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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1932

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
OP   THE
LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES
OP  THE
DEPAKTMENT OF LANDS
YEAR ENDED-DECEMBER 31ST 1930
•HON. N. S. LOUGH EED, MINISTER. OP LANDS
printed by
authority of the legislative assembly.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed liy Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1931.  Victoria, B.C., March 2nd, 1931.
To His Honour James Alexander Macdonald,
Administrator of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches
of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1930.
N. S. LOUGHEED,
Minister of Lands.
Victoria, B.C., February 24th, 1931.
The Honourable N. S. Lougheed,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches
of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1930.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands  6
Revenue  6
Pre-emption Records, etc  7
Pre-emption Inspections  .'  8
Summary, 1930   9
Land-sales  10
Coal Licences, Leases, etc  10
Crown Grants issued  10
Letters inward and outward   10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., February 20th, 1931.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of administration
of lands by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year ended December
31st, 1930.
In sympathy with general trade depression throughout the country, a decline in receipts
will be noted, with the exception of those relating to town lots and under the " Coal and
Petroleum Act."
Substantial progress has been made in the work of compiling information and records in
respect to lands in the Railway Belt and Peace River Block, recently transferred by the
Dominion Government to this Province.
It will be noteworthy that the sales of reverted lands under the " Taxation Act," for the
third successive year, exceeded sales of ordinary Crown lands under the " Land Act."
A marked increase has been observed during the latter part of the year in the number of
general inquiries respecting land in all parts of the Province, which it is hoped may be taken
as a happy augury of early improvement.
I have, etc.,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
STATEMENT OF REVENUE, YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st, 1930.
Land-sales.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$695.50
65,052.18
50,038.20
1,-500.63
$695.50
65 052 18
$45,943.82
34,994.22
1,834.56
3,572.11
95,982.02
Country lands	
36,494.85
1,834.56
3,572.11
Totals    	
$117,286.51
$88,344.71
L
$203,631.22
Revenue under " Land Act."
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Sundry lease rentals
Grazing rentals	
Survey fees	
Sundry fees	
Royalty	
Improvements	
Rent of property	
Totals	
$75,295.50
6,677.12
106.80
16,660.60
411.83
$2,407.64
2,918.00
2,253.57
240.00
$99,151.85
$7,819.21
$75,295.50
6,677.12
2,514.44
19,578.60
411.83
2,253.S7
240.00
_!_
$106,971.06
Revenue under " Coal and Petroleum Act.'
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$24,300.00
11,695.86
6,891.75
300.00
$24,300.00
11,695.86
6,891.75
300.00
Totals	
$43,187.61
	
$43,187.61 B 6
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
Sundry Receipts.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Maps, blue-prints, etc	
Miscellaneous	
Interest, South Okanagan Project	
Revenue from lands transferred from the Dominion
Totals	
$9,100.92
585.16
1,554.95
2,084.80
$13,325.83
$9,100.92
585.16
1,1554.95
2,084.80
1; 1373 25783
Summary of Revenue.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$117,286.51
99,151.85
43.1S7.61
13.325.83
$S6,344.71
7,819.21
$203,631.22
106,971.06
43,187.61
13,325.83
Totals	
$272,951.80
$94,163.92
$367,115.72
Summary of Cash received.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$367,115.72
15,988.80
1,007.69
71,599.99
43,816.86
5,343.77
1.70
$367,115.72
15,988.80
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
1,007.69
" Better Housing Act "—
71,599.99
43,816.86
5,343.77
1.70
Totals	
$504,874.53
	
$504,874.53
SALE OF TOWN LOTS DURING 1930.
Disposal of lots placed on the market at previous auction sales:—
14 lots in Vancouver     $20,700.00
6 lots in Creston    1,688.00
3 lots in Quesnel   500.00
5 lots in Vanderhoof     375.00
3 lots in Trail     300.00
And some 64 lots in various other townsites, amounting to  1,833.00
A total of 95 lots for  $25,396.00
Sale of town lots at public auction during the year 1930:—
At Houston, 3 lots   $130.00
At Fernie, 3 lots  175.00
At Vanderhoof, 3 lots   200.00
A total of 9 lots for  $505.00
University Hill Subdivision in D.L. HO, N.W.D. (Endowment Lands).—Thirteen lots leased
in 1930, value $41,345.    Five lots sold in 1930, price $16,780.
Southern Okanagan Project.—Fifty-seven parcels were sold in 1930, comprising 716.22 acres,
the purchase price being $26,462.49. PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC.
B 7
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1930.
Agency.
Pre-emption
Records
allowed.
Certificates
of
Purchase.
Certificates
of Improvements.
Alberni	
13
51
l5
1
77
185
21
2
3
4
3
21
393
4
78
10
24
22
9
8
31
3
50
27
7
29
70
2
36
13
2
60
19
37
16
104
50
2
23
186
9
656
3
Atlin                        	
Clinton	
15
1
Fort Fraser	
21
10
Golden	
3
12
Kaslo	
1
1
5
4
2
4
23
7
6
4
2
Totals	
934
1,432
124 B 8
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
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rt B 10 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
STATEMENT OF LETTERS INWARD AND OUTWARD, 1930.
Letters inward   21,834
Letters outward   16,581
LAND-SALES, 1930. Acres
Surveyed (first class)      1,791
Surveyed (second class)      6,412
8,203
Unsurveyed  .     2,951
Total  11,154
COAL LICENCES, LEASES, ETC.
COAL-PROSPECTING   LICENCES.
Number of licences issued, 235; area, 150,400 acres.
Coal Leases.
Number of leases issued, 33;  area, 37,209 acres.
Sundry Leases.
Number of leases issued, 149;   area, 21,402 acres.
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1930.
Pre-emptions   151
Purchase     188
Mineral     342
Town lots   113
Reverted lands (other than town lots)   160
Reverted town lots   131
Reverted mineral    94
" Dyking Assessment Act "   9
"Public Schools Act"   3
Miscellaneous  '.  22
Total '..  1,213
Applications for Crown grants   1,269
Certified copies         3
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions     21,509.00
Mineral claims (other than reverted)   13,676.00
Reverted mineral claims      3,232.88
Purchase of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots)   11,352.74
Purchase of reverted lands   13,053.10
Total  62,823.72 PART IT.
SURVEY BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Pace.
General Review of Field-work  12
Details of Field-work  ,_.  13
Office-work—
Survey Division   15
Geographic Division   16
Table A—Showing Acreages of each Class of Surveys Gazetted since 1900  19
Table B—Summary of Office-work   19
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps   20
Table D—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps   22
Table E—List of Lithographed Maps   23
Reports of Surveyors—
Photo-topographical Survey, Kettle River Valley   24
Photo-topographical Survey, Kettle and Westkettle Rivers   2G
Photo-topographical Survey, Osoyoos and Similkameen Divisions of Yale District  27
Photo-topographical Survey, Howe Sound, Callaghan Creek and Soo River Valleys  29
Control Survey,  South of Stuart Lake   32
Triangulation, West Coast of Vancouver Island   35
Triangulation, Nimpkish Lake   36
Triangulation, Lower Mainland Coast   37
Miscellaneous Land Surveys, Cariboo District, and Range 4, Coast District   40
Triangulation, Arrowhead to Kootenay Lake  43
Triangulation, Kootenay Lake eastward to Kimberley   47
Triangulation and Topography, Columbia River, Revelstoke to Big Bend   49
Re-establishing Boundaries in Township 12, Range 5, Coast District   51
Land Surveys, Fort George and Peace River Districts  ,  52
Land Surveys, Peace River District   53
Topographical and Triangulation Survey, Ingenika Valley  54
Triangulation, Finlay River Valley   58
Triangulation, Hazelton, North  60
Triangulation, Telegraph Creek to " Taylor's Meridian "   62 REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., February 16th, 1931.
The Hon. N. S. Lougheed,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the Survey
Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1930, but, before going on, wish to express the deep
regret of the entire surveying profession of this Province at the untimely and sudden death,
in February last, of Mr. Umbach, who had so capably filled the office of Surveyor-General for
the previous thirteen years. His death was a decided loss to the public service of British
Columbia.
In addition to the photo-topographic and aerial control surveys carried on by the permanent
staff, there were sixteen survey parties employed for the full season and twelve for shorter
periods, the latter generally on small surveys near their homes.
Though marred by a canoe accident costing three lives, the work accomplished in the
season was generally satisfactory, and remarkably so in some cases despite smoke interference.
The objectives aimed at were accomplished in all but three cases, one being due to the accident
referred to.
Throughout the 1930 flying season the Dominion Government kept a detachment of the
Royal Canadian Air Force with two fully equipped seaplanes at work on photography in this
Province. We have had the most hearty co-operation from them and preference has been given
by them to areas designated by us as of the most immediate importance, and at this date we
have on file 42,445 properly indexed aerial photographs covering an area of 16,600 square miles,
and several thousand additional photographs are expected soon. An examination of these photographs under the stereoscope reveals a wealth of detail as to forest-cover, feasible transportation
routes, watersheds, and geology which could not be otherwise secured without prohibitive
expense. The use of these planes has cost the British Columbia Government nothing and the
photographs we require are supplied at cost of printing, but in order to retain this service we
are asked to furnish the ground survey control necessary for the full utilization of these photographs. If funds can be provided by the Province for this control, the Dominion authorities
seem disposed, in furtherance of their National Topographic Map programme, to meet us more
than half-way. In my opinion this offers too good an opportunity for getting extremely valuable
information and maps at low cost to the Province, to be neglected. There being so many variables affecting the scale of aerial photographs, such, for example, as height of plane, differences
between the distances from the camera of the tops of mountains and their bases, etc., it
becomes necessary to fix, by ground survey, the geographical positions and altitudes of some
points identifiable on the photographs in order to determine the varying scales. Owing to its
high relief. British Columbia requires more than the average ground control before the full
value for mapping can be got from aerial photographs.
GENERAL REVIEW OF FIELD-WORK.
The general field-work of the Branch is divided into three main classes—namely, surveys
of Crown lands for settlement, industrial, and residential purposes, control surveys, and topographical surveys, including control for aerial photographs.
The following is a short review of the work done of the various classes:—
Croivn Land Surveys.—Surveys of land for settlement were limited to areas likely to be
taken up in the very near future and, with the exception of some small scattered areas, attention was confined to a series of hay meadows partly occupied by Indians in the Chilcotin and
Blackwater Valleys, to re-establishing and completing some surveys made thirty-seven years
ago near Vanderhoof, and to agricultural areas south of the Peace River Block near Pouce
Coupe. The total area surveyed was about 27,000 acres, and there was also run 110 miles of
line subdividing old 640-acre surveyed lots into quarters. In addition to this, two Dominion
Land Surveyors, working in the Peace River Block, were, at the request of the Dominion
Government, allowed to complete their season from August 1st onward. REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL. B 13
Control Surveys.—The necessity for control surveys has been explained in past reports, and,
briefly, the system adopted is a triangulation network following the main valleys. To this all
older scattered surveys are steadily being tied and the aim is to have these permanently marked
triangulation stations so distributed that all future surveys can be tied to them at little cost.
Wild transits are being substituted for the older type on the more important triangulation nets,
and owing to the reduced weights the saving in back-packing will in some cases pay for the new
transit in a single season, and the results so far obtained also indicate a higher degree of
accuracy.
Triangulation networks in the southern part of the Province are well advanced and attention in 1930 was here confined to the closing of gaps. A network designed to connect the
Dominion Geodetic net at Golden and Revelstoke with a floating net near Mount Robson and
following the Columbia and Canoe River Valleys was advanced. Great progress was made ou
the 500-mile net along the Parsnip, Finlay, Ingenika, and Skeena Valleys and there is now only
a 70-mile gap in this net between Peace River waters and the Skeena. It is hoped that this gap
can be closed soon, as our maps of this area are based on very scanty data. A connection
should later be made between this net, and the existing net along the Stikine River and
thence to the Alaska boundary survey near the mouth of the Stikine.
Topographical Surveys.—Photo-topographical surveys were carried on by four small parties
in charge of Messrs. McCaw, A. J. Campbell, Jackson, and Austen-Leigh, B.C. Land Surveyors of
the permanent staff. Mr. Campbell closed a gap along Howe Sound south of Garibaldi Park and
also covered an area along the Cheakamus River north of Garibaldi Park, while the other three
parties carried out the field-work necessary for completion of the map of the Kettle River
drainage area. With this work, the entire area lying between the International Boundary and
the Railway Belt and west of the Arrow Lake Divide has now been covered by the photo-
topographical survey. Carrying out an arrangement with the Dominion Government under
which the Royal Canadian Air Force in the year 1928 photographed an area south of Stuart
Lake, Mr. N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., of the permanent staff, was employed on control surveys
covering about 1,400 square miles in that area, while in the Nimpkish Lake region, flown by
the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1930, some preliminary control-work was done by Mr. H. E.
Whyte, B.C.L.S.
The problem of low-cost aerial photograph control in our mountainous country is receiving
special study.
DETAILS OF FIELD-WORK.
The following is a short outline of the work, not already referred to, carried on by field
parties during the season, with the names of the B.C. Land Surveyors in charge of parties :—
W. J. II. Holmes—Full season on triangulation on west coast of Vancouver  Island;
short gap left.
F. Butterfleld—Short season on land-ties on south end of Vancouver Island in connec-
nection with map to be prepared by Department of National Defence.
C. L. Roberts—Full season on surveys on west coast of Vancouver Island and subdivision north of Powell River.
R. P. Bishop—Short season on triangulation reconnaissance, Toba Inlet.
G. K. Burnett—Short season on subdivision south of Powell River.
H. H. Roberts—Full season closing gap in Coast triangulation, Queen Charlotte Sound.
A. H. Green and A. L. Purely—Short season on miscellaneous surveys near Nelson.
H. D. Dawson—Full season on triangulation, Arrowhead to Kootenay Lake.
F. S. Clements—Full season on triangulation, Kootenay Lake eastward to Kimberley;
short gap left.
Wm. Hallam, Jr.—Triangulation in Columbia Valley north of Golden until drowning
accident in September.
John Elliott, assisted by M. H. Ramsey—Full season on triangulation and topography,
Columbia River from Revelstoke to Big Bend.
E. H. Burden—Almost full season on scattered surveys, Fort George and Peace River
Districts.
J. A. F. Campbell—Full season on triangulation, Parsnip River. B 14 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
L. S. Cokely, assisted by Duncan Cran—Full season on triangulation and topography,
Finlay River.
F. C. Swannell—Full season on triangulation and topography, Ingenika River.
A. W. Harvey, full season, and J. F. Templeton, brief season, on land surveys south
of Pouce Coupe.
V. Schjelderup—Full season re-establishing very old surveys near Vanderhoof.
Fred Nash—Full season on triangulation connection along Stikine from net at Telegraph Creek to the " Taylor " meridian, thus connecting Groundhog surveys.
P. M. Monckton—short season on ties to Indian reserves, etc., Stikine River.
E. R. Foster—Full season on triangulation north of Hazelton.
D. M. MacKay—Full season on scattered meadows in Chilcotin and Blackwater Valleys.
G. M. Downton—Short season in Lillooet District.
E. J. Gook—Short season on revision, Soda Creek and Quesnel Townsites.
O. B. N. Wilkie—Small survey near Yellowhead Pass.
H. E. Whyte—Short season on triangulation, Nimpkish Lake, etc., in connection with
aerial photograph control.
In addition to the work carried out by this Branch, two B.C. Land Surveyors, Messrs.
Pattinson and Moffatt, were employed by the Pacific Great Eastern Resources Survey on land
examination in the Peace River Block. The report of Mr. Crysdale, Chief Engineer of the
Resources Survey, will no doubt prove very useful to us in deciding on the lands best suited
for settlement.
OFFICE-WORK.
The office staff is divided into two main sections—namely, the Survey Division and the
Geographic Division. Reports compiled by Mr. F. O. Morris and by Mr. G. G. Aitken, who are
respectively in charge of these Divisions, follow, and following that some extracts from the
more important survey reports are inserted.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. B 15
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
SURVEY DIVISION.
This Division deals with the general correspondence, supplying survey information, the
preparation of instructions for surveying, examining field returns, and plotting official plans,
compiling departmental reference maps, clearing all applications, and other incidental work.
During the past year 692 field-books were received, containing notes for 728 lots, and including fifty-three books containing notes of traverses and triangulation control surveys.
The number of lots plotted and gazetted numbers 568; tracings of the plans of these lots
were prepared and forwarded to the various Land Commissioners. Numerous surveys of
reverted lands were also dealt with by this Division.
Miscellaneous tracings made total 210, while 1,558 tracings were made in duplicate for
leases and Crown grants.
A schedule of the various kinds of surveys examined and gazetted during 1930 follows:—■
Acres.
Purchase surveys      2,151
Mineral-claim surveys   14,630
Timber surveys     1,218
Coal-licence surveys     1,186
Lease surveys      2,155
Government surveys   17,972
Total   39,312
A comparison of these figures with those of previous seasons is given in Table A, attached to
this report. ,
Right-of-way Plans.—Plans of rights-of-way through Crown lands for railways, logging-
railways, and power-transmission lines are examined and dealt with by this Division in connection with the applications of the companies for Crown grants or leases sis may be required.
Information supplied.—A nominal charge is made for the preparation of copies of field-
notes, blue-prints, etc., required by surveyors, officials of other departments, and the general
public. The revenue derived last year from the copying of notes and for blue-prints was
$4,655.23.    The total number of prints made was 24,525.
Correspondence and Accounts.—During the year the Branch received 6,827 letters and sent
out 5,816, not including form letters and interdepartmental memoranda.
The accounts of the field-work and the sale of information have been dealt with in the usual
manner. The Survey Accountant has also, during the past season, dealt with all of the accounts
of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway Resources Survey.
Clearances.—During the year the Surveys Division supplied to the Lands, Forest, and Water
Branches clearances of applications, as follows :—
Pre-emptions   1,234
Applications to purchase      233
Applications to lease       618
Coal licences       318
Water licences       125
Timber-sales   ,  1,523
Hand-loggers' licences        63
Crown grants  1,074
Reverted lands  1,130
Cancellations      903
Inquiries ,  1,623
A graphical record is kept of all clearances on the maps of the Branch. In many instances
it is necessary in the clearing of a single application to connect numerous departmental records
in order to ascertain that no other interests are affected.
An indication of the work involved in dealing with various matters covered by the work of
this Branch is given by the number of plans and field-notes consulted. During the past year
there were received from the vault for reference, and returned for filing, 30,401 documents of
this description. B 16
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations and
inquiries, reference maps on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are maintained
by the Branch. There are now 166 reference maps and 52 mineral reference maps, making a
total of 218 maps. The work of keeping these up to date by adding new survey information as
it becomes available, and revising same when worn out, forms a considerable portion of the
work of the Branch. During the past year twenty (fourteen reference maps and six mineral
reference maps) were prepared.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
The Geographic Division deals with the compilation and drawing of maps for lithographic
reproduction, the preparation of standard base maps and the calculations incidental thereto,
triangulation adjustment, the distribution of map stock, and all photostat and map-mounting
work; geographic data and records of the Province.
The production for the year is outlined in the following schedules:—
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Mineral Reference Map No. 4,
Nelson-Ymir  	
Prince Rupert Pre-emptors' Map
(reissue) 	
Highway and Travel Map of B.C.
Mineral Reference Map No. 5,
Rossland-Ymir	
Fort George Pre-emptors' Map....
Peace River Pre-emptors' Map....
Penticton Degree Sheet, topographic 	
3,000
6,500
10,400
3,000
10,000
5,000
6,500
Jan., 1930
April, 1930
June, 1930
June, 1930
Aug., 1930
Aug., 1930
Dec, 1930
M.R.M. 4
3m
P.W.D.
M.R.M. 5
3a
3b
4n
1 m. to 1 In.
3 m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
800
10,000
700
9,000
16,000
3,100
In Course of Printing.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
• Area in
Sq. Miles.
4,200
5,200
Feb.,    1931
Mar.,   1931
3q
3e
4 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
9,600
60,000
In Course of Preparation.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Nelson Degree Sheet, topographic
Tete    Jaune    Pre-emptors'    Map
(reprint)   	
Cranbrook Degree Sheet	
North    Thompson    Pre-emptors'
Map   (reprint)   	
New Wall Map of B.C., in 4 sheets
10,000
July,    1931
May,    1931
4b
3h
4c
3j
lA
2 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1  in.
2 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
1/1,000,000 or 15.78
m. to 1 in.
3,100
6,000
3,100
9,000
372,630
Gazetteer.
The Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia was completed and printed during the year.
This publication has filled a long-felt want and has been favourably l-eceived by the various
departments of the Government, as well as by the general public. It contains approximately
23,000 British Columbia place-names and a preface in which is outlined a short description of APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. B 17
place-naming, early history, settlement, and topography, together with mileage tables covering
roads, railways, and coastal routes; lists of main rivers and principal tributaries; areas of
islands over 10 square miles; areas of lakes over 10 square miles ; main drainage basins and areas ;
cities, municipalities, and villages; parks in B.C. and their areas and locations; historical
monuments and tablets in B.C.; climate; rules of nomenclature (Geographic Board of Canada) ;
sources of information; and explanation of indexing system. The first issue consisted of 2,500
copies, and the price is $2 per copy.
Cost-card System.
The number of orders executed for other departments was twenty-two, making a charge of
$150.33. Co-operative work orders carried out for other departments were seven, with a cost
of $311.25.
Map-mounting.
The following is a synopsis of the work accomplished by the Map-mounting Division for
the year 1930 :—
Loose-leaf map-books—mounted map in rexine covers and unmounted
maps in brown-paper covers  78
Map-racks installed—comprising Provincial and Dominion Government
maps, also rexine-covered index-cases   4
White, blue, and ozalid prints—joined, mounted, etc  1,354
Maps—joined, mounted, cut to fold pocket size, and mounted   938
Photostat prints—fitted, joined, mounted, etc  413
Photos mounted '. 1,758
Official maps and charts—repaired, mounted, etc  57
Field-books and miscellaneous books—repaired, bound, etc  55
Pictures, sketches, and paintings—mounted   9
Maps—reinforced to hang, sticks top and bottom   101
Work done, Receipts and Credits.
Geographic and Survey Branch  $986.55
Lands Department  650.19
Other Departments   524.83
Public   207.00
Total  $2,368.57
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps issued to departments and public  25,456
Gazetteers issued to departments and public   353
Maps received into Geographic stock   39,442
Gazetteers received into Geographic stock   2,632
Cash receipts for printed maps and Gazetteers  $2,874.44
Cred'ts (Lands Department) for printed maps and Gazetteers   3,265.54
Credits (Government Agents) for printed maps and Gazetteers   662.72
Value of printed maps and Gazetteers issued free to departments and
public     3,504.65
Photostat, 1930.
Requisitions— ,
Departments   656
Public    132
Charges—
Departments   $2,091.75
Public       522.75
Total  $2,614.50
2 B 18
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
Letters received
Year. and attended to.
1924   1,399
1925  1,961
1926   1,426
1927   1,886
1928   1,796
1929   2,548
1930   1,787
Standard Base Map Staff.
Standard Base Map Sheets produced.
Type of Work.
No. of
Sheets.
Vicinity of.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
1
1
1
1
2
4
1  m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1  m. to 1 in.
1  m.  to 1  in.
20 ch.  to 1  in.
20 ch. to 1  in.
710
770
770
Skeleton Control (revised) 	
700
Detail                    	
170
340
In 1930 a large proportion of effort of the Standard Base Map staff was employed directly
for Geographic map production. The programme for ensuing year necessitates all of the
Standard Base Map staff effort directed to Standard Base Map production.
Control nets were supplied as follows:—-
Geographic Printed Maps.
Penticton Degree Sheet.
Cranbrook Degree Sheet.
Tete Jaune Pre-emptors' Map.
Wall Map of B.C.
Departmental Reference Maps, etc.
Surveys Branch Reference Maps Nos. 7a, 10,11, 41, 84, 85, 87.
Mineral Reference Maps.
Forest Branch Departmental Maps.
Photo-topographic Surveys of R. D. McCaw, A. J. Campbell,
and G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
Triangulation Computation and Adjustment.
Least-square adjustments of the following triangulation control surveys were made during
the year:—
H. E. Whyte and A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., season 1929, Prince George to B.C.-Alberta
Boundary.
Wm. Hallarn, B.C.L.S., season 1929, Columbia Valley.
F. S. Clements, B.C.L.S., season 1929, Arrow Lakes.
H. D. Dawson, B.C.L.S., season 1929, Lardeau vicinity.
J. Davidson, B.C.L.S., season 1929, P.G.E. Resources Survey.
E. R. Foster, B.C.L.S., season 1930, Hazelton, northerly.
J. A. F. Campbell, B.C.L.S., season 1930, Parsnip River.
The above necessitated the adjustment of 310 triangles and 362 calculations for latitude,
longitude, distance, azimuth, and reverse azimuth.
The work of registration of details of triangulation stations was continued, and at the
present date 1,587 stations are entered in the alphabetical and quad-index registers. APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
B 19
Table A.—Showing Acreages of each Class of Surveys gazetted each Year since 1900.
Year.
Preemptions.
Purchase.
Mineral Timber
Claims. Limits.
Coal
Licences.
Leases.
B.C. Govt.
Surveys.
Totals.
1900	
1901	
1902	
1903	
1904	
1905	
1906	
1907	
1908	
1909	
1910	
1911	
1912	
1913	
1914	
1915	
1916	
1917	
1918	
1919	
1920	
1921	
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
Acr
22
26
35
37
48,
42
33
50
66
71
79
89
99
55
45
22
14
12
10
8
PS.
,873
,493
297
015
1'24
660
,573
460
78S
316
273
,485
.461
202
,551
46
,335
632
,835
.514
,172
,078
,268
991
,1S0
Acres.
4,419
16,401
29.352
26,787
36,468
58,705
66,608
162,218
147.980
145.325
455,356
1,352,809
1,011,934
508,062
234,580
41,551
8,771
802
1,634
153
5,992
8.122
0,160
3,341
11,926
2,307
1.081
1,763
1,589
11,917
2,151
Acres.
33,441
33,400
31,057
18,115
20,549
15,535
9,894
10,017
14,607
10,744
12,499
21,325
16,645
18,043
7,546
8,339
7,677
8,386
9,247
10,264
12,580
6,290
4.637
9.175
11.382
4,750
9.166
15.695
16,253
20,210
14,630
Acres.
59
2,027
1,040
127,992
155,279
214,841
77,829
83,016
167,925
426.121
500,201
686,909
804,730
1,181,355
1,105.635
512.628
302,903
275,538
223,768
165.2S9
347.729
247,766
37,966
53,101
33,028
2.150
6,651
67,171
1,990
1,218
Acres.
626
4S.670
137,218
41,312
20,367
9,821
8,310
43,363
120,938
90,236
72,719
36,098
29,245
10,983
2,843
953
160
22,143
4,423
2,520
4,480
7,561
320
10,437
•30,019
2,990
1,186
Acres.
664
593
1,026
2.003
3,009
806
9,566
4,387
2,5S0
15,239
5,S64
6,500
8,560
4.710
4,209
841
5,145
2,960
2,342
1,495
3,227
11,884
3,094
2,790
1,437
2,273
2,641
5,411
3,484
2,122
2,155
Acres.
10,057
SOO
179
107
113,90S
97,072
512,373
302,536
948,644
826,362
1,014.366
1,078,579
705,170
124,953
111,256
60,311
77,121
63,505
127,797
98,841
147,927
33,860
23,402
29,393
8,477
8,872
10,560
17,972
Acres.
71,513
79,094
98,698
213,312
312,278
469,872
238,842
444,433
506,773
1,189,428
1,407,912
3,226,618
2,S66,997
2,S54,487
2,512,198
1,320,520
474,767
414,417
309,090
262,996
463,348
409,360
154,486
221,805
100,374
36,192
52.718
37,996
127,388
49,789
39,312
* Includes 28,548 aci-es surveyed as phosphate licences.
Table B.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1930 and Comparative Figures for 1929,
Survey Division.                                         1929 1930
Number of field-books received           1,144 692
lots surveyed           1,235 728
„          lots gazetted and tracings fowarded to Government Agents..            822 56P
„          miles of right-of-way plans dealt with                50 46
„         applications for purchase cleared             205 233
„         applications for pre-emption cleared             611 1,234
„         reference maps compiled               16 20
„          Crown-grant applications cleared           1,530 1,074
Total number of letters received by Branch           7,407 6,827
„         „        Crown-grant and lease tracings made in duplicate         2,101 1,558
blue-prints made       27,803 24,525
Revenue from sale of blue-prints and survey information   $5,638.71 $4,655.23
Revenue from printed maps, photostats, etc  $4,792.64 $4,187.03 B 20
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
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B 23
Table E.—List of Lithographed Maps.
Map
No.
Year of
Issue.
Title o! Map.
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Per
Dozen.
1A
tlA
lex
IB
18
l.JCA
1912
1931
1927
1930
1916
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1925
1929
1920
1914
1929
1923
1924
1927
1930
1920
1923
1922
1928
1921
1927
1931
1931
1924
1929
1924
1931
1927
1931
1931
1913
1925
1913
1914
1926
1921
1923
1926
1927
1930
1916
1929
1929
1929
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1930
1931
1907
1898
1896
Geographic Series—
British Columbia.    In four sheets.   Showing roads and trails,
railway systems, etc.
Wall Map of British Columbia.   In four sheets.    In course of
preparation
British Columbia.    In one sheet.    Showing Land Recording Divisions
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen.    Showing Mining Divisions
Cariboo and adjacent Districts.    Showing Land Recording Divisions
British Colombia.    In one sheet.    Showing rivers, railways, main
roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc.,
17.75 m. to 1 in.
1:1,900,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 ni. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 in. to 1 in.
31.56 ni. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 in. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 in. to I in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 in. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
. 2 m. to 1 in.
2 in. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. io 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 in. to ] in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
^ m. to 1 in.
| m. to 1 in.
5 in. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 in. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
*1.00
Free
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.50
.50
.60
.50
.50
.50
.50
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.60
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.50
.50
.60
.50
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2.00
.35
Free
.10
.10
.10
$10.00
1.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
1.T0
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ditto                         ditto                 and Land Recording Divisions.
ditto                         ditto                  and Assessment Districts	
ditto                         ditto                  and  Provincial Electoral Divisions
ditto                         ditto                  and   Land   Registry   Districts
and Counties
South   Western   Districts   of   B.C.,   Commercial   and   Visitors.
(Economic Tallies, etc., 1929.)
4.00
4.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
2a
2 b
Land Sbribs—
Southerly Vancouver Island	
4.00
4.00
2c
2D
2 b
2r
3a
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography (preliminary),  ...
Pre-emptors' Series—
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
3c
2.00
3d
3b
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Bulklev Valley	
2.00
2.00
2.00
So
2 00
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Grenville Channel (preliminary)	
Degree Series—
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
t4B
t4c
4.00
4d
4 k
4f
4g
411
Fernie Sheet	
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.1
4.00
4K
4.00
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4.M
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5a
5 b
5c
Penticton (contoured)   	
Topographical Series—
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured),  South sheet (special) ...
ii                         ii                    ii            North sheet (special) ...
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
MRM2
mrm3
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
Special—
PWD
MD
9
5
2
Miscellaneous—
Highwav and Travel Map of B.C	
B.C. Mining Divisions and Mineral Survey Districts	
Kootenay District, East, Triangulation Survey of	
■;0 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
10 m. to 1 in.
6,000 ft. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
2.50
On app.
.50
.50
.60
flu course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding1, applicants for maps are requested to state the "
Information supplied of maps of British Columbia printed and published at Ottawa,
the Dominion Department of the Interior, etc., etc.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address :—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands,
Victoria, B.C.
Map Number" of map desired.
by the Canadian Geological Survey, also
1st Sept., 1930 B 24 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, KETTLE RIVER VALLEY.
By R. D. McCaw.
Victoria, B.C., November 24th, 1930.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report upon photo-topographical surveys carried on by me during
the past season in the Kettle River Valley. In your instructions of May 20th it was desired
that the watershed of the Kettle River should be completed this season if possible. With this
end in view I was directed to operate between the Kettle and Granby Rivers in order to complete
the area still unfinished there, and to co-operate with Messrs. Jackson and Austen-Leigh,
B.O.L.S., who were working to the west and east respectively. I may say at this point that the
entire area under instructions was done, thus making complete the entire Kettle River watershed.
My party was organized and camp set up on June 7th at a point on the Vernon-Edgewood
Road 13 miles from Edgewood. This was adjacent to the Sand Creek Trail, one of the means
of access to the Lightning Peak area. The other, and usually easier route, is a tractor-road
from the Inonoaklin Crossing. I had intended using this route, but it was in such bad shape
that loaded pack-horses could not travel over it, so we used the aforesaid trail. The trail is
a very good one, but climbs high to get over the top of Galloping Mountain. Several matters
delayed our start, but we finally packed up and moved to the west side of Lightning Peak,
locating a camp there on June 14th after two clays on the trail.
An exploratory trip was next made south for the purpose of locating a trail and for placing
a signal on a high mountain south-east of Lightning Peak. The snow was still too deep to get
through with horses, so we directed our energies towards the ridge between Kettle River and
Rendell Creek, the altitude being considerably lower. From June 17th to 27th work was done
along this ridge, carrying last year's work as far south as practical at this time, some six
camera stations being occupied as well as some traverse done. Eleven miles of trail were cut
here for moving camp. Rain delayed us to a very considerable extent. The next base of
operations was from a camp about 5 miles south .of Lightning Peak, to which we moved on June
30th, the depth of snow having sufficiently lessened to permit pack-horses to get through.
Surveys were then continued southerly from last year's work. Stations were occupied on the
ridge between Rendell and Goatskin Creeks and on the summit looking across the Granby River.
From a fly camp some 5 miles south (on Goatskin Creek) Arthurs Mountain was visited and a
cairn erected. This station was used as a control-point for my own stations and those of
Messrs. Jackson and Austen-Leigh. Stations were continued southerly along the ridge, as far
as we could go with horses, the necessary trail being located and cut out as required. Southeast of Arthurs Mountain the character of the country became so rough that horse-trail was
difficult for reaching portions still undone, so we retraced our steps to the head of Goatskin
Creek and completed some low stations in vicinity of the pass to the Granby River. This
brought us to the end of July, which had been a very satisfactory month, with no lost time,
although smoke bothered our work at times.
On August 5th camp was moved south-westerly down Goatskin Creek about 7 miles, and
then a route for trail explored to get down to the north end of the road at the Kettle River.
The entire country here is an old burn and had there not been an old trail along Rendell Creek
it would have been very difficult to get through. As it was, four days were necessary to clear
out the windfalls and connect with our camp. Until August 16th dense smoke permitted of but
little camera-work. Fortunately little time was lost as there was traverse and trail work to be
done. When possible, camera stations were occupied in vicinity of Goatskin and Rendell
Creeks. Camp was moved down to the bridge at the Kettle River (Lot 2990) on August 17th.
Rain on the 18th cleared the atmosphere and until 23rd work was carried up the Kettle River
on the east side to connect with stations done in June. From August 25th to 28th the remaining
work on Rendell Creek was completed.
The next base of operations was at the head of Hellroarer Creek. From camps here stations
were done to connect with the north limit of Mr. Jackson's work of a year ago. Smoky atmosphere from August 29th to September 11th gave some very poor views at times. On September
7th I went around to Mr. Austen-Leigh's camp to arrange with him for the balance of the PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, KETTLE RIVER VALLEY. B 25
season, and found he was in a position to complete camera-work on the Granby River. On
September 10th I occupied Boulder Peak for triangulation readings, my assistant going to a spur
of Arthurs Mountain to take final readings there. On the 14th I sent the packers and pack-
train home. From the 16th to 18th we back-packed a light camp up Thone Creek in order to
take some views from one of Mr. Jackson's previous stations on Gable Mountain.
The party was disbanded on September 19th and camp and packing equipments shipped to
Victoria. The Ford truck was driven around to Mr. Austen-Leigh's camp and left with him.
I left Grand Forks on September 21st, arriving in Victoria the next day.
GENERAL.
The season's work is controlled by triangulation nets of previous years by F. S. Clements,
B.C.L.S. None of his stations occur within my area, so Arthurs Mountain, which is a commanding feature for all directions, was selected as a main station. From this station I read angles
to many of Messrs. Jackson's and Austen-Leigh's stations as well as my own. They in turn
occupied some of Mr. Clements's stations, reading to Arthurs Mountain, and many others of my
own, so that all positions are well controlled.
On the whole, atmospheric conditions were better than the year before. The summer was
more showery and there was less trouble from smoke. The bush did not present the parched
appearance of the year before. Forest fires within my area were practically nil. Several fires
were started during electrical storms, but these went out without spreading.
At present there are three routes for getting into the area done. One route is the way we
came in from the Vernon-Edgewood Road, over the Sand Creek Trail via Galloping Mountain.
The second is over the tractor-road from the Vernon-Edgewood Road at the Inonoaklin Crossing.
Both of these routes lead to Lightning Peak and from here south our trails are available. The
third route is from Westbridge by way of the road up the Kettle River and then by trail up
Rendell Creek, crossing over to Goatskin Creek. The tractor-road mentioned was being improved
this summer, so that motor-ears and trucks could operate on it, for a distance of about 6 or 7
miles from the main road. The mines in the Lightning Peak area were being worked a little,
probably to the same extent as in the previous summer.
During the summer some 42 miles of trail (old and new) were located and cut. Some of
this work was merely a matter of blazing, while some of it was very heavy cutting in large
windfalls.    These routes are soon found and used by the trappers in the district.
The country surveyed for mapping this year is largely a burnt area. Some parts were
burned years ago, with hardly a stick of timber left standing. Other parts are a thick forest
of grey trees, falling from time to time and making a tangle of windfalls very difficult to get
through. Last summer a large fire visited the Granby River Valley. This was mentioned
in my report of last year. Where there is green timber left below the sub-alpine areas the
varieties are jack-pine, spruce, balsam, tamarack, fir, cedar, hemlock, and some white pine.
Most of the timber of value has been destroyed by fire. Jack-pine, spruce, and balsam occur
almost anywhere, cedar and hemlock chiefly in valley-bottoms, and tamarack and fir on the
slopes of Rendell Creek, Goatskin Creek, and the Kettle River. The higher altitudes, which
are open by reason of old burn or are naturally sub-alpine areas, are usually covered with grass
which would make excellent summer grazing.
Game is plentiful. Deer are very numerous, especially in the Upper Goatskin Valley, where
many large mule-deer were seen. Black bear are in evidence in the lower altitudes as well as
some grizzlies. In the higher country these latter are supposed to be quite numerous according
to the reports of trappers and miners, although none were seen by this party. South of Goatskin Creek, on the steep slopes of the highest mountains, quite a number of goats were seen.
Grouse are fairly plentiful. There are some ptarmigan on the higher summits. The streams
are all pretty well stocked with trout.
The season's field-work is now being plotted and will be submitted when done. During the
season some seventy-three photographic and triangulation stations were occupied and about
22 miles of traverse done. A great deal of time was spent in cutting trail and moving camp.
No land-ties were made this season.
I have, etc.,
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S. B 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL  SURVEY, KETTLE AND  WESTKETTLE
RIVERS.
By G. J. Jackson.
Victoria, B.C., December 10th, 1930.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the photo-topographical survey
made by me during the past summer:—
The area covered consists of about 310 square miles of the watershed of the Kettle and
Westkettle Rivers. It is bounded on the south and west by my surveys of the seasons of 1928
and 1929 and by the Beaverdell area surveyed by the Geological Survey of Canada in 1910. On
the north and east it is bounded by surveys made by R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S., in 1916 and
1929-30.
The party was organized at Westbridge on June 4th and the first camp established 40 miles
up the main river from Westbridge. As nearly all the area was inaccessible from roads, pack-
horses were used the entire season. Trails had to be cut wherever we went, as there were either
no trails or old ones so filled in that it required a lot of work to make them passable.
The season was dry, although not as dry as last year, as we had light showers every month
we were out. June and July were very favourable for our work, but during August and
September there was a lot of smoke which retarded us considerably. There was only one small
fire in our area, but this burnt most of August and September. There were several large fires
near by.
From our first camp we occupied several stations along the river; then, cutting trail'as we
went, worked up Copperkettle Creek to its source, and from there up to Big White or Ptarmigan
Mountain. After completing stations on Big White and along the divide between the Kettle and
Westkettle Rivers we moved back to the main Kettle River. We now worked up the river as far
as Mohr Creek, occupying the necessary stations on the west side of the river and up Damfino
and Split Creeks.
This completed our work on the main river, and on August 7th we moved down the river to
Westbridge and up the Westkettle to 5 miles above Carmi. From here we intended to work up
Trapper Creek, but found that a fire had started a few days before, which made it impossible
for us to do stations there. We now moved up to Cookson and worked up the Westkettle River
to its head. Completing this about the middle of September, we went back to Trapper Creek
and occupied the necessary stations along it. AVe also reoccupied Big White, Goat, and Nipple
Triangulation Stations so as to tie in all stations from them.
The party was disbanded on October 1st, the car stored at Kamloops, and the camp equip*
ment brought back to Arictoria.
The triangulation system was controlled by stations established by F. S. Clements, B.C.L.S..
during the seasons of 1926-27. Elevations were continued from my work of previous years and
are based on precise levels run by the Dominion Geodetic Survey along the Kettle A^alley
Railway.
During the season 43 dozen plates were exposed and the following stations occupied :
Triangulation stations, 3; camera stations, 83: separate camera stations, 62.
In addition to these, ties were made to land surveys, 117 miles of traverse run, and 72 miles
of horse-trail cut.
As the Kettle Valley has been described in reports of 1928-29, it is only necessary to write
a few words about the area done this year.
There are no settlers or mines in this year's area. The valley of the main river above the
end of the road at Christian Aralley is narrow, with little or no land suitable for agriculture or
grazing. The valley and the hills on both sides for a considerable distance back have been
burnt and are now covered with windfalls and standing dead timber. At one time there was
a good trail up the river, but it is now impossible to keep open as falling trees fill it up again
in a few days. The timber up the Copperkettle. Damfino, Nevertouch, and Split Creeks above
the burnt area is mostly reproduction black pine with some spruce and balsam. There is a small
stand of cedar on Nevertouch Lake at the head of Nevertouch Creek. PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL  SURVEY,  OSOYOOS AND  SIMILKAMEEN. B 27
Trapper Creek A^alley is narrow and densely timbered with black pine and some fir and .
tamarack near the mouth and spruce and balsam near the head and along the creek-bottom.
The AVestkettle Valley is very narrow, the first 5 miles above Cookson being in a rock
canyon. The valley and hills are densely timbered for the most part with black pine, but there
are small areas of spruce and balsam. Near the head there is a small area of burn and considerable area of semi-open hills suitable for grazing on which sheep were being pastured this
summer.
We cut a trail from Morrell's ranch in Christian Aralley to the summit of Big AA7hite
Mountain. This follows the hills between State and Copperkettle Creeks to the head of Copperkettle Creek; then follows up Trapper Creek to Big AArhite. Another trail follows up Trapper
Creek for about 8 miles from the AVestkettle, but from there to the head of Copperkettle Creek
it is very indefinite.
There is a good trail up the Westkettle for about 5 miles above Cookson, but from there
to the head it is only good at low water, as instead of cutting trail we followed the river in
many places.
This season a road was commenced between Carmi and McCullough which will make the
Kettle Valley accessible from the Okanagan at Kelowna. This will probably not be completed
this year, but good progress was being made with it.
Mule-deer were plentiful in the hills and a few whitetail were in the valleys. Several black
and brown bears and three grizzlies were seen during the summer. Grouse of all kinds were
very scarce, few young birds being seen. The whole area is trapped each year and fair catches
made of marten, lynx, beaver, coyotes, and weasels.
No trout of any size were caught, but small ones, few exceeding 8 inches, were plentiful in
the main river above Damfino Creek and in Damfino Creek; also in the AA7estkettle above
Cookson.    Some of the lakes are said to have larger trout.
The work on the maps is now in progress and the usual plans are being prepared.
I have, etc.,
G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, OSOYOOS AND SIMILKAMEEN
DIVISIONS OF YALE DISTRICT.
By L. A. Austen-Leigh.
Victoria, B.C., December 4th, 1930.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my report on the photo-topographical survey carried out
by me this season under your instructions of May 26th.
The area surveyed consisted in the unmapped portion of the Granby River basin, starting
from the north of the edge of Mr. McCaw's 1929 work, near Galloping Mountain, and finishing
at Pass Creek, some 15 miles nofth of Grand Forks.
As regards the northern part of this area, my work was done to the east of the Granby,
that to the west being done by Mr. McCaw.
I arrived at Edgewood on the afternoon of June 12th, and after getting the necessary supplies made camp the following day, 14 miles out on the Vernon Road, near the Sand Creek
Trail.
This is a good trail up to the Galloping Mountain and Lightning Peak Plateau and was
our expected route in. Reports of snow, however, made it inadvisable to attempt it, and so on
the 15th we moved in by the Glen Page Trail and reached our first working camp at the head
of Eagle Creek two days later. This trail leaves the A^ernon-Edgewood Road about 12 miles
from Edgewood. It is a fair but steepish trail for 9 miles and then peters out. From there
on is a plateau country and old burn, and it was possible to pick and cut our way for the
remaining 7 miles without much trouble.
This Eagle Creek Camp was handy to the main triangulation station (Galloping 2) on
Scaia Mountain. From here to Bluejoint Mountain runs a high ridge. This ridge was to be
the eastern boundary of the work.    Ararious parties of hunters and prospectors have travelled B 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
over this ridge in the past on their way from the Old McKinley Camp to Lightning Peak or
Edgewood. Although there was no trail it was easy travelling at first, and not difficult
anywhere.
The next five weeks were spent working this ridge. Stations were occupied and photographs taken to cover all in sight to the west. Readings were taken at first on Mr. McCaw's
signals, and later, as they came in view, on Mr. Jackson's of 1929. As far as the number of
plates carried permitted, photographs were also taken to the east.
The main triangulation station on Bluejoint Mountain was occupied on July 21st. The old
signal had been destroyed by fire the previous year, and so a large cairn was built on the highest
point. The weather during this period was unsettled and stormy, but, on the whole, good for
our purpose.
This completed the work on the ridge and a move was now made down to the Burrell Creek
Road, near Franklin Creek. Two stations were occupied in the vicinity to get the head of
Howe Creek.
At the head of the Burrell Creek Road, some 45 miles from Grand Forks, is the Union Mine.
This mine ships concentrates of precious metals by truck every day to rail-head at Lynch Creek.
There is no stage on this road, and had it not been for the courtesy of the mine manager in
allowing us to use his trucks for mail and messages, we should have been greatly handicapped.
We were also most kindly lent a truck to move us to the junction of Burrell Creek and the
Granby River.    Here we renewed supplies and the second stage of the work began.
This occupied a month and consisted in occupying stations on both sides and making ties to
the land surveys for a distance of 22 miles up the Granby River. Most fortunately the trail
for a distance of 19 miles had been recently well cleared out by the Forest Service, as also had
the trail up Howe Creek.
I was indebted to the Forest Service not only for this, but also for information given about
routes and services generally.
During this period we suffered from smoke. Smoke is the worst enemy of a surveyor on
topographic or triangulation work. As a rule, under such conditions he resorts to the requisite
traversing or trail-cutting. None here was needed, and lest the smoke got worse and not better,
it was decided to continue with the photographs. The extent of view required was not great,
and the red colour screens supplied, in conjunction with panchromatic plates, discount its effect
to some extent. The transit has not this advantage, and only the large object glass and clear
vision Of the telescope made continuance possible. This smoke seems an unavoidable handicap.
It appears that the transit, the common denominator of all methods of topographic surveying,
is even more affected than the camera.
On the return journey the visibility improved, and a side-trip was made as far as possible
up Howe Creek in order to reach Bluejoint Mountain. This station was occupied again on
August 23rd and readings taken on all stations subsequent to the first visit, and also on
a number of Mr. McCaw's of this season.
This stage was completed by a return to the junction of Burrell Creek and the Granby on
August 30th. The atmosphere had never been free from smoke, but it was only troublesome for
a short time.
The third stage, which took a month, consisted in surveying the Granby basin to the south
as far as Pass Creek, taking to the east but a short distance and to the west up to the divide.
This latter was the boundary of Mr. Jackson's 1929 work. The signals left by him and the
views then taken were of great assistance. This section is rich in topographic details, requiring
many stations, but it was easy to do.
The nack-train was paid off and a car hired. The weather on the whole was good and the
area readily accessible.
Direct connection was made to Mr. Jackson's survey by the occupation of his Roderick Dhu
Station.
During the last fortnight I had the use of a Government light truck, which I left in storage
at Kamloops.
On September 2nd I paid off at Grand Forks, completing the field-work.
To summarize the survey-work, 1414 weeks were spent in doing 294 square miles. This
required 2 triangulation stations, 70 camera stations, 15 ties to land surveys, 42 dozen plates,
and 15 miles of traverse. The weather on the whole was good, the first two sections easily
accessible by horses and the last by car. PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, HOWE SOUND, ETC. B 29
As regards other features, the first section is a high mountain ridge averaging 6,000 feet
above sea-level. It is partly open, the timber being mostly balsam of no value. The fire of last
year burnt over much of the ridge and valley of the Granby beside it. Owing to its inaccessibility it cannot be said to have any value except for hunting.    Deer were plentiful.
The second section, from the forks of the Granby up the valley for 22 miles, may be
divided into two parts. The lower part, extending up to Howe Creek, is mostly steep slopes of
old burn, partly restocking. There is a small area of merchantable timber up Burns Creek.
The upper part, including Howe Creek, is also steep-sided valleys, but here there is large timber.
Mostly it is mixed, but there are also sections of cedar which consists in large and perhaps
overmature timber.
From 19 to 24 miles up the old trail is difficult to follow and not passable by horses. There
is some burn and some thick stands of old cedar. Beyond this the valley was mostly burnt in
1929. Fish are plentiful in this portion of the river until the middle of August. We saw no
game.
The third section is the valley of the Granby from the junction to Pass Creek, about 14 miles
in length. It is reached by two roads from Grand Forks and a railway. The road to the west
of the river reaches Pass Creek at about 15 miles and Lynch Creek at 19, where it meets the
other road, which conies up to the east of the river. At Lynch Creek is a small stopping-house
and the turning-point of the train, which comes up a branch of the Kettle Valley Railway once
a week from Grand Forks. This railway continues another mile to Archibald, where are a
pole-dump and the end of the aerial tramway from the Rock Candy Mine. The tramway
connects with the mine proper, which is situated about 2 miles to the west up Kennedy Creek.
This mine has been active in the past in producing fluorspar, and though not now working, will
doubtless do so again. It is also connected by road via Pass Creek to the main road to
Grand Forks.
The valley from Lynch Creek north to the junction is about a mile wide. The soil is
gravelly, no water is available, and it is not cultivated. Some eight years ago a big fire
destroyed the timber and there is little growth taking its place. This state as regards timber
applies to the whole section.
South of Lynch Creek about one-third of the valley is farmed, the remainder being similar
to that to the north. The east side of this portion of the valley is highly mineralized and is
covered with claims. There has been a lot of development and some working, but none is going
on at present.
The country between the valley and the ridge to the west is very rough and mountainous
and contains nothing but a few deer.
The map-work is in progress.
I have, etc.,
L. A. Austen-Leigh, B.C.L.S.
PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, HOWE SOUND, CALLAGHAN
CREEK AND SOO RIVER VALLEYS.
By A. J. Campbell.
A'ictoria, B.C., January 26th, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report upon the photo-topographical surveys
made by me, under your instructions, during the past season:—
Your instructions of June 2nd, 1930, divided the area to be surveyed into three sections.
The first section is described as the area along Howe Sound, lying between Britannia and the
Mamquam River, not already mapped. This refers to a strip lying between the topographical
maps of the Greater Vancouver AVater District on the south and Garibaldi Park on the north.
The mapping of this area will complete a section several miles wide from North Arancouver
to the north boundary of the New Westminster District. The second section is given as
Callaghan Creek Valley and the third as the Soo River Aralley. These secti^c, ndinin one
another and cover the west side of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway from the -ci.„,i-.„„.„ B 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
Canyon northerly to the Soo Aralley, and the map will, when completed, join the topographical
map of Garibaldi Park. The survey of this area was undertaken in connection with possible
water-power development in the Cheakamus A7alley.
The party was organized in A7aneouver on June 10th and proceeded to Squamish. AVith that
place as headquarters, several trips were made in different directions in order to reach points
from which photographs could be obtained covering the area desired. On all these trips we
were able to use existing trails, some of them very good, particularly those up Ray and Raffuse
Creeks. These trails have been cut out and kept open in order to reach mining claims up the
respective valleys.
Our last trip out of Squamish was to Park Lane Lake, on Britannia Creek, some 2 miles
back from the Tunnel Camp of the Britannia Mine. This was to reach Sky Pilot Mountain
and other stations in the vicinity. Sky Pilot is an old geological triangulation station and was
also used by J. T. Underhill in his triangulation north from A7ancouver in 1928. The occupation of this station had been left as late as possible so as to be able to get readings from as
well as on it, from more stations.
On completion of our work in the Mamquam area on July 8th, a move was made to Brandywine Falls. From here camp was packed up Brandywine Creek, using, in part, trails running
back to mining claims located on the ridge between the Brandywine and Callaghan Creeks.
For the remainder of the distance travelled up Brandywine Creek we found it necessary to cut
trails. From camps on the creek, stations were occupied covering the valley and also Cypress
Creek to the south and Callaghan Creek to the north. Brandywine Triangulation Station was
established on the ridge to the north of the valley.
AVe had hoped, from information received, to be able to branch off from the Brandywine
Trail and travel up Callaghan Creek, and in this way to save considerable packing. This
proved not feasible, so on completion of our work there we moved out to the railway and then by
train to Callaghan Creek Crossing. Before making this move two routes of access to the
mountains up the creek had been explored, and it was decided that the best way was to move
directly up the valley to a lake which had been noticed from stations to the south. This
involved a move of 13 miles, and due to the density of the brush it was found necessary to cut
out a trail. On camp being established at this lake, stations were occupied which covered
Callaghan Creek to its head and also covered the Soo River Aralley, along with others occupied
later sufficiently well to make a fairly good topographical map.
Several miles back from the railway the valleys of Callaghan and Soo are separated only
by a ridge, but at the railway they are about 16 miles apart. More stations were needed to
cover this part and on returning to the railway a move was made to Alta Lake. From there
stations were reached covering this part, including the valleys of three small creeks, known as
16-, 19-, and 21-Mile Creeks, which head among the hills lying between the two larger valleys.
On completion of this area a move was made southerly along the railway to near Watson.
Further information was needed in this section to fill out that already obtained, and we also
desired to occupy an established triangulation station.
During the season sixty camera stations were occupied and . a considerable number of
secondary camera stations. To establish connection with the existing triangulations three
stations were established, one on ridge to north of Brandywine Creek, also on mountain near
head of Callaghan Creek, and on mountain west of Alta Lake. These were connected with the
Sproatt and Cloudburst Stations, established in the triangulation of 1928. Readings were also
obtained on other stations of the same triangulation.
The Mamquam area, by which is meant the section described in your instructions as lying
along Howe Sound, between Britannia and the Mamquam, is entirely mountainous. The area
is broken by three main valleys, all rising in the south and flowing northerly, Raffuse Creek
being the centre of the three until it joins the Mamquam. The Stawamus and Mamquam
swing around to the west and south to empty into Howe Sound. The Stawamus (locally known
as the Staamish) A7alley is a typical mountain A7-shaped valley, with very steep slopes on either
side, and particularly on the west, where they rise to the rocky range of Sky Pilot Mountain.
This range terminates in the very striking solid rock knoll which is such a spectacular feature
as seen from Squamish. The Stawamus Valley has a rapid drop, falling from over 3,000 feet
altitude at its head in Loch Lomond Pass to sea-level in the 12 miles of its length. Most of this
is confined to the upper 9 miles. The town of Squamish obtains its water and also power for
its electric-light plant from this stream. PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, HOAVE SOUND, ETC. B 31
Raffuse Creek has a similar deep narrow gorge which heads in a comparatively wide and
more or less circular basin—a range of low timbered hills with a few small rocky points projecting above the timber.    As mentioned above, Raffuse Creek is a tributary of the Mamquam.
The Upper Mamquam has a much wider valley with long timbered slopes rising on either
side, broken, on the east by the valleys of tributary streams from the much higher mountains
in that direction.
The whole area, where altitude permits, is well covered with tree-growth; hemlock, cedar,
fir, and balsam-fii-, with yellow cedar at higher altitudes, were noted. All timber of commercial
value is included in the existing timber limits.
Several mining claims have been located on the ridge between Stawamus and Raffuse
Creeks and extending along the ridge towards the head of Raffuse Creek. It was rumoured
during the past summer that a large mining company was interesting itself in these claims.
As mentioned above, trails have been opened to these mining claims. An old trail leads
up Stawamus Creek and forms part of a route through to A7ancouver, following down the
Seymour River. Also an old trail followed up the Mamquam for a considerable distance.
Duriug the summer work was commenced on a road from Squamish to Britannia, with the
probability of later linking it up with Vancouver.
AVest of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway there are three main branches of the Cheakamus
River—Cypress, Brandywine, and Callaghan Creeks.. North of Callaghan Creek the next large
stream from the west to be crossed by the railway is the Soo River, which belongs, as mentioned
above, to a different watershed.
In the Brandywine, Callaghan, and Soo Valleys we have three distinct types of mountain
streams. The Brandywine is a short V-shaped valley about 10 miles long, with a rapid fall
until it reaches the more or less flat land in the vicinity of the railway. The bed of the stream
is over or close to solid rock, covered with larger boulders. The Brandywine Falls at the
railway crossing are well known and other falls up the valley were noted. There are only
small glaciers at the head of the stream.
The Callaghan Valley is a wide timber-covered valley, with the main stream, and the
several branch streams from the different glaciers which are their source, flowing through
rather shallow gorges. Rounded rock knolls and hills indicate glaciation and very little flat
land is found.
The Soo is a very different valley. After rising from the railway for some hundreds of
feet through a narrow gorge, it opens out into a U-shaped valley, with several grassy meadows
and timber-covered flats which extend for 9 or 10 miles with only a slight rise. Above these
flats the valley closes, and rises more rapidly to the large glaciers from which the river rises.
AA7ith the exception of several large burnt areas, the whole section is well covered with
forest-growth. Callaghan Valley particularly has a fine growth of green timber, with some fir,
cedar, hemlock, and white pine. Much yellow cedar was noted higher up the valley. Evidence
of the work of the hemlock-looper was very noticeable, particularly in the Brandywine Valley,
and it is probable that a large percentage of the timber will be destroyed if the pest is not
checked. Lumber-mills are located at McGuire, near the mouth of Callaghan Creek, and on
Green Lake at Parkhurst.    Both were closed during the past summer.
Several mining claims have been staked along the Brandywine and on the ridge between
that valley and the Callaghan.
A7ery little game was seen. A few black bear and deer only were encountered. Grouse are
scarce. Fish are to be had in the lakes and streams along the railway, but it cannot be said
that they are plentiful.
Generally speaking, the past season was a wonderful one for photography, and it is due
entirely to the difficulties of transport that the work was not completed in shorter time.
I have, etc.,
A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S. CONTROL SURVEY, SOUTH OF STUART LAKE.
By N. C. Stewart.
Victoria, B.C., December 23rd, 1930.
F. G. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following brief report on the Main Mapping Control
Survey for Map-sheet No. 93k, south-east of the National Topographical Map of Canada. The
boundaries of this map-sheet are the 124th and 125th meridians and the 54° and 54° 30' parallels
of north latitude, and it contains approximately 1,400 square miles.
As stated in your instructions, the object of this survey was to obtain sufficient ground
control, so that a map might be made with the aid of the vertical air photographs taken by the
Royal Canadian Air Force in 1928. The survey was our share in a co-operative arrangement
with the Topographical Survey of Canada for the mapping of the area. As the latter were to
make the map, the methods outlined by the Topographical Survey in their manuals were
followed as far as possible. These manuals were designed for a flatter and more valuable
country, and one of easier access, and hence could not be followed in detail.
Before leaving for the field a rough index-map was made showing the approximate positions
of the aerial photographs. Advance knowledge of the country was obtained from a study of
the photographs and from the plans of existing surveys on file in the Department. Blue-prints
of these plans were obtained so that advantage might be taken of the existing surveys to
provide a certain amount of control and save duplication in the field.
In the photographic operations of 1928 several gaps were left. Rough sketch-maps were
made of these to aid the pilots to photograph them, and they were flown during the past
summer.
Your instructions called for the posting, for registration purposes, of the Provincial highways in the area, providing the approval of the plans by the Public Works Department was
assured. A7ery few of the roads have been permanently located and, as the District Engineer
on this account did not wish the surveys to be made at present, none of this work was done.
The party was organized in A'anderhoof on May 15th. Motor transportation was provided
for work along the roads and a pack-train of nine head was used on triangulation-work in the
hills.
SCOPE OF THE SURVEY.
The work accomplished during the field season from May 15th to October 13th was as
follows:—■
96 miles of chained traverse.
7 miles of stadia traverse.
44 miles of levels.
101 triangulation stations occupied.
50 points of control by the three-point method.
42 cadastral ties made.
75 monuments erected  (19 concrete, 16 standard brass bolts in rock, 19 B.C.L.S. bars,
and 21 wooden posts).
13 miles new trail cut.
12 miles old tfail reconditioned.
606 miles were travelled by pack-train.
38 miles were travelled by wagon.
8,748 miles were travelled by car.
174 miles were travelled by motor-boat.
The photographs controlled consisted of thirty-one flights, containing 2,798 photographs.
In addition, the 124th meridian was utilized for control by chaining from mile-posts thereon
to points of detail in the photographs. An interpretation of the features in the photos was
marked on a sufficient number, so that the features on all the photographs of the area might be
recognized. (This will provide information for a resources map if desired.) In addition to
the horizontal control, considerable vertical control was gathered all over the area, and a more
intensive vertical control was obtained over 80 square miles adjacent to the Canadian National CONTROL SURVEY, SOUTH OF STUART LAKE. B 33
Railway between Fraser Lake and Endako; the usual trigonometric heights being supplemented
by a large number of aneroid readings. With the aid of the vertical photographs under a
stereoscope, sufficient data have been obtained in this section to contour it.
FINAL RETURNS.
The final returns, which are being prepared for the Topographical Survey, consist of:
(1) A duplicate set of the air photographs duly marked with the information gathered in the
field; (2) a copy of the field-notes; (3) projection sheets on which all the information in the
notes is plotted; (4) an index-map to accompany the field-notes; and (5) a book of latitudes
and departures giving the rectangular co-ordinates of the monuments and control-points.
A copy of the projection sheets and the index-map, together with the original field-notes, will be
filed in this Department.
A brief description of the country covered by the map-sheet is as follows:—
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The area lies in the Interior Plateau at an average elevation of 2,600 feet above sea-level.
The general aspect is that of a flat tableland broken by hills in the westerly half, which culminate towards the north in a massive mountain called Shass (Grizzly). Other small mountains
are found near the north-east corner of the map-sheet, the more prominent of these being Mount
Pope and Mount Murray, the latter being named after one of the Hudson's Bay factors at Fort
St. James. The drainage is to the east by the Nechako River and its tributaries, with the
exception of a portion of the north-west part, which is drained by the Sutherland River into
Babine Lake, in the Skeena drainage-basin. Portions of Francois and Stuart Lakes are in the
area and there are also a great number of smaller lakes, the chief of which is Fraser Lake.
FORESTS.
The whole area has been well timbered, but repeated forest fires have destroyed large portions ; and adjacent to the railway, logging operations have removed the best timber. Lodge-
pole pine predominates, with spruce, Douglas fir, and balsam in the order named. The spruce
and fir reach a diameter of 30 inches. The most valuable stands of merchantable timber are
found along the shores of Stuart Lake on the slopes of Mount Nielsp, on the hills north of the
headwaters of Sutherland River, and in the valley of Shovel Creek. A smaller area of merchantable timber is located about 5 miles south of Fraser Lake.
In parts of the valleys of the Nechako and Stuart Rivers, and to lesser extent along the
Sutherland River, poplar predominates. All through the district a scattered growth of birch
and alder was noted. The undergrowth is fairly dense and consists of oollala, alder, willow,
wild grasses, including pine-grass, peavine, and vetch, and great numbers of flowering plants,
such as lupines, wild roses, and, in wet spots in the forests, devil's-club. AVild fruits were not
plentiful.
There are a large number of wild-hay meadows; those adjacent to the settlements are being
utilized, but many good meadows in the Shovel Creek and Sutherland River A7alleys have never
been cut.
Logging operations have been carried on extensively by the Fraser Lake sawmill in the
area around Francois and Fraser Lakes. Two smaller mills are located on Stuart Lake. None
of these mills was operating during the past summer. In the past large numbers of ties were
cut each winter by the settlers, so that now the supply of tie-timber near the railway is nearly
exhausted.
MINERALS.
One prospector was at work on his claims at Stuart Lake near Mount Nielsp, and another
is working a zinc-showing near the east end of Francois Lake. (These properties are described
in the Reports of the Minister of Mines.) The area is difficult to prospect on account of the
overburden and lava-flows, but as it contains several contacts the chances are good of finding
minerals of economic value.
GAME.
Moose and deer are plentiful. AVe saw moose nearly every day while working along the
Stuart Lake Road.    Bear are scarce.    The area is well covered with trap-lines, indicating that
3 it is good fur country. The fur-bearing animals seen were beaver, fox, muskrat, bear, coyote,
and squirrels, the latter being very plentiful. Rabbits are said to be increasing in numbers.
AVillow-grouse and spruce-partridge were plentiful, but water-fowl seem to be scarce. Good
trout-fishing is available in Stuart and Fraser Lakes, but many of the smaller lakes were disappointing, for they contained only squaw-fish. AAre noticed large numbers of " kokanees " or
small salmon spawning in Sutherland River. Great numbers of whitefish are caught in Fraser
and Ormonde Lakes.
Fur-farming is being carried on in the district with success, the climatic conditions being
excellent for producing prime furs.
CLIMATE.
During the field season the weather was extremely favourable. Although rain fell on forty-
eight days, the rainfall was very light, so did not interfere with our work to any great extent.
The highest noon temperature recorded was 90° F. and the lowest 44°. For about six weeks after
August 1st hot dry weather was experienced, creating a great fire-hazard. Fires started in
nearly every direction and the smoke soon covered our area, obliterating the view. Although
the weather suited us, it did not meet the requirements of the settlers, for it was too dry and
the crops suffered in consequence. Usually there is an abundant rainfall and a fair amount of
snow in the winter.    The winters are long and cold.
ACCESSIBILITY.
The Canadian National Railway and the Federal telephone-line are found along the southerly
portion of the map-sheet, and the latter extends to Fort St. James. The east and south portions
are traversed by good highways. The road from Vanderhoof to Fort St. James is part of a
proposed h'ghway into the Manson Creek and Finlay Forks areas to the north and is now
being extended in that direction. The road westerly from Vanderhoof to Endako is being
improved, for it is a link in the proposed Alaskan Highway. The westerly portion of the map-
sheet is served only by a pack-train from Endako and Fort Fraser to Babine Lake.
SETTLEMENT.
The best lands in the broad valley of the Nechako River have nearly all been settled, and
the settlement is in a prosperous condition, especially so in the vicinity of Vanderhoof. Farther
west, around Fraser Lake and Endako, the settlement is more scattered and many abandoned
homesteads were seen.
Vanderhoof, which is the largest town in the area, has several good stores, hotels, garages,
etc., and a creamery. It also contains several Government offices, including Forestry, Public
Works, and Department of Indian Affairs. The village of Fort Fraser is located on the railway
not far from the site of the old Hudson's Bay post on the lower end of Fraser Lake. The
Government Agent is stationed there. At the other end of Fraser Lake the sawmill village of
Fraser Lake is located. This place was very quiet last summer due to the non-operation of the
mill. Endako, situated on the west boundary of the map-sheet, is a divisional point on the
railway.
Fort St. James, on the lower end of Stuart Lake, is the most picturesque spot in the whole
area. It contains six stores, including the Hudson's Bay store, a good hotel, garages, etc. The
" Rancherie" and Roman Catholic Mission provide homes for a large number of Indians.
Summer homes have been built near the fort on the easterly shores of the lake, and Douglas
Lodge, beautifully situated on the lake about 2 miles from the fort, is not surpassed anywhere
for equipment and hospitality.
Fort St. James at present is the starting-place for parties going into the north by waterways
that extend nearly 200 miles and by trails that lead into the Omineca country. The country in
the immediate vicinity of Fort St. James contains some good agricultural land, but, being
heavily wooded, very little has been put under cultivation.
Attention must be called to the comparatively large Indian population in the district.
Besides the Rancherie and Mission at Fort St. James, there are villages at the east and west ends
of Fraser Lake. For the education of the Indian children a very commodious and up-to-date
school and farm has been established on an excellent site on the south shore of Fraser Lake. TRIANGULATION, AVEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND. B 35
There are considerable possibilities for additional agricultural settlement in the area covered
by this map-sheet. The Nechako and Stuart River bottom lands, the lands adjacent to the
south end of Stuart Lake, the meadows along Sutherland River, and a more intensive settlement
between Fraser and Francois Lakes are the locations in which this future settlement will
take place.
I have, etc.,
N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S.
TRIANGULATION, WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By AV. J. H. Holmes.
A7ictoria, B.C., December 31st, 1930.
J''. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report upon my work and the country
covered by it during the season of 1930 on the west coast of ATancouver Island:—
The work consisted of carrying a system of triangles northerly through the North Arm of
Clayoquot Sound, through Shelter Arm and Sydney Inlet, commencing at stations established
by H. M. T. Hodgson, B.C.L.S., in 1928 near Matilda Creek, with the object of correctly platting
the positions of all land-survey posts and monuments, defining the shore-line for mapping
purposes, and of establishing permanent monuments to which future surveys may be referred.
Ultimately it is expected to continue this chain of triangles northerly from Sydney Inlet and
connect with the system already established by me from Nootka Sound northerly.
During the past season I completed the survey of the whole of the North Arm of Clayoquot
Sound, all of Shelter Arm, and a large part of Sydney Inlet. Forty-two land-survey corner
posts were tied to and eighty-four stations established and permanently marked by the regulation bronze monument set in cement in holes drilled in solid rock. Approximately 70 miles of
shore-line was carefully defined between points established by intersecting rays and by tangential shots to all islands.
Fishing is the one outstanding industry on this part of the coast at the present time, two
pilchard-reduction plants being in operation in Sydney Inlet, as follows:—
Island Packing Company : Plant situated in Riley Cove, at the entrance to Shelter Arm.
Capacity, about 100 tons of pilchard per twenty-four hours.
Sydney Inlet Fisheries, Limited: Plant under lease from the East Bay Packing Company,
Limited, and situated in East Bay, in Sydney Inlet. Capacity, about 100 tons of pilchard per
twenty-four hours.
In Matilda Creek, at the southern end of the North Arm of Clayoquot Sound, are two
pilchard-reduction plants—the Matilda Creek Fisheries, Limited, and the North AA7est Fisheries,
Limited, each with a capacity of about 100 tons per twenty-four hours. These two plants were
apparently not in operation during 1930.
Agricultural possibilities are few because of the mountainous nature of the country, but
many small patches of land may be found capable of being cleared and cultivated in vegetables
and fruits, the climate being particularly well suited for such.
The timber in these inlets is hemlock, cedar, Douglas fir, balsam-fir, and spruce, and
apparently is still untouched, but some considerable hand-logging has in past years been done
along the shores of the North Arm of Clayoquot Sound, where the best of the fir has been
taken which could be handily slid into the water. There is a small sawmill in Matilda Creek,
owned by W. F. Gibson, which is occasionally run for local requirements.
The nearest regular post-office is in Matilda Creek, under the name of " Ahousat";
Mr. AV. F. Gibson, postmaster. Mail may also be sent from and received at Riley Cove in care
of the Island Packing Company and at East Bay in care of the Sydney Inlet Fisheries, although
these are not regular post-offices. The nearest telegraph-office is in Matilda Creek, and it is in
communication by telephone with all the fishing plants mentioned. There is a small general store at Ahousat, and supplies in limited quantities may also be
purchased at any of the fishing plants when in operation.
As regards transportation, this part of the coast is served by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company, with one boat making the round trip three times each month from Victoria during
the winter and one boat each week during the summer months. A more frequent service is put
on when business warrants.
I have, etc.,
W. J. H. Holmes, B.C.L.S.
TRIANGULATION, NIMPKISH LAKE, ETC.
By H. E. Whyte.
October 16th, 1930.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Acting under your instructions of August 6th last, I commenced a control survey of
an area in the vicinity of Nimpkish Lake, V.I., using a party of two men and myself. Owing
to the lateness of the season and the possible uncertainty of weather conditions I confined my
operations to the more accessible part of the country.    The following work was accomplished:—
Nimpkish and Hustan Lakes were triangulated and a tie traverse with elevations carried
along was made between these two lakes; Mount Karmutsen on the west side of Nimpkish Lake
was climbed and a cairn erected; angles were read from this station and pictures with the
survey camera were obtained from it as well as from two sub-stations, one on the north side of
the Klaanch Valley, the other south of the end of Nimpkish Lake. Connecting ties were made
to survey posts throughout the area covered.
I commenced my triangulation survey from a base-line measured near the north end of
Nimpkish Lake. A check base-line was also laid out at the south end of the lake. The
Dominion geodetic stations along Johnstone Strait were set with the idea of a triangulation
along the coast and islands only, and therefore in most cases are not exactly suitable points
from which to commence a network toward the west coast of Vancouver Island. I think it may
possibly be advisable to commence the system of triangulation from stations farther east than
" Klucksiwi " and " Franklin," possibly in the vicinity of Robson Bight, at the mouth of the
Tsitika River. In this locality there are some bare-topped mountains fairly close to the coast.
However, a study of the aeroplane photographs and the position of the geodetic stations will
give one a better idea as to the best procedure. The mountains in the vicinity of Englewood
are heavily timbered to the tops and to establish triangulation stations on them would necessitate a great amount of heavy clearing. Once away from the east coast of Vancouver Island
there will be no trouble in locating suitable triangulation points, as there are numerous peaks
above timber-line throughout the area.
Through the kindness of Mr. Phinney, O.C. of Photo Detachment No. 1, R.C.A.F., I was
given a reconnaissance flight over most of areas 92 L/T and 92 LA, from which I got a lot of
valuable information in a short while.
Wood and English, Limited, and its employees gave me all possible help in carrying out
my survey and were of great assistance. This company when operating employs about 800
men and has about 45 miles of standard-gauge railway laid in the vicinity of Nimpkish Lake.
If this control survey is continued next year I think it would be possible and beneficial to
employ the services of one or two men who have trapped and prospected in this locality.
I have, etc.,
H. E. AVhyte, B.C.L.S. TRIANGULATION, MAINLAND COAST. B 37
TRIANGULATION, MAINLAND COAST.
By H. H. Roberts.
Vancouver, B.C., December 5th, 1930.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report in connection with surveys carried
out by me along the Mainland Coast during the season of 1930:—
Your letter, dated June 5th, contained instructions for the following work:—
(1.) A rigid triangulation connection between the triangulation surveys by Mr. John Elliott,
B.C.L.S., in season 1929 (and my work in 1926) near the easterly end of Malcolm Island and
the work of Mr. James T. Underhill, B.C.L.S., at the mouths of Smith Sound and Rivers Inlet
and the southerly end of Fitzhugh Sound; tying in existing surveys and geodetic stations
en route.
(2.)  A tie between the triangulation of Mereworth Sound and that of Long Lake.
(3.) A rigid connection along Nodales Channel between Station 13 (Davidson) and my work
of previous season in Discovery Passage.
As in previous seasons, a launch and two rowboats were used on the work.
NODALES CHANNEL.
A little over a week in June was spent in Nodales Channel, closing a gap between work of
previous seasons in that vicinity.
Nodales Channel is about 8 miles long and 1 mile wide and runs south-westerly from
Cordero Channel to Chatham Point, where it turns into Johnstone Strait and Discovery Passage.
It separates Lower Thurlow Island from Sonora Island. Hemming Bay, about midway on the
westerly side of the channel, Thurston Bay and Cameleon Harbour on the easterly side, are the
principal indentations in Nodales Channel.
Cameleon Harbour, comparatively narrow in width and over a mile long, has near the head
a well-sheltered anchorage. A few parcels of land fronting on this harbour and more or less
suitable for settlement were surveyed some years ago.
Thurston Bay is a point of call of boats from Vancouver and is the headquarters in this
district of the Provincial Government Forestry Department.
Other settlements in this vicinity are at Shoal Bay on Lower Thurlow Island and at Rock
Bay on Vancouver Island.
This district, timbered chiefly with fir, cedar, and hemlock, has been the scene of large
logging operations.
Mineralized areas have been found along the shores of Nodales Channel and along Cordero
Channel and arms of the latter, Phillips and Frederick; and development-work has been carried
on, intermittently and with varying success, since the mining boom in the late nineties.
QUEEN CHARLOTTE STRAIT.
The triangulation of Queen Charlotte Strait, with its extension northerly to connect with
previous work in Smith Sound, Rivers Inlet, and Fitzhugh Sound, was the principal task of the
season. Two base-lines were laid out, one in Mitchell Bay on Malcolm Island and the other
in Port Alexander on Nigei Island. Measuring-tables were set at the ends of each tape-length
and levels were run over the tables. Nails to support the chain were driven on grade into posts
set at intervals of 50 links between the tables. Temperature-readings were noted and the pull
on the chain was measured with a spring-balance. The lines were measured with a 500-link
tape. Check-chainages were taken with a 200-foot tape. Both tapes had been compared with
a Dominion standard tape before leaving Arancouver. Fairly well-conditioned triangles connect
the relatively short base-lines with the main triangulation system. As in previous surveys
along the coastal waters, it was not found practical to adhere to the quadrilateral method.
Angles were measured by the method of " repetitions " with a Berger transit reading to twenty
seconds. The geodetic stations on Numas Island, Mount Lemon, and Mount Robinson were tied
to the triangulation. B 38 REPORT OF  THE  MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
Different forms of signals were used, varying according to length of sight, altitude, and
background of stations. Generally, a tripod signal, with or without a centre pole, boarded in
and whitewashed, was found the most satisfactory.
Fogs and mists and during the latter part of the season wet and stormy weather interfered
considerably with Our operations.
Queen Charlotte Strait is bounded on the north by the Mainland shore and on the south by
Vancouver Island. It extends westerly about 50 miles from the mouth of Knight Inlet to a line
joining the northerly end of Vancouver Island to the Mainland near Cape Caution.
Malcolm Island is at the south-east end of Queen Charlotte Strait. This island is about
15 miles long, with an average width of 2 miles. Agriculturally it is about the best piece of
land on the coast. A colony of Finlanders settled on the island about twenty years ago, the
main settlement being in and around Sointula, which is a point of call of boats from Vancouver
and has a post-office, school, and store. There is also a settlement in vicinity of Mitchell Bay,
on the easterly end of the island. Logging of cedar and spruce timber was carried on during
the summer in Mitchell Bay.
Broughton Straight, lying between Malcolm Island and Vancouver Island and forming
a junction between Queen Charlotte Strait and Johnstone Strait, was included in season's
triangulation.    It varies in width from 1 to 5 miles.
Beaver Cove and Port McNeill are good harbours on southerly side of Broughton Strait.
Beaver Cove is 5 miles south-east of Alert Bay, and at Englewood, on west arm of the cove, is
a lumber camp and sawmill employing many men, according to demand for logs and lumber and
financial conditions. Back of the cove a valley extends to Nimpkish Lake, and a logging-
railway has been constructed between Englewood and the lake. Nimpkish River, of considerable size, drains the lake and flows into Broughton Strait about midway between Beaver Cove
and Port McNeill. The distance between the two harbours is 10 miles and the intervening
shore-line is comparatively low.    Considerable work has been done by settlers in this vicinity.
The topography of A7ancouver Island changes near Nimpkish River and Lake. Along Johnstone Strait the coast is rocky and very broken, with mountains rising abruptly from the shore
to great heights. In Broughton Strait the mountains recede from the shore and the coast-line
is fairly low. The north-easterly portion of Vancouver Island from Nimpkish Lake to Cape
Scott is comparatively flat and where elevations occur they are low.
Haddington Island, about 4 miles west of Alert Bay, is noted for its building-stone. This
fine stone has been used on many buildings in Vancouver and Victoria. The quarries are at
water's edge on the south-east side of the island.
There are coal-measures in the country between Port McNeill and Beaver Harbour, extending possibly through to the west coast of A7ancouver Island. Coal has been mined at Suquash,
about 4 miles west of Malcolm Island. The beach all along here as far west as Beaver Harbour
consists of gravel and boulders.
Beaver Harbour, about 22 miles from Alert Bay, is the old Fort Rupert of the Hudson's
Bay Company. At one time it was a thriving centre. Now the place is occupied mainly by
Indians. Coastwise boats rarely put in here, though the harbour is easy of access and has
secure anchorage.
Hardy Bay (Port Hardy) is separated from Besjver Harbour by Dillon Peninsula. By
water the distance between the two places is 7 miles. The bay is 4 miles long, with a breadth
of 2 miles at the entrance and a quarter of a mile at its head. On south-westerly side of Hardy
Bay is Port Hardy, a settlement of some importance; having a school, church, two hotels, four
stores, long-distance telephone, and telegraph. Two oil companies have facilities to supply the
local demand for gasoline and oil. Port Hardy is served by boats of Canadian Pacific Railway
and Union Steamship Companies. AA7eek-ends during the fishing season the bay is the mecca
of boats, of every size and description, engaged in fishing the adjoining waters. A good
automobile-road about 9 miles long connects Port Hardy with Coal Harbour in Holberg Inlet,
an arm of Quatsino Sound.
The country in the Hardy Bay District is fairly level and timbered with hemlock, cedar,
balsam, and spruce. A considerable area can be put to agricultural purposes when the timber
has been taken off. As yet no extensive land settlement has taken place, being retarded by the
cost of land-clearing and lack of roads in places not accessible by water. TRIANGULATION, MAINLAND COAST. B 39
In recent years there has been considerable mining activity in the northerly end of Vancouver Island, principally around Nimpkish Lake, Elk Lake (Quatsino Sound), Quatse and
Kains Lakes (near Port Hardy), indicating that the upper portion of the island will develop
into an important mining section.
GOLETAS CHANNEL.
A portion of Goletas Channel from Duval Point near Hardy Bay to Port Alexander on
Nigei Island was surveyed in making connection with the check base-line at the latter place.
Goletas Channel is 25 miles long and from 1 to 2 miles wide. Vancouver Island forms its
southern boundary. On the north it is bounded by a number of islands—Hope, Nigei, Balaklava,
and the Gordon Group. The largest of these is Nigei Island, which covers an area of about
30 square miles. " Lemon," Provincial survey station, already referred to, is on top of Mount
Lemon (1,200 feet), the highest peak on Nigei Island. This island and the islands to the east
of it are sparsely settled, as they contain but a limited amount of land suitable for cultivation.
Hope, the westernmost island, is low of elevation and is said to contain some good land, but the
island is reserved for Indians. The north and west shores of the island are very broken, being
exposed to the open ocean, and the timber-growth of those sides is stunted.
The principal settlement in Goletas Channel is at Shushartie Bay, where there is a post-
office, general store, and oil-station. Union Steamship Company boats give this place a weekly
service.
Between Goletas Channel and the Mainland shore are three wide channels, known as Gordon
(New) Channel, Ripple Passage, and North Channel, formed by islands and rocks in the Hedley,
Walker, Deserters, and Millar Groups. Islands in these groups are generally covered with
a growth of thick salal and scrub timber, but have little or no agricultural value.
Along the north-easterly shores of Queen Charlotte Strait is a maze of islands stretching
from the mouth of Knight Inlet to AVells Passage, of which the largest is Broughton Island.
Numas Islands are in the middle of the strait opposite the entrance to Wells Passage.
Numas Geodetic Station is on the largest of these islands, near its top and at an elevation
of 400 feet.
From AA7ells Pass the Mainland shore maintains a general north-westerly trend, with a large
area of comparatively low timbered land extending back a long distance and cut up by inlets.
In places these low lands are of a muskeg nature. At Blunden Harbour only a short distance
separates the strait from Drury Inlet.
After passing Blunden Harbour the waters of the strait are affected by the swell of the
open ocean, and during the season we were glad to avail ourselves of shelter and anchorage in
Shelter Bay and among the islands of the Southgate Group near Allison Harbour and entrance
to  Schooner Passage.
Schooner Passage and Slingsby Channel, bordering the easterly and northerly shores oi
Bramham Island, give access from Queen Charlotte Strait to Seymour Inlet and its tributaries,
Belize Inlet, Nugent, Allison, and Mereworth Sounds. This is one of the largest systems of
waterways on the Mainland Coast and has been fully described in reports of previous seasons
by Mr. J. T. Underhill, B.C.L.S.
From Strachan Bay in Mereworth Sound, by way of Pack Lake, we made the journey to
Robinson Geodetic Station on Mount Robinson, elevation 2,100 feet.
There is a cannery in Nugent Sound.
During the summer a logging camp was operating in Mereworth Sound. At Allison Harbour
there is a post-office and store.
Union Steamship Company boats call weekly at one of the islands of the Southgate Group
for the convenience of people in Allison Harbour and Seymour Inlet.
SMITH SOUND AND RIATERS  INLET.
The latter part of the season was spent in connecting previous triangulations in Smith
Sound and Rivers Inlet to this year's work in Queen Charlotte Sound.
Reports of previous seasons dealt with physical features in Smith Sound and Rivers Inlet.
Only a small amount of lumbering operations were carried on in these districts during the
year. Salmon-canning is the principal industry on this part of the coast. The canneries between
Alert Bay and Rivers Inlet put up a fair share of British Columbia's record 1930 pack of more
than 2,160,000 cases.
GENERAL.
Game and fur-bearing animals are fairly plentiful in the areas covered by season's work.
Ducks, geese, and willow-grouse were seen in the fall.
The climate is mild, with no extremes of heat or cold. The rainfall varies from 100 to
130 inches.
I have, etc.,
H. H. Roberts, B.C.L.S.
MISCELLANEOUS LAND  SURVEYS,  CARIBOO DISTRICT, AND
RANGE 4, COAST DISTRICT.
By D. M. MacKay.
Victoria, B.C., December 15th, 1930.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit the following report upon the surveys made by me during
the season of 1930 :—
The work assigned to me .consisted of the laying-out of certain Crown lands into suitable
parcels for pre-emption, purchase, or lease, together with certain miscellaneous ties in the
following localities: Anahim Creek, Pelican Lake, Narcosli Creek, Tautri Lake, Nazko, and
Baezaeko River in Cariboo District and Coglistico River and Kluskus in Range 4, Coast
District. These surveys, being of such a widely scattered nature, entailed considerable
travelling.
I left Victoria on May 22nd and proceeded to Williams Lake, where I organized my party.
ANAHIM CREEK, PELICAN (STUM) LAKE, AND UPPER NARCOSLI CREEK.
On May 30th I established my camp on the north bank of Anahim Creek, about 60 chains
north-easterly of Lot 7247, from which I laid out Lots 10169 and 10170 and tied by triangulation
and traverse Lots 9504 and 7246 to Stum Triangulation Station. The areas surveyed here are
mainly of value because of their wild-hay meadow and pasture acreage. Anahim Creek flows
south-westerly through both parcels and can when necessary be used to irrigate the flats along
its banks, the soil of which is mostly clay of good depth and free from stones.
On June 9th I moved easterly a distance of 4 miles and established my camp near some
buildings erected by the Anahim Indians, our water-supply being obtained from a small stream,
likely the outlet of a shallow lake a short distance to the south-east. From this camp nine lots
were surveyed, all of which contain good wild-hay meadows and tracts of land covered with
patches of low willows and grass suitable as pasture or late fall range. In most cases small
shallow lakes provide the water-supply of these parcels. The surrounding land is for the most
part timbered with pine and clumps of poplar, with narrow belts of spruce along the lakes and
bordering the wild-hay lands, while numerous small meadows, marshes, and tracts of willow
and wild grasses provide an abundance of summer feed for stock. Rough wagon-roads of
Indian construction connect the above parcels to the main Pelican Lake-Alexis Creek Road,
which is now passable for light motor-cars.
I next moved by wagon over a rough and somewhat circuitous route by way of Lot 10161
to a small stream, the outlet of a shallow lake near the north-west corner of Lot 10165. The
five lots surveyed here include a fairly large acreage of wild-hay land, together with small
tracts of willow and grass, suitable for pasture. The forest-cover of the surrounding territory
is mostly pine, with scattered poplar and spruce, wide stretches of which have been so
thoroughly swept by forest fires as to give the area a barren and desolate appearance.
The survey of Lots 10215 and 10216 necessitated a move to the east shore of Pelican Lake,
a beautiful sheet of water about 4 miles long and 2 miles wide, forming an important storage-
basin for the areas inundated from Anahim Creek, as well as providing the necessary supply MISCELLANEOUS SURA7EYS, CARIBOO, AND RANGE 4, COAST B 41
to flood much of the wild-hay lands bordering its shore-line. The above surveys cover areas
of open meadow and pasture land used by the Anahim Indians and also the improvements
constructed by these people, which mainly consist of a group of buildings and corrals in the
south half of Lot 10216.
The survey of Lots 10217, 10218, 10219, and 10220 and a tie by traverse and triangulation
connecting Lot 10218 to a triangulation station of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway Resources
Survey completed the work in what may be described as the Pelican Lake area. These parcels
are situated approximately 6 miles north-east of Pelican Lake and are reached by a rough
wagon-road from Lot 7251. The meadow acreage of Lot 10220 is rough and in its present state
only suitable as pasture, but the soil is light clay and of sufficient depth, if cultivated, to
produce good hay. At present it appears to be a feeding and stamping ground for wild and
strayed horses, but would no doubt justify the expense involved in cultivation and fencing. The
meadow acreage of the other three parcels is superior to that of Lot 10220, and although hav'ng
no fence-protection appears to be singularly free from the depredations of roving bands of wild
horses. The hay yield is heavy and of better quality than that usually termed swamp-hay,
and although weather conditions were not generally favourable for hay-crops this season, yet
these meadows produced about four-fifths of their usual yield.
A fine view of much of the surrounding country can be obtained from the triangulation
station above referred to, which is situated about half a mile east of Lot 10217 and easy of
access. This station is not only of value for triangulation extension, but a very important one
for securing general topographical data.
The Pelican Lake area forms part of an elevated plateau, the average altitude of that
portion embraced by survey being about 3,600 feet above sea-level and is therefore subject to
frosts throughout the entire growing season. The surface is level or undulating with scattered
low hummocks. The forest-cover is mostly pine and spruce and is particularly dense along the
lakes and bordering the numerous meadows and runways or glades which are a feature of the
country and form very valuable feeding-grounds for stock.
The Anahim Indians lay claim to nearly all the meadow acreage surveyed and to some
extent have now established themselves on these lands. The parent reserve of these people is
situated in the valley of the Chilcotin River, a few miles south-east of Alexis Creek Post-office,
and comprises a large acreage of Township 61. The population is difficult to estimate as this
band is seldom in residence together, but for the year 1929 is given by the Department of Indian
Affairs as 228. Like Indians of other parts of Cariboo, these people began some years ago to
realize the importance of not being solely dependent on their trap-lines for a livelihood because
of the uncertainty of adequate returns from them, and therefore began to engage more extensively in cattle-raising. The Pelican Lake area with its numerous wild-hay meadows providing
a ready and abundant supply of winter feed, so close to the parent reserve and other lands set
aside for the Indians, offered opportunities in this direction that could not profitably be ignored,
and so these people began to move in to these lands, and year by year have increased their
claims until now the whole area may be described as one big unofficial Indian reserve.
The possibilities of the area for cattle-raising cannot be accurately determined from the
results to date obtained by the Anahim Indians, who, knowing that the lands they were using
had not definitely been set aside for them, have had little, if any, interest in the cultivation
and general development of these areas for the successful raising and marketing of beef cattle.
On the completion of these surveys I moved by pack-train to the headwaters of Narcosli
Creek, where I made an examination of Lots 9696 and 9927 with a view to their reclassification,
and connected by traverse the latter to Lot 7142 at the head of Tautri Lakes. This work necessitated the cutting of 6 miles of trail through the hilly and broken area lying between the above
group of surveys (Lots 10217 to 10219) and the Pelican Lake-Narcosli Creek AVagon-road to
the east, recently completed by Mr. Dan Lee, of Hanceville, who now owns the McRae holdings
in the Upper Narcosli Creek section and is engaged in cattle-raising. Much of the area
traversed by the tie connecting Lots 9696 and 7142 is hilly, the soil is sandy, with numerous
gravelly tracts, and supports little in the way of feed for stock, except in the few scattered
depressions where a good growth of wild grasses was noticed.
. A large part of this area has been swept by fires and is now covered by a tangled mass of
windfalls, through which dense small pine and scattered clumps of poplar are growing. B 42 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS,  1930.
NAZKO, BAEZAEKO RIVER, AND KLUSKUS.
From Alexis Creek Post-office a wagon-road runs in a general northerly direction for a distance of about 40 miles, terminating at Lot 305; that portion of it northerly from where the
Pelican Lake-Narcosli Creek Road branches to the east being locally known as " Martin's
Wagon-road." This road has been considerably improved in recent years, but is still only suitable for horse transport, but could without great expense be made passable for light cars, as
the grades are good and the country generally through which it passes lends itself to road-
construction. At present this road is mainly used by Mr. Helwig, who has a fairly large cattle
business with headquarters at Lot 305, and by the Anahim Indians, whose small herds graze
throughout the summer and fall on the numerous dry meadows and grassy runways of the
surrounding area. From the Helwig Ranch the Nazko Settlement is reached by pack-trail and
sleigh-road, the latter being mainly used by Indians and then only when there is a sufficient
depth of snow to make travel by sleigh safe and more expeditious. Leaving the Helwig Ranch,
the Nazko Trail runs in a north-westerly direction for a distance of approximately 4 miles
through an undulating country, much of the surface of which is thickly strewn with boulders,
when it begins to descend rapidly to the valley of the Nazko River, where it turns northerly
down the valley, keeping along or close to the bottom lands and making numerous crossings of
the river until it connects with the wagon-road at one of the Johnston holdings at the south
end of the Nazko Settlement.
The valley of the Nazko traversed by the trail is narrow, the bottom lands being badly
broken by the meandering of the river, but the soil is rich and supports a heavy growth of
nutritious grasses and weeds suitable as feed for stock; the hills on either side are fairly high
and rise gradually in a succession of narrow, broken benches supporting an open forest of pine,
poplar, and fir, throughout which is found a good growth of wild grasses, peavine, and lupine.
The survey of Lots 10261, 10264, and the subdivision of Lot 3395 comprised the work in the
Nazko area. These parcels are mainly suitable for cattle-raising in a small way. Applications
for the area surveyed as Lot 10264 have been submitted by J. AA7ohl, a Swiss settler, and Nazko
Jimmy, of the Nazko Reservation. AA7ohl's improvements are situated in the south-west corner
of the parcel and consist of a new cabin, barn, and fencing, and about half an acre of cultivated ground where hardy vegetables were grown successfully this season. The meadow acreage in the north half of the parcel is fenced and small areas of brush bordering the meadow
cleared.
Two lots covering meadow and pasture lands on the Baezaeko River, claimed by the Nazko
Indians and situated immediately to the south-west of Lot 10139, were surveyed and given
numbers 10262 and 10263. The bottom lands of this portion of the Baezaeko River A7alley are
well suited to the growing of timothy and clover; the soil is mostly river-silt, with varying
percentages of sand and clay on a gravelly subsoil.
The survey of four lots and the necessary connecting traverse ties comprised the work in
Range 4, Coast District. Lot 2728, situated 1 mile west of Mile-post 7 of the 124th meridian
survey, covers meadow acreage applied for by George Johnston, whose main holdings are a few
miles westerly from the Baezaeko River Crossing. This settler is engaged in the cattle business
and has greatly increased his herd in the last four years; his stock grazes in the Baezaeko
River and Redwater Creek A7alleys. The other three lots are situated 10 miles easterly from
the Kluskus Indian village and cover areas of wild-hay meadow and pasture claimed by Lash-
way Sundayman, a young, industrious Ind'an of the Kluskus Tribe, who derives the major
part of his living from cattle-raising. Between the 124th meridian and these surveys there is
practically no land fitted for agriculture. There are a few scattered wild-hay meadows and
spruce-swamps, but the greater part of the area is rocky and broken and covered with jack-pine
interspersed with clumps of poplar and spruce, while in places much fallen timber caused by
forest fires encumbers the ground.
TAUTRI OR ROSITA LAKE.
The survey of Lots 10265, 10266, and 10267, situated about a mile south-easterly from the
outlet of Tautri Lakes, brought the season's operations to a close. The meadow acreage
embraced by these surveys at present yields sufficient hay to winter a hundred head of stock
and falls almost entirely on the easterly side of Rosita Lake, which here has the appearance
of a long, narrow, shallow slough. Long Johnny, an Anahim Indian, lays claim to these lands
because of his long occupation and use of them. TRIANGULATION, ARROAVHEAD TO KOOTENAY LAKE. B 43
GAME AND FUR-BEARING ANIMALS.
Moose are plentiful throughout the territory covered and particularly in the area drained
by the Coglistico River, where wide areas of fallen timber afford much protection to these
animals. Deer do not appear to be numerous, but were seen from time to time throughout the
season. No bears were encountered, but signs of their presence were observed occasionally.
More grouse and water-fowl were seen this season than a year ago.
Trapping continues to provide a living to some of the Indians of the Anahim, Nazko, and
Kluskus Reservations and to a few white men. Among the fur-bearing animals found in the
area are beaver, fox, marten, fisher, mink, otter, skunk, muskrat, lynx, and coyote, but the
increasing scarcity of most of these animals, particularly beaver and fox, makes a living from
this source decidedly uncertain.
GENERAL.
All the land surveyed this season is above the 3,000-foot contour and industry is almost
entirely confined to cattle-raising.    The timber is mostly pine of no merchantable value.
The wild-hay yield was considerably less this season than usual owing to the long spells
of cloudy, cold weather which occurred throughout the growing season. There was an abundant
rainfall, but insufficient sun warmth to stimulate growth.
A great deal of very important work in straightening, widening, and gravelling the Chilcotin
Road has been done during the past two years and the roads generally throughout the district
are continually being improved.
The citizens of Cariboo no doubt feel in one way or another the effects of the present widespread depression, but not to the same extent as the people of the thickly populated centres of
the Province; nevertheless, I found everywhere throughout the wide area visited a disposition
to take the most hopeful view of the future of their great district.
I disbanded my party at Williams Lake on October 9th.
I have, etc.,
D. M. MacKay, B.C.L.S.
TRIANGULATION, ARROWHEAD TO KOOTENAY LAKE.
By H. D. Dawson.
Kaslo, B.C., November 17th, 1930.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to present herewith the following general report of my field operations and the district covered during the 1930 season:—
Your instructions, dated May 29th, required me to: (a) Occupy certain stations in the
vicinity of the Upper Arrow Lake and Shuswap River in order to strengthen existing triangulation surveys, and (6) to connect the existing triangulation net of the Railway Belt in the
vicinity of Arrowhead made by the Dominion Government with that of the Provincial Government at the north end of Kootenay Lake near Lardeau.
Accordingly, having engaged my party, I left Kaslo on June 13th and travelled by way of
Nakusp to St. Leon, on the Upper Arrow Lake. The weather was not very good and throughout
the balance of the month rain-storms were frequent and the visibility between times poor.
Delays were necessitated and several times we stayed on or near the peaks all night, hoping to
get good sighting first thing after daybreak before the clouds should again have accumulated.
The weather cleared the first week in July and remained fairly good until the second week in
August, there being enough heavy showers to keep down the fires. Smoke, however, became bad
on August 10th, and for the next month we had two long delays from this cause. From then
on the weather was very wet, with comparatively few days when instrument-work was possible.
At one time I was afraid it would be impossible to complete the programme, but after making
the last three climbs in 2 feet of snow we completed the work on the high peaks on October 23rd.
There then remained a number of valley-bottom stations to occupy and these were done without
much hindrance, and I returned to Kaslo on November 2nd.
There were eleven valley-bottom stations and nineteen peak stations, and of these latter
five were between 7,000 and 8,000 feet in altitude and the balance between S,000 and 9,200 feet, B 44 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
with most of them around 8,800 feet. The elevations of the valleys range from the 1,400 feet of
the Arrow Lakes to the 2,350 feet of Trout Lake. The elevation of Kootenay Lake is 1,750 feet.
The vertical relief is therefore quite high. The conditions necessitated a total of forty climbs,
totalling 240,000 feet, or 45% miles. Fortunately, about half of them were more or less
accessible by trails and in such cases we used horses, but in the other cases it was a case of
back-packing and pushing through more or less tangled second growth and underbrush from
the word " go." Temporary camps had always to be used. During the whole season atmospheric
conditions were bad and the work was much delayed, but fortunately I had very good men with
me, men able to travel and climb steadily for long hours under heavy packs. Without such men
it would have been impossible to have completed the work.
A trip made by two of my assistants is perhaps worthy of recounting and came about in
this manner: AVe had arrived at Peters Lake, near the head of Rainbow Creek, Shuswap River,
in bad weather in the early afternoon of Monday, June 23rd, and early next morning set out
for the Sugarloaf Pinnacle Station at 8,791 feet. It had been raining steadily for three days
and snow-fields were rotten and the going extremely bad, so that it took six hours to reach the
peak. Half-way there, however, I had seen that clouds were dropping and it would be doubtful
if the sighting could be accomplished, and I therefore sent one man back to camp with instructions to bring along light temporary camp outfit and food for two of us overnight. At the
top no other stations were visible and we employed our time excavating the cairn from a 10-foot
snow-drift and cutting two trenches, 4 feet wide, 25 feet long, and upwards of 4 feet deep,
through the drift in order to be able to sight to St. Leon and Halcyon Stations when conditions
would permit. At 4 p.m. I sent the two men back to my main camp and I stayed on the peak
another two hours, hoping I might just possibly be able to do the work; but the clouds remained
and at 6.15 I descended and made my way to a small clump of scrubby alpine timber where I had
observed that my other assistant, E. Newbrand, had arrived and had made some shelter. The
next morning he and I climbed to the peak and waited for several hours, but without luck,
although occasionally a roll of the clouds would reveal the St. Leon or the Halcyon peaks, and
I noticed that whilst I could pick up the signal on St. Leon quite easily, that on Halcyon could
not be seen. About 1 p.m. the clouds dropped and snow began falling, and soon after I decided
it was no use waiting any more that day and we descended to our fly camp. Sleet and hail
frequently fell through the rest of the day. During the afternoon the other two assistants,
Ferris and Graham, brought up fresh supplies from the main camp. The night came on wet
and stormy and the following morning broke with sleet, hail, fog, and wind, and the outlook
very bad and no prospects of the weather improving for several days. I did not doubt that,
given good visibility, I would be able to pick up the Halcyon flag, as I had seen it plainly from
St. Leon a week before; but to be sure that I would be able to see it as soon as the clouds
lifted, even without good visibility, I now determined to have Newbrand take Graham with him
and make the journey over to Halcyon and tack plenty of new flag material around the tripod
and make it as distinctive from surrounding features as'possible, whilst I would wait there at
the foot of the peak ready to shoot at the first opportunity. This he did, leaving our bivouac
at 8.30 on Thursday morning in heavy rain and, travelling the 5 miles to camp, picked up
Graham, and the two of them walked the 20 miles or so to Sugar Lake, arriving at 4; they
hired an outboard motor-boat to take them down to the inn, where they had dinner and arranged
with the innkeeper to drive them over to Edgewood, 62 miles. The heavy rain had played havoc
with the clay roads and it was 2 in the morning before they arrived at Edgewood. They lit a
fire on the beach and tried to dry out, and when the C.P.R. boat came, boarded it, had some
breakfast and sleep, and after lunch landed at Halcyon and walked up to AA7m. Boyd's camp,
where they had a cup of coffee, and at 3.30, still in pouring rain, plunged into the soaking brush.
By 7.30 they reached the 6,500-foot level and stopped for the night, and at daybreak at 2.30
continued their way and arrived at the station at 3.30. They did their work, then hastened
down and just caught the boat again on its south-bound journey. Their journey of about 160
miles from peak to peak had been made in 43 hours. Incidentally, it was still another day
before the weather cleared and allowed me to take the shots, which I did on Sunday, June 29th,
and had but just completed when down came another snow-storm.
The Sugarloaf Pinnacle Station is the most westerly of those occupied during the season
and is on the Osoyoos-Kootenay Divide, near the headwaters of Rainbow Creek, a tributary
of the Shuswap River about 6 miles north of Sugar Lake, whilst the most easterly is Lavina, TRIANGULATION, ARROWHEAD TO KOOTENAY LAKE. B 45
on the sharp ridge between the Duncan River and Hamil Creek, near the north end of Kootenay
Lake, and the area covered is extremely mountainous, with most of the peaks running up to
between 8,500 and 9,500 feet in altitude, and drained by numerous torrents and creeks which
in their descent to the main valleys have worn deep and precipitous canyons. The main valleys
are very fertile and are capable of supporting large ranching communities.
TRANSPORTATION.
Access to the district is good. From Revelstoke, on the main Canadian Pacific Railway,
there is a daily service to Arrowhead, at the north end of the Upper Arrow Lake, and from there
the lake-steamers of the same company make the return trip through the full length of the
two Arrow Lakes three times per week and connect with the Kettle Aralley line of the company
at Robson. Also at Arrowhead there is a daily tug-boat and barge service connecting with
Galena Bay and Beaton, on the North-east Arm, and from here there is a daily motor-stage
service connecting with Trout Lake City, 12 miles, at the west end of Trout Lake, and thence
to Ferguson, another 4 miles. Also from Beaton there is a road up the Incomappleux Valley
to Camborne, 5 miles, and continues a few miles farther, but there is no regular stage on
this road.
From Edgewood, on the Lower Arrow Lake, a motor-stage service plies across the divide
to Lumby and Vernon three times a week, and from Cherryville, about 50 miles from Edgewood,
there is a good road to Sugar Lake, about 10 miles, but no regular stage.
From Nelson, on the Crowsnest Pass line of the C.P.R., there is a daily boat service with
Kaslo, 43 miles north on Kootenay Lake. On Tuesday nights this boat continues to Lardeau,
where it is met by a small gasoline railway-coach from Gerrard which makes the return trip
there Wednesday mornings, the distance from Lardeau to Gerrard being 33 miles. On Saturdays
a boat with a barge takes the train from Kaslo to Lardeau ; the train then makes the run to
Gerrard and return and is brought back to Kaslo that evening.
J. Parisian, Gerrard, has charge of the gasoline-coach and will make special runs at any
time during the season in addition to his scheduled run.
There is no regular means of transportation on Trout Lake, 15 miles long, but at both
Trout Lake City and Gerrard there are a number of motor-launches and the owners may
usually be engaged to make the run either way.
POST-OFFICES, ETC.
Practically all of the small settlements in the Lardeau and Trout Lake A7alleys have their
post-office, hotel, and store, and there are schools at Argenta, Lardeau, Trout Lake, Ferguson,
and Beaton. On the Arrow Lakes there are post-offices at Arrowhead, Halcyon, Nakusp, and
practically every settlement on the Lower Arrow Lake. The Inonoaklin Valley is not so well
settled and from about 8 miles from Edgewood there is no more settlement until Cherryville is
reached, at about 52 miles from Edgewood, but from here there is considerable settlement down
to Lumby and Vernon and Okanagan Lake points.
The chief lack of the district from a settler's point of view is the absence of adequate
near-by markets. Some produce can be sold in the towns, but they are not big enough to take
more than a very limited proportion of what could be raised. Most of the fruit goes to the
Prairie markets, but the haul is long and express or freight adds considerably to the cost to the
consumer, with consequent lessening of demand. Practically all of the first-class land has
been alienated from the Crown at one time or another, but many pieces have reverted back,
and the intending settler should have no difficulty in locating very desirable partially improved
ranches on payment of comparatively small sums for taxes.
MINING AND OTHER INDUSTRIES.
There are a large number of mines and mining prospects throughout the area, some of which
have been producers, especially around Trout Lake. The bulk of the ores are silver-lead-zinc
and there are a number of gold properties, particularly around Camborne. There is an asbestos
property 4 miles north of Arrowhead, on Sproat Mountain, and another at Gerrard, but on
neither has there been very much work done. There has been some activity at the True Fizzure
Mine near Ferguson, where Dave Morgan is in charge of operations, most of which, this year,
have been the erection of surface plants, power-station and flume, and a concentrating-mill. B 46 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
When the various mines are working they afford a welcome market in a small way for the
rancher's produce. The famous Slocan mining area lies somewhat to the south of the district,
being between the Kootenay and Slocan Lakes and west from Kaslo.
Lumbering is the next industry of importance. All the valleys and mountain-slopes up to
6,500 feet support a luxuriant growth of timber consisting of cedar, fir, tamarack, white, yellow,
and black pine, hemlock, Cottonwood, and birch, the two last in the valleys only. At the present
time cedar-pole making and white-pine and Cottonwood logging are chief. The poles are mostly
shipped to Eastern markets, the white pine is sold to the match-block factory at Nelson, and
the cottonwood to the veneer-factory, also at Nelson. There are two sawmills operating at
Nakusp and a small shingle-mill at Trout Lake.    Posts are cut and shipped to the Prairies.
Practically the whole country is taken up by trappers, who some winters will make good
money. An average amount made by a trapper who stays with his line during the season will
be about $1,000, but many have occasionally cleaned up two or three times that amount in the
season. The chief fur-bearing animal is the marten and the bulk of the money made is on
these. Some who have lines along the larger rivers will do nicely with their beaver. There are
also a few mink, lynx, an occasional fox, and numbers of weasel. These latter, however, fetch
very little.
AVhen the country becomes better known and more generously supplied with automobile-
roads there should ensue a larger and more lucrative business with tourists.
FARMING.
The soil in the valley-bottoms is good and fertile and is covered with a dense vegetation.
Most of it is a light sandy loam, with or without rocks, but there are sections of deep black
loam., and in other places heavy clay. The soil may be worked towards the end of April and
in May and there are no summer frosts. Snow or freeze-up may be expected around the beginning of November. This condition also obtains on the lower slopes of the foot-hills. As the
soil is mostly light, some form of simple irrigation system is advisable for use in July and
August in the event of a dry season, although in some years it wrould hardly be necessary.
There is, however, plenty of water available at short distances and fluming or ditching would
not be expensive. All the usual products of temperate zones flourish, and in specially sheltered
spots apricots, peaches, and grapes may be raised. The valleys are first-class for dairying, but
there is not enough range for cattle-raising on a large scale. Snow gets too deep and lasts
too long and winter-feeding has to be resorted to.
LAND-CLEARING.
All the land is covered by dense stands of timber of species as mentioned above and the
cost of clearing is fairly high—namely, from $150 per acre—and in addition it will cost about
$25 per acre on an average to pick off the rocks. Over much of the area, however, forest fires
of several years ago raged and many of the stumps are now rotted, and in such cases clearing
might be done for as low as $75 per acre.
CLIMATE.
In and near the valley-bottoms climatic conditions are very good, although the winter is
rather on the long side. Rainfall averages about 30 inches annually, of which about one-third
is in the form of snow. Generally there is some precipitation in every month of the year,
though July is nearly always the driest month. Snow may be expected in November, and in
December will generally settle to stay until the end of March. Spring is frequently cold and
wet, but interspersed with dry spells. July is warm, with temperatures ranging up to 90° in
the shade. Very occasionally the thermometer may touch 100. August usually has good
weather, with one or two prolonged rainy periods. September is generally very pleasant, with
the weather more settled than in August, and October varies a great deal; some years there is
ideal fall weather with scarcely any storms; other years there is but a succession of storms
and no bright weather at all. The winters are not severe and for weeks at a time the temperature may scarcely drop more than a few degrees below freezing, although as a general rule
there are about three cold snaps, one before Christmas. During these snaps temperature may
drop to zero or 10° below for a few days.    The record minimum at Kaslo is 14° below.
The conditions on the mountain-slopes become much worse with greater altitude and on
the peaks snow-storms may be experienced throughout the year.    One of the most unpleasant TRIANGULATION, KOOTENAY LAKE TO KIMBERLEY. B 47
trips the writer had this season was during a three-hour journey back to camp during a heavy
snow-flurry, when 3 to 4 inches of snow settled on the ground in the middle of August.
The presence of snow and the glaciers on the summits serves to provide generous water-
supplies and to cool off the air at nights, so much so that warm nights such as are had in the
East are unknown here and blankets are always necessary for bed-coverings.
GAME.
Precipitation and consequently undergrowth are heavy and the mountain-slopes steep and
rugged and with long winters, and I do not think game was ever as plentiful here as it was in
some parts of the Pi'ovince, although there is no doubt that in the early days of settlement it
was much more plentiful than it is to-day. Early settlers have told me it was common to see
numbers of deer and caribou at the water's edge as one passed up and down the lakes, but to-day
it is seldom that one sees deer on the beach and practically never caribou. In the days
of the first camps men were sometimes engaged to the keep the camp supplied with fresh meat,
but to-day it would be almost impossible to do that. Still there is game left in the mountains,
particular!}' in the more inaccessible parts where they are not bothered by hunters so much.
Caribou are protected by law and I am glad to say that by the signs these seem to be on the
increase. Mountain-goat also seem to be increasing and on many occasions we came upon them
either singly or in herds. On Abrahamson Glacier we counted twenty-seven in one herd. Deer
appear to be scattered generally and hunters usually seem to be able to make a bag without
going out too often, though I have known parties go out for several days and meet with no
success. Black bear are plentiful, but grizzly are becoming scarce. There are a few cougar
and coyotes and eagles and hawks. The hunting fraternity blame the two first for depredations
on the game when young and with the two latter amongst the young bird-life, particularly the
blue and willow grouse and ptarmigan. There are duck in the main valleys, particularly the
Lardeau. Fishing is good in the Kootenay and Trout Lakes, mostly salmon and trout, the
former up to 25 lb. weight, being taken. The larger side-streams are plentifully stocked with
mountain-trout.
GENERAL.
The slump in metal prices and the general business depression has hit this district very hard,
and if it had not been for the large amount of road-work carried on by the Public AA7orks
Department there would have been a great deal of unemployment. But with a revival of business and better prices for metals and forest products the district becomes a very desirable one
for the intending settler, provided he is wide awake and will turn his hand to different lines
of work as opportunity offers. I know of no part where the average level of comfort and well-
being is as high as it is here. AAThilst it may not be possible to clean up a big fortune, yet, on
the other hand, there is practically no real destitution. I can confidently recommend the district
to the intending settler.
I have, etc.,
H. D. Dawson, B.C.L.S.
TRIANGULATION, KOOTENAY LAKE EASTWARD TO KIMBERLEY.
By F. S. Clements.
Victoria, B.C., December 18th, 1930.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on triangulation survey, season 1930,
between Kootenay and St. Mary Lake, in vicinity of Crawford Creek and St. Mary River, East
and AA7est Kootenay Land Recording Districts :—
Acting under your instructions dated June 10th, 1930, I left Victoria on June 13th and
travelled by C.P.R. boat and train to Nelson, point of organization, arriving at 11 p.m. on
June 14th.
In brief, your instructions read: " Make a rigid connection by triangulation between
Coffee and Mile Point Stations on west side of Kootenay Lake and Stations M.M. 72 and 73 just B 48 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
west of St. Mary Lake. Also make certain ties to lots and mineral claims described in said
instructions."
The omnibus in operation over the Nelson-Kaslo Road enabled me to reach camp-sites in
the vicinity of Coffee and Mile Point Stations. Local cars at Crawford Bay helped to reach
Browns Peak, Pilot Bay Ridge, and Houghton Ridge, and pack-horses obtained at Crawford Bay
were used along the trail between Crawford Bay and the W. A. Meachen Ranch at end of road,
St. Mary Lake.
Weather conditions made it impossible to carry out all of your instructions. During the
136 days in the field fifteen stations were occupied to turn angles. Flags with tripod or cairn
were placed over thirty-six stations and ties were made to Lot 872 and three groups of mineral
claims in West Kootenay District; about half of what you required.
The weather conditions during 136 days in the field were as follows: Sunshine, 57% days;
smoke or clouds, 34 days; rain, 33% days; snow, 11 days.
Number of miles travelled : In local autos, 413; local launches, 5 ; C.P.R. boats, 391; C.P.R.
trains, 1,026; with pack-horses, 706 ;  with back-packs, 590;  total mileage, 3,131.
To climb to mountain stations from base-camps, aneroid-barometer readings gave 43 miles
as the sum of ascents, but did not include the many ravines and canyons on the way to the
several stations, nor the return journey.
ROADS AND TRAILS USED TO REACH STATIONS.
(1.) Road from Crawford Bay Wharf to Hooker Creek Camp, opposite Hooker Creek, about
7% miles. Trail from Hooker Creek Camp to end of road at AV. A. Meachen Ranch, via Crawford Creek, Roses Pass, and St. Mary River, about 34% miles. The highest point on trail is at
Roses Pass, about 16 miles from Crawford Bay AVharf and 6,350 feet above sea-level.
(2.) Hazel May Trail starts from Crawford Creek Road, about 3.7 miles from Crawford
Bay Wharf and just east of Preacher Creek, and ends at Tarn O'Shanter Lake. It is about
7 miles in length and passes over the divide between AVashout and AVillow Creeks at an elevation of 7,170 feet above sea-level. AATe used pack-horses on this trail and found good feed for
them at the lake wmile turning angles at Mount Crawford.
(3.) Spring Creek Trail starts at Hooker Creek Camp and ends at a prospect at head of
Spring Creek. It was used to go to Best Yet Triangulation Station. Although horses have been
used on this trail, it is very steep and we packed in on foot.
(4.) Hooker Creek Trail starts at Hooker Creek Camp and goes over the divide between
Hooker Creek and Redding Creek at about elevation 7,500 feet above sea-level. It is about
7 miles from Hooker Creek Camp to divide. The trail is in bad shape and pack-horses could
not be taken over it.    We back-packed out from California Peak over this trail.
(5.) Silver Hill Trail starts at Rainville, about 9% miles from Crawford Bay AVharf, and
ends at X-ray Lake, about 4 miles up Canyon Creek from Rainville. The trail was used to go
to X-ray and Old Tom Stations. We used pack-horses as far as the lake, about elevation 6,520
feet above sea-level.
(6.) Hudson Mine Trail starts at Crawford Creek Trail, about 11 miles from Crawford
Bay Wharf, and ends at Hudson Mine Cabin on divide between Canyon and Sawyer Creeks.
The cabin is about 2% miles from Crawford Creek Trail and 5,100 feet above sea-level. We
used pack-horses on this trail as far as the cabin on our way to Huckleberry Station.
All of the trails need to be cleared of brush and logs and the bridges and corduroy replaced.
GENERAL.
Crawford Bay is a splendid summer resort and tourists arriving by the new road would be
able to enjoy the mountains, hunting, and fishing if the trails were put in shape.
During the season we saw grizzly, silver-tip, and black bear, caribou, deer, porcupines, and
all kinds of grouse, and caught trout in both Crawford Creek and St. Mary River.
Snow fell on mountain-tops September 20th and on October 15th 2 feet lay on Roses Pass.
The weather remained unsettled, so closed down the work on October 24th and arrived in
Victoria on October 26th.
I have, etc.,
F. S. Clements, B.C.L.S. TRIANGULATION, ETC., REVELSTOKE TO BIG BEND. B 49
TRIANGULATION AND  TOPOGRAPHY,  COLUMBIA  RIVER,
REVELSTOKE TO BIG BEND.
By John Elliott
Vancouver, B.C., January 20th, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following general report on the region traversed by
me during my field operations of the season of 1930:—
This region consists of that portion of the valley of the Columbia River which extends from
the Canadian Pacific Railway at Revelstoke to the mouth of Canoe River, which enters the
Columbia at the most northerly point reached by the latter river, and which point is also the
apex of the " Big Bend " where the Columbia, after a northerly course of about 200 miles in
the Rocky Mountain Trench, sweeps around the north end of the Selkirks and assumes that
southerly trend which it keeps for the balance of its course through British Columbia.
Although considerable traffic must have passed through this valley in the fur-trading days,
it was the discovery of placer-diggings on the bars of the river and on its tributary streams that
first drew attention to it. This took place in 1865 and for the next few years this district
witnessed one of the celebrated rushes in the history of the Province. However, the extent of
the cheap d'ggings proved to be small, and after a couple of hectic years the region lapsed into
comparative obscurity, in which, with the exception of a brief flurry during the height of the
timber-staking boom, it remained until the start of construction on the Big Bend Highway,
connecting Revelstoke with Golden, has again brought it into prominence.
The Columbia is a large silt-laden and very rapid stream. It is practically without flood-
plain and is still engaged in scouring out its bed. It is broken by many rapids, some of which,
such as Death and Priest, are of very sinister reputation, and there are dozens of unnamed
riffles which on nearly any other river would be rapids of distinction.
In the days of the gold excitement a steamboat ran from the town of Marcus, in the State
of Washington, to La Porte, about 2 miles below Priest Rapids. This boat, being more or less
an international institution, was named the " Forty Nine " after the International Boundary,
and not after the year of the California gold-rush as is often supposed, and in her honour
a small stream about a mile above La Porte was named Fortynine Creek, not Fortynine Mile
Creek as is shown on some maps. In later times another steamer ran from Revelstoke to the
same point and during the past year the Public Works Department had a gas-boat operating
between La Porte and the head of the constructed road about 15 miles below. But even on this
stretch of the river, navigation is hazardous at all stages of the water, and at some stages
impossible.
From La Porte to the head of Gordon Rapids, about 25 miles up-stream, I do not think that
any kind of power navigation should be attempted. From the head of Gordon Rapids to the
Bend, I believe a powerful boat could be utilized at least during part of the season, but this
usable part of the river would probably have to be curtailed by about 4 or 5 miles, as access
to the river is difficult till a point that distance above the rapids is reached.
The width of the valley-floor is practically the width of the river, and the width at timber-
line at an elevation of about 6,500 feet will average about 6 miles.
As the main axes of both the Selkirk and the Gold Mountains lie towards the east of these
ranges, the tributaries entering the Columbia from the east are on the main larger than those
from the west. The only tributary which might be dignified by the name " river" is Gold-
stream, which has a length probably in excess of 50 miles. The creeks flowing into this stream
yielded the greatest portion of the gold obtained in this district.
As might be gathered from the foregoing, the amount of arable land is negligible. There
are small areas of low bench along the river, with occasional swampy meadows, and there would
appear to be some area of bottom land in the valley of the Goldstream, and there are some open
meadows along the lower 2 miles of AVood River, but, taken as a whole, the area is entirely
unsuited for any attempt at farming, but no doubt with the opening of the highway there will
4 B 50 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
be many small holdings on which those with seasonable or otherwise intermittent occupations
might produce sufficient to increase their livelihood.
Although timber extends to an elevation of about 6,500 feet, the limit of the useful species
is probably about 4,500 feet, at which point the cedar abruptly ceases and the mountain-hemlock
and balsam begin to intrude. The main stands consist of cedar and hemlock, both of poor
quality judged by present standards, some considerable areas of spruce, and a scattering of
Douglas fir and white pine. The hillsides, though steep, are not badly broken, and there is no
doubt that with the exhaustion of the more valuable and accessible stands of timber in the
Province a great deal of timber will some time come out of this valley. So far, the amount of
timber cut has been negligible and neither has there been a very large area destroyed by fire.
As it is reported that the Columbia can be driven, and as the opening of the highway will enable
outfit and supplies to be placed on the ground at a reasonable cost, I have no doubt that, with
the resumption of activity in the lumber market, logging operations of some extent will be
initiated in the valley.
Placer-mining, which has been followed intermittently since the big strike of early days,
is still the only active mining in the district, and this, outside of a few individual efforts, is
confined to the operations of one hydraulic outfit on French Creek. This outfit, after about two
years of expensive preparation, have by last reports entered pay-dirt with very encouraging results.
There have been at past times a large number of lode claims staked at different points in the
Selkirks, and notable among the mineral-showings are the large deposits of mica in the mountains
around Mica Creek near the north end of the Selkirk Range. Up to the present the difficulty
of access and cost of transportation have prevented any extensive development.
The only other industry, if it is an industry, is the trapping of fur-bearing animals, which
provides occupation for perhaps a dozen men during the winter months.
AVhile the snow and ice are melting, the tributary streams all carry sufficient water to
generate considerable power, but owing to the steep and narrow valleys through which they
flow the question of storage is a difficult and expensive one. However, many of them could be
utilized to provide sufficient power for some small local development, and in fact in the past
some of them have been so utilized. The main river, with its large volume of water, would
appear to offer a very great amount of power, but any works to control or regulate it would
have to be on a very large and expensive scale. From casual examination, the most suitable
point for a dam would seem to be about half a mile above the Gordon Rapids, where the river
is comparatively narrow and the bed-rock appears on both sides. Above this the river flattens
quite a bit and the valley-floor for some distance is wider than elsewhere, so that a fair amount
of storage could be provided.
This portion of the country cannot be classed as a first-class big-game country, although
the black and grizzly bear, the mountain-goat, and caribou are fairly common. And as the
river and streams are all so heavily silt-laden, the fishing is not of the best.
The climate would seem to be one of warm summers, with high humidity and considerable
rain in the spring and fall, and cold and long winters with early and heavy snowfall.
The scenery is that common to so much of British Columbia—stupendous mountains, snow-
fields, glaciers, and torrential rivers, which, however, will not be always visible from the highway, which for a great part of its length lies along heavily timbered benches and hillsides.
Access to this country from the earliest times to the present has been to a great extent
dependent on some form of navigation of the river. A pack-trail was constructed from Seymour
Arm of Shuswap Lake to a point on the Columbia below Priest Rapids during the gold-rush
in the hopes of providing an all-British route to the goldfields, but this trail was used for a
short time only and is now almost entirely obliterated. Then, with the coming of the railway,
pack-trails were constructed both from Revelstoke and from Golden and numerous branch trails
were built into the mountains, but of late years these have nearly all fallen into disrepair, and
on the completion of the highway will probably disappear and the pack-horse and the boatman
will become extinct in the land.
I have, etc.,
John Elliott, B.C.L.S. RE-ESTABLISHING BOUNDARIES, RANGE 5, COAST DISTRICT. B 51
RE-ESTABLISHING BOUNDARIES IN TOWNSHIP 12, RANGE 5,
COAST DISTRICT.
BY  V.   SCHJELDERUP.
A7ictoria, B.C., December 6th, 1930.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In compliance with your instructions dated June 9th, I completed the re-establishment
of boundaries in Township 12, Range 5, Coast District (originally surveyed as Tp. 1, AV.R.
1 N.).
This re-establishment was very much needed and greatly appreciated by some thirty-four
farmers within the boundaries of said township, and although a number of fences will have to
be moved, not a word of anything but satisfaction was heard.
The original survey was made by Mr. D. T. Thomson, B.C.L.S., during the summer of 1893,
and, according to the field-notes and plan, all section-lines were rhn and % S. posts established,
but no centre lines were run, nor was the Nechako River traversed.
Some fifteen years later the Nechako River was traversed in order that the acreage of
fractional quarter-sections might be determined, but apparently an insufficient number of posts
and lines were tied in, as I found it absolutely necessary to re-traverse this river to enable me
to prepare a correct plan of the township.
The west boundary was re-traced when Township 13 was surveyed in 1908, but new corners
were established, leaving two sets of posts all along the line varying from 0.10 to 1.62 chains
apart. The same applies in part to the north boundary, which was re-traced when Township 19
was surveyed.
While all the posts were standing and the markings legible this condition was not so confusing, but later, as the posts fell over and rotted or were burnt up, it became almost impossible
to identify corners found without a copy of the original field-notes and plan and check measurements, which the average settler knows little or nothing about.
Roads have been constructed along many of the lines through the township, and as a
result not only were the old posts destroyed, but B.T.'s cut down and the stumps blown out,
leaving no trace whatsoever of the old corners.
The resurvey carried out by me disclosed errors in the original survey both as regards
distances and bearings, and many a line shown as run between posts in the field-notes was
found to be anywhere from a few links to over 5 chains off. The % S. posts were in some
cases moved on to the true line, but as a rule just left where first set. Two sets of B.T.'s
chains apart were found both on the ground and in the field-notes for several corners, and at
times I had quite a problem on my hands determining which was the corner intended by
Mr. Thomson to be the true one.
On the north side of the Nechako River very few traces were left of the original survey.
Only one of the posts set by Mr. Thomson was found, but stumps of old B.T.'s and dead fallen
ones were found in several places, giving me something definite to work from.
On the south side of the river, where there is less settlement, less roads, and more timber,
parts of old posts and B.T.'s or stumps of same were found at many of the corners.
In addition to re-tracing old lines and running new lines between section corners where
these had not previously been run between posts, all centre lines were run both ways through
every section and centre posts established.
Three hundred and fifty standard galvanized-iron posts 36 inches long were used. All these
posts were marked and driven 30 inches into the ground, and, except for thirty-six posts set
in concrete, all posts were referenced by 3-inch by 3-inch by 3-foot cedar posts driven within
a few inches of the iron posts and four pits. These pits are dug at a distance of 1 foot from
the iron posts and measure 12 by 12 by 12 inches. The accuracy of my survey is about half
a link per mile.
A total of 86 miles of new lines were run and 70 miles of old lines recut and reblazed. In
addition, I ran 3 miles of road traverse and 10 miles of river traverse, making a total mileage B 52 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
of 169 miles for the season.    The cost, including office returns, will amount to a fraction over
or under 25 cents per acre.
Field-notes and plan covering the season's work are now being prepared and will be completed and filed as soon as possible.
I have, etc.,
V.  Sciijelderup,  B.C.L.S.
LAND SURVEYS, FORT GEORGE AND PEACE RIVER DISTRICTS.
By E. H. Burden.
Prince George, B.C., January 27th, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Complying with your instructions of July 16th, telegraphed to me at Pouce Coupe,
I have completed the survey of some 10,000 acres of agricultural land lying south cf the Peace
River Block in what is known as the Kelly Lake District, and beg to submit herewith the
following report;—
Late in the fall of 1926 I made my first trip into this district for the purpose of surveying
some fur-farm leases surrounding the Crooked (Beaverlodge) and Cutbank Lakes and at that
time was not at all favourably impressed with the agricultural possibilities of the district.
A fire had recently passed through the area; the ground was frozen, with a light covering of
snow; no attempt had ever been made to cultivate the land and the whole country looked very
barren.
Again in the fall of 1929 I was sent to Kelly Lake, 6 miles south of the area formerly visited,
to survey a few quarter-sections for some squatters who had been living around the lake for
many years, chiefly on account of the wild hay available for stock in the numerous small
meadows. These squatters, all of Indian descent, depended chiefly on trapping for their livelihood and had never made any attempt at farming or gardening; but the local school-teacher,
Mr. C. A. AVard, a recent arrival from Vancouver, had spaded a small patch of ground near the
lake and had been very successful in raismg several varieties of vegetables and grains.
While in the district at this time I took the opportunity of riding through the country covered
by me in 1926, lying to the north and west, and as a result was compelled to revise my previous
impressions. A family of Russians consist5 ng of Jacob Dashevsky, his wife and two small
children, had been living on Lot 334, one of the lots already surveyed by me, and on the ground
which in 1926 I had classed as a barren waste these people were raising vegetables and grain
which compared favourably with anything I have seen in the whole Peace River District.
At th's time, October, 1929, the only means of access to the Crooked and Cutbank Lakes was
by wagon or saddle-horse from Brainards, Alberta, over a poor trail for a distance of 20 miles,
while to reach Kelly (Fritton) Lake you travelled 25 miles over a worse road from Hythe,
Alberta, then the terminus of the Northern Alberta Railway. Cutbank and Kelly Lakes were
connected by a pack-trail used by the Indians on their hunting expeditions to the Cutbank River.
This year (1930) the Northern Alberta Railway has extended its line from Hythe. ;n
Alberta, to Dawson Creek, B.C., and this extension passes within 10 miles of Crooked Lake.
The British Columbia Government has cleared a 40-foot wagon-road from a point on the railway
near the south end of Swan Lake to a point midway between Crooked and Kelly Lakes, passing
near Cutbank, and this road will undoubtedly be extended the 3 remaining miles to Kelly Lake
in the near future and will have the grading completed.
The ground surrounding Kelly Lake is slightly rolling and the soil in general is a sandy
loam, very light in places, with a clay subsoil, and having scattered rocks outcropping on the
ridges, while in the bottoms the soil is rich and deep with numerous wild-hay meadows. There
are here numerous patches of jack-pine timber from 2 to 10 inches in diameter, mixed with small
poplar and willow. As you proceed north the country becomes more open, being mostly an old
burn, easily cleared, while the soil remains much the same. Even on the sandy ridges you find
a healthy growth of wild grasses and weeds, while on the lower slopes and bottoms the vegeta- LAND SURVEYS, PEACE RIVER DISTRICT. B 53
tion is extremely rich, red-top and peavine growing waist-high. While the fires which have
evidently passed through here in the past have removed most of the standing timber, they do
not appear to have affected the soil to any great extent.
The great advantage of this district over most parts of the Peace River area is the abundance of water. In the territory covered by me this year are seven fair-sized lakes and
numerous creeks and springs, and I believe there is not a quarter-section but where a 30-foot
well would provide an ample water-supply for all purposes. Near some of the lakes the land is
inclined to be swampy, with patches of small tamarack and scrub spruce, but this type comprises
a very small proportion of the whole area.
At present the nearest post-offices are at Goodfare, Alberta, 14 miles from Kelly Lake by
road; at Brainards, Alberta, 18 miles from Crooked Lake; and at Tupper Creek, B.C., 12 miles
north of Crooked and Cutbank Lakes. By the new wagon-road the latter distance is 14 to 18
miles.
The only available school is at Kelly Lake, where Mr. Ward has a class of some thirty half-
breed pupils, but judging by the influx of settlers to other more distant and inaccessible parts
of the Peace River during the past two years, another two years will see every available quarter
of the newly surveyed area under occupation.
There are still a few sections of fair-quality land unsurveyed, chiefly south and west of
Cutbank Lake, but there is no immediate necessity of this work being done. However, one
survey party could complete this in a month.
I have, etc.,
E. H. Burden, B.C.L.S.
LAND SURVEYS, PEACE RIVER DISTRICT.
By A. W. Harvey.
Victoria, B.C., October 21st, 1930.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In accordance with your instructions I have completed the surveys of Townships 19,
21, 22, 27, and 29, Peace River District, by running in the centre lines previously omitted. I commenced on Township 27, which I found, for the most part, to consist of very poor land, which
is chiefly a light clay loam, gravelly and stony. Towards the south of the township, which is
mostly a jack-pine country, the soil is light and sandy. There are numerous ridges and valleys.
In the valley-bottoms and in places along the side-hills there are patches of good soil. This
description applies also to Township 29. Along the northern boundary of both of these townships the soil is better and the growth consists chiefly of small poplar. Farther south there are
numerous swamps and muskegs covered with spruce and tamarack. There are practically no
improvements on these sections. There are three old settlers who obtained their Crown grants
some years ago, but their clearings have gone back to bush again. There were several new
settlers last summer, but they have made little progress. These townships have been swept by
fire many years ago and the timber, which consists of spruce and pine, has all fallen. The
present growth is small alder, willow, and small poplar, with patches of spruce and pine.
The townships in the Kiskatinaw A7alley are of much better quality. In Township 22 I completed the survey of sixteen sections, of which eight contain a considerable amount of good
land. The sections to the east of the river are poor and broken and those in the west are very
hilly. On Township 21 nine sections were completed, in which there are about 2,000 acres of
good land. In Township 19 there is a considerable amount of good land in the valley and
about a section in the hills to the west. The east side of the river is poor. There are many
settlers in Townships 19 and 22, but the crops were poor.
Summer frosts are frequent and severe in the Kiskatinaw Valley and in the valleys in
Townships 27 and 29. The Kiskatinaw River in August and September consists of a series of
long deep pools connected by shallow rapids.   At high water, however, it is a rapid torrent and B 54 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
rises over 20 feet above its autumn level.    Several good roads are at present under construction.
There is very little timber of any value in the area covered.
Moose and deer are numerous and there are many black bears in the Kiskatinaw Valley.
There are very few fish.
Mr. A. R. Barrow, in his report of 1921, gives an excellent description of this country: " The
verbal information acquired I found to be unduly optimistic and the results of the season's
work are distinctly disappointing. I think it pi-obable that the information concerning the
country was very slight when the 120th meridian was adopted as the Interprovincial Boundary,
but that boundary proves to be, south of Swan Lake, also the boundary between large areas of
land suitable for settlement, and small patches of land, adapted to the use of trappers and
hermits, which may be cultivated, but which are surrounded by badly burned country, windfalls,
scrub timber, muskegs, and small lakes." This, however, does not apply to the bottom lands in
the Kiskatinaw Valley.
I have, etc.,
A. W. Harvey, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL AND TRIANGULATION SURVEY, INGENIKA VALLEY.
By Frank Swannell.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report on the survey made by me in the valley of the Ingenika
River during the season of 1930.
The main object of the season's operations was the completion of another link in a comprehensive triangulation scheme, now nearing completion, which, by running long belts or chains
of triangulation up the main travel routes of Northern British Columbia, will eventually provide
an extremely accurate framework upon which subsequent local cadastral surveys can be tied,
and which will adequately control more detailed topographical surveys of much country still
unmapped, hardly explored even. In order, however, to obtain and render immediately available, in map shape, information of service to the railway engineer and prospector in particular,
the main triangulation was broken down into small triangulation and several long traverses
run, with as much topography taken as time permitted. For the lower 30 miles of the Ingenika
Valley, ground control, both vertical and horizontal, was obtained, this area having been
photographed from the air by the AVestern Canada Airways for the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The minute topographic detail obtained from the air photos is now being adjusted to the ground
control. The season's operations started by the measuring of an accurate base in the Finlay
Valley proper by Mr. L. S. Cokely, B.C.L.S., and myself, which served the double purpose of
giving me a start for my triangulation westward and for Mr, Cokely southward down the Finlay
Valley. This base of nearly 2% miles in length was measured very carefully, the difference
between the lengths obtained independently by Mr. Cokely and myself being only 1% inches.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE INGENIKA VALLEY.
The Finlay River has only two tributaries entering it from the west, the Omineca and the
Ingenika. The Ingenika, the smaller of the two, joins the Finlay about 20 miles above Fort
Grahame, or 305 miles from Prince George by the present boat route from Summit Lake via
Fort McLeod and Finlay Forks. The Ingenika is a clear swift-flowing stream 125 yards wide
at its confluence with the Finlay. Except during flood season, its water is crystal-clear, in
contrast to the muddy Finlay. Large freighting-boats carrying up to 3 tons and driven by
outboard motors can be taken with comparative ease up as far as Perry Creek, except in the
late summer, when shallow riffles make relaying of load and considerable " frogging " necessary.
The one bad place in this 40 miles of river is about 3 miles below Perry Creek. Here the river
is split into numerous channels, the main channel completely blocked by a log-jam. It took a
case of dynamite and much chopping to clear a boat-passage through this. TOPOGRAPHICAL, ETC., SURVEY, INGENIKA VALLEY. B 55
Above Perry Creek navigation becomes more difficult, the river is very tortuous, riffles
numerous, and the strong set of the current into the log-jams, which invariably occur at a sharp
bend of the river, renders navigation dangerous. The volume of the river is dissipated into
many channels, and there is so little water on the riffles in the late summer that we were almost
continually overboard dragging or " f rogging " the boats up-stream. Above AVrede Creek, which
enters from the south 60 miles up the Ingenika, the river rapidly gets worse and rapids become
almost continuous. AA7e gots boats up about 10 miles above AVrede Creek. In 1914 I poled and
lined a dug-out canoe 5 miles further up-stream. Here, 75 miles from the mouth of the river,
we were stopped by 100 yards of canyon, with a 15-foot cataract at the foot, where the canyon-
walls are only 25 feet apart. This point may be considered the head of boat navigation on the
Ingenika.
Swannell River.
This is the first large tributary entering the Ingenika from the south, 15 miles up. It is 80
feet wide at its month, very swift, and in the early summer brought in one-third of the
Ingenika. Twenty-five miles up it could not be forded and had to be rafted. It flows nearly
north for some 8 miles in a wide valley, which continues clear through to the southward to the
big bend of the Mesilinka (Stranger) River. Only a small fork of the Swannell heads in this
valley, however, where lie several narrow lakes. At about 8 miles up, the main Swannell comes
in from the westward, paralleling the Ingenika for some 10 or 12 miles. Indeed, it still occupies
the Ingenika Valley, only a low h'11-range intervening, the main mountains rising sharply south
of the Swannell. At about 25 miles up, from our trangulation stations on Walter Mountain,
the wide, deep valley of the Upper Swannell could be traced running south-west by west, and
holding its width and apparent depth. The stream would appear to head in a wide plateau not
far below timber-line in altitude. From Indian accounts, corroborated by several prospectors,
it seems probable there is an easy descent from this plateau to Sustut Lake and tributaries of
the Skeena.    This Swannell-Sustut Pass would well warrant examination as a railway route.
Perry Creek.
This creek I named Pelly Creek in 1914, being misled by the Indian pronunciation of the
name of the white trapper who had a cabin at its mouth some twenty years ago. It is the
largest fork of the Ingenika, which it joins 40 miles from the mouth of the latter. It is a
boulder-strewn torrent 70 feet wide, bringing into the main river one-third of its water. Its
wide, trough-like valley runs perfectly straight for 40 miles N. 30° W. between high, serrated
mountains, paralleling the Finlay A7alley. It must head very close to Bower Creek. Eight or
10 miles up a cross-valley parallel to the Ingenika runs some 20 miles westward, drained by
Tucha Creek, 40 feet wide at its mouth. This creek expands into several lakes; the largest,
Tucha Lake, being 2% miles long, lying under the north shoulder of Forrest Mountain—a conical
peak (altitude 6,850 feet).
This cross-valley of Tucha Creek is evidently older than the deep trench occupied by Perry
Creek, for it cuts the latter at right angles and continues eastward clear through to the lake-
sown hill country south-west of Deserters Canyon on the Finlay. A beautiful lake 13 miles in
circuit lies in this pass, which in 1914 I christened Barrier Pass. This lake drains west into
Perry Creek.
Wrede Creek.
This, the third tributary of the Ingenika, enters the latter 55 miles up-stream in a maze of
cross-channels. It comes from a jiarrow deep valley parallel to and separated from the
Ingen'ka by high mountains. Eleven miles up the South Fork enters, heading close against
Swannell River. AA7e back-packed up an almost obliterated horse-trail of many years ago for
25 miles and then climbed on to a very large plateau; alpine meadow and scrub timber. From
here, the Indians inform us, is an easy route down to the Upper Ingenika and McConnell Creek.
PHYSIOGRAPHY OF THE INGENIKA AND TRIBUTARY VALLEYS.
As far up as Perry Creek the Ingenika Valley is characterized by wide terraced benches,
the steep scarps of which are open and grassy. At 25 miles up the river, directly opposite the
Mine Landing, Ingenika Crag (4,450 feet) rises abruptly above the river, its steep, lightly
timbered slopes deeply scoured by shallow gullies.    South of the river here is a large area of B 56 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS,  1930.
bench lands and low hills extending to the Swannell River. The benches continue nearly to
AVrede Creek, but contract in width steadily as the mountains on either hand close in. Above
Perry Creek the only flats are those cut by the numerous flood-channels of the river. The
mountains rise in a continuous wall on either hand, and the valley becomes V-shaped and barely
4 miles across from summit to summit. The valley, or rather trench, occupied by AVrede Creek
is a typically mountain one, except for stony, barren flats sparsely timbered with jack-pine,
where the South Fork enters.
The trench-like valley of Perry Creek and its extension south to the Mesilinka River may be
called the eastern limit of the high rugged mountain area; the peaks rising up to at the most
7,500 feet.    None of the mountains on the Ingenika watershed are glacier-bearing.
The Perry Creek trench and its southward extension would appear to be an ancient valley
parallel to the great Rocky Mountain Trench. It bears mark of intense glaciation and is filled
with glacial gravels and moraines, through which the Ingenika and Swannell Rivers have cut
their channels.
AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES OF THE INGENIKA VALLEY.
All the agricultural land may be considered as confined to the lower 50 miles of the valley,
as farther up the mountains so narrow in and the general altitude of the country becomes so
h'gh that the few narrow river-flats are of no value for farming. In the lower section of the river
there are about 20,000 acres of good alluvial bottom lands, mostly densely wooded with cotton-
wood, alder, poplar, pine, and spruce. In addition, are 25,000 acres of bench lands, the soil loam,
inclined to be light and sandy. The only actual farming ever attempted has been at the Ingenika
Mine, at about 3,000 feet altitude, or 400 feet above the bottom land and lower benches. About
10 acres was in oats, but the yield very light and patchy; the newly cleared ground would
appear to be sour. Garden vegetables grew exceedingly well, however, and were not touched by
frost until the early fall.
FOREST RESOURCES.
The entire lower valley is densely wooded up to 4,500 feet altitude, pine being the predominant type. The only timber of merchantable value, however, is on the bottom lands along
the river. In no place, however, is there any large area of good timber, except for a few miles
above Perry Creek, where about eight sections of good spruce lie in one block. Outside of this
block and small scattered areas elsewhere along the river-bottoms the timber is small; the
benches and hill-slopes are wooded with pine, with some spruce and poplar, but the timber will
only average 9 inches diameter.
The Upper Ingenika Valley has been partly burnt over; where the original stand remains
it is largely spruce, the pine gradually becoming scarcer and scarcer as the mountains narrow in.
The large valleys of Perry and AArrede Creeks are also densely wooded with spruce and pine, but
very little is classifiable as merchantable timber. The total area of merchantable spruce in the
entire valley I would put at 8,000 acres, including 10,000 acres of tie-timber;
MINERAL RESOURCES.
There has been considerable desultory placer-mining, notably at McConnell Creek. Colours
are obtainable on almost every bar, but the gold is small size, very flattened and flaky and hard
to save.
The only lode-mining on a large scale has been at the Ferguson or Ingenika Mine, some 20
miles up from the Finlay. Here a large amount of development-work has been done over a
period of several years. Thirty men were employed until this fall, when the mine shut down.
The work has been development only, as shipping ore under the present transport conditions is
out of the question (the freight-rate by boat to Summit Lake being.8 cents per pound).
The mineral occurs as a banded mineralization of galena and zinc-blende. The average
width of the veins is reported as 8 feet, and an average of over 100 samples assayed was stated
to give: Silver, 7 oz. to the ton; lead, 15 per cent.; zinc, 7% per cent. Over fifty claims have
been surveyed in a group, lying between the Ingenika and Swannell Rivers. In addition to their
extensive mining operations, the Ingenika Mines, operating this property, have erected substantial
buildings and cut through and partly graded 20 miles of wagon-road to the Finlay River. TOPOGRAPHICAL, ETC., SURVEY, INGENIKA VALLEY.
B 57
No other actual mining is going on in this region. Claims have been staked up the Swannell
River and good showings reported up Perry Creek. The prohibitive cost of supplies, due to the
long water route from Prince George, is the great reason why there has not been further
mineral development in this region, most of which has not even been prospected owing to its
inaccessibility.
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
The early summer was exceptionally wet and the fall very early this year. Rain fell on
eleven days in June, nine in July, eight in August, and sixteen in September. Thunder-storms
were frequent in July and August. The first general snow-storm was on September 23rd, but
there was considerable new snow in the mountains before this, some of which did not go. The
hottest weather we experienced was in the middle of July, when the thermometer reached 90° F.
on three successive days. The valley was remarkably free from summer frost, and even at
3,000 feet elevation at the Ingenika Mine it was absent. The following table is compiled from
an average daily reading of a maximum and minimum thermometer:—
Month.
Maximum.
Minimum.
Remarks.
69
76
79
54
48
50
44
36
Warmest day, June 22nd, 82°  F.
July	
Hottest day, July 12th, 92° F.
Hottest day, August 6th, 88° F.
The winters are reported to be cold, but the weather usually clear and bright; the snowfall
moderate.
GAME AND AVILD ANIMALS.
Small game such as grouse is very scarce and wild and mostly consists of a few willow-
grouse. No large coveys were noted. Rabbits seem to have disappeared entirely, although they
were exceedingly plentiful in this area during the season of 1914. A few beaver-houses were
seen up AVrede Creek and there are a very few bank-beavers along the Ingenika itself. Other
fur-bearing animals are not numerous. Deer were quite frequently seen in the early summer
along the river, but later on were scarce, having gone back in the mountains. Caribou and goat
are found in the mountains and an occasional grizzly. On Bayne Mountain we ran into three
goats, a large caribou, and two Stone's sheep, all grazing peacefully within a few hundred yards
of each other. It was noticeable that the farther we worked into the mountains of the Upper
Ingenika the more plentiful game, especially caribou, became. Black bear are quite common.
Moose are becoming more and more plentiful, particularly back from the river, where they are
not hunted. The swampy eastern end of the large lake in Barrier pass is much frequented by
them ; from our camp we saw as many as five in the early dawn feeding in the swampy meadows.
My diary for September 20th, when at this lake, has the entry: " Four caribou along the beach
at noon; two more crossed the narrows at dawn, and a cow and calf moose near camp at
sunset." Fish are very scarce in the Ingenika and its tributaries; why, it is hard to say. Our
fishermen had luck only in the deep water under the log-jams. Trout of several kinds and the
grayling, or Arctic trout, were caught.
MEANS OF ACCESS.
At present the Lower Ingenika Valley is reached only by water, all the supplies for the
Ingenika Mine being taken by truck from Prince George to Summit Lake, and thence by boat by
way of Crooked River, McLeod Lake, and the Pack, Parsnip, and Finlay Rivers, and finally up
the Ingenika River. The road cut through from the Ingenika Mine to the Finlay River is only
partially graded and no freight is taken over it. A trail, which connects with the old pack-trail
up the Finlay from Fort Grahame, runs up along the benches north of the Ingenika to AVrede
Creek. It has been very little used in the last twenty-five years. Foot-trails run up AVrede
and Perry Creeks and across to Tucha Lake from the mouth of Wrede Creek.
I have, etc.,
Frank Swannell, B.C.L.S. B 58 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
TRIANGULATION, FINLAY RIVER VALLEY.
By Lehoy S. Cokely.
January 27th, 1931.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—During the past season I was engaged in continuing the primary triangulation of the
Province up the Finlay River, in Northern British Columbia. This is one of the larger rivers
of the north, which, together with the Parsnip, with which it unites at Finlay Forks, forms the
Peace River.    The Finlay carries about three times the volume of water carried by the Parsnip.
Access to this locality was gained from Prince George, at which point we left the railway
and proceeded overland to Summit Lake, which is just north of the height of land on the Arctic
slope. From this point, equipped with river-boats and outboard motors, we depended entirely on
our own resources for the balance of the season. After a trip of nearly 300 miles by the various
water routes we established our first camp at the mouth of the Ingenika River. At this point
we were joined by Mr. Frank Swannell, B.C.L.S., who was engaged in the extension of the
triangulation net up the Ingenika Valley. Our first duty was to establish and carefully measure
a common base about 2% miles long, after which we separated—he to work up the Ingenika and
my party to work down the Finlay.
HISTORICAL.
The river takes its name from a Hudson's Bay Company voyageur, who ascended the stream
some 200 miles, about the time Mackenzie ascended the Peace, in 1793. Considering that the
Hudson's Bay men used only birch-bark 30-foot canoes, adapted to paddling and not to poling,
and much of the water traversed was too swift to paddle against, one marvels at their perseverance. Especially since long portages had to be made, notably the portage at the Rocky
Mountain Canyon, which is 17 miles long. Later, in 1824, the Hudson's Bay Company sent
another party up the river, under Black, and it was he who named Deserters Canyon. It
appears that when the party reached this point the water was high and the canyon presented a
terrifying sight, which proved too much for two of Black's men. They took a canoe and,
deserting during the n'ght, proceeded back down the river. Later they had to give themselves up
as they were starving.
The Hudson's Bay Company has two posts on the Finlay River—one at Whitewater, near
the mouth of the Fox River, and one at Fort Grahame. The latter has been established for
about seventy years. The first post to be established in what is now British Columbia was
Hudson Hope, established in 1804, while in the following year McLeod Lake post was founded
by Simon Fraser.'
The famous Trail of '98 traverses this valley for 150 miles. This was an impracticable route
to the Yukon from Edmonton, established at the time of the gold-rush, and few were the
prospectors who completed the journey.
GEOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL.
The Finlay Valley is a wide valley of glacial origin, its average width being over 10 miles.
It is a portion of the Rocky Mountain Trench, that immense valley that extends without a break
from Alaska south-east to New Mexico. Portions of the trench slope to the north-west and other
portions to the south-east. This peculiarity is shown in this locality by the Finlay River
flowing to the south-east and the Parsnip to the north-west, meeting to form the Peace, which
is the only river to break through the Rockies and flow to the north-east. The valley in general
has only a small gradient, so the river meanders from side to side, producing a sinuous network
of channels, which on account of the alluvial nature of the soil is constantly shifting during
the yearly freshets. As the river drains a large watershed, the difference between high and low
water is large, amounting on the average to 18 feet.
The valley-floor is quite uniform as far up as my observations took me—about 130 miles,
with practically no outcropping of bed-rock.
The mountains flanking the valley are of limestone formation, except the Butler Range,
which is largely mica-schist. The surface here glistens in the sun and flakes of mica are visible
everywhere. Opposite Fort Grahame a mica-mine has been opened up and sheets of mica up to
8 by 10 inches have been recovered, but it was not operated during the past season.    It is not on TRIANGULATION, FINLAY RIVER VALLEY. B 59
a commercial basis, as it is situated above timber-line and only a trail leads to it from the river.
This is not a highly mineralized area and few indications of metalliferous ore were noted. A
good copper prospect was reported some distance up Wedge Creek above Deserters Canyon, but
I had no opportunity to inspect same.
My observations included also the lower portion of the Omineca Valley, which is separated
from the Finlay by the comparatively low Butler Range. This is a narrow valley with little
level land, flanked on the south by the AVolverine Range, a high, snow-capped ridge. Other
tributaries are the Ingenika and the Ospika Rivers; the latter is a small stream flowing into the
Finlay from the north, opposite the mouth of the Omineca.
SOIL AND CLIMATE.
The soil is an alluvial sandy loam and would appear very fertile. I would compare it with
the soil found in the Peace River Block east of the mountains, and as the latitude and the climate
are much the same, the same crops should be successfully cultivated. The Finlay Valley has
perhaps somewhat more rain, but as there is no settlement the precipitation has never been
measured. As there has never been a test made as to what the land will produce, it is difficult
to say what results would be. I may say that during the past season there was no frost after
my arrival in the valley on May 23rd until September 15th. I understand that the river is
frozen over from the latter part of November until the first of May.
While small patches of gravel appear here and there, I would estimate 75 per cent, of the
valley-bottom was arable. This would amount to about 400 square miles. None of it is under
cultivation, except an isolated garden-patch here and there at trappers' cabins. We used some
good potatoes locally grown, but had no other produce.
TIMBER.
The valley is enUrely timbered and there is no open land. About 15 per cent, has been
burned over, and grown up, with poplar and alder predominating. The timber consists of spruce,
balsam, and jack-pine, in the order of their importance, and these species grow up to timber-line,
which is at an altitude of about 5,000 feet. The spruce and balsam grows to about 2 feet in
diameter and are of fair quality. Scattered small stands of these two varieties occur along the
slopes of the Butler Range and along the rivers. Jack-pine is present throughout the valley and
is suitable for railway-ties, mining-props, and poles. Much of the country around the mouth of
the Omineca has been burned and is covered with down timber, making it a very difficult section
to traverse.    The timber up the tributaries of the Finlay is of little value except for pulp-wood.
GAME.
Moose are plentiful throughout the district and appear to be increasing. Other game found
consist of black and grizzly bear, caribou, and deer. Game birds are rare. Fishing is very poor
in the Finlay River, as the water is never clear. Trout are abundant in the Omineca, which is
a beaut'fully clear stream.
SETTLEMENT.
There are about a half dozen white trappers, which, together with the Hudson's Bay men,
includes all the white population. The trappers, as would be expected, are scattered at wide
intervals. The only settlement of Indians is a small band of about fifty natives at Fort Grahame.
The Indians, who are of a fairly good type, have inhabited the valley for a long time. Before
the arrival of the white man they did not have horses, and did not use the river as a means
of transportation, as they were afraid of it. They had well-kept pack-trails and depended on
back-packing for freighting. Now with outboard motors so common, the river has become the
great highway and the trails are neglected and overgrown. As there are no roads all traffic
is by the river—by boats during the open season and by dog-teams during the winter.
Various trails have been constructed, but are no longer used. Captain Moodie constructed
a trail from Manson Creek, down the Omineca, and across the AA7olverine Range to Fort Grahame.
I was unable to find a trace of this trail. The Royal North-west Mounted Police built a trail
from Bear Lake to Fort Grahame, and established barracks there, keeping a detachment there
for a couple of years. This trail is passable. The old Trail of '98, already mentioned, was
never properly constructed and has disappeared almost entirely.   The Ingenika Mines, located B 60 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
20 miles up the Ingenika River, are constructing a wagon-road from the Finlay River to their
property.
This is not a horse country as there are few hay meadows and no open grazing land. Horses
cannot be used at all without cutting trails.
ECONOMIC POSSIBILITIES.
Given adequate transportation facilities the valley would become a rich agricultural section,
when settlement in the north had advanced far enough to make it feasible to clear the land.
I would estimate the cost of clearing from $20 to $150 per acre.
The timber resources are of no economic value now, but would become important as settlement proceeded. As much of the timber is suitable for pulp, a pulp-mill might be established
when transportation was available. No water-power sites of any consequence were noted. From
the character of the country, water for domestic purposes should be easily obtained at any point.
In conclusion, I would not recommend that the valley be opened to settlement until the more
accessible portions of the Province have been further developed.
I have, etc.,
Leroy S. Cokely, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
TRIANGULATION, HAZELTON NORTH.
By Edward R. Foster.
Nanaimo, B.C., December 15th, 1930.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows on the survey carried out by me during the
1930 season:—
The work constituted an extension northerly of the triangulation net started in 1929 in the
vicinity of Hazelton, and having its origin in the precise traverse of the Geodetic Survey of
Canada along the line of the Canadian National Railway. During 1929 this net was completed
to the Second Cabin of the Telegraph Trail. This season it was extended to peaks in the neighbourhood of the Fifth Cabin; eleven triangulation stations were occupied, and a control station
established at Old Kuldoe.    A tie was also made to Kuldoe Indian Reservation.
The equipment of the party was assembled at First Cabin and we moved northerly from
there by pack-train on June 19th. From this date till the completion of the work very few
activities, outside those of the party, were observed.
ACCESSIBILITY.
The only means of access to the area traversed is by foot or pack train along the Telegraph
Trail. This trail is mainly used for the transport of supplies to the cabins occupied by the telegraph operators and for the maintenance of the line. Shipments are made from Hazelton by
truck to the First Cabin, and from this point to as far north as the Ninth Cabin pack-horses are
used, the average speed of these trains being only about 7 miles per day. The cabins farther
north are supplied from Stewart.
About eight men are employed each year keeping this part of the trail open, repairing the
bridges and making whatever improvements are possible in the time available. The telegraph
operators have a certain amount of responsibility in this matter as well.
During the past season aeroplanes were frequently seen passing up and down the Skeena
River Valley; however, few spots were observed in the territory covered by us which would be
suitable places for planes to land.
A reconnaissance survey party was engaged during the fall in ascertaining the feasibility of
constructing a highway in this vicinity, having Alaska as its objective.
The Skeena River in this district is too swift and hazardous to permit of navigation of any
kind.    In the winter, however, long stretches are used by dog-sleds. TRIANGULATION, HAZELTON NORTH. . B 61
A rubber boat, carried by the party this year, proved invaluable; in fact, the work could
not have proceeded along the same lines without it. The Skeena River was crossed in it some
fifty times without mishap; it would have been impossible to make any of these crossings by raft.
Fairly good trails were cut and well blazed by us to all stations occupied.
FORMATION.
The rocks in the area covered are almost entirely sedimentary, principally shales and sandstones ; in the mountains they occur in a very broken condition. Through the action of snow,
slides have taken place on the north sides of a great number of the peaks, leaving a precipitous
face;   consequently all peaks climbed were approached from the southerly side.
Indications of coal were found at Old Kuldoe, otherwise no evidence of mineralization was
seen.
The whole area covered by this season's survey was very mountainous. The valley of the
Kilankis River, about 1 mile in width, was the most extensive stretch of level country through
which we passed.
TIMBER.
On the hillsides the timber is principally hemlock, with occasional stands of spruce and
balsam.    Along the Skeena Valley large cottonwood are fairly numerous.
VEGETATION.
The underbrush in the lower benches is particularly thick; this delayed the approach to
many of our stations.
Good hay meadows are to be found at different points along the trail, the largest being situated in the vicinity of Second Cabin; others of considerable area lie near Old Kuldoe and along
the valley of the Kilankis River.
The telegraph operators produce vegetables such as potatoes, lettuce, radish, and rhubarb,
which mature farly well during July.
Wild blueberries, huckleberries, and raspberries grow in abundance and develop well; they
ripen during the latter part of July and continue till about the middle of September; these form
an important and welcome addition to food-supplies.
CLIMATE.
From June 17th till September 7th the weather generally was clear; the highest temperature
recorded was 81° F. and no frost was experienced. The latter part of September was wet and
cold, and almost 6 inches of snow fell on the 25th of that month, after which each night brought
either frost or snow.
ANIMAL LIFE.
Moose and caribou were fairly numerous, and also black bear. Herds of about ten goats
were frequently seen near the mountain-peaks; the advent of a survey party in their midst
did not appear to disturb them much. The whistle of the ground-hog is to be heard on almost
every hill above timber-line.    In the valleys grouse are abundant.
During the beginning of September a party of big-game hunters passed up the trail to
hunting-grounds about 70 miles north of our area; they returned about one month later well
satisfied, with a complete set of all game trophies to be had in that district; these included
moose, grizzly and black bear, sheep and goat heads.
CONCLUSION.
On October 10th angular readings were obtained at the station occupied in the vicinity of
Third Cabin ; this completed the triangulation net as far as extended. On the following day
approximately 2 feet of snow fell and the party turned southward for the winter. Complete
notes and photographic records were taken of the area, from which a topographical map is
being prepared.
I have, etc.,
Edward R. Foster, B.C.L.S. B 62 .     REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
TRIANGULATION NET, TELEGRAPH CREEK TO " TAYLOR'S MERIDIAN."
By Fred. Nash.
Terrace, B.C., November 18th, 1930.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir.—Proceeding under your instructions of May 16th directing me to produce the triangulation net south-easterly from points near Telegraph Creek, I left Prince Rupert on May 31st,
arriving at AA7rangell, Alaska, on the same day.
AVrangell is a prosperous little town of about 5,000 population, supported by fishing and
lumber industries and tourist trade. It has an interesting history, having been occupied as a
fort by Russian, British, and United States troops at various times. Canadian National, Canadian Pacific, and United States steamship lines make schedule calls the year round. AVrangell
is the point of entrance to all of British Columbia that is tributary to the Stikine and Liard
Rivers, an undeveloped empire of 40.000 square miles.
The only passenger and freight service on the Stikine, a Canadian river with the exception
of 25 miles at its mouth, is provided by the Barr'ngton Transportation Company, of AVrangell.
This company maintains four large gas-boats, the size of the boat used on each trip depending on
the stage of water in the river as well as on the number of passengers and quantity of freight.
A very creditable service is operated from about May 10th to October 10th. Cabin accommodation is provided and the meals served are excellent, but " dry."
After leaving AVrangell the first stop is made at " Boundary," where we Canadians return
to our own country after a 35-mile trip through the Panhandle of Alaska. Jackson's Landing
is the first real settlement on the Stikine. At this point several settlers are developing farms
along the river. On the west side of the river, opposite the landing, some outcroppings of gold-
copper ore have been located and prospecting commenced. Improvements to the river-channel
are being made at this point by the Dominion Government.
Telegraph Creek was reached on June 5th, actual travelling-time being thirty-nine hours.
The return trip is usually made in about twelve hours. Apparently the only reason for establishing a village at this point was that boats could go no farther, so here they discharged their
cargoes of fre'ght for the Cassiar goldfields in the days of long ago. Pack-trains picked up the
supplies and headed for Dease Lake, 75 miles to the north. Now a fair auto-road goes to the
lake and all supplies are handled by trucks or tractors.
At Telegraph Creek there are two outfitting-stores, the Hudson's Bay Company's and
Hyland's, both of which carry large supplies of groceries, clothing, hardware, and general
equipment. Two hotels, cafe, and rooms cater to the travelling public, hunting-parties, etc.
There are also two mission churches, Anglican and Roman Catholic, a small school, and an
hospital with (after many years without) a doctor in charge. About twenty frame and log
houses complete the village.
From Telegraph Creek our route followed the main pack-trail eastward to the Spatsizi
River, the distance to Hyland's trading-post there being roughly 140 trail-miles.
The triangulation net was produced from the established stations Brush, Birch, and
Meehaus; the northern side of our system following the height of land south of the Stikine
River, while on the southern side high peaks were occupied to the south of the Klastline River,
on the Iskut watershed, and on the Eaglenest mountain range.
At the eastern end of our season's work a tie was made to the northern end of " Taylor's
meridian." Indian-reserve surveys along the route were also tied in and sub-stations established in the valleys, to which future land surveys can be conveniently tied. The position of
physical features was ascertained with sufficient accuracy for the compilation of a topographical
map on a scale of 1 mile to the inch.
A Wild transit was used throughout the survey and this type of instrument is well adapted
for triangulation-work, but requires ideal conditions to give perfect results. As conditions on
mountain-peaks never are ideal, they must be made as nearly so as possible. The instrument
must be set up very firmly and must be protected from the direct rays of the sun. Even
moderate heat-rays expand the metal to such an extent that it is impossible to keep the level-
bubble level. To overcome this difficulty we devised a light tripod with sectional legs and a
canvas top which was erected over the transit at all points above timber-line. TRIANGULATION NET, TELEGRAPH CREEK. B 63
GENERAL DESCRIPTION.
The country eastward from Telegraph Creek may be described as a series of mountain
ranges with valleys of varying width, gradually increasing in elevation toward the east. At
Caribou Mountain the country assumes the character of an elevated plateau deeply scored by
valleys of erosion.
GEOLOGY.
Mount Edziza, 20 miles south of Telegraph Creek, is the centre of an extensive volcanic area.
Numerous craters spot the sides of this mountain. Lava-flows extend for many miles, while
spurs of volcanic rocks radiate as far east as the Spatsizi River, underlying and penetrating the
sedimentary formations. Conglomerates and sandstones occur east of Ealue Lake, the conglomerates being so extensive as to indicate that this area was the bed of an ancient ocean.
Petrified wood was found on Caribou Mountain at an elevation of 6,500 feet, 1,500 feet above
timber-1'ne.
MINERALS.
As far as our observations were concerned, mineral-deposits do not appear to be numerous.
Small showings of copper and galena ores were found on Mount Brock, but assays of surface
samples made by the Provincial Assayer are not encouraging, the best specimen assaying: Gold,
trace; silver, 0.4 oz.; zinc, 16.2 per cent.; while a sample of copper ore assayed: Gold, trace;
silver, 0.2 oz.; copp,er, 1.2 per cent. Some copper-showings have been located, under the
" Mineral Act," on the mountains west of Ealue Lake.
TIMBER.
Although fires, both old and recent, have swept over large areas, there are still extensive
stands of northern spruce and black pine, alternating with poplar-covered country and open
meadows. On the lower stretches of the Stikine and Klappan Rivers the spruce attains a
diameter of 24 to 30 inches, but on the higher benches, from 3,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation, the
trees rarely exceed 12 inches in diameter. The spruce would be suitable for pulp, but must
wait for transportation facilities before it can be said to have commercial value.
GAME.
Telegraph Creek is the outfitting-point for what is probably the largest and best big-game
country on the continent. Some of the world's most noted hunters have enjoyed this most fascinating sport in the surrounding mountain ranges. The game resources of the district deserve
far more publicity than they have received and should be more generally advertised.
Moose, Osborn caribou, mountain-sheep .(Ovis stonei), and mountain-goats are very plentiful in the country traversed by us; moose throughout the entire area; sheep on the mountains
east of Ealue Lake; goat on every mountain range; and caribou especially on Caribou Mountain, where herds of 250 were seen. It is said that in the latter part of September these animals
congregate on this mountain from miles around and can then be counted by the thousand.
Caribou exhibit great curiosity and will come to within a hundred feet of men on horseback.
At the present time caribou are so numerous and hunters so few that a game reserve is not
required, but I would strongly recommend that, as soon as the projected highway to the Yukon
is built, a game reserve be created embracing the whole of Caribou Mountain and bounded by
Cullivan Creek to the south and west, the Stikine River to the north, and by Cold Fish Lake,
Mink Creek, and the Spatsizi River on the south and east.
A7ery few bear-signs were noticed during the season and bear did not bother our grub-caches
in any way. Grouse appear to be very scarce, though many flocks of ptarmigan were seen.
Beaver have been almost exterminated in the district and fresh " cuttings " were noticed only on
Cullivan Creek and Round Lake. Wolves and coyotes are numerous. Four of the former chased
a full-grown caribou into camp, while a coyote attacked a wounded goat before the hunter could
reach it.    Fox, marten, wolverine, and fisher are the principal fur-bearing animals.
• AGRICULTURE.
Only in the vicinity of Telegraph Creek has any attempt been made to cultivate the soil.
Here vegetables and small fruits do well, but it is doubtful if they could be successfully grown
in the higher valleys to the east, where the country is better adapted to stock-raising.   AVild B 64 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1930.
timothy grows in scattered patches at elevations up to 6,000 feet above sea-level. At Morchuea
and Spatsizi 200 head of horses are turned loose every winter to rustle for themselves until
rounded up late in the following May.
YUKON HIGHAVAY.
Whatever route is chosen for the Yukon Highway, it is certain to pass through some portion
of the territory covered by this season's survey. Possible routes are briefly described as follows,
the first three being continuations of the Bell-Irving River route and Nos. (4) and (5) are
continuations from the East Fork of the Nass River:—
(1.) Via Kinaskan, Tatogga, and Eddontenas.Lakes and the Morchuea Valley to the Stikine
River.
(2.) Via Kinaskan, Tatogga, and Ealue Lakes and the Klappan River to the Stikine River.
(3.)  Via Kakiddi Creek and the Morchuea Valley to the Stikine River.
(4.) Via the Klappan River to the Stikine.
(5.)  ATia the Little Klappan and Klappan Rivers to the Stikine River.
If a more easterly route than either the Bell-Irving or Nass Rivers is chosen for the southern
portion of the road, then a connection with the main Stikine Valley may be possible via the
East Fork.
The westerly passes have the advantage of lower elevations, but, being near the coast, are
subject to heavier snowfall than the passes farther east.
Colonel Rolston, Highway Reconnaissance Engineer, investigated some of the above routes
this year. He has requested me to furnish him with some of the elevations determined by our
survey as well as with photographs.    These will shortly be sent to him.
Topographical maps are also desired by the District Mining Engineer and by Mr. Harper
Reed, Indian Agent at Telegraph Creek. A rough tracing of our field-plan was given to the
latter to assist him in preparing returns relating to trap-line applications.
I have, etc.,
Fred. Nash, B.C.L.S.
VICTORIA,  B.C. 3
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1931.
1325-331-4240

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