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SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR THE YEAR ENDED… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1923

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 SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD
OF   THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
FOE  THE  YEAR   ENDED
DECEMBER 31ST, 1922
T&
*J§«-
PRINTED   BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by William H.  Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1923.  To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Eeport
of the Land Settlement Board for the year 1922.
E. DODSLEY BARROW,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., September Sth, 1923. Land Settlement Board of British Columbia,
Victoria, B.C., September 1st, 1923.
The Honourable E. Dodsley Barrow,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to transmit herewith the Sixth Annual Report of the
Land Settlement Board for the year ended December 3.1st, 1922.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
R. D. DAVIES,
Director. Land Settlement Board of British Columbia.
Introductory.
During the past year, apart from the construction of the dykes in the Sumas District,
the work of the Land Settlement Board has continued on a modified scale.
Heavy drought in the early summer restricted activities in the settlement areas, curtailing
the programme prepared for the supply of dairy cattle in Central British Columbia, in view
of the prospective feed-shortage. Due to the same conditions, applications for land were
accepted only from thoroughly experienced men, of whom very few were moving! The making
of farm loans was also restricted and special attention paid throughout the year to the carrying-
out of a special inspection in order to discriminate fairly in the case of borrowers whose payments had fallen into arrears, due to adverse conditions in the past three years.
In the Sumas Drainage and Dyking District construction-work was prosecuted with vigour
and success, bringing the main works in the project practically to completion by the end of
the year.
A detailed account of the activities in the various branches of the Board's work is submitted hereunder.
Agricultural  Loans.
Commencing in the early summer of 1922, a special investigation into all cases of loans
in arrears was undertaken by R. A. Hunt, the Board's Loan Inspector. The need for such
action arises from the increasing difficulty experienced in dealing with cases of loans falling
into arrears. During the past two years a considerable number of farmers have been placed
in a condition approaching insolvency through adverse conditions, to which low prices, difficulties
in marketing, crop-failure, and shortage of feed have all contributed. In order to act justly
in all such cases it was necessary to obtain first-hand knowledge of each individual case;
hence a personal inspection by an official of the Board was undertaken.
The results revealed the fact that only a very small percentage of borrowers were behind
in their payments through absolute neglect or controllable conditions. Where such cases arose
action was taken to compel payment, or, failing this, to realize on the security held. In all
other cases it is the policy and practice of the Board to observe leniency wherever the borrower
shows application and ability in the management of his affairs and is sincere in regard to
his obligation; in fact, wherever a genuine effort is being made to cope with adverse conditions.
Continuing the policy followed in 1922, especial care was exercised in dealing with new
applications. With a few isolated exceptions, no money was advanced to clear off previous
encumbrances.    One hundred and thirteen loans were made to farmers, aggregating $106,550.
Settlement  Areas.
Throughout the settlement areas 1922 was a comparatively quiet year. In the previous
winter preparations had been made for an active season. A section of the Board's land at
Vanderhoof had been set aside aud fenced to be used as a reservoir farm for the supply of
young dairy cattle to new settlers on the lands being developed in the Nechako Valley. Similar
areas have been selected in the Francois Lake and Williams Lake Districts. In view, however,
of the general drought in the early summer, the shipment of stock to these stations was postponed until the visit to the settlement areas of the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture
in June, at which time it was decided, in view of the general shortage of feed, to abandon
this particular work for the year and to take timely steps, where necessary, to assist the
Board's settlers in meeting troubles likely to arise from feed-shortage in the ensuing winter.
In the case of settlers engaged in dairy-farming no great difficulty was experienced, but in
outlying settlements, notably in the Ootsa Lake District, where large numbers of beef cattle
were being carried, serious distress was experienced. Assistance, however, was rendered by
the Telkwa office of the Land Settlement Board in co-operation with the Prince Rupert Board
of Trade and with the local agent of P. Burns & Co., which enabled farmers to dispose of a
good proportion of their beef cattle without serious loss. The situation was also helped by
a comparatively short winter, which enabled many settlers to pull through without further
sacrifice. Z 6
Land Settlement Board.
1923
In order to provide for the fullest co-operation between the Land Settlement Board and
the Department of Agriculture, and to extend the scope of the Board's work in giving assistance
to settlers, R. G. Sutton, B.S.A., District Representative for the Land Settlement Board at
Prince George, was appointed general field representative in Central British Columbia for the
Department of Agriculture, and arrangements were made to combine the duties in the latter
appointment with general Land Settlement Board work.
An official visit to the settlement areas was paid during the summer by F. C. Wade, Agent-
General for British Columbia in London, in company with representatives of the Government
and the Land Settlement Board. As a result of discussions during this visit, arrangements
were made by the Board to supply the Agent-General with complete information of conditions
as to settlement in all districts and to prepare sets of lantern-slides showing typical scenes
for the information, of intending settlers. These have been forwarded to the Agent-General's
office in London.
Negotiations were entered into during the year with representatives of a number of British
companies owning large areas of vacant land in Central British Columbia, with a view to
co-operation in the settlement of lands. As a result of the general understanding reached,
it was proposed that the Land Settlement Board would be ready to assist in the location of
approved settlers brought out by the said companies from the British Isles, Denmark, Norway,
and Sweden.
Investigation-work was carried out in the Kispiox Valley, North of Hazelton, with a view
to the establishment of a settlement area. Although the report showed that considerable area
of agricultural land was available, it was not considered opportune to proceed with the establishment of an area until further and more complete examinations have beeii made.
The following table indicates the position in all settlement areas at the close of the year:—
Districts.
tJ]
o
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V
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Ufa
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QJ
•a
a
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u p,
•6
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01
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Acreage improved indirectly through
Operation of
Act.
Total Penalty
Tax assessed
against Unimproved Lands.
Areas 2, 4, and 12, Nechako "Valley  ....
Areas   5,   7,   8,   9,   13,   and   14,   Prince
George and Cariboo Districts
41,756
81,182
15,621
54,580
9,447
21,863
5,319
23,230
2,325
2,643
2,275
6,234
11,644
2,333
9,116
44
75
15
60
10,264
12,997
3,168
6,001
$10,236 20
28,918- 90
2,691' 26
6,827 78
Totals    	
193,139
59,859
7,243
29,327
194
32,430
$48,674 14
Development Areas.
In the spring of 1922 prospects for continued progress on the part of the Merville (Area
No. 1) settlers looked exceedingly bright. The small fruits planted out the year previous had
stood the winter remarkably well and were making good growth when lack of sufficient rainfall during May and June began to affect them. In spite of the dry weather, however, very
good returns were realized as compared with the light crops secured in other fruit districts.
The summer season of 1022 proved to be exceptionally dry and every farm on the area
felt very severely the effects of the drought. In addition to the drought, the area was visited
by a most destructive bush fire which swept through the heart of the settlement without
warning on the evening of July 6th. Twenty-five to thirty settlers were completely burned
out and many others sustained losses, more or less heavy,  of outbuildings,  crop, plants, etc.
The bush fires within or adjoining the area burned for two months (July and August)
and the majority of settlers' families who were not actually burned out were obliged to move
to safer quarters in the town of Courtenay. As a consequence of this unfortunate situation,
the summer's farming operations were completely disorganized and considerable distress was
experienced by settlers and their families all through the remainder of the season. This
distress was greatly alleviated by the activities and splendid work of the Merville District
Relief Committee of Courtenay and the Canadian Red Cross.
The Land Settlement Board was authorized to assist burnt-out settlers in the rebuilding
of their homes and buildings.    This was done during the fall months and by the end of the 13 Geo. 5 Sixth Annual Report. Z 7
  _£  —   =   - — —
year rebuilding was practically completed. The Board also, free of cost to any burnt-out
settler, seeded down all the burnt-over lands on top of the ash. The seed germinated well
and a very good catch resulted before winter set in.
All the settlers, with the exception of three, elected to return to their farms and make a
fresh attempt to build up their homes. On the capability of the settlers themselves depends
entirely the future success of the community, and in spite of the disastrous season described
above, the Board has every confidence that the majority will eventually win their way through
to success and evolve a prosperous farming district out of an area that four years ago was
nothing but unproductive, heavily timbered land.
As a consequence of the difficulties in which the settlers found themselves in the month
of November, the Minister of Agriculture was approached by a combined committee from the
Courtenay Board of Trade and the Comox Valley farmers, presenting certain recommendations
regarding the reappraisal of the Merville lands and suggesting changes in tha method of loaning
money to settlers. As a result of these recommendations and on the advice of ths Board, the
Minister agreed to the appointment of a Committee of Reappraisement with the understanding
that upon the report of said committee the future policy of the Government as regards the
Merville Area would be based.
The proposal is that the committee appointed be composed of men whose judgment on
the value of land in that vicinity cannot be disputed and whose report as to values can be
accepted 'by the Board without question. It is then hoped that on receipt of the committee's
report the Board will be able to grant title to each settler, taking back mortgage on long terms
for moneys due, discontinue the present system of progress loan advances, and withdraw
entirely from active supervision of the area so far as the settlers' private affairs are concerned.
Thus leaving the community free to work out its own destiny by the exercise of the ingenuity
and ability of its own citizens.
Development Area No. 2 at Camp Lister also suffered considerably from drought during
the season of 1922. The settlement, however, did not experience the disastrous effect of bush
fires such as happened at Merville, and there being plenty of employment available in surrounding districts, the settlers were able to make a living for themselves and families in a most
commendable manner throughout the year. So far as the Board is aware, not in a single
instance among the settlers in this area has a charitable organization been called upon for
assistance (except in the case of a recently bereaved widow with a large family).
The 5-acre orchards planted out for settlers by the Board in the spring of 1921 and 1922
have for the most part shown good growth in spite of the two dry seasons lately experienced.
Wherever the settlers looked after their trees and cultivated them in a proper manner the
casualties have been very light.
€p to the end of 1921, largely on account of a misunderstanding on the part of the settlers,
the majority of them refused to enter into an agreement with the Board for the purchase of
their allotments. The Board is pleased to report that the steps taken to remedy this condition
of affairs were successful. The result has been that a number of those (mostly single men)
"who apparently never had any serious intention of farming their allotments have been eliminated
entirely and all the bona-fide settlers have signed their agreements or definitely announced their
intention of doing so.
Development Area No. 3 (Kelowna) is still under lease to good tenant. An additional 75
acres were cleared and cropped during 1922.
Settlers on Development Area No. 4 (Fernie) are making good progress. Collections of
principal and interest due are exceptionally good in this area.
One or two of the difficulties confronting the Board in its work of establishing development
areas might here be pointed out.
It has long been realized by the Board that the maximum of progress can never be attained
as long as settlers feel they are dependent on the Board at every turn for financial assistance
and are able to shift responsibility, which rightfully belongs to themselves, on to the shoulders
of Board officials. The fact has been amply proven that too much Government assistance and
interference has a most demoralizing effect on the recipient in many ways. In a community
of this kind, where the people are strongly organized for purposes of self-protection, it has
been found extremely difficult to work out any plan of loaning money to the individuals on
a businesslike basis.    The less capable members of the community expect to be given exactly Z 8 Land Settlement Board. 1923
the same consideration as the most capable, and their claims in this respect are usually firmly
backed up by the community organization. The task of eliminating settlers who are obviously
incapable of making a success of farming is also made practically impossible. The most active
members of the community organization are often those who are weakest as regards efficiency
on their farms; the better class of settler who might be an influence for good, but requires
no such protection, being usually inactive in this respect.
Another point upon which this Board desires to go on record as a result of its experience
is the inadvisability of trying to establish penniless men on raw undeveloped land and expecting them to make a success thereon without the expenditure of large sums of money not directly
returnable. A small percentage of exceptionally capable men has been successful under such
conditions, but it would appear that usually the degree of interest displayed and energy developed
by a man on any particular piece of land corresponds largely to the amount of his own money
that he has invested therein.
Sumas  Reclamation Peojeot.
During the early summer and in the period between the break-up of the extreme cold
weather and the summer freshet, work delayed by the inclement weather was carried forward
vigorously.
The contractors were asked to augment their dredging equipment, and responded by adding
the suction-dredge " Robson," rented from the Pacific Construction Company, and the suction-
dredge " King Edward," rented from the Dominion Government Department of Public Works.
Through winter delays a vital feature of the project—namely, the construction of the
Vedder Canal system—was seriously behind schedule, and a gap of 1% miles remained in the
East Vedder Dyke by the end of March. It was therefore decided to build a temporary dyke
to close this gap and to secure the East Prairie lands from flooding.
During April the diversion of the Vedder River was successfully accomplished and the
waters turned into the new canal. Preparations were made in the same month to build a large
temporary dam in the Sumas River which was intended to permit the shutting-out of flood-
waters from the Lake area and the cultivation of lands in the West Prairie. After a few days'
work by the dredge "King Edward" on this unit, it was found that owing to the very light
nature of the material available practically no settlement was taking place. Pile bulk-heading
was constructed on each side of the dam; the suction-dredge " Tobin" was brought in and
every effort was made to close the gap. At one time the fill was brought level with the surface
of the water, but a sharp rise in the Fraser River, together with tidal action, rendered the
work abortive. The complete failure of this unit and the heavy financial loss involved after
the genuine and continued effort put forth was a severe disappointment to all concerned.
Until May 30th water-leveis had risen by a series of sharp advances, followed by definite
checks due to cooler weather. In this way a heavy run-off occurred without flood-levels reaching
a dangerous height.   On June 6th the peak of the summer flood was reached, at elevation 93.3.
Owing to the temporary nature of part of the East Vedder Dyke, trouble was experienced ,
with heavy seepage and saturation  in the temporary section.    Through the vigilance of the
working force,  however, no serious break occurred,  and the East Prairie section,  containing
some 6,000 acres of agricultural land, was kept clear of water for the first time in history.
Through the failure of the temporary dam in the Sumas River, the Sumas Lake area filled
as usual and the waters encroached on lands in the West Prairie.
Shortly following the peak of high water, a sharp descent in levels began and the return
to normal water conditions was unusually rapid.
Attention was now turned to the most important remaining-unit—namely, the large controlling dam in the Sumas River, where the main dam was to be established.
Tenders having been received for the dam equipment, that offered by the Dominion
Engineering Works, Limited, was accepted, for the following reasons :—
(1.) That the design was the one considered most adequate to tlie requirements stated
in the specifications:
(2.) That this tender was submitted by a firm of very high standing:
(3.) That the equipment was entirely of Canadian manufacture:
(4.) That this tender was the lowest received.
The equipment consists of four 54-inch vertical centrifugal pumps, driven by electric motors. 13 Geo. 5 Sixth Annual Report. Z 9
The total capacity of this plant under normal working conditions is estimated at 1,000 cubic
feet of water, per second. Having decided on the design of the pumping plant, it was now
possible to prepare plans for the structural and other work in connection with the dam itself.
Unfortunately, through serious winter delays and other untoward circumstances, these were
not ready at the time when it was necessary to commence work.
The design of the main dam was prepared by G. P. Moe, Assistant Engineer at Sumas.
Mr. Moe was subsequently appointed Construction Engineer with exclusive responsibility for
the work on the Sumas River Dam.
In view of the vital importance of this main dam and its relation to the whole project,
the method of construction was carefully considered. Sufficient experience had been gained
in the observation of work on the Vedder Diversion Dam, and particularly in the case of the
McGillivray Creek Dam, to indicate the great risk of failure in this unit, in view of the fact
that this work required, practically speaking, to be commenced and completed between two
high-water periods and that the establishing of the foundation required to be done in the
winter season, when possible adverse weather conditions would materially increase the risk.
Acting on previous experience, it was decided that the letting of a separate contract and
the bringing of a contractor unacquainted with the special natural difficulties already encountered
was not a sound proposition. It was therefore decided that the building of the main structure
of the Sumas River Dam and the excavation-work connected therewith would be undertaken
by the Marsh Construction Company on a cost basis, with a fixed fee for the work.
Construction on this unit commenced in July with the excavation for the large coffer.
Pile-driving commenced in September and proceeded rapidly through the latter months of
1922. The foundation proved to be highly suitable, consisting of a solid bed of clay of unknown
depth.
Meanwhile the construction of dykes and canals had progressed generally. The additional
suction-dredge work on the Vedder Canal and Dykes was completed before September, and
a new unit, the Goose Lake Canal, was completed during October. Work proceeded on the
Sumas Lake Canal with the suction-dredge " King Edward."
Towards the end of November the construction of the main coffer was approaching completion and pumps were installed to lower the water inside the coffer. It had been hoped that
an open winter season would be experienced in view of the most critical work necessary during
December, January, and February. Unfortunately, the weather conditions experienced during
the winter 1921-22 again set in with even greater severity. Ice formed in the Sumas River,
shutting off transportation, and the routine became a series of short spells in which work
required to be carried on at high speed and with increased force to offset the repeated periods
when the work was stopped entirely through bad weather. Added to this, water-levels rose
to an unusual height, following heavy thaw, at a time when efforts were being made to
establish the foundation slab inside the coffer. For some time the whole of the temporary
structure was in great jeopardy through water-pressure from the outside. Fortunately, by
additional bracing the damage was restricted to a small area. The pouring of concrete commenced in January and was carried on intermittently whenever weather conditions permitted.
Dredging proceeded steadily on the Sumas River Canal until the extreme cold weather
set in, when both suction-dredges were stopped by the heavy storms and by ice forming on
the pipe-lines. As a result of the cold weather in January water-levels in the Fraser dropped
very suddenly, causing Sumas Lake water to run out rapidly through the new Lake Canal.
Under these conditions large quantities of silt were carried into the new canal, completely
filling the cut and rendering the previous work done on this unit practically abortive. For
this reason it was decided, after dredging out part of the channel, to postpone further work
on the Sumas Lake Canal until lake-levels had been reduced by pumping sufficiently to enable
the drag-line machines to do the work, also with a view to preventing further trouble through
the silting-up of the excavated channel.
The following additional contracts for machinery and electrical equipment for the Sumas
River Dam were let:—
Sluice-gates for Main Dam.—Tender of Vancouver Engineering Works, Limited, for $28,560
accepted; this tender being the lowest, except for two others in which the equipment offered
was not approved as being adequate for the purpose required. Z 10 Land Settlement Board. 1923
Travelling-crane.—Tender of the Vancouver Machinery Depot for $1,975 accepted. (Lowest
adequate tender.) ,
Sub-station Transformers, Sioitch-ing Equipment, etc.—Canadian Westinghouse Company's
tender for $18,020 accepted.    (Lowest approved tender.)
During March the large suction-dredge " Tobin" was used to build dams in the lake
outlets and in the Sumas River between the high- and low-level drainage-ways. This dredge
was also used to make a cut through the Sumas Lake Canal where this unit had siilted in,
so as to liberate the dredge " Robson," which latter machine moved out to do work in the
bed of the Sumas River.
At the close of the year, while progress had been seriously hampered by bad weather,
the Sumas River Dam was nearing the stage of safety against the summer flood and preparations were fully made for the building of the large earth dam iii the Sumas River which
had failed in the previous year. In order to ensure against a repetition of this failure every
precaution was taken to ensure the absolute success of this unit.
The programme set for the construction year ending with the rise of the summer freshet
in 1923 was to complete all exterior dykes and dams so as to totally exclude the Fraser River
water from the whole of the Sumas area, and to use the Sumas Lake basin as a storage area
for internal drainage-waters pending the final installation of the pumping units.
In view of the postponement in the submission of this report, it is now possible to place
on record the completion of the final link in the exterior dyking system—namely, the main
dam in the Sumas River, which has been successfully built on the site of the temporary dam
lost in the previous year.
The work is well forward on the installation of the pumping machinery with the intention
of commencing to lower water in the Sumas Lake area as soon as high water abates in the
coming season.
LAND   SETTLEMENT  BOARD.
Report of Loan Applications as at December, 31st, 1922.
18 unappraised applications were brought forward from 1921 for   $24,550 00
Disposed of as follows :—
5 rejected or withdrawn      $ 4,600 00 Fees.
13 unappraised     19,950 00        $ 82 00
$24,550 00
1922 Applications.
89 applications received   $99,050 00
Disposed of as follows :—
28 rejected or withdrawn    $35,500 00
53 granted  (for $50,450)    "     56,150 00
3 appraised (action pending)          2,750 00
5 unappraised        4,050 00 27 00
89     $99,050 00
18 unappraised  $109 00
Status of Agricultural Credit Commission Loans as at December 31st, 1922.
394 loans in force, December 31st, 1921, for    $725,950 00
Less—
3 loans cancelled during year .   $   4,450 00
20 loans paid in full        30,250 00
23 —  34.700 00
371 loans in force, December 31st, 1922     $691,250 00 13 Geo. 5 Sixth Annual Report. Z 11
Balance of Loans Account as at December 31st—
Principal      $590,570 26
Interest         32,152 53
Status of Land Settlement Board Loans as at December 31st, 1922.
277 loans in force at December 31st, 1921, for   $577,715 00
60 loans granted during year        56,100 00
337  $633,815 00
1 loan cancelled  $   500 00
5 loans paid in full       5.700 00
6 -  6,200 00
331 loans in force '.   $627,615 00
Balance of loans as at December 31st, 1922—
Principal    $543,594 99
Interest         34,484 65
Victoria, B.C., June 14th, 1923.
I have examined the accounts of the Land Settlement Board (including the separate accounts
of the Agricultural Credit Commission) for the year ended December 31st, 1922, and append
hereto the following statements:—
(a.)  Balance-sheet as at December 31st, 1922, Land Settlement Board.
(b.)  Statement of Revenue and Expenditure, Land Settlement Board.
(c.)  Balance-sheet as at December 31st, 1922, Sumas Dyke.
(a!.)  Balance-sheet as at December 31st, 1922, West Nicomen Dyke.
(c.)  Statement of Revenue and Expenditure, West Nicomen Dyke.
(/.)  Balance-sheet as at December 31st, 1922, Cameron Drainage District.
(g.)  Statement of Revenue and Expenditure, Cameron Drainage District.
(h.) Balance-sheet as at December 31st, 1922, Agricultural Credit Commission.
(i.) Statement of Revenue and Expenditure, Agricultural Credit Commission.
I hereby certify that the appended balance-sheets and revenue and expenditure statements
are in agreement with the books of the Land Settlement Board (including the separate books
of the Agricultural Credit Commission), and in my opinion are properly drawn up so as to
exhibit a true and fair statement of the financial position of the Board as at December 31st,
1922, and the result of the operations for the year ended that date, according to the best of
my information and the explanations given to me.
A. N. MOUAT, C.A.,
Comptroller-General, Province of British Colwnbia. Z 12
Land Settlement Board.
1923
(a.)  Balance-sheet as at December 31st, 1922, Land Settlement Board.
Assets.
Liabilities.
Cash and advances  	
Loans—
Loans granted    $
Less amounts due
to borrowers...
720,685
147,885 36
Mortgages foreclosed  	
Overdue  interest   	
Accrued interest	
Accounts  receivable   	
Land purchase and development—
Purchase   price    $   605,202 16
Development cost  ....   1,010,527 41
1,291 06
572,799 99
8,577 85
34,484 65
20,259 11
109,065 13
$1,615,720 57
Less areas under
agreement of
sale    	
037.935 33
Land under agreement of sale—
Sale price    $   637,935 33
Less  receipts   and
rebates           188,477 56
794 24
449,457 77
Dyking and drainage  projects—
Cameron Drainage District, Capital Acct. .$       8,420 OO
Sumas   Dyke,    Capital
Acct    1,743,878 55
West    Nicomen    Dyke,
Maintenance Acct...        23,396 42
1,775,694 97
Office supplies, furniture, and equipment
(less  depreciation)    	
Creameries :   Advances—
Quesnel     $        9,019 48
Golden     5,098 84
4,217 50
14,118 32
Balance—
Deficit as at December
31st, 1921    $
Deficit for year ended
December 31st, 1922
$3,967,760 59
351,413 97
124,795 49
476,209 46
$4,443,970 01
Provincial Treasury advances ,
Accounts payable	
Appraisal fees  (unearned)   ..
.$4,439,117 03
4,744 04
109 00
$4,443,970 05
(6.)   Statement of Revenue and Expenditure  for Year ended December 31st,  1922,  Land
Settlement Board.
Expenditure.
Revenue.
Salaries    	
Travelling expenses
Office expenses 	
General expenses .. .
.$  27,883  01
4,775 48
2,211  27
77o 93
11
Interest on Treasury advances     219,57
Rebates   on   returned   soldiers'   land   purchase     14,032 60
Superannuation     1,773 05
Depreciation, furniture, and equipment... 940 20
Cost of investigations written off     361 23
$272,330 88
Appraisal   fees    $        378 00
Exchange, discount, and. commission.... 14 39
Legal fees    536 85
Interest       141,188 70
Agricultural    Credit    Commission,    proportion of operating expenses           5,417 45
$147,535  39
Balance, being deficit for year carried to
balance-sheet      124,795 49
$272,330 88 13 Geo. 5
Sixth Annual Report.
Z 13
(c.) Balance-sheet as at December 31st, 1922, Sumas Dyke.
Liabilities.
Construction    $1,470,583 04
Subsidiary   work     19,783 61
Right-of-way  purchase     47,775 35
Maintenance     1,807 94
Equipment      36,485 78
Engineering      93,225 00
Interest     86,322  17
Preliminary   work     11,601 24
Overhead   expenses     3,268 24
Vedder River improvements  1,162 63
Salmon diversion     714 67
Court costs     1,831 18
Contractors'   Account     12,499 13
$1,787,060
Land Settlement Board advances
Accounts payable	
.$1,743,878 55
43,182 33
$1,787,060  88
(d.) Balance-sheet as at December 31st, 1922, West Nicomen Dyke.
Assets.
Liabilities.
Dyke-construction    $ 94,867 96
Pumps      682 01
Sinking   Fund           2,947 84
Accounts  receivable     155 00
Assessments due and uncollected         26,299 47
Accrued interest on assessments          3,057 61
$128,009 89
Debentures due May  1st,  1953—
Authorized    $90,000 00
Less unsold         3,000 00
 $ 87,000 00
Land Settlement Board advances      23,396 42
Accrued interest on debentures     580 00
Balance—
Surplus as at December
31st,   1921    $15,574 33
Surplus for year ended
December   31st,   1922    1,459 14
$110,976 42
17,033 47
$128,009 89
(e.)   Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for Year ended December 31st,  1922,  West
Nicomen  Dyke.
Expenditure.
Revenue.
..$   139
54
98
14
00
68
52
. . . .$6,590 08
Construction  costs   	
Interest—
$1,579
3,480
580
641
14
00
00
Interest on past due assessments   . . .
1,807 92
Accrued on debentures  	
Sundry expenses  	
Rebates on collection charges   ,
carried
360
19
138
Balance,  being  surplus  for  year
$6,938
to
1,459
86
14
$8,398
00
$8,398 00 Z 14
Land Settlement Board.
1923
(/.)  Balance-sheet as at December 31st, 3922, Cameron Drainage District.
Assets.
Liabilities.
Land Settlement Board—
Mortgage    $ 8,420 00
Interest     1,149 32
Accrued interest  102 20
Accounts   payable     17 27
$ 9,688 79
Balance—
Surplus as at December 31st,
1921    $  74 83
Surplus  for  year  ended  December 31st, 1922       296 92
    .   371 75
$10,060 54
Drainage-construction    	
Assessments due and unpaid
8,416 92
1,643 62
$10,060 54
(g.) Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for Year ended December 31st, 1922, Cameron
Drainage  District.
Expenditure.
Interest on mortgage    $510 24
Interest accrued    102 20
Expenses           7 00
$619 44
Balance,   being   surplus   for   year   carried   to
balance-sheet      296 92
$916 36
Revenue.
Assessments levied—
April 30th, 1922   $409 65
October 31st, 1922     424 00
Interest on unpaid levies         82 71
$916 36
(h.)  Balance-sheet as at December 31st, 1922, Agricultural Credit Commission.
Liabilities.
Cash in bank   	
Loans   (principal)    	
Mortgages foreclosed	
Overdue interest	
Accrued interest   (loans)   	
Accrued interest (Sinking Funds)
Sinking Funds   	
Furniture and equipment  	
Discount on Debentures  	
Balance—
Defict    as    at    December
31st,   1921    $72,505' 15
Deficit for year ended December   31st,   1922....     4,894 24
27,704 79
590,570 26
7,022 66
32,152 53
9,592 66
1,589  32
194,696 34
360 00
112,053 34
975,741  90
77,399 39
$1,053,141  29
Debentures, due May 1st, 1941    $1,000,000 00
Accounts  payable            43,756 29
Accrued interest on debentures     7,500  00
Appraisal fees unearned     17 50
Coupons unpaid  1,867 50
$1,053,141 29 13 Geo. 5
Sixth Annual Report.
Z lo
(i.)   Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for Year ended December 31st, 1922,
Agricultural Credit Commission.
Expenditure.
Land Settlement Board, proportion of operating expenses $  5,417 45
Interest  on  debentures       45,000 00
Discount, premium, and exchange            373 45
Legal  expenses,  trustee fees            200 00
Appraisal  expenses    11 40
Postage and stationery           197 25
Depreciation on furniture and equipment. . 40 00
Discount  on  debentures   (1/25 written off)     6,112 00
$57,351  55
Revenue.
Legal  fees    $ 5 65
Interest    $52,405  35
Less rebates  5112
  52,354 23
Sale   profit   on   loans   foreclosed     97 43
$52,457 31
Balance, being deficit for year carried to
balance-sheet         4,894 24
$57,351 55 Z 16 Land Settlement Board. 1923
APPENDIX.
MEMORANDUM FOR THE HONOURABLE THE MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE.
June 7th, 1923.
Your attention is directed to the attached detailed statement as to items shown on the
yearly balance-sheet as " deficit" incurred in the operation of the Land Settlement Board and
the Agricultural Credit Commission.
In particular it is desired to point out that, as stated last year, the Land Settlement Board
is compelled to submit its official annual statement in a form that distinctly tends to mislead
the general public as to the comparative value of the Board's! work.
In a measure this is due to the requirements of the Audit Department, in that a number
of justifiable and necessary items of expenditure are consolidated in the Annual Report and
shown as deficit, without detailed explanation. The main source of difficulty, however, is that
current expenditures for work which yields no monetary return are not provided for by special
appropriation, as in other departments.
All the funds used by the Land Settlement Board are advanced from proceeds of the sale
of debentures or Treasury bills issued under authority of various Loan Acts, and are treated
as unimpaired assets bearing interest; hence it is necessary that the cost of all non-revenue-
producing work done by the Board should be provided for by special appropriation. So far
this has not been done, and as the Board's operations inevitably include work for which there
is no financial return, the condition brought about is one that is most unfair.
In the attached analysis of the deficit prepared by the Board's Accountant, the principal
items are:—
Land Settlement Board.—Rebates to returned soldiers ("Land Settlement and Development Act"); investigation of projects; salaries;  travelling expenses; interest.
Agricultural Credit Commission.—Discount on sale debentures; United States premium on
coupons; salaries and expenses; interest.
The Agricultural Credit Commission comjmenced operations on May 1st, 1916. The Land
Settlement Board was formed on July 21st, 1917, and has continued the work of the Agricultural
Credit Commission, together with its own work, up to the present time.
The Agricultural Credit Commission, in administering a total fund of $1,000,000, incurred
what is described as a deficit of $77,399.39. The Land Settlement Board has used $4,439,117.01,
with a so-called deficit of $372,301.09.
The business of the Agricultural Credit Commission was confined to the making of agricultural loans, while the scope of the Land Settlement Board's operations was very much
wider, taking in development projects, the settlement-area systems in Central British Columbia,
and the financing of certain aids to production, such as cattle clubs and creameries, in addition
to continuing the general loan system initiated by the Agricultural  Credit Commission.
It is important to note that a definite percentage of financial loss was incurred in each
case. In other words, both institutions, operated by a totally different personnel, were called
upon to consume a certain proportion of the capital placed at their disposal, without prospect
of securing a surplus to meet this loss through any of their operations.
In the making of agricultural loans, which work has been common to both the Agricultural Credit Commission and the Land Settlement Board, the position of a Government department differs widely from that of any ordinary private loaning company, inasmuch that while
the latter is governed mainly in its operations by the question of profit and loss, the former
has for its objective the encouragement and expansion of agricultural production (particularly
in partly developed districts).
Accordingly, the loaning operations of the Agricultural Credit Commission and the Land
Settlement Board for the years in wiiich these expenditures were made have in reality represented a strong and largely successful effort to increase agricultural production by aiding the
struggling settler, who in many parts of the Province is working under conditions of extreme
hardship, to develop the resources of the country.
It is therefore necessary to inquire if it is the intention that the heavy organization and
administration expenses should be covered by the only device at the Board's command—
namely-, increase of loan fees and Interest charges—which would mean that the already over- 13 Geo. 5 Sixth Annual Report. Z 17
burdened settler would be saddled with an additional handicap in his effort to develop land
in the new districts of the Province.
In the development operations of the Land Settlement Board and in its extensive settlement-areas work, which covers all the vast areas in Central British Columbia, the same
principle applies. All the development projects undertaken by the Land Settlement Board
are productive projects at the present time and are being actively maintained. On the other
hand, a very large proportion of the private development and colonization projects undertaken
in British Columbia have been a total failure and are now abandoned with total loss of the
capital expended. Examples may be seen in the Columbia Valley, East and West Kootenay
and Okanagan Districts. In this connection it is of importance to note that a large number
of such schemes have been submitted to the Government and reported on hy the Land Settlement Board. In the majority of cases no expenditure was required to prove such proposals
unsound, but in many instances, such as the several projects mentioned in the attached statement, it was necessary for the Land Settlement Board to carry out investigation-work involving
considerable expenditure. There is obviously no means of recovering funds so applied, but
the undertaking of such work will always be a necessary part of the Board's operations.
In the case of settlement areas, an examination of lands occupying a period of five years
was undertaken and completed, in the course of which all land adjacent to existing railway-
lines throughout Central British Columbia and the Northern Cariboo were covered. Fourteen
settlement areas were established, in which over 200,000 acres of selected lands were included.
In order to protect the incoming settler in acquiring such lands and to establish a reasonable
standard of value, a meticulous report was prepared on each quarter-section and a most valuable
record thereby secured.
In the carrying-out of the settlement-area system, the guiding principle as interpreted by
the Land Settlement Board has been that all effort should be centered on providing a reasonable
opportunity to the bona-flde settler by restraining speculation in land and by giving every
assistance and encouragement to the pioneer farmer during the development period. Accordingly, the Board has joined actively with the Department of Agriculture to foster the growing
settlements in the Central Interior, by the making of loans where possible, by the provision
of selected dairy cattle through the cattle-club system, by assistance in the marketing of dairy
products, and by relief in times of unavoidable distress. While moneys advanced for whatever purpose have been secured by written agreement, lien, or promissory note, it is frequently
inadvisable to endanger the success of a genuine settler by collection in the only possible way—
namely, by the forced sale of the means of livelihood in the shape of stock and equipment.
All these operations involve not only a proportion of loss through interest and charges and
bad de'bts, but a continual drain for the salaries and expenses of Land Settlement Board officials
covering this work.
With special reference to the sale of land in settlement areas, it is recognized that the
clearing of timbered land in this Province involves a cost to the settler which is often in
excess of the value of such land when cleared; therefore a very low standard of valuation
for uncleared land in settlement areas has been adopted by the Land Settlement Board. Only
a very simall proportion of the cost of cruising and administration can be added for the same
reason; therefore the cost of maintaining the valuable system of local representatives through
the Central Interior districts must continue to swell the Board's yearly deficit unless otherwise provided for.
In addition to this, however, an especially unfair condition arises in the case of the rebate
to returned British Columbia soldiers provided for by the " Land Settlement and Development
Act." By this enactment any ex-service man who resided in British Columbia previous to the
war, and who now purchases land from this Board, is entitled to an abatement of $500 from
the purchase price thereof. The true average price of lands in our settlement areas is approximately $5 per acre; therefore, in the sale of a quarter-section of such land to a qualified
returned soldier, the Land Settlement Board, having paid an average amount of $800 to the
former owner, is prevented hy law from recovering the greater part of its expenditures. In
this way a loss of $100,464.30 has occurred.
This almount, which is purely a statutory expenditure, has been charged and carried as
a debit against the Land Settlement Board, interest being added from year to year.    In this Z 18 Land Settlement Board. 1923
way a generous and proper measure which has been of great value in the settlement of our
vacant lands is made to react on a subsidiary department in a manner that is most unjust.
There remains the long-standing items of loss on the sale of Agricultural Credit Commission
debentures and on account of the United States premium on coupons in the same connection.
It appears from the records that the Agricultural Credit Commission proposed to write off
one twenty-fifth of the loss under the former item yearly. For reasons, however, which have
been fully discussed in the foregoing, the Agricultural Credit Commission was confronted by
the same difficulty as the Land Settlement Board, in that no surplus could possibly accrue
from other operations to enable this to be done. Therefore the act of writing off any proportion each year has no significance. In the case of the loss on coupons by reason of low rates
of exchange during the war period, there is obviously no alternative but to ask for special
appropriation to enable these amounts to be written off.
In conclusion, I beg to submit the following:—
(1.) That in accord with the policy laid down in the "Land Settlement and Development
Act," the Land Settlement Board has been and is continually obligated to undertake investigation of lands, relief of distress due to shortage of feed, and expenditure in the case of statutory
privileges to returned soldiers, for which no return whatsoever can be exacted.
(2.) That while the yearly accounts of this Board are submitted in the only possible
manner—that is to say, hy the accounting methods used in every-day business—the regulation
of loan fees, interest charges, sale price of lands—in fact, all moneys returnable is not governed
by ordinary business procedure; hut, very properly, by standards based on public opinion and
a consideration of what constitutes a reasonable burden in the case of agricultural settlers
who are struggling through the non-productive pioneering stages.
(3.) That while in the case of other departments of the Government special provision
has been made to cover deficits similarly occurring, no moneys whatsoever have been appropriated for this purpose in the case of the Land Settlement Board or Agricultural Credit Commission.
In view of the ahove-stated conditions, I beg leave to present for your consideration a
statement of all moneys expended by the Land Settlement Board for which special appropriation
is considered necessary. 13 Geo. 5
Sixth Annual Report.
Z 19
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The total Land Settlement Board deficit as at December 31st, 1022, of $476,200.46, represents the accumulated deficits for years 1017 to 1022, inclusive, as follows:—
1017      $    1,534 53
101S       15,107 14
1010          51,856 52
1020          06,736 85
1021        186,088 03
1022        124,705 40
Total  $476,200 46
An analysis of the revenue and expenditure accounts for the above years show that this
total is accounted for in large measure by the following:—
(1.) Rebates to returned soldiers on land purchase: By Act of the Legislature a returned
soldier, who prior to enlistment was a resident of British Columbia, wishing to purchase land
from the Government or through the Land Settlement Board, was granted a rebate on purchase price of $500. The total of such purchase rebates to December 81st, 1022, amounted
to $100,464.34. In addition to this amount, the Land Settlement Board has been charged
interest compounded every half-year on the above sum, which accounts for approximately
$6,000 of annual loss.
(2.) Interest charges: During the period in review the Land Settlement Board has been
debited with interest on money advanced, amounting to $554,441.48, and this charge accounts
for the greater part of the annual deficit. Under piesent arrangements the Land Settlement
Board is charged interest on every dollar advanced by the Treasury notwithstanding the fact
that a large proportion of this money is spent or invested in projects for which no interest
can as yet be charged. In this connection there has been invested in purchase of lands, development costs, and in the case of settlement areas, the detailed survey report costs, amounting
to over $1,000,000..
Interest.
Interest was paid on $750,000 in 1010   $ 45,037
Interest was paid on $1,273,800 in 1020        78,020
Interest was paid on $1,186,600 in 1021         72,680
Interest was paid on $OSO,000 in 1022         60,025
Total      $256,662
It will be noted that while the Land Settlement Board has to pay interest from the day
on which a property is bought, and for every dollar spent in developing it, the Board cannot
secure any revenue from it by way of interest until such time as a sale is effected. In the
case of the development areas at Merville and Creston, where the largest expenditure has
been made, no interest has as yet been charged.
(3.) The Land Settlement Board has been called upon to make a large number of investigations of projects witli view of increasing production hy settlement of lands. While a considerable number of these have resulted in definite action, in very many cases the reports
were adverse, and no returns could be expected as result of the necessary expenditure. During
1010 and the succeeding years there have been thirty-four such projects investigated at a
cost of $8,001.30, which cost has had to be written off, and this adds to the yearly deficits.
Some of the more important projects investigated were:—
Palling District lands    $   104 70
" Empress of Asia " scheme          178 00
Sayward District lands         404 50
rritchard lands           810 14
6-Mile Lake lands          274 60
Beaver Valley lands          308 00
Basque Ranch lands          661 45
Cherry Creek lands       1,577 48
Barrett Ranch lands      1,568 38
Terrace lands         420 73
Langley dyking scheme         600 63 13 Geo. 5 Sixth Annual Report. Z 21
Bulkley-Hazelton lands    $  535 08
Hazelton lands          209 35
(4.) Salaries: In all other branches of the Government's activities the salaries of the
official staff are paid by the Government direct. This has not been the practice with the Land
Settlement Board, which is charged interest on the money advanced it by the Treasury for
payment of salaries. Since its formation the Board has paid out in salaries the sum of
$131,085.50, as follows :—
Office staff    $72,005 10
Directors or members      40,415 40
Branch offices       18,665 00
(5.) Travelling expenses: The same conditions obtain in this regard as to salaries, in
that interest is charged the Board on all moneys obtained to pay travelling expenses. These
expenditures for the period in question total $33,800.57, namely:—
1917     $ 3,620 24
1918   6,235 89
1919   8,501 67
1920   5,957 58
1921   4,709 71
1922  4,775 48
Total     $33,800 57
(6.) Furthermore, it is important that sight should not be lost of the very material benefit
derived by the whole Province through the granting of loans to farmers at a reasonable rate
of interest. This has enabled hundreds of practical farmers to continue production who formerly
were under the intolerable burden of the excessive interest rates which they were compelled
to pay and from which there was then no escape. The granting of small loans has also enabled
hundreds to get a start, who are now making good on the land. This added production is of
benefit to all classes. Z 22
Land Settlement Board.
1923
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Ph 13 Geo. 5 Sixth Annual Eeport. Z 23
Ke Agbicoltukal Cbedit  Commission Deficits.
It will be noted from the detailed expenditure statement shown above that the main portion
of deficit is accounted for in the first two years of operations, and that the items which in
large measure make up this are:—
(1.) Interest: The Agricultural Credit Commission was compelled to pay interest from
May 1st, 1916, while the greater portion of this sum was not loaned till late in the year and
early in 1917.
(2.)  Salaries and expenses of appraisal accounted for most of the remainder of deficit.
Re Discount on Sale of Debentures.—Bonds for the loan of $1,000,000, negotiated by the
Government of the Province, for the Agricultural Credit Commission sold at $S4.72, thus
showing a loss of $152,800. In place of showing this entire loss the first year, the method
adopted was to write off one twenty-fifth of the loss each year, and this annual charge accounts
for the major portion of the yearly deficits since 1917.
U.S. Premium on Coupons.—When the Agricultural Credit Commission bonds were sold it
was stipulated that the interest coupons were payable at Canadian Bank of Commerce, Victoria,
Toronto, Montreal, or New York, at holder's option. Since 1917 the Canadian dollar has not
always been at par in United States funds, and as the holder of an Agricultural Credit Commission bond had the privilege of cashing his coupons wherever money was worth most, during
the period of fluctuation it was found that nearly all these coupons were cashed through New
York aud we were called upon to pay their face value in United States funds. The losses
suffered through this source show a total of $12,304.15, as follows:—
1917     $      69 41
1918     622 30
1919          1,582-20
1920          5,070 04
1921          4,672 09
1922     288 11
Total  $12,304 15
That any loss would accrue from such an arrangement was no doubt unforeseen, but so
far as the present management is concerned it is an entirely uncontrollable expenditure.
■VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by William H.  Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1923.

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