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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA TWENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1930

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
TWENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT
OF  THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1928'
PRINTEP  BY
AUTHORITY OP THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1929.
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY,
VICTORIA, B. C.  To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Tour Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1928.
WM. ATKINSON,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., April 20th, 1929.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture—J. B. Munro, B.SA       7
Report of Departmental Secretary—Wm. J. Bonavia  S
Report of Departmental Secretary re Fall Fairs—Wm. J. Bonavia  15
Report of Statistician, Victoria—G. H. Stewart  17
Report of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests—W. H. Robertson, B.SA  19
Report of Chief Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Vancouver—W. H. Lyne  29
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver—J. W. Eastham, B.Sc  36
Report of Assistant Entomologist, Vernon—M. H. Ruhmann, B.A  40
Report of Markets Commissioner, Calgary—J. A. Grant  42
Report of Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria—Dr. A. G. Knight, V.S  49
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria—Dr. A. G. Knight, V.S  53
Report of Recorder of Brands, Victoria—George Pilmer  56
Report of District Agriculturist, Courtenay—E. ,R. Bewell, B.S.A  57
Report of District Agriculturist, Kamloops—G. W. Challenger, B.S.A  59
Report of District Agriculturist, Cranbrook—H. S. French, B.S.A  64
Report of District Agriculturist, Smithers—D. D. Munro  69
Report of District Agriculturist, Prince George—R. G. Sutton, B.S.A  70
Report of District Agriculturist, Williams Lake—C. C. Kelley, B.S.A  73
Report of Dairy Commissioner, Victoria—H. Rive, B.S.A  76
Report of Chief Poultry Instructor, Victoria—J. R. Terry, B.S.A  81
Report of Provincial Agronomist, Victoria—Cecil Tice, B.S.A  86
Report of Provincial Apiarist, Victoria—W. J. Sheppard  92
Report of Apiary Inspector, Lower Mainland District—A. W. Finlay  94
Report of Apiary Inspector, Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valley Districts—J. F.
Roberts     95
Report of Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria—Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan  96
Report of General Assistant—A. J. Hourston  102
APPENDICES.
Appendix No.
1. Correspondence received and dispatched, 1927 and 1928  103
2. Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1928  103
3. British Columbia Berry Acreage, 1928  105
4. Pruning-schools, 1928   105
5. Pruning Demonstrations, 1928   106
6. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry in British Columbia
(including those condemned)    106
7. Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., condemned at all Ports of
Entry in British Columbia  107
8. Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., inspected at Vancouver (includ
ing those condemned)    108
9. Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., condemned at Vancouver  109
10. Imported Plant Products fumigated at Vancouver  109
11. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Vancouver (including those condemned)  110
12. Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver  110
13. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Victoria (including those condemned)  Ill
14. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Outside Ports during 1928  112
15. Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates were issued  112
16. Nursery Stock inspected for Export for which Certificates were issued  116
17. Products for which  Export  Inspection  Certificates   were  issued  at  Vancouver  and
Okanagan  :  11?
18. Fruit shipped without Certificate via Vancouver and Panama Canal during 1928  118
19. Potato-seed Treatment Plots at Agassiz ,  118
20. Potato-seed Disinfection with Organic Hg. Compounds at Agassiz, 1928  119 O 6 . CONTENTS.
Appendix No. PA6E.
21. Cattle and Hides shipped during 1928 (District—Cariboo and South)  120
22. Districts in which T.B. Testing and Inspection Work was done in 1928  123
23. Creamery Licences issued during 1928  124
24. Combined Milk-testers' and Cream-graders' Licences issued during the year 1928  125
25. Milk-testers' Licences issued during 1928  126
26. Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia  127
27. Milk and Butter-fat Averages for Five Dairy Breeds  128
28. Report on Samples of Wheat collected from Farmers' Seed-drills in British Columbia at
Time of Seeding, 1928 ',  128
29. Report on Samples of Oats collected from Farmers' Seed-drills in British Columbia at
Time of Seeding, 1928  129
30. Report on Samples of Barley collected from Farmers' Seed-drills in British Columbia at
Time of Seeding, 1928  131
31. Report on Samples of Rye collected from Farmers' Seed-drills in British Columbia at
Time of Seeding, 1928  132
32. Report on Samples of Red Clover and Alsike collected from Farmers'  Seed-drills in
British Columbia at Time of Seeding, 1928  134
33. Summary of Seed-drill Survey for all Crops, 1928  135
34. Final Report on " Top Entrance " Trials, 1928  135
35. Estimated Honey-crop, 1928—Vancouver Island, Gulf Islands, and Howe Sound  136
36. Provincial Demonstration Apiaries   138   REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
REPORT OP THE DEPUTY MINISTER OP AGRICULTURE.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.
Honourable Wm. Atkinson,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Report of the Department of Agriculture
for the year 1928.
In former years the statistical report of agricultural production in British Columbia has
included the total number of farm animals in the Province instead of dealing only with the
increase for the year. It has been considered advisable to revise this system of recording
production and, for 1928, only the increase in the herds and flocks for the year is considered.
On this basis the agricultural production for 1928 is $58,664,243, as compared with $53,265,915
for the year 1927. This shows a production increase of $5,398,328, or 10.13 per cent. Substantial
increases are shown in live stock and live-stock products as well as in fruits, grains, and forage-
crops, but decreases are recorded in potatoes, honey, hops, and tobacco.
The value of imports from other Provinces amounted to $16,284,020, as compared with
$16,648,703 in 1927, a decrease of $364,683; but imports from foreign points amounted to
$4,980,061, an increase of $386,977 over the previous year. This made a total importation of
agricultural products of $21,264,081, which was $22,294 over the year 1927. However, the
increased importations were offset by an increase in the value of our exports, which amounted
to $10,328,034, which was $1,512,935, or 17.16 per cent., greater than the previous year.
In the Statistical Report for 1928 it is shown that the fruit-crop is the largest one on record,
exceeding that of the previous year by 34.28 per cent. Apples alone accounted for 195,936,000 lb.
of the total crop of 233,598,000 lb. Small fruits showed a decrease from the previous year and
the vegetable-crop was considerably reduced, partly due to the smaller area planted to potatoes
in 1928.
LIVE-STOCK TREND.
The live-stock situation shows an improvement over recent years. Increased prices for beef
have stimulated the raising of cattle and an improvement in the quality and type of the stock
is evident. A better class of sires is being secured and inferior bulls are being weeded out.
The tendency in beef production is to market the younger animal, with the desirable weight and
finish to meet the demands of the consuming public. The stall-finishing of beef cattle is receiving
more attention, but this phase of the industry has not yet reached any large proportions here.
Although there is a fair demand for high-class draught horses of good substance, there does
not appear to be any noticeable increase in the number of quality animals available. The general
increase in horses throughout the Province would indicate that there are only enough horses
being raised to replace losses.
A consistent increase in dairy cattle has been noted and there is now more attention being
paid to dairying in practically all parts of the Province than during past years. The Cow-testing
Associations are assisting farmers to cull out the inferior animals and the herds under test are
now within a few pounds of the general average of pure-bred herds in the production of milk and
butter-fat. High-quality pure-bred sires of practically all the recognized dairy breeds are to
be found in the mixed-farming sections, and in addition to the improvement in breeding and
attention to weeding-out of non-producers, close study is being given to the feeding values of the
different crops and feeds produced in British Columbia.
Although the production of hogs has not increased very materially, interest in this class of
farm animals is improving. The Boys' and Girls' Swine Clubs and the bacon-litter competitions
are numerous and a large number of animals of good type, weight, and quality are produced
annually. This trend in the Boys' and Girls' Club work beneficially influences the industry in
localities where the clubs are organized. Encouragement of Boys' and Girls' Clubs is very
desirable.
The first consideration of the sheepman now is to produce lamb and mutton of good quality
and to incorporate in his breeding as much quality and weight of wool as possible.    The sheep O 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
business shows a tendency to expand not only in the Coast districts, but in the Interior, where
natural conditions offer facilities for the grazing of sheep without a heavy cost of land-clearing
which is encountered at the Coast.
AGRICULTURAL LEGISLATION.
A number of Bills affecting agriculture were presented at the Fourth Session of the Sixteenth
Legislative Assembly, but two were of outstanding importance. One was the " Canadian Farm
Loan (B.C.) Act."    The other was the "Produce Marketing Act Amendment Act, 1929."
The passing of the first measure provides the enabling legislation and constitutes as a body
politic and corporate the Farm Loan Board, with power to issue and sell bonds to make long-
term loans to farmers, to hold real estate acquired by foreclosure, and to invest its funds. In
brief, this Act brings into force the " Canadian Farm Loan Act, 1927."
The amendment to the " Produce Marketing Act" makes important changes and additions
to the 1927 Act, and substitutes a new definition of " marketing," which is as follows:—
"' Marketing' means the buying or selling of a product, and includes the shipping of a
product for sale or for storage and subsequent sale, and the offering of a product for sale, and
the contracting for the sale or purchase of a product, whether the shipping, offering, or contracting be to or with a purchaser, a shipper, or otherwise, but does not relate to the marketing
of a product for consumption outside the Dominion; and ' market' has a corresponding meaning."
This Amendment Act also extends the area over which the Interior Tree-fruit and Vegetable
Committee of Direction has control. The powers of the committee are extended in such matters
as the securing of accurate reports and estimates of products for marketing, setting of minimum
and maximum prices, and imposing levies on products marketed.
In order that the Provincial Act of 1923 might be brought into conformity with amending
Dominion legislation and regulations in connection with stockyards and live-stock exchanges,
enabling legislation intituled the "Live Stock and Live-stock Products Act (B.C.) Amendment
Act, 1928," was passed.
Under the " Land Settlement and Development Act Amendment Act, 1928," authority was
given for the Land Settlement Board to reduce the rate of interest chargeable on loans heretofore
or hereafter made under the Act. Also, provision is made for the same rate of interest as the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council may determine, which is not less than 6 per centum per annum,
to apply to loans made under Part I. of the " Agricultural Act" of 1915, and for the funding
of indebtedness under either Act secured by existing mortgages.
Respectfully submitted. j. b  MUNRO.
REPORT OP DEPARTMENTAL SECRETARY.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report for this office for the year
ended December 31st, 1928.
STAFF.
The changes in the permanent staff were below the usual average, there being only one
appointment and five resignations.   The details are as follows:—
Permanent Appointments.
Miss M. Corcoran, Stenographer, Victoria.
Resignations.
Miss D. E. Gee, Stenographer, Kamloops (resigned).
Miss F. M. Noble, Stenographer, Cranbrook (resigned).
J. C. Roger, District Field Inspector, Penticton (resigned).
J. B. Munro, Assistant Agronomist, Victoria (resigned).
Dr. D. Warnock, Deputy Minister, Victoria (appointment rescinded). DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
O 9
CORRESPONDENCE.
The total number of letters received at headquarters was 36,337, as against 34,398 the
previous year, the steady annual increase during the past few years being well maintained.
There was a notable increase in the correspondence handled by your Secretary, amounting in
the aggregate to 17 per cent, over the previous year. Good increases are also shown by the
Accountant, Dairy, and Poultry Branches.   Full details are shown in Appendix No. 1.
Circular Letters.—The total number of circular letters sent out totalled 45,387, as against
33,870 the previous year, an increase of 34 per cent., grouped as follows:—
Agricultural Associations    1,375
Apiaries        845
Dairy Branch      8,796
Farmers' Institutes      3,400
Field Crop Branch     6,186
Horticultural Branch     2,830
Live Stock Branch—
Brands   ,       495
Goats      3,050
Poultry  ;     5,220
Stock-breeders       670
Statistics       1,855
Women's Institutes      6,380
Miscellaneous     4,285
Total   45,387
POUND DISTRICTS.
Three new pound districts were organized during the year, as follows: Vallican, July 25th;
Kimberley, November 14th;   South-west Vernon, December 5th.
Preliminary steps were also taken in connection with a pound district at Horse Creek, In
the Columbia Valley, but not followed up.
Districts pending at the end of the year included Mill Bay-Cobble Hill, which was arousing
some local controversy as to the area to be included.
The returns received from pound-keepers showed an exceptionally active year, 571 estrays
being impounded, as against 516 in 1927. There were five successful convictions. The following
table gives full details :—■
Operation op Pound Districts, 1928.
Pound District.
ESTEAYS
CAPTURED.
No. of
Sales of
Estrays.
Amount
realized
from
Sales.
Fees
charged for
Sustenance.
Fees paid
to Pound-
keeper.
Convic-
Horses.
Cattle.
Balfour	
2
'5
'27
1
15
21
6
3
49
2
32
81
'5
4
3
27
12
38
5
11
23
52
128
4
12
1
5
1
1
13
7
7
•2
$3.00
Burton	
$7.80
90.20
6.00
30.55
35.50
8.50
'27.65
'22.75
16.25
21.40
201.32
37.10
1.60
1.80
83.30
Cowiehan  Station	
Dewdriey	
$31.00
33.00
1.00
26.30
27.50
43.00
7.00
4
Nakusp	
'5.00
91.50
10.50
60.70
1
'51.50
73.25
41.65
170.11
23.00
1.00
1.45
60.80
Oyama	
Perry Siding and Appledale	
Bobson	
Rutland	
26.00
Totals      	
283
285.
37
$328.25
$460.01
$591.72
5
Note.—Three miscellaneous estrays were also captured. O 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ORDERS IN COUNCIL.
The following Orders in Council affecting the agricultural industry may be cited amongst
others approved during the year:—
February 5th: Re appointment for one year of the Interior Tree-fruit and Vegetable
Committee of Direction for the control and regulation of the marketing of tree-fruits and
vegetables.
April 4th :  Issue of regulations pursuant to section 29 of the " Milk Act."
May 7th:   Definition of area under control of the Berry-growers' Committee of Direction.
May 10th:   Organization of the Westbank Protection Spraying Zone.
May 19th: Appointment of a Commission under the " Public Inquiries Act" to inquire into
milk production, distribution, etc., in the Lower Fraser Valley.
May 25th:  Organization of the Keremeos and Cawston Protection Spraying Zone.
October 23rd: Public notice re certain designated portions of the Province into District
Farmers' Institutes.
November 20th: Constitution of the area within the municipal limits of the City of Kelowna
as a codling-moth control area.
CRUSHED LIME ROCK.
Certificates for twelve car-loads of crushed lime rock for fertilizer were issued during the
year, with a tonnage of 367 tons. These figures show a slight increase over the previous year.
Of the above total no less than 337 tons were shipped from the plant of the Comox Limestone
and Fertilizer Company, Limited, at Courtenay to island points. No record was obtainable of
lime shipments from Mainland deposits, but these were practically negligible.
COMPENSATION FOR SHEEP AND POULTRY KILLED BY DOGS.
The operation of the clauses of the " Sheep Protection Act" with regard to compensation
claims and payments showed a considerable increase during the past year, claims increasing
from thirty-eight to sixty-three and compensation paid from $2,670 to $4,105.25.
The following details are compiled to the close of the year:—
Number of persons applying for compensation : Vancouver Island, 45; Mainland, 18; total, 63.
Number of sheep killed : Grade ewes, 185; grade lambs, 71; grade rams, 7; registered ewes,
3 ;  registered lambs, 4 ;   registered rams, 2 ;   total, 272.
Number of poultry killed, 392.
Total amount of compensation claimed:   Sheep and lambs, $4,309;   poultry, $780.85.
Total amount of compensation paid:   Sheep and lambs, $3,528.50;  poultry, $576.75.
Average rate of compensation per head:   Sheep and lambs, $12.97;  poultry, $1.47.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
At the close of the year 1928 there were 170 Farmers' Institutes in operation, of which
twenty-seven were on Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands and 143 on the Mainland. These
figures show an increase of eleven new institutes organized during the past year and one reincorporated, half of these being in the Lillooet-Cariboo area, the new Advisory Board District H.
The sequence of these organizations was as follows: February 10th, Roe Lake; February 24th,
Mount Olie (reincorporated) ; March 5th, Surge Narrows and Hoskyn Inlet; March 20th, Pitt
Meadows ; April 11th, Camp Lister and Huscroft; April 11th, Evelyn District; May 4th, Lac la
Hache ; May 18th, Grasmere-Roosville; May 21st, Springhouse; May 28th, Horsefly ; June 8th,
Soda Creek;   July 19th, Big Bar Creek.
The total membership was 6,485, as against 6,111 in 1927, or a gain of 6 per cent., which is
satisfactory.
Farmers' Institutes are continuing to progress steadily and to fill a very useful place in the
rural community life of our Province. We have now had these organizations for over thirty
years, the movement having started in 1897, with the two original Farmers' Institutes at Surrey
and Richmond, in the Lower Fraser Valley. From this modest beginning the total number of
institutes has grown as follows: 1900, 20 institutes ; 1910, 49 institutes; 1920, 130 institutes;
1928, 170 institutes. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 11
The institutes with the largest membership in 1928 were as follows:—•
Delta    .,  267
South Vancouver  216
Fernie  213
Surrey  177
Metchosin    148
North Vancouver  147
Coquitlam   127
Matsqui   121
Mission  120
Otter District  108
Cowichan  100
The average membership for an institute was thirty-eight, which compares well with the
average for ten years ago (1918), when it was thirty-three.
Some Institute Activities.
An important matter attended to last year was the publishing of a notice in the British
Columbia Gazette on October 23rd, signed by the Hon. Mr. Atkinson, properly designating the
areas covered by District Institutes. This was in accordance with the " Agricultural Act"
and each group of institutes was listed in the part of the Province in which they operate.
An interesting event in recent years has been the revival of ploughing-matches; a small
vote has been available for assisting by way of grants in aid of the prize-lists and last year
ploughing-matches were held by the Chilliwack District Association, Delta Farmers' Institute,
Langley Agricultural Association, Matsqui District Ploughing Association, and the North
Okanagan Fall Fair. The assistance of the Department by means of grants and score-cards,
and in some instances of judges, has been much appreciated.
GOPHER-CONTROL   WORK.
A good deal of encouragement has been given by the Department in recent years to Farmers'
Institutes and other farm organizations in the Interior who were organizing young people's
gopher-killing competitions, and the Department has also been refunding to ranchers a portion
of the moneys spent on the purchase of " Cyanogas " or similar poisons. Thirteen Farmers'
Institutes in the East and West Kootenay and North Thompson Districts took this work up, as
follows: Northern Okanagan Farmers' Institute; Lower . Slocan Valley Farmers' Institute;
Mount Cartier Farmers' Institute; Jaffray Farmers' Institute; Eagle River Farmers' Institute;
Chinook Cove-Chu Chua Farmers' Institute; Horse Creek Farmers' Institute; Moberly-to-
Donald Farmers' Institute; Baynes District Farmers' Institute; Winlaw Farmers' Institute;
Brisco Farmers' Institute; Avola Farmers' Institute ; Elk Valley Farmers' Institute ; Appledale
Progressive Association.
Some of the highest scores for tails were as follows : Eagle River, 734; Lower Slocan Valley,
585;   Appledale, 444.
Fall Fairs.
Ten Farmers' Institutes held fall fairs last year, and they are doing excellent work along
this line where there is no local Agricultural Association. The institutes holding fairs were as
follows:—
On Vancouver Island.—Cobble Hill, Metchosin, and Sayward.
On the Mainland.—Boswell, Crawford Bay, Elphinstone Bay, Gibsons Landing, loco, Whon-
nock, and Woodpecker.
Pure-bred Sires.
The gradual closing-down of the Dominion Government scheme with regard to the supply
of pure-bred sires is regretted, but it is resulting in giving a stimulus to the Provincial policy
and an increased number of inquiries are in evidence from Farmers' Institutes for bulls and
rams. Actually in 1927 seven bulls, six rams, and three boars were supplied, and in 1928 eighteen
bulls and three rams. The Kersley Institute, near Quesnel. requisitioned no less than six
Hereford and one Shorthorn bull. O 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Stumping-powder.
Rebate regulations have been altered to allow the rebate of $2.50 per case being paid on a
total of twelve cases, instead of ten in any one year.
The price of powder at the Coast factories during the past year reached the lowest it had
been for many years, being $5.95 per case f.o.b. Victoria or Vancouver.
More than the usual activity was shown in the purchase of powder, the total bought by
institutes being 10,644 cases, costing $66,204.09, whilst 2,793 applications for rebate on 8,057%
cases were handled by the Accountant's Branch. The total sum of rebates paid amounted to
$20,143.75.
The Advisory Board and District Meetings.
The Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes assembled at Victoria on December 10th and
subsequent days in connection with resolutions to be dealt with and legislation affecting the •
agricultural industry-    A total of 106 resolutions were dealt with at this meeting, as follows:—
District A—Vancouver Island  ,     13
District B—Skeena and Bulkley      11
District C—Nechako      15
District D—Kamloops      9
District E—Lower Fraser Valley     12
District F—West Kootenay       4
District G—Okanagan       6
District H—Cariboo      9
District   I—East Kootenay      13
Miscellaneous      14
Total  106
The total resolutions in 1927 were only sixty-four, showing an increase of 65 per cent, for
1928.   It is suggested that far more of these resolutions could be dealt with finally in the district
meetings, many resolutions being quite local and not of a Provincial character.    The Advisory
Board members should, from their experience gained in the past years, be able to watch these
resolutions more closely at their district meetings.   Altogether too much time is taken up at
Victoria when the Advisory Board meets in discussing resolutions of the kind referred to.
The dates of the various district conventions held were as follows:—
District A—Annual, at Victoria, November 23rd.
District B—Annual, at Telkwa, August 2nd.
District C—Annual, at Vanderhoof, March 15th and 16th.
District D—Annual, at Kamloops, January 21st.
District E—Annual, at New Westminster, February 10th;   semi-annual, at New Westminster, November 9th.
District F—Annual, at Robson, May 23rd;   semi-annual, at Nelson, September 20th.
District G—Annual, at Kelowna, November 7th.
District H—Organization, at Williams Lake, September 28th;   annual, at Quesnel, December 4th.
District   I—Annual, at Cranbrook, October 31st and November 1st.
WOMEN'S INSTITUTES.
This branch of departmental work showed a considerable increase, no less than ten new
institutes being incorporated during the year, as follows: May 22nd, Fort Fraser (Our Club) ;
May 22nd, Terrace; May 28th, Prince George; June 6th, Wynndel; June 12th, Upper Camp
River; July 23rd, Westbank ; August 30th, East Kelowna; September 4th, Field; December 7th,
Ymir;  December 19th, White Rock.
Including the above, the total number of Women's Institutes in operation was 117, with a
membership of 3,849, as against 2,997 in 1927.
Flower-shows, Exhibits of Women's Work, etc.
Sixty-two institutes organized some of the above events, being one more than in 1927.
A full list is shown in Appendix No. 2.   Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.—Fifteen events, including one fall fair; two spring
flower and bulb shows;  one " better babies " clinic, etc.
Lower Mainland.—Eighteen events, including sixteen flower-shows.
Okanagan and Dry Belt.—Fourteen events, including nine flower-shows, one fall fair, two
" better babies " clinics, etc.
Kootenay.—Fourteen events, including eleven flower-shows, one " better babies " clinic, etc.
Central British Columbia.—Two events, including one fall fair.
PUBLICATIONS.
The past year did not attain to the high mark for new issues and reprints set in 1927. The
total number of publications printed was 82,300; the issue by mail and other means being
56,711;   the details being as follows :—
Dairying and mixed-farming bulletins and circulars   2,492
Diseases and Pests  7,063
Field Crop   5,155
Fruit and Vegetable Growing  8,420
Live Stock   3,533
Poultry   11,262
Settlers' Information   4,994
Economic Farm Surveys   3,321
Miscellaneous    6,919
Reports  ,  3,552
Total  56,711
Amongst the new publications special mention should be made of the issue of Bulletin 103,
" Dairy-farming in British Columbia," being an economic study of twenty-six farms over a period
of five years, conducted by Animal Husbandry officials of the University of British Columbia. O 14
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The following statement shows the details of publications issued in 1928 :-
Publications issued in 1928.
Date.
Name.
Description.
No.
Jan.
16
,,
26
„
27
Feb.
1
,,
7
„
21
21
„
24
,j
25
„
28
Mar.
5
„
27
April   3
,,
11
.,
17
,,
30
May
7
,,
7
Jf
9
,,
11
,,
12
,,
'23
»
28
29
,,
31
June
7
,,
27
July
6
>.'
19
19
„
27
„
30
Aug.
2
ff
4
28
Sept.    8
Oct.
„      25
„      26
Nov.   14
20
20
Some Facts about B.C	
Spray Calendar	
Farmers' Institute Booklet	
Control of the Colorado Potato-beetle	
The Jerusalem Artichoke	
Soap Solutions for Spraying	
Top Working of Fruit-trees	
The Cabbage-root Maggot	
Market Poultry	
Root-seed Production	
The Top Entrance Hive	
Field Corn	
Farmers' Institute By-laws	
Regulations under the " Milk Act "	
Dairy Survey	
Feeding for Egg Production	
Climate of B.C	
Certified Milk and Butter-fat Records	
Recommendations and Suggestions to Fall Fairs	
List of Publications	
Westbank Protection Spraying Zone Regulations	
Agriculture in West Kootenay	
Keremeos and Cawston Protection Spraying Zone Regulations	
Agricultural Statistics, 1927	
Rabbit Culture	
Agricultural Legislative Report	
Agriculture in the Similkameen	
Rhubarb Culture	
B.C. Egg and Poultry Co-operative Association Agreement Forms	
Co-operative Poultry Marketing Plan of Organization	
Oil Sprays	
Canada Thistles	
List of Publications	
Judging Domestic Science and Women's Work	
22nd Annual Report, Department of Agriculture	
Varieties of Fruit Recommended	
B.C. Egg and Poultry Pool Rules and Memoranda	
B.C. Egg and Poultry Pool Contract	
Mangel-seed Production in B.C	
Natural and Artificial Incubation and Brooding	
Management of Turkeys	
Poultry-house  Construction	
Practical Poultry-raising	
Report of B.C. Fairs Association, Year 1927	
Peach-twig Borer	
Women's Institute By-laws ,
Construction of Sod Houses	
Circular 44
Field Crop Circ. '
Field Crop Circ. i
Hort. Circ. 40 	
Hort. Circ. 42 	
Hort. Circ. '32 	
Bulletin 49 	
Field Crop Circ. 7
Leaflet   	
Field Crop Circ. 8
Bulletin 103 ....
Bulletin 93	
Bulletin 27 	
Dairy Circ. l'o
Circular 48 	
Circular 34
Bulletin 104 	
Poultry Circ. 29
Circular 43 	
Hort. Circ. '67
Hort Circ.  68
Exh. Leaflet ....
Circular 45	
Hort. Circ. 64
Leaflet   	
Bulletin 39 	
Poultry Circ. 4
Bulletin 63 	
Bulletin 26 	
Hort. Circ. 31 ....
Leaflet   	
Poultry Circ. 30
Total	
2,000
3,000
500
500
2,000
2,000
2,000
1,000
2,500
2,000
5,000
2,000
200
1,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
1,000
500
1,000
200
2,000
200
1,300
2,000
3,000
1,000
1,000
4,250
1,000
1,000
3,000
1,500
500
900
1,000
3,000
2,000
S.000
2,500
2,000
3,000
3,000
250
1,000
500
2,000
82,300
Respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Secretary. REPORT OF DEPARTMENTAL SECRETARY RE PALL FAIRS.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report in connection with the fall
fairs of the Province for the year 1928.
The number of incorporated Agricultural Associations was not increased during the past
year, the total standing at fifty-eight. As in previous years, however, several Farmers' Institutes
and some miscellaneous bodies also held fairs.
Four exhibitions and sixty-one fairs were held, being five fairs more than in 1927, the
locations being as follows:— Exhibitions.        Fairs.
Circuit   I.—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands      1 13
„      II.—-Lower Fraser Valley    3 20
„     III.—Okanagan and C.P.R. main line  8
„      IV.—East and West Kootenay  11
,,       V.—Central British Columbia   9
Totals       4 61
Two new events were held in Circuit II.—Elphinstone and loco, the latter being a revival.
In Circuit III. Kelowna held a successful fair after the lapse of a year, whilst in Circuit V. two
new fairs were held—Fort Fraser and Williams Lake.
JUDGES.
Judges were supplied as usual by the Department, very satisfactory service being obtained
from both officials and outside judges. Some criticism was received from the Kootenay circuit
as to a certain poultry and live-stock judge visiting fairs where there were no exhibits of this
kind. I explained at the Nelson District meeting that these men had to fill in time between fairs
where they were actually wanted and some good educational work resulted from their visits.
However, in view of these criticisms a special effort will be made next season to obtain more
local judges to act in some of the Interior circuits, thus cutting down the expense of sending
men from the Coast.
iqoSTurla-eq Staff Outside
U^S judges. Judges. Judges.
Fruit, vegetables, and flowers   13 13
Field crops   9 3
Live stock   5 23
Poultry and rabbits   4 16
Women's work   1 16
Honey and dairy products   5 4
Totals     37 75
Grand total, 1928, 112;  grand total, 1927, 101.
The chief increase during the past two years has been for outside men whose fees and
expenses are charged to the fairs vote, and this item of judges' fees and expenses now costs
around $6,000 per annum, which makes a substantial cut in the amount available for grants.
REPORTS ON FAIRS BY JUDGES.
Best total score for a fall fair Matsqui, 89.4 per cent.
Best score for fruit and vegetables Quesnel, 88 per cent.
Best score for grains, field crops, etc Smithers, 90 per cent.
Best score for live stock Armstrong, 97 per cent.
Best score for poultry Fernie, 92 per cent.
Best score for management Peachland, 100 per cent. O 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Taking the various circuits as units, one finds the following results:—
Fruit and Vegetable Exhibits— ^Pe^cfnt*6'
Circuit   I.—Vancouver Island      74
„      II.—Lower Mainland     71
„     IV.—Kootenays      67
„     III.—Okanagan        65
Grain, Field Crop, and Potato Exhibits—
Circuit V.—Central British Columbia      68
„        I.—Vancouver Island     65
„      II.—Lower Mainland     64
„    III.—Okanagan      56
,,     IV.—Kootenays      54
Live-stock Exhibits—
Circuit II.—Lower Mainland     71
„     III.—Okanagan        70
„        I.—Vancouver Island      65
„     IV.—Kootenays      63
V.—Central British Columbia      63
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands, Circuit I. (IS Fairs).—The Saanichton Fair was again
scored highest on the island with 84.5 per cent. Alberni, Courtenay, Coombs, Duncan, and
Ladysmith were all scored very close to each other, Coombs and Ladysmith both having come up
several points. Among the smaller events Metchosin and Cobble Hill both showed improvement.
Seven fairs advanced and five fell back in the circuit.
Lower Mainland, Circuit II. (20 Fairs).—The scoring was generally somewhat lower in this
circuit than in 1927; judges remarking on the reduced competition in many classes of indoor
exhibits.
The Matsqui Fair headed the list again with 89.4 per cent., with six other fairs scoring over
75 per cent. Twelve fairs showed a lesser score than last year and five improved, these being
Agassiz, Surrey, Abbotsford, Whonnock, and Gibsons Landing.
Okanagan and C.P.R. Main Line, Circuit III. (8 Fairs).—Three fairs in this circuit scored
over 75 per cent., the North Okanagan Fall Fair at Armstrong leading with 79.6 per cent, and
Salmon Arm a close second. The Kamloops Fair was successfully revived after a lapse of seven
years, praise being due to the directors and secretary for the difficulties that were overcome.
Lumby and Kelowna both put on good shows, the former fair showing much improvement over
previous years.    Three fairs were scored up and two down in this circuit.
East and West Kootenay, Circuit IV. (11 Fairs).—The fairs in this circuit showed general
improvement over 1927, Femie, Cranbrook, and Invermere all scoring over 72 per cent. Fernie,
a comparatively new fair, was placed first with 78.5 per cent.; the exhibits and interest of public
and management being highly commended. Six fairs improved their position and four went
back. In the Kootenays live-stock exhibits are still far fewer than they should be, but some
improvement was recorded last year.
Central British Columbia, Circuit V. (9 Fairs).—Considerable more interest was shown in
this circuit in fair matters last year. New management at Quesnel and Smithers brought these
fairs to the top, scoring, with Terrace also, over 75 per cent. The recovery of the first two was
remarkable after the poor level to which they had sunk. Prince Rupert dropped to fourth place.
Judges were supplied to nine fairs, an increase of two events. In the case of Rolla, in the Peace
River Block, judges were sent in by courtesy of the Department of Agriculture at Edmonton.
At Williams Lake, in the Cariboo, a sheep fair, with other live-stock exhibits, was added to
the usual " Stampede" and a good deal of interest was shown in the district over this new
development.
GRANTS.
The legislative vote in aid of Agricultural Fairs for the year ended March 31st, 1929, was
$45,000, being an increase of $1,500 over the previous year. At the date of making this report
the total spent by the Department on grants was $52,012, made up of $30,012 percentage grants
and $22,000 special grants which were paid to six associations who were able to establish their
claim to special consideration.    These totals exceed the original sum voted and extra moneys «g-™»
'••«-—-    ■ ■ ' ' '• ■''■'
SOME OP THE PRIZE-WINNINO A.RSHIRES AT THE ORANBBOOK AND ^VKRMERE FALL FAIRS,  1928
 _■   ■,      |
MIXED CLOVER AND TIMOTHY  HAY,   MCPHAYDEN
FARM, PRINCE GEORGE.  DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 17
have been obtained by special warrant.    One thousand dollars was also paid in the case of the
Williams Lake Sheep Fair from the funds of the sheep-protection vote.
The percentage rate for the grants in 1928 was kept at 25 per cent.
THE BRITISH COLUMBIA FAIRS ASSOCIATION.
This association again received the support of the large majority of exhibitions and fairs
held in the Province and is functioning efficiently, handling many matters of vital interest to
its members.
A new departure was made, following resolutions passed previously, in the holding of district
fair meetings in the Interior at Nelson on January 22nd and Armstrong on January 25th. Many
subjects of interest were discussed at these meetings, and the main object, that of securing a
good sequence of dates for these circuits, was achieved.
The gross revenue of member associations has grown from $305,011 in 1924 to $452,491 in
1927 (the 1928 totals are not yet all in). The assets in buildings, etc., are around the quarter-
million dollar mark, and in 1927 the record for prize-money was made, with the amount of
$121,721.79 distributed in cash.
The seventh annual meeting was held at New Westminster on February 28th, with an
excellent attendance of delegates.
All of which is respectfully submitted. Wm. J. Bonavia
Secretary.
REPORT OP STATISTICIAN, VICTORIA.
G. H. Stewart.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows:—
The total actual value of agricultural production amounted to $58,664,243, as compared with
$53,265,915 for the year 1927, an increase of $5,398,328, or 10.13 per cent. Substantial increases
are shown in the production of live stock, meats, poultry products, dairy products, fruits, grains,
and fodders, while decreases are recorded in potatoes, honey, hops, and tobacco.
Total imports of agricultural products amounted to $21,264,081, an increase of $22,294 over
the year 1927. Imports from other Provinces in Canada are valued at $16,284,020, as compared
with $16,648,703 in 1927, a decrease of $364,683, while imports from foreign points are valued
at $4,980,061, an increase of $386,977 over the previous year.
As an offset to the increased value of importations, a satisfactory feature of agricultural
production is the large increase shown in the value of our exports. It is estimated that the total
value of exports for the year amounted to $10,328,034, this being an increase of $1,512,935, or
17.16 per cent.
FRUITS.
Climatic conditions have during the past year been unusual. The precipitation tables show
that the Coast section experienced one of the driest years on record. In the Interior of the
Province a late spring followed by heavy precipitation in June and July caused considerable loss,
particularly in the case of cherries. From the middle of July to the end of the year the rainfall
was very light. This gave the growers an excellent opportunity to harvest one of the largest
apple-crops in the history of the Province and also favoured the vegetable-growers in harvesting
their onions, potatoes, tomatoes, etc.
Small-fruit production, while on the whole almost equal in quantity to the 1927 crop, was
from the standpoint of returns unsatisfactory. Poor weather conditions at shipping-time, coupled
with low prices, resulted in returns to the growers much below that of the previous year. Tree-
fruits in all cases were equal in quantity and in most cases greatly exceeded the 1927 production.
While the crop was harvested in excellent condition, the heavy production in the United States
had the effect of reducing the prices which the growers received.
The fruit-crop was the largest on record, amounting to 233,598,000 lb., and exceeding that
of the previous year by 59,636,000 lb., or 34.28 per cent. The total value of the crop was
$8,215,898, or an increase of 12.02 per cent, over the year 1927. Prices on the whole remained
unsatisfactory.
2 .
O 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total apple-crop was 195,936,000 lb., as compared with 145,824,000 lb. produced in 1927.
Other tree-fruits showed an increase of 66.64 per cent, in quantity production. The 1928
crop amounted to 24,274,000 lb., as against 14,566,000 lb. in 1927.
Small fruits produced amounted to 13,388,000 lb., valued at $1,314,159, as compared with a
production of 13,572,000 lb., valued at $1,358,174, in 1927, indicating a decrease of 1.35 per cent,
in quantity and 3.24 per cent, in value.
VEGETABLES.
The total vegetable-crop amounted to 238,611 tons, valued at $6,618,909, as compared with
a production of 255,669 tons, valued at $6,684,651, in 1927. The loss in tonnage was due to a
large decrease in the acreage planted to potatoes.
The area planted to potatoes was 3,580 acres less than in 1927. The 1928 production, which
amounted to 92,989 tons, was 22,824 tons less than during the previous year.
The total yield of root-crops was 10.52 per cent, less than in 1927. The average yield per
acre in 1928 was 9.50 tons, as against 10.30 tons in 1927.
In all sections of the Province the production of other vegetables was extremely heavy and
on the whole resultant prices were most satisfactory.
The production of rhubarb amounted to 1,220 tons, which is 364 tons more than the 1927
production.
An increase of 57.94 per cent, is shown in the quantity production of outdoor tomatoes.
The 1928 crop amounted to 25,588 tons.
Outdoor cucumbers showed an increased production of 603 tons.
Greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers both showed an increase in production over the previous
year.
GRAINS.
Seasonal conditions were most satisfactory for the harvesting of all grain-crops.
Due to the long dry spell during the growing season the average yield per acre of all grain-
crops was slightly below the yields of the previous year.
The production of all grains amounted to 5,592,883 bushels, valued at $4,656,083, as compared
to the 1927 production of 4,702,837 bushels, valued at $4,266,867, indicating an increase in quantity
production of 890,046 bushels and an increase in value of $389,216.
The price of wheat fell from $1.31 a bushel in 1927 to $1.19 a bushel in 1928, and oats from
65 cents a bushel to 62 cents.
FODDERS.
The area sown to fodders was 340,682 acres, representing an increase of 7,022 acres over
the year 1927.
Fodder-crops aggregating a total of 807,346 tons, valued at $11,029,954, were produced, there
being an increase of 17,606 tons in quantity production.
Fodder corn, while still comprising a small percentage of the total acreage of fodders, is
rapidly increasing, there being recorded 6,678 acres in 1928.
The acreage in alfalfa increased 3,801 acres during the year.
DAIRY PRODUCTS.
The dairy production of the past year showed considerably less than its usual annual
increase. The cause is to be found in the weather experienced during the season. Early
conditions seemed promising enough for a large and continued flow of milk, but the heat of
midsummer interfered to a serious degree. As a result not only were the supplies of the moment
curtailed, but the damage done to pastures through excessive heat brought a fall shortage of
milk unlooked for, and much beyond the regular annual slackening at this period.
The amount of butter manufactured consequently has declined from that of the year
previous; this also is the case with cheese. Ice-cream sales on account of the summer warmth
show a very substantial gain. Much more evaporated milk has been produced and more
powdered milk, casein, and condensed buttermilk. The drop is most marked in respect to
butter, the increased manufacture of more valuable products accounting partly for this, as well
as for the increased value of the season's production.
The value of all dairy products was $12,9.34,156, as compared with the production of
$12,681,009 in 1927, indicating an increased value of $253,147. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 19
The quantity of butter manufactured amounted to 6,018,468 lb., which was 515,085 lb. less
than in 1927.
Cheese manufactured amounted to 57,088 lb., which was a decrease of 71,619 lb. from the
previous year.
There was a large increase in the quantity of ice-cream manufactured. The 1928 production
amounted to 651,993 gallons, valued at $913,522, as against 505,158 gallons, valued at $765,167,
in 1927.
The quantity of evaporated milk manufactured was 231,726 cases, valued at $1,019,195.
This represents an increase of 45,500 cases, or 24.43 per cent, in quantity production.
The quantity of fresh milk consumed increased by 460,000 gallons during the year. The
total 1928 consumption was 16,980,000 gallons.
LIVE STOCK.
There was a considerable increase in the numbers of farm live stock during the year.
Milch cows increased in number from 93,745 in 1927 to 102.963 in 1928.
Other cattle now number 295,501, as compared with 270,618 in 1927, an increase for the year
of 24,883.
Sheep increased in number to the extent of 40,123, there now being in the Province 170,255,
which is an increase of 30.83 per cent, over the year 1927.
Swine numbered 55,004, as against 51,070 in 1927.
Poultry and eggs show a very satisfactory increase. Poultry now number 3,782,163, as
compared with 3,157,069 in 1927.
The egg production amounted to 14,876,757 dozen, which is an increase of 3,538,124 dozen
over the year previous.
MISCELLANEOUS.
The quantity of all meats marketed during the year aggregated 55,901,262 lb., valued at
$4,772,796, as against 50,129,801 lb., valued at $3,332,633, in 1927.
The price of all meats ranged considerably higher than during the previous year.
The quantity of wool produced exceeded that of the year 1927 by 258,111 lb., or 35.72 per cent.
The total actual producing acreage of hops in 1928 was practically the same as it was in
1927. The crop, however, only amounted to 980,548 lb., which was a decrease from the year
previous of 458,697 lb. The sharp decline in the yield per acre was due to unfavourable climatic
conditions, combined with a severe attack of Peronospora or downy mildew.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
G. H. Stewart,
Statistician.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL HORTICULTURIST AND INSPECTOR
OF FRUIT PESTS.
AV. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report as Provincial Horticulturist
and Inspector of Fruit Pests for the year 1928.
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
According to the records, Vancouver Island experienced one of the driest years since records
were first kept in Victoria fifty-four years ago, the annual precipitation being only 19.90 inches,
which is 7.64 inches below the ten-year average. Dry conditions also prevailed in the Lower
Fraser Valley, the year 1928 being the driest for six years, with a total precipitation of 46 inches.
In the Okanagan the weather conditions, although exceptional, were on the whole favourable for
both fruit and vegetables. In the early part of the year the temperature was low, but a good
covering of snow prevented winter-injury. Blossoming and spraying dates were about a week
later than last year, although no spring frosts were reported. The precipitation was heavy in
June and July and during this period there were several hail-storms which caused considerable damage. The losses occasioned by the splitting of cherries due to wet weather was heavy, in
some sections amounting to over 50 per cent, of the total crop. The later part of the year,
however, was extremely dry, little or no rain falling from July to the end of the year. This
was particularly favourable in that it gave every opportunity for the harvesting of one of the
largest apple-crops in the history of the valley; it also favoured vegetable-growers in the
harvesting of their onions, potatoes, and tomatoes. In the Kootenays the weather conditions
were much more favourable for the fruit and vegetable crops than in 1927. The spring months
were wet and cool and the growing season was late in starting. This was followed by a wet
May and June, with fairly low temperatures. July and August recorded higher temperatures,
with all fruit and vegetable crops making excellent growth. The fall weather was excellent for
harvesting, with little rain, and no snow or low temperatures until the first of December.
MARKETING AND CROP  CONDITIONS.
There were a few changes in the general marketing conditions which were effective in 1927.
The year 1927 saw the introduction and trial of the " Produce Marketing Act." This Act was
amended in 1928 in such a way as to make it more effective and to increase its area of supervision. The marketing of small fruit in the area extending from the Northern Okanagan to the
Coast was brought under the workings of the Act, and also the marketing of potatoes as far
as the Act is concerned was extended to include Coast sections. No changes in the " Produce
Marketing Act " applied to Vancouver Island.
Small Fruits.—On Vancouver Island the 1928 season was to a certain extent not very
satisfactory. The car-lot shipments to the Prairies of strawberries totalled forty-eight cars,
one more than in 1927, but the quality was most unsatisfactory upon arrival, due to softness
and poor shipping conditions generally. Jam contracts were scarce, and although approximately
230 tons were put up in 2+1 mixture and straight frozen, it is estimated that between 150 and
200 tons were unpicked. On the other hand, the loganberry-crop was the largest harvested,
over 500 tons being picked, and all, except a few tons for the cannery, was sold for 8 cents per
pound to the wineries for the manufacture of loganberry wine. On the Lower Mainland the
conditions were similar to those which prevailed on Vancouver Island. Poor prices were
received for strawberries as well as for other small fruit, and weather conditions at time of
shipping resulted in considerable loss. Rhubarb production has been increasing steadily from
this district and in 1928 same fifteen cars of rhubarb and fifty-five cars of field rhubarb moved
to Prairie points. In the Kootenay districts there was a heavy crop of small fruits, but
unfavourable weather conditions resulted in poor shipping-berries. The jam-factories, however,
handled the largest tonnage that they have ever been called upon to take care of. In this
district raspberries were a heavy crop and in good demand by both the crate and jam markets.
Tree-fruits.—On Vancouver Island tree-fruits might be considered as a normal crop and
somewhat heavier than in 1927. In the Lower Fraser Valley they showed a decided increase
over 1927, which was, however, a light year. Tree-fruits in both of these districts are of minor
importance. The two principal tree-fruit districts are the Okanagan and the Kootenays. In
the Okanagan the 1928 crop exceeded in quantity any previous crop. The quality particularly
of the apples was not as good as usual, due to the long spell of hot weather. This probably
accounted to a certain extent for the large percentage of lower grades. Cherries were a heavy
crop, but there was a heavy loss from splitting. The pear-crop was heavier than usual, while
peaches and apricots were also a good crop. The Kootenay apple-crop was only slightly heavier
than in 1927, but the quality, size, colour, and freedom from disease, etc., showed a considerable
improvement over the crop of the previous year. The sweet-cherry crop, which stands next in
importance to the apple-crop, was one of the largest in the history of the Kootenays. Poor
weather conditions at time of shipping and unsatisfactory arrival of the fruit resulted in poor
prices.
Vegetable-crops.—While final figures are not yet available, the production of greenhouse
tomatoes on Vancouver Island will show a very large increase in 1928 over previous years.
Prices, however, were considerably lower. Greenhouse cucumbers will also show an increase.
In this district also there was a large production of broccoli. Shipments last spring, comprising
mostly broccoli and totalling twenty-four car-loads, were made to Prairie points, while the total
production of broccoli was approximately 12,000 crates. In the Lower Mainland District there
is a gradual increase in the production of greenhouse vegetable-crops as well as outdoor vegetable- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 21
crops of all kinds, while the shipping of mixed cars of vegetable produce is receiving more attention each year. With regard to vegetable-crops in the Okanagan Horticultural District, M. S.
Middleton, reporting on this phase of the work, comments as follows:—
" The season has been a very favourable one for all vegetable-crops. Spring conditions were
very good; the heavy rains in June brought on all ground and transplanted stuff, while the dry
fall was excellent for harvesting. Prices have also been very encouraging. Onion prices are
outstanding this year, and a quantity of choice stock still remains in the valley to reap the
benefit of the soaring prices. Potato prices were also fairly firm. Tomatoes at the contract
prices with the long season have been profitable. Cantaloupes were an excellent crop of high
quality, but the market backed up at intervals during the marketing season. Celery gave
a lighter yield and was not of as good a quality as usual owing to lack of moisture."
Other Crops.—On the Lower Mainland field and cannery peas were seeded later than usual,
but yields were fairly satisfactory. The testing of suitable varieties has been carried out from
time to time by the canneries ; consequently the contracted annual acreage of between 800 to
1,000 acres has been cut down to three or four varieties. In the same district the acreage of
hops was increased by approximately 100 acres. This crop is becoming of increasing importance
and over 1,500 pickers are required for harvesting purposes. The acreage devoted to tobacco
this year was considerably less than 1927. In the Okanagan there were about 56 acres of
tobacco, as against 400 in 1927, while in the Sumas area 35 acres were set out. The bulb and
seed industry continues to develop slowly, the principal areas being on Vancouver Island and
adjacent islands as well as in the Lower Fraser Valley.
DEMONSTRATION PEST-CONTROL WORK.
Various forms of pest-control work have been undertaken by your Horticultural Branch
during the past season. This work is under the supervision of your different horticultural
officials and the work varies according to the necessity of a district. It is unfortunate that more
time cannot be devoted to work of this nature, as it serves the useful purpose of demonstrating
to growers the necessity as well as the economic importance of certain operations. A summary
of work undertaken in 1928 is herewith given.
Cherry Blossom-blight (Monilia oregonensis) Spray.—The demonstration spraying in the
Olivet-cherry orchards of G. A. Vantreight and F. E. Aitkens, Gordon Head, was continued for
the fifth year in an effort to control the so-called " blossom-blight," or Monilia oregonensis Barss
& Posey, of cherries.
The season was about normal compared with 1926 and 1927. In 1926 the season was very
early, the spraying being done on March 29th. In 1927 the other extreme prevailed, and we
experienced a late season, the spraying not being done until April 28th. In 1928 the spray was
applied April 14th in both orchards, 8-8-40 Bordeaux being again used.
During the latter part of March the Aitkens orchard was given a thorough pruning in an
effort to remove a lot of useless wood and put the trees in a better physical condition. A lot
of dead spurs were removed with the thought in mind of removing sources of infection.
The disease again developed in the Aitkens orchard and the pruning and spraying did not
seem to have much effect. The crop was light. A portion of this orchard has since been cut
down as the owner came to the conclusion that it was not possible to get satisfactory control
and desired to put the land to some other use.
The Vantreight orchard showed very little infection and produced a good crop.
Work in the Fraser Valley District.—Various kinds of pest-control work were undertaken
in this district by your District Horticulturist. In reporting on this work, it seems advisable to
quote drect from Mr. Clarke's report as to just what was done:—
"The raspberry fruit-worm (Byturus nnioolor) was recorded in the Sardis District this
summer on loganberries. The only previous record of this trouble was in South Vancouver on a
small planting of about a dozen loganberries adjoining a raspberry-patch. No infestation has
been noted in raspberries, but the loganberries were treated with a dusting of sodium fluosilicate
supplied by Mr. Downes. There was only a small quantity of dust available this year and the
test was made about 7 a.m. on May 15th. The following day Byturus adults were seen among
the blossoms which had opened after the dusting was made. It is possible that dusting made
about this time might be effective to a measure in combating this pest. It is hoped that some
definite results may be obtained next season as results this year were by no means encouraging. O 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" This past year an attempt was made to compare the effectiveness and comparative cost
in controlling insects and diseases in nursery stock by dusting rather than spraying. E. E.
Greenwood, manager of the Layritz Nurseries in Vancouver, was interested in giving dusting
a trial. At first a lV2-per-cent. strength of nicotine sulphate and hydrated lime was dusted over
roses, willows, and a few fruit-trees for aphis-control. The tent-caterpillar was commencing
at this time (May 23rd) and it was noted the following day that no further damage was done
and everything seemed clean. A few days later another dusting was made, and when dusting
the roses, ornamentals and trees were kept free from troubles and growth was very satisfactory.
Roses were sprayed with arsenate of lead to control sawfly, but these were the only sprayings
made all year.
" Woolly aphis has been very troublesome among apple stock, where it has been practically
impossible to obtain anything like satisfactory results by spraying. A 3-per-cent. nicotine dust
was applied at noon during the heat of the day, followed by another application the following
day. These applications were made as infestations were to be noted until September, and this
year the new growth on 2- and 3-year-old stock showed practically no injury, whereas in other
years injury has been quite pronounced.
" During June cherry and plum stock were showing a severe aphis-infestation and the leaves
were curled. Ordinarily in the nursery the tips are dipped as it is difficult to force spray into
the curled leaves. A 1-per-cent. nicotine dust was used and the first application gave nearly
100 per cent, results and very little cheeking of growth resulted.
" Dusting was tried in a small way in one of the greenhouses this fall to see if results could
be obtained with less effort for the control of chrysanthemum-midge, but the work was discontinued as the dust on the foliage at blooming-time was not desirable. It is anticipated that the
use of dust will be tried in greenhouses this coming season during the early development of
plants.
" Lecanium scale has become a serious problem in some of the nurseries, and particularly
with those that are situated in areas where severe infestations have been reported during the
past few years. In an attempt to see how thoroughly a control on nursery stock can be expected,
very thorough spraying with whale-oil soap and nicotine sulphate was carried out during the
summer, and this fall oil spray was applied. Further tests will be made during the coming
spring.
" Shot-hole borer was noticeable again this spring and throughout the year reports were
received regarding the loss of trees. This year a couple of plum-trees showing evidence of a
recent attack of the borer were treated with an application of castor-oil and calcium cyanide.
This was done in the spring, and after the application no further castings were to be noticed on
these trees. They will be noted next year and results recorded. It seems to be a difficult matter
to prevent trees from becoming attacked by this insect in places where there is an infestation,
although some results have been evidently satisfactory this year where preventive measures
were taken by applying a thin whitewash and lysol or carbolic added. On account of lack of
information as to the life-history of this borer it is a difficult matter at present to give very
satisfactory recommendations.
" An attempt was made this year to note the effectiveness of dusting on an acreage of
canning-peas, but when the work was tried the pea-aphis had been present for several days and
at the time of the application there was a wind blowing. The trial, therefore, was not very
satisfactory."
Dusting versus Spraying for Apple-scab (Venturia inequalis).—This work was undertaken
by C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector at Salmon Arm. With regard to this work Mr. Barlow
reports as follows :—
" In 1927 test-plots were established at Salmon Arm to endeavour to arrive at the comparative values of the dust and liquid forms of lime-sulphur for the control of apple-scab. The
results obtained were strongly in favour of the liquid form.
" This year similar tests have again been carried out, but it was necessary to change the
location of the plots owing to the fact that there was no prospect of a crop on the plots used
in 1927.
"The results obtained this year serve to confirm the conclusion indicated by those of last
year; i.e., that while liquid lime-sulphur gives satisfactory control of scab, sulphur-lime dust
is much less effective and its substitution for the liquid form is not advisable in this district. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
O 23
" On the sprayed plot 88 per cent, of the fruit was free from scab, while on the dusted plot
only 68 per cent, of the fruit was clean.    The check-plot produced 52 per cent, of clean fruit."
The details of this work are as follows:—
" Three plots, each consisting of three full bearing Mcintosh Red trees were used. Plot 1
was sprayed three times with liquid lime-sulphur in the ' pink,' ' calyx,' and three weeks
later. Plot 2 was dusted on the same dates with a mixture consisting of six parts by weight
of sulphur dust and four parts by weight of hydrated lime. Plot 3 was used as a check.
A ' Hardie ' 3y2-horse-power machine was used for the spraying and an ' American Beauty '
duster for the dusting. The fruit from one representative tree on each plot was taken in
checking results:—
Plot.
Pink,
applied
May 13th.
Calyx.
applied
June 7th.
Three Weeks
later, applied
July 27th.
Per Cent.
Clean
Fruit.
Per Cent,
scabbed but
marketable.
Per Cent.
culled for
Scab.
1
2
3
L.-S. 1-30
S-L.D. 6-4
Check
L.-S. 1-35
S.-L.D.  6-4
L.-S. 1-35
S.-L.D. 6-4
88.1
68.2
52.4
11.3
30.7
40.8
0.6
1.1
6.8
Note.—L.-S. denotes Liquid Lime-Sulphur;   S.-L.D. denotes Sulphur-Lime Dust."
The Timing of Apple-scab (Venturia inequalis) Sprays.—This is a new type of work which
has met with some success in a few of the apple-producing States of the Union. Of just how
much value we can make it to our growers remains to be seen. It is, however, worth a trial.
As the work done in 1928 was undertaken by E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist for the Kootenays, and J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, it is well worth recording Mr. Hunt's
brief report:—
" During the past season some work was started in a small way in ' Timing the Apple-scab
Sprays,' along similar lines to work that was carried on in the State of Ohio in 1924, 1925, and
1926. The results of the work carried out in that State showed that it was possible to determine
the exact date or time for the application of the pre-blossom scab spray. This timing was done
by observing the detailed development to maturity of the ascospores on the old leaves under the
trees by pathologists. They in turn received weather forecasts informing them of oncoming
rain periods. This enabled them to time their sprays to just precede such periods following
ascospore maturity. Your assistant during the past season collected old apple-leaves from a
number of sections in the Kootenay and these were submitted to our Plant Pathologist for
examination and observation of the detailed development of the ascospores of the scab on the
old leaves. Leaves were also examined at the Nelson office from time to time for ascospore-
development. Just as the spores were reaching maturity the growers were advised, as far as
it was possible to do so, that it was time for the application of the first scab spray. A number
were ready for this information and were able to apply this first spray at once. Excellent
results were secured in the control of the disease where this advice was followed. Weather
forecasts were also asked for during the ascospore-development period, and although the forecasting of weather for this work was new, we were able to get some information regarding the
oncoming rain periods. At the time of this first spray the Mcintosh Red trees were just coming
into the ' cluster-bud ' stage, or about half-way between the ' delayed dormant' and ' pre-pink.'
Growers who waited for the ' pink' before making application of the first scab spray were too
late this year to prevent the first infection of the new leaves and such orchards were subject to
secondary infection. It is hoped that this work will be carried out on a much larger scale next
year, and, if so, should prove a great help to all growers of apples in keeping apple-scab under
control."
Apple-tree Anthracnose (Neofabraea malicorticis) Spray.—This is a continuation of the work
undertaken by your District Horticulturist for the Kootenay and which was reported on in the
1927 report.    The following is the report of the 1928 work by E. C. Hunt :—
" The assistance that was given to the growers at Kaslo in the area infected with this
disease was greatly appreciated, and when checking over the sprayed plots this spring with some
Of the growers the results showed that excellent control of the canker was to be had from the
application of the Burgundy mixture (1-1^2-40) as well as the 4 1 10 Bordeaux mixture.
Very little difference could be noticed as regards control of the disease between the two mixtures. O 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
From 88 to 92 per cent, control was to be had on the 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old limbs. The two check-
trees were badly infected and were removed from the orchard after checking over the results.
The work done in the control of the anthracnose not only demonstrated to the growers that our
recommended sprays would control the disease, but it also demonstrated that these sprays must
be thoroughly applied and they must be made at the proper time. It was to demonstrate the
importance of this thorough application of any spray material more than anything else that
this work was carried out in this particular section not only for the control of anthracnose,
but for other pests and diseases as well."
Codling-moth (Cydia pomonella) Traps.—The value of certain mixtures in the trapping
of codling-moth adults has been often discussed in various horticultural publications. During
the past season an attempt was made to demonstrate the value of these traps. While perhaps
useful in checking up on the presence and extent of infestation, it is doubtful if these traps
would prove of value in eradication or control-work. B. Hoy, Assistant District Horticulturist,
reports on this work as follows:—■
" It was decided to try out bait-pots during the summer of 1928, and forty pots were placed
in two badly infested orchards, the Pridham orchard on the Vernon Road and the Larson orchard
near the Brickyard. These pots were placed in the orchards on July 16th, in time to capture
the second-brood moths.
" The mixture used was 1 gallon of molasses, 5 gallons of water, and three dry yeast-cakes.
This mixture was allowed to ferment for a few days before using it in the orchards.
" Two pots, one in the top and one in the lower half of the tree, were placed in every other
tree.
" The pots were examined each day for the first week, but owing to pressure of other work
were only examined as time allowed after this. The pots in the lower half of the tree did not
average half the catch of those in the upper part.
" The daily catch of the codling-moths during the first week the pots were out averaged from
twelve to fifteen moths a night in the upper pots. Besides codling-moths, moths of all descriptions were captured, among which were many leaf-rollers.
" We intend to do further work with these pots in 1929. Weaker solutions than we started
with were used later with what appeared to be equally good results."
Work of a similar nature was also undertaken by R. P. Murray, Assistant District Horticulturist at Penticton.    Mr. Murray reports as follows :—■
" The traps consisted of shallow pans, about 8 inches in diameter and 4 inches deep, and
suspended by a light rod through the centre. The bait consisted of malt extract, 5 or 10 per
cent., and sufficient water added to fill pan about three-quarters full, and a portion of a yeast-
cake, sufficient to cause rapid fermentation. During the early part of the season, when the
weather was cool and wet, the bait was effective for about a week, but later in the season, when
more normal weather conditions prevailed, the bait had to be changed at least every three days,
due largely to evaporation. If the traps were left untended for long, it was very difficult to
determine the species of the material captured.
" These traps were tested in different sections of the district—namely, North and South
Bench at Penticton, and at Keremeos. From the results obtained it would appear that where
a rather severe infestation is present, traps properly attended to will confer some measure of
protection, but will not take the place of spraying. Considerable material, other than codling-
moths, injurious to fruit was captured. No traps were tried in orchards where heavy infestations occurred and an intensive spray programme was being followed. In such orchards they
would probably give considerable assistance in control."
TRIAL-WORK WITH  VEGETABLES AND  SMALL  FRUITS.
A certain amount of work has been undertaken by your Horticultural Branch with a view
to ascertaining the best varieties of small fruits and vegetables suitable for certain districts.
It is hoped that it will be possible to continue this type of work on a more extensive scale in
the future than has been possible in the past. The small-fruit trial-work undertaken up to the
present consists in trying out the Viking raspberry at a few points in the Province This particular variety has been most favourably commented on in most districts. The supply of stock,
however, has been limited and for that reason it is impossible to advise as to its future value
commercially.   A few trials with strawberries were made in the Armstrong District. With vegetables the most of the work was undertaken in the Vernon-Armstrong District.
H. H. Evans, Assistant District Horticulturist, who had charge of this work, reports as follows :—
" Sweet Corn.—This covers the third year of work with sweet-corn varieties in the Vernon
District.
" The work was conducted on four properties, as in other years; one change was made, in
that W. C. Ricardo dropped the work in 1928. In his place we obtained the co-operation of
W. H. Baumbrough in the Swan Lake area.
" A selection was made of five varieties used in the previous year's work which' had shown
the greatest promise;  to these were added two others, Maule's First of All and Early Evergreen.
" Killing frosts on the nights of September 6th and 7th destroyed all plots from further
development. This eliminated the plots of A. W. Jackson and M. S. Middleton, as these plots
had been seeded so late that even the early varieties had not matured enough to obtain yields.
Killing frosts so early in September are not usual.
" The season of 1928 was a good corn year, the continued hot dry weather boosting development and having an apparent beneficial effect on yields. The drop in yields of Leonard's Narrow
Grain on P. J. Locke's plot can be attributed to the early frost, as, when killed, showed enough
immaturity to affect yield.
" Your assistant feels that the object aimed at has been attained and would therefore
recommend the discontinuance of the work.
" Winter Spinach.—Seed of two varieties of winter spinach, Princess Juliana and Virginia
Savory, was placed with two growers at Vernon and two at Armstrong in August, 1927. This
was seeded and good stands obtained. Owing to severe winter conditions causing heavy heaving,
all stands were practically wiped out. From the few plants which survived we gathered that
Virginia Savory is ready for cutting approximately ten days earlier than Juliana.
" Seed of these two varieties, also Prickly Winter, were distributed among the same growers
in August, 1928, and good stands obtained.
" Spring Spinach.—The varieties Victoria, Long Standing Bloomsdale, and King of Denmark
were the three varieties made use of. Victoria comes into cutting condition almost one week
ahead of the other varieties. Victoria also goes off condition more rapidly, the leaves losing
colour and becoming thin in texture if the plant is allowed to obtain size.
" Bloomsdale and Denmark come into cutting condition together.
" These two varieties have a heavier textured foliage, deeper in colour, and they maintain
these qualities for a much longer period than does Victoria. Bloomsdale is a crinkle-leaved
true Savoy-type spinach which is very attractive and compact. In regard to quality there is
not a great deal to choose between these two varieties, but both are ahead of Victoria; their
order of merit would place them as follows:  Bloomsdale, Denmark, Victoria.
" The following table will give an indication of the period from seeding to first cutting on
the three varieties in three different locations.
" The only plot on which yield records were kept was on that of H. H. Evans.
Grower.
Variety.
Seeded.
First
Cutting.
Seed-head
Showing.
April 25
May 3
April 5
April 25
May 3
April o
April 25
May 3
April 5
June 5
June 20
May 17
June 10
June 27
May 22
June 10
June 27
May 22
July 3
W. H. Baumbrough	
P. J   Locke                 	
July 8
H   H   Evans                  ..           	
W. H. Baumbrough	
P   J   Locke           	
Denmark	
Denmark	
Denmark	
June 26
July 10
" Asparagus.—Asparagus-plants of pedigree Mary Washington which were distributed among
seven growers in the Vernon and Oyama Districts in the spring of 1927 are in general doing
well. Cutting will commence in a small way during the coming season of 1929; it will be our
endeavour to obtain yields on some if not all lots. From 1930 on will be the period when
information on yields can best be obtained. " The work has already created interest among a number of our producers, and two of those
who came under the original distribution plan are extending the acreage on their own account.
" All information possible will be gathered each season."
FERTILIZER AND COVER-CROP WORK.
Growers of both small and tree fruits realize that in order to maintain the productiveness
of their soils and secure the maximum of production it is necessary to resort to the use of both
cover-crops and commercial fertilizers. At one time cover-crops in our orchards were unheard
of; to-day the use of cover-crops is common practice. In many cases this practice is supplemented by the use of commercial fertilizers. Your Branch does everything possible to encourage
these practices and at the same time ascertain what is the best to recommend. Some work has
been done by G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist for the Lower Mainland, with cover-crops
for cane-fruits.    Mr. Clarke reports as follows :—•
" The seeding-down of raspberry plantings and currant plantings with spring vetch at the
rate of 60 lb. per acre was tried again this year, with very satisfactory results as far as growth,
weed-control, and labour was concerned. This spring seeding of cover-crops has been carried on
now for a little over two years and indications are that the results are likely to prove very
satisfactory. However, the carrying-on of this work to definitely show the advantages or
disadvantages of this system over a period of time is rather difficult to arrange at present
without the co-operation of some grower on a representative berry planting. Trials were started
this year in a poor loganberry planting, but while there was a fair stand of vetch, it was not
sufficiently strong to attain the results expected and it is hoped to have a more satisfactory
stand next year."
Okanagan Fertilizer Tests.—The orchard fertilizer work which was undertaken this year
was a continuation of the work carried on in 1927. In addition a plot has been commenced to
test the value of potash in apple production. It is considered that until more definite results
are obtained it would be inadvisable to publish a report on this work. This work will be
continued during the coming season.
Nitrate of Soda for Sweet Cherries.—Work with nitrate of soda for sweet cherries was
continued by E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist for the Kootenays. Mr. Hunt reports as
follows:—
" This work carried out in 1928 is the continuation of the trials undertaken in 1927 with
nitrate of soda for sweet-cherry trees in Mr. Appleton's orchard at Procter. Quite a large
number of trees in this orchard have produced little, if any, crop for a number of years and
the purpose of the experiment was to determine if the application of nitrate of soda would have
any effect in bringing these non-producing trees into production. The results so far have not
proven very successful and after two years with nitrate a number of the same trees are producing very little or no fruit at all. However, there is a noted improvement in the growth and
colour of these trees receiving the nitrate over the check-trees, and also the fruit on the treated
trees was larger than on the untreated trees. It is proposed to carry on this work for another
year."
Celery Fertilizer Trials.—The celery fertilizer work this year marks the end of three years'
work of this nature. The location of the plots was at Armstrong and the work was conducted
by H. H. Evans, Assistant District Horticulturist. The report of this work as well as the
storage-work carried on in conjunction with the fertilizer-work is too extensive to permit of
more than mention in this report. It is anticipated, however, that the findings will be used as
a basis for a circular on celery production which it is hoped will be issued some time during the
coming year.
PEST-CONTROL WORK.
Colorado Potato-beetle (Lcptinotarsa decemlineata).—The Colorado potato-beetle control-
work in the East Kootenays which was started in 1927 was again carried on in 1928. As in the
previous year, your Branch co-operated with the Dominion Entomological Branch. They
appointed A. A. Dennys, Junior Entomologist, to represent the Entomological Branch and F. A.
Marsack represented your Branch, Mr. Marsack's services being paid for by the Provincial
Department and your Department also paying a portion of the car-mileage expenses incurred
by Mr. Dennys. These two officials did very efficient work. Excellent results were obtained in
eliminating the beetle in outlying sections of the Windermere District at Parsons and Wilmer, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 27
and if the work is carried on in 1929 the chief control-work will be along the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway from Creston to Fernie and south along the International Boundary.
With regard to the effect of the control-work, Mr. Dennys reports as follows :—
" Growers now feel that the careful campaign against this pest is showing good results.
Almost all sections report greatly lessened numbers of beetles. In many of the lightly infested
areas no beetles were seen this season.
" Although we found an actual count of the beetle-infestation in fields impossible and
impracticable with the time and means at our disposal, it was indeed encouraging to notice
the success of our work, which was, of course, more noticeable in the lesser-infested areas."
It would seem advisable, in view of the success that has resulted up to the present, that
this work be continued during the coming year.
Codling-moth (Cydia pomonella).—The work which was undertaken in 1927 and previously
in codling-moth control at Kamloops, Kelowna, and Okanagan Landing was continued during
the past season. The cost of the work at Kamloops and Kelowna is largely met by the
individuals whose trees are sprayed, the cost being estimated at so much per tree and the
amount assessed against the property, collection being made through the Provincial Assessor's
office. In the case of the Okanagan Landing area a cost charge is made and the amount is met
by a levy on fruit-growers in the adjacent districts. The work entailed in collecting these levies
is undertaken by a growers' committee. If it is the growers' wish that the work be undertaken
in 1929 it would seem advisable that your Department meet the growers' request in this matter.
San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus pernieiosus).—Following our quarantine and spraying-work for
San Jose scale during the years 1925, 1926, and 1927 in the Kaslo District, your Horticulturist
is pleased to be able to advise you that there is at the present time, as far as it is possible to
ascertain, no indication of this pest.
The only other point in the Province where this pest is found is at Spences Bridge. This
infestation is being carefully watched and every possible means taken to eradicate it. C. R.
Barlow, District Field Inspector, reports on this outbreak as follows:—
" The situation with regard to San Jose scale at Spences Bridge remains unchanged.
A thorough inspection was recently made of the orchards and the adjacent wild growth; no
sign of the scale was found on the fruit-trees, but the scale still persists on wild growth in one
location where cutting and burning over annually has for some years successfully prevented its
spread. The orchards were sprayed last winter with lime-sulphur 1-9 and similar spray is
planned this winter, and coupled with the continued burning-off of the affected wild-growth area
there should be little risk of the scale obtaining a footing in the orchards."
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorous).—This disease, which is found only in the fruit-growing
sections of the Okanagan and Kootenays, was no worse than usual. The fire-blight inspection
which is carried out each year by your horticultural officials helps materially in holding this
disease in check. Following the practice of orchard inspection a tree-to-tree examination is
made, with the result that by the cutting-out of infected limbs and hold-over cankers a great
deal of the source of infection is removed. In the 1927-28 season your officials in the Okanagan
District inspected 17,916 acres of orchard and passed 17,171 acres as free of blight.
IN SPECTION-WORK.
Nursery Inspection.—Your officials have each year carried out a thorough inspection of all
nurseries in the Province. During 1928 a total of 83,627 trees were inspected, of which 3,070,
or 3.6 per cent., were condemned as unsuitable for planting and were destroyed.
Car Inspection.—Refrigerator-cars moving into the fruit districts from the middle of
August to the middle of September were inspected for codling-moth. Inspections were made at
Cranbrook, Grand Forks, Kamloops, Revelstoke, Keremeos, and other points in the Okanagan
Valley.   A total of 2,003 cars were inspected, df which three were superheated for codling-moth.
Inspection of Imported and Exported Plant Products.—As in the past, the officials of your
Horticultural Branch co-operated with the Inspection Branch in the inspection of various kinds
of imported and exported plant products at points where no officials of the Inspection Branch
were located. Full information regarding this work will be found in the report of W. H. Lyne,
Chief Inspector.
Inspection of Compulsory Spraying Zones.—In 1927 two compulsory spraying zones were
formed, one at Osoyoos and one at Okanagan Centre. In 1928 the number was increased to four
by the formation of zones at Keremeos and Westbank.   These zones as established require the application of certain sprays at stated times. It is necessary, therefore, that the field officials
of your Branch make frequent inspections in order to check up on spray applications. While
this entails considerable work, it is greatly appreciated by the growers, and as it ensures
thorough spraying it is well worth the time involved. It is hoped that this work can be extended
in the coming year. Certain compulsory spraying measures were also put into force by the
Glenmore and Summerland Municipalities under the " Municipal Act." While these regulations
did not come directly within the jurisdiction of your Department, nevertheless your horticultural
officials did co-operate with the municipal officials by carrying out inspection-work for the
municipalities in question.
SMALL-FRUIT SURVEY.
The biennial small-fruit survey which is made by your Horticultural Branch, working in
conjunction with your Statistics Branch, was undertaken during the past year. This system
of small-fruit surveys was first started in 1920. The results of that survey showed a total
acreage of small fruit in the Province as 3,330 acres. The surveys for 1922 and 1924 showed
an acreage of 6,202 and 6,310 respectively. In 1926 the acreage had been reduced to 5,201 acres,
while the 1928 survey shows an increase over that of 1926, as the acreage had increased to
5,756 acres. The details of the 1928 survey, showing acreage according to districts and varieties
as well as the number of growers, are given in the appended table.    (See Appendix No. 3.)
SPRAY-MACHINE SURVEY.
Adequate spraying equipment is essential if satisfactory grades of fruit are to be produced
in our fruit-growing districts. In our compulsory spraying zones it is necessary before a zone
can be established that there be a minimum of a 1-horse-power spraying equipment for every
12% acres of apples and pears. In order to ascertain the number and horse-power of machines
in the Okanagan Horticultural District a survey was made during the past season. The total
acreage of apples and pears in this district is approximately 17,436 acres. According to the
survey made, there are a total of 334 machines of a power equal to 912 horse-power in this
district. The total horse-power required is approximately 1,394, which leaves approximately
482 horse-power yet to be secured if ever the minimum efficiency in spraying is to be obtained.
PRUNING-SCHOOLS AND DEMONSTRATIONS.
As in the past, pruning-schools and demonstrations were held in different sections of the
Province during the 1928 season. The fact that these schools have been held in the Province
each year during the past fifteen years and the fact that they are well attended is a good indication of their value to the growers. This year there were twenty-eight pruning demonstrations
with 262 pupils in attendance and twelve pruning-schools with 149 pupils attending. (For
details regarding schools and demonstrations see Appendices Nos. 4 and 5.)
CROP ESTIMATES AND REPORTS.
Estimates as to fruit- and vegetable-crop production were issued regularly during the
growing season. These estimates on production as well as on acreage are sent out to all
interested parties in a fortnightly publication entitled " The Horticultural News Letter." While
the mailing-list for tlfts publication is closely checked each season, the number sent out each
year is increasing, which may be taken as an indication of how it is regarded not only by growers
and shipping-houses, but by banks and other commercial institutions. At the conclusion of the
shipping season estimates of total production are secured by your officials working in conjunction
with the Federal Fruit Inspectors. These figures are forwarded to your Statistics Branch and
issued with other agricultural figures.
BULLETINS AND PRESS ARTICLES.
As required, press articles are issued from time to time on suitable horticultural subjects.
No new bulletins were issued in 1928, but a number of the present publications were revised and
reissued. A number of new bulletins are in course of preparation, dealing principally with
vegetable-crops. ; ALSIKE CLOVER IN PULL BLOOM,  C.  NEILSON  FARM, PRINCE GEORGE.
BS»V.VJ-».»*.
%^m^MA^
OATS IN  STOOK,  O'MEBA FARM, VANDERHOOF.  LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD.
Your officials in various Interior sections have assisted the Land Settlement Board officials
in land appraisals and in making reports on properties belonging to the Board. They have also
represented the Board in many cases when property on which loans have been made was offered
for sale.
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES AND FALL FAIRS.
The position of these societies at the present time appears to be very satisfactory indeed.
There are on record in the Horticultural Branch a total of twenty-three societies. Practically
all of these societies hold an annual flower-show and in some cases a society will hold a spring
and summer show. Your officials give every assistance possible to these organizations by
addresses, help in putting up shows, acting as judges, and in some cases acting as secretary.
Organizations of this kind are well worth encouraging.
In the case of fall fairs assistance is given, where requested, in making changes for improvement in the horticultural sections of the various prize-lists. Your officials are also in demand as
judges at the fairs held throughout the Province.
CHANGES IN STAFF.
The only change that has taken place in the Horticultural staff during the past season was
occasioned through the resignation of J. C. Roger, who was assistant to R. P. Murray at
Penticton. The position has been filled by a temporary assistant, but it is hoped that a permanent appointment may be made at an early date.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
Your Horticulturist wishes to take this opportunity of bringing to your attention and at
the same time acknowledging the assistance which he has received at all times not only from all
members of the Provincial Horticultural staff, but from the Dominion and University staffs as
well. Acknowledgment is also made to the officials of the Canadian National and Canadian
Pacific Railways for the assistance given in the car-inspection work at the numerous railway
points.
Respectfully submitted. w   H   Robertson,
Provincial Horticulturist.
REPORT OF CHIEF INSPECTOR OF IMPORTED FRUIT AND
NURSERY STOCK, VANCOUVER.
W. H. Lyne.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report herewith the work of your Chief Inspector of Imported and Exported
Horticultural and Field Products and his staff of assistants during the year ended December
31st, 1928.
Complying with regulations under authority of Part II. of the " Agricultural Act," R.S.B.C.
1924, chapter 8, all fruit and vegetable products, rice, corn, peas, and beans imported into the
Province were inspected at the various ports of importation where Provincial Quarantine
Officers were stationed.
Nursery stock, including trees, shrubs, plants, and bulbs, was inspected at the Vancouver
Fumigation and Inspection Station before delivery to the importer, unless such inspection was
authorized to take place at some other point designated by special permit.
For the purpose of protecting the various horticultural and agricultural resources of the
Province, any of the foregoing products found to be infested with insect pest or infected with
disease of sufficient economic importance were destroyed or shipped out of the Province at
consignee's or shipper's expense. Products infested or infected with pest or disease of less
importance were disinfected or treated as considered necessary.
The quantity and kind of the several products imported are recorded in tabulated form
attached to this report, and also a list of those condemned. O 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
QUARANTINE STATIONS.
Quarantitne Officers under the instruction of your Chief Inspector are stationed at the
following ports of importation: Abbotsford, Cranbrook, Fernie, Grand Forks, Huntingdon,
Kingsgate, Nanaimo, Newgate, Prince Rupert, Revelstoke, Vancouver, Victoria, Waneta, and
White Rock.
The Quarantine Officer at White Rock also inspects products entering at Douglas and Pacific
Highway, and the officer at Grand Forks attends to that which enters for Cascade, Midway,
Myncaster, and Bridesville. The officers stationed at Vancouver attend to what inspection is
necessary at New Westminster.
Two men were required to take care of products entering Victoria, one of them being
engaged for part time only. At Vancouver there were seven men on the regular staff, including
your Chief Inspector, who made that port his headquarters.
In addition to the regular staff at Vancouver, from two to twelve men were employed at
the Inspection and Fumigation Station when required to assist in the unpacking, repacking, and
handling of various shipments of imported nursery stock.
With the exception of one man at Victoria and staff of seven men and two clerk-stenographers
at Vancouver on regular salary, all other officials and help were paid by the day or hour for
time incurred. One other exception would be in the event of your Inspector obtaining the
service of an officer on the regular field staff of your Chief Horticulturist.
NEW APPOINTMENTS.
Section 5, page 5, of regulations previously referred to provides authority for the Inspector
of Imported Plant Products to establish additional Fruit Quarantine Stations as may be found
necessary from time to time. In view of that authority your Inspector has always assumed
the responsibility of appointing new Quarantine Officers when required. Such appointments,
however, have all been made subject to the approval of the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture.
The difficulty of obtaining suitable men residing at some of the sparsely populated Customs
ports along the United States boundary, where Customs Officers previously acted as Provincial
Fruit Quarantine Officers, resulted in those stations remaining closed to the importation of fruit
and vegetables, etc., that had formerly been allowed to enter; the stations in question being
Cascade, Midway, Myncaster, Bridesville, Osoyoos, Rossland, Similkameen, and Aldergrove.
The one new appointment during the year 1928 was that of George L. Learne as Provincial
Fruit Quarantine Officer at Waneta, B.C., in place of Fred Adie, who had faithfully filled that
position for more than twenty-five years. An unfortunate accident and advanced age were
responsible for the change.   Mr. Learne was appointed February 22nd, 1928.
REMUNERATION.
Quarantine Officers stationed at inspection points or Quaranttine Stations other than
Vancouver and Victoria are paid at the rate of $5 per eight-hour day for actual time incurred,
computed as follows: One hour or fraction, 62% cents; two hours, $1.25; four hours, $2.50;
six hours, $3.75; eight hours, $5. They are carefully instructed by your Inspector regarding
their duties.
CERTIFICATES AND FEES.
Certificates were issued permitting the distribution and sale of products that passed inspection and condemnation certificates ordering the deportation or destruction of those condemned.
Inspection fees were collected on that which was released, but not on that which was condemned.
Both inspection certificates and fees were waived in connection with certain products not
generally associated with pests or disease of importance, and referred to as " observation-list."
Products on the observation-list could be transferred to the regular inspection-list in the event
of their becoming associated with a serious pest or disease. An exception to the foregoing
procedure was that in connection with imported greenhouse plants, certain perennial roots and
flower bulbs and corms, all of which were inspected and for which an inspection certificate was
issued, but no fees charged. The reason may be summed up as follows: Until recent years the
plants, roots, and bulbs referred to were not considered to be of the same economic importance
with regard to pests and commercial enterprise as were fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs.
The necessity for inspecting them was mainly to ascertain if such shipments by any chance were
other than what the shipper or importer claimed them to be.    Experience taught the Inspector that such claims were not always correct, and there have been occasions when shrubs were
included that were infested with serious pests. There has been considerable change, however,
as regards the commercial enterprise in the production of greenhouse plants and more especially
bulbs within the Province.
BULB INSPECTION.
The number of bulbs imported into various parts of the Province have steadily increased
during the last few years, and aside from those imported by the retail trade for planting in
the gardens of town and country homes, large quantities have been obtained for foundation
stock by the several commercial growers. Numerous varieties have arrived, consisting of
narcissus, tulip, lily, hyacinth, gladiolus, crocus, snowdrop, etc. Though the greater number
of bulbs were from Holland, large shipments arrived from Japan and China, and smaller ones
from England, France, Belgium, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States.
Owing to the fact that commercial bulb-growing in British Columbia is steadily increasing
and likely to become an enterprise of considerable importance, your Inspector has been paying
greater attention to bulb importations. On several occasions we have found it necessary to
condemn and reject portions of shipments and sometimes the whole of a certain variety for
reason of their being infested or infected with serious pest or disease.
PESTS FOR WHICH BULBS WERE CONDEMNED.
Large narcissus-fly (Merodon equestris) and small narcissus-fly (Eumersus strigatus), the
larva? of which bore into heart of narcissus and other bulbs, including onions; nematode or
eel-worms attacking many kinds of bulbs; bulb-mite infesting all kinds of bulbs, especially
those poorly cured, slightly injured, or decayed.
BULB-DISEASES.
Gladiolus hardrot (Septoria) infecting gladiolus corms; scab infecting gladiolus corms,
narcissus and hyacinth bulbs; Fusarium rot infecting several kinds of bulbs and corms;
hyacinth yellows (Bacteria hyacinthi), a very serious disease and a considerable handicap to
hyacinth-growers;  fire-disease (Botrytis), seriously affecting tulips in growing stage.
The work now necessary in dealing with pests and disease in connection with the large
quantities of bulbs imported would appear to justify a reasonable inspection fee, on the same
principle that fees are charged for the inspection of trees and shrubs, if this Branch of your
Department is to continue self-supporting. Another method of inspecting large shipments of
imported bulbs at Vancouver was that of making an inspection at the dock or freight-shed.
If during that process certain cases were found containing a specific pest or disease they were
ordered to the Fumigation Station, where the extent of the pest or disease was ascertained.
The work of opening the cases for inspection at the dock or freight-shed was done by the
consignee or his agent or at their expense. This system of inspection saved the expense of
carting many cases of bulbs from the point of landing to the Fumigation Station.
INSPECTION OF IMPORTED TREES, SHRUBS, AND PLANTS.
With the exception of a few small shipments of trees and shrubs from the Prairie Provinces
that were permitted to be inspected at interior points in British Columbia, all such stock
imported was inspected at the Vancouver Fumigation and Inspection Station. The situation
was very much the same regarding soft plants and bulbs, with the exception that some foreign
importations also were allowed to be inspected at points in the Province other than Vancouver.
METHOD OF INSPECTION.
All nursery stock arriving at the inspection station was carefully unpacked and each tree,
shrub, or plant thoroughly inspected. Those trees or shrubs requiring fumigation as prescribed
by the regulations were placed in one of the fumigation chambers, where they were exposed to
the fumes of hydrocyanic-acid gas for forty-five minutes. Stock that passed inspection was
carefully repacked by men specially instructed. Any trees, shrubs, or plants found to be infested
or infected with insect pest or disease were detached and held pending their being returned to
the shipper or destroyed. A tag giving the name and quantity of the stock condemned and
reason for rejection was placed in the case or parcel from which it was taken. After being
repacked, that which passed inspection was returned to the transportation company as soon as O 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
possible for forwarding to destination. The inspection certificates were also turned over to
the transportation company, which would attach them to the shipping-papers and advance the
inspection fee; condemnation certificates were also attached to the shipping-papers when part
of the shipment had been condemned.
PEST AND DISEASE  FOR WHICH  STOCK WAS CONDEMNED.
Insect pests and diseases responsible for the condemnation and rejection of imported nursery
stock were as follows: San Jose scale (Aspidiotus pemiciosus) on apple, pear, peach, and
ornamental trees and shrubs from United States; European scale (Aspidiotus ostrwformis) on
apple, pear, and ornamental trees and seedlings from United States and apple seedlings from
Moravia; oyster-shell scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi) on apple and ornamental trees and shrubs
from United States and rose-trees from Holland and Ireland; rose-scale (Aulacaspis rosw)
on rose-trees and blackberry-vines from United States and rose-trees from England ; peach-scale
(Aulacaspis pcntagona) on ornamental peach-trees from Japan; Diaspis species on palm from
Hong Kong; Diaspis pentagona on ornamental prunus trees from Japan; Diaspis or Aspidiotus
camellia on camellia-trees from Japan ; Chionaspis scale on ornamental shrubs from Holland
and Japan; Lecanium hesperidium on camellia-trees from France and on ornamental shrubs
from Holland and Cycas from Hong Kong; scale (Lecanium hemisphericum) on gooseberry
cuttings from New Zealand; bud-mite (Eriophyes) on filbert-trees from France and Holland;
woolly aphis (Eriosoma lanigera) on apple-trees and seedlings from United States and Holland;
woolly aphis (Eriosoma pyri) on pear-trees from United States; Phylloxera on grape-vines
from United States; flathead borer on apple-trees from United States; large narcissus-fly
(Merodon equestris) and small bulb-fly (Eumersus strigatus) on narcissus bulbs from Holland;
bulb-mite infecting bulbs from Holland. Guernsey, and United States; eel-worm or nematode
in narcissus and hyacinth bulbs from Holland.
DISEASE.
Hardrot (Septoria) and scale infecting gladiolus corms from Holland, England, Australia,
and United States; hyacinth yellows (Bacterium hyacinthi) infecting hyacinth bulbs from
Holland and England; bacterial rot infecting dahlia tubers from England; Botrytis infecting
tulip bulbs from Holland and United States; root-gall infecting cherry-trees from England and
United States, also plum, prune, and peach trees from United States.
DOMINION "DESTRUCTIVE INSECT AND PEST ACT."
By special arrangement between the Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture
all nursery stock from foreign countries inspected by the Provincial Inspectors of this Province
is recognized as having complied with the Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest Act " regulations. By such an arrangement duplication of the work by two sets of officials is avoided and
Provincial regulations specially framed to meet the requirements of the Province are given full
scope.
DOMINION PERMITS.
Your Inspector as collaborator re Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest Act " checks all
Dominion permits to import nursery stock when the shipments arrive. He is also authorized
to issue emergency permits in the event of the consignee having failed to obtain a regular permit
through no fault of his own.
NURSERY STOCK VIA PANAMA CANAL.
Nursery stock from England, Ireland, France, Belgium, and Holland via the old-time overland route from the Atlantic ports is becoming less each year, owing to the more favourable
conditions under which it can be shipped via the Panama Canal. By the latter route the cold
journey across the Prairie Provinces is avoided and the stock arrives in much better condition
as a rule. Occasionally the all-seas route results in disaster owing to bad storage accommodation
aboard the ship. The ships, however, that have properly ventilated cool storage-rooms and
maintain a temperature around 40° F. appear to have no trouble and the stock arrives in
excellent condition. The same appears to be the case with trees, shrubs, plants, or bulbs from
Australia, New Zealand, China, and Japan. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 33
OCEAN TRAFFIC.
Modern facilities in connection with transportation via ocean route have brought us very
closely in touch with all parts of the world, and Vancouver is the first line of defence against
the numerous pests that are apt to invade Western Canada through the source of imported plant
products. During the past year boats at the rate of fifty-three per week arrived at Vancouver,
most of them containing some kind of plant product likely to contain some kind of objectionable
insect pest or plant-disease. For that reason all manifests of cargoes were examined by your
Plant Quarantine Officers at Victoria, Vancouver, New Westminster, and Prince Rupert, and
ships' stores not included in manifests were also investigated. Products likely to contain
objectionable pest or disease were not allowed to leave the point of landing without permission
from your Inspector or his deputies. One of these officers would also be within call during the
Customs examination of passengers' baggage.
CHAFF AND BRAN FROM AUSTRALIA.
A somewhat unique incident occurred December 21st in connection with the arrival at
Vancouver of S.S. " Hauraki " with 100 sacks of wheat-bran, 500 sacks of wheat-chaff, 526 sacks
oat-chaff, and one bale of wheat-straw from Australia. This material was what remained of a
feed-supply for polo-ponies from Australia en route to the United States. It had been refused
entry at San Diego and San Francisco owing to the United States embargo against that particular product as liable to carry flag-smut and take-all disease.
Although flag-smut is a serious disease affecting wheat, there was no Canadian embargo
similar to that of the United States to prevent the bran and chaff entering Canada. Under the
circumstances we had no authority to refuse this particular fodder entry unless we succeeded
in finding the disease. This we failed to do prior to its being landed, but ultimately Mr. Eastham,
our Plant Pathologist, succeeded in finding numerous spores of the flag-smut in the wheat-chaff
and bale of wheat-straw. Slight infection was also found in the wheat-bran and oat-chaff,
evidently the result of contact with the heavily infected wheat chaff and straw. The whole of
the fodder was accordingly returned to Australia by the next boat sailing, advice to that effect
having been received from Mr. Gussow, Dominion Botanist at Ottawa. So far there is no record
of the flag-smut disease in Canada and we are fortunate if it can be kept out. It is also
fortunate that no direct importation of wheat or parts of same likely to carry the disease have
occurred during several years. It is mainly for that reason a special embargo against such
products has not been provided.
MISCELLANEOUS PLANT PRODUCTS.
The numerous varieties of plant products other than nursery stock which are recorded in
tabulated form with this report as having been imported during the year include much that
can be grown in this Province. Most of the latter, however, such as fruit and fresh vegetables,
is imported when our home product is out of season. The Pacific Coast States as far south and
including Mexico are the heaviest shippers. Considerable quantities also arrive from other
parts, such as new potatoes and cabbage from Texas and new potatoes from Florida. Since the
removal of the Dominion embargo on potatoes from California, subject to their being fumigated
before they are shipped, quite a few of our new potatoes are obtained from that source.
PRODUCTS FROM MANY COUNTRIES.
Besides the large quantities of citrus and deciduous fruits, vegetables, corn, peas, beans, and
rice which we receive from the United States, other countries also contribute a supply. We
have onions, grapes, and nuts from Spain; figs and dates from Turkey; raisins and currants
from Greece; apples, pears, oranges, grapes, currants, and onions from Australia ; pineapples
and bananas from Fiji Islands; oranges, pomeloes, beans, peas, rice, yams, taro, peanuts, onions,
and vegetables from Japan, China, and Straits Settlements; corn, bananas, pineapples, and
nuts from South America;  fresh tomatoes and citrus fruits from Mexico.
PRODUCTS CONDEMNED.
The following pests and diseases Were responsible for the condemnation and rejection of
plant products imported into the Province during the year:  Apples, pears, and quince from the
United States infested with codling-moth larvre  (Cydia pomonella) and San Jose scale insects
(Aspidiotus pernioiosus) ; oranges, lemons, and grapefruit from the United States infested with
3 O 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
scale-insects Aspidiotus aurantii, Aspidiotus hederw, and Mytilaspis; gooseberries from United
States infested with fruit-maggot; tomatoes from Mexico infected with black-spot (anthracnose) ; potatoes from United States infected with Fusarium rot; sweet potatoes from United
States and China infected with black-rot; peaches, cherries, and plums from United States
infected with brown-rot;   eggplants from United States infected with anthracnose rot.
NURSERY STOCK EXPORTED.
The quantity of trees, shrubs, plants, and bulbs and the countries to which they were
exported are given in tabulated form with this report.
Although ornamental trees and shrubs, rose stock, perennial roots, and small-fruit stock
were in excess of the previous year, standard fruit-trees and bulbs exported were somewhat
less. Altogether the total quantities exported were rather below what was expected. All such
stock was carefully inspected and export certificates were issued, providing the stock was free
from insect pests or disease and in clean, sound, merchantable condition.
Consignees in the United States were required to obtain special permits from the Federal
Horticultural Board, Washington, D.C., before importing to that country, and the number of
the United States permit was recorded on the Canadian certificate.
NURSERYMEN ON THE ALERT.
The nurserymen in British Columbia are aspiring to reverse their old business methods by
propagating stock for home trade and export in place of importing. It would therefore be only
fair if the purchasing public in this Province would consult our nurserymen before sending their
money abroad for that which could be obtained at home.
PLANT PRODUCTS EXPORTED.
In tabulated form will also be found the quantities of fruit and vegetables and countries to
which they were exported, and for which inspection certificates were issued. In issuing such
certificates care was taken to mention any defect in connection with product that might be
questionable, but not of sufficient importance to justify refusal. This policy was carried out in
order that the certificate should not be misleading to any one who accepted it in good faith.
VALUE OF CERTIFICATE.
The export inspection certificate is recognized as being of value to shipper, consignee, and
transportation company in the event of claims being made regarding condition of a shipment at
shipping-point. The same applies to certificates issued after inspection at destination, and your
Inspector is often requested to make a report regarding certain shipments for which certificates
were issued, sometimes a year or two after the transaction.
"EGGS MARKS ACT."
Our Provincial " Eggs Marks Act," like a sleeping watch-dog, appeared to exercise its moral
effect, unless the commercial system controlling our home product was the means of discouraging
foreign competition. Whatever the cause, there were no eggs imported from the United States
to invoke action in the matter of stamping each egg in compliance with the Act. Moreover,
there were fewer importations from the Orient than during the last three years. These amounted
to 1,799 cases containing mud-covered duck-eggs used exclusively by the Chinese population.
They arrived in small quantities from China by nearly every C.P.R. " Empress " boat. There
appeared to be no inclination on the part of any commercial concern within the Province to deal
in Chinese eggs and incur the obligation of having to hang up a conspicuous notice that Chinese
eggs were sold or used by them.
ELEVATOR GRAIN SCREENINGS.
Grain screenings shipped with grain from the Prairie Provinces to the grain-elevators in
British Columbia, and with which the British Columbia " Noxious Weeds Act " was concerned,
were disposed of in the following way: Those shipped to Calgary, Alberta, and Seattle, Wash.,
U.S.A.; those ground by feed-dealers equipped with the proper machinery for that purpose,
and smaller quantities to individual feeders of stock equipped with grinders, and a still smaller
quantity to those who cooked all their feed. The latter were supplied with standard recleaned
screenings only. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 35
TRAVELLING.
Your Inspector visited his Quarantine Officers at Victoria, Waneta, and Kingsgate, giving
them special instructions regarding their duties. He also attended the tenth annual conference
of the Western Plant Quarantine Board at Salem, Oregon, U.S.A., July 12th' to 14th, 192S.
Regarding the latter visit a word of explanation may be in order.
The Western Plant Quarantine Board is composed of Government plant quarantine representatives from each of the eleven western States, Northern Mexico, the Hawaiian Islands, and
British Columbia. A conference is held each year in one of the representative States or
Provinces. It is attended by several members, and any one commercially interested, including
representatives of nurserymen, transportation companies, etc. United States, Canadian, and
Mexican Federal Plant Quarantine Officers also attend. The purpose of the Board is that by
open discussion of the problems involved in the administration of the various plant-quarantine
laws and regulations the best solutions may be obtained.
PLANT-QUARANTINE CO-OPERATION.
Owing to the extensive field of operation in connection with plant-quarantine work, several
branches of a Department of Agriculture, both Federal and Provincial, are involved. It is
therefore a case of helping each other, especially when mutual assistance saves duplication of
work, and the staff of each branch can be utilized to the best advantage. In connection with
this co-operation your Inspector desires to express his appreciation of the assistance he received
from the staff of your Chief Horticulturist and some of the Federal officials. With their help
he was able to carry out some of the inspection-work for which he was responsible in a way that
was most convenient to many people in the Province who had to comply with the plant-quarantine
regulations. He refers particularly to the inspection of certain imported and exported plant
products at points in the Province other than Vancouver.
FUMIGATION STATION.
Some additional expense was incurred in connection with the Fumigation Station at Vancouver. This consisted of repairs to overhead runners supporting the large outside doors and
door-sills. Also constructing plank road from the new paved street to the team-track platform
and extending the platform. The latter was accomplished by using the sound plank from the
temporary main plank road, with what additional new plank was necessary, and the labour was
performed by the men casually employed at the Fumigation Station. Owing to the station being
jointly owned by our Provincial and the Dominion Departments of Agriculture the cost of the
work would be equally shared by them.
OFFICE ROUTINE.
The office of your Inspector, situated in the Court-house at Vancouver, is headquarters for
all matters dealing with plant quarantine and inspection work in connection with imported
or exported plant products within the Province of British Columbia. Daily reports are received
from the several transportation companies regarding the arrival of miscellaneous plant products
by boat, train, express, or mail, all of which receives the prompt attention of the staff. All
details of inspection are carefully recorded. Certificates are issued and inspection fees collected.
Inspection reports are issued to consignees, shippers, or transportation companies who request
them in order to settle claims.    All correspondence is attended to with care and dispatch.
Records and reports are also received from the Quarantine Officers stationed at ports of
importation within the Province other than Vancouver. Such reports consist of monthly remittance of inspection fees collected during the month, with all details regarding them. These are
recorded and filed and the fees paid in to the Court-house cashier and paymaster, who also
receives the fees collected in Vancouver.
All copies of Dominion permits to import nursery stock are on file and are checked upon
the arrival of the stock to which they refer. Emergency permits are also issued to consignees
entitled to them. Dominion export inspection certificates are on hand for use when nursery
stock for export is inspected by your Inspector or his staff.
Record report sheets of plant products imported into Canada by way of British Columbia
are forwarded to the Division of Foreign Pests Suppression at Ottawa and also those recording
exports.   Your Inspector is assisted by two lady clerk-stenographers in addition to other members O 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of his staff, and a recording officer supplied and paid by the Dominion Entomological Branch,
Ottawa.
All Provincial, horticultural, and agricultural bulletins are on hand for public distribution
to those who care to come and get them. People coming for information always receive prompt
and courteous attention.
The office is also shared by J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, and G. E. W.
Clarke, District Horticulturist, who also assist in dispensing information when present. J. A.
Grant, Prairie Markets Commissioner, is also accommodated with desk when in Vancouver.
The officar correspondence has increased during the last few years. Incoming letters in 1928
numbered 1,609, and outgoing, 2,348.
Your Inspector has been notified that his office accommodation will be changed during the
coming year from the Court-house to the old technical school building.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Lyne,
Inspector of Imported and Exported Horticultural
and Field Products.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST, VANCOUVER.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.;
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1928.
POTATO-SEED TREATMENTS FOR RHIZOCTONIA.
Through the courtesy of W. H. Hicks, Superintendent of the Dominion Experimental Farm
at Agassiz, land was again placed at the disposal of the Department for continuing the tests
with organic mercury disinfectants. In the preceding two years favourable results had been
obtained with Dust 37 Bel of the Du Pont Company, as reported in last year's annual report,
but this material apparently has not been put on the market.
In the season of 1928 the following materials were tested: Improved Semesan Bel, Du Pont
Dusts 76 Bel and 77 Bel, and Dipdust, a product of the Bayer Company. Semesan Bel and
Dipdust are materials on the market, whilst the others are, presumably, still in the experimental
stage; 77 Bel is stated to be the Improved Semesan Bel with the addition of some of the toxic
ingredients of the 37 Bel previously tested and favourably reported on.
Tests were in triplicate, but six check-plots each, of corrosive sublimate, diseased untreated,
and clean untreated seed, were used. The soil was a loam of fairly uniform character, on which
potatoes had not been grown for a number of years. It had been cultivated and manured in
preparation for a crop of corn, but received no artificial fertilizers. The seed used was of the
variety Burbank, being Ithizoctonia culls, otherwise sound, from a crop grown for certification.
The general character of the infestation might be described as moderately heavy. The resulting
plants were of good vigour and practically free from virus diseases. The clean untreated checks
were planted with clean seed from the same crop.
The plots were 30 feet in length and arranged in three parallel series. (For plan see
Appendix No. 19.) Each was planted with twenty-five sets cut to approximately a 2-oz. size.
The tests were as follows:—
(1.)   Semesan Bel, 1 part to 20 of water;  tubers dipped before cutting.
(2.)   Semesan Bel as above, but cut sets dipped as soon as cut surface nearly dry.
(3.)  Dipdust 1 to 20 before cutting.
(4.)  Dipdust 1 to 20 after cutting.
(5.)  76 Bel 1 to 40 before cutting.
(6.)  76 Bel 1 to 40 after cutting.
(7.)  77 Bel 1 to 20 before cutting.
(8.)  77 Bel 1 to 20 after cutting.
(9.)  Corrosive sublimate 1 to 1000; tubers soaked 1% hours;  drained, cut, and planted.
No dry-dust treatments were used, only liquid dips.    These were practically instantaneous
dips, the tubers, or sets, being immersed and stirred round in the dip, taken out and drained.
All sets were taken out to the field and planted within an hour or so of being treated  (June 7th-8th).    The tubers were only slightly sprouted, and the sprouts were not rubbed off before
treating and planting.
On July 14th-15th an attempt was made to take vigour readings of the plots, but the
results were too irregular to be of any value in appraising the treatments. At no time during
the season, however, was there the obvious retardation of growth in the corrosive-sublimate
plots as in the previous year, and any differences in the earlier stages of growth had quite
disappeared when the plants were full-grown.    No observations were made on stem lesions.
The plots were dug September 27th-29th. The tubers were washed and sorted into those
entirely free from Rhizoetonia sclerotia, those lightly and those heavily affected. (See Appendix
No. 20.) In this summary only the-clean tubers will be considered. In the six plots that had
the standard corrosive-sublimate treatment the percentage of clean tubers were respectively
77, 87.3, 90.4, 93.2, 88.6, and 79.1, an average of 85.9. This may be considered a satisfactory
commercial control. The six clean untreated plots gave 59.3, 65.1, 43.8, 68.1. 64.2, and 77.6 per
cent, clean tubers, an average of 63. The diseased untreated had 58.7, 58.2, 46.1, 52.3, 47.2,
and 51.2, or an average of 52.3 clean tubers. The three plots treated with Semesan Bel before
cutting gave 24.6, 20, and 34.4, an average of 26.3; those treated after cutting, 36.9, 32.9, 23.4, an
average of 31. The difference between these two results is not great and a general average of
the six plots may be taken—namely, 28.7 per cent, clean tubers.
The three plots treated with Dipdust before cutting gave 45.2, 47.1, and 48.1 clean tubers,
an average of 46.8; those after cutting 42, 34.4. and 24.7, an average of 33.7. In the first series
the results from each plot are very uniform, while the latter show considerable variation. The
highest percentage of clean tubers, however, on any individual plot treated with either of these
two commercial compounds is lower than the average untreated diseased seed. In the test with
Du Pont 77 Bel the three plots treated before cutting gave clean tubers 33.9, 42.7, 58.9, and after
cutting 40.7, 33.2, and 18.4. In only one of these does the percentage of clean tubers rise above
the average for diseased untreated seed.
Du Pont 76 Bel before cutting gave 81.4, 88.7, and 98.9, with an average of 89.7, and after
cutting, 77.6, 88.1, and 87.9 (average 84.5), or, taking the average of the six plots (since there
is little variation), 87.1 per cent, clean tubers. This shows a very consistent and satisfactory
control, the average, maximum, and minimum percentages of clean tubers being higher than for
corrosive sublimate. Moreover, it is effective at half the strength of the other organic mercury
compounds. This material not being on the market, the cost of treatment cannot be estimated,
but if it is at all comparable to that of corrosive sublimate it would seem to offer encouraging
possibilities.
The effects of the different treatments on yields may now be considered. In 1928 corrosive
sublimate apparently reduced both vigour and yield. The variety used was Netted Gem, the
tubers much sprouted, and the sprouts rubbed off shortly before treatment. The tubers were,
however, firm. This season the variety Burbank was used, the tubers firm, but slightly sprouted,
and the sprouts were not rubbed off before treatment. There is no significant variation in yield
between plots planted with tubers treated before or after cutting, so the average of all six plots
(25 hills each) may be taken in each case, as follows:— Lb
Clean untreated     42%
Diseased untreated      44%
Corrosive sublimate  '.     45%
77 Bel      47%
76 Bel      44%
Semesan Bel      47%
Dipdust       42
These differences are not sufficient to indicate any appreciable effect of the treatments on
yield, the one surprising thing in this connection being the relatively high yield from the
diseased untreated plot.
In addition to the foregoing experiments a large number of tubers collected by the Inspectors
the previous season were planted at Agassiz. These were from plants suspected of being affected
with mosaic, spindle-tuber, or wilt, but in which the symptoms were not well defined enough for
the Inspector to be sure. They were mostly from the Dry Belt. A careful examination of the
plants grown from these tubers was made several times during the season, the last being on
August 10th.   It was found that in almost all cases the plants suspected of mosaic by the Inspector showed definite mosaic in the progeny at Agassiz. On the other hand, none of the
tubers from suspected " wilt" plants produced plants with wilt symptoms at Agassiz. These
were practically all from the Dry Interior, and it is evident that soil and climatic factors in
this area may bring about a condition of the plant liable to give difficulty even to an experienced
Inspector. Several of the Inspectors had the opportunity of going over these plots and observing
the condition of the plants.
On August 9th a field-day for growers of certified seed-potatoes was held at the experimental plots conducted by the Dominion Department of Agriculture on the Sumas Reclamation
area. H. S. McLeod, Supervisor of Potato Inspection, Dr. Newton, and myself took part in
the demonstration.
GREENHOUSE-WORK.
A good deal of attention was given to diseases affecting hothouse tomatoes in the vicinity
of Victoria. Such well-known troubles as " mildew," " stripe," and collar-rot occur more or
!ess generally, but the more experienced growers understand the nature and control of these
troubles sufficiently well to avoid serious loss from them. In the last year or two, however,
very serious losses have occurred from a type of root-rot. This does not affect the " collar "
or main roots, nor does it invade the tissues of the stem as in " wilts," but the fine feeding
rootlets are killed and what should be growing tips of the larger branch roots are turned brown
and killed. The first indications of the trouble are a slight drooping of the leaves in bright
sunshine which gradually becomes more pronounced; growth is checked and the fruit does not
mature properly. The fruit may show pitting externally, sometimes as depressed spots, sometimes as prematurely red areas. Internally there is often a blackening of the placentas, which
may involve the entire central placental area. Cultures made from these discoloured tissues
have remained sterile, the effect being, apparently, entirely physiological. All the fruit on an
affected plant may be worthless. In the case of slightly affected plants additional loss and
annoyance may be caused by the packing and shipping of fruit which shows no symptoms
externally but which is internally discoloured.
One grower states that the wilting improves when the house temperature reaches 80° F.,
new roots being formed rapidly. In severe cases plants may make little or no growth after
transplanting. Plants from one batch of seedlings set out on soil that had been steam-sterilized
were 5 feet high, when those on unsterilized soil were still not more than 12 inches high. Steam-
sterilization of the soil has proved the most satisfactory means of control, although sterilization
with formaldehyde has been moderately successful. Treatment of plants set out in infected
soil, by watering them with Cheshunt compound (solution of copper sulphate and ammonium
carbonate) or with various organic mercury disinfectants, produced only a slight improvement
over the checks.
It will suffice to give one example. The plants were set out three or four days before
treatment, eight plants to a row, all from the same batch of seedlings. On April 3rd Rows 1
and 2 were treated with a 1-400 solution of Uspulun, the liquid being allowed to soak into the
soil around the roots, 5 pints being used to 8 plants. Row 1 had a further treatment on May 2nd,
Uspulun 1-400 being used at the rate of 5 quarts to 8 plants. Rows 3, 4, and 7 were checks.
On May 22nd the height of the plants was measured. In Row 1, with two treatments, the plants
averaged 2 feet 10 inches; in Row 2, with one treatment, 3 feet 2 inches. The check-rows
averaged respectively 2 feet 4 inches, 2 feet 5 inches, and 2 feet 8 inches. At this time the
average height of the plants in sterilized soil was over 4 feet.
Early in December complaints were received from the Victoria Hothouse Tomato Growers
of an unusual break-down of greenhouse tomatoes, which was resulting in heavy loss. Investigation showed that the produce of practically all growers shipping through the association
during November suffered some break-down. A car which left Victoria on November 10th
showed a 55-per-cent. loss at Edmonton on the 17th. A ear shipped to Regina on the 16th
was reported in good condition on its arrival on the 22nd, but by the 27th showed much loss.
One shipment of fifteen crates had to be repacked at destination with a loss of ten crates.
This break-down, also known as " blister," shows as a general softness of texture in the
fruit, with semi-transparent, water-soaked, glassy areas ("blisters") appearing on the surface.
These areas are so soft that they collapse at the slightest touch, or even spontaneously, the
fruit becoming a semi-liquid mass.   At picking and packing time the somewhat soft character Ilmm} '$" •'*
SALMON  VALLEY,   1928.     STAND  OF  " REWARD "  WHEAT,   JOHN  BROS.'  FARM.
BOYS   CLASS WORKING OVER HERD OF GUERNSEY COWS, FARM OF L. GAERNAERT, VANDERHOOF.  of the fruit may be the only indication that it is other than normal.    After a day or two,
however, the glassy areas or " blisters " begin to show and gradually become more pronounced.
According to packing-house officials, tomatoes from all shippers were affected, though the
product of some houses might be rather worse than others. It was also reported that the same
trouble had appeared in shipments of greenhouse tomatoes from Cobble Hill and Ladysmith.
The appearance of the tomatoes suggested that the trouble was of a physiological nature,
and this was confirmed by the sterility of cultures from unbroken affected tissues. A survey of
the greenhouses around Victoria was made which showed the general incidence of the trouble.
No house was found which did not show some, even though unsuspected by the grower. The
growers included both white and Chinese; the soil-management and cultural conditions varied;
most houses had not been heated for this crop, but in one or two which had, conditions were
much the same. In some houses the last picking had been made; in others, only the first.
In one house, where the quantity of nitrogen in the soil was probably more than the optimum,
as evidenced by the occurrence of stripe, there was perhaps a larger amount of break-down, as
also in one or two houses which had been badly attacked by mildew (Cladosporium). The
general distribution of the trouble, however, irrespective of the variation in conditions, pointed
to some climatic factor. Now, on the Lower Mainland, greenhouse-men rarely attempt to grow
a fall crop of tomatoes as the amount of sunshine is insufficient to mature a crop properly at
this season of the year. Mr. Napier Denison, of the Dominion Meteorological Station at Victoria,
states that " October, 1928, was certainly a very dull month, for the Victoria sunshine was
only eighty-five hours and twelve minutes, while the average amount for Victoria is 135 hours."
This is less than two-thirds the normal and it seems probable that this is primarily responsible
for the waterly constitution of the fruit and its tendency to break down, although excessive
nitrogen in the soil and partial defoliation by mildew may have been contributory causes in
the most severe cases.
APPLE-SCAB CONTROL.
Owing to the severe epidemic of apple-scab in the Kootenays in 1927, urgent requests were
received from the fruit-growers for some investigations on the spot to determine the exact time
of emergency of the ascospores in the different fruit areas. It was believed that by making the
first spray earlier better protection would result against early infection. On account of the
potato-work planned for 1928 it was not possible for me to be in the Kootenays over the period
of ascospore-dispersal, but a preliminary attempt to relate the time of application of the first
spray to spore-dispersal was made. Mr. Hunt, the District Horticulturist at Nelson, collected
a quantity of old apple-leaves from under trees at Willow Point on Kootenay Lake, Kaslo, and
a point on the Arrow Lakes. These were sent to the laboratory at Vancouver and kept in moist
chambers with spore-traps. They were examined daily and on the first observance of spore-
discharge I wired Mr. Hunt, who then passed on the information to the orchardist by telephone
and through the daily newspaper. It was believed that the earlier maturity of the, ascospores
under laboratory conditions of temperature and moisture would give a sufficient interval between
the first spore-dispersal in the laboratory, and that occurring under natural conditions, to allow
of a spray being put on before much infection had occurred. Later sprayings were given as
usual.    The results were sufficiently encouraging to make this a major line of work for 1929.
BROWN-ROT OF CHERRIES IN THE KOOTENAYS.
One of the assets of the grower of sweet cherries in the Kootenays has been the absence of
the brown-rot .of stone-fruits (Sclerotinia sp.). This is well known and destructive at the
Coast, but although careful examinations have been repeatedly made in the Kootenay no genuine
brown-rot has been found. This season, however, considerable loss was caused at Boswell among
the earlier varieties of sweet cherries by what is undoubtedly a form of this disease.
In some cases 20 per cent, of the fruit was destroyed. Monilia pustules were abundant on
the rotting fruit. Bing and Lambert did not seem to be seriously attacked. Whether the
disease has been recently introduced or was made noticeable by the very wet weather in early
summer is not certain.
FLAG-SMUT OF WHEAT INTERCEPTED.
On December 21st the S.S. " Hauraki " brought from Australia a consignment of 500 sacks
of wheat-chaff (chopped wheat-hay), 500 sacks of oat-chaff, and 100 sacks of wheat-bran. Wheat
in Australia suffers severely from flag-smut due to the fungus Vrocystis tritici.    This is not a disease of the grain, like the common smuts of wheat in this country, but affects the leaves
and to a less extent the stems. This disease has not been found in Canada up to the present,
but has been reported from the States of Illinois, Mission, and Kansas, in the United States.
Samples of the wheat-chaff from a number of sacks were taken and the fine particles and
dust sifted out. Microscopic examination of these sittings showed the presence of large numbers
of the characteristic spores of the causal fungus. Samples of the oat-chaff and wheat-bran
showed occasional spores which were probably the result of contact with the sacks of wheat-
chaff, all having been stored together in the hold of the vessel and on the wharf after being
unloaded.
The finding of the unmistakable heavy infection of the wheat-chaff with the disease, and
the contamination of the associated fodder in the shipment, was reported to Mr. Lyne, who
took up the matter with the Dominion quarantine authorities, with the result that the shipment
was ordered deported forthwith or destroyed.    It was shipped back to Australia by the next boat.
In view of the fact that the disease causes very heavy loss to wheat-crops in some of the
countries where it occurs, Canada, as a wheat-growing country, cannot afford to take any
unnecessary risks of the introduction of this disease, and it is hoped that in the near future
some specific regulation will be made to meet such possibilities.
DOWNY MILDEW OF HOPS.
About May 25th J. Hulbert, of Sardis, brought to the office specimens of diseased hop-shoots
for diagnosis. These showed the topical " spiked " appearance associated with the presence of
downy-mildew infection, whilst, on some, dense masses of conidiophores were present. Microscopic examinaion left no doubt of the fungus being Pseudoperonospora hunmli. May 28th-30th
was spent inspecting the hop-yards in the Sardis District, the disease being found in all yards
visited. Later, it was found to be present in all the yards at Agassiz and Sardis, including
the Sumas Reclamation area. Following the above-mentioned inspection, a brief summary was
prepared of the control measures recommended by Professor Salmon, of Wye, England, the
leading investigator of this disease, and distributed to the managers of the various yards.
OTHER WORK.
I took part in the spring short course in horticulture at the University and gave addresses
on subjects appertaining to my work before the Vancouver Institute, the Professional Gardeners'
Association, the Greater Vancouver Horticultural Society, Point Grey Horticultural Society,
and the North Burnaby Horticultural Society.
Respectfully submitted. J. W. Eastham,
Provinc-ial Plant Pathologist.
REPORT OF ASSISTANT ENTOMOLOGIST, VERNON.
M. H. Ruhmann, B.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1928.
The Entomological staff during the past year consisted of: Max H. Ruhmann, Assistant
Entomologist in Charge;  Miss C. M. Bigland, Junior Laboratory Assistant.
The Entomological Laboratory is located in the Court-house, Vernon, B.C., from which point
all the large commercial fruit sections of the Interior are easily accessible.
The routine work of the office and laboratory with the necessary field investigations keep
the staff fully employed, permitting little time for research-work.
The most destructive insects recorded in the Interior District during the past year were as
follows:—
Codling-moth (Carpocapsa pomonella L.).—Injury from this pest was much more pronounced
in all infested areas; a new infestation was recorded in the Vernon City area. It is urgently
necessary that further studies be made of this pest in an endeavour to improve the control
measures now available. To undertake this work it will be necessary to increase the present
Entomological staff by the appointment of a Junior Assistant Entomologist. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 41
Lesser Apple-worm (Lespeyresia prunivora Walsh.).—Severe damage to fruit was caused
by this insect in some sections of the Okanagan Valley. It was especially troublesome where
cover-crops w:ere grown.
Eye-spotted Bud-moth . (Spilonota ocellana Schiff.).—This bud-moth was particularly
prevalent in orchards in the Vernon District.
Red-spider Mite (Tetranychus bimaculatus Harv.).—The red-spider mite was unusually
severe on the foliage of prune and plum in the Okanagan Valley.
Pear-slug (Caliroa cerasi L.).—This insect was unusually abundant in the Okanagan Valley
and the Nelson District.
Peach Twig-borer (Anarsia lineatella Zell.).—The peach twig-borer was the cause of considerable losses in the Southern Okanagan.
Black-bodied Cherry Fruit-fly (Rhagoletis fausta O.S.).—This insect is now recorded at
Boswell and Wynndel, in the Kootenays. Unless it is kept thoroughly checked it may become
a serious pest in the cherry sections.
Western Strawberry Leaf-roller (Anocampsis fragariella Curt.).—Some damage was caused
by this insect in the Nelson District.
Bertha Cutworm (Borathra configurata Walk.).—A severe outbreak of this cutworm
occurred in the East Kootenays, being most severe at Cranbrook and Invermere, where much
damage was done to truck-crops.    It also occurred in smaller numbers at Kaslo and Summerland.
Wireworms (Elateridw).—Severe damage was caused by wireworms to potatoes in the Grand
Forks District and to onions in the Kelowna District. Control experiments were undertaken
during 1927 at Kelowna, but due to the unusual high-water conditions during the spring and
summer of 1928 had to be discontinued. Some trapping was done, however, and material is
available for laboratory experiments during this winter.
White Grubs (Pollyphylla deeimlineata Say.).—The larva? of this beetle are responsible for
much damage to young fruit-trees, small fruits, and garden crops.
Wheat-stem Maggot (Meromyza americana Fitch.).—A small outbreak of this maggot was
recorded from Enderby.
Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa deeimlineata S.).—The present situation of this pest
was investigated and it was found that, due to the excellent work of A. A. Dennys and his
assistant, no further spread has occurred. Two new outbreaks appear to have been completely
eradicated. The situation is, however, not satisfactory, in that the growers generally are not
co-operating sufficiently in the efforts to decrease the area of infestation, and unless the thorough
co-operation of growers is assured little can be done to relieve the situation unless control
measures are enforced under the " Pest Control Act." At present an area of about 600 square
miles is involved, and every precaution is necessary to prevent a general infestation over the
whole Province in the near future.
Garden-slugs (Agriolimax sp.).-—Slugs were unusually numerous in gardens in the Interior
and were destructive to flowering plants in small vegetable-gardens.
It has been necessary to request the aid of Dominion officers in the study of some of our
problems. Such aid has been generously granted, in that E. R. Buckell, Entomologist of the
Dominion staff, has for a number of years taken full charge of the study and control of the
grasshopper outbreaks in British Columbia.
During 1927 and 1928 A. A. Dennys, Junior Assistant Entomologist of the Dominion staff,
with one seasonal assistant, has been kept' fully employed on the study of the control of the
Colorado potato-beetle outbreak in the East Kootenays.
In the spring of 1928, E. P. Venables, Junior Assistant Entomologist of the Dominion staff,
with one seasonal assistant, was instructed to make the woolly aphis of the apple his major
project.
Further studies on the control of the onion-root maggot were entrusted to P. N. Vroom,
Junior Assistant Entomologist of the Dominion staff.
From the above it will be seen that the Dominion Entomologist realizes the importance and
necessity of entomological research in the Interior of British Columbia, in that there are now
four permanent Dominion officers appointed for the Interior for research in agricultural pests,
with headquarters at Vernon, and one Assistant Entomologist specializing in the study of
live stock insects, with headquarters at Kamloops. O 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Forest pests are taken care of by a separate division of the Dominion Entomological Branch
under the charge of R. Hopping, Forest Entomologist, and his staff, with headquarters in the
Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
Respectfully submitted. Max H. Ruhmann,
Assistant Entomologist in Charge.
REPORT OF MARKETS COMMISSIONER, CALGARY.
J. A. Grant.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report for the year 1928.
As this office functions as the intelligence branch of the marketing service, this report will
deal with market happenings, the cause and effect of same, and in this respect the annual report
will resume the same lines as have been practised during the past twelve years.
Your Markets Commissioner's activities for 1928 started with a discussion of the marketing
problems and a review of the 1927 shipping season, in which the newly formed Committee of
Direction's influence upon Prairie market supplies and prices obtained was fully reviewed before
the annual meeting of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association held at Kelowna. After
this meeting active steps were taken to place berry-growers under the " Marketing Act."
Meetings for this purpose were held at many points in the Fraser Valley and afterwards a
petition to come under the Act was granted. Several districts had to be left out owing to the
short time that was available before the shipping season commenced.
In the interval between the granting of the petition and the naming of a Committee of
Direction your Markets Commissioner discussed marketing arrangements with the two outstanding Prairie brokerages and, when the committee was named, accompanied them to Hatzic,
where an arrangement was made with the Berry-growers' Committee of Direction to market
strawberries through the Canadian Fruit Distributers and raspberries through the C. H. Robinson Company. Both brokerage houses agreed to co-operate with each other during the entire
shipping season and to refrain as far as practical from importing berries during the British
Columbia shipping season. Arrangements were also made to have all L.C.L. shipments, excepting
drop shipments, made to the brokers handling the respective commodities. These arrangements
were not long made when they were in operation, and during the whole shipping season the
distribution of berries was under splendid control and the loyalty of the brokers was never in
question.
BROCCOLI AND FORCED RHUBARB.
In February many cars of broccoli were rolled to Prairie markets from Victoria and Vancouver and brought fair returns. Keen competition was met from Roseberg, Oregon, a district
favourably known for the production of choice broccoli. The first cars of broccoli from British
Columbia were of excellent quality and due to good returns the patches were combed too closely
and many poor heads were shipped. The Roseberg stuff made the poor quality shipped later
very unpopular. If the quality of the first few cars had been maintained the trade would have
laid off the imported stuff.
Early-forced rhubarb mostly sent L.C.L. supplied the Prairie market from January until
the field-grown rhubarb arrived. Usually Walla Walla rhubarb divided the market with British
Columbia, due to their growing asparagus and spinach to make their cars an attractive mixture.
This year, however, British Columbia forced Walla Walla rhubarb off the market, and from
a usual supply of thirty-five cars annually, British Columbia sent seventy cars of rhubarb to
the Prairies, with fair prices to growers.
The demand for early vegetables was about 25 per cent, increased over other years. We have
tried to induce vegetable-growers in British Columbia to cater to the demand on the Prairies
for asparagus and spinach, but so far with indifferent success. A movement will be made this
year to induce new settlers on the Sumas Flats to take care of this trade.
The greatest drawback to produce early vegetables and soft fruits for Canadian Northwestern needs is the want of assurance that glut surpluses from United States points will be DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 43
subject to a protective tariff of sufficient value to assure growers that somewhere near the cost
of production will be paid at shipping-point. The difficulty is not transportation, as rates in
Canada are fully as low as at competitive points and the cost laid down is slightly in favour
of our producers. It is the selling below cost of production at shipping-point that causes the
trouble, and is accentuated by the fact that Southern points are passing their peak and lowest
prices prevail when Canadian produce is ready to roll. The production of asparagus, spinach,
peas, broccoli, and other vegetables cannot get a start without this assurance.
STRAWBERRIES AND RASPBERRIES.
Missouri harvested a bumper crop of excellent berries of the Aroma variety and imported
them into Canada during the two weeks ahead of our season. They had little or no adjustment
claims. While their excessively heavy shipments to Canadian points upset our deal at the
start, Missouri growers did not profit by it. It was clearly a problem of overproduction there.
The Prairie market has imported Missouri berries for years, but never before had their importations interfered with the British Columbia deal as it did this year.
Unfortunately the weather conditions hampered the Committee of Direction at shipping-
point, and due to wet weather at distribution points and soft strawberries arriving from Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland much distribution to country points was lost, and low prices,
due to adjustments on poor quality, ruled. If better weather conditions had prevailed, good
prices would have been secured in spite of an unusual heavy supply imported just ahead of the
British Columbia shipping season and laid down at all Prairie points at prices lower than is
considered cost-of-production prices to the growers. Creston and Wynndel growers were more
fortunate than the other berry districts.    Their berries were mostly all sold at fair prices.
The supply from British Columbia this year fell off considerably in both these popular
berries, largely due to bad weather during harvest-time in strawberries and winter-killing of
raspberry-canes. Raspberries were well marketed as. weather conditions became more settled
during their shipping season. Uncontrolled consignment was not in evidence and control of
distribution proved its value to the satisfaction of most of the raspberry-shippers.
Berry-growers learned through experience in 1928 that it is essential to be prepared for
eventualities. Your Markets Commissioner informed them during February that a market
existed in Ontario for about 700 tons of processed and frozen berries. Very little advantage
was taken of this information, but from indications now evident 1929 will find growers ready
to process all berries that the jam and canning factories and the fresh-fruit market cannot
absorb at picking-time.
HOTHOUSE TOMATOES.
Hothouse tomatoes were not marketed as successfully as they have been during the past
few years. Mexican field tomatoes were rolled until Mississippi was ready to ship their field
stuff, and as the Mississippi crop was heavy and prices very low British Columbia hothouse-
tomato growers had to accept lower prices than usual. The same condition that upset the
opening of the strawberry deal upset the hothouse-tomato deal—namely, heavy shipments of
imported field-grown stuff early enough to prevent British Columbia shippers from getting good
prices for their first offerings. About the only remedy for this is a higher tariff on field-grown
tomatoes.
British Columbia field tomatoes were well marketed. The edge pack was greatly praised
by Prairie jobbers, and while prices were not high they were satisfactory. Control or orderly
marketing was very effective in marketing field-grown tomatoes and cucumbers. Weather
conditions on the Prairies were settled by this time and prospects for a record wheat-crop made
country trade very good.
POTATOES.
The potato-crop in the four Western Provinces was short of last year. Ontario had an
increased production, but considerable loss was reported from rot. Other Eastern Provinces,
excepting Quebec, showed a considerable increase in production. There was a glut in the potato
market in the Central States. Some exporting of potatoes from Prince Edward Island and
New Brunswick has taken place, and American growers are clamoring for a duty of $20 per ton
to shut them out.
Vancouver dealers imported Netted Gems from Washington. In November 276,900 lb. and
in December 223,700 lb., over 250 tons.   These were 85 per cent. Grade A and 15 per cent. O 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Grade B, bought at Yakima at $17 per ton f.o.b., the laid-down price in Vancouver being about
$30 per ton. Potatoes from the Island and Fraser Valley points were quoted at $19 per ton,
Grade B. The wholesale trade claimed that they could not get Grade A at home and gave this
as a reason for importing.
APRICOTS AND PEACHES.
Very favourable mention was made this year at Prairie points upon the pack, which was
stated as being equal to imported stuff from Washington. British Columbia has no home demand
for No. 2 apricots and peaches, while Washington shippers have their local markets. The trade
preferred Washington peaches and apricots, because their clients do not care for No. 2 apricots
or peaches. Some solution to take care of the British Columbia No. 2 product in these commodities would be welcomed by Prairie jobbers.
PLUMS.
California plums secure the bulk of the plum business. They are large, of fine colour, and
heavy pack. Their late sorts are the best and they are on the Prairie market at the same time
as early varieties from British Columbia, and even if British Columbia put up a heavy pack
the jobbers would prefer California and Washington plums, because of the superior varieties
they grow. The Okanagan plum does not develop to the size of Coast-grown plums, but are
almost free from plum-rot. Unless the Okanagan plum-growers give more care to their trees
in pruning and thinning and have better sizes to offer, we fear that plum-growing will continue
to be unprofitable. Ontario ships many damsons, Reine Claude (greengage) plums, and these
are in fair demand. These varieties from British Columbia also find a better market than
varieties such as Pond's Seedling and Grand Duke. California specializes in dessert plums,
and as preserving-plums at Prairie points is largely a thing of the past, fruit-growers in British
Columbia should govern themselves accordingly.
GRAPES.
We were pleased to see that Kelowna had taken up growing of grapes of a kind similar to
those shipped from Washington, Missouri, and Ontario. The grapes from Kelowna found a
ready market, and this industry will stand considerable expansion, as grapes are early on the
market and are off the market before Ontario is ready to ship. We would think that grape-
growing in sheltered places throughout the Okanagan Valley could be made a real factor in
fruit-growing, shipped fresh to the British Columbia and Prairie market and the residue turned
into wine.
PEARS.
The pear-crop of British Columbia increased from 104,127 boxes in 1927 to 207,090 boxes
in 1928, the main increase being in the Flemish Beauty variety. Prices realized were fair, but
owing to so many unwanted varieties the average price on pears was reduced. With more care
in picking and packing, pear-growing in British Columbia can be greatly extended, more
especially in the Bartlett, D'Anjou, and Bosc varieties.
Pears of high quality are now'imported from Washington, and in order to capture the pear
market from them time of picking, thinning for size, and the popular varieties needs careful
study.
APPLES.
The marketing of apples was a difficult task, as owing to the great number of small licence-
holders the proportional sharing of the Prairie market was impossible to regulate. Small
shippers marketed all their holdings at Prairie points and the export business was forced upon
the Associated Growers and Sales Service. These two shipping concerns handle 80 per cent,
of the tonnage. As no ruling was made by the committee on the proportion for export, the brunt
of keeping the Prairie market from being oversupplied fell upon these two shipping concerns,
and even at that the proportion each took of the export business was not the same.
Some means must be devised, either by bonus on export, charged to non-exporters, or by
proportional order of a certain percentage for export. No doubt the Committee of Direction,
profiting from this year's experience, will find a way of taking care of the surplus that the
domestic market cannot absorb. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
O 45
Early apples overlapped the Wealthys, and Mcintosh were rolled too soon "and too green
to make the Wealthy deal profitable. The Jonathan was a trouble-maker for the Mcintosh and
unwanted varieties with the Jonathan made a complex situation in apple-marketing.
Some bootlegging was noticed against the committee's orders and many schemes to beat
their orders were practised. Added to this, the uncertainty of the " Marketing Act " was sprung
by a Court decision in Vancouver, that the Board had no jurisdiction outside of the Province;
it almost upset order and for a time the apple deal was in the air. However, with a unanimous
decision of the Supreme Court that the Act is good, order has again been restored.
The following table will show the domestic marketing to December 31st, 1928, by licence-
holders ; also the totals for 1927. The Prairie apple-consumption increased 22.69 per cent,
over 1927.
■   Commodity.
1028.
B.C.
Alberta.
Sask.
Manitoba.
Winnipeg.
Boxes.
Boxes.
Boxes.
Boxes.
641,222
689,435
150,358
273,334
27,049
27,873
2,849
2,214
5,382
1,458
41
2,561
29,417
26,833
2,'578
10,032
44,833
59,760
8,505
12,691
51,204
52,257
3,375
83,109
'50,251
56,925
3,450
7,999
3*6,876
41,311
2,740
9,966
64,252
86,056
3,854
6,967
So,889
■58,984
836
1,172
25,050
20,113
294
57
116,831
100,642
6,138
9,343
18,822
8,664
476
722
Tons.
Tons.
Tons.
Tons.
25
20
4
3
159
73
9
27
322
271
18
13
315
268
23
9S
2,482
2,437
417
1,753
1,900
436
SO
20
298
193
21
889
903
170
1,960
Eastern
Canada.
1928
Total.
1927
Total.
Apples	
Apricots	
Cantaloupes	
Cherries	
Crab-apples	
Pears	
Peaches	
Plums	
Prunes	
Cucumbers	
Tomatoes, green	
Tomatoes, ripe	
Sundry boxed vegetables...
Beets	
Carrots ,	
Cabbage ......
Celery	
Onions	
Potatoes	
Sundry sacked vegetables
Bulk apples, tons	
Boxes.
216,715
9,591
7,474
'6,622
3,134
S.249
24,983
3,259
7,342
2,019
988
23,791
4,749
Tons.
4
15
'50
42
1,177
'5,441
58
161
Boxes.
478,514
100
175
3,087
8,896
360
200
700
10
Tons.
219
80
Boxes.
2,449,578
69,676
16,916
75,657
132,010
207,090
143,968
94,352
169,171
148,910
46,502
256,745
26,433
Tons.
56
283
674
746
8,485
7,877
570
4,163
I
Boxes.
2,150,149
38,100
20,499
41,359
127,455
103,143
91,299
49,809
169,866
156,575
34,402
221,748
20,740
Tons.
43
134
460
845
7,365
8,992
269
INTERCHANGE AT VICTORIA.
The Victoria Chamber of Commerce requested your Markets Commissioner's assistance in
securing an interchange between the Canadian Pacific Express Company and Canadian National
Express Company. A brief was prepared and submitted, showing that during the peak of the
strawberry-shipping season the OP. Express could not reach some territory on the Prairies as
expediently as the C.N. Express, and as the precooling plant was on the C.P.R. tracks an interchange would help greatly in Prairie distribution when the OP. Express points had reached
their saturation point, by making the C.N. points available. We are pleased to hear that early
in 1929 this interchange will be granted.
T. EATON & CO. EXHIBITION.
Your MarEets Commissioner took charge of the exhibit placed on display by the Department
of Agriculture, which lasted from February 6th to 18th. It consisted of apples, bulbs, cereal,
vegetable, and flower seeds. The exhibition was on the eighth floor of T. Eaton & Co.'s Winnipeg
store, and was so arranged that every one visiting the exhibition had to pass all displays made.
The British Columbia exhibit, while small, attracted considerable attention, as over a quarter
of a million people passed by it and much literature was distributed; the demand for same
greatly exceeded the supply.
Bulbs were placed on exhibition without coloured plates, which is not satisfactory. This
kind of an exhibit has great advertising and selling possibilities.   If a big display of bulbs and seeds were put- on exhibition at such a show in centres as large as Winnipeg, accompanied by
an attendant to give information and proper coloured display-cards placed on exhibits, a great
increase in bulb and seed growing would be required to supply the demand. This exhibition is
not an annual event. It may be repeated in 1930, but whether in Winnipeg or elsewhere, the
British Columbia exhibit should be confined to specialities that the Province produces exclusively.
GROWING EARLY VEGETABLES ON VANCOUVER ISLAND.
Your Markets Commissioner addressed the Victoria Chamber of Commerce on the subject
of what could be produced and sold at a profit on Southern Vancouver Island. The matter of
going into growing asparagus, spinach, peas, and head-lettuce was stressed. The possibilities
of growing vegetables for canning purposes was also pointed out, as when Prairie points produce
their own vegetables the unsold produce that would be driven off Prairie markets could be
canned.
CLASSIFICATION OF EARLY AND LATE DISTRICTS.
We regret to have to mention that the classification of districts for shipment at varying
times, due to their climatic location being early or late, has not been undertaken with the consideration that these conditions merit. We find that in peaches, plums, and apricots great
difference exists in localities as to the time to pick, and when an order is given of a general
character applicable to the whole Okanagan Valley, including Oliver and Keremeos, too great a
difference exists in condition of ripeness of fruit in these districts to make such an order
practical.
Last year many prunes and plums were shipped too green from northern parts of the valley,
and when peaches were ordered picked, Penticton and south had a week's difference in ripening,
with the result that Oliver peaches were fit to eat on arrival at Prairie points, while Penticton
peaches had to be kept for some time before being offered. This applied to apples of the
Mcintosh variety from Kamloops and Keremeos; these were fully coloured when picking-order
was given. Most of the early shipments of Mcintosh apples from Kelowna to Vernon arrived
too green and gave a decided preference in demand to Keremeos and Kamloops. These early
districts produce apples that become mealy when northern-grown stuff is reaching prime eating
condition. It may be said that Mcintosh from Keremeos, Oliver, and Kamloops are early fall
apples, while from Kelowna to Salmon Arm the Mcintosh apple is a late fall variety and from
Kootenay an early winter variety.
We would strongly recommend that the Committee of Direction secure expert advice from
the Horticulturists in their respective districts as to the right time to pick for each district.
This is a matter affecting the shipping-point, and where pooling is practised it could bring about
very unfair pooling conditions unless picking is ordered consistent with ripening-time in the
respective districts.
, TRANSPORTATION ADJUSTMENTS.
The switching concession made by the Canadian Express Company last year proved beneficial to berry-shippers, as well as the lower rates granted to many points outside of Calgary.
The order of the Berry Committee of Direction to have all L.C.L. berries billed to the car-lot
distributers in Calgary and Edmonton, so as to prevent heavy L.C.L. shipments interfering with
the car-lot movement, necessitated an extra outlay in diverting L.C.L. to points east of these
cities, thus placing the control system at a disadvantage over individual shipments that took
the flat rate to all Alberta points. This matter was drawn to the attention of Mr. Burr (general
manager for Canadian Pacific Express Company) by a committee, including your Markets Commissioner, and after hearing from the committee he promised to give serious consideration to
the problem and would make the concession asked for if no unforeseen condition arose to interfere with the case. We wish to add a word complimentary to officials of the Canadian Pacific
Express Company and Canadian National Express Company for their help in solving our
distribution problems and their courtesy in replying to all inquiries made to them.
INTERIOR TREE-FRUIT AND VEGETABLE COMMITTEE.
The above Committee of Direction has been in operation for two seasons. The first year,
due to a short crop at competitive points and British Columbia, was not considered a real test
of the efficiency of the Act.   This season has seen the opposite conditions.   All competitive DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 47
points have had heavy crops, with heavy surpluses over their home demands to market, and in
some commodities this condition existed in British Columbia, particularly in apples.
Licence-holders had a year to discover weaknesses in the Act, and the divergence in the
judgments of the lower Courts, which were rendered at a critical time, greatly helped those who
were trying to upset the orders of the Committee of Direction. In spite of all these difficulties,
consignment of rollers unsold was avoided; this alone prevented a repetition of the debacle
of 1922.
With the unanimous finding of the Supreme Court of British Columbia that the Act is
intra vires, the committee's hands have been strengthened, and with the passing of a resolution
by the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association endorsing the Act, there should be less
difficulty in its enforcement for 1929.
The Berry-growers' Committee of Direction rendered good service to berry-shippers in
cutting off uncontrolled shipments on consignment and its scope will be extended in 1929 season.
IMPORTANT NEW VARIETIES OF FRUIT.
Several recommendations to growers were made from time to time in the Markets Bulletin;
these recommendations were the result of new varieties of fruit being sent to this office for
report, and also upon the expressed opinion of the trade generally towards varieties that were
not proving popular. We are pleased to report that two varieties of strawberries are being
tested by commercial berry-growers on a large scale this year—namely, the Kalacene No. 122,
which has exceptional merits as a canning-berry, and the Aroma, which is reputed to be one
of the best shipping varieties. The bulletin will feature the result of these and other experiments with strawberries during the 1929 season.
The Viking raspberry proved to be a good shipper, fully better than the Cuthbert, but the
flavour is not as good.    Further experiments would be justified with this variety.
The Vedette peach is a large-sized semi-freestone peach ripening in the early St. John
season. It has good carrying qualities, fine flavour, and an abundant producer. It will be a
great favourite with the trade, as it is equal to the Elberta and at least two weeks earlier.
TARIFF.
The Canadian tariff has not been revised for over forty' years, and in some cases it is
without the measure of protection then intended, due to legal interpretations on what constitutes
a container. It was then intended that the crates as well as the fruit should be assessed for
duty. In the case of peaches the duty is per pound of the gross weight. In the case of apricots,
which come in four-basket crates, the container has been legally defined as the basket in which
the apricots are packed; these being placed within the crate are assessed for duty at so much
per pound and the crate is admitted free. The same applies to berries; the hallocks in which
the berries are packed are dutiable in weight per pound, but the crate is free. Prunes are
packed in lug boxes, the same as peaches; there is no duty on the prune-box because they are
assessed for duty by the bushel and not by the pound;   thereby the container escapes duty.
DUMP ACT.
The Dump Act is a back number. Neither growers nor shippers know whether it is legal
or just inoperative. It was applied in Winnipeg this year in the case of prunes, but why it was
applied, or how, is not generally known.
If there is a glut surplus to the south, our markets are flooded with supplies, especially
soft fruit, at prices far below cost of production at home or abroad. The Prairie market is
always fully stocked with American products when British Columbia produce arrives, and the
two competing factors create a glut, resulting in low prices for British Columbia shippers at
the start of each commodity season.
This year the Canadian market has been wide open, excepting the regular tariff, and has
absorbed glut surpluses in many commodities from overproduced States to the south. The
Committee of Direction had to name prices below the cost of production to enable them to
compete in making sales on the domestic market. Orderly marketing, which means production
measured within reasonable possibility of what consumption demands, cannot be effectively
done by the Committees of Direction unless the domestic market is protected from absorbing
glut surpluses from elsewhere. O 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
NEW MARKETS.
On a recent visit to Ottawa your Markets Commissioner discussed the possibilities of
extending fruit markets to the South American Republic. The Canadian Commissioner situated
at Mexico City has just made a survey of the territory and will report his findings in the near
future. Efforts have been made to develop trade with Argentina, Brazil, Peru, and Chile. All
these countries have certain drawbacks that will not allow Canadian shippers to compete, at
least for the present. Financial interests control the situation in Argentina. Brazil has a tariff
against Canada of $1.80 per hundredweight on apples, while United States products enter free.
Chile and Peru have no direct transportation facilities to the West Coast. A shipment of apples
from British Columbia via Los Angeles, transhipped there, arrived in Chile in good condition
and highly commented upon.
It would appear that Mexico would prove a better prospect than the Southern Republics.
At present practically all the Canadian demand for citrus fruit is supplied by California. If
such supplies were bought in Mexico, exchange trade in apples, potatoes, and other products
might be negotiated by treaty or otherwise.
A VISIT TO MISSOURI AND ARKANSAS.
Last November your Markets Commissioner visited the berry-fields of Missouri and Arkansas ;
attended a State horticultural meeting at Bentonville, Arkansas, and was shown around the
strawberry-producing districts of these States, and also investigated marketing conditions.
British Columbia berry-growers will be interested in the following summary : The variety
grown is the Aroma. Over 2,500 cars were produced last year in Missouri. As many as 200
cars were sold by auction in one day at peak of season. Their peak usually comes at time
when British Columbia starts shipping. Only a few buyers attend the auction and they represent
the large jobbing-houses of nearly all centres in the United States and Canada. When berries
are overproduced for the fresh-fruit market and buyers cannot find an outlet for all the offerings, the balance is sent on consignment, usually to markets already supplied.
No processing is done at shipping-point. No canning or jam factories are operated near to
berry-growing districts, and all berries grown are placed in fruit refrigerator ventilated cars
without precooling, and loaded from growers' wagons at a temperature of about 80°. Berries
are not all picked and shipped dry, but care is taken to ship the best fitted to distant points.
Berries move by fast freight as far as Butte, Mont., and Minneapolis. For points such as Boston
or Montreal express service is used.
The soil is light to heavy loam, some very stony. Climate similar to Vancouver Island and
Lower Mainland. Land values run about $70 per acre. Arkansas grows the Klondike variety,
but is fast replacing them with Aroma. The same condition is reported from Louisiana, where
the Klondike berry is also grown. Missouri and Arkansas ship in 24-quart crates and Louisiana
in 24-pint crates. Picking costs 3 cents per quart and the crate and hallock 32 cents. The
average price to associations last year was $2.46 for a 24-quart crate containing 38 lb. of berries.
THE MARKETS BULLETIN.
The circulation of the Markets Bulletin is rapidly increasing. The mailing-list for 1929
will show an increase of over 500 copies weekly. Correspondence between this office and British
Columbia readers indicate that fruit and vegetable growers, while appreciating the wholesale
market quotations at different Prairie points, wish to know the laid-down price of competitive
goods, as well as the transportation costs from shipping to distributing points. We intend to
issue a special bulletin giving a comparative list of transportation charges between the United
State and British Columbia points, and will include in that issue a comparison between the
tariffs on fruit and vegetables as applied by Canada and the United States Customs authorities.
The bulletin quotes prices for goods that arrive at destination in good marketable condition,
and does not feature adjustments.    Space does not permit of printing retail prices.
Respectfully submitted.
J. A. Grant,
Markets Commissioner. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 49
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK COMMISSIONER, VICTORIA.
Dr. A. G. Knight, V.S.
■J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Live Stock Branch for the year
ended December 31st, 1928.
The year has been generally favourable for the live-stock industry. All classes of domestic
live stock have shown an increase in numbers. Stock came out of winter quarters in fair
condition, the supply of winter feed for the season of 1927-28 being ample for the winter
months. Forage-crops of hay, grain, and roots on Vancouver Island and the Lower Fraser
Valley have been good, well up to the average, and favourable weather conditions prevailed
during harvesting, which has ensured a good quality of hay and grain for feeding purposes.
Ensilage-crops were heavy and quality good, the stock of the dairymen coming into winter
quarters well provided with feed.
Similar conditions as to crops prevailed throughout the Okanagan Valley. In our beef-
producing sections of Kamloops, Nicola, and Cariboo crops of winter feed are proving ample.
In Central British Columbia, Bulkley, and Nechako Valleys and Lake Districts the hay and
grain crops are below the average, due to drought conditions. In many instances stockmen
have reduced their herds to meet their feed-supply.
Unless the severe and long winter weather continues the stock should come out of winter
quarters for 1929 in good condition.
HORSES.
The census of the horse population shows a small increase, made up largely of the range
type of horse. Horse-breeding is passing through depressing times, brought about mainly by
the advent of motor-cars and motor-trucks and the curtailing of expensive development
operations.
The breeding of horses is almost entirely confined to the Interior districts of the Province,
the bulk of these horses being sired by Clydesdales and Percherons, and when mature average
in weight around 1,200 to 1,500 lb This weight is hardly heavy enough to command the best
value, which prevails for heavier horses, but these weights fill the demands for farm-horses and
to some extent meet the requirements for delivery-work in the cities. There is a limited demand
for horses of 1,600 lb. and up for heavy dray-work. Such horses when well matched and meeting
weight requirements command good prices, ranging from $500 to $600 per team and up for high-
quality horses.    Light-delivery and general farm horses run from $100 to $200 each.
The breeding of heavy horses of good quality should prove profitable for those who are in
a position to raise such stock. There are still a number of heavy mares found in the Lower
Fraser Valley. To cross on these a Clydesdale stallion was imported from Scotland early
in 1928.
In 1927 our horse population stood at 62,114 horses and in 1928, 62,418, made up as
follows:—■
Stallions, 2 years old and over        657
Mares, 2 years old and over   28,342
Geldings, 2 years old and over  27,474
Colts and fillies, under 2 years  ,     5,945
Total  62,418
This shows an increase of 304 horses over 1927.
BEEF CATTLE.
Statistics show that for 1928 we have 238,240 head of beef cattle, an increase of 19,240 over
1927, the breeds represented being largely Shorthorn, Hereford, and Aberdeen Angus.
Beef prices have been well maintained in comparison with 1927, being from $9.75 per
hundredweight in June to $8.50 per hundredweight in December, a steady rise in price being
noticeable since 1924, when the price stood at $4 per hundredweight to the present figure for
1928. If present prices stand the stockmen engaged in beef production will be able to recuperate
to some extent their losses which were entailed in several lean years.   The level of prices for
4 O 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
stock during the last two years has been one of the most satisfactory and welcome changes
affecting agriculture. World conditions in respect to supply and demand are favourable for
the maintenance of profitable prices to producers for some time to come.
At the bull-sale held under the auspices of the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association
at Kamloops in March, 1928, there were sold: Shorthorns, 35 head; Herefords, 30 head;
Aberdeen Angus, 3 head; prices realized being considerably higher than for some years previous.
The top price for Shorthorns was $530, with an average price of $192; Herefords, $505, average
price $269; Aberdeen Angus, $200, average price $147. Provincial breeders contributed to the
sale 35 Shorthorns, 3 Herefords, 3 Aberdeen Angus, and the balance of 27 head of Herefords
were brought in from Alberta.
One of the needs of the live-stock industry of the Province is a supply of quality beef bulls.
Each year it is necessary to import bulls from outside the Province to partially meet the demands
of stockmen on our range areas. Owing to the scarcity of pure-bred sires, scrub or grade bulls
are used extensively to the detriment of our beef industry. Taking the Province as a whole,
we find that only a small percentage of the beef-bull requirements are produced within our
boundaries. To go outside the Province entails heavy shipping expenses and also the breeder
is obliged to buy on a competitive market. Through the increased price of commercial cattle
the stockman is in a better position to pay higher prices for his bulls, proportionate to their
quality.
The number of cattle and hides shipped from various districts are as follows:—
Cattle. Hides.
Cariboo and South      7,586 3,307
Kamloops and Nicola      7,140 3,540
Okanagan, etc     2,780 6,322
South-east British Columbia       636 3,549
Central British Columbia      1,125 1,570
Totals   19,267 18,288
Appendix No. 21 shows in detail the shipments of beef cattle and hides during each month
of the year from various shipping centres.
DAIRY CATTLE.
The number of dairy cattle for the year 1927 was 118,360 head, and in 1928, 128,004 head,
showing an increase of 9,644 head. In our older dairy districts the dairy industry is on a sound
footing. The fact of the markets becoming more stabilized has created confidence in the
industry. An effort is being made to regulate prices for dairy products as affecting local
conditions.
The supply of whole milk during the spring and early summer is in excess of the demand.
If the surplus milk was separated on the farm and the skim-milk used for feeding purposes,
such as hogs, it would have a tendency to strengthen the whole-milk market.
The results of Cow-testing Associations are noticeable in the higher standard of production
of cows in those districts where such associations have been in operation. This, with more
efficient management and feeding methods, tends to lessen the cost of production.
The British Columbia Breed Associations of Holstein, Jersey, Guernsey, and Ayrshire have
been active during the past year, working in the interests of their respective breeds, the Jersey
Association organizing a number of pure-bred calf clubs. Some very creditable milk and butter-
fat records have been made by members of the above breeds of cattle. The number of bulls
that have been classified under the " advanced registry policy " are as follows:—
Class AA.        Class A.
Jersey     15
Guernsey  ,       1 2
Ayrshire    :..-. .—, „■■<      2 3
(Note.—Returns from Holstein Association have not been received to date.)
Class A bulls are graded on a basis of Individual merit as to their type and record of
ancestry. Class A A bulls are graded on type, individual records of milk and butter-fat production of ancestry, type and production of progeny. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 51
The supply of dairy bulls is ample to meet the demands, the pure-bred breeder usually saving
the bull calves from the best cows, the balance being veal. A lamentable feature is the number
of proven sires being slaughtered after being in use two or three years. These are often sires
which have produced daughters that have made milk and butter-fat records considerably above
the average, and it is this class of bull that we would like to have retained by the stockmen
of this Province.
The prices for good dairy cattle have shown a slight increase during the last two or three
years, running at the present time around $80 to $100 for 2-year-old heifers of good quality and
$125 to $150 for mature cows, the price for pure-bred animals being proportionately higher.
There has been some movement of dairy cattle from points on Vancouver Island to the
Lower Fraser to meet the requirements of the River District.
SWINE.
Swine production has increased from 51,070 in 1927 to 55,004 in 1928, made up of 7,427 brood
sows and 47,577 other live hogs. One litter per sow a year is the general practice, more particularly in the Interior of the Province, and also to a large extent on the Lower Mainland and
on Vancouver Island. We are pleased to note, however, that a number are making suitable
accommodation so that the system of two litters per sow can be practised by properly arranging
for farrowing dates. When this practice is extended it will tend to supply to some extent the
demand for shop hogs during the early part of the spring and summer, when prices are also
more favourable. The prices received during the early summer up to September were fairly
good, after which they took a decided slump. In the early part of the year prices ranged from
13 cents per pound and dropped to 9 cents per pound in the early fall, and for the average
quality of hog around 8% cents per pound has remained fairly permanent for the balance of
the year.
We have encouraged cheaper production by the use of pasture-crops where such can be
utilized in conjunction with by-products from the dairy and farm. Grain feeds must of a
necessity remain comparatively high in the Province owing to our dependence on the Prairies
for a considerable proportion of our supply, and it will be necessary for our farmers to give
careful attention to the cost of production in handling this line of live stock.
Inquiries for breeding stock have been received from Australia and New Zealand, and where
possible local-bred stock has been used to meet these inquiries, the balance being made up by
supplies from outside Provinces.
Thirteen Boys' and Girls' Swine Clubs were organized by the Live Stock Branch in the
following districts: Central British Columbia (Terrace), one; Cariboo (Kersley), one; Kamloops, two; Okanagan (Armstrong), two ; Salmon Arm, one ; Grand Forks, two ; Midway, one;
Cranbrook, one; Courtenay (Vancouver Island), one; Coombs (Vancouver Island), one; in
which 161 boys and girls took part. The object of club-work is to make it practical and educational in the raising of swine. Where District Agriculturists are stationed this work is left
largely under their care and supervision.
The Canadian National Railways extended their policy of granting a free trip to the Toronto
Royal Fair to a team from British Columbia who were members of a Swine Club; Sidney Nash
and Jack Thornton, of Armstrong, winning the right to the trip.
We also extended the ton-litter competition, which was opened up by the Live Stock Branch
in 1927, during the past year and considerable interest was shown by competitors who entered
the contest. Eight litters were entered at Armstrong and four at Courtenay, V.I. Swine
produced by the Boys' and Girls' Clubs and ton-litter contestants are judged on a bacon-type
basis.
At the request of the Live Stock Branch, G. Clarry, of the Swine Division, Ottawa, conducted
a series of meetings dealing with breeding, feeding, and the production of bacon-type hogs, also
demonstrating the cutting-up of carcasses for curing and household purposes. These meetings
were well attended and considerable interest shown in all phases of the demonstrations.
Mr. Clarry also judged the pigs of the Boys' and Girls' Swine Clubs and ton litters.
The interest shown in the club-work and the ton-litter competitions justifies us in extending
this line of the work.
Twenty pure-bred Yorkshire sows were obtained by farmers in the district adjacent to
Vernon, in the Okanagan, the Department of Agriculture paying the freight, it being the intention
of the farmers to utilize these sows as a nucleus to build up future herds.    It is our intention O 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
to assist future shipments of pure-bred sows when sufficient numbers are ordered by farmers
of any district suitable for swine production.
SHEEP.
The sheep population has increased from 130,132 head in 1927 to approximately 170.000
head in 1928, comparable figures since 1925 being as follows: 1925, 62,247; 1926, 102,853; 1927,
130,132; 1928, 170,000. The past year has shown the largest percentage of increase of any
Province in the Dominion. In addition to the 1928 figures, approximately 10,000 breeding ewes
have been brought into the Province during the fall and early winter months. A majority of
these are shipped in from Alberta and Western Saskatchewan, and around 300 from the State
of Washington, the breeding ewes brought in being largely of the Rambouillet breed for range
purposes in the Interior of our Province.
We are rapidly attaining the position of being able to meet our consumptive demands.
The heaviest importations of mutton occur during the months of June to September 1st, being
largely from Australia, New Zealand, California, and Oregon, where early lambs are produced.
To offset this we are endeavouring to encourage the sheepmen on the Coast to plan for early
lambs, the mild weather conditions on the Coast being favourable for this plan. Owing, however,
to the high cost of clearing timber land, together with seeding, the growth of the sheep industry
on the Coast is necessarily slow compared with the Interior, where there are natural grazing
areas. Negotiations are under way with the Dominion Government towards some experimental
work with sheep to utilize logged-off areas along the coast and on Vancouver Island.
Sheep-club work was inaugurated the latter part of the year, but owing to the lateness of
the season in commencing this work we had considerable difficulty in securing suitable ewes to
meet our requirements.
A number of farmers are establishing pure-bred flocks of sheep in an endeavour to cater
to the demand for rams, especially for use on the range flocks, the bulk of the rams used at
present being brought in from points outside the Province.
Your Special Sheep Committee has been active during the past year. Special sheep meetings
were held at points on Vancouver Island, the Lower Fraser and Okanagan Valleys; the subjects
dealt with at these meetings being breeding, feeding, breed types, diseases of sheep, general
care and management, and also shearing contests, docking and preparation of wool for market.
Special sheep fairs were held at Duncan, Armstrong, Williams Lake (Cariboo), and prizes for
special classes for British Columbia bred grade sheep were offered at a number of other fairs.
This brought out sheep owned by local farmers for competition.
Ram-grading was carried out by Dominion officials and it has also been recommended that
the grading of ewe flocks be encouraged to standardize type and quality.
Under the " Sheep Protection Act " $2,449 was paid for losses caused by dogs on forty-six
claims.
GOATS.
Interest in goats continues to increase until at the present time considerable recognition is
being taken of the place goats have in our live-stock industry. At the present time we have
approximately 13,000 goats in the Province, made up of 900 pure-br'eds and 12,100 grades; the
breeders, as in past years, staying close to the three most popular breeds, Saanens, Toggenburgs,
and Nubians;  and we also have around 200 Angoras.
The Dominion Government is instituting, and will carry out in the near future, Record of
Performance tests for milk goats, supervised by their Provincial representatives.
There is an active demand for milk goats and good prices are obtained for this product.
The Goat-breeders' Association has an active membership of 397.
As usual, large exhibits of goats were made at the three big fairs, and classes at smaller
fairs were also well filled.
PURE-BRED MALE ANIMALS FOR FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
There has been an active demand for pure-bred sires by members of Farmers' Institutes,
and such sires have been selected and distributed from this Department as follows: Alberni,
one Ayrshire bull, one Shorthorn bull; Baynes District, one Shorthorn bull, two Poll Angus
bulls; Camp Lister and Huscroft, one Shropshire and one Rambouillet ram ; Cranbrook, one
Guernsey bull; Graham Island, one Aberdeen Angus bull; Kersley, one Shorthorn bull, six
Hereford bulls;  Malcolm Island, one Ayrshire bull;  Mount Carrier District, one Ayrshire bull; Newgate and district, one Shorthorn bull;   Qualicum, one Shropshire ram;   Salmon Arm, one
Guernsey bull.
These sires were all of as high a quality as possible consistent with the limit of price set
by the institute, the Department undertaking to deliver such male animals to the institute's
nearest station.
BRANDS.
I herewith append report from George Pilmer, Recorder of Brands, relative to this phase
of the work of the Live Stock Branch.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS.
More interest is being shown in the Boys' and Girls' Club work. New sections have undertaken to form Boys' and Girls' Swine Clubs and during the past year thirteen clubs were
organized, with a total membership of 161 members. We endeavoured to make this phase of
the work practical and educational. The object of such clubs is to educate the boys and girls
in the proper method of raising swine, both as to general care and feeding. The quality of the
pigs produced when around 6 months of age is usually superior to the class produced by the
average farmer, the pigs attaining a weight of around 190 to 220 lb., which are desirable
weights for market purposes.
It is also the aim of the club-work to encourage boys and girls to produce hogs of desirable
type, so as to put on the market bacon of good quality. It is the intention of this Branch to
extend this work wherever possible, especially in such districts that are deemed suitable for the
production and finishing of swine, utilizing home-grown feeds for finishing purposes.
Swine Clubs were formed at the following places: Central British Columbia (Terrace),
one; Cariboo (Kersley), one ; Kamloops, two ; Okanagan (Armstrong), two ; Salmon Arm, one ;
Grand Forks, two; Midway, one; Cranbrook, one; Courtenay (Vancouver Island), one; Coombs
(Vancouver Island), one.
EXHIBITIONS.
The live stock brought out to our local fairs are showing more uniformity of type each year.
This shows that our breeders are giving more attention to blood lines and standardizing their
breeding operations. This is probably more noticeable in our dairy classes of live stock. Our
breeders are recognizing the importance of strong blood lines and a number have brought in
high-class sires at considerable cost. Not only is type being stressed, but probsfbly the strongest
feature is the production end of the dairy-animal business and incorporating as much type as
consistent with production.
The number of horses brought out to our fairs have not increased, but the quality is quite
commendable. There appears to be a revival of interest in the carriage classes and also saddle-
horses.
The quality of our sheep and swine has been quite up to the standard at our fall fairs
in 1928.
An exhibit of Holstein cattle was made at the Toronto Royal and also an exhibit of Jersey
and Ayrshire cattle was sent to the Portland Fair. Also two or three breeders, especially of the
Jersey and Guernsey breeds, made an exhibit of the Prairie circuit and were able to hold their
own in competition with Eastern herds.
Respectfully submitted. \m Knight,
Live Stock Commissioner.
REPORT OF CHIEF VETERINARY INSPECTOR, VICTORIA.
Dr. A. G. Knight, V.S.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith report of your Veterinary staff for the j'ear ended December
31st, 1928.
The year has been singularly free from any serious outbreak of contagious diseases among
the stock throughout British Columbia. It is quite true there have been cases reported of small
outbreaks of, various diseases, which will be listed under their different headings. O 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
PLANT-POISONING.
There is little to report on this phase of trouble among our live stock. There have been
some small losses, chiefly from water-hemlock. These losses occur usually in the early spring
of the year and more especially on farms where the owners have not provided sufficient winter
feed and are obliged to turn their cattle out early in the spring. This particular plant is one
of the earliest to show up in the spring months and is usually found growing on moist or
swampy soil. For this reason it is the first to put in a green appearance and thus proves
somewhat attractive to cattle and other stock after being on dry feed throughout the winter.
The effects of eating this plant are usually fatal, as the root and stem contain an oily
substance which is readily assimilated by the digestive system and death results quite promptly.
Owing to the rapid action there is often little chance of applying remedial measures. Wherever
the animal can be taken in hand immediately by the administration of some of the oils or
fats which may incorporate the active principle of the poison and thus render inert or prolong
the period of absorption and give the animal a chance to recover, but, as already stated, it is
very seldom that the animals are seen promptly enough for any aid to be given them.
Advice has been given to farmers to prevent animals visiting swampy or moist places
where this plant is prevalent, but year after year the farmers will take the chance, and thus
there are more pr less losses sustained every spring and sometimes throughout the grazing period.
Death caused by sheep grazing over areas where death-camas was prevalent has entailed
slight losses, but the herders and rangemen as they become familiar with such areas avoid
drifting their sheep over the infested ground. Usually this plant is found on fairly well-
defined areas in sufficient numbers to cause trouble by the grazing of live stock and probably
will never assume any great importance in this Province.
The plant known as Astragulus campestris, of the legume family, is found over considerable
areas of our range country between the altitude of 2,000 to 4,000 feet. This plant does not
readily cause death, but produces, after prolonged consumption of same, emaciation and
certain nervous diseases such as semi-paralysis, loss of voice, etc., and more especially it is more
deleterious to ewes suckling lambs than other sheep. However, where other green forage-
plants are available, the sheep usually will not eat sufficient of this plant to cause disorders of
the digestive system to an extent that would interfere with their general health.
Larkspur and lupines at the present time are not causing us any particular concern as
these plants are not found in sufficient numbers to cause trouble, unless animals are drifted
over certain ar?as where other forage has been depleted and have to subsist entirely on
larkspur and lupines, which is very seldom the ease in this Province.
ABORTION.
This disease continues to take considerable toll of our young calves year after year. It is
under investigation by the Dominion and other countries throughout the world and we are
awaiting the results of their investigations and experimental work. At the present time we
have no definite or practical means of controlling this disease. It is quite true that the aggluna-
tion test is fairly accurate and is adopted to a very limited extent. However, it requires special
laboratory facilities for carrying out this work and in its present stage it is very cumbersome
and probably not as practical as we would like. Our general advice to the farmer is to adopt
sanitary measures, disinfection of stables, and isolation of infected cattle.
ACTINOMYCOSIS.
There have only been two cases reported this year and these have been from dairy stock.
The cases reported were destroyed by the owner. This disease is controllable and curable in
the early stages by the administration of potassium iodide. In the advanced stages it generally
involves the destruction of the animal and the burying or burning of the carcass. This disease
has not assumed any serious proportions in British Columbia.
HOG-CHOLERA.
This disease is under the supervision and control of the Dominion officers. There have
been a few outbreaks of hog-cholera in British Columbia, but they are now under control. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 55
HEMORRAGHIC  SEPTICEMIA.
A number of outbreaks of this trouble have been reported from time to time by settlers in
different districts of British Columbia. Usually these have been confined to a few head of
young cattle and the disease has often disappeared as quickly as the sudden onslaught. However, it has made its appearance in the herds of some of our larger stockmen of the Interior
where beef cattle are being produced. They have suffered considerable losses amongst their
calves and yearlings, more especially the former. A number of these men are now adopting the
use of serum as a preventive for the disease. At the present moment I do not know as to what
benefit they are deriving from this course, but your Veterinary staff is keeping in touch with
the situation and would be pleased to note if any benefit is derived from this system of
treatment.
Throughout some portions of the Province, especially along the coast, the appearance of
this disease is usually confined to young stock running on low or swampy ground and generally
occurs during March, June, and early parts of July. Probably climatic conditions, together
with the nature of the ground over which the young stock are running, has something to do
with the appearance of the disease at this particular time of the year.
The great majority of cases proved fatal, the duration of the disease being very short and
active. I am pleased, however, to report that this disease has not assumed any large proportions
and the number of cases did not appear to increase year after year.
BLACKLEG.
Two cases of reported outbreaks of blackleg were received at this office during the past year.
Upon receipt of. same an Inspector was delegated to make an inspection of the premises and
cattle and to advise as to treatment. Blackleg vaccination was advocated and adopted by the
owners of cattle and no further losses were reported.
TUBERCULOSIS.
The majority of the cities within the Province have by-laws in effect calling for a certificate
of health and a tuberculin test from officials of this Department before a licence is granted to
sell milk within their cities. Your Inspectors have been devoting practically all their time
to this phase of the work, together with the sanitary inspection of stables and dairies. I herewith append a list of the districts visited by your Inspectors, together with the number of the
premises visited, number of cattle tested, and reactors found. There have been 870 herds
tuberculin-tested, with a total of 7,828 head of cattle, and 207 reactors.
The Dominion Inspectors have started the third test of the dairy cattle in what is known
as the Lower Fraser Valley T.B. Restricted Area, commencing this work about the beginning
of November. It will take some two or three months to complete this work, and to date the
results of the test are not to hand, but, so far as the ground covered would indicate, the
percentage will be well within 1 per cent.
During the past year, working under the " Milk Act" passed in 1927, your Inspectors have
visited and graded 1,477 dairy premises, as follows: 261 classed under Grade A; 1,024 under
Grade B; and 192 under Grade C. This would indicate that the majority of the stables and
dairies supplying milk to cities were in a fair condition as regards their premises. Those
classified under Grade C were visited a number of times with the idea of lending advice to the
owners towards improving their conditions, and I am pleased to note that your Inspectors
report that there was considerable improvement during the past year. New milk-houses have
been erected, dairy-barns have been remodelled, and several new barns built. Considerable
attention is given to the water-supply used in handling the milk and in the washing of the
cans and other utensils. Wherever there is running water, milk-coolers have been installed
and have proven beneficial in the cooling of milk, which adds to its keeping qualities. There
are a few farms that are somewhat handicapped by not having a good water-supply and they
found it very difficult to keep the milk within desirable temperatures. Advice has also been
given in instructing dairy-farmers as to the proper methods of cooling and handling the milk
and keeping their stables and dairy cows in good clean condition.
A clinical examination is made of the individuals of the herd and any animals that show
a chronic diseased condition are either destroyed or quarantined and milk from such cows is
prohibited from sale. Attention is also given to the cleanliness, lighting, and air-space of the stables, and the
proper time and method of feeding so as to avoid as much dust and litter prior to milking, so as
to minimize the probable contamination of the milk.
Advice and assistance to farmers is also rendered by your Inspectors from time to time
where no practising veterinarian is available.    This phase of advice and consideration by your
Inspectors is greatly appreciated by cattlemen throughout the Province.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Chief Veterinary Inspector.
REPORT OF RECORDER OF BRANDS, VICTORIA.
Geo. Pilmer.
Dr. A. G. Knight, V.S.,
Live-stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the year ended December 31st, 1928.
Attached please find statement of cattle and hides shipped from the various districts of the
Province.
The number of brands recorded and renewed during the year 1928 was as follows:—
Cattle-brands recorded   133
Horse-brands recorded      88
Renewals, horse and cattle   412
Total     633
In order to meet the wishes of the cattlemen as far as is possible under the present " Stock-
brands Act," particular attention was paid to the following:—
INSPECTION-WORK.
A circular was sent to all Brand Inspectors instructing them to check up on unregistered
brands, especially when stock was being shipped, and to enforce other provisions of the Act
and to see that the correct fees were charged.
Inspector Cahilty at Kamloops has been active in reporting on unregistered brands, and
on representations from this office a number of stock-owners in his district have put their brands
in good standing.
HIDE  INSPECTION.
Complaints having been received that some hide-dealers were collecting hides by motor-truck
and taking them for inspection to districts outside of the district in which they were collected,
instructions were issued to Inspectors, and hide-dealers were notified also, that hides must be
inspected in the district in which they were collected, and inspection refused on any hides not
collected in the district in which they were presented for inspection.
Notices were also mailed to all hide-buyers with their licences for 1929 that they must
observe the provisions of the Act by keeping the records and making the reports required.
INSPECTION REPORTS.
At the request of the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association, new monthly inspection
report-books were printed, providing for reports in triplicate, and a letter was sent to all stock
associations offering to supply them with a copy of the monthly report of inspections made in
their district.
Those who took advantage of the opportunity are: Big Creek Stock-breeders' Association,
Big Creek; Lillooet Stock-raisers' Association, Ashcroft; British Columbia Stock-breeders'
Association, Kamloops (for Heffley Creek, Louis Creek, and Upper North Thompson) ; Riske
Creek Stock-breeders' Association, Riske Creek; Creston Valley Stock-breeders' Association,
Creston ; Stock-breeders' Association of Greenwood, Greenwood; Meadow Valley Live Stock
Association, Summerland; Nicola Stock-breeders' Association, Merritt; and the Inspectors in
these districts are forwarding copies of the monthly inspection reports. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 57
PROSECUTIONS.
During 1928 two prosecutions were made by the police for infractions of the Act and
salutary sentences given. More cases could be taken up, but reluctance to lay information
handicaps this work.
AMENDMENTS.
Several important amendments to strengthen the Act are under discussion with the stock-
owners through their associations, and it is hoped to have them ready in ample time for
presentation at the 1929-30 session of the Legislature.
Respectfully submitted. George Pn.MER,
Recorder of Brands.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, COURTENAY.
E. R. Bewell, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report as District Agriculturist at Courtenay for 1928 for your
consideration.
LIMESTONE.
During 1928 I continued to give considerable time and assistance to the Comox Limestone
and Fertilizer Company, which has just wound up another successful year. Lime rock was
secured from Blubber Bay as previously and ground at Courtenay, and an increased demand
supplied. Farmers are recognizing the value of ground limestone and generally favour its use,
but many are handicapped by lack of funds with which to purchase it. Seven hundred and
seventy tons were sold during 1928.
The suggestion has been made, and I consider it a sound one, that a bonus should be given
by the Government of from $1 to $2 per ton for all limestone used, for a few years, or until its
^general use was established. This could be $2 per ton until 3,000 tons per year were purchased
by farmers and $1 per ton up to 5,000 tons. After that amount the price could be reduced if
the volume was kept up. In this way an excellent service would be given the farmers which
would greatly reduce cost of producing.
During 1928 eleven car-loads of limestone Were supplied from Courtenay to farmers on
Vancouver Island, and the business has now grown so that it was considered advisable to make
a change in method of operation.
It has been felt for some time that it would be more economical to have the crushing done
at the quarry, and arrangements have been made whereby the Rosebank Lime Company at
Colwood will now do the manufacturing and the local company act as distributers. This will
greatly relieve the amount of time and assistance that I will need to give them, and in another
year they should be in a position to carry on without my assistance.
SOIL-TESTING.
There is a big demand to have soils tested for acidity and also analysed for available plant-
food. I usually had a Soiltex outfit with me to test soils for acidity and was able to advise
on limestone requirements. Late in the year I got a more up-to-date testing outfit called Soil
Teskit, which appears quite accurate. In some instances it indicates that the soil requires
from 6 to 8 tons of limestone per acre, so it is quite necessary to keep .the product at a low
price in order to get the farmers to use it.
Several samples of soil were taken, and received from farmers by mail, for analysis. These
were forwarded to Ottawa for partial analysis and were a guide in advising farmers on the
needs of the soils.
FERTILIZERS.
Some experimental work with fertilizers was carried on and some good results obtained,
especially in one case where an apple-tree was treated with sulphate of potash (5 lb.). The
tree was badly infected with anthracnose and was apparently dying. I advised an application
of 5 lb. of sulphate of potash in April when the tree was in bloom, but leaves had not appeared. Other trees in the orchard were out in full leaf. Dead wood was cut out and the orchard
watered. This apple-tree came back to life and produced a crop of apples, many badly infected
with scab as the tree had been neglected, but a good healthy leaf was produced, as well as a very
healthy bark, and the tree promises to continue to be productive. The experiment is being
carried on another year to try and demonstrate that potash is a chief factor in controlling
anthracnose.
POTATO FIELD-DAYS.
A potato field-day was held at Alberni towards the middle of August and was well
attended, and keen interest in diseases was shown by the farmers.
POTATO-CROP CONDITIONS.
Interest in potatoes locally has died down on account of a big crop in 1927 which could
not be sold. The certified seed-potato business has also gone back here as farmers could not
sell what they did grow. This was reflected in the potato-show last November as well. The
certified seed-potato production could be greatly increased if measures were taken to encourage
the commercial grower to use the best seed available. Classes for commercial potatoes grown
from certified seed, as well as classes of commercial seed grown from certified seed, should be
included in the prize-list of the winter fair. This last class could be purchased at a price that
the commercial grower could afford to pay. Later on, when the general run of certified seed
is produced at a lower cost, the growers could be encouraged to use certified seed, but at
present there is only enough certified seed produced to plant about 5 per cent, of the acreage
of the Province.
The certified seed-potato grower will be greatly handicapped until a better grade of seed
is available, as many fields are planted now with badly diseased seed, making it impossible to
produce certified seed in many districts. This fact, coupled with a poor demand, has discouraged
most of the growers in this district that have in years past grown certified seed-potatoes.
LIVE STOCK.
During 1928 the live-stock situation has continued at about the same level as in 1927.    About*
150 dairy cows were sold and shipped out of the district, and prices have been fairly steady,
with a tendency to go a bit higher.
A car-load of hogs was shipped out in January, but prices were low at that time. Farmers
got only 8 cents per pound. Other shipments have been made during the year in quantities of
twenty to forty head, but no full car-loads. The swine industry is in such a shape that there
are too many for the home market but not enough to be able to make regular shipments or
have a market-day.
Arrangements were made for a buyer to take out a car-load of pigs at the time of the fall
fair, but a hitch developed in the plans and the local buyers stepped in and bought up enough
to spoil a car-load shipment and left the market oversupplied. The Boys' and Girls' Pig Club
had a splendid lot of pigs and again won second place in the inter-club contest, as well as
making a creditable showing at the fall fair here. A ton-litter contest was also held which
created considerable interest, and indications are that a larger number of entries will be made
this year.    Yorkshires are predominant and almost exclusively the only breed raised here.
The sheep industry has been quiet, but indications are that this branch will increase this
year, and many farmers are asking about how to get started in this district and have applied
to get sheep through Sheep Clubs.
MARKETING PROBLEMS.
During 1928 I gave the question of marketing considerable study and assisted the Comox
Growers' Co-operative Association in bringing a scheme to establish an educational marketing
board before the farming public. The idea was well received but no action taken to set up
this board.
The idea of establishing an egg pool in British Columbia was next brought forward, and
I assisted at several meetings and have taken an active part in creating an interest in this form
of marketing, and it now looks as if an egg pool will be an accomplished fact before the spring
of 1929. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 59
I attended the meetings held by the Alberta Institute of Co-operation, held at Edmonton
during the last week of June, and received a great deal of valuable information along this line,
and I am convinced that much can be done to improve agricultural conditions by assisting in
forming commodity pools to market the farmers' produce.
JUDGING AT FAIRS.
During 1928 I judged at the following fairs: Victoria, South Vancouver, Burquitlam, Haney,
Armstrong, and Salmon Arm. Field crops and vegetables were the chief sections judged. I also
attended the Vancouver Winter Fair, and during the year assisted the local Horticultural
Society in organizing and staging three large flower-shows, four garden-flower shows, and a
garden competition. The Horticultural Society is now well established and is planning quite an
extensive programme for 1929.
MEETINGS.
During the year I have attended meetings of Farmers' Institutes at many places and given
addresses on various agricultural subjects. Among places visited are Hornby Island, Denman
Island, Parksville, Nanaimo, Alberni, Duncan, and Victoria.
A supply of bulletins is always kept on hand which are always in demand. Mornings were
usually spent in the office and afternoons visiting farmers, making inspections of soil, stock,
crops, or in drainage problems.
Correspondence throughout the year has been quite heavy. A great many inquiries have
been received asking about limestone and fertilizers, as well as information about the district.
Several articles have been written for the local papers on agricultural subjects, and I have
been able to come in contact with a great many farmers in this way, that I do not meet
ordinarily.
Respectfully submitted. E. R. Bewell,
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, KAMLOOPS.
G. W. Challenger, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the report of the office of the District Agriculturist,
Kamloops, for the year ended December 31st, 1928.
SEASONAL CONDITIONS.
The season of 1928 in the district was generally a very satisfactory one as far as weather
conditions were concerned. The late winter was mild, with very little snowfall, and the spring
opened up early. Work on the land was well under way by the middle of April and late spring
rains in May and June were welcome. The summer was rather hot and dry, but not abnormally
so, and haying and harvesting operations were carried on under ideal conditions. A very open
fall and winter, with no low temperatures and very little rain or snow till the end of the year,
was much appreciated, particularly by the stockmen, as very little winter-feeding was thus
necessary, which condition was the reverse of that of the fall and winter of 1927.
FIELD  CROPS.
Grain-crops yielded heavier on the average than in 1927, particularly in the dry-farming
sections. More soil-moisture was available, and, while the rainfall was not large during the
growing season, it helped considerably to increase the yields in these sections. Fall grains in
the Okanagan were not as good as might be desired and the quality was low on the average,
but fair yields were realized on land following corn, roots, or pasture. Spring grains in the
Rose Hill-Knutsford area yielded 20 per cent, above last year, and were an improvement in
quality, due to the sufficiency of moisture and the absence of grasshoppers. Grain on irrigated
lands did well.
One of the largest hay-crops ever put up in this district was harvested during the season
1928. Irrigation-water was abundant, haying weather was ideal, and the season was long, all
of which was conducive to the large tonnage which was put up.    The quality was No. 1, there O 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
being very little spoilage due to inclement weather. Yields per acre were 25 per cent, above
normal. While considerable hay has moved out of the Thompson Valley, particularly from
Kamloops and Ashcroft, there is a large surplus still on hand. The cattle and sheep ranches
put up bumper crops of alfalfa and other hays, particularly in the Nicola Valley—one large
ranch putting up over 8,000 tons. Hay-crops in the Salmon Arm and Okanagan sections were
above normal.
Potato, corn, and root crops on the average were only fair. Potato acreage was approximately 50 per cent, of the 1927 acreage, and the yield also was down. Very little supplies of
potatoes were on hand by the end of the year and the dealers and jobbers had no difficulty in
handling the crop. The tomato season was very exceptional, no serious frosts being experienced
until October 15th.
Ranges, particularly the spring and fall ranges, were never in better condition, and, due
to the moisture and absence of grasshoppers and other pests, became well established during the
growing season and by fall were in better condition than for many years. Pastures in the
mixed-farming areas, with the exception of sweet clover and alfalfa mixtures, showed a tendency to dry up in the early summer.
LIVE   STOCK.
The beef-cattle industry in the district, as in the Province and Dominion as a whole, has
experienced a stabilization of the better price levels which were obtained in the fall of 1927.
The cattle-ranchers have received a more adequate return for their marketable product, in the
form of finished steers, and considering the exceptional year as to range conditions, abundance
of feed, absence of serious outbreaks of grasshoppers, the large crops of hay and ensilage
which, in nearly every case, has been put up, and the very open fall and winter, which necessitated very little feeding, the cattle business is on a sounder basis than for many years back.
Advantage has been taken, by some of our leading rangemen, of the Provincial Bull-sale and
Fat-stock Show and the Vancouver Winter Fair by disposing of their finished steers in the
car-lot and group classes as well as the singles. There is also a tendency by many of the
cattlemen of the district to dispose of their cull " she-stuff " while the price level remains high,
keeping only the good typy cows and regular breeders. Several importations of imported breeding animals of the beef breeds have been made by some of our leading cattlemen, which will
tend to improve the grade and quality of the cattle in the Province.
The sheep population in the district has increased rapidly during the year and many importations of range breeding ewes have been made from Prairie points. Two large bands of around
2,000 head have been brought in to the district from Alberta. Many other smaller bands have
been brought in by sheepmen in the Nicola Valley, Mamette Lake, and North Thompson points.
The Prairie sheep, on the whole, have done very well, even the first year they have been
imported. Lamb-crops of 120 to 135 per cent, were obtained in the spring by some of the
larger sheepmen on ewes brought into the district in the fall of 1927. A very pronounced
interest in the sheep business is therefore apparent, and ranches, with the facilities of early
spring and late fall ranges, plenty of irrigation-water, and easily accessible to summer ranges,
are in considerable demand. The climate, ranges, and topography of the district seem to be
more or less ideal for the economic production, on a large scale, of market-lambs and high-
quality wool.
Dairy cattle and the further development of mixed farming, which in nearly every case
accompanies the introduction of the dairy cow, has been most notable in the Okanagan during
the year. We find the more or less specialized fruit-farmer of former days turning to dairying
where his facilities will permit, and the grain-farmer of the North Okanagan is realizing that
he has for years been cropping his soil and has not returned sufficient to the land to maintain
fertility. Alfalfa and the dairy cow are doing a great deal to restore much of this lost fertility
and the dairying business is returning a small but adequate profit for the farmer's labour,
investment, and feed.
The creameries throughout the valley have had a substantial increase in butter " make "
during the year. While the price per pound of butter-fat to the farmers is not high, compared
to butter-fat on the whole-milk basis, the fact that extremely large yields of alfalfa and ensilage
Crops can be obtained in nearly every section of the valley brings the cost of production of
butter-fat to a minimum figure.    The pure-bred breeders of dairy cattle have been carrying on their R.O.P. work and several creditable records have been made. Sales of breeding stock by
these men to other breeders and also to commercial dairymen have been considerable and
a further development of this phase of the dairy industry in the district is inevitable. To this
end we find the establishment of several new pure-bred herds of Jerseys in Vernon, Kelowna,
and Summerland Districts and Ayrshires in the Armstrong and Grindrod sections. Foundations
for these new herds were obtained in the Okanagan and also from Fraser Valley breeders.
A very creditable showing of pure-bred and grade dairy cattle was displayed this year at the
North Okanagan Fall Fair, the majority of the cattle shown being from the herds of local
breeders.
The hog industry, while not being greatly encouraged by high prices, has shown a substantial increase in the Interior during the year. The hog business has kept pace with the
advancement of the dairy cow and we find more shipments of hogs and at more regular intervals
being made than formerly. Several of the larger fruitmen have found the hog to be a very
profitable side-line to their orchard-work, marketing the large quantities of inferior grade and
cull apples and harvesting their alfalfa. Running hogs on alfalfa has produced very cheap
gains, provided the necessary grain ration has been furnished as well.
Our grain-farmers, both in the dry-farming sections and in the mixed-farming areas, are
feeding their low-grade grains to swine. Better-finished hogs of more desirable type are being
noticed on every side and added interest is being taken in the ton-litter competition and Boys'
and Girls' Swine Clubs throughout the district.
Regarding the horse industry in the Interior, there is still a demand for a good big gelding
by the city interests, particularly from the Coast centres. Several car-loads of draught horses
have been shipped to Vancouver from horse-breeders at Kamloops. A Clydesdale stallion of
considerable size and quality was purchased by a North Okanagan horseman. This horse
travelled the Okanagan during the summer.
The light-horse business has been stimulated in the district by assistance from the
Dominion Government. In the Nicola Valley thoroughbred stallions are standing at service
and many selected mares were bred during the year. A good showing of blooded horses was
displayed at the Kamloops Fall Fair.
B.C.  STOCK-BREEDERS' ASSOCIATION.
Your representative has at all times endeavoured to encourage and assist the development
of agriculture in the district and as such has had the honour and privilege of being associated
with several organizations during the year.
The British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association has had a busy year during 1928. The
annual meeting was held on February 21st, in conjunction with the Western Canada Live Stock
Union, at the Hotel Vancouver. Many important problems relating to the live-stock industry
were discussed and delegates sat in on the executive meetings of the Western CanadS'Live Stock
Union, where plans were laid for the better-beef campaign, hog policy, etc. The association
is affiliated with the Western Canada Live Stock Union, from which association the greatest
support and co-operation is received.
The tenth annual Provincial Bull-sale and Fat-stock Show under the auspices of the
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association, substantially assisted by the Dominion and
Provincial Live Stock Branches, was held at the Arena, Kamloops, on Wednesday and Thursday,
March 27th and 28th. Due possibly to the upward trend in the beef-cattle industry, the buyers
were particularly keen on a smaller entry of bulls than former years. The top price of the
sale was $530, paid by F. B. Ward. Douglas Lake Cattle Company, for " Donalda Commander,"
grand champion bull of the show, and entered by the Stepney Ranch, Armstrong. Top price
for Herefords was paid by the Tranquille Sanatorium Farm for " Exmoor Roy." Thirty Hereford
bulls averaged $269 and thirty-two Shorthorns $230.    Two Aberdeen Angus bulls averaged $190.
The fat-stock show in connection with the bull-sale was characterized by a larger entry of
higher-quality finished beef than ever before. There were three car-lot entries of fifteen steers,
seven groups of five steers, thirty-four entries in the weight classes for single steers, and twenty-
two in the boys' and girls' calf-feeding competition. Miss Annie Turner won the championship
in the boys' and girls' competition with her pure-bred roan steer, which was also grand champion
of the show. This steer, under the new ruling, was not sold, but was taken to the Calgary
Show the following week, where it also won grand championship, bringing outstanding honour O 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
to the Province. The Guichon Ranch, Quilchena, had the championship car, which sold for
$11.45 per hundred. A. T. Howe's first-prize group of five brought $11.90, and G. Frolek & Sons'
Shorthorn steer, " Reserve Champion," brought top price for singles of 20 cents per pound. The
packers and butchers supported the fat-stock show well.
The Stock-breeders' Association, through Directors Sangster and McMorran, was represented
at the special conference held in Winnipeg, June 28th, to discuss the better-beef campaign.
They reported much progress in this very essential work.
A lamb survey was taken of the Province during the summer by correspondence with the
sheepmen. It was found that, while there would be no surplus in the very immediate future,
care will have to be taken by the sheepmen in order not to flood the market, as the great
majority of the British Columbia lambs are available at one time during the year (e.g., September to November). The association has endeavoured to encourage the pure-bred breeders
by assisting in the Toronto Royal Winter Fair and Pacific International Live Stock Exposition
shipments. Members of the association were also assisted in the way of transportation on
pure-breds purchased by them in the Province. The directors and members of the association
have taken an active part during the year in the development of the live-stock industry. Your
representative had the honour and privilege of acting as secretary-treasurer for the above
association during the year.
B.C. SHORTHORN AND HEREFORD BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS.
The annual meeting of the British Columbia Shorthorn Breeders' Association was held at
the Arena, Kamloops, on March 28th. The association was privileged in having Professor G. E.
Day, secretary of the Dominion Shorthorn Breeders' Association, in attendance and much of
interest and assistance to the Shorthorn business was obtained by this contact with the parent
association. Grants to the important fall fairs for British Columbia bred Shorthorns were made
during the year to encourage the further breeding of Shorthorn cattle in the Province, which
grants, in all cases, were offered as special prizes and which were keenly contested for. The
bull-sale and the Vancouver Winter Fair were extremely well patronized by the members of
the British Columbia Shorthorn Breeders' Association. More of the Shorthorn breeders are
being interested in the showing of their cattle, all of which should be conducive to better
breeding and finishing. The improved condition of the beef-cattle industry in our Province, as
elsewhere, has put the breeding and raising of pure-bred Shorthorn bulls on an economic basis
and has been a considerable encouragement to the members of the association.
The B.C. Hereford Breeders' Association has endeavoured to encourage the pure-bred Hereford business during the year, but, due to the limited membership, has found the matter
difficult. It is regrettable, at this time, with the large demand for pure-bred Hereford breeding
stock by our cattlemen, among many of whom the White-faced breed is a very strong favourite,
that we have not more breeders in the Province. The requirements of our cattlemen for
Hereford bulls must be met elsewhere, whereas members of the British Columbia Hereford
Breeders' Association should be raising sufficient bulls to meet these requirements. The grand
champion car-lot of steers and grand champion group of five steers at both the Provincial Fat-
stock Show at Kamloops and the Vancouver Winter Fair were Hereford steers shown by
members of this association.
Your Agriculturist has much appreciated the opportunity of acting as secretary for both
of these associations during the year.
B.C. WOOL-GROWERS' ASSOCIATION.
The British Columbia Wool-growers' Association has had a very successful year and the
increase in the wool-clip of the Province has been noteworthy. An increase of approximately
20 per cent, over 1927 in wool shipped to the Canadian Co-operative was noticed, shipments
of wool in car-lots having been made not only from Kamloops, but also from the Cariboo and
the Kootenays. The price returns have also shown a substantial increase over the past year,
which has been very favourably received by the sheepmen.
A sheep-sale was held by the association on October 4th, and while the numbers and
quality of the sheep offered were not above the average, a fair price was realized, much in
accordance with the Prairie sales. The offering of rams was quickly snapped up and it has
been expressed by many sheepmen that the value of a ram-sale at this time of year is considerable. The headquarters of this association is in the office of your Branch at Kamloops and every
assistance is given to this association and the sheep industry at all times.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
During the year considerable activity has been noticed in the Farmers' Institutes throughout the district. Annual meetings have been well attended and interest in the work of the
institutes has been manifested in the majority of cases. In addition, field-days have been held
by some of the institutes, which have been inducive of much social and educational benefit.
Your representative has assisted the work of the institutes in every way possible during the
year. Addresses have been given at annual meetings and on field-days and an attempt has
been made to keep the institutes interested, which may be lagging a little. Through some of
the institutes junior stock- and crop-judging teams have been organized and instructed. In
conjunction with the members for the district on the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes, an
attempt will be made during 1929 to visit each institute, which should encourage this phase of
the work.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' WORK.
The boys' and girls' calf-feeding competition in connection with the Annual Provincial Bull-
sale and Fat-stock Show was well patronized by the boys and girls of the Interior and also
Coast points. Assistance and instruction was given in the feeding, care, and management of
their entries whenever possible.
Five Swine Clubs were organized in the district during 1928—two at Armstrong, two at
Kamloops, and one at Salmon Arm. Where weanling pigs were not available arrangements
were made for the same. The hogs were all ear-marked and only hogs so marked were eligible
in the competitions. The members were visited whenever possible and instruction in feeding
and management given. The boys and girls took a very keen interest in their work and many
well-finished hogs were exhibited at the various fairs where the clubs were located. In this connection mention might also be made of the winning Provincial swine-judging team from Armstrong, which, as guests of the Canadian National Railways, participated in the interprovincial
swine-judging and demonstration competition at the Toronto Royal Winter Fair on November
22nd.    This is the first time a team from British Columbia has participated in this event.
Junior stock-judging work was carried on in the district during the year and teams from
Kamloops, Salmon Arm, and Armstrong were coached for the Vancouver and New Westminster
summer fairs. Regular weekly stock and crop-judging classes were held at the above points
and a good turnout of the young people was obtained. Assistance in the work of coaching the
teams was obtained from local young men who were interested, they being Hector Ford, of
Armstrong, and H. E. Waby, Jr., of Salmon Arm. The Salmon Arm team was the high team
at both Vancouver and New Westminster in live stock and field crops, winning the British
Columbia Stock-breeders' and British Columbia Agronomists' Trophies.
FALL FAIRS.
The fall fairs throughout the district are performing a considerable service to the agricultural development therein. Of importance must be mentioned the North Okanagan, Salmon
Arm, Kamloops, and other fall fairs, at which a good turnout of quality live stock, field crops,
and farm produce was displayed. The farming public have taken considerable interest in
these events.
Your representative acted as live-stock judge at the following fall fairs during the year:
Agassiz, Mission, Matsqui, Nakusp, Creston, and Slocan City. The quality and number of the
dairy cattle particularly, in the first three fairs mentioned, is worthy of note.
GENERAL.
At various times throughout the year, at the request of the Land Settlement Board, calls
have been made on properties under this Board and appraisals made.
A minimum of grasshopper trouble Was experienced throughout the Southern Interior
during the year and the mixing-station at Kamloops was not opened up. Shipments of sodium
arsenate and amyl acetate, however, were made to Cariboo and Chilcotin points, to assist in
the destruction of grasshoppers there. Some poison bait was also used in the Nicola Valley
by some of the larger cattlemen for grasshoppers on the ranges. Supplies of poison at country
points were checked up and shipped .back to the warehouse and mixing-station at Kamloops. Seed-grain tests were supervised for the Department of Agronomy of the University of
British Columbia and crop reports and other data relative to field-crop work were furnished
to the Provincial Agronomist at regular intervals.
The office of your Branch at Kamloops is being used more and more by the farmers and
stockmen of the district. Correspondence, both incoming and outgoing, shows an increase
over 1927. Pamphlets on agricultural subjects, herd-books of the various breed associations, and
current agricultural periodicals are on the files for the benefit of those interested, and a considerable call for them is being made at various times.
Respectfully submitted. G  w  Challenger,
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, CRANBROOK.
H. S. French, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as District Agriculturist for the East Kootenay
District for 1928.
WEATHER AND GENERAL CONDITIONS.
Weather conditions throughout the season have been for the most part very favourable
from an agricultural standpoint. The farmers have been very fortunate in regard to the
amount of rainfall during the growing season, the result being that most crops made very good
growth at this time, followed by ideal harvesting weather when the time came. The benefits of
this kind of weather were quite noticeable in regard to the abundant crops of hay, grain, and
most field crops which were obtained at harvesting-time. No doubt some of the grain did not
size up as well as was expected, but this was possibly due to the very cool nights and weather
at the earlier part of the season.
Referring to the yield of grain this year, on getting results obtained from some of the larger
grain-growers, it is found that the average yield of oats was approximately 35 to 40 bushels
per acre and of wheat between 23 and 25 bushels per acre. This is believed to be a fair average
for this district. The potato-crops were not quite up to the crops of last year. This was
possibly due to the fact of the cool weather in the earlier part of the season, and to the ravages
of the army-worm in some sections of the district. The yield would possibly average between
5 and 6 tons per acre.
During the harvesting-time the weather was for the most part comparatively free from
rainfall. This, allowed the farmers to harvest their crops for the most part with the least
possible loss, due to bad weather which might be encountered, should the weather have been
wet or cold. Towards the latter part of the season there was a certain amount of rainfall which
was very beneficial in leaving the soil in a better condition for fall ploughing. Many have taken
advantage of this, with the result that some farmers have completed their fall ploughing, and
in this way these men will be in a good position next spring to go right ahead with their spring
work just as soon as the weather conditions permit and as soon as they are more or less out
of all danger of the possibility of frost to set them back. On some farms fall grain has been
planted, some of which has attained a height sufficient to act as a retainer of the snow and
which will in this way avoid danger of the grain freezing and being killed by frost. This would
be more apt to happen in those fields which have no natural reasonable protection from forests
or some other natural windbreak and are in an open exposed area.
LIVE STOCK.       ..      -
This branch entails a varied line of work which could be divided under a good many
headings, the main ones of which could be included under the following headings: Beef-raising,
dairying, sheep-breeding, horse-breeding, swine, and poultry.
Beef-raising.—It is regrettable that this district, which has been for a good many years
a stock country, has not in a good many cases the quality of beef cattle which one would expect
to find. There are possibly several reasons for this: First, the fact that a few years ago the
price of cattle went to a very low figure and many people went out of beef stock;   another DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 65
reason that no doubt has some effect on this industry was the fact that there has been considerable cattle-rustling going on in this district this last few years, numerous breeders losing
some of their best calves and younger stock, which were possibly ready for the market, by
different cattle-rustlers who have apparently been operating in various parts of the East
Kootenay District. For these reasons various men have apparently gone out of beef-raising.
Owing to the price of beef having advanced these last few years, with the possibility of it
remaining up for some time to come, and also to the fact that various convictions have been
made through the instrumentality of the Farmers' Institute and the Police Departments of the
Provincial Government, it is hoped that the East Kootenay will gradually come back to its
own as a stock-raising district. In regard to getting first-hand information as regards the
quality and type of beef cattle being sold in the various parts of British Columbia, your Agriculturist had the pleasure of attending the Kamloops Bull-sale held last March. A goodly
number of outstanding bulls and cows and a number of other cattle were sold, many of them
bringing an exceptionally good price.
Dairying.—In dealing with the dairy industry, it is very pleasing to note that there has
been a marked improvement in the type of dairy cattle which are to be found in this district.
There are now a number of outstanding dairy herds distributed at various places throughout
the district. Dairymen are gradually becoming convinced that the herd sire is of first importance in running a dairy-farm, one which has prepotent good characters which will show in his
offspring. A good example of the result of the selection of stock in this district was very
apparent, as will be shown by a picture in the Appendix of this report. Your Agriculturist
has used all possible influence in an advisory capacity to encourage people along these lines
and may say he is obtaining very good results. A number of sales of good sires and dams has
been made and some interchanging has been accomplished, with the result that every one is
gradually being convinced that the East Kootenay is well adapted to dairy cattle as well as
beef stock. This is more or less evidenced also by the fact that there is a growing demand for
more stringent laws regarding testing of cattle; every one wishing to buy dairy cattle now
requires them to be tested. It is gratifying to know that the Government has different
veterinary surgeons throughout the Province testing all dairy cattle at the request of the milk-
producers. Your Agriculturist had the pleasure of taking one of your Inspectors around this
district to test cattle in the Marysville District this fall. It was pleasing to note that no cases
of Infected cattle were found in that district.
The building of silos has been advocated throughout the district by your Agriculturist
since being in this district. It has been pointed out that 10 tons of silage will only take the
space which is required by 1 ton of hay and at the same time will provide a cheap succulent
food during the winter months. It is regrettable that corn will not grow in this district
successfully, but it is found that sunflowers will, and they will more or less take the place of
corn for silage, and which is grown in many other sections which have warmer nights and
longer season. Then, again, certain more or less damaged food which would otherwise be
wasted could be made use of along with other food when put in a silo, and thus eliminate loss
which would otherwise take place. It is pleasing to note that several new silos have been
built in this district this year, with the possibility of more being built during the coming year.
All this work has entailed considerable time on the part of your Agriculturist, as it all meant
considerable driving around the country, but this has been carried on as well as possible in conjunction with other trips and other work. In regard to assistance for the dairy industry, an
Ayrshire field-day was inaugurated at the Windermere Experimental Farm, having been organized under the instrumentality of Kenneth Hay, Ayrshire fieldman of the Dominion Ayrshire
Breeders' Association. Every assistance was given by your Agriculturist in this matter. A very
successful day was the result. A judging demonstration was put on by your Agriculturist, at
which a number of the young people took part. A good class of Ayrshire cattle were judged,
both mature animals and younger stock. Various points were then taken up by Mr. Hay, many
questions were asked, and a good deal of good information given. A few days after this your
Agriculturist took Mr. Hay and visited all the Ayrshire breeders in the north end of the
district and many problems relative to the Ayrshire breed of cattle were discussed with the
different breeders.
Sheep-breeding.—Another important factor which has been gradually brought into prominence in British Columbia is the business of sheep-breeding. There are several good-sized
sheep-breeders in the East Kootenay and there are a number of smaller flocks distributed at
5 O 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
various places throughout the district. Although there are some very good sections here and
there at different places, a large section of the East Kootenay is too heavily timbered to permit
of successful sheep-raising, in the opinion of your Agriculturist, at the present time. A certain
portion of your Agriculturist's time has been taken up with work in conjunction with the
Wool-growers' Association. One meeting of the Wool-growers' Committee of the Stock-breeders'
Association was attended in Kamloops during the season by your Agriculturist. A great deal
of good work has been done by the Sheep-breeders' Association throughout the Dominion of
Canada to improve the flocks by bringing in good sires and breeding ewes. Large numbers
have been brought into British Columbia this past season. Valuable information has been
given by this organization in supplying sheep-breeders with first-hand information in regard to
which breeds it is felt most advisable to favour, both from the standpoint of mutton and wool.
There is a great deal of variance on this subject by different sheepmen. No doubt all breeds
have their good qualities and their poor ones. Although the wool part of the industry is not
the most important part of the sheep-breeding business, it is a good addition to the mutton
and lamb trade, and on account of the finer grades of wool bringing several cents a pound
higher price than the coarser grades, this is one point that should be considered. For this
reason also wool-growers should pay particular attention when shearing-time comes to endeavour
to more or less grade the wool and keep the dirty and black wool out of the main pack, as
well as possibly when it comes to bagging it up for shipment.
The shipment of wool assembled in Cranbrook for the East Kootenay District this past year
amounted to 16,634 lb., which was shipped out to Weston, Ontario, on June 27th, 1928. There
were several smaller lots which were not shipped in time to arrive in Cranbrook (owing to
unforeseen circumstances) in order to get in the car which was shipped out on June 27th.
These wool-growers were advised to ship these lots direct to Kamloops, where it could be
assembled and shipped out with the Kamloops shipment. It is very pleasing to note that the
price of wool this year has been considerably higher than it has been for a good many years.
The price through the Co-operative Wool-growers this year for the British Columbia Wool-
growers' Association members has been 31.8 cents per pound for the higher grade, and the
lower grades averaging 25 cents, final payment being made before Christmas.
Horse-breeding.—With the exception of a few breeders of heavy horses in this district on
a small scale, there are not very many heavy horses raised of the type required by those in the
large cities who are in need pf heavy horses for the draying and transporting business. No
doubt a considerable portion of this line of work is now carried on by motor-trucks. Then,
again, Alberta being adjacent to this district and being a large horse district, these horses can
be purchased there very satisfactorily to meet most of the demands of this district, both for
draying and also for the mining and lumbering business.
Another factor which has been against the successful breeding of heavy horses in the East
Kootenay is possibly due to the fact that a number of scrub stallions have been found on the
ranges during the last few years. It has been gratifying to note that the Government had seen
the disastrous result of this and had placed men on the ranges to get rid of a large number of
these useless horses. Although it cannot be stated that this type of horse has been completely destroyed, it may be said that they have been considerably diminished. The result being
that to-day the ranges do not appear to be so thickly covered with so many of this useless type
of horse. In this way there does not appear to be as many scrub colts and horses eating up the
grass on the ranges like it had been done a few years ago.
Swine.-—The industry of swine-breeding on a large scale is only carried on by a few breeders
in this district. There are a good many smaller breeders on the different farms who keep only
sufficient for a few to sell in addition to what they require for themselves. The majority of
the hogs raised in this district are those of the bacon-hog type, some of both the Yorkshire and
Tamworth breeds, the majority being Yorkshire. There are a few of the lard type—namely,
Duroc-Jersey, Berkshire, and Poland-China. These are used mostly for the lumbering and
mining camps where fresh pork is required and also to supply the local meat-shops. Farmers
have been advised to cure a certain amount of hams and bacons for their own use. Various
information in this line of work has been distributed to different people making inquiries and
a good stock is kept on hand in the office at all times.
In keeping with the policy which had been carried on in this district and also various
other districts throughout the Province, a Pig Club was started up again this last year. There
were twenty-three members at the first of the season, but when fall-fair time arrived it was DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 67
found that a certain number had left the district, some had sold their pigs, and some did not
show their pigs in the fair at all, the result being that only eleven members showed up with
their pigs.    Of these it may be said that they were all first-class pigs of the bacon-hog type.
In addition to the boys and girls in the Pig Club there was a ton-litter contest organized,
there being four entries in this from this district. These entries took fifth place in the Provincial contest in a list of thirteen entries. The prize for the contest was made by the Federal
Government. Ton litters were judged by Mr. Clarry, of the Dominion Swine-breeders' Branch,
and your Agriculturist.
Poultry-raising.—This is another branch of farming which has been carried on quite successfully in various parts of the Province and one which should deserve some consideration here,
especially by those that are specially adapted for this class of work and are willing to put their
time at it. At one time apparently Cranbrook used to put on a poultry fair each year, but
these last few years this matter has been somewhat neglected. Owing to the fact that a great
many farmers keep poultry in a small way, and also that there are some large poultry-breeders
here and there through the district, it is to be hoped that this section of farming will be revived
again. It is pleasing to note that various breeders are now endeavouring to again revive this
industry, and it is hoped that their plans materialize and next year Cranbrook puts on a very
successful poultry exhibit, both as a poultry-show and a very creditable exhibit in the fall fair.
In the opinion of your Agriculturist, it is felt that those that are especially adapted for this
kind of work should go in strongly on a commercial scale. Any one going in for this branch
will be able to get any information from the Poultry Instructor at Nelson or the head of the
Poultry Department at Victoria. A meeting of the Cranbrook Poultry Association was held in
the Agricultural Office on December 3rd, at which a very instructive address was given by the
Poultry Instructor of the Dominion Government. This address was chiefly on egg-grading.
A good many points on this matter were brought up and discussed by the members present.
A further meeting of the Cranbrook Poultry Association was held in the Agricultural Office on
December 17th, at which your Agriculturist was in attendance. At this meeting it was decided
to hold a poultry fair in Cranbrook early in January. All preliminary arrangements were made
at this meeting.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
Farmers' Institutes are quite strong in this district, but it is regrettable that some sections
of the district do not appear to have the membership which they should have. Others have done
very well in this regard and are to be congratulated on the showing they have made. Your
Agriculturist, being secretary of the District Institute of East Kootenay, has kept in close touch
with all business concerning work of this organization. Institute meetings have been attended
in company with A. B. Smith, president, at the local institutes of Baynes Lake, Dorr, Jaffray,
Wardner, Windermere, Brisco, Horse Creek, Moberly, St. Mary Prairie, Fort Steele, and Cranbrook ; some of these only once, some several times. Short addresses were given on agricultural
topics at each of these meetings. The annual meeting of the District Institute was also
attended at Cranbrook on October 31st and November 1st. An address was also given at this
meeting. The election of officers took place and another very able president was elected in the
person of Angus Hay. Your Agriculturist was re-elected secretary. In addition to attending
these meetings here, there was considerable office-work accruing from the matters affecting this
institution, all of which your Agriculturist attended to when necessary. This entailed considerable correspondence as well.
FALL FAIRS.
Your Agriculturist acted in the capacity of judge at the following fall fairs this year:
Fernie, Windermere, Nakusp, and Creston. Assistance was also given at the Cranbrook Fall
Fair in the judging of field crops, in conjunction with Mr. Twigg, the judge allocated for that
judging at Cranbrook not being able to come on account of sickness. At this latter fair mentioned, as your Agriculturist is the secretary, and needless to say was put to considerable work
in regard to various matters affecting the welfare of this fair, it was gratifying to find out on
settling up everything that the fair has turned out to be one of the best from a financial standpoint of any fair ever held in Cranbrook. Chiefly through the instrumentality of your Agriculturist a very good exhibit of dairy cattle was shown at this fair, some of which are shown by
a photo in the Appendix. It was regrettable to find in a stock country like this the poor
showing of beef cattle, some reasons of which were shown previously in this report. The vegetable exhibits were rather poor in this fair, as well as they were in many more
fairs this year; the reasons possibly being due to the appearance of the army-worm and potato-
infestation to a great extent.
In addition to judging at the above fairs, your Agriculturist also judged the flowers at the
Women's Institute Flower-show in August in conjunction with Mr. Santo and Mr. Moir. A. B.
Smith judged the vegetables.
POTATO-BUG WORK.
Work in regard to combating the potato-bug in the East Kootenay District was carried on
in those same districts as last year, there being no new districts becoming infected. Growers
are gradually taking better care of the situation, as by previous experience and careful instruction by the men in charge they are gradually becoming convinced of the seriousness of this
pest when careless work is done in regard to dusting operations. This work has been carried
on along similar lines as carried on last year, Mr. Dennys and Mr. Marsack being in charge.
These two men deserve great credit for the interest taken by them and the good results obtained
for the most part. A number of small dusters were obtained from Eastern Canada, and these,
along with those which were already on hand, were distributed around the district at various
places where the infestation was considered most severe. Poison was stored in the same place
as last year and was distributed through this office by means of either a signed note or telephone
message to the storage company. This worked out very satisfactorily, both from the storage
company's standpoint and that of this office.
Various trips were made out in the country to growers in trouble with their dusting operations and any requested information regarding this work was given by your Agriculturist when
one of the other men was not obtainable. A certain amount of poison was carried around by
your Agriculturist and any one found in need of it was supplied. It is expected that a full
report of the potato-bug poison-work will be handed in by Mr. Dennys, who is in charge of this
particular branch of the work, when his report is submitted.
LAND SETTLEMENT.
Land Settlement Board work this year was carried on in the interests of the Land Settlement Board, and was made up chiefly of inspection-work of headway made on various works
under construction by men having loans for specific purposes of development in connection with
their farm- operations. Every assistance was given to these men and when considered advisable advances from their unexpended portions of loans were approved. If not considered
advisable, or if they are not doing work for which the loan has been applied, they were not
approved. Since the Land Settlement Board work has now been taken over by the new " Farm
Loan Act," there have been a number of requests for information concerning when this Act is
going to be in force, but those making inquiries are advised that, although it is expected to be
in operation before very long, the machinery has not yet been put into operation by the Federal
Department to permit the British Columbia Government to derive advantage of the Federal
" Farm Loan Act." Continual inquiries have been coming in for information concerning the
time at which it will be permissible to make application for loans in this Province. The
applicants have been advised in each case that they will receive this information as soon as
they are notified from Victoria that they have received the necessary word from Ottawa that
the machinery is in operation for carrying on this work.
OTHER WORK, INCLUDING OFFICE-WORK.
In addition to the forementioned work, many calls have been made upon this office from
different farmers throughout the district for information relating to various problems which
confront them in their farming operations. These matters have been dealt with here and every
assistance has been given when necessary. Whenever a personal call to the different properties
was deemed necessary, this was done, as in some cases it was felt that different matters could
be dealt with more advantageously right on the properties than in this office. A meeting of the
Cranbrook Stock-breeders' Association was attended in the Agricultural Office on December 8th
to discuss the cattle and horse rustling on the ranges and to consider the payment of $100 bounty
for giving information" which resulted in the conviction of a cattle-rustler this year. Owing
to the fact that it was found the cattle in this case were stolen from a district outside the
jurisdiction of the Cranbrook Stock-breeders' Association according to the rules laid down by
them previously when the matter was advertised in the paper, the bounty could not be paid. In the opinion of your Agriculturist, it appears that this matter should be handled by the
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association, and in this way the bounty could be paid regardless as to where in British Columbia the stealing took place.
Various requests have come in for the locating of pure-bred sires for both dairy and beef
cattle as well as for sheep. In several cases changing of sires has been obtained and several
new sires have been purchased. This will no doubt be of assistance in raising the standard of
the type of live stock kept in this district. All the above forementioned work has of necessity
entailed considerable travelling around the country. Much correspondence has been handled
through this office, both departmental as well as work affiliated with the Wool-growers' Association, Stock-breeders' Association, potato-bug work, Farmers' Institute, as well as work pertaining
to the Central Institute of East Kootenay District, and also the Cranbrook Agricultural Association, the latter two of which your Agriculturist has been acting in the capacity of secretary.
Respectfully submitted.
H. S. French,
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, SMITHERS.
D. D. Munro  (per S. S. Phillips).
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the year ended December 31st, 1928.
Your District Agriculturist spent considerable time in the winter and spring months with
the farmers of this district, pointing out the losses which occur by ignoring the presence and
possible introduction of noxious weeds into the district.
During the fall of 1927 prices for feed-grains were very good. Consequently a great many
farmers took advantage of prevailing prices and sold considerable seed-grain for feed. It became
evident long before seeding-time that there was a serious shortage of seed in the district and
some farmers considered the purchasing of feed-oats containing a high percentage of wild oats
and other noxious weeds for use for seed. In order to save the district from becoming infested
with weeds your District Agriculturist imported a car-load (20 tons) of registered seed-oats
from the Provincial Government Cleaning and Grading Plant, Edmonton. These oats were all
disposed of to farmers at cost, with the result that there is now sufficient high-grade seed in the
district to supply local demands for the spring of 1929.
Co-operating with the Provincial Horticultural Branch, your District Agriculturist distributed 141 fruit-trees of different varieties to ten farmers in the Bulkley Valley, Woodcock,
and Lakes District. The purpose of this work was to determine definitely whether fruit-growing
can be practised in this part of Central British Columbia.
The following growers were supplied with trees: E. C. Barger, Telkwa; F. A. Gilbert,
Smithers; Olaf Hanson, Smithers; J. C. Killer, Francois Lake; Olaf Anderson, Streatham;
George M. Burns, Hazelton; John Love, Woodcock; C. Little, Woodcock; Robert Renaud,
Colleymount; C. F. Burt, Grassy Plains. It is interesting to note that with very few exceptions
all these trees survived, made fair growth, and went into the winter in good condition.
A great deal of time was spent during the year attending to the regular business of the
Land Settlement Board and a record of transactions is on file in the office of the Board in
Victoria. Your District Agriculturist also endeavoured to visit as many of the farmers in this
district as possible. Considerable time was taken up by settlers proposing to settle in this
district, and whenever possible your District Agriculturist looked over the land on which the
settler proposed to locate and all available information regarding same was given to the settler.
During the past few years it has become evident that there is less moisture in the district
than there was in previous years. This may be due to the fact that the greater part of timber
and brush has been taken off. A number of farmers have to haul domestic water and also water
for stock; in some cases this haul is for a considerable distance. Realizing the drawback of
farming under these conditions, the Government put a well-drilling machine in the district to
be used by farmers for drilling wells. This was at first put in charge of your District Agriculturist, but later in charge of the Department of Public Works.   It is hoped that a great many O 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
farmers will use this drill, as it should be a great benefit to the community and make farming
a great deal more profitable and satisfactory if these water problems are solved.
During the fall months your District Agriculturist collected exhibits from the Bulkley
Valley and Terrace District in order to put on display at the Prince Rupert Fall Fair. Special
attention was given to dairy products in order to bring home to the people of Prince Rupert
that they were the gateway of a country with agricultural possibilities, and that it was unnecessary to import whole milk from such far-away points as Vancouver or Edmonton. This exhibit
was very favourably commented on both by the press and the general public.
The fall months were devoted almost entirely to marketing. Your District Agriculturist
was able to assist in the marketing of the 1926 timothy-seed crop. This was sold by the Central
British Columbia Seed-growers' Association to Wm. Rennie Co. at 5% cents per pound. Four
car-loads of seed were cleaned at the Government Cleaning Plant located at Smithers; three of
these were shipped to Toronto and one to Vancouver. The Central British Columbia Seed-
growers' Association also shipped one car-load to Toronto, which was cleaned and graded at
the Government Cleaning Plant located at Burns Lake. During the month of December your
District Agriculturist assisted farmers to market their turkeys for the Christmas trade; an
average price of 45 cents was obtained.
Respectfully submitted. D. D. Munro (per S. S. Phillips),
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, PRINCE GEORGE.
R. G. Sutton, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.8.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows :—■
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
The last week of 1927 and the first week of 1928 were marked by unusually cold weather.
This might have had a much more serious effect on winter crops but for the heavy snowfall
which came before the cold weather.
This hard weather and depth of snow were favourable to the lumbering industry, and this
was reflected back to the farmers in plenty of winter employment and increased local market.
Again, a certain amount of mining activity in the country to the north of Vanderhoof had a
similar effect.
The spring was not an early one and it was May 1st before any seeding was done. Growing
conditions were good in the early part of the summer, but dry weather set in about midsummer.
This drought was not very noticeable in the eastern part of the district, but became more marked
to the west, where it cut down crop yields very materially.
Light summer frosts were in evidence in a few localities and did a small amount of damage
to late-sown grain-crops. The autumn season, both early and late, was very favourable. It
permitted of harvest and threshing under excellent conditions and allowed all fall-ploughing
operations to be completed.
SEED-CLEANING.
During the winter months several tons of clover-seed were put through the Department's
cleaning-machine. The machine had to be first set up at Prince George and then shipped to
Vanderhoof and set up there. Demonstrations in seed-cleaning were given at both points.
Without this it would have been impossible for the growers to market any of their seed.
Working in co-operation with the Agronomy Branch, a combined field-crop and cleaned-seed
competition has been got under way. Rather there are. two such competitions started—one in
red clover and one in alsike. These competitions run for two years, covering the crop from
seeding-time till the seed has been threshed and cleaned the following year. No scoring was
done this first year, but all possible information was gathered and recorded regarding soil and
location, source and rate of seeding, as well as history of the ground.
Each plot was examined as soon as the crop was up and comparisons made. The majority
were inspected again in the fall before snow, and notations made.   Each plot will be examined FIVE-ACRE FIELD OF ALSIKE  CLOVER, FARM  OF P.  BATARD,  SALMON VALLEY.
FALL PLOUGHING  AT VANDERHOOF   (CAMERON  FARM).  again in the spring and winter-killing noted;   then when crop is in full bloom it will be scored
for field stand, and after the seed has been threshed and cleaned the final scoring will be made.
In this competition eleven entries in alsike clover were received and eight in red clover,
covering 65 acres of the former and 35 of the latter; a total of nineteen entries covering
100 acres.
By keeping in close touch with each one of these entries, covering (as they do) varieties of
soil, location, and seed, it is hoped to accumulate a quantity of very useful information covering
the growing of this crop under existing conditions. Each time the fields were visited a report
was filed. After the competition is completed all reports will be tabulated and compared. When
this is done evidence will be at hand to govern definite recommendations for the successful
growing of the crop. It is also intended that this information will be sufficient to form the
basis of a bulletin on clover-growing in Central British Columbia, a publication which is badly
needed in this part.
SOIL-WORK.
Soil-improvement appears to be a necessary field of endeavour each year. New problems
are continually arising and close watch must be kept on all tillage methods, with a view to being
in a position to make definite recommendations. AVith this in mind, as many as possible of the
farms of the district are visited during spring work and also during fall-ploughing operations.
Ploughing and harrowing and other cultural methods have been studied, results noted, and
information stored away for future use. Several unofficial experiments, regarding heavy
disking as a substitute for ploughing, are being watched and results will be apparent in the
following year's crop. At many times during the year calls have come in to visit farms where
some special soil difficulty presented itself. In each of these cases investigations were made
and advice given.   In the majority of cases soil samples were taken and sent out for analysis.
HORTICULTURE.
Working with the Fruit Branch, some experimental work in regard to hardy varieties of
tree-fruits was undertaken.
In the first place, a number of bud-sticks of cherries were forwarded from the Coast to
" bud in " on the wild pin-cherry which is indigenous to the district. Owing to the fact that
the work was not started early enough the wild-cherry trees had passed the budding stage
before the bud-sticks arrived and results were nil.    The attempt will be repeated.
Again, another arrangement was made with the Provincial Horticulturist to have nursery
stock of hardy varieties of tree-fruits sent in for trial. These trees arrived here early in the
spring and were healed in till planting-time. Five farmers, who had all had previous experience
in fruit growing, were selected and from two to twelve trees supplied to each, together with
planting instructions. Each farmer was visited at planting-time or shortly afterwards to note
the condition of the trees. Another visit was made during the summer to note how many of
the trees had taken and how they were maturing.
A great number of farmers in this district have from time to time made attempts to raise
fruit-trees. A very few have succeeded and many failed. This experiment is aimed at finding
out if it will be at all possible for hardy tree-fruits to grow, for domestic use, under existing
conditions.
An increasingly large number of farmers are taking up strawberry and cane-fruit production
and calls are continually coming in regarding cultural methods and varieties. It is of considerable interest to watch the progress of these attempts and note the considerable measure of
success which many are having.
Market-gardeners in the district have been visited and soil and fertility subjects discussed.
Some time was spent in the spring with a few beemen of the district. The majority of these
were increasing their apiaries by shipments of package bees and advice and assistance were
needed.
BIOLOGICAL WORK.
Throughout the district generally there is little damage done by insects or diseases. Wire-
worms have made serious attacks on potato-crops in some localities; root-maggots have done
some damage to cabbage and cauliflower plants, but not on a large scale.   A careful watch is O 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
always maintained on growing crops for signs of insects or diseases. Where found, same is
identified and steps taken to control. To date there has, however, been no outbreaks of either
disease or insect pest of any economic importance, with the possible exception of the wireworm.
The district continues to be practically free from noxious weeds. A considerable amount
of time was spent during the summer hunting down reported stands of weeds on municipal or
railway property. Where found to be noxious, these were reported and co-operation secured to
have them controlled. It is hoped that by good cultural methods, clean seed, and watchfulness
the district can be kept comparatively free of noxious weeds. Weed bulletins have been distributed and the subject discussed at farmers' meetings.
Two or three cases of death to stock from poison-weed were reported. These on investigation were traced down to poison-hemlock, which is very common in the district.
LIVE-STOCK WORK.
There is no great change in the live-stock situation in the district, apart from a tendency
for the Prince George District to increase the number of dairy cattle and the Vanderhoof
District to increase the number of beef stock. In the former district the brisk local market
for whole milk and cream is responsible for the tendency and in the latter the tendency is due
to beef prices and the fact that several head of very good foundation breeding stock have been
brought in.
There has been a noticeable increase in the number of hogs kept and a slight increase in
the number of sheep.
During the year requests came from parts of the district for information and advice regarding poultry buildings. The rigors of the climate make poultry-house construction a much more
complicated matter here than in the milder parts of the Province. Several new houses have
gone up during the year and everything possible was done to make these as satisfactory as
possible.
In Vanderhoof a boys' stock-judging class was conducted during the summer months. This
class was held once to twice each week, with an average attendance of seven. From this class
a team of three boys was chosen and taken to the Provincial Exhibition. They were entered in
the stock-judging competition and were fortunate in securing third place.
Various calls come in from time to time regarding minor ailments in live stock. These
usually call for a visit and the prescription of some simple remedy. No serious outbreaks of
disease have been noted.
FARMERS' INSTITUTE MEETINGS.
Meetings of Farmers' Institutes are always attended, when requested, and addresses given.
During the summer a series of meetings was arranged all across the district, and these were
attended and addressed in company with an official of the Agronomy Branch. The following
table sums up this work:—■
Date.
Place.
Time.
Attendance.
Subject.
March 15
June 8
27
28
29
30
10
12
28
July
Vanderhoof	
Vanderhoof	
Beaverly..	
Salmon Valley.
Vanderhoof	
Fort Fraser.....
Quesnel	
Salmon Valley-
Hoodoo Lake...
Afternoon.
Afternoon
Evening....
Evening....
Evening....
Evening....
Evening....
Afternoon
Afternoon.
100
50
40
15
20
40
30
15
18
Clover-seed and soil-fertility.
Co-operative effort.
Clover-seed production.
Clover-seed production.
Clover-seed production.
Clover-seed production.
Clover-seed production.
Soil-fertility.
Opportunities in agriculture.
SEED FAIRS.
Working in co-operation with the Dominion Seed Branch and the Agronomy Branch, a local
Seed Fair was arranged for the district. A prize-list was prepared and the necessary advertising
written up. The fair was held in Vanderhoof on October 22nd and 23rd. There were only
twenty-one entries in all, but there were several factors working against a good attendance.
There was, however, considerable interest aroused and the prospects are very bright for a very
strong fair next year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. 0 73
This fair worked as a preliminary for the Provincial Seed and Potato Show at Vancouver
in November. All the winning entries were entered in their respective classes at Vancouver,
together with a number of other entries from the district. Considerable time was spent in
canvassing farmers of the district to get them to support both the local fair and the Provincial
Fair.    Assistance was given in preparing and cleaning seed exhibits.
There were twenty-four exhibits sent from the district to Vancouver and out of these were
seventeen awards received.
Assistance was also given to some farmers in preparing and forwarding exhibits of clover-
seed to the International Hay and Grain Show at Chicago.
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD WORK.
Considerable time is demanded by this work each year. At all times parties of intending
settlers must be shown over the Board's lands which are for sale. Letters of inquiry have to
be answered and information booklets sent out. There is also each month a voluminous correspondence to deal with, relating to land-sales, loans, collections, etc.
During the year ten formal loan applications were received and the properties inspected.
Four land-sales were completed and supervision maintained on three farm leases. The sum
of $3,485.77 was collected on various Board accounts and forwarded to Victoria.
During the summer officials of the Canadian National Railways Colonization Department
were interviewed and shown over the district with a view to finding a suitable location for a
proposed Norwegian settlement.
MARKETING.
Contact has been maintained with the co-operative marketing organization in the district
and assistance and advice given whenever possible.
Assistance was also given growers of clover-seed in disposing of the small quantity of seed
which they had for sale. Samples of the seed were sent out for test and prices set accordingly.
A number of orders were received and placed with growers.
In the late spring this office was able to get in touch with the local agent of the Indian
Department and arranged for a fairly large order of seed-potatoes to be placed with growers
of the district.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Sheaf grain from a number of farmers was collected, packed, and shipped to form part of
the British Columbia exhibit at Toronto Fair.
Some time was spent with the executive of the Prince George Fall Fair rearranging and
revising prize-lists.
Articles dealing with some local phase of agriculture have from time to time been given to
the press.
One shipment of nursery stock from outside the Province was inspected and reported on.
The following fall fairs were attended in the capacity of judge: Armstrong, Salmon Arm,
Lumby, and Vancouver.
A considerable volume of correspondence has been received and answered each month.
Respectfully submitted.
R. G. Sutton,
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, WILLIAMS LAKE.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the second annual report from the Districts of Lillooet
and Cariboo.
GENERAL.
Winter weather from January until March remained cold and unusual. The snow-blanket
over the Cariboo and Lillooet Districts varied between 30 and 40 inches in thickness. Winter
weather extended well towards the end of April, with slow thawing. May weather proved ideal for farming, the first three weeks being mild and dry. With the
exception of later-sown commodities, farmers took full advantage of the favourable May conditions to complete the sowing of all crops.
The progression of summer weather was cool and favourable. Precipitation was regular and
normal throughout the growing season. Violent storms and extremes in temperature were
unknown during the summer, and larger crops were harvested than was the case last year.
With the exception of a few cases of frost in the fall, there is little crop-damage to report.
Weather conditions remained mild and quiet until the end of the year.
Range conditions over most of the country were very good, excepting certain areas in the
Chilcotin that were bared by the inroads of grasshoppers. The hay-harvest was larger than
last year's and a very light snowfall permitted cattle to feed on winter range until the New
Year.    No hay-shortage is anticipated.
CATTLE LOSSES.
Cattle losses were greater than usual from January to March. Most of the mortality was
due to preventable diseases. The cattle-disease problem in this territory is largely confined to
coccidiosis, the various forms of hremorrhagic septicaemia, and Astragalus eampestris.
Astragalus eampestris is a plant which causes alkaloid poisoning. Lack of good water and
salt and the consumption of alkali develops a depraved appetite for the weed. Due to this
cause there is a high mortality in cows with first calf and in other cattle up to 3 years of age.
Losses from preventable diseases in the Cariboo, Chilcotin, and Lillooet Districts are
estimated at from 800 to 1,000 head annually, most of which are young stock.
Your Agriculturist strongly recommends investigation. A pamphlet could be issued by the
Department, outlining treatments for the diseases indigenous to the country, and much of this
loss might be avoided.
INSECTS.
Outbreaks of grasshoppers occurred in the latter part of May and in the early part of
June over a widely scattered area. Contrary to expectations, grasshoppers threatened to become
more numerous than last year, but active distribution of poison bait at the time of hatching
proved very effective. With the exception of a small locality on Big Bar Mountain, near
Jesmond, no crops were damaged to any noticeable extent. Poison-bait supplies were distributed
and used at Quesnel, Williams Lake, Riske Creek, Hanceville, Clinton, Jesmond, and the Gang
Ranch this year. The total expenditure on grasshopper extermination by this office during
1928 was $761.99, of which the sum of $101.06 was spent to establish a base at the Gang Ranch,
73 miles west of Clinton, to control grasshoppers in 1929. In addition to this, all supplies sent
to the country previous to 1927 were used. The cost of sodium arsenate and amyl acetate does
not enter into this report.
There is every indication that the grasshopper outbreak will be an annual event as long
as certain sections of the range are subject to overgrazing. The only answer to this problem
seems to be in the extensive use of barbed wire. If overgrazed portions of the Chilcotin range,
and especially that section known as the Military Reserve, were fenced for several years, the
grasshopper problem would be solved for those areas.
Your Agriculturist recommends the construction of a storage warehouse at Williams Lake,
sufficiently large to contain a car-lot of bran, together with other supplies. At the same time
it should have space to be of use in co-operative wool shipments, etc.
ORGANIZATIONS.
Your Agriculturist has been actively engaged during the entire year in organization-work.
It was felt at the time that organizations of one kind or another were essential before progress
in the right direction could be established.
With this end in view, five Farmers' Institutes, three Chicken Clubs, a Swine Club, and two
Cow-testing Associations were organized in the early part of the summer.
As the work progressed during the year it became necessary to organize a Board of Trade at
Williams Lake in order to have an active body to concern itself with visiting delegations from
elsewhere in the district.
In August your Agriculturist became active in the formation of the first live-stock fair to
be held in the Cariboo. This work cumulated in the staging of the fair in the latter part of
September.   The fair proved as successful as could be expected and raised a considerable amount DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 75
of enthusiasm, which will be of use in the future. In staging this fair your Agriculturist took
steps to form the Cariboo Stampede and Fair Association and arranged for the erection of a
suitable building.
During the period in which the fair was being held the organization meeting of the Cariboo
District Institute and the election of a member to the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes took
place. This was the direct result, and the object, of the organization-work carried on during
the summer with Farmers' Institutes. Your Agriculturist was appointed secretary of the
District Institute.
Feeling that town organization would react to the benefit of the agricultural community
in the staging of future fairs, your Agriculturist became engaged with the incorporation of
Williams Lake into a village under the " Village Municipalities Act " during the latter part of
the season, with a view to complete this work before the New Year. In this a pamphlet was
written and the move was a success.
Fourteen organizations of one kind or another have been formed through this office
during 1928.
Throughout the year your Agriculturist has made a large number of visits to Farmers'
Institutes, Boards of Trade, and other organizations, both within this territory and in other
parts of the Province, to give talks on agricultural and economic topics related to the Cariboo
and Lillooet Districts.
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD.
During the year considerable work was carried on in the interests of the Land Settlement
Board, in the form of appraisals, inspections and reports on previous loans, and investigating
applications for new loans. As these loans have been made over a widely scattered area a large
amount of travelling was done.
FAIRS AND EXHIBITS.
Your Agriculturist acted in the capacity of judge at the Woodpecker, Quesnel, and Kamloops
Agricultural Fairs, and as manager of the Live-stock Fair at Williams Lake.
An attempt was made this year to have the Cariboo District represented by a district exhibit
at the New Westminster Fall Fair. In this connection the pressure of other business affected
detailed arrangements, with the result that your Agriculturist had to handle the entire matter
personally.    This was done and a fair amount of success was achieved for the first attempt.
School Fair work was actively begun in the spring of this year. Seeds were distributed and
a fairly large attraction was added to the Quesnel Fair.
SETTLEMENT.
At the present time no provision is in evidence for the settlement of immigrants on arable
lands along the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
No reliable classification has ever been made of these lands. If data have been produced
about different parcels from time to time, they have not been written on expert opinion.
The present printed information concerning lands and settlement in this area is unreliable
and mostly untrue.
The railway is in no position to make any accurate statement concerning settlement areas
along its line. It is in no position to anticipate its future possibilities except by the gradual
increase in freight receipts at Vancouver. It is in no position to give any estimate of the
productiveness and rainfall in any area that it may recommend for settlement.
Your Agriculturist believes that the settlement problem in conjunction with the railway
will defy solution until expert opinion is called upon to construct a policy.
ECONOMIC CONDITIONS.
Existing economic conditions were stated in the report of 1927. The solution to the
problem is now suggested. This territory must produce a product, or products, concentrated
in nature, which will stand transportation to the Vancouver market without processing. At the
present time approximately 10,000 head of cattle and 6,000 head of sheep are exported annually
from the Cariboo, Chilcotin, and Lillooet Districts. The Cariboo District, excluding the Chilcotin, is capable of exporting 25,000 head of sheep annually and with the present population.
The numbers of cattle may also be increased to a considerable extent. No mention is made, at
this point, of the latent possibilities of the Chilcotin and Lillooet Districts, which are also
tremendous. O 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Agriculture is the primary factor to be considered in making the Pacific Great Eastern
Railway pay. The time has not arrived for any other factor to assume a place of importance.
Development of an export product in quantity is advocated by your Agriculturist. At, the
present time the railway is not staffed to consider problems of this nature.
With a view to finding a solution to this problem, your Agriculturist has started a movement to obtain an experimental farm to be established in the Cariboo District. This movement
has received every support that can be obtained in this territory.
The farm is calculated to guide agricultural production along the lines suggested in this
report. It will act as a base to provide foundation stock, and at the same time it will be a
base from which experimental work may be carried on under varied climatic conditions. It will
develop the sheep industry to a point sufficiently large to fill the needs of British Columbia.
Your Agriculturist is of the opinion that it will find a practical solution to the cattle-disease
problem and reduce mortality considerably. He is also of the opinion that such an institution
would increase the output pf the present population to a value in excess of $500,000 per annum
within a few years of establishment and be of great value to the railway.
Your Agriculturist believes that an experimental farm is necessary to the economic future
of the railway and the lands adjacent thereto.
OFFICE.
The steadily increasing volume of correspondence bears witness that the agricultural
population is appreciating the importance of this newly formed department. Owing to the
scattered nature of the district this work is being kept up with increasing difficulty.
Distant points were neglected in many instances during the summer because your Agriculturist found himself unable to leave the office for a week at a time. Much bulky work has not
been handled with dispatch because of other activities. In another year a stenographer should
be provided.
An important item of work handled through the office during the year, in addition to the
Live-stock Fair, was the organization of the first co-operative wool shipment to leave the
Cariboo.
On July 17th 25,000 lb. of wool was shipped to the British Columbia Wool-growers' Association from Williams Lake. This represents about 90 per cent, of the wool produced in the
Cariboo and along the Chilcotin Road. From the satisfaction expressed by sheepmen, it is
believed that the percentage shipped in this way will be much higher next year.
In conclusion, your Agriculturist begs to report that this office has received most excellent
support from the public in general, in all branches of activity, from the time of its establishment.
Respectfully submitted.
C. C. Kelley,
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DAIRY COMMISSIONER, VICTORIA.
H. Rive, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as Dairy Commissioner for the year 1928.
A fair season only can be reported for the industry on account, principally, of weather
conditions. A backward spring caused a very late flow of milk, and excessive heat in summer
made fall supplies drop off considerably through damage to pastures. Dairy crops as a rule
yielded well, though roots were not as successful as usual.
Pastures in the early summer were good;  later, most scanty.
Prices received for dairy products were much the same as for the previous year. Prices
paid for mill-feeds increased materially.
DAIRY-FACTORIES.
The total of production for the year does not manifest its usual annual increase. Butter
is but little greater and cheese is below.   Ice-cream, condensed and powdered milk are up substantially for this Province. On the other hand, it may be remarked that our dairy industry
appears more stable and less affected by prices offered for other farm products than that of the
Prairies.    The weather is to-day the main cause of fluctuations in supply.
The manufacture of butter being an activity that any dairy district in the pioneer stage
may engage in as well as the long-experienced centres close to large towns, the rate of progress
in this particular may be regarded to some extent as a measure of the spread of the industry
in a Province. Modifying circumstances, however, occur. It is certain that to manufacture
ice-cream is more profitable; that to manufacture cheese and condensed milk may be either
more or less so, according to markets for these articles.
There has been since 1922 a 45-per-cent. increase in butter manufactured, or an approximate
average annual increase of 9 per cent. The greatest percentage increase occurred in the
Okanagan Valley, whose manufacture rose in this time from half a million to a million and a
quarter pounds. The Lower Mainland in the same time increased from 1,250,000 lb. to over
1,750,000 lb. In this case fluctuations in demand for other products affect greatly, and the
spread or growth of the industry is not so directly indicated. A decrease of 150,000 lb. took
place in the Islands District, due to demand for sweet cream for ice-cream making. Nevertheless, the 350,000 lb. (the average make of one good creamery) manufactured elsewhere in the
Interior in the past year represent new districts taking to the keeping of cows—new dairy efforts.
During 1928 there were of dairy-factories in operation, thirty-one creameries, three conden-
series (part time), and three cheese-factories. Many of the creameries also manufactured icecream, several as wholesalers.    Six farm dairies make as many varieties of cheese.
The usual routine work of this Branch has been continued with these factories. Visits
have been made regularly throughout the year to all. Condition of premises, surroundings,
equipment, and product received and turned out have been noted, and when necessary and timely,
assistance has been given. The enforcement of the cream-grading regulations now takes considerable time at factories, so that few calls can, to-day, be made on patrons, but the opportunities for noting the quality of the cream produced are better and more systematic. It is felt
that improvement in manufactured product is taking place as the result of a uniform endeavour
throughout to apply to the purchase of cream for manufacturing standards of quality.
The report of F. Overland, Dairy Instructor and Inspector, states: " Regular calls were
made on all factories on the Lower Mainland. In the month of May and again in July the
creameries of the Islands were visited. One month was spent with those of the Interior during
August-September. Inspection calls have also been made regularly on the dairies of the Lower
Mainland retailing milk. A considerable amount of time has been taken up with the sampling
of butter for yeast and mould counts. Much work and time was given to the exhibits of butter
at the two bigger fairs, whose entries were this year still larger than before. This work is
discouraging as little has been done for years in regard to proper buildings or places for the
staging of dairy products.    Applicants were examined for testers' licences as heretofore."
On the subject of creamery and dairy plant inspection, F. AVasson, Dairy Instructor and
Inspector, reports: " Visits were made to the creameries on Vancouver and Saltspring Islands
and some dairy-farms in the early spring. Towards the end of April the first trip for the year
into the Okanagan Valley was commenced, and the greater part of May was spent in grading
and general instructional work at the different creameries throughout that valley. During June
and July trips were made through the Okanagan, Boundary, and Kootenay Districts, and one into
the Cariboo. Samples of butter were taken from all creameries during the four summer months
for yeast and mould counts. In the latter part of July calls were made on the creameries of
Vancouver Island. In August time was spent with the butter exhibits at the Vancouver and
Victoria Exhibitions; also in judging dairy products at Chilliwack Fair. The creameries on the
Lower Mainland were called on at this time. In September the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts
were again visited, with calls on all the creameries and a number of dairy-farms. The dairy
products at Salmon Arm Fair were judged. During the end of October and the month of
November calls were again paid to creameries on Saltspring and Vancouver Islands, and to a
number of cream-shippers on Gabriola Island, Sooke, East Sooke, and Metchosin."
Reports received monthly from creameries show, for the year, the following percentages of
cream of the various grades :  Table, 4.3 ;   Special, 67.4;  No. 1, 24.5 ;  No. 2, 3.8.
Of the thirty-one creameries manufacturing butter, the conditions are as follows:—
Buildings (State of Repair).—Outside: Good, 22;. fair, 7; poor, 2. Inside,: Good, 18; fair,
9;   poor, 4. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Condition.—Floors:   Good, 15;   fair, 11;   poor, 5.    Drainage:   Good, 18;   fair, 9;   poor, 4.
Equipment.—Repair:   Good,  15;   fair,  13;   poor,  3.    Completeness:    Good,  20;   fair,  8;
poor, 3.
Storage.—Type:   Mechanical, 23;   ice, 8.    Size :   Ample, 13 ;   fair, 11;   small, 7.
YEASTS AND MOULDS.
The question of yeasts and moulds in butter has been brought before the butter-makers of
Canada quite extensively of late. The methods of analyses are of comparatively recent origin
and were brought to the fore by the late Professor MacKay. The Ontario Dairy Branch in 1918
suggested to Professor T. H. Lund, of O.A.C., Guelph, that work of this nature be carried on.
In recent years Dr. E. G. Hood, Chief, Dairy Research Division, Ottawa, has been the means
of stimulating further interest in the yeast and mould content of butters.
For the last several years considerable work has been done in the making of these determinations on the Prairie Provinces, and it was judged wise to ascertain how the product of the
creameries of British Columbia rated in this important respect. The very kind co-operation of
Professor W. Sadler, Department of Dairying, U.B.C., was secured, and through him H. L. A.
Tarr, a graduate student of the U.B.C., was engaged for the summer's work of this Branch, to
carry out the actual determinations, which took place in Professor Sadler's laboratory.
In accordance with the regular procedure laid down for creameries with outputs of various
sizes, samples were taken by the staff of this Branch from all creameries during the months of
June, July, August, and September. The results are gratifying enough in so far as they reveal
for the first determinations of the kind, with few exceptions, fairly good conditions existing in
the creameries of the Province.
The aim of the work is not necessarily to bring about the manufacturing of a butter sterile
in respect to yeasts and moulds, but rather to check up on the general sanitary conditions and
the care, cleanliness, and good workmanship that obtain in any factory. To this end yeast and
mould counts may prove very valuable.
CONDENSERIES.
The condenseries of the Province now number two only. The Ladner plant of the Fraser
Valley Milk Producers' Association has been dismantled, but its Delair (Abbotsford) conden-
sery has been greatly enlarged. It is to be expected that no decrease but rather a considerable
increase in output of evaporated milk will take place. As a means of disposing of butter-fat
more profitably than through the manufacture of butter, the development of an export trade in
evaporated milk is of supreme importance.
MILK-POWDER AND CASEIN.
The quantity of milk-powder made has increased appreciably.    The making of casein is
progressing, though still inconsiderable.    Dried buttermilk is also a new product for the Province
which deserves success.
CHEESE.
The amount of cheese manufactured continues gradually to decline. No marked change in
conditions is to be expected until there is available more information as to suitable varieties
to manufacture and market.
ICE-CREAM.
A good increase in gallons of ice-cream manufactured throughout is to be noted. Despite
several attempts, the instructor required for this work has not been secured. Much difficulty
occurs in finding a graduate of sufficient practical experience whose services are not rated too
high in commercial work to permit his leaving for another line of undertaking.
COW-TESTING—MILK RECORDING.
The work of milk recording by the Cow-testing Associations of the Province is proceeding
slowly enough, but on sound lines. The project is acquiring momentum and is receiving more
general approval than formerly, but the task of persuading dairy-farmers of the seemingly
obvious advantages it offers has to be carried out thoroughly in all new districts approached.
As a result, however, of continued effort for several years, many herds of dairy cows to-day
are to be found whose average annual (305 days) yield per cow is over 300 lb. of butter-fat,
with several score over 350 lb.   It is difficult to tell precisely, but the probable percentage of 6S
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dairy animals in British Columbia on test in Cow-testing Associations at present is between five
and six. This proportion seems small enough, but is large in comparison with that of any other
Province in Canada.
Directing the attention, as milk recording does, to the question of economic feeding, the
compilations now available to the member of an association with the use of the feed-unit system
are of the greatest value.
A request is being made for an amendment to the " Stock-brands Act," permitting the use
by Cow-testing Associations, under the direction of this Branch, of a brand for cows proven to
be poor producers. This is to counteract the practice, frequent enough when beef prices are not
the highest, of reselling as likely dairy cows animals thrust out of herds on account of low
production and sent to the butcher by their owners.
The assistant in charge of Cow-testing (Milk Record) work, G. H. Thornbery, in his report
says: " There are now eleven supervisors employed by nine associations testing 5,000 cows,
80 per cent, of these being in the Fraser Valley. These men are located in the following
districts: Chilliwack, 3; and Sumas-Matsqui-Dewdney, Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge, Langley,
Surrey, Richmond-Ladner, Comox Valley, Okanagan, and Bulkley Valley each having one.
All associations except one are in good healthy condition, which means that their membership
is satisfactory.
" The adoption, more than a year ago, of the feed unit for recording rations fed to cows has
added very materially to the value of the work. This has been particularly noticeable in
associations where supervisors take an interest in the economical feeding of cows. Dairymen,
who in the past have been and still are very enthusiastic about high production, are paying
much more attention to the question of feeding for profit. In some cases a herd average has
been allowed to drop because it was found that too high a percentage of concentrates was being
fed in the ration in comparison to the average yield per cow.
" Previous to the general use of the feed unit high butter-fat records had a tendency to
deter owners of mediocre herds from joining an association, but this is not now so noticeable.
Data on the economical feeding of cows, which in the past was a very secondary consideration,
are now one of the most profitable sources of information available to active members of Cow-
testing Associations.
" The plan of issuing certificates, which has been in operation for seven years, has proved
to be of great value to dairymen who are building up a profitable herd of cows. These certificates
are particularly valuable in the event of selling cows for dairy purposes, as a higher price is
obtainable for them if they have ' production papers' showing that they can deliver the goods.
" The system of ear-tagging calves from cows of a given production, if from pure-bred
registered sires, is helping very considerably to stress the necessity of keeping a bull alive until
his value is determined. There are 895 heifers that have been tagged in the various associations
since its inception. These are from 250 (approximate) different sires, representatives of the
four dairy breeds, with Holsteins and Jerseys predominating. Some heifers bearing these tags
are finishing their first milking-period. As more of them come into production they will either
commend or condemn their sires, and in this way assist in prolonging their usefulness to the
dairy industry, or else, by their low production, brand them as animals which will reduce a herd
average and spoil the result of many years' work in bringing a herd up to a profitable point of
production."
In reviewing the means possible of effecting permanent herd improvement, it becomes
evident that milk recording and economic feeding constitute a work of supreme importance,
indispensable as a foundation. Further progress and permanence of structure depend upon the
herd sire.
Advanced registration plans of the Dominion Breed Associations now assist very materially
in the selection of worthy bulls. The full merit of this gets very slowly to the knowledge of
the average dairy-farmer, outside of the ranks of breeders of pure dairy stock. Ordinary,
accepted exhibition classes for pure-bred dairy cattle give instruction as to required breed type,
but convey little to the onlooker as to ultimate dairy quality of animals passed on. The time
has surely arrived when worthy ancestry and actual recorded production should be taken into
account with conformation in awarding prizes to animals whose prime function is the production of milk and butter-fat.
(For list of associations, officials, and yearly grants see Appendix No. 26.) O 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
EXTENSION OF DAIRYING.
The extension of dairying and diversified farming has been hindered to a very great degree
by an almost total lack of co-ordinated assistance in the field. In the several districts of the
Interior, suffering these many seasons agriculturally and, as their cries testify, financially, from
the overenthusiasm of the advocates of specialization, there have been at hand to show or tell
of measures of relief, easily and quickly applied, very few persons indeed. Impelled by the
example of neighbours to the north, the reclamation of the Mid and Southern Okanagan is
proceeding slowly, but sound demonstration and precept by agricultural instructors has been
mostly absent or has been from men travelling through the country or from the Dominion
Experimental Farms. The Arrow Lakes and the West Kootenay Districts also remain without
an exponent of mixed farming. In and by these, too, there have been initiated movements
showing the desire for a more diversified agriculture, but beyond spasmodic instruction from
visiting agriculturists and from correspondence little has been done in response.
There is at Salmon Arm and at Nelson a Poultry Instructor; in both cases efficient and
with huge districts to serve. Barring the suggestions that might be offered by these in respect
to matters not mainly in their charge, there exists beween the confines of the District Agriculturists of Kamloops and Cranbrook no opportunity of direct inquiry of a qualified representative
of a diversified and safe agriculture, outside of the Dominion Experimental Farms. In this
territory may be found: Salmon Arm, Enderby, Armstrong, Vernon, Lumby, Kelowna, Penticton,
Summerland, Peachland, Naramata, Kaleden, Oliver, Bridesville, Rock Creek, Grand Forks,
Rossland, Nelson, Renata, Kootenay Lake, Creston, Revelstoke, Nakusp, Edgewood, Burton, and
Robson. In none of these areas is to be found one whose business primarily, as representative
of this Department, is to give information on the care, feeding, and management of any farm
animal, nor to advise as to where desirable foundation stock of any kind may be secured.
Neither is there to be found one to tell of soils or crops in general or of fodders for these
animals. There is no one charged with encouraging the economical production of milk, beef,
pork, mutton, wool, or ham by sound methods, nor of profitable dairying through cow-testing
centres and associations, as well as through side-lines.
The work of this Branch includes the continual inspection and patrol of manufacturing
establishments and dairy plants of any kind, as well as herd improvement through milk-recording
and kindred devices, nominally also anything for the encouragement of the dairy industry in
British Columbia. The early beginnings, however, require stimulation and encouragement to be
afforded best by district men versed in the diversification which makes safe a district's agriculture and consequently a district's welfare.
TESTERS' LICENCES.
Seventeen applicants were examined. Sixty-four licences were issued. (For list of testers
holding licences during 1928 see Appendix No. 25.)
CREAM-GRADERS' LICENCES.
Forty-three licences to cream-graders were issued.    Three were single licences;  forty were
combined cream-graders' and milk-testers' licences.  Two were temporary, subject to further
examination.    (For the list of cream-graders so licensed see Appendix No. 24.)
DAIRY AND .CREAMERY LICENCES.
Licences for a dairy or creamery were issued to fifty persons, firms, companies, or associations buying milk or cream on the basis of the butter-fat content.    (For the list of creameries
and dairies so licensed see Appendix No. 23.)
LEGISLATION.
No changes have been made in nor any additions to the Acts affecting this Branch!
FAIRS.
The regular duties were carried out at Victoria, Vancouver, and New Westminster Exhibitions in respect to the dairy classes. At all of these the accommodation for dairy produce leaves
much to be desired. Jos. Burgess, Chief Produce Division, Dairy Branch, Ottawa, judged at
Vancouver; W. J. Beckett, Dominion Grader, Edmonton, at Victoria; and K. G. McKay, Chief
Dominion Grader, Winnipeg, at New Westminster. CREAM-GRADERS' LICENCE COURSE.
The course for the year was held January 9th to 28th, inclusive, at the premises of the
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Vancouver. Twelve applicants were in attendance.
Seven successfully passed the examinations.
Next year the premises occupied annually for a month since the inception of this course
will not be available, owing to the space being required by the Fraser Valley Milk Producers'
Association.
For the accommodation so provided, and for the courteous assistance forthcoming at all
times by its representatives, this Branch remains indebted to the Fraser Valley Milk Producers'
Association.
Arrangements have been made for the use of space belonging to Almond's, Limited, on Keefer
Street, Vancouver, for the forthcoming course, January 21st to February 9th next. The equipment is now stored at that place.
MILK INQUIRY.
The sittings of the Commission appointed to inquire into the milk affairs of Vancouver and
the Lower Mainland were attended.
THE BRITISH COLUMBIA DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION.
This association's work of the year has proceeded much as heretofore. No summer meeting
was held. Prizes for C.T.A. and R.O.P. records were offered and the creamery-run contest for
butter-makers (which has proved highly successful) has been continued. The next convention
will be merged with the West%rn Canada Dairy Convention, which comes to the Coast for the
second time, February 12th to 15th, inclusive, 1929.
PUBLICATIONS.     .
Dairy Circular No. 15, " Annual List of Certified C.T.A. Records," was issued.
OFFICE.
Assistance to the office staff was secured during the year on account of the increase in
volume of reports and applications pertaining to grading, licensing, and cow-testing affairs.
Respectfully submitted.
Henry Rive,
Dairy Commissioner.
REPORT OF CHIEF POULTRY INSTRUCTOR, VICTORIA.
J. R. Terry.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report for the year 1928.
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
Although producers did not experience any sensational drop during the winter months such
as occurred in January, 1927, the prices received averaged a little lower than expected. The
volume of eggs produced was the greatest in the history of the industry. The extent of this
increase can be gauged when one is acquainted with the fact that over 400 car-loads of eggs
were dispatched during the year. Towards the end of the year, owing to the very mild conditions
in Eastern Canada, the eggs exported were held up and did not fetch expected prices. The fact
that most of the eggs were sold on consignment also added to the problem. The increased
number of early-hatched fowls kept in other parts of the Dominion, together with the more or
less efficient co-operative organizations marketing these products, must sooner or later be taken
into account by Provincial producers. The stand was taken at the big convention in the East
recently that if the exports from British Columbia increased much more the Eastern wholesalers
would have to market Eastern surplus eggs in Europe and get their winter supplies of fresh
e eggs from British Columbia, rather than taking the chance of putting eggs in cold storage and
eventually losing money on same.
Prices received for poultry-meats was in the main very satisfactory. The higher price was
particularly due to the fact that there has been an increase in the proportion of heavy-weight
fowls bred, with the resulting higher prices being received for carcasses of mature fowls and
cockerels.
As in past years, a large number of pullets, from 6 to 10 weeks of age, were sold and a new
trade seems to be working up for 5- and 6-month-old pullets. The average price received for
the younger class of stock was from 75 cents to $1.50, and for the more mature pullets $1.25
to $2.50. About 95 per cent, of the young pullets sold were light-weight or Leghorn fowls. The
price of day-old chicks, owing to overproduction, averaged a little lower than last year, the
average being approximately 18 cents each, with a few high-class chicks selling at $1 each and
ranging down to about 12 cents for the lower grades.
The price of feedstuffs again averaged high. As frequently pointed out, the complication
of feed mixtures, containing sometimes two or three animal concentrates, all of them relatively
high-priced, made it impossible for the mixtures not to be expensive.
The following is a comparison of prices (wholesale) from 1905-1928, inclusive:—
Cents. Cents.
1905   24%      1917   41
1906  29%      1918   50
1907   31       1919   60%
1908   31%      1920   57%
1909   33%      1921  ^.  39%
1910   34%      1922   32%
1911   33%      1923   28
1912   41       1924   32
1913   35       1925   32
1914  .'  35       1926   30
1915   32%      1927   29
1916   34       1928   29
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.
These figures are not received by the Statistician, from Ottawa, until early spring.
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
With winter temperatures lower on the average than those during 1927, the egg production
during this period was also lower. It has been frequently noted that, following a year of very
heavy chick losses, the ensuing year gives far better hatching results. It would appear as if the
mortality preceding eventually killed off practically all the weak stock during infancy. Very
few complaints were heard in the hatching season as to either poor hatches or heavy death
losses.
BREEDING OPERATIONS.
Whilst the volume of business transacted was in excess of past years, quite a few breeders
reported a surplus of pullets unsold early in the fall. In one or two instances breeders reported
they had to put up extra buildings for housing surplus stock.
The Provincial Record of Performance Association again received a grant from the Department towards the heavy advertising expenses incurred. The association reports a larger
business done, particularly in shipping out higher-priced eggs, chicks, and mature stock.
Hatcheries again report increased sales and this has also been the case with private
breeders.
In addition to the Record of Performance Association's very heavy export outside the
Province, many private breeders also increased their exports over previous years.
During the fall a very large hatchery concern has been organized and has been purchasing
large quantities of high-record cockerels for sale to many patrons who will later supply eggs to
the hatchery. Apparently this will sharpen competition among breeders selling chicks, and
possibly may lead to price-cutting in the event of there being overproduction. DEPARTMENTAL WORK.
The three Instructors located in the West Kootenay, Okanagan, and Fraser Valley, together
with the writer, located on Vancouver Island, again visited practically all localities in their
districts during the year.
The Instructor for the Kootenays reports conditions in the district as very satisfactory.
Although egg production increased in the West Kootenay, it was still necessary to bring in
approximately twelve car-loads of eggs to the cities there for consumption. This Branch,
particularly through the Kootenay Inspector, has been co-operating with the Federal Department, by supplying data and other information for the purpose of the possible stationing of an
Egg Inspector in the Interior, where, at present, very little inspection-work is done. It is
interesting to note than an egg-laying contest has been organized at Grand Forks, in the
Boundary District. Much credit is due the local poultrymen there for organizing this independently. The contest has secured entries from all parts of the Province and promises to put
up some creditable results. The Kootenay Instructor is closely co-operating with the contest
committee.    The Branch is also issuing weekly reports, etc.
In the Lower Mainland District the Branch Inspector, who is located at New Westminster,
reports continual increase in the number of fowls kept. As this district contains by far the
largest number of poultry-breeders, it would appear inevitable that there are proportionately
more inexperienced poultrymen than in other sections. Easily 75 per cent, of the Inspector's
time is taken up with demands to solve the problems of the beginners, with diseases as the
principal difficulty. Many beginners still made the mistake of purchasing cheap and unreliable
stock at a very low price rather than paying a good price for reliable healthy stock. The duck-
breeders report a fairly good season in this district. Owing to the large Oriental population
considerable quantity of ducks can be disposed of.
An attempt to form a poultry community near New Westminster failed disastrously during
the year. It is a pleasure, however, to report that very few people were prevailed upon to buy
farms in the proposition before it went under. The promoter, a foreigner from Southern Europe,
departed to parts unknown with a large sum of cash, it is alleged.
In the Interior and northern parts of the Province the Inspector for this territory states
that satisfactory increase has taken place in all kinds of fowls kept, with a tendency to swing
towards the production of heavy-weight fowls than egg production primarily. The number of
turkeys raised in the district was much larger than usual, and it is satisfactory to note that
the mortality amongst the young stock was kept within reasonable limits, and the stock marketed
showed a better finish and the majority of the specimens of heavier weight than usual. In
turkeys, as is well known, the heaviest birds always command substantial premiums compared
with those of less weight.
BOYS'  AND  GIRLS' POULTRY  CLUBS.
A grand total of sixty-one clubs was organized throughout the Province during the year.
This is by far the biggest number of clubs organized in one year.
The Okanagan District again led in number of clubs. At Vernon, where the school-teacher
is an enthusiastic poultry-woman, the largest number of clubs were formed, totalling nine. In
connection with these clubs it may be interesting to note that, in addition to the usual scoring
by the Branch Inspector, the children competed at their own Vernon District Poultry-show and
also sent a large number of birds down to the Provincial Poultry-show at Vancouver. During
the season the competitors here won over $220 in prize-money. Many of the children at this
centre fattened their surplus cockerels and held a killing and plucking demonstration, supervised
by the Interior Instructor.
Clubs were also organized at Ashcroft; North Bend (four clubs) ; Kelowna (four clubs) ;
Grindrod (eight clubs) ;   Quesnel (three clubs) ;   Salmon Arm (five clubs).
In the Kootenay a total of eleven clubs was organized, with Midway having the largest
number of clubs, a total of four.
Clubs were also organized at Fruitvale, Slocan Park, Nelson, Passmore, Jaffray, Edgewood,
and Rock Creek.
In the Lower Mainland clubs were formed at the following places: Roberts Creek (two
clubs) ;  South Vancouver (two clubs) ;  Mission City (five clubs).
On the Gulf Islands clubs were formed at Shirley, Hornby Island; Pender Island (two
clubs) ;  Lake Hill (two clubs) ;   Sooke;  Shawnigan Lake;  Vimy (two clubs). O 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A total of 6,387 eggs was supplied to 491 members. Of these eggs the Barred Rock breed
accounted for a little more than one-third; with White Wyandotte coming second ; Rhode Island
Reds, third;  White Leghorns, fourth;   and Buff Orpingtons last.
The British Columbia Poultry Association donated silk ribbons and also bronze medals to
winners in the various districts. In connection with the Boys' and Girls' Clubs at North Bend,
this district being more or less isolated, the Provincial Association donated prize-money for the
children's own poultry-show. Coops were loaned by the Mission City Poultry Association and
the children staged their own poultry-show in the basement of the school. Several department
stores and traders in Vancouver gave goods as special prizes and the show proved a success
in every way. During the afternoon representatives of the Branch gave killing and plucking
demonstrations and in the evening a lantern lecture was given, followed by judging competitions
for the children and final distribution of prize-money.
BRITISH COLUMBIA POULTRY ASSOCIATION.
The Provincial Poultry-show was again held at the same time and place as the Winter Fat-
stock Show in Vancouver. The usual classes were increasingly patronized, with a special
feature being made of the dressed-poultry class, for which the Dominion Government again
donated valuable cash prizes. At the auction of dressed fowls, held on the last day of the show,
the highest prices ever paid for turkey-flesh were recorded. The first-prize turkey, a magnificent
young torn, weighing 27 lb., fetched the unprecedented price of $1.70 per pound. The next five
turkeys were sold at the high price of $1.03 per pound. The Provincial Poultry Association,
by giving a much larger classification for dressed fowls, brought out the biggest display ever seen
in the Province. In addition to the many amateur fatteners, by which is meant those operating
their own fattening establishment, the professional fatteners, those operating large fattening
establishments, also entered a larger number of birds than in past years. The first-prize dozen
cockerels of the White Rock breed made up a splendid crate of fowls and easily won the prize.
The dressed-poultry classes were judged by representatives of the Branch and much more time
than usual was consumed in the work.
At the three exhibitions of Westminster, Vancouver, and Victoria, poultry-judging competitions were held by the association in conjunction with the Fair managements. The association's
silver cups were donated, as also were bronze medals, to the winners. The competitors, all of
whom have to be under 18 years of age, were from all parts of the Province and the work
performed by them was vastly superior to the showing of past competitions.
As usual, the Provincial Association arranged the distribution of the Government grant to
district poultry-shows, as in the past.
The shows this year were held as follows : District 1, Duncan ; District 2, Victoria ; District
4, Mission ; District 5, Kamloops ; District 6, Vernon ; District 7, Penticton ; District 8, Grand
Forks;   District 9, Cranbrook.
All of the district shows proved successful and in several instances the entries were larger,
particularly with regard to the utility production classes. Children's exhibits were especially
encouraging at the fairs and at practically all of the district shows. The member of this Branch
held judging competitions for children as well as giving them practical instruction in killing and
plucking fowls.
TURKEYS.
Owing to the favourable weather conditions during the hatching season the turkey-crop was
a bumper one. Many breeders increased their hatching operations and quite a few new breeders
were reported. It is interesting to note that, although the Interior District, particularly where
there is a paucity of rainfall, has always been noted as being the location where the majority
of the turkeys in the Province are hatched, yet during the past year Vancouver Island, the
adjacent Gulf Islands, and parts of the Lower Mainland came ahead so well with production
that it is questionable as to just which district reared the most turkeys. As in former years,
about 90 per cent, of the turkeys hatched were of the Mammoth Bronze variety, with a few
Bourbon Reds. White Hollands, and Narragansett turkeys making up the balance. Several
breeders utilized wild turkey gobblers to mate their flocks this year. Whilst the stock raised
was satisfactory as far as vitality is concerned, yet in the majority of places where wild-bred
gobblers were used the progeny was smaller than pure-bred Mammoth Bronze. As Is known,
the matter of size is the all-important one in turkeys, there being sometimes as much as 15 cents
a pound more being paid for the larger specimens of the breed.   DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 85
The Poultry Branch, feeling that too much money was being sent out of the Province for
turkey-eggs and breeding stock, organized, early in the year, a Provincial Turkey Club. The
club is a thriving one with forty members and has published spring and fall breeders' directories
of stock and eggs for sale, and also advertised in Prairie papers for the purpose of capturing
some of the trade there. A very large business was done in hatching-eggs and a greater volume
in selling young breeding stock later on. The British Columbia Turkey Club, in a desire to
improve the stock and make the business more profitable, has adopted as its slogan, " No breeding
hens in the flock under 14 lb., and no gobblers under 20."
During the Christmas season the Branch held very successful turkey-killing demonstrations
in connection with the Turkey Club. These took place at Gabriola Island, where over 1,000
turkeys were marketed at Christmas, Duncan, Vimy, Cowichan Lake, Gordon Head, and at
Abbotsford. The breeder, on whose establishment the demonstration was conducted, marketed
over 500 turkeys on a small farm in the Fraser Valley. He also exhibited at the Provincial
Show and won all of the prizes offered, and secured the Canadian Record prize, as mentioned in
another part of this report.
DUCKS.
Whilst fewer ducks were raised than during the boom period of two years ago, yet the
industry has made steady progress and appears to be settled on a better foundation than heretofore. As in the past, the Pekin breed is still the most popular. Quite a few breeders are
still crossing Muscovy ducks with Pekins, and a steady market for duck-eggs was found for
those produced. The medium-sized duck is used, and during the past year there seems to have
been a decided preference for the Khaki Campbell ducks and Indian Runners for this purpose.
The Provincial Duck-breeders' Association was formed during the year and was given clerical
and other assistance by this Poultry Branch. It is possible, however, that the club may be
unable to continue, owing to the lack of breeders sufficiently interested to join such an
organization.
GEESE.
During the year a slight increase was noted in the production of geese. As in the past, the
Toulouse variety comprises about 80 per cent, of the production. The Embden or White geese
and the African geese come next in popularity. It is possible that if the prices for turkeys and
fattened cockerels continue to rise during the Thanksgiving and Christmas periods, there may
be a bigger market opened up for ducks and geese. It is advisable, however, not to bank too
much on this assumption, and breeders will be wise not to increase production too much.
RABBIT-REARING.
Owing to a good demand for prime rabbit-furs the industry has to record a good increase in
productive effort. The more popular breeds appear to be those with long wool and a rapidly
increasing export trade is being carried on.
To the associations already existing at the beginning of the year must be added one more
organization, that formed in the Okanagan—the Okanagan Rabbit-breeders' Association. The
breeders in this district have a very lusty and growing organization and appear to consist of
utility breeders in overwhelming proportions.
Most of the associations held separate rabbit-shows at the fall fairs and during the winter
months, and there appears to be a satisfactory increase in the number of entries and also in the
class of stock shown. The matter of co-operation amongst the local associations is still a
negligent quality. Were the societies to amalgamate and co-operate in marketing furs, pelts,
and wool, there is no reason why the industry could not be built up to treble its present size
in a year or two. At present it seems as if most of the returns for shipping products are
swallowed up by express or postal rates.
During the year the Department assisted the Provincial breeders in exhibiting at the Royal
Winter Fair, held in Toronto. The local shipments carried off many valuable prizes and as a
result a good trade has been built up between Eastern Canadian breeders and our own.
During the year the Branch published directories for rabbit-breeders; revised and had
printed a new edition of the rabbit bulletin; sent out many thousands of hutch record-cards;
and also published a circular on rabbit-culture. DISEASES.
. Whereas the mortalities from coccidiosis and white diarrhoea were the worst recorded
during the year 1927, it is pleasant to relate the fact that during the past season the death
losses were below normal. It is the opinion of this Branch that, through the heavy losses the
previous year, less carriers and birds lacking in vitality for breeding purposes were carried over.
Although experiments of more or less confined range on cement or board floors for brooder-
chicks during the first six weeks has proved highly efficacious in warding off attacks of coccidiosis
and worm infestations, very few breeders in the Province have tried out this equipment. One
very successful breeder in the United States has had splendid results by covering a small
brooder-house yard with tarred paper and placing an inch or two of clean sand on top. The
sand is removed at intervals and replaced with similar material.
The usual number of dead birds were sent to members of the Branch during the year.
Most of the birds were of the light-weight varieties and the principal trouble found proved, as
in past years, to have originated in the egg-organs.
OFFICE-WORK.
It was apparent during the year that the number of independent breeders as well as official
R.O.P. poultrymen utilizing the Branch's trap-nest record forms has increased. The Branch
has record of several hundred breeders in the Province trap-nesting.
Many interviews were given in the Branch's offices throughout the Province and a great
increase in correspondence, both inward and outward, has to be recorded.
During the year lectures and demonstrations were frequently given before members of
Poultry Associations, to Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs, to school-children's agricultural classes,
and to members of Farmers' and Women's Institutes and to United Farmers.
Members of the Branch were again utilized as poultry judges at the fall fairs, exhibitions,
and winter poultry-shows. Whilst attending to this work many poultry-breeders were met with
and much information disseminated.
The writer, in conclusion, again wishes to show his appreciation of the faithful work and
attention to duties on the part of the three District Instructors.
Owing to the Branch taking over the secretaryship and organization of four specialty clubs
the work of the clerk-stenographer has been very arduous during the year. Her services have
been willingly and efficiently given.
Respectfully submitted.
J. R. Terry,
Chief Poultry Instructor.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL AGRONOMIST, VICTORIA.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A., ,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Field Crop Branch.
CROP CONDITIONS.
Owing to continued wet weather a late spring was experienced in most districts and as a
result spring crops were sown late. Low and undrained lands were particularly difficult to get
in shape.    However, in spite of these conditions some excellent crops were harvested.
The hay-crop generally was good. In the Bulkley Valley, however, hay was exceptionally
light, due to very dry weather. Mangel-crops were good, but on account of injury from flea-
beetles swede turnips were considerably below average. The acreage sown to spring wheat
was larger than usual, due to the fact that considerable winter-killing took place in fall wheat.
Furthermore, the acreage sown to fall wheat in 1927 was below average on account of poor
weather conditions. Grain-crops turned out well on the whole, but were late on account of the
backward spring. Conditions were excellent for the harvesting and threshing of the crops.
Forage-crops yielded well and were harvested in good condition. Considerable clover was saved
for seed purposes in the Fraser Valley and in Central British Columbia.   In the former section yields were good, but rain interfered with threshing operations.    A smaller acreage was planted
to potatoes and the yield was below average.
STAFF.
Several changes have taken place in the staff of this Branch during the year. S. S. Phillips,
Assistant Agronomist, was transferred from Victoria to Smithers early in the year to take
charge of field-crop and seed operations in the Bulkley Valley and Lakes Districts. J. B. Munro,
who has been Assistant Agronomist for the past six years, resigned to become editor of Farm and
Home. Two Field Inspectors—namely, Messrs. Luyat and Travis—have been employed on
temporary work.
SEED-DRILL SURVEY.
In co-operation with the Dominion Seed Branch, the seed-drill survey started in 1927 was
continued during the spring. Samples of seed were taken direct from the drill at the time of
seeding and forwarded to the Dominion Seed Branch at Calgary for analysis. In this way it
is possible to obtain accurate information regarding the quality of the seed being used by our
farmers. The results of the survey for 1928, which appear in Appendices Nos. 28-33, clearly
show the poor quality of seed which continues to be sown by our farmers. •
ROOT-SEED PRODUCTION WORK.
This year 194 lb. of root-seed have been distributed among 164 farmers on the Lower
Mainland and on Vancouver Island. This seed was special stock obtained from the University
of British Columbia, MacDonald College, and the Ontario Agricultural College. In view of the
fact that this industry is in its infancy the production of root-seed in British Columbia will
probably not be very great for several years. In the meantime it is desirable to ascertain the
future possibilities of marketing. To this end this Branch sent several lots of mangel-seed to
one of the agricultural representatives in Nova Scotia for test purposes. A report has been
recently received to the effect that very satisfactory results have been obtained. It is hoped to
continue and possibly extend these tests next year.
PURE-SEED WORK.
It is quite evident to any one who has travelled around the Province, or even studied the
results of the seed-drill survey, that there is a very great need for the distribution of good seed
in British Columbia. The varieties being used are in many cases very much mixed and contain
seeds of very bad weeds. Such weeds as Canada thistle, stinkweed, and perennial sow-thistle
have already become firmly established in many of our agricultural sections. In order, therefore, to encourage the use of pure seeds of standard varieties, special stock seed produced under
the most careful conditions at the University of British Columbia and other institutions has
been distributed at a certain fixed price during the year. This work necessitates personal
visits to farms in order to be able to select the right type of man to propagate this seed.
The amount of seed received by each farmer depends on the total amount of stock seed
available of each variety. As a rule, however, on account of the small total supply of seed
available, each farmer receives not more than 100 lb. In view of this he is urged to sow the
seed by itself in an isolated place where it can be looked after properly. In 1928 the following
quantities (approximate) of stock seed of cereals and peas were distributed among farmers
in the Province:—
„ . Quantity.    No. of Farmers.
Spring wheat  , , 1,290 9
Fall wheat     728 11
Spring oats 4,126 31
Winter oats  ,    100 2
Peas  „ 1,707 12
The above seed was distributed in the following districts: Okanagan, Fraser Valley,
Vancouver Island, and Central British Columbia.
The crops are inspected during the growing season and after harvest by officials of the
Dominion Seed Branch, and registration is granted by the Canadian Seed-growers' Association
providing certain requirements have been met. It is hoped by keeping a complete check on all
this seed that it will gradually become distributed throughout the Province. O 88
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
COMBINED FIELD-CROP AND CLEANED-SEED COMPETITIONS.
Four combined field-crop and cleaned-seed competitions were carried on during the year
and all of them in Central British Columbia. The object of these competitions is to encourage
the production of pure seed of certain crops in districts especially suitable for their cultivation.
These competitions are of particular value in such districts as Prince George and Vanderhoof,
where efforts are being made to encourage the production of red- and alsike-clover seed. They
are also of value in the Bulkley Valley and Lakes District, where the production of pure seed
of oats and wheat is being encouraged. In carrying on these competitions the crops are
judged during the growing season and after harvest. The " after-harvest" score is made at
the Dominion Seed Laboratory in Calgary and is based on the cleaned-seed sample taken by
the Inspector from the competitor's own premises. Seed for these competitions is usually
obtained through the assistance of this Branch.
EXPERIMENTAL PLOT AT SUMAS.
An experimental plot on the Sumas reclamation area was conducted during the year.
This plot, which was divided into acre blocks, consisted of 20 acres and was immediately
adjacent to the highway.    The object of this plot was fourfold:—
(1.) To find out whether'the Sumas soils required any special fertilizer treatment for the
production of red-clover seed.
(2.)  To ascertain the adaptability of various varieties and kinds of crops to the Sumas area.
(3.) To create a centre for the production of pure seed.
(4.)  To ascertain the best kinds of fertilizer for oats, barley, and peas.
This work, which requires considerable supervision, has already been fully reported on. In
view of the fact that it takes two years to get a crop of clover-seed and the clover was seeded
in the spring of this year, it will not be possible to report on the value of the various fertilizer
treatments for clover-seed production until the fall of 1929.
SURVEY OF AVIIEAT SITUATION.
For some time farmers in the Interior have been asking for assistance in connection with
the improvement of the wheat-crop. For this reason G. A. Luyat, Field Inspector in this
Branch, was assigned along with other duties the work of conducting a survey of the Interior
fall- and spring-wheat situation. It was generally felt that definite recommendations could
not be made until the entire situation had been thoroughly, canvassed. A report on this work
has been prepared by Mr. Luyat and is filed with the Branch.
The following districts were visited in connection with this work: Kamloops, North
Okanagan, Bridesville, Rock Creek, and Midway. Owing to topographical features the conditions with regard to the growing of wheat vary not only from district to district, but from farm
to farm.    There seems to be some peculiarity about every slope and draw.
The survey as conducted consisted in obtaining information on the following: (1) Varieties
of wheat being grown; (2) suitability of the various districts for spring or fall wheat; (3) advisability of growing hard or soft wheat;   (4) markets and prices;   (5) general conditions.
TESTING NEW WHEAT VARIETIES.
Two new varieties of fall wheat—namely, Iobred and Ioturk—were imported from the State
of Iowa and tested in the Armstrong and Bridesville Districts. The Iobred wintered very
well without any sign of winter-injury and began to stool quite early in the spring. It developed
long and very stout straw, but the heads did not attain the size of those found in Jones' Winter
Fife sown alongside of it. The variety is a bearded one, and for this reason it is felt that this
feature would reduce the feeding value of the straw as well as make it difficult to harvest. The
kernel is red and hard. The Ioturk also wintered well and stooled out much more than any
other variety in the district. The straw was of good length and strength and the heads a little
larger than those found in the Iobred variety. It is also a bearded variety, and this again
is an undesirable characteristic. From 30 lb. of seed the yields were as follows: Iobred, 855
lb., equivalent to 2,565 lb. per acre;  Ioturk, 550 lb., equivalent to 1,650 lb. per acre.
From the above figures it will be noted that the Iobred was the better yielder of the two
varieties. However, on account of the bearded heads it will probably never become a popular
variety.   The farmers are insistent they have a beardless variety.   For this reason the Branch is making tests this year with Marquis wheat sown in the fall.    It is felt that if it comes through
this winter, it will strengthen in hardiness.
WEED-CONTROL.
In accordance with the decision reached last spring, the Branch has this year carried on
considerable educational work with weed-eradication, and in addition to this has made a general
survey of the weed situation in the Province. A report on our activities in connection with
this work has already been presented to the Department. The educational work which has
been carried on has been largely confined to Vancouver Island, Lower Mainland, Interior, and
to Central British Columbia. However, observations were made and reports received on the
weed situation in other parts of the Province. In Central British Columbia, where it was
generally considered the country was comparatively free from weeds, stinkweed was found to
be very bad. Several large fields and many smaller areas of stinkweed were observed which
were going to seed and nothing being done to keep them in check. Several bad patches of
perennial sow-thistle were also observed in this section of the Province. The existence of
such weeds as stinkweed and perennial sow-thistle in districts where the production of seed is
being undertaken may prove disastrous to the industry unless every effort is made to keep them
in check.
In the Cariboo many fields were noticed which were badly infested with perennial sow-
thistle. No personal visit was made to the Peace River District, but reports were received from
that section to the effect that perennial sow-thistle and stinkweed were both bad. On the
Lower Mainland Canada thistles were very abundant. On Vancouver Island ox-eye daisy,
common mustard, and Canada thistle were very much in evidence. In the Interior Russian
thistle, wild morning-glory, tumbling mustard, stinkweed, and Canada thistle were prevalent in
many districts.
The educational work which has been carried on has largely consisted of interesting local
authorities regarding the importance of weed-control. Advice has been given concerning the
best methods of eradication and weed displays have been made at some of the fairs. Many
personal visits have been made to farms in order to acquaint the owners with the weeds which
exist thereon. Municipal officials and Provincial Police have been called upon to ascertain
what efforts are being made to enforce the " Noxious Weeds Act" in their respective districts.
Posters have been gotten out and distributed. The control of weeds in British Columbia will
be a difficult matter to handle for many years, due to the fact that there is so much waste land.
Total destruction of weeds can never come about, due to the topographical nature of the
Province.
From the results of the work carried on this year it is obvious, however, that changes in
the " Noxious Weeds Act" are required if the spread of bad weeds is to be prevented. Recommendations dealing with this matter are contained in the report already filed with the
Department.
PASTURE INVESTIGATIONS.
Many requests have been received during recent years for more attention to be devoted to
the improvement of pastures in the Province. It was for this reason officials of the Branch
made some investigations regarding the pasture situation in the various sections of the Province
with the object of ascertaining the best policy to pursue in regard to this work. The districts
in which these investigations were made are as follows: Lower Mainland, Comox, and the
Okanagan.
The following is a summary of the situation in these districts:—
(1.) There are few permanent pastures to be found, although there is much land suitable
for this purpose.
(2.) The price of land in some instances is considered too high to offset the value of a permanent pasture.
(3.) On account of limited acreage the average farmer follows out a system whereby he can
produce a cash crop while his cattle are being maintained on a temporary pasture, hay-field,
uncleared land, or roadside.
(4.) Pastures are the least regarded of all crops.
(5.) In several districts visited there are natural pastures composed of native grasses
and clovers. O 90
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(6.) The best pastures are found in the older-settled districts.
From the information obtained so far it would seem advisable for our farmers to give more
attention to their pastures and to establish permanent pastures under certain conditions.
SOIL INVESTIGATIONS.
m
Many visits have been made to farms during the year in order to give advice regarding
proper method of treating the soil and the kind of crops to grow. This work, which takes
considerable time on account of the distance one is required to travel, is of particular value to
the settler or prospective purchaser of farm lands. Whenever necessary, samples of soil are
taken and forwarded to the Provincial Analyst for chemical analysis. There were eighty-eight
samples of soils, fertilizers, and lime submitted to the Provincial Analyst during the year.
FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS.
Fertilizer demonstrations have been conducted during the year in the following districts:
Armstrong, Salmon Arm, Princeton, Edgewood, Grand Forks, and Pitt Meadows. In addition,
single tests have been conducted in various localities with the object of obtaining further information regarding the value of fertilizers.
In the district demonstrations five farmers in each district received fertilizers. This
material was applied at the rate of 800 lb. per acre on three %-acre plots on each farm, while
one %-acre plot served as a check. Chemical fertilizers, either simple or various combinations
of recognized standards, were used in almost all cases. These fertilizers were purchased from
all the leading companies operating in British Columbia.
The demonstration in the Grand Forks District was carried on in co-operation with P. C.
Black, District Agriculturist, and the following tabulated results for that district are an indication of the value of fertilizers for potatoes in that district :—
Potato Yields per Acre.
Name.
Applied
Fertilizer.
Planted
Crop.
Check-
plot.
800 lb.
4-10-4.
800 lb.
3-10-7.
800 lb.
8-6-5.
Chahley, W. G....
Goodnough, L. J
Pennoyer, O	
Price, J	
Ralph, B. J	
May 12
May 15
May 5
Apr. 12-15
Apr. 18
May 12
May 15
May 13
Apr. 21
Apr. 23
Lh.
9,000
22,800
13,800
16,324
17,356
Lb.
11,200
28,000
16,800
16,044
26,192
Lb.
13,000
27,600
18,200
18,424
23,780
Lb.
15,200
27,200
18,800
19,180
27,768
The above district suffered greatly as a result of the exceptionally dry season, coupled with
a shortage of irrigation-water. The following are some of the individual results obtained by
farmers in other districts:—
Salmon Arm—Corn Yield per Acre.
Name.
Applied
Fertilizer.
Planted
Crop.
Check-
plot.
800 lb.
4-10-4.
800 lb.
3-10-7.
800 lb.
8-6-5.
Ibbotson, G. F	
Apr. 15
May 5 '
Lb.
38,200
Lb.
48,264
Lh.
44,720
Lb.
46,200
Australian—Potato Yield per Acre.
Name.
Applied
Fertilizer.
Planted
Crop.
Check-
plot.
700 lb.
3-10-7.
May 12
May 14
Lb.
9,800
Lb.
20,100 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
O 91
Lulu Island—Potato Yield per Acre.
Name.
Applied
Fertilizer.
Planted
Crop.
Check-
plot.
1,000 lb.
6-10-10
Buckle, C. W.       .   .
May 30
June 1
Lb.
16,400
Lb.
20,210
Lulu Island and Australian Districts also suffered from drought, while the potato-tops on
Mr. Beath's farm were frozen down on September 8th.
In the Salmon Arm District experiments were conducted with crops of corn and mangel. In
every case the use of high-grade fertilizer has helped the crops and the check-plots turned out
decidedly inferior. The soil generally consisted of a clay loam and the 6-10-4 fertilizer secured
the highest returns with both corn and mangels.
The following economic result in the above area is an example:—
Fertilizer.
Yield per
Acre.
Increase.
Value of
Increase.
Cost
per Acre.
Net Profit.
(1.)  Check	
(2.) 0-12-10
(3.) 3-10-7..
(4.) 6-10-4...
Tons.
19.2
22.72
23.20
24.26
Tons.
3.52
4.00
5.06
$17.60
$20.00
$25.30
$14.32
$17.01
$16.48
$3.28
$2;99
$8.82
Although the P. and K. mixture undoubtedly has increased the yield, it would seem that N.
is definitely required and the figures suggest that possibly larger amounts of N. might prove
a paying proposition. Weather conditions in this district were extremely dry, with practically
no rain during the months of August and September.
EXHIBITIONS  OUTSIDE  PROVINCE.
It is gratifying to be able to report that W. G. Gibson, Ladner, obtained first prize with
Sterling peas both at the International Hay and Grain Show at Chicago and also at the Royal
Winter Fair, Toronto.    Mr. Gibson also obtained second prize with field beans at Chicago.
These winnings are very creditable and give the Province a good deal of useful advertising.
It is probably not out of place to state that Mr. Gibson received considerable encouragement
and assistance from this Department, which Enabled him to send his exhibits to these two
important exhibitions.
ROTARY  SEED  CONTEST.
The Rotary seed contest for boys and girls on the southern part of Vancouver Island,
conducted by the Victoria Rotary Club and this Branch, was again carried on during the year.
The activities of this Branch centred chiefly around the judging of the plots and supplying the
seed to start with. The prizes were kindly donated by Mrs. Butchart and the Victoria
Rotary Club.
PROVINCIAL WINTER FAIR.
. Assistance was rendered by officials of this Branch to the Provincial Winter Fair held in
Vancouver, November 28th to December 1st. One of the feature displays was the departmental
exhibit, which was composed largely of seeds. Your official, who is chairman of the seed,
field-root, and potato sections, devoted considerable time in assisting with the staging of the
exhibits and in encouraging farmers to exhibit their produce. The total number of exhibits in
these sections was a considerable increase over last year. The potato entries, however, were
less. This was probably due to the poor season. In this connection it is desirable to point out
that it is not the number of entries but rather the quality which counts.
CROP REPORTS.
The issuing of a monthly crop report was one of the new activities of the Branch this year.
This report was made possible through the co-operation of the Departmental Secretary, who
assembled the data, the District Agriculturist, and the officials of this Branch. O 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FALL FAIRS.
Considerable assistance was given during the fall months to the judging of field crops at the
various fall fairs. Much time has also been devoted to revising prize-lists for fairs in order
to make them more up-to-date.'
LOCAL SEED FAIRS.
Two local seed fairs were conducted by this Branch in co-operation with the District
Agriculturists at both Smithers and Vanderhoof during the year. These fairs are capable of
serving a very useful purpose in districts where seed production is being encouraged. At the
same time they serve as feeders for the Provincial Winter Seed Fair which is held later in
Vancouver.
CANADIAN SEED-GROWERS' ASSOCIATION.
Your Provincial Agronomist, who is the director appointed by the British Columbia
Department of Agriculture on the Canadian Seed-growers' Association, attended the annual
meeting of the association, which was held in Quebec City in June. Many matters of importance to seed-growing in British Columbia were discussed and a report on the seed situation
in the Province was presented.
PROVINCIAL SEED BOARD.
Meetings of the Provincial Seed Board were held whenever necessary during the year.
Your official is chairman of this Board.
ADDRESSES AND PUBLICATIONS.
Addresses on field-crop topics have been given from time to time and bulletins on special
subjects have been written.
CORRESPONDENCE.
A wide variety of correspondence was dealt with during the year. Many of the letters
are of an administrative nature, while others deal with farmers' problems.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
Your Provincial Agronomist wishes to express his appreciation of the valuable assistance
rendered during the year by various officials attached to the Branch, and by D. E. Whittaker,
Provincial Analyst. Hearty thanks are also extended to University, Provincial, and Dominion
officials interested in field-crop problems who have co-operated in various ways.
Cecil Tice,
Provincial Agronomist.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL APIARIST, VICTORIA.
W. J. Sheppard.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report as Provincial Apiarist, also the estimated honey-crop
report, the demonstration apiaries reports, and the reports of A. W. Finlay and J. F. Roberts,
Apiary Inspectors, for the year 1928.
THE HONEY-CROP.
The total estimated honey-crop of the Province for 1928, amounting to 985,709 lb., equalling
a general average of 51 lb. per hive, is about 1,000 lb. less than last year. Had it not been for
the abnormally short yield in the Fraser Valley again this season, estimated at 75,415 lb. less
than last year, considerably over the 1,000,000-lb. mark would have been reached.
There was an increased yield in the Dry Belt and in the Kootenays. Central British
Columbia shows up well, with a much-increased number of apiaries and hives and an average
production of 107 lb. per hive.
The estimated total number of apiaries has increased by sixty over last season and the hives
by a little over 500. .*
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VOLUNTEER   ALSIKE   CLOVER,   JOHNSON   BROS.    FARM,   SALMON   VALLEY.
Last year on this land a crop of alsike was grown and cut for seed. The land was ploughed and in the
spring seeded to Chewing's fescue. Alsike, from seed lost in harvesting operations, grew up through the
fescue, bloomed, and set seed in the one season.
SUNFLOWERS  FOR   SILAGE,   BLACKBURN   FARM,  PRINCE  GEORGE.  SPRAY-POISONING OF BEES.
Several authenticated instances of poisoning of bees were reported in the Okanagan in
districts where arsenate of lead had been used in spraying solutions in the orchards. This is
to be greatly deplored, as the killing of bees by this cause not only reduces the honey yield and
discourages the bee-keepers, but also deprives the fruit-blossoms of the chief source of pollination, thus injuring the fruit-growers.
If some strong-smelling substance, such as crude carbolic or creosote, was added to the
spray solution, just sufficient to give it an odour obnoxious to bees, this would act as a deterrent,
and cause them to avoid the poison when in search of moisture.
DEMONSTRATION APIARIES.
The annual reports from the demonstration apiaries are attached hereto and also a report
of the results of the " top entrance " trials at the demonstration apiaries.
FOUL-BROOD INSPECTION.
There has been an increase in the number of cases of American foul-brood found during
the season, mostly owing to some of larger apiaries in the Okanagan having become affected.
The following is the comparison with last year:—
/
Colonies
AFFECTED.
Apiaries.
Brood-combs
destroyed.
1928.
1927.
1928.      ■       1927.
1
1928.
1927.
307
158
3
2G8
4
75
18
66
24
2
62
1
17
4
3,280
1,920
50
2,080
Kootenays	
70
975
250
Totals	
468
365
92
84
5,250
3,375
REGISTRATION OF APIARIES.
A resolution having been passed by the executive of the British Columbia Honey Producers'
Association recommending that registration of apiaries, without any registration fee, be put
into operation, a suggested amendment to the " Apiaries Act" has been drafted for presentation
to the Legislature at the next session.
EXHIBITION OF HONEY.
The exhibits of honey and apiary products at Victoria, Vancouver, and New Westminster
Fairs formed great attractions and were highly praised by the numerous visitors.
Originality of design in the artistic arrangements of the exhibits was an outstanding feature
at New Westminster.
X
Motion pictures of bees and apiary management of an educative nature exhibited by the
Department of Agriculture at all three of these exhibitions were watched with keen interest
by a large number of spectators.
FINAL REPORT ON " TOP ENTRANCE " TRIALS, 1928.
Early in 1928 " top entrances " of the latest pattern were supplied free by the Department
of Agriculture to all owners of demonstration apiaries throughout the Province who had
previously signified their willingness to give this system a trial and send in reports at the end
of the season. ...
Full instructions were given out, together with blank forms for keeping records. The
reports received have been tabulated and are shown in Appendix No. 34.
It will be observed that in most cases the " top entrance " hives yielded more surplus honey
than check-colonies with " bottom entrances," and that the totals were 1,963 lb. and 1,704 lb.
respectively. Some bee-keepers reporting expressed disapproval of the system, mostly on
account of the difficulty they experienced with flying bees when the hives were opened for ■
O 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
examination or taking the honey. This objection can be considerably lessened, if not entirely
obviated, by placing a temporary stand in front on which to put the top entrance and first hive-
body whilst the rest of the hive is being examined. If this is done the bees have a familiar
place to alight, and so do not become bewildered and fly around or enter other hives. Another
objection raised was that the brood is too much mixed up with the honey. This, and the
possibility of hives not being examined frequently enough by some bee-keepers in districts in
which disease exists, would appear to constitute the most serious objections to the top entrance
that have been expressed.
It will be noted that swarming was only reported in two instances.
For wintering, the top entrance is far ahead, as ventilation is so perfect that dampness is
entirely avoided and there is little or no danger from mice. There is also no bottom entrance
to become choked with dead bees, which so frequently cause loss of colonies during the winter.
A  "MIDDLE  ENTRANCE."
A " middle entrance," introduced this year, which has been tried on a small scale during the
past season, has several advantages over the " top entrance." This appliance can be placed
above either the first or the second hive-body. The queen is confined to the brood-chamber
below by means of an attached queen-excluder. An ordinary entrance-block can be used for
contracting the entrance. Neither the queen nor the drones can obtain access to the supers
above the excluder, although they are able to fly in and out of the " middle entrance." The
supers are examined and lifted off in the usual way. When examining the brood-combs below
the excluder it will be advisable to place a temporary stand in front, as in the case of the
" top entrance," to prevent the flying bees from becoming bewildered and a source of trouble
to the operator. For wintering, the " middle entrance " has the same advantages as the " top
entrance."
It is hoped that this system will be given an extensive trial during next season.
BEE CULTURE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A fourth edition of Bulletin No. 92, " Bee Culture in British Columbia," the third edition
having become exhausted, was issued early in the year  and has  received most favourable
comments.
All of which is respectfully submitted. \y J. Sheppard
Provincial Apiarist.
REPORT OF APIARY INSPECTOR, LOWER MAINLAND DISTRICT.
A. W. Finlay.
W. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report as Apiary Inspector for the Lower Mainland for the
year 1928.
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
Early spring examination of a number of apiaries showed that colonies had wintered fairly
well and those well supplied with stores required little or no attention. Many colonies, however,
were found to be short of stores and the heavy spring losses reported later were undoubtedly due
to failure to attend to such colonies by timely feeding.
Prolonged cold and wet weather during April, May, and June caused adverse bee-keeping
conditions, as little or no honey was obtained from willows, dandelions, maples, or fruit-bloom.
Many colonies dwindled in strength after using up their remaining stores in brood-rearing and
were far below normal when the main honey-flow from clover, together with favourable weather,
came late in June. Colonies generally built up to storing strength towards the close of the
clover-flow in July, but again weather conditions were unfavourable for nectar-secretion, due
to continued dry weather, during the whole of July and August.
Very little honey was secured from fireweed, and in the western portion of the Fraser Valley
even this was lowered in quality through the bees gathering an unusual quantity of honey-dew.
A fairly good yield was obtained in the Delta District of excellent clover-honey, also in the
reclaimed area of Sumas Lake, but the crop in general was much below normal on the Lower
Mainland. FIELD-WORK.
Special calls for apiary inspection were received as early as February and March, mostly
from persons desirous of removing their bees into districts where a certificate of inspection is
necessary. General inspection and field-work was undertaken as early as weather conditions
permitted.
The detection and treatment of bee-diseases being of primary importance, activities were
confined chiefly to districts where disease was suspected to be present, but this work could only
be continued at short intervals between numerous special calls for inspection and assistance.
Apiaries in which disease was found and treated the previous season were visited as opportunity offered and in few instances were any fresh cases discovered.
Of sixty-six apiaries found with American foul-brood, it is significant to note that thirty of
these were in or adjacent to Greater Vancouver. The greater percentage of disease in this area
may be attributed to the larger number of inexperienced bee-keepers, many of whom are difficult
to locate for purposes of inspection.
Bee-keepers' field-days were attended and practical demonstrations given, including diagnosing of diseases. Attendances of bee-keepers at these meetings were good and much interest
was shown.
Most of the work in the Greater Vancouver area was allotted to Assistant Inspector A. Keir
and was carried out by him in an efficient and satisfactory manner.
OFFICE-WORK.
The office in the Court-house, New Westminster, was attended two days per week for
answering correspondence and making microscopical examinations for determining disease, etc.
One hundred and forty-four samples of comb or smears were received and examined under
the microscope, eighty-nine of which were determined as American foul-brood, forty as European
foul-brood, and fifteen were found to be sterile.
Reports on the results of these examinations were promptly sent out, together with
instructions for treatment or arrangements made to give assistance where required.
Respectfully submitted.
A. W. Finlay,
Apiary Inspector.
REPORT OF APIARY INSPECTOR, OKANAGAN, SHUSWAP, AND
THOMPSON VALLEY DISTRICTS.
J. F. Roberts.
W. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,^-I beg to submit my report as Apiary Inspector for the Okanagan, Shuswap, and
Thompson Valley Districts for the season 1928.
Owing to the excessive rain during the fall of 1927 and the heavy snow in the winter
following, the whole of my territory experienced an exceptional amount of moisture in the land,
which had a most beneficial effect on the nectar-yielding plants. This will be seen by the larger
averages shown in the estimate of the 1928 crop. These averages in no way do justice to the
actual returns of some of the large apiaries, from one of which a car-load of honey has been
shipped out. This apiary had an average yield of over 250 lb. per hive from about 140 colonies,
spring count.
The Okanagan Valley had a larger yield than last year, except in those districts where
spraying the trees with arsenate of lead was resorted to. In some instances this completely
wiped out whole colonies of bees and so weakened others that all chances of a crop were
shattered. As this practice is detrimental to the orchardist, by the killing of pollinating insects,
as well as to the bee-keeper, it is to be earnestly desired that some cheap substance can be
found to mix with the arsenate spray solution so as to make it obnoxious to the bees.
The Shuswap Valley had an excellent crop. Bee-keeping does not appear to go ahead in
this district as rapidly as in some of the other irrigated portions of the Interior. There being
no large apiaries at present, a lot of nectar goes to waste for the want of bees to gather it. O 96
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The Thompson Valley is forging ahead. The larger apiarists have increased their colonies
this season and have had good yields, exceeding last year's averages. This is especially noticeable round about Lillooet.
American foul-brood has shown up in various places again this year, but still appears to be
confined to the areas which have suffered from this disease for some years. With the exception
of cases in which a large amount of equipment is involved, and the bee-keeper is well versed
in the procedure of properly disinfecting, destruction by fire is by far the best method of
eradication.
Complaints are frequently heard in the Interior of the absurdly low price at which honey
is being placed on the market in Vancouver from Ontario, making it practically impossible for
the smaller producers to compete owing to the high freight from inland points. It would appear
that the time has arrived for some co-operative movement to be made, so that a car-load of
honey could be shipped to one of the larger centres, so as to relieve the congestion caused by
those bee-keepers who have too much honey to sell in their local markets and not sufficient to
ship out by themselves.
Respectfully submitted. j. i\ Roberts,
Apiary Inspector.
REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES, VICTORIA.
Mrs. V. S. MacLaciilan.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Women's Institutes of British
Columbia for the year ended December 31st, 1928.
GENERAL.
Ten new institutes have been incorporated during 1928—Terrace, Prince George, Fort
Fraser, Ymir, Wynndel, Westbank, Field, East Kelowna, Upper Camp, and White Rock. Two
institutes have disbanded—Garden City and Port Kells.
Four district conferences were held—at Duncan in May, Creston in October, and Salmon
Arm and New Westminster in November.
The Women's Institute Branch of this Department, with the support of the institutes, was
able to so arouse public opinion that by order of the Attorney-General the Hickman film was
banned from the screen of British Columbia.
Following the distribution of seeds and bulbs from the Women's Institute booth at the
Canadian National Exhibition in 1926 and again in 1927, the Women's Institutes of New Brunswick purchased garden seeds from a seed firm in this Province, and the Toronto Parks Committee purchased some thousands of British Columbia bulbs to plant in the city parks.
Through the night-school classes we are providing instruction in handicrafts, such as
glove-making, pottery, basket, rtig, and quilt making. To stimulate interest in these handicrafts and thus create a market, the Board of Directors of the Provincial Women's Institute
sponsored an old-fashioned quilt exhibit in the Hudson's Bay Company's store in Vancouver.
The extent of the publicity may be realized when it is stated that 578 quilts were received and
communications received from 472 post-offices. The object of this show was to direct attention
to the exquisite stitchery of the past, in the hope of reviving similar perfection of workmanship.
Many of the quilts exhibited were over 200 years old. One, in the opinion of Lord
Willingdon, was made from the first cotton manufactured in England.
The support and co-operation of every institute in the Lower Mainland District contributed
in no small measure to the success of the show, which was opened on Tuesday, May 1st, and
on the Thursday was visited by a party consisting of Their Excellencies Lord and Lady Willingdon, His Honour R. B. Bruce and Miss MacKenzie, and the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture and Mrs. Barrow.
In April, at the request of the Victoria Chamber of Commerce, this Branch staged a handicraft exhibit accompanied by daily demonstrations of weaving, quilting, making wool comforters,
and rug-making.    This was such a success that the executive of the Victoria Fair asked for a similar exhibition to be shown in the Women's Building at the Provincial Fall Fair. Accordingly the choicest specimens of the Vancouver quilt exhibit were secured, demonstrators engaged,
and a remarkably beautiful collection arranged in the ample space provided. Institutes in the
vicinity sent delegates, who acted in the capacity of hostesses, accompanying visitors on the
round of inspection, explaining and giving information. The result was satisfactory in the
extreme; similar exhibits were held at Vancouver and New Westminster, but neither was so
effective nor so extensive as that of Victoria.
The junior girls' judging contest was again held at the Vancouver Fair, when eighteen
school-girls—four each from Vancouver Island, Lower Mainland, Okanagan, and Kootenay
respectively and two from Prince George—competed in the judging of bread, cakes, sewing,
etc. These girls were trained by the Women's Institutes in their districts; local eliminating
contests were then held under the direction of the various conveners and the district winners
competed provincially at the Vancouver Fair.
The results were as follows: Team champions, Miss Jean Fulton and Miss Charlotte
McCluskey, Armstrong; reserve champions, Miss Evelyn McDonald and Miss Patricia Bird,
Penticton; individual champion, Miss Dorothea Guest, Prince George; reserve champion, Miss
Doris Mitchell, Victoria. •
COMMITTEE-WORK.
All committees are progressing satisfactorily, and an increasing number of institutes are
adopting the plan of making the conveners in turn responsible for the monthly programme and
are coming more and more to appreciate the help available in the Parliament Buildings in preparing programmes. In this connection .1 gratefully acknowledge the valuable help received
from the Open Shelf Department of the Travelling Library, which never fails to supply books
upon any topic desired.
This year a League of Nations Committee has been added to the ten already established
and many institutes have joined the League and are becoming interested in its work.
HOME ECONOMICS.
The work of the institutes along these lines is undoubtedly producing a higher knowledge
and more intelligent consideration of the subject. In May the Provincial Board conducted
a survey of domestic conditions in the Province, which proved most instructive. The lack of
quite simple labour-saving devices in even well-to-do farming homes is remarkable. In one
district, although the total of 449 homes showed 282 motor-cars, only thirty-four had the water
piped to the house, the rest depending on carrying the water from wells.
The Department is frequently asked for information on balanced, rations and suitable
diets for children, and short demonstrations in domestic subjects often figure on the institute
programmes. The Beaver Institute devotes a portion of each meeting to home-economics
demonstrations, to which the older school-girls are invited. Valdes, Westbank, Boswell-Sanca,
and Hazelmere Institutes have held sewing and cookery classes for girls and manual-training
classes for boys under the provisions of the Night-school Act. Esquimau is holding physical-
culture classes with a roll-call of fifty-six, and North-east Burnaby is holding both junior and
adult gymnasium classes.
Mrs. J. D. Gordon, the Provincial President, is an experienced judge of woman's work and
has been largely used in that capacity for judging at fairs. Wherever she goes she takes the
utmost pains to explain to the competitors the reasons for their success or failure in their
exhibits. Women's Institute exhibits at the fall fairs have done much to improve the standard
both of cookery and stitchery, while the junior judging contests are arousing the intelligent
interest of the younger generation. Valuable help has been received from Miss McLenagan
and the home-economics teachers in different localities in organizing both the instructional
classes and the eliminating contests for the junior judging. It is noteworthy that the Colwood
Institute won the district institute exhibit at the Victoria Fair for the third time this year,
with the Luxton and Happy Valley Institute a close second. Both exhibits showed a wonderfully high standard of both artistic and technical work.
In the fall a request was received from the Ottawa Immigration Department for information as to family budgets in different parts of the Province. Members of the Willow Point,
Langley Prairie. Agassiz, and Lake Hill Institutes have promised to supply these budgets for the
benefit of intending settlers. O 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
EDUCATION AND BETTER SCHOOLS.
Most institutes have a very active committee interest in this subject and the educational
survey is frequently a subject of discussion at institute meetings. A children's exhibit is a feature of every flower-show held by the institutes, and in addition to this the Hornby Island
Institute organized an exhibition of children's work at the close of the year, which, it is
reported, was both a credit to the teacher and a pleasure to the parents. There were fourteen
classes, including writing, painting, cooking, sewing, nature collections, and model-boat building.
Valdes also had an outstanding children's exhibit at their show.
Prizes for the best pupils in the schools have been awarded by the Howe Sound, Burton,
Bonnington, Cedar, Colwood, Esquimau, Garden City, and Metchosin Institutes.
Mount Ida has organized a children's choir, which is a pleasure to all concerned, and
Kaslo has a boys' band.    Qualicum and Valdes hold folk-dancing lessons for the young people.
The Willow Point, Grindrod, Terrace, and Hazelmere Institutes run school-garden contests.
Most institutes nowadays keep an understanding watch over their school buildings, etc.,
and many of them avail themselves of the grants made by the Education Department towards
the improvement of the school-grounds. Noteworthy in this respect is the Kalamalka Institute,
which has raised §100 and so secured a similar grant from the Education Department for this
work. Sooke has provided a sanitary and adequate well for the school. West Saanich has
built a playshed for wet weather. Poplar Grove has erected a shelter for the children waiting
for the school bus. Royal Oak, Mount Ida, Westbank, and Denman Island have all improved
their school-grounds in various ways and many institutes regularly supply playground equipment, etc. North Shuswap, incorporated in 1927, and Field, incorporated in 1928, have already
raised sufficient funds to purchase pianos for their schools.
School picnics and community Christmas trees are a regular part of every institute programme, with frequently a Hallowe'en party in addition, and hot cocoa and hot milk for lunch
is supplied by the Shawnigan, Howe Sound, Surrey, Okanagan Centre, Fort Fraser, and Armstrong Institutes.
Numbers of books have been presented to school libraries and several sets of pictures
presented for the walls. In this connection institutes would be advised to communicate with
Mr. Kyle or the local School Inspector before making donations, so that they may profit by
expert advice.
There is a greater demand for travelling libraries than there are libraries available; these
are increasingly popular and in many instances are the nucleus of a considerable private
library established by the institute.
LEGISLATION.
The interest in this branch is still maintained and frequent demands are sent in for information on legislation, especially that affecting women and children. A booklet on these laws
was brought out some years ago, and it would be advantageous if this booklet could be revised
and brought up to date. In October Judge Helen "MacGill privately organized a tour of the
Okanagan and spoke at many well-attended meetings on the subject of laws for women and
children, thereby reviving the interest and demand for information. Institutes are encouraged
to take an intelligent interest in their local affairs, and Salmon Arm held a special meeting, at
which the Mayor was invited to speak regarding a plebiscite on a matter of local interest.
IMMIGRATION AND SETTLEMENT.
Progress with this committee is uphill work. Many members are afraid that more settlers
will mean less work for those already here, but some institutes are in communication with the
Oversea Society for the Settlement of British Women and most institutes see to it that incoming
settlers are welcomed and helped. One Lower Mainland institute holding a picnic to welcome
newcomers to the district reported that one young wife from England stated that the picnic
was the first time she had been off her farm since her arrival in Canada five months before.
There is no doubt that Women's Institutes would be of great benefit to the settlers in the
Bulkley and Peace River District and efforts are being made to start them. Several institutes
are in correspondence with Women's Institutes in England, thereby creating a bond of mutual
sympathy and understanding.   Agricultural conveners lose no opportunity of pointing out to members that prosperity in agriculture means permanent prosperous settlers, and these two
committees, where they exist, generally work in conjunction.
The Vernon Institute gave a dinner in honour of the parliamentary party of overseas
visitors. Luxton and Metchosin subscribe to the Travellers' Aid Society and Lazo to Dr.
Barnardo's Boys' Home.
The Oversea Settlement Society for British Women have asked that institutes would be
responsible for welcoming settlers of whose arrival they would be notified, and also that the
institute would report to the society if the settlers get into difficulties, but so far not many
institutes have undertaken to do this.
PUBLICITY AND NATIONAL EVENTS.
This year the institutes have been collecting local history and pictures of pioneers. The
work of the Metchosin Institute is outstanding. They collected and framed sixty-nine pictures
of pioneers of the district and seven pictures of old buildings, which have been hung in the
Institute Hall. The pictures were unveiled by the Premier, Dr. Tolmie, and two pictures of
early Provincial legislators were given to Provincial Archivist, to hang in the Legislative Gallery.
Mr. Hosie and the Provincial Archives have given valuable assistance to institutes undertaking
this work and some interesting local histories are being compiled.
The Westbank Institute held a striking meeting to advocate the purchase of British
Columbia products. Tickets of admission consisted of coupons from foodstuffs, in aid of the
institute funds. Roll-call was the name of three household commodities made in British
Columbia. The British Columbia Products Bureau sent an exhibit of many commercial products
and there was also a most instructive exhibit of local-grown filberts, walnuts, almonds, chestnuts, and handicrafts, including gloves and woolly toys from Okanagan Centre, pottery from
Summerland, crystallized fruits from Westbank and Penticton, and pen-painting and needle-
craft from Okaagan Centre.    The meeting closed with a British Columbia products luncheon.
The institutes are reporting their activities in the local papers, and in addition brief
resumes of the doings of the institutes are sent from the Superintendent's office each week to
the Farm and Home, the British Columbian, and monthly to the Public Service Bulletin, Country
Life, and the Western Home Monthly.
In February last the Superintendent was invited to speak on institute-work over the C.N.R.
radio. Letters have been received from the Bulkley Valley, the Kootenay, the Okanagan, and
even from Alberta referring to this address. Radio-speaking would be a valuable way of helping outlying institutes if more of it could be arranged for.
INDUSTRIES.
Okanagan Centre and Langley Prairie are building up quite a flourishing business in glove
making and three or four other institutes are taking up the work. This craft is handicapped
at present, as it is impossible to get good-quality glove-leather made in Canada, so that skins
for the better-quality gloves have to be obtained from England.
The making of wool-filled comforters is also providing a number of institutes with a useful
source of income, while hooked rugs, especially the Chinook rug, are made by individual
members.
Colwood and Summerland are also making good pottery.
Denman Island is developing as a centre for making pillow-lace of all varieties and excellent
exhibits have been sent to the principal fall fairs by this institute. The neighbouring Hornby
Island has also been taking lessons from the Denman Institute. The difficulty with most handicrafts is to find a steady sale for the products, but it is hoped that this may be overcome by
the branch of the Canadian Handicrafts Guild.
AGRICULTURE.
Although there is now no grant made to institutes holding flower or bulb shows, there has
been little appreciable falling-off in the number of these, for which the Department provides
attractive book prizes. Kalamalka Institute, which is helping with the upkeep of the Agricultural Hall, even had both a flower-show in the spring and a fruit-show in the fall. The institutes nearly all give both financial and practical help with the local fall fairs.   Port Kelts had O 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
twenty-four children's classes at their flower-show and the children's classes are a feature of
every local show.
Terrace organized Boys' and Girls' Poultry, Pig, and Calf Clubs. Lake Hill, Shawnigan,
and other institutes had Poultry Clubs, while Hazelmere specializes in school-gardens. Bon-
nington annually holds a gopher-extermination contest, and Surrey, Hazelmere, and Langley
Prairie have tent-moth-caterpillar contests. It is noteworthy that this year the Langley
Prairie Institute reported that very few tent-moth rings had been collected by the schoolchildren, the neighbourhood having been almost cleared of these pests through the annual
contest organized by the Women's Institute.
Lazo, Qualicum, and Sayward all obtained seed and grew certified seed-potatoes, winning
prizes at the potato-show. Valdes Institute arranged a pruning-school by members of the
Horticultural Branch, which was found very valuable by all the inhabitants of the island.
The Women's Institute organized the first fall fair held at Fort Fraser, which proved
a great success, and the number and variety of plants which could be grown locally was most
instructive.
COMMUNITY BETTERMENT.
This is the principal work of the Women's Institute, leading as it does to more permanent
and contented settlers, if a neighbourhood is well cared for and has a reasonable social life.
It is hard to distinguish just what comes under the heading of this committee, certainly the
frequent card parties, dances, movies, and children's parties organized by every institute provide
welcome diversions in small country centres. The Cobble Hill Institute, meeting an obvious
want, has organized a sort of creche in another room, supervised by institute members in turn,
where the babes are cared for while the mothers enjoy a rare social hour over their heads.
Community-betterment work is varied in the extreme; naturally assistance with the local
hospital comes at the head of the list and outstanding work has been done by Armstrong,
Cedar, Colwood, Cortes, Keremeos, Langford, Luxton, Mackenzie, Okanagan Centre, Saltspring,
Tarrys and Thrums, Valdes, and Victoria.
Point Grey and Central Park between them have furnished a ward in the Crippled Children's Hospital in Vancouver. Victoria, as usual, organized the Solarium annual tag day,
collecting over $800. Most institutes contribute $5 per year towards the support of a patient
in the Solarium, and in addition two or three of the Upper Country institutes are supporting
a child in hospital in Victoria, as well as another child in the Solarium.
Building or improving the local hall is also universally popular, in which work the following
institutes have taken the lead this year: Okanagan Falls, Burton, Wynndel, Ymir, Bonnington,
Lake Hill, Westbank, Luxton, Metchosin, Saltspring, Fort Fraser, Nelson, Strawberry Vale,
Nakusp, and Beaver, where they got electric light in for the hall, whereby four families in the
district were also enabled to have this benefit. Grindrod and Terrace have provided bathhouses for the community on near-by lakes. Ymir has made material improvements to the fire-
hall and equipment. Arrow Park has contributed towards the building of the Town Hall;
Valdes, by means of appeals to the Public Works Department, has got the wharf and approach
to it greatly improved. Kelowna has spent large sums on cemetery improvement and even
offered to lend the municipality $1,000 free of interest to provide water, etc., for it. Peachland
has presented a stretcher to the community, laid out the memorial plot, and cleaned up the
cemetery. Nelson has provided and equipped a rest-room, which is so valuable that several of
the neighbouring institutes voluntarily contribute to its upkeep. Tappen and Kalamalka have
got community playgrounds. At Saltspring the forestry film was exhibited under the auspices
of the institute. Burquitlam, Agassiz, Langley Prairie, Port Kells, Rutland, and Willow Point
all run travelling libraries for the benefit of the community. Rutland, Shawnigan, and West
Saanich have started Girl Guides and Brownies for the girls of their districts. From every
centre word is received of hospital bills paid for members of the community, financial and
practical help given to burnt-out members, and much other help rendered which it is impossible
to publish.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND CHILD-WELFARE.
Primarily this work is educational; e.g., promoting and developing public opinion so that
a public-health nursing service will be supported by an intelligent and enlightened community.
Little, if any, public-health or child-welfare work can be done without a Public Health
Nurse.    There are, to date, twenty-six Public Health Nurses stationed in the rural districts of British Columbia, in many instances due directly to the efforts of the Women's Institutes.
These nurses include school nursing as the principal branch of their work.
The institutes act as distributing centres for health literature supplied by the Provincial
Board of Health. Health exhibits are staged at the local fairs, where this literature can be
had for the asking.
Although not hospital auxiliaries, the institutes contribute to their local hospitals, the
Solarium, the Crippled Children's Hospital, Grace Hospital, and Sunlight Clinic; in addition
they are supporting three patients, one at St. Joseph's and two at the Solarium.
The Board of Directors of the Provincial Women's Institute submitted a plan for raising an
endowment fund as a memorial to the efforts of the institutes, to be known as the " Othoa
Scott Endowment Fund," named after the child on whose behalf the first appeal was made.
The institutes are taking an ever-increasing interest and contributing generously to this fund.
WOMEN'S  INSTITUTE  WORK AND  METHOD.
The year started with 107 institutes and closed with 117, with a total membership of 3,849.
Nelson, with 173 members, is the largest institute in the Province. To date the institutes showing the greatest amount of money handled during the year are : Kelowna, $1,999.51; Salmon Arm,
$1,814.18; Victoria, $1,647.88; Okanagan Falls, $1,325.64; Rutland, $1,192.69 (with only nineteen members) ; South Saltspring, $1,122.76; West Saanich, $1,032.91; Nakusp, $1,007.38; and
Midway, $971. Institutes are not money-making organizations; all this money has been raised
by means of concerts, entertainments, etc., for specific purposes; e.g., three of the institutes
mentioned are supporting spinal meningitis victims in hospital and two are building community
halls. As has been noted in the past, these institutes which have a definite object, preferably
of local interest, have a live and active membership.
Contributions are regularly made to the Solarium, Crippled Children's Hospital, the
Federated Women's Institute, the Home Economics Endowment Fund, and the League of
Nations.
In 1929 we hope to hold the Biennial Provincial Conference of the Women's Institutes,
when each institute will be entitled to send one delegate, and the Provincial conveners for the
ten committees will report. In addition, it is my earnest hope to be able to form a district
in the Bulkley Valley and hold a conference there. We have received really pathetic appeals
from women in this district asking how to form an institute, and though we have done as much
as possible by mail, there is no doubt that more could be done by one personal visit than by
a dozen letters.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
V. S. MacLachxan,
Superintendent, Women's Institutes of British Columbia.
REPORT OF GENERAL ASSISTANT.
A.  J.  HOURSTON. •
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C,
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on exhibition-work in British
Columbia and as General Assistant for the year 1928.
In staging a Department of Agriculture exhibit every effort has been made to do so from
a strictly educational standpoint.
A department exhibit was staged at five fairs—two in Victoria, Home Products and the
Fall Fair; two in Vancouver, the Fall Fair and Winter Fair; and one in New Westminster.
Weeds were one of the features, special attention being given to the Canada thistle. A transparency of a good type of thistle, showing how they outgrew the crops, was displayed in one
bay, surrounded by sheaves of grains and grasses named, and below a display of seeds, grain,
grasses, flowers, and vegetables popularly grown in British Columbia.    Statistics of exports O 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
and imports of agricultural products; transparencies of typical breeds of cattle and seed farms
in British Columbia; models of up-to-date bull-pen, goat-house, and hawk-trap; apiary equipment and a display of honey from a variety of flowers and plants. Assistance was given to
the Women's Institutes and Entomological Branch in staging their displays.
A new feature and one which proved very popular was that of moving pictures. The
films shown were made up during the year: Strawberry-growing taken at different stages,
from the planting until they reach the storage plant; sheep-shearing and dipping demonstrations ; chicken-killing; manipulating the top-entrance hive. Two films of bee-life were also
shown, being reduced from old 35 M.M. films to 16 M.M. At the Vancouver Winter Fair it was
possible to show films made up of the " Vancouver Fall Fair stock parade " and a " busy season
in the Lower Fraser Valley." Farmers' Institutes around Victoria have made repeated requests
for these films to be shown at their meetings and these requests have been fulfilled wherever
possible.
Respectfully submitted.
A. J. Hourston,
General Assistant. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
O 103
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX No. 1.
Correspondence received and dispatched by the Department of Agriculture (at Victoria)
for the Years ended December 31st, 1927 and 1928.
Oflice.
Received.
1928.
1927.
Dispatched.
1928.
1927.
Oflice of the Deputy Minister—
General and Secretary's office
Accountant and Chief Clerk...
Farmers' Institutes	
Women's Institutes	
Agricultural Associations	
Apiaries Branch	
Dairy Branch	
Field Crop Branch	
Horticultural Branch	
Live Stock Branch—
General	
Brands	
Poultry Branch	
Statistics  Branch	
Women's Institute Branch	
Totals	
9,369
3,860
2,787
431
SOI
553
2,009
3,259
2,431
3,785
1,253
1,915
2,278
1,906
36,337
7,362
3,521
2,583
480
544
375
1,646
4,019
2,656
3,726
1,371
2,037
'2,102
1,976
3,580
2,700
924
206
620
664
2,218
3,389
2,291
3,858
1,920
5,131
1,546
1,379
34,398
30,316
3,705
2,464
877
292
673
455
'2,050
6,623
2,333
3,795
2,151
3,144
1,469
1,348
30,379
APPENDIX No. 2.
Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1928.
Date of
Show.
Name of W.I.
Remarks.
April     13
14
Vancouver Island and
Gulf Islands.
June     20
23
,          28
July      25
Aug. 20-
25
Exhibition of women's work ;  health exhibit;  " better babies " elinie.
29
Lake Hill    	
29
31
Fall Fair.
Sept.       3
19 °0
Exhibition of women's work ;  flower-show by children.
Oct.       13 O 104
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 2—Continued.
Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1928—Continued.
Date of
Show.
Name of W.I.
Remarks.
Lower Mainland.
June
July
Aug.
22
„ 30-
Sept.
Nov.
June
July
Aug.
Hatzic...	
Hazelmere	
Agassiz	
Haney	
Burquitlam	
Mount Lehman	
Beaver	
Cannor	
Langley Fort	
Patricia	
Port Kells	
Howe Sound	
Pitt Meadows '.	
1 | North-east Burnaby..
Upper Camp River....
Lynn Valley	
Hazelmere	
Upper Camp River....
12
'22
26
1
10
16
23
31
31
Sept.       6
„  11-13
12
Oct.       26
July
Aug.
27
15
17
22
23
•28
30
Sept.
12
19-22
19-22
Sept.       3
„       6-7
Okanagan and Dry Belt.
Valley	
Cawston	
Okanagan Centre-
Salmon Arm	
Rutland	
Mount Ida	
Kalamalka...;	
Grindrod	
Silver Creek..
Keremeos	
Peachland	
Armstrong....
Tappen	
Oliver	
Kootenay.
Willow Point	
Boswell-Sanca	
Nakusp	
Kaslo and District..
New Denver..
Cranbrook	
Field	
Burton City	
Ymir	
Arrow Park	
Crawford Bay	
Slocan Valley	
Bonnington and S. Slocan..
Central B.C.
Fort Fraser..
Terrace	
Flower-show.
Flower-show ;
Flower-show;
Flower-show :
Flower-show.
Flower-show.
Flower-show;
Flower-show ;
Flower-show.
Flower-show ;
Flower-show ;
Flower-show ;
Flower-show ;
Flower-show ;
Exhibition of
Flower-show ;
Flower-show ;
Exhibition of
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
" Better babies " clinic.
Exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show.
Flower-show ;
Flower-show.
Flower-show;   exhibition   of  women's   work   and   school-children's
work ; " better babies " clinic.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Fall Fair ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of women's work and school-children's work at Fall Fair.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show.
Flower-show.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work ; health exhibit; " better
babies " clinic.
Flower-show.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show;   exhibition   of  women's   work   and   school-children's
work ; health exhibit.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of school-children's work at Fall Fair.
Exhibition of women's work at Fall Fair.
Fall Fair; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
O 105
APPENDIX No. 3.
British Columbia Berry Acreage, 1928.
District.
w
*
o
Cm
o
Strawberries.
Raspberries.
Blackberries.
Loganberries.
1928.
1927.
Pre.
1928.
1927.
Pre.
1928.
1927.
Pre.
1928.
1927.
Pre.
Vancouver Island	
626
1389
100
12
67
426
2610
2067/12
768J
7
10J
H
118J
234|
70919/24
10J
3|
55/6
171 5/6
154J
40211/12
11}
17}
14 5/6
.   161}
41J
1/16
60 5/12
H
36}
896J
573
}
H
1
8
6 5/24
m
1291/12
i
48}
10i
i
18 3/16
19 5/24
3/5
289 1/5
306 5/12
19i
Kootenay-Boundary .
2i
"I
55!
5/6
10 6/6
24}
113 2/5
%
6J
169 1/12
li
38
Totals	
11147/12
113717/24
75211/12
73| 11289/10
4}
6 5/24
59J
616 3/10
3,005" 5/24
1,26713/20
170 1/24
712 7/10
District.
hi
k
0
O
Red Currants.
Black Currants.
Gooseberries.
Rhubarb.
Total
1928.
1927.
Pre.
1928.
1927.
Pre.
1928.    1927.
Pre.
1928.
1927.
Pre.
Acreage
626
1389
100
12
67
426
2610
2
21}
7/12
1/12
3|
5
1/16
5 5/24
1
8
2
i
26J
85j
311/12
1/12
19i
19i
1/16
1J
7/16
5 1/12
104
30J
31
1
a
63
9
109 1/12
1045/6
251
74*
.4
1074J
2 11/12
1
m
3806|
is.it
88$
93 11/24
627*
2 1/24
.3 7/16
i
fi 1/48
Kootenay-Boundary .
1
2J-
2
2J
38
Totals	
5i
33J
R*
17 n/6
153i
69 5/12
110 7/12
ir.6
104 5/6
5756J
179jj
.
4
1 23/24
68|
320 5/12
Total acreage, 5,756%  acres.
APPENDIX No. 4.
Pbuning-schools, 1928.
District.
Instructor.
Dates.
No. of
Pupils.
E. W. White..
Islands.
Wellington	
Qualicum	
Alberni	
Ladysmith	
Ladysmith	
Quatsino	
Sointula	
Valdes Island	
Sayward....,	
Mainland.
Terrace	
Lower Mainland.
Sardis	
Kootenay.
Deer Park	
Total number of schools, 12 ;  total number of pupils, 149
R. Randall..
E. Randall..
G. E. W. Clarke-
February '6 to '8	
February 9 to 11....
February 13 to 15..
February 20 to 22-
Fehruary 23 to  25-
March 8 to 10	
March 1'2 to 14	
March 7 to 9	
March 14 to 16	
March 29 to 31..
February 8 to 10..
E. C. Hunt   February 7 to
IS
17
10
15
8
10
12
10
19
15
10 O 106
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 5.
Pruning Demonstrations, 1928.
District.
Instructor.
Dates.
No. of
Pupils.
Islands.
1. East Sooke	
2. Rocky Point	
3. Keating- ,	
4. Cobble Hill	
5. Denman Island	
6. Cortes Island	
Lower Mainland.
1. Otter	
2. Fort Langley	
Okanagan.
1. South Canoe	
2. South Canoe ,	
3. Lytton	
4. Salmon Arm	
5. Salmon Arm	
6. Salmon Arm ,	
7. Salmon Arm.,	
8. Salmon Arm	
9. Oliver	
10. Oliver ,	
11. Oliver	
Kootenay.
1. Fauquier	
2. Bonnington	
3. Balfour	
4. Sunshine Bay	
5. Harrop and Longbeach...
6. Winlaw	
7. Willow Point	
8. Procter	
9. Carroll's Landing	
E.  W. White..
R. Randall..
G. E. W. Clarke..
C. E. Barlow..
R. P. Murray..
E. C. Hunt-
January 24 .
January 25 -
January 27 .
February 17
March 5  	
March  12  ....
February 24
February 27
January 9 ....
January 27 ..
February 21
March 22  ....
March  23
April 20  	
April 24  	
May 8 	
December 12
December 13
December  14
February 17
February 21
February 22
February 23
March 20  ....
March   7  	
March 16 ....
March 14 ;...
February 16
7
5
15
14
14
10
12
17
3
4
4
3
3
4
4
39
16
6
11
10
10
8
11
6
7
Total number of demonstrations, 28;   total number of pupils, 262.
APPENDIX No. 6.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry
in British Columbia (including those condemned).
1928. 1927.
Apples (boxes)  ;      30,070 50,393
Apples (% boxes)   85
Apples (barrels)  ,  20
Crab-apples (boxes)    1
Pears (boxes)       65,746 44,975
Pears C/2 boxes) ..,..,..,  2
Plums   (boxes)      31,813 26,836
Prunes (boxes)  ;      21,768 52,834
Peaches   (boxes)        146,719 125,863
Cherries  (boxes)          10,154 8,179
Apricots  (boxes)   ,      45,515 32.010
Yakamines   (boxes)                 5 37 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
0 107
APPENDIX No. d—Continued.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry
in British Columbia (including those condemned)—Continued.
1928. 1927.
Quince (boxes) ,.,.„ 21 9
Nectarines  (boxes) , ,  2 25
California Oranges (boxes) ,  198,495 247,256
Japanese oranges  (boxes)    ,.... ,  230,991 230,234
Japanese oranges (boxes)  (to points east of B.C.)   478,500 386,800
Marmalade oranges (boxes)   8,154 8,186
Chinese oranges (boxes)    710 734
Australian oranges  (boxes)   ,  397                	
Florida oranges (boxes)  1               	
Lemons (boxes)  35,670 36,248
Tangerines (boxes)   9 1,318
Limes   (boxes)     6 24
Grapefruit  (boxes)    32,483 33,319
Grapefruit  (boxes)   (Oriental)    432 645
Pineapples  (boxes)  300 349
Persimmons (boxes)   575 555
Pomegranates (boxes)    1,305 1,186
Tomatoes  (boxes)    27,898 34,982
Peppers (boxes)   1,458         . 1,704
Eggplants (boxes)   434 498
Potatoes  (tons)  677 395
Sweet potatoes (tons)   337 405
Yams  (tons)    22 27
Taro   (tons)     133 157
Peanuts (tons)   2,194 2,081
Walnuts (tons)   1,174 1,480
Rice  (tons) ■  15,509 16,574
Corn (tons)   21,487 40,032
Beans (tons)   1,279 1,904
Peas (tons)   565 534
Olives  (boxes)    170
Brazil nuts (lb.)   50
APPENDIX No. 7.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., condemned
at all Ports of Entry in British Columbia.
Apples (boxes)  	
Apples (% boxes) 	
Pears (boxes) 	
Pears (% boxes) 	
Plums (% boxes)  .....
Plums (boxes)  	
Peaches (boxes) 	
Cherries (boxes)  ...
California oranges (bTjxes)
Quince (boxes)  „.
Lemons (boxes)  ...
Tomatoes (boxes)  ,..
Eggplants (boxes)	
Peppers (boxes)	
1928.
1,035
1927.
418
29
1,795
1
3,501
V2
75
675
32
15
252
14
3
43
228
1
355
10
15
10 APPENDIX No. 7—Continued.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., condemned
at all Ports of Entry in British Columbia—Continued.
1928. 1927.
Potatoes  (lb.)        20,111 80
Sweet potatoes (lb.)          2,592 26,772
Grapefruit  (boxes)    797
Pineapples     0
Cocoanuts   6
APPENDIX No. 8.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., inspected
at Vancouver (including those condemned).
1928. 1927.
Apples (boxes)       26,404 45,892
Apples (% boxes)    24
Apples (barrels)   20
Pears (boxes)        59,645 40,219
Pears (y2 boxes)   1 	
Plums  (boxes)        25,401 21,318
Prunes (boxes)        18,047 47,243
Peaches   (boxes)        125,539 102,849
Cherries  (boxes)          7,537 6,390
Apricots  (boxes)         39,901 28,364
Yakamines (boxes)                5 27
Nectarines (boxes)   25
Quince (boxes)              10 3
California oranges (boxes)     146,140 182,165
Japanese oranges     190,105 182,270
Marmalade oranges (boxes)  ,        7,979 8,186
Australian oranges   (boxes)     397 	
Chinese oranges  (boxes)            297 537
Florida oranges  (boxes)    1 	
Tangerines (boxes)                 7 1,318
Lemons (boxes)        28,771 28,314
Grapefruit  (boxes)        26,284 27,536
Grapefruit (boxes)   (Oriental)             316 480
Limes   (boxes)                  5 5
Pineapples  (boxes)             230 289
Persimmons (boxes)            555 526
Pomegranates   (boxes)              905 1,020
Tomatoes  (boxes)        25,050 32,961
Peppers (boxes)         1,097 1,225
Eggplants (boxes)            375 443
Potatoes   (tons)           592 267
Sweet potatoes (tons)            281 338
Yams (tons)               15 19
Taro (tons)            118 143
Peanuts (tons)          2,194 2,080
Walnuts (tons)         1,103 1,289
Rice  (tons)       14,151 15,223
Corn (tons)        19,642 38,000
Beans (tons)         1,258 1,557
Peas (tons)            520 533
Cocoanuts   6 APPENDIX No. 9.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc,
condemned at Vancouver.          192g 1927
Apples (boxes)         1,010 345
Apples (V2 boxes)   24
Pears (boxes)         1,525 2,907'
Pears (% boxes)  .-..,  1 	
Prunes (boxes)  :  75
Peaches (boxes)            645 250
Cherries  (boxes)    10
Grapefruit  (boxes)    79.7
Quince (boxes)   3
Lemons (boxes)              43 355
Tomatoes  (boxes)    227 	
Eggplants (boxes)   15
Potatoes- (lb.)        20,111 10
Sweet potatoes  (lb.)          2,592 26,762
Cocoanuts   6
APPENDIX No. 10.
Memorandum of Imported Plant Products fumigated at Vancouver.
Rice (lb.) 	
Rice  (tons)  	
Beans   (lb.)   	
Peas (lb.) 	
Peanuts (tons) 	
Walnuts  (lb.)  	
Almonds  (tons)  	
Pineapples (crates) 	
Prunes (crates)  	
Raisins (lb.) 	
Raisins  (boxes)  	
Currants  (tons)  	
Currants (boxes) 	
Sultanas (lb.) 	
Evaporated apple skins and cores (boxes)
Figs (lb.) 	
Peaches  (crates)  	
Tapioca (sacks) 	
Dried fish  (cases)  	
Assorted spices  (tons)  	
Dates  (tons)  	
Dried peppers (lb.) 	
Grass-seed  (lb.)	
Empty sacks and mats       66,602
Couch 	
Chesterfield suites
Chair
Martini Vermouth (cases)
The following were fumigated at Victoria
Empty corn-sacks
Peas (tons)
Corn (tons)
Liquor  (tons)
Empty sacks (tons)
1928.
1927.
4,871
19
141
200
46
45
166
26
40
2%
160
156
2,900
7,483
503
129
183
3,120
460
40
3,388
1,265
1
71
2
26%
19Vi
3,080
1,452
66,602
174,602
1
9
1
92
500
7
88
5
8 O 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 11.
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Vancouver (including
those condemned),
Standard fruit-trees— 1928. 1927.
Apple   22,597 7,498
Crab-apple     250 273
Pear  11,382 4,764
Avocado  4                	
Quince  '.  17 17
Cherry   9,382 8,506
Plum     1,631 1,682
Prune   2,090 1,277
Peach   10,160 2,855
Nectarine     213 74
Apricot :  3,332 817
Persimmon   1 163
Fig  •  140 163
Nut-trees—
Walnut     349 863
""' Hazelnut  *  460 1,642
Pecan   1 1
Chestnut :  337 70
Almond    6 19
Seedlings, grafts, and scions—
Fruit seedlings   158,206 219,120
Ornamental seedlings  111,120 100,819
Grafts  76 5,059
Scions ,.  7,062 1,283
Small-fruit bushes and plants—
Grape-vines     12,585 15,731
Cranberry-vines    ,  4 ■    2
Blueberry-bushes  20 144
Currant-bushes    4,320 344
Gooseberry-bushes    3,255 2,626
Raspberry-canes   4,045 2,570
Blackberry-canes     11,002 768
Loganberry-canes  1,056 16
Huckleberry-bushes   4                	
Strawberry-plants    230,822 59,510
Miscellaneous—
Ornamental trees, etc  65,385 68,704
Ornamental cuttings  1,600 4,274
Rose-bushes   68,292 131,922
Plants (herbaceous)  2,006,216 36,854
Roots  .  153,652 618,794
Bulbs  3,881,994 4,502,850
Totals    6,783,068 5,802,074
APPENDIX No. 12.
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver.
Standard fruit-trees—■ 1928 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 111
APPENDIX No. 12—Continued.
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver—Continued.
1928. 1927.
Pear            180 658
Cherry              56 444
Hum             16 18
Prune                8 2
Peach            590 287
Apricot             17 1
Fig    6
Nut-trees—
Hazelnut             31 1
Chestnut   301 	
Seedlings, grafts, and scions—
Fruit seedlings           244 988
Ornamental seedlings   9
Scions  774 	
Small-fruit bushes and plants—
Grape-vines                22 46
Blackberry-vines                3 250
Currant-bushes    6
Gooseberry-bushes    72
Miscellaneous—
Ornamental trees, etc             73 352
Ornamental cuttings              12 2
Rose-bushes   :               3 2
Plants                29 516
Roots   300
Bulbs       12,222 21,794
Totals      15,271 25,844
APPENDIX No. 13.
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Victoria (including those condemned).'
1928. 1927.
Ornamental trees, etc            10 11
Ornamental cuttings            506 12
Strawberry-plants           1,000 306
Rose-bushes  698
Hazelnut-trees '.. 6
Plants        5,459 4,239
Roots         1,042 100
Bulbs       41,684 35,616
Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Victoria.
1928. 1927.
Ornamental trees, etc            10 13
Ornamental cuttings               6 12
Rose-bushes   3
Hazelnut-trees  6
Bulbs  i   12 O 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 14.
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Outside Ports.
Cranbrook—
Plants	
Cuttings   	
Fruit-trees   	
Small fruits 	
Ornamentals   	
Rose-bushes 	
Ornamental seedlings 	
Roots 	
Bulbs 	
Huntingdon—
Roots       10,036
Revelstoke—
Plants    27
Fruit-trees    2
Roots   12
231
2,336
200
87
31
275
84
80
402
34
11
80
50
39
415
26
29
APPENDIX No. 15.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates were issued.
„     ..  1928. 1927.
•Brmt Crates, etc. Crates, etc.
Avocadoes   42 117
Bananas  111,320 98,745
Blackberries   2 	
Black-caps    5 	
Black figs  :  52 	
Cantaloupes    19,777 15,032
Casabas   778 835
Casabas (by count)   9,766 14,249
Cactus pears   74	
Cranberries     2,629 2,903
Dried fruits (various)    189,929 43,731
Dried loganberries   25 	
Dried pears   2 	
Dried pears   1,969 	
Dried figs  3,403 	
Dried prunes   11,721 36
Dried raisins   53,672 	
Dried currants   33,760
Dried sultanas  1,300 	
Dates   7,427 525
Dates (lb.)   254,020 	
Gooseberries  519 188
Gooseberries, (lb.)   11,841 	
Dried apricots   365 	
Grapes   100,900 75,472
Green figs 	
Chinese melons 	
Watermelons  	
Watermelons (by count) 	
Honeydew melons 	
Honeydew melons (by count) 	
59
124
20
40
50,529
51,295
2,688
1,174
2,438
5,746 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 113
APPENDIX No. 15—Continued.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates
were issued—Continued.
1928. 1927.
Crates, etc. Crates, etc.
Ice-cream melons   44 8
Ice-cream melons (lb.)   6,000
Persian melons   365 59
Olives  120 69
Raspberries     1,610 26
Strawberries    10,954 11,287
Strawberries (lb.)   2,965               	
Vegetables—
Asparagus  12,088 15,718
Artichokes    :  287 166
Brussels sprouts   415 338
Beans (green)   260 447
Beetroot     323 322
Cabbage  . 10,233 6,644
Cabbage  (lb.)    248,969 702,000
Cabbage  (Chinese)     22                	
Cauliflower   14,218 8,347
Carrots  9,746 11,099
Celery     12,853 13,232
Cucumbers    156 338
Dried vegetables   180                	
Endives   8 2
Garlic  2 19
Garlic (lb.)  800 3,862
Lettuce  48,543 43,827
Onions   32,041 30,380
Pumpkins   7                	
Green peas   2,482 2,013
Split peas  (lb.)     100,700                	
Lentils (lb.)   115,472 17,600
Radishes   76 95
Rhubarb    '.  1,122 3,024
Rutabagas  3,138 55
Squash   122 84
Spinach   13,495 16,573
Swiss chard  2                	
Salsify (lb.)   15                	
Turnips   419 315
Watercress   3                	
Miscellaneous products—
Cocoa-beans (lb.)   31,350 14,520
Coffee-beans (lb.)   34,500 41,500
Chicory    7 4
Aniseed (lb.)   2,000                	
Cloves (lb.)    2,500                	
Chillies (lb.)    2,000 3,900
Dried flowers  120                	
Cinnamon-bark (lb.)   19,400               	
Mint   12 4
Mace     15
Mace   (lb.) -  3,000	
Marjoram-leaves (lb.)  530               	
8 O 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 15—Continued.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates
were issued—^Continued,
1928. 1927.
Crates, etc. Crates, etc.
Nutmeg  ,  35
Nutmeg (lb.)  16,100 12,200
Parsley   ,  218 319
Pepper (lb.)  ,  91,885 12,200
Pepper (black)  (lb.)  34,627
Pimentoes   9,791 	
Sage (lb.)   1,675 3,100.
Spearmint leaves (lb.)   353 	
Savory leaves (lb.)   176 	
Thyme (lb.)  176 200
Nuts—
Almonds  (lb.)    169,670 122,173
Brazil nuts (lb.)  231,778 101,792
Cocoanuts  274 239
Filbert nuts (lb.)  141,500 67,359
Pine nuts  4,210 900
Pecan nuts  ,  36  ,-
Pecan nuts (lb.)  7,788 4,208
Passion nuts   1 	
Passion nuts (lb.)  ,  SO 30
Water-chestnuts (lb.)  .  30,800 52,370
White nuts (lb.)   2,000 4,400
Chestnuts (lb.)   58,465 37,410
Apple-pumice (lb.)   116,732
Bran   100 	
Beetroot-meal (lb.)   60,000
Assorted seeds (lb.)  356.S60 284,990
Bak choy   30 42
Gye choy  , ,  9 11
Sue choy  20 	
Caladium  (lb.)  21,600 49,800
Caltrops  (lb.)    1,000 1,600
Carobs (lb.)  700 	
Chaff     1,000  ,.
Dried ginger (lb.)   3,200 9,640
Ginger-root (lb.)   41,400 82,670
Ginseng (lb.)   94 316
Garbanzos (lb.)   4,400 800
Geetwah    2 1
Gentian roots (lb.)   110
Lupines  (lb.)  600 600
Lotos rhizomes (lb.)   70,700 87,425
Lily-root  5 55
Lily-bulbs (lb.) ...,  1,600 8,500
Longyen  (lb.)  500 	
Momordica  , ,  5 	
Malt (lb.)  ,..,  75,000 150,000
Okra    „...„  4 21
Okra  (lb.)   ,., ,;. ,. 873
Palm-leaves  9	
Sugar-cane (lb.)  21,550 34,250
Raffia  (lb.)  ....„..„ _  215  ,. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 115
APPENDIX No. 15—Continued.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates
were issued—Continued.
1928. 1927.
Crates, etc. Crates, etc.
Soy-beans (lb.)      202,772 	
Straw               1 	
Tapioca (lb.)       81,302 	
Amice-leaves    ,  300
Black walnuts   500
Betel nuts  100
Burdock-root    5
Barley  248,100
Bay-leaves    .-.  2,750
Broccoli   544
Currants (lb.)   42,500
Chinese melons  3
Chinese melons (lb.)   1,785
Dried apples  75
Beet-pulp (dried)   30,000
Dried prunes   36
Figs (lb.)   113,525
Figs  70
Hickory nuts   900
Jujubes    3
Lotos nuts  240
Loquat   10
Melons   90
Melons (lb.)  8,040
Maize    2
Mangoes  (lb.)    1,425
Nut-galls (lb.)  *  700
Parsnips    328
Prickly pear  1
Tumerick-root   ,  500
Turkish melon  1
White pepper   12,200 O 116
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 18.
Fruit shipped without Certificate via Vancouver and Panama Canal, 1928.
Destination. (ffi.
United Kingdom   115,616
Rotterdam     12,260
Hamburg   1,500
European ports   6,250
Totals      135,626
Pears
(Boxes).
1,400
1,400
14. Dis., untreated.
13. Clean, untreated.
12. HgCL 1-1000.
11. Sem. B. 1-20 after cut.
10. Sem. B. 1-20 before cut.
9. Dip dust 1-20 after cut.
8. Dip dust 1-20 before cut.
7. 76 B. 1-40 after cut.
6. 76 B. 1-^0 before cut.
5. 77 B. 1-20 after cut.
4. 77 B. 1-20 before cut.
3. Dis., untreated.
2. Clean, untreated.
1. HgCl2 1-1000.
APPENDIX No. 19.
Potato-seed Treatment Plots at
(Each plot 30 feet long with 25 2-
28. Clean, untreated.
27. Sem. B. after cut.
26. Dis., untreated.
25. Sem. B. before cut.
24. HgCL. 1-1000.
23. Dip dust after cut.
22. Dip dust before cut.
21. Dis., untreated.
20. Clean, untreated.
19. HgCl2 1-1000.
18. 77 B. after cut.
17. 77 B. before cut.
16. 76 B. before cut.
15. 76 B. after cut.
Agassiz.
oz. sets.)
42. HgCL. 1-1000.
41. Dis., untreated.
40. Clean, Untreated.
39. 77 B. after cut.
38. 77 B. before cut.
37. 76 B. after cut.
36. 76 B. before cut.
35. Dip dust after cut.
34. Dip dust before cut.
33. Sem. B. after cut.
32. Sem. B. before cut.
31. HgCl2 1-1000.
30. Dis., untreated.
29. Clean, untreated. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
0 119
APPENDIX No. 20.
Potato-seed Disinfection with Organic Hg. Compounds, Agassiz, 1928.    (Var. Burbank.)
(Each plot 25 hills from 2-oz. cut sets.    Treated and planted, June 7th-8th.
Dug, September 27th-29th.)
Plot.
Treatment.
Total
Weight.
Clean.
Slight
Rhizoe-
tonia.
Heavy
Rhizoc-
tonia.
Percentage
Clean.
Percentage
Slight
Rhizoc-
tonia.
Percentage
Heavy
Rhizoc-
tonia.
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
IS
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
20
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
3S
39
40
41
42
HgCl2 1-1000, 1%  hrs	
Clean, untreated	
Dis., untreated	
77 B. 1-20 before C	
77 B. 1-20 after C	
76 B. 1-40 before C	
76 B. 1-40 after C	
Dip dust 1-20 before C	
Dip dust 1-20 after C	
Semesan Bel. 1-20 before C.
Semesan Bel. 1-20 after C...
HgCl2 1-1000, 1% hrs	
Clean, untreated	
Dis., untreated	
76 B. 1-40 after C	
76 B. 1-40 before C	
77 B. 1-20 before C	
77 B. 1-20 after C	
HgCl2 1-1000, 1%  hrs	
Clean, untreated	
Dis., untreated	
Dip dust 1-20 before C	
Dip dust 1-20 after C	
HgCl, 1-1000, 1% hrs	
Semesan B. 1-20 before C...
Dis., untreated	
Semesan B. 1-20 after €	
Clean, untreated	
Clean, untreated	
Dis., untreated	
HgCl2 1-1000, 1% hrs	
Semesan B. 1-20 before C	
Semesan B. 1-20 after C	
Dip dust 1-20 before C	
Dip dust 1-20 after C	
76 B. 1-40 before C	
76 B. 1-40 after C	
77 B. 1-20 before C	
77 B. 1-20 after C	
Clean, untreated	
Dis., untreated	
HgCl2 1-1000, 1% hrs	
54%
45 %
50%
42
44%
45%
43%
51
45
44%
51%
39%
43
45%
49%
51
40%
53
41%
44
45%
36%
44%
51%
55
38%
45%
36
40%
45
41%
45
45
36%
38
37%
42
55
49%
45%
42
42
41%
27
29%
14%
18
45
38
24
15%
11
19
34%
28
26%
38%
41%
24
9%
37%
19%
21
17%
11
48
11
•20
15
■24%
26
21%
37
15%
10%
16%
16
33%
37
23%
16%
35%
21%
33%
6%
14
13%
16%
12
%
1%
14%
17%
27
24
3%
10
12%
4
5%
'26%
'2%
9%
16%
9
18%
3%
28
14
14%
9%
8%
1
15
10%
11
5
1%
2
18%
18%
3
13%
5%
5%
4%
7%
11%
14%
4
12%
12
6%
8%
1%
5
6%
5%
11%
16%
1%
15
8
10
15
16
4%
16
2%
5%
15%
3%
14%
23%
9
17
2%
3
13%
14%
7%
7
3%
77.0
59.3
58.7
33.9
40.7
98.9
87.9
47.1
'34.4
24.6
36.9
87.3
65.1
58.-2
77.6
81.4
58.9
18.4
90.4
43.8
46.1
48.1
'24.7
93.2
20.0
52.3
32.9
68.1
64.2
47.2
88.6
34.4
23.4
45.2
42.0
88.7
88.1
42.7
33.2
77.6
51.2
79.1
12.4
30.8
26.8
39.3
27.1
1.1
2.9
28.4
'38.9
60.3
46.6
9.5
'23.3
27.5
12.2
7.8
13.5
50.0
S.4
22.2
36.3
24.6
41.6
6.S
50.9
36.6
31.9
25.0
22.8
18.3
2.4
83.3
23.9
30.1
13.1
4.6
4.7
33.2
37.2
'6.6
32.1
13.1
10.6
9,9
14.5
26.8
32.2
9.2
24.5
26.7
15.1
16.5
3.2
11.6
14.3
10.2
10.8
27.6
31.6
4.2
34.0
17.6
27.3
33.7
29.1
11.1
35.2
6.9
13.0
34.5
9.0
32.3
'52.7
24.7
44.8
6.7
7.2
24.1
29.6
15.8
16.7
7.8 O 120
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 21.
Cattle and Hides shipped during 1928.
District, Cariboo and South.
Month.
Williams Lake.
Lac la Hachb.
Quesnel.
Clinton.
Lillooet.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
38
25
488
882
1,024
1,452
160
616
228
65
107
312
1,750
200
103
226
96
91
128
49
94
60
136
10
68
55
9
7
24
26
56
394
301
684
351
106
16
16
16
43
9
6
79
32
April	
33
33
July	
41
53
November	
71
24
Totals....
4,685
2,662
644
339
173
1,918
185
287
Totals:   Cattle, 7,586;   hides, 3,307.
District, Kamloops and Nicola.
Month.
ASHCKOFT.
Mekritt and Nicola.
Kamloops.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
January	
22
18
31
64
45
339
349
49
14
51
8
90
47
28
13
47
71
75
421
1,486
209
96
83
419
414
124
162
93
72
188
52
99
6
75
79
22
124
18
31
400
674
413
285
334
154
417
413
84
295
281
186
June	
July	
172
183
111
90
237
124
193
Totals	
868
300
3,321
871
2,951
2,369
Totals:   Cattle,  7,140 ;   hides,  3,540.
District,
Okanagan.
Month.
Kelowna.
Penticton.
Vernon.
Salmon Arm.
Revelstoke
and Golden.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
January	
February	
47
4
51
1
2   '
53
4
1
27
46
1
76
17S
168
81
112
30
1
179
181
94
25
2
6
1
27
38
'24
19
78
60
72
79
40
63
121
12
148
73
84
120
13
1
21
165
177
222
96
110
21
215
64
314
229
75
269
274
191
317
156
Ill
185
6
35
5
88
14
47
13
4
42
65
355
45
50
23
14
55
37
92
56
31
14
54
64
52
15
14
73
April	
July	
November	
Totals....
237
1,100
142
950
826
2,104
504
511
87
557
Totals :   Cattle,  1,796 ;   hides, 5,222. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
O 121
APPENDIX No. 21—Continued.
Cattle and Hides shipped during 1928—Continued.
District, Similkameen.
Keremeos.
Oliver.
Princeton.
Coalmont.
Month.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
2
33
13
225
134
90
153
39
22
32
27
8
14
3S
18
34
4
70
19
10
30
28
29
23
39
6
60
16
49
18
46
48
66
109
20
■62
28
130
April .....
July..           	
224
78
Totals	
711
304
67
68
76
446
1 so     I     a<r2
Totals:    Cattle,   984;    hides,   1,100.
District, South-east British Columbia.
Month.
Nelson.
Creston.
Cranbrook.
Elko.
Fern ie.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
1
1
1
5
18
183
30
7S
62
30
56
83
120
307
64
54
74
1
28
14
10
80
10
158
83
31
44
8
19
5
238
19
34
314
12
324
48
66
46
8
3
6
10
7
11
5
14
February	
44
23
April	
43
22
6
July	
7
31
46
65
Totals....
8
967
193
383
75
973
48
162
301
Totals:   Cattle,  324;   hides,  2,786.
District, South-east British Columbia.
Month.
Elko.
Cattle.       Hides.
Kimberley.
Cattle.        Hides
Grand Forks.
Cattle.        Hides
Midway.
Cattle.
Hides.
January	
February....
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September..
October	
November-
December....
35
59
62
1
83
4
27
45
28
2
25
62
52
192
129
23
99
15
77
Totals..
159
312
'614
Totals:   Cattle,  312;   hides, 773. O 122
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 21—Continued.
Cattle and Hides shipped during 1928—Continued.
District, Central British Columbia.
Month.
Smithers.
Telkwa.
Hazelton.
Burns Lake.
Fort Fraser.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
33
19
10
12
9
20
7
14
67
19
2
105
36
21
54
49
12
12
6
86
53
24
55
17
1
15
108
37
22
73
2
84
59
45
155
31
18
10
44
76
54
32
32
377
231
131
1
106
418
376
January	
February	
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September.	
October	
November	
December..	
Totals-
Totals :   Cattle,  650;   hides,  990.
District, Central British Columbia.
Month.
Vanderhoof.
Cattle.       Hides.
Prince George.
Cattle.        Hides
McBride.
Cattle.       Hides
Pouce Cocr-E.
Cattle.
Hides.
January	
February	
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September	
October	
November	
December	
Totals.
64
37
49
67
16
34
30
33
84
27
63
30
104
91
83
77
75
10
330
152
27
13
448
85
Totals:   Cattle, 475;   hides, 580.
District Totals.
1926.
1927.
1928.
District.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
8,069
2,238
1,261
788
8,792
498
6,131
2,857
973
4,743
8,549
1,691
663
856
10,683
966
6,666
3,953
2,233
4,920    .
7,586
1,796
984
636
1,125
7,140
3,307
5 222
1,100
3,559
1 570
3,540
21,148
15,202
22,442
18,738
19,267
18 298 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
O 123
APPENDIX No. 22.
Districts in which T.B. Testing and Inspection Work was done, 1928.
District.
No. of
Premises.
No. of
Cattle
tested.
No. of
Reactors.
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.
6
35
7
48
7
57
12
207
12
16
54
33
96
586
13
487
134
828
85
2,084
119
39
299
111
1
29
11
84
1
16
1
Totals...     	
494
4,881
143
Coast Points.
1
'6
13
12
23
30
39
146
70
54
12
10
2
Totals	
55
339
24
Okanagan Valley.
78
36
56
453
259
331
7
8
Totals              ...                           	
170
1,043
15
East and West Kootenays.
5
12
13
6
17
5
4
3
8
36
10
9
5
1
17
19
285
174
38
49
54
22
.      153
56
359
80
136
18
1
121
1
1
13
1
3
1
Totals.          	
151
1,565
25
Interior Districts.
19
3
1
1
12
1
387
47
4
6
80
91
1
1
Totals                             	
37
615
2
1                           1 O 124
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 22—Continued.
Districts in which T.B. Testing and Inspection Work was done, 1928—Continued.
District.
No. of
Premises.
-No. of
Cattle
tested.
No. of
Reactors.
Central British Columbia.
2
9
5
10
10
18
15
103
55
104
95
50
4
1
Telkwa	
Totals	
54
422
5
Cariboo.
3
8
1
4
1
15
2
37
1
1
Totals	
16
55
2
APPENDIX No. 23.
Creamery Licences issued during 1928.
Name. Address.
Beaconsfleld Dairy Co 905 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Bell, Wm Central Dairy, Nanaimo.
Borden Co., Ltd., The  Sardis.
Burns & Co Woodland Drive, Vancouver.
Burns & Co Kamloops.
Burns & Co Grand Forks.
Caldwell's Dairy     1847 Georgia Street, Vancouver.
Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Association Quesnel.
City Dairy & Produce Co., Ltd 414 Pender Street East, Vancouver.
Columbia Valley Co-operative Creamery Assoc Golden.
Comox Creamery Association  Courtenay.
Cowichan Creamery Association  Duncan.
Crystal Dairy, Ltd Cranbrook.
Crystal Dairy, Ltd Nelson.
East End Dairy 2469 Oxford Street, Vancouver.
Ferrera Cheese Manufacturing Co Chilliwack.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association Sardis.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association Abbotsford.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association Ladner.
Hoy's Dairy Products 1002 Hastings Street West, Vancouver.
Kelowna Creamery Co., Ltd .Kelowna.
Lake Windermere Co-op. Creamery Association.Jnvermere.
Nanaimo Creamery Association  Nanaimo.
Nechaco Creamery  Vanderhoof.
Northwestern Creamery, Ltd 1311 Broad Street, Victoria.
Okanagan Valley Co.-op. Creamery Association....Vernon.
Palace Creamery  Enderby.
Palace Creamery  ...........:.:....:.;............:.r.Lumby.   "
Penticton Purity Products, Ltd Penticton. APPENDIX No. 23— Continued.
Creamery Licences issued during 1928—Continued.
Name. Address.
Port O'Van Ice Cream, Ltd 602 Hastings Street West, Vancouver.
Pouce Coupe District Co-op. Creamery Assn Kilkerran.
Quaedvlieg, Victor  Keremeos.
Royal City Creamery New Westminster.
Royal Dairies, Ltd 1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Royal Dairy, Ltd 707 View Street, Victoria.
Salmon Arm Creamery Association Salmon Arm.
Saltspring Island Creamery Association  Ganges.
Sherwood Creameries, Ltd 1166 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Spencers' Dairies, Ltd Vancouver.
Steves, J. M., Dairy 2024" Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Valentin Dairy  Prince Rupert.
Valley Dairy, Ltd • 1569 Sixth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Valley Dairy Penticton.
Vancouver Dairies, Ltd 1132 Hastings Street West, Vancouver.
Vancouver Creamery Co., Ltd Nelson and Cambie Streets, Vancouver.
Vancouver Creamery Co., Ltd 280 Sixth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Vimpa Jersey Milk, Ltd 930 North Park Street, Victoria.
Victoria City Dairy Co., Ltd 1111 Fort Street, Victoria.
White Lunch, Ltd 124 Hastings Street West, Vancouver.
APPENDIX No. 24.
Combined Milk-testers' and Cream-graders' Licences issued during 1928.
Name. Address.
Adams, Theo. F -Enderby.
Anderson, Z. K . 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Boyne, W. T i Kamloops.
Batey, H. S       2507 Chesterfield Avenue, North Vancouver.
Clarke, T. E , .-. Vernon.
Dunn, J. S 553 Fifth Street, Nanaimo.
Dunn, J 553 Fifth Street, Nanaimo.
Drake, A. W Ganges.
Higham, C. J 3307 Royal Oak Avenue, Burnaby.
Hansen, A. B ...Golden.
Jenne, H. H Nelson.
.Tames, D. A ■. 1114 Broadway West, Vancouver.
Johnson, Alfred Quesnel.
Karnagel, R -Enderby. .......
Kell, Geo 309 Sixth Street, New Westminster.
Lord, T ...3137 Kathleen Avenue, Burnaby.
Lawrance, G. H Mission City.
Morse, A. 0 1750 Eighth Avenue AVest, Vancouver.
Maslin, W Pouce Coupe.
McAllister, C. W.  -.. 717 View Street, Victoria.
MacKerricher, W. R c/o D. Spencer, Vancouver.
Pyvis, W. J. Sardis. .     .
Perrins, A. C ......: : 841 EUery Street, Victoria.
Quaedvlieg, E. J. Keremeos	
Rodger, J. M ;...... .i.. Courtenay.
Rolph, E. N : Quesnel.	
Rive, E ...405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Rive, C ;:.v...... ...::...:....T...::...j. ........Courtenay.  . O 126 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 24—Continued.
Combined Milk-testers' and Cream-graders' Licences issued during 1928—Continued.
Name. Address.
Skelton, R. J Salmon Arm.
Sejrup, V. M Duncan.
Smith, J. K 2886 Second Avenue West, Vancouver.
Sellers, J. H 414 Pender Street East, Vancouver.
Thomson, F. D 966 Fourteenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Thomson, D. H Penticton.
Urquhart, J. C Ganges.
Woods, R. H Penticton.
Warburton, S 1957 Wolfe Street, South Vancouver.
Watson, J. B Grand Forks.
Wasson, E. C Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
White, C. J 644 Sixty-sixth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Graders' Licences (Single) issued during 1928.
Name. Address.
Moss, James Kelowna.
Patten, L. W Vernon.
Wagg, C. H Ganges.
APPENDIX No. 25.
Milk-testers' Licences issued during 1928.
Name. Address.
Abbott, R. C Vanderhoof.
Anderson, Alfred H Armstrong.
Anderson, Elsie A , .-. 2689 Charles Street, Vancouver.
Atkinson, L. A 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Barrett, Wilfrid C 872 Sixty-third Avenue West, Vancouver.
Calder, Jas S82 Hamilton Street, Vancouver.
Campbell, A. M 1002 Hastings Street West, Vancouver.
Caldwell, John 1855 Georgia Street East, Vancouver.
Cameron, W. C. C Vernon.
Carroll, W. J Courtenay.
Chevalley, F Sardis.
Chevalley, P R.R. No. 2, Abbotsford.
Clark, H. C Cloverdale.
Clarke, T. G. M Courtenay.
Coxen, W. G 1111 Fort Street, Victoria.
Crabtree, G. H Abbotsford.
Cranswick, P 1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Dixon, A. S Chilliwack.
Dudman, A 333a Thirteenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Edmonds, E. J Chilliwack.
Grimes, G. G R.R. No. 1, Chilliwack.
Hall, F. D. B Sardis.
Harding, G. R. T Vernon.
Harkness, Wm Grand Forks.
Heelas, D. S 3350 Thirty-eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Hooson, Wm. E 2122 Cook Street, Victoria.
Hoffman, W 2024 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Holmes, J 827 Broadway West, Vancouver.
Hurley, M. H ...1111 Fort Street, Victoria.
Johnson, Wm. G .....Nelson.
Kjeldgaard, Otto 1106 Hornby Street, Vancouver. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
O 127
APPENDIX No. 25—Continued.
Milk-testers' Licences issued during 1928—Continued.
Name. Address.
Leavitt, H. B „ , , 948 Fifteenth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Livingstone, J. B Nelson and Cambie Streets, Vancouver.
Main, T „ , Agassiz.
Manning, J. E Telkwa.
Matheson, D. W Port Haney.
Medd, G. H Fort Langley.
McLeary, Sam Cranbrook.
McLean, Hector 512 Fourteenth Avenue East, North Vancouver.
Metcalfe, J. F 3436 Oak Street, Vancouver.
Moore, J. S Penticton.
Moore, J. H Vernon.
Moss, James Box 634, Kelowna.
Neill, A , , Telkwa.
Nelson, C. E „ 2024 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Newland, C. G Colony Farm, Essondale.
Norton, F. H. A 1311 Broad Street, Victoria.
Pallot, C. S Box 151, Haney.
Patten, L. W , , Vernon.
Price, T. W „ „.,..., ,.905 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Richards, T. E .Lynn Valley P.O., North Vancouver.
Rose, Wm Langley Prairie.
Sherwood, E. G 1032 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Silver, M. R ,...2215 Dundas Street, Vancouver.
Turnbull, Miss M Kelowna.
Valentin, H. B. M , ....Prince Rupert.
Wagg, C, H Ganges.
Washington, F. J 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Watson, J. B R.R. No. 1, Sardis.
Wells, B „„ Abbotsford.
Wells, J, R , Penticton.
West, C. H , , 158 Melbourne Street, South Vancouver.
Williamson, H. S ,....183 Bushby Street, Victoria.
Wood, R. K 1778 St. Ann Street, Victoria.
APPENDIX No. 26.
Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia.
Name.
Instituted.
Secretary.
Tester.
Departmental
Grant.
Bulkley Valley	
Chilliwack, Route 1	
Chilliwack, Route 2	
Chilliwack, Route 3	
Comox Valley	
Langley	
Okanagan..	
Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge.
Richmond-Ladner	
Sumas-Matsqui	
Surrey	
October, 1926....
March, 1913	
November, 1928.
April, 1927	
April, 1914	
June, 1914	
April, 1920	
November, 1925
March, 1919	
November, 1923
November, 1924.
C. J, Killer, Telkwa	
R. C. Johnston, R.R. 1, Chilliwack
J. Dunn, R.R. 1, Chilliwack*..
A. Holcomb, Atchelitz*	
R. M. Halliday, Sandwick	
J. C. Berry, Langley Prairie.
W. G. Benson, Kelowna	
J. E. Stewart, Hammond	
R. J. Smith, R.R. 1, Ladner..
H. Day, R.R. 2, Abbotsford...
H. J, Burrows, R.R. 2, Clover-
dale
J. E. Manning...
G. G. Grimes	
A. E. Lefroy	
A. S. Dixon	
T. G. M. Clarke.
Wm. Rose	
Wm. E. Hooson
D. S. Heelas	
G. H. Medd	
R. A. Wilson	
H. C, Clark	
$900.00
720.00
100.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
* Assistant secretary. O 128
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 27.
Milk and Butter-fat Averages for Five Dairy Breeds.
The following figures show progress made during the last eight years, 1921-28, in Provincial
Cow-testing Association work. In compiling them, 11,280 milking-periods have been classified
and averaged.
The average production of cows representing the various dairy breeds in Cow-testing Associations during 1928 and for the eight-year period is as follows:—
Breed.
Ayrshire-
Guernsey..
Hoj'stein...
Jersey	
Shorthorn
Milk.
Lb.
7,820
6,967
9,452
'6,714
6,491
Fat.
Per Cent.
4.18
4.55
3.62
4.88
4.04
Fat.
Lb.
'327.0
318.5
342.9
328.1
261.1
1921-28.
Lb. Fat.
301.6
319.1
321.4
324.2
274.0
Percentage
of Total.
8.1
9.7
42.0
36.9
3.3
Average Production of all Completed Milking-periods in Cow-testing Associations.—1928:
Milk, 7,937 lb.; fat, 331.2 lb.    1921-28:  Milk, 7,540 lb.;  fat, 317 lb.
APPENDIX No. 28.
Report on Samples of Wheat collected from Farmers' Seed-drills in British Columbia
at Time of Seeding, 1928.
Details of Impurities in Wheat.
Number of samples tested (each sample 1 lb.)   98
Average number of total weed-seeds in 98 samples  154
Average number of noxious weed-seeds in 98 samples   29
Average number of other weed-seeds in 98 samples  125
Noxious weed-seeds—
Average number of wild oats in 46 samples   22
Average number of ball mustard in 11 samples  12
Average number of tumbling mustard in 17 samples  46
Average number of stinkweed in 8 samples  .-.  76
Average number of other noxious in 15 samples   21
Other weed-seeds—
Average number of wild buckwheat in 60 samples   85
Average number of lamb's-quarters in 28 samples   66
Average number of spurrey in 8 samples   86
Average number of lady's-thumb in 5 samples   67
Average number of bromus species in 9 samples''.'.  7
Average number of other kinds in 34 samples  121
Other cultivated seeds—
Average number of oats in 74 samples   43
Average number of barley in 53 samples   50
Average number of rye in 21 samples   52
Average number of timothy in 18 samples   73
Average number of other kinds in 29 samples   76
Germination of Wheat Samples.
Number of samples tested  98
Number of samples germinating over 95 per cent  42
Number of samples germinating 90 to 95 per cent  27
"Number of samples germinating 75 to 89 per cent  19
Number of samples germinating below 75 per cent  10
Average germination  (per cent.)    89
Lowest germination (per cent.)  39 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928. O 129
APPENDIX No. '28—Continued.
Report on Samples of Wheat collected from Farmers' Seed-drills in British Columbia
at Time of Seeding, 1928—Continued.
Names of Varieties as given by Growers.
Marquis     50
Bluestem  22
Ruby ■.  4
Fall  3
Red Bobs  .- 2
Red Fife  2
Kitchener   2
White Hybrid  2
Early Triumph   1
Sun  1
Total varieties named by growers   89
Number of varieties not named by growers  9
Summary of Impurities in Wheat.
Number of samples tested  98
Noxious weed-seeds—
Samples free (number)    35
Samples free (per cent.)   35
Largest number per pound in any sample   1,216
Average number per pound in all samples   29
Other weed-seeds—
Samples free (number)  21
Samples free (per cent.)   21.4
Largest number per pound in any sample  3,044
Average number per pound in all samples  125
Seeds of other cultivated plants—
Samples free (number)   7
Samples free (per cent.)   7
Largest number per pound in any sample   1,670
Average number per pound in all samples  107
Grading of Samples.
No. 1  21
No. 2  14
No. 3  24
Rejected    39
Total  98
Total number of samples reported on  98
Number of samples cleaned before seeding   68
Number of samples treated before seeding—
Formalin   59
Bluestone     6
APPENDIX No. 29.
Reports on Samples of Oats collected from Farmers' Seed-drills in British Columbia
at Time of Seeding, 1928.
Details of Impurities in Oats.
Number of samples tested (each sample 1 lb.)  :      201
Average number of total weed-seeds in 201 samples        188
Average number of noxious weed-seeds in 201 samples         13
Average number of other weed-seeds in 201 samples      175
9 O 130 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 29—Continued.
Reports on Samples of Oats collected from Farmers' Seed-drills in British Columbia
at Time of Seeding, 1928—Continued.
Details of Impurities in Oats—Continued.
Noxious weed-seeds—
Average number of wild mustard in 3 samples   8
Average number of wild oats in 133 samples   14
Average number of ball mustard in 15 samples   20
Average number of Canada thistle in 9 samples   16
Average number of other noxious in 30 samples   9
Other weed-seeds—
Average number of wild buckwheat in 151 samples   71
Average number of lamb's-quarters in 68 samples   52
Average number of false wild oats in 133 samples   7
Average number of lady's-thumb in 77 samples   67
Average number of spurrey in 108 samples   112
Average number of other kinds in 78 samples  36
Other cultivated seeds—
Average number of wheat in 124 samples  ™  40
Average number of barley in 93 samples   60
Average number of timothy in 56 samples   21
Average number of red clover in 9 samples   31
Average number of other kinds in 63 samples   26
Germination of Oat Samples.
Number of samples tested   201
Number of samples germinating over 90 per cent  101
Number of samples germinating 75 to 89 per cent  68
Number of samples germinating below 75 per cent  32
Average germination  (per cent.)    84
Lowest germination  (per cent.)    29
Names of Varieties as given by Growers.
Victory     83
Abundance    8
Conqueror  6
North-western   1
Crown    9
Banner     11
Mammoth   3
Alaska   1
Leader   3
Garton   23
Dodd's White   1
Garton Abundance   1
Dodd's No. 1  1
Hull-less    1
Total varieties named by growers   152
Percentage of varieties named by growers  76
Summary of Impurities in Oats.
Number of samples tested   201
Noxious weed-seeds—
Samples free  (number)    61
Samples free (per cent.)   30
Largest number per pound in any sample  244
Average number per pound in all samples   13 APPENDIX No. 29—Continued.
Reports on Samples op Oats collected from Farmers' Seed-drills in British Columbia
at Time of Seeding, 1928—Continued.
Summary of Impurities in Oat-s—Continued.
Other weed-seeds—
Samples free (number)    6
Samples free (per cent.)   3
Largest number per pound in any sample   2,608
Average number per pound in all samples  175
Seeds of other cultivated plants—
Samples free (number)   34
Samples free (per cent.)   17
Largest number per pound in any sample  968
Average number per pound in all samples  183
Grading of Samples.
No. 1  19
No. 2  49
No. 3  29
Rejected    104
Total    201
Ten samples (which were no doubt used for forage purposes) contained an average mixture
of 10 per cent of other cultivated seeds.
Total number of samples reported on  201
Number of samples cleaned before seeding  157
Number of samples treated before seeding—
Formalin „  119
Copper carbonate   1
Bluestone    2
APPENDIX No. 30.
Report on Samples of Barley collected from Farmers in British Columbia
at Time of Seeding, 1928.
Details of Impurities in Barley.
Number of samples tested  17
Average number of total weed-seeds in 17 samples   126
Average number of noxious weed-seeds in 17 samples  35
Average number of other weed-seeds in 17 samples  90
Noxious weed-seeds—
Average number of wild oats in 11 samples  6
Average number of ball mustard in 2 samples   7
Average number other noxious weed seeds in 4 samples   128
Other weed-seeds—
Average number of buckwheat in 15 samples   57
Average number of lamb's-quarters in 5 samples    10
Average number of lady's-thumb in 5 samples   89
Average number of spurrey in 4 samples   6
Average number of other weed-seeds in 8 samples   21
Seeds of other cultivated plants—
Average number of wheat in 14 samples   79
Average number of oats in 17 samples   279
Average number of timothy in 4 samples   8
Average number of other cultivated seeds in 7 samples  15 O 132 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. SO—Continued.
Report on Samples of Barley collected from Farmers in British Columbia
at Time of Seeding, 1928—Continued.
Germination of Barley Samples.
Number of samples tested  17
Number germinating over 90 per cent  14
Number germinating 75 to 89 per cent  1
Number germinating below 65 per cent  •   2
Average germination (per cent.)  91.1
Lowest germination (per cent.)   56
Names of Varieties as collected.
Two-row   -  1
Six-row  ,  8
O.A.C. 21  2
Not named   6
Summary of Impurities in Barley.
Number of samples tested   17
Noxious weed-seeds—
Samples free (number)  5
Samples free (per cent.)    29.4
Largest number per pound in any sample   480
Average number per pound in all samples  35
Other weed-seeds—
Samples free  (number)    1
Samples free (per cent.)  5.8
Largest number per pound in any sample  , 376
Average number per pound in all samples   90
Seeds of other cultivated plants—
Samples free (number)  	
Samples free (per cent.) 	
Largest number per pound in any sample   1,208
Average number per pound in all samples   352.1
Grading of Samples.
No. 1	
No. 2  2
No. 3  5
Rejected     10
Total   :  17
Total number of samples reported on  17
Number of samples cleaned before seeding  12
Number of samples treated before seeding (formalin)   12
APPENDIX No. 31.
Report on Samples of Rye collected from Farmers' Seed-drills in British Columbia
at Time of Seeding, 1928.
Details of Impurities in Rye.
Number of samples tested (each sample 1 lb.)   6
Average number of total weed-seeds in 6 samples   1,553
Average number of noxious weed-seeds in 6 samples   1,392
Average number of other weed-seeds in 6 samples   161 APPENDIX No. 31—Continued.
Report on Samples of Rye collected from Farmers' Seed-drills in British Columbia
at Time of Seeding, 1928—Continued.
Details of Impurities in Rye—Continued.
Noxious weed-seeds—
Average number of wild oats in 6 samples  36
Average number of ball mustard in 2 samples   100
Average number of tumbling mustard in 2 samples   3,910
Average number of other noxious in 1 sample   112
Other weed-seeds—
Average number of buckwheat in 6 samples  59
Average number of lamb's-quarters in 2 samples   192
Average number of other kinds in 4 samples  57
Other cultivated seeds—
Average number of wheat in 3 samples  682
Average number of oats in 4 samples   110
'          Average number of barley in 3 samples  50
Average number of other kinds in 1 sample  2
Germination of Rye Samples.
Number of samples tested   6
Number of samples germinating over 90 per cent  2
Number of samples germinating 75 to 89 per cent	
Number of samples germinating 65 to 75 per cent  2
Number of samples germinating below 65 per cent  2
Average germination  (per cent.)    70
Lowest germination (per cent.)   38
Name of Variety collected.
Spring ,.,  6
Summary of Impurities in Rye.
Number of samples tested  6
Noxious weed-seeds—
Samples free  (number)   ,	
Samples free  (per cent.)  	
Largest number per pound in any sample    8,048
Average number per pound in all samples    1,392
Other weed-seeds—
Samples free  (number)	
Samples free (per cent.) 	
Largest number per pound in any sample        384
Average number per pound in all samples        161
Seeds of other cultivated plants—
Samples free (number)   ...
Samples free (per cent.)	
Largest number per pound in any sample     1,056
Average number per pound in all samples        440
Grading of Samples.
No. 3  1
Rejected      5
Total     6
Total number of samples reported on  6
Number of samples cleaned before seeding  2 O 134 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 32.
Report on Samples of Red Clover and Alsike collected from Farmers' Seed-drills in
British Columbia at Time of Seeding, 1928.
Details of Impurities in Red Clover and Alsike.
Number of samples tested (each sample 1 lb.) :  10
Average number of total weed-seeds in 10 samples  53
Average number of noxious weed-seeds in 10 samples  5
Average number of other weed-seeds in 10 samples   48
Noxious weed-seeds—
Average number of Canada thistle in 3 samples  2
Average number of night-flowering catchfly in 4 samples   3
Average number of ribgrass in 5 samples   4
Average number of other noxious in 6 samples   3
Other weed-seeds—
Average number of lamb's-quarters in 4 samples    5
Average number of green foxtail in 4 samples   22
Average number of black medick in 6 samples   29
Average number of sweet clover in 5 samples  18
Average number of other kinds in 9 samples   12
Germination of Red Clover and Alsike.
Number of samples tested   10
Number of samples germinating over 90 per cent  7
Number of samples germinating 60 to 75 per cent  2
Number of samples germinating below 60 per cent  1
Average germination  (per cent.)    85
Lowest germination (per cent.)   48
Summary of Impurities in Red Clover and Alsike.
Number of samples tested   10
Noxious weed-seeds—•
Samples free (number)   w	
Samples free (per cent.) 	
Largest number per pound in any sample  _  9
Average number per pound in all samples   5
Other weed-seeds—
Samples free (number)    1
Samples free (per cent.)   10
Largest number per pound in any sample   136
Average number per pound in all samples   48
Grading of Samples.
No. 1  7
No. 3  2
Rejected  1
Total    10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
O 135
APPENDIX No. 33.
Summary of Seed-drill Survey for all Crops, 1928.
Oats.
Wheat.
Barley.
Rye.
Alsike
and Red
Clover.
Number of samples tested (1-lb. samples)	
Average number of total weed-seeds for all samples
Average number of noxious weed-seeds for all samples
Average  number  of  non-noxious  weed-seeds  for  all
samples	
Number of samples free of noxious weed-seeds	
Number of samples free of non-noxious weed-seeds—
Largest number of noxious weed-seeds per pound in
any sample	
Largest number of non-noxious weed-seeds per pound
in any sample	
Grade of samples—
No.  1  grade	
No.  2 grade	
No.  3 grade	
Rejected	
201
188
13
175
61
244
2,608
19
49
29
101
98
154
29
125
35
21
1,216
3,044
21
14
24
39
17
126
35
90
5
1
480
376
10
6
1,553
1,392
161
8,048
384
10
53
48
1
9
136
7
The most prevalent weeds in the various kinds of seeds were as follows:—•
Wheat.—Noxious: Wild oats, tumbling mustard, ball mustard, and stinkweed. Non-
noxious :  Wild buckwheat, lamb's-quarters, spurrey, and lady's-thumb.
Oats.—Noxious: Wild oats, ball mustard, Canada thistle, and wild mustard. Non-noxious :
Wild buckwheat, false wild oats, spurrey, lamb's-quarters, and lady's-thumb.
Red Clover and Alsike.—Noxious: Ribgrass, night-flowering catchfly, and Canada thistle.
Non-noxious:   Black medick, green foxtail, and lamb's-quarters.
Barley.—Noxious: Wild oats and ball mustard. Non-noxious: Wild buckwheat, lamb's-
quarters, lady's-thumb, and spurrey.
Rye.—Noxious: Wild oats, ball mustard, and tumbling mustard. Non-noxious. Wild
buckwheat and lamb's-quarters.
APPENDIX No. 34.
Final Report on " Top Entrance " Trials, 1928.
Fraser Valley.
Situation of Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Date
" Top Entrance '
placed on Hive.
Surplus
Honey
taken.
Surplus
Honey taken
from Check
Colony, or
Average for
Whole
Apiary.
Swarms
from
" Top
Entrance"
Hive.
Ladner	
Langley Prairie
Huntingdon	
Huntingdon	
Sumas Lake	
Sumas Lake	
Sumas Lake	
Sumas Lake	
Kennedy	
Lulu Island	
Mission	
Mrs. M. B. McCallan
Mrs. J. W. Berry	
A. W. Finlay, No. 1-
A. W. Finlay, No. 2..
A. W. Finlay, No. 1...
A. W. Finlay, No. 2..
A. W. Finlay, No. 3..
A. W. Finlay, No. 4...
Alex. Keir	
Miss E. Hall	
Chas. Moore	
March 1, 1928
June 28, 1928.
1921	
April 8, 1928-
April, 1927	
April, 1927	
April, 1927	
April, 1927	
April '6, 1928-
April 7, 1928-
April 7, 1928-
Lb.
210
29
56
50
*
55
80
70
65
40
19
Lb.
120
30
45
45
*
60
40
60
70
100
12
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
* Queenless ; no surplus. O 136
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 34—Continued.
Final Report on " Top Entrance " Trials, 1928—Continued.
Okanagan.
Situation of Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Date
" Top Entrance "
placed on Hive.
Surplus
Honey
taken.
Surplus
Honey taken
from Check
Colony, or
Average for
Whole -
Apiary.
Swarms
from
" Top
Entrance "
Hive.
May 9, 192S	
Lb.
93
115
75
60
'90
Lb.
63
75
100
50
90
May 18, 1928	
None.
J. F. Roberts	
April 15, 1928	
None.
C. L. Carless	
T. S. Keyes    	
March 15, 1928	
None.
March 20, 192S    	
Kootenays.
Creston	
Blueberry Creek
Vallican	
Slocan City	
Grand Forks	
Crawford Bay....
Crawford Bay...
Nelson	
Nelson	
Invermere	
J. Blinco	
A. E. Pittaway	
B. Munch	
V. K. Soharey	
j. A. Hutton	
W. J. Kidman, No. 1
W. J. Kidman, No. 2
A. S. Clark, No. 1	
A. S. Clark, No. 2	
Dom. Expl. Farm	
May 9, 1928—
April 9, 1928-
March 17, 192;
May 1, 1928—
April 17, 1928.
April 29, 1928
May 2, 1928....
April 1, 1928..
May 17, 1928..
May 17, 1928..
78
134
45
80
30
72
87
f
140
100
71
54
32
60
15
97
97
f
130
113
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
Vancouver Island.
Fred Swan	
May 5, 1928	
40
50
t
*
35
40
J.
I
*
April 7, 1928	
April 22, 1928
March 18, 1928
Totals       	
1,963
1,704
* Queenless ;   no surplus.
t Swarmed ;   no surplus.
APPENDIX No. 35.
Estimated Honey-crop, 1928.
District.
Apiaries.
Hives.
Crop.
Average
per Hive.
Vancouver Island, Qui] Islands, and Howe Sound.
42
74
97
104
227
64
47
330
524
381
313
640
141
175
Lb.
18,150
23,580
15,240
12,520
19,200
5,640
8,750
Lb.
45
40
40
30
Gulf Islands         	
40
Howe Sound	
50
Totals                                        	
655
2,304
103,080
41
Greater Vancouver.
74
31
30
40
26
43
43
27
42
450
150
150
182
105
195
200
85
150
11,250
3,750
3,750
5,460
3,990
4,875
4,000
1,700
3,750
25
25
25
30
38
New Westminster	
25
20
Point Grey ;	
20
25
Totals	
356
1,667
42*525
25 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
0 137
APPENDIX No. 35—Continued.
Estimated Honey-crop, 1928—Continued.
District.
Apiaries.
Hives.
Crop.
Average
per Hive.
Lower Fraser Valley.
Delta  	
Surrey	
Langley	
92
138
165
124
76
60
S0O
,     1,710
1,300
1,250
450
450
Lb.
40,000
54,720
26,000
37,500
15,750
17,100
Lb.
SO
32
20
30
Maple Ridge	
35
38
Totals                               - . .                              	
655
5,960
191,070
32
Upper Fraser Valley and Chilliwack.
Chilliwack                                                     	
89
26
38
80
73
500
260
200
630
600
17,500
7,800
5,000
15,750
30,000
35
30
Kent  	
25
25
50
Totals                             ....             	
306
2,190
76,050
'35
Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys.
350
50
69
3,510
364
853
322,920
33,124
81,035
92
91
95
Totals	
469
4,727
437,079
92
Kootenays.
Slocan Valley	
37
34
24
32
8
27
20
32
12
326
101
100
262
331
188
349
235
42
16,300
5,040
6,175
16,400
16,550
13,160
19,180
16,450
2,100
50
50
61
62
50
70
70
50
Totals           .. ..         	
226
1,934
111,355
57
Central British Columbia.
Central British Columbia	
28
231
24,550
107
Summary.
Vancouver Island, Gulf Islands, and Howe Sound...	
655
356
655
306
469
226
28
2,504
1,667
5,960
2,190
4,727
1,934
231
103,0S0
42.525
191,070
76,050
437,079
111,355
24,550
41
25
32
35
92
57
107
Totals    	
2,695
19,213
985,709
51
Estimated value of honey-crop produced in 1928, $216,855 ; estimated value of beeswax produced in
1928, $5,000 ; capital value of bees, hives, supers, and other apiary equipment, reckoning 19,213 hives at,
say,  $'25 each,  $480,325.
10 O 138
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 36.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Reports for Season of 1928.
(a.) Fraser Valley.
Situation of
Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Date Queen
introduced.
Surplus
Honey
taken during Season.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
Sullivan..
Langley Prairie..
Ladner..
Kennedy..
Mission..
Huntingdon.
Sumas..
Murrayville..
Lulu Island..
Sperling..
W. H. Turnbull
Mrs. J. W. Berry
Mrs. N. B. McCallan
Alex. Keir
Chas.  Moore
A. W. Finlay
A. W. Finlay
E. Chipperfield
Miss E. Hall
D. W. Welsh
Totals..
33
 1928
 1928
 1928
May, 1928
May, 1928
May,  1928
 1927
 1927
 1927
May, 1928
May, 1928
July, 1927
July, 1927
May, 1928
July, 1927
July, 1927
Aug., 1927
May, 1927
May, 1928
June, 1928
Aug., 1927
June, 1927
June, 1927
June, 1927
June, 1927
May, 1928
May, 1928
May,  1928
May, 1926
May, 1926
 1927
June, 1927
June, 1928
Lb.
60
40
78
60
45
41
60
120
90
■OD
35-
75
60
17
10
22
40
80
65
80
120
60
40
60
35
40
30
100
90
40
35
30
Lb.
178
146
270
225
49
265
280
105
230
1,813
Lb.
59
4S
90
56
12
64
35
77
32 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1928.
O 139
APPENDIX No. 36—Continued.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Reports for Season of 1928—Continued.
(b.) Kootenays.
Situation of
Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Date Queen
introduced.
Surplus
Honey
taken during Season.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
A. E. Pittaway      	
3
2
3
1
2
2
3
(1) Aug.,     1927
(2) Aug.,     1927
(3) Aug.,     1927
(1) June,    1928
(2) June,    1928
(1) 	
Lb.     Lb.
46
39
78
     163
32
20
       52
12
18
15
       45
65
       65
83
65
     148
99
128
     227
140
150
100
     390
Lb.
54
26
15
65
74
113
130
Vallican	
1
Grand Forks	
J. A. Hutton 	
1
V. K. Soharev
(2) 	
Slocan City	
(3) 	
 1928
(1) 	
1
Creston	
W. J. Kidman           	
(2) 	
1
Crawford Bay	
(1) Aug.,     1927
(2) July,     1927
(1) July,     1927
(2) July,     1927
(3) July,     1927
2
Nelson	
A.  S. Clark .
3
1
1
16
1,090
68
11
(c.)   Okanagan.
4
4
3
2
(1) May,
(2) June,
(3) June,
(4) June,
(1) 	
(2) 	
1927
1928
1928
1928
1927
-.1927
125
115
135
100
     475
133
111
90
73
     407
110
120
100
     330
50
65
.      115
119
102
110
57
J. F. Roberts 	
(3) 	
(4) 	
(1) Aug.,
(2) Aug.,
(3) Aug.,
(1) 	
1927
1926
1927
1927
1927
..1927
C. L. Carless 	
1
(2) 	
1927
Totals	
13
1,327
120
1
(d.) Vancouver Island.
2
2
(1) 	
43
37
90
78
80
168
40
84
Major L. H. McQueen....
(1) April,    1927
(2) April,    1927
Totals	
4
248
62 O 140
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 36—Continued.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Reports for Season op 1928—Continued.
(e.)  Summary.
Territory.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Surplus
Honey
taken dur
ing Season
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
33
16
13
4
Lb.
1,813
1,090
1,327
248
Lb.
55
68
120
62
6
11
1
Vancouver Island ."....;	
Totals    	
66
4,478
69
18
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F.  Banfield, Printer to the Kiug's Most Excellent Majesty.
1920.
1075-829-7049

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