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FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1928-29 BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1930]

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 FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OF   THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1928-29
BY THE SUPEBINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1929. To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg herewith respectfully to present the Fifty-eighth Annual Report of the Public Schools
of the Province.
JOSHUA HINCHLIFFE,
Minister of Education.
December, 1929. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
Minister of Education:
Hon. JOSHUA HINCHLIFFE, B.A.,
Superintendent of Education: Assistant Superintendent of Education:
S. J. Willis, B.A., LL.D. J. D. Gillis.
Inspectors of High Schools:
A. Sullivan, B.A., Victoria. J. B. DeLong, B.A., Vancouver
Inspectors of Elementary Schools:
L J. Bruce, Vancouver. A. F. Matthews, M.A., Kamloops.
F. G. Calvert, Vancouver. W. H. M. May, Victoria
H. L. Campbell, B.A., Kamloops. A. E. Miller, Revelstoke.
H C. Fraser, M.A., Prince Rupert H. H. Mackenzie, B.A., Vancouver.
W. G. Gamble, B.A., Prince George. J. T. Pollock, Vancouver.
G. H. Gower, M.A., Courtenay. P. H. Sheffield, B.A., Nelson.
T. R. Hall, B.A., Kelowna. A. C. Stewart, Victoria.
V. Z. Manning, B.A., Cranbrook.
SPECIAL OFFICIALS.
Organizer of Technical Education:
John Kyle, A.R.C.A.
Officer in Charge of High-school Correspondence Courses:
J. W. Gibson, M.A., B.Paed.
Officer in Charge of Elementary-school Correspondence Courses:
James Hargreaves.
Registrar: Officer in Charge of Free Text-books:
J. L. Watson, B.A. J. A. Anderson.
Director of Home Economics: Chief Clerk:
Miss J. L. McLenaghen, B.Sc. George Cruickshank.
NORMAL SCHOOL STAFFS.
Vancouver: Victoria:
D. M. Robinson, B.A., Principal. D. L. MacLaurin, B.A., Principal.
A. Anstey, B.A. V. L. Denton, B.A.
W. P. Weston. H. Dunnell.
H. B. MacLean. B. S. Freeman, B.A.
J. A. Macintosh, B.Sc. C. B. Wood, B.A., M.A.
A. E. C. Martin, B.Sc. Miss G. G. Riddell.
A. R. Lord, B.A. Miss L. B. Isbister.
W. G. Black, B.A., M.A. Miss Isabel Coursier.
Miss L. G. Bollert, B.A. Model School:
Miss E. M. Coney. Miss Kate Scanlan.
Miss N. V. Jones, B.A. Miss 1. M. F. Barron.
Municipal Inspectors of Schools:
George H. Deane, Victoria. E. G. Daniels, B.A., Burnaby.
R. S. Shields, B.A., New Westminster. J. M. Paterson, B.A., Saanich. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PART I.
Page.
Superintendent's Report  7
Inspectors' Reports—
High Schools   22
Elementary Schools  23
Report of Rural Teachers' Welfare Officer  34
Municipal Inspectors' Reports—
Burnaby     35
New Westminster  35
Saanich   36
Vancouver  37
Victoria   40
Reports on Normal Schools—
Vancouver  42
Victoria   43
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind  44
Report of the Organizer of Technical Education   45
Report of the Director of Home Economics   52
Report of the Director of the Summer School for Teachers   54
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Free Text-book Branch   60
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust   62
Statistical Returns— PART II.
High Schools   (Cities)         2
High Schools  (Rural Municipalities)        8
High Schools   (Rural Districts)        10
Superior Schools     12
Junior High Schools      13
Elementary Schools (Cities)     16
Elementary Schools  (Rural Municipalities)       53
Elementary Schools (Rural Districts)     71
Elementary Schools  (Assisted)       77
Summary of Attendance in Rural Schools—Elementary      90
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each City  .'     91
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each Rural Municipality     94
Enrolment (Recapitulation)       97
Subjects of Study pursued in High Schools in Cities      98
Subjects of Study pursued in High Schools in Rural Municipalities  102
Subjects of Study pursued in High Schools in Rural Districts   106
Subjects of Study pursued in Superior Schools   108
Subjects of Study pursued in Junior High Schools   112
Summary showing Number of Students pursuing each Subject of Study in High and Superior
Schools :  116
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts   118
PART III.
High School Entrance Examination—Names of Medal-winners   125
High School Examination—Names of the Winners of Medals and Scholarships   125
High School Entrance Examination Papers  127
High School Examination Papers—
Grade IX  139
Grade X  152
Grade XL (Junior Matriculation and Normal Entrance)   164
Grade XII.  (Senior Matriculation)    184
Third-year Course, Commercial   199 PART I.
GENERAL EEPOET.  REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF
EDUCATION, 1928-29.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., November, 1929.
To the Honourable Joshua Hinchliffe, B.A.,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Fifty-eighth Annual Report of the Public Schools of
British Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1929.
ENROLMENT.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 108,179 to
109,558 and the average daily attendance from 91,760 to 94,410. The percentage of regular
attendance was 86.17.
The number of pupils enrolled in the various classes of schools is shown hereunder:—
Schools.
Cities.
Rural
Municipalities.
Rural
Districts.
Total.
High schools	
Junior high schools	
Superior schools	
Elementary schools	
Total for 19-28-29..
11,985
4,592
18
51,651
1,899
'205
44
18,387"
661
607
19,509
14,545
4,797
669
89,547
68,246
20,535
20,777
109,558
In addition to the numbers given above, there were enrolled in the—
Correspondence classes     455 pupils.
Night schools  7,629
Normal School, Vancouver      182 students.
Normal School, Victoria     157       „
Victoria College      233
University of British Columbia  1,730       „
Total 10,386
The pupils in attendance were distributed by sex and grade as follows:—
Grades.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
Grade I.               	
7,624
6,586
6,582
'5,794
5,412
5,-573
5,584
4,794
3,735
2,072
1,304
249
6,517
5,864
6,037
5,516
5,208
5,435
5,664
5,3'25
4,084
2,71-6
1,704
179
14,141
Grade II	
12,450
Grade III	
12,619
Grade IV..          	
11,310
Grade V	
10,620
Grade VI.             	
11,008
Grade VII	
11,248
Grade VIII.          	
10,119
Grade IX.             	
7,819
Grade X.                             	
4,788
Grade XI.                          	
3,008
Grade XII           	
428
Total 	
'55,309
54,249
109,558 R 8
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
The number of teachers employed in the different classes of schools and the average number
of pupils per teacher were :—
Schools.
No. of
Grade
Teachers,
No. of
Special
Instructors.
Average
Enrolment
per Grade
Teacher.
Average Daily
Attendance
per Grade
Teacher.
High schools (cities)	
High schools (rural municipalities)	
High schools  (rural districts)	
Junior high schools	
Superior schools	
Elementary schools  (cities)	
Elementary schools  (rural municipalities)
Elementary schools  (rural districts)	
All schools	
3S3
6S
j32
130
33
1,41-9
551
970
26
6
27
116
23
198
31
27
21
37
20
36
33
'20
31
26.05
23.41
17.33
31.32
16.45
34.22
28.14
16.30
26.32
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES.
The following table shows the number of teachers of each sex employed and also the number
of certificates of each class held by the teachers:—•
Schools.
Acad.
First.
Second.
Third.
Temp.
Special.
Male.
Female.
Total.
366
64
32
8
59
114
16
15
21
25
64
611
201'
124
202
4
'644
317
171
409
50
17
6
19
17
4
S
3
26
6
27
116
23
255
38
17
'27
76
308
127
79
130
154
36
15
6
81
1,227
447
237
524
409
High schools (rural munic.)	
High schools (rural districts)	
Superior schools	
74
32
33
157
1,535
Elementary schools (rural munic.)
Regularly organized rural schools..
574
316
654
Total, 1928-29	
695     |   1,227
1,545
92
27
198
1,057
2,727
3,784
Total, 1927-T2-8	
612
1,110
1,-589
118
27
'217
995
'2,673
8,668
NEW SCHOOLS.
New high schools were opened at Britannia Mines, Comox, Dewdney, a junior high school
at Nelson; and superior schools at Extension, Lumby, Malcolm Island, Procter, Rolla, and
University Hill. One hundred additional class-rooms were opened in graded schools throughout
the Province.    Besides, schools were opened for the first time in the following districts:—
Schools. Electoral Districts.
Graham Siding Cariboo.
Chilliwack River Chilliwack.
Mountain Ridges Columbia.
Campbell Falls, Elk Lake, Thurston Bay Comox.
Newlands, North; Red Pass, Shearerdale Fort George.
Fruitova Grand Forks-Greenwood.
Pioneer Mine, Port Mellon Lillooet.
Beale Quarries, Coast Logging, Vancouver Bay Mackenzie.
Nadina River Omineca. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
R 9
The following statement shows what percentage of the pupils was enrolled in the different
classes of schools :—■
Schools.
No. of Pupils
enrolled.
Percentag
Total
Enrolment.
of
High schools  (cities)	
Elementary schools (cities)	
High schools (rural municipalities)	
Elementary schools (rural municipalities)
High schools  (rural districts)	
Elementary schools (rural districts)	
Superior schools	
Junior high schools	
Total	
11,985
51,651
1,899
18,387
661
19,509
669
4,797
109,558
10.94
47.15
1.73
16.78
0.60
17.82
0.60
4.38
100.00
The number of children of foreign parentage who attended the public schools of the Province
during the year was as follows:—
m
.£
o
VI
11
a
a
»"3
09
3
■a
3
5
,  vi
11
rt >
o rt
03
Tfl
oj*
ii
o
CM
rn
a
a
a
u
flj
C5
J3
3
QJ
t.
fa
169
993
SO
77
297
1,646
1,282
449
'2
29
6
12
111
681
325
437
4
17
1
18
22
22
8
35
184
34
60
327
193
1   158
119
Elementary schools in rural municipalities	
46
58
1,319
3,674
49
1,554
69
295   1   696
245
I
in
a .
ci—-
oaj
4e
v\
a
rt
'u
+j
VI
3
<
VI
a
a
5
v>
a
.^
VI
VI
a
VI
s
rt
'vl
si
o
J=5
O
J=S
M
3
O
a
m
1>
3
CJ <u
94
162
74
41
14
158
37
05
•23
103.
85
176
47
262
71
74
141
914
114
3S-6
3
268
17
573
87
683
152
362
Elementary schools in rural municipalities	
Total	
371
304
387
454
1,525
861
1,284
The  following  statement  shows  steady  growth  in  the  enrolment,
percentage of pupils attending the high schools is most marked:—
The  increase  in  the
Year.
Enrolment at
High Schools.
Enrolment at
Elementary
Schools.
Total
Enrolment.
Percentage at
High Schools
of the Total
Enrolment.
1918-19	
5,806
6,636
7,259
8,634
9,220
9,889
10,597
11,779
12,906
13,516
14,545
66,200
72,607
78,691
83,285
85,66S
86,815
87,357
89,909
92,102
94,663
95,013
72,006
79,243
85,950
91,919
94,888
96,204
97,954
101,688
105,008
108,179
109,558
8.06
1919 20	
8.37
1920-21	
8.44
1921-22	
9.39
1922-23	
9.71
1923  24               	
10.27
1924-25	
10.81
1925-26	
11.58
1926-27	
12.29
1927-28	
12.49
1928-129     	
13.27 R 10
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
RURAL FEMALE TEACHERS' WELFARE OFFICER.
There has been added to the staff of the Department a new officer whose duty it is to visit
the rural districts of the Province where the living and social conditions under which young
female teachers are working are not found to be satisfactory. For the most part, the people of
the rural areas give a warm welcome to the young teacher and make her sojourn in the district
as pleasant as possible. In a number of localities, however, the boarding and rooming facilities
are still not adequate and j;he social conditions are in many ways very trying to young women
of little experience. Miss Bowron's appointment meets a long-felt need and in her the young
female teacher in the rural district has a friend and good counsellor who will be ever ready to
respond to any call that may come for advice and assistance.
CHANGES IN "PUBLIC SCHOOLS ACT."
Several changes of much importance were made in the " Public Schools Act" at the 1929
Session of the Legislature.
An amendment was made limiting the use of Supplementary Readers in the schools of the
Province to those books which are prescribed from time to time by the Council of Public
Instruction.
Another amendment removed the provisions of the Act which placed all rural districts in
the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Belt under the classification of assisted schools. The assessed
value of a district is now the basis used in determining whether it shall be classed as an assisted
or as a regularly organized district. Where the assessed value is less than $150,000 the district
is classed as assisted. The salary of the teacher, with the exception of a sum raised by a 1-mill
levy on the district, is paid by the Government. A district which has an assessed value of
$150,000 or over is, if it employs only one teacher, ranked as a regularly organized district.
The Government pays $580 a year towards the salary of the teacher and the district pays the
rest of the salary.
One way of improving the teaching service in rural districts is to create conditions that will
tend to make teachers of successful experience remain for a number of years in the same schools.
By a change in the Act the Department is empowered to increase by $100 the salary of a teacher
in an assisted school who has served successfully for at least two years and returns to the same
school for another term.
A rural school district which has no high school is now required to contribute $5 a month
towards the tuition fee exacted from a pupil under 16 years of age who is a resident of the
district but is attending a high school in another district.
Correspondence Courses in Elementary and High School Subjects.—A Correspondence Course
in Elementary School subjects was first established in 1919. The enrolment year by year was
as follows:—
June 1st, 1919, to June 1st, 1920   122
1921   202
1921,
1922
192-2,
1923
1923,
1924
1924,
1925
1925,
1926
1926,
1927
1927,
1928
1928,
1929
255
285
315
346
301
412
447
455
In order to bring a measure of secondary education within the reach of all who have
completed the Elementary School Course, provision has been made in the " Public Schools Act"
for instruction in high-school subjects leading to matriculation and entrance to Normal School
and also for the High School Commercial Course. It has been felt that something should be
done along this line chiefly in the interests of families whose places of residence and whose
circumstances generally made attendance at high school in the nsual way impossible.
Preparatory to the enrolment of students in the High School Correspondence Courses, papers
in almost all high-school subjects were prepared by recognized specialists actively engaged in
high-school teaching. Circulars announcing the character and extent of the courses with conditions of enrolment were distributed to all parts of the Province and approximately 500 students PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 11
are taking advantage of the opportunity, now being offered for the first time, of improving their
educational standing without having to leave their homes.
Persons of any age who have reached entrance to high-school standing, and who live more
than 3 miles from a high school, or who are unable to obtain the necessary instruction in their
local high school, are entitled to a course by correspondence.
Instruction in the following subjects is now available: English literature, English grammar, English composition, history, geography, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, general science,
chemistry, botany, agriculture, Latin, French, drawing, typewriting, book-keeping, shorthand,
and business law.
In the past a second teacher could not be appointed to a school until the number of pupils in
regular attendance had reached forty-one. School Boards had for years urged that the number
should be lowered, as it was difficult, if not impossible, for one teacher, with thirty-six to
forty pupils divided into eight grades, to give satisfactory service. Under a recent amendment,
a School Board may open a second division when the attendance exceeds thirty-five.
ACADEMIC STANDING OF NORMAL SCHOOL STUDENTS IMPROVED.
It is interesting to note the gradual strengthening of the academic qualifications of teachers-
in-training at the Normal Schools. Over 54 per cent, of those in attendance at Victoria last year
had considerably more than the minimum requirements for admission. Out of an enrolment in
November, 1928, of 150, there were six students who had two years' University credits, three
had Second-year standing with supplemental, thirty-five had First-year standing, twenty-four
had Senior Matriculation, while fifteen others had not only Junior Matriculation, but also partial
First-year Arts or Senior Matriculation standing. Only a few years ago students who had
completed two years in a high school were admitted to Normal School. The majority of those
now in attendance have completed not only three years' high-school work, but have also First- or
Second-year University standing. The academic qualifications of students attending the Vancouver Normal School are very much the same as those attending the Victoria institution.
REVISION OF THE HIGH  SCHOOL CURRICULUM.
A careful and thorough revision of the High School Curriculum has been undertaken. In
recent years the Elementary School Programme was revised and enriched and two years ago a
Course of Study was compiled for the Junior High School. This type of school has been spreading with remarkable rapidity in this Province, and on that account, as well as for many other
reasons, it was found advisable to begin a revision of the High School Curriculum.
The old Grade X. High School Course is not well adapted to the needs of students who are
passing through Grade IX. by way of the Junior High School. Moreover, the change from the
Elementary School to Grade IX. of the High School is at present very abrupt. The High School
Courses are generally considered to be too heavy. So many new subjects are attempted in the
first year that some of the pupils become disheartened and leave school, or, if they remain, find it
necessary to repeat the work of one or two years. The principals and teachers of the Normal
Schools and the professors of the University consider that our students are too immature on
entering these institutions. Besides, there are in the High School some types of student not
well provided for in the prescribed courses. Accordingly, a General Committee representing
the Department, the large and small High Schools, the rural High School, and the University
was appointed to go into the matter of revising the curriculum. The Committee was unanimously of the opinion that no revision, however careful or scientific, would be satisfactory if it
were based on a three-year High School Course. Hence it was decided to make new four-year
courses leading to a General Graduation Diploma, Normal Entrance, or Junior Matriculation.
There is provision made, however, whereby ambitious students, and especially those who through
no fault of their own enter High School after they have passed the usual age of admission and
are anxious to graduate within as short a time as possible, may be accelerated in their studies.
If they are bright and industrious they may graduate in three years. Subject to the approval
of the Council of Public Instruction, the work of the General Committee is chiefly to determine
the courses to be given, the subjects of the courses, and the allotment of the time for each subject.
Special committees of High School experts are assisting in the drawing-up of the content of the
courses. It is expected that the revision will he completed by Easter, 1930. The new curriculum
will then be printed and made available to all the High Schools of the Province. R 12 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
" TEACHERS' PENSIONS ACT."
A measure of unusual interest to teachers was passed at the 1929 session of the Legislature.
The Teachers' Federation, through its Executive, had worked for many years for a definite plan
for teachers' pensions which would not prove to be too burdensome to the teachers themselves
or to the Province. I am sure it is a matter for congratulation that their efforts have now been
crowned with success. The Bill was piloted through the Legislature by the Honourable the
Minister of Education. Perhaps no single factor will be found to result in a greater measure of
improvement to the service being rendered in the schools than the adoption of a scheme whereby
teachers, young and old, can look forward without anxiety to the time of their retirement from
active work in the profession. Teachers will now, as never before, be able, in the interest of
their schools, to devote their undivided attention to the improvement of class-room technique,
the enrichment of their educational experience, and to the raising of the status of their profession.
MEETING OF NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION.
An outstanding educational event during the year was the holding of the National Conference
on Education and Leisure at Victoria and Vancouver in April, 1929. The meeting was attended
by representatives of numerous organizations in Canada and by distinguished leaders in education from Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, India, Czecho-Slovakia, Germany, Italy, and
Japan. Besides the general meetings to which the public were invited and which were attended
by large audiences, there were conferences at which opportunity was given for discussion on
topics more intimately connected with educational work as carried on in Canada and other
countries. One of the most interesting and valuable of the conferences was presided over by
the Honourable the Minister of Education for British Columbia, at which His Majesty's Chief
Inspector Richards of Great Britain told in an informal way of educational progress in that
country. As there will probably not be so important an educational meeting in this Province
for many years, I deem it proper that some of the resolutions of the Conference be recorded
in this report:—•
Canadian Boys' and Girls' Magazines.—Resolved, That this meeting heartily supports the
suggestion of the publication of the Canadian Boys' and Girls' Magazine, under the auspices
of the National Council of Education, and recommends the appointment of a special committee
to carry out the necessary preparatory inquiry as to details and to report to the Executive
Committee of the Council for action.
And further, that every effort be made to secure the co-operation of the various Provincial
Departments of Education, the Provincial Teachers' Associations, the Canadian Authors' Association, and such similar organizations as may be of practical value in assisting to achieve the
desired end.
Foreign Literature in Canada.—That the National Conference assembled in Vancouver is
strongly of the opinion that it is incompatible with the development in Canada of the type of
citizenship which Canadians desire, that the country should be flooded, as it is flooded, with
publications which are undesirable from the point of view of morals, intellectual standards, and
a sound nationalism in accord with our British tradition.
The Conference therefore urgently requests the Executive Committee to approach the
Canadian Government and ask that steps be taken to prevent the sale of such publications in
Canada.
The Place and Part of Recreation in Education.—That, recognizing the necessity of providing
a broad and cultural education for the boys and girls of our Dominion, and further, that this
should embrace physical education and artistic expression through the medium of folk-dances,
music, and the drama, we, therefore, would recommend to the Executive of the National Council
of Education the advisability of seeking from the Federal Government adequate financial support
by the granting of subsidies to, or the establishment of scholarships in, our Provincial Universities, for the purpose of assisting them in training qualified and competent instructors in subjects
to be included in a larger curriculum as outlined above.
A National Policy or Exploitation of the Radio.—That, in the interests of Canadian national
life and culture, it is imperative to proceed at once with the organization of radio broadcasting
on a basis of public service, with Dominion and Provincial co-operation. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT:
R 13
The Influence of the Foreign Film.—That this Conference approve some measure of limitation of the freedom of children in attending moving-picture theatres, with a general undertaking
on the part of the educational authorities of the Provinces and of the Dominion to develop under
their own control the production, distribution, and exhibition of films suitable for children; such
films to be both educational and recreational in character.
That this Conference approve and strongly urge on the Dominion Government the remission
of duty on educational films imported for the library which the Council proposes to form, and
on all films imported by School Boards or other educational authorities for use in schools, or
in other places where they are exhibited under the control of these authorities.
That steps be taken by the proper authorities to have all advertising matter, whether in
the newspapers or on billboards, scrutinized in a way that will eliminate the objectionable
features which are now so plainly in evidence in connection with the cinema.
That the regulations on which theatres are licensed be reviewed by the Governments concerned, in co-operation with the industry, with a view to securing a more effective control of
the purposes for which, in the interests of the community, these theatres are authorized to
produce recreation and entertainment.
The great success which attended this meeting of the National Council of Education was
due, in a large measure, to the genius for organization, the unflagging enthusiasm, and the
tactful leadership displayed by the General Secretary, Major Frederick J. Ney, of Winnipeg.
HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city high schools during the year was 11,985. Of this number, 5,622
were boys and 6,363 were girls.
The number of divisions and the enrolment for 1928-29 and for 1927-28 in each city are
shown in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
1
1
1
3
8
3
7
3
4
2
6
3
8
2
5
4
1
8
8
24
3
1
1
3
6
5
4
4
1
6
168
12
6
40
86
276
85
17S
60
108
30
134
72
267
34
156
67
48
248
266
'852
69
29
20
62
201
153
84
95
112
165
6,191
417
153
1,-367
80
272
67
169
52
78
28
147
93
243
'29
135
79
52
253
251
724
'25
19
70
161
138
80
94
4
Trail	
160
3,728
368
149
1,243
Total   1928-29	
41
359
11,985
9,046 R 14
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the rural municipal high schools during the year was 1,899. Of this
number, 801 were boys and 1,098 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the year 1928-29 and the
year 1927-28 are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
17
4
3
2
3
5
3
3
9
1
4
5
3
4
5
509
90
94
27
95
155
76
74
238
14
107
1'25
68
107
120
478
Delta                        	
80
90
Kent	
33
88
108
63
63
Oak Bay	
228
Penticton	
12
120
118
Summerland	
67
90
Vancouver, West	
100
Total, 1928-29	
17
71
1,899
1,738
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural high schools for the year was.661. Of this number, 282 were
boys and 379 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the years 1928-29 and 1927-28
are given in the table below:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
3
1
3
1
2
2
70
24
15
58
16
23
134
26
22
18
17
56
25
31
12
34
18
58
39
30
35
56
■50
'24
-   29
14
24
17
16
41
14
21
17
33
Ocean Falls	
17
47
28
19
30
Total, 1928-29 '.	
21
32
661
497 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
R 15
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the superior schools was 669.    The number of boys was 301;  of girls, 368.
The following table gives the names of the schools and the enrolment for the school-year
1928-29 and for 1927-28 :—
School.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
Enrolment.
1927-28.
School.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
21
13
21
22
17
23
23
15
24
18
12
18
12
17
35
21
23
19
15
27
19
14
22
20
13
24
13
19
26
19
19
21
10
'30
120
27
32
18
15
35
19
26
19
22
26
14
19
19
Eolla	
24
26
18
16
20
11
Hedley                        	
30
22
122
14
669
510
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the junior high schools was 4,797. The number of boys enrolled was 2,344;
of girls, 2,453.
The following table gives the number of divisions and the enrolment in each school for the
years 1928-29 and 1927-28:—
District.
School.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
7
6
4
4
3
6
5
3'5
21
3'5
263
231
150
138
111
205
197
1,344
797
1,361
208
224
817
75
931
Total   192 8-2 9   ..
126
4,797
2,255 R 16
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 51,651. The number of boys was 26,464;
of girls, 25,187.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, and the enrolment in each city are shown
in the table below:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
5
2
5
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
3
'56
3
1
16
4
13
11
8
19
13
12
3
18
8
2
21
13
20
9
8
27
■20
57
10
7
6
10
•24
16
11
5
2
35
780
42
21
134
130
504
405
278
649
458
435
98
689
290
48
819
93
'800
292
■285
1,030
720
•2,217
376
237
198
388
870
603
424
187
58
1,198
29,618
1,484
837
4,938
127
538
363
288
683
422
113
704
293
54
792
89
768
312
307
1,069
914
2,798
316
252
205
380
876
623
440
203
67
1,151
17 '590
1 557
809
3,060
Total	
123
1,379
51,651
40,700
• For the enrolment of the other seventeen divisions see the Junior High Schools. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
R 17
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—RURAL MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the rural municipal elementary schools was 18,387. The number of boys
enrolled was 9,475;   of girls, 8,912.
The following table gives the enrolment and the number of schools in operation in each
municipality during the school-years 1928-29 and 1927-28:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
Enrolment,
1927-28.
Burnaby	
IS
1'5
2
'     6
3
10
1
2
16
9
10
9
2
1
1
2
7
15
7
4
1
21
5
4
114
34
3
10
7
19
14
'5
30
28
19
20
17
2
13
3
33
59
9
8
9
46
25
23
4,145
1,042
113
278
203
548
4S4
197
969
907
52'5
600
622
56
'557
125
1,254
1,916
258
238
317
1,438
794
S01
4,159
1,028
106
272
Cowichan, North	
Delta    	
199
Kent	
477
199
1,016
975
Matsqui	
587
608
Oak Bay    	
617
61
Penticton	
531
96
1,226
Saanich	
1,964
259
224
Surrey	
321
1,384
809
773
Total, 1928-29	
171
'550
18,387
18,445
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the elementary schools, rural districts, was 19,509.    The number of boys
enrolled was 10,020;  of girls, 9,489.
SALARIES.
The following table shows the highest, lowest, and average salary paid to teachers during
the school-year 1928-29 :—
High Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Cities
Alberni	
Armstrong	
Chilliwack	
Courtenay	
Cranbrook	
Cumberland	
Duncan	
Enderby	
Fernie	
Grand Forks	
Greenwood	
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Kelowna	
$12,500
2,775
2,000
2,850
2,600
2,240
1,700
3,000
2,400
2,800
1,900
2,400
$1,600
1,650
1,700
1,500
1,250
1,400
1,500
1,740
1,500
1,800
1,400
1,750
$1,966
1,964
1,833
1,850
1,933
1,835
1,600
2,026
1,866
2,350
1,650
1,891
$1,500
2,500
1.S00
1,850
2,600
2,450
2,100
1,700
3,000
2,000
1,500
2,600
1,400
2,500
$1,00S
900
900
900
1,050
950
950
1,000
1,100
925
1,070
1,100
1,200
■   1,150
$1,189
1,340
1,168
1,116
1,263
1,373
1,113
1,266
1,485
1,178
1,240
1,453
1,250
1,386 R 18
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
SALARIES—Continued.
High Schools.
Elbmentaby Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Cities—Continued.
$2,500
1,750
2,500
3,600
3,600
2,100
2,400
2,050
2,400
$1,300
1,730
1,500
2,000
1,800
1,500
-      2,400
2,050
1,800
$1,775
1,750
1,887
2,725
2,571
1,783
2,400
2,050
2,000
$1,800
2,750
2,500
2,600
2,764
1,9'50
1,400
2,000
2,250
2,500
12,600
2,000
2,200
1,300
2,900
3,360
'3,000
2,600
2,825
$900
1,050
1,000
1,100
920
1,080
'900
1,000
1,150
1,150
1,050
1,000
1,050
1,100
1,050
1,020
1,185
900
975
$1,275
1,518
1,436
1,427
1,385
1,239
1,095
1,291
1,400
1,590
3,000
2,400
2,700
1,700
3,'300"
4,034
3,540
2.650
3,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,700
1,700
1,750
1,940
1,500
1,715
2,040
2,050
2,125
1,700
2,128
2,475
2,367
1,908
2,434
1,312
1,232
Salmon Arm	
1,360
1,200
Trail	
1,217
1,549
1,598
1,315
1,593
$4,034
$1,250
$2,410
$3,360
$1,900
$1,325
Rural Municipalities.
$3,200
$1,800
$2,202
$2,850
1,600
1,350
1,250
1,850
2,300
2,600
1,250
1,300
1,600
1,200
2,200
3,250
1,300
1,900
1,300
2,300
2,085
1,350
1,200
2,200
1,500
2,800
2,600
$800
850
1,100
900
950
900
1,190
900
800
800
80O
840
l,O50
1,000
900
1,000
850
675
1,000
960
1,100
800
1,080
1,020
$1,291
1,067
1,183
1,010
1,171
Delta           	
2,900
2,640
1,500
2,500
2,400
1,800
1,800
3,600
1,440
3,000
1,700
2,040
1,250
1,500
1,600
1,350
1,740
2,030
1,440
1,680
2,100
2,226
1,375
1,833
1.8S0
1,583
1,763
12,705
1,440
2,068
1,152
1,419
Kent                              	
1,000
998
1,034
989
1,098
Oak Bay	
1,850
1,150
1,358
1,075
2,100
1,400
1,700
1,181
1,226
1,116
1,042
1,323
2,100
2,000
1,500
1,550
1,766
1,762
Surrey	
1,066
1 574
3,000
1,700
2,120
1,253
For all rural municipalities...
$3,600
$1,250
$1,901
$3,250
$675
$1,211
Rural Districts.
$3,200
2,000
$1,200
1,400
$1,819
1,665
$2,800
1,760
$800
900
$1,208
1,057
For all rural districts	
$3,200
$l,2O0
$1,785
$2,800
$80O
$1,106
The average salary paid teachers employed in all high schools throughout the Province was
$2,476, and to teachers in elementary schools, $1,289. EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL-YEAR 1928-29.
Minister's Office:
Salaries   $7,731.77
Office supplies   338.25
Travelling expenses   1,034.14
General Office:
Salaries   21,294.93
Office supplies   9,427.70
Travelling expenses   236.28
Free Text-book Branch:
Salaries   6,001.94
Office supplies   2,812.38
Text-books, maps, etc  67,864.03
Agricultural Education:
Salaries   3,330.00
Office supplies   531.12
Travelling expenses   381.30
Grants in aid   6,061.12
Correspondence Courses:
Salaries   6,161.87
Office supplies  4,094.10
Travelling expenses   51.95
Industrial Education:
Salaries      $7,960.29
Office supplies      3,258.07
Travelling expenses        2,448.71
Grants in aid  130,128.86
Grant for technical schools  114,000.00
Night-schools      37,991.05
$295,780.98
Less Dominion of Canada subvention   119,637.42
t «        * o v.    ,  ' 176,149.56
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries   $68,745.01
Office supplies       4,442.51
Travelling expenses      26,508.74
$99,696.26
Less amount paid by School Boards        6,968.07
Normal School, Vancouver: 92,728.19
Salaries   $34,916.68
Office supplies   2,840.85
Travelling expenses  :  684.82
Fuel, light, and water  2,264.15
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)  4,321.93
Students' mileages   980.64
Incidentals   1,031.03
$47,040.10
Less Normal School fees      6,930.00
Normal School, Victoria: ' " 40,110.10
Salaries  .  $32,077.68
Office supplies      3,247.34
Travelling expenses   171.23
Carried forward 1  $35,496.25        $446,340.73 EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL-YEAR 1928-29—Continued.
Brought forward   $35,496.25        $446,340.73
Normal School, Victoria—Continued.
Fuel, light, and water  2,885.02
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)  3,935.15
Students mileages   4,167.20
$46,484.22
Less Normal School fees       6,058.00
School for the Deaf and the Blind : 40,426.22
Salaries   $24,203.05
Office supplies  -.       1,024.38
Fuel, light, and water       2,249.08
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)      4,573.59
Furniture, fixtures, etc       1,005.19
Provisions        3,084.20
Incidentals          252.32
$36,391.81
Less amount received for board and tuition of pupils from
Alberta and Saskatchewan        1,578.00
  34,813.81
High,
Junior High, Elementary.
Superior.
Per capita grants to cities   $230,520.00 $677,801.38 908,381.38
Per capita grants to rural municipalities       69,368.00 423,112.65 492,480.65
Per capita grants to rural school districts        26,680.00 171,324.15 198,004.15
Salaries of teachers in assisted schools          7,720.00 552,507.35 560,227.35
Salaries of teachers in the E. & N. Railway Belt       14,456.65 114,455.50 128,912.15
$348,744.65      $1,939,261.03
School buildings, erection and maintenance   294,484.90
Grants to libraries   2,249.45
Examination of High School and Entrance classes   $37,058.73
Less fees for examination and certificates      25,599.45
■  11,459.28
Conveying children to central schools  53,841.61
Summer School   19,053.41
Incidentals     7,314.33
National Conference on Education  3,506.27
University of British Columbia   564,425.00
Total cost to Government  $3,765,920.69
Amount expended by districts:                                                  High. Elementary.
Cities     $2,525,196.24 $3,280,834.17 5,806,030.41
Rural municipalities        234,027.12 791,454.73 1,025,481.85
Rural school districts          53,870.00 334,626.94 388,498.94
Assisted school districts            1,815.00 113,618.38 115,433.38
Schools in E. & N. Railway Belt            2,520.00 46,113.00 48,633.00
$2,817,428.36       $4,566,647.22
Grand total cost of education     $11,149,996.27 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
R 21
The following table shows the cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil on enrolment
and on average daily attendance during the past eleven years:—
Year.
Cost per
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Average
Daily Attendance.
1918-19	
24.88
27.20
29.01
29.33
27.92
27.36
27.17
26.09
26.40
26.92
28.32
31.59
1919-20	
36.05
1920-21	
36.38
1921-22	
35.70
1922-23	
34.07
1923-24              	
33.21
1924-25	
32.17
1925-26	
31.06
1926-27	
31.41
1927-28	
31.74
1928-29                                	
33.03
The gradual growth of the schools and also the cost to the Provincial Government of maintaining them are shown in the following exhibit:—
Year.
No. of
Teachers
Employed.
Number
of School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of
Attendance.
Government
Expenditure for
Education.
1877-78	
56
69
128
267
429
607
816
1,597
2,246
2,332
2,557
2,734
2,994
3,118
3,211
3,294
3,396
3,531
3,668
3,784
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
575
.582
636
665
716
744
760
759
746
761
788
792
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
67,516
72,006
79,243
85,950
91,919
94,888
96,204
97,954
101,688
105,008
108,179
109,588
1,395.50
1,383.00
3,093.46
7,111.40
11,055.65
16,357.43
23,195.27
43,274.12
'54,746.76
56,692.38
59,791.39
68,497.57
75,528.38
77,752.98
79,262.23
82,726.14
85,292.92
88,306.00
91,760.56
94,410.00
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
81.09
78.73
75.45
79.69
82.16
81.94
82.39
84.45
83.88
84.09
84.82
86.17
$43,334.01
50,850.63
1882-83	
1887-88	
99,902.04
1892-93	
190,558.33
1897-98	
247,756.37
1902-03	
397,003.46
1907-08	
464,473.78
1912-13	
1,032,038.60
1917-18	
1,529,058.93
1918-19	
1,791,153.47
1919-20   	
2,155,934.61
2,931,572.25*
1920-21	
1921-22	
3,141,737.95*
1922^23	
3,176,686.28*
1923-24	
3,173,395.26*
3,223,670.82*
1924-25 .	
1925-26	
3,216,209.05*
1926-27	
3,402,941.25*
1927-28	
3,532,518.95*
1928-29	
3,765,920.69*
» This amount includes the annual grant to the Provincial University.
The reports of the Inspectors and of other officials follow.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education. INSPECTORS' REPORTS.
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR A. SULLIVAN, B.A., VICTORIA.
At the beginning of the calendar year the Municipality of Point Grey, wrhich was formerly
in this inspectorate, became part of the City of Vancouver, and its three high schools—namely,
Lord Byng, Magee, and the Prince of Wales High School—came automatically under the direct
supervision of the Municipal Inspector of Schools for the City of Vancouver.
Inspectorate No. 1 now includes all the high and superior schools of Vancouver Island
exclusive of the City of Victoria; and on the Lower Mainland, the North Vancouver High School
and those in the Rural Municipalities of West Vancouver, Richmond, Delta, Surrey, Langley,
Matsqui, and Chilliwack; and on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway and adjacent
to it the superior schools at Hope, Ashcroft, and Chase, and the high schools at Merritt, Kamloops, Salmon Arm, Revelstoke, and Golden. The superior schools at North Saanich and Tsolum
have been raised to the status of high schools. A superior school was established at Extension
at the beginning of the year, but owing to the falling-off in the coal industry and the consequent
lower enrolment the school is again classified as an elementary school. The village of Abbotsford and the adjoining municipality of Sumas have been formed into a high-school area for
purposes of closer co-ordination and economy in school administration.
Additional classes or divisions were opened at Chilliwack, Courtenay, Kamloops, Nanaimo,
Oak Bay, Port Alberni, Qualicum Beach, and North Vancouver. New buildings are under
construction at Kamloops, Oak Bay, and Port Alberni.
A new high-school auditorium was opened at Chilliwack on March 21st by the Honourable
the Minister of Education, who commended the pupils of the high school in particular for the
important part they played in obtaining funds for the erection of their assembly-hall. By means
of school concerts, the sale of garden produce which, the boys and girls grew themselves, and
from the money obtained on " Work-day " the pupils raised their share of the fund. On " Workday " each pupil gave to the building fund the money which he earned on a school holiday or a
Saturday. In these various ways the pupils raised, from September, 1924, to December, 1928,
$2,100. The students had pledged $2,000 as their share, the Department of Education promised
$2,000, and the municipal bodies also $2,000. The hall, which is 100 by 50 feet, has ample space
for the playing of games, for students' assemblies, and for school plays and concerts. At the
Cumberland High School funds were raised in a somewhat similar manner for the construction
of two cement tennis-courts and for the improvement of playgrounds. In grey days and fair,
the pupils enjoy playing tennis and other games on these grounds. It is worthy of note that
during the year the Cumberland High School won several cups in intercollegiate games.
The subject of physical training was given a prominent place on the programme of the
National Council of Education, which held sessions in Victoria and Vancouver in April of this
year. Moving pictures showing hundreds of Czecho-Slovakian boys and girls of high-school age
performing exercises simultaneously and gracefully were thrown on the screen. The history and
development of the Sokol movement was explained by Professor Matousek, who was the official
representative of the Czechoslovak Government and its Ministry of Health.
That there should be joyousness in the performing of exercises was the main idea emphasized
by Mr. Robert Jarman, Director of Physical Education for the Board of Education of the City
of Leeds, and who had spent seven months in Winnipeg prior to the meeting of the National
Council in directing the development of physical education in the schools of that city. In both
Victoria and Vancouver Mr. Jarman illustrated his lectures on physical training and folk-
dancing by specially selected groups of boys and girls from the public and high schools, who
performed exercises and played games on the stage under his direction. Mr. Jarman did not
stand at one end of the platform and shout his commands, but told the pupils quietly what he
wished them to do, and then, after showing them how to do it, walked among them, directing,
assisting, and encouraging them to play the games and perform the exercises as happily,
naturally, and correctly as possible. Training of this kind should be given in every high school
of the Province. There are a few teachers who train their pupils along the lines demonstrated
by Mr. Jarman. Such training, however, will not be general until definite periods are allotted
to it on the time-tables of our high schools. The reports which I have submitted to the Department of Education upon the work of the
teachers in this inspectorate indicate that at least 90 per cent, of them are maintaining high
standards in their teaching and class-management and in the " inculcation of the highest
morality." The majority of teachers welcome constructive criticism and act upon it. A few,
however, do not appear to appreciate criticism of their somewhat careless blackboard exercises,
forgetting evidently that lack of neatness in a teacher's written exercises is reflected all too
frequently in those of the pupils. The following excerpt, which lays emphasis upon the
importance of neatness, is taken from the report of a teacher and examiner of long experience
who read matriculation papers in July: " When a student has passed Grade XII. he will decide
whether or not he will specialize in mathematics. I have noticed that brilliance in mathematics
very rarely exists in company with bad style of work, poor handwriting and figuring. I would,
therefore, venture to suggest that teachers taking Grade XII. Mathematics continually remind
students who hope to become mathematicians that style, neatness, and calligraphy are essential
to success."
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR J. B. DbLONG, B.A., VANCOUVER.
Early in the school-year I was relieved of the work of inspecting the two high schools of
Burnaby owing to the appointment of a Municipal Inspector for that municipality. At the
beginning of the calendar year 1929 the Rural Municipality of South Vancouver amalgamated
with Vancouver City, and as a result it was necessary for me to sever my connection with the
John Oliver High School. I have been inspecting the South Vancouver High School since my
appointment as High School Inspector and have been visiting the Burnaby high schools since
they were established. I severed my connections with these schools with the keenest regret,
as I consider them outstanding among the educational institutions of Canada. Efficiency and
sound judgment have always been shown by the principals of these schools, while the work of
the majority of the teachers has been marked by zeal and earnestness. These schools have
always been ready to adopt new ideas in education, but have not forgotten that the British
principles of thoroughness and of honest effort on the part of the pupils are at the very foundation of secondary education.
Dewdney and Britannia Mine superior schools were raised to the status of high schools
during the year.
On the whole, I have been well pleased with the work done in the schools of my district
during the year. As I have submitted reports on the individual schools and teachers it is
unnecessary for me to go into particulars here.
A considerable proportion of my time was spent on committee-work in connection with the
revision of the High School Course of Study. The Education Department considered this
revision was necessary in order to bring the curriculum of the higher grades in line with the
Junior High School Course of Study. Another outstanding idea back of the revision was the
belief that high-school pupils should be given more options than in the past, and that pupils
who do not expect to attend University or Normal School should follow a course more in line
with their individual likes and aptitudes.
An outstanding event of the year was the meeting of the National Council of Education.
Sessions of the Council were held in Victoria and Vancouver. Outstanding scholars and educationists from Great Britain and most of the important parts of the Empire addressed the meetings. In my opinion the Department's action in giving the Inspectors an opportunity to attend
these meetings was a real contribution to the cause of education in British Columbia. The
Inspectors returned to their work with a broader vision, with renewed enthusiasm, and with a
keener appreciation of educational ideas and progress in the different parts of the Empire.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR W. H. M. MAY, VICTORIA.
Until December 31st, 1928, Inspectorate No. 1 remained as it was during the school-year
1927-28; but on January 1st, 1929, the limits of the district were redefined and it now comprises
the southern portion of Vancouver Island as far north as the southern edge of the City of R 24 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
Nanaimo, with the exception of the schools in Victoria, Esquimalt, Oak Bay, and Saanich
Municipalities. I visited most of the schools in the new inspectorate, but found the time too
short to inspect the work of all the teachers.
At their annual meetings in July last the qualified voters in the four school districts—Bench,
Cobble Hill, Mill Bay, and Sylvania—decided to consolidate, and at a subsequent meeting of the
members of the Boards of the four districts it was decided that the school for the united district
should be erected at Cobble Hill, and that the name of the district should be Plantagenet.
Fluency in reading is not given the attention it deserves in the lower grades of our schools
when we consider its importance, for reading enters into all the studies of the Senior Grade
pupils, and unless the pupil can read fluently when he enters the Senior Grade he is greatly
handicapped. In many schools silent reading has quite usurped the place formerly held by oral
reading. Each form of reading has its place in the child's education, but if he is put to silent
reading before he is able to read fluently it is difficult for him to comprehend the matter of his
text-books at the necessary rate of speed.
In my opinion, at present, there is far too much done for the child by the teacher. The
teacher of a single grade is not satisfied unless she is in front of the class, oftentimes doing over
and over again that which the majority of the pupils already know. The class as a whole would
make much better progress if the pupils were set to work upon matter understood and the
teacher were to give individual attention to the weaker ones.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR A. C. STEWART, VICTORIA.
Owing to the removal of one of the Inspectors to another sphere of labour, the territories
comprised in Inspectorates 1, 2, and 3 suffered a change, necessitating a readjustment of the
schools in January of this year. The present inspectorate, however, still retains within its
bounds the Municipalities of Oak Bay and Esquimalt, and in these the schools continue to maintain their former high standard of efficiency.
It has been possible to examine and inspect all the schools in the new territory assigned to
me with the exception of Nanaimo City. Even in this city, from frequent visits to the schools,
I was able to keep in close touch with the organization, and judging from the results obtained
at the recent examination for entrance to high school, the schools must be in good condition
throughout the various grades, for the success of Grade VIII. is largely conditioned by efficient
teaching in the lower classes.
The remaining territory embraces all the rural schools from the City of Nanaimo north to
Parksville and west to Alberni; the schools on the Alberni Canal and north to Tofino and
Clayoquot, together with three schools on Gabriola and two on Lasqueti Island.
During the month of June examinations for entrance to a high school were held at twelve
centres for the convenience of those candidates who write for examination.
From the following schools—Alberni, Brechin, Harewood, Nanaimo, Oak Bay, and Port
Alberni—candidates to the number of 196 were recommended for high school without examination, while from these and from the Esquimalt School, together with twenty-five rural and
assisted schools, 160 candidates wrote the test, of whom 88 were successful. From these schools,
therefore, 284 pupils qualified for high school during the past year.
As an indication of the flight of time, when signing the visitors' book in the Beaver Creek
School and looking over the old records in that interesting volume, I found my name recorded
there as having inspected the school in 1904. The teacher at that time, a venerable old man
then, was Mr. Alexander Shaw, the father of Mr. John Shaw, a well-known and respected citizen
of Nanaimo, who was at the time principal of the schools in that city. The elder Mr. Shaw
has long since joined the great majority, while his son some years ago entered the Federal Civil
Service. Both father and son have left their mark and influence in the profession and are
remembered with gratitude and affection by many men and women now engaged in the active
service of life.
Another interesting link with the past, still in active service in Alberni, and completing his
fortieth year in the same school, is Mr. John Howitt, a man whose quiet, gentle, scholarly
influence is manifest throughout each department of the institution over which he presides, and this same kindly influence no doubt permeates and pervades the atmosphere of every home and
business where the many boys and girls whom he has taught " live, move, and have their being."
No one can estimate, for they are not within the range or sphere of human measurements, the
great and enduring influences exerted through the ages by the " Shaws " and " Howitts " of the
profession.    They are " the silent men who do things."
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 3.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR G. H. GOWER, M.A., CUMBERLAND.
During the first term of the school-year my inspectorial duties were performed in the
Prince George District. In January I was assigned to Inspectorate No. 3, a newly established
inspectorial division with headquarters at Cumberland. In this report I shall deal only with
conditions in Inspectorate No. 3.
Inspectorate No. 3 comprises, roughly, the schools on or in the vicinity of the Island Highway from Qualicum Beach to Campbell River; those on the coast of Vancouver Island from
Campbell River to Cape Scott; those on Quatsino Sound; together with twenty-two schools on
the Mainland and adjacent islands. In all, fifty-five schools were in operation and ninety-eight
teachers were employed.
During the year schools were opened for the first time at Elk Lake, near Port Alice; at
Campbell Falls, west of Campbell River; and at Thurston Bay, a Provincial Forestry Station
on Sonora Island. An additional teacher was appointed to the Malcolm Island School and its
status was raised to that of a superior school. Owing to a decrease in the school population
the school at Oyster Bay was closed.
In a few instances school accommodation was improved during the year. A creditable
three-room building was erected at Malcolm Island and a two-room building at Port Alice. The
school-house at Hilliers, which was destroyed by fire early in the second term, is being replaced
by a two-room structure.
Although in a number of districts some attention is being paid to the improvement of
school-grounds, much remains to be accomplished in that connection. In many of the districts
having one-room schools the facilities for play are very meagre, and little has been done to
beautify school surroundings.
High School Entrance Examinations were held at seventeen centres in June last, 106 pupils
presenting themselves for examination. Of this number, fifty-two candidates succeeded in
obtaining Entrance certificates. In addition to those who qualified for high school by examination, seventy-two pupils were promoted on the recommendation of promotion committees.
At the close of the school-year prizes for excellence in physical training, under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust, were awarded to Miss Leila L. Carroll, Courtenay; Miss Winni-
fred Ogg, Qualicum Beach: and Miss Mary E. Thompson, Rock Bay. While very creditable
work was done in a numb.er of schools in physical training, it is apparent that in many classrooms this department of school-work does not receive the attention its importance warrants.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 4.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR J. T. POLLOCK, VANCOUVER.
During the greater part of the year Inspectorate No. 4 comprised the elementary schools
in the City Municipalities of Port Coquitlam, Port Moody, and North Vancouver; the Rural
Municipalities of Coquitlam, Richmond, North Vancouver District, and West Vancouver; the
graded schools at Gibsons Landing and loco; and fifteen assisted schools extending along the
coast from Lake Buntzen on the North Arm to Vancouver Bay on Jervis Inlet.
In April it was found necessary to make readjustments in a number of the inspectorial
districts. This change excluded the City Municipality of Port Coquitlam and the Rural
Municipalities of Coquitlam and Richmond from this inspectorate, but extended the northern
portion of the district to include the schools as far north as those located on Texada Island. R 26 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
Owing to a decrease in the school population the Wilson Creek School remained closed
during the year. Schools were opened for the first time at Port Mellon and Vancouver Bay.
The'St. Vincent Bay School was closed owing to the departure of pupils from the district, and
the equipment supplied by the Department of Education was utilized in the Vancouver Bay
School, about midway up Jervis Inlet. The Kleindale School, at the head of Pender Harbour,
which had been closed for nearly two years, was reopened in November.
In general the teachers have manifested a keen interest in their work during the year and
the standards of efficiency noted in previous reports are being well maintained. In the rural
districts Entrance Examination results were good, except in one or two cases, where temporary
conditions militated against success. From the schools of the two cities and the two municipal
districts 268 pupils were recommended for entrance to high school without examination.
Physical exercises and allied work in health education are gradually securing fuller recognition as an essential part of the school curriculum. Prizes for excellence in physical training,
under the conditions of the Strathcona Trust, were awarded as follows :—
Large graded schools—Miss H. A. R. Anderson, Principal, Division 1, Lonsdale School,
North Vancouver City.
Schools of two to four divisions—Mr. E. Crute, Principal, Division 1, Capilano School,
North Vancouver District.
Schools of one division—Miss Alice S. Hunter, Sechelt Assisted School, Sechelt.
Mr. John M.  Ewing, B.A.,  Paed.D., for thirteen years principal  of  Queen  Mary  School,
North Vancouver, was appointed to a position on the staff of the Vancouver Normal School in
July.    As principal he exerted a strong influence over his school, which was characterized by an
excellent tone, and where efficient work was performed in an atmosphere of harmony.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 5. *
REPORT OF INSPECTOR H. H. MACKENZIE, B.A., VANCOUVER.
During the greater portion of the school-year just ended this inspectorate comprised the public
school of Chilliwack City; the public schools in the Rural Municipalities of Chilliwack, Delta,
Kent, Maple Ridge, Matsqui, Mission, Pitt Meadows, Sumas; the following rural and assisted
schools in different parts of the Fraser Valley: Abbotsford, Cheam View, Chilliwack River,
Cultus Lake, Deroche, Dewdney, Hatzic Prairie, McConnell Creek, Nicomen Island, and Popcum.
Each of the 164 divisions of the seventy-two schools was inspected once, and the majority
received a second visit of inspection.
Towards the end of April, in order to equalize the work of inspection in respect of the
number of schools included in each inspectorial district, a redistribution of the schools among
the different inspectorates on the Lower Mainland was made. From the end of April this inspectorate included fifty-four schools, comprising 133 divisions.
In addition to the work of regular inspection of schools, a very considerable amount of
travelling was necessary and a great deal of time was occupied in matters of special investigation affecting the departmental administration of public schools.
The tone, standing, progress, and all matters relevant to the functioning of the public
schools have been reported upon periodically, either on the prescribed regular report forms or in
special reports. Examination pass-lists, names of prize-winners in physical training, as well as
various statistical tables, will appear elsewhere in the report, so that any repetition here will
be uncalled for.
In a retrospect of the functioning of the public schools in this inspectorate one is inclined
to devote special attention to certain phases of the work. In the main, our teachers display
a thoroughly good attitude towards their work and are undoubtedly conscientious, earnest, and
painstaking. All would benefit by a wider course in general reading and study, and there are
not a few who fail to realize that the teacher must ever be a student, and that the habits of
study and intensive reading acquired in school and college days must be continued throughout
the teaching experience if that teaching is to be truly rich and full.
To the general lack of male teachers in our country schools is due in a large measure the
lack of interest in physical training and athletic sports and games.   This branch of public education is sadly neglected in rural communities and is a matter which should receive the most
serious consideration of all who have to do with the education of our youth.
The same general neglect is noted in the case of music in the public schools. It is the
exception rather than the rule to find any time devoted to teaching the children singing. As in
the matter of physical training, there are schools which are noticeable exceptions to the general
rule, and great credit is due the principal of Alexander Robinson School, in Maple Ridge
Municipality, for the splendid showing which the children's choir from that school made at
the Vancouver Musical Festival held in June last.
The average teacher is quite frank in stating that it is impossible to find time to devote any
worth-while attention to physical training and music, and even to find sufficient time for
drawing, health, and nature-study. Is this inability to arrange in the daily programme of
school studies time to devote a reasonable share of attention to physical training, music, drawing, and health and nature-study due to inexperience, to a lack of proper perspective, and an
understanding and appreciation of relative values, or to the possibility that in our course of
study we have been piling Ossas of technique upon Pelions of matter? Is it because the course
of study for the elementary schools may be adapted more for the large, graded urban schools,
rich in equipment, than for the ungraded rural schools with meagre equipment, that one finds
so often classes of children in ungraded rural schools possessing a smattering of many and
diverse subjects rather than a definite and accurate body of knowledge of what might be termed
essential subjects?
This, of course, leads to a consideration of what are essential subjects and what are
minimum essentials in the elementary course. But surely, highly important as, for example,
the subject of geography may be, this subject should not be studied to the exclusion of school
subjects mentioned above, which, I have pointed out, are " more honoured in the breach than
in the observance."
In the great majority of the rural schools which I have to inspect I find it necessary to
call attention continually to the development of oral and written expression in English.
Language-power, the power to express, either orally or as written composition, ideas within the
range of a child's comprehension, is not being developed to anything like the standard it should .
be in our rural schools. In the higher grades there is a growing tendency to stress and to cram
the subjects prescribed for entrance to high school. In the primary grades the ideal seems to
be to read a large number of books superficially rather than to read a few with full understanding and true appreciation.
■ I am fully persuaded that our rural-school teachers should approach a few good books,
which should serve as basic material for the development not only of abilities in the use of our
mother-tongue and of an intelligent understanding of the world in which they live, but for the
inculcation of those appreciations and principles which we term character, much in the spirit
that our fathers approached an ancient book which served as basic material in moulding their
characters and developing their powers—a spirit to which expression might well be given in
those noble words:  " Open Thou mine eyes that I may behold wondrous things out of Thy Law."
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 6.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR LESLIE J. BRUCE, VANCOUVER.
During the first term Point Grey Rural Municipality comprised part of this inspectorate.
On January 1st, when Point Grey became a part of Vancouver City, the duty of inspecting its
136 elementary divisions passed to the Municipal Inspectors. At the end of the school-year there
remained, of my former inspectorate, the seven Coast schools from Westview to Galley Bay,
four schools on Howe Sound, University Hill, and the School for the Deaf and the Blind. To
these had been added the Rural Municipalities of Langley and Richmond, together with the
schools along the Pacific Great Eastern from Squamish to Lillooet. In addition, Inspector
Calvert and myself conducted the Entrance Examinations for the elementary and private schools
of Vancouver.
Of the schools added to the inspectorate during the year, I had time to visit only those
upon which you had not already received a report.    I found the work generally satisfactory, R 28 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
excepting in primary reading and language; steps were taken to improve the methods of teaching
these subjects.
Prizes for physical training were awarded as follows :—
Large graded schools—Miss Laura J. Ford, Division 3, Henderson School, Powell River.
Small graded schools—Miss Jeanne A. Wark, Division 3, Fort Langley School.
Ungraded schools—Miss Madge P. Sinclair, Lang Bay.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 7.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR F. G. CALVERT, VANCOUVER.
During the autumn term this inspectorate included the schools in South Vancouver Municipality and the eleven rural and assisted schools on either side of the Fraser River from Hope
to Lytton. During that term the rural schools received inspection and a goodly number of
class-rooms in South Vancouver were inspected. It was impossible, however, to complete the
inspection of all the schools in that municipality before the close of the term.
When amalgamation took place at the beginning of the year and South Vancouver became
a part of Vancouver my work of inspection in that municipality terminated. The inspectorate
was altered to include the schools in the City of Port Coquitlam, the Rural Municipalities of
Coquitlam, Delta, Kent, Pitt Meadows, and Surrey, and the rural districts in the vicinity of
Dewdney, Bella Coola, and Hope. The majority of the schools in this new inspectorate received
one visit during the term.    Time did not permit a complete inspection of all schools, however.
The month of June was taken up largely with work in connection with the High School
Entrance Examination. In addition to the work of preparing centres in the inspectorate,
I shared with Mr. Bruce the task of making preparations for examination centres in Vancouver
City for the public and private schools.    This involved a considerable amount of work.
An additional room was added to the North Bend School building and the opening of a third
division made it possible for a number of pupils to secure instruction in high-school subjects.
Extensive repairs were made to the building at Lytton. New school buildings are urgently
needed at Boston Bar and Yale.    An additional room is required at Hope.
Reports on the work in the class-rooms have been forwarded to your Department from time
to time. The work displayed by the pupils showed that a satisfactory standard is being
maintained.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 8.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR A. F. MATTHEWS, M.A., KAMLOOPS.
During the year a readjustment was made of the territory included in the above inspectorate.
According to this readjustment, all the schools on the main line of railway directly west of
Kamloops as far as Spences Bridge, and those on the Cariboo Road north of Ashcroft, nineteen
schools in all, were taken over by the Inspector for the Cariboo District; while sixteen schools
which were formerly included in the Revelstoke and Kelowna Inspectorates were added to the
Kamloops District. This rearrangement of territory lessened, considerably, the distance which
had to be travelled from Kamloops as a centre, and added a group of schools in the area to the
east of that centre which belong, naturally, to the Kamloops Inspectorate.
A visit of inspection was made to all the schools in the inspectorate within the year. All
the rural schools, with a few exceptions, were visited twice. Apart from the work of inspection,
a number of visits were made to districts in order to confer with School Boards on matters
pertaining to administration, and to outlying districts for the purpose of looking into the matter
of supplying educational facilities in new areas.
The progress made in the various schools throughout the inspectorate has been good in
general during the year just closed. The quality of the equipment and accommodation provided
by Trustee Boards is gradually improving. A new school-house was built in Darlington District,
and new buildings are under course of erection in Chinook Cove, Vavenby, Eagle Bay, and
Campbell Ranch Districts. In the Kamloops City District a fine addition was made to the High
School building, and supplied with all the equipment necessary for carrying on junior high- PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 29
school work. This will relieve the congestion that has hitherto existed in the elementary schools
in that district, and do away with the necessity for housing pupils in unsanitary, temporary
class-rooms.
The character of the work carried on by the teachers in this inspectorate throughout the
year was generally good. In a few cases the selection of weak teachers by Trustee Boards held
back progress, but in the great majority of cases the schools were well conducted. Detailed
reports bearing on the standing and the character of the teaching in all the schools were forwarded to the Department during the year. The Governor-General's medal for this district was
won by Miss Irene Blackbourn, a pupil in the Stuart Wood School, Kamloops.
I should like to draw attention to the difficulties which so often arise, especially in the rural
inspectorates, in the matter of choosing school-sites and in the adjusting of boundaries of contiguous school districts. I am of the opinion that much of the friction thus caused would be
eliminated if several rural districts, wherever the location is favourable, were grouped together
so as to form a school area administered by a single School Board somewhat after the manner
of the school organization in rural municipalities. The number of members on such School
Boards would have to be increased in order to give adequate representation to all parts of the
school area, but, owing to the large population from which to draw, the selection of suitable
trustees would be made easier than it is at present in many of the sparsely settled districts.
Such an arrangement would tend, also, to equalize the taxation for school purposes in contiguous
districts, and would tend to lighten this burden as well, as it would thus be spread over a
larger area.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Schools of five or more divisions—Mr. Joseph Dilworth, Stuart Wood School, Kamloops,
Divisions 1 and 2, Boys.
Schools of two or four divisions—Miss Mae Drake, Division 2, Fruitlands School.
Schools of one division—Mr. Frank S. Thomson, Fish Lake Road School.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 9.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR H.  L.  CAMPBELL,  B.A.,  KAMLOOPS.
This inspectorate comprises schools located in the Railway Belt from Kamloops west to
Gladwin, in the Cariboo from Ashcroft north to Barkerville, and in the British Columbia Peace
River Block. All schools in this area are either regularly organized rural schools or assisted
rural schools.    No school has more than three divisions.
During the year six new schools were authorized, four schools were reopened, and one school
was closed. Additional divisions were opened at Fort St. John and Quesnel. In all, there were
eighty-four schools and ninety-three teachers within the inspectorate.
Every school was visited on two occasions, with the exception of those in the Peace River
Block and those which were not in operation for the full year. A number of schools, for the
most part staffed by inexperienced teachers, were visited three times.
In the Peace River Block there are twenty-five schools employing twenty-eight teachers.
This district is settling up very rapidly and all school attendances show a marked increase from
year to year. The undulating nature of the country and the method of surveying the land into
sections and townships makes practically every quarter-section of land a potential homestead.
In the past it has been only the most easily cleared land that received settlement. Naturally,
schools were placed in the centres of such settlement, irrespective of their relation to future
needs. Settlers are now taking up the less-favoured land and finding themselves surrounded by
schools, nearly all of which are over 3 miles distant from their homes. It would be well if some
central authority were responsible for school placement in such an area.
As much of this inspectorate contains frontier settlements, a large proportion of the teachers
is without experience. The percentage of teachers who remain a second year in the same school
is also small. Both of these conditions are responsible for the major ills of the rural school.
The provision for salary increases at the end of the second year of service in the same assisted
rural school will do much toward effecting an improvement.
On the whole, the co-operation extended by Rural School Boards has been very gratifying
and each year sees an improvement in the physical conditions at the several schools. R 30 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 10.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR T. R. HALL, B.A., KELOWNA.
A slight change was made in the boundaries of the inspectorate at the beginning of the
year; this resulted in the loss of four one-room schools in the north end of the district. Otherwise the boundaries remained as for the five preceding years.
No new schools were established during the year; additional divisions were, however,
opened at Blakeburn, Kelowna, and Vernon, the total number of new classes being six. The
one-room school at Trepanier, in the Peachland Rural Municipality, was closed and the pupils
conveyed to the Peachland School. One hundred and sixty-six class-rooms were in operation,
an increase of one over the preceding year.
Considerable attention was given during the year to improving existing school accommodation and to providing additional class-room space. An excellent four-room frame and stucco
building was completed at Oliver. At Vernon greatly improved facilities for the teaching of
domestic science were provided and the space formerly occupied by this branch utilized to meet
the growing need for class-room accommodation. A thoroughly modern school building was
erected at Kelowna; in addition to relieving overcrowding in the elementary school, this building provides for future junior high-school needs, a purpose to which it is admirably adapted.
Entrance pupils from the Armstrong, Kelowna, Princeton, Rutland, Summerland, and Vernon
Schools were promoted to high school by promotion committees. This method of promotion
continues to operate very satisfactorily in this inspectorate. Entrance Examinations were held
at seventeen centres; results were good on the whole and a considerable proportion of the
schools made an excellent showing. The Governor-General's medal for the district was won by
David Lim Yuen, a pupil of the Vernon Consolidated School.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Large graded schools—Mr. T. Aldworth, Division 1, Armstrong Consolidated School.
Small graded schools—Mr. C. E. Clay, Division 2, Rutland Superior School.
Ungraded schools—Mr. W. E. Lucas, Jura School.
The annual convention of the Okanagan Valley Teachers' Association was held at Penticton
in October. I am increasingly convinced of the value of the small convention of this type, and
it is gratifying to note the very general degree of support given to the local convention by the
teachers of the Okanagan.
Early in the year some twenty teachers employed in the rural districts near Kelowna formed
an association, which held monthly meetings; papers were read and discussed, round-table
conferences held, and various means taken to exchange ideas and to help each other with classroom problems. I watched this experiment with a good deal of interest and am satisfied that
it proved of distinct value. Where it is feasible to form such an association—even though the
membership be considerably smaller than in the above case—much can undoubtedly be done to
offset the handicap under which rural teachers work.
Two hundred and one visits of inspection were made during the year. In addition,
numerous brief visits were made to schools and assistance given teachers with their work.
I have been greatly pleased by the excellent spirit displayed by the great majority of the teachers
of the inspectorate, and it has been a pleasure to be associated with such an earnest and
enthusiastic group.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 11.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR A. E. MILLER, REVELSTOKE.
A new school was established at Mountain Ridge, in the Upper Columbia Valley near
McMurdo, the schools at Heywood's Corner and Hupel were reopened, and second divisions were
added at Canoe and Malakwa. The Sproat Sehoof remained closed throughout the year. In all,
there were seventy-nine schools in operation in this district, with a total staff of 112 teachers,
a net increase, as compared with last year, of two schools and four teachers. Of these totals,
three were graded city schools with a staff of twenty-four teachers; seven were rural municipality schools (two graded) with a staff of nine teachers;   five were graded rural schools with PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 31
a staff of thirteen teaehers;   seven were ungraded rural schools;   one was a graded assisted
school with three teachers;  and the remaining fifty-six were ungraded assisted schools.
The high standards of efficiency noted in previous reports are being well maintained. The
teachers are doing careful, thorough work, and in most schools there is evidenced on the part
of the pupils that spirit of loyal co-operation so essential in the securing of good results.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 12.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR P. H. SHEFFIELD, B.A., NELSON.
The boundaries of this inspectorial district remained unchanged. Sixty-six schools, comprising 157 divisions and employing 161 teachers, were in operation during the year.
Owing to a decrease in the school population the rural schools at Blueberry Creek, Boulder,
Hall Siding, Kerr Creek, and North Kettle River remained closed during the year, while the
school at Erie was closed on May 25th. A new school was opened at Fruitova, near Grand
Forks, in April. One division was added at Trail Central School and two new divisions were
opened at the East Trail School. At Nelson the Central School was reduced from nineteen to
fourteen divisions and the Hume School from seven to five divisions, due to the opening of the
new Nelson Junior High School.
The year was notable for the construction of several new buildings. The Trafalgar School
at Nelson, formerly projected and partially built as an elementary school, was converted into
a very satisfactory Junior High School building, the total cost amounting to $131,000. Seven
divisions were accommodated in it in November, but the formal opening did not take place
until February 14th.    The citizens of Nelson are justly proud of this very excellent structure.
At East Trail a creditable addition of two class-rooms was erected during the summer of
1928. At the same time the Tadanac School was replaced by a more commodious building on
a more suitable site. At Fruitova the Doukhobor Community erected a model brick school
to accommodate two divisions. Furnished living-rooms for two teachers are also provided in
this building, which is the most complete and best-appointed rural school that I have seen.
The number of candidates at the High School Entrance Examinations was somewhat reduced
this year owing to the opening of the Nelson Junior High School, where promotion is by subjects
rather than by grades. This year the examinations were conducted at eleven centres, where
eighty-three were successful in passing the departmental tests, while 104 others in the schools
of Grand Forks, Rossland, and Trail were recommended for admission to high school without
examination. The Governor-General's medal for the district was won by Miss Cynthia Dock-
steader, of the Trail Central School, who earned 496 out of a possible 600 marks.
The teachers of the district continue to be profoundly interested in their work and eager to
improve their methods and technique. Standard books on methodology and pedagogical magazines are to be found in nearly every class-room, and the lesson procedures indicate that these
teachers' helps are being read. At the annual convention for this district, held at Trail in
October, over 200 teachers were in attendance. The number who attend summer school is
increasing from year to year.    This attitude cannot fail to have beneficial results.
The teachers and School Boards of this district are becoming more and more convinced of
the need for supplementary reading materials for their pupils, with the result that libraries
have been established or extended in many of the schools this year.
Convinced that something should be done to encourage the teaching of music in the schools,
a number of citizens of Nelson and Trail were instrumental in forming a musical festival
association to include the whole of this district. The first festival will be held during the
coming year.
The Honourable the Minister of Education, Mr. Joshua Hinchliffe, made a tour of this
inspectorate during September, visiting schools and conferring with School Boards, in order to
familiarize himself at first-hand with educational conditions here.
Those schools which are attended by Doukhobor pupils continued in operation with an
attendance about the same as that of last year. During the winter and spring the Sons of
Freedom, a fanatical faction of Doukhobors, have been extremely troublesome. Three Doukhobor
Community schools were burned on the morning of June 29th. Plans were immediately formed
to rebuild these schools. R 32 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
The prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Large graded schools—Miss A. Dorothy Bisson, Division 8, MacLean School, Rossland.
Small graded schools—Mr. James Gagnon, Slocan Junction.
Ungraded schools—Miss Othelie L. Olson, Belford.
I wish to acknowledge the whole-hearted co-operation of principals, teachers, and School
Boards throughout the district.    Such organizations as the Women's Institutes, the Farmers'
Institutes, and the Daughters of the Empire continue to engage in activities that have a decidedly
beneficial effect on the schools of this inspectorate.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 13.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR V. Z. MANNING, B.A., CRANBROOK.
The boundaries of this district were enlarged at the beginning of the year by the inclusion
of the Athalmer-Invermere Consolidated School and the Wilmer and Windermere Schools in
the southern portion of the Columbia Electoral District, so that now my inspectorate includes
all the schools of the Cranbrook and Fernie Electoral Districts and the schools in the eastern
parts of the Creston and Kaslo-Slocan Districts and the southern part of Columbia. In all,
there were sixty-eight schools in operation, employing 148 teachers.
There was little change in the total enrolment during the year. The Elk Prairie School
and one room of the Wycliffe School did not open in September owing to a shrinkage in
attendance. But an additional room was necessary in the Kimberley School and one in the
Michel and Natal School to accommodate a greater school population.
The outstanding event of the year was the opening of the new Michel and Natal Central
School. This is a twelve-roomed building and fills a long-felt need in the two communities.
The official opening wyas performed by the Honourable the Minister of Education and was the
occasion for a large gathering of the local people and visitors from the surrounding districts.
Departmental Examinations were held for Entrance pupils at fifteen centres and for high-
school students at twelve centres. The winner of the Governor-General's medal for Grade VIII.
candidates in this district was Miss Eileen Moore, of the Cranbrook Central School, who secured
511 marks out of a possible 600.
Prizes for excellence in physical training, under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust,
were awarded as follows:—
Large graded schools—Miss A. Jean Flett, Division 12, Cranbrook School.
Small graded schools—Miss S. G. Timaeus, Corbin School.
Ungraded schools—Miss Rhoda Chattell, Wilmer School.
Two conventions were held during the autumn term—one at Trail, to which the teachers
in the vicinity of Kootenay Lake were invited, and one at Cranbrook for the teachers of East
Kootenay and the Creston District. Large attendances were registered at both places and those
responsible for the success of the gatherings felt well paid for their efforts.
In addition to my ordinary duties as Inspector, I was appointed by the Council of Public
Instruction official trustee of the Morrissey Mines and Curzon School. Now that all school
districts must have defined boundaries, I believe the policy of making the Inspector official
trustee will have to be resorted to frequently, as many remote school districts have few of no
qualified voters, the residents failing to qualify on the ratepayer requirement or on the nationality
requirement.
ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 14.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR H. C. FRASER, M.A., PRINCE RUPERT.
At the beginning of the school-year the size of this inspectorate was considerably reduced.
The schools in and adjacent to the Bella Coola Valley were taken over by the Vancouver office,
while those east of Quick were inspected from Prince George. This left fifty elementary
schools, five high schools, and one superior school, employing in all 104 teachers, to be inspected
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This change made possible for the first time the inspection of every school within the
boundaries of the district. It is not the number of schools that constitutes the difficulty in the
north, but the distances between them. The first two schools visited this year, Atlin and
Telegraph Creek, meant an absence of twenty-nine days from the office. During the year 168
formal inspections were made, as well as many special visits to the weaker or more inexperienced
teachers.
The schools at Buckley Bay and Jap Inlet were closed, but additional divisions were opened
at Stewart Superior School and in the high schools of Kitsumgallum, Ocean Falls, and Prince
Rupert. This ever-increasing number of pupils anxious to avail themselves of high-school
privileges is one of the most notable features of the year's work.
Creditable new schools were built at Dorreen, Lewis Island, and Sandspit; the school-room
at Premier was enlarged, and an excellent four-roomed high school with suitable office and
laboratory was erected at Smithers.
Examination results compare favourably with those of the Province as a whole. A pupil
of Ocean Falls School, James Stenstrom, 12 years of age, with 538 marks out of a possible 600,
was not only the winner of the Governor-General's medal for the district, but also made the
highest mark in the Province. It is interesting to note that this school made also the second
highest mark in the Province on these examinations.
The following teachers won prizes for excellence in physical training:—
Graded school—Mr. Thos. D. Herd, Division 2, Smithers.
Large ungraded school—Miss Bessie Macfarlane, Sandspit.
Small ungraded school—Miss Ingie Anderson, Osland.
Once again I should like to mention the commendable efforts made by teachers in rural
districts to give instruction in high-school subjects. The inauguration of the High School
Correspondence Course will relieve teachers of this extra burden, assumed in many cases volun-
tarilv and without extra remuneration.
ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 15.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR W. G. GAMBLE, B.A., PRINCE GEORGE.
This inspectorate comprises the schools in the Canadian National Railway Belt from Houston
to Red Pass, inclusive; the distance between these points is 410 miles. Thirty-three schools are
situated at distances varying from 5 to 50 miles from the railway.
During the year there were in operation seventy-one schools, employing ninety-two teachers.
Of these schools, one is a high school, one is a superior school, one is an elementary city school,
seven are rural schools, and sixty-one are assisted schools.
A new school was opened at Newlands, North; and the school at Colleymount was reopened.
A new school was authorized at Strathnaver, and the reopening of the schools at Penny and
Decker Lake was also authorized.
One hundred and seventy-five visits of inspection were made to class-rooms throughout the
year. In addition to these, a number of special visits were made to rural and assisted schools
in connection with matters of departmental administration.
Teaching conditions in many of the rural and assisted schools are being greatly improved
by means of better equipment and the establishment of school libraries.
A convention of teachers was held at Prince George on April 2nd and 3rd. Some of the
teachers travelled over 150 miles to attend this convention. More than sixty teachers were
present at its sessions. All the papers and teaching demonstrations were given by teachers of
this inspectorate, and were of such excellence that they could not fail to be helpful even to the
best of our teachers.
There is noticeable throughout the inspectorate a growing desire on the part of teachers to
improve school organization and to stress the fundamentals in education. It is gratifying to
note also the intense interest in their work, even under adverse conditions, manifested by so
many of the teachers in outlying districts.
Many of the teachers in these outlying districts come from the Coast cities, and their
personality and social training have a wonderful influence not only in the school, but also in
the whole community, in which they are striving to lay the foundations of education and
citizenship for the present and future welfare of this great Dominion. R 34 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
REPORT OF MISS LOTTIE BOWRON, RURAL TEACHERS'
WELFARE OFFICER.
Since the beginning of April I have visited 200 rural teachers. During this period, owing
to the appointment being a new one, I have endeavoured to visit as many districts as possible
to get an idea of conditions in the Province as a whole. This, of course, does not mean that in
each district I was able to visit every teacher; this would not have been practical, partly owing
to the difficulty of transportation, although in several of the most remote districts I have been
able to visit them all.
The following is a list of some of the districts visited: Kamloops, the Cariboo Road, along
the C.N.R. from Prince George to Hazelton, Boundary country, East and West Kootenays,
Columbia Valley, Okanagan, Peace River Block, Queen Charlotte Islands, and Bella Coola
Valley.
In nearly every case where I have been specially asked to visit I have later on received the
assurance that conditions had improved. Numbers of teachers, whether in need of some assistance or not, have assured me that they feel a sense of security in the fact that there is a
woman to whom they may appeal and who from time to time visits them.
In almost every case I have found the trustees, when appealed to, ready to co-operate with
me in my endeavours to understand and, where necessary and possible, to improve the conditions
under which the teachers are living and working. REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
SCHOOLS OP THE MUNICIPALITY OF BURNABY.
REPORT OF E. G. DANIELS, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
Enrolment in the schools of Burnaby Municipality for 1928-29 changed little from the totals
for 1927-28. 1927-28. 1928-29.
Elementary schools      4,159 4,145
High schools        478 509
Totals :     4,637 4,654
In this connection it should be noted that the Technical Courses are not taught in Burnaby,
the Board making provision for such tuition by an agreement with the Vancouver and New
Westminster Boards. During the past year 127 permits were issued by the Burnaby Board to
pupils who wished to attend either the Vancouver Technical or the T. J. Trapp Technical School.
The percentage of attendance was slightly higher than in the previous year. This was,
doubtless, due in large measure to the thorough and systematic work of our School Health -!
Inspector, Dr. J. G. McCammon.
The opening of the school-year found us with additional accommodation which relieved the
pressure at a number of points. The Gilmore Avenue School was enlarged by the addition of
four fine class-rooms and an auditorium. At Douglas Road School a four-room unit was constructed along modern lines to supply the needs of a growing district. A two-room addition was
built at Kingsway West to complete the eight-room plan of the newer unit. The old two-room
building known as the Second Street School was replaced by an up-to-date four-room structure
and the old building adapted for use as a gymnasium-auditorium by the removal of partitions.
To obviate the necessity of Nelson Avenue pupils having to walk to Kingsway West centre
for manual training and home economics, a modern building was erected on the Nelson Avenue
grounds, while other centres were opened at Windsor Street School and at Schou Street School.
In connection with the Vancouver Musical Festival, the Kingsway West School (Mr. W. D.
Blair, principal) maintained its excellent record by capturing two first places—the McLellan
shield being won by Division 7 (Miss Edith Kay, teacher), while the shield offered for competition by the Vancouver Women's Musical Association was w7on by Division 8 (Miss Doris Scott,
teacher).
In the June Departmental Examinations Miss Verda Lucille Benedict, of Burnaby South
High School (Mr. C. G. Brown, principal), was awarded one of the five silver medals presented
by His Excellency the Governor-General to the five leading matriculation students in the Province, while Channing Britain Hawkins, a pupil of Edmonds Street School (Mr. W. T. Fennell,
principal), won the Governor-General's bronze medal for highest standing in the Entrance
Examinations for medal district No. 4. It is interesting to note that, out of 714 papers written
by the Grade XI. pupils of Burnaby, North, and Burnaby, South, High Schools, only fourteen
papers were recorded as failures by your Department.
Our staff of 140 teachers in 21 schools scattered over an area of 38 square miles is, with
few exceptions, composed of mentally alert and enthusiastic teachers who give liberally of their
time and energy in the service of the Board. Many avail themselves each year of the excellent
opportunities offered by your Department and the Provincial University for summer courses,
while a considerable number go farther afield to enrich their educational thought and to improve
their professional status and technique.
SCHOOLS OP THE CITY OP NEW WESTMINSTER.
REPORT OF R. S. SHIELDS, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The closing of the schools in June marked the ending of one of the most successful school-
years in the history of New Westminster;  the continuance of that hearty co-operation of student
bt>dy, teaching staff, Board of School Trustees, and Education Department made itself felt in
the advancement of educational aims and ideals of this city.
In September the pupil enrolment was 3,467: High schools, 839; junior high schools, 522;
elementary schools, 2,106.    When we realize that 24 per cent, of our enrolment is in the high R 36 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
schools, and that the average age of the pupils enrolled in the Connaught High (including the
Senior Matriculation class) is 14.7, and of those in the T. J. Trapp Technical High is 14.93, we
feel that our entire system is functioning with high efficiency.
The Junior High School Programme was introduced in September in four centres (Grades
VII. and VIII. only). We feel that a splendid beginning has been made and with a few minor
building changes and staff rearrangements this branch of the school system will be at full
strength; later we hope to include Grade IX., which at the present is being taught in the
high schools.
On December 18th the new T. J. Trapp Technical High School was opened by the Honourable Joshua Hinchliffe, B.A., Minister of Education for the Province of British Columbia, who
forcibly brought home to the large body of citizens present the great need of this Province for
technically trained, young men and women; future citizens upon whose shoulders the responsibilities of life will soon be laid. The building of this school was an important step in the
progress of Technical High School education in this Province.
On Wednesday morning, February 6th, the modern Richard McBride School of eighteen
rooms burned to the ground, with a building loss of approximately $90,000; and yet, as we
look back, we should be thankful that, happening on a school-day at almost school-opening time,
not an injury to any person was sustained. We were grateful that due to the business efficiency
of our Board the building was fully insured; we felt strong in the knowledge that the Education
Department was in such helpful sympathy with us that within twelve hours free text-books
for 520 students were on their way from Victoria; one feature which enabled the Board of
School Trustees to have all classes running again within three days—the Senior classes in the
old Technical building, Intermediate classes at Central, and Primary classes at St. Mary's
Parish Hall.    To all who so facilitated the reopening of these classes we tender our thanks.
Preparations were immediately under way for the building of a new Richard McBride
School on the same site, to be opened in September, 1929.
A pleasing feature of our school-life this past year was the success of our school choirs at
the musical festival at Vancouver in May. All choirs did splendidly, but to the choirs of Lister-
Kelvin School (Mr. Canfield, principal; Miss Milledge, conductor; Misses Richards and Robertson, accompanists) went the high honours—namely, the Masonic shield, Junior High Choir;
Lieutenant-Governor's shield, School Choir; O. B. Allan shield, Boys' School Choir; Grand
Forks shield, Grade IV.; Daily Province shield, Grade VIII.; certificate (second place), Grade
V. and Grade VII.; certificate (third place), Grade VI. and Boys' Open; perhaps a record at
any musical festival; we express our hearty appreciation.
Again it is our duty to report, the hearty co-operation, foresight, and business ability of our
Board of School Trustees in providing for onr schools every facility for educational development.
At the Technical High School, Lister-Kelvin, Herbert Spencer, and Richard McBride Schools,
facilities for physical development were provided in the form of a gymnasium at each centre;
plans are now being laid for such a building at all other schools in the city.
Every school in the city has now been provided with library facilities and for each school
the largest library grant in the history of our school system was passed.
Surely the Board of School Trustees of this city study the school requirements of the day
and together with the Education Department make possible wonderful opportunities for our
youth.
In June Mr. W. C. Coatham, Principal of the Herbert Spencer School, retired from active
work. For forty-five years, forty-two of which were spent as principal of schools in New
Westminster, Mr. Coatham has given of his best services in the interests of the students. It
was the privilege of many who later held responsible positions to have been taught by him.
The best, wishes of all interested in education go with Mr. Coatham on his retirement.
SCHOOLS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF SAANICH.
REPORT OF J. M. PATERSON, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
When I assumed my duties in the Municipality of Saanich in December last, I found fifteen
schools, with a staff of fifty-eight teachers and an attendance of 1,770 pupils. These schools
are spread over a very large area, 55 square miles, and range from eight-roomed schools in w7hat
are really urban districts to two-roomed schools in purely rural parts.    A survey of the schools PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 37
and class-rooms showed a pressing need for unification and uniformity. The staff, through
reorganization made before the reopening of school in September, was cut down to fifty-four,
though more teachers may have to be added before the end of the school-year.
The Saanich Municipality has always taken care of its secondary education by sending its
students to Victoria High School. Early in 1929 the Victoria School Board intimated that it
would not be able, because of lack of accommodation, to admit after the end of June to the City
High School all the Saanich High School pupils. Saanich had, therefore, to face the problem of
arranging to take care of Grade IX. in September and to prepare for further grades in the future.
The building of a new high school was out of the question, and accommodation was arranged
for the year by the reorganization of the public-school classes, and the high school was opened
in September in the Tolmie building, with a staff of five teachers and over 140 pupils.
I found the schools being administered in a very businesslike manner. The School Board,
men of insight and ability, give unsparingly of their time in the best interests of the children.
Athletics are well organized under a committee composed of principals and parent representatives, and every assistance has been given to train children physically as well as mentally.
Health inspection under Dr. Berman and his competent staff of dentist and nurses is conducted on the highest plane of efficiency I have seen. Under the system, absenteeism has been
cut to a minimum. Epidemics and disease are continually under control. The pre-school work
of the health staff has cut down by nearly 40 per cent, in the last three 5'ears the percentage of
defects of children entering school.
Music in most of the schools has been receiving proper attention, though in others little has
been done. In the musical festival held in Victoria in the spring eleven choirs were entered
from the Saanich schools.' All acquitted themselves splendidly. Tolmie Senior pupils, under
the direction of Miss D. Hartree, won not only the first prize for their class, but also took the
cup for the best school choir in the festival. Mackenzie Avenue (Mr. W. C. Ozard, director)
won first place as the best rural school of the three- and four-room class, while Gordon Head,
under Miss M. Watson, took first place among rural schools of one and two rooms. The latter
school also won the Tolmie cup awarded to the rural school in Saanich winning the highest
marks in the festival.
All Entrance pupils from Saanich wrote the Provincial Entrance Examinations in June.
Out of a total of 189 pupils, 133 were successful. Miss Peggy Bartle, of Cloverdale School
(Mr. P. C. Routley, principal), won the Governor-General's bronze medal for the district.
Parent-Teachers' Associations are growing in numbers and are doing much to create a
broader sympathy between school and home.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF J. S. GORDON, B.A., SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS.
A YEAR OF CHANGE.
The school-year 1928-29 has been an unusual one as far as the present Vancouver School
District is concerned. The " Greater Vancouver Act," passed early in 1928, made provision for
the amalgamation, on January 1st, 1929, of the three school districts of Vancouver, South Vancouver, and Point Grey. Consequently, as soon as the work of organizing these three districts
for September, 1928, had been completed, it was necessary to begin plans for amalgamation.
SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION, 1928.
One problem confronting the School Board of each district was the providing of increased
school accommodation, and to it each Board directed its best energies during the first term of
the school-year. As a result of this, the Boards of the respective districts handed over, on
January 1st, 1929, to the Board of the amalgamated city their year's building programmes—
nearing completion. R 38 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
The Vancouver Board had almost completed its entire building programme for the year—
and that the largest in the history of the city.    It included the following:—
(1.) Completion of the Laura Secord School by the addition of twelve class-rooms, administration offices, and an auditorium.
(2.) The erection of the first unit of Renfrew School with eight class-rooms, administration
offices, and an auditorium.
(3.) The erection of the third unit of Templeton Junior High School, with the equivalent of
twenty-three more class-rooms, laboratories, a splendid cafeteria, and the completion of a girls'
gymnasium.
(4.) The completion of the second unit of Kitsilano Junior High School, by adding the
equivalent of twenty-seven more class-rooms, laboratories, and greatly extending the cafeteria
accommodation.
(5.) The erection of the first unit of the Technical School, with thirty class-rooms, three
laboratories with lecture-rooms, five very large workshops with lecture-rooms, an auditorium
with a seating capacity of 1,200, a cafeteria that will accommodate about 1,500 students, and a
large gymnasium with swimming-pool the completion of which alone had to be entrusted to the
new Board.
The school building^ provided by the Vancouver School Board of 1928 cost considerably over
$1,250,000, including the Government grant of $175,000 for the Technical School. They greatly
improved the school accommodation; but still left over 150 temporary class-rooms in the former
city that must in time give place to modern, permanent ones.
South Vancouver's Board for 1928 had its school-building programme almost completed
before amalgamation took place. It called for the erection of six "additional class-rooms and
an auditorium to both the Norquay and the Sir Sanford Fleming School, at a cost of $73,911.37.
These two additions have greatly improved school accommodation for the districts they serve;
but at least one other district is already calling for better accommodation.
Point Grey's Board, finding nearly all its elementary schools filled or overcrowded early in
1928, decided to relieve congestion by opening their first junior high school as soon as one could
be constructed. A by-law for $480,000 was submitted to the ratepayers in May, 1928, for building, equipment, and sites ; and was passed by a very large majority. The Board purchased 9.52
acres of land at the corner of Thirty-seventh Avenue and East Boulevard as a site for the
proposed school, and had plans and specifications prepared for a modern forty-two-room building, including industrial-arts rooms, shops, laboratories, auditorium, gymnasium, and cafeteria.
Before amalgamation took place contracts had been let for the erection of the new school—the
main contract for $283,490, the heating and ventilating contract for $52,338, and the electrical
work for $17,100—and work was well advanced. This new school, one of the most complete in
Greater Vancouver, will open on September 3rd.
SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION, 1929.
Notwithstanding the unusual school-building activity in each of the amalgamating districts
outlined above, Greater Vancouver's first School Board, after a careful consideration of the
school requirements for the near future, decided to have by-laws submitted to the ratepayers in
May for sums totalling $1,050,000, to purchase or improve school-sites and to pay for the
erection of new schools or additions to existing ones. These by-laws, all of which, except No. 5,
received the endorsement of the ratepayers, were as follows :•—■
(1.)  For elementary schools and equipment     $800,000
(2.)  For improvement of school-grounds.     '   50,000
(3.)  For purchase of new school-sites         50,000
(4.)  For replacing and renewing heating plants         50,000
(5.) For an art school      100,000
Total $1,050,000
The judicious expenditure of the moneys provided by the ratepayers last May will be one of
the Board's most important tasks for the coming school-year. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
R 39
SCHOOL ORGANIZATION.
In September the schools in the three districts to be amalgamated had enrolled in the various
grades the pupils indicated in the following table:—
Vancouver.
South
Vancouver.
Point Grey.
Totals.
2,803
2,445
2,191
2,057
1,904
2,014
2,046
1,956
2,000
1,340
775
119
307
1,155
1,068
991
904
829
855
702
829
509
338
165
25
23
726
723
630
568
592
503
708
549
617
435
318
4,684
Grade II	
4,236
Grade III	
3,812
Grade IV :                   	
3,529
Grade V '..             	
3,325
Grade VI	
3,372
Grade VII.          	
3,456
Grade VI11	
3,334
Grade IX.
3,216
2,113
Grade XI	
1,258
Grade XII	
144
330
Totals	
22,047
8,393
6,369
36,809
In October an examination of the grouping of pupils in classes indicated no marked differences between the general groupings for the three districts.    They were as follows:—
Vancouver.
South
Vancouver.
Point Grey.
Totals.
Elementary Schools (Regular Glasses).
Pupils enrolled .•.	
Teachers	
Classes	
Pupils per teacher	
Pupils per class	
Elementary Schools (Special Classes).
Pupils enrolled	
Teachers and classes	
Pupils per teacher and class	
Junior High Schools.
Pupils enrolled t.
Teachers	
Classes	
Pupils per teacher	
Pupils per class	
High Schools.
Pupils enrolled	
Teachers	
Classes.	
Pupils per teacher	
Pupils per class	
Art School.
Pupils enrolled	
Teachers and classes	
Pupils per teacher and class	
Total enrolment	
15,650
431
413
35.69
37.27
264
19
13.90
2,855
93.50
75
30.53
38.06
94
5
18.80
7,342
211
204
34.79
35.99
23
2
11.50
619
1,035
123
33
98
28
29.42
31.36
30.02
36.06
4,272
117
117
36.51
36.51
756
26
21
29.07
36.00
1,37C
45
42
30.57
32.76
27,264
287
3,611
6,030
94
37,286 R 40 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
In February, when 1,365 six-year-old Receiving class pupils were admitted and 21 additional
teachers were appointed, the maximum enrolment for the year, 38,108, was reached. At the
close of the school-year there was a teaching staff of 1,212.5, including, besides teachers attached
to regular staffs, 38 home-economics teachers, 41 manual-training teachers, 17 special instructors,
and 4 in the Bureau of Measurements.
SENIOR MATRICULATION.
For the first time in the history of Greater Vancouver, Senior Matriculation work was
undertaken in the schools. Vancouver organized four classes with a total enrolment of 119
students and South Vancouver one class of twenty-five. As these students paid a fee of $100
each, the classes were self-supporting. The results of the recent examinations, in which 71 out
of 135 passed, 27 passed with supplementals, 34 passed in subjects, and only 3 failed, seem to
warrant the continuance of this work that parents have so long desired.
JUNIOR HIGH-SCHOOL WORK.
A considerable advance was also made during the year in junior high-school work. Point
Grey organized 756 Grade VII. and Grade VIII. pupils and carried on the junior high-school
work with them, under difficulties, in eight elementary schools; while Vancouver, with its
additional units at each junior high school, carried Grade IX. work for the first time.
SCHOOL OF DECORATIVE AND APPLIED ARTS.
In June of this year eleven students of the School of Decorative and Applied Arts graduated.
These were the first to complete the four-year courses offered in the school, and it was greatly
regretted by the many friends of Art Education in Vancouyer that the Provincial Education
Department could not see its way to issue diplomas or certificates to the school's first graduates.
It is confidently expected, however, that the Department will, in time—as soon as it becomes
fully cognizant of the high standard of work being done in the school—give it the recognition
it merits. The Vancouver School Board appreciates the financial assistance the Government has
given the school thus far; but it expects still more departmental recognition when such is
deserved.
RESULTS OF AMALGAMATION.
It is early to express definite opinions on the results of amalgamation as far as school-work
is concerned. There are indications, however, of improvements in many ways. Readjustments
are being made satisfactorily; a spirit of optimism is manifest on every hand; and the tendency
to friction caused by regulations necessitated by artificial boundary-lines is a thing of the past.
One may even say the new order has been brought about with a minimum of confusion. This,
no doubt, is largely due to the fact that the citizens, at the first election of school trustees, on
October 15th, 1928, chose as members of the new Board of nine members two experienced trustees
from Point Grey, two from South Vancouver, and three from the former city.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VICTORIA.
REPORT OF G. H. DEANE, MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
GRADED SCHOOLS.       ,
The enrolment during the year was approximately the same as the previous year.
There are still in use buildings erected years ago and which, while still in service, fall far
below modern standards. As soon as conditions justify the expenditures involved, new buildings
should replace these old ones and the schools concerned be provided with up-to-date
accommodation.
Under a progressive policy the School Board is providing better facilities for out-of-door
activities, by grading, surfacing, and oiling playgrounds. This policy also includes the planting
of shrubs and flowers to make the grounds more attractive. Various Parent-Teachers' Associations have given substantial assistance towards such improvements and the local Horticultural
Society, in co-operation with the Board, has undertaken to plant and maintain a floral border
along the Yates Street frontage of both central schools. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 41
/     HIGH SCHOOL.
A decision, at least for the immediate future, was reached regarding two important
questions—relief for the overcrowded conditions which prevailed at the high school and the
establishment of a technical school to provide a suitable preparatory training for the large
number of pupils whose future will surround commercial and industrial careers.
The School Board unanimously supported the establishment of a technical school which
would also solve definitely the problem of high-school accommodation. The Board was so
convinced of the wisdom of this policy, both for educational and economic reasons, that a by-law
covering the necessary capital expenditure of $145,000 was submitted to the ratepayers three
times within twelve months and each time was defeated. Such results are rather discouraging
and in striking contrast to the progressive policies of other Canadian cities, where democratic
standards appear to govern and all classes are granted equal opportunities of secondary training.
Owing to the attitude of the majority of the ratepayers towards extraordinary expenditures,
the Board was compelled to relieve the overcrowding by withdrawing high-school accommodation for the pupils of Saanich Municipality. This action was taken with regret, and in fairness
to all concerned only first-year pupils were excluded during 1929-30. However, the elimination
of Saanich pupils will still leave the Victoria High School filled beyond its designed capacity
and will necessitate further measures of relief in the near future.
VICTORIA COLLEGE.
In order to provide for a certain class of student and to meet an existing demand, a Second-
year Course in Zoology was added to the courses of instruction to be given by Professor Cunningham. This necessitated an addition to the staff and Mr. E. J. Savannah, B.A., B.Sc, was
appointed Instructor in Chemistry.
The continued illness of Professor Marr is deeply regretted. His sterling qualities both as
a teacher and a man have endeared him to all with whom he has been associated. To take
charge of the Department of Classics for the present year the Board was fortunate in securing
the services of Mr. Geo. P. Black, M.A., gold medalist, Manitoba University. The success of
Mr. Black's students has earned for him the reputation of being one of the best teachers of
classics in the Province.
In closing this report I wish to express the general regret at losing from our staff Principal
T. W. Hall, who has been promoted to the position of Provincial Inspector of Schools. Mr. Hall
was an outstanding principal, beloved by his pupils, and unsparing of time and effort in all
matters associated with Victoria schools. At the same time I wish to congratulate the Department on securing the services of such an able official. R 42
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF D. M. ROBINSON, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The session opened on September 11th, 1928. The enrolment for the preliminary term was
176—150 young women and 26 young men. During the term one student discontinued the course.
At the close of the term in December seven students who had previous Normal School training
were granted diplomas. Three students, whose work was not up to standard, withdrew and
one was compelled to discontinue owing to illness at her home.
At the opening of the advanced term in January, 164 of those attending during the preliminary term returned. These were joined by six other students with previous training. Thus
the total enrolment for the advanced term was 170—147 young women and 23 young men.
During this term one student met with a serious accident which necessitated her withdrawal,
two retired because of illness and one because of unsatisfactory work. Thus the attendance in
June was 166—149 of these were recommended for interim certificates. The following summary
will show clearly the enrolment and results of the entire session:—
Young
Women.
Young
Men.
Total.
156
4
4
14
134
■   26
1
3
22
182
4
1
4
Withdrew, work unsatisfactory	
Discontinued course owing to illness	
Failed                                           .    ..
•    17
156
Recommended lor interim certificates	
At the opening of the session in September Miss Grace Bollert was appointed to the position
of Instructress in Primary Work, made vacant by the resignation of Mrs. Robinson (Miss
Burpee). No other changes occurred on the staff during the year. The instruction in physical
education was carried out by Sergeant-Major Wallace and Sergeant Frost. In December
Sergeant Frost was transferred to Victoria and Sergeant-Major Wallace completed the session
alone.    Of the 164 students examined in this department, 159 qualified for Grade B certificates.
During the session our teachers-in-training had abundant opportunity for observation and
practice-teaching. Eight full weeks were devoted to this branch of teacher-training. During
the preliminary term the following schools were used for practice-teaching: Henry Hudson,
Charles Dickens, Macdonald, Model, Gilmore Avenue, and Kingsway West. During the advanced
term the following elementary schools were used: Roberts, Queen Mary, Lonsdale, Ridgeway,
and Lynn Valley. Fifty of our students had the opportunity of observing and teaching in the
Templeton Junior High School. To the principals and teachers in all the above schools we wish
to tender our thanks for their courtesy and hearty co-operation in this work of teacher-training.
In addition to the seven weeks of observation and practice-teaching in large graded schools,
all students have spent one week in one- or two-roomed schools in neighbouring municipalities.
Schools in Surrey, Langley, Matsqui, Chilliwack, Delta, North Vancouver, Burnaby, Richmond,
Maple Ridge, together with schools on Vancouver Island and along the coast, were visited. In
these class-rooms students had an excellent opportunity of observing the organization, management, and daily class-room procedure of an ungraded school. This experience will undoubtedly
prove helpful to our young teachers, especially to those who will find employment in rural
schools. To the teachers of these small schools we extend our thanks for their courtesy and
kindly assistance.
During the last weeks of the session our students visited several industrial plants. Included
in this list were the Terminal, Alberta, and Harbour Commissioners' grain-elevators; the news
plant of the Daily Province and the Sun; Fraser Valley Dairy; sawmills operated by Hanbury
Co., Alberta Lumber Co., and the B.C. Fir and Cedar Co. These visits proved both interesting
and instructive to our students. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
R 43
Before closing my report I wish to thank members of the staff for their hearty co-operation
during the year. I regret that Mr. William G. Black is leaving the Normal School. He has
been a very faithful member of the staff during the past three years. He has always taken
a keen interest in the athletic and social activities of the school. We wish him every success
in his new position in the University of British Columbia.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VICTORIA.
REPORT OF D. L. MacLAURIN, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The session extended from September 11th, 1928, to June 14th, 1929.    The total enrolment
for the year was 157.    This was a decrease of 6, or 3.6 per cent, on the enrolment for 1927-28.
The following table presents an analysis of this enrolment and of the final results:—
First
Class.
Second
Class.
Women.
Men.
Women.
Men.
Total.
58
7
1
17
1
1
50
4
12
4
1
1
137
Failed    	
16
2
1
1
Totals        ..   .          ....          	
66
19
54
18
157
It will be noted that slightly over 54 per cent, of the total enrolment were eligible for first-
class certificates. Of the 137 awarded diplomas, 2 completed the work in December, 1928, and
135 in June, 1929. Seven of these 135 were awarded honour standing. All except 4 of the
135 were granted Grade B physical-training certificates, of whom 21 received the special merit,
" distinguished." Miss Audrey S. D. Mills, of Victoria, was awarded the gold medal for greatest
proficiency in physical training.
After a year's leave of absence Miss G. G. Riddell resumed her work at the opening of-
the session. The work of instruction was apportioned for year as follows: The Principal—
Educational psychology, measurements and statistics, school administration, and school law.
Mr. V. L. Denton—Geography, history, and history of education. Mr. H. Dunnell—Penmanship,
drawing, and art. Mr. B. S. Freeman—Literature, nature, and language. Mr. C. B. Wood—
Reading, English grammar, and arithmetic. Miss G. G. Riddell—Vocal music, primary-grade
method, and manual arts. Miss L. Isbister—Home economics and nutrition. Miss I. Coursier—
Health education. Sergeant-Major Bain—Physical training. Sergeant-Major Frost—Physical
training.
In the work of practice-teaching our students were first given a brief course in observation;
following this they taught isolated lessons beginning with the primary grades and gradually
progressing to Grade VIII. At first each student taught a single lesson; then as they gained
in experience and ability the number of lessons taught by each student was increased. Finally
each student was given two weeks' continuous teaching in the class-room. Much of this continuous teaching was done in rural schools.
As in former years, the Provincial Model School, the schools of the City of Victoria, of the
Municipalities of Esquimalt, Oak Bay, and Saanich, and of contiguous rural districts were used.
Upon the staffs of these schools annually falls the burden of affording this service to the
teachers-in-training in this instruction. The benefit accrues to the Province as a whole. While
the spirit of co-operation displayed by these teachers and all officials connected therewith is
most admirable, I wish once again to express my firm conviction that to demand this service
gratuitously is an unfair discrimination and militates against the most efficient procedure of
teacher-training in our Province. R 44 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND.
REPORT OF S. H. LAWRENCE, PRINCIPAL.
The enrolment for the year was eighty-three, of whom sixty-five were in the department
for the deaf and eighteen in the department for the blind. The whole school is composed of
ten classes as, owing to the amount of individual instruction necessary, the classes have to be
quite small.
During the year we had more than the usual amount of sickness. Early in September,
1928, we had two cases of scarlet fever. These made a good recovery, leaving no after complications. In January, 1929, an epidemic of mumps broke out, and despite every effort to
check the disease it continued until the Easter recess.
This might be a fitting place to make mention of the unrelaxing attention manifested by the
matron and her assistants for the comfort and relief of the children. They were instant in
season and out of season and sacrificed personal interests on their behalf.
Notwithstanding the unusual amount of sickness and the consequent loss of time from the
classes, the pupils made a very creditable showing at the close of the year. One deaf girl
succeeded in earning her certificate of entrance to high school, and a deaf and blind boy,
Charles Crane, wrote on seven of the ten subjects required for Junior Matriculation and made
an average of over 65 per cent, on them, with no subject below 50 per cent.
Three blind pupils took the examination in music set by the Associated Board of the Royal
College of Music, London, England, and two of them were successful in obtaining certificates,
one with honourable mention.
These results may seem but meagre in comparison with what other schools have done;
but we have to remember that these children are greatly handicapped in their efforts to acquire
an education. Think what it means to take these minds, blank in many ways except to meaningless impressions from the external world, and imbue those minds with thought that attends on
expression. The very power to give expression springs from the idea and until that idea is
understood the expression is meaningless.
We have no Pentecostal visitations in our work, but we follow the process of first the blade,
then the ear, and after that the full corn in the ear. We may not in every ease attain the goal
of our ambition, but we are not wholly cast down if our returns are in the sixty-fold class or
even the thirty-fold.
Literary and musical attainments are the features that head our programme. But in
addition to these our efforts are directed along vocational and social lines, our aim being to
produce good citizens who can think and act for themselves, or, in other words, " do justly,
love mercy, and walk humbly with thy God."
During this summer there was held in Vancouver a convention of the adult deaf from the
four Western Provinces. I had both the privilege and the pleasure of meeting quite a number
of deaf from these Provinces, and I give it here as my conviction that it would be a surprise
to many to see how intelligently they discussed their various problems and to note the extent
of their knowledge of things generally.
Their deliberations were all conducted in the sign language, but there was a forcibleness
about it which made one admire it, and the grasp the delegates had of the various activities of
our social structure proved how far Lucretius was wide of the truth when he wrote the following
lines:—■
" To instruct the deaf no art can ever reach,
No care improve and no wisdom teach."
Before closing this report I wish to make mention of a very valuable gift made to the school
in the new Mason and Risch piano donated through the efforts of Mr. C. E. Findlater and the
music pupils in Vancouver schools as marking the one hundredth anniversary of Louis Braille,
who invented the alphabet used by the blind. It fills a need that was keenly felt by the school
and saves me asking the Department for money to purchase one.
In closing I wish again to express my thanks to you, Sir, and through you to the Honourable
the Minister of Education, for your patience with me in my shortcomings and your encouraging
assistance in all my work. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 45
TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., ORGANIZER.
MANUAL TRAINING.
In speaking of manual training it is well to understand that there is a difference between
the hand-work found in an ordinary elementary school and that practised in a junior high school
composed of Grades VII., VIII., and IX. . In the first type of school wood is usually the only
material used, while in the second type woodwork is supplemented with sheet-metal work,
machine-shop work, electricity, printing, and other manual activities.
Those School Boards, therefore, who have failed up to the present to establish manual-
training shops in connection with their school system are thus left farther behind than ever.
The march of educational progress continues unremittingly, and subjects which were spoken of
a few years ago as fads and frills are now accepted by the majority of people and are firmly
established on sound educational principles.
Behind all the activities of the workshops creative effort holds an important place and the
development of mentality is understood to be of greater importance than physical control.
The following localities have established manual-training centres: Armstrong, Burnaby,
Chilliwack City, Chilliwack Municipality, Cranbrook, Cumberland, Courtenay, Esquimalt, Fernie,
Harewood, Kelowna, Ladysmith, North Vancouver City, North Vancouver Municipality, Maple
Ridge, Nanaimo, Nelson, New Westminster, Ocean Falls, Penticton, Point Grey, Pitt Meadows,
Port Moody, loco, Prince Rupert, Richmond, Summerland, Surrey, Trail, Vancouver, South
Vancouver, West Vancouver, Vernon, and Victoria.
The total number of centres in the Province, together with the number of pupils attending,
are given hereunder :—
Manual-training and junior high-school workshops       Ill
Manual-training and junior high-school instructors         89
Elementary-school pupils attending 10,604
Junior high-school pupils attending    2,268
High-school pupils attending    2,109
TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN DAY-SCHOOLS.
The technical school which has been built in Vancouver City at a cost of nearly $900,000 is
now complete. The workshops for cabinetmaking, carpentry and joinery, sheet-metal working,
stationary engineering, electrical engineering, automobile-repairing, printing, etc., are fully
occupied all day long. Moreover, the school is open each night of the week, with an attendance
of over 1,000 students, so that the ratepayers are taking full advantage of the building and
equipment. It is fortunate that the 24 acres of land where the technical school is situated will
permit of ample extension, for greater workshop accommodation will soon be required to do
justice to the industrial students of a city having a population of over 300,000.
The future will see great numbers of pupils passing from the junior high schools to the
technical school proper, because it is in these junior high schools where pupils discover their
bent and talents through the varied try-out courses of work. It is through such courses that
pupils will be enabled to select intelligently what activity they will make their life's work, and
into which they can put their whole heart and soul.
The Vancouver Technical School, with its expensive trade equipment and capable tradesmen
instructors, should be more and more reserved for trade and vocational students; that is,
students who have a clear idea what vocation they intend to follow or who are already engaged
in industrial work. These students may be able to attend either for the full day or only part
time, or they may only be able to take short, intensive courses on sections of their work. To
provide for such industrial students should be the main objective of the technical school, and
that objective should always be clearly in the minds of the authorities.
There must always be a distinct difference, owing to the time element, between the intensive
trade and industrial courses referred to in the technical school proper and the technical courses
in a high school, technical high school, composite high school, or by whatever name the school
is called. Technical courses in such schools are more like advanced manual-training courses,
because time will not permit students to participate in that thorough course of industrial training
which should characterize the work of a technical school. ,
Nevertheless, the prediction may safely be made that in the near future the Vancouver high
schools of Britannia, King Edward, and John Oliver will provide technical courses for their R 46
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
pupils, just as they have at present provided commercial and home-economics courses. Three-
year technical courses are already found in Kitsilano Junior and Senior High School, Magee
High School, Point Grey, T. J. Trapp Technical High School, New Westminster, and a two-year
technical course in the High School of Victoria. It is thus important to have a clear distinction
between what can be done in high schools with the equipment which they possess and that which
is possible in the Vancouver Technical School.
The two cities of Vancouver and New AVestminster, with Burnaby as a midway municipality,
are keenly alive to the requirements of industrial training. They are adjusting themselves as
fast as wisdom warrants.
The Apprenticeship Council in the City of Vancouver is doing an extremely valuable work in
laying the foundation of a stable apprenticeship on modern lines. Their apprentice classes
are held in the Technical School, Vancouver, and absolute harmony and confidence seems to
exist between the Council, the trades-unions, and the young men. People who think that a
return to the old apprenticeship should be made in preference to building technical schools
should investigate the work of the Apprenticeship Council, because they will be interested to
find a modern expression of an old idea.
The School of Decorative and Applied Art in Vancouver provides day and night courses in
the following subjects: Drawing and design, applied design, modelling, lettering and illumination, figure drawing and composition, architecture and pottery. The work accomplished is of
a high order of attainment and the good taste developed will gradually permeate the industrial
productions of Vancouver. As the present accommodation is quite inadequate a new school
will be required before long.
HIGH   SCHOOL  COMMERCIAL  CLASSES.
Commercial courses are gradually increasing in the Province and in the past years it has
been difficult to recommend competent instructors. However, the teacher-training classes have
been responsible for raising the standard of commercial teachers and of firmly establishing the
commercial courses in many municipalities;  therefore the situation is perceptibly improving.
Associated with the School of Commerce at King Edward High School, Vancouver, is a
remarkable class in wireless telegraphy. The equipment is of the best and the instruction given
is outstanding.    The graduates from this class may be found in all parts of the world.
The amount spent by the Department as grants towards the salaries of instructors employed
in teaching Commercial, Technical, Home Economics, and Art Courses from July 1st, 1928, to
June 30th, 1929, amounted to $64,704.70. The grants in aid of buildings and equipment for such
courses amounted to $300,930.56. The number of students who received instruction in these
courses at the various centres is shown below:—
City or Municipality.
Course.
No. of
Students.
Average
Attendance.
152
16
50
36
120
108
82
106
22
38
31
18
1,380
911
223
421
395
202
31
135
Delta    	
16
48
36
115
New AVestminster	
Technical	
188
74
96
Oak Bav    	
22
34
28
15
1,244
896
214
Art   	
30
Total	
4,432
Teacher-training Courses :
staff, 3.
Enrolment,   78 ;    staff,   8.    Correspondence   Department:    Enrolment,   211 ; ~iM
8
w  Total. 4.432 Students
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Graph showing increase in attendance at
Day Technical Classes over a period of
ten years in British Columbia
975
1919-20  1921   1922   1923   1924   1925   1926   1927   1928   1929 R 48
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
As this is the end of the ten-year period for which Federal grants have been paid to assist
in establishing technical education in the Provinces, it will be of interest to know that there are
at present 4,4-32 technical students registered, in comparison with 975 students ten years ago.
AVhile the night-school teaching staff numbered 48 ten years ago, it now numbers 285. The
graph on page 47 will give a clear idea of the gradual development of the work.
The following table shows the enrolment in Technical classes at each centre for the last
ten years:—
No.
Municipality oiiCity.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1
22
22
103
26
17
53
302
146
"975'
48"
26
19
33
197
48
28
27
68
739
256
y,44r
68"
19
25
17
27
177
54
35
32
81
831
300
1,598
75"
13
40*
14
146
62
30
20
66
1,030
258
1,688"
90~
23
170
67
42
18
80
24
987
242
1,653
101"
52
27
201
82
75
17
18
22
102
20
35
1,148
305
19
99
29
28
277
82
116
29
29
154
40
33
1,363
366
22
100
24
41
38
295
78
31
203
32
25
170
27
1,745
431
32
131
18
51
30
351
84
30
297
27
23
216
8
1,922
490
27
152
2
3
Cranbrook	
Delta	
16
4
50
5
6
Ladysmith	
7
36
8
400
9
10
North Vancouver	
Oak Bay	
106
22
11
12
13
14
15
Bevelstoke	
16
18
17
18
Trail	
2,935
597
19
20
West A'ancouver	
Total No. of students....
Total No. of teachers....
31
2,123
2,667
3,272
3,705
4,432
126
136
105
191
227
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
Night-schools were conducted in sixty-nine cities, municipalities, and rural districts in the
Province.    There was a total attendance of 7,629 students.
Cities, municipalities, and rural districts are as follows-: Anyox and Granby Bay, Armstrong,
Blakeburn, Boswell, Brackendale, Britannia Beach, Britannia Mines, Burnaby, Champion Creek,
Chilliwack Municipality, Copper Mountain, Coquitlam, Courtenay, Crawford Bay, Cumberland,
Duthie Mines, Edgewood, Esquimalt, Field, Fruitvale, Greenslide, Grindrod, Hilliers, Home Lake,
Kaleva, Kaslo, Kelowna, Kent, Kettle Valley, Kimberley, Ladysmith, Langford, Langley Prairie,
Lumby, Malcolm Island, Metchosin, Michel and Natal, Mission City, Nakusp, Nanaimo, Nelson,
New Denver, New AVestminster, North Vancouver Municipality, Ocean Falls, Okanagan Falls,
Oyama, Port Alice, Port Coquitlam, Powell River, Richmond, Rutland, Saanich, Sahtlam, Salmon
Arm, Silver Creek, Vancouver South, Squamish, Summerland, Surrey, Trail, Tsolum, Vancouver,
Victoria, AVestbank, AVest Vancouver, AArillow Point, Winfield, and Ymir.
The undermentioned subjects were included in the night-school courses: English, English
for New Canadians, subjects for Civil Service examinations, subjects for pharmaceutical examinations, subjects for junior matriculation, citizenship and economics, mathematics, mechanics,
physics, machine construction and drawing, pattern-making, forging, machinists' work, steam
engineering, automotive ignition system, magnetism and electricity, electrical engineering, chemistry, metallurgy, coal-mining, building construction, carpentry and joinery, architectural design,
estimating, navigation, forestry, paper-making, printing, commercial English, typewriting, stenography, accounting (elementary and advanced), commercial languages (Spanish, Russian,
Japanese, Chinese, French), salesmanship, drawing and design, modelling, metal repousse, wood-
carving, embroidery, pottery, china-painting, show-card writing, dressmaking, millinery, costume-
designing, laundering, bread-making, canning, cookery, music (instrumental and choral), elocution and public speaking.
The total amount expended in grants in aid of the salaries of teachers employed in teaching
technical classes from July 1st, 1928, to June 30th, 1929, amounted to $37,785.10. 88
IS  PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 49
Ten years ago night-schools were organized in twelve cities and rural municipalities in the
Province. That number has increased until now there are sixty-nine cities and municipalities
participating in the work.
In 1919 there was a total enrolment of 2,469 students in night-schools. In 1926 the students
numbered 6,124 and in 1929, 7,680.
TEACHER-TRAINING CLASSES.
(a.) Technical Teachers.—For the past ten years the Department of Education has trained
instructors to teach manual training in elementary schools; manual training in high schools;
industrial arts in junior high schools and technical high schools; vocational instructors for
technical schools.
The provision of this ladder by which men may rise in their profession has had a very
beneficial effect on the technical work of the Province and has been warmly commended by the
Dominion Director of Technical Education.
(b.) Commercial Teachers.—Teacher-training classes have been responsible for raising the
proficiency standard of commercial teachers and of firmly establishing commercial courses in
many municipalities.
All candidates for commercial certificates hold first-class teaching certificates of the Province
and some have university degrees. The certificates are of two kinds—Assistant Commercial
Teachers' Certificate and Commercial Specialists' Certificate.
The teacher-training classes, both technical and commercial, began ten years ago with an
enrolment of twenty-three students, and this has gradually increased until now there is an
enrolment of seventy-eight.
The sum spent on these classes for the past year amounted to $5,828.36, of which 50 per cent,
was met by a grant from the Dominion Government.
CORRESPONDENCE CLASSES.
Lessons on Elementary School Subjects to Pupils who live beyond the Reach of School.
The enrolment for the year 1928-29 numbered 424. From September 1st, 1928, to July 31st,
1929, there were 6,625 lessons corrected and sent out from the Correspondence Department.
Each home receives a copy of a little monthly school magazine called " School Days," which
helps to encourage and brighten the pupils. There is ample evidence of the efficacy of the
teaching by correspondence and many expressions of satisfaction and gratitude hearten the
work of the staff who teach and test in a quiet way without any flourish of trumpets., One
mother writes as follows:—
" We were very pleased that our daughter passed successfully her Entrance to High School
Examination, and we think it was chiefly through your careful tuition and help that she did so.
I wonder why the newspapers gave it as ' private study.' Surely the Correspondence Branch
teachers might have had the credit. I was particularly careful to mention to the presiding
examiner that she was a correspondence pupil and was disappointed that she was not so
classed, as her entire training so far has been with you. I shall be very much obliged if you
will tell me where to write for particulars of the High School Correspondence Course. My
husband joins with me in thanking you for all the help you have given our girl and wish you
continued success with your pupils."
Another parent writes as follows:—
" I beg to extend to yourself and staff my sincere thanks for the painstaking manner in
which you have conducted my daughter's education. Due to the carefully selected studies and
the patient manner in which her faults were detected and corrected, I am firmly convinced that
she got far more educational value from this course than she would have received in a school.
" We are more than satisfied with our girl's progress under your correspondence course and
marvel at the efficient way in which it is conducted."
These and many more contributions give great encouragement to the staff in the course of
their painstaking work.
Correspondence Lessons in Coal-mining and Surveying.
This work is conducted to prepare men for the examinations demanded by the Department
of Mines in the interest of public safety.    The courses embrace the following:—
No. 1. Preparatory mining course for boys over 15 years of age who have left school. R 50 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
No. 2. Course in arithmetic and mathematics.
No. 3. Course for fireboss, shiftboss, or shotlighter's papers  (third class).
No. 4. Course for overman's papers  (second class).
No. 5. Course for mine-manager's papers.
No. 6. Course in mine-survey work.
The enrolment in the mining courses number 221, and the lessons, are so arranged that
a boy on leaving school can continue his studies until he reaches the age of 23, at which age
he is permitted to compete for his Provincial mining papers. Course No. 1 is divided into six
separate sections of carefully graded work, and regular application will fit a young man
thoroughly for the examinations held to qualify shotlighters. With a continuance of his studies
his papers as overman will not be difficult to obtain, and following these two the aspiring coal-
miner may rise to any height he desires.
When one considers that a young man, engaged in industrial work during the day, has
the privilege of dividing his matriculation examinations into four sections and of trying one
section each year, it will readily be seen with what comparative ease a mine-worker could step
upward to work of an advanced character. This type of correspondence instruction, however,
has not gone beyond that required by coal-miners and by those who desire the commercial
subjects of book-keeping, typewriting, and stenography.
Considerable preparation has been made and courses of work have been arranged to teach
the subjects of machine-shop work, carpentry, joinery and building construction, sheet-metal
work and electricity. Therefore, when the teaching of high-school subjects by correspondence
is firmly established, the addition of those of a technical nature may be thought desirable.
The Provinces of Nova Scotia, Ontario, Manitoba, and Alberta are already engaged in this
field of correspondence teaching and they are finding a ready response. The opportunity for
success in the Province of British Columbia is equally good and could be conducted at little or
no expense.
The total amount expended by the Government on correspondence instruction from July 1st,
1928, to June 30th, 1929, amounted to $3,415.17
ADMINISTRATION.
The total amount spent by the Education Department on the administration of technical
work from July 1st, 1928, to June 30th, 1929, amounted to $9,669.36. Ten years ago it was
$5,5412.09.
In 1919 the sum of $38,815.62 was expended on technical education, including day and night
schools, teacher-training, correspondence classes, equipment, and administration. The amount
expended for the school-year 1928-29 is shown below :—
Day-schools     $64,704.70
Night-schools        37,785.10
.   Teacher-training        5,828.36
Teaching by correspondence      3,415.17
Technical equipment   300,930.56
Administration         9,669.36
a • .
Total $422,333.25
There is every reason to believe that vocational education is well established in the Province
and that it will continue steadily to grow. For this condition much is due to the handsome
grants which have been received each quarter from the Federal Government and to the
assistance which was always freely rendered by the Dominion Organizer of Technical Education.
From the latest report issued by the Dominion Government it will be found that the
Province of British Columbia ranks fifth for the amount of expenditure made for technical
education, but third for the number of students studying technical subjects, third for the
number of teachers who are in charge of the work, and third for the number of those who are
attending teacher-training classes in preparation for positions as instructors. For administration expenses in conducting the work the Province ranks fifth. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
R 51
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Graph showing expenditure on Technical
Education during ten years, 1919-1929
Total $789,658.80
Dominion Grant    -     394,829.40
1919
1920
1921
1922       1923
1924       1925
1926
1927        1928
1929 R 52 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
TECHNICAL EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS.
REPORT OF MISS JESSIE McLENAGHEN, B.Sc, DIRECTOR.
During the year 1928-29 it was evident that the interest in home economics as a school
subject continued to grow steadily. Trail finished preparations for the opening of a new home-
economics centre in September, and Kamloops incorporated an up-to-date department in its new
Junior High School. Burnaby has equipped a new centre at Capitol Hill, and Vancouver City
has extended its Junior High School plan by building the Kerrisdale Junior High School, which
includes possibly one of the most up-to-date home-economics centres in the Province. It includes
a bedroom, bath-room, dining-room, and laundry, in addition to efficient food-laboratories and
clothing-laboratories. An effort has been made to place the subject in a situation as nearly
like the home situation as possible.
For many years a fully-organized home economics department has operated in the Victoria
Normal School, but only during this past year did plans for a similar department in the
Vancouver Normal definitely materialize. Miss Margaret Maynard, B.A., has been appointed
as instructor. The object of the teacher-training in these departments is not to prepare fully
qualified teachers of home economics, but to give all teachers in rural and urban centres an
appreciation of the place of home economics in the general scheme of education, and to give them
sufficient knowledge of subject-matter and methods of teaching to enable them to teach nutrition and such hand-work as is feasible in a school which cannot engage the services of a
specialist.
The Chair of Home Economics in the University of British Columbia is at last an
established fact. Though a Home Economics building is yet to be provided during the coming
year, special provision has been made by the President for students desiring to take the Home
Economics Course this fall. Successful completion of the following courses will be accepted
as first-year standing in home economics: English L, 3 units; one course in a language offered
for matriculation, 3 units; Chemistry I., 3 units; and two of the following courses, one at least
of which must be a science: Physics I.; Biology I.; Mathematics I.; History; constituting
6 units, or 15 units for the total year's work. Up to date we have been forced to draw our
teaching staff from training colleges outside the Province, but it is indeed gratifying to know
that by 1934 this method will no longer be necessary. The steady demand for well-trained
teachers was evidenced by the fact that out of sixteen new appointments made in the Province
this June, thirteen have been graduates of a university. The departmental regulations now
demand that all high-school teachers should hold a B.Sc. or a B.A. degree.
In June, 1929, for the first time in the educational history of British Columbia, home
economics was presented by high-school students for matriculation. This privilege has done
more than any other one factor to raise home economics above the position of the Cinderella
of the High School Curriculum. During the past year, in addition to King Edward High
School, Vancouver, and T. J. Trapp Technical School, New Westminster, the special course was
offered to Grade IX. students as a matriculation option in Kitsilano High, Lord Byng High, and
John Oliver High—all of A'ancouver. In June the matter was presented to the students of
King George High in Vancouver, with the result that the Home Economics (B) option is to be
offered in September. Prince Rupert has engaged the services of a second teacher, with the
consequence that it has the distinction of being the first smaller city to offer this privilege to
high-school students. The fall term has opened with a class of eighteen girls under the direction
of Miss Ella Roe, B.Sc.
During the year under review home economics has been taught in both the elementary and
the high schools in the following cities: Chilliwack, Courtenay, Cumberland, Fernie, Kelowna,
Nanaimo, New AVestminster, Port Moody, Prince Rupert, Vancouver, North Vancouver, and
Vernon. Similar classes have been held in the Municipalities of Penticton, loco, and West
Vancouver; Point Grey and South Vancouver now being included in Vancouver City. In
Victoria City and in the Municipalities of Esquimalt and Burnaby home economics is still
considered only as an elementary-school subject. Unfortunately, Armstrong centre failed to
open last September, but the discontinuance is considered merely a temporary measure. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 53
The total number of home-economics centres that were in operation during the year was
78; the total number of home-economics teachers was 73; the number of Normal students taking
home economics (Victoria), 157; the number of high-school students taking home economics,
2,141; the number of high-school students preparing for matriculation in home economics, 282;
the number of high-school students taking home economics in Normal Entrance Course, 38;
the number of junior high-school students taking home economics, 1,031; the number of
elementary-school pupils taking home economics, 8,459.
During this last year, by means of a departmental examination, a check-up was made as
to the subject-matter in foods and nutrition grasped by Grade VIII. students throughout the
Province. The results indicated that greater drill was very essential. The recipe-book prepared
by the Department, while in use throughout all the schools, was not being used to the best
advantage. Home-economics libraries grow slowly, but a wider use of reference-books on the
part of both students and teachers will greatly increase the efficiency of the work.
During the past year the .teachers have made a splendid effort to prepare and collect
illustrative material suitable for use in the presentation of subject-matter. More cookery in
(family quantities has been done, and an effort is being made to secure greater co-operation
between the home-economics class-room work and the work of the cafeteria where the latter is
a part of the school organization. Co-operation with the school nurses and the art teachers
has been more marked than previously.
This year has seen a greater attempt on the part of the teachers to utilize the facilities
available in the local stores. In February, David Spencer's, Limited, Vancouver, made provision for a competition in home-furnishing which did much to broaden the ideas of the public
as to the general conception of the scope of home economics. The prize for the most practical
and most artistically furnished bedroom for a high-school girl was divided between Kitsilano
High School, Vancouver, and North Vancouver High School. Fashion parades for the purpose
of acquainting the girls with the prevailing styles for spring were provided by the Hudson's
Bay Company.    Commercial concerns, when approached, have been most willing to co-operate.
With few exceptions, the various principals of the schools include the marks in home
economics when determining the standing of the pupils for the monthly or bi-monthly report to
the parents. This fact has greatly helped to lessen the disciplinary problems of the home-
economics teacher.
During the fall and winter months an Art Course for home-economics teachers in Greater
Vancouver was provided by this Department under the direction of Mr. Charles Scott, Director
of the Art School, Vancouver. The course was very well attended, and it is expected that the
benefits from this study will be apparent in the class-room work during this coming year.
At the Victoria Summer School, demonstration classes in conjunction with a discussion of
methods of teaching home economics were conducted by Miss A. W. Cameron, M.A., from
St. Thomas Technical School, St. Thomas, Ontario. The registration for the class was not as
large as the merits of the course demanded, but the enthusiasm of those attending made the
effort worth while. R 54 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
SUMMER SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., DIRECTOR.
The Summer School of 1929, which commenced on July 8th and finished on August 9th, was
a decided success. The staff worked unceasingly to give the teacher-students that assistance
for which they had come, and the student body were full of praise and appreciation for what
they received.
The attendance showed an increase of fifty-nine over that of last year;   the student body
numbered 421 individuals—355 women and 66 men—with a teaching staff of thirty-eight members.
In addition there was a Demonstration School of 170 children with a staff of eight instructors.
The courses and the number of teacher-students taking each course were as follows:—
Nature-study      9
Physical Education     29
Public Health Education     51
Folk-dancing  176
Manual Arts .'.   17
Primary Grade  146
Vocal Music      31
Choral Music     80
Music Supervisors' Course      29
Art of Singing      42
Piano-teaching by the Class Method     25
Art Courses   112
History of the English Language     16
English Literature and Reading     16
English for New Canadians     20
History     33
Geography    59
Penmanship     92
Manual Training     33
Home Economics     10
Demonstration School   170
Of the number in attendance, 355 were women and 66 men. A further classification may
be made as follows:—
From cities in British Columbia  132
From rural municipalities      53
From rural and assisted schools :  145
Unclassified and without schools     73
From points outside of British Columbia     18
Total individual students  421
COURSES OF STUDY, THEIR CONTENT AND AIM.
Health Education.—This course consisted of lessons in hygiene, child-welfare, and public
health. Modern health education aims to instruct children and youth how to conserve and
improve their health; to establish in them habits and principles of right living which will ensure
an abundance of vigour and vitality. " If we have reverence for childhood," says John Dewey,
" our first specific rule should be to make sure of a healthy bodily development."
The lectures and lessons on child-welfare and the fundamentals of health were given in a
concise way. A comprehensive programme was arranged for organizing health-work in schools
and for co-ordinating the school programme with modern methods for promoting health and
controlling disease.
First Aid.—First aid was included in the Health Course because teachers are often called
upon to render assistance in case of accidents and illness. The ability to meet a serious
emergency effectively and do the right thing at the right time depends upon training. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 55
Twenty-three students successfully passed the tests in first aid to the injured, conducted by
the St. John Ambulance Association, and were awarded certificates.
Next year it would be well to organize a parallel class in Home Nursing, with at. least one
period of each day given to each subject.
Physical Education.—Physical education as a course of study separate from health education proved very successful, as the content proved to be sufficient for a complete Summer School
programme. The purpose of the course was to familiarize the teacher with newer conceptions
of physical activities within the school. Games and natural activities for all grades, suitable
for class-rooms, halls, and playgrounds, were taught. Problems of field-day activities and sports
were fully considered;   postural defects and abnormal developments were fully studied.
Folk-dancing and Interpretative Dancing.—Folk-dances or the joyous interpretative dances
were studied because they ably teach three fundamentals—namely, physical control, rhythm,
and expression.
All students attending the Health Course and Physical Education Course were enrolled in
the folk-dancing classes, and, in addition, there was a separate class to which students from
other courses were admitted.
Aquatics.—This interesting optional course in swimming, diving, and life-saving was attended
by over 100 students. The classes (one for beginners and one for swimmers) met at the Crystal
Gardens. Instructions were given in the various strokes, such as the crawl, back-stroke, overarm, trudgeon, and crawl-trudgeon.
From the advanced group a splendid class in life-saving was formed, twenty-two of whom
passed the tests for the bronze medallion and certificate of the Royal Life Saving Society of
London, England.
Social Hygiene.—In connection with the Health Course and Physical Education Course a
series of three* lectures on social hygiene were given by Dr. M. G. Thomson. These lectures
were open to all students and to the public generally. The first lecture dealt with the biological
approach to social hygiene; lecture two, with immunity and disease-prevention; and the third
lecture dealt with instincts and habits, their control and develppment.
While the two courses, Health Education and Physical Education, were satisfactory and
the study content of each course was enough to occupy the full time of the students, yet there
seems to be a necessity for a third course, at which the study of child-welfare and public health
in its wider sense could be undertaken.
Home Economics.—This course was limited to teachers of home economics only, and as
home-making is at once a profession, a business, and an art, it was considered, and amply proven,
that a postgraduate course could be profitably given.
The contribution which home economics can give to general education was the theme underlying the lessons and lectures. This was seen in the subject-matter, which dealt with the
objectives of modern education; how home economics contributes to modern education; the
application of psychological principles to home economics; the project method of teaching and
how to grow professionally.
With the aid of the demonstration class of elementary-school pupils, the underlying
principles of teaching were observed and lessons were given in such units as clothing-construction, care of clothing, textiles, budgeting, cooking, and fiietetics.
Nature-study.—The Nature-study Course gave teachers an opportunity to gain first-hand
knowledge of plants, animals, and other natural objects and phenomena. Plants including seaweeds, moulds, yeasts, mosses, ferns, flowering plants, and animals including worms, barnacles,
crabs, mollusks, insects, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, birds, and mammals, were observed in their
natural habitat. A part of each day was spent either in the field, on the shore, or in the museum.
Considerable laboratory-work was also undertaken; plants and animal forms were preserved;
seed germination, transpiration, and respiration were studied and an intimate knowledge of
plants and animals was obtained.
MUSIC COURSES.
Vocal Music.—The Vocal Music class met three hours daily to study the full Music Course
as outlined in the Programme of Studies. The subjects studied included voice-culture for
children, sight-singing, artistic interpretation of songs, music theory, use of the modulators,
construction of melodies, rhythmic work including the dramatization of music, music apprecia- R 56 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
tion, and the history of music. While considerable attention was devoted to the technical side
of the work, the artistic side was particularly stressed.
Choral Singing.—A Course in Choral Singing has always proved to be popular with Summer
School students. Teachers with this training are enabled to raise the standard of school-singing.
They arouse a keener interest in the proper use of the voice while conducting the class-singing.
About half the time in each session was devoted to technical study of voice production, formation
of vowels, tone concepts, breath-control, and diction. The other half was devoted to the study
of a number of compositions suitable for children in the varied school grades.
Music Course for Supervisors and Special Music-teachers.—In this course the problems of
the music supervisor were discussed from many angles. Examples of teaching outlines were
compiled for elementary and high school grades. The schemes of work were carefully graded
in difficulty and included all the vital elements of tuition ; breath-management and voice-development (finding and placing the upper register followed by down scales) ; ear-training as to pitch,
time, and memory;  modulator, scale intervals, sequences, melodies, notation, and sight-singing.
Course in the Art of Singing.—This was a new course and was intended to provide individual
instruction and advanced study for those teachers who hold responsible musical positions in the
Province. They were taught to study a song to discover all its meaning and beauty. The word-
painting, tone-colour, and the many technical aids to expression were studied, and familiarity
was encouraged with all the fundamental principles underlying tone production and correct
voice technique leading to song interpretation.
Teaching Piano by the Class Method.—Proof of the efficacy of the group system of teaching
applied to instrumental music was amply proven two years ago at Summer School. This year,
however, the work was extended by the Canadian Bureau for the Advancement of Music.
When this system is inaugurated it will be possible to use the school piano to the greatest
advantage after school-hours, and the stimulating influence of competition am«ng a group of
beginners will soon be in evidence.
The demonstration with school-children at the close of the course gave convincing evidence
of the fine work that can be done by this group-method teaching. Seated at small tables with
their folding keyboards in front of them, they were put through an exhaustive examination of
key positions, key names, and time markings; each pupil was provided with a tiny baton with
which he marked time.
Vancouver City has opened thirty schools for this work between the hours of half-past 3 and
5 o'clock.    Other cities will soon follow their example.
Toy Symphony Orchestra.—A rhythmic band composed of school-children gave a concert to
demonstrate how young children can cultivate the musical sense of rhythm and time by natural
and interesting means. This method is recommended by the highest musical authorities. The
toy symphony is largely an application of the instinctive sense of rhythm which underlies all
the crude music-making of our primitive forefathers. The great Haydn has handed down a
Kinder Symphonic that remains a classic. The toy symphony gives a child a means of self-
expression, develops concentration, obedience to direction, faculty for team-work, preliminary
training for instrumental study, reveals native talent, and makes standard musical works
familiar.
Orchestral Music.—The students' orchestra proved most successful; the effect of their daily
practice was soon evident on their ensemble playing and their appearance at one or two concerts
won the admiration of the student body. A long list of names was presented to the Director of
Summer School with a request that a course in " How to Train a School Orchestra " be introduced next summer.
Music Appreciation.—While every music class included music appreciation on its programme,
yet this important phase of the subject was augmented by a course of five lectures, which were
open to all students as well as to the general public.
The subject-matter was considered in relation to children of every grade from primary to
high school. Suggestions were considered for lesson plans, teaching devices, intelligent listening, with a view to developing a taste for good music.
Art Courses.
First-year Art Course.—The First-year Art Course was treated primarily as a refresher
course. With this in view the work planned along the lines of the Public School Curriculum
and exercises were given in the following branches of the work:   (a)  Representative drawing PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 57
from common objects and nature specimens in various mediums, such as pencil, pen, crayon, and
water-colour; (6) constructive drawing; (o) design—the planning of panels and borders;
conventionalizing of nature forms and the appropriate use of colour; (d) general principles of
good lettering; (e) designing of posters and illustrations for use in teaching such subjects as
history, geography, health and nature study;  (/)  blackboard drawing.
The teaching of drawing in schools is not alone to develop the power of observation, but
also to encourage the use of the creative faculties of the pupils. This is why design and colour
played such a prominent part in the course. For the same reason drawing as a general means
of expression is encouraged in the poster and illustrative work.
One of the most important features of the course was the attempt to stimulate the teacher-
students by bringing them in contact with as wide a range of graphic expression as was
possible.
Second-year Art Course.—This course was organized principally for teachers of drawing
and design in platoon and junior high schools. In such schools it is possible to make art a
real and vital thing because the pupils do a great deal of constructive and creative work. Hence
applied design was the main feature of the second-year studies; wood-block printing, gesso-
work, stained woodwork, lettering and illumination, stencilling and pottery.
High School Art Course.—As its name implies, the work in this course wras intended for
high-school teachers and encouragement was constantly given to the appreciation of beauty in
form, colour, and design. The course was also linked up with the work in botany and science
of the Second-year High School Course with a view to improving facility of graphic expression.
Advanced Art Course.—The work in this class consisted of pictorial drawing and painting,
together with figure drawing, and these were studied with a view to application in decorative
compositions and poster designs. A keen interest was kept up from beginning to end, and it is
plain that the number of students who continue their elementary art studies and apply same
to some craft increase year by year.
Applied Art.—The Advanced Course in Applied Art was a great success and created considerable interest because of the instructor's diversity of attainment. A complete mastery of the
crafts of embroidery, weaving, leather-work, basketry, glove-making, and batik was evident.
The attendance exceeded expectations and the craftsmanship was of a high order of attainment.
This course, together with the Second-year Art Course, were of great value to special teachers
of drawing and design in platoon schools, junior high schools, and technical schools.
Primary Grade Course.—One hundred and thirty-five students (not including some part-time
students) enrolled in this course, which proved that material suitable to Primary Grade teachers
was being presented. Every* subject was treated in the true spirit of pleasure. " Happiness,"
says Froebel, " is essential to the proper development of the child; hence his activity must be
such as to give pleasure—it must be enjoyed." The subjects taught included reading, nature
talks, story-telling and dramatization, number-work, hand-work, singing, folk-dancing, and
playground games; each and all were presented in the. way best fitted to the schools of the
Province.
The hand-work was carried out in a marvellously economical way; match-boxes, spools,
snapshot rollers, discarded objects which may be found almost anywhere, provided the material
for the work. A tremendous enthusiasm was evident in this class from the commencement to
the close.
Manual Arts (Elementary School Hand-work), Grades I. to VI.—The content in this course
was limited to expression in such materials as clay, plasticine, paper, cardboard, wood, basketry,
wools, canvas, linen, cotton (sewing materials). Students had lectures and demonstrations on
the planning of courses, wherein the possibilities of various materials and the limitations of the
subject were critically discussed. The cost of materials from the standpoint of true economy
received due attention. Accepted methods of instruction were demonstrated and students were
required to make examples which exemplified grade-work. At times such work was pure imitation of the instructor's example or was from his directions; on other occasions originality in
expression was particularly demanded.
English Literature and Reading.—This course was arranged more definitely in the interests
of Intermediate and Senior Grade teachers. It consisted of a study of the essential qualities
of literature, the rudiments of literary criticism, and the application of principles to the teaching
of poetry and prose selections from school texts.    Silent and oral reading, together with the R 58 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
elements of expression and dramatization, were seriously studied, and at the closing exercises
the class presented a play entitled "A Woman of Character," by Estelle Brown. Throughout
the course a series of lectures were given on the history of the language of Britain, the influence
of Norse, Latin, French, and Dutch on the English language, together with its grammatical
structure.
Teaching English to the New Canadians.—This was the first course of its kind in Summer
School and dealt with the problems which arise from the teaching of adults in night-schools.
These problems included the organization and selection of suitable subject-matter and special
methods of instruction. Judging from the attendance and from the expressions of satisfaction
given, the continuance of this course next year would seem to be highly desirable.
Geography.—Modern methods of teaching geography were discussed and particular stress
was laid upon the necessity of securing from the pupils real participation in the lessons. In
working out this subject great natural regions were analysed and problems were outlined.
Source-books, reference-books, and supplementary readers were indicated, from which students
for themselves secured information.
Suggestions were made leading to the correlation of geography with other subjects through
the construction of graphs, diagrams, posters, and relief maps.
History.—The subject-matter for the work in history was the development of the British
Empire. This led to many interesting discussions, to the reading of recent texts bearing on the
subject, and to the working-out of a series of projects designed to show the development of
peoples through time periods.
A brief survey was made of the industrial revolution and its effect upon the life of the
people during last century, and in this matter pictures and maps were freely used.
The History Course concluded with a survey of the development of Canada from an
economic and geographic standpoint.
Penmanship.—It is an essential part of the successful penmanship-teacher's equipment to
write legibly, rapidly, and beautifully; therefore the Penmanship Course gave teachers systematic, daily practice in handwriting and a comprehensive course in the pedagogy of the
subject.
A few of the phases of penmanship-teaching, such as primary-grade writing, rhythm in
writing, methods of developing and maintaining interest and enthusiasm among pupils, socialization of the writing lesson, the use of standard scales and measurements, were fully discussed.
Manual Training and Industrial Arts Courses.—These courses were held both in Victoria
and Vancouver. In Victoria the work was restricted to those men who desire to become manual-
training teachers in elementary schools.
Practice-teaching was conducted with a class of boys who met each day for bench-work,
and  regular daily  lessons  were given  in  the  pedagogies  of manual  training,  geometry  and
mechanical drawing, and the theory pertaining to woodwork.
»
In Vancouver the manual-training teachers were working for a higher-grade certificate than
that required for elementary-school work. They were qualifying for a manual-training certificate of high-school standing and for the technical teacher's certificate. The courses embraced
mechanical drawing, design for industrial arts, sheet-metal work, art-metal work, machine-shop
practice at the bench, furniture-construction, and electricity.
Demonstration School.—This was composed of 170 children in charge of a staff of eight
teachers. They were organized entirely for practice-teaching and for demonstrating the theories
expounded by the Summer School instructors.
The class-rooms were always open for observers. There was no trouble in obtaining pupils
for the Demonstration School; applications for admission began to reach the office in the month
of May and there were many disappointed applicants.
An enjoyable field-day was organized for the young people at the close of the session and
a lively programme of sports and games was much enjoyed.
Library.—The books of the Summer School Library were augmented by many from the
Public Library, the Provincial Library, and that of the Provincial Normal School. These books
and many fine school pictures were in charge of a librarian, who also displayed exhibits from
various publishers. Each course of study had a section of books which were freely used by the
students;  in fact, the School Library was used most extensively. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 59
Concerts, Lectures, Sports, and- Pastimes.—The series of concerts opened with a programme
given by Miss Doreen Davidson, of the American Opera Company, New York. She was assisted
by Miss Arline Falconvitch, a brilliant pianist of school age, and Mrs. Philip Malkin acted as
accompanist. This concert was followed by a night of chamber music from the Calvert Trio,
Misses Una and Joy Calvert and Miss Freda Setter. This was their third appearance at Summer
School concerts and their playing was as enjoyable and as much appreciated as in former times.
Miss Dorothy Hartree was the soloist of the evening and proved to be a great favourite with
the audience. The third musical recital was given by Mr. Heber Naismyth, who was on the
staff of the Summer School. He possesses a baritone voice of wide range and power which he
produces with great ease. His voice retained its richness and flexibility throughout the whole
programme. Miss Dorothy Morton acted as an able accompanist and played several selections
with great power and excellent technique. The fourth concert was by Victoria's favourite,
Madame Winifred Lugrin-Fahey. She received a warm reception from a large audience and
sang with all her old-time vitality, charm, and power. Her accompanist was Mr. William
Dichmont, a well-known composer and a most accomplished artist. The fifth concert was provided by the music students attending classes taught by Messrs. Wickett, Waddington, and
Naismyth. During the evening Mr. F. T. C. Wickett gave an address on Shakespearean music,
illustrated by songs, glees, and madrigals. The Summer School orchestra, under the direction
of Mr. Geo. Green, played instrumental selections.
A series of lectures, open to the general public, were given on the following subjects :
Music appreciation, by Miss Mable Rich, Toronto; Canadian poetry and literature, by Mr. A. M.
Stephen; educational measurements, by Mr. Robert Straight; social hygiene, by Dr. M. G.
Thomson;   and Japanese art, by Mrs. Ella Darlington.
For the second year the Summer School students had the privilege of hearing an inspiring
address on the League of Nations by the Rev. Dean Quainton, as well as an address by the
Secretary of the League of Nations Society, Mr. A. S. Averill.
The closing concert by the students themselves proved a great success. The students of the
Vocal Music class, the Choral class, and the class studying the Art of Singing were all represented on the programme.
Students from the class in Literature and Expression staged a play and the school orchestra
was heard in various selections during the evening. In the gymnasium, folk-dancing and interpretative dancing were excellently demonstrated. The exhibition of work was displayed in the
various class-rooms and the high standard of attainment, together with the quantity, was
extraordinary for the short term of five weeks.
For the first time many of the Summer School sessions were broadcasted from CFCT.
Microphones were installed at the High School and radio-listeners were able to hear lectures
and concerts and otherwise enjoy the Summer School functions. The experiences gained by
many of the teachers and lecturers to speak and sing before the microphone were very valuable,
as the radio will be used more and more for educational purposes.
As in former years, a tennis tournament which lasted for some weeks provided great enthusiasm among a large group of students. The competitions were keen and the winners were
rewarded by receiving some very artistic and well-selected prizes.
School Picnic.—The school picnic was held at the Chalet grounds, Deep Cove. This was
characterized by the usual thorough organization. The day commenced with races and varied
competitions, and was followed by aquatics, fishing excursions, and lunch. The prize awarded
for the best-decorated table created great competition among the various classes and the result
was a very gay and picturesque lunch party.
The Students' Committee deserve great praise for the assistance they rendered to make all
the social functions successful. Mr. I. AV. Awde, manager of the Crystal Gardens, granted the
students special admission for the period of Summer School.
The Uplands Golf Club, Macaulay Point Golf Club, and Colwood Golf and Country Club
all extended their services to the students.
Sincere thanks must also be tendered to the Board of School Trustees, who granted the
magnificent High School building to the Department of Education; also to Mr. G. H. Deane,
Municipal Inspector of Schools; Mr. Ira Dilworth, Principal; and all the High School officials,
who rendered excellent service. To each and all we would express appreciation for the way
they assisted to make successful the Summer School of 1929. R 60 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
FREE TEXT-BOOK BRANCH.
REPORT OF J. A. ANDERSON, OFFICER IN CHARGE.
The total number of free text-books, etc., issued during 1928-29 to the public schools
(elementary, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence Course
for children in isolated districts where there are no schools in operation, was as follows:
12,717 Canadian Reader, Book I.; 12,658 Canadian Reader, Book II.; 12,244 Canadian Reader,
Book III.; 10,889 Canadian Reader, Book IAr.; 10,632 Canadian Reader, Book V.; 6,622 Narrative
English Poems; 10,926 Arithmetic, Book I.; 8,868 Arithmetic, Book II.; 9,770 Gammell's History
of Canada; 8,745 Lang's Introductory Grammar; 12,922 Physiology and Hygiene; 4,451 Latin
for Young Canadians; 12,371 Spelling for the Grades; 47 Trees and Shrubs, Food, Medicinal,
and Poisonous Plants of British Columbia; MacLean Method of AArriting Books—9,900 Compendium No. 1; 11,260 Compendium No. 2; 11,169 Compendium No. 3; 11,474 Compendium No. 4;
10,058 Senior Manual; 1,297 Commercial Manual; 173 Teachers' Manual; 2,142 Ryerson Book
of Prose and Verse, Book I.; 1,814 Ryerson Book of Prose and Verse, Book II.; 3,595 AVallace's
New History of Great Britain and Canada; 1,645 Thorndike's Junior High School Mathematics,
Book I.; 1,353 Thorndike's Junior High School Mathematics, Book II.; 736 Supplementary
Readers (Progressive Road to Reading, Books I. and II.; Silent Study Readers, Books III.
and IV.; B.C. Third Reader and the Robin Hood Reader) ; 34 Citizenship in British Columbia;
79 Syllabus of Physical Exercises; 45,137 sheets Drawing Paper, 9 by 12 inches; 1,167,559 sheets
Drawing Paper, 9 by 6 inches; 173 Union Jacks (3-yard Jack) ; 34 Flora of Southern B.C.;
22 Maps of Dominion of Canada; 21 Maps of the World; 33 Maps of British Columbia; 21 Maps
of North America; 18 Maps of the British Isles; 14 Fathers of Confederation; 194 Teachers'
Manual of Drawing and Design; 1,267 Home Economics Recipe Books; 50 History of Canada
for High Schools.
Three thousand seven hundred and twenty-four requisitions were filled by this Branch
during the past school-year for free text-books and supplies. In addition to these, 1,271 orders
were filled for teachers and pupils from the outlying districts who wished to secure text-books,
other than those supplied free, which could not Be purchased in their neighbourhood, and for
private institutions desirous of purchasing books supplied free to the public schools. The sum
of $7,356.49 was received from these sales and-paid into the Treasury for the credit of Vote 75,
" Text-books, Maps, etc." The total cash receipts for 1928-29 show a decrease of $1,204.04 from
the receipts of 1927-28, although the actual number of purchase orders filled by the Branch
increased by 38.    This decrease is accounted for by the following items :—
(1.)  Purchase of 50 sets Makers of Canada and their sale to the various high
schools at $15 each during the school-year 1927-28     $750.00
(2.) Purchase and sale of copies of Gates Psychology and Classroom Organization and Control to the Victoria Normal during 1927-28. No special
books were sold to this school during 1928-29.    Amount of receipts from
this  source        415.65
(3.) During the school-year 1928-29, 1,267 copies of the Home Economics
Recipe Book were issued free to the home-economics centres, representing
a decrease in receipts of       253.40
Total amount  $1,419.05
The supplies distributed free by the Free Text-book Branch during the school-year would
have cost the parents and School Boards $111,428.02 at prevailing retail prices. To purchase
and distribute these among the schools of the Province through the Free Text-book Branch
required an expenditure of:—
Text-books  (laid-down cost)  $70,080.52
Distribution   (freight, boxes, etc.)      2,478.43
Salaries of staff :      4,780.00
Temporary assistance        1,508.13
Office supplies       2,574.68
Total  $81,421.76 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 61
The saving on the year's transaction is, therefore, $30,006.26.
Physiology and Hygiene was added to the free list during the past school-year. This book,
however, was not issued outright to the pupils. In the small rural schools a copy was placed
in the school for the use of each pupil in Grades VII. and A^III. In the case of city and
municipal schools a sufficient number of copies were issued to each school to equip half of the
Grade VII. and VIII. classes. These books were to remain the property of the school and to be
distributed to the pupils for class-room use only. By this method of distribution we were able
to meet the requirements of two divisions in the larger schools with one set of books.
Library books were purchased for several schools at the request of the teacher, or secretary
of the School Board, and these were supplied to the school at cost.
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
Five of the night-schools in operation during the past school-year were supplied with textbooks of some kind by the Free Text-Book Branch under the same conditions as in former years.
RETURNS FOR 1928-29.
The annual reports of free text-books for the school-year 1928-29 are now on file. In connection with these reports it has been noticed from our correspondence with teachers assuming
charge of the rural schools in September that in some cases the books actually on hand in the
school on their arrival does not correspond with the numbers reported on hand in the annual
report submitted to this Branch at the end of June. In this regard care should be taken by
the outgoing teacher to see that all free text-books and library books left in the school during
the summer vacation are locked in the stock cupboard.
With reference to the requisitions for books received by this Branch at the end of June, it
would be well for the teachers or principals making out these orders to note that the space
for quoting the attendance at the head of the form is for the attendance expected next term.
The numbers of pupils in the various grades quoted in this space should therefore contain any
promotions made to each grade at the close of the school-year, as the books supplied free on
each order are based on the attendance shown at the head of the requisition. R 62 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT.
THE STRATHCONA TRUST.
REPORT OF J. L. WATSON,  SECRETARY, LOCAL COMMITTEE.
INSTRUCTION OF TEACHERS IN PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1928-29.
A total of 306 prospective teachers qualified for Grade B Strathcona Trust certificates during
the year. Due to a smaller enrolment at the Normal Schools, the number qualifying was forty-
eight less than last year. About 7,202 teachers and prospective teachers have now qualified as
physical-training instructors.
The gold medals for first rank in instructional ability, awarded for competition at the close
of the Normal School session, were won by Miss Audrey Mills, Victoria, and Miss Evelyn M.
Brown, Vancouver. The Local Committee has made arrangements for the awarding of two gold
medals at the close of the Normal School session in June, 1930.
PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1928-29.
At the annual meeting held October 26th, 1928, the Local Committee awarded seventy-five
prizes of $7 each for competition among the various schools during 1928-29. A total of seventy-
one recommendations were received from the Government Inspectors and the Municipal Inspectors, and the sum of $497 was distributed as prizes.
PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1929-30.
For competition among the various schools during 1929-30 eighty prizes of $7 each have
been granted. These prizes are to be allocated as follows: Three prizes to each of the seventeen
inspectorates; eighteen to Greater Vancouver; four to Victoria; three to the Municipality of
Burnaby; and two each to New AA7estminster and the Municipality of Saanich. For purposes of
competition and inspection the schools in each of the seventeen inspectorates are to be divided,
where possible, into three groups, namely: Group A, of five divisions or more; Group B, of two
to four divisions, inclusive; Group C, of schools containing only one room or division. In any
inspectorate or municipality where this classification is not applicable, the matter of deciding
what schools or divisions of schools are entitled to receive awards is to be left to the discretion
of the Inspector in charge.
The full amount of the award is to be expended for a picture or some piece of apparatus
(suitably inscribed) for the room or school in which the prize was won. Only those teachers
who are the holders of physical-training certificates granted under the Strathcona Trust are
eligible to compete.
SCHOOL CADET CORPS, 1928-29.
The following is a summary of the report on the activities of the school cadet corps during
1928-29, submitted to the Local Committee by Captain E. M. MacBrayne, M.C., District Cadet
Officer :—
Number of cadets between the ages of 12 and 18 years trained during the
year 1928-29  6)465
Number present at annual inspection   5 835
Number of cadet corps, active :       73
Increase in active corps, 7; in strength, 186.
By means of funds provided by the Department of National Defence, Ottawa, cadet camps,
varying in duration from eight to fourteen days, were held at eight centres during the summer!
1929. Twenty-nine instructors were employed in the camps, which were attended by 819 cadets!
Rodd Hill, near Victoria, with twenty instructors and 565 cadets in attendance, was the largest
camp held. At this camp a Cadet Instructors' Course, extending from July 11th to August 6th
inclusive, was given. A final examination was held at the conclusion of this course and the
following certificates awarded:   Grade A, 20;   first aid, 19;   signalling, 20.
The annual inspection of each cadet corps was made during the months of April, May, and
June.    The Victoria West Cadet Corps, in charge of Lieutenant R. T. Kipling, gained the highest PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. R 63
number of marks for general efficiency and became the holder of the I.O.D.E. cup for the next
year. Second place was won by the Boys' Central Cadet Corps, Victoria, Captain T. R. Wheadon
in charge. In competition among the Indian School Cadet Corps of the Province, Alert Bay won
for the third time the I.O.D.E. shield.
A total of $351, divided in twenty-eight prizes, was distributed in accordance with the
schedule adopted at the last annual meeting of the Local Committee held November 7th, 1929.
The following schedule was adopted: 1st prize, $25; 2nd prize, $20; 3rd and 4th prizes, $18
each; 5th and 6th prizes, $16 each; 7th and 8th prizes, $14 each; 9th to 13th prizes, inclusive,
$12 each; 14th to 28th prizes, inclusive, $10 each.
RIFLE SHOOTING.
From the grant for rifle shooting, 1928-29, prizes of $3.75 each were provided for thirty-
seven corps or units specified in returns; this amount to form cash prizes for the three best
shots in each corps or unit.   The amount expended under this head was $138.75.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1928-29.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Committee for the year 1928-29 amounted to $1,636.39
and the expenditure for the year $1,019.75, leaving a balance of $616.64. Of this amount, $560
has already been voted for physical-training prizes for 1929-30 and $50 to be used in the purchase
of prizes for sports competitions held at cadet camps in 1930.
Receipts.
1928-29. Balance on hand from 1927-28  $548.24
Interest to November 30th, 1928  23.42
Interest to May 31st, 1929  8.56
Allowance to Secretary (added to fund)  10.00
Grant for 1928-29  1,012.17
Uncashed cheques returned to fund  34.00
$1,636.39
Expenditures.
1928-29. Prizes for physical training   $497.00
Prizes for cadet-training  351.00
Prizes for rifle shooting  138.75
Gold medals for Normal Schools  33.00
$1,019.75
Balance on hand     $616.64

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