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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1932]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT
OF   THE
COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 3 1st, 1930
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1931.  To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for the year
ended December 31st, 1930, with Appendices.
SAMUEL LYNESS HOWE,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia, December 31st, 1930. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT FOR 1930.
Page.
Value of Fisheries and Standing of Provinces      5
Persons engaged and Capital invested  5
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia  5
Salmon-pack in British Columbia in 1930  6
Salmon-pack by Districts in 1930  6
Mild-cured  Salmon Production  8
Halibut Production  8
Dry-salted Herring Production  8
Fish Oil and Meal Production  9
Contribution to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon  9
Pilchard and Herring Investigation  10
Halibut Investigation  12
APPENDICES.
Contribution to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon. '  (No. 16.)    By Drs. W. A. and
Lucy S. Clemens     14
Spawning-beds of the Fraser River.    By John Pease Babcock -.     42
Spawning-beds of Rivers Inlet.    By A. W. Stone     46
Spawning-beds of Smith Inlet.    By A. W. Stone     49
Spawning-beds of the Skeena River.    By Robert Gibson     51
Spawning-beds of the Nass River.    By C. P. Hickman     54
The Pacific Salmon.    By John Pease Babcock     56
Halibut Treaty    62
Edible Fish-meal.    By Rodney DeLisle     65
Salmon-pack in 1930 in Detail  145
Salmon-pack of Province, by Districts and Species, 1915 to 1930, inclusive  148
SOCKEYE-SALMON PACK OF ENTIRE FrASER RlVER  SYSTEM,  1915 TO 1930,  INCLUSIVE    151
Sockeye-salmon Pack of Province, by Districts, 1915 to 1930, inclusive  151
Production of Fish Oil and Meal, 1920 to 1930, inclusive  152 FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT
FOR 1930.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE  STANDING OF PROVINCES, 1929.
The value of the fishery products of Canada for the year 1929 totalled $53,518,521. During
that year British Colunibia produced fishery products of a value of $23,930,692, or 45 per cent,
of Canada's total.
In 1929 British Columbia again led all the Provinces in the Dominion, as has been the case
for many years, in the value of her fishery products. Her output exceeded in value that of
Nova Scotia, the second in rank, by $12,503,201, and also exceeded that of all the other Provinces
combined by $5,770,354.
The market value of the fishery products of British Columbia in 1929 was $2,632,035 less
than in the previous year, 1928, due largely to a decrease in the salmon-pack.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1929 was $36,256,087, or 57%
per cent, of the total capital employed in Canada. Of the $36,256,087 invested in the fisheries
of British Columbia in 1928, $13,794,507 was employed in catching and handling the catches and
$22,461,580 invested in canneries, fish-packing establishments, and fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1929 was 20,435, or 25
per cent, of Canada's total of 80,450. Of the 20,435 engaged in British Columbia, 12,075 were
employed in catching and handling the catches and 7,760 in packing, curing, and fish-reduction.
The total number engaged in the fisheries in 1929 was 2,441 more than in the preceding year.*
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of the fishery products
of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1925 to 1929, inclusive:—
Province.
1925.
1920.
1927.
1928.
1929.
British Columbia	
Nova Scotia	
New Brunswick	
Ontario	
Quebec	
Manitoba	
Prince Edward Island
Alberta	
Saskatchewan	
Yukon Territory	
Totals	
$22,414,018
10,213,779
4,798,589
3,430,412
3,044,919
1,460,939
1,598,119
458,504
494,882
15,370
$47,142,131"
.307,109
505,922
325,478
152,193
110,904
328,803
358,934
749,076
444,288
17,860
$567360,633"
$27
12,
5
3:
3
2,
1,
$23,264,342
10,783,031
4,400,073
3,070,229
2,736,450
2,039,738
1,367,807
712,409
503,009
12,090
$49,497,038
$20,502,727
11,081,995
5,001,041
4,030,753
2,990,014
2,240,314
1,190,081
725,050
563,533
51,665
"$55,050,973"
$23,930,692
11,427,491
5,935,635
3,919,144
2,933,339
2,745,205
1,297,125
732,214
572,871
24,805
~$53;518,52i~
THE  SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British Columbia for the
year ended December 31st, 1929, is given in the following statement:—
Salmon     $14,265,795
Halibut         4,317,235
Herring, oil, meal, etc      1,486,655
Cod, hake          418,800
Pilchard, oil, meal, etc      2,199,834
Clams            120,143
Black cod          118,362
Carried forward  $22,926,824
* As this report goes to press the Commissioner is in receipt of a preliminary report on the fishery
products of the Province for the year 1930, issued by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics—R. H. Coats,
Statistician—from which the following data are taken: The value of the fishery products of British
Columbia for 1930 totalled $23,103,302;  capital invested, $34,943,817;  number of persons employed, 19,419. I 6 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
The Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Brought forward  $22,920,824
Crabs     45,447
Soles     47,777
Shrimps     26,579
Oysters    57,908
Flounders, brill  25,7^7
Red cod, tomcod   29,216
Perch ....... 21,691
Smelts  10,831
Sturgeon   7,245
Octopus   2,264
Skate   4,676
Oolachans     1,833
Whiting, bass, etc  69
Trout     1,517
Whales     387,049
Fish-oils, grayflsh, etc  122,513
Fish-meals    126,121
Fish-fertilizer    52,123
Fur-seals     33,272
Total   $23,930,692
The above statement shows that the salmon-fisheries of the Province in 1929 produced
$14,265,795, or 59 per cent, of her total fishery products. It was, owing to decrease in the pack
and a decrease in price, $3,079,875 less than in the preceding year.
The total halibut landings were marketed for $4,317,235, an increase over 1928 of $946,565.
Herring-catches produced $1,486,655. Owing to decrease in catch and in price it was
$322,289 less than in 1928.
The foregoing data are derived from the " Fishery Statistics of Canada " for 1929.
THE  SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE IN 1930.
The catches of salmon in the Province in 1930 produced a pack of 2,221,819 cases. It consisted of 477,678 cases of sockeye, 36,526 cases of springs, 150,168 cases of cohoes, 1,111,937 cases
of pinks, and 401,900 cases of chums, etc. It was the largest pack ever made in the Province.
It surpassed the former high record of 1926 by 156,629 cases. There was an increase in both
the pack of sockeye and the pinks. The sockeye-pack was more than double that of the previous
year. It was the largest made in the Province since 1914. There was a material increase
in the catch in the Fraser and in the Nass. It was the largest pack of sockeye made in the
Fraser since 1917 and above any year in that year's cycle since 1914. The pack of sockeye on
the Nass was greater than in any year since 1924. It was a " pink year " in most northern
waters, and the catch in the Fraser was large for an " off-year." The total pink-pack constituted 50 per cent, of the total for the year.
THE 1930 SALMON-PACK BY DISTRICTS.
The Fraser River System.—The catches of all species of salmon in the Provincial waters
of the Fraser River system produced a total pack of 277,983 cases, consisting of 103,692 cases
of sockeye, 21,127 cases of springs, 25,585 cases of cohoes, 30,754 cases of pinks, and 68,946 cases
of chums, etc.
The catches of sockeye in Provincial waters of the Fraser River system produced a pack
of 103,692 cases—the largest pack produced since 1917. It was 18,003 cases, or 21 per cent.,
greater than the pack made in the fourth preceding year, 1926—the brood-year of this year's run.
The catches of sockeye made in the State of Washington waters of the Fraser River system
in 1930 produced a pack of 352,194 cases. It was 307,521 cases, or 684 per cent., greater than
in 1926. BRITISH COLUMBIA. I 7
The total catches of sockeye made in the Fraser River system in 1930 produced a combined
pack of 455,886 cases, of which 77 per cent, was made from catches in Washington waters and
23 per cent, in Provincial waters. The combined pack was the largest made in that system
since 1917. It was also the largest sockeye-pack made in that system in that year's cycle
since 1914. It exceeded the pack made in 1926, the brood-year of the 1930 run, by 325,524 cases,
or by nearly 250 per cent.
For an understanding of the full significance of such an unusual occurrence in the present
depleted condition of the sockeye runs to the Fraser, it is necessary to review conditions on
both the fishing and spawning grounds of the Fraser River in 1926 and the cycle of that run,
because the runs in 1930 were the product of the fish that spawned in that river-basin in 1926.
This is manifest from past records and the fact that Drs. Clemens, in their study of the year-
classes of the 1930 run, have shown that 76 per cent, were in the four-year-old class.
Conditions on both the fishing and the breeding grounds of the Fraser River system in
1926 were exceptional—unequalled in the records. The records of 1926 show that the combined
catches of sockeye made that year produced a pack of 130,362 cases, of which 65% per cent,
was packed from catches made in Provincial waters and 34^ per cent, made in Washington
waters. It was the only time in over twenty years in which the Provincial pack exceeded the
State pack—with the exception of 1922, when the Provincial pack exceeded the State pack
by 3,266 cases.
In 1926 the catches made in July and August produced a total pack of 75,000 cases, of which
43,000 cases were packed in the State of Washington and 32,000 cases in British Columbia.
The balance of the catches made that year were made in British Columbia waters in September
and October and produced a pack of 53,000 cases, or 40 per cent, of the total made in the system
that year. The catches made in Washington waters in those months did not add materially to
its pack. This unprecedented occurrence was due to the fact that in September and October,
1926, a very considerable number of sockeye entered the Gulf of Georgia, in British Columbia
waters, without having been intercepted or reported in other waters. The traps in Juan de Fuca
Strait, the traps and purse-nets in the estuary waters of the State of Washington that lead to
the Gulf of Georgia from the south, and the nets used in the waters to the north of that gulf
caught very few sockeye in September and October. It was not determined how the fish reached
the gulf without being intercepted. Having reached there, the runs were drawn upon only by
the less than 1,000 gill-nets of the Canadian fishermen who were engaged in the gulf and in
the lower river, and whose operations were, by Dominion regulation, limited to fishing for five
days each week, and they ceased fishing September 20th. As a result of this limited fishing
the number caught was far less proportionately than was taken from the July and August runs,
and the escapement very much greater.
The number of sockeye which ascended to the spawnng areas in 1926 was far greater than
in any year since 1913. Late in September and throughout October and early November large
numbers of sockeye entered the river, passed through Hell's Gate Canyon, entered the Thompson
River, and reached the spawning-beds of Adams and Little Rivers, in the Shuswap Lake area.
Most of them reached there in October. In the latter part of October and early in November
the beds of Adams and Little Rivers were covered with spawning sockeye—a greater number
than had spawned on all the other beds in the Fraser basin above Hell's Gate since 1913.
Estimates of their number made by experts familiar with the Fraser beds in former years ran
from 400,000 to 600,000. The reports for 1926 also show that there was a slight increase in the
number of sockeye which spawned in the extreme upper lake sections of the Fraser and that
large numbers reached the beds in Birkenhead River, at the head of the Harrison-Lillooet Lakes
section—the run to that section being fully up to the average for many years. The fish in
Adams and Little Rivers were permitted to spawn naturally; the conditions under which they
spawned were most favourable ; and, due to Dominion supervision, the Indians did not molest
them. From the run to the Birkenhead 43,000,000 eggs were placed in the hatcheries and, in
addition, a large number spawned naturally. In summarizing the Department's report on
spawning conditions in the Fraser in 1926, the opinion was expressed that " the increased seeding
of the Shuswap Lake section, and the normal seeding of the Birkenhead River and the lakes to
the south, should produce an increased return in 1930."
The catches of sockeye in the Fraser River system in 1930 afford an impressive object-lesson
to all concerned in the industry and to the consuming public at large.   The catches of sockeye I 8 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
made in that system that year demonstrates forcefully that the former great runs of sockeye
to that system can be restored; that all that is required to restore the great runs of the past is
to ensure an adequate escapement—an adequate seeding of all the spawning-beds of the Fraser
basin.    The runs cannot be restored in any other way.
As stated, the sockeye-catches made in 1930 consisted of fish from the spawnings of 1926.
The catches in 1926 produced a pack of 130,362 cases. The catches in 1930 produced a pack
of 455,886 cases—an increase over 1926 of 325,524 cases, or 250 per cent, greater.
The Skeena River.—The salmon-pack of the Skeena River in 1930 totalled 450,377 cases,
consisting of 132,372 cases of sockeye, 7,501 cases of springs, 29,617 cases of cohoes, 275,642 cases
of pinks, and 5,187 cases of chums, etc.
The sockeye-pack was the second largest made in the Skeena since 1919, being exceeded only
by that of 1924. In writing of the run of sockeye to the Skeena in their report for 1929,
Drs. Clemens recorded: " The run of 1930 will be derived from the seedings of 1925 and 1926.
\n 1925 the pack consisted of 81,146 cases, and the samplings in that year showed that the
five-year-old fish constituted 47 per cent, of the run. In 1926 the pack amounted to 82,360 cases
and the four-year-old fish formed 70 per cent, of the run. In both years the spawning-beds of
both the Lakelse and Babine areas were reported very well seeded. There would appear, therefore, to be reason to expect a fair run in 1930 and to believe that a pack of approximately
75,000 cases may be taken."
It was a " pink j'ear " on the Skeena. They totalled 275,642 cases, the second largest pack
made there, being exceeded only by the pack of 301,655 cases in 1922.
Rivers Inlet.—The salmon-pack at Rivers Inlet totalled 138,980 cases, consisting of 119,170
cases of sockeye, 434 cases of springs, 756 cases of cohoes, 18,023 cases of pinks, and 492 cases
of chums, etc.
While the catch of sockeye fell below expectation, the year 1930 falling within the 1915-
1920-1925 cycle, which is the premier cycle on this river system, the total lacked only 830 cases
of the minimum figure of 120,000 cases. But, as Drs. Clemens show in their report for this
year, the percentage of five-year-old fish fell far below those of the other years in this cycle.
The trend in all the cycles except one is a decrease in that age-class, the reason for which is
obscure.
The Nass River.—The salmon-pack on the Nass totalled 113,460 cases, consisting of 26,405
cases of sockeye, 1,891 cases of springs, 1,126 cases of cohoes, 79,976 cases of pinks, and 3,978
cases of chums, etc. It was the largest pack of sockeye made since 1924. The runs of sockeye
to the Nass are so uncertain that no attempts can be made to forecast any year.
Smith Inlet.—The catches of salmon in Smith Inlet produced a total pack of 52,185 cases,
of which 32,057 cases consisted of sockeye.
Vancouver Island.—The salmon-pack totalled 340,395 cases, consisting of 24,784 cases of
sockeye (the catches of sockeye in traps on the southern end of the Island are credited to the
Fraser River pack), 3,431 cases of springs, 30,206 cases of cohoes, 89,941 cases of pinks, and
177,856 cases of chums, etc.    The catches of all species averagely were maintained.
MILD-CURED SALMON PRODUCTION.
The production of mild-cured tierced salmon totalled 2,630 tierces. It equalled production
in 1927 and 1928, but was 386 tierces less than in 1929, due to market conditions rather than
reduction in supply.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
Halibut landings in 1930 totalled 25,479,600 lb., as against 30,392,100 lb. in 1929. The total
landings on the North Pacific produced 50,466,632 lb., a decline of 6,217,252 lb. from the total
for 1929. While the reduction may in part have been due to market demands, there can be no
doubt but that fishing efforts and poor catches were largely responsible. The landings at Prince
Rupert show a decline of over 4,600,000 lb., but the landings exceeded those of any other port.
DRY-SALTED HERRING.
Production in 1930 totalled 42,922 tons, of which 12,690 tons were salted in the spring and
30,232 tons in the fall. The run of herring in the fall was heavy. The catches were limited
because of unsatisfactory market conditions. BRITISH COLUMBIA. I 9
FISH OIL AND MEAL PRODUCTION.
Fish oil and meal production, other than whale, in 1930 totalled 3,347,067 gallons of oil and
22,269 tons of meal and fertilizer. Oil production showed an increase of 30,913 gallons, and
meal production was 2,817 tons more than in 1929.
Of the total oil production, 3,204,058 gallons consisted of pilchard-oil, 82,636 gallons of
salmon and dogfish oil, and 60,373 gallons of herring-oil.
In addition to the above, whale-reduction is credited with 525,533 gallons of oil and 854
tons of meal.
CONTRIBUTION TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
The sixteenth annual contribution to the series of papers on the life-history of the sockeye
salmon, issued by the Department, which is contained in the Appendix of this report, is again
contributed by Drs. W. A. and Lucy S. Clemens. These detailed continuous records give the
constituents of the age-classes, sex, weight, and lengths of the sockeye in each of the runs to
the principal salmon-producing waters of the Province for the last seventeen years. They constitute one of the most detailed continuous records of any fishery. The following is a brief
digest of the present paper:—
In their introduction to the present report Drs. Clemens state that the sockeye runs to the
streams of the Province in 1930 exhibit some very encouraging features. That the Fraser River
may be said to have been almost phenomenal, as no run of like magnitude has occurred since 1917.
The pack of 455,886 cases has only been exceeded in that cycle by those of the years 1902
(633,033 cases) and 1914 (533,413 cases). The packs in the early years of the cycle were as
follows : 1902, 633,033 cases ; 1906, 365,248 cases; 1910, 398,446 cases. It will be seen that this
cycle has evidently re-established itself through the spawnings of late-running fish. It will be
recalled that there was a very large escapement in 1926 to Adams River, in the Shuswap Lake
area, and there would seem to be no doubt but that the run of 1930 was largely the return from
that excellent spawning.
The pack on Rivers Inlet, while somewhat below expectancy, was nevertheless large and the
escapement was good, although possibly not quite as large as that of 1925. The disquieting
feature in the Rivers Inlet situation is the apparent decrease in the numbes of five-year-old fish.
In the past the occurrence of large lumbers of these fish seemed to be associated with large
packs. Whether the reduction in their numbers is a permanent or merely a cyclic feature
cannot be determined at the present time.
On the Skeena River not only was there an exceptionally large pack, but there was an
excellent escapement as well. There is reason to believe conditions for hatch and lake development were particularly favourable for the seedings of 1925 and 1926. The need for more
detailed information concerning conditions during incubation and fresh-water growth is again
noted by Drs. Clemens.
The run to Nass River was unexpectedly encouraging after the distressingly poor return of
the past five years. In addition to the relatively large pack there was an excellent escapement.
It is quite likely that particularly favourable conditions for incubation and early development
had no influence here, as in the Skeena area, in the brood-years. In the absence of definite
information it is only possible to surmise. There is one other factor that undoubtedly enters
into the situation and that cannot be evaluated—namely, the percentage of Nass River fish taken
in Alaskan waters.
In view of the returns in 1930, Drs. Clemens state, it may not be out of place to repeat what
has been stated in previous reports—namely, that our rivers are productive commercially only
in proportion as adequate escapements are provided for. The fundamental problem in the conservation of the sockeye salmon is the determination of production of adult fish from known
escapement. When such information shall have been obtained it will then be possible to determine what percentage of the return may safely be taken commercially and still maintain a high
productivity. There is no question as to the great potential productive possibilities of the water
areas of the Province. The harvest can only be in proportion as the spawning-beds are seeded
from year to year.
In speculating on the runs of sockeye to the rivers of the Province in 1931, Drs. Clemens
state that the run to the Fraser will be derived largely from the spawning of 1927. The report
on the. spawning of that year states that practically no sockeye reached the Upper Fraser tribu- I 10 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
taries except in the Shuswap area, where approximately 100,000 individuals were observed in
Adams and Little Rivers. Apparently the run to the Lower Fraser spawning areas was an
average one. It is impossible to accurately predict the return in 1931, but it would seem that a
pack somewhat in excess of 100,000 cases would be a reasonable one.
The outlook for 1931 in Rivers Inlet is not promising. The packs of both brood-years, 1926
and 1927, were only about 65,000 cases, and Inspector Stone did not report seeding sufficient to
expect a run of greater extent in 1931. In addition, there is the possibility of damage having
been done to the spawning-beds by freshets which occurred in the fall of 1927. Furthermore,
1931 belongs to a series which in the past has yielded mediocre packs and in which there has
been a steady decrease in the numbers of the five-year-old fish. Taking these things into consideration, a pack of 60,000 cases is probably the most which can be looked for in 1931, but it is
extremely doubtful if that figure will be reached.
Referring to the run of sockeye to the Skeena in 1931, Drs. Clemens state that it will be
derived from the seedings of 1926 and 1927. In both these years the pack was slightly in excess
of 80,000 cases, and in both years the reports from the spawning-beds were favourable. In 1926
the five-year-old fish constituted 30 per cent, of the run. While this was low, the returns in
1931 may be fairly good if conditions for incubation and growth were especialy good, as it
would seem reasonable to believe they were. In 1927 the percentage of four-year-old fish was
69, and there should be a goocl return from this age-group. In view of the fluctuating conditions
which have occurred in recent years, it is difficult to estimate the extent of the run in 1931.
However, on the basis of the information at hand, there would appear to be reason to expect a
pack of at least 80,000 cases.
Of the run to the Nass in 1931, Drs. Clemens submit that " The futility of making Nass
River predictions has been demonstrated so often that it is considered advisable to simply state
that the brood-year of 1931 is 1926, a year which produced a mediocre pack of 15,929 cases and a
poor spawning escapement."
Drs. Clemens's full report, together with its thirty-four tabulations, is reproduced in the
Appendix of this report. As usual, it is a valued addition to this long series of records, giving
the constituents of the age-classes, sex, weight, and lengths of the sockeye in each of the runs to
the principal salmon-producing waters of the Province for the last seventeen years.
PILCHARD AND HERRING INVESTIGATION.
During the year the joint Provincial and Dominion Governments' investigation to disclose
the life of the pilchard and the herring and the condition of their fisheries within Provincial
waters, which was begun in 1929, was continued. The investigations are being conducted under
the supervision of Dr. W. A. Clemens, of the Biological Board of Canada, and Mr. John Pease
Babcock, Assistant to the Commissioner of Fisheries for the Province, and under the direction
of Dr. J. L. Hart, who is assisted by a staff of biologically trained men.
Since 1925, when the use of pilchards for fish-reduction was sanctioned and provided a suitable outlet for production, this fishery, and with it the fish-reduction industry, has grown to
such an extent that a catch of over 172,000,000 lb. was recorded in 1929. The strain placed upon
the stock of pilchards in our waters by a drain of such magnitude must be very considerable and
sufficient to create some doubt as to the ability of the stock to withstand such a strain. The
purpose of this joint investigation is to determine as far as possible the extent to which exploitation may be safely pursued and the wisdom of further exploitation.
As outlined in this report last year, the most essential information in determining the
condition of any fishery is the age-composition of the catches. Dr. Hart ascertained in 1929
that the age of the pilchard could not be determined by scale-reading methods—so successfully
employed in many other species, such as the salmon and the herring. During 1930 a technique
was developed by which the pilchards' ages may be determined by examination of their otoliths,
or ear-bones. This method, though not yet fully standardized, indicates that the bulk of the
.British Columbia pilchard stock taken at both Nootka and Kildohan was composed of fish which
were in their fifth and sixth years.   Investigation along this line is being pressed.
Samplings to determine the length, weight, and sex in the catches, begun in 1929. was continued in 1930. The chief interest in the sampling studies lies in the comparative results. The
practical conclusion of such an investigation can only be reached through a study of the records
of a number of years.    However, the present study has progressed far enough to warrant certain BRITISH COLUMBIA. I 11
general statements relative to the stock in British Columbia waters. Though they may not be true
of the species at all times, they were true of the pilchard stock in the waters off the west coast
of Vancouver Island in the summer of 1930. The average length of male pilchards was 9.70
inches; of the average female 9.93 inches. On an average the females were about % inch
longer than the males. The largest fish were females and the smallest males. The females
were more generally dispersed in size range than the males, and the females were far more
numerous than the males. In 1929 this was the case to a striking degree. In 1930 the preponderance of females, while less marked, was still prominent. The females were not only more
numerous than the males, but they were heavier also; on an average about % oz. heavier for
any given length. The difference in weight was less pronounced at the beginning of the fishing
season which undoubtedly followed recent spawning. It became more pronounced as the
summer advanced.
Since the beginning of the British Columbia pilchard-fishery it has been a moot question
among the fishermen whether the pilchards taken off the west coast of British Columbia are
the same individual fish as those taken off the coast of California and there called the California
sardine. The question of the identity of these fish stocks is one of considerable importance from
the point of view of the conservationist, and is one which may be of very considerable importance should the question ever be raised of the co-operation of Canada and the United States in
conserving the stock or stocks on which the British Columbia pilchard and California sardine are
dependent. Indubitably they are of the same species, and in recent years the question has been
raised by the scientific investigations of California and of Canada as to whether or not the adult
California sardines make a summer migration into Canadian waters, where they are captured
as pilchards. Dr. Hart and his staff are collecting and studying data dealing with this important phase of the work preliminary to publication.
It has been suggested that the effluent wastes from pilchard-reduction plants on the west
coast of Vancouver Island have caused the herring to abandon a considerable area of their
spawning-grounds. In view of the fact that the waste from reduction consists of over 3 per
cent, of oil and 5 per cent, of meal, the suggestion that they might exert a repelling effect on
herring-spawning areas did not appear unreasonable. In consequence, Dr. Hart and staff made
a study of conditions in the reduction-plant areas. They found that in pilchard-reduction the
fish are passed through a continuous steam-cooker, the thin mushy product thus produced being
separated into liquid and solid proportions. The solid portion is dried, ground, and sacked as
meal. The liquid portion is kept hot in large settling-tanks until the oil content rises and can
be drawn off. The remaining liquid is the effluent which is drained into the sea. Owing to the
imperfection in method none of the separations are complete and, in consequence, the waste
carries with it a considerable amount of suspended meal and oil—about 5 per cent, of meal and
3 per cent, of oil, as stated above. The meal content contains between 10 and 11 per cent, of
nitrogen, the emulsified oil amounting to approximately 4 per cent, of the volume. A plant of
moderate capacity produces close to 1,400 gallons per hour.
A thorough examination of conditions about representative plants was made, the plants
selected being located at San Mateo, Kildonan and Ecoole, Barkley Sound, the region of the most
highly developed herring-fishery on the west coast. Tests made in June before operations commenced, in August when reduction was at its height, and in September after the close of operations indicated that the influence of the effluents on the water is limited to a radius of less than
250 yards, and that the area of bottom contamination is still more circumscribed; and they
agree in indicating that, except for an extremely limited area in the immediate vicinity of the
effluent-pipe, the effects of all contamination are quickly dissipated on the cessation of operations
by the plants.
The conclusion of the investigation to date is that ordinary conditions of operation plants
are very unlikely to interfere in any way with the spawning of the herring, or to any great
extent with other forms of marine life.    The investigation will be continued.
Food of Pilchards.—Dr. Hart and his assistant, Mr. G. H. Wailes, in their examination of
the stomach content of some 300 pilchards, identified 161 species of organisms, of which fifty-
three were plants and the balance animal forms. The plants were almost entirely diatoms—
microscopic one-celled plants frequently very numerous in North Pacific waters during the
summer. The plants constituted about 50 per cent, of the food. The plant material is referred
to as " green feed " by the fishermen.   The chief animal food consisted of dinoflagellates, water- I 12 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
fleas, copepods, barnacle larvae, and schizopods;   together these are what the fishermen term
" red feed."    Copepods comprise about 25 per cent, of the food of the pilchards.
Heisring.
The herring investigation has made progress. An examination of statistics of the herring-
fishery indicates that, although the situation is different from that of the pilchard, it nevertheless warrants attention. Although the general trend of the value of the fishery has been upward,
there have been many fluctuations which are most prominent when smaller subdivisions of
districts are alone considered. Also there has been in the last few years a slight falling-off in
the catches in some districts, which makes investigation desirable. The average value of the
herring-catch for the ten years between 1920 and 1929 was in the vicinity of $970,000; hence
neither the Dominion nor the Province can afford to allow the fishery to be materially reduced
by overfishing or faulty direction.
In order to fully understand the causes of fluctuations in abundance of any species of fish a
complete knowledge of the life-history is required. To gain full knowledge of a species such as
the herring or the pilchard requires such a long time that the present investigation is being
conducted in such a manner as to concentrate on a few of the crucial phases of the life-history
of both the herring and the pilchards in the expectation of being able to form conclusions having
a high degree of probability within a reasonable time. In a study of the factors governing the
abundance of a species of fish, no type of information is more useful than a knowledge of the
age-composition of the stock. If the age-composition is studied over a period of years, the
results may be expected to give trustworthy information on comparative mortality during
development in previous years, mortality in mature stock, and the possible existence of depletion
due to overfishing or other causes—the last indicated, as in the pilchard, by a reduction in the
proportion of the fish in the older classes. Continued use of the scale-reading method of age-
determination in Europe and by two investigations of Pacific herring has established the
technique of herring-scale reading so thoroughly that it may now be applied in the present
investigation. Dr. Hart and his assistant, Mr. D. C. G. McKay, by this method have been able
to determine the age of over 95 per cent, of herring taken in our waters, of which about 80 per
cent, were either two or three years old, in about equal numbers, the oldest examined being
about six years old. Age-distribution was found to be similar for Nootka and Barkley Sounds
and for the east coast of Vancouver Island. Although the largest and smallest fish were males,
the females were averagely larger. In the younger, better represented age-groups, females were
longer than the males of the same age. In number the two sexes were about equal, though the
males were slightly the most numerous.
Dr. Hart and staff are directing investigations to disclose the extent of herring migrations
and the existence and strength of any tendency to return to the vicinity of their origin to spawn.
For only when the character and the extent of the migrations are known can an estimate be
formed of the likelihood of the depletion of the whole region by concentrated fishing at one or
two places, or of gaining an impression of local depletion due to the desertion of a region by the
herring for reasons unconnected with their exploitation. The difficulties of such investigation
are so great that the study must be approached indirectly by a study of races—according to the
same principle used in dealing with the pilchards.
In attempting to solve the question of the extent of herring movements, the present investigation is collecting data from a number of localities on certain structural characters, with the
expectation that it may eventually be possible to gain a satisfactory knowledge as to the races
of herring in British Columbia waters, and from them to estimate the importance of migration
and the intermingling in the fishery.
Dr. Hart and his staff, as the foregoing summary of phases of their work shows, have made
satisfactory progress in their investigation of both pilchards and herring, and it is anticipated
that the Departments may soon begin the publication of completed bulletins setting forth in
detail the methods and results of the work that may be of practical application.
HALIBUT INVESTIGATION.
The International Fisheries Commission, created by the Halibut Treaty between Canada
and the United States, for the investigation of the life-history of the Pacific halibut and the
condition of that fishery, was active in 1930.    It continued its investigations and during the year issued bulletins on " Life-history of the Pacific Halibut-marking Experiments " ; " History of
the Pacific Halibut Fishery"; " Biological Statistics of the Pacific Halibut Fishery "; and
" Investigations of the International Fisheries Commission to December, 1930, and their Bearing
on Regulation of the Pacific Halibut Fishery.-'
In consequence of the depleted condition of the halibut-fishery which the Commission has
disclosed and to meet the recommendations made, Canada and the United States have prepared
and signed a new treaty providing for powers adequate to put the recommended control into
effect. This treaty has been ratified by the Canadian Parliament and has been transmitted by
the President of the United States to the Senate for ratification.* The text of the new treaty
will be found in the Appendix of this report. The new treaty follows logically and of necessity
from facts disclosed in the Commission's publications.
The scientific work of the Commission leaves no doubt of the serious condition of the fishery
and the need for prompt and adequate regulation. The Commission has shown that the opportunities for proper control are favourable, and the end to be served important both to local
industries and to international co-operation in the conservation of marine resources.
Because the Pacific halibut is the only marine fishery at present under international control,
the measures being adopted, the success attending these measures, and the manner of their
approach are being followed closely by nations generally.
The publications of the Commission may be obtained by addressing the International
Fisheries Commission, Bureau of Fisheries Building, 2725 Montlake Boulevard, Seattle,
Washington.
BULLETINS ISSUED IN 1930.
During the year the Department issued two bulletins—" The Pacific Salmon " and " Edible
Fish-meal "—the text of which is reproduced in the Appendix of this report. Copies may be
obtained on application to the Department in Victoria.
* The treaty was ratified by the United States Senate, February 24th, 1931. I 14 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 16.)
By Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo,
and Lucy S. Clemens, Ph.D.
INTRODUCTION.
The sockeye salmon runs to the streams of British Columbia in 1930 exhibited some very
interesting and encouraging features. That to the Fraser River may be said to have been
almost phenomenal, as no runs of like magnitude have occurred since 1917. The pack of 455,886
cases has only been exceeded in the cycle by that of 1902 (633,033 cases) and 1914 (533,413
cases). The packs in the early years of the cycle were as follows: 1902, 633,033 cases; 1906,
365,248 cases; 1910, 398,446 cases. Those of the later years are given in Table I. It will be
seen that this cycle has evidently re-established itself. It will be recalled that there was a very
large escapement in 1926 to Adams River, in the Shuswap Lake area, and there would seem to
be no doubt but that the run of 1930 was largely the return from that excellent spawning.
Examination of the escapement in 1930 to Adams River showed that it undoubtedly exceeded
that of 1926. Providing nothing untoward occurs during the incubation and lake-growth
periods, there is every reason to expect a large return in 1934.
It is of interest to note that the Dominion Department of Fisheries transferred a quantity
of eggs obtained from the fish of Adams River to other streams tributary to Shuswap Lake in
the attempt to establish runs to areas now unoccupied. In addition, the experiment was carried
out in transferring parent fish in live boxes from the mouth of Adams River to Scotch Creek,
some 3 miles distant.    The results of these experiments will be watched with interest.
The pack on Rivers Inlet, while somewhat below expectancy, was nevertheless large and the
escapement was good, although possibly not quite as large as that of 1925. The disquieting
feature in the Rivers Inlet situation is the apparent decrease in numbers of five-year-old fish.
In the past the occurrence of large numbers of these fish seemed to be associated with large
packs. Whether the reduction in their numbers is a permanent or merely a cyclic feature
cannot be determined at the present time.
On the Skeena River not only was there an exceptionally large pack, but an excellent
escapement as well. There is reason to believe that conditions for hatch and lake development
were particularly favourable for the seedings of 1925 and 1926. The need for more detailed
information concerning conditions during incubation and fresh-water growth periods is again
emphasized.
The run to the Nass River was unexpectedly encouraging after the distressingly poor returns
of the past five years. In addition to the relatively large pack there was an excellent escapement. It is quite likely that particularly favourable conditions for incubation and early development had an influence here as in the Skeena area. In the absence of definite information it is
only possible to surmise. There is one other factor that undoubtedly enters into the situation
and that cannot yet be evaluated—namely, the percentage of Nass River fish taken in Alaskan
waters. It is hoped that in the near future adequate pack statistics for Alaskan areas will
be available.
In view of the returns in 1930, it may not be out of place to repeat what has been stated
in previous reports—namely, that our rivers are productive commercially only in proportion as
adequate escapements are provided for. The fundamental problem in the conservation of the
sockeye salmon is the determination of the production of adult fish from known escapements.
When such information shall have been obtained it will then be possible to determine what
percentage of the return may safely be taken commercially and still maintain a high productivity. There is no question as to the great potential productive possibilities of the water areas
of the Province, but the harvest can only be in proportion as the spawning-beds are seeded from
year to year. LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON. I 15
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating the
age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the fish migrates from
the fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers, one in large type, which
indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to the right and below, which
signifies the year of life in which the fish left the fresh water. The age-groups which are met
most commonly in these river systems are:—
Sj, 41—" the sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature at the ages
of three and four respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and mature at the
age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of four and
five respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five and six
respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six and
seven respectively.
1. THE FRASER RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1930.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The run of sockeye to the Fraser River was very gratifying. The total pack amounted to
455,886 cases, of which 103,692 cases were packed in the Province of British Columbia and
352.194 cases in the State of Washington (Table I.). The percentages for the two areas are 23
and 77 respectively. As stated previously, the large pack is undoubtedly chiefly the return from
the excellent spawning of 1926 in Adams River, on the Shuswap Lake area, and it would seem
that this cycle had now re-established itself in view of the fact that the pack has only been
exceeded by the packs of 1902 and 1914. The escapement to Adams River in 1930 was very
large, undoubtedly exceeding that of 1926. It will be recalled that the run to this river in 1926
was a late one, and attention was called to the fact that apparently it was a late-maturing race
of sockeye which was successfully developing this excellent run. The suggestion was made
that the appearance of the fish after the conclusion of the main fishing effort of July and
August was a factor in the increase in the extent of the return, in that a large escapement was
permitted. It is interesting to note that the run of 1930 was again a late one and was essentially
similar to that of 1926.
The reports from the other spawning areas of the Upper Fraser River do not indicate runs
of any significance, but those from the lower portions of the .river indicate very satisfactory
escapements.
The run of 1931 will be derived largely from the spawning of 1927. The report on the
spawning of that year states that practically no sockeye reached the Upper Fraser tributaries
except in the Shuswap area, where approximately 100,000 individuals were observed in Adams
and Little Rivers. Apparently the run to the Lower Fraser spawning areas was an average
one. It is impossible to accurately predict the return in 1931, but it would seem that a pack
somewhat in excess of 100,000 cases would be a reasonable expectation.
(2.)  Age-groups.
The material for this year's study consisted of data and scales from 1,534 sockeye salmon
selected at random from April 23rd to October 7th in fifty-four samplings. The 42 age-group
was represented by 1,161 individuals, or 76 per cent, of the total sample. The 5, group consisted of 301 individuals, or 20 per cent. These two groups were thus particularly well represented and together constituted 06 per cent, of the run. In 1926 they were represented in
percentages of 66 and 20 respectively.
The other age-groups were overshadowed in 1930 and together formed only 4 per cent.
They occurred in the sampling as follows: 5g group, 43 individuals; 63 group, 7 individuals;
3-p 4 individuals; 4j, 11 individuals; and 32, 7 individuals. For comparison with percentages
in preceding years see Table IV. The occurrence of grilse (32) has a particular interest in this
river systems, in that they appear to be the forerunners of the 42 age-group; particularly of the I 16 REPORT OF THE  COMMISSIONER OF  FISHERIES,  1930.
Upper Fraser fish.    It may be noted that only seven individuals are recorded in 1930 (Tables
II., III., and IV.).
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
The average size of the fish in the two main age-groups—namely, the 42 and 52—was
surprisingly large, both in respect to length and weight. In the 42 age-group the average
length of the males was 24.4 inches, which is the greatest during the past eleven years and is
1.8 inches greater than that of their progenitors. The average length of the females was 23.6
inches, which is similarly the greatest recorded during the past eleven years and is 1.8 inches
greater than that of their progenitors. The average lengths of the males and females of the
52 age-group were 26.2 and 24.6 inches respectively, which is a very high record for this group
(Table V.).
The average weights in these two age-groups were also very large. The average weights in
the 42 group were 6.9 and 6.1 lb. respectively for males and females and constitute new records.
The average weights in the 52 group were 7.7 and 6.7 lb. respectively for males and females
(Table VI.).
(4.)  Distribution op the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings was 686 and of the females 848, percentages of
44.7 and 55.3 respectively. The females exceeded the males in number in the 42 age-group, but
the males slightly outnumbered the females in the 52 group.
Table I.—Fraser River Packs, 1911-30, arranged in accordance with the Four-year Cycle.
B.C  1911—     58,487 1915— 91,130 1919— 38,854 1923— 31,655 1927— 61,393
Wash  127,761 64,584 64,346 47,402 97,594
Total  186,248 155,714 103,200 79,057 158,987
B.C  1912—   123,879 1910— 32,146 1920— 48,399 1924— 39,743 1928— 29,299
Wash  184,680 84,037 62,654 69,369 61,044
'    Total  30S.559 110,783 111,053 109,112 90,343
B.C  1913—   719,796 1917—148,164 1921— 39,631 1925— 35,385 1929— 61,569
Wash  1,673,099 411,538 102,967 112,023 111,898
Total  2,392,895 559,702 142,598 147,408 173,467
B.C  1914—   198.183 1918— 19,697 1922— 51,832 1926— 85,689 1930—103,692
Wash  335,230 50,723 48,506 44,673 352,194
Total  533,413 70,420 100,398 130,362 455,886 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
I 17
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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
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I 19
Table IV.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Percentages of the Year-classes from 1919 to 1930.
Year.
42
52
53
«3
31
41
32
43
1919	
70.5
69.6
78.1
70.5
67.1
68.2
67.9
66.1
84.6
71.4
77.3
75.7
20.3
21.2
14.6
9.3
10.8
18.7
24.9
20.3
7.5
18.8
11.9
19.6
3.4
6.2
4.1
4.5
3.9
9.2
3.4
5.2
3.0
5.3
7.8
2.8
0.9
0.2
0.7
2.0
1.2
0.5
0.2
1.6
0;8
0.5
0.4
0.5
3.1
1.9
0.5
6.3
6.7
0.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
2.0
0.1
0.2
1.8
0.9
2.0
5.6
9.9
2.0
0.0
2.5
2.2
0.7
0.1
0.7
0.9
0.4
0.8
0.6
2.1
1.0
2.5
0.5
1920  	
1921	
1922	
0 9
1923	
0.0
1924	
0 1
1925	
0 8
1926	
0 2
1927	
1928	
0 3
1929 	
0 1
1930	
Table V.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Average Lengths of Principal Classes from 1919 to 1930.
Year.
42
52
53
63
h
41
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1919	
24.1
24.1
23.7
24.0
24.3
23.8
23.5
22.6
24.1
23.4
23.7
"23.8"
~247<r
22.8
23.2
23.0
23.0
23.3
22.8
22.9
22.3
23.1
23.0
22.9
22.9"
~23.6"
26.1
25.7
25.9
25.8
25.8
24.9
25.8
24.6
26.1
25.5
25.5
"25.6"
26.2
25.1
24.6
24.6
24.1
24.8
23.9
24.6
24.0
24.6
24.7
24.3
"24.5"
24.6
24.2
24.3
23.5
24.2
23.7
24.0
23.2
21.7
24.2
24.8
"23.8"
24.4
22.7
23.2
22.7
22.9
22.7
22.0
22.4
22.0
23.4
23.7
"22.8"
25.8
25.7
25.4
26.3
24.3
25.5
25.3
27.1
26.2
-257T
23.5
24.3
24.9
23.7
24.6
26.0
24.8
~2475"
22.6
23.3
23.0
23.3
21.9
22.5
23.4
23.4
19.1
_22.5"
22.2
21.8
22.6
22.7
20.4
21.7
22.5
22.2
18.7
23.0
21.8"
25.0
25.5
25.5
25.2
25.2
25.4
25.1
19.8
25.0
"2476"
~2477~
24.3
1020	
24.3
1021	
1922	
24.2
1923 .'.	
24.1
1924	
24.4
1925	
1926	
24.6
1927	
24.5
1928 	
1929	
24 0
Average lengths
"2473"
1930	
23.5
26.7
26.0
22.5
20.7
23.2
Table VI.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Average Weights of Principal Classes from 1919 to 1930.
Year.
1
42       52
53
63
31
*1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1919 	
6.1
5.1
5.7
5.8
5.2
4.9
5.5
5.5
5.3
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"6.1"
7.2
7.0
7.8
7.6
6.2
7.3
7.4
7.2
"7.2
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6.5
6.1
6.9
6.6
5.7
6.8
6.9
6.3
6.5"
"6.7"^
5.7
6.1
6.0
6.1
5.4
4.5
6.5
6.7
~5.9
~6.6"
4.5
5.4
5.2
5.3
4.8
4.8
5.7
5.9
"5.2~
"6.0"
6.5
7.2
7.3
7.4
6.5
8.6
7.5
5.3
5.5
6.5
5.7
5.5
8.0
6.5
5.3
5.9
6.2
5.3
6.1
5.9
6.4
4.8
5.2
5.3
4.6
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.0
6.8
7.9
7.3
7.3
7.2
8.0
6.5
6.1
1920	
1921	
1922.    	
6.4
6.6
6.9
1923	
6.5
1924    	
1925	
5.8
5.2
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.0
"" 6.9"
1926	
6.6
1927	
6.8
1928	
6.6
1929.....  	
6.0
~7.3
Average weights
6.1
5.9
"" 5.5"~
5.1
7.3
~6.3~
6.5
1930    	
7.7
6.0
5.8 I 20 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
2.   THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1930.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
In 1930 the commercial yield of the Rivers Inlet area was 119,170 cases. Although this
was a large pack, it was not as great as was expected. The pack data for the last nineteen
years are listed consecutively in Table VII. Since the Rivers Inlet cycle is pre-eminently a
five-year one, an attempt has been made to correlate this data by arranging them in five-year
series or cycles.
Table A.
Series 1.
1907,
87,874
cases; 1912,
112,S84;
1917,
61,195; 1922, 53,584;
1927,
64.461.
Series 2.
1908,
64,652
cases; 1913,
61,745;
1918,
53,401; 1923, 107,174 ;
1928,
60,044.
Series 3.
1909,
89,027
cases; 1914,
89,890;
1919,
56,258; 1924, 94,891;
1929,
70,260.
Series 4.
1910,
126,921
cases; 1915,
130,350 ;
1920,
125,338; 1925, 159,554;
1930,
119,170.
Series 5.
1911,
88,763
cases; 1916,
44,936;
1921,
48,615; 1926, 65,581.
Table B.
Series 1.
1912
(5 years)
79%
1917	
..67%
1922	
.18%
1927.
 :17%
(4 years)
21%
33%
82%
83%
Series 2.
1913
..20%
1918
43%
57%
1923
24%
76%
1928
 42%
80%
58%
Series 3.
1914
65%
35%
1919
54%
46%
1924
56%
44%
1929
19%
81%
Series 4.
1915
87%
13%
1920
95%
5%
1925
77%
23%
1930
50%
50%
Series 5.
1916
76%
24%
1921
51%
49%
1926
40%
60%
Table A treats the pack figures and Table B substitutes the relative percentages of the four-
and five-year-old fish for the packs. Both tabulations consist of five series running horizontally
across the page. Taken separately, the second, third, and fourth series are fairly uniform both
as to the size of pack and also the relative proportions of the two age-groups. Considering both
Table A and B, it appears that (1) where the four-year fish exceed the five-year-olds the packs
are small, ranging from 50.000 to 65,000 cases (series 2) ; (2) when the 5,'s are slightly in the
majority the packs amount to 85,000 to 95,000 cases (series 3) ; and (3) when the five-year-old
fish greatly outnumber the 42's the packs consist of at least 120,000 cases (series 4). The year
1930 falls in series 4, which is the premier cycle of this river system. The pack of 119,170 cases
lacks only 830 cases of the minimum figure of 120,000, but the percentage (50) of five-year-old
fish has fallen far below those of the other years in this cycle. It is necessary to emphasize the
point which was made in 1929 that the percentages of the year-groups are relative and not
absolute. The figures of 50 per cent, and 50 per cent, might be interpreted to indicate that the
four-year-olds had greatly increased, whereas in reality it is the failure of the 5's which makes
the 4's appear so numerous. In Table B it will be seen that the general trend in all the series,
except No. 2, is a decrease in the five-year-old fish. In series 1 the percentages run 79, 67, 18,
and 17; in series 3—65, 54, 56, 19; in series 4—87, 95, 77, 50; and in series 5—76, 51, 40. The
trend appears to be very definite, but the reason for it is obscure. Nevertheless there are several
possible explanations. In this river system there is a decided difference in size between the
49's and 52's. The latter average from 2% to 3 inches longer and from 1% to 2% lb. heavier
than the former. In the other river systems these two classes more nearly approach one another
in size and there is less possibility of the fishing becoming selective. In Rivers Inlet, however,
all the 52's are relatively large and it may be that the fishing is too intensive for this one class.
A number of fish sufficient to maintain the strength of the group may not be reaching the
spawning-beds.    Overfishing, then, is one possible explanation of the decline of the 52's.
On the other hand, it may be that there is something inherent within these 52 fish which
is bringing about a decrease in their numbers. Possibly their reproductive capacity is inadequate in some way, so that a lessening of the numbers results. Or, it may be that the explanation lies in a special reproductive peculiarity which salmon are believed to possess—namely,
a tendency toward precocious maturity. This is confined almost uniformly to the males. The
three-year-old grilse are regarded as precocious 42's, and likewise precocious 52's would mature LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
I 21
at the age of four. The grilse are a recognized component of the Fraser River run, and in his
reports for both 1929 and 1930 Inspector Stone states that " the ' grilse' are becoming more
numerous each year" in certain of the rivers of Rivers Inlet area. If this is true, it may be
equally true that there is an increasing tendency for the 52 males to mature a year early. On
the one hand, this would decrease the total number of five-year-old fish and also the percentage
of five-year males. But, on the other hand, neither the increase in the total number of four-
year-old fish nor the higher percentage of males would show if the four-year-olds were also
maturing precociously. By condensing the data in Table XII., which treats the relative numbers
of males and females of the 42 and 52 year-classes, the following are obtained:—
Average Percentages of
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Total
Males.
Total
Females.
1916-1920	
1921-1925	
1926-1930	
75
68
61
25
32
39
45
35
34
55
65
66
56
55
53
44
45
47
These figures show that the number of males in both groups has decreased and that the
drop has been greater in the 4's than the 5's. If the interpretation of the decrease on the basis
of precocious maturity is accepted, it must mean that the former group possesses a greater
tendency for it than the latter group does. There is no way of determining to what extent
precocious maturity may or may not be present in the Rivers Inlet runs, and it is simply
suggested as a possible explanation for the decline of the 52's.
The outlook for next year is not promising. The packs of both brood-years, 1926 and 1927,
are only about 65,000 cases, and Inspector Stone did not report seeding sufficient to expect a
run of greater extent in 1931. In addition, there is the possibility of damage having been done
to the spawning-beds by freshets which occurred in the fall of 1927. Furthermore, 1931 belongs
to series 5, which in the past has yielded mediocre packs and in which there has been a steady
decrease in the numbers of the five-year-old fish. Taking these things into consideration, a
pack of 60,000 cases is probably the most which can be looked for in 1931, but it is extremely
doubtful if that figure will be reached.
(2.)  Age-grolts.
The analysis of the 1930 Rivers Inlet run is based on 1,481 fish collected in fifteen random
samples between June 25th and July 31st. The usual four age-groups are present and are
distributed as follows: 724, 42's; "15, 52's; 35, 5g's; and 8, 63's. For the first time in the
history of Rivers Inlet we find the 40's and 52's, which are the dominant classes, present in
practically identical strength. Together they comprise 97 per cent, of the entire run. The 5g's
and the 63's never form an important component.
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
Tables VIII. and IX. record the length and weight frequencies of the 1930 material, and
Tables X. and XI. contain the average size data of the various age-groups over a period of years.
As has been said in a previous paragraph, 1930 belongs to the cycle which has produced the
greatest packs and the cycle in which the 52 class has been present, with the exception of this
year, in numbers far exceeding the 42's. In this connection it is interesting to note that the
average lengths and weights of both the male and female 52's in this cycle are greater than those
of any other five-year series. In every respect this cycle of 1915-1920-1925-1930 is the preeminent cycle of Rivers Inlet. This year's averages for the 42 lengths are slightly greater, and
for the weights a trifle less, than the general averages (Tables X. and XL).
The Rivers Inlet fish, especially the 42 group, are unique among all the river systems in the
correspondence between the measurements of males and females. In 1930 the average lengths
and weights of both sexes of 42's differ by only 0.1 of a per cent. The greatest recorded
difference is 0.5.    This similarity in size has resulted in another unusual size relationship— I 22 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF  FISHERIES,  1930.
namely, that the females are sometimes larger than the males. The years 1926, 1927, and
1928 illustrate this. There are two similar instances for the 52 group, one for length in 1929
and the other for weight in 1927.
(4.) Distribution op Sexes.
The relative proportions of the sexes of the dominant year-groups are recorded in Table XII.
The males always exceed the females in numbers in the 42 group and likewise the females
constantly outnumber the males in the 52 class. The next few sentences, except for the addition
of the 1930 figures, are taken verbatim from the 1929 report. The relative proportions of the
42 males and females in 1929 (and 1930) are interesting because they are respectively the
lowest, 57 (and 56), and highest, 43 (and 44), percentages recorded for the group. The table
shows that in this group there is a decided tendency toward equalization in the numbers of
the two sexes. In the runs of earlier years the 42 males always formed 75 per cent, of the
group, while in the last five and six years they have averaged 61 and 63 per cent. The relative
numbers of the two sexes in the 52 group have not varied within such broad limits, but here,
too, there is an indication of shifting proportions. It is not in the direction of equality, but
rather toward a greater proportion of females. In 1929 and 1930 the group is composed of
36 and 37 per cent, males and 63 and 64 per cent, females. The percentages of the total males
and females are identical, but reversed as to sex. In 1929 the males -predominate and in the
following year the females. It is interesting to notice that in the cycle of 1915-1920-1925-1930
the percentages of females have been 55, 51, 59, and 53. It is the only cycle in which the females
outnumber the males. This cycle is outstanding in every respect; the packs are the largest,
the fish have the greatest average size, and the females are more numerous than the males. LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
I 23
Table VII.—Percentages of 42 and 52 Age-groups, Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, in Runs of
Successive Years.
Run of the Year.
Percentage
Four and Five
Years old.
Brood-year from which
derived.
1912 (112,884 cases).
1913 (61,745 cases)...
1914  (89,890 cases).
1915  (130,350 cases).
1916   (44,936 cases).
1917  (61,195 cases)
1918  (53,401 cases).
1919   (56,258 cases)
1920  (121,254 cases)..
1921   (46,300 cases).
1922  (60,700 cases).
1923 (107,174 cases).
1924 (94,891 cases)....
1925 (159,554 cases).
1926  (65,581 cases).
1927  (64,461 cases).
1928   (60,044 cases).
1929   (70,260 cases).
1930  (119,170 cases).
.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
79%
21%
20%
80%
65%
0 0 i/0
87%
13%
76%
24%
67%
33%
43%
57%
54%
46%
95%
5%
51%
49%
18%
82%
24%
76%
56%
44%
77%
23%
40%
60%
17%
83%
42%
58%
19%
81%
50%
50%
1907 (87,874 cases).
1908 (64,652 cases).
1909 (89,027 cases).
1910 (126,921 cases).
1911 (88,763 cases).
1912 (112,884 cases).
1913 (61,745 cases).
1914 (89,890 cases).
1915 (130,350 cases).
1916 (44,936 cases).
1917 (61,195 cases).
1918 (53,401 cases).
j.   1919  (56,258 cases).
J
1
\   1920  (121,254 eases).
L   1921  (46,300 cases).
1
1922 (60,700 cases).
1923 (107,174 cases).
1924 (94,891 cases).
1925 (159,554 cases).
1926 (65,581 cases). I 24
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Table VIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1930, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
M.
M.
M.
F.
Total.
19%	
20	
20 y2	
21	
21%	
22	
22%	
23	
23%	
24	
24%	
25...	
25%	
26	
26%	
27	
27%	
28	
28%	
29	
29%	
30	
Totals	
Ave. lengths
1
2
0
26 •
38
67 '
79
59
50
40
20
15
1
2
3
12
30
69
68
70
31
20
9
3
2
1
1
1
5
9
9
32
19
20
15
23
33
33
21
24
13
4
3
19
39
48
52
57
46
44
15
4
4
406
318
265
450
18
17
22.7
22.6
26.0
25.2
23.1
23.2
26.4
1
2
9
41
73
142
166
164
131
151
105
92
70
85
81
79
36
28
17
4
3
1
1,481
25.0
Table IX.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1930, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
42
52
^3
63
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3	
3%	
1
6
68
103
08
67
41
17
5
2
44
113
90
44
16
7
2
2
5
16
20
37
18
17
23
25
33
26
24
5
5
2
4
3
3
8
41
52
54
55
64
47
55
35
25
3
6
1
1
5
4
3
2
1
2
1
1
4
4
6
2
1
3
2
1
1
1
S
4	
4%	
238
251
193
152
98
88
71
85
68
51
27
11
6
3
4
3
5	
5%	
6	
6%	
7	
7%	
8	
8%	
9	
9%	
10	
10%	
11	
11%	
12	
Totals	
406
318
265
450
18
17
4
4
1,481
Ave. weights....
4.9
4.8
7.5.
6.9
5.1
5.1
7.5
6.6 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
I 25
Table X.—Average Length in Inches of Rivers Inlet Sockeyes for Nineteen Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912	
23.2
22.9
.23.0
22.9
22.9
22.5
22.3
22.4
22.9
22.5
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.S
22.1      '
22.3
22.6
22.8
23.0
22.8
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
22.3
22.6
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.2
22.9
22.4
22.8
22.2
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.8
26.0
25.2
24.6
24.6
24.9
25.5
25.1
24.6
26.1
25.2
24.6
1913	
25.2
1914                             	
25.2
1915	
25.1
1916	
25.0
1917	
24.4
1918	
24.5
1919                                  	
24.4
1920                         	
25.0
1921	
24.2
1922	
24.2
1923	
24.1
1924	
24.3
1925            	
24.8
1926 ;	
24.6
1927                                     	
24.2
1928	
25.2
1929	
25.3
22.6
22.6
25.3
24.7
1930	
22.7
22.6
26.0
25.2
Table XI.—Average Weight in Pounds of Rwers Inlet Sockeyes for Sixteen Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914 	
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.3
4.8
5.0
5.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
5.1
4.8
4.9
5.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
5.2
5.8
5.0
4.8
7.3
7.3
7.6
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.5
6.6
6.8
1915            	
6.6
1916	
6.7
1917	
6.2
1918                                	
6.7
1919                                              	
5.9
1921	
6.0
1922	
7.0
1923 : 	
5.9
1924	
6.1
1925	
0.2
1926	
6.3
1927	
7.6
1928	
6.7
1929	
6.7
5.1
5.0
6.9
6.5
1930	
4.9
4.8
7.5
6.9 I 26
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Table XII.—Relative Numbers of Males and Females, Rivers Inlet Sockeyes,
of the 42 and 52 Groups, 1915 to 1930.
Year.
Average Percentages.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
Females.
1915	
....
45
55
1916	
74
26
40
60
52
48
1917	
75
25
42
58
53
47
1918	
74
79
74
65
26
21
26
35
49
45
48
38
51'
55
52
62
66
58
49
51
34
1919	
42
1920.. .                  	
51
1921	
49
1922	
66
34
38
62
61
39
1923 -	
71
29
33
67
62
38
1924	
74
26
31
69
50
50
1925	
66
34
34
66
41
59
1926	
63
37
32
08
51
49
1927     	
68
63
32
37
36
30
64
70
62
51
38
1928	
49
1929	
57
43
36
64
53
47
1930	
56
44
37
63
47
53
3. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1930.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The pack of the Skeena River amounted to 132,372 cases, which rather exceeded expectations. As stated earlier, the escapements in 1925 and 1926 were very good and it would seem
that conditions were undoubtedly exceptionally favourable in 1925, 1926, and 1927 for incubation.
Whether other factors were involved, it is impossible to state at the present time. Analysis of
the run does not reveal any outstanding characteristics. Conditions on this river appear very
favourable as far as this cycle is concerned.
The run of 1931 will be derived from the seedings of 1926 and 1927. In both these years
the pack was slightly in excess of. 80,000 cases (Table XIII.) and in both years the reports from
the spawning-beds were very favourable. In 1926 the five-year-old fish constituted 30 per cent,
of the run. While this was low, the return in 1931 may be fairly good if conditions for incubation and growth were especially good, as it would seem reasonable to believe they were. In
1927 the percentage of four-year-old fish was 69, and there should be a good return from this
age-group. In view of the fluctuating conditions which have occurred in recent years, it is
difficult to estimate the extent of the run in 1931. However, on the basis of the information at
hand, there would appear to be reasons to expect a pack of at least 80,000 cases.
(2.)  Age-groups.
Scales and length, weight and sex data were obtained from 2,607 fish collected from June
30th to August 18th in seventeen random samplings. The age-group 52 was most abundant,
being represented by 1,354 individuals, or 52 per cent. The four-year-old fish (42) consisted of
1,004 individuals, or 39 per cent. There were 209 fish of the 53 age-group and 40 of the 63 age-
group, representing percentages of 8 and 1 respectively (Tables XIV., XV., and XVI.).
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
It is interesting to note that the average length of each age-group is decidedly less than
that of its progenitor, while the weight is equal or slightly greater. The average lengths of the
42 age-group were 23.1 inches for the males and 22.7 inches for the females, whereas the average
lengths for this group in 1926 were 23.8 and 23.4 inches respectively. The average weights were
5.4 and 5.1 lb. respectively, while in 1926 they were 5.3 and 5.1 lb. The average lengths of the
52 age-group were 24.7 inches for the males and 23.9 inches for the females, as compared with
25.6 and 24.7 inches respectively in 1925. The average weights were 6.7 and 6 lb. for males and
females respectively, while in 1925 the weights were 6.5 and 5.8 lb. (Tables XVII., XVIII., XIX.,
and XX.).
There was a slight tendency for the larger females of both the 42 and 5, age-groups to
appear in the latter part of the run. No such similar distribution of the males occurred. In all
the age-groups, however, the smallest individuals appeared in the early days of the run. LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
I 27
(4.) Proportions op the Sexes.
In the 42 age-group the females were somewhat in excess of the males, the percentage of
the former being 53. On the other hand, the males were more abundant in the 52 age-group
with a percentage of 56. In the 53 and 63 groups the males occurred in greater numbers than
did the females. The total number of males was 1,371 (53 per cent.) and of females 1,236 (47
per cent.)   (Table XXL).
Table XIII.—Percentages of 42 and 52 Age-groups, Skeena River Sockeyes, in Runs of
Successive Years.
Run of the Year.
Percentage
Four and Five
Years old.
Brood-year from which
derived.
1912 (92,498 cases)  f
1913 (59,927 cases)  f
1914 (130,166 cases) I
1915 (116,553 cases) j
1916 (60,923 cases) I
1917 (65,760 cases) .' S
1918 (123,322 cases) j
1919 (184,945 cases) j
1920 (90,869 cases) I
1921 (41,018 cases)  f
1922 (96,277 cases) j
1923 (131,731 cases)  f
1924 (144,747 eases)  f
1925 (81,146 eases)  f
1
1926 (82,360 cases)  [
1927 (83,996 cases)  S
1928 (34,559 cases)  \
1929 (78,017 cases)  f
1930 (132,372 cases)  (
5 yrs. 43%
4 yrs. 57%
5 yrs.  50%
4 yrs. 50%
5 yrs. 75%
4 yrs. 25%
5 yrs. 64%
4 yrs. 36%
5 yrs. 60%
4 yrs. 40%
5 yrs. 62%
4 yrs. 38%
5 yrs. 59%
4 yrs. 41%
5 yrs. 69%
4 yrs. 31%
5 yrs. 82%
4 yrs.  18%
5 yrs. 24%
4 yrs. 76%
5 yrs.  19%
4 yrs. 81%
5 yrs. 34%
4 yrs. 66%
5 yrs. 75%
4 yrs. 25%
5 yrs.  47%
4 yrs. 53%
5 yrs. 30%
4 yrs. 70%
5 yrs. 31%
4 yrs. 69%
5 yrs. 43%
4 yrs. 57%
5 yrs. 33%
4 yrs. 67%
5 yrs.  57%
4 yrs. 43%
1907 (108,413 cases).
1908 (139,846 cases).
1909 (87,901 cases).
1910 (187,246 cases).
1911 (131,066 cases).
1912 (92,498 cases).
1913 (52,927 cases).
1914 (130,166 cases).
1915 (116,553 cases).
I
\   1916 (60,923 cases),
j. 1917 (65,760 cases).
\   1918 (123,322 cases).
I
\   1919 (184,945 cases).
I
\   1920 (90,869 cases).
I;
j. 1921 (41,018 cases).
I
I 1922 (96,277 eases).
)
]
\   1923 (131,731 cases).
]
1
\   1924 (144,747 cases).
1925 (77,784 cases).
J
1926 (82,360 cases). I 28
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES,  1930.
Table XIV.—Percentages of the Principal Year-classes, Skeena River Sockeyes,
from 1916 to 1930.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1916       	
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
18
1917              	
5
1918	
6
1919                      	
4
1920	
8
1921	
3
1922	
2
1923	
7
1924	
1
1925	
1
1926	
3
1927	
1
1928	
3
1929	
2
1930	
1
Table XV.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1930, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length, and by
their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
*2
5
3
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19	
1
1
6
7
25
13
85
44
96
39
81
34
32
'5
3
1
2
o
5
7
6
29
26
115
57
135
50
62
13
7
3
2
2
10
8
24
27
64
55
96
80
132
76
82
43
32
13
10
3
2
4
7
8
12
33
31
88
61
114
77
79
34
33
7
4
2
3
3
12
6
29
14
17
16
10
3
1
1
1
1
2
2
11
3
20
10
28
6
9
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
4
4
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
1
3
4
19%	
9
20	
23
20%	
29
21	
85
21%	
67
22	
289
22%	
177
23	
442
23%	
226
24	
385
24%	
223
25	
263
25%	
124
26	
126
26%	
56
27	
39
27%	
15
28	
10
28%
3
Totals	
475
517
759
596
115
94
24
15
2,595
Ave. lengths....
23.1
22.7
24.7
23.9
23.5
22.4
24.6
23.2 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
I 29
Table XVI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1930, grouped by Age, Sex, and WeigJit, and by
their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
5
2
5
3
63
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3	
1
32
79
125
88
73
49
21
6
1
1
1
38
116
181
107
58
9
5
1
2
12
62
105
103
138
118
87
50
43
25
6
5
3
1
9
34
92
108
137
97
64
34
13
5
1
1
3
11
25
29
22
15
5
5
1
7
31
29
15
6
2
3
1
1
6
3
5
2
4
2
1
2
2
3
2
2
3
1
3%          	
4
4	
92
4%	
286
5	
516
5%	
456
6	
407
6%	
315
7	
221
7%	
138
8	
67
8%	
51
9	
25
9%	
7
io :	
6
10%	
3
Totals	
475
517
759
596
115
94
24
15
2,595
Ave. weights...
5.4
5.1
6.7
6.0
5.6
5.0
6.85
5.8
Table XVII.—Average Lengths of Skeena River Sockeyes, 42 and 52 Age-groups,
for Nineteen Successive Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912                                	
24.6
23.5
24.2
24.2
23.9
23.6
24.1
24.3
23.8
23.8
23.6
23.7
24.1
23.6
23.8
23.9
23.3
22.9
23.5
22.9
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.2
23.1
23.2
23.1
23.3
22.8
23.4
23.3
22.8
22.7
26.4
25.5
26.2
25.9
26.2
25.5
25.9
25.7
26.2
25.2
25.3
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.6
25.7
25.3
25.5
25.2
1913                                       	
24.7
1914                	
25.1
1915           	
25.0
1916                                      	
25.0
1917	
24.7
1918 ..                                  	
25.0
1919                                            .            	
24.8
1920                            	
25.3
1921                   	
24.2
1922	
24.4
1923                                            	
24.5
1924	
25.2
1925                   	
24.7
1926                                            .                         	
24.8
1927	
24.8
1928	
24.7
1929  	
24.7
23.8
23.2
25.7
24.8
1930                                                   - ...
23.1
22.7
24.7
23.9 I 30
REPORT OF THE  COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES,  1930.
Table XVIII.—Average Lengths of Skeena Sockeyes, 53 and S3 Age-groups,
for Fifteen Successive Years.
Year.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Six-year
Males.
Six-year
Females.
1916     	
24.1
23.9
23.9
24.3
24.1
24.2
23.8
23.9
24.7
24.1
24.6
24.1
23.5
23.8
23.8
23.8
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.2
23.6
23.3
23.8
23.5
22.8
22.8
26.2
25.4
25.2
25.8
26.2
24.9
24.6
25.6
25.8
25.8
26.0
25.2
25.6
25.5
24.8
1917	
25.0
1918	
24.7
1919      ....          	
24.7
1920     ...	
25.1
1921	
24.2
1922	
24.1
1923	
24.4
1924	
24.8
1925                                            	
24.8
1926	
25.0
1927	
24.9
1928	
24.7
1929      	
24.3
24.1
23.4
25.6
24.7
1930	
23.5
22.4
24.6
23.2
Table XIX.—Average Weights of Skeena River Sockeyes, 42
for Seventeen Successive Years.
and 52 Age-groups,
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914	
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.8
6.1
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.1
5.3
5.4
5.0
4.9
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.5
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.0
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.6
4.7
7.2
6.8
7.1
6.4
6.9
7.0
7.2
6.4
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.4
6.8
6.3
1915.     ...                                    	
6.2
1916                               	
6.3
1917 	
6.0
1918      ..                                        ....          	
6.4
1919	
6.2
1920	
6.4
1921                              	
5.7
1922	
5.7
1923 !	
5.7
1924	
6.3
1925	
5.8
1926	
5 S
1927	
5.9
1928	
5 8
1929	
6 2
5.5
5.1
6.7
6 0
1930	
5.4
5.1
6.7
60 LIFE-HISTORY
OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
I 31
Table XX.—Average Weights of Skeena River. Sockeyet
, 5
o and 6o Age-groups,
for Sixteen Successive Years.
Year.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Six-year
Males.
Six-year
Females.
1915.
5.9
5.8
5.5
5.7
6.1
6.3
5.8
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.1
5.1
6.6
7.1
6.3
6.6
6.9
7.3
6.0
1
6.0
1916.
5.9
1917.
5.8
1918.
6.1
1919
1920.
6.3
6.3
1921.
5.6
1922
1923
1924
5.5
5.3
5.9
5.5
5.1
4.8
5.1
49
6.2
6.3
6.6
6.9
5.7
5.4
5.8
1925.
5.4
1926.
5.9
5.2
6.9
6.2
1927.
5.4
5.0
6.0
5.8
1928.
5.0
4.6
6.5
5.8
1929.
5.6
4.9
6.8
5.7
1930.
5.7
5.1
6.6
5 9
5.6
5.0
6.8
5.8
Table XXI.—Percentages of Males and Females
in each of the Different Year-groups,
Skeena River Socl
ceyes, in a Series of Years.
Year.
4
2
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912
1913-
54
69
60
55
70
65
63
53
41
44
52
60
46
31
40
45
30
35
37
47
59
56
48
40
42
47
47
45
43
48
46
46
37
44
41
37
58
53
53
55
57
52
54
54
63
56
59
63
56
65
61
52
43
50
52
56
44
35
39
48
57
50
48
44
54
58
56
45
41
43
53
40
1914
1915
1916
1917-
46
42
1918-
44
1919
1920-
55
59
1922
1923-
47
60
1924..
50
57
50
43
43
42
57
58
46
45
54
55
46
47
54
1925-
53
1926
1927-
40
45
60
55
43
41
57
59
48
47
52
53
49
56
51
44
1928
48
50
52
50
45
46
55
54
43
65
57
35
50
57
50
1929..
43
1930
47
53
56
44
55
45
63
37
4.   THE NA
SS RIVE
IR SOCKEYE RUN
OF
1930.
(1.
)  Gener.
iL Characteristics.
The run of 1930 shows once
more hov
r consistent the Nass River
is in its
inconsistency.
A year ago when there was reason
"o hope f
or a fair run it did not materialize.    This year when
the outlook was none too bright 1
he pack
amounted to 26,405
cases.
Furthermore, Inspector
Hickman is of the opinion that tl
e seedin
% of the spawning-beds
is the greatest he has seen
during his twenty-three annual in
spections
A number of years ago the la
e Dr. Gi
lbert stated that a favourable season
in a declining
run was not an unusual occurrence.
This in
lproved run of 1930 upholds his statement.   Although
the v
agrancies of the Na
ss have
seen puz.
ding and
in gene
ral
inexp
licable, i
leverthel
3ss it is I 32 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
always interesting to search for casual factors. First of all it is possible that the seeding of
the spawning-beds in 1925, which Mr. Hickman reported as exceedingly favourable, was
sufficient to be responsible for the larger run of 1930. However, it is not wise to place too
much faith in such an explanation, because the history of the Nass abounds with discrepancies
between actual and predicted packs based on spawning-bed conditions. To cite one example,
in 1916 the pack was good (31,411 cases) and the seeding excellent, yet the run of 1921,
composed of the descendants of these fish, was exceptionally poor (9,364 cases). Again, an
inconsistency of this very considerable spawning of 1925 which is under consideration is shown
in Table XXII. The fish which returned as four-year-olds in 1929 were descendants of this
splendid seeding and formed 25 per cent, of the run of that year. In 1926 the escapement was
poor, yet in 1930 the 42 component of the run was larger (28 per cent.) than it was in 1929.
Hence, in view of these contradictions, it seems more probable that other factors have been
involved in producing this improved run of 1930.
It is likely that whatever the optimum condition, or conditions, was which made 1930 such
an extraordinarily prolific year for all species of salmon, tended to increase the Nass run. Also
the spawning escapement was doubtless materially augmented by reason of the fact that the
commercial fishing boundary was moved 5 miles nearer the mouth of the river, thus protecting
a long stretch of shallow water which heretofore has been heavily fished. This regulation
is a real conservational measure and the Department of Fisheries is to be commended for
taking such a step. As has been said many times previously, provision for adequate spawning
escapements is the basic principle underlying maintenance and improvement of salmon runs.
The futility of making Nass River predictions has been demonstrated so often that it is considered advisable to simply state that the brood-year of 1931 is 1926, a year which produced
a mediocre pack of 15,929 cases and a poor spawning escapement.
(2.)  Age-groups and Seasonal Changes during the Run.
The analyses of the Nass River runs are always exceedingly interesting because of their
unique racial distinctions. In northern waters the sockeye manifests a decided tendency toward
late maturity. The most striking feature of this is the fact that the majority of the fish remain
more than the one year in fresh water, so universal in the other river systems. In the Nass
there may be none at all, or one, or two, or three, or even four years of lake residence. The
prolonged fresh-water life does not shorten the ocean period. No fish spends less than two years
in the salt water, while some remain three, and a very few four or five years.
Eight constant combinations forming the age-groups result from this complexity. These
classes are 3^ 4j, 42, 52, 53, 63, 64, and 74. The first six are present in the runs of the other
river systems and have been explained in the section " Designation of Age-groups." The last
two, the 64 and the 74, are composed of those individuals which tarry three full years in the
lake before seeking the ocean, where they remain for two or three years and reach maturity
at the age of six or seven. Of these eight classes the dominant group is the 53, a group which
plays a very insignificant part in the other rivers. Year after year the Nass runs exhibit the
interesting phenomenon of seasonal succession (Table XXX.), which means that each age-group
enters the run at a definite time and the groups of considerable strength reach their maximum
numbers at fixed dates. The sea-types enter at the beginning of the run and are rarely seen
after the middle of July. The oldest fish, the 64's and 74's, are restricted to the latter portion
of the run. They make an appearance toward the end of July and increase during August.
The dominant group, 5g, is present with varying proportions throughout the run. The runs
of 4Q's and 52's appear in small numbers at the beginning and the close of the season and
culminate about the middle or latter part of July. These generalizations concerning composition
and seasonal succession of Nass River runs have been based on studies in which the scale-
collections covered the period from the third week in June to the end of August. Fish to the
number of 1,953, collected in random samples at regular intervals three or four days apart,
beginning on July 1st and continuing through August 25th, form the basis for the analysis of
the run of 1930. Tables XXIV. and XXVI. contain the enumeration of these fish according to
age-groups. Another class reported once before in 1915 is represented by a single male specimen
weighing 9 lb. and measuring 28% inches. This is the 62 group, constituted of fish which
migrate in the second year and mature at the age of six.
Just as in 1929, all of the usual eight classes are not present. Unless the scale-collections
cover exactly the same time interval each year some of the groups will be entirely missing and LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON. I 33
others will vary in their relative proportions. In 1929 and 1930 no samplings were made in
June, so that the analyses of these runs are not absolutely comparable with those of former
years. The absence in both years of the S1 class is due to the lateness of the initial scale-
collection, the appearance of this class being confined to the month of June. Another example
of the definiteness of seasonal appearance is the case of the 41's. The group is present in the
1930 run but absent in 1929. On the one hand the first scale-collection was made July 1st, and
on the other not until July 10th. Likewise, the other end of the series of age-groups is
incomplete. Last year a single individual was found and this year not any, to represent the
64's and 74's. The latter class has always been rare, but while the former has never been
abundant, still it has been plentiful enough to be considered a real component of the run.
During the last ten years the 64's have numbered successively 28, 17, 80, 118, 30, 75, 4, 7, 1, 0.
The explanation for the recent, decided falling-off is not clear. It would appear, however, that
this group is disappearing from the run.
The percentages from year to year of the principal age-groups are recorded in Table XXII.
For the year 1930 they are as follows: 42's, 28 per cent.; 52's, 54 per cent.; and 63's, 3 per cent.
In most respects these compare more closely with the percentages of earlier years than they
do with the more recent ones. The noticeable exception is the 42 group, in which the percentages of the last three years are fairly close and are at the same time greater than the averages
of the earlier years. Comparing the percentages of the year with the general averages of the
groups arranged in five-year periods (Table XXIII.), close accord is not found. This is
especially true of the 53's, which are low, and the 42's, which are high.
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
The distribution of the lengths and weights for the different year-groups is shown in Tables
XXIV. and XXVI. A comparative view of the size variations over a period of years is given
in Tables XXV., XXVII., XXVIII., and XXIX. The 1930 sockeyes were of average size or
above. The average length of the males (26.5 inches) and the females (25.4 inches) in the
52 class is the greatest ever recorded, but the same is not true of the weights.
The size relationships of the Nass fish present another racial characteristic. In the other
rivers the number of years spent in sea-feeding seems to be the factor linked with size, the
longer the sea-feeding the larger the fish. This does not hold for the Nass. Here there is a close
agreement between size and ultimate age, the smallest fish are the youngest and, conversely,
the largest fish are the oldest irregardless of the length of time spent in the ocean. Table XXXI.
illustrates this. Only the years 1929 and 1930 are included in this table. Similar tabulations
covering several earlier years have been given in previous reports (1927 and 1928). The Nass
fish show a graded increase in size corresponding to the ascending age-scale, whereas in the
Fraser or Skeena or Rivers Inlet all the fish which spent three years in the sea are of practically
the same size, and similarly those which lived four years have approximately identical lengths
and weights.
Tables XXVIII. and XXIX. give additional evidence of this relationship between size and
age. It is seen that at one end of the series are the 3^'s and at the other end the 74's, with
the other year-groups between arranged according to increasing age. The groups at the
extremes of the series represent such small numbers of individuals they have been omitted in
the general averages. Considering the averages and taking the sexes separately, one notices
that the lengths and weights increase consistently with the ages.
(4.) The Meziadin and Bowser Sockeye Colonies.
In the report for 1915 the late Dr. Gilbert stated: " The outstanding feature of the run
of 1915 was its sharp division into an early and a late period, the two exhibiting very distinct
characteristics." The differences were sufficiently marked to warrant the assumption that there
were two races of Nass sockeyes, each associated with one of the two known large lakes in the
Nass River basin—namely, Meziadin and Bowser. The difficulties of exploring this region are
so great that even yet no adequate examination of the spawning conditions of Bowser Lake has
been possible. On the other hand, through Mr. Hickman's annual inspections definite information concerning the Meziadin watershed is available. Each year since 1922 he has taken
samples of the spawning population congregated below Meziadin Falls. In addition, by fishing
a gill-net in the Nass above its junction with the Meziadin he has attempted to catch sockeyes
3 I 34
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
presumably bound for Bowser Lake. Although the material has been meagre, especially that
from the Upper Nass, nevertheless it has been possible to make from year to year the same
generalizations concerning these two colonies.
They are separated on the following characteristics: First, the average number of years
spent in fresh water; and, secondly, the relative size at maturity. Only the number of years
of fresh-water residence can be determined, because by the time the fish reach the Meziadin
the scales are badly absorbed on the margins and it is impossible to read the ultimate age.
There is no difficulty, however, in determining the period spent in the lake, since that part of
the life-history is recorded in the central area of the scales. A large percentage of the Bowser
Lake fish descend to the sea as yearlings, whereas the majority of the Meziadin sockeyes seek
the ocean after two, and sometimes three, years in fresh water. A summary of the lake
residence of these two colonies is given in Table XXXII. The 1930 percentages are in keeping
with those of former years, except that there are no representatives of the group which lives
three years in fresh water. The absence of this class from the Nass samplings has already been
noted in the preceding paragraphs. The size details of these two populations for 1930 are
enumerated in Table XXXIV. The Meziadin fish are definitely larger, averaging 27.2 inches in
length for the males and 25.7 inches for the females, in comparison with 24.9 inches and 22.9
inches respectively for the Bowser sockeye. Table XXXIII. shows that this size relationship
has been constant.
Table XXII.—Percentages of Principal Age-groups present in the Nass River Sockeye Run
from 1912 to 1930.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals that spent
One Year in Lake.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Two Years in Lake.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1912 (36,037 cases)
1913 (23,574 cases)
1914 (31,327 cases)
1915 (39,349 cases)
1916 (31,411 cases)
1917 (22,188 cases)
1918 (21,816 cases)
1919 (28,259 cases)
1920 (16,740 cases)
1921 (9,364 cases)..
1922 (31,277 cases)
1923 (17,821 cases)
1924 (33,590 cases)
1925 (18,945 cases)
1926 (15,929 cases)
1927 (12,026 cases)
1928 (5,540 cases)..
1929 (16,077 cases)
1930 (26,405 cases)
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
2
2
10
8
8
4
9
2
2
13
4
3
6
3
Table XXIII.—Percentage of Principal Age-groups in Nass River Sockeye Run
from 1912 to 1926 combined in Five-year Periods.
One Year
in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1912 16              	
11
13
11
22
15
7
62
65
77
5
1917 21                  -            	
7
1922 26              -	
5 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
I 35
Table XXIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1930, grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
I
2
h
63
31
4
1
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
21	
1
5
9
33
43
51
68
30
20
6
2
1
1
7
27
52
61
56
32
25
9
2
3
1
5
2
5
13
25
22
31
8
10
3
1
3
5
16
27
26
32
29
13
8
4
5
1
3
11
15
17
39
88
72
79
50
32
9
1
4
14
12
42
72
144
128
126
56
19
5
3
2
2
1
4
4
14
3
4
2
1
1
6
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
1
1
5
2
4
1
21%	
1
22	
8
22%	
36
23	
81
23%   	
115
24	
178
24%	
201
25	
292
25%	
253
26	
298
26%	
175
27	
146
27%	
73
28	
67
28%	
20
29-.	
5
29%	
2
30	
Totals	
269
275
126
168
416
628
34
20
3
13
1,952
Ave. lengths . .
24.5
23.7
26.5
25.4
26.4
25.3
27.9
26.8
25.8
24.3
Table XXV.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths of Principal Classes
from 1912 to 1930.
Year.
4
2
E
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912 (inches) 	
24.6
24.1
24.6
24.0
24.5
23.4
25.0
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
24.9
24.9
24.3
24.1
23.3
23.5
22.7
23.5
23.3
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
23.5
26.5
25.6
26.1
25.9
26.4
25.5
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.1
25.3
26.0
26.1
25.3
24.8
25.1
25.2
25.0
24.7
24.7 ■
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25.2
25.1
25.2
26.2
26.0
26.3
26.5
26.5
25.3
25.9
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
25.4
25.2
25.5
25.9
25.6
24.7
25.0
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
24.6
24.9
27.0
26.0
26.9
26.6
27.9
26.5
27.2
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
27.9
27.6
28.1
27.2
25 6
1913   „   	
26 6
1914   „  	
25.6
1915    „   	
25.3
1916     :	
25.7
1917   „   	
25.5
1918   „  	
25.2
1919   „  	
26.7
1920    ,	
25.9
1921   	
26.2
1922   „  	
25.9
1923   „  	
26.5
1924   , '.	
25.4
1925   	
25.4
1926   „   ■	
27.0
1927   „   	
26.5
1928   „  	
26.2
1929   ,	
26.2
24.4
23.6
25.9
24.9
26.1
25.3
27.3
25.9
1930 (inches)	
24.5
23.7
26.5
25.4
26.4
25.3
27.9
26.8 I 36
REPORT OF THE  COMMISSIONER OF  FISHERIES, 1930.
Table XXVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1930, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
42
52
53
63
31
4
1
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
4	
1
16
35
62
76
40
29
9
1
19
46
89
83
22
12
4
2
1
9
11
26
24
21
21
6
2
3
3
7
26
30
37
35
17
7
3
3
1
7
10
54
73
88
83
56
31
10
2
1
4
18
48
131
166
139
82
28
9
3
1
1
3
4
11
8
2
4
1
4
8
1
4
1
1
....
1
2
3
3
3
3
1
24
4%	
84
5	
191
5%	
317
6	
362
6%	
320
7	
278
7%	
166
8	
109
8%	
67
9	
22
9%     	
8
10    	
4
Totals	
269   |  275
126
168
416
628
34
20
3
13
1,952
Ave. weights	
5.9   1    5.2
7.3
6.5
7.1
6.1
8.2
7.25
6.8
5.8
Table XXVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights of Principal Classes
from 1914 to 1930.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
6.2
5.6
6.0
5.3
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.2
5.6
5.7
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.8
5.0
5.2
7.4
6.9
7.2
6.8
7.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.0
7.1
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.6
7.2
7.0
7.2
6.3
7.2
6.7
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.2
6.7
6.5
6.6
6.2
5.8
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.2
5.5
5.9
7.9
7.2
8.1
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
7.8
7.8
8.1
7.6
6.8
1915          „        	
6.5
1916          „        	
6.4
1917          	
6.4
1918          „        	
6.7
1919          „        	
6.7
1920                                     	
7.0
1921                       	
6.6
1922          „        	
6.6
1923          „        	
6.8
1924          „            	
6.5
1925          „       	
6.3
1926          	
7.1
1927          „        	
7.0
1928          ,	
6.6
1929                        	
6.8
'5.9
5.3
7.0
6.2
6.8
6.2
7.7
6.6
1930  (pounds)    	
5.9
5.2
7.3
6.5
7.1
6.1
8.2
7.2 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
I 37
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r- LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
I 39
Table XXX.—Number of Individuals of each Class of Nass River Sockeyes running at
Different Dates in 1930.
Date.
Number of
Individuals
examined.
July 1	
4	
8	
.,  11	
„  14	
„  18	
„  21	
„  25	
„  28	
Aug. 4	
8	
„  12	
„  15	
„  19	
„  25	
Individuals.
33
28
47
49
69
65
67
60
49
50
9
2
5
5
6
34
42
43
35
37
19
15
28
17
19
2
1
1
1
36
40
29
35
13
34
38
29
52
159
106
119
118
119
117
294
1,044
117
121
124
122
123
123
125
121
123
236
119
125
125
125
124
16
1,953
Table XXXI.—Nass, Fraser, and Skeena Rivers and Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1929 and 1930,
grouped by Number of Years spent on the Sea-feeding Grounds.
Nass.
Feasee.
Skeena.
Rivers Inlet.
aj
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
a
Year 1929.
Three years at sea—■
Inches.
24.1
25.9
26.1
27.2
Inches.
23.5
24.9
25.2
26.2
Inches.
23.7
24.8
25.0
25.5
26.2
Inches.
23.0
22.9
23.7
24.0
24.3
24.8
Inches.
22.9
23.8
25.5
25.5
Inches.
22.7
22.8
24.7
24.3
Inches.
22.6
23.1
25.2
26.1
Inches.
4
22.2
5
4
Two-years-in-lake type.
Four years at sea—
22.6
5
25.3
6
Two-years-in-lake type
25.4
3
Tear 1930.
Three years at sea—
24.5
26.4
25.8
26.5
27.9
23.7
25.4
24.3
25.4
26.8
22.5
24.4
24.4
24.7
26.2
26.7
20.7
23.6
23.5
23.2
24.6
26.0
23.1
23.5
24.7
24.6
22.7
22.4
23.9
23.2
22.7
23.1
26.0
26.4
4
5
4
One-year-in-lake type	
Two-years-in-lake type.   ..
Four years at sea—
22.6
22.6
*>
25.2
6
Two-years-in-lake type. ....
25.0 I 40
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Table XXXII.—Percentages of Meziadin and Bowser Lake Runs, showing
Different Number of Years in Fresh Water.
Yeaes in Lake.
No. of
One Year.
Two Years.
Three Years.
Specimens.
Meziadin, 1922	
13
2
6
10
6
40
33
18
16
27
22
44
80
84
76
93
94
89
94
60
64
79
80
55
78
56
20
3
24
5
1
3
3
4
18
10
Meziadin, 1923    	
63
Meziadin, 1924	
160
Meziadin, 1925 (no collection)	
Meziadin, 1926    	
43
Meziadin, 1927	
85
Meziadin, 1929	
74
Meziadin, 1930	
113
Bowser, 1922	
Bowser, 1923	
15
41
Bowser, 1924	
Bowser, 1925	
34
45
Bowser, 1926	
Bowser, 1927	
11
9
Bowser, 1930            	
34
Table XXXIII.—Average Lengths of the Meziadin and Bowser Lake Sockeyes
for the Years 192Jf-30.
Year.
Meziadin Lake.
Bowser Lake.
m.
F.
M.
F.
1924	
26.8
28.1
27.1
27.0
27.2
25.7
26.3
25.8
25.3
25.7
25.5
23.8
25.9
24.7
24.9
23.6
1925             	
23.3
1926	
24.8
1927	
23.7
1928	
1929	
1930	
22.9 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
I 41
Table XXXIV.—The Lengths of Individuals comprising the Meziadin and Bowser Lake
Runs in 1930.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals prom
Meziadin Lake.
Bowser Lake.
M.
F.
M.
F.
20%	
1
4
10
9
9
8
2
1
3
5
4
7
12
16
13
7
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
21	
1
22	
5
22%	
7
23	
5
23y2	
4
24	
1
24%	
25	
2
25%	
26	
1
26% ■	
27	
27%	
28                                          ...
28%	
29
44
69
7
27
27.2
25.7
24.9
22.9 THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE FRASER RIVER.
Hon. S. L. Howe,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—I have tlie honour to submit the following report of my twenty-eighth yearly inspection
and study of the sockeye-salmon fishing and breeding waters of the Fraser River system for 1930.
The total catches of sockeye salmon made in the Fraser River system in 1930 produced a
combined pack of 455,886 cases, of which 352,194 cases, or 77 per cent., were made from catches
in the State of Washington waters and 103,692 cases, or 23 per cent., in British Columbia waters.
The combined catches produced the largest pack made in the Fraser system since 1917. It was
also the largest sockeye-pack made in that system in the lean-year cycle since 1914. It exceeded
the packs made in 1926, the brood-year of the 1930 run, by 325,524 cases, or by 250 per cent.
In order to understand the full significance of such an unusual occurrence in the present
depleted condition of the Fraser, it is necessary to review conditions on the fishing and spawning
grounds of the Fraser system in 1926 and the preceding years in that cycle, because the sockeye
runs in 1930 were the product of the spawnings of the races in those years. This is manifest
from past records and the fact that Drs. Clemens have shown that the 1930 catches consisted of
76 per cent, of four-year-old fish.
In tracing the history of the 1926 sockeye run to the Fraser, Drs. Clemens in their report
for that year stated: " Since the run to the Fraser is composed predominately of four-year-old
fish, the bulk of the 1926 fish were undoubtedly descendants of the 1910-14^18-22 cycle. The
records show that in the early years the runs of this cycle were very large, approximating those
of the big cycle; that is, the 1909-13-17-21-25 series. The former cycle is the only one showing
a decided tendency toward recuperation and this recovery is largely the result of the development of late runs to Shuswap Lake. The significance lies in the apparent fact that a remnant
of an up-river race is building itself up into a large run. It is indicative of the recuperative
possibilities of the Fraser and of the possible lines of procedure which may profitably be
followed in attempting to assist in the rehabilitation of the upper river."
Conditions on both the fishing and the breeding grounds of the Fraser River system in 1926
were most exceptional. The records show that the combined sockeye-catches produced a pack
of 130,362 cases, of which 85,689 cases, or 65% per cent., were packed in British Columbia and
44,673 cases, or 34% per cent., in the State of Washington. With the exception of 1915 and
1922, it was the only time in over twenty years in which the Provincial pack exceeded the State
pack. In 1926 the catches made in July and August produced a pack of 75,000 cases, of which
43,000 cases consisted of fish caught in Washington waters and 32,000 cases caught in British
Columbia waters. The balance of the catch that year was made in Provincial waters in
September and October and produced a pack of 53,000 cases, or 40 per cent, of the total pack
made in the system that year. It raised the British Columbia total pack to 85,689 cases. The
catches made in Washington waters in those months did not add materially to its pack. This
unprecedented occurrence was due to the fact that in September and October, 1926, a very considerable number of sockeye gained access to the Gulf of Georgia without having been intercepted in other waters. The traps in Juan de Fuca Strait, the traps and purse-nets in the
estuary waters of the State of Washington that lead to the Gulf of Georgia from the south, and
the nets used in the waters to the north of that gulf caught very few sockeye in September and
October. Just how the September and October runs of sockeye gained access to the Gulf of
Georgia without being drawn upon is unknown. Having done so without interception, the runs
were drawn upon by only 1,000 gill-nets of the Canadian fishermen engaged in the gulf and in
the Lower Fraser River, whose operations were, by Canadian regulations, limited to fishing for
five days each week up to September 20th, no sockeye-fishing being permitted after that date.
As a result of this limited fishing the number caught was far less proportionately than was taken
from the July and August runs, and the escapement very much greater. The records show this
conclusively.
The number which gained access to the spawning areas in late September and in October
and November, 1926, was far greater than in any year since 1913. Late in September and
throughout October and November large numbers of sockeye entered the river, passed through
Hell's Gate Canyon, went up the Thompson River, and reached the spawning-beds of Adams and
Little Rivers, in the Shuswap section.    They reached there October 20th.    In the latter part of SPAAVNING-BEDS OF FRASER RIVER.
I 43
October and in November the beds of Adams and Little Rivers were closely covered with
spawning sockeye—a greater number than had spawned on all the other beds of the entire
Fraser basin above Hell's Gate since 1913. Estimates of their number made by experts
familiar with the Fraser beds for many years ran from 400,000 to 600,000. The reports for 1926
also show that there was a slight increase in the number of sockeye that spawned in the extreme
upper lake section of the Fraser and that a large number reached the beds in the Birkenhead
River, at the head of the Harrison-Lillooet Lakes section—the run to that section being fully up
to the satisfactory average for many years. Forty-three million eggs were taken and large
numbers of the fish spawned naturally. The fish in Adams and Little Rivers were permitted
to spawn naturally; the conditions under which they spawned were most favourable; and, due
to Dominion supervision, the Indians did not molest them.
Referring further to this late run to the Shuswap area in 1926, Drs. Clemens stated: " There
has been much conjecture as to the origin of this late portion of the run. It is apparent that,
before extraordinary explanations are resorted to, all available data should be studied to see if
the run cannot be accounted for in the natural course of events. In this connection it is interesting to note that in 1922 the British Columbia pack exceeded that of Washington by slightly over
3,000 cases. In only one other year since 1910 has there been a similar occurrence—namely,
1915, when the Canadian pack exceeded the American by 26,000 cases. In 1922 there was a late
run which went to the Shuswap area. Fishery Officer Shotton reported in that year that the
run to that area ' surpassed any of the previous eight years.' "
The catches of sockeye in the Fraser River system in 1930 should be an impressive object-
lesson to all concerned in the industry and to the consuming public at large. The catch of
sockeye made in the Fraser system that year demonstrates forcefully that the former great runs
to that system can be restored: that all that is necessary to restore the great runs is to ensure
an adequate escapement—an adequate seeding of all the spawning-beds of the Fraser basin. The
runs cannot be restored in any other way. The catches in 1930 came from the late spawning
of 1926. The catches in 1926 produced a pack of 130,362 cases; the catches in 1930 produced
a pack of 455,886 cases—an increase of 325,524 eases, or 250 per cent.
In concluding a review of the catches of sockeye in the Fraser River system this year, it
should be noted that catches were made in State of Washington waters in May, June, July,
August, September, and October, and that sockeye-fishing in Provincial waters was, by Dominion
regulation, confined to July, August, and September. Fishing in the Fraser ceased on September
20th. The following statement gives by months the. catches, expressed in cases packed, in both
State and Provincial waters in 1930:—
May.
June.
July.
August.
September.
October.
Total.
State of Washington	
679
203
8,093
4,421
150,452
33,693
181,730
65,578
11,037
352,194
103,692
Totals	
679
203
12,514
184,145
247,308
11,037
455,886
The above statement emphasizes the fact that the bulk of the catches made in the system in
1930 were made from late-running fish and not, as in the years before depletion, in July and
August. It shows that over 94 per cent, of the total catches were made in August and September
and that over 50 per cent, were made in the month of September. The State catch in that month
produced 181,730 cases and the Provincial catch 65,578 cases. The escapement that reached the
spawning areas of the Fraser basin in 1930, as in 1926, was due to Canadian forbearance—to
Canadian restrictions.
THE SPAWNING AREAS OF THE FRASER RIVER BASIN.
My inspections of the sockeye-salmon spawning areas of the Fraser, as in the previous
twenty-seven years, were made in the months of August, September, and October. I am again
greatly indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell, Dominion Chief Supervisor of Fisheries in the
Province, for furnishing me with copies and excerpts from the detailed spawning-bed reports
made to him by his many assistants stationed throughout the Fraser basin.    I am also indebted I 44 REPORT OF THE  COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES,  1930.
to many white and Indian residents in the basin for information of value. The information
gleaned from these combined sources was even more valuable than that gleaned from personal
inspections of the vast area of the Fraser basin.
Notwithstanding that the catch of sockeye in the Fraser system was greater than in any
year since 1917, the total escapement which reached the spawning areas was also greater than
in any year since 1917; and, as in 1926, the bulk of the escapement spawned in the Birkenhead
River, at the head of the Harrison-Lillooet Lakes section, and in Adams and Little Rivers, in
the Shuswap Lake area at the head of the Thompson River—the only two sections that were
well seeded in 1926.
Hell's Gate Canyon.—Throughout the season water conditions in Hell's Gate Canyon, above
Yale, were favourable for observation and for the speedy passage of such sockeye as reached
there. Observation was continuous throughout the season. Apparently few sockeye reached
the canyon in July and August. It was estimated that some 30,000 passed through the Gate in
early September. Sockeye were in evidence there during that month. A larger run reached
there in October. Many thousands passed the Gate that month and numbers were observed
there throughout November and in early December.
From reports made to Major Motherwell, it appears that the sockeye that passed through
the Gate in July, August, and early September went up the Fraser beyond the mouth of the
Thompson River, and that none of them are known to have passed up the latter in those months.
Conditions in the Headwaters.—Notwithstanding the reports that some thousands of sockeye
passed through Hell's Gate in September and ran up the Fraser beyond the mouth of the
Thompson River and that none passed up the latter stream the number known to have reached
Quesnel, Chilko, Stuart, Seton, and Anderson, and the many smaller lakes in the vast area of
the upper Fraser basin, this year was small—much smaller than in 1926. The reports show that
less than 1,000 were observed in any one of them, and in most of them less than 500. In this connection it should be recalled that in the big-year runs of the past—before depletion—the sockeye
which entered such lakes as Quesnel and Chilko were numbered in millions. In 1909 over 4,000,000
sockeye entered Quesnel Lake alone, and it was believed that as many entered the Chilko. The
number that spawned in the Fraser basin north of the Thompson River this year was so small
that their spawning cannot add materially to the return four years hence.
The Shuswap Lake Area,—The number of sockeye that reached the Adams and Little Rivers,
in the Shuswap Lake area, this year was the largest for many years. They even exceeded in
number those that spawned there in 1926, the brood-year of this year's run. Dominion Fishery
Officer Shotton, who is a close observer and who has been in charge of that area for many years,
reported to Major Motherwell that their number was greater than in 1926. As in 1926 and also
in 1922, there was no early run. The fish did not reach there this year until the latter part of
October. From then on until early in December large numbers covered the beds of both Adams
and Little Rivers. The beds in the channel of Adams River below the canyon are believed to
have been as well seeded as in 1926, and, in addition, the beds of the 3% miles of the river's
channel above the canyon were well seeded in November and December. That was not the case
in 1926. In addition to the above, it is to be noted that for the first time in many years a considerable number of sockeye also spawned in the South Thompson River in November and
December. It is also to be noted that, as in 1926, sockeye in noticeable numbers did not reach
any of the many tributaries of Shuswap Lake other than Adams River. The vast spawning
areas of Eagle River and the other tributaries of the lake were unseeded this year.
Sockeye-eggs were collected at the mouth of Adams River by Dominion officers and distributed as shown in the following statement:—
Nov. 1, 1930   380,700 eggs shipped to Eagle River.
3,     „      388,800 eggs shipped to Eagle River.
6,    „     170,100 eggs planted in Scotch Creek.
8,     „        95,000 eggs planted in Granite Creek.
11,     ,,      125,000 eggs planted in Salmon River.
13,     „        97,500 eggs planted in Salmon River.
Total 1,257,100
The above eggs were planted in a green stage the same day as collected.    Later examination
showed that they were in good condition. SPAWNING-BEDS OF FRASER RIVER.
I 45
Conditions in Adams River, in the Shuswap Lake area, this year and in 1926 justify Drs.
Clemens's statements that the late runs of sockeye in the cycle of this year's run have re-established a late run of fish to that area that equals in number the early runs of fish of former
years in that cycle.
The sockeye that spawned in the Shuswap area this year were large, typical up-river fish in
fine condition and spawned under favourable water conditions. All other conditions being as
favourable as they appear to have been for the brood of 1926, there should be a larger return
to the Fraser system in 1934.
The Birkenhead River.—The number of sockeye that reached the Birkenhead River, at the
head of the Harrison-Lillooet Lakes area, this year was most satisfactory—well up to the high
average of the last fifteen years. Mr. T. W. Graham, Superintendent of the Dominion " Pemberton " Hatchery on the river, reported to Major Motherwell that their number was as great as
in 1926. The early September run was lighter and the October run heavier. Sockeye-egg
collections were limited to 35,000,000. The total could easily have been as large as in 1926, had
it been considered advisable to take them. In consequence the number that spawned naturally
was greater than in 1926. They spawned under most favourable conditions. Other conditions
being equal, there should be a good return, in 1934.
It is again noted that the sockeye that spawn in the Birkenhead River very closely resemble
in size, colour, and condition the fish that used to spawn in the extreme headwaters of the
Fraser basin in the big years. They are much larger and at spawning-time much more highly
coloured than the sockeye in the tributaries of Harrison, Cultus, and Pitt Lakes. They may
well be termed " up-river fish," though they do not pass through Hell's Gate Canyon.
There was the usual late run of small-sized sockeye to Cultus and Pitt Lakes, in the
extreme lower section of the Fraser River basin.
SALMON-EGG COLLECTIONS, BRITISH COLUMBIA HATCHERIES, 1930.
The Department is indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell for the following statement showing
the number of salmon-eggs collected from the Fraser and other waters this year and placed in
the hatcheries:—
Hatchery.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Cohoe.
Steelhead.
Total.
6,867,000
8,730,000
88,000
49,500
1,055,600
6,955,000
8,779,500
486,000
833,250
65,800
65,057
1,607,400
898,307
3,372,245
9,197,800
35,209,925
5,880,000
19,190,000
8,331,000
460,000
3,372,245
10,340
9,208,140
35 209 925
Pitt Lake	
5,880,000
214,500
19,404,500
8,331,000
460 000
59,257
59 257
1,257,100
1 257,100
Totals	
08,495,070
1,407,600
1,329,590
190,114
101,422,374
Respectfully submitted.
Victoria, B.C., December, 1930.
John Pease Babcock,
Assistant to the Commissioner. I 46 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF RIVERS INLET.
Hon. S. L. Howe,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In obedience to instructions from the Department, I have the honour to submit my
report upon the inspection of the spawning-beds at Owikeno Lake, Rivers Inlet, for the year 1930.
Following the exceptional run of sockeye to the spawning-beds at Rivers Inlet in 1925, one
of the brood-years of the present run of sockeye, it was confidently anticipated that a return
measuring up to the high standard attained in that year would be the result; such, however,
was not the case. Although the spawning-beds received a very satisfactory run, it fell short of
the vast numbers reported on all the beds in 1925. The pack returns courteously supplied me
by Mr. Urseth, of the Dominion Fishery Department, would also seem to indicate that the run
of sockeye to Rivers Inlet this year was below that of 1925, since it only amounted to approximately 119,000 cases, a decrease of between 20,000 and 30,000 cases compared to the 1925 pack.
Leaving the Rivers Inlet Cannery for the Owikeno Lake on September 12th, the usual
inspection of the headwater rivers, comprising the Indian, Cheo, and Washwash, was made first,
since it is to these tributaries the early-running salmon deposit their spawn. Making camp at
the Indian River, situated over on the extreme left of the lake, I examined this stream, which
has a spawning area half a mile in extent, and found the run of sockeye, although not so extensive as that noted in 1925, was excellent and should result in a return equally as good as this
year. From the log-jam near the entrance, up to the falls, sockeye in very large numbers lined
the beds, the majority being fish above the average in size. Males outnumbered the females
two to one. The log-jam referred to is gradually increasing in size, and is having the effect
of throwing up the bars lying just above it to above normal precipitation ; erosion of the banks
is the cause for this increase in size and, if permitted to accumulate, will in the course of time
offer a formidable handicap to successful spawning. It has had no material effect in curtailing
the extent of the spawning-beds at the present time.
The run of sockeye salmon to the spawning-beds of the Cheo River, 3% miles in extent, fell
short of the prolific numbers noted in 1925. The salmon observed on the spawning-beds below
the log-jam 3 miles up were in very satisfactory numbers, each riffle above the various rapids
containing their quota of salmon. Large and medium-sized fish were represented in about equal
numbers, males outnumbering the females two,to one. Above the log-jam where thousands
were to be seen spawning in 1925, not one could be detected on the spawning-beds. This log-jam,
lying directly in the path of the main flow of the river, has in the past eighteen years assumed
such proportions that it has had the effect of causing the flow of water to be forced over to
the right, undermining the banks and causing the falling of huge trees, which now present a
scene of indescribable confusion several acres in extent. In order to reach the spawning-beds
above it is necessary to make a wide detour.
A very fine run of sockeye had taken possession of the spawning-beds at the Washwash
River and could be seen spawning within a short distance of the falls. Spring salmon favour
this stream and were in such satisfactory numbers that Mr. Frank Tingley, Superintendent of
the Dominion Hatchery, was able to obtain a fine collection of eggs to be placed in the hatchery
for experimental purposes. They were in the process of hatching out at the time of my visit
there. The sockeye salmon in the majority were above the average in size, males outnumbering
the females two to one. Small grilse were in abundance and appear to be increasing in numbers
each year. The log-jams to which reference has been made in previous reports show no improvement, but continue to increase in size. The channel on the left is gradually eating its way
in towards the Cheo River, being forced over and around the log-jam situated a little way up
from the entrance. Over on the extreme right, where the old channel used to be, a log-jam had
formed since last year and effectually blocked the ascent of the salmon up-stream. Sockeye
were noted below this jam, but none could be seen above. The greatest danger to which the
main spawning-beds of the salmon are being faced is to be seen in an obstruction forming about
a mile up on the right-hand side at the bend of the river leading to the falls; here logs and
trees have fallen across the channel by the inundation of the banks, throwing up a gravel-bar
above, which combined have had the effect of not only forcing the channel over to the left, but
a new channel has been created a short distance above, which at high water diverts the stream
into it and flows down to the Cheo River a mile from the entrance.    I followed this channel SPAWNING-BEDS OF RIVERS INLET. I 47
down and noted it emptied into the Cheo as stated. To prevent the entire flow of the Washwash
River eventually changing its course to this channel, the situation would appear to call for
early attention, since the main spawning-beds of the sockeye lie below it.
On my return from the head of the lake I examined the spawning-beds at Sunday Creek,
and found them well seeded. Sockeye of exceptional size predominated the run, males and
females being about equally divided. In the lower part of the Sheemahant River near the
entrance a few sockeye were observed, but as it was too early to examine the full extent of the
run it was left until later. On my way down the lake I looked in at Asklum, and, finding a big
run of sockeye had taken possession of the spawning-beds, thoroughly examined them. The
run, however, did not measure up to the wonderful showing of fish experienced here in 1925,
so I made up my mind to examine this stream later; sockeye both large and small were equally
representative of the run, males outnumbering the females two to one.
On my return from Smith Inlet three weeks later I made a thorough inspection of the
Sheemahant River, the most extensive tributary on the Owikeno Lake, and found that the
run of sockeye measures up to the fine showing experienced in 1925. Carcasses of dead fish
littered the bars right out to the entrance. Proceeding up through the innumerable rapids,
sockeye could be seen spawning in very large numbers; others had been left stranded in small
pools, caught there as the river receded, and were full of spawn. In size the greater proportion
consisted of fish above the average, males outnumbering the females two to one. No log-jams
impeded the ascent of the salmon up-stream.
At Genesee Creek camp was made and an inspection of the three tributaries undertaken.
Genesee Creek accounted for a run of sockeye equal in extent to that which returned in 1925,
and permitted Mr. John MacPhail, in charge of the camp, to make a record collection of no
less than 8,000,000 eggs, surpassing the next best record by 3,000,000 eggs. For this gratifying
situation he was indebted no less by the exceptional run of sockeye to the creek, as by the
favourable climatic conditions under which the collection was made. Sockeye of unusual size
characterized the run, males outnumbering the females two to one. Small grilse were in
evidence in very considerable numbers.
For the first time in many years it was possible to observe the Machmell River under the
most favourable conditions; the water was low and clear, providing an uninterrupted view
of the spawning-beds. The run of sockeye was excellent, and the best so far that has been
noted in this river. In size it compares with the Sheemahant. Both male and female sockeye
were in about equal numbers, and above the average in size represented the run. The Nookins
(or " Nechants," as it is sometimes termed), branching off in an easterly direction, a tributary
to the Machmell River, rarely fails to supply its quota of sockeye, but on this occasion, although
a fine run of sockeye had taken possession of the beds, it did not reach the high standard
reported in 1925. Passing up through the various rapids they could be seen in the clear
water; especially was this noticeable in Marble Creek, an adjacent stream. Dead sockeye cast
up in all directions on the banks lower down testified to an exceptional run having arrived
earlier in the spawning season. No log-jams or other obstructions impeded the ascent of
the salmon up-stream. Large and small sockeye represented the run in equal numbers, males
outnumbering the females two to one.
Again inspecting the Asklum River, situated about 10 miles down the lake from Genesee,
I found that the run was nearly over; a school of fish numbering about 300 lay dormant in
a deep pool near the entrance, but beyond this school there were very few to be seen on the
spawning-beds. It is therefore apparent that the enormous number of sockeye reported in 1925,
one of the brood-years, did not produce a run equal in extent this year.
Making camp at Quap River, I found that the hatchery crew had nearly completed the
collection of eggs. Sockeye were coming in with the rise of the lake and thickly covered the
bars below the fence; thousands lay dormant in deep pools at the side of the river and big
schools of fish could be seen out in the lake. This particular stream is exceptionally late in
receiving its full run of sockeye, and in consequence delayed the collection to some extent.
Eleven million eggs were collected for the hatchery according to figures kindly supplied me by
Mr. Tingley. This collection, added to the 8,000,000 eggs taken from Genesee Creek, ensures
that the hatchery will be filled to its capacity. The run corresponds very closely to the fine
showing experienced here in 1925, and consisted of fish above the average in size, males outnumbering the females about two to one. I 48 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Proceeding over to the Dalley River, situated directly opposite Quap, it was encouraging
to note that this river, considered to be another of the most productive salmon-streams on the
lake, contained a very fine run of sockeye. Spawning-beds, which could be clearly seen all the
way up to the falls, were covered by large numbers of spawning sockeye, while in the deeper
portions of the river they could be seen in dense masses waiting. Dead bodies scattered over
the bars and lying in the deep water near the mouth indicated a big run of fish had arrived
earlier in the spawning season. The run consisted of sockeye above the average in size, males
and females being about equally represented. No log-jams interfered with the movement of
the salmon up-stream.
Arriving at the hatchery, Mr. Tingley informed me that a big run of sockeye had entered
the creek, and he considered it one of the best runs seen in years. He certainly did not exaggerate the situation; a run consisting of thousands of sockeye had taken possession of the beds
and were busy spawning right up to the falls. Outside at the entrance a big school was waiting
to come in, and with the addition of those that were already spawning will ensure a record
spawning. They were very fine specimens of the sockeye race, some of them weighing 11 and
12 lb.;  males were slightly in excess of the females.
The spawning-beds situated at the head of the Owikeno River and surrounding the Indian
rancherie contained a run of sockeye equal in extent to that which returned in 1925. Indians
located at this point were busy smoking them and told me that they were not bothering to go
up the lake after them, as they could net all they wanted there.
In summing up the result of the inspection of the spawning-beds at Rivers Inlet for the
year 1930, I have to submit that the total run of sockeye to the spawning-beds this year,
although very satisfactory, did not impress me to the same extent as did the wonderful showing
on the beds in 1925. The Indian, Cheo, Nookins, and Asklum were the notable exceptions.
In point of numbers, taking all the streams individually, Genesee and Quap Rivers were the
only two that could be compared with the unexampled return in 1925. The escapement to the
spawning-beds in my opinion corresponds very closely with what might be expected from the
pack returns this year. Provided climatic conditions do not affect the spawning, there is every
reason to hope for a return equal in proportion to the present run of sockeye to Rivers Inlet.
In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation for courtesies extended by Mr. Frank
Tingley, Superintendent of the Dominion Hatchery, and the men at the various spawning camps.
I have, etc.,
Aethub W. Stone,
Provincial Fisheries Overseer.
Rivers Inlet, B.C., November 9th, 1930. THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF SMITH INLET.
Hon.S. L. Howe,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my report upon the inspection of the spawning-beds at
Long Lake, Smith Inlet, for the year 1930.
The exceptionally fine run of sockeye to the spawning-beds in 1925 and the record pack put
up by the canneries in that year, amounting to 40,000 cases, entitled one to the belief that a
run of similar dimensions would result from the spawning in that year, but the pack returns,
amounting to approximately 32,000 cases, together with the number of sockeye salmon which
escaped to the spawning-beds, would seem to indicate that the total run to Smith Inlet fell
below that of 1925. There was a very fine run of sockeye to the spawning-beds, however, as
the result of the inspection will show.
Weather conditions were all in favour of the full extent of the run being determined ; the
rivers were low and the water clear, which is very necessary, because the salmon can then be
seen clearly and an accurate estimate of their numbers arrived at. Leaving the cannery at
Smith Inlet on September 28th for the spawning-beds at Long Lake, camp was made at the
Docee River (the overflow to the lake), and this stream examined for spring salmon. A few
were observed at the entrance and also in the river making their way up to the lake; others
were observed in the water along the shore-line at the mouth of the lake. The run of this:
species of salmon is very poor in comparison with former years, and showed no improvement
on the run which returned in 1925.    It was a failure.
Examining Quay Creek, situated about 7 miles up the lake, I found that a small school of
sockeye had managed to get up to the foot of the falls; others had been left stranded in a small
basin close by. I examined several and found them full of spawn. Falls prevent the salmon
reaching the lake situated just above. Large and medium salmon represented the run in about
equal numbers, males outnumbering the females two to one.
Proceeding up to the head of the lake, I made camp at the Geluch River (or " Smoke-house
Creek," as it is termed) and examined the spawning-beds there. At the entrance sockeye were
coming in and spawning on the gravel-bars in very encouraging numbers, and on making my
way up through the various rapids to the falls 4% miles distant they could be seen in very
large numbers covering the bars, but the extent of the run did not impress me in comparison
with the wonderful showing of salmon that returned in 1925. Small mountain streams adjacent
to the main river, which were examined next, did not produce the number of sockeye expected
when a big run is on. Wolves had been very active, as was evidenced by the number of half-
eaten salmon littered all over the banks. Outside on the bars and in the shallow waters of the
lake a very big school of salmon had gathered, all in the " green " stage, which will, when in a
sufficiently ripe condition to go on the spawning-beds later, provide a very satisfactory seeding.
The run consisted of sockeye of exceptional size, males outnumbering the females two to one.
No log-jams interfered with the ascent of the fish up-stream.
The Delabah River, situated about 2 miles from the headwaters of the lake and about 1 mile
in extent, rarely fails to receive its full quota of sockeye salmon when a big run is on,
and there was no exception this year. Although the full extent of the run did not reach the
high standard attained in 1925, yet it was of such a satisfactory nature that no fear need be
entertained that the spawning-beds will not be well seeded. From the entrance up to the falls
thousands lined the beds, while in the deeper portions of this river black masses representing
thousands of fish could be seen in the clear water. There were not so many sockeye outside
schooled up as there were five years ago ; nevertheless, the schools were exceptionally large and,
when later they go on the spawning-beds, will test the beds to their full capacity. In my report
for 1925 attention was drawn to a log-jam that obstructed the river a little way up, and the
fear expressed then of the menace this obstruction would likely have upon the extent of the
spawning-beds later. It was caused by the abnormal " freshet " in the fall of 1924 throwing
huge trees across the channel. In the course of the past five years the effect has been to throw
up the gravel-bars lying just above it to above normal precipitation, with the result that where
thousands of sockeye spawned at that time, it is now beyond their reach. A narrow channel
under the log-jam gives access to the ascent of the salmon to the spawning-beds situated below
the falls, but as this portion of the river is composed mainly of large boulders and swift-running
water, the spawning area for the vast numbers which return in the big years has been consider-
4 I 50 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
ably curtailed, and the question arose in my mind, as I looked upon the vast numbers both
inside and outside of the river, where they would find room to spawn without overcrowding.
The spawning area is so restricted in size that it is remarkable the runs have been so consistently good. In size the sockeye were above the average, males being slightly in excess of the
females.
Returning once more down to the mouth of the lake, I again looked over the Docee River,
but found no improvement in the run of spring salmon. A few cohoe salmon had made their
appearance and were making their way through the swift-running current to the lake. The run
of pink and chum salmon to Smith Inlet has been very satisfactory.
In summing up the results of the inspection of the spawning-beds at Smith Inlet for the
year 1930, I am of the opinion that a run of sockeye of about the same proportions may be
expected from the spawning this season, provided climatic conditions and other factors do not
combine to restrict the extent of the run.
In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation to Mr. Frank Nason, manager of the
B.C. Packers' plant, for courtesies extended.
Respectfully submitted.
Arthur W. Stone,
Fisheries Overseer.
Rivers Inlet, B.C., November 9th, 1930. ■   ., ■
SPAWNING-BEDS OF SKEENA RIVER. I 51
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE SKEENA RIVER.
Hon. S. L. Howe,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In obedience to your instructions, I beg to submit the following report on the
spawning-beds of the Skeena River for the year 1930:—
I left Prince Rupert on September 1st and arrived at Lakelse Lake the following day.
This lake is about 5 miles in length and is situated approximately 12 miles from Terrace.
It is the first important sockeye-spawning area of the Skeena River. There is a modern salmon-
hatchery within 2 miles of Lakelse Lake managed by Mr. C. T. Hearne, the Superintendent, and
an efficient crew. I met Mr. Hearne on my arrival at the hatchery, to whom I am iudebted for
the following information :—
Sockeye were first seen in Lakelse River on June 14th, and they began to make their
appearance near the mouths of the creeks in the lake towards the end of July. A big run was
noticed on August 1st and a huge run on August 3rd. The males appeared to be in excess of
the females by about three to one. Artificial spawning commenced on August 4th, and by
August 14th the hatchery was filled to capacity. The sockeye-eggs for the hatchery, over
8,000,000, were collected from Williams and Schullabuchan Creeks, approximately 6,000,000
alone being taken from Williams Creek. The sockeye were of a fine average in size and there
were very few " runts " and net-scarred fish to be seen. Mr. Hearne informed me that the
escapement to the Lakelse area was the largest on record, and this was borne out by my
inspection of the sockeye-streams in the lake. Owing to the long dry spell this summer, the
lake and creeks, particularly Williams and Schullabuchan, were much below the usual summer
low-level. Lakelse River, which is approximately 12 miles long, is the outlet of the lake and
flows into the Skeena River. This river is now famous as a " pink " spawning river, and it was
again up to expectations, the upper reaches being simply one teeming mass of this variety.
In summing up the Lakelse area, I would say that the large escapement this year was the
result of the brood-years of 1925 and 1926, as the escapement to Lakelse was particularly good
in both these years. Another gratifying feature which augurs well for hatchery methods is
the fact that both in 1925 and 1926 approximately 2,500,000 eyed sockeye-eggs were planted in
the four principal creeks of Lakelse Lake. All the creeks in this area will be exceptionally well
seeded this year and, barring any unusual washouts in the creeks, big returns should ensue four
and five years hence.
Returning to Terrace, I next visited Kitsumgallum Lake, which lies about 20 miles, from
Terrace and oil the railway side of the Skeena River. This lake is slightly larger than Lakelse
Lake, being over 6 miles long and averaging over 2 miles in width. The water is very discoloured
as nearly all the rivers have glacier sources. This was my first visit to Kitsumgallum Lake and,
knowing it was well spoken of as spawning area, I was anxious to obtain some information
about it. There are four large rivers draining into the lake—namely, Nelson, Cedar, Beaver,
and Clear—and all, from information received, good sockeye producers. Time did not permit
an inspection of these rivers, but I was reliably informed that there had been a big run of
sockeye to the Kitsumgallum area. The road to this lake crosses Deep Creek, a tributary of
Kitsumgallum River, and at the time of my visit this creek was swarming with pinks.
I returned to Terrace and arrived at Topley on the morning of the 8th. After outfitting,
etc., I reached Topley Landing on Babine Lake on the 11th and left the following morning for
15-Mile Creek.
Inspecting this creek on my arrival, I found that the water was much lower than usual.
In the quarter-mile stretch from the lake to the first big pool in the creek there was a good
showing of sockeye. This stretch is practically the only spawning-grounds on 15-Mile Creek,
being free from boulders and the bed of the creek fairly level and wide. Usually the bed of the
creek is all covered with water during September, but owing to the very dry season and the
resultant lack of water there was only half the spawning area available. At that there were
sufficient sockeye on the grounds to amply seed this stretch. There had been, however, an
unusually large run of sockeye up 15-Mile Creek beyond this spawning area, but disastrous as
to propagation. About 2 miles above the spawning area there is a waterfall with nearly a
40-foot drop and three other lesser falls at varying distances down the creek. In this stretch
the spawning-ground is practically negligible, as the bed of the .creek is mostly rock and boulders. I 52 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
At no time can the sockeye clear the big falls, but they can usually reach the foot of these falls.
No sockeye were seen between the third and big falls, the third falls being an easy obstacle as
a rule when the creek is normal. Between the second and third falls only twelve live sockeye
were seen, but a number of dead and large numbers of unfertilized eggs which had been caught
by the current were lying exposed among the boulders and in holes in the rock bottom. From
the second falls and right down to the pool at the head of the lower stretch the creek was simply
littered with dead sockeye and unfertilized eggs. Mr. D. MacKay, of the Biological Department
of the Dominion Fisheries, was stationed at 15-Mile Creek during the sockeye run, and he
informed me of the following facts:—
The temperature of the water in the creek had varied 8° between August 13th and September 13th. On August 13th, during the space of ten minutes while he was at the first falls, only
three sockeye out of 100 attempts were successful in clearing the falls. Again, on August 29th,
at the same falls, 2,042 attempts were made in one hour, but without success. An actual count
of dead sockeye in the whole creek was taken on September 1st, which totalled 4,582—namely,
1,837 on the lower stretch and 2,745 above.
It will be readily seen that a serious condition exists at this creek and some measures should
be taken to prevent a recurrence of this wastage. It is only owing to the spawning-grounds on
the lower stretch that the runs to this creek are consistently good. The upper stretch to the
big falls is absolutely unproductive. It seems to me that there are at least three ways of
combating this loss, namely: (1) Erection of fish-ladders at the falls to enable the fish to reach
good spawning-grounds beyond ; (2) building a hatchery or eyeing-station and planting the eyed
eggs on the good spawning-grounds above the falls (provided that the falls did not damage the
fry or yearlings on their way down) ; (3) effectively barricading this rocky stretch, eyeing the
eggs from the surplus sockeye and planting them in creeks where the runs require building up.
There were very few " runts " seen on the whole creek and on the lower stretch the sockeye
were a fair average in size. The males and females appeared to be evenly balanced and there
were few net-marked fish. The Fishery Guardian, Mr. L. Mulvaney, informed me that sockeye
first appeared at the mouth of 15-Mile Creek on July 30th and commenced to run up the creek
on August 3rd. Twenty Stuart Lake Indian families were encamped here and had been fishing
with forty-one nets from September 3rd. These nets are staked out at night close to the shore
in the lake near the creek.    The total catch of the Indians here would be approximately 6,000.
Mr. Mulvaney informed me that there had been a big run of sockeye up Beaver Creek to
Grizzly Creek at the head of the lake. Fifteen Stuart Lake Indian families with thirty-three
nets had caught around 8,500 sockeye in the lake near the mouth of Beaver Creek. They had
started fishing there on July 26th. Eight sockeye (inland) were caught that clay and forty-five
on July 30th. The peak of the run to Grizzly Creek was around August 15th. Grizzly Creek is
the earliest spawning creek on Babine Lake, and when the Indians are through fishing at the
head of the lake they go to the 15-Mile Creek.
Pierre Creek was next visited, and although the water in the creek was very low there was
sufficient for good propagation. There are about 2 miles of good spawning-grounds on this
creek which were covered with sockeye. The sockeye here would average very big in size, the
sexes being fairly even. The number of dead and decaying fish was enormous, but there was no
evidence of any unusual loss in unfertilized eggs.
Twin Creek, having about 2 miles of spawning-grounds, was also well seeded, the conditions
here being similar to Pierre Creek. There are a few obstructions caused by driftwood, which
forms pools but does not hinder the fish from passing up. The removal of these obstructions
would no doubt create a larger spawning area,
Tachek Creek is in the same category as Twin Creek in regard to the obstructions. There
had been a very large run of sockeye up Tachek Creek, but owing to the extreme low water the
conditions were far from satisfactory. The water was so low that the sockeye had literally
to crawl in order to get up the creek. The result was that the majority died without spawning.
Six newly dead sockeye were opened and it was found that one male and one female had only
partly spawned and four females had not spawned. The loss was tremendous, but at that
I think the creek will be sufficiently seeded, as the dry spell was broken and the water in the
creek was increasing. A fresh run of sockeye was entering the creek, which would no doubt
give better results. •
SPAWNING-BEDS OF SKEENA RIVER.
I 53
My next call was at Babine Village at the outlet of the lake. The next morning, in company
with Mr. H. Guest, Fishery Guardian at Babine, I made the customary trip down the 12-mile
stretch from the lake. It is on this stretch that the Babine Indians, representing seventy-five
families, catch their yearly supply of salmon. Scattered here and there on the shores of the
outlet are thirty-five permanent smoke-houses and all were well stocked with sockeye. The
Indians were quite satisfied with their catch of sockeye, which would be in the vicinity of
150,000, or 2,000 per family. There was also a big run of spring salmon here, and many fine
big specimens were on the racks at the smoke-houses that had been caught by the Indians.
In the swift shallow water of the Babine River proper the springs could be plainly seen. There
were not many pink salmon in evidence, this being the off-year on Babine River for this variety.
The following evening I arrived at Babine Hatchery, which is located at the foot of
Morrison Lake and at the head of Hatchery Creek, and met Mr. R. H. Eaton, the Superintendent.
Mr. Eaton informed me that from April 1st to September 1st there had been only 3.96 inches
of rain,, making it one of the driest seasons on record. Forest fires had been very bad throughout
the country and in Babine Lake area alone there were twenty-three fires. Sockeye first appeared
in Hatchery Creek on July 28th and Mr. Eaton commenced spawning operations on September
10th. There was a splendid showing of sockeye in the creek, particularly towards the head of
the creek, and Mr. Eaton was confident that he would easily obtain his quota of eggs for the
hatchery, approximately 7,800,000. The sockeye were slightly smaller than usual, with the
females in the majority. Last fall, 1929, Mr. Eaton planted 900,000 eyed sockeye-eggs in the
two creeks at the head of Morrison Lake. As previous plantings have been very satisfactory,
it is his intention to continue the plantings each year. In the fall of 1928, 500,000 eyed sockeye-
eggs were planted in the same two creeks, and there was a very large escapement of yearlings
noticed this year leaving Morrison Lake. Hatchery Creek was also much lower than usual, but
not alarmingly so.
Fulton River was the next and last creek to be inspected on Babine Lake. This is the
largest river entering Babine Lake and has about 5 miles of spawning-grounds. It, too. was
lower than usual, but there was no danger owing to the large volume of water. There was a
splendid showing of sockeye all up the creek. The fish were not quite so large, but were of a
fair average size. There were very few " runts " and scarcely a net-marked sockeye to be seen.
I returned to Topley Landing and the following afternoon, September 19th, arrived at Topley.
In summing up the inspection of Babine area, I would say that all the creeks will be well
seeded. Undoubtedly there was a great wastage of sockeye-eggs in 15-Mile and Tachek Creeks
owing to the extreme low water in Tachek and the rock formation in 15-Mile Creeks. The
runs to these two creeks, however, were out of all proportion to the spawning-beds available.
As the canneries put up a big pack of sockeye on the Skeena River, it was only to be expected
that the escapement to the spawning-beds would be equal in proportion. Conditions on the
spawning-beds in 1925 and 1926 were extremely good, particularly in 1926, so the returns this
year were no great surprise.
I arrived at Hazelton on September 21st and met Mr. G. A. McGrath, the Fishery Guardian
for that area. Mr. McGrath informed me that during the week of July 13th and 19th about
6,000 sockeye were obtained by the Indians at Agwillgate Canyon on the Bulkley River. He also
informed me there had been a big run of pink and spring salmon up the Kispiox River, and that
the run of sockeye on both Skeena and Bulkley Rivers was the largest in years.
As this concluded the inspection of the spawning-beds, I returned to Prince Rupert on
September 22nd.
I was again accompanied on the entire trip by Mr. J. P. McMillan, of the B.C. Packers, also
by Mr. R. MacDonell, Inspector of Fisheries for the Upper Skeena area, to whom my thanks are
due for their hearty co-operation. I am also indebted to the Hatchery Superintendents and crews
and the Fishery Guardians for information received and hospitality shown.
I have, etc.,
Robert Gibson,
Fishery Overseer.
Prince Rupert, B.C., October 20th, 1930. .
I 54 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE NASS RIVER.
Hon. S. L. Howe,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report of my twenty-third annual inspection
of the salmon-spawning areas of the Meziadin watershed, Nass River:—
The pack of sockeye at the canneries on the Nass River this season was 25,528 cases, a great
improvement on 1925, the cycle for this year. The 1925 pack was 18,945 cases. The splendid
return for 1930 was not surprising, as the report on conditions of the spawning areas in 1925
was most encouraging.
The inspection of the salmon-spawning areas of the Meziadin watershed was made as usual
in the month of September. Mr. A. E. Young, Dominion Fishery Officer, again joined with me in
making the inspection. The stage of water was high, above normal, owing to the hot days
melting the glacial ice.
Meziadin Lake.—The sockeye-spawning areas of Meziadin Lake consist of extensive
gravelled beds at the head of the lake, and for a distance of 3 or more miles down the lake from
the head, on both shore-lines, and are covered with from 18 inches to 2 and 3 feet of water.
They are ideal spawning-beds. These beds were inspected September 6th at the time of our
arrival and again on our return journey on September 21st. The sockeye of this area spawn
only on the above-mentioned beds. They do not to any extent spawn in the streams entering
the lake, presumably because the main tributaries are glacier-fed. Conditions on the beds were
excellent. At all places large numbers of spawning sockeye were observed, which shows that
there was a good, early escapement. Mr. T. Boyd, Supervisor of Fisheries for the Dominion in
District No. 2, visited Meziadin Lake when we were at the head. He arrived by plane and took
a survey from the air of the Meziadin and Bowser Lake watersheds. While he was on Meziadin
we showed him the spawning-beds at the head of the lake, which in his opinion were very
satisfactory.
Considering the recent application of the Canada Power Company for water-power at
Meziadin and the possibility of raising the lake-level, I obtained photographs of the sockeye-
spawning beds and the nature of the shore-line. From the photographs submitted it will be seen
that if the lake-level is raised the shallows would be entirely submerged—covered with such a
depth of water as to destroy them for spawning purposes. As all sockeye in this watershed are
lake spawners, the raising of the lake-level would be disastrous. It is to be hoped that no
power rights at any time will be granted in this watershed. In my estimation there is great
possibility of an increase in the sockeye run in the future.
Meziadin Falls.—At the time of our arrival at Meziadin Falls on September 9th sockeye
were congregated in thousands in the river below. Fresh ones were still coming in, taking the
place of those passing through the fishway. The basins of the fishway were filled with sockeye,
the place being literally alive with them. Owing to the high stage of water, conditions were
favourable to their ascent of the falls in the river, especially at the lower fall, where they experience some difficulty when the water is at a low stage. We were at the fishway from September
the 9th to the 21st. During that time activity continued and thousands of sockeye daily passed
to the river above the falls. Sockeye seen on the spawning-beds and at the fishway were very
large in size and about equally divided in sexes. The milt and spawn in specimens examined
at the falls was not fully developed, as has usually been the case in the fish which were
examined there, but was little more advanced than in the fish taken at the mouth of the river,
indicating, I think, a very late spawning, notwithstanding that the fish that we saw on the beds
at the head of the lake were actually spawning. Cohoe were commencing to arrive at the time
of our departure.
Spring-salmon Spaiming-beds.—The spring-salmon spawning-beds, situated in the Meziadin
River below the outlet of the lake, were inspected. While the spring run to the Nass takes place
in the earlier part of the season, there were still a large number of spawners on the beds. Many
dead, spent fish were floating in the river. From observations taken the spring escapement was
large, far better than in recent years;  therefore the beds should be amply seeded.
Collection of Scientific Data.—While at the falls in Meziadin River, sockeye material was
collected in connection with Drs. Clemens's contributions to the life-history of the sockeye
salmon.    Many specimens were examined;   scales, sex, and measurements having been taken. SPAWNING-BEDS OF NASS RIVER.
I 55
Also a net was fished in the main Nass River for a period of ten days, with the possibility of
intercepting some of the run to spawning areas above the Meziadin. While the number of
specimens obtained was not large, the results were far better than those recorded in the past
few years.
The following is the result of the net-fishing:—
Date.
Sockeye.
Cohoe.
Date.
Sockeye.
Cohoe.
Sept. 11    	
2
2
4
8
4
1
2
2
Sept.  16    	
0
4
4
5
3
„     12...	
„     13	
„     14	
„     15	
,"■     17	
„     18	
„     19	
„     20	
1
4
1
1
Three steelhead were also taken.
The Fishioay.—Considerable growth had taken place around the fishway and in the crib-
work, also a number of logs had collected on both the upper and lower falls. The fishway was
put in good shape and those logs which we could get at were cut out. The timbers in the crib-
work are showing signs of dry-rot; also, the rock, which is of slate formation, is checking
through exposure to the weather. The cement-work of the walls and basins is still in excellent
condition. It will be necessary in the near future to make some extensive repairs. When it is
done I would recommend work of a permanent nature in place of renewing the crib.
Summary.—In summarizing conditions on the spawning-.beds, I am pleased to state that
there were more sockeye in this district than I have seen in any previous year. They were
present in great numbers on all of the beds. Many thousands were in the Meziadin River
passing up to the lake. At the fishway, and below the falls, the water was literally alive with
sockeye, and in all of my twenty-three years' experience I have never seen so many congregated
here.
When you take into consideration that thousands were passing through the fishway daily,
it would be difficult to conceive the number that would have been collected here had the fishway
not been constructed. Judging from the number of spawning sockeye on the beds and those
coming in fresh, it is evident that the runs to the Nass commenced early and continued good
throughout the season. As a result of this year's spawning there should be a good run five
years hence.
Referring to the fishway, signs of decay are showing in the timbers and the slate rock in
place is decomposing owing to exposure.    This will have to receive attention in the near future.
There were many indications to show that the spring-salmon escapement had been large and
the beds should be well seeded.
Water conditions were favourable, there being an abundance, the level being above normal
for the time of the year.
Respectfully submitted.
C. P. Hickman,
Inspector of Fisheries. THE PACIFIC SALMON.
By John Pease Babcock.
This little bulletin on the Pacific salmon is issued by the British Columbia Fisheries Department to meet the frequent requests for information as to how they may be distinguished one
from another, and for their life-history, their age at maturity and habits. The writer has drawn
freely as to structure and age from the works of Dr. David Starr Jordan and Dr. Charles H.
Gilbert.
There are five species of fish frequenting the waters of the North Pacific which are called
salmon, notwithstanding that they differ both in structure and habit from the true salmon—
the Salmo salar, found in the North Atlantic streams of North America and in Northern Europe,
and to which the name " salmon " was first given.
The Pacific salmon were first recognized in Kamtchatka and described by the great
naturalist, G^org Wilhelm Steller, in 1737. In 1792 Johann Julius Walbaum again described
them accurately and gave them the Russian vernacular names now used in science. Steller and
Walbaum's writings were little known in America for more than a century, and there was a
general misunderstanding amongst early American writers as to the classification of the Pacific
fish until, in the 1880's, Dr. David Starr Jordan and Dr. Charles H. Gilbert set the western
world right.
The name " salmon " was first given to a fish found in the streams of Northern Europe by
Latin writers, the word coming from " salio "—" to leap "; and in the languages derived from
the Latin having some form of the word " salmon." Early settlers in eastern North America
found the same fish they had known in Europe running up the rivers of North America and they
correctly called them " salmon," for they are identical. On reaching the North Pacific Coast,
they found in the rivers from California north a fish very similar in form, colour, and habit,
some of which were larger, finer, and vastly more abundant, and they called them " salmon,"
ignorant of the fact that the Pacific fish differ materially in both structure and habit from the
fish found in the North Atlantic. The Pacific salmon differ from the Atlantic salmon in their
structure. The former have more rays in the anal fin, an increased number of gill-rakers,
branchiostegal rays, a much larger number of pyloric caecae attached behind the stomach, and
other structural differences. They are outwardly easily distinguished from the Atlantic fish by
counting the rays in the anal fin. The Pacific salmon have thirteen or more rays in that fin
and the Atlantic but nine rays. They differ radically in habit. Because of the differences in
structure they have been placed in another genus and are known to science as " Oncorhynchus."
Many careful writers refer to them as " Pacific salmon," but in the markets of the world they
are called " salmon," for in a canned state they reach them all under that name.
The following table gives, first, the names used in science for the Pacific fish, followed by
the names commonly used on the Pacific Coast for each species, the first of which is commonly
used in this text:—
(1.)  Oncorhynchus tschawytscha—"Spring,"  "Quinnat," "Chinook,"  and  "Tyee"  in
British Columbia and Washington ;   " Quinnat" and " Sacramento " in California ;
and " Quinnat " and " King " in Alaska.
(2.)   Oncorhynchus nerka—"Sockeye," "Alaska Red," and " Blueback."
(3.)  Oncorhynchus kisutch—"Cohoe" and "Silver."
(4.)  Oncorhynchus gorbuscha—"Pink" and "Humpback."
(5.)  Oncorhynchus keta—"Chum" and "Dog" salmon.
Each of the above may be distinguished one from another by counting:—
(1.)  The transparent bone-like filaments or rays of the anal fin;
(2.)r The gill-rakers—the little projections on the V-shaped anterior  (first)  gill arch,
resembling the teeth on a comb;   and
(3.)  The branchiostegals—the narrow bony plates supporting the folds below the gill-
opening under the head.
The following simple key may be used in determining the species:—■
Oncorhynchus tschawytscha (spring)—16 rays in anal fin;   15 to 19 branchiostegals;
23 gill-rakers  (9 on the short arm of the V-shaped anterior arch and 14 on the
long arm).
Oncorhynchus  nerka   (sockeye)—14  anal  rays;   14  branchiostegals;   39  gill-rakers
(16+23). THE PACIFIC SALMON. I 57
Oncorhynchus kisutch (cohoe)—13 rays in anal fin;   13 branchiostegals;   23 gill-rakers
(10+13).
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha  (pink)—15  rays  in anal fin;   12  branchiostegals;   28 gill-
rakers (13+15).   .     • .
Oncorhynchus Iceta  (chum)—14 rays in anal fin;   14 branchiostegals;   24 gill-rakers
(9+15).
In using this simple and brief key, care should be exercised to see that the fish examined
is not a steelhead trout, which in size, colour, and habit somewhat resembles the Pacific salmon.
The steelhead may be recognized from the fact that there are but eleven rays in its anal fin—
the Pacific salmon have thirteen or more rays in that fin—and the inside of the mouth is white,
there being no black in the mouth of the steelhead as there is in the mouth of all Pacific salmon.
Pacific-salmon canners' pack statements commonly include the steelhead, and the term "steelhead salmon " is often, but erroneously, used, the steelhead differing both in structure and in
habit from the Pacific salmon. They are more closely related in structure to the true salmon
—the Salmo solar—than to the Pacific salmon. Each has but eleven rays in the anal fin and
both commonly spawn more than once. The Pacific salmon has never been known to spawn
twice.    They all, sooner or later, die after spawning once.
Those familiar with the Pacific salmon have no difficulty in distinguishing the five species
when they are mature and taken from the sea, or in the lower reaches of the rivers, which they
enter on their spawning migration.
All the Pacific salmon spawn in fresh water. Their eggs, if placed in a saline solution, die.
Their young remain in fresh water for a period of their youth, the length of this period varying
according to the species; they then migrate to sea, where they remain and grow until they reach
maturity, when they return to fresh water to spawn and, after spawning, die.
In spawning the fish rub or press, with a fluttering motion, their abdomens or sides on the
bed of the stream in which they spawn. In their efforts to release their eggs or milt, the spawning fish commonly hollow out a depression in the bed of the stream, the displaced sand and
gravel forming a mound just below the hollow, in which many of the eggs, which are heavier
than water, find lodgment and become buried by the sand and gravel, which are afterwards
displaced by the fish still engaged in spawning. The eggs so buried remain there for some
months, depending on temperatures, and then hatch. The young also remain buried until the
yolk-sac is absorbed and the body fully formed, after which they emerge like a worm from the
ground and begin their aquatic life. A great many of the eggs are not buried deep enough to
escape the notice of their many enemies and are in consequence destroyed. Many of the eggs
expressed in spawning may not be fertilized, for fertilization takes place in the water after
they are expressed. It is believed that the percentage of eggs that become fertilized and buried
is much greater in the years in which there are the greatest numbers of spawning fish on the
same bed.
The spring, cohoe, pink, and chum all spawn in running streams. Few of them pass through
lakes of considerable area. On the other hand, the sockeye, with few exceptions, spawn only in
the tributaries of lakes or in the spring-fed shoals of lakes. The young of the pink and chum
migrate to sea early in their first year. The young of the spring normally—there are exceptions
—remain in the stream for less than a year before going to salt water. The cohoe in British
Columbia remain the first year in fresh water. The young of the sockeye remain in a lake for
the first year or more. Some remain for two and even three years before making the seaward
migration. There is one notable exception in the case of the sockeye. The race of sockeye
which spawns in the rapids of the Harrison River and below Harrison Lake are known to
migrate to sea early in their first year. These are the fish which Dr. Gilbert, in his great work,
termed the " sea-type " sockeye.
All of the Pacific salmon after migrating to salt water remain there until they reach
maturity. They spend from two to four years, or even five years, in the sea, the time varying
according to species. Comparatively little is known of their life in the sea. Gilbert expressed
the opinion that on reaching the sea they move fan-like up and down the coast. Tagging
experiments on the coast of British Columbia have demonstrated that in the schools of fish
which feed there, there are specimens from widely separated river-basins. For instance, spring
salmon caught, tagged, and liberated on the west coast of Vancouver Island were recaptured
within a year or later in the Sacramento, Columbia, Fraser, and other rivers on the coast. Similar tagging experiments elsewhere in British Columbia and in Alaska have produced equally
remarkable returns.    A salmon tagged and liberated in Alaska was recaptured in Siberia.
That the salmon feed abundantly in the sea is demonstrated by the rapidity of their growth
there. They grow much more rapidly in the sea than in fresfl water. From such evidence as is
available, the spring, cohoe, and chum salmon feed on fish and other smaller forms of sea-life,
while the sockeye and the pink feed on pelagic shrimps and smaller forms, as their gill-rakers
seem to indicate. With the exception of a very small lance-like fish, no other fish have been
found in the stomach of a sockeye taken at sea. With the exception of the spring and cohoe,
comparatively few Pacific salmon have been taken commercially from the sea proper. Of late
years a considerable fishery, by means of purse-nets and trolls, has been developed in the sea,
from the Bay of Monterey, in California, to the Gulf of Alaska.
The age of maturity of the five species of Pacific salmon was first conclusively established
by Dr. Charles H. Gilbert, Chair of Zoology of Stanford University, from a study of scale-
structure, otoliths, and by marking experiments. The scale of the Pacific salmon, like that of
all scale-covered fish, persists throughout life and grows in proportion with the rest of the fish,
principally by additions around its border. At intervals there is produced at the growing edge
a delicate ridge—in reproduction it looks like a line—upon the surface of the scale, the successive ridges thus formed being concentric and subcircular in contour, each representing the
outline of the scale at a certain period in its development. Many ridges are formed in
the course of a year's growth, the number varying so widely in different individuals and
during successive years in the history of the same individual that number alone cannot be
depended upon to determine age. For that purpose reliance is placed upon the established fact
that the fish grows at widely different rates during the different seasons of the year—spring-
summer being a period of rapid growth, and fall-winter a season when growth is greatly retarded
or almost wholly arrested. During the period of rapid growth the ridges formed on the border
of the scale are numerous and widely separated, whilst during the slow growth of fall-winter
the ridges are crowded closely together, forming a dense band. Hence the scale is mapped out
in a definite succession of areas, a band of widely spaced rings always followed by a narrow
band of closely crowded rings, the two combined constituting a single year's growth. Scale-
reading is now uniformly accepted as furnishing reliable data as to the age and many other
facts in the life-history of many fishes as widely divergent as the salmon, the carp, the bass,
the herring, the cod, and the trout.
As shown by Gilbert, the Pacific salmon reach maturity as given below:—
(1.)   Oncorhynchus tschawytscha   (the spring)—in their third, fourth, fifth, sixth, or
even seventh year.
(2.)   Oncorhynchus nerka  (sockeye)—normally in their fourth or fifth year.
j(3.)   Oncorhynchus kiutch (cohoe)—rnormally in their third year.
(4.)   Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (pink)—invariably in the fall of their second year.
(5.)   Oncorhynciius keta (chum)—in their third, fourth, or fifth year.
The above does not include the individuals of any of the species that mature prematurely
and which are termed " grilse." The term " grilse," as used for the Pacific salmon, signifies
conspicuously undersized fish which have developed precociously in advance of the normal
spawning period of their species. So far as recorded, the grilse of the spring, cohoe, and chum
are exclusively males; of the sockeye, almost exclusively males—except in the Columbia River,
where both sexes are represented. The grilse of the spring are in their second or third year;
of the sockeye, in their third year;   of the cohoe and the chum, in their second year.
Sockeye grilse in the Fraser have always been most numerous in the year preceding the big
years. In 1912 Gilbert found 21.5 per cent, in the total catch. The combined catch of sockeye
in the Fraser system in the following year produced a pack of 2,400.000 cases. In 1916 the
percentage of grilse was but 11.5 and the pack of 1917 was 550,000 cases.
As to normal adults, the bulk of the commercial catch of springs consists of four- and five-
year-old fish; a vast majority of the sockeye are also in their fourth or fifth year. The latter
vary greatly in the different streams of British Columbia. In the Nass River area many six-
year-olds are taken, some seven-year-olds, and an occasional specimen in its eighth year. The
runs of sockeye to the Skeena River and Rivers Inlet consist almost wholly of four- and five-
year-old fish, and an occasional one in its sixth year. The proportion of four- and five-year-olds
in those runs varies greatly from year to year. In the years of the largest catches the proportion of five-year-olds is averagely the greatest.   In the Fraser, before depletion, the fish in the years of the great runs consisted very largely of four-year-olds.    In the following three lean
years the proportion of five-year-olds shows a great increase.
The size of individuals of the five species of Pacific salmon varies greatly, the spring being
uniformly the largest, cohoe and chums second, sockeye third, and pinks fourth. Usually the
largest fish of each species are the oldest, but that is not always the case. In 1928 a spring
salmon weighing 80 lb. was taken in a trap on the south shore of Vancouver Island, which, on
examination of its scales, was found to be but four years old. It was a female which had
migrated to the sea in the spring of its first year; hence it had spent almost its entire life in
the sea. The spring salmon commonly enter the sea in their first year; the pink and the chum
invariably do so. The young sockeye seek the sea in their second or third year. The cohoe
remain in fresh water for the first year.
SPAWNING MIGRATION.
In the spring, summer, or early fall of the year in which the Pacific salmon reach maturity
they return to fresh water to spawn. They come in to estuary waters and the mouths of rivers
on the flood tides. The springs enter some rivers early in the spring of the year, the run to some
rivers being more or less continuous until fall. Some rivers have both a pronounced early and a
late run of springs. The sockeye come in from the sea in early summer and run as late as
August. In the Fraser they sometimes, and periodically, run as late as November. The bulk
of the run to the Fraser enters through Juan de Fuca Strait, the balance through Johnstone
Strait. The former come in from the sea in more or less compact schools on the flood tides, the
route from the sea to the Fraser being closely defined to known channels. They strike the headlands of Vancouver Island at the eastern end of Juan de Fuca Strait, then pass eastward to the
southern end of San Juan Island and pass up Rosario Strait, thence to the Gulf of Georgia and
into the mouths of the Fraser. They travel forward in salt water always on the flood and close
to the surface, commonly displaying their presence by leaping and breaking the surface of the
water. On the ebbing of the tide they disappear, are not in evidence, and their movements are
unknown. On the return of the flood they reappear on the surface close to the place where
they disappeared, and continue their way to the Fraser. They enter the Fraser on the flood,
going up as far as the tide goes, but when the tide ebbs they do not turn with it or disappear
from the surface; they continue on up-stream. When they encounter the rapids in the river
many of them seek the side of the stream and gain the aid of the eddies. On reaching their first
difficult rapid at Hell's Gate, where water conditions are such that only the right bank of the
rapid affords them passage, many on reaching the* Gate then try the channels on the left side
and in the centre, and are thrown back by the swift currents. In ordinary stages of water there,
few ever make the ascent until they try the right bank. Sockeye ascending the Fraser also have
trouble at times in getting through the rapid and in that river above the mouth of Bridge River.
After surmounting the rapids at Hell's Gate and near Bridge River, the sockeye appear to have
little trouble at any other point. Those which enter the Chilcotin pass through the rapids at
Fart-ell's Bridge, and those which run up the Chilko to the canyon known locally as " the hole,"
appear to have little trouble, though both apparently present greater difficulties than at Hell's
Gate or Bridge River.
The first runs of adult springs which enter the rivers proceed normally to the headwaters
and spawn in the streams only. They do not usually enter the bigger lakes or pass through
them, the only exception to the rule being the few that pass through Kamloops Lake and spawn
in the Thompson below Shuswap Lake. The early runs of sockeye also pass up to the lakes in
the headwaters of rivers. Later-running sockeye avail themselves of the lakes near the mouths
of the rivers. They all seek lakes in which to spawn, and do not ascend any tributaries of the
Fraser which do not drain lakes. The cohoes do not seek spawning areas in the headwaters of
rivers, but spawn in their lower reaches. The pinks and chums confine their choice of spawning-
beds to those near the mouths of streams and they spawn there. The young of the two last-
named varieties proceed to salt water soon after they become free-swimmers.
After returning to fresh water, all the species of Pacific salmon undergo changes in colouring, changing rapidly the silvery livery, which distinguished them in the sea, to darker shades.
The springs become much darker—more spotted—and, as the season advances, their sides
become suffused with red. The heads of the males undergo a marked change in form; the snout
and tip of the lower jaw become hooked, the teeth longer and more pronounced.   The head of I 60 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
the female undergoes little change and there is very little red on the sides. The sides of the
" white-meated " springs are marked by yellow instead of red.
Spawning male sockeye in the headwaters of the Fraser are brilliantly coloured—their sides
carmine and the head and tail pea-green—and the mouth hooked. The females are less highly
coloured and there is little change in the shape of the mouth. The sockeye which spawn in the
lower lakes of the Fraser are all smaller and much less highly coloured than those in the
headwaters.
The cohoes when spawning become dark and are more spotted, and the snout and jaw
hooked. The pinks on entering fresh water become a deep slate colour and develop a most
astonishing hump on the back, just back of the head and extending beyond the dorsal fin. The
chums become a dirty black with three lighter horizontal bands on their sides, and the head of
the males undergoes a marked change—the snout and jaw become pronouncedly hooked and the
teeth larger and longer.
Close observations of the writer, during many seasons and on many spawning-beds, failed
to disclose evidence that the spawning fish were mated. In no incident did any female display
any preference for any one individual male, and vice versa. The males attack and try to drive
away all the other males in their vicinity. The females drive away other females, but neither
the males nor the females attack any member of the opposite sex. On closely crowded spawning
areas the fish confine their attacks to their own sex—those which are in their immediate vicinity.
On beds where there are comparatively few spawning fish, they attack the members of their own
sex that may be yards distant from the spot where they are spawning. In several instances a
single male, and female were observed spawning for several days. Later they were joined by
another male. The males at once began fo fight each other, and after an hour or more the
original male became exhausted, was driven from the bed, drifted down-stream, and did not
return. During the fight the female took no part, but went on spawning as before, indifferent
to the troubles of her original companion.    She finished her work in company of the victor.
Looking at any of the five species on the spawning-beds, one finds difficulty in realizing that
they are the same species as the immaculate clean-cut forms found in the sea.
After spawning, all five species of Pacific salmon—males and females—die, few of them
surviving for more than a week or two, though some few may reach the sea. They cease feeding
in the sea at the beginning of the spawning migration. None of them on their return feed in
fresh water. All draw upon their store of fats for power and maintenance while making the
ascent of the rivers and for the development of their eggs and milt, with the result that after
spawning they are exhausted, greatly emaciated, and soon die, their bodies sinking to the bed
of the stream or lodging in the drift at its side. One cannot help speculating at this apparent
waste in nature; but when it is realized that the young cohoe and spring, especially the cohoe,
feed freely on the young sockeye during their seaward migration, and that the latter are also
preyed upon by trout and other fishes, birds, etc., it appears a wise provision that the spawning
adults should not be permitted to do so.
Dr. Gilbert, in his study of the sockeye runs to the principal rivers of British Columbia,
demonstrated beyond question that each of the runs to the Fraser, Skeena, and Nass Rivers and
all the other streams in British Columbia possesses its own separate colony, and that the runs
to each exhibit differences in habit, method of growth, and in period of maturity. These
differences persist from year to year, constituting each of these colonies as distinct biological
races. His demonstration disposes effectively of the general question concerning the return of
the sockeye at maturity to the river-basin in which they were hatched. They do so return. They
are effectively isolated. They breed within the limits of their own colony. They have in this
manner established racial peculiarities which find expression not only during their sojourn of
a year in their native lake, but also during the three or four years of their life in the ocean.
Those who deal with fish commercially know well that the product of different streams may
show wide differences in size and the proportions of the fish, also in the colour of the flesh, and
in the amount of oil which it contains. The study of the scales opened up an entirely new field
of investigations and demonstrates that, from different basins, fishes which appear wholly
similar to the eye may have had quite dissimilar habits and method of growth, and that they
have come to mark the races to which each belongs. TKat a few strays pass from one stream
to another is entirely probable, but the strays are in such small numbers as not to hinder the
effective isolation of the colony. THE PACIFIC SALMON.
I 61
The most delicate test of racial differences is found in the small centres, or nuclear area, of
the scales of the Pacific salmon. It is that part of the scale produced during the life of the
fingerling salmon in fresh water. There is recorded such peculiarities of growth as accompanies
life in one particular body of fresh water. There is a large variety of waters in the Fraser
basin which afford the final goal of the sockeye, and which furnish the home of their progeny
up to the time of their seaward migration. Peculiarities of growth and habit are recorded on
their scales. These scales in time become the centres of the scales of the adults. The differences in rate of growth and habits of the young in any particular lake are recorded on their
scales. In his work on the Fraser, Dr. Gilbert found that in a season's run of adult sockeye
there were a number of distinct groups, and also that in distinct spawning areas there were
racial characteristics which, except in two localities, could be readily distinguished, the most
striking case being that of the sockeye which spawn in the Harrison River. Comparison of their
scales with those from other spawning districts shows clearly the striking way in which they are
marked. The centres are wholly unlike those from any other area and furnish a clear-cut case
of the parent-stream theory as applied to the Fraser. Reviewing the evidence collected from the
Fraser, Dr. Gilbert affirmed without qualification that the colonies of sockeye in the different
spawning areas are as distinct as though located in separate streams independently entered from
the sea. They normally return not only to the Fraser, but to the identical lake area in which
they were hatched and where they spent the first year or more of their life. In other words,
they know their own street and number and, on reaching maturity, return there to spawn and,
after spawning, die. I 62 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES,  1930.
PACIFIC HALIBUT-FISHERY.
Convention between Canada and the United States for the Preservation of the Halibut-
fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, signed
at Ottawa on the 9th Day of May, 1930.
PACIFIC HALIBUT-FISHERY CONVENTION.
His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland, and the British Dominions beyond the Seas,
Emperor of India, in respect of the Dominion of Canada, and the President of the United States
of America, being equally desirous of securing the preservation of the halibut-fishery of the
Northern Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, have resolved to conclude a Convention for this purpose,
and have named as their plenipotentiaries:
His Majesty, for the Dominion of Canada :
The   Right   Honourable   William   Lyon   Mackenzie   King,   Prime   Minister   and
Secretary of State for External Affairs;   and
The President of the United States of America:
Mr. B. Reath Riggs, Charge d'Affaires of the United States of America in Canada;
Who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found in good
and due form, have agreed upon the following articles:—
Article I.
The nationals and inhabitants and fishing vessels and boats of the Dominion of Canada and
of the United States of America, respectively, are hereby prohibited from fishing for halibut
(Hippoglossus) both in the territorial waters and in the high seas off the western coasts of the
Dominion of Canada and of the United States of America, including the southern as well as the
western coasts of Alaska, from the first day of November next after the date of the exchange
of ratifications of this Convention to the fifteenth day of the following February, both days
inclusive, and within the same period yearly thereafter.
The International Fisheries Commission provided for by Article III. is hereby empowered,
subject to the approval of the Governor-General of the Dominion of Canada and of the President
of the United States of America, to suspend or modify the closed season provided for by this
article, as to part or all of the Convention waters, when it finds after investigation such changes
are necessary.
It is understood that nothing contained in this Convention shall prohibit the nationals or
inhabitants or the fishing vessels or boats of the'Dominion of Canada or of the United States of
America from fishing in the waters hereinbefore specified for other species of fish during the season
when fishing for halibut in such waters is prohibited by this Convention or by any regulations
adopted in pursuance of its provisions. Any halibut that may be taken incidentally when fishing
for other fish during the season when fishing for halibut is prohibited under the provisions of this
Convention or by any regulations adopted in pursuance of its provisions may be retained and
used for food for the crew of the vessel by which they are taken. Any portion thereof not so
used shall be landed and immediately turned over to the duly authorized officers of the Department of Marine and Fisheries of the Dominion of Canada or of the Department of Commerce of
the United States of America. Any fish turned over to such officers in pursuance of the provisions of this article shall be sold by them to the highest bidder and the proceeds of such sale,
exclusive of the necessary expenses in connection therewith, shall be paid by them into the
treasuries of their respective countries.
It is further understood that nothing contained in this Convention shall prohibit the International Fisheries Commission from conducting fishing operations for investigation purposes
during the closed season.
Article II.
Every national or inhabitant, vessel or boat of the Dominion of Canada or of the United
States of America engaged in halibut-fishing in violation of the preceding article may be seized
except within the jurisdiction of the other party by the duly authorized officers of either High
Contracting Party and detained by the officers making such seizure and delivered as soon as
practicable to an authorized official of the country to which such person, vessel, or boat belongs,
at the nearest point to the place of seizure, or elsewhere, as may be agreed upon. The
authorities of the nation to which such person, vessel, or boat belongs alone shall have juris- PACIFIC HALIBUT-FISHERY. I 63
diction to conduct prosecutions for the violation of the provfsions of this Convention, or any
regulations which may be adopted in pursuance of its provisions, and to impose penalties for
such violations;   and the witnesses and proofs necessary for such prosecutions, so far as such
witnesses or proofs are under the control of the other High Contracting Party, shall be furnished
with   all   reasonable   promptitude   to   the   authorities   having   jurisdiction   to   conduct   the
prosecutions.
Article III.
The High Contracting Parties agree to continue under this Convention the Commission as
at present constituted and known as the International Fisheries Commission, established by the
Convention between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America for the preservation of the halibut-fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean, including Bering Sea, concluded March
2nd, 1923, consisting of four members, two appointed by each Party, which Commission shall
make such investigations as are necessary into the life-history of the halibut in the Convention
waters and shall publish a report of its activities from time to time. Each of the High Contracting Parties shall have power to fill, and shall fill from time to time, vacancies which may
occur in its representation on the Commission. Each of the High Contracting Parties shall pay
the salaries and expenses of its own members, and joint expenses incurred by the Commission
shall be paid by the two High Contracting Parties in equal moieties.
The High Contracting Parties agree that for the purposes of protecting and conserving the
halibut-fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, the International Fisheries Commission, with the approval of the Governor-General of the Dominion of Canada and of the
President of the United States of America, may, in respect of the nationals and inhabitants and
fishing vessels and boats of the Dominion of Canada and of the United States of America, from
time to time:—
(a.)  Divide the Convention waters into areas:
(b.)  Limit the catch of halibut to be taken from each area :
(c.) Fix the size and character of halibut-fishing appliances to be used therein:
(d.) Make such regulations for the collection of statistics of the catch of halibut, including the licensing and clearance of vessels, as will enable the International
Fisheries Commission to determine the condition and trend of the halibut-fishery
by banks and areas, as a proper basis for protecting and conserving the fishery:
(e.) Close to all halibut-fishing such portion or portions of an area or areas as the
International Fisheries Commission find to be populated by small, immature
halibut.
Article IV.
The  High  Contracting  Parties  agree  to enact  and  enforce  such  legislation  as  may  be
necessary to make effective the provisions of this Convention and any regulation adopted thereunder, with appropriate penalties for violations thereof.
Article V.
The present Convention shall remain in force for a period of five years and thereafter until
two years from the date when either of the High Contracting Parties shall give notice to the
other of its desire to terminate it.
This Convention shall from the date of the exchange of ratifications be deemed to supplant
the Convention between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America for the
preservation of the halibut-fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean, including Bering Sea,
concluded March 2nd, 1923.
Article VI.
This Convention shall be ratified in accordance with the constitutional methods of the High
Contracting Parties. The ratifications shall be exchanged at Ottawa as soon as practicable,
and the Convention shall come into force on the day of the exchange of ratifications.
In faith whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention in
duplicate, and have hereunto affixed their seals.
Done at Ottawa on the ninth day of May, in the year one thousand nine hundred and thirty.
W. L. Mackenzie King.
B. Reath Riggs.
This Treaty has been ratified by Canada and the United States.  EDIBLE FISH-MEAL
Its Composition and Value with
Instructions for Its Use in Feeding
Cattle, Swine, Sheep, and Poultry
Edited by RODNEY DELISLE
Department of Agriculture  EDIBLE  FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I  67
INTRODUCTION.
THIS bulletin is issued by the Provincial Fisheries Department to
meet the increasing demand for information as to the composition
of edible fish-meal, now so extensively produced in the Province, its
value in the feeding of cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry, and giving
instructions for its use.
It gives a review of the researches, experiments, and results in
many countries in the feeding of edible fish-meal to domestic live stock
and poultry, and is written not only for the farmer who desires to
improve his live stock through better feeding methods, but also for
those engaged in the production of fish-meal.
The Provincial Fisheries Department, Victoria, will be pleased
to reply to any specific questions that may arise as to the best use of
edible fish-meal used in feeding.
SAMUEL LYNESS HOWE,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Victoria, B.C., October 29th, 1930.  EDIBLE  FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 69
HISTORY.
Relation of Fishing to Agriculture.—The history of the manufacture and use of
fish-meal is one which is certain to excite the interest of all those engaged in agriculture.
It involves a lot of the romance of the sea and of those who go " down to the sea in ships."
Agriculture and fishing are more closely related than would at first be supposed, for between
them they provide the only remaining sources of food for both man and animals—early food
supplies in the form of wild animal life no longer being considered of any importance. From
the earliest times fishermen have been farmers, and farmers along the sea-coasts have been
fishermen. And just as farmers then, as now, are intensely interested in the economical
conversion of waste products into foods for human consumption, it is not surprising that
the fisherman-farmer concerned himself with the economical conversion of the waste of the
fisheries into animal foods. It is, therefore, to these pioneers we owe a debt of gratitude for
their work in solving, to no mean extent, the foremost problem of the farmer to-day—that
of economical production of foods for human consumption.
Farmers and Fishermen produce Waste.—In other ways, too, fishing and farming
resemble each other. Both of them involve the harvesting of crops at the expense of hard
labour. The farmer, however, must sow before he reaps his harvest, and though this is not
now true of the fisherman, it may some day be the case also. Just as the farmer now harvests
much that he finds little use or sale for, the fisherman does likewise. Science is finding a
use for the waste products of the farm—witness the manufacture of building material from
waste sugar-cane; but, on the other hand, the farmer is finding a use for the waste products
of the sea, as, for instance, the increasing use of fish-meal made from fishery wastes and
inedible fish, of which tremendous quantities are produced every year.
Minerals in Ocean come from Land.—The farmer and the fisherman have still
another bond of common interests. Just as the sea is producing food for the farmer's crops,
in the way of fertilizers, and food for his animals, in the way of dried fishery wastes in the
form of edible fish-meal, so is the farm and all the land providing the food of fishes; for it
is quite true that all of the minerals in sea-water which support life therein had their origin
in the land and have been carried to the sea by the rivers. Nowhere else in nature can a
more interesting cycle of events be found—not, at least, to the modern farmer.
Erosion and Leaching to blame for Losses.—From the very beginning of the
present geological age the soil has been subjected to a continuous process of leaching. Thus
many of the most important elements essential both to plant and animal life—as, for example,
iodine, to mention only one—have been finding their way to the sea to be irrevocably lost,
except as certain products of the ocean are subsequently either consumed as food or applied
to the soil as fertilizer. Only in this way may those valuable products, of which the soil
has for so long continuously been robbed, be restored to the animal or human organism.
No Records of Earliest Uses of Fish-meal.—There is very little doubt but that
fishery wastes have been consumed by domestic live stock since the earliest times—probably
for centuries—but it is apparently only in more recent times that accurate records have been
kept of the results obtained. More than likely the reason for there not being more early
records of the feeding of fish-meal available is because of a feeling which has always existed
that such a product was not a " natural " one for domestic live stock; these early fishermen-
farmers did not, therefore, wish to " tell the world " of their practices even though all of them
had adopted the practice because of its inherent soundness, both from the point of view of
economy and of animal health.
Use of Fish-meal is Old-established Practice.—The soundness of any practice may
be established either as a result of very long usage, or it may also be established in a very
short time as a result of scientific endeavours on the part of those most interested in the particular product under trial. In the case of fish-meal, both methods have been used in
establishing the worth of this product.
Ancient and Modern Methods both prove Value of Fish-meal.—At the time
of its earliest uses means were not at hand, or even known, by which determinations could
be made of its intrinsic value, but by the " cut-and-try " methods then in vogue it was established that fish wastes in a dry form could be used to advantage as a feed for domestic
live stock, and all that modern science is able to do in this connection is to produce an
explanation of the beneficial results obtained. Irrespective of whether or not science had
ever delved into the principles involved in the feeding of fish-meal to domestic live stock, the
practice would still be in force, for it has been handed down from father to son for many
generations. Indeed, it was in this way that the idea of feeding fish-meal to live stock in
British Columbia got its inception.
Old Habits and Modern Methods combined.—In this fair Province of ours,
" Where East meets West," we have a peculiar blending of Old World traditions with
New World progressiveness difficult to find in any other part of the world. And because
of this, farming practices are a delightful mixture of good old " cut-and-try " methods and
the most modern methods established by science. For instance, on countless farms throughout British Columbia one can find the very finest of modern dairy-barns, the cows in which
are being fed the " oldest of the old " protein concentrates—fish-meal. This happy state of
affairs takes a rather strange trend, however, and one not so easily explained, and it is this:
The younger generation of farmers who are not so well versed in Old World practices
approach the idea with some hesitancy owing, perhaps, to a preconceived notion that the idea
of feeding fish to domesticated animals is new; as soon, however, as the idea was shown to
them to be older than their fathers, they have quickly adopted this " time-proven " practice,
with the result that consumption has increased from less than 100 tons in 1928 to over
3,000 tons in the year ended March 31st, 1930—and this for the use of dairy cows and
swine only, poultry consuming nearly 1,000 tons more.
Less Concentrates imported since Use of Fish-meal begun in B.C.—It was
Old World farmers who first drew our attention to this " new " protein concentrate, fish-
meal. Not even though fish-packers in British Columbia had been making it in ever-
increasing quantities for several decades did we realize that we were producing at home a
protein concentrate far and away superior to any similar product which we had been
importing. A few years ago our farmers were importing concentrates in tremendous
quantities from the four corners of the world, but in 1930 there is a different story to tell,
for these same farmers have turned towards British Columbia fish-meal with a thoroughness
which is characteristic of all their practices.
Earliest Recorded Trials of Fish-meal.—Amongst the farmers in British Columbia,
as in every other country, is to be found the skeptical individual who appears to thrive best
on facts, and though recorded data on the use of fish-meal in live-stock rations do not seem
to go farther back than 1835, there is such an abundance of authentic reports since that time
to more than satisfy the most skeptical individual we are likely to meet. It is no less an
authority than Dr. Atwater, who tells us about the use of fish-meal nearly a whole century
ago. If reports do not come " thick and fast " after that date it may be because writing
was not such an easy job then as it is to-day; but, even so, we find a record dated 1864 in
which it is stated that fish-meal or " pommace " was fed to sheep, swine, and poultry and
that they thrived on it then—just as they do now. Five years later (in 1869), Wilder, in
Maine, a member of the Board of Agriculture for that State, told of his experiences in the
feeding of fish-meal or fish " offal " to sheep. He believed " fish-offal to be not only cheaper
but much superior to any other kind of provender he had ever used " for such a purpose.
German and American Research in 1875.—Possibly some further reports were
made before this next one we noticed dated 1875, in which year Farrington, also of Maine, EDIBLE  FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 71
reported some further experiments at the Maine Agricultural College on sheep. In this
same year Kellner reports some experiments which were made in the two previous years by
Weiske, again using sheep as the experimental animals. In the next twenty-five years a lot
of experimental work was done, and Schenke in 1902 reports fish-meal being fed to nearly
every class of domestic animals (including dairy cows) with the same highly satisfactory
results which have always been obtained.
Canada also Experiments with Fish-meal.—We can skip the next fourteen years,
which brings us to 1916, and, incidentally, we come back home to Canada and arrive at the
Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa, where a number of experiments were conducted
by Archibald.
Canadian Reports are Interesting.—His very interesting report of these trials is
given in full in the Dairy Cattle section of this bulletin (page 84). As this is the first
report of the use of fish-meal in the dairy ration, of a Canadian source, it will be read with
a great deal of interest.
Oily Fish-meal Proven not Objectonable.—At just about this time (1915-16)
the Dairy Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture, carried out some experiments on dairy
cows also, but using a fish-meal that was notable for its high oil content. If these experiments did nothing else, they did at least settle, for all time, the once-debatable question about
the merits of oil in fish-meal, for up to this time fish-meal containing not more than 3 per cent,
oil was considered the best; but the report states: " In these tests the feeding of fish-meal
had no detrimental effect on either the milk or butter."
Fish-meal compared with other Concentrates.—In the decade just ending reports
of the use of fish-meal in the feeding of all classes of domestic animals are " too numerous to
mention." So much has been done towards establishing the merits of fish-meal as a live-stock
feeding-stuff that further reports no longer excite the interest that they once did; but, in
another way, our interest is held by reports of experiments wherein fish-meal is compared
with other more common protein concentrates such as linseed-oil cake and with cottonseed-
meal. In the Dairy Cattle section of this bulletin you will find detailed reports of results
obtained when fish-meal was compared with both of these concentrates. The experiment
carried out at Agassiz will be of particular interest to British Columbia dairymen, as the
results obtained there confirm the opinion of the foremost dairymen in this Province.
Fish-meal is Oldest Protein Concentrate.—In concluding the history of the manufacture and use of fish-meal, it would be appropriate to remind readers of this bulletin that
fish-meal is " the oldest of the old " protein concentrates and that its long-continued use
throughout the world is all the evidence of its merit that is required. \^e may, therefore,
consider its uses lor particular purposes such as the feeding of dairy cows, sheep, swine,
poultry, etc., and for the sake of convenience this bulletin is divided into sections for each
class of live stock. I 72 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930;.
FISH-MEAL.
Its Composition and Value as a Feeding-stuff for Cattle,
Swine, Sheep, and Poultry.
PREJUDICE AGAINST FISH-MEAL.
Chances of Taint not Understood.—" One of the reasons for fish-meal having been
neglected is a feeling amongst a section of the agricultural community that, if fish-meal is
used in the feeding of animals, the flesh will necessarily become tainted. That this idea is
unwarranted is shown by the strikingly successful use of fish-meal as a feeding-stuff in British
Columbia and elsewhere.
Only Great Excess can cause Taint.—" The prejudice probably arose from the
fact that pigs, ducks, and poultry which are reared in the various fishing villages have a fishy
taste when eaten, the assumption being accordingly made that, if fish-meal is used as a feeding-
stuff, the result will be the same. This is not the case, as the taint which is so often present
in the flesh of the pigs and poultry fed in the fishing villages is due, not to the fact that they
are fed with fish, but to the fact that they are allowed to have an excessive and unlimited diet
of fish. Fish-meal is a very rich and readily digestible food, and should be given moderately,
and the recognized proportions, which are referred to later, should not be greatly exceeded.
If this is kept in view, no taint in the flesh of the animal will result.
Discretion in Feeding must be used.—■" Some farmers who have tried it have not
found fish-meal satisfactory as a feeding-stuff, but this has been due to the reason that they
have not used it with understanding. If a farmer gives it to his stock in large quantities, it
is not to be wondered at that it should prove unsatisfactory, as it is a highly concentrated
food, and has a strong, peculiar, although not unpleasant odour of its own. If moderate
proportions are not exceeded and the fish-meal is gradually added to the ration, its efficiency
as a feeding-stuff will soon become apparent.
! WHOLESOMENESS AND FLAVOUR.
Raw Material is carefully selected.—"In the manufacture of fish-meal, the material
from which it is made is selected both with a view to providing sound, reliable raw material
and to ensuring the appetizing flavour which is desirable in all feeding-stuffs. In the process
of manufacture the material is subjected by heating to a very high temperature, ensuring
complete sterilization, with the result that all micro-organisms which might be present are
wholly destroyed.
COMPOSITION OF FISH-MEAL.
Fish-meal contains no Carbohydrates.—" Fish-meal contains about 55 to 65 per
cent, protein, about 4 to 8 per cent, of oil, and practically no carbohydrates. The composition
of fish-meal varies, within limits, according to the nature of the raw material available for
its manufacture. It will be seen that fish-meal is very high in protein; in fact, it is higher
in protein than any other of the ordinary feeding-stuffs, and this renders it specially suitable
for combination with feeding-stuffs which contain a low percentage of protein, such as roots,
potatoes, hay, straw, and the cereal grains and offals. The oil is present in a good proportion
compared with other foods. The carbohydrates, however, are so low as to be negligible.
Fish-meal, therefore, being rich in protein, may be regarded as a builder-up and maintainer
of flesh, muscle, and tissue.
High Mineral Content.—" Phosphate of lime is also necessary in a feeding-stuff, as
the bones of the animal are built up and maintained by this constituent, and as fish-meal
contains about 10 to 16 per cent, of phosphate of lime, it is well provided in this respect. EDIBLE  FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 73
Need for Oil in Feeds.—" The oil in fish-meal may be taken as about 4 to 8 per cent.
It is therefore fairly rich in oil as compared with other feeding-stuffs. Animals need oil in
their food, and it is better to use a feeding-stuff in which oil is naturally present than to use
one deficient in oil and supply the want by pouring oil over the feeding-stuff. In the latter
caSe the oil is not emulsified, whereas in the former the oil naturally present is in the easily
assimilated form of microscopically small globules."
OILS AND FATS FROM FISH.
Composition.—" The dietary value of fish-oils, like that of fats and oils obtained from
land animals and plants, depends on a number of factors, the principal ones being their composition or nature, digestibility, and vitamin content.
Factors influencing Odour of Fish-meal.—" The fats from land sources consist
largely of the glycerides of oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. In addition to these, fish-oils
contain others to a greater or less extent. Various investigators have submitted experimental
evidence to show that from fish-fats one may obtain jecoric acid, jecoleic acid, therapic acid,
and culpanodonic acid. The discovery of the presence of the glycerides of culpanodonic acid
in marine-animal fats was of more than scientific interest, for Tsujimoto, a Japanese investigator, has apparently shown that the characteristic fishy odour of these fats is due very largely
to this substance. When the glyceride of culpanodonic acid was removed from marine fats,
or by hydrogenation was transformed into a glyceride of some other fatty acids, the characteristic odour of fish-fats disappeared.
Chemical Nature of Fish-oils.—" In considering the nature of fish-fats there is
one factor that should be given attention—their tendency to oxidize and become rancid.
Considered chemically, fats may be divided into three groups—drying, semi-drying, and
non-drying oils. Oils that can absorb relatively large amounts of oxygen are called drying
oils and are in demand for use in paints. The best-known member of this group is linseed-
oil. Next comes the semi-drying oils, or those which can take up some oxygen but not
enough to make them good paint oils.
Difference between Animal and Fish Oils.—"While fish and marine-animal oils
differ from the terrestrial-animal oils to some extent as regards colour, odour, and viscosity,
they are quite different chemically. The terrestrial-animal oils resemble closely the non-
drying oils in that they do not easily absorb oxygen. The fish and marine-animal oils resemble
the drying oils and have the power to absorb oxygen.
Comparative Digestibility of Animal and Fish Oils.—" Hundreds of digestion
experiments have been conducted to determine the extent to which the edible fats from land
plants and animals are utilized by the body. These show that the liquid fats as a class are
more completely utilized by the body than are the solid fats. While in some instances there
is little difference between the digestibility of solid fats and that of the liquid fats, there may
be a differenece of 10 or 12 per cent, between the digestibility of the more completely digested
liquid fats and that of the less completely digested solid fats.
" Applying this generalization, one would conclude that the digestibility of edible
fish-fats would be quite similar to that of vegetable fats.
Results of Digestion Experiments of Fish-oils.—" The results of digestion experiments conducted by the writer while employed at the United States Department of Agriculture show that fish-fats are well utilized by the body. In studies with fresh mackerel and
butter-fish and canned salmon and dogfish, the digestibility of the fat was found to be
95 per cent, for Boston mackerel, 86 per cent, for butter-fish, 94 per cent, for dogfish, and
94 per cent, for salmon.
" From this limited data concerning the digestibility of fish-fats one is inclined to
conclude that they are quite satisfactorily utilized by the body."—Arthur D. Holmes. I 74 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Oil in Fish-meal is not Objectionable.—For the benefit of the lay reader perhaps it
should be mentioned here that the foregoing references to oils and fats in fish are intended
to mean oils and fats as such and not simply the residual oil which is found in fish-meal as
sold for animal-feeding. It is quite true that fish oils and fats can, and do, become rancid
when kept under poor conditions, but in all our experience with fish-meal, even that which
contained as much as 15 per cent, oil, we have yet to see a sample of rancid meal. Prospective
purchasers of fish-meal need not, therefore, concern themselves with the possibility that British
Columbia fish-meal will become rancid in storage. As a matter of fact, many feeders have
a preference for fish-meal which is a year or so old as the odour is much less pronounced as
the meal ages.
DESIRABILITY OF OIL IN FISH-MEAL FOR STOCK-FOOD.
High or Low Fat Content of Fish-meal?—" In the German market a fish-meal
containing a low percentage of oil (from 2 to 4 per cent.) is considered the best grade of
meal. On the Pacific Coast the extraction of the oil by means of gasoline is being considered
in the manufacture of fish-meal in that locality. With a lower fat content a higher protein
content is obtained, which is, of course, desirable. On the other hand, the fat, which is
highly digestible, has a definite food value, and since it has been shown by experiment that
high-grade fish-meals of high fat content have been fed with no apparent taint being imparted
to the final product, it is believed that the extraction of a fish-meal to a fat content lower
than that which could ordinarily be obtained by thorough and efficient pressing would be
unnecessary. This is particularly apparent when it is considered that fish-meal is to be used
in relatively small quantities as a source of protein in balancing the rations of stock and in
preparing the finished commercial stock feeds.
Effect of Rancid Oil in Fish-meal.—" Further, it is believed that any trouble that
may have been attributed to a high fat content in the meal probably was due to rank, rancid
oil, developed in decomposing raw material. Such oil is not present in meal prepared from
fresh, undecomposed fish and fish wastes. Certainly a fat content of 14.56 per cent, in a
meal of this character, as in that made from the waste in the packing of sardines, would
appear to be satisfactory, since no flavour or taint of fish was imparted to eggs, milk, or
butter in the experiments which were conducted with it."—U.S. Department of Agriculture
Bulletin No. 378.
PROTEIN CONTENT OF FISH.
Quality of Fish Proteins.—The figures in Table No. 2 show that the percentage
amounts of the various amino-acids in fish are directly comparable with those in the casein
of milk, and it is therefore obvious that the addition of fish-meal to a vegetable-cereal ration
for the dairy cow makes it possible for her to produce all the milk she is hereditarily fitted
to give, without any drain upon the reserves of these compounds in her body-tissues. This
fact has been repeatedly demonstrated in a large number of dairy herds in British Columbia.
Amino-acids in Fish.—Referring again to Table No. 2, it will be seen that " These
data indicate that the tyrosine, arginine, histidine, and lysine content of fish and milk proteins
are about the same. In general it may be said that the proportions of amino-acids found in
fish proteins are approximately the same as those found in milk, except that the proteins of
fish are curiously low in glycine, an amino-acid not essential in the diet.
Value of Fish Proteins.—" Thus, it is seen that fish proteins are valuable sources of
nitrogenous substances for the nutrition of man and other animals, for they are complete
proteins, lacking only in the simple amino-acid glycine, which can be formed in the body by
the splitting of other amino-acids.
Abundance of Growth-promoting Amino-acids.—■" The presence of considerable
amounts of tyrosine, tryptophane, lysine, histidine, and arginine is noteworthy, as these
amino-acids are essential for proper nutrition.    Fish proteins also have been shown to contain EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 75
adequate amounts of valine, leucine, and phenylalanine, which are valuable constituents of
proteins and are also considered essential by many nutrition experts.
Comparison of Fish and Cereal Proteins.—■" Cereal proteins are, for the most
part, deficient in arginine, histidine, and lysine. The amounts of these three amino-acids
contained in many restricted diets are the limiting factors that determine their value for
maintenance and growth."—Tressler.
Table No. 2.
Comparison of Amino-acids of Milk, Corn, and Fish.
Casein
(Milk).
Zein
(Com).
Fish.
1. Glycine	
2. Alanine	
3. Valine	
4. Leucine	
5. Proline	
6. Oxyproline	
7. Phenylalanine	
8. Aspartic acid	
9. Glutamic acid	
10. Oxyglutamic acid
11. Serine	
12. Tyrosine	
13. Cystine	
14. Arginine	
15. Histidine	
16. Lysine	
17. Tryptophane	
18. Ammonia	
0.45
1.85
7.93
9.70
7.63
0.23
3.88
4.10
21.77
10.50
0.50
6.50
0.50
3.81
2.84
7.62
2.20
1.61
93.62
0.00
13.39
1.88
19.55
9.04
*
6.55
1.80
26.17
2.50
1.02
3.55
0.85
1.82
0.82
0.00
0.00
3.64
0.00
*
0.79
10.33
3.17
*
3.04
2.73
10.13
*
*
2.39
1.32
6.34
2.55
7.45
1.25
1.33
92.58
52.82
* Not determined.
MINERAL CONSTITUENTS OF FISH.
Importance of Mineral Matter in Fish.—" It must be admitted that chemists have
neglected the inorganic in favour of the organic constituents of fish. The analysis usually
made give data concerning fat, protein, etc., but the ' ash ' has not often been completely
analysed. This neglect seems the more noteworthy in that one of the most important
distinctions of fish in comparison with other foods exists in the inorganic constituents.
Table No. 3.—Percentage of Mineral Elements in Flesh of
Various Animals.
Comparison of Minerals in Swine, Oxen, and Fish.
Swine.
Oxen.
Fish.
0.9363
0.5752
0.0218
0.0298
0.1042
0.7848
0.1787
0.7536
72.8900
1.5200
0.2695
0.1019
0.0088
0.1006
0.7090
0.2342
0.7719
75.8000
1.7281
0.5118
0.0300
0.1138
Magnesium	
0.0863
Phosphorus	
1.0130
Chlorine      .   .
1.2447
Sulphur	
1.1514
Water	
80.6400 1 70
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
High Lime Content of Fish is Valuable.—" It will be noticed in Table No. 3
(taken from Katz, 1896) that fish, with respect to mineral constituents, is richer in calcium
than other flesh foods. It is relatively low in iron because it does not retain haemoglobin
of the blood in the muscle, for example, as the flesh of the ox does.
Iodine in Fish.—■" Although iodine probably exists in the living fish only in organic
combination, it remains in the ash upon combustion and in this sense may be classified with
the mineral substances present. Tressler gives the iodine content of fish (ocean) as being
from 120 to 660 parts per billion."—Taylor.
(The foregoing figures have reference to the " edible " portions of fish.)
Importance of Mineral Matter in Fish-meal.—" The greatest value of fish-meal
as a component of animal rationing lies in its mineral content. These minerals supply the
essential material for maximum bone and gland growth in a form superior to that from any
other source, since the minerals are in a form most readily absorbed by the animal. Not
only are large healthy animals produced, but losses from sickness and death are reduced to
a minimum. The protein component of fish-meal is of great value, being in a highly concentrated and readily absorbed form for supplementing the roughage low in protein content."
U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, Memo. S 288.
Table No. 4.—Sundry Analyses of Fish-meal.
Mineral Matter in Fish-meal from Various Sources.
Calcium
Phosphate.
Ether
Extract.
Menhaden Meal  (ordinary)	
Menhaden Meal  (extracted)	
Sardine Meal (ordinary)	
Sardine  Meal   (improved)	
Norwegian Cod Meal  (extracted)
English Market Waste Meal	
Norwegian Herring Meal	
Salmon Meal  (steam-dried)	
Salmon Meal (direct-heat dried)..
British Columbia Pilchard	
British Columbia Pilchard	
British Columbia Dogfish	
17.35
60.50
9.00
19.25
66.75
0.82
16.40
59.40
9.00
12.50
65.60
6.00
25.90
55.00
1.50
16.40
60.00
4.50
8.95
65.00
11.00
14.72
55.00
17.45
23.33
53.50
9.64
12.20
65.62
7.70
15.12
66.06
5.44
7.S7
68.14
12.10 ED1BLF, FISH-MEAL—ITvS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 77
PART I.—DAIRY CATTLE.
Effect of Improved Transport on Source of Cattle-feeds.—" In the dairy
industry during the past few decades developments of great economic importance have taken
place in connection with both the production and distribution of milk. Formerly milk
production was limited by the amount of cattle-food that could be grown on the farm or
procured locally, and by far the greater part of the year's output of milk was obtained in
the summer months, when pasture was plentiful. With the improvement of means of
transport and the rise of food-refining industries, tropical products and commercial byproducts have come to be used in increasing amounts as cattle-foods; and accompanying
the use of these rich feeding-stuffs there has been a tendency to increase the production
of milk, especially during the winter months, when the price of milk is high.—Orr.
Solids-not-fat in Milk and their Relative Importance.—Considering the nature
of milk, it would be well to bear in mind that, whatever amount of milk a cow gives, she
gives with the object of nourishing her offspring and not likely with the idea of providing
man with a product which may be used for food and in the arts. If, then, the cow produces
milk with the idea of nourishing her offspring, we should remember that the solids-not-fat
take on an amount of importance far beyond that of the butter-fat. This is because the
rate of growth of a calf is much more influenced by the solids-not-fat than by the amount or
percentage of butter-fat in the milk. None of the compounds in the solids-not-fat can be
considered as having more importance than any other part, for no single compound can
perform its function without a certain very definite relative amount of every other compound.
There must be just so much calcium and phosphorus, so much protein, and so much sugar,
etc., before the normal rate of growth can be maintained.
Not all Problems are solved.—" These developments have raised new problems
with regard to the feeding of cows. . . . Many of these problems are nutritional in
character. On the side of production, there are problems concerning the economical use
of concentrated feeding-stuffs to maintain a high milk yield, and with the adjustment of
the ration to the requirements of the cow. so that a high yield may be maintained without
damaging the constitution of the animal. . . . During the past few years, research in
nutrition has increased our knowledge of the fundamental principles of the science, and
though solutions to many of the problems referred to are not yet forthcoming, there is reason
to hope that, within the next few years, more light will be thrown upon them by the investigations being carried out in this and in other countries.
NATURE OF MILK.
Composition of Milk is Best Guide in Feeding.—■" There are very few problems
connected with the dairy industry that are not associated with the nature and composition of
milk {see Tables 6 and 7 on pages 78 and 79). With regard to feeding, it is clear that, as
the cow must draw from the food all the materials to form milk, the composition of milk is
an essential factor in determining the best ration for milk production. . . . Accordingly,
the study of the composition and nature of milk should be the starting-point for the solution
of many of the problems of the dairy industry. Yet, except for the percentage of butter-fat,
little interest is taken in the subject by those engaged in the industry. To enable the questions
discussed later to be better understood, a short account is given here of those constituents
and qualities of milk which are of economic importance.
Nature of Milk Protein.—■" Proteins or albuminoids consist chiefly of comparatively
simple substances known as amino-acids linked together. There are about twenty different
amino-acids and in most proteins all of them are represented. The amino-acids are like
building-stones which nature uses in various proportions to build up the many different kinds
of proteins which are formed by living bodies. Although all proteins contain the same units—
the twenty or so different amino-acids—they may contain them in very different proportions.
One protein may be very rich in one or two amino-acids which are poorly represented in, or, I 78
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES,  1930.
in a few exceptional cases, may be entirely absent from, the make-up of another protein.
In the process of digestion the animal body breaks down the proteins of the food to amino-
acids, which are absorbed from the alimentary tract and used to build up the various kinds
of proteins required in the different tissues.
Amino-acids in Milk Proteins compared with other Sources.—•" In this way the
body takes, for example, the proteins of oatmeal, breaks them down into amino-acids, and then
uses such of these as it needs to build up the protein of muscle. It is obvious that if the
proteins of oatmeal are of very different composition from the proteins of muscle, which as
a matter of fact is the case, there will be a big wastage in transforming oatmeal proteins into
muscle proteins, and, further, the digestive organs will require to deal with a lot of material
which is of no use for constructive purposes. The point of importance with regard to milk
proteins is that the proteins of the milk of any species contain amino-acids in exactly the
proportions required by the young of that species to build up its muscles and other soft tissues,
and they are present in a form that can be easily digested and assimilated by the young.
No other food, except the egg, contains proteins especially adapted to the needs of the very
young animal.    Indeed, casein, the chief protein of milk, occurs nowhere else in nature.
Utilization of Proteins compared.—" The value for growth of the proteins of milk
as compared with proteins from other sources has been tested by determining what proportions
of the amounts eaten can be retained by the animal and used for tissue formation. The
following figures from an experiment conducted by an American worker illustrate the nature
of the results obtained when the proteins of milk were tested against those of two common
foodstuffs. In this experiment the total energy value, or starch value, of the rations was
approximately equal in each case.    The animals experimented on were young pigs.
Table No. 5.
Milk and Cereal Proteins compared.
Source of Troteln.
Percentage
of Protein
in Ration.
Percentage
of Protein
retained
in Body.
Milk.	
16
17
18
63
Oats :	
30
Wheat	
25
" According to these figures, to form a given amount of body-tissue, the digestive organs
of the growing animal must deal with more than twice as much of the proteins of oats or
of wheat as of the proteins of milk.
Comparative Value of Milk and Animal Proteins.—"For growth purposes milk
proteins are markedly superior to those from any other source. The only proteins that are
comparable to milk proteins in their value for the formation of flesh and blood are those of
flesh and blood themselves, and those, in the forms usually fed, are not so digestible as milk
proteins. As will be seen later, the special value of milk proteins is a fact of economic
importance."—Dr. J. B. Orr, Aberdeen.
Table No. 6.—Constituents of Milk.
Chemical Analysis of Cow's Milk.
Proteins:
Caseinogen
Lactalbumin
Lactoglobulin
Fibrinogen
Amino-acids
Vitamins
Enzymes
3.3 per cent. EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 79
Fats:
Butyrin
Caproin
Caprylin
Caprin
Laurin
Myristin
Palmitin
Stearin
Olein
Glycerides of volatile acids.
• Glycerides of non-volatile acids.
Lipoids (Fat-like Substances):
Lecithin
Cholesterin
Probably other lipoids
Carotin (lipochrome) J
Milk-sugar	
Citric acid
4.0 per cent.
4.8 per cent.
0.1 per cent.
Ash:
0.7 per cent.
Sulphur
Phosphorus
Chlorine
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Iron
Iodine
Water   87.1  per cent.
Table No. 7.
Chemical Analysis of Milk Proteins.
roteins:
Amino-acids
in Casein.   .
0.45
1
1.85
2
7.93
3
9.70  '
4
7.63
5
4.10
8
21.77
9
3.88
7
6.50
12
0.50
11
0.23
6
2.50
15
3.81
14
7.62
16
2.20
17
0.50
13
1.61
18.
3.00
19
Amino-acids
in Lactaluumin.
Glycine    0.37
Alanine    2.41
Valine     3.30
Leucine    14.03
Proline   3.76
Aspartic acid   9.30
Glutamic acid   12.89
Phenylalanine     1.25
Tyrosine   1,95
Serine   1.76
Oxyproline  	
Histidine   2.61
Arginine   3.47
Lysine     9.87
Tryptophane     3.00
Cystine   1.73
Ammonia  1.31
And others   2.00 I so
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Chemical Analysis of Milk Minerals.
Ash—Minerals :
Calcium  0.120
Magnesium  0.012
Potassium  0.143
Sodium  0.051
Phosphorus  0.093
Chlorine  0.106
Sulphur  0.034
Iron  0.00024
Iodine  Trace
Average of Analyses of Milk.
Average Composition.
Constituent.
Usual Limits and Averages.
Usual Limit
of Variation.
Estimated
Average.
Convenient
Approximation.
Fat	
Protein:	
3.0-6.00
3.0-4.00
4.6-5.00
0.7-0.78
8.5-9.50
4.00
3.30
4.85
0.72
8.90
4.0
3.3
5.0
Ash        	
0.7
Solids-not-fat	
9.0
Comparison of Milk from Different Breeds of Cows.
Composition of Milk of Different Breeds of Cattle.
Total Solids.
Fat.
Solids-not-fat.
Jersey	
Guernsey
Durham..
Ayrshire..
Holstein..
14.87
14.69
13.38
12.73
11.96
5.19
5.16
4.05
3.64
3.43
9.68
9.53
9.33
9.09
8.53
MINERAL MATTER.
Mineral Content of Milk is adjusted to Requirements of Young.—" It has been
shown that a supply of the proper amounts and proportions of all the essential mineral
elements in the animal body is necessary for health and normal growth, and that most of the
concentrated foodstuffs commonly used are deficient in one or more mineral elements. The
mineral composition of a food is therefore one of the most important factors in deciding its
value. In this respect milk is unique, because it is the only food which contains, in the proper
proportions, all the minerals required by the suckling animal. The close relation between
* the composition of the mineral matter of milk, and the requirements of the young animal for
these minerals, is shown when the ash of a young, rapidly growing animal is compared with
the ash of the milk of its species. The following table (No. 8) gives the results of the
analysis of the mineral matter contained in (a) the body of a young rabbit; (b) rabbit's
milk;   and (c) wheat. EDIBLE  FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 81
Table No. 8.
Body of Rabbit, its Milk, and Wheat compared in Mineral Content.
Rabbit
14 Days old.
Rabbit's
Milk.
Wheat.
Per Cent.
41.9
35.0
10.8
6.0
4.9
2.2
0.2
Per Cent.
39.9
35.7
10.1
7.9
5.4
2.2
0.1
Per Cent.
47.2
3.3
Potash                                              	
31.2
3.1
0.3
12.1
1.3
Minerals in Cereals unsuited for Groioth of Young.—" A comparison of the
figures in the three columns shows that rabbit's milk contains exactly what is required to
build up the young rabbit, whereas in wheat, which is a typical example of a cereal, the
ratios of the essential minerals are totally different from those required for growth. Wheat
shows a marked relative deficiency of lime, soda, and chlorine. These deficiencies are
common to all cereals, and also to many other foodstuffs.
Different Mineral Requirement for Different Species.—" The mineral requirements of the young of different species vary slightly because there are differences in the
composition of the ash of the milk of different species. Still, the differences are so small that
there is a much closer correspondence between the composition of the mineral matter of milk
from different species than between that of any milk and any other food. Consequently, in
feeding a young animal, if milk of its own species is not available, the best substitute, as far as
the supply of the necessary mineral matter is concerned, is the milk of another species."—Orr.
In another article by Orr on the importance of mineral matter for young, growing
animals we find the following table:—
Table No. 9.—Protein and Mineral Composition of some Feeding-stuffs
per 100 Parts.
Comparative Analysis of some Common Feeding-stuffs.
rotein.
Total Ash.
3.50
1
0.74
7.25
1.09
61.00
23.50
9.00
1.21
16.00
4.63
12.00
1.86
12.00
3.71
15.00
6.89
13.00
7.31
8.50
3.47
2.50
4.40
Lime,
(as CaO).
Phosphorus
(asPA).
Animal products—
Milk, cow's	
Milk, sow's	
Fish-meal	
Grains and grain-offal—
Corn	
Middlings	
Wheat	
Oats	
Fodder—
Alfalfa-hay	
Clover-hay	
Timothy-hay	
Oat-straw	
0.17
0.41
11.59
0.02
0.15
0.08
0.16
1.58
1.73
0.27
0.36
I
0.22
0.35
10.50
0.65
2.25
0.97
0.99
0.54
0.42
0.28
0.18
I
" The animal products included in the above table contain all of the essential minerals
in the proportions required for growth.
6 I S2 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Use Mineral Content of Milk as Guide in compounding Rations.—" The milk
of each species is exactly adjusted to the requirements of the young of that species. As these
requirements vary according to the composition of the body and the rate of growth of
different species, the percentage composition of the mineral matter of the milk varies. Thus
the rapidly growing young pig receives a milk with a higher percentage of lime and phosphorus
than the more slowly growing calf. The percentage of the different minerals in the milk
of any species is an excellent guide to the composition of the mineral matter that should be
aimed at in making up a ration for the young animals.
Minerals in Fish-meal are Good Substitute for Milk Minerals.—" Fish-meal,
being made from bones and flesh, contains all the mineral matter in the proportion to form
these. It will be seen that the ratio of lime to phosphorus in fish-meal is not unlike that in
sow's or cow's milk. The percentages, however, are so high that comparatively small
amounts of fish-meal added to a ration yield a sufficient supply of these."—Orr.
Mineral Matter in Cereals proven Inadequate for Growth.—" Hart and
McCollum, with their co-workers, in the course of their valuable work on deficiencies
of the different grains, have shown that the deficiency of grains in mineral matter is so great
that a diet consisting exclusively of grains will not support growth, even though any other
deficiencies that may be present are made good. . . . They indicate that three factors
may be involved in the production of the disease (rickets)—namely, (1) deficiency of mineral
matter, (2) deficiency of fat-soluble A, and (3) toxicity of wheat products. In our experiments the condition did not occur when the amount and ratios of the different inorganic
constituents were adjusted, and we are inclined to believe that the frequently noted toxic
influence of wheat-offal is due to the composition of its ash, which, with other deficiencies,
shows a marked excess of phosphorus to calcium."—Elliott, Crichton, and Orr, Rowett
Research Institute.
PROBLEMS OF FEEDING (ANIMALS IN MILK).
Constancy of Milk Constituents.—" Though the percentage of the various constituents of milk may vary a little in different cows, or in the same cow at different stages
of lactation, the composition of the constituents remains practically constant. Thus, no
matter what kinds of proteins are given in the food, the milk secreted always contains casein
and lactalbumin; and in spite of the wide variation in the proportion of essential minerals
in different foodstuffs, the proportions of them in milk vary very little.
Necessity for supplying all Constituents of Milk in Daily Ration.—" The fact
that milk is a standard product has an important bearing on feeding problems. The
materials used to build up the constituents of milk must be derived ultimately from the food.
The substances present in food, therefore, are of value for milk production only to the extent
that they yield these materials in a digestible form. This rather obvious principle is not
taken sufficiently into account in the recognized systems of estimating the value of foods and
compounding rations. The usual feeding standards for milk cows are expressed in terms
of ' food units ' (or ' starch values ') and ' nutritive ratios ' (i.e., the proportion of protein
to the other energy-yielding constituents of the ration). This method, though of a certain
value, does not touch the most difficult problem in feeding. It would be possible to satisfy
the food requirements of the cow with starch or some other carbohydrate, and to supply the
protein with some protein like (the zein of) corn, which is deficient in two of the amino-acids
which are necessary to build up milk protein. Such a ration, though meeting the requirements of the conventional feeding standards, would be useless for milk production, because it
would neither contain the elements necessary for the formation of milk protein, nor yield
the minerals necessary for milk. Of course, such an extreme case would not occur in practice.
But the example shows that to satisfy the requirements of a feeding standard does not
necessarily imply that the requirements of the cow for the production of milk are satisfied. EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 83
Constituents of Milk are Guide in compounding Rations.—" The proper way
to approach the problem is to consider all the substances required for milk formation, and
to try to arrange a ration such that, on digestion, these various substances will be absorbed
from the intestine, and will be available in the amounts and proportions required to replace
those carried off in the milk.
More Care required in compounding Ration for High-producing Cows.—
" In the case of cows giving only 300 or 400 gallons of milk a year, which is probably as
much as nature intended them to give, and using the natural diet got when grazing on good
mixed pasture, supplemented in winter by such foods as hay, roots, and cereal grains, the
question of the exact composition of the ration is not so important, because, in the amount
of such food that the cow will eat, there is likely to be a sufficiency of all the constructive
materials required to yield 300 or 400 gallons of milk. But under conditions of intensive
milk production, where cows are fed with highly concentrated feeding-stuffs and commercial
by-products, which were not intended by nature as food for a lactating ruminant, and the
milk yield is five, or six times the amount nature meant the cow to give, it is necessary to
inquire whether all the materials required for the formation of that quantity of milk are
being supplied in the food.
High Production is not Basis for deciding Quality of Ration.—" The fact that
a large amount of milk is being produced on a given ration is no guarantee that the ration
is satisfactory. As long as a cow with a high capacity to yield milk is given a rich ration,
she will continue, for a time, to give milk, even though the ration is deficient in certain
constituents. The deficiency is made good with materials taken from the cow's own tissues,
and, until these are depleted, milk formation will proceed. The depletion of the tissues may,
however, as will be seen later, be disastrous to the health of the cow and to milk production
in a subsequent lactation, unless the depleted tissues have an opportunity to refill during an
intervening dry period.
Other Factors which determine Value of a Ration.—" Although the milk yield
itself and the health of the cow are the most interesting points in the problem of the properly
balanced ration, the cost of food per gallon of milk produced is also of importance. Any of
the substances required in the formation of milk may be the limiting factor in its production.
On an ill-balanced ration, therefore, the yield may be limited by the deficiency of one or more
essential elements, which the tissues of the cow cannot supply indefinitely. On the other
hand, there may be an excess of certain constituents which cannot be used. The most
economical food is, therefore, that which contains the right amounts and proportions of all
the constituents. This ration has no deficiency to limit production and no excess to be
wasted. Unfortunately, this ideal ration has not yet been devised, though there is reason
to believe that the information which will allow us to get nearer to it is gradually accumulating. The fact that not only research workers, but also practical feeders, are beginning
to understand the nature and importance of the problem is a significant forward step.
" In the milk cow's ration the constituents which are most likely to be deficient are
proteins, mineral matter, the unknown ' vitamins,' and water."-—Orr.
MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE DAIRY COW.
Mineral Content of Ration Most Important Part.—" The mineral requirements
of the dairy cow have received comparatively little attention in this country. It has been
too readily assumed that any ration that supplied a sufficient amount of total protein, and
had the requisite number of ' food units,' would contain sufficient of all the minerals essential
to milk formation. While this may be so in the case of cows with low milk yield, the results
of recent experiments have shown that, in the modern cow with a high milk yield, the
difficulty of replacing the minerals given out in the milk is probably the most important of
all problems connected with the feeding of dairy cows.
' I 84 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES,  1930.
Minerals required by Dairy Cow other than for Milk Production.—" The
lactating animal has a double requirement for minerals. The amounts lost in the urine and
faeces, from the ordinary wear and tear of tissues, apart from milk production, must be
replaced. In addition, a supply is required for milk production. The first of these, the
maintenance requirement, has not been accurately determined, but, according to the estimation of Henneberg, a cow needs about 1^4 oz. of lime and about Vs oz, of phosphoric acid
per day. The amounts required for milk production depend, of course, upon the yield.
A cow giving 5 gallons of milk per day loses from her body the following amounts, in ounces,
of those minerals which occur in largest amounts in milk, namely:—
Minerals in Five Gallons of Milk.
Oz. Oz.
Lime (CaO)   1.3 Phosphorus (P205) - 1.6
Magnesium (MgO)   0.1 Potash (KX>)    1.3
Sodium (Na20)   0.5 .      Chlorine (Cl)   0.8
Retention and Loss of Minerals.—" But in most cases the whole of the mineral
matter in the food cannot be assimilated and retained. Weiske has estimated that the food
should contain about three times the amount of lime that the animal requires to assimilate.
As a matter of fact, we now know that the proportion of any mineral fed that can be
assimilated varies according to the composition and nature of the rest of the ration. All that
can be said, therefore, is that the ration should contain a margin in excess of the amount
which the body requires. In the case of lime and phosphorus, for example, according to'
the foregoing figures, a cow giving 5 gallons of milk per day should receive in her food an
amount of lime greater than 2.8 oz., and of phosphorus greater than 2.4 oz. (reckoned as
P2Or>). How much greater than these amounts the supply in the food should be we are
unable to state definitely.
Minerals deficient in Winter Rations.—" Not only are certain minerals liable to
be deficient in winter rations, but it is believed that the minerals are present in forms in
which they are less easily assimilated than is the case with pasture. It is chiefly in winter
feeding, therefore, that the question of the mineral requirements of the milk cow demands
special attention."-—Orr.
Addition of Minerals to Ration not Solution of Problem.—" It is possible to
add minerals to the ration, and so ensure that there will be an ample supply in" the food.
Unfortunately, however, the problem cannot be so easily solved, for there seems to be a
number of factors that make assimilation of certain minerals difficult, even when an abundance is present in the food.
Addition of Fish-meal to Ration is Advantageous.—"Although so very little
definite knowledge is available with regard to this all-important subject of the mineral
balance in milk cows, it is even now possible to make some suggestions which might be of
practical value. Attention should be paid to the mineral content of the ration of stall-fed
cows. The calcium-supply, which is deficient in most feeds, can be augmented by the
addition of chalk and steamed-bone flour. The probable deficiencies of sodium and chlorine
can be made good by the use of a salt brick fixed in the stall, so that the animal can satisfy
its own needs at will. The amounts of minerals that should be added will, of course, depend
on the nature of the concentrates used. For example, corn, which is very poor in both
calcium and phosphorus, would need a supply of both, whereas a ration with fish-meal, ivhich
is rich in those minerals, might require neither."
FISH-MEAL FOR DAIRY CATTLE.
Use of Fish-meal for Dairy Cows at Dominion Experimental Farm, Ottawa,
Ontario.—"This feed may be given to beef or dairy cattle up to 2 lb. daily per 1,000 lb.
live weight, but the animals must be accustomed to it very gradually. Many European and
American investigators report its value in milk production, showing its superiority over an v,*    ■,
n r Yiiiiinrfl1""*
™j3     " M>*
f^f
VUlkn.!
'lf%
:
PURE-BRED AYRSHIRE  COW.
Name, Picken's Patty (Imp.)   (16212) ;   born, January 17th, 1027;   sire, Stannock Endeavor
(24600) ;   dam, Picken's Melody   (16204) :   owner, Consolidated Mining and
Smelting Co., Trail, B.C.
E
fir
I*
■■-
mi
MB
""^"^^aaif
-"■siVa
PURE-BRED AYRSHIRE  COW.
Name, Kilflllan June Blossom (Imp.)   (11596);   born, March 17th, 1027 ;   sire  Cowhill
Dictator  (24526) ;   dam, Kilflllan Celery (A 8016) ;   owner, Consolidated
Mining & Smelting Co., Trail, B.C.  EDIBLE  FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 85
equal weight of cottonseed and linseed-oil meal in milk produced and that no flavours were
imparted to the milk or fat.
"At the Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ont., in 1916, an experiment was conducted
comparing fish-meal with other concentrates in the production of milk. In this trial
' Grimsby brand ' fish-meal was used, and after the first few feeds it was eaten with increasing relish and the appetite of the animals increased perceptibly.
Composition of Grain Ration.—" For this work the basis of the meal mixture
throughout the experiment was a mixture of wheat-bran 400 lb., gluten feed 200 lb., ground
oats 200 lb. The additions to this basic meal ration during the various periods were:
(1) Fish-meal, 10 per cent, addition; (2) gluten feed, 24 per cent, addition; (3) cottonseed-
meal, 15 per cent, addition; (4) linseed-oil meal, 21 per cent, addition; and (5) peanut-oil
meal, 13 per cent, addition.
Results obtained at Ottawa.—"The results of this trial, in brief, are as follow:
Compared with gluten feed (23 per cent, protein), fish-meal required 1.1 lb. meal mixture
less per 100 lb. milk produced and 39 lb. meal mixture less per 100 lb. fat produced. The
cows increased in production on fish-meal and dropped very perceptibly when again placed
on gluten. A very noticeable feature was the greatly stimulated appetites and the increased
weights of all cows when on fish-meal.
Dairy Cows always gain in Weight when fed Fish-meal.—" During this trial
the cows made a most noticeable gain in weight on fish-meal—namely, 37 lb. per animal in
fourteen days—and at the same time more than maintaining a normal milk-flow. Judging
from this, a good brand of fish-meal should be excellently suited to the feeding of beef
animals."-—Archibald.
In a personal letter to the editor, Mr. William Forrest, Superintendent of the Consolidated Company Farm at Trail, has this to say regarding fish-meal:—
" We are using 8 per cent, pilchard fish-meal in our mixture, and find it very satisfactory.
" We are using fish-meal for everything except our horses, and find the chickens and
hogs are doing even better on it than the milch cows, which have responded well."
METHODS OF FEEDING FISH-MEAL TO DAIRY COWS.
Cows fed Fish-meal are Better Satisfied.—We have just received the following
letter, dated July 20th, 1930, from Mr. L. O. Forde, who is a prominent dairyman in the
Chilliwack Valley:—■
" Dear Sir,—Dixon* tells me you wanted to get some particulars re feeding fish-meal.
I have been feeding it now for over a year and I prefer it to oil-cake meal. Cows appear to
be better satisfied; this is especially noticeable in early spring before grass comes. I feed
1 lb. a day in winter and this time of year % lb. per cow. When I started to feed fish-meal
I was very careful to mix thoroughly and feed a very small quantity; now I just throw it
in on top of their meal and all my cows lick it up clean. Trusting this will give you the
desired information, I remain, Yours sincerely, L. O. Forde/''
No Craving when fed Fish-meal.—In further explanation of Mr. Forde's remark
regarding the effect of fish-meal on his cows in early spring, we would add that it is something
like this: Many dairymen have noticed that their cows become fretful and restless along
towards spring; they appear to be craving something that they expect to get when put on
pasture; that is, they do if they have not been fed fish-meal throughout the winter. This
craving is probably for something that was lacking in the ration. Fish-meal therefore appears
to supplement ordinary hay, silage, and grain rations with those things which are known to
be lacking in such feeding-stuffs. It is also particularly interesting to note that Mr. Forde
was one of the very first dairymen in the Chilliwack Valley to adopt fish-meal as a protein
concentrate for dairy cows.
* The Dixon referred to is Mr. A. S. Dixon, Supervisor,  Chilliwack Cow-testing Association. 1 SO REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Exercise Care when feeding Fish-meal to Cows.—We offer the following letter
from Mr. H. Bose, Surrey Centre, B.C., for your consideration, as it contains some views
divergent to Mr. Forde's:—
" Dear Sir,—Re fish-meal. I have been requested by Mr. Clarke, our Tester, to write
you as to results obtained by feeding fish-meal. We use fish-meal in the poultry ration all
the time with good results. We also feed some to the dairy cows during the winter. It is
safe to feed up to 1 lb. a day per cow with good results; when we feed more we seem to
have constipation, which is an undesirable condition in a dairy herd. Great care has to be
taken in the feeding, as the fish-meal is so finely ground that it penetrates the feeder's clothes;
and it seems that the feeder has to change his outer clothes before he starts milking, as a
very little of the meal getting into the milk will cause a complaint from the dairy. There
is not any doubt but that fish-meal can be fed to poultry and dairy cattle as a cheap source
of protein.    I remain, Yours respectfully, H. Bose."
Advantage to feed Fish-meal carefully.—The foregoing letters are from dairymen
who are well known in their respective districts and their opinions are well worth while
considering. On the one hand it is stated that " I just throw it in on top of their meal,"
while, on the other hand, it is advised that considerable care be taken in handling the fish-
meal on account of the liability of tainting milk from direct contact—which is the only way
fish-meal has ever been known to taint milk. If the feeding of fish-meal necessitates sanitary
precautions in the dairy-barn it will have brought about a condition much to be desired in all
dairy-barns. Fish-meal coming in • direct contact with warm milk would give undeniable
notice of its presence, whereas other products which are sometimes fed to dairy cows are not
so easily detected and precautions against their contamination of milk may not, therefore, be
so readily adopted.
Early User of Fish-meal in B.C.—Though Mr. Bose does not mention it in his
letter, we know that he first started to feed fish-meal to his cows on March 4th, 1929, which
gives him the honour of initiating the practice in the Fraser Valley. We also recollect that
most of his cows were fall-freshened, and that therefore the March cream cheque would
rightfully have been slightly smaller than the February cheque—but it was more.
COMPARISON OF LINSEED-MEAL VERSUS EDIBLE FISH-MEAL.
(Dominion Experimental Farm, Project A. 648, Agassiz, B.C.)
Considerable quantities of edible fish-meal are being fed in the Fraser Valley, not only
to poultry and hogs, but also to dairy cattle. Due to this fact,, it was decided to commence
feeding it at this station, and when possible make some comparisons with other protein feeds.
The following rations were fed to nine cows over a period of six weeks:—
Corn silage, 50 lb. per cow per day.
Pulped mangels, 40 lb. per cow per day.
Mixed clover-hay, 5 lb. per cow per day.
Meal mixture, 12 lb. per cow per day.
The meal mixture used was made up of:—
300 lb. of bran at $36.50 per ton.
30 lb. of ground oats at $40 per ton.
100 lb. of corn-meal at $53 per ton.
Fish-meal in the Dairy Ration at Agassiz, B.C.—During the first and third
two-week periods of the trial, 50 lb. of fish-meal, costing $81 per ton, were added to this
grain ration, and during the second period, for comparison, 100 lb. of oil-meal at $65 per ton
were substituted. :■;,:..
PURE-BRED H0LSTEIN BULL.
Name, Strathmore Sylvius Pietje (70880) ;   born, July 10th, 1026 ;   sire, Matchless Sylvius
(48750) ;   dam, Strathmore Canary Pietje (61140) ;   record of dam, 16,025 lb. milk
as 2-yr.-old (in R.O.P.) ;   owner, William Weaver, Natal, B.C.
Mr. Weaver feeds fish-meal to his entire herd of dairy cows.  EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 87
No analysis of the oil-meal or fish-meal was made, but the guaranteed analysis as she
on the tags was as follows:—
Oil-cake
Meal.
Fish-meal.
Per Cent.
35
7
Max. 8
Per Cent.
70
Fat	
8
Fibre                           	
One Pound of Fish-meal equals Two Pounds of Linseed-meal.—All milk
produced by the cows was weighed and sampled for butter-fat test. The second week in
each period only was used for computation of data, the first week being allowed for transition
from one ration to another.
The following are the data obtained:—•
Fish-meal versus Linseed-meal.
Experimental Ration.
1.
Fish-meal.
2.
Linseed-meal.
3.
Fish-meal.
Average of
1 and 3,
Fish-meal.
Number of cows in experiment	
Duration of test days
Milk produced in 7 days  lb.
Average per cent, of fat  %
Fat produced in 7 days	
Hay consumed at $12 per ton	
Silage consumed at $5 per ton	
Mangels consumed at $5 per ton	
Meal consumed at 2.0107c. per pound....
Linseed-meal   consumed   at   3.25c.   per
pound	
Fish-meal consumed at 4.05c. per pound
Total  cost  of  feed	
Feed cost to produce 100 lb. milk	
Feed cost to produce 100 lb. fat	
Profit  over  feed  with  fat  at  50c. per
pound	
lb.
9
7
2,252.6
3.52
79.3172
315
3,150
2,520
706
50
30.2855
1.43 3 J4
40.7042
7.3731
9
7
2,244.1
3.51
78.7320
315
3,150
2,520
668
32.3565
1.4418
41.09701
7.0095
9
7
2,231.9
3.42
76.4398
315
3,150
2,520
706
50
32.2855
1.4465
42.2365
5.9344
9
7
2,242.25
3.47
77.8785
315
3,150
2,520
706
50
32.2855
1.43989
41.4703
6.6537
From the foregoing data it will be observed that the results were about equal. The
nine cows in seven days produced less than 2 lb. more milk when being fed the linseed-meal
ration. The test showed slightly higher at this time. When weather conditions are considered along with the very close margin of difference in results, it is safe to assume that,
with rations compounded as above, 1 lb. of fish-meal could replace 2 lb. of linseed-meal in.
a dairy-cattle ration without seriously interfering with the milk-flow.—Experimental Farm,
Agassiz, B.C., 1929 Annual Report.
Dairymen's Claims substantiated.—Further comment on this project (A. 648)
which was conducted at the Dominion Experimental Farm, Agassiz, B.C., is hardly necessary
as the results obtained are conclusive. They also substantiate claims made by individual
farmers throughout the Fraser Valley section of British Columbia. In this project the cows
were not weighed either before or after the test, but it is fairly safe to say that, even though
the test was of short duration, there would have been an increase in the body-weight of the
cows fed fish-meal, as this is usually the first thing which a new user of fish-meal notices—
the body-weight increases while the milk-flow continues at the usual level, or sometimes
increases.
Value of Balanced Ration demonstrated.—A feature of the ration fed the cows in
this project is very well worth noting—the protein requirements of these cows was exactly met. If more dairymen would give as much attention to the protein requirement of their
cows as was evidently done in this project the cost of milk production would undoubtedly
be lowered. Calculating the protein requirement of a cow is made easy by Tables Nos. 11
to 13d on pages 89 and 90 of this bulletin.
COMPOUNDING A GRAIN MIXTURE.
Grain Mixture should be suited to Roughages fed.—A few simple rules for
making up a grain mixture are given briefly below.
(1.) Make up the mixture to fit the roughage available. With roughage entirely of
the low-protein class the grain should contain approximately from 18 to 22 per cent, of
protein, while with exclusively high-protein roughage the grain ration need contain only
about 13 to 16 per cent.
(2.) Select grains that will furnish the various constituents, especially protein, at the
least cost, using home-grown grains if possible.
(3.)   Be sure that the mixture is light and bulky.
(4.)  The mixture should be palatable.
(5.)   See that the grain has the proper physiological effect upon the cow.
All these suggestions should be kept in mind in order to obtain the best possible combination of grains. For the convenience of the feeder, Table No. 10, showing the digestible
protein content of the more common grains and by-products feeds, is given. The per cent,
columns are arranged in 5 per cent, divisions.
Table No. 10.—Approximate Digestible Protein Content of Various Grains
and By-products.
Common Feeding-stuffs arranged by Average Analysis.
Average 5 per Cent.
(2.5 to  7.4 per Cent.).
Average 10 per Cent.
(7.'o to 12.4 per Cent.).
Average 15 per Cent.
(12.5 to 17.4 per Cent.).
Average 20 per Cent.
(17.5 to 22.4 per Cent.).
Corn-meal.
Wheat, ground.
Wheat-bran.
Gluten feed.
Corn-and-cob meal.
Oats, ground.
Wheat middlings.
Malt sprouts.
Hominy feed.
Barley, ground.
Dried distiller's grains
Dried brewer's grains.
Dried beet-pulp.
Rye, ground.
(rye).
Dried distiller's grains
Buckwheat, ground.
(corn).
Cocoanut-meal.
Peanut-meal with hulls.
Cow-peas.
Average 25 per Cent.
(22.5 to 27 per Cent.).
Average 30 per Cent.
(27.5 to 32.4 per Cent.).
Average 35 per Cent.
(32.5 to 37.4 per Cent.).
Average 40 per Cent.
(37.5 to 42.4 per Cent.).
Buckwheat middlings.
Gluten-meal.
Cottonseed-meal.
Peanut-meal  (hulled
Linseed-meal.
nuts).
Soy-beans.
How to find Percentage of Protein in Grain Mixture.—The per cent, of protein
in a grain mixture may be found as follows: Take any number of parts of any number of
feeds in the table, and for each part put down the per cent, of the column in which it is found.
Add these numbers and divide the sum by the number of parts.    Examples:—
1 part wheat-bran     15
1  part cottonseed-meal      35
1 part gluten feed      20
70 di.vided by 3 equals 23.3 per cent, protein.
3 parts wheat-bran (3 by 15)     45
2 parts cottonseed-meal (2 by 35)     70
1 part gluten feed (1 by 20)     20
135 divided by 6 equals 22.5 per cent, protein.
(From Farmers' Bulletin 743, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.) EDIBLE  FISH-MEAL—ITS  COMPOSITION AND  VALUE.
Protein Requirement of Dairy Cows.—■" The protein requirements of dairy cows
have received a good deal of attention. Feeding standards fix the quantity of protein to be
fed, and the estimate is usually a generous one. But the standards take no account of the
quality of the protein. We have already seen that different proteins vary widely in the
proportions in which different amino-acids enter into their composition, and it is therefore
obvious that some will be of more value for conversion into milk proteins than others."
(See Table No. 2, which gives the comparative values of various proteins.)
Calculation of the amount of protein required by a dairy cow in twenty-four hours
is easily possible by reference to the following table:—
Table No. 11.—Daily Maintenance Requirements for Dairy Cows.
Weight in Pounds
(of the Cow).
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
Weight in Pounds
(of the Cow).
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
800
850
900
950.
1,000.
1,050
1,100
1,150
Lb.
0.560
0.595
0.630
0.665
0.700
0.735
0.770
0.805
Lb.
6.340
6.725
7.132
7.517
7.925
8.310
8.717
9.102
1,200
1,250
1,300
1,350
1,400
1,450
1,500
Lb.
0.840
0.875
0.910
0.945
0.980
1.015
1.055
Lb.
9.500
9.895
10.302
10.687
11.095
11.480
11.887
Protein Requirement for Milk, in Addition to Requirement for Maintenance.
—In addition to the above amounts which are required for maintenance only, the dairy cow
will require an additional amount of protein in proportion to the amount and quality of milk
which she gives. The following table gives the amounts required in twenty-four hours,
according to Haecker's standard :—■
Table No. 12. n Digestible
Crude Protein.
Lb.
For each pound of 3.0 per cent, milk  0.047
For each pound of 3.5 per cent, milk  0.049
For each pound of 4.0 per cent, milk  0.054
For each pound of 4.5 per cent, milk  0.057
For each pound of 5.0 per cent, milk  0.060
For each pound of 5.5 per cent, milk  0.064
For each pound of 6.0 per cent, milk  0.067
For quicker reference, the following tables should be consulted:—
Table No. 13.—Requirements for producing 3.5 Per Cent. Milk.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
20 lb. milk	
Lb.
0.980-1.220
1.470-1.830
1.960-2.440
2.450-3.040
2.940-3.660
Lb.
5.680- 6.320
30 lb. milk	
8.520- 9.480
40 lb. milk	
11.360-12.640
50 lb. milk	
14.200-15.800
60 lb. milk	
17.040-18.960 1 90
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP FISHERIES, 1930.
Table No. 13a.—Requirements for producing 4 Per Cent. Milk.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
20 lb. milk    	
Lb.
1.080-1.300
1.620-1.950
2.160-2.600
2.700-3.250
3.240-3.900
Lb.
6.220- 6.920
30 lb. milk    .           	
9.330-10.380
40 lb. milk	
12.440-13.840
50 lb. milk	
15.550-17.300
60 lb. milk	
18.660-20.760
Table No. 13b.—Requirements for producing 4.5 Per Cent. Milk.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
15 lb. milk    	
Lb.
0.855-1.035
1.140-1.380
1.170-2.070
2.280-2.760
2.850-3.450
Lb.
5.070- 5.640
20 lb. milk	
6.760- 7.520
30 lb. milk	
10.140-11.280
40 lb. milk	
13.520-15.040
50 lb. milk    .           	
16.900-18.800
Table No. 13c—Requirements for producing 5 Per Cent. Milk.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
15  lb. milk	
Lb.
0.900-1.095
1.200-1.460
1.800-2.190
2.400-2.920
3.000-3.650
Lb.
5.430- 6.030
20 lb. milk	
7.240- 8.040
30 lb. milk	
10.860-12.060
40 lb. milk	
14.480-16.080
50 lb. milk	
18.100-20.100
Table No. 13d.—Requirements for producing 5.5 Per Cent. Milk.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
15 lb. milk    	
Lb.
0.960-1.155
1.280-1.540
1.920-2.310
2.560-3.080
3.200-3.850
Lb.
5.775- 6.420
20 lb. milk                                    	
7.700- 8.560
30 lb. milk	
11.550-12.840
40 lb. milk    .           	
15.400-17.120
50 lb. milk	
19.250-21.400 EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 91
Using the Tables to calculate a Ration.
Example: A 1,000-lb. cow giving 30 lb. 4 per cent. milk.
Requirements for Maintenance.
igestible Crude
Protein.
Lb.
Total Digestible
Nutrients.
Lb.
0.700
7.925
(For
30
lb.
4
per
cent.
milk.)
1.620
9.330
2.320
17.255
The following ration would provide the amount and kind of food required:—
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
8 lb. mixed hay	
40 lb. corn silage	
8 lb. oat-chop	
V/u lb. pilchard-meal	
Amount required
Amount fed	
Lb.
0.320
0.400
0.780
0.904
Lb.
3.700
7.200
5.630
1.040
2.404
17.570
2.320
2.404
17.255
17.570
It is advisable to slightly overfeed, as in this instance, than to underfeed.
Table No. 14.—British Columbia Pilchard-meal.
Average Analysis. per Cent_
Moisture     6.80
Oil     7.70
Nitrogen  10.50
Protein '.  65.62
Phosphoric acid     5.60
Bone phosphate  12.20
Feeding Value of Various Amounts
ol Pilrhard-mpal                                                                                Digestible Total
oj rucnara-meai.                                                                          Crude Digestible
Protein. Nutrients.
Lb. Lb.
54  lb     0.151 0.173
Va lb     0.301 0.347
VA lb     0.452 0.519
1 lb     0.603 0.693
2 lb     1.206 1.386
3 lb      1.809 2.079
4 lb     2.412 2.772
5 lb     3.015 3.465
6 lb     3.618 4.158
7 lb     4.221 4.851
8 lb     4.824 5.544
9 lb     5.427 6.237
10 lb     6.037 6.930 I 92
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES,  1930.
Table No. 15.
(University of Wisconsin Special Circular, May, 1923.)
Computing Rations is simplified by Use of these Tables.
Baelby.
Beet-pulp, Dkied.
Dry
Matter.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
Amount.
Dry
Matter.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
0.23
0.02
0.20
0.25
0.23
0.01
0.18
0.45
0.04
0.40
0.50
0.46
0.02
0.36
0.68
0.07
0.60
0.75
0.69
0.03
0.54
0.91
0.09
0.79
1.00
0.92
0.05
0.72
1.81
0.18
1.59
2.00
1.84
0.09
1.43
2.72
0.27
2.38
3.00
2.75
0.14
2.15
3.63
0.36
3.18
4.00
3.67
0.18
2.86
4.54
0.45
3.97
5.00
4.59
0.23
3.58
5.44
0.54
4.76
6.00
5.51
0.28
4.30
6.35
0.63
5.56
7.00
6.43
0.32
5.01
7.26
0.72
6.35
8.00
7.34
0.37
5.73
8.16
0.81
7.15
9.00
8.26
0.41
6.44
9.10
0.90
7.90
10.00
9.20
0.50
7.20
Corn, Dent.
Oats.
0.22
0.02
0.21
0.25
0.23
0.02
0.18
0.45
0.04
0.43
0.50
0.45
0.05
0.35
0.67
0.06
0.64
0.75
0.68
0.07
0.53
0.90
0.08
0.86
1.00
0.91
0.10
0.70
1.79
0.15
1.71
2.00
1.82
0.19
1.41
2.68
0.22
2.57
3.00
2.72
0.29
2.11
3.58
0.30
3.43
4.00
3.63
0.39
2.82
4.48
0.38
4.28
5.00
4.54
0.48
3.52
5.37
0.45
5.14
6.00
5.45
0.58
4.22
6.26
0.52
6.00
7.00
6.36
0.68
4.93
7.16
0.60
6.86
8.00
7.26
0.78
5.63
8.06
0.68
7.71
9.00
8.17
0.87
6.34
9.00
0.80
8.60
10.00
9.10
1.00
7.00
Rye.
Bran, Wheat.
0.23
0.02
0.20
0.25
0.22
0.03
0.15
0.45
0.05
0.40
0.50
0.45
0.06
0.30
0.68
0.07
0.61
0.75
0.67
0.09
0.46
0.91
0.10
0.81
1.00
0.90
0.12
0.61
1.81
0.20
1.62
2.00
1.80
0.25
1.22
2.72
0.30
2.43
3.00
2.70
0.38
1.83
3.62
0.40
3.24
4.00
3.60
0.50
2.44
4.53
0.50
4.05
5.00
4.50
0.62
3.04
5.44
0.59
4.86
6.00
5.39
0.75
3.65
6.34
0.69
5.67
7.00
6.29
0.88
4.26
7.25
0.79
6.48
8.00
7.19
1.00
4.87
8.15
0.89
7.29
9.00
8.09
1.12
5.48
9.10
1.00
8.10
10.00
9.00
1.20
6.10 EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 93
Table No. 15—Continued.
Middlings, Wheat, Standard.
Brewer's Grains, Dried.
Dry
Matter.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
Amount.
Dry
Matter.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
0.22
0.03
0.17
0.25
0.23
0.05
0.16
0.45
0.07
0.35
0.50
0.46
0.11
0.33
0.67
0.10
0.52
0.75
0.69
0.16
0.49
0.90
0.13
0.69
1.00
0.92
0.22
0.66
1.79
0.27
1.39
2.00
1.85
0.43
1.31
2.68
0.40
2.08
3.00
2.78
0.64
1.97
3.58
0.54
2.77
4.00
3.70
0.86
2.63
4.48
0.67
3.46
5.00
4.62
1.08
3.28
5.37
0.80
4.16
6.00
5.55
1.29
3.94
6.26
0.94
4.85
7.00
6.48
1.50
4.60
7.16
1.07
5.54
8.00
7.40
1.72
5.26
8.06
1.21
6.24
9.00
8.32
1.94
5.91
9.00
1.30
6.90
10.00
9.20
2.20
6.60
Distiller's Grains, Dried, from Corn.
Gluten Feed.
0.23
0.05
0.22
0.25
0.23
0.05
0.20
0.47
0.11
0.44
0.50
0.46
0.11
0.40
0.70
0.17
0.67
0.75
0.68
0.16
0.60
0.93
0.22
0.89
1.00
0.91
0.22
0.81
1.87
0.45
1.78
2.00
1.83
0.43
1.61
2.80
0.67
2.67
3.00
2.74
0.65
2.42
3.74
0.90
3.56
4.00
3.65
0.86
3.23
4.67
1.12
4.44
5.00
4.57
1.08
4.04
5.60
1.34
5.33
6.00
5.48
1.30
4.84
6.54
1.57
6.22
7.00
6.39
1.51
5.65
7.47
1.79
7.11
8.00
7.30
1.73
6.46
8.41
2.02
8.00
9.00
8.22
1.94
7.26
9.30
2.20
8.90
10.00
9.10
2.20
8.10
Cottonseed-meal, Choice.
Linseed-meal, Old Process.
0.23
0.09
0.20
0.25
0.23
0.08
0.19
0.46
0.18
0.39
0.50
0.45
0.15
0.39
0.69
0.28
0.59
0.75
0.68
0.23
0.58
0.92
0.37
0.78
1.00
0.91
0.30
0.78
1.85
0.74
1.56
2.00
1.82
0.60
1.56
2.78
1.11
2.35
3.00
2.73
0.91
2.34
3.70
1.48
3.13
4.00
3.64
1.21
3.12
4.62
1.85
3.91
5.00
4.54
1.51
3.90
5.55
2.22
4.69
6.00
5.45
1.81
4.67
6.48
2.59
5.47
7.00
6.36
2.11
5.45
7.40
2.96
6.26
8.00
7.27
2.42
6.23
8.32
3.33
7.04
9.00
8.18
2.72
7.01
9.20
3.70
7.80
10.00
9.10
3.00
7.80 I 94
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Table No. 15—Continued.
So
y-bean Oil Meal.
Alfalfa-hay.
Dry
Matter.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
Amount.
Dry
Matter.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
0.22
0.10
0.21
0.25
0.45
0.20
0.42
0.50
0.67
0.30
0.63
0.75
0.90
0.40
0.84
1.00
0.91
0.11
0.52
1.79
0.79
1.69
2.00
1.83
0.21
1.03
2.68
1.19
2.54
3.00
2.74
0.32
1.55
•  3.58
1.59
3.38
4.00
3.66
0.42
2.06
4.48
1.98
4.22
5.00
4.57
0.53
2.58
5.37
2.38
5.07
6.00
5.48
0.64
3.10
6.26
2.78
5.92
7.00
6.40
0.74
3.61
7.16
3.18
6.76
8.00
7.31
0.85
4.13
8.06
3.57
7.60
9.00
8.23
0.95
4.64
9.00
4.00
8.40
10.00
9.10
1.10
5.20
Clover and Timothy.
Clover-hay, Red.
0.88
0.04
0.46
1.00
0.87
0.08
0.51
1.76
0.08
0.92
2.00
1.74
0.15
1.02
2.63
0.12
1.39
3.00
2.61
0.23
1.53
3.51
0.16
1.85
4.00
3.48
0.30
2.04
4.39
0.20
2.31
5.00
4.36
0.38
2.54
5.27
0.24
2.77
6.00
5.23
0.46
3.05
6.15
0.28
3.23
7.00
6.10
0.53
3.56
7.02
0.32
3.70
8.00
6.97
0.61
4.07
7.90
0.36
4.16
9.00
7.84
0.68
4.58
8.80
0.40
4.60
10.00
8.70
0.80
5.10
Clover-hay, Alsike.
Pea and Oat Hay.
0.88
0.08
0.47
1.00
0.83
0.08
0.49
1.75
0.16
0.95
2.00
1.67
0.17
0.98
2.63
0.24
1.42
3.00
2.50
0.25
1.46
3.51
0.32
1.89
4.00
3.34
0.33
1.95
4.38
0.40
2.36
5.00
4.17
0.42
2.44
5.26
0.47
2.84
6.00
5.00
0.50
2.93
6.14
0.55
3.31
7.00
5.84
0.58
3.42
7.02
0.63
3.78
8.00
6.67
0.66
3.90
7.89
0.71
4.26
9.00
7.51
0.75
4.39
8.80
0.80
4.70
10.00
8.30
0.80
4.90
Timothy-hay, All Analyses.
Corn Silage, Well Matured.
0.88
0.03
0.48
1.00
0.26
0.01
0.18
1.77
0.06
0.97
2.00
0.53
0.02
0.35
2.65
0.09
1.46
3.00
0.79
0.03
0.53
3.54
0.12
1.94
4.00
1.05
0.04
0.71
4.42
0.15
2.42
5.00
1.32
0.06
0.88
5.30
0.18
2.91
6.00
1.58
0.07
1.06
6.19
0.21
3.40
7.00
1.84
0.08
1.24
7.07
0.24
3.88
8.00
2.10
0.09
1.42
7.96
0.27
4.36
9.00
2.37
0.10
1.59
8.80
0.30
4.80
10.00
2.60
0.10
1.80 EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 95
Table No. 15—Continued.
Oat and Pea Silage.
Pea-cannery Refuse Silage.
Dry
Matter.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
Amount.
Dry
Matter.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
0.28
0.03
0.18
1.00
0.23
0.02
0.15
0.55
0.06
0.35
2.00
0.46
0.03
0.30
0.82
0.08
0.53
3.00
0.70
0.05
0.45
1.10
0.11
0.70
4.00
0.93
0.06
0.60
1.38
0.14
0.88
5.00
1.16
0.08
0.75
1.65
0.17
1.06
6.00
1.39
0.10
0.90
1.92
0.20
1.23
7.00
1.62
0.11
1.05
2.20
0.22
1.41
8.00
1.86
0.13
1.20
2.48
0.25
1.58
9.00
2.09
0.14
1.35
2.80
0.30
1.80
10.00
2.30
0.20
1.50
Carrots.
Beets, Sugar.
0.12
0.01
0.10
1.00
0.16
0.01
0.14
0.23
0.02
0.20
2.00
0.33
0.02
0.28
0.35
0.03
0.30
3.00
0.49
0.04
0.42
0.47
0.04
0.40
4.00
0.66
0.05
0.56
0.58
0.04
0.50
5.00
0.82
0.06
0.70
0.70
0.05
0.59
6.00
0.98
0.07
0.84
0.82
0.06
0.69
7.00
1.15
0.08
0.98
0.94
0.07
0.79
8.00
1.31
0.10
1.12
1.05
0.08
0.89
9.00
1.48
0.11
1.26
1.20
0.10
1.00
10.00
1.60
0.11
1.40
Mangels.
Potatoes.
0.09
0.01
0.07
1.00
0.21
0.01
0.17
0.19
0.02
0.15
2.00
0.42
0.02
0.34
0.28
0.02
0.22
3.00
0.64
0.03
0.51
0.38
0.03
0.30
4.00
0.85
0.04
0.68
0.47
0.04
0.37
5.00
1.06
0.06
0.86
0.56
0.05
0.44
6.00
1.27
0.07
1.03
0.66
0.06
0.52
7.00
1.48
0.08
1.20
0.75
0.06
0.59
8.00
1.70
0.09
1.37
0.85
0.07
0.67
9.00
1.91
0.10
1.54
0.90
I
0.10
0.70
10.00
2.10
0.10
1.70
Rutabagas.
Amount.
Dry
Matter.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
Amount.
Dry
Matter.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
1.00
0.11
0.01
0.09
6.00
0.65
0.06
0.56
2.00
0.22
0.02
0.19
7.00
0.76
0.07
0.66
3.00
0.33
0.03
0.28
8.00
0.87
0.08
0.75
4.00
0.44
0.04
0.38
9.00
0.98
0.09
0.85
5.00
0.54
0.05
0.47
10.00
1.10
0.10
0.90 I 96
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Table No. 16.
Simple Method of computing Cost of Feeding-stuffs.—To use the table, multiply
the coefficients for a given feed by the market price per ton. The results will be the cost
in cents a pound for the respective nutrients. An example: To determine the cost per pound
of total digestible nutrients in corn at $40 per ton, multiply $40 by 0.058, and the result
is 2.32 cents.
Kind of Feed.
Coefficients.
Total
Digestible
Nutrients.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
0.063
0.555
0.069
1.087
0.058
0.667
0.082
4.545
0.071
0.515
0.109
1.000
0.062
0.505
0.082
0.400
0.086
0.352
0.075
0.367
0.072
0.373
0.067
0.409
0.076
0.232
0.063
0.266
0.064
0.135
0.066
0.149
0.056
0.233
0.062
0.231
0.064
0.166
0.060
0.131
0.070
0.083
0.096
0.472
0.098
0.657
0.106
0.633
0.108
1.250
0.102
0.602
0.093
0.427
0.101
1.852
0.103
1.667
0.091
1.064
0.282
4.545
0.290
3.125
0.490
5.555
0.357
4.166
0.505
5.555
0.675
6.250
0.292
4.545
0.532
5.000
Carbonaceous concentrates—■
Barley	
Beet-pulp, dried	
Corn, Dent	
Molasses, beet	
Oats	
Oat feed, low-grade	
Rye-
Concentrates medium in protein—
Bran, wheat	
Cottonseed feed	
Distiller's grains, dry, rye	
Middlings, wheat, standard	
Rye feed	
Concentrates high in protein—■
Brewer's grains, dried	
Cocoanut-meal, low in fat	
Cottonseed-meal, choice	
Cottonseed-meal, prime	
Distiller's grains, dry, corn	
Gluten feed, high-grade	
Linseed-meal, O.P	
Soy-bean meal, fat extracted	
Fish-meal	
Dried roughage—
Alfalfa-hay	
Clover-hay, red	
Clover-hay, alsike	
Clover and timothy	
Pea and oat hay	
Soy-bean hay	
Sudan hay	
Timothy-hay	
Timothy-hay, cut before bloom..
Silage-
Corn, well-matured	
Pea-cannery refuse	
Roots and tubers—
Beets, common	
Beets, sugar	
Carrots	
Mangels	
Potatoes	
Rutabagas	
(From Special Circular, May, 1923, College of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin, Madison.) EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 97
FISH-MEAL IN THE DAIRY RATION.
Some Suggested Rations.
Percentage of Fish-meal to be used.
Digestible
Crude
Protein.
Crude
Protein.
(1.) 300 lb. ground wheat..
300 lb. ground barley..
300 lb. ground oats	
100 lb. fish-meal	
Average	
(2.) 600 lb. ground oats	
300 lb. screenings	
100 lb. fish-meal	
Average	
(3.) 900 lb. ground oats	
100 lb. fish-meal	
Average	
Per Cent.
9.2
9.0
9.7
58.5
14.5
Per Cent.
12.4
11.5
12.4
65.0
14.1
17.3
9.7
9.2
58.5
12.4
12.0
65.0
14.4
17.5
9.7
58.5
12.4
65.0
17.6
Use more Fish-meal with Low-protein Roughages.—Use either of above rations
with alfalfa-hay and feed 1 lb. grain mixture to 3 or 3J4 lb. milk.
If good mixed hay is being fed, increase the amount of fish-meal by 50 per cent, (that
is, use 150 lb.) and feed 1 lb. grain mixture to 3 or 3T/i lb. milk.
If timothy-hay is being fed, increase the amount of fish-meal to 200 lb. and feed 1 lb.
grain mixture to 3 or 3^4 lb. milk.
Mineral supplements are not usually required when pilchard-meal is fed.
METHOD OF MODIFYING AN EXISTING DAIRY RATION TO
INCLUDE FISH-MEAL.
Pilchard-meal replaces other Protein Concentrates.
Quantity
in Use.
Ingredient.
Quantity to
Use.
500
300
300
200
200
300
300
None
300
600
Wheat-bran	
Pulverized oats	
Linseed oil-cake meal...
Soya-bean meal	
Cottonseed-meal	
Ground barley	
Corn-meal	
Pilchard-meal	
Dried brewer's grains-
Dried distiller's grains..
500
300
200   (100 out)
000   (all out)
000   (all out)
550  (250 add)
300
250
300
600
Cost of Ration reduced by Substitution of Fish-meal.—Thus, by taking out
100 lb. linseed oil-cake meal, 200 lb. soy-bean meal, and 200 lb. cottonseed-meal, and
substituting therefor 250 lb. pilchard-meal and 250 lb. ground barley, the total quantity is
the same; the percentage of digestible protein is also about the same, but the price will have
been reduced by about $3.50 per ton.
Easy to change over to Ration containing Fish-meal.—If such a change were
made your cows would take quite readily to the " modified " ration if it were substituted
for the regular ration at the rate of about 10 per cent, per day; that is, if you intended
feeding a cow 10 lb. grain, just give her 9 lb. of the old ration and 1 lb. of the new on the
first day, 8 and 2 lb. the next day, 7 and 3 lb. the third day, and so on, taking ten days to
make the complete change.
7 I 98
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES,  1930.
FISH-MEAL COMPARED WITH COTTONSEED-MEAL.
Three Pounds Fish-meal fed daily.—The fish-meal used in this experiment was
prepared under the direction of F. C. Weber, Bureau of Chemistry. It was made from the
waste in the canning of sardines by pressing out most of the oil and then drying and grinding
the residue. The fish-meal was fed to six cows for two periods of seventy days each in
comparison with cottonseed-meal. The other concentrates used in the ration were equal
parts of corn-meal and wheat-bran. Alfalfa-hay was fed to each cow at the rate of 6 lb.
a day with as much corn silage as would be consumed without waste. Fish-meal and
cottonseed-meal were each supplied at the rate of 3 lb. per cow daily until near the end of
the experiment, when it became evident that the fish-meal was superior to the cottonseed-meal.
The allowance of fish-meal was then reduced and that of cottonseed-meal increased for the
purpose of controlling the live weight.
Table A gives the analyses of the feeds used in this experiment; Table B shows the
production, feed, and gain in body-weight; and Table C the ration of feed consumed to
butter-fat produced.
Table A.—Composition of Fish-meal and Cottonseed-meal.
Feed.
Moisture.
Ash.
Crude
Protein.
Albuminoid
Protein.
Ether
Extract.
Crude
Fibre.
Nitrogen-
free
Extract.
Per Cent.
5.82
7.12
Per Cent.
17.60
6.30
Per Cent.
61.07
38.65
Per Cent.
37.56
Per Cent.
15.51
7.89
Per Cent.
9.97
Per Cent.
Cottonseed-meal	
30.07
Table B.—Comparative Results of feeding Fish-meal and Cottonseed-meal.
Quantity of Feed.
Yield.
Gain in
Body-
weight.
Group.
Grain.
Fish-
meal.
Cottonseed
Meal.
Alfalfa-
hay.
Corn
Silage.
Milk.
Butter-
fat.
Fish-meal groups....
Cottonseed-meal
Lb.
2,017
2,030
Lb.
930.9
Lb.
1,168
Lb.
2,026
2,019
Lb.
10,410
10,019
Lb.
7,829.5
7,754.1
Lb.
350.22
354.53
Lb.
99.5
75.5
Table C.—Feed consumed for each Pound of Butter-fat produced in
Fish-meal Experiment.*
Group.
Grain.
Fish-meal.
Cottonseed-
meal.
Alfalfa-
hay.
Corn
Silage.
Fish-meal groups	
Lb.
5.76
5.73
Lb.
2.66
Lb.
3.29
Lb.
5.78
5.69
Lb.
29.7
28.3
* This experiment indicates that 1 lb. of fish-meal is equal to about 1.24 lb. of cottonseed-meal.
Cows fed Fish-meal gain in Weight.—It will be noted that the fish-meal groups
produced slightly more milk but a trifle less butter-fat, while the grain and alfalfa-hay were
practically the same for each group. The fish-meal groups consumed almost 400 lb. more
silage, but to offset this they gained 24 lb. more in body-weight than the other group.
Perhaps it may be assumed that one will about balance the other, and if so we have a direct
comparison between the fish-meal and cottonseed-meal. Apparently, for dairy cows, the
fish-meal is worth pound for pound 20 or 25 per cent, more than cottonseed-meal. EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 99
Fish-meal did not impair Milk Flavour.—Fish-meal is not so palatable as cottonseed-meal, though no difficulty was experienced in getting the cows to eat all that was offered
them. No bad effects on the physical condition of the cows were observed. The flavour of
the milk apparently was not impaired in any way either by exposing milk to the odour of
fish-meal or by feeding the cows 4 lb. of the fish-meal one hour before milking. While it
cannot be positively stated that fish-meal has no bad effect whatever on the flavour and
odour of milk, such effect, if any, is so slight as to be unnoticed by the ordinary consumer.
High Oil Content of Fish-meal not Detrimental.—In the foregoing project,
planned to establish the merit of fish-meal in comparison with cottonseed-meal, it is worth
while noting that the fish-meal used contained 15.51 per cent, of fat (ether extract) and
that no objections to such a high oil content were noticed.
Fish-meal require'd to maintain Body-weight and Milk Production.—As in all
other trials with fish-meal in the dairy ration, it is seen in this one that the animals made a
notable gain in weight. It is not at all likely, however, that this gain in weight was fat,
but more likely it was lean meat (protein). Always, whenever the proper quality and
quantity of protein is supplied to an animal in milk, continued high production is possible
without the usual loss of body-weight consequent upon the use of protein concentrates
deficient in one or more of the essential amino-acids. Fish-meal protein is " complete " in
that it contains all of the amino-acids found in milk; therefore its use in the dairy ration is
necessary if high milk production plus maintenance of body-weight is to be expected.
THE FEEDING OF FISH-MEAL TO CALVES.
Feed the Calf carefully.—" Probably more than any other animal, the calf, deprived
prematurely of its natural food, requires most careful attention as to feeding. It is essential
that any artificial substitutes used for calf-rearing should be as nearly as possible comparable
in constitution to cow's milk, and for this reason: the use of some protein of animal derivation
is demanded. It is also necessary to ensure that the calf-meal contains adequate supplies of
the mineral matter which is so important a constituent of milk. The calf-meal should also
be easily digested. Fish-meal represents, therefore, an excellent ingredient for a meal for
this purpose, and its use is attended with success.
Substitutes for Whole Milk.—" Methods of calf-rearing vary considerably, but, in
general, the calves receive whole milk for the first three weeks of their lives, from which time
substitution in some form or other is gradually made. In dairying districts whey or separated
milk may be used, whilst in others as the milk is reduced the supply of dry mixture is
introduced, water being also given.
Fish-meal and Oatmeal Porridge for Calves.—" In the experiments of the West
of Scotland Agricultural College, a mixture consisting of % oatmeal and Yz fish-meal, made
into porridge with boiling water and then fed along with whey, gave good results. ' The
calves took quite kindly to this ration from the very beginning, no difficulty being experienced
in getting them to take it.' In the same trials a mixture of 2 parts thirds (shorts) and 1 part
fish-meal, also fed as porridge with whey, gave quite satisfactory results, and again no
difficulty was experienced in getting the calves to take readily to the ration.
Fish-meal used in Dry Grain Mixtures.—•" With regard to dry mixtures for calf-
feeding, the following are recommended by Mr. James Mackintosh, of the National Institute
for Research in Dairying:—• parts.
(1.)  Linseed-cake     4
Maize  (corn)  meal   3
Fish-meal    1
(2.)  Linseed-cake    4
Bean-meal     4
Crushed oats  4
Maize  (corn)  meal   3
Fish-meal   1 I 100
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Parts.
(3.)  Linseed-cake   -  3
Crushed oats   3
Barley-meal or flaked maize  ,  3
Fish-meal  1
Amounts of Fish-meal and Grain to feed.—" These meals are gradually introduced
after the third week as the milk is reduced in quantity, commencing with a handful daily
and increasing until the calf is getting about 2J4 lb. daily at about six weeks old and rather
more at three months."—Carrie.
Fish-meal Minerals Ideal Substitute for Milk Minerals.—" Meals and cakes
vary in composition according to their source. In general they are .poor in lime and rich in
phosphorus. Fish-meal made from the bones and soft tissues of fish is very rich in mineral
matter, which, in composition, approximates somewhat closely that required for growth or
milk formation.    The same is true, of course, of the dry matter of milk residues."—Orr.
Table No. 17.—Normal Weight of Dairy-breed Females during the
Growing Period to Time of First Calving.
(From North Dakota Agricultural College, Circular 51.     Copied from
Missouri Research Bulletin No. 36.)
Compare the Weights of your Calves by this Table.
Normal Weights in Pounds.
Holsteins.
Jerseys.
Ayrshires.
Shorthorns.
Birth	
90
121
157
200
249
302
349
389
425
466
501
529
558
574
596
612
643
660
686
715
746
774
796
824
841
869
893
925
966
994
1,021
55
76
105
140
174
222
260
302
340
376
407
432
456
480
503
520
533
553
572
598
621
649
668
689
716
737
758
770
784
804
1
69
90
128
170
218
254
286
304
336
361
406
427
456
485
533
547
560
579
604
627
651
679
707
733
759
798
807
859
73
1	
118
2	
,133
3...	
174
4	
225
5 	
268
6	
316
7	
348
8	
419
9	
466
10	
538
11	
576
12 	
547
13	
564
14 :	
579
15  -..
617
16	
627
17 	
642
18    	
668  •
19	
695
20 	
728
21 	
745
22	
741
23 	
821
24 	
845
25	
845
26 	
877
27    	
885
28    	
922
29 	
928
30	
998 PURE-BRED holstein heifer.
Name, Canary Pietje Mechthilde (203803) ;   born, September 23rd, 192S ;   sire, Strathmore
Sylvius Pietje (70839) ;   dam, Strathmore Texaline Mechthilde  (70078) ;
owner, William Weaver, Natal, B.C.
Feed fish-meal to your calves.     Mr. Weaver recommends it.  EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 101
Weight and Gains made by Hand-fed Calves at the Montana Experimental Station.
At Bibth.
At
76 Days.
At
168 Days.
At "259 Days.
No.
Av. Wt.
No.
Av. Wt.
No.
Av. Wt.
No.
Av. Wt.
Holsteins—
Males _	
44
47
15
28
100.7
95.2
60.5
54.2
37
38
10
27
219.4
206.7
139.1
126.6
28
37
9
27
419.9
362.1
302.8
256.6
17
34
6
26
623.5
532.4
Jerseys—■
466.7
377.7
Different Strains may grow at Different Rates.—Table No. 17, page 100, gives
the normal weight of dairy-breed females during the growing period to time of first calving.
It is altogether likely that the figures in this table should be considered with reservations, for
it is possible that certain " strains " or " families " of dairy cattle may be either above or
below these figures for any given age and still be " normal " so far as that particular strain
is concerned.
Normal and Optimum Gains considered.—It is also a debatable point whether
" normal" weights, such as those given in Table No. 17, are anything like optimum weights;
and as we know of no tables giving the optimum weights of dairy-breed females, we have
no real basis for comparing the weights of certain calves which are far in excess of the
normal weights given. We are, therefore, presenting the following data for the interest
it is sure to excite amongst dairymen who desire to exceed the normal rate of growth.
Whether or not there is any advantage in increasing the normal rate of growth we are not
prepared to argue at the moment, but it would appear that, within reason, the normal rate
of gain might be exceeded without any harm.
Pure-bred Holstein Calves weighed for Comparison.
Calf No.
790.
800.
801.
802.
Date born	
Weight, Jan. 7/30
Weight, Jan. 29/30.
Weight, Feb. 12/30.
Weight, Feb. 26/30.
Weight, Mar. 12/30
Weight, Mar. 26/30
Weight, Apr. 23/30
Weight, May 22/30
11/22/29
175
215
251
276
320
365
415
500
11/22/29
155
195
222
246
284
330
365
440
11/23/29
11/28/29
204
238
276
307
355
415
475
188
220
258
298
340
380
460
Normal Weights easily exceeded.—From the foregoing figures it will be seen that
Calf No. 799 at six months of age was 151 lb. heavier than " normal " in Table No. 17;
at three months of age, however, the same calf was only 55 lb. above normal. On January
7th Calves 799 and 800 were given in addition to their regular ration about 2 oz. daily of
a mixture of fish-meal and dried kelp, the amount being gradually increased until at about
five months they were each getting ]/2 lb. daily of the supplement. About 15 lb. of fish-meal
and kelp have, therefore, brought about well over 100 lb. of gain.
The regular ration of Calves 801 and 802 was supplemented on January 29th, 1930,
according to the following plan:—
Simple Method of supplementing Calf Ration.—Pilchard-meal was added to the
ration at the rate of 1 oz. daily for 1 week, then 2 oz. daily for 2 weeks, then 4 oz. daily
for 4 weeks, then 8 oz. daily for 8 weeks, and so on. Fish-meal Supplement Accounts for Additional Gains.—When these calves were
a little over two months old they were 47 and 31 lb. each above normal weight; at about
six months of age they were 126 and 111 lb. each above normal. These calves (799 to 802)
were considered by judges with the highest qualifications to be in the " pink " of condition
each time they were weighed.
The amounts of gain from the fifth to the sixth month is, respectively, 85, 75, 60,
and 90 lb., which is from 2 to.3 lb. gain each day as against a maximum of \l/2 lb. daily as
given in Table No. 17.
From Two to Three Pounds daily gained by Calves on Fish-meal.—Very
small amounts of fish-meal added to a ration for a young calf apparently accounts for nearly
3 lb. of gain for each pound fed; that is economical growth, and easily obtained by any one
wishing to have his calves grow at a rate in excess of " normal."
WHAT USERS OF FISH-MEAL SAY ABOUT IT.
Mr. Alfred Johnson, Supervisor, North Okanagan Cow-testing Association, writes
to us in part as follows:—■
" The members of our Cow-testing Association have been using fish-meal. Mr. Ivan H.
Wright, a very successful dairyman, used it all last winter and spring instead of oil-cake
meal. His cows did well on this feed. He used half as much as he would have with
oil-cake meal. Fish-meal was $4 and oil-cake meal $3.50 per 100 lb., so there was a considerable saving. Mr. Alan Allardice, another member, uses it right along in his mixture
for pig-feed. I do not know the proportion he uses, but his pigs certainly fatten up quicker
than most pigs in this district. They get a fair amount of milk, barley-chop, and fish-meal,
but no green feed at all. Mr. F. Ibbotson also uses fish-meal as a high protein ingredient
of the grain mixture for cows."
T. H. Jagger, V.S., B.V.Sc, of Vancouver, writes the editor in part as follows:—
" Fish-meal for dairy cows. I am very interested in this subject, and while I have no
direct evidence to offer, yet I feel that it will prove to be a valuable supplement food for
cattle. A lot of our dairy cows give evidence of a lack of some element, or elements, in
their present food-supply. It is just possible that the feeding of fish-meal may correct some
of this deficiency."
THE INFLUENCE OF FEEDING ON HEALTH.
Cumulative Effect of Deficiencies in Rations.—" One would expect that the evil
effects of improper feeding would be specially marked in heavy-milking cows. They are
often stall-fed, on a monotonous diet, for months on end, so that the effects of deficiency or
excess of any constituent of the ration would tend to be cumulative, and the drain on the
body, caused by the secretion of milk, would tend to exhaust any reserves which, in the case
of a non-lactating animal, might tide it over until the defect was rectified by a change in
the ration.
Tuberculosis, Abortion, and Sterility in Dairy Cows.—"There are no statistics
available to show to what extent disease is prevalent among dairy cows. It is known, however, that preventable disease causes a heavy loss. A majority of the cows in this country
are victims of tuberculosis; abortion has become a serious menace to the whole industry, and
sterility is one of the bugbears of the breeder of heavy milkers. Unfortunately, we have no
figures to show whether or not there has been an increase in the incidence of these diseases
associated with the increase in milk yield and the increase in the use of commercial byproducts, which, as we have seen, form an imperfectly balanced ration for milk production.
But what evidence is available seems to indicate that there is a casual relationship between
these diseases and the feeding of a ration that is deficient in certain essential substances
required for milk production. Forbes (19), of the Ohio Experimental Station, U.S.A.,
attempted to collect evidence on this subject. Such information as he was able to obtain
indicated that heavy milkers, with long lactation periods, were specially liable to sterility. EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 103
Effect of Feed on Resistance to Disease.—" In a previous article in the ' Transactions' (2), the writer has referred to the difficulty in obtaining information with regard
to the correlation between tuberculosis and the depletion of the cow's tissues caused by heavy
milking on an imperfect diet. The data that do exist, however, suggest that a high milk
yield and an imperfect diet predispose to infection. Recently some observations have been
made at the Beltsville Experimental Station, U.S.A., by Meigs (20) and his associates,
who report as follows: ' There is one other aspect of the case which must be discussed.
Quite apart from the question of the feed cost per pound of milk when a cow's yield is reduced
by feeding a ration deficient in one or more necessary constituents, is the question of the
effect of this process on her capacity to resist disease. The Beltsville herd has suffered
severely in the last three years from contagious abortion. The relation between the incidence
of this disease and the manner in which the cows have been fed is being carefully studied
at present, and the results of this study will be reported later. The results already obtained,
however, are sufficient to justify a strong suspicion that abortion has occurred more frequently
among the animals that were less adequately fed.'
Proper Feeding may reduce Number of T.B. Reactors.—" This view, that
imperfect feeding is a very important factor contributing to the prevalence of these diseases,
is now shared by many of the practical experts in this country with whom the writer has
been in communication. This aspect of the question ought to be considered in all discussions
with regard to the prevention or cure of these diseases. If, for example, a high milk yield
associated with a faulty ration predisposes to tuberculosis, the policy of wholesale slaughter
of tuberculous cows is likely to be more remarkable for its expense than for its success.
Slaughter serves two purposes—to remove a source of infection, and, it is claimed, to prevent
breeding from a susceptible stock.
Influence of Nutrition on Susceptibility to Disease.—" With regard to the
former point, infective material is probably already practically universally present, and even
very extensive slaughter will not get rid of it. As to the second argument, while there is
no doubt that certain stocks are more susceptible than others, the great influence of nutrition
on susceptibility must be remembered. If all the animals were equally well fed and housed,
then the incidence of the disease might be taken to correspond to degree of inherited susceptibility, and the elimination of reactors would in time lead to the breeding of a race with
high powers of resistance.
Difference between Inherited and Nutritional Susceptibility.—" But at present
it is difficult to differentiate between inherited and nutritional susceptibility. Correct feeding to maintain the natural resistance of the animal to tuberculosis would seem to be the first
line of defence against the disease. Animals that do succumb, though properly fed, are likely
to have an inherited susceptibility, and therefore to belong to a strain that should be
eliminated by slaughter."—Dr. J. B. Orr, Rowett Institute, Aberdeen.
Fish-meal in the Dairy Ration may prevent Deficiency Diseases.—" The writer
has for some time been endeavouring to get information with regard to the correlation
between the incidence of tuberculosis and (a) milk yield, and the mineral content of the diet.
The information with regard to the influence of the diet, though scanty and lacking in
precision, seems to indicate that cows fed on ill-balanced rations, consisting mainly of distillery
grains, meals, and cakes rich in proteins, which stimulate the flow of milk, and poor in certain
minerals required for the milk, succumb earlier to the disease than those with a good mixed
ration containing feeding-stuffs rich in well-balanced minerals such as silage, clover-hay, and
fish-meal."—W. T. Conn, Technologist, U.S. Bureau of Fisheries.
SOIL DEFICIENCIES IN THE FRASER VALLEY AND THEIR
EFFECT ON THE HEALTH OF ANIMALS.
Fraser Valley Soil Deficiencies.- —It has long been known that Fraser Valley soils
are deficient in a number of constituents which are considered essential,  and that these I 104 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
deficiencies have had an injurious effect on animals which are pastured thereon, or which
are fed largely on the products of these deficient soils. With the idea of getting some
authoritative data in this regard, we have consulted R. G. Sutton, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, who has this to say:—
Exceptions.—■" In regard to mineral deficiencies in soils of the valley, I think one can
safely make a blanket assertain that such deficiency is very general all through the valley;
the only exceptions to this rule being a few local areas of soil which, fortunately, have an
extra large reserve of mineral matter.
Bench Soils Specially Low in Minerals.—■" Soils of the 'bench' type have been
subject to tillage and rainfall for a number of years and have, accordingly, lost much of their
original mineral content through seepage and cropping. Soils of the lowlands are, to a large
extent, composed of vegetable matter and thus have little natural mineral content. Hence
the general nature of the deficiency.
Dairymen must add Minerals to Rations.—" The proofs of this are found in the
fact that practically every dairyman finds it necessary to feed a certain amount of mineral
in his ration. Also in the fact that goitre appears commonly in calves in some localities
and hairless or deformed pigs sometimes appear.
Live Stock prefer Mineralized Areas.—" Further proof may be seen where a man
has treated one part of a pasture-field with mineral fertilizer, bone-meal, or even lime. Such
cases have come under observation and it has been noticed that invariably the stock will
neglect the untreated part of the field and devote their time to the treated part. Sometimes
to the extent of eating the grass on the treated part of the field down till they are pulling
the very roots, while the untreated part of the field grows lush and green.
Pasture Deficiencies and Low Milk Yield.—" Evidence of apparent lack of
minerals in rations has been seen in a number of cases in the valley in failure to breed,
poor condition after winter-feeding, otherwise unaccountable dropping-off in milk-secretion,
and undue brittleness of bones.
Young Pigs also Suffer.—•" Several cases have come under observation of the writer
this year where there was pronounced lack of thrift in young pigs, even those on pasture.
Accompanying this was weakness of joints. In each case distinct improvement resulted
from feeding some form of mineral or even wood-ashes."
Soils need Calcium and Phosphorus mostly.—" The most common forms of
deficiency diseases (caused by soil and pasture deficiencies) are believed to be due to
deficiency of phosphorus or calcium. It may also be true that some of the diseases are due
to a deficiency of both these minerals. They are characterized by general unthriftiness,
emaciation, stiffness of gait, and inco-ordinated movement. Post-mortem examination usually
shows softness or fragility of the bones. A very common symptom is ' depraved ' appetite,
which leads to the chewing or eating of substances which have no attraction -for a healthy
animal.
Malnutrition caused by Shortage, Common Salt, Manganese, Copper, Iron,
Boron, etc.—" The effects of deficiency of phosphorus, calcium, iodine, and iron have been
studied more extensively than the effects of deficiency of other minerals. It is known, however, that lack of common salt, which provides sodium and chlorine, causes malnutrition,
especially in milk cows. But the question of possible deficiency of manganese, zinc, copper,
boron, and other elements which are known to have an influence on the physiological processes
of the body have not been studied. We have very little knowledge as to the amounts of these
present in different pastures or as to the amounts which animals require. It may well be
that minute traces of some of these elements which are present as impurities in salt-licks
and mineral mixtures sometimes fed to animals may be responsible to some extent for the
beneficial effects at present credited to other substances."—/. B. Orr. Fish-meal is Cheap Source of Minerals.—We have seen numerous instances in
the Fraser Valley and in other parts of the Province of beneficial results from the feeding
of fish-meal which could not be accounted for except by considering the mineral content
alone. We have a very good idea of what to expect when fish-meal is fed for its protein
content, but we so often find other beneficial effects that cannot be attributed to the feeding
of even the best quality of protein that we are more or less bound to attribute these beneficial
effects to some other compounds in the fish-meal. For instance, we have seen as small a
percentage as 10 of fish-meal in a ration totally eliminate " hairless " pigs in an area where
such litters were all too common. The iodine content of pilchard-meal is therefore evidently
quite sufficient to eliminate this condition when the fish-meal is fed at the rate of 10 per cent,
of the total ration. We have also had reports from reliable dairymen in the Fraser Valley
that since feeding pilchard-meal they have not had a case of retained after-birth, whereas,
before, such cases were common. No cases of goitre have been reported from farms where
fish-meal is regularly fed, and while it is not suggested that the iodine content of pilchard-
meal is sufficient to bring.about a cure of an existing case of goitre, it is apparent that the
regular feeding of fish-meal does prevent the appearance of this disease.
Fish-meal corrects Mineral Deficiencies.—As fish-meal contains all of the minerals
ordinarily found in the body, one may rightfully expect to safeguard the health of his animals
from most of the so-called " deficiency " diseases by feeding fish-meal in adequate quantities.
It may be granted that very little is known of the effect of deficiency of iron, copper, etc., in
the ration or in the animal body, but as " an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure "
it would therefore be advisable to feed a product, such as fish-meal, which is known to contain
all of the required minerals in a form readily assimilable by the animal body.
Effects of Fish-meal on Sterility.—The cost to dairymen in British Columbia of
sterility, or failure to breed, has never been estimated, but it is certain that the amount
would be tremendous, and while the feeding of fish-meal has not eliminated this condition
altogether, we have many reports from creditable sources that within a few months after
starting to feed fish-meal the average number of services has been reduced nearly 50 per cent.
If for no other reason than this, the feeding of fish-meal should become a regular habit.
Abortion reduced by Fish-meal.—Nothing definite regarding the effect of fish-meal
in the ration on abortion is known. We do know, however, of cases where abortion has been
lessened since the incidence of fish-meal in the ration. Possibly the number of cases of
abortion would have been lessened without having added fish-meal to the ration, but that is
also unknown, and very doubtful. As the cost of one case of abortion in a good animal far
outweighs the cost of a year's supply of fish-meal for any animal, it should behove any farmer
to include an adequate quantity of fish-meal in all his rations. Abortion is one of those
diseases which seems to run its course and then disappear for a time, but that is no reason
why we should not take all of the known precautions against its spread. One of these
precautions undoubtedly is the feeding of fish-meal.
Fish-meal not a Cure-all.—It is not intended that one should gather from the
foregoing that fish-meal of any kind is a panacea for all the evils animal flesh is heir to, but
in diseases known definitely to be due to deficiencies of one sort or another in the ration,
fish-meal does suggest itself as being that one thing which can be expected to reduce or
eliminate many of these "deficiency " diseases, especially those due to mineral deficiencies.
Lime and Salt not all Minerals required.—As Sutton and Orr have pointed out,
various ailments results from inadequate supplies of some of the better-known minerals and
that beneficial results are obtained by the feeding of such simple compounds as lime and
common salt. Minerals such as these may be added to regular rations, but their indiscriminate use is to be avoided as injurious results have frequently been brought about
by such practices. It would be better, and very likely less costly, to provide an animal with
all of the minerals known to exist in its body rather than just the few needed, apparently,
more than others.    This is a simple matter—feed fish-meal. I 106 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Dairy Cows Most Susceptible to Sterility.—In connection with sterility, abortion,
etc., Corrie points out that " Forbes, of the Ohio Station, found that sterility or failure to
breed is more common amongst dairy cows than beef cows, which he attributed to the drain
of minerals from the body, resulting in a condition of low vitality in which reproduction is
impossible.
Abortion caused by Deficiency of Lime and Phosphorus.—"Abortion and the
production of premature, ill-nourished offspring may well result from deficiency of lime
and phosphorus, factors which are so essential to the building-up of the unborn. Hart, Steen-
bock, and Morrison (Bulletin 350, Wisconsin Station) instance a cow which received a
ration of ground oats and oat-straw during her entire gestation period. A premature and
weak calf was born. The investigators wrote: ' This result invariably follows from the
continued use of roughage poor in mineral content, particularly lime.'
Deficient Rations soon deplete Store of Minerals.—" The continued feeding of
rations deficient in lime and phosphorus necessitates depletion of the stores of these constituents in the animal's bone, with consequent reduction of constitutional strength, of milk yield,
and of resistance to disease. Tuberculosis, Johne's disease, abortion, and other common
troubles of dairy stock indicate a lowered resistance to disease attack attributable, in all
probability, to deficiency of mineral matter. Tuberculosis is more common in animals of
the milk than of the beef type, and in heavy milkers than in cows of average yield."
Limited Knowledge of Deficiencies.-—" Even with our present limited knowledge
it is possible to state some facts that are worth keeping in view in arranging rations:—
"1. Failure to grow at the maximum rate and also certain diseases may be due to
deficiency of certain minerals in the food or a lack of the proper proportion of the minerals
to each other.
" 2. Lime, one of the minerals which is required in large amounts, is markedly deficient
in grains and grain-offals.
" 3. Green foods, especially leguminous plants like clover, are rich in lime. These and
foods derived from them, such as silage and clover-hay, correct the mineral deficiency of grains
and meals.
" 4. The value of milk and milk residues, such as whey solids, which contain most of
the mineral matter of the milk, is largely due to the fact that they contain all the essential
minerals in the amounts and proportions required by the growing animal, and the well-
recognized value of clover pastures, leguminous silage, fish-meal, and other foodstuffs rich
in lime depends largely upon the fact that the mineral matter contained in them corrects the
deficiencies of grain, grain-offal, and many other concentrates."—Orr and Husband.
IODINE FOR CATTLE.
" A consideration of the question as applied to dairy cattle has been left to the last,
largely for the reason that less definite information would seem to be available concerning the
protective influence of iodine toward certain ailments affecting this class of stock.
Prevent " Big-neck " in Calves with Iodine.—" This much would appear as well
authenticated. Goitre or ' big-neck' in calves, frequently a serious condition, may be
controlled by the administration of iodine to pregnant cows. With cattle generally, the most
practical means of administration is through the medium of salt mixtures. Commercial
iodized salt, used regularly, will likely prove satisfactory. Where it is thought necessary to
use it during the pregnant period only, and particularly where the treatment is directed
toward the control of persistent appearance of goitre in calves, a home mixture of from 2 to
4 oz. per 100 lb. of salt might prove more reliable. In that some cows consume comparatively
small quantities of salt, the method of treatment given under the heading ' Swine,' in which
it will be noted treatment for cows is mentioned, could be used. This method is more certain
in application than where iodized salt is used, but less convenient and practical of administration. Iodine Most Effective during Pregnancy.—" Throughout the foregoing it will be
seen that iodine would seem to exert a powerful influence for good during the period of
pregnancy. What protective effect might the administration of iodine have in the case of
genital infections of cattle causing premature birth, retained membranes, sterility, and other
troubles? Much would be given by the writer at this juncture to claim definitely on well-
proven grounds that such administration was effective. Such claims have been made, but are
not well authenticated as yet.
Iodine Treatment for Genital Diseases.—" This much would seem quite clear to
any one who has given much study to modern research in the matter of genital disease; no
man need expect a rapid return to normal conditions in a herd affected with some form of
genital infection (commonly known under the general name of infectious or contagious
abortion) simply by the regular administration of iodine to his cows. What might result
through the use of this treatment in the way of disease resistance, when applied over a period
of time, yet remains to be seen. However, there is one aspect of the question as yet not
definitely mentioned, although having a direct and obvious bearing on each consideration
taken up in these paragraphs. To illustrate, the following quotation is taken from a recently
issued pamphlet as representing a summary of work done in connection with iodine (' Iodine
for Live Stock,' by Frank Ewart Corrie, B.Sc.) : 'The influence of iodine in establishing
and maintaining the natural powers of resistance has been referred to by many research
workers and demonstrated repeatedly in careful laboratory experiments.' Unquestionably,
in the experience of the Central Experimental Farm, lambs, pigs, foals, and calves from
iodine-treated mothers would seem to have increased strength and vitality, and therefore
likely increased resistance to disease. Such would seem to explain the effectiveness of the
treatment in the case of foals, with reference to an infection in nearly all cases acquired
at or immediately following birth.    Strong foals are enabled to resist infection.
" In the case of genital infection, however, as producing, say, abortion, the infection is
acquired prenatally or at varying periods before birth. To what extent resistance to disease
may be effected in the case of the fcetus is not clear at present.
Effect of Iodine-feeding is Indirect.—"The indirect effect is possibly most important
of all. Research studies have shown that a deficiency of iodine intake has a direct and certain
effect on the assimilation and control of such essential minerals as calcium and phosphorus
in the animal body, no matter how abundantly they may be fed. Such being the case, it
would seem well to ensure the proper assimilation of the fundamental mineral requirements
of the body by the use of, say, an iodized salt. Particularly in this the case -when one considers
the quantity of mineral matter in the milk produced by a 20,000-lb. cow.
Make Iodized Salt at Home.—" Finally, from indications with dairy cattle and from
the knowledge of the general effect of potassium iodide, it would seem like wise practice to
utilize an iodized salt during the milking period, and particularly during the period of
pregnancy. The commercial variety might be used regularly, or, in cases of specific trouble
from goitre in calves, weak calves, or genital infections, a home-mixed salt as described for
sheep might be indicated."—From "The Significance of Iodine in the Feeding of Live Stock,"
by George B. Rothwell, B.S.A., Dominion Animal Husbandman.
Fish-meal proven Good Source of Iodine.—•" During the past year, at the Central
Experimental Farm, fish-meal, in addition to iodized salt, has been receiving some attention
as a source of iodine for dairy cattle. It contains about 10 grains of iodine per hundredweight. When it was fed to the cattle at a rate of about one-tenth of the concentrates a
marked increase in the iodine content of the milk was noticed, thus showing that the iodine
of the meal had been absorbed into the system of the animals. Fish-meal has long been
recognized as a source of calcium and phosphorus. It must now also be recognized as a source
of iodine."—Cyril J. Watson, Chemistry Division, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa,
in Seasonable Hints, Autumn, 1929. I 108
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
PART II.—FISH-MEAL IN THE SWINE RATION.
Feeding Fish-meal to B.C. Swine.—Fish-meal has been fed to swine for a longer
time than to dairy cows—that is, in British Columbia at least—and more data of a really
authentic sort are available. Thus, at the Experimental Farm, Agassiz, experiments have
been carried out there each year with the object of determining the relative value of fish-meal
and skim-milk, as well as a comparison of fish-meal and beef-scrap or tankage. Detailed
information on these experiments will be found in this section with comments of the
Superintendent, Mr. W. H. Hicks, and with further comment by the editor of this bulletin.
Consumption of Fish-meal by Swine is Large.—No accurate data on the feeding
of fish-meal to swine in other parts of the Province are available for publication at this time,
but, judging altogether from the amount of fish-meal which has gone into consumption by
hog-feeders in the past year or two, it would be safe to say that results equal to, or better
than, those obtained at Agassiz are being secured by private feeders.
THE VALUE OF FISH-MEAL AS A FEEDING-STUFF FOR PIGS.
Assimilation of Fish-meal by Growing Animals.
Digestibility of Fish-meal for Swine.—" The value of a feeding-stuff depends not
upon the percentage of the nutritive constituents present, but upon the extent to which these
can be digested and absorbed by the alimentary canal and utilized by the living tissues.
The two chief constituents of fish-meal are  the protein and the mineral matter,  which
together form about three-fourths of it.    Experiments were made to test the value of these
to the growing animal. „ „
Digestibility of Protein.
Over 90 per Cent. Fish-meal Protein digested.—" This was tested with a young
pig which during the experiment was given a constant ration. For five days in the middle
of the period, 100 grams of fish-meal was added to the ration. The amount of undigested
protein (nit. x 6.25)  in the faxes was determined daily.    The following table shows the
Digestibility of Fish-meal Protein.
Intake In
Food.
Amount in
Faeces.
Amount
digested and
absorbed.
Ration only	
Ration plus 100 grams fish..
Ration only	
Grams.
136
197*
136
Grams.
29
33
28
Grams.
107
164
108
* 136 plus 61 of fish-meal.
" The addition of 61 grams of fish-meal protein caused a rise of 4 grams of protein in
the fasces, so that 57 grams must have been digested and absorbed. The pig can, therefore,
utilize over 90 per cent, of the protein.
Utilization of Lime and Phosphorus.
Fish-meal Minerals readily digested.—" These are the chief constituents of bones
and are the two minerals required in greatest amounts by the growing body. In some forms,
however, only a small percentage of these can be digested and absorbed. It has also been
found that in any ration the amount of either that can be utilized depends upon the amount
of the other that is present. In fish-meal the ratio of calcium to phosphorus is about the
same as is required for growth, and it might be expected that the percentage of utilization
would be high.    That this is so is shown by the results of the experiment recorded below.
Scientific Methods used.—"A growing pig was given a constant ration and for a
five-day period in the middle of the experiment there was added to the food 100 grams of EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 109
fish-meal per day.    The amounts of calcium and of phosphorus excreted in both urine and
faeces were determined.
Utilization of Lime and Phosphorus.
Lime as
(CaO).
Phosphoru
3 AS   (P2Oj).
Intake.
Retained.
Intake.
Retained.
Ration onlv    	
Grams.
0.65
12.20
0.65
Grams.
0.13
4.70
Nil
Grams.
6.9
17.4
6.9
Grams.
3.7
Ration plus 100 grams
Ration onlv 	
8.4
3.4
Over One-third Fish-meal Minerals utilized.—" Of the amounts of these two
essential minerals given in the fish-meal, more than a third was utilized by the animal and
the amounts utilized were just about what the animal would be expected to require."—Orr,
Crichton, and Green, Rowett Institute.
Grain and Grain-offal lack Mineral Balance.—" The grains and grain-offal are
markedly deficient in lime and have a relative excess of phosphorus. A pig four months old,
if fed on a mixture of grains and grain-offal in Table No. 9, would require to eat 20 lb.
per day to get its daily requirement of y$ oz. of lime (CaO), and in that amount it would
have nearly 4 oz. of phosphorus (P2Og). It is impossible with a ration consisting only of
grain to get the mineral matter balanced to suit the animal."—Orr and Husband.
MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF PIGS.
Pigs need Minerals in Addition to Grain.—" Potatoes and cereal products, such as
corn, bran, and oats, which are all commonly fed to pigs, are deficient in lime. When fed
on these, without the addition of lime-rich foods, pigs are liable to suffer from soft bones
and general malnutrition. This condition, which is of the same nature as rickets, which
occurs in children, was recognized and the cause determined nearly fifty years ago by investigators in Germany. In the corn-growing areas of the United States great loss has been
suffered from feeding pigs on corn without the addition of some other food to make good
the mineral deficiency.
Rickets in Pigs.—■" In Scotland there is a well-known disease in pigs, in which the
young animals about three or four months old develop a rough staring coat, a stilted gait,
loss of appetite, and sometimes loss of power of the hind legs. In bad cases fracture of the
ribs and of the legs occur. The animals that grow fastest are most liable to the disease.
Recent research at the Rowett Institute has shown that this condition is closely allied to,
if not identical with, rickets. It is due to the want of balance in the mineral matter of the
food, and can be prevented by the addition to the food of a mixture of inorganic salts, which
makes the mineral composition of the whole ration somewhat similar to that of sow's milk.
Green food, milk, and fish-meal, all supply the minerals usually lacking, and so help to
prevent the disease. If the animals are allowed freedom, they usually find in pasture or in
the soil the minerals lacking in their diet.
" It will be understood, of course, that every pig ' off its legs ' is not necessarily suffering
from lack of minerals. The pig is, unfortunately, subject to many diseases that put it ' off
its legs.'
Phosphorus Deficiency produces Paralysis.—" Pigs do not commonly suffer from
lack of phosphorus, as in most cases their food consists partly of cereal products, which are
rich in this constituent. Experiments have been conducted, however, which show that, when
phosphorus is lacking, stoppage of growth and paralysis of the hind legs soon occur. The
condition can be cured in a few days by the addition of inorganic phosphorus to the food.
Anaemia in Pigs and Iron Deficiency.—"The rapidly growing pig requires considerable quantities of iron.    In addition to a reserve store which it possesses at birth, it receives a more generous supply in the milk than most animals. The percentage of iron in
the milk may be modified by the food of the nursing mother. It is probable also that the
store of iron at birth may be affected by the feeding of the mother during pregnancy. As sows
are often fed on food with very little iron, there is the probability of sucking-pigs suffering
from lack of this essential mineral.
Provide Pigs with Iron.—" This has been investigated at the Rowett Institute.
McGowan and Crichton fed breeding sows on distillery draff, corn, and small quantities of
fish-meal made from the bones and adherent flesh of whitefish. The ration supplied sufficient
lime and phosphorus, and probably also all of the other minerals except iron. The litters
were born apparently healthy, but after the third or fourth week malnutrition was evident.
The animals were breathless on exertion, and there were a number of sudden deaths. Postmortem examination showed that the hearts were enormously enlarged. The blood was thin
and watery, and the haemoglobin—the iron containing part of the blood—was in some cases
only 15 per cent, of the normal. Other sows were fed the same ration with the addition of
iron oxide.    The litters from these were perfectly healthy.
Cottonseed Poisoning of Pigs.—" Further investigations are being carried out by
these workers. Even from these preliminary experiments, however, it looks as if shortage
of iron might be the unrecognized cause of many cases of malnutrition occurring in pig-
feeding. It is interesting, in this connection, to note that cottonseed-meal has been found
to produce in pigs a disease characterized by breathlessness, loss of appetite, and coarse hair,
and that the addition of iron to the food prevents the disease.
Feed Fish-meal to Swine for Iodine.—" Some recent work done in America by
Smith and others shows that iodine, though required only in small amounts, is of as great
importance for health as lime and phosphorus. In Montana and certain other regions in the
United States, and in some parts of Western Canada, great loss has been caused through
sows giving birth to young pigs not fully developed. These were either dead at birth or
lived only a short time. The most obvious abnormality was absence of hair. An examination of the food from affected and unaffected districts showed that the foodstuffs grown
in the affected districts contained, on an average, less iodine than those grown in districts
where the disease did not occur. The effect of adding iodine to the food was tried, and it
was found that the addition of 5 grains of potassium iodide per day to the ration of each sow,
for the last four or five weeks of the gestation period, led to the production of healthy litters
from sows that previously had all had immature pigs. The amount of iodine required for
the pig is unknown, so that it is impossible to say whether the disease was due to deficiency
of iodine or to abnormality of the thyroid gland. The essential fact, however, is that
addition of iodine to the food can prevent the disease.
Pigs need Good Pasture.—" The well-known beneficial effect of feeding ashes to pigs
is due to the fact that the ashes contain minerals often deficient in their food. Wood-ashes
may contain as much as 50 per cent, of lime, and coal-ashes as much as 5 per cent, of iron.
The rooting-habit of the pig and also its liking for grubbing in the manure-pit are doubtless
associated with its need for mineral matter. The well-recognized beneficial effects on the
health of pigs of allowing them a free range over pasture is largely due to the fact that the
animals have liberty to supplement the mineral deficiences of their food."-—Dr. J. B. Orr,
Rowett Institute, Aberdeen.
Fish-meal produces Increased Gains in Pigs.—•" Experiments carried out here
by Mr. A. D. Husband, A.I.C., have shown that a pig of three to four months old can absorb
and retain as much as 5 grams of lime (CaO) per day. This mineral is required in the
food to the extent of 1 to 2 per cent, of the increase in weight, and growth is limited if the
supply in the food is not sufficient. Grains are deficient in lime. Shorts contain only 0.08
per cent, and corn less than 0.02 per cent. A pig putting on 2 lb. per day would require to
eat over 20 lb. per day of a mixture of equal parts of these to get sufficient lime, whereas
Y\ lb. of fish-meal would yield more than sufficient.    It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that the addition of fish-meal to a ration of grains and grain-offal leads to increased gains
in weight.
Mineral Content of Fish-meal Important.—" The results of experiments carried
out in connection with mineral requirement led us to believe that the undoubted beneficial
effects of fish-meal in growth were largely dependent on the minerals present. To test this an
experiment was carried out comparing fish-meal with blood-albumin (almost pure protein)
to which mineral matter similar to that in fish-meal had been added. It was found that the
ration with blood-albumin plus minerals gave as good results as fish-meal, but that with
blood-albumin alone, although for the first fortnight the gains were as good as with fish-meal,
afterwards growth slowed down and was no better than with a purely grain ration.
Balance the Swine Ration.—" The amounts to feed: No fixed rule can be stated
in terms of a fraction of a ration, as a guide to the proper amounts to give. That depends
on the nature of the other foodstuffs being fed and what the animal is producing. For a
growing animal producing new tissue the proportion of protein to the other energy-yielding
constituents of the ration (i.e., nutritive ratio) should be about 1 to 4 or 5 for young animals,
and 1 to 6 or 7 for animals reaching maturity. A mixture of common meals and grains
like sharps, barley, and maize has a protein ratio of about 1 to 7 or 8. For such a mixture,
only a small amount of fish-meal is required to yield the requisite proportion of protein.
A ration of the following proportions would be about right to give a ratio of 1 to 5:—
Simple and Cheap Rations. Proportion.
Shorts   100
Corn  100
Barley   100
Fish-meal     15
With foodstuffs containing less protein, such as corn and potatoes, more fish-meal would
be required.    A ration of:— Proportion.
Corn   100
Potatoes  300
Fish-meal        27
would give a ratio of about 1 to 5.
Reduce Quantity of Fish-meal at Finishing Period.—" The proportion of protein
required decreases as the animal approaches maturity, so that the proportion of fish-meal in
the ration should be steadily reduced until, when the animal is chiefly laying on fat, it is no
longer required and is not economical to feed, since the cheaper starchy foods are better
fat-formers than the more expensive protein foods."—Orr, Crichton, and Green, Rowett
Institute.
Danger at Weaning.—" The weaning period is truly the dangerous one—that period
when the little pig leaves the mother's milk and all too frequently is abruptly changed to a
ration far different and far from what his system requires. This change should be made
gradually, commencing about five weeks of age, the youngsters being taught to eat in a creep,
which excludes the mother sow. At weaning-time, by increasing the food of the young pigs
and removing them for longer periods daily from their mother, the shock to the system of
the abrupt change of ration is greatly lessened. More good litters are ruined by the results
of improper feeds and feeding by ill-defined methods at the period mentioned, and more
swine-feeders thereby baffled and discouraged, than during any other phase of the pig's
existence. The first feed for the little pig, when he is learning to eat and while nursing
with the mother, should be made up of a few handfuls of dry grain scattered in the bedding.
Crushed oats is excellent. By this is meant rolled oats, where such may be procured. Place
in the creep a little trough containing milk."—Rothwell.
Milks compared.—The milk referred to will be cow's milk, of course, either skim-
or butter-milk. Now it happens that cow's milk is quite a different product from sow's
milk, as the following table shows:— I 112
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Table No. 18.
Cow's Milk.
Sow's Milk.
Protein	
Calcium	
Phosphorus
Ash	
Per Cent.
3.500
0.161
0.189
0.720
Per Cent.
6.700
0.395
0.357
1.030
Supplement Cow's Milk with Fish-meal.—Figuring it another way, 1 gallon of
cow's milk would contain 0.35 lb. protein, while 1 gallon of sow's milk would contain 0.67 lb.
protein. It has been very well established that the rate of growth of a young animal depends
upon the percentage of protein, calcium, and phosphorus in the milk of the species. It is
impossible, therefore, for a little pig to maintain his usual rate of growth when put on a diet
of cow's milk, but a simple modification of cow's milk overcomes the objection. The method
of modifying cow's milk for little pigs is simply this:—
Cow's Milk and Fish-meal Ideal Combination.
To 1 gallon of cow's milk, which contains 0.35 lb. protein,
Add V2 lb. of pilchard-meal, which contains 0.33 lb. protein.
0.68 lb. protein.
Add them together and you then have 1 gallon of milk containing 0.68 lb. protein, or
milk containing 6.8 per cent, protein, which is the same strength as sow's milk, for all intents
and purposes.
Besides having added the required additional amount of protein, we have also added
calcium and phosphorus in just the right proportion to form bone, for fish-meal contains
these bone-forming minerals to the extent of as much as 12.50 per cent.
Oatmeal Good Feed for Pigs.—Small quantities of wheat shorts or wheat middlings
plus oat middlings, equal parts, should be added to the modified milk. The quantity of these
cereal by-products should be gradually increased until about the twelfth week, when coarser,
and less expensive, feeds, such as oat-chop, barley-chop, ground wheat, etc., are substituted
a little at a time, until a complete change-over is made. Green feed such as fresh-cut alfalfa
or clover should be provided at all times, but if such be not available pulped roots should
be part of the ration.
Good Growing Ration with Fish-meal.—Having passed the weaning period and,
incidentally, having also passed the period when adequate quantities of milk are available—
as so often happens—the following ration may be fed :—■
200 lb. wheat shorts.
200 lb. oat-chop  (or barley-chop).
100 lb. clover or alfalfa hay (pulverized).
50 lb. pilchard-meal.
Fish-meal-fed Pigs grade Higher.—Some of the finest Yorkshire pigs which have
ever been raised in the Fraser Valley have been raised on the above ration, to which was
added small quantities of potatoes and mangels. Practically all of the pigs raised on this
ration graded as " selects," and this is a notable feature of a well-balanced ration containing
fish-meal. It may be of interest to note that the above ration contains 18.8 per cent, crude
protein and the nutritive ratio is 1: 5.3, or just about what a good growing ration should be.
Fish-meal Ideal Supplement for Grain.—" The results of experimental work at
this institute in connection with the mineral requirements of animals showed that the large
amount of bone-forming material in fish-meal makes it suitable for mixing with grains and
certain other commonly used feeding-stuffs which are deficient in this essential."-—Orr,
Crichton, and Green. EDIBLE  FISH-MEAL—ITS  COMPOSITION AND  VALUE. I 113
Proportion of Lean to Fat.—" It is essential, in both pork and bacon carcasses, that
there should be an adequate proportion of lean to fat, which demands careful adjustment
of the ration to provide protein of efficient quality and quantity, as it is from this constituent
that lean meat is largely derived.
Proper Balance Essential.—" The nutritive ratios suitable in rations for pigs of
varying conditions are as follows:—
Service boars    1: 5.
Sows in-pig    1: 5.
Sows in-milk   1: 4 to  1:5.
Pigs from weaning to 16 weeks    1:5.
Fattening pigs    1:6 to 1:7.
Popular Ration contains Fish-meal.—" A nutritive ratio of about 1 to 5 is of
general utility in pig-feeding, and it is to this reason that the so-called standard ration of
65 parts barley-meal, 25 parts shorts, and 10 parts fish-meal owes much of its popularity,
as pig-feeders have found it simple to use in practice, the results obtained from it are of
high standard, and it can be adjusted easily to narrower or wider ratios. For convenience,
and in order to avoid confusion in the mind of the pigman, it is advisable to have no more
alteration of rations than is demanded by economy. The ration of the in-pig sow should
have a nutritive ratio of about 1: 5, which should be narrowed somewhat as the sow
approaches farrowing, and also for the suckling period. Although the 65-25-10 mixture
may be used, it is more convenient to construct a ration which will cover the farrowing and
nursing periods, and which will, at the same time, be suitable for the little pigs. A ration
for this purpose    .    .    .    is as follows:— •       Per Cent
Barley-meal  40
Sharps  (shorts)     40
Linseed-cake meal   10
Fish-meal   10
Be sure to feed Roots or Alfalfa to Pigs.—" This represents an excellent ration for
milk production and is very suitable for little pigs. The sows should receive a little green
food or roots along with it.    This ration is also suitable for service boars.
Simple Rations that are Economical.
For in-pig SOWS  Per Cent.
Barley-meal  45
Sharps   (shorts)  45
Fish-meal      10
For suckling sows—
Barley-meal  45
Sharps  (shorts)      35
Bean-meal    10
Fish-meal   10
" After weaning, the following ration is quite suitable for all classes of pigs:—
Per Cent.
Barley-meal  65
Sharps  (shorts)      25
Fish-meal     25
" Many variations of this may, of course, be constructed, of which the following is
recommended :— Per Cent_
Barley-meal  60
Sharps  (shorts)  20
Linseed-cake meal   10
Fish-meal      10
8 I 114
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
" During the last two or three weeks of feeding for pork, the fish-meal may be reduced
to 5 per cent.
Produce " Selects " with Fish-meal.—" For bacon-pigs the same ration is quite
suitable up to the last month of feeding, when the pigs should be finished on a mixture such
as the following:— Per Cent
Barley-meal  70
Sharps  (shorts)    20
Bean-meal    10
Pea-meal may replace bean-meal.
Pigs are susceptible to Sudden Changes.—" In connection with the feeding of
pigs, it is important to avoid any set-back when the pigs are weaned, as the animal which
is allowed to go back at this critical period recovers lost ground slowly. It should be
remembered also that there is no animal more susceptible to sudden changes of diet than is
the pig. In the writer's experience, change, even from a poor ration to a good one, if carried
out abruptly, results in retardation of growth and often in actual temporary loss of weight.
A further point of practical interest is that wet-fed meals should not be sloppy, but should
be rather of the consistency of porridge."—Corrie.
SWINE-FEEDING AND QUALITY OF PORK.
Fish-meal vs. Digester Tankage as Protein Supplement for
FATTENING   SwiNE.
Fish-meal proven Better than Tankage.—" At the suggestion of one of the leading
manufacturers of fish-meal, a feeding trial was made to compare fish-meal with digester
tankage as a protein supplement for fattening swine. In this trial, recently completed, we
used twenty-four pigs which were divided into two comparable lots and fed for eighty-five
days from self-feeders, free-choice, on shelled corn, protein supplement, and mineral mixture.
For Lot 1 the protein supplement consisted of a standard ' 60-per-cent.' digester tankage
manufactured by one of the largest packing concerns of the country; for Lot 2 ' Atco'
fish-meal, manufactured by the Atlantic Coast Fisheries Corporation of New York City,
was used as the supplement.
Tankage and Fish-meal Comparisons.
Tankage,
Lot 1.
Fish-meal,
Lot 2.
Average starting weight	
Average gain per animal after 57 days' feeding	
Average gain per animal after 85 days' feeding	
Average feed-consumption per animal during first 57 days—
Corn	
Supplement	
Mineral	
Average feed-consumption per animal during entire 85 days—-
Corn	
Supplement	
Mineral	
Theoretical value of protein supplement per ton for first 57 days	
Theoretical value of protein supplement per ton for entire 85 days..
Lb.
109.20
99.10
149.60
386.30
37.90
0.67
591.50
54.10
1.13
$113.35
$114.55
Lb.
106.90
123.30
167.70
417.00
37.40
0.58
642.50
51.10
1.00
$202.76
$150.38
Merit of Fish-meal shows up in Two Months.—" In this test the animals were
weighed individually every two weeks during the experiment. In the above tabular summary
the weights for the beginning of the experiment are given together with the gains after
fifty-seven days, at which time they were probably at their best weight for slaughter. The
feeding test was continued for an additional length of time, not generally practical under
actual farm conditions, so as to obtain certain extra information.    We consider the results EDIBLE  FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 115
for the fifty-seventh day as more significant than those for the eighty-fifth day so far as
practical applications are concerned.
Fish-meal-fed Pigs are ahead of those fed Tankage.—" The results show that at
the close of the test the pigs receiving fish-meal were nearly two weeks ahead of those
receiving tankage. On the seventy-first day the average weight for Lot 1 was 237.8 lb. and
for Lot 2 was 253.4 lb. Two weeks later Lot 1 was 258.8 lb., only about 5 lb. more than
Lot 2 had weighed two weeks previously.
Fish-meal stimulates Appetite.—" The values given at the bottom of the table were
obtained by figuring corn at 1% cents per pound, mineral mixture at 1 cent per pound, and
the hogs at 9 cents per pound. It will be noted that the animals in Lot 1 consumed more
mineral mixture and more of the protein supplement than did those in Lot 2. Apparently
the fish-meal stimulated the appetite for corn as more was consumed in Lot 2.
Good Carcass obtained.—" All carcasses graded as ' hard " and no tendency toward
softness in either lot was observed. Leaf-fat samples were taken and tested at 40° C. for
refractive index. Composite samples of those gave refractive indices of 1.4590 for Lot 1
and 1.4592 for Lot 2. This difference is so small as to be negligible and without significance.
Therefore it appears that either tankage or fish-meal can be used satisfactorily in producing
hard pork and there is no important difference between the two in this respect.
Judging Meat for Flavour.—" Samples of the meat were taken for cooking to be
judged as to flavour. It was especially desired in this to determine whether or not fish-meal
imparts a fishy flavour or odour to the meat.    This part of the work is reported below.
Effect of Fish-meal on Flavour of Pork.
Fish-meal fed to Day of Slaughter.—" Samples of meat were taken from hogs that
had been self-fed on corn and fish-meal and on corn and tankage for eighty-five days. The
samples were from the top of the shoulder, what is known in the meat trade as a ' Boston
butt.'    The hogs had received their feed until about twenty-four hours before slaughter.
Fifteen Judges say no Taint from feeding Fish-meal.—" These samples were
prepared by baking in a commercial bakery oven for about one and three-quarter hours at
about 600° F. and were then judged by fifteen persons to determine whether or not any
fishy flavour or odour had been imparted to the meat by the fish-meal. The samples from
the animals not receiving fish-meal were employed in this test as a ' check.' They were
from pigs that had received a standard 60-per-cent. protein digester tankage.
" The results showed that this fish-meal had not imparted a fishy flavour or odour to
the meat of the hogs consuming it. None of the judges could detect any fishy odour or
flavour in any of the samples. We conclude from this that fish-meal does not affect the
flavour or odour of pork when fed to swine."—F. R. Edwards, Animal Husbandman, Georgia
State College of Agriculture.
SKIM-MILK VERSUS FISH-MEAL FOR MARKET HOGS.
(Dominion Experimental Farm, Project A. 571, Agassiz, B.C.)
" High-grade wholesome edible fish-meal has become a popular feed for poultry in British
Columbia. It is also used with considerable success for hog-feeding. In an experiment
covering a period of 120 days it was compared with skim-milk as a supplement to the grain
ration; forty uniform hogs being divided into eight equal lots for this purpose. The pigs
used were pure-bred Yorkshire sows and barrows and averaged ten weeks old when started.
A grain ration as follows was fed all lots for the first sixty days: 1 part bran, 2 parts ground
barley, 4 parts shorts, 4 parts oats, and 4 per cent, oil-meal. This ration cost 1.663 cents
per pound. For the second period the ration was made a little stronger by using 4 parts
barley and only 2 parts shorts, the cost being 1.733 cents per pound. The pigs were confined
in small pens throughout the trial, milk was fed at from 6 to 8 lb. per pig per day and charged I 116
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
at 25 cents per 100 lb., while fish-meal cost $70 per ton and was fed at the rate of 7 per cent,
of the meal ration.
Various Rations tried out.
Schedule of Feeding.
Lot  1—Meal ration and skim-milk throughout experiment.
Lot 2—Meal ration and 7 per cent, fish-meal throughout experiment.
Lot 3—Meal ration and skim-milk to July 10th; then replace with fish-meal to
finish.
Lot 4—Meal ration and skim-milk to July 10th;  then meal only to finish.
Lot 5—Meal ration and skim-milk to August 11th; then replace milk with fish-
meal to finish.
Lot 6—Meal ration and skim-milk to August 11th;  then meal only to finish.
Lot 7—Meal ration and skim-milk to September 17th; then replace milk with fish-
meal to finish.
Lot 8—Meal ration and skim-milk to September 17th;   then meal only to finish.
Analysis of Fish-meal fed. per cent.
Moisture       7.25
Protein  69.38
Fat  12.48
Ash  10.14
Phosphate of lime      7.58
Skim-milk versus Fish-meal.
Weights.
Total
Gain.
Total
Cost
of
Feed.
Cost
Lot.
June 21.
July 10.
Aug. 11.
Aug. 21.
Sept. 18.
Final,
Oct. 19.
Cwt.
Gain.
Lot 1
Lot 2
Lot 3
Lot 4
Lot 5
Lot 6
Lot 7
Lot 8
Lb.
202
205
205
200
204
207
202
205
Lb.
314
294
323
299
312
313
307
321
Lb.
510
473
485
390
480
498
498
505
Lb.
589
530
551
420
533
543
571
586
Lb.
775
753
717
641
700
610
740
745
Lb.
907
972
960
791
990
746
912
640
Lb.
705
767
755
591
786
539
710
640
$ cts.
43.18
48.13
49.11
35.82
50.60
35.92
46.91
39.63
Cents.
612.48
627.51
650.46
606.09
643.77
666.42
660.70
619.22
Fish-meal produces Biggest Gains.—" The results secured give strong evidence in
favour of fish-meal as a gain-producer. In each instance the fish-meal-fed hogs made greater
gains than those getting a similar ration, with fish-meal eliminated. Comparing Lot 1 and
Lot 2, skim-milk gave the greatest growth for the first half of the period and then the
fish-meal gradually caught up and finished well in the lead. Comparing Lot 3 and Lot 4,.
each got milk to July 10th and Lot 3 with fish-meal to finish gave much the better gains.
Lot 4 never did well; one pig being crippled for a time was given milk for the first twenty
days in September in an endeavour to bring it back to normal. Comparing Lot 5 and Lot 6,
while these pens were getting milk, Lot 6 made greater gains, but when the milk was
discontinued they went off feed several times, and Lot 5 getting fish-meal made much faster
gains. The same is true of Lot 7 and Lot 8, although the final difference in weights was
not so great owing to shortness of feeding period.
" Although fish-meal gave good results in gain production, it did not show up so well
when costs were considered. In each instance where fish-meal was fed the costs were higher,
except with Lot 5. This advantage in cost in favour of the fish-meal is due to the fact that
Lot 6 went off feed. EDIBLE  FISH-MEAL—ITS  COMPOSITION AND  VALUE.
I 117
" Briefly, the evidence in this one trial is that fish-meal is valuable in producing rapid
gains in market hogs, but at $70 per ton is a little too expensive."—Taken from Annual
Report, 1926, Experimental Farm, Agassiz, B.C.; W. H. Hicks, B.S.A., Superintendent.
Comment on Project A. 571, 1926, at Agassiz.
Judging from the analysis of the fish-meal used in this experiment, it would appear that
this was made from grayfish or dogfish, as the protein content is somewhat higher than is
usually found in pilchard-meal, which, on the other hand, carries a higher percentage of ash.
Acid-alkali Balance required in Swine Ration.—It should also be pointed out
that a diet of cereals and cereal by-products plus fish-meal is distinctly acid-forming, whereas
substituting skim-milk for fish-meal makes a superior acid-alkali balance. In balancing a
ration for swine it is just as important to look to the acid-alkali balance as it is to make
sure that the protein-carbohydrate balance is correct. There is no doubt that had these pigs
which received fish-meal been on pasture, or been supplied grass, roots, or other alkaline foods,
they would have made even a better showing than they did, and, further, the cost of producing
a pound of pork would have been materially reduced.
Other Feeding Tests compared.—A number of hog-feeding demonstrations which
have been carried out in Iowa and elsewhere (data on which need not be quoted here) show
that fish-meal is the most economical protein supplement for swine, but in all these United
States demonstrations the high acidity of a cereal-meat diet is offset by the addition to the
ration of either alkaline foods or minerals.
MINERAL VERSUS COD-LIVER OIL.
(Dominion Experimental Farm, Project A. 496, Agassiz, B.C.)
" In January twenty uniform pigs were divided into five equal groups to be finished, with
the object in view of determining the value of minerals and cod-liver oil as supplements to
a grain and milk ration. The grain ration consisted of 4 parts shorts, 2 parts ground oats,
and 1 part corn-meal, and cost 1.657 cents per pound. The pigs were fed what they would
clean up at all times. Equal quantities of milk were given each lot. The mineral mixture
was fed at the rate of 3 per cent, of the grain ration and was made up of the following:
Ground bone-meal, 8 lb.; ground charcoal, 5 lb.; ground rock phosphate, 5 lb.; salt, 3 lb.
Cod-liver oil was mixed with the feed and fed at the rate of Y\ oz. per pig per day.
Pig-feeding Experiment—Minerals versus Cod-liver Oil.
Lot 1,
Grain,
Milk.
Lot 2,
Grain, Milk,
Cod-liver
Oil,
Mineral.
Lot 3,
Grain, Milk,
Mineral.
Lot 4,
Grain, Milk,
Cod-liver
Oil.
Lot 5,
Grain, Milk,
Cod-liver
Oil,
Ashes.
Number of pigs in each group	
Total weight, January 20  lb.
Total weight, April 20    „
Total gain in weight in 90 days    „
Average gain per pig per day    „
Feed consumed.
Pounds of grain at 1.657c. per pound   „
Pounds of milk at 25c. per 100 lb    „
Pounds of mineral mixture at 2.7c.
per pound    „
Ounces of cod-liver oil at 1.5c. per
ounce  oz.
Total cost of feed consumed    $
Feed cost to produce 1 lb. gain  cts
I
4
231
600
369
1.025
1,240
1,925
25.38
6.878
4
225
755
530
1.472
1,752
1,925
56
90
36.70
6.924
4
229
570
341
0.947
1,128
1,925
36
24.47
7.1759
4
230
765
535
1.486
1,673
1,925
90
33.88
6.333
4
231
775
544
1.511
1,732
1,925
90
34.86
6.408 I 118
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Results are Inconsistent.—" The results show cod-liver oil valuable as a hog-feed.
The three lots getting cod-liver oil made the greatest gains; Lot 5 getting ashes and oil gave
the best gains. Lot 3 with mineral only, added to the milk and grain ration made very poor
gains, even less than Lot 1 without a supplement. This is contrary to results ' obtained
previously. Not only did the cod-liver-oil-fed lots make good gains, but the gains were
cheap, except Lot 2, which consumed so much meal that the cost of 100 lb. gain was greater
than with Lot 1."—Taken from Annual Report of 1926, Experimental Farm, Agassiz, B.C.;
W. H. Hicks, B.S.A., Superintendent.
Comment on Project A. 496, 1926, at Agassiz, B.C.
It is difficult at times to find an explanation for the results obtained when certain
supplements are added to a ration, whether it be for pigs or other animals. The main
difficulty is brought about by the presence of what might be classed as impurities in the
supplement. Beneficial results from the feeding of cod-liver oil to domestic live stock are
frequently due to the presence of iodine in the oil. In the above test it is likely that iodine
played an even greater part than any vitamins which might have been present in the oil.
The following report by Dr. Orr of some work done by Crowther is therefore particularly interesting in connection with the work done by Hicks at Agassiz:—
" Crowther has carried out some practical feeding experiments which are of interest
in the present connection. He was testing the value of certain feeding-stuffs for pigs, and
included fish-meal and cod-liver oil in his tests.
Cod-liver Oil and Fish-meal compared.—" A control group were fed with bran,
shorts, and barley-meal, with no additions. A second group had cod-liver oil added to the
extent of J/2 oz. per pig per day. In a third group part of the barley-meal was replaced by
fish-meal to an extent which made the fish-meal constitute 1154 Per cent, of the whole
ration.
Results obtained.—" The following results are taken from a table given by
Crowther:—
Live Weight
Increase
in 68 Days.
Weight of Food
consumed
per Pound
Live Weight
Increase.
61.0
64.9
86.6
4.58
4.54
3.82
Cereals proven deficient in Minerals.—•" Cereal grains are deficient in mineral
matter, and the addition of oil, as stated above, increases the assimilation and retention of
minerals, and so improves the rate of growth; but the fish-meal, which is rich in mineral
matter, though containing little or no vitamin, shows a much better result with regard to
rate of growth and profitable gains in weight than the vitamin-rich cod-liver oil.
Vitamin Content adequate.—•" Crowther concludes that the results ' indicate no lack
of " fat-soluble vitamin " in the cereal-meal ration, since any deficiency would have been
remedied by the cod-liver oil, which would then have caused a marked improvement in the
rate of growth, and a decided fall in the weight of food required to produce 1 lb. of live-
weight increase.' And later: ' The more effective utilization of food obtained by the use
of fish-meal must therefore have been due to some factor other than vitamin-supply.' This
other factor, as the present writers (Orr and Crichton) have shown, is the rich mineral
and protein content of the fish-meal. EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 119
Vitamin-supply not Important.—" From the results of these and other experiments
not referred to here, Crowther gives as his opinion that ' it would seem very doubtful whether
for a great part of our pig-feeding practice the " vitamin " supply is of such practical importance as some popular expositors of this fashionable dogma would have us believe.' "
EXPERIMENTAL FEEDING.
Fish-meal versus Skim-milk at Nappan, N.S.—A continuation of the skim-milk
vs. fish-meal experiment, as outlined in the 1927 report, was carried on during the winter
of 1927-28.
In the first experiment thirty-five pigs were used in seven pens of five each. Pen 1
received skim-milk from weaning to finish; Pen 2, skim-milk to three months, then fish-meal;
Pen 3, same as 2, only fish-meal started at four months; Pen 4, same as 2, only fish-meal
started at five months; Pen 5, skim-milk to three months, then grain only; Pen 6, skim-milk
to four months, then grain only;  and Pen 7, skim-milk until five months, then grain only.
The second test consisted of two pens of five pigs each, all from one litter. Pen 8
received skim-milk from weaning to finish and Pen 9 fish-meal in place of skim-milk.
In all cases the fish-meal was fed at the rate of 8 per cent, of the meal mixture.
Fish-meal produces Select Bacon-hog.—The results of these experiments to date
would indicate that fish-meal makes a very desirable substitute for skim-milk, and where
the latter is not available it might well be used to supply the animal protein necessary in
the development of the select bacon-hog. The grading results show a higher percentage of
selects from the fish-meal-fed groups, while the group receiving no animal protein for a
greater part of the feeding period did not develop as rapidly and consequently show a high
percentage of shop-hogs.    These experiments will be continued.
Following are the results of the experiments for 1928:—
Skim-milk vs. Fish-meal for Pork Production—Winter., 1927-28.
Pen 1.  i Pen 2.
I
Pen 3.
Pen 4.    Pen 5.    Pen 6. ] Pen 7.
Hogs in test  No.
Initial gross weight  lb.
Initial average weight    „
Days on test  No.
Finished gross weight  lb.
Finished average weight    „
Total gain for period    „
Average gain for period    „
Average daily gain per hog    „
Total meal consumed    „
Total roots consumed    „
Total skim-milk consumed    „
Total fish-meal consumed    ,,
Total mineral mixture consumed    „
Meal consumed per pound gain    „
Total cost of feed    $
Average cost of feed per hog   $
" Cost of feed per hog per day  cts.
Cost of feed per pound gain    „
Feed Prices used.
Meal   $2.30 per cwt.
Roots      7.25 per ton
Skim-milk    4.00        „
Fish-meal   65.00        „
Mineral     20.00       „
5
167
33.4
173
928
185.6
761
152.2
0.88
2,600
1,000
4,200
126
3.42
73.09
14.62
8.45
9.60
5
166
33.2
173
947
189.4
781
156.2
0.903
2,600
1,000
400
180
126
' 3.33
71.34
14.27
8.25
9.13
5
168
33.6
173
956
191.2
788
157.6
0.911
2,600
1,000
400
160
126
3.30
70.69
14.14
8.17
8.97
5
167
33.4
173
925
185.0
758
151.6
0.876
2,600
1,000
400
130
126
3.43
69.71
13.94
8.06
9.20
5
163
32.6
173
856
171.2
693
138.6
0.801
2,600
1,000
400
126
3.75
65.49
13.10
7.57
9.45
5
113
22.6
173
725
145.0
612
122.4
0.708
2,400
1,000
1,450
126
3.92
62.99
12.60
7.28
10.29
5
113
22.6
173
744
148.8
631
126.2
0.729
2,400
1,000
2,150
126
3.80
64.39
12.88
7.45
10.20 I 120
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Fish-meal at $65 per Ton cheaper than Milk at $4 per Ton.
Skim-milk vs. Fish-meal for Pork Production—Winter, 1927-28.
Pen 8,
Skim-milk
Weaning
to Finish.
Pen 9,
Fish-meal
Weaning
to Finish.
Hogs in test  No.
Initial gross weight  lb.
Initial average weight    „
Days on test  No.
Finished gross weight  lb.
Finished average weight    „
Total gain for period    „
Average gain for period    „
Average daily gain per hog    „
Total meal consumed    „
Total roots consumed    „
Total skim-milk consumed    ,,
Total fish-meal consumed    „
Total mineral mixture consumed    „
Meal consumed per pound gain    ,,
Total cost of feed    $
Average cost of feed per hog    $
Cost of feed per hog per day  cts.
Cost of feed per pound gain    ,,
Feed Prices used.
Meal   $2.30 per cwt.
Roots     7.25 per ton
Skim-milk        4.00        „
Fish-meal     65.00
Minerals     20.00        „
5
119
23.8
209
968
193.6
849
169.8
0.812
3,177
1,245
5,210
115
3.74
89.15
17.83
8.53
10.50
5
120
24
209
974
194.8
854
170.8
0.817
3,177
1,245
238
115
3.72
86.47
17.29
8.27
10.13
Gradin
G OF  K
OGS IN
Feedinc Experiments, 1928.
Lot 1.
Lot 2.
Lot 3.
Lot 4.
Lot 5.
Lot 6.
Lot 7.
Lot 8.
Lot 9.
3
2
4
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
3
2
3
5
3
1
1
4
1
Average of 1927-28 Experiments.
Grading.
Treatment.
Select Bacon.
Thick Smooth.
Shop-hogs.
No.
Per
Cent.
No.
Per
Cent.
No.
Per
Cent.
14
13
9
6
5
7
3
4
70
87
60
40
33
47
30
80
3
3
6
5
2
15
20
40
33
13
3
2
3
3
5
6
7
1
15
Skim-milk to 3 mos.—fish-meal to finish	
Skim-milk to 3 mos.—fish-meal after 4 mos	
Skim-milk to 3 mos.—fish-meal after 5 mos	
13
20
20
33
40
70
20
(Taken from Annual Report for 1928, Experimental Farm, Nappan, N.S.;m
W. W. Baird, B.S.A., Superintendent). '■ ; ■.
EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 121
Fish-meal used in East and West.—In this experiment at Nappan, N.S., results
were somewhat similar to those obtained at Agassiz. Here, though, the hogs on fish-meal
graded out better than others receiving no fish-meal; and this is in line with results obtained
by hog-feeders in many parts of British Columbia. No doubt the protein of fish-meal tends
to produce a fine grade of lean meat on the hog, and the mineral matter in fish-meal tends
to develop the skeleton to its limit, thereby producing a longer, smoother hog than might be
the case otherwise.
Include Roots or Grass in Ration with Fish-meal.—You will notice that at
Nappan some attempt has been made to bring about an acid-alkali balance in the ration by
the addition of roots, which are alkaline.
Mineral Supplements not required with Pilchard-meal.—You will also notice
that at Nappan a " mineral mixture " was fed, evidently in such a way that the pigs had
no choice but to consume it, as the consumption in Pens 1 to 7 is identical and the same is
true of consumption in Pens 8 and 9. In experiments at other farms and stations " mineral "
consumption is generally less when fish-meal is fed owing to the high mineral content of all
fish-meal except that made from grayfish (dogfish), which is a non-bony fish. There would,
however, be some advantage in feeding a mineral mixture with fish-meal provided it was
high in alkaline minerals such as calcium, which, to some extent, would bring about an
acid-alkali balance such as the feeding of roots, clover, or alfalfa would do. Alfalfa (fresh
cut) would have many other advantages besides supplying calcium and should be fed wherever
it is possible.
FISH-MEAL VERSUS SKIM-MILK FOR PORK PRODUCTION.
Results at Nappan, N.S., for Five Years.—At the Dominion Experimental Farm,
Nappan, N.S., for the past five years, comparative tests have been made of fish-meal and skim-
milk for raising bacon-hogs.
Comparative Gains.—" Averaging the results of all experiments, it was found that
the hogs fed fish-meal gained 1.01 lb. per day, those on skim-milk 0.985 lb., and the check-
lots 0.907 lb.    In 1926 the average daily gains were as follows:— Lb.
Fish-meal -  1.25
Skim-milk    .'.   1.10
Check-lot   0.93
More " Selects " when fed Fish-meal.—" In all the experiments outlined the hogs
in the fish-meal-fed lots were equally as good as or better in type and finish than those fed
skim-milk, and both lots showed marked superiority over the check-lots. The 1927 fed hogs
were graded by a representative of the Live Stock Branch and the results were as follows:—
Fish-meal group, 90 per cent, selects, 10 per cent, shop-hogs.
Skim-milk group, 80 per cent, selects, 20 per cent, thick smooth.
Check group, 50 per cent, selects, 30 per cent, thick smooth, 20 per cent, shop-hogs."
Six to Eight per Cent. Fish-meal advocated.—The conclusion drawn was that
" Fish-meal analysing 70 per cent, total protein or 63 per cent, digestible protein is one of
the cheapest protein feeds on the market at the present time, and if fed at the rate of 6 to
8 per cent, of the meal ration will give good gains and develop a good type and well-finished
bacon-hog, providing a balanced ration is fed." I 122 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
PART III.—POULTRY.
Fish-meal in Poultry Rations.—The feeding of fish-meal to poultry in the Pacific
Coast States (California, Oregon, and Washington) as well as in British Columbia is an
old-established practice. In the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island, where poultry are
kept on the intensive system, it would be difficult to find a flock which does not regularly
receive fish-meal in the mash ration. From our experience, however, hardly any two flocks
are being fed exactly similar rations, but, on the other hand, results are strikingly similar;
that is, a poultry ration containing fish-meal in preference to beef-scrap, meat-meal, etc., gives
•superior production of either eggs or meat at less cost.
Pilchard and Dogfish Meal both used.—Previous to 1925-26 the fish-meal ordinarily used in British Columbia was made from grayfish (dogfish) containing as much as
70 per cent, protein and about 7 or 8 per cent, of mineral ash. Since this date, however,
the use of pilchard-meal has become general even though the percentage of protein is slightly
lower, being from 62.5 to 65 per cent.; the percentage of mineral ash is correspondingly
higher, being from 12 to 15 per cent., which is considered by most poultrymen to be some
advantage.
Fish-meal in "All-mash" Rations.—Fish-meal may be fed when either the "all-
mash " or mash-scratch methods of feeding are employed. In 'either case, however, the
use of milling by-products such as wheat-bran, etc., is not advocated; mash rations consisting of ground grains such as wheat, oats, and barley being preferable to the usually
recommended mashes made up with milling by-products. In buying ground grains preference
should be given to those which have been prepared in mills of the " hammer " type. As
pointed out by Hoist, the use of a variety of grains is not necessary, which being the case,
preference should be given to such grains as oats and barley which are produced locally.
A ration of pulverized (hammered) oats plus fish-meal can be expected to give results equal
to, if not superior to, one containing a variety of grains and cereal by-products. There
was a time, before the advent of fish-meal, when a mixture of grains, etc., was an advantage,
for by using a variety it was hoped that the deficiencies of the various cereal proteins would
compensate each other to some extent; but since fish-meal proteins have been proven to be
" complete " proteins the advantage of variety no longer need be considered.
Cod-liver Oil not Necessary with Fish-meal.—It has been frequently demonstrated
that when the calcium-phosphorus balance of a ration is reasonably correct, the addition of
such substances as cod-liver oil to the ration is quite unnecessary. Birds have been raised in
" batteries " beyond the reach of sunshine on a ration containing only fish-meal as the protein,
mineral, vitamin supply, and with results superior to those obtained with rations not containing fish-meal but containing cod-liver oil. The explanation for this is that fish-meal contains
calcium and phosphorus in the correct proportion to form bone, and though the vitamin
content of the oil in fish-meal is too small to measure by present standards, it is apparently
sufficient to meet the needs of birds kept in confinement.
Keep Percentage Protein Low.—It has been pointed out by a number of investigators in poultry-nutrition that when the protein in a mash is of just the right quality, a
much smaller percentage than popularly supposed will be found to meet the needs of even
heavy-laying birds. Poultry mashes commonly used contain as much as 20 or 21 per cent,
protein—derived from various sources, possibly with the old idea that there is safety in
numbers or variety of sources. It would seem, therefore, that the maximum percentage
of protein required when fish-meal is the sole source of protein would be about 17. If, under
some conditions, this amount does not appear to be sufficient, a supply of fish-meal as it comes
from the sack may be provided in a separate hopper, so that such birds as seem to require
additional protein may be able to help themselves. EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 123
Form of Nutrients Important.—" In practical feeding it is not the separate
nutrients which are dealt with, but feedstuffs which are mixtures of them. Neither are
the nutrients present in pure form, but as so-called crude proteins, crude fats, etc. The
fact that the nutrients are present in a mixture does not affect the underlying principles of
nutrition, which govern each one of them separately. Of much more concern is the form
in which they are present. This is of primary importance with proteins, carbohydrates,
and fats."
Table No. 18.—The Per Cent. Composition of Feedstuffs used in Digestibility
Trials with Poultry.
Use these Tables only for Poultry.
Feedstuff.
Moisture.
Minerals.
Organic
Substance.
Crude
Protein.
Nitrogen-
free
Extract.
Crude
Fat.
Crude
Fibre.
Barley "	
12.33
13.00
9.89
9.32
74.69
11.65
11.05
15.32
10.79
13.42
12.40
8.73
2.88
1.30
12.30
17.15
1.39
1.72
11.43
1.98
6.21
1.92
5.41
6.66
84.79
85.70
77.81
73.53
23.92
86.63
77.52
82.70
83.00
84.66
82.19
84.61
13.93
9.90
61.93
50.24
1.84
10.45
14.13
9.83
42.68
14.03
14.87
55.44
64.16
69.20
2.57
2.21
21.23
73.52
35.96
69.02
28.76
66.47
54.25
26.44
1.80
4.40
13.31
16.15
0.10
1.93
19.31
1.65
7.23
1.93
4.06
2.73
4.90
2.20
Fish-meal	
4.93
0.75
Rice, unpolished	
0.73
8.12
Rye	
2.20
4.33
Wheat        	
2.23
9.01
0.50
Table No. 19.—Digestibility Coefficients for the Different Nutrients of
Common Feedstuffs for Poultry.*
Poultry digest Fish-meal over 90 per
Cent.
Feedstuff.
Organic
Substance.
Crude
Protein.
Nitrogen-
free
Extract.
Fat.
Crude
Fibre.
75.4
86.2
88.9
76.6
78.3
78.0
59.7
79.2
76.6
84.3
55.3
75.5
75.1
58.0t
90.6
73.6
46.9
76.9
66.9
63.0
83.4
78.9
64.3
76.2
82.2
93.0
84.5
88.1
58.2
85.6
75.3
89.3
61.2
82.8
48.0
8.53
98.2
82.1
64.1
87.7
28.5
84.1
39.8
55.6
57.1
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
Rice, unpolished :	
0000
0000
Rye	
0000
oooo
Wheat                       	
oooo
oooo
oooo
* Figures in this, the preceding, and following table mainly from Katayama  (1924), supplemented from
Voltz (1909 and 1923).
t This figure was obtained by a different method which possibly gives it a somewhat lower figure. I 124
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Table No. 20.—Pounds of Nutrients Digestible to Poultry in 100 Lb. of Feed.
(Based on Composition of Feeds as given in Table No. 18.)
Fish-meal better than Beef-scrap for Poultry.
Feedstuff.
Organic
Substance.
Protein.
Nitrogen-
free
Extract.
Fat.
Barley	
Corn	
Fish-meal	
Meat-scrap	
Potatoes	
Rice, unpolished..
Rice-bran	
Rye	
Soy-bean meal	
Wheat	
Wheat-bran	
Yeast	
63.93
10.46
52.74
0.86
73.87
5.74
64.38
3.75
69.17
56.11
None
13.07
53.03
36.98
(2.21)
13.24
18.73
0.86
17.94
74.05
8.04
64.77
1.24
46.28
9.45
20.93
16.93
65.50
6.19
59.08
0.47
63.58
35.61
21.65
6.08
71.37
11.07
59.36
0.77
45.45
9.56
33.20
2.26
63.88
42.25
21.89
1.56
" The proportions in which these nutrients are present can be accurately determined
by analysis. Tables of the composition of feedstuffs give the average proportion of these
classes of nutrients in the common feeds.
Digestibility varies with Different Species of Animals.—" Since different kinds
of animals have marked differences in their digestive systems, the digestibility will vary for
different species and has to be specially determined for each species (i.e., for cattle, horses,
hogs, chickens, etc.). Because of the experimental difficulties, caused by the combined
excretions of fasces and urine, work with chickens has been carried out only on a very limited
scale. Outside of the few coefficients given in Table No. 19, figures have to be accepted
with the greatest caution. Digestibility coefficients obtained in experiments with other
kinds of animals, even with other species of poultry, positively cannot be applied to chickens ;
they are very misleading. No complete fundamental standards being available, feeding of
poultry has to be based more or less on practical experience and knowledge of the composition
of feeds.
COMPARISON OF QUALITY OF NUTRIENTS IN DIFFERENT FEEDS.
Quality of Nutrients compared.—" Not expressed in the digestibility coefficient and
the nutritive ratio, but just as important if not more so, is the quality of the food protein.
There is no fundamental difference between animal and vegetable proteins, provided these
latter contain the essential amino-acids. There is, however, a difference between the efficiency
of the two, because the vegetable cell membrane, being composed largely of non-digestible
cellulose (crude fibre), hinders digestion of the included proteins, so that more energy is
required for their digestion. Even considering this, there is sufficient difference in price to
justify a more extensive use of the vegetable protein concentrates.
Different Qualities of Protein.—" Another point to consider is that, as indicated
before, many of the grain proteins are lacking in one or more of the essential amino-acids.
This deficiency is not the same in all of them, so that perfectly well-balanced proteins might
be obtained by making the proper selection of grains alone. This is more practically accomplished, however, by introducing suitable protein concentrates, such as fish-scrap, meat-scrap,
soy-bean meal, peanut-meal, etc., as supplements to the grains.
" Although the question of quality is thus of great importance in the case of proteins,
with carbohydrates all digestible carbohydrates are equivalent. The digestible carbohydrates
consist largely of starch.
Poultry easily digest Fish-oil.—" The fats of animal feeds are more easily digested
by birds than those of vegetable feeds. This difference is not caused by any difference in
composition, but is due to the fact that vegetable fats generally are less accessible to the
digestive juices because contained in cells with cellulose walls. EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 125
Feed enough Minerals.—" There is no way of testing the digestibility of minerals.
In order to determine definitely whether they are supplied in sufficient amounts, it is necessary
to determine what is called the mineral balance. If more of a mineral is taken in with the
food than is passed out in the combined excretions and eggs, the bird is said to be in positive
balance; the reverse illustrates a negative balance. The effort is always made to feed at
least enough minerals to get the intake as high as the outgo. In growing birds the intake
must be higher than the outgo to allow for bone and tissue formation.
Quantity of Rarer Minerals Sufficient.—" With the exception of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and possibly chlorine, the minerals are found in sufficient amounts in ordinary
feeds. The quantities present are always small, but the needs are slight, so that special
attention generally need be given only to the supply of the four elements just mentioned.
Do not feed Sulphur to Poultry.—•" Although these four elements can be supplied in
inorganic form, such as limestone, phosphates, and common salt, or tied up with organic
matter, one element, sulphur, behaves differently. It has to be supplied in a particular form.
This element cannot be used in the pure form by birds, but must be provided in certain
proteins in which it appears as a constituent of the amino-acid called cystine.
Grains.—" The exact combination of grains is of slight importance. The separate
kinds, and also the proportions of each kind, to be used at a time will depend largely upon
price conditions.
Variety preferred but not Necessary.—-" A variety of grains is always preferable,
because it increases the palatability and therefore also increases food-consumption. A variety
is, on the other hand, by no means necessary. Birds have repeatedly been raised and kept
in good production by using one grain only when it was properly supplemented.
Fish-meal more Palatable than Beef-scrap.—" Fish scrap or meal is the dried
product derived from the whole fish, such as dogfish or herring (or pilchard), and from the
waste from canneries. Fish proteins are not very different from or superior to proteins of
other animal products, but the fish products generally are manufactured at lower temperatures
than the corresponding meat products. They are, as a consequence, more palatable and
better digested than meat-scraps or tankage. An average fish-scrap which contains about
60 per cent, protein will have about 70 lb. of digestible nutrients to the hundred. It is
usually worth about 30 per cent, more than a meat-scrap of the same protein content as shown
by analysis. Unless the fat content is far above the average, which should be between 4 and
6 per cent., fish-scrap, even when fed in large amounts, does not under any circumstances give
taste or odour to the eggs produced by flocks to which it is fed.
Lecithin.—" In addition, fish-scrap contains lecithin, an organic substance which is
supposed to be very important, and certain desirable minerals, like iodine.
Buy Proteins on Unit Basis.—" Animal versus vegetable protein supplements. The
question as to whether to use animal or suitable vegetable protein concentrates in feeding for
growth and egg production should largely be decided by prices per unit of protein in the
different products. A good practical rule is to introduce vegetable protein supplements into
a poultry ration when the price per unit of digestible protein in the vegetable concentrates
is at least 10 per cent, less than the corresponding animal protein. One should never be
afraid of using the vegetable products, as there is no fundamental difference between the
two classes.    .    .
Animal Proteins improve Digestibility of Rations.—"While thus the protein
may be supplied from vegetable sources only, there is one reason for always including a small
quantity, say 4 or 5 per cent., of milk products, fish or meat scraps. These substances have
the peculiar effect, on entering the glandular stomach, of causing a particularly strong flow
of digestive juices, which must be assumed to cause a more rapid and complete digestion of
the rest of the food.    .    .    .
Include Minerals in Mash.—■" Mineral supplements. Care should always be taken
to ensure sufficient consumption of minerals.    The best practice is, therefore, to include most I 126
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
of the necessary mineral supplements in the mash. Growing and laying mashes should
contain between 8 and 10 per cent, of minerals, a part of which should always consist of
calcium carbonate, such as ground limestone. This will aid in the neutralization of organic
and inorganic acids produced in the body.
Sources of Minerals for Poultry.—" A certain part of the minerals needed by the
birds is naturally contained in the grain and protein concentrates in the ration. These
products do not, however, provide sufficient sodium, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine, and iron,
particularly for growing and laying birds. The deficient minerals can be easily and cheaply
obtained; sodium and chlorine from common salt; calcium from limestone, clam-shell,
ground marble, hydrated lime, etc.; phosphorus and calcium from fresh bones or bone-meal,
acid phosphate, etc. The iron requirements are usually taken care of by the iron in the
vitamin supplements. A possible iodine deficiency is overcome by using fish-scrap as a source
of protein or by using oyster-shell for supplying calcium carbonate.    .    .    ."
Clam-shell is preferred to Oyster-shell.— (In British Columbia, and elsewhere
along the Pacific Coast, the use of oyster-shell as a source of calcium carbonate for egg-shell
formation is no longer the common practice which it once was. It has been definitely
established in feeding trials that clam-shell, of which their is an almost unlimited supply on
the British Columbia Coast, serves the purpose equally well from a dietetic point of view
—and at much less cost.)
Never use General Tonics for Poultry.—" Other minerals like sulphur, sulphur
compounds, Epsom salts, etc., are frequently advertised as highly essential for birds. They
have never been demonstrated to have any good effect. If birds are sick or out of condition,
they need specific remedies; general tonics are of no value. Charcoal should also be mentioned
in this connection. It is most generally recommended and used as a supplement to poultry
rations. Much investigational work has been carried out in order to demonstrate the benefit
of charcoal-feeding with no success. . . . Charcoal-feeding for poultry should be given
up as an unnecessary expense.
Baby Chicks need High Protein Ration.—" Theoretical considerations strongly
suggest the advisability of feeding more protein to baby chicks than to laying birds. Bunge
(1905) has pointed out the close relationship between the rate of growth of different animals
and the protein content of the mother's milk. This relationship is apparent from the follow-
ing figures:— Table No. 21.
Animal.
Days required
for doubling  .
Initial Weight.
Per Cent.
Protein in
Mother's Milk.
Nutritive
Ratio of
Mother's Milk.
47
22
15
14
6
3.5
3.7
4.9
6.1
15.5
1: 3.8
Goat	
1:3.6
1:3.4
Hog *	
1: 3.0
Rabbit	
1:1.5
" It is quite evident that the rate of growth during early life is directly proportional to
the per cent, of protein in the natural food, and consequently to narrowness of the nutritive
ratio.
Protein Requirement decreases with Age.—" By determining the protein retention
at different ages Bunge was also able to demonstrate that the protein requirements decreased
as the rate of growth progressively slowed down. At the same time carbohydrate requirements increased in direct proportion to the increasing size of the animal.
Use Natural Food as Guide.—" Absorbed egg-yolk, which furnishes chicks with
their first nutriment after hatching, has a protein content of about 44 per cent, and a nutritive
ratio of 1:2.5. Mitchell, Card, and Hamilton (1926) have recently shown that Plymouth
Rock chicks double their initial weight in fourteen to fifteen days, which is about the time
required by a pig. EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 127
Consider Rate of Growth of Animals.—-" When one considers the fact that the pig
at birth is many times larger than the chick at hatching, and so requires a larger proportion
of energy nutriments (carbohydrates or fat) than chicks, the implication is very strong that
a chick ration should be much narrower than popularly supposed, narrower to begin with, in
fact, than at any other time of life. It is also implied that the ration should be gradually
widened as chicks grow and the rate of growth progressively slows down.
" This may be accomplished by feeding mash only for the first ten days and then introducing small and progressively increasing proportions of grain."—Dr. Walter F. Hoist.
Abundance of Lime required.—"The need of laying hens for an abundant supply
of lime for formation of egg-shell has long been recognized. Oyster-shell, or some other
source of lime, is supplied to laying birds by all intelligent poultry-keepers.
Effect of Lime Deficiency.—" It is interesting in this connection to note that laying
of shell-less eggs is due to some other cause than lime deficiency. The shell is absolutely
essential for the development of the chick, because it supplies lime for bone formation.
Though the supply in the food is inadequate, so long as the hen continues to lay she will,
if necessary, deplete her own bones of lime to provide for the shell; though, in deficiency of
lime, the supply may be conserved by the shell being formed thinner than usual.
Lime influences Egg Production.—" But the bones are not an inexhaustible
reservoir, and ultimately the rate of egg production must slow down to the level at which
the food can supply the necessary material. When there is insufficient lime in the food,
therefore, egg production is less than when an ample supply is present. This is well shown
by experiments in 1919 at Kentucky Experiment Station, U.S.A. Hens were fed in different
groups with no access to the ground. The diet consisted of corn-meal, bran, middlings, meat,
and charcoal as mash, and for grain, corn, wheat, and oats. Two groups were given each
oyster-shell or limestone. The egg production in these two groups was, on the average,
69.4 per cent, greater than in the groups receiving no extra mineral matter.
Abundance of Minerals required for Egg Production.—"Though lime is the
mineral most likely to be deficient in poultry-foods, phosphorus, chlorine, and, on certain
rations, other minerals may be lacking in sufficient amounts, and the rate of growth, egg-
laying, and hatchability of eggs thereby affected. At the Ohio Experiment Station some
recent tests showed that even when oyster-shell, grit, and green food in the form of sprouted
oats were supplied in unlimited amounts, the addition of a mineral mixture consisting of
three parts bone phosphate to one of common salt and one of chalk increased the value of
the ration for growth and egg production by more than 40 per cent.
Iodine improves Shell-texture.—" Reference has been made to the value of iodine
for the prevention of certain conditions of malnutrition in pigs and sheep. It has also an
influence on poultry. The results of experiments at Wisconsin seem to indicate that the
addition of iodine to the food helps to prevent the laying of soft-shelled eggs. It is very
probable that iodine has some controlling influence on the metabolism of lime salts in the
body. Oyster-shell contains some iodine. This may account for its superiority over lime
as a source of mineral supply for poultry.
" It is obvious that attention to the mineral content of the food of poultry would be
repaid by increased profits to the poultry-keeper."—Dr. J. B. Orr.
MEAT-MEAL VS. FISH-MEAL FOR EGG PRODUCTION.
Central Experimental Farm proves Fish-meal better than Beef-scrap.—" In
this experiment two different types and qualities of fish-meal were contrasted, one with the
other, and with the control pen, receiving meat-meal. The rations fed to each pen were
similar, except that a like amount of each fish-meal was substituted for the 15.8 per cent,
of meat-meal of the basal mash. The three mashes thus contained 15.8 per cent, of ordinary
fish-meal (57 per cent, protein), 15.8 per cent, of Fasterfat fish-meal (70 per cent, protein),
and 15.8 per cent, meat-scrap (60 per cent, protein) respectively." I 128
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
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olo EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 129
FEEDING LAYING PULLETS.
(At Dominion Experimental Farm, Agassiz, B.C.)
A series of feeding experiments was conducted from November 8th, 1927, to August
31st, 1928. Eight pens were included, consisting of 120 birds in all. The number of birds
in an experiment varied from ten to thirty and final results were worked out on the basis of
one bird.
The following outline describes the various experiments and the rations used in each:—
Simple Laying Rations compared.— (1.) Project P. 81—Relative value of different
mashes. This pen was fed a mash composed by weight of 75 parts crushed wheat and 25
parts crushed oats in contrast to the mash (standard) described hereafter. The scratch-
grain (standard), which consisted by weight of equal parts wheat, oats, and cracked corn,
was the same in all pens. Skim-milk, green feed, and oyster-shell were also available and
were on hand in other pens, except where mentioned to the contrary.
Prices per 100 lb.: Grain, $2.25; mash, $2.28; skim-milk, 25 cents; green feed,
25 cents;  shell, $1.60.
(2.) Project P. 82—Beef-scrap versus skim-milk. The mash fed consisted by weight
of 100 parts bran, 100 shorts, 100 corn-meal, 75 crushed oats, 25 alfalfa-meal, 60 beef-scrap,
10 bone-meal, 10 charcoal, 5 oil-cake meal; scratch-grain (standard), green feed, and shell
were available, but no skim-milk was fed.
Prices per 100 lb.:  Grain, $2.25; mash, $2.40; green feed, 25 cents; shell, $1.60,
Fish-meal proven better than Skim-milk.— (3.) Project P. 82—Skim-milk versus
beef-scrap. This experiment was conducted similarly to the previous one, except that skim-
milk but no beef-scrap was fed.
Prices per 100 lb.: Grain, $2.25; mash, $2.18; skim-milk, 25 cents; green feed,
25 cents;   shell, $1.60.
(4.) Project P. 87—Fish-meal versus beef-scrap. The birds in this pen were fed
similarly to those in Experiment No. 2, apart from the fact that they received fish-meal
instead of beef-scrap, the proportion of each—namely, 12 per cent.—being the same in
each case.
Prices per 100 lb.:   Grain, $2.25;  mash, $2.36;  green feed, 25 cents;  shell, $1.60.
Fish-meal proven better than Beef-scrap.— (5.) Project P. 87—Fish-meal plus
beef-scrap versus beef-scrap. This group was handled similarly to the previous one, except
that equal parts fish-meal and beef-scrap were fed, 6 per cent, in each case, the total combination of these being the same as either the beef-scrap or fish-meal in Projects 82 and 87
—namely, 12 per cent.
Prices per 100 lb.:  Grain, $2.25; mash, $2.38;  green feed, 25 cents; shell, $1.60.
(6.) Project P. 107—Methods of feeding layers.   Grain in litter versus grain in hopper.
The grain mixture (standard) consisted of equal parts wheat, oats, and cracked corn.
The mash (standard) was composed by weight of 100 parts bran, 100 shorts, 100 corn-meal,
75 crushed oats, 25 alfalfa-meal, 75 beef-scrap, 10 bone-meal, 10 charcoal, 5 oil-cake meal.
Skim-milk, green feed, and oyster-shell were also available.
Prices per 100 lb.: Grain, $2.25; mash, $2.45; skim-milk, 25 cents; green feed,
25 cents;  shell, $1.60.
(7.) Project P. 107—Control pen. This pen was fed exactly the same as the previous
one, prices of feed being also the same.
(8.) Project P. 107a—-Grain in hopper versus grain in litter. The only difference
between the handling of the birds in this group and in the two immediately preceding was
that the grain was fed in a self-feeding hopper instead of in the litter. Prices of feed were
the same.
9 I 130
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Experiments in Feeding—Results from Laying Period., November 1st, 1927,
to August 31st, 1928.
Group.
Eggs
per Bird.
Value of
Eggs
per Bird.
Cost of
Feed
per Bird.
Profit
over Cost
of Feed
per Bird.
1. Basal ration using fish-meal instead of beef-scrap	
2. Basal ration without beef-scrap plus skim-milk	
3. Basal ration with 6 per cent, each of fish-meal and beef-
scrap	
3. P. 107a—Grain in hopper	
4. P. 107—Grain in litter	
P. 107—Grain in litter	
5. Basal ration—Control pen (beef-scrap)	
6. P. 81—Mash:    75   parts  crushed   wheat   and   25   parts
crushed oats by weight	
196
197
189
189
183
183
187
175
$4.90
4.92
4.72
4.72
4.57
4.57
4.67
4.37
I
$2.20
2.26
2.16
2.16
2.09
2.21
2.26
2.17
$2.70
2.66
2.56
2.56
2.48
2.36
2.41
2.20
The following summary gives an indication of the foregoing experiments in order of
profit over cost of feed per bird.    This refers only to the results of one year.
The group which received fish-meal instead of beef-scrap and no skim-milk gave best
results.     This would suggest that a good brand of fish-meal has its place in a poultry-mash.
Skim-milk with no beef-scrap came a close second in order of profit, this indicating the
value of skim-milk in a poultry ration.
The fish-meal plus beef-scrap lot, but no skim-milk and those receiving grain in hopper,
tied for third place. The results from the former of these suggest that a combination of
fish-meal and beef-scrap may be preferable, under certain conditions, to the use of beef-scrap
alone. The results from the group receiving grain in hopper are unexpected in that they
are better than those from birds fed grain in litter.
Beef-scrap with no skim-milk gave results lower than any of the former. This indicates
that when skim-milk is available or a desirable brand of fish-meal, good results are possible,
even without beef-scrap.
The group receiving a mash composed by weight of 75 parts crushed wheat and 25 parts
crushed oats gave the poorest results, due to the fact possibly that the mash was incomplete
in its composition.—Taken from Annual Report, 1928, of Experimental Farm, Agassiz, B.C.;
W. H. Hicks, B.S.A., Superintendent. PART IV.—SHEEP.
THE FEEDING OF SHEEP.
Breeding Ewes need Protein.—" Sheep are kept under such a variety of conditions
that it is impossible to make more than a general suggestion about their feeding. The
critical periods in the life of the sheep are, as with other stock, during gestation and during
early growth. Difficulty is often experienced owing to improper and inadequate feeding
of lambs and in-lamb ewes. Proteins and minerals are the principal requirements of grazing
sheep during these periods and a little concentrated food should always be given. The
inclusion of about 5 per cent, of fish-meal in these concentrates will be a great advantage.
Mr. Tod suggests the following as a ' first-class mixture for lambs.' "■—Corrie.
Ration used in England. Per Cent
Crushed oats  50
Linseed-cake    15
Crushed beans   15
Dried grains   10
Middlings  -     5
Fish-meal        5
He also advises this mixture for preparing rams for show or sale. Fish-meal is an
excellent supplementary food for sheep on roots.
Feed Fish-meal to Sheep.—It is also recommended that fish-meal be fed to sheep at
the rate of 1/10 to 1/s lb. per 100 lb. of live weight.
Fish-meal makes Good Bones.—" With regard to animal products, milk residues,
if they contain the ash of milk, are of special value, because all the essential minerals are
present in it in the proportions required for growth. In the same way, fish-meal, being made
from bones and flesh, contains the mineral matter to form these; it contains such large
quantities of calcium, phosphorus, and the other minerals that the addition of even small
quantities of it to a ration ensures an ample supply of all the essential minerals."—/. B. Orr
and A. Crichton, Rowett Institute, Aberdeen.
IODINE FOR SHEEP.
B.C. Range Sheep need Iodine daily.—" Iodine administered to the pregnant ewe
will definitely control goitre in lambs, where such abnormality exists, notably in known
iodine-deficient areas. Apparently it has a marked but not so thoroughly proven effect on
falling or loose wool. Apparently, too, it has a most beneficial effect where for no distinct
reason weak lambs, overgrown, flabby lambs, or premature births are common.
Method of Administration.—" In the form of an iodized salt. Where such is used the
year round, it is quite likely that a commercial iodized salt will be effective. Where an
iodized salt is used during the period of pregnancy only, results secured on certain of the
Experimental Farms would make it appear doubtful as to whether 0.02 per cent, potassium
iodide (as in commercial salt) is sufficient. On the Experimental Farm System where
experimental work has been carried on in this connection for a number of years, the following
practice is followed: Dry 100 lb. fine commercial salt; spread it thinly and evenly on a
canvas or tarpaulin; dilute from 2 to 4 oz. of potassium iodide crystals in a pint or so of
water; sprinkle or spray this solution evenly over the layer of dry salt, which will take up
the liquid; mix thoroughly; keep dry and place before the ewes during the winter. It is
not definitely known whether these quantities (2 to 4 oz.) are optimum. It has been shown
that 4 oz. is effective under a variety of conditions, although likely in excess for general use.
It has been shown in one instance that 1 oz. per 100 lb. is not fully effective in controlling
goitre.    On the other hand, 1 lb. of potassium iodide to 100 lb. of salt has been used with sheep without toxic effect. This was done for comparative experimental evidence, the iodide
was greatly in excess of requirement, the mixture therefore very expensive, and its use exposed
the ewes to unnecessary danger. Possibly the happy medium of 3 oz. per 100 lb. of salt
would be generally effective, although likely in excess of any actual requirement. Anyway,
it is safe, reliable, and effective. It will be seen, however, that there is a considerable range
between the iodine content of commercial iodized salt (0.02 per cent.) and the home mixture
recommended (from 0.125 to 0.25 per cent.).
" It is true that Hanzlik, Talbot, and Gibson, in the Archives of Internal Medicine
(Vol. 42, No. 4, Oct., 1928) state that ' the objections which have been raised against the
prolonged administration of iodine in small doses are conspicuously unsupported by trustworthy evidence.' The results of their own experiments on rats given the relatively heavy
dose of 1 milligram of iodide per head per day, for periods varying between one-seventh
and seven-twelfths of the span of life, indicated that such treatment was not merely not
detrimental, but on the contrary was beneficial along various lines. The writer is informed,
also, that at the Rowett Research Institute in Aberdeen, in recent experiments designed to
gauge the tolerance of various animals for iodine, increasing doses were fed for several
months (three to seven) until pigs were getting the enormous quantity of 5 grams, calves 4,
sheep 0.3, and poultry 0.3 grams of iodide per head per day without showing any toxic effects.
Nevertheless, in some cases there may be danger in materially increasing the quantities here
suggested for regular or prolonged use, and for purposes of economy, if no other, the potassium
iodide should be kept down as close to the effective point as possible."-—•" The Significance of
Iodine in the Feeding of Live Stock " (Rothwell). PART V.—THE HORSE.
Horses need Minerals.—" The mineral requirements of the horse have received even
less attention than those of the cow. But there is a certain amount of well-established information that shows the importance of mineral matter in the diet of the horse. There seems
to be a consensus of opinion that certain districts are specially suitable for rearing horses of
good bone, and that in those districts the soil, and consequently the pasture and fodders
grown on the soil, are rich in lime and phosphorus, the two minerals needed in largest
amounts for bone formation.
Effect of feeding Bran to Horses.—" There is definite evidence to show that
diseases, chiefly affecting the bones, are produced by foodstuffs with excess or deficiency of
certain mineral elements. ' Bran rickets ' or ' miller's bone-disease ' is caused by feeding
excessive amounts of bran which contains an enormous excess of phosphorus and very little
lime. Ingle has shown that in South Africa a somewhat similar disease occurs in horses in
certain districts where the pasture and fodder crops have a great excess of phosphorus and
a deficiency of lime. On the other hand, deficiency of phosphorus in the feeding-stuffs, as
occurs in Bihar in India and in certain other regions, leads to a disease characterized by
loss of co-ordination and of muscular power in the hind limbs and to porosity of the bones.
This disease is probably the same as that referred to above as being produced experimentally
in pigs on a phosphorus-deficient diet.
Effect of certain Feeds on Horses' Legs.—" In street-horses, affections of the bones
of the legs are much more common than in farm-horses. It has been perhaps too hastily
assumed that the hard nature of the road and strenuous work are alone responsible for the
lesions in the bones in the former case. From the known requirements of the animal, one
would expect that the food should contain lime and phosphoric acid in about equal amounts.
But the street-horse is usually fed on foodstuffs with a large excess of the latter. Oats, the
best balanced of all the grains, has about six times as much phosphoric acid as lime. Bran
has over thirty times as much. Further, the street-horse is often kept on the same ration for
long periods. The continual excess of certain minerals and deficiency of others is bound
eventually to affect the texture and the composition of the bones, rendering them softer and
more liable to injury.
Why Horses improve on Pasture.—" The farm-horse, on the other hand, receives
usually a greater variety of feeding-stuffs. For the great part of the year, also, it gets a
certain amount of grazing, and the minerals of the pasture supply what is liable to be
deficient in stall-feeding. It not infrequently happens that a street-horse in bad condition,
when put upon a farm, shows after a few months a marked improvement in its limbs. The
improvement is probably due as much to the change in the diet as to the change in other
conditions.
Horses eat Minerals readily.—" The quality of the bone affects to a great extent
the value of the horse. It has been shown by carefully conducted experiments that in the
case of the pig the hardness and density of the bone can be markedly increased by modifying
the mineral content of the food by the addition of inorganic salts. There is no difficulty in
getting the horse to eat mineral salts incorporated with its food."-—Dr. J. B. Orr.
FISH-MEAL FOR HORSES.
Just as one might expect, the feeding of fish-meal to horses, especially brood mares, .has
been as successful as the feeding of this product to other classes of live stock.
Balance the Horse's Ration.—It is equally as essential to balance the ration of a
horse as any other animal, but little attempt is ever made in this direction. The usual ration
of timothy-hay, oats—and occasionally a bran-mash—is far from being a balanced ration;
especially with hay and oats which have been grown on soils of known, or suspected,
deficiency such as are to be found in many parts of British Columbia. I 134 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
Horses like Fish-meal.—It is not quite so easy to get horses as pigs to eat fish-meal,
but with a little ingenuity on the part of the feeder, horses will soon take to a ration
containing fish-meal if it is added in small quantities at the outset. The amount may be
gradually increased from an ounce or so per day up to 2 lb. per day for a brood mare. It is
altogether likely that the frequent losses of foals from the common ailments can be largely
reduced by the use of fish-meal in the ration of the mare.
Protein Requirement of the Horse.—Very little is known about the protein
requirement of the horse, but using other farm animals as a basis, a horse of 1,200 lb.
live weight should have at least 1 lb. crude protein daily even when not working. Heavier
horses would require more in proportion to weight and brood mares should have about
25 per cent. more. The tables in the Dairy Cattle section of this bulletin could be used
as a guide in figuring out economical rations for the horse. EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE.
I 135
PART VI.—FISH-MEAL FOR FOXES AND OTHER
FUR-BEARING ANIMALS.
Replace Fresh Fish with Fish-meal.—At the Experimental Fox Ranch, Summer-
side, P.E.I., the feeding of fish to foxes is an established practice. This results in considerable
economy in feeding costs, but the greatest advantage probably lies in the improvement in
health which is likely to result. The fox is a carnivorous animal by nature and its natural
food is small animals such as rabbits, etc. It may be significant that foxes seem to have
a greater liking for the glandular organs than for muscle-tissue, for it is well known that
they devour parts of the intestines of their prey before eating very much of the other parts
of the body.
Fish-meal Ideal for Foxes.—Fish-meal made from small fish such as the pilchard
contains all of the fish with the exception of most of the oil and water. It therefore contains
all of the glandular organs as well as the bones, hence it is logically an ideal feed for foxes
kept in confinement. It should, however, be fed with discretion, as 1 lb. is equal to about
5 lb. of fresh fish or about 4 lb. of fresh meat.
Fish-meal keeps indefinitely.—Fish-meal has the added advantage that it may be
kept indefinitely without deterioration, as it has been completely sterilized in the process of
manufacture and putrefactive organisms which might be present in fresh products have been
destroyed.
Protein Requrement of Young Animals.—All of the advantages of feeding fish-
meal to domestic live stock would apply to fur-bearing animals, and you are therefore invited
to consult other sections of this bulletin which deal with the protein and mineral requirements of young growing animals of other species.
FISH-MEAL—SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND PRICE.
Supply of Fish-meal is Large and Price is Low.—We are sometimes asked what
effect on price there may be as a result of increased domestic demand for this commodity.
The supply has always exceeded the demand, as may be seen by reference to Table No. 22
below, and this condition is likely to continue indefinitely, for not all the sources of supply
have been exploited as yet. Another factor affecting pi ice is the demand in other countries.
We export nearly two-thirds of our annual production, and it is really the export price which
influences domestic prices rather than domestic demand. When the demand for fish-meal in
Western Canada approaches British Columbia production, it is safe to say that either more
reduction plants will be established or those in existence will increase their present capacity.
The following extract from the 1928 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries (Provincial)
will be of interest: "The production of fish oil and meal in the Province in 1928 shows a
large increase. The twenty-three fish-reduction plants on the west coast of Vancouver Island
produced 4,035,879 gallons of oil and 15,280 tons of meal. . . . Four new plants were
in operation. The fish meal and oil products of the Province are exported, England, Germany,
and the United States being the largest importers."
Table No. 22.—Production of Fish Oil and Meal, 1924—1929.
From Pilchards.
From Herring.
From Whales.
From other
Sources.
Year.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal.
Oil.
Whalebone
& Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal.
Oil.
1924
Tons.
Gals.
Tons.
310
2,218
788
Gals.
Tons.
292
347
340
345
376
503
Tons.
926
835
666
651
754
780
Gals.
645,657
556,939
468,206
437,967
571,914
712,597
Tons.
1,709
2,468
1,752
1,948
3,205
3,772
Gals.
241,376
354,853
217,150
250,811
387,276
328,827
1925
2,083
8,481
12,145
14,502
15,630
495,653
1,898,721
2,610,120
3,997,656
2,633,378
1926
1927
1928
1929	
13,700
173,343
61,245 Compare Cost of Fish-meal with other Concentrates.—The cost per ton of a
feeding-stuff is a most deceptive basis for figuring its worth. If we are buying a feed to use
as a protein concentrate we must give first thought to the cost per pound of digestible protein
rather than to the cost per ton. Supposing we are buying bran for its protein content alone,
then, at $36 per ton, 1 lb. of protein would cost 15 cents, whereas 1 lb. of protein in the
form of linseed-meal at $66 per ton would cost only 11 cents. On the other hand, fish-meal
costing $70 per ton would give us protein for just about half that, or 6 cents per pound.
On the basis of cost per ton, fish-meal would therefore be worth twice as much as linseed-oil
cake, for, as Hicks proved at Agassiz, 1 lb. of fish-meal is equal in value to 2 lb. of linseed-
oil-cake meal. Fish-meal, however, rarely costs as much as $10 or $15 more per ton than
linseed-meal; and it has the further advantage that it contains about 12 per cent, bone
phosphate at no added cost whatever. It has been pointed out elsewhere in this bulletin
that animal proteins (such as fish-meal) have a value at least 10 per cent, greater than cereal
or vegetable protein concentrates of similar protein content, due to the easier digestibility of
the animal proteins.
Save Money by using Fish-meal.—Taking British Columbia as a whole, the price
of fish-meal averages about $80 per ton, whereas its value as compared with linseed-oil-cake
meal would be in the neighbourhood of $135 per ton. The saving by using fish-meal instead
of other protein concentrates such as linseed-oil-cake meal is therefore well worth while
considering, on the basis of price alone.
Fish-meal ensures Economy.—The economical production of milk, meat, or eggs
in British Columbia depends for its success on the feeding of home-grown forage and
cereals—and the use of a home-produced protein concentrate, fish-meal.
GROWING COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE OF FISH-MEAL.
Fish-meal produced in other Countries.—" Production and exports of other
countries: Norway produces over 50,000 tons yearly, judging from the amount of Norwegian
fish-meal imported into Germany. The larger portion of the Norwegian production is
herring-meal, so-called ' white ' fish-meal being produced in decidedly smaller quantities.
Fish-meal not now used for Fertilizer.—" The United Kingdom produces some
40,000 tons of fish-meal and scrap, mostly meal. Prior to the war some 30,000 tons were
exported to Germany for fertilizer. At present the fish-meal thus produced is mostly for
domestic consumption and for feed purposes.
" India's production of fish-scrap or guano is over 35,000 tons, as this amount has been
exported during a twelve-month period. Some 600 factories are in operation along the
Malabar and the South Kanara Coast, the outturn of which is over 20,000 tons.
Greatest Consumption in Germany.—" Chief consuming countries: The chief
consuming countries are Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands,
and Japan. Germany alone will have consumed this year (1928) approximately 100,000
tons, 90 per cent, of which has had to be imported. This amount is almost equal to the
total output of fish-meal in both the United States and Norway. The imports of fish-meal
into Germany increased from 6,302 tons in 1923 to 26,993 in 1924, to 45,700 tons in 1925,
and to 82,000 tons in 1926.    This indicates a phenomenal growth in the use of the product." EDIBLE  FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 137
REFERENCES.
Most of the quotations in this bulletin are taken from
papers other than the originals, hence it has not been
possible to give full reference to the sources of much of
this valuable information.
The editor wishes to express his great indebtedness to
his colleagues and associates who by their active collaboration and helpful criticism have made the bulletin possible.
R. DeL.
August, 1930. —^—
I 138
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
SUPPLEMENT A.
RECENT ADVANCES IN ANIMAL NUTRITION.
W. Godden, B.Sc, A.R.C.S., F.I.C., Head of Chemical Department,
Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen.
(Reprinted from " Agricultural Progress,'' Vol. V., 1928.)
The modern trend of animal husbandry is all in the direction of intensive production.
The stock-breeder and feeder of the present day desires to obtain young animals capable of
a very rapid rate of growth, dairy cows which will give high yields of milk, and hens with
a high egg production. Thus we now have pigs reaching 2 cwt. in weight in six months,
baby beef animals weighing 7 to 8 cwt. in twelve months, dairy cows giving 1,000 to 2,000
gallons of milk and even more in a lactation, and hens laying 200 to 300 eggs in a year.
As a result there is a risk that some of the old rules governing the rationing of stock, whilst
adequate to slower productive conditions, may not hold good under present circumstances.
Whilst they may suffice for balancing up the organic or energy-yielding portion of the ration,
they probably fall short in respect of those other constituents, such as mineral matter and
accessory food factors, which, while present in relatively small amount, are none the less
essential for normal growth.
It can be shown by a comparison of the growth-rate and the composition of the milk of
the species (Table 1) that the faster the rate of growth, the greater the absolute amount of
mineral matter required in a given time and the higher the proportion of mineral matter to
energy units needed in the food.
Table 1.
Number of
Days in
which
Weight
of New-born
Animal
is doubled.
Milk of Species contains :
Species.
Protein.
CaO.
P205.
Ash.
Man	
180
47
14
Per Cent.
1.6
3.5
6.7
Per Cent.
0.049
0.161
0.395
Per Cent.
0.056
0.189
0.357
Per Cent.
0.25
0.72
Pig	
1.03
Thus, then, with the accelerated live-weight increase of the modern animal, there is an
increased risk of a deficiency of mineral constituents with respect to energy value and also
of a lack of balance between the different mineral constituents.
The evolution of faster-growing types of animals has led to an increasing use of concentrates in feeding. Many of these artificially prepared concentrates are by-products in
manufacturing processes, and as a result of such treatment are deficient in some of those
mineral and other constituents essential to growth. Consequently, so-called deficiency
diseases have become more and more prevalent in recent years, and it is in the study of such
diseases and their relationship to the feeding of the animal that most progress has been made
in animal nutrition.
The two main groups of food constituents which have received the most attention in
this connection are (a) vitamins and (b) mineral constituents. Along with these, however,
there must be borne in mind the influence of what may be called external factors, such as
methods of feeding and the effect of sunlight, either natural or artificial (such as ultra-violet
irradiation). It is the purpose of the writer, in preparing this article, to deal mainly with
the above two groups of constituents and to endeavour to summarize our present state of
knowledge of them and indicate how far this knowledge finds practical application in the EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 139
feeding of farm animals.    Other items of research bearing on animal nutrition will also find
reference.
Vitamins.—The literature on vitamin research is so vast and varied in character, papers
following one another in such quick succession, that it is difficult to keep pace with the subject
or to evaluate the practical importance of these accessory factors in agriculture. Our knowledge as to the number of vitamins is somewhat in a state of flux, but it would appear that,
at present, five definite vitamins, denoted by the letters A, B, C, D, and E, are recognized.
The occurrence of these different factors in nature and their connection with deficiency
diseases may be briefly outlined as under.
Much of the work in this country in support of the vitamin hypothesis in its relation
to agriculture has been done by Golding, Drummond, and Zilva, and their co-workers.
In experiments with dairy cows they have found a considerable variation in the Vitamin A
content of milk, with different conditions of feeding. Under winter conditions of stall-
feeding the Vitamin A content of the butter was only about one-tenth of that found when
the cows were on grass. Cod-liver oil, when fed to the cows in the winter to supply
Vitamin A, brought the butter up to its summer value with respect to this vitamin. In a
series of experiments with pigs they found it was possible in some cases to induce rickets,
with the manifestation of osteoid tissue, by depriving them of the anti-rachitic vitamin, in
the absence of direct sunshine.
In considering the importance of these accessory factors in farm practice, it should be
borne in mind that most of the experimental work has been carried out with small animals
(e.g., rats, guinea-pigs), and it does not always follow that results obtained in such a manner
will be applicable to farm stock. Feeding experiments conducted at the Rowett Institute
indicate that, on a properly balanced ration, with the animals kept under normal conditions
in respect of sunlight and exercise, there is but little risk of disease due to deficiency of
vitamins. Thus, then, provided the stock-feeder gives his stock free run, so that they may
get the benefit of fresh air and sunlight, and provided he supplies them with a mixed diet in
which is included a reasonable proportion of fresh green food, it is doubtful if he need worry
himself about vitamins. Where attention may need to be given to these factors is in the
case of stall-fed animals, with little or no outdoor exercise, young animals; e.g., calves reared
on artificial foods in place of their mother's milk, or poultry kept on the intensive system.
In such cases failure to grow, general unthriftiness, or symptoms of rickets may be indicative
of absence of one or more of the above vitamins and attention should be given to the ration
to ensure an adequate supply.
Mineral Constituents.—The requirements of animals for various inorganic salts
received but scanty attention until comparatively recent times. It was known that all
commonly-used foodstuffs contained certain amounts of " ash " or total mineral matter, and
it was assumed that any animal fed on an ordinary mixed ration would receive sufficient of
the various essential minerals and that attention need only be paid to protein and energy
requirements. It is now coming to be recognized that many of the problems of animal
nutrition, bearing upon both the economical use of feeding-stuffs and the incidence of disease,
are intimately bound up with the supply of mineral matter in the food.
Living matter contains, as inorganic constituents, the metallic elements—calcium,
sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron—and non-metallic elements, phosphorus, sulphur,
chlorine, and iodine, and probably traces of other elements such as manganese and fluorine.
These inorganic constituents are as essential to animal life as the organic constituents
(protein, fats, carbohydrates). Directly or indirectly they stimulate or control all the vital
processes, and their complete absence from a diet has been shown to cause a more rapid and
painful death than complete starvation.
Functions of the Mineral Constituents.—The fundamental importance of these
mineral constituents to the animal may best be emphasized by a consideration of the functions
which they perform in the body. I 140 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
(1.) In the mature animal they are necessary for the maintenance of a proper physiological balance between the mineral constituents in the body-fluids. Excess or deficiency of
one of the mineral elements in the blood may affect the vital processes. For example, a
deficiency of potassium will prevent the heart-muscle from relaxing properly, while an
excess makes it relax so completely that it stops beating. Thus the actual concentration of
potassium must be correct, and, further, it must be in proper ratio to the other inorganic
elements. Then the mineral constituents play an important part in maintaining the blood
practically neutral in reaction. A slight departure from this will produce pathological
symptoms; e.g., increased acidity is followed by disturbance of the respiratory mechanism
and of the nervous system.
In the maintenance of this physiological balance in the body-fluids the animal organism
is a remarkably effective regulating mechanism. Thus, through the kidneys, it will eliminate
minerals which are in excess; and, by reabsorption through the walls of the intestine,
it will conserve those liable to be deficient. Further, it will draw upon its own storehouse
—e.g., the bones—to make good deficiencies in the blood. Whilst it is true that this
mechanism of internal regulation may enable an animal to tide over a period of ill-balanced
feeding, there comes a time when the mechanism breaks down, with consequent deleterious
results to the animal's health.
(2.) The mineral constituents are necessary for the processes of digestion. Experiments
with dogs have shown that, if the diet be freed from minerals, the animal becomes unable to
digest it and will after a time vomit the food unchanged. The digestive processes are
affected by the acidity or alkalinity of the contents of the gut. Thus in the stomach the
reaction must be acid to enable the pepsin to act properly, whilst in the small intestine it
must be alkaline for the trypsin to act. This regulation is brought about by the mineral
constituents. Subsequent to digestion the absorption of the products is controlled by the
concentration of salts in the intestinal contents, and this concentration will also affect the
passage of digested and undigested material along the intestine. Work in progress at this
Institute by Magee shows that the inorganic elements have very marked and differing effects
on the rhythmical contractions of the isolated mammalian intestine.
In addition to the performance of the above functions of maintenance, the growing
animal requires mineral ingredients for constructive material, for the formation of new
tissue, and the building-up of the skeletal framework. Milking animals require these
ingredients to make good the minerals secreted in the milk, and laying hens for the material
for their eggs.
Recent research dealing with the mineral nutrition of farm animals has concerned itself
with (a) the mineral requirements of different species for individual constituents; (b) the
correct balance between the different constituents; (c) the relationship between the inorganic
and organic portion of the ration; (d) the effect of external factors such as sunlight and
exercise on the mineral metabolism; (e) the study of various diseases resulting upon faulty
mineral nutrition, and (/) the mineral composition of feeding-stuffs.
(a.) Mineral Requirements.—The two minerals required in largest amount for
growth—namely, calcium and phosphorus—have been most studied; and it is now generally
accepted that a growing pig requires to build into its body about 1 lb. of lime (CaO) and
the same amount of phosphoric acid (P,05), and a calf nearly double these amounts, for
every 100 lb. of live-weight increase. But, as a rule, only about 50 per cent, of the lime
and phosphoric acid in the ration can be assimilated and retained, hence the food should
contain at least double the above quantities. Such exact information is not available with
reference to the supplies of the other mineral elements required by growing animals, and
at present the best guide is probably the composition of the milk of the species. (See table
on page 78, mineral constituents of cow's milk.)
Attention has also been paid to the requirements of lactating animals for calcium and
phosphorus.    It has long been known that a heavy-milking cow will draw very considerably EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 141
upon its own reserves of these two elements to supply the amounts given in its milk.
Numerous balance experiments have been conducted in an endeavour to find a means of converting these negative balances of calcium and phosphorus during lactation to positive balances
or to keep the animal in equilibrium. Forbes (1912) was unable to obtain a positive calcium
balance with cows during the first half of lactation, despite superabundant supplies of calcium,
phosphorus, and other minerals. Hart and his co-workers (1922) succeeded in obtaining
positive calcium balances by feeding alfalfa-hay. They were, however, in later experiments
only able to reduce, but not make positive, the negative balances of milking cows by substituting alfalfa-hay for timothy-hay. Addition of bone-meal to the timothy-hay had the same
effect. These latter results they attributed to faulty curing of the hay which caused a
destruction of the vitamin assisting calcium assimilation. Gaessler and McCandlish obtained
positive balances with fresh alfalfa, but negative when old alfalfa was used. Other workers
record beneficial effects from feeding fresh green food. Hart, Steenbock, and Hoppert found
that, with milking goats, the administration of cod-liver oil (5 to 10 cc. per day) converted
negative to positive calcium balances, but the oil was not well tolerated.
It has been suggested by Hunter and co-workers that the calcium in green food and
carefully-won hay is in a more highly dispersed condition, hence better digested and assimilated, than in dry hay. In support of this view they quote experiments where positive
results were obtained by feeding tricalcium phosphate precipitated on starch.
(b.) Balance between the Different Mineral Constituents.—It is now known
that an alteration in the balance of two or more mineral constituents of a ration may affect
the assimilation not only of these elements, but also of other constituents of the ration. Thus
Henderson, working with pigs, found that, with a ration where the ratio of CaO to P2Or,
was practically 1:1, there was adequate assimilation and retention of both elements; but
where the ratio was only 1: 2.5 the balances were very much lower and the animals responded
to ultra-violet irradiation.
It has long been held that an excess of potassium in a ration depletes the organism of
sodium, and vice versa; this hypothesis was dependent upon somewhat incomplete investigations carried out by Bunge more than fifty years ago. Recent work by the writer in
conjunction with Richards and Husband has shown that, while this may be immediately true,
the effect' is only temporary and the animal speedily adjusts itself to the new conditions.
The real effect is rather on the nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus balances; a high ratio of
K,0: Na20 tends to lower the assimilation of these constituents, whereas when the sodium
is in excess the assimilation is raised. This may be the explanation of the beneficent results of
feeding sodium chloride to stock. In this connection it is interesting to note that Theiler,
Green, and duToit have recently recorded experiments in which they find that, in the case
of cattle, sodium requirements for growth are very low and that a high ratio of potassium
to sodium is not productive of specific disease.
(c.) Relationship of Inorganic to Organic Constituents of the Ration.—As has
been mentioned in the introduction, a ration may be amply provided and balanced with
respect to protein, fat, and carbohydrate, but deficient in minerals, and the animal may still
fail to make normal growth. Supplementing such a ration so as to make good its mineral
deficiencies will result in markedly increased growth and much more economical utilization
of the foodstuffs. That this is the case has been proved by numerous experiments and by-
many practical feeders to their monetary advantage.
The individual organic constituents may also have their effect on the utilization of the
mineral constituents of a ration. Thus we have found that with pigs on a ration badly
balanced with respect to calcium and phosphorus, the addition of cod-liver oil, linseed-oil,
or olive-oil caused a rise in the calcium and phosphorus balances.
(d.) External Factors.—Reference has already been made to the effect of sunlight or
artificial irradiation in improving calcium and phosphorus assimilation in pigs on a ration
deficient in calcium.    This result was confirmed by subsequent analyses of the bones, those I 142 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
of the irradiated pig showing a definitely higher percentage of calcium and phosphorus than
those of the non-irradiated pig. Henderson extended his experiments to lactating goats and
found that irradiation reduced the loss of calcium from the animal and, in one experiment,
converting a negative calcium balance into a positive one. It must be noted in this connection, however, that certain rather ill-defined cases have been reported where irradiation has
had a detrimental effect on the health of the animal. Whilst these latter cases are few, the
positive results are sufficient to warrant the advocacy, if such is necessary, of giving animals
free access to sunlight.
(e.) Deficiency Diseases.—It is not possible within the compass of this article to
deal with all the cases of disease or malnutrition consequent upon mineral deficiencies in the
ration of the animal. These diseases have been reported from all parts of the world, and it
is hoped that, as one of the results of the recent Imperial Agricultural Research Conference,
a concerted attack on this aspect of animal nutrition will be made throughout the Empire.
Disease may also arise from a deficiency of elements like iron and iodine, which, though
only present in most foodstuffs and only required by the animal in small amounts, are none
the less essential to the health of the animal.
Some of the earliest observations on iodine in relation to animal nutrition are those on
the occurrence of goitre in sheep, accompanied by a heavy death-rate in lambs, in Michigan,
where the trouble was eradicated by feeding salt deposits, rich in iodine, from the Great
Lakes. Ennis Smith at Montana investigated the disease known as the hairless-pig malady
and found that it was due to a deficiency of iodine in the ration of the mother, and that it
was readily prevented by feeding potassium iodide (1.5 grains per day) to the sow during
gestation. Both of these observations have since received ample confirmation both in Canada
and the United States. (See quotations from Rothwell on Iodine-feeding in Cattle, Sheep,
and Swine sections of this bulletin.)
More recent work has had reference to the effects of iodine-feeding on live-weight
increase, viability of the young, yield and composition of the milk. Experiments with pigs
at the Iowa station showed a 10-per-cent. increase in the average daily gain in weight and
a decrease of 10 per cent, in the food required per pound of live-weight increase, when iodine
as potassium iodide was fed at the rate of 4 to 40 mg. per day. Similar positive results were
obtained in two experiments at this Institute, but further repetition showed no effect for the
added iodine. Negative results are recorded from the Dominion Experimental Farm,
Canada. Continental workers have found that feeding iodine to breeding sows, during the
last three weeks of gestation and the suckling period, has a marked beneficial effect on the
viability of the young and the rate of their growth. Other investigators working with sheep
found that a dose of 40 mg. of potassium iodide per day increased the rate of growth of
lambs by 20 to 30 per cent., but that higher doses had irregular and sometimes detrimental
effects.
The administration of potassium iodide (up to 180 mg. per day) to cows has been found
by Continental workers to increase the yield of milk or to delay the fall towards the end of
lactation and at the same time to increase the iodine content of the milk; on the other hand,
it slightly reduced the percentage of fat in the milk. This effect on the iodine content of the
milk has been confirmed at this Institute; but experiments with goats did not show the fall
in percentage of fat, possibly owing to the use of much smaller doses of iodine.
Finally, there are indications that iodine may be of use, either as a nutrient or a therapeutic agent, in the treatment of such diseases as joint-ill in foals and foot-and-mouth disease.
It may not be out of place to caution readers in using a material such as potassium
iodide for nutritional purposes; the positive results have been recorded by the use of small
doses; it is quite probable that, if the optimum amount be materially exceeded, deleterious
effects will occur. Whilst no definite evidence is available as to the optimum doses for
different species of animals, it would appear that it is not usually desirable for the daily dose
to exceed about four ten-millionths of the live-weight of the animal. EDIBLE FISH-MEAL—ITS COMPOSITION AND VALUE. I 143
(f.) Mineral Content of Foodstuffs.—In the past, the mineral constituents of foodstuffs have been considered only from the point of view of residual manurial values, and most
tables giving the composition of foodstuffs state only the total ash or at the best certain of the
ash constituents. Information is being accumulated and it is hoped shortly to publish a
bulletin giving fairly full data as to the various mineral constituents of home-grown and
purchased foodstuffs used in this country. In so far as concerns home-grown crops, it is
known that their composition may be materially affected by various factors, and the crop
which has, of recent years, received the most attention is grass.
PASTURE-GRASS.
A considerable volume of recent work has been carried out in this country on the composition of pasture-grass, both from the point of view of its general nutritive value and from
that of its mineral content and factors affecting the same. Space will permit of but a brief
reference to these researches.
At Aberdeen this work has turned mainly on the composition of hill pastures, and the
results indicate wide differences between cultivated grass and that of poor hill pastures.
Passing from cultivated pastures through good hill pastures to poor hill pastures, the results
indicate a steady drop in both the nitrogen and the mineral-matter content of the dry matter
of the herbage; the poor hill pastures show a general deficiency in mineral constituents.
These uncultivated pastures show marked differences in the mineral content in different
localities, and there is a rough correlation between mineral content and the occurrence of
disease or symptoms of malnutrition in the sheep grazing thereon. Sheep, when having free
choice of grazing, choose those pastures whose mineral content most closely approximates to
that of good cultivated pastures.
The results of analyses of samples, taken at regular intervals throughout the growing
season in fields continually grazed, show that there is a seasonal variation in the various
mineral constituents. The nature of the curves showing this variation and the date of the
maxima are affected by the method of grazing. These results are borne out by the work at
Aberystwyth, where Fagan has found a similar seasonal variation. He has also studied the
relative composition of leaf and stem; and finds that the former is richer than the latter in
nitrogen, silica-free ash, and lime, though there is little difference in their phosphoric acid
content. Thus the method of stocking which tends to keep the herbage short and leafy will
give the feed of highest nutritive value.
Work by Woodman at Cambridge has thrown new light on the nutritive value of
pasture and the relative value of hay and grazing. From two series of digestibility trials
in successive seasons on grass grown on different types of soil, weekly cuts being rhade, it is
shown that pasture-grass possesses a much higher nutritive value than has hitherto been
suspected. It is concluded that, irrespective of botanical composition, or the presence of little
or much wild white clover, a pasture will yield a herbage whose dry matter will be exceedingly rich in protein. Further, under a system of close grazing, the high content of protein
will be maintained throughout the season.
In composition and digestibility, well-grazed pasture-grass compares favourably with
concentrates like linseed-cake. Further, in a comparison of pasture and hay it was found
that, although the hay-plots gave a higher yield of dry matter per acre, the pasture-plots
gave a slightly higher amount of production starch-equivalent and a much higher yield of
digestible protein per acre. The pasture herbage in the first season had a nutritive ration
ranging from 1: 2 to 1:3; and, on the assumption that a 12-cwt. cow would consume 30 lb.
of dry matter per day, such grass should more than supply the requirements of a cow giving
4 gallons of milk per day. Supplementary foods, if any, used on such a pasture would need
to be rich in carbohydrates.
The problems in animal nutrition remaining to be solved are many and varied; and it
appears likely that in the realm of home-grown fodders, the co-operation of soil-chemist, plant-physiologist, and bio-chemist may be necessary, if the speediest results and those best
calculated to meet the economic requirements of the farmer in feeding his stock are to be
attained. These problems confront not only those of us who work in this country, but also
workers in the Empire overseas; and it is inspiring to note how keen an interest the
Dominions are taking, as evidenced by the Imperial Agricultural Research Conference, in
all aspects of scientific research bearing on the practice of farming. PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, 1930.
I 145
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C I 148                     REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF
FISHERIES, 1930.
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1915 TO 1930, INCLUSIVE.
Fraser River.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
103,692
61,569
3,305
6,699
144,159
158,208
40,520
12,013
29,299
1,173
3,909
193,106
2,881
27,061
795
61,393
7,925
10,528
67,259
102,536
24,079
10,658
85,689
12,783
20,169
88,495
32,256
21,783
13,776
35,385
7,989
25,701
66,111
99,800
36,717
5,152
39,743
2,982
4,648
109,495
31,968
21,401
1,822
31,655
3,854
4,279
103,248
63,645
20 173
15
11,366
9,761
6S.946
30,754
25.5S5
27,879
Chums	
Pinks	
Bluebacks and Steelheads.
Totals	
277,983
426,473
258,224
284,378
274,951
276,855
212,059
226,869
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
51,832
10,561
6,300
17,895
29,578
23,587
817
39,631
11,360
5,949
11,233
8,178
29,978
1,331
48,399
10,691
4,432
23,884
12,839
22,934
4,522
38,854
14,519
4,296
15,718
39,363
39,253
15,941
19 697
15,192
24,853
86,215
18,388
40,111
4,395
148,164
10,197
18,916
59,973
134,442
25,895
4,951
32,146
17,673
11,430
30,934
840
31330
3,129
91,130
23,228
5,392
18,919
138,305
43,514
31
Springs, Red	
Springs, White	
Chums	
Bluebacks and Steelheads.
Totals	
140,570
107,650
136,661
167,944
208,857
402,538
127,472
320,519
Skeena River.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
132,372
7,501
5,187
275,642
29,617
58
78,017
4,324
4,908
95,305
37,678
13
34,559
0,420
17,716
209,579
30,194
241
83,996
19,038
19,006
38,768
26,326
582
82,360
30,594
63,527
210,081
30,208
754
81,146
23,445
74,308
130,079
39,168
713
144,747
12,028
25,588
181,313
26,968
214
131,731
12,247
16,52/
145,973
31,967
418
Chums	
Steelhead Trout	
Totals	
450,377
220,245
298,709
187,716
407,524
348,859
390,858
338,863
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
90,277
14,176
39,758
301,655
24,699
1,050
41,018
21,766
1,993
124,457
45,033
498
89,364
37,403
3,834
177,679
18,068
1,218
184,945
25,941
31,457
117,303
36,559
2,672
123,322
22,931
22,573
161,727
38,759
4,994
65,760
16,285
21,516
148,319
38,456
1,883
60,293
20,933
17,121
73,029
47,409
3,743
116,533
15,273
5,769
107,578
32,190
1,798
Steelhead Trout	
Totals	
477,915
234,765
332,887
398,877
374,306
292,219
223,158
279,161
* STATEMENT SHOWING SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE.
I 149
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON PACK   OP   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1915 TO 1930, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Rivers Inlet.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
119,170
434
492
18,023
756
105
70,260
342
989
2,386
1,120
29
60,044
468
3,594
16,546
868
7
65,269
608
1,122
671
2,094
9
65,581
685
11,727
12,815
7,286
11
192,323*
496
11,510
8,625
4,946
94 891
545
4,924
15,105
1,980
116,850
599
3,242
10,057
1,526
Totals	
138,980
75,126
81,527
69,773
98,105
217,900
117,445
132,274
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
53,584
323
311
24,292
1,120
82
48,615
364
173
5,303
4,718
97
125,742
1,793
1,226
25,647
2,908
56 258
1,442
7,089
6,538
9,038
53,401
1,409
6,729
29,542
12,074
61,195
817
16,101
8,065
9,124
44,936
1,422
20,144
3,567
15,314
130,355
1,022
5,387
2,964
7,115
Totals	
79,712
59,272
133 248
80,367
103,155
95,302
85,383
146,838
Smith Inlet..
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
32,057
268
22
1,460
16,615
1,660
103
9,683
18
60
275
853
113
12
33,442
108
178
. 230
167
19
6
22,682
270
79
2,990
732
2,605
8
17,921
73
39
164
689
31
33,764
33
22
44
134
1
11,435
47
11,864
13
Springs, White	
21
273
78
24
Totals	
52,185
11,014
34,150
29,366
18,917
33.99S
11,776
11,979
Nass Rivee.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
26,405
1,891
3,978
79,976
1,126
84
16,077
352
1,212
10,342
1,202
5,540
1,846
3,538
83,183
10,734
36
12,026
3,824
3,307
16,609
3,966
96
15,929
5,964
15,392
50,815
4,274
375
18,945
3,757
22,504
35,530
8,027
245
33,590
2,725
26,612
72,496
6,481
1,035
17,821
3,314
25,791
44,165
7,894
595
Totals	
113,460
29,185
104,877
39,828
92,749
89,008
142,939
99,580
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
Sockeyes	
31,277
2,002
11,277
,75,087
3,533
235
9,364
2,088
2,176
29,488
8,236
413
16,740
4,857
12,145
43,151
3,700
560
28,259
3,574
24,041
29,949
10,900
789
21,816
4,152
40,368
59,206
17,061
1,305
22,188
4,496
24,938
44,568
22,180
1,125
31,411
3,845
11,200
59,593
19,139
1,498
39,349
3,701
11,076
Pinks	
34,879
15,171
113
Totals	
124,071
51,765
81,153
97,512
143,908
119,495
126,686
104,289
* Including 40,000 cases caught in Smith Inlet and 20,813 cases packed at Namu.
t Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other Districts. I 150
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OP   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, PROM 1915 TO 1930, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Vancouver Island District.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
24,784
3,431
177,856
89,941
30,206
14,177
10,340
1,645
162,246
74,001
35,504
11,118
14,248
2,269
303,474
41,885
23,345
5,249
24,835
6,769
220,270
52,561
58,S34
10,194
25,070
5,222
174,383
SO,113
51,551
5,383
10,895
5,664
127,520
51,384
59,747
4,832
15,618
283
165,161
63,102
30,593
2,510
12,006
138
120,520
Pinks	
30,149
21,342
Steelheads and Bluehacks.
7,097
Totals	
340,395
294,854
390,470
373,463
347,722
260,042
277,267
191,252
Queen Charlotte and
other Districts
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks.	
39,198
1,852
143,781
600,986
61,418
1,204
35,331
1,020
111,263
136,758
56,938
575
59,852
2,806
341,802
438,298
58,455
609
60,533
7,826
252,230
36,481
47,433
973
62,383*
3,650
348,682
380,243
47,183
973
49,962
5,002
305,256
120,747
40,269
1,520
40,926
4,245
195,357
141,87S
26,031
497
408,934 "
24,584
2,711
148,727
146,943
29,142
Steelheads and Bluebacks.
732
Totals	
848,4 39
341,873
901,822
405,476
844,114
522,750
352,839
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
47,107
4,988
80,485
113,824
31,331
409
18,350
4,995
21,412
14,818
18,203
2 790
64,473
15,633
30,946
247,149
33,807
3,721
54,677
14,766
165,717
, 110,300
35,011
702
51,980
8,582
90,464
201,847
42,331
1,009
32,902
6,056
112,364
112,209
30,201
865
45,373
11,423
160,812
143,615
70,431
712
98,600
9,488
40,849
83,626
48,966
Steelheads and Bluebacks.
985
Totals	
278,144
80,568
395,728
381,163
404,793
294,597
432,366
313,894
Total
packed by
Districts in 1915
to 1930, inclusive.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
277,983
450,377
138,980
52,185
113,460
340,395
848,439
426,473
220,245
75,126
11,014
29,185
294,854
341,873
258,224
298,709
81,527
34,150
104,877
390,470
901,822
284,378
187,716
69,773
29,366
39,828
373,463
405,476
274,951
407,524
98,105
18,917
92,749
347,722
844,139*
276,855
348,859
217,900
33,998
89,008
263,904
522,756
212,059
390,858
117,445
11,776
142,939
277,267
604,745
226,869
338,863
132,274
Smith Inlet 	
11,979
Nass River	
Vancouver Island...
Other Districts	
99,580
191,252
352,839
Grand totals-
2,221,819
1,398,770
2,035,629
1,360,634
2,065,190
1,719,282
1,745,313
1,341,677
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
140,570
477,915
79,712
5,862
124,071
185,524
278,144
107,650
234,765
59,272
136,661
332,787
157,522
167,944
398,877
80,367
210,851
374,216
103,155
402,538
292,219
95,302
119,495
325,723
294,597
127,472
223,158
85,383
320.519
279,161
146,838
Smith Inlet	
Nass River	
51,765
69,528
80,568
81,153
84,170
395,223
97,512
267,293
381,163
143,908
389,815
404,793
126,686
104,289
Other Districts	
432,366
313,894
Grand totals..
1,285,946
603,548
1,187,616
1,393,156
1,626,738
1,557,485
995,065
1,164,701
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet STATEMENT SHOWING  SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE.
I 151
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OP THE ENTIRE FRASER
RIVER SYSTEM PROM 1915 TO 1930, INCLUSIVE.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Fraser River, B.C	
State of Washington	
103,692
352,194
61,569
111,898
29,299
61,044
61,393
97 594
85,689
44,673
35,385
112,023
39,743
69,369
31,655
47 402
Totals	
455,886
173,467
90,343
158,987
130,362
147,408
109,112
79,057
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
51,832
48,566
39,631
102,967
48,399
62,654
38,854
64,346
19,697
50,723
148,164
411,538
32,146
84,637
91,130
64,584
Totals	
100,398
142,598
111,053
103,200
70,420
559,702
116,783
155,714
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1915 TO 1930, INCLUSIVE.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
103,092
132,372
119,170
32,057
26,405
24,784
39,198
61,569
78,017
70,200
9,683
16,077
10,340
35,331
29,299
34,559
60,044
33,442
5,540
14,248
26,410
61,393
83,996
65,269
22,682
12,026
24,835
37,851
85,689
82,360
65,581
17,921
15,929
25,070
44,462
35,385
81,146
192,323
33,764
18,945
14,757
16,198
39,743
144,747
94,891
11,435
33,590
15,618
20,579
31,655
Skeena River	
131,731
116,850
11,864
17,821
12,006
Other Districts
12,720
Totals    	
477,678
281,277
203,542
308,052
337,012
392,518
369,603
334,647
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
51,832
96,277
53,584
31,277
15,147
47,107
39,631
41,018
48,615
9,364
6,936
18,350
48,399
89,064
125,742
16,740
6,987
64,473
38,854
184,945
56,258
28,259
6,452
54,677
19,697
123,322
53,401
21,816
6,243
51,980
148,164
65,760
61,195
22,188
9,639
32,902
32,146
60,923
44,936
31,411
9,223
36,150
91,130
116 553
Rivers Inlet...: ....
130,350
39,349
Other Districts —	
98,660
Totals	
295,224
163,914
351,405
369,445
276,459
339,848
214,789
476,042
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PILCHARD INDUSTRY OF THE PROVINCE,
1920 TO 1930, INCLUSIVE.
Year.
Total Catch.
Canned.
Used in
Reduction.
Oil.
Meat.
Bait.
1920
Cwt.
88,050
19,737
20,342
19,492
27,485
318,973
969,958
1,368,582
1,610,252
1,726,851
Cases.
91,929
16,091
19,186
17,195
14,898
37,182
26,731
58,501
65,097
98,821
Cwt.
Gals.
Tons.
Bbls.
9,937
1921
4,232
1922                              ...    .
3,125
1923
3,625
1924
923
1925	
220,000
940,000
1,310,000
1,560,000
1,654,575
495,653
1,898,721
2,610,120
3,097,656
2,856,579
2,083
8,481
12,145
14,502
15,826
4,045 '
1926      	
2,950
1927	
1,737
1928    	
2,149
1929    	
1,538
1930.--	
1,501,404
55,166
1,468,840
3,204,058
18,934
870 I 152
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1930.
PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL, 1920 TO 1930' (OTHER THAN
FROM PILCHARD).
From Whales.
From other Sources.
Year.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1920.	
1921                  	
Tons.
503
326
485
292
347
340
345
376
417
273
Tons.
1,035
230
910
926
835
666
651
754
780
581
Gals.
604,070
Tons.
466
489
911
823
1,709
2,468
1,752
1,948
3,205
3,626
3,335
Gals.
55,669
44,700
1922	
283,314
706,514
645,657
556,939
468,206
437,967
571,914
712,597
525,533
75,461
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
1927	
1928	
180,318
241,376
354,853
217,150
250,811
387,276
459,575
143,009
1929	
1930	
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chari.es F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1931.
1825-531-5873

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