the
estimated crop being more than double that of last year and the year before, amounting to
355 tons, valued at $177,839. In 1911, eleven years ago, when the first legislation was passed
by the Provincial Legislature for the protection of the bee-keepers, in the shape of the " Foul-
brood Act," the estimated total honey production of the Province for that year only amounted
to 20 tons. Considerable and steady progress has certainly been made in the few years that
have elapsed since then, and the industry bids fair to continue to grow and to become a much
more important branch of agriculture than it is at the present time. One of the advantages of
honey production is that it is not a perishable commodity, and if it cannot be sold at a reasonable
profit as soon as it is secured, it will keep in good condition until a more favourable opportunity
may occur to find a better market for it.
The honey produced this year has been of exceptionally fine quality throughout the Province,
although British Columbia honey has all along had a good reputation. In illustration of this
a letter was received from C. Price-Green, Commissioner for the Industrial and Resources
Department of the Canadian National Railways, Toronto, asking for some samples of British
Columbia honey to be sent for publicity purposes to O. Hamm, the President of the Wyoming
Bee-keepers' Association, Sheridan, Wyoming, to be put on display at the annual convention of
that association.   Three samples were sent, as follows:—
Sample No. 1.—Honey awarded first prize at the Provincial Exhibition, New Westminster,
September 11th to 16th, 1922, gathered mostly from alsike clover in the Fraser A'alley. AV 112
Department of Agriculture.
Sample No. 2.—Honey awarded first prize at the Annual Fruit Fair, Nelson, September
20th to 22nd, 1922, gathered from spreading dogbane (Apocynum androsamiifolium) at Castlegar.
(Spreading dogbane is locally called milkweed.)
Sample No. 3.—Honey gathered from fireweed  (Epilobium angustifolium.)  at Taghum.
A letter was received from Mr. Hanim acknowledging the receipt of the honey, in which he
says: " This is wonderful honey, all three samples, especially No. 3, which is a water-white,
and I believe the same is the best that I have ever seen. I know that these samples will create
a great deal of interest, at our convention. Here, in Wyoming, the fireweed is practically
unknown and the milkweed is not a source of honey."
Dr. E. F. Phillips, Apiculturist for the United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau
of Entomology, AVashington, D.C, also wrote asking for samples of British Columbia honey to
be used in the proposed classifying of the different honeys of the American Continent. Three
similar samples were sent to Dr. Phillips.
The honey from the Fraser A'alley, mentioned above, which took first prize at the New
Westminster Exhibition, September 11th to 16th of this year, in all the principal classes, and
which was tested by J. A. Dawson, Dominion Government Analyst, by means of the Abbe
refractometer, showed solids 83.7 per cent, with a specific gravity of 1.4365. The Dominion
Government of Canada standard for honey is a minimum of 75 per cent, solids.
The demonstration apiaries that were started in the Fraser A'alley last year for educational
purposes, as will be seen by the report, herewith, have given some remarkable results and show
conclusively the possibilities of some of the more favourable locations.
In the Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson River A'alleys the general average production
was about the same as last year. In the Kootenays it has been 100 per cent, better than last
The Lewis Treatment for European Foul-brood.
Although the efficiency of the Lewis treatment for European foul-brood has been questioned
by some, there is little reason to doubt that it will eradicate the disease if properly administered.
The main objections to the treatment, which was described in last year's report, are that three
applications of the antiseptic spray at intervals of a week or so have usually been found necessary
to complete the cure, and one could never be quite sure of the sodium hypochlorite, the antiseptic
used, being of uniform strength. The writer found, some months ago, that Dakin's solution,
which can be obtained in tablet form at drug-stores in British Columbia, was likely to give
better results than had been previously obtained from sodium hypochlorite. This has just been
confirmed by a short article that appeared in the November number of the American Bee Journal,
by Dr. J. F. Gray, of Iowa, which reads as follows:—
"To get a proper solution of sodium hypochlorite seems to be a great trouble. In looking
up the formula for making the solution I find that it is almost the same as Dakin's solution,
the difference being that Dakin's contains bicarbonate of soda.
" I had a supply of Dakin's antiseptic tablets on hand, so I thought I would try it on two
colonies with a common sprayer. I gave the combs a thorough spraying. One or two combs
that were badly infected I saturated with the solution, fully expecting to kill eggs and all.
In eight days I opened the hives to see the results. In one colony of hybrids the bees had
cleaned house until not one sign of foul-brood could be found. In the other colony, an Italian,
a few infected cells were found. These were sprayed again. I could not see that it had
destroyed the eggs, or larva?, or harmed the hatching brood.
" Dakin's antiseptic tablets can be purchased in the drug-stores. They are put out by the
different laboratories under trade-names, but they contain 4.6 grains of Dakin's antiseptic.
Use one to an ounce of water or sixteen to a pint. This makes a 1-per-cent. solution. Keep the
tablets in a bottle and make a fresh solution each time you have occasion to use it."
Experiments have been carried out during the past season by the writer of this report with
another antiseptic that has given good promise of better results than even those obtained from
either sodium hypochlorite (B.-K.) or Dakin's solution. This antiseptic apparently does not
distress the bees so much, is less trouble to administer, and the cost is but little. It is hoped
to continue these experiments next spring with a larger supply of the antiseptic, which could
not be obtained this year in sufficient quantity to make absolutely sure of the results. 13 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 113
Compensation for American Foul-brood.
American foul-brood was found in the following places during the past season, and compensation has been paid by the Department of Agriculture for the frames of comb destroyed in
cleaning up the disease: Tynehead, Chilliwack, Ladysmith, A'ernon, Willow Point, Nelson, Lister,
and Boswell.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
W.   J.   SlIEPPAHD,
Provincial Apiarist.
A.   W.   FlNLAY.
W. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Nelson, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the season of 1922.
General Conditions.
The season 1922 began with very discouraging conditions for bee-keeping on the Lower
Mainland, the severe winter and late spring being responsible for many losses, mostly from
starvation. This was especially noticeable where colonies were wintered in single-walled hives
without protection, the mortality reaching as high as 60 per cent, in some instances. Fortunately
the majority of commercial honey-producers have for some little time realized the value of
protective cases and the importance of leaving more stores in the hives than is usually considered
necessary, so that wdnter losses in these apiaries were very light in comparison with the others.
The Provincial Government demonstration apiaries emphasized their value as object-lessons,
under the existing unfavourable weather conditions, by safely wintering 100 per cent, so that
the colonies soon became strong enough to take full advantage of the first spring honey-flow.
A colony on scales at the Agassiz Demonstration Apiary registered a gain of 54 lb. of honey
from dandelions early in May, the best day's record being 13% lb.
With the beginning of settled warm weather in May things improved rapidly. Weak colonies
built up quickly, and from then on, with the principal honey-plants yielding nectar abundantly,
Winter losses were more than made up by natural swarming and artificial increase.
The season for honey production has been very good indeed as compared with the past three
years, and in the Fraser Valley surprising records in surplus honey taken from single colonies
have been made.
The general average production per colony in the Fraser Valley is approximately 80 lb.,
being more than double that of any season hitherto. This creditable showing was not entirely
due to the favourable conditions that developed later in the season, but was largely oh account
of the improved methods of bee-keeping that have been advocated by the Apiary Inspectors
during the past few years, also to better equipment and to the increased importations of
pure-bred Italian stock. The epidemic of European foul-brood has also been an important
factor in impelling the bee-keepers to adopt better methods, and although the campaign of
education to combat this disease has been carried on under most adverse conditions of weather,
etc., during the past three years, such progress has been made that the favourable conditions
this year have given the opportunity for the value of the work that has been done to be fully
Demonstration Apiaries.
The fourteen