Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1926-27 BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1928

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0300573.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0300573.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0300573-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0300573-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0300573-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0300573-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0300573-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0300573-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0300573-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0300573.ris

Full Text

 PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 117
APPENDIX A.
HIGH SCHOOL ENTRANCE EXAMINATION, JUNE, 1927.
The High School Entrance Examination was held on June 22nd, 23rd, and 24th at 151 centres
throughout the Province.
The number of pupils who were successful in obtaining certificates follows:—
On recommendation  -1,428
On examination  1,367
Total  5,795
The names of the winners of His Excellency the Governor-General's bronze medals are:—
Dist
fict
No.
1
No.
2
No.
3
No.
4
No.
5
No.
6
No.
7
No.
8
No.
9
No.
10
Name.
School.
Marks.
James Alan  Spragge	
George  Samuel Emerick	
Eugene John K. Kari	
Dorothy Muir Lean	
Dorothy Alice Ryan	
James Wallace  Drinkwater.
Gladys Lillian  Griffin	
Edward Christopher Pearce
Olive Letitia Norgrove	
Archie Thompson	
Monterey Avenue School, Oak Bay	
Quennell School, Nanaimo	
Strathcona  School,  Vancouver	
David Lloyd George School, Point Grey.
Atchelitz School, Chilliwack	
Lloyd George School, Kamloops	
Consolidated School, Vernon ,
Central School, Trail	
Central School, Cranbrook	
Booth Memorial School, Prince Kupert...
427
428
417
433
419
415
409
405
413
426
HIGH  SCHOOL AND  UNIVERSITY  MATRICULATION  EXAMINATIONS,  1927.
The following are the results of the June Examinations:—
No. of
Candidates.
No. passed
in all
Subjects.
No. granted
Supple-
mentals.
No. granted
Partial
Standing.*
Grade IX.
441
253
349
1,910
10'6
203
105
29
35
191
108
15'5
861
58
52
84
4
5
91
59
87
S48
3S
59
4
9
17
95
125
Grade XI.   (Junior Matriculation)	
Grade XI.  (Normal Entrance and Junior Matricu-
478
10
Grade XII                               	
92
17
15
12
Totals                 	
3,431
1,518
912
899
* Candidates who fail to obtain the necessary aggregate mark are given credit for a pass standing
in all subjects in which they obtain 50 per cent, or more.
Supplemental Examinations were held at eleven centres during the week August 29th to
September 3rd. At these examinations 403 were successful in completing Normal Entrance or
Junior Matriculation, and 25 Senior Matriculation standing.
The number of candidates sitting for Grades IX. and X. Examination is comparatively small
owing to the fact that in all the high schools the principals have the right to determine promotions in these grades. Students of these grades who are granted supplementals or standing
in four or more subjects on the June Examinations, and satisfy their principal by oral or written
examinations given at the opening of school in September that they have gained a fair standard
of proficiency in the subjects in which they failed in June, may be promoted by the principal
to the next grade without further Departmental Examinations. M 118
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
His Excellency the Governor-General's silver medals which are awarded annually to the five
leading Junior Matriculation students have been won this year by the following:—
Name.
High School.
Percentage.
Barbara L. Dawson	
King George, Vancouver	
John Oliver, South Vancouver  	
North Vancouver	
King Edward, Vancouver  	
Britannia, Vancouver ...
SS.3
88.3
87.0
Malcolm H. Hebb 	
86.6
85.5
The winners of the Royal Institution Scholarships of $150 each awarded by the University
of British Columbia on the results of the Junior Matriculation Examinations were Barbara
Lilian Dawson, King George High School, A'ancouver, and Lawrence B. Jack, John Oliver High
School, South Vancouver, each of whom made 88.3 per cent.
Scholarships of $100 each which are awarded annually to the six Junior Matriculation
students who obtain the highest standing in their respective districts were won by:—
District.
Name.
High School.
Percentage.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
Idele L. Wilson	
Mavis M. E. Holloway
Bertie A. F. Black	
Mary Herbison	
Allan Page    	
Eobert Ellison	
Victoria 	
North Vancouver 	
King George, Vancouver	
John Oliver, South Vancouver
Armstrong 	
Technical, Trail	
85.2
87.0
87.6
88.0
76.2
79.3
The winner of the Royal Institution Scholarship of $75 awartled by the University of British
Columbia on the results of the Senior Matriculation Examination is Gordon William Hall,
Kelowna High School, who obtained 847 marks out of a possible 1,000. PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 119
APPENDIX B.
HIGH SCHOOL ENTKANCE EXAMINATION, JUNE, 1927.
Arithmetic.    (Time, 2% hours.)
Part 1.
[Note.—The questions in Part 1 can be solved mentally, but candidates who find any of the
■problems too difficult to perform mentally may work them out with pen and ink. The answer
to each question must be placed on the blank to the right of the Question.]
Answer.
Value.
60 is % of what number?
Give three prime factors of 30.
Give three multiples of 30.
Find the H.C.P. of 8, 12, 20.
Find the L.C.M. of 8, 12, 20.
Give:—
(a.)  the square of 15;
(6.)  the square root of 121.
What part of:—
(a.)  a yard is 8 inches,
(6.)  a shilling is 9 pence,
(o.)  2 tons is 5 cwt.,
(eJ.)  a metre is 7 decimetres,
(e.)  a rod is a yard?
Express:—
(a.)  % as a decimal,
(6.) 2% as a percentage,
(c.)  .68 as a common fraction in its lowest terms,
(d.) 78% as a decimal,
(e.) 7S% as a common fraction in its lowest terms.
How many yards of gingham can be bought for:—
(a.) $3 at 15c. a yard,
(Z>.)  2s. lOd. at 4d. a yard,
(c.) 39 francs at 1% francs a yard?
(a.)  Add 2.3 and 10.02.
(&.) Add 4%, 8%, and 3%.
(c.)  Subtract 2.3 from 10.02.
(Et)  Subtract 19% from 27%.
(e.)  Multiply .08 by .19.
(/.)   Divide 6 by .12.
(g.)  Divide 6 by 7,.
The edge of a cube is 8 inches.    Find:—■
(ei.)  the area of one of its sides,
(&.)  the total area of its sides,
(c.)  the volume of the cube.
..sq. in.
..sq. in.
..cu. in. M 120 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Answer. Value.
Gunpowder is composed of sulphur, charcoal, and nitre in the proportion of 5, 7, and 33.    How many pounds of nitre are in
90 pounds of gunpowder?        2
I sell a horse for $75 and lost $5.    Find the loss per cent.  %      2
I sell for $75 and gain $5.    Find the gain per cent.  %      2
A field is 20 chains long and 16 chains wide:—
(a.) How many acres does it contain?       2
(6.) What will it cost to fence it at $3 a chain? $      2
A room is 18 feet long and 15 feet wide.    Find:—
(o.)  the area of the floor.  sq.ft.      2
(&.)  how many strips of carpet 27 inches wide would have
to be purchased to cover the floor if carpet is laid
lengthwise.      2
(c.)  how many strips 30 inches wide would have to be purchased if the carpet is laid crosswise.        2
Two ships are 75° of longitude apart.    What is the difference in
their time?  hours      2
How many books must an agent sell at $2 each to earn $60, if his
commission is 40%?        2
Part 2  (Written Work).
Value.
8       1. The circumference of a circular park is one mile.    How many acres does it contain?
10 2. A merchant in Toronto imported 480 cans of coffee valued at $5.50 a can, each can
containing 17% pounds. He paid a specific duty of 2c. a pound and an ad valorem
duty of 15%. Transportation cost $36. How much did the coffee cost him a
can?
10 3. A man at the age of 35 took out a straight life insurance policy for $6,500. The
premium was $28.10 per $1,000. If he died after making 15 payments, how much
more did his heirs receive than he paid in premiums?
12 4. In 1925 a farm containing 160 acres was assessed at $85 an acre. The buildings
were assessed at $3,200 but were subject to taxation only for 75% of their
assessed value. How much did the owner have to pay in taxes that year on
the farm and buildings at the rate of 12.8 mills on the dollar, if he were allowed
?%% rebate for prompt payment?
10 5. On March 5, 1926, H. S. Walters bought a house and lot for $6,750 in Toronto, giving
in payment $4,000 in cash and a promissory note for the balance due in 9 months
without interest. If the note was discounted on July 15th at 7%, find (a) the
bank discount, (&) the proceeds.
Canadian History.    (Time, 1% hours.)
22        !• In each blank fill in the word or words necessary to make the statement complete.
In 1778 while searching for the Passage, Captain
James Cook reached the coast of British Columbia at	
From there he proceeded north and entered the Ocean
through Strait.    In 1792 another explorer,
 , set out on a similar mission from
Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabaska and proceeded up the	
River to Fort York, where he spent the winter. In the following spring he
traced the river to the source of its southerly branch. He then crossed a
divide and made his way to a large navigable river which is now called PART III.—APPENDICES. • M 121
Value.
     After rowing down the river for a few days
he turned westward and finally reached the ... Ocean
at     The explorations made by these two
men proved the impracticability of such a passage, but on their discoveries
 based much of her claim to the coast of British
Columbia.   Her real supremacy throughout the Northern Pacific Coast was
established later by the and
 Fur Companies.    One of these
companies had its chief post at on the
Columbia  River.    As  the   Government  of  the  United   States   claimed  this
territory and later obtained it under the Treaty,
the Company moved its headquarters to Fort ,
now..     Six years later, in 1849,
 was made a Crown Colony under
the Hudson's Bay Company with	
as its first Governor.    The discovery of gold on the mainland which caused
a great rush of miners and settlers there, led to the formation of a second
Crown Colony in the year with	
as its first Governor.    The two colonies were united in under
the name of	
24       2- The British North America Act, which came into effect in the year ,
gives the Dominion of Canada a form of
Government and divides the legislative powers between the	
Government and the Governments.    At the head
of the Dominion Government is the ,
who represents the Crown and is advised by the ,	
and his Cabinet.    The two chambers which make the laws are the	
  and the 	
In the House of Commons, Quebec always has members
and the other provinces are represented in the ratio of their population to that of
Quebec, British Columbia having members.    Since Confederation
Canada has admitted the following provinces:   (1)	
(2)       (3)	
(4)       (5)	
Her two greatest statesmen since Confederation have been	
 and     The World
War greatly  strengthened  Canada's position  and gave her  a new  importance.
Her Prime Minister at that time,  ,
sat in the British War Cabinet and represented Canada at the Peace Conference.
Since 1920, Canada has been a full member of the	
at Geneva.    She has won the right to make her own treaties.   At the last
Imperial Conference held in she was represented by	
 , and with the other Dominions
secured a formal admission of status with
Great Britain.    Recently she has appointed the Honourable Vincent Massey to be
the Canadian at	
15 3. By the terms of the British North America Act some of the public affairs of the
Dominion are placed under the authority of the Dominion Government, others
under the authority of the Provincial Governments. Following are various
matters falling within the jurisdiction of either the Dominion or the Provincial
Governments. Place those that fall within the jurisdiction of the Dominion
Government in the column to the left and those that come under the Provincial
Governments in the column to the right:—
Education, Trade and Commerce,  Postal  Service,  Militia and Defence, Mining,
Navigation and Shipping,  Currency and Coinage, Banking,  Indian Affairs, M 122 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
Weights and Measures, Naturalization of Aliens, Naval Service, Lighthouses,
Treaties with Foreign Countries, Civil and Municipal Law.
Dominion Government.                                                  Provincial Governinen't.
1       1	
2      2	
3      3	
4      4	
5 :      5	
6      6	
7       7	
8      8	
9      9	
10     10	
11     11	
12     12	
13    13	
14     14	
15     15	
15        4. Read each question carefully and draw a line under the best answer.
1. America was discovered in the (1) 14th, (2) 15th, (3) 16th, (4) 17th century.
2. Britain's claim to the eastern coast of North .America was based upon the
discoveries of (1) Columbus, (2) Cook, (3) Hudson, (4) the Cabots.
3. The first colonists to settle at Plymouth, Mass., came from (1) France, (2) Spain,
(3)  England,  $4)  Italy.
4. In return for a monopoly of the fur-trade, the Company  of  One Hundred
Associates was to   (1)   educate the  Indians,   (2)   colonize  New  France,
(3) fight for France, (4) explore the New World.
5. The closing event of the Seven Years' War in America was (1) the capture of
Quebec, (2) the capture of Louisburg, (3) the capture of Niagara, (4) the
surrender of Montreal.
6. The   Treaty   of  Aix-la-Chapelle   closed   (1)   Queen   Anne's   War,    (2)   King
William's War,  (3)  the Great War,  (4)  King George's War.
7. The " United Empire Loyalists " received this name because of their loyalty to
Britain during (1) the struggle with the French for the possession of
Canada, (2) the American Revolution, (3) the Fenian Raids, (4) the North-
West Rebellion.
8. The Industrial Disputes Act, passed in 1907, was intended to (1) help settle
strikes,  (2) provide work for the unemployed,  (3)  legalize trades unions,
(4) help avoid strikes.
9. Before Confederation, free trade in natural products was established between
the British provinces and the United States by the (1) Washington Treaty,
(2) Oregon Treaty, (3) Reciprocity Treaty,  (4) Ashburton Treaty.
10. The "National Policy" provided  (1)  protection of industries,   (2)   tariff for
revenue only, (3) free trade, (4) reciprocity in natural products.
11. When Parliament has completed a session, but its full time of office has not
expired, it is   (1)   dissolved,   (2)   adjourned,   (3)   prorogued,   (4)   purged.
12. Lord Elgin, by signing the Rebellion Losses Bill, made himself very unpopular
with (1) the Conservatives, (2) the Reformers, (3) the British Government,
(4) the Baldwin-Lafontaine Ministry.
13. Responsible Government was brought into force in Canada by the (1)  Consti
tutional Act, (2) Proclamation of 1763, (3) British North America Act,
(4)  Act of Union. PART III.—APPENDICES. M 123
Value. 14. The coast of British Columbia was first surveyed and charted by (1) Mackenzie,
(2) Vancouver,  (3) Meares,  (4) Fraser.
15. The Behring  Sea  Dispute  concerned   (1)   navigation  rights,   (2)   territorial
rights,  (3)  fishing rights,  (4)  sealing rights.
8 5. In the left-hand column below you will find the names of persons who rendered
conspicuous service in Canada. In the right-hand column you will find descriptions
of the service they rendered. You are required to place on the blank before each
description the number that appears before the name of the person to whom the
description applies. For example, you have first to find which of the men
" opposed the Family Compact in Upper Canada." After reading the names in
the left-hand column, you conclude that it was William Lyon MacKenzie. Place
on the blank before the description the figure which you find before the name
" William Lyon MacKenzie "—namely, " 5."
Now complete the rest of the exercise.
1. George Brown 5     Opposed " Family Compact" in Upper Canada.
2. Sir Hugh Allan
Established    first   trading   post   in   British
Columbia.
3. Lord Strathcona   Leader of opposition to " Family Compact" in
Maritime Provinces.
4. Joseph Howe
  First white man to see Rocky Mountains.
5. William Lyon MacKenzie     Established first Canadian Steamship Line.
6. David Thompson   Editor Toronto Globe, A Father of Confedera
tion.
7. Sir James Douglas
8. Verendrye
9. Captain John Meares
C.P.R. Financier and Canadian High Commissioner to London.
Explorer of Columbia River.
First Governor of British Columbia.
16        6. Complete the following statements by putting the proper word or name on the dotted
line:—
1. The Governor-General of Canada is	
2. The Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia is	
3. The Chief Officer in a City is called	
4. The Chief Officer in a Rural Municipality is called	
5. The Premier of Canada is	
6. The Premier of British Columbia is	
7. The Leader of the opposition in the House of Commons is	
8. The first ship to be built on the north-west coast of Canada was built at
9. The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway was built during the Premiership of	
10. The University of British Columbia is located at	
11. Coal was first discovered in British Columbia at	
12. The World War ended in the year	
13. Dominion Day is on	
14. Old Fort Garry is now called	
15. In the War of 1812 Tecumseh fought on the side of the	
16. The City of Quebec was founded in 1608 by	 M 124 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Db-vvving.    (Time, 2% hours.)
Value.
18        (<*•) Select three examples of work from your drawings, as follows:—
(1.) An example of shading in pencil (nature-work).
(2.) An example of colour-work (geometrical design).
(3.) An example of model or object drawing.
Freehand Object-drawing.
26        (&•) Draw one of the following (no ruling allowed) :—
(1.) A group of two objects based on the cylinder, having one of the objects
in an oblique position.
(2.) A group of two objects composed of a jug and a book.
(3.) A group of two models composed of a cube and a- cone on a supporting
surface, with shading.
28        (c-) Construct a rectangle 6 inches by Z% inches and letter therein one of the following :—
(1.) An Advertisement for a School Concert,
(2.) or A Menu Card for a Dinner Party,
(3.)  or The following lines:—
Teach me, my God and King,
In all things Thee to see,
And what I do in anything,
To do it as for Thee.
Then add a suitable border to the rectangle.
28        (*•)  In a semi-circle, having a 3-inch radius, make a design using one of the following
units:—
(1.)  Oak leaves  and acorns.
(2.)  Tulip leaves, flowers, and buds.
(3.)  Any Greek or Egyptian design you have studied during the year.
Geography.    (Time, 2% hours.)
15        1. In each blank fill in the word or words necessary to make the statement complete.
Por example, in the sentence, " The capital of British Columbia is ,"
you would put in the blank the word " Victoria."
(ei.) A. represents a point at 10 degrees North Latitude and B. represents a p/int
due south of A. at 10 degrees South Latitude.    Tje distance between A. and
B. is approximately miles.   If these points, A. and B.,
are at sea-level, the climate of A. as compared with that of B. will be
    If B. has an altitude of 2,000 feet, while A.
is at sea-level, the climate of A. will be than
that of B. If the position of the city of Quebec is 47 degrees North Latitude,
the distance from Quebec to the North Pole is degrees.
(6.) A country is said to have an oceanic climate when the prevailing winds blow
from the and to have a continental climate when
it is situated away from the modifying influence
of the or when the prevailing winds are from
the    Therefore, the climate of the prairie provinces
of Canada is while that of the coast of British
Columbia is     Southern Ontario has less extreme
temperatures than Southern Manitoba chiefly owing to the influence of
the	 PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 125
Value.
10
(c.)  All winds North of the Equator, no matter in what direction they start, are
deflected to the , and all winds South of the Equator
are deflected to the , owing to the	
The trade winds have a marked effect upon climate.    As they blow towards
the Equator they become and thus become	
winds.    Therefore, when they blow over level plains there will be	
 rainfall and such regions will be	
When the trade winds blow against land sloping upwards they ,
the air becomes and there is rainfall.
2. Under the headings given below, write the' names of the countries drained by the
following rivers and the waters into which the rivers empty.
River.
Mississippi	
Mackenzie	
Amazon	
Nile	
Yang-tse-kiang
Ganges	
Volga	
Danube	
Congo.....	
Columbia	
Country or Countries
it drains.
Water into which
it empties.
10       3. Locate definitely the following places in British Columbia and state the chief industry
of each:—
Place.
Location.
Industry.
Anyox	
Trail
Quesnel    	
Britannia Beach
Powell River ....
Ocean Falls M 126
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
13       4. Locate the following cities and state the main industry or most important feature
connected with each :—
10
City.
Location.
Industry.
Hamilton
Detroit
Birmingham..
Glasgow	
Hamburg-
Marseilles	
Sao Paulo	
Karachi	
Johannesburg	
Melbourne	
Yokohama	
Havana	
5. Write under the heading " Source of Supply " the names of the countries which are
the chief sources of supply of the following commodities (one country for each
commodity) :—
Commodity.
Source of Supply.
Wool	
Woollen goods	
Raw cotton	
Tea	
Silk	
Coffee	
Gold	
Asbestos	
Diamonds	
Rubber..
10        6- Write  a  description of Argentina,  Japan,  Italy,  or  Mexico,  under  the  following
headings :—
(a.)  Surface and drainage.
(6.) Climate,
(o.)  Chief products.
(e2.)  Two chief cities with location of each. PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 127
Value.
19        7. On the accompanying map of Europe show:—
(1.) The following countries, locating each by placing in the proper position on
the map the number that appears before the name of the country.
(For example, you are required to place the figure " 1 " on the map
to locate the British Isles instead of printing the words " British
Isles.")
9. Denmark.
10. Poland.
11. Yugoslavia.
12. Russia.
13. Finland.
14. Norway.
15. Sweden.
16. Rumania.
17. Czechoslovakia.
18. Greece.
19. Bulgaria.
20. Hungary.
21. Spain.
22. Portugal.
1. British Isles.
2. France.
3. Germany.
4. Italy.
5. Switzerland.
6. Austria.
7. Holland.
8. Belgium.
(2.) The following cities, locating each by placing the capital letter corresponding
to each city on the proper position on the map. (For example, print
the capital letter " A" where London should be located on the map,
and so on.)
A. London. D. Rome. G. Warsaw.
B. Paris. E. Madrid. H. Vienna.
C. Berlin. F. Moscow. I. Constantinople.
(3.) Print neatly in the proper positions the following: North Sea, Bay of Biscay,
Baltic Sea, Kiel Canal, Adriatic Sea, Black Sea, Bosphorus.
13        8. On the accompanying map of British Columbia show plainly :—
(1.)  Fraser,  Skeena, and Columbia River Systems;
(2.)  Main lines of the Canadian Pacific and the Canadian National Railways;
(3.) The following cities, printing neatly the name of each city in the proper
position on the map and placing a small circle at the point where the
city is located:—
1. Vancouver. 6. Kamloops.
2. Victoria. 7. Revelstoke.
3. Nanaimo. 8. Nelson.
4. Prince Rupert. 9. Kelowna.
5. Prince George. 10. Cranbrook.
Grammar and Composition.    (Time, 2% hours.)
22        !• When the darkness of night has fallen
And the birds are fast asleep,
An army of silent searchers
From the dusky shadows creep.
As I sat dreaming by the camp-fire, I little thought that the very wolf which had
dogged my footsteps all the morning was watching my every movement from
behind a clump of evergreens near which I had pitched my tent.
(a.) Give the clauses  (principal and subordinate)  that you find in the above sentences.    State the kind and the relation of each clause.
9 (6.)  Give the "part of speech" and the "relation" of each word in italics in the
sentences for analysis.
4 (c.)  In the first sentence for analysis find an adjective phrase and also an adverb
phrase.    State what word each phrase modifies. M 128 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
11 2. In the left-hand column below you will find a list of sentences in each of which there
are two words in brackets. Only one of the words is required in the sentence.
Draw your pen through the word that is not required. Then read the rules in the
right-hand column. When you find the rule that applies to the choice you made,
place on the dotted line before the sentence the figure you find before the rule.
  The school clock or my watch      1. A predicate noun or pronoun is in the
(is)   (are)   not right. nominative case.
  A person should he careful of     2- A Participle, when used as a part of
(his)   (their)  reputation. the   predicate,    is    always   accom
panied by an auxiliary.
  We admire (that)  (those) kind      „   _       , . . ...      .   ,     .i
, 3. The object of a preposition is in the
of people.
objective case.
  He (a™1'*)   (doesn't) like to go      4  A   yerb   agrees   wlth   m   subject   in
to school. number.
  It is (I)  (me).                                 5. An adjective should be used to modify
  Mary     felt     very      (happily) a noun-
(happy)   over  her  good  for- 6. A pronoun agrees with its antecedent
tune. in number.
  His   teacher   says   he    (done) 7. The object of a verb must take the
(has done) good work. objective form.
  Let   you   and    (I)    (me)    the      8- Aa adverh shouId be used to m°dlfy
battle try. a verb-
9. Singular subjects joined by " or" or
  He  gave   a  pencil   to  eacn   of "nor" take a singular verb.
(us)   (we)   boys.
10. The subject of a verb must take the
  Drive   (slow)   (slowly). nominative form.
   (Her)    (She)   and her  friends    11. The adjective "that" is used with a
called on us to-day. noun of singular number.
11       3. (o.) The servant asked his master where the officers had gone.
(6.)  Carry this parcel to the store,
(o.)  We were recognized by a person who was passing.
(d.)  If Harry were here he would help us.
(e.)  There is a box which I have not yet opened.
(/.) As you are doing good work you will soon be promoted.
Give the voice, mood, tense, number, person, and class   (transitive or intransitive)
of the verbs and verb phrases in the above sentences.
7       4. In the space to the right give :—
(a.)  Plural of " Governor-General "	
(6.) Plural of "calf"	
(c.)  Plural of "alley"	
(d.) Plural of "basis"	
(e.)  Plural of "brother-in-law"	
(/.)  Feminine of "earl"	
(g.)  Masculine of "maid"	
(h.)  Masculine of " landlady "	
(«'.)  Feminine of "wizard"	
(/.)  Objective plural of "I"	
(k.)  Possessive singular of "us"....
(I.) Comparative degree of "last". PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 129
Value.
14
22
(m.) Positive degree of " less unkindly "	
(n.)  Superlative degree of " pleasantly "	
5. (a.) Express in indirect speech :—
Nelson signalled to his fleet, " England expects every man to do his duty."
(6.)  Write a suitable word in each blank :—
a drove of ;  a troop of ;
a flock of ; a squadron of	
(c.)  Use each of the following words in a sentence:  Suite, counsel, assent, prey, peal,
mettle, rout, currant.
6. (a.) You are the manager of the Economy Book Company, with offices at 347 Printers
Lane, Vancouver, B.C.    You have received an application for the position of
local salesman from Mr. C. L. York, 475 Pine St., Victoria, B.C., and you
wish him to start work on July 2nd.    Write a suitable letter to Mr. York.
(&.)  Write a composition of about 20 lines on one of the following topics:—
The Annual Picnic.
The School Library.
The School Garden.
Penmanship and Dictation and Spelling.    (Time, 1% hours.)
(25 marks for Penmanship and 75 marks for Dictation and Spelling.)
[Note.—The Supervisor shall read Sections A and B to the candidates three times—the first time
to enable them to gather the meaning; the second time sloioly and clearly in subsections as
marked by the bars, allowing all the candidates sufficient time to write the words; and the
third time for review. He should repeat tvords and phrases, when necessary, in order that
every candidate may hear distinctly. Punctuation marks should not be dictated. Candidates
are not permitted to rewrite the passages.]
25
16
A. The child's natural tendency I to promote his own health and strength I by incessant
exercise I receives a more or less decisive check I as soon as he embarks I upon
his school career, j for he is then required | to sit or stand I in prescribed positions I for some hours each day I for purposes of instruction. 1 When all has
been, done I that can be done I to improve the hygienic conditions I of school
work, | and when due allowance j has been made I for such out-of-door instruction | as can be given, I it remains true I that school life I is on the whole
unfavourable to sound physical development, I unless counteracting agencies
are at work. | Such agencies are supplied, I at least in part, I by the well known
games | and sports | which stand I as modern representatives I of traditional
forms of recreation, I such as cricket, I football, | hockey, I tennis, [ rowing, I
fencing, I running, | and jumping. I Upon the number and variety I of these
pastimes, I and the skill and enthusiasm | of their devotees, 1 no country I has a
better right | than our own j to pride itself, | and it would be difficult I to overestimate I the physical and moral advantages | which they offer, I when pursued I
under proper conditions.!
B. "Does he use corporal punishment?'
" No, he uses capital punishment. I
heads."!
"How terrible!" I exclaimed.I
" Not at all. |    We used to think so,
' I I ventured to ask.]
If we don't do as he tells us,
he cuts off our
and complained to Mother Nature I about it;
but she told us
right."!
it was for our good; I and, of course, I whatever she says [ is M 130
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. 1926-27.
Value.
16
18
"It most certainly is," I I assented.!
" So we pay strict attention I to the Professor I and never, never forget I our lessons. ]
The hours are not long. I    School remains in session I from 9 a.m. to 9:15 a.m.,
with a recess I of ten minutes. I    Mother Nature I says her children | must not be
crammed | with knowledge ] which they cannot digest." I
C. (a.)  r\n exceedingly hungry wolf I knocked at the front door 1 of the country cottage.I
(6.)  A violent wind storm I blew furiously I for several days | over a section I of the
territory I surrounding the Gulf of Mexico. I
(c.) Plain stationery was purchased I for recording purchases 1 by the stationary
engineer. |
(d.) A catalogue I reviewing extremely valuable books I was received by melon
Wednesday.l
(e.) Reputations of industrious persons I are oftentimes I injuriously affected I by the
unjust criticisms I of mischievous persons.l
(/.)  The superintendent of the bureau I foretold a decided change I in the weather.I
(g.) During his few leisure moments ] he engaged in a hasty survey I of the surrounding region. I
D. ability. mystery
provision oppress
curious representative
political                                                                         contrary
attraction                                                                     jealousy
university assign
proclaim                                                                        genius
vacant subdue
distinguish revenue
lightning                                                                       exceeding
combination                                                                  disease
religion                                                                         premium
affair                                                                             allege
prominent                                                                 victuals
disappoint                                                                 twilight
sphere                                                                       analysis
virtue vehicle
receipt                                                                       discern PrART III.—APPENDICES.
M 131
APPENDIX C.
Value.
12
15
24
15
18
HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION, JUNE, 1927.
Grade IX.
Algebra.    (Time, 2 hours.)
1. (a.) Add xs - \x + \and x2 - \x - \.
(b.) From x?' -\x + \ subtract x2 - \x - \.
(c.) Multiply xs - \x + \ by x2 — \x - \.
(d.) Divide a;3 - \x + \ by x2 - \x - \.
2. (a.) Find the numerical value of the following expression when a =6,  b = -3,.
c = 5, d= 1, e = 0 :—
11 a + b(2c + ad - ce)
(b.) Substitute k - 1 for n in the expression \n(n + 1) (2?i + 1).
(c.) Show that x3 + 10a; is equal to lx2 for each of the values ,r=2, x = 5, ,x = 0.
Which of these expressions is the greater, and by how much, when x = 6 1
16        3. (ei.) Remove all brackets and combine like terms : —
35 f00^! _ jJzx - f (7a; - iy)|| + 8(5y - 2x).
vo i
}
(b.) Simplify:—
27 m2    36psq2
60n      81mn
\'m'2p2x10
y nfix9ys
4. Solve:—
(a.) i(x-l)- 5(x - 4) = 2J-(x - 6) + |.
(&.) 1.7(a;-2)-.3(2a; + .9) = .73.
(c.) 3a; + 4y = 7
5x = 2^ + 29.
5. Resolve into factors :—
(a.) 2a:2-2a;-4.
(b.) x2 + 5x + 6 +px + 3p.
(c.) jxq + rs+ps + qr.
6. A lazy boy was told to divide one-half of a certain number by 6, and the other
half by 8, and then to add the quotients.    To save trouble he divided the
number itself by 7.    His answer was too small by 7.    Determine the number. M 132
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Arithmetic.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[All work must be shown.]
Value.
1. Copy and fill in the blanks:—
1 (a.)  There are rods in a mile.
1 (6.)  There are pens in a gross.
1 (c.)  There are  acres in a quarter-section.
1 (d.) There are gallons in a cubic foot of water.
1 (e.)  There are cubic feet in a cord of wood.
1 (/.)  There are inches in a metre.
2 (g.) There are decigrams in a kilogram.
2 (h.) There are   pounds (avoirdupois) in a kilogram.
2 (i.) A kilometre equals mile (nearly).
2 (j-)  There are pounds in 2 tons '61/?, hundredweight.
2 (7c)  56 is Vs% of	
2 0-) A bottle holds % quart.    It will require   gallons to fill 75 such bottles.
8       2.  (a.)  Express as decimals %% ;  3%%;  225%.
(6.)  Express as per cents 1/25;  3.6;   .00125.
(c.)  Write 1927 in Roman numerals.
8        3. A gallon is equal to 4.543 litres.    How many cubic centimetres are contained in 1 pint?
10 4. A milk dealer received in one month 257,395 pounds of milk, for which he paid
3.9 cents a pound. The cost of shipping, filtering, pasteurizing, bottling, and
factory and office expenses amounted to 15 cents per gallon. Milk weighs 8.5
pounds per gallon and sells at 15 cents a quai't. How much did the dealer make
or lose on his month's business?
10 5. A house that rents for $50 a month costs the owner $120 for taxes and $75 for repairs
during the year. There is a mortgage for $3,000 on which he pays 5% interest.
By what sum does the rent exceed the expenses?
10 6. Mr. Smith bought his son, Robert, a $150 bond, bearing interest at 4%%, on the
date that it was issued, June 15th, 1925. If Robert keeps it until it matures,
June 15th, 1945, cashing the interest coupons as they come due, what will be the
total amount he will receive for the coupons?
10 7. A man paid $25.60 income-tax, $700 of his income being exempted. The rate of
taxation was 16 mills on the dollar.    What was his income?
13 8. A boy deposited in the savings-bank on January 1st, 1924, the sum of $25; on July
1st he deposited another $25; on January 1st, 1925, another $25. The bank
compounds its interest on June 30th and December 31st at 4% per year. How
much did the boy have to his credit on July 1st, 1925?
13 9. A man bought 300 shares of a certain stock at 87%. Later he received 15 shares of
the stock as a dividend on his 300 shares. Becoming alarmed because the
dividend was not in cash, he sold his holdings at Sl%. Find his loss, brokerage
of Vs% for both buying and selling being allowed. ■
PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 133
Value.
6
6
10
10
15
15
32
Drawing.    (Time, 2 hours.)
A. Selections from Drawings.
[The time taken to collect these drawings is not to be deducted from the two
hours allowed for this paper.]
Select the following from the drawings you have made during the past year, and write
your distinguishing number at the top right-hand corner of each. Before beginning
your drawing give these to the Examiner.
1. Ah example of lettering.
2. An example of shading (either nature-drawing or object-drawing).
3. An example of ornamental design.
B. Object-drawing.
Make a drawing not less than 6 inches high of the illustration given below.
Let "A" represent a lid and change this part of the drawing to show a lid opened in
a vertical position.
Let " B " represent a door.    Open the door towards the right side, and show a shelf
inside.
On the side of the illustration marked " C," letter, in a vertical direction, the word
Gramophone.
C. Design.
Work one of the following questions:—
(1.) Draw the elevation of a lamp-shade 6 inches wide, height in suitable proportions. Decorate with an appropriate design and indicate the colours you
would use.
(2.) Draw the plan of an oblong box-lid 6 inches long, width in suitable proportions. Decorate with an appropriate design and indicate the colours you
would use.
(3.) Draw a poster to include the following words: Bapco Paint Co., Victoria, B.C.,
and indicate the colours you would use.    Size, 10 inches by 8 inches. M 134
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
8
10
English Composition.    (Time, 2 hours.)
1. What is wrong with the following sentences?    Rewrite each in correct form.
(a.) The School Board donated uniforms to the team.
(&.)  Between you and I, he does not know as much as he thinks he does,
(c.)  Each of the books were very heavy.
(d.)  So much progress is now being made in air travel that the aeroplane will
soon step into the shoes of the railway train.
2. Find the  adverbs  in the following sentences  and  substitute for  each  adverb  an
appropriate adverbial phrase:—
(ei.) He used his power illegally.
(&.)  The man spoke very logically.
(c.)  The boy walked deliberately into the middle of the street.
(di)  Subsequently, I decided not to send the letter.
(e.)  We expect the weather will soon clear.
3. Change the following from direct to indirect narration:—
" Tell me about your uncles, Olive," said the Colonel, as they walked on arm
in arm.
" What about them, sir? " asked the boy, " I don't think I know much."
" You have been to stay with them.    You wrote about them.    Were they kind
to you? "
" O, yes, I suppose they were very kind," replied Clive, " they always tipped me;
only you know, when I go there I see very little of them."
4. Write a note addressed to your local postmaster informing him that you have changed
your place of residence and asking him to forward your mail to your new address.
5. Write a composition of not more than two hundred words on one of the following
subjects:—
(1.)  My Experiences in Gardening.
(2.) The Character of Ebenezer Balfour.    (Kidnapped.)
(3.)  A Description of Doone Aralley.    (Lorna Doone.)
(4.)  A Motor-trip.
12
10
60
English Literature.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Candidates will answer Section A, Part I. or Part II.;  Section B;   and either
Section C or Section D.]
Section A.
Part I.    Narrative English Poems, Part I.
15       1. By a careful analysis of one of the following poems show that it is typical of ballad
poetry:—
(ei.)  "Brignal Banks."
(&.)  "The Feud."
15        2. Explain briefly but carefully:—
(a.) On me
Rested the hopes of Italy. PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 135
Value.
(6.)
15
15
10
15
15
10
(ft)
Thou art a God too,
O Galilean!
And thus single-handed
Unto the combat,
Gauntlet or Gospel,
Here I defy thee!
But misery still delights to trace
Its semblance in another's case.
10       3- Contrast the two poems " Ivry " and " The Battle of Blenheim."
Or
Discuss the pictorial power of Ralph Hodgson as revealed in the poem,
' The Bull/
Part II.    'Narrative English Poems, Part II.
1. Discuss at some length your interpretation of the meaning of either of the following
poems:—
(a.) "The Raven."
(&.)  "Goblin Market."
2. Explain briefly but carefully:—
(a.) Since then, at an uncertain hour,
That agony returns:
And till my ghastly tale is told,
This heart within me burns.
(&.) He saw the school close, sunny and green,
The runner beside him, the stand by the parapet wall,
(c.)  An' losses on the roundabouts means profits on the swings.
3. Discuss the pictorial power of Tennyson as revealed in " The Lady of Shalott."
Section B.    English Prose Selections, Part I.
[Note.—Write on question 1 and either 2 or ■?.]
1. Write a paragraph on one of the following topics:—
(a.) The Eccentricities of Sir Roger de Coverley.
(&.) The Character of Will Wimble.
(c.) The Citizen of the World as a Severe Critic of English Society.
(d.) The Whimsical Humor of Lamb.
(e.) The Charm of Habit  ("A Plea for Gas Lamps").
2. Write on one of the following themes:—
(a.) The Versatility of Oliver Goldsmith.
(6.) The Lesson of the Great War (" The Cross of Sacrifice ").
(c.) The Duty of the House of Lords as Suggested in "An Address to the Throne."
(e/j.) A Brief Biography of Lamb as Revealed in his Letter to Wordsworth.
(e.) Rupert Brooke's Discontent with New World Scenery.
Or
3. Draw up a carefully planned outline for an essay based on the subject-matter of one
of the short stories from English Prose Selections, Part I.
Section C.   Kidnapped.
1. Write a paragraph on one of the following topics:—
(a.) The Vanity of Alan Breck Stewart.
(6.)  The Treachery of Uncle Ebenezer. M 136
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
20
2.
Give a brief account of one of the following:—
(a.) The Wreck of the Brig Covenant.
(6.) David Balfour Comes into His Inheritance.
(c.)  The Quarrel between David and Alan.
Section D.   Lorna Doone.
10
1.
Write a paragraph on one of the following topics:—
(ex.)  Why I Like John Ridd.
(o.) Tom Faggus and his Mare, Winnie.
20
2.
Give a brief account of one of the following:—
(a.) The Death of Carver Doone.
(6.)  John Ridd Leaves School,
(c.)  How to Make the Cream Rise.
French.    (Time, 2 hours.)
10
1.
(Repondez en frangais aux questions suivantes.)    Answer the following questions
in French:—■
(a.)  De quelle couleur est votre cravate?
(6.)  En quoi est cet encrier?
(c.)  Comment vous appelez-vous?
(d.) Pourquoi avons-nous des yeux?
(e.)  De quelle couleur sont vos cheveux?
(/.) Comment est la neige?
(g.)  Quel legume prefei-ez-vous?
(7i.)  Quel age avez-vous?
(i.)  A quoi jouez-vous?
(...)  Qu'est-ce que vous faites le soir?
10
2.
(a.)   (Mettez au pluriel.)    Write in the plural:—
(1.)  C'est un beau salon bleu.
(2.) Cet homme ne chante pas.
(3.)  Je ne peux pas lever cette horloge.
(4.)  11 met la lettre dans son enveloppe.
(5.) Elle vient ac l'ecole le matin.
10
(5.)   (Mettez au singulier.)    Write in the singular:—■
(1.) lis ecrivent le frangais.
(2.) Ces fraises ne sont pas bonnes ii manger.
(3.)  Mangent-ils des pommes vertes?
(4.) Des Americains demeurent dans ces maisons.
(5.)  Ces autres gargons finissent leurs legons.
3.
(Ecrivez en frangais le contraire de.)    Write in French the opposite of:—
10
(a.) fermer; dedans; rond; pareil; vite; fort; avec; a la fin du jour; epais;
au-dessous de.
5
(6.)   (les noms de cinq batiments) the names of five buildings.
5
(c.)   (les jours de la semaine) the days of the week. PART III.—APPENDICES. M 137
■
Value.
20       4.  (Ecrivez  dix  phrases  en  employant  les  mots  suivants.)    Write ten  sentences  in
French,  using the following words:   longtemps;   combien;   les  Chinois;   age;
tout le monde;   pareils ;>   lourde;   quelqu'un;   Canadienne;   en voiture.
General Science.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Questions are of equal value.   Answer six only.]
1. (a.)  Name and define one unit of work.
(6.) flow much work is done by a boy weighing 100 pounds in climbing a stairway of 50 steps,
each with a rise of 6 inches?
(c.)  If he carries on his shoulder a weight of 25 pounds, how much extra work would he
accomplish ?
2. (ei.)  Name the two kinds of barometers ordinarily used and explain how they differ in action.
(6.) What practical use is made of a pocket barometer?
3. (a.)  Define absolute and relative humidity of the air.
(6.)  What effect has a lowering of the temperature of the air upon (i) its relative humidity,
.(ii)  its absolute humidity?
(c.)  A cubic metre of air at 20° C. will contain 17.20 grams of water when saturated.    The
amount of water actually in the air at this temperature is 10.32 grams.    Calculate
the relative humidity of the air.
4. (a.) Clearly explain mechanical advantage and efficiency of a machine.
(6.) A man weighing 150 pounds, and standing on the ground floor, wishes to lift a weight
of 750 pounds from the ground to an upper floor, employing a system of pulleys.
Neglecting loss of power through friction, how many supporting strands of the rope
or cable must be used?
5. Compare plants and animals as to:   (a) nutrition;   (6) food;   (c) sources from which the
food is obtained.
6. (a.) Write a concise account of bacteria as to sise, number, beneficial kinds, harmful kinds,
and means of distribution,
(b.) What means should be employed to ensure a reasonably pure supply of milk for food?
7. (a.)  Enumerate the agencies by which rock has been converted into soil.
(6.) Give a concise description of soil as to: (i) kinds and structure; (ii) necessity for
drainage; (iii) maintenance and restoration of nitrogen supply; (iv) purpose of
cultivation.
20       5. Ecrivez en frangais :—
(a.) The French live in France.
(&.) Where do the English live?
(c.)  There are many automobiles in the United States.
(d.) Who lives in British Columbia?
(e.)  Today is the first of July.
(/.)  On the eleventh of August.
(g.)  In summer all the boys play ball.
(h.)  It is half past one.
(•».)  She is not strong enough to go to school.
(j.)  Our holidays are as long as your holidays.
10       6. Write a sentence in French explaining each of the following words:   votre cousine;
un fauteuil;  la salle 3. manger;  le facteur;  le petit dejeuner. M 138
PUBLIC  SCHOOLS  REPORT,  1926-27.
8. (a.) Explain what each of the following electrical units measures: volt; ampere; ohm; watt.
(&.)  If a current of 5 amperes and 110 volts is sent through an electric toaster, how many
watts will it produce?   Calculate the cost of operating the toaster for 12 minutes at
7 cents per kilowatt-hour.
9. (a.)  Describe any common electrical device which illustrates the heating effect of the electric
current.   Use a diagram.
(&.) What safety contrivance is employed to prevent damage by overheating?   Explain its
action.
Value.
14
16
14
14
14
14
14
Geometry.    (Time, 2% hours.)
1. A and B are two points 2% inches apart.    Find a point P which is 2V2 inches from
A and 1% inches from B. Draw a perpendicular from P to AB and measure
its length.
2. Wishing to find the height of a cliff, I fix two marks, A and B, 100 feet apart on
the same level and in line with the foot of the cliff. From A the angle of
elevation of the top of the cliff is 37° and from B the angle of elevation is 24".
Draw a diagram and estimate the height of the cliff. Use the scale 25 feet to
1 inch.
3. If two angles of a triangle are equal, the sides opposite to these angles are equal.
4. If one side of a triangle is produced, the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum
of the two interior opposite angles.
5. A straight line stands on another straight line.    Prove that the bisectors of the two
adjacent angles so formed are at right angles to each other.
6. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, the quadrilateral must be a
parallelogram.
7. Two circles intersect at X and Y.    Prove that XY is bisected at right angles by the
straight line joining the centres of the two circles.
History.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Anstoer any five questions.]
20       1-  (ei-)  Where and how did men probably first pass from the Stone Age to the Age of
Metals?
(&.)  Name three stages in the Age of Metals, showing how each marked an advance
on the stage before it.
(c.)  Write  briefly  on the  "four supreme  contributions"  to  civilization  made  by
prehistoric man.
20       2. (a.) Describe the natural features of Upper and of Lower Egypt.
(6.)  Mention points of difference between the Old and Middle Kingdoms in Egypt,
(c.)  Explain how Egyptian science was "the gift of the Nile."
(d.)  What was the purpose of the pyramids?    What do you know of the method
employed in building them?
20       3.  (a.)  To what end did the Assyrians devote their main energy?    What was the cause
of their downfall?
(6.)  Write briefly on social life in Chaldea under the following heads:   the king,
the wealthy classes, the peasants, the administration of justice,
(c.)  By what devices did Darius "the Organizer" check rebellion? PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 139
Value.
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
4. (a.)  Write a brief account of the Achaean invaders of Greece.    What is the chief
source of our knowledge of this race?
(6.)  Describe the government of the city state in early Greek history, explaining
the parts played by the King, the Council, and the Assembly.
5. (a.)  Compare the education of boys in Sparta and Athens.
(&.)  Describe the daily life of an Athenian gentleman in the age of Pericles.
6. {a.) Write on Themistocles—his character, the main aim of his policy, his measures
for securing the safety of Athens.
(&.)  What was the purpose of the Confederacy of Delos?    Why was it so called?
Who were its members?    How was it governed?    What became of it?
7. (a.)  Write on Socrates—his person, his aims, his use of the " Socratic method,"
his last days.
(6.) Mention three weak points in Greek culture.    State briefly some respects in
which Greek civilization was less " comfortable " than our own.
8. (a.)  What event led to the institution of tribunes at Borne?    For what purpose were
they elected?    What were their powers?
(6.)  How were written laws first introduced at Rome?
(c.)  What is meant by " the public land" in Roman history?
9. (a.) What measures did the Romans adopt to win the war after their defeats by
Hannibal?
(&.)  What is a "yeoman"?    How did Tiberius Gracchus try to stop the decay of the
yeoman class in Italy?
(c.) What special tasks were entrusted to Pompey in the Mediterranean and in the
East?
10. Give in a line or two the historical connection of ten of the following: Areopagus,
Cannae, Epaminondas, Granicus, helot, Herodotus, the Hyksos, Joshua, Knossos,
Mardonius, Miltiades, Nebuchadnezzar, ostracism, Plataea, Plato, plebeian',
Phidias, Solon, Sulla, Zoroaster.
Latin.    (Time, 2 hours.)
12 1. Decline together:   (a) in the singular altera pars, flu-men Tamesis, and laous altior;
(6) in the plural mare altum, dies felix, and consilium utile.
10       2. Give the genitive and ablative singular and genitive plural of agger, onus, passus,
collis, dux, dies, cornu, mulier, pax, corpus.
10       3.  (a.)  Give the general rule for the formation of the comparative and superlative of
adjectives.   Illustrate by examples.
(6.)  Name six adjectives in -His which form the superlative by the change of -His
into -illimus.
(c.)  What is the positive of optimus, pejor, plus, inferior, summus.
13 4.  (a.) Give principal parts of cogo, trado, solvo, facio, pello, moveo, gero, respondeo,
pono.
(&.) Write the pluperfect indicative active singular of mitto and the future perfect
indicative passive plural of rego.
5        5. Express in Latin:   thirty ships ;   four cohorts ;   forty-three towns;   two legions, the
sixth and the seventh. M 140 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
30        6- Translate into Latin :—
(1.) They had sent the noblest of the Britons to Caesar.
(2.) The nights are unlike the days.
(3.) We shall not fight without reason.
(4.) The leading men of all the states assembled at midnight.
(5.) I have said nothing about citizenship.
20       7- Translate into English:—
(1.) Finitimis civitatibus naves longas imperabit.
(2.) Respublica navi similis esse dicitur.
(3.) Superiore anno majus oppidum minore cum periculo expugnaverunt.
(4.) Dies circiter quindecim iter feceramus.
(5.) Romanis unis concedimus. Value.
20
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
PA.RT III.—APPENDICES.
Grade X.
Agriculture.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Candidates will anstcer question one and any five of the remainder.]
1. How does a plant start and continue life?
2. How may different kinds of weeds be checked and controlled most effectively?
3. What is soil, and how, presumably, was it formed?
4. What are the contents of stable manure, and how does its application benefit the land?
5. How would you proceed in order to test and determine the percentage of germination
in seed intended for planting?
6. Discuss the most important points in  connection with  the  rearing  of any young
animal.
7. Present the life-history of one useful and one harmful insect common to your own
locality.
8. Compare different methods of hatching and rearing chickens.
Algebra.    (Time, 2 hours.)
10 1.  (a.) If a pyramid of height h stands on a square base whose side is s, its volume
V is given by the formula V = \hs2.    Reverse this formula :—
(1.) To express h in terms of s and V.
(2.) To express s in terms of h and V.
(6.)  If it takes t hours to travel the distance d at the rate of r miles per hour,
obtain the formula which will show the relation of these three quantities.
20        2. Resolve into two or more factors :—
(a.) ib4 + x3 — x2 — x.
(b.)  a;4 -4a;2 + 4.
(c.)   a;4-ax2+ 4.
(d.) x4 + 9x2 + 81.
(e.)   a;4+ 4.
(/.) a2-b2-c2+2bc. .     .
10 3.  A = (x-y)5(a-bf.
B = (es - bf(p - qf.
C = (p - qf{x - yf.
Write down in factor form :—
(1.) The highest common factor of A and B.
(2.) The least common multiple of A and C.
(3.) The least common multiple of A, B, and C.
20        4.  Simplify:—
m2 + mn + n2    m2 - mn + n2
(b.)
(c.)
m6 — n?
ma + n3
X
y       x
z       y
%
2xs + 5a;2 -
22ec+15
5a;3 + 18ai2-33a; + 10 .--■■ -i • — ' -.' ^---'—-— ■ ,-',-'■ ,i-- •*- ;•■■   - ■ i- z   - ■■■"'■■ -^''Wn
M 142 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
oc -    /   \  o i as-13    6a:+1 , 2/n    3x
25        o. (a.) Solve: as- = + _/6 ——
' 9 5        3^       2
Show that x = 3 does not satisfy this equation.
1 X'
(6.)  If the sum of the fractions and  be unity, find the value of each
2x - 1 x + 2
fraction separately,
(c.)  Solve :—
x + ?/-f = 6.
2 3
«+'--*= 10.
^52
.   X       V        1 to
z+--~= 15.
3 5
15 6.  Gold loses TL of its weight and silver JT of its weight when weighed in water.
Find the amount of each metal in a mass of gold and silver which weighs
98 ounces in air and 90 ounces in water.
Arithmetic.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[All work must be shown.]
1. Copy and fill in the blanks:—
1 (a.) There are   acres in a half-section.
1 (6.) There are   pens in 5 gross.
2 (es.) There are   feet in a chain.
2 (d.) There are   decimetres in .5 kilometre.
2 (e.)   There are   inches in .5 metre.
2 (/•) There are   miles  (nearly)  in 8 kilometres.
2 iff.) A cubic foot of water weighs   pounds.
2 (?'.) A gallon of water weighs   pounds.
2 (*■)  On a Fahrenheit thermometer the freezing-point of water is marked ....".
2 (/■)  On a Fahrenheit thermometer the boiling-point of water is marked  ....".
2 (fc.)  A vessel travels 20 knots per hour.    This equals   miles per hour.
8       2. A class-room is 40 feet long and 25 feet wide.    There are four windows each 6 feet
by 5 feet.   The ratio of the window area to the floor area is as 3 is to 	
8       3. Find the gain on goods bought at $150.75 less 20% cash discount, and sold to gain
1PA%.
8       4. How many bags, each holding 1 hectolitre, can be filled from a bin 1.5 m. high, 2.4 m.
wide, and 5 m. long?
8       5. A silo in the shape of a cylinder is 14 feet in diameter and 35 feet high.    What is
its volume?
10 6. A house that rents for $40 a month is for sale. How much should I offer for it to
realize 5% interest on my investment, if the taxes are $55 a year, and if I allow
$40 for repairs and $50 for depreciation?
10 7. A real-estate dealer bought a house and lot for $4,650. The house was remodelled
at a cost of $600 and $250 was paid for street improvements.   He then exchanged PART III.—APPENDICES. M 143
Value.
the property for 40 acres of land which he immediately sold at $165 per acre.
What was his gain per cent, on the total investment?
14 8- The assessed value of property in a certain municipality is $50,000,000. The taxes
to be raised amount to $2,150,000. What is the tax rate (mills on the dollar) ?
John Jones pays $30.96 in taxes after being allowed 10% discount for prompt
payment.    What is the assessed value of Jones' property?
14       9. On June 16th, 1926, you bought a piano from the Mason & Risch Piano Co. for
You paid $400 in cash and gave your note for six months for the balance with
interest at 6% per year. Write the note. Make it negotiable. On October 7th
the Mason & Risch Co. discounted the note at the bank at 7%. How much was
received for the note on that date?
Botany.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Questions are of equal value.    Answer five only.    Illustrate answers by
sketches or diagrams.]
1. Give the characteristics which distinguish: (a) a root from a rhizome; (6) a bulb from a
conn;  (c)   a runner from a sucker.    In your answer, describe each in detail and give
examples.
2. Describe, draw, and label the parts of:  (a)  a pea or bean seed, and  (B)  a grain of wheat
or corn, as seen in section.    State what changes occur at germination, and how the seedlings differ.
3. Name two plants you have studied, one of the Ranunculaceai and one of the Rosacese.   Describe
the stem, leaves,  flower,  and fruit of each, noting resemblances  and differences,  and
emphasizing family characteristics.
4. Describe experiments to prove that plants are sensitive to gravitation and light.    What regions
of the plant show the greatest response?
5. Name the different kinds of indehiscent fruits and classify them to show their distinctive
characteristics;  note any modifications for seed dispersal.    Give examples.
6. Name  twenty  plants,  common   in  your  district.    Indicate  which   are:   (a)   native  plants;
(6)   introduced weeds of waste ground or cultivated land;   (c)   medicinal plants;   (d)
poisonous plants, and what kinds of live stock are most affected by them.
Chemistry.    (Time, 2 hours.)
Value.
14       1.  (a.)  Describe a suitable laboratory method for the preparation of a sufficient quantity
of oxygen for experimental purposes.   Illustrate with a diagram, and write
the equation.
Q (&.)  Enumerate the physical and chemical properties of oxygen.
20       2- Write an equation to represent the reaction in each of the following :—
(a.) Magnesium metal is placed in dilute hydrochloric acid.
(&.)  Sulphur is heated in the air.
(c.)  Sodium chloride, mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid, is heated gently.
(d.) Water slightly acidulated is decomposed by an electric current,
(e.)  Hydrogen is led over strongly heated copper oxide in a combustion tube. M 144
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
10
3.  (a.)  What is meant by a law in chemistry?
(b.)  Name two important chemical laws, and clearly explain what is meant by one
of them.
10       4. Find the weight of carbon dioxide that would be formed by treating 212 grams of
sodium carbonate, with an excess of dilute sulphuric acid.
Calculate the volume of the gas formed at 27° C, and 750mm. pressure.    (Na=23;
C = 12;   0 = 16.    A gram-molecular weight of any gas at standard temperature
and pressure occupies a volume of 22.4 litres.)
10        5.  (a.)  Outline a laboratory method for the preparation of carbon monoxide.
(&.)  How may carbon monoxide be distinguished from carbon dioxide?
10       6. Write concise accounts of :—■
(a.)  Kinetic molecular theory of gases.
(&.)  Effect of temperature upon rate of chemical change.
20       7- Describe what reaction takes place in each of the following, name the products, and
write the equation:—
(a.)  A current of steam is passed over red-hot iron in an iron or porcelain tube.
(6.)   Solutions of ammonium chloride and silver nitrate are brought together,
(c.)  Sodium hydroxide is treated with hydrochloric acid.
(d.) Ammonium nitrite is heated.
English Composition.    (Time, 2 hours.)
5        1. What is wrong in each of the following sentences?   Rewrite each correctly.
(a.) Othello, seizing a pillow full of rage and fury, covered Desdemona's face
(&.) He saw the house in which Queen Elizabeth had lived during his holiElays.
(o.) He left his new hat on the train for which he had paid ten dollars.
(d.) I met a man who had discovered a gold mine in Vancouver the other day.
(e.) The speaker insisted that the Government would not surrender with conviction.
9       2.  (a.)  Write to a bookseller (or publishing house) mentioning a list of six books you
are anxious to secure for your own use and asking the price of each.
3 (6.)  Designate by their technical names the six necessary parts of your letter.
8       3. What is meant by the following:—
(a.) The topic sentence.
(6.) Coherence in the paragraph,
(e.) A periodic sentence.
(d.) Ellipsis.
75        4. Write a composition of about two hundred words on one of the following:—
(1.)  Court-life in the Middle Ages.    (Quentin Durwm-d.)
(2.)  The "play within the play."    (A Midsummer-Night's Dream.)
(3.), The Downfall of the Conspirators.    (Julius Caesar.)
(4.)  An Animal Friend of Mine. PART III.—APPENDICES. M 145
English Literature.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Candidates will answer Section A, Part I. or Part II.;  and Section B;   and any
one section from Sections C, D, and E.]
Section A.
Part I.   A Selection of English Poetry, Book I., Part I.
Value.
15        1. Give in your own words the story of one of the following:—■
(a.) "Echetlos."
(6.)  "The Forsaken Merman."
(c.) "The Ballad of East and West."
15        2. Give briefly what you consider to be the central  theme of each of the following
poems:—
(a.)  " Ozymandias."
(&.) "The Cane-bottomed Chair."
(c.)  "St. Agnes' Eve."
10       3. Write a paragraph on the character of the Duke in " My Last Duchess."
Part II.   A Selection of English Poetry, Book I., Part II.
15        1. Give in your own words the story of any one of the following poems:—
(a.) "The Eve of St. Agnes."
(.6.-)  "Herve Riel."
(c.)  " Juggling Jerry."
15       2. Give briefly what you consider to be the central theme of each of the following
poems:—
(a.)  " The Nature Lover."
(&.)  "To Daffodils."
(e.) "The New Jerusalem."
10       3. Write a paragraph on any one of the following topics:—
(a.) The Skill of Keats in the Use of Apt Phrases of Great Poetic Beauty.
(6.) Why Shelley Considered that the Joy of the Skylark was beyond Human
Attainment,
(c.)  The Piety of the Village Preacher.
Section B.   English Prose Selections, Part II.
[Note.—Answer question 1 and either 2 or 8.]
15        1- Discuss briefly the subject-matter of any one of the following essays:—
(a.)  "Of Studies."
(6.) " Country Etiquette."
(c.) "Party Patches."
(d.) "A Political Upholsterer."
(e.) "History of the Man in Black."
(/.) "The Two Races of Men."
(g.) "On Being Found Out."
(h.) "Intellectual Snobbery."
15       2. Write a paragraph on one of the following topics:—
(a.)  The Comfort Given by Jesus to His Disciples on the Eve of the Crucifixion.
(&.)  The Character of Abraham Lincoln as He is Revealed in His  Letter to
Horace Greeley and the Gettysburg Address.
10 -
M 146
PUBLIC  SCHOOLS  REPORT,  1926-1
7.
Value.
(c.) Wherein Laurier Considers the Canadian Constitution Superior to That of
America.
(d.)  Coffee-Houses  ("State of England, 1685").
(e.)  Fuller's Opinion of the Essential Qualities of a Good Schoolmaster.
Or
Draw up a carefully planned outline for an essay based on the subject-matter of any
one of the following short stories:—■
(a.)  "The Three Strangers."
(&.)  "The Prince Consort."
(c.) "The Fall of the House of Usher."
(d.)  " The Enemy."
Section C.    Julius Caesar.
15       1. Interpret the following passages, relating each to its context:—■
(a.) There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which taken at the flood leads on to fortune;
Omitted, all the voyage of their life
Is bound in shallows and in miseries.
(&.) I know not how,
But I do find it cowardly and vile,
For fear of what might fall, so to prevent
The time of life,
(c.) But yet have I a mind
That fears him much;   and my misgiving still
Falls shrewdly to the purpose.
15       2. Write a paragraph on the Gentler Qualities in the Character of Brutus.
Section D.    A Midsummer Night's Dream.
15        1. Interpret the following passages, relating each to its context:—
(a.) Love, therefore, and tongue-tied simplicity
! In least speak most, to my capacity,
i (6.) The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling,
Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven;
And, as imagination bodies forth
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen
Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing
A local habitation and a name,
(c.) That very time I saw, but thou couldst not,
Flying between the cold moon and the earth
Cupid all arm'd:  a certain aim he took
At a fair vestal throned by the west.
15       2. Write a paragraph on "Puck, the Spirit of Mischief."
Section E.   Quentin Durward.
10       1- Write a paragraph on one of the following:—
(a.) The Vanity of Le Balafre.
(&.) The Superstition of Louis XI.
20       2. Give a brief account of one of the following:—
(a.) The Murder of the Bishop of LiSge, Louis of Bourbon.
(&.) The Enrolment of Quentin Durward as an Archer of the Scottish Bodyguard,
(c.) The Rescue of Countess Isabelle de Croye from the Castle of Schonwaldt. French.    (Time, 2 hours.)
Value.
7        1.  (Completez les phrases suivantes.)    Complete the following sentences:—
(1.) Demain nous (jouer) au football.
(2.) Voulez-vous me donner les fraises que vous avez (trouver) ?
(3.) Marie n'est pas (tomber) dans 1'eau.
(4.) Vous avez (acheter) de belles fleurs.
(5.) Quand j'etais petit, je (se coucher) de bonne heure.
(6.) lis se sont (lever) a six heures.
(7.) Je (aller) en France quand je serai riche.
9       2.  (Mettez les verbes ii l'imparfait;   au futur, au passe defini.)    Put the verbs in the
imperfect, future, and past indefinite:—
(1.)  Elle vient tons les jours.
(2.)  II y a douze voitures.
(3.) Elle est paresseuse.
(4.)  Nous prenons l'omnibus.
(5.)  Je plonge apres lui.
(6.)  L'automobile avance lentement.
20 3- (Ecrivez dix phrases en employant ces mots.) Write ten sentences, using each of
the following words: d'ordinaire;, ne — que; tout le monde; un coup d'oeil;
avant de ;  mal;  comme;  mieux;  rien ;  partout.
10       4. Repondez en frangais:—
(1.)  A quoi sert un couteau?
(2.)  Qu'est-ce qu'une cuisiniere?
(3.)  Quels sont les trois repas?
(4.)  Quels sont les meubles de la salle a\ manger?
(5.)  Que faites-vous & l'ecole?
10       5. Fill in spaces with suitable pronouns:—
(1.) ■— est un beau jardiu.
(2.) II y a des gens — maugent quatre fois par jour.
(3.) Voila l'automobile — je vous parlais.
(4.) Oil est le journal — j'ai achete.
(5.) De — avez-vous parle?
(6.) Voici deux tableaux, — est de Londi'es — est de Paris.
(7.) M. Dubois est chez —.
(8.) — de ces freres est Georges?
(9.) Je n'ai — ii dire.
(10.) — tombe du ciel en hiver?
14       6. Ecrivez en frangais :—
(1;) I am learning to speak French.
(2.) Our class-room is 30 feet long by 21 wide.
(3.) There are more than 250 pupils in our school.
(4.) It is raining in torrents.
(5.) This sailboat belongs to me.
(0.) I use a pencil for writing.
(7.) The pupils' entrance is on the ground floor. M 148 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
30       7. Write a composition in French (about one hundred words) on one of the following
subjects:—
(a.)  Les Vacances.
(6.) La Maison.
(c.) Mon ecole.
Geometry.    (Time, 2% hours.)
11        1. Construct a parallelogram PQRS from the following data :—■
PQ   =1% inches.
PS   =2% inches,
angle QPS = angle BAC of a triangle whose sides are AB=2 in., BC=2%  in.,
CA=2% in.
11        2. From the given straight line AB cut off a part equal to % of AB.
A B
11        3.  Give the geometrical illustration of the identity  (a + b)2 = a2 + L2 + 2ab.
11 4. O is any point on the diagonal BD of a parallelogram ABCD. EOF, GOH are parallel
to AB, BC, respectively.    Prove that parallelogram AO = parallelogram CO.
14 5. If two sides of a triangle are unequal, the greater side has the greater angle opposite
to it.
14 6. If a triangle is such that the square on one side is equal to the sum of the squares
on the other two sides, then the angle contained by these two sides is a right
angle.
14       7. The bisectors of the angles B, C of a triangle ABC intersect at P.    Prove that
z BPC = 90° + \ l A.
14       8. Construct a triangle equal in area to the given quadrilateral:—
Give proof of your construction.
History.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Answer any five questions.]
20       1-  (<*•)  Show how Caesar's monarchy arose from the union, in one person, of the powers
of separate Republican officers.
(6.)  In what main respects did the monarchy of Diocletian differ from that of the
early emperors?
(c.)  Show that you understand the meaning of the terms, "Absolutism," "Centralization," applied to government. PART III.—APPENDICES. M 149
Value.
20       2- Give brief accounts of the reigns of any four of the following:   Tiberius, Nero,
Domitian, Marcus Aurelius, Aurelian, Constantine.
20       3.  (a.) Account for the persecution of Christians under the Roman Empire.
(6.)  Write on the classes of society under the later Empire.
20       4.  (a.)  Illustrate the character of Roman law under the Empire.
(6.)  What were the principal features of Teutonic law?
(c.)  Mention two important contributions .to Western European civilization made
by Rome herself.
20 5. Give a brief description of a feudal manor under the following heads: (a) the manor
itself; (6) the people who lived on it; (c) their homes; (d) the method of
cultivating the land.
20       6-  («•)  Write on the beginnings of Parliament in England under the following heads:
the Witan, the Great Council, Simon de Montfort.
(6.)  What  important  result  followed  from  the  division  of  Parliament  into  two
houses?
(c.)  Mention three great principles established by Magna Charta.
(d.)  Give three instances of the growth of the power of Parliament during the
Hundred Years' War.
20        7-  (»•)  Outline the history of the Reformation in Germany.
(&.) Give a brief account of the " Invincible Armada."
20 8- Write explanatory notes on each of the following: Eliot's resolutions, John Milton,
Thomas Wentworth, Colbert, Bill of Rights.
Latin.    (Time, 2 hours.)
16        1. Write the genitive plural of:—
ilia civitas 	
melior civis	
hio dies 	
the dative singular of:—
neuter homo 	
ea res 	
the ablative singular of:—
aeger miles 	
mare latum	
flumen breve 	
Q       2. Write the genitive singular (with the adjective in the comparative degree) of:—
respublica libera 	
the accusative plural (with the adjective in the superlative degree) of:—
mare bonum 	
the ablative singular (with the adjective in the superlative degree) of:—
cornu gracile 	
12       3. Write the second singular present indicative of:—■
proficiscor   	
nolo   	
a&eo  	
differo (active and passive)	 M 150 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1920-2
Value.
the second singular perfect indicative active of:—
rego   	
mitto   	
iubeo   	
the perfect infinitive active of:—
cognosco    -	
the singular present imperative passive of:—
rego    :	
the singular present imperative of:—
proficiscor 	
nolo	
13       4. Write in Latin:—
(a.)  You (sing.) were being heard.
(6.)  We shall begin to retreat.
(c.) You have said.
(d.) To have seen.
(e.)  Caesar put me in command of the camp.
(f.)  This circumstance was of great service to our men.
(g.) At the beginning of summer.
(h.) I shall be consul.
(i.)  I was informed.
(j.)  I do not know whither we are going.
10.       5. Translate in space provided on opposite page:—
(a.) Quibus rebus Caesar vehementer commotus, maturare constituit, ne nova manus
Sueborum cum veteribus copiis Ariovisti sese conjungeret. Itaque re frumentaria
quam celerrime comparata, magnis itineribus ad Ariovistum contendit. Cum
tridui viam processisset, nuntiatum est ei Ariovistum cum suis omnibus copiis ad
occupandum Vesontionem, quod est oppidum maximum Sequanorum, contendere.
In eo oppido omnium rerum quae ad bellum usui erant summa erat facultas, idque
natura loci egregie muniebatur. Hue Caesar contendit, occupatoque oppido ibi
praesidium collocat. «
6 (b.) Account for the case of :—
commotus  	
sese   	
re   	
usui  	
the mood of conjungeret	
the mood of contendere 	 PART III.—APPENDICES. M 151
Value.
6. Translate into Latin:—
5 (a)  Good citizens will always take thought for the whole state.
5 (6.)  He asked why we did not wish to obey the laws.
6 (c.) The Helvetii sent envoys to say that they wished to march through the
province.
5 (d.)  He does not know what he wishes to be done.
5 (e.)  They persuaded us not to spare the captives.
6 (/.)  We were informed that the soldiers were not able to use their swords.
5 (g.) At daybreak they left the camp and marched all day through a broad plain.
Physics.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Questions are of equal value.   Answer five only.]
1. (a.)  Describe and explain the action of the water when a narrow-necked bottle is filled with
water and then held mouth downward.
(b.) By means of drawings illustrate the following:   umbra, penumbra, voltaic cell.
(c.)  Describe Galileo's thermometer.    In what way was it imperfect?
2. (a.)   State the law which is used in determining the density of a solid which will float in
water.
(b.) A body whose mass is 6 grams has a sinker attached to it and the two together weigh
16 grams in  water.    The sinker alone weighs 24 grams  in water.    What is the
density of the body?
3. (a.)  Explain the action of the siphon.    Illustrate by a drawing.    What causes the flow?
When will the flow stop?
(b.)  Under perfect conditions how high can sulphuric acid be raised in a siphon when the
barometer stands at 29 inches, taking the specific gravities of sulphuric acid and
mercury as 1.8 and 13.6 respectively?
4   (a.)  Explain the principle which is applied in the hydraulic press.    In constructing this press
how can the greatest force be developed?
(b.) How does light travel and how is it transmitted from the sun?
(c.)  In looking in a mirror we do not " see ourselves as others see us."    Explain.
5. (a.)  What convenient mechanical power would you use to get a heavy trunk from the ground
into a truck?    Explain the advantage.
(b.) To draw a nail from a piece of wood requires a pull of 150 pounds.    A claw-hammer is
used and the hand, 9 inches from the fulcrum, must exert a force of 20% pounds.
How far is the nail from the fulcrum?
6. (a.)  What experiments would you perform to illustrate induced magnetism and to show that
there are two kinds of electricity?
(&.)  Explain clearly the cause of lightning.    Describe a good lightning-conductor.
(c.) Describe the Davy safety-lamp.
7. (a.) The determination of specific heat by the method of mixture depends on what principle?
(6.) Find the resulting temperature when 20 grams of iron  at 100°  C.  are  immersed in
80 grams of water at 10° C, contained in a copper vessel whose mass is 20 grains.
(Specific heat of iron, 0.113;  of copper, 0.094.) M 152 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Grade XI., Junior Matriculation and Normal Entrance.
Agriculture.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Candidates will answer question one and any six of the remainder.]
1. Why do up-to-date farmers and gardeners rotate their crops?
2. Describe in detail the soil preparation, the planting, and the handling of a field or
garden crop of your own choice.
3. (a.) How can we determine whether or not a soil needs lime?
(b.) Which of our common farm crops show a distinct preference for lime?
4. What results may be expected from the application of stable manure:   (a)  on a
sandy soil;   (b) on a clay soil?
5. Enumerate various important points in connection with the production of first-class
milk.
6. Describe the breeds of cows, horses, sheep, and hogs which are most common among
the farmers in your own district.
7. State the reasons why alfalfa and clover hay are more valuable than timothy hay in
the feeding of dairy cattle.
8. Prescribe and discuss the proper treatment for aphis and for tent-caterpillars.
9. What are the essential differences between light breeds, utility and heavy breeds in
poultry?   Give examples of each kind.
Value
10
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
Algebra.    (Time, 2% hours.)
12 1. Factor:—
(a.)  \5x + 8a-2(S + Wax).
(b.)  r3-64s6.
(c.)  m2x - imx - 21.
(d.) 25xi + iy* - 69x2y2.
12 2. Simplify (no marks will be given unless the answers are correct):—
5a-4    \/.     3a + 8\      /,     5ei+8^
(a.)   (l +    5*~4    )(l-zz*±3)z,(l +
a- + a
(b.) 2-—ZZ
'♦?
14        3. (a.) Solve: .06(1.3*- .5) - .15(.3te + 2.4) + .522 = 0.
(b.) Solve: 2* + 3_j^lI = *±2.
w 4        6x- 8       2
(c.) The pressure carrying a draught up a chimney is found by the formula
p = H/    7.6 7.9
V460 + T    460 +1)
where P = pressure, H = equals height of chimney in feet, T = temperature
of outside air, t = temperature of inside air.
(1.) Does P increase or decrease when t increases?
(2.) Given H = 200, T= 15, t = 1120, find P. PART III.—APPENDICES. M 153
Value.
14        4. (a.) The tickets for an entertainment cost 35 cents for adults and 15 cents for
children.    If a total of $69 was obtained from the sale of 300 tickets,
how many adults' tickets were sold and how many children's tickets 1
(b.) Solve: 1-2 + 4 = 0,  1-1 + 1=0,  ? + -? = 14.
y    z z    x x    y
14        5. (a.) The numerator of a fraction exceeds its denominator by 3.    If you add 1 to
the denominator and subtract 5 from the numerator, the value of the
fraction becomes J.    What is the fraction 1
(b.) The sum of the volumes of two cubes is 189 and an edge of one cube plus an
edge of the other cube is 9.    Find the lengths of the edges of the cubes.
12 .      6. (a.) Can you prove a0 =11    If so, give proof; if not, explain how a0 is taken to
mean 1.
(6.)  Simplify : (2"1 x 3* x 6*) + (9 " i x 12* x 2*) + 2 "*.
12 7.  (a.) The ratio of the area of a rectangle to the area of the square described on its
diagonal is 6:13.    Pind the ratio of the sides of the rectangle.
(b.)  Find, in simplest form, the mean proportional between
-        _               12
V5 + V2 and —t= ==■
Jo - J2
10        8. Draw neatly the graph of x2 - 2x - 5 = y wad from the graph find the approximate
roots of x2 - 2x - 5 = 0.
Botany.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Questions are of equal value.   Answer five only.   Illustrate answers
by sketches or diagrams.]
1. Distinguish   between   pollination  and  fertilization.    By   what   agencies   are   the   following
pollinated:    grasses,   willow,   columbine,   sunflower?     Give   detailed   reasons   for   your
conclusions.
2. Draw and carefully label the tissues seen in the transverse section of a one-year-old stem of a
woody dicotyledon.    State the composition and function of each tissue.   How do the stems
of Palm trees increase in thickness?
3. How may Thallophytes be distinguished from Bryophytes?    Compare an alga with a fungus
in regard to habitat, nutrition, and reproduction.
4. Name the  different  kinds  of fruit found  in  Rosacea^  and give  examples.    Describe  their
structure, texture, and modifications in relation to seed dispersal.
5. With the aid of floral formulae and diagrams, describe the structure of a flower belonging to:
(a)   Umbellifera;;    (b)    Scrophulariacere;    (c)    Compositce.    Name   plants   of   economic
importance (useful or harmful) in each of these families.
6. (a.) Describe some particular liabitat you have visited.    (Bog, woodland, marsh, pond, or
sand dune, etc.)
(6.) Name the principal members  composing the characteristic plant association of that
habitat,
(c.) Indicate what  modifications  or  adaptations  these  plants  show  in  relation  to  their
environment.
7. What chemical elements are necessary for the healthy growth of a flowering plant?    State the
source of each and explain fully by what process and tissue it enters the plant. M 154 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Chemistry.    (Time, 2% hours.)
[Candidates will answer all of Section A and any three questions from Section B.
Atomic weights are given at the end of the paper.]
Section A.
Value.
12       1< (Et.)  State as concisely as you can what you understand by Gay-Lussac's law of
volumes.
(&.)  Describe an experiment to illustrate this law, using hydrogen and oxygen as the
constituent gases.
14 2. If 1.301 grams of acetylene are burned and the resulting gas measured over mercury,
what will be the volume at 24° C?    The barometer reading is 744 mm.
14 3. Explain the terms neutralization, supersaturated, valence, solubility, and water of
crystallization.
12 4. Write in some detail regarding the preparation, properties, and uses of hydrochloric
acid.
12 5. What volume of hydrogen chloride, measured at 21° C. and 740 mm. pressure, can
be prepared from 2.545 g. of chlorine? What weight of calcium hydroxide will
this hydrogen chloride neutralize?
Section B.
12 6. Describe the preparation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. What are the
properties and uses of the former?
12 7. Give the common names of a few of the carbohydrates. Why are these substances
given the name carbohydrates? Explain the term "inversion" as applied to
cane sugar.
12 8- Write briefly regarding the various forms of amorphous carbon with which you are
acquainted.
12 9. Which ores of iron are important industrially? What chemical reactions take place
when one of these ores is heated in the blast-furnace?
12      10.  (a.)  Write chemical equations that illustrate the processes of hydrolysis and saponification.
(6.)  Explain the action of soap as a cleansing agent.
12      11.  (a.)  Write the chemical equations involved in the Le Blanc method of preparing
sodium carbonate.
(&.)  Explain the use of sodium bicarbonate in the making of bread.
12     12. State properties of hydrogen sulphide and write the chemical equations illustrating
its action upon sulphuric acid and chlorine.
Atomic weights:   C=12.00, H = 1.008, 0 = 16.00, 01=35.46, Ca=40,l. PART III.—APPENDICES. M 155
English Composition.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Candidates are reminded that tliey are expected to spell and punctuate correctly. They are
therefore urged to leave some feio minutes free for a revision of their papers. They are
also reminded that they cannot expect marks for paragraphs and essays that are not well
organized and well worked out. They are therefore urged to plan their compositions before
they begin to write. The plan of the essay in question 2 should be written in the examination
book as part of the answer.]
Value.
24       1- Point out the faults in the following sentences, and rewrite in correct form :—
(a.) John Smith's back was strained by lifting the day before yesterday.
(6.)  Thales was a mathematician and a philosopher in his later years, a statesman in middle life, and a merchant in his younger years,
(c.)  Whether a man be rich or poor, you should cultivate good habits and use
good language.
(d.)  People waste a great deal of time and money on automobiles, and riding in
automobiles tends to make them lazy,
(e.)  By watching your steps you will avoid the reefs and sandbanks.
(/.)  Being a wax doll, her cares were immediately forgotten.
76        2. Write a composition of about 300 words on one of the following subjects :—
(a.)  Stevenson as Revealed in An Inland Voyage,
(b.) The Pathos of Amy Robsart's Story.
(c.) The Difficulties Lincoln Had to Contend With.
(d.)  Jacques the Cynic,
(e.)  The Testing of Gareth.
(/.) The Outstanding Features of My High School Course.
English Literature.    (Time, 2% hours.)
[Candidates tvill write on Parts A and D, and on either Part B or Part C]
Part A.
24 1. (a.) Quote at least 12 lines of a "lyric proper," or of various lyrical passages, that
you consider fine. Show that your quotation (or quotations) has some of
the qualities that a good lyric should possess. How would you distinguish
between "lyrical" poetry and "idyllic" poetry?
(&.) Name half a dozen great English lyrists and mention a song by each one of them.
Write about a page on the work of the lyrist whom you know best—its
subject-matter, its style, and other characteristics.
16 2. Write brief notes (of not more than a page at most) on any two of the following
topics:—
(a.)  Reversal of fortune in " The Patriot " and " The Rider at the Gate."
(&.) The heroism of Iphigeneia.
(c.) Tithonus' view of immortality.
(d.) What Karshish learned from Lazarus.
Part B.
16 1- What are the two chief stories which Shakespeare has woven together in The
Merchant of Venice? Show the various ways in which he links the stories to
each other.
10       2. What circumstances compel us to sympathize with Shylock? M 156 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
14       3. Quote from the play a passage of about 12 consecutive lines.    Show  (a) how this
passage is related to its context and  (6)  how it reveals the character of the
speaker.
Part C.
16 1. Do you think that Macbeth is fully "responsible" for the murder of Duncan?
Discuss this question as fully as you can.
10       2. Briefly contrast Macbeth with Banquo.
14 3. Quote from the play a passage of about 12 consecutive lines. Show (a) how this
passage is related to its context and (6) how it reveals the character of the
speaker.
Part D.
A poem for " sight-reading " :—
Shade.
The kindliest thing God ever made,
His hand of very healing laid
Upon a fevered world, is shade.
His glorious company of trees
Throw out their mantles, and on these
The dust-stained wanderer finds ease.
Green temples, closed against the beat
Of noontime's blinding glare and heat,
Open to any pilgrim's feet.
The white road blisters in the sun;
Now, half the weary journey done,
Enter and rest, O weary One!
And feel the dew of dawn still wet
Beneath thy feet, and so forget
The burning highway's ache and fret.
This is God's hospitality,
And whoso rests beneath a tree
Hath cause to thank Him gratefully.
5        (a.)  What is the feeling or emotion about shade which the poet is trying to express?
5        (b.) Make a list of the words and expressions that suggest this feeling, and make a
similar list of expressions that contrast with it.
5        (c.)  Comment on the fitness of some of the figures or speech:   "hand of healing,"
" mantles," " temples," " God's hospitality."
5        (d.)  Briefly relate an experience of your own that illustrates, or throws light upon, the
above poem.
French Grammar.    (Time, 2 hours.)
15 1. Write, in the spaces provided, the words omitted or the correct forms of the words
in italics. It does not necessarily follow that a word must be changed because
it is in italics.
Ce  pensee nous ramene au sujet de ee discours.   Ma eher
 niaman me conduisait la maison le long des rues
plein de couleurs (fern.) vifs	
Je vois encore la boutique de Corcelet petit et 6as
  On y voyait une peinture dej& vieux 	
fi, cette epoque.   Elle me semblait si beau que je ne
m'estimais pas digne de la regarder sans mes habits du dimanche.   A la
caisse, une dame ag6   mais encore joli 	 PART III.—APPENDICES. M 157
Value.
ouvrait un tiroir pour prendre des pieces d'or et d'argent.    Je ne me faisais
pas une idee exact   de ce 	
operations (fern.) qui me paraissaient fort complique	
10       2. Put the following sentences into French.    [Be very careful of tlie construction.]
(a.)  I will try to come to-morrow if you will ask John for his automobile.
(b.)  I was thinking of you all last week but it is easy to see that you were not
expecting me.
(c.)  Physical exercises use all the principal muscles.
30       3. Put into French (below) the following passage.    [Work slowly and carefully.   Read
over your finished work.]
I am very fond of my school where I have been a pupil for three years. If we
had not had a good teacher what would have become of us? There was so
much to do; there were so many distractions (distractions, fern.) among
which we had to choose that the year seemed very short to us. No one
thought that the holidays would come so quickly. Without working hard we
could not hope to do much in such a little time. Fortunately most of us were
helped by our teacher to succeed in passing the examination. I think that
I shall owe my success to him and I shall tell him so.
Answer to question 3:—
20       4. Make short sentences in French to show the use of:—
(a.)  cette 	
(6.)  celle  	
(c.) moi  	
(d.) me	
(e.) assez de	
(/.) assez pour 	
(g.) succfider a 	
Give the English of the above sentence  (for sentence  (g) only) :—
(h.)  servir de 	
(i.)  s'en aller 	
(j.) de crainte que
10       5. Complete the following sentences by putting the verbs printed in italics in the tense
required by the context:—
(a.)  Mon lapin est mourir  hier matin.
(6.)  Elle a beaucoup pleurer 	
(c.)   Si vous faites cela votre livre ne valoir (future)	
plus rien.
(d.) Je le eonduire  (past def.)  a l'ecole ou il
s'asseoir dans un coin.
(e.)  J'ai 6erire   a mon cousin pour lui annoncer
la bonne nouvelle.
(f.) Je s'endormir   hier tres tard et je ne se
lever   qu'a dix heures.   Je se baigner
  et je nager 	
toute la matinee demain. M 15S PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
15        6. Give in French five questions on any subject and the answers to them.    Use the type
of question and answer that you have had in class.
French Translation.    (Time, 2 hours.)
40 1. With the help of the following ideas write a letter or a description, avoiding enumeration and using suitable adjectives. (Do not give your real name or address and
do not translate.)
You are visiting friends in a large port city of France and you are describing to
a friend in Canada the walk you take almost every day to the water-side
along the quays, speaking of the busy scenes often seen there: many ships
being loaded with goods from warehouses; townspeople going up the river
on excursions in steamboats ; travellers boarding the large ocean-bound boats,
friends saying farewell; fishermen going out to sea or returning with their
fishing-boats. Children are playing in the sand by the riverside; gulls are
flying near the lighthouse on the rocks; pretty country houses are scattered
on the sunny hills covered with vineyards.
35        2.  (a.)  In one or two French sentences, say what are:  une gare, le Louvre, Versailles,
le marin, Noel, un musee, les vendanges, les boulevards.
(&.)  Express in French, but in other words, the meaning of the following sentences.
(Example:  Je suis heureux d'etre revenu:  Je suis content d'etre de retour.)
(1.) Jean est 9, l'ecole depuis douze mois.
(2.) Tout & coup l'homme qui donne des legons se mit a marcher vers le
batiment.
(3.)  II a passfi son examen le premier jour de la semaine.
(4.) Nous desirons faire du travail pour le frfire de notre mere.
25        3. Answer in English the questions at the end of this passage, thus showing that you
have read and understood it.    Do not translate it.
On a attribue bien des reparties k la celebre actrice Madeleine Brohan qui a joue
a la Comedie Frangaise jusque vers la fin du XlXieme siecle, mais celle-ci
se trouve 6tre authentique:
C'etait le soir de la premiere d'une piece de Dumas fils, le rnarechal Canrobert,
bien connu pour sa bravoure, entra au " foyer " des artistes oil toute la troupe
se trouvait reunie.    Cette piece doit son nom au foyer (hearth) de la grande
cheminee qui s'y trouvait oft chacun venait se chauffer autrefois quand le
reste du theatre fitait froid.
Ce  soir-ia  le  marechal   s'approcha  du  feu,   puis  s'avangant  prSs   des   artistes
silencieux:
" Vous n'etes pas gais, flt-il, qu'avez vous tous?
— Ah!   monsieur le marechal, repondit Madeleine Brohan, c'est ce soir jour de
grande bataille!
— Eh bien !  c'est jour de victoire !
— Rien ne nous 1'assure quoique nous le desirions et bien que nous fassions tous
nos efforts possibles   .   .   .   enfln comment vous dire   .   .   .   nous avons
peur!
— Peur!  fit Canrobert d'un air surpris et qui semblait ne pas compi-endre    .    .    .
— Ah ! oui, c'est vrai, reprit Madeleine.    Pardon, et elle sonne, disant au serviteur
qui parait a la porte:
— Picard, un dictionnaire pour Monsieur le Marechal. PART III.—APPENDICES. M 159
(1.) Comment la salle de reunion des artistes devint-elle "foyer"?
(2.) Pourquoi les artistes n'etaient-ils pas gais?
(3.) Que veut dire Madeleine par sa reponse a la question du Marechal?
(4.) Pourquoi l'actrice demande-t-elle un dictionnaire?
(5.) Trouvez un titre pour cette anecdote.
Geometry.    (Time, 2% hours.)
[N.B.-—Draw neat diagrams; use printed capitals.   Authorities may be cited by number
or by enunciation.]
Value.
14       1- Make  an  accurate  construction  of the  following,  omitting proof but  showing all
necessary construction lines:   Construct a triangle on a base 3 inches long, with
an altitude of 2 inches, and having a vertical angle equal to the given angle A.
10       2. State whether the following statements are (1)  always true,  (2)  sometimes true,
or (3) false.    [It is not necessary to copy down the statements or to give any
explanations.   Refer to them only, and clearly, as (a),   .   .   .    (/).]
(a.) If a + b >c, then a2 + b2> c2.
(6.)  If ABC and DEF are similar triangles and AB  is double DE, then the
triangle ABC is double the triangle DEF.
(c.) If two triangles are equiangular they are similar.
(d.) If two triangles are equiangular they are congruent,
(e.) AB and CD are two chords of a circle intersecting at P.   Then AP.PB =
CP.PD when P lies on the circumference.
(/.)  ACB is a segment of a circle on the chord AB.    Then the angle ACB always
has the same magnitude whether C coincides with B or not.
14       3. If a pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral are supplementary, its vertices are
concyclic.
14       4.  (a.)  If two triangles are equiangular their corresponding sides are proportional.
6 (b.) The triangles ABC and DEF are equiangular, having i_ A= zD,  o-B=-iE,
--C= iZF.     If AB = 5, BC = 6, EF = 9 and the area of ABC=12, find
the length of DE and the area of DEF.
14       5. ABO is an isosceles triangle having AB=AC.   The perpendicular from B upon AC
is BD.    Prove BC2=2AC.OD.
14       6.  (a.)   Show, without proof, how to construct a circle to touch a given circle at a given
point A and to pass through a given point B,  (1) when B lies within the
given circle, (2) when B lies without the given circle.
(6.)  What happens when B is (i) on the circumference of the given circle,  (ii)  on
the tangent to the given circle at the given point A?
(Note.—Candidates will work either 7 or 8.   If both questions are done, only the first
one attempted will be marked.]
7. Two circles DGE and DFE have a common chord DE, and the centre P of DGE lies
on the circumference of DFE. A straight line PHGF cuts the common chord at
H, the circle DGE at G, and the circle DFE at F. Prove that PG is a mean
proportional between PH and PF.
Or
8. Divide a given arc of a circle into two parts so that the chords of these two parts
shall be in the ratio 3:2.
14 M 160
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
German Grammar.    (Time, 2 hours.)
A'alue.
6
1.  Use in complete sentences the genitive singular of :  ©tabt, SRenfd), -fperj ; and
the genitive plural of : ©djroefter, -ffictlb, 2luge.
10
2. Put into German :—
(1.) The chair is behind the table.
(2.) He came with his brother.
(3.) They went through the park.
(4.) He came in spite of the rain.
(5.) He put the chair between the door and the window.
(6.) He ran to me.
(7.) He put it under the desk.
(8.) They came a week ago.
(9.) It rained during the day.
(10.) He came without his book.
10
3.  Insert articles and fill in correct endings where necessary, then rewrite in the
plural:—
3Me§—reid)—Same iDoljnt in ein—Dornel)nt—,§au§ in jen&reit—©trage.    @te
l)at ein—Hem—<3ol)it, ber immer mit—gro§-—.fpintb fein—alter—-Bruber§
fpielt.    (Sr Iteht—gut—£ier unb roemt er in—prddjtig—2Iutomo6it fein—
fdjStt—SRutter fctl)rt, nimmt er fein—treu—greimb mit.
10
4. (a.) Change the following infinitives to the correct form of the present tense :—
(1.) @r eintreten in ba§ 3i,)lttiei:-
(2.) ®u raiffen e§ nid)t.
(3.) (gr obfal)ren morgen.
(4.) (£r oergeffen gu fdjnett.
(5.) (Sr Betrttdjten fate Sanbfdjaft.
(6.) Write the future of (1), the future-perfect of (3), and all the imperative
forms of: (out fpredjett and fid) angteljen.
10
5. Change the following verbs to the imperfect and pluperfect tenses:—
(1.) @r fttjt ttuf bent ©titfjl.
(2.) 35u JjeBft bie ftreibe ttuf.
(3.   (Sr reitet tnt tyatt.
(4.) @r Befhtbet fid) wol)l.
(5.) ®u nimmft e§ mit.
12
6. Put into German :—
(1.) He is just as old as his friend.
(2.) The days are longer in spring than in winter but they are longest in
summer.
(3.) I like that book best.
(4.) She gave him her pen because he had lost his.
(5.) I like your watch better than mine.
(6.) That pencil is not yours; please give it to me.
(7.) To whom and with what shall I write this letter 1 PART III.—APPENDICES. M 161
German Translation,    (Time, 2 hours.)
60 1. Put into English:—
(a.) 2)er junge SDredjfler font gur 2I6enbgeit gu bem -IBirt§t)au§, roo feine 93riiber
Betrogen roorben roaren. (Sr legte feinen iTtangen oor fid) auf ben
Sttfd) unb ftng an gu erga^Icit, roa§ er aHe§ in ber -Belt gefel)en l)aBe.
,,3ia," fagte er, ,,man finbet rool)l ein £ifd)d)en--bect'r-bid), einen
©olbefel unb bergleidjen : atle§ gute ®htge, bie id) nid)t »erad)te;
aBer ba§ ift nid)t§ gegen ben ©djttfc, ben id) mir erroorBen l)a6e unb
mit mir ba in meinem <Sad fiil)re." 3)er 333 trt fpitjte bie Often.
,,3Ba§ in alTer -Belt mag bag fein?" bad)te er, ,,ber ©act ift too 1)1
mit tauter (Sbelftetnen angefiillt; ben foilte id) aud) nod) l)a6en-"
(6.) ,,2Bir nerfteljen bid) nid)t? 2Ber fann bid) oerfteljen ? ®u glaufift oielTeid)t,
ba§ bu finger Bift atS ber Safer unb bie grau? -Bon mir roiH id)
nidjt reben. Set oernimftig unb banfe ®ott, ba§ bu eS fo gut l)aft!
SOBo^rtft bu nid)t in etner roarmen <3tu6e, unb fjaft bu nid)t eine ©efetU
fd)aft, oon ber bu profitieren fannft? 9IBer bu bift ein ©djrodljer,
unb e§ ift riidji angenefjm, mit bir git fein. SWir fannft bu glauBen!
3d) meine e§ gut mit bir. 5>d) fage bir Unanitel)mltd)fetten, unb baran
fann man feine roaljren greunbe erfennen! @ief) nur gu, baj) bu
(3ier legft!"
Value.
6 7.  (a.) Combine the following sentences by means of a relative pronoun :—
(1.) 35ein SSrtef roar intereffartt.    35u l)aft beine CrTteife barin Befd)rie6en.
(2.) 3d) fenne bie gran.    c3t)r @ol)n ift franf.
(3.) ®er 9J.ann ift t)ier.    Qldj Befud)te il)n geftern.
(b.) Combine the following sentences by means of a conjunction :—
(1.) (gie gingen fpagieren.    @ie roottten frifd)e Suft atmen.
(2.) (Seine greunbe roaren in .fpamBurg.    @r rau§te ba§.
(3.) @te famen erft urn elf Ul)r an.    @ie gingen bennod) fpagieren.
21 8. Put into German :—
(1.) If you (sing.) wish to learn German, you must study.
(2.) He knew the city and he knew how many people lived there.
(3.) He brought me three glasses of water and two cups of coffee.
(4.) He was sorry that I was not feeling well yesterday.
(5.) That is all that I know about it.
(6.) He who is not for me is against me.
(7.) Goethe died on the 22nd of May, 1832, in the little city of Weimar.
(In full.)
15 9.  Put into German :—
The German schoolboy has to get up early in the morning as school begins
at eight o'clock. At a quarter past seven he is already washed and
dressed and begins his breakfast. At school he has classes until noon
when he goes home for dinner. He must know his lessons and pay
attention in class, for if he does not, he will have to stay in after
school. In the afternoon he can play if he wants to, but in the evening
he must do his lessons for the next day. Then he goes to bed and falls
asleep at once. M 162
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1920-27.
Value.
10
15
15
(c) SDie Blutjeuben 33ufd)e iiffneten fid) con felbft unb geigten ben ftnaBen einen
33fab.   3)a§ @onnen!id)t Blinfte burd) ba§ SStatterbad) ber SOSatbBaume
unb matte taufenb golbene 2Iugen auf ba§ 9Jioo§, unb au§ bem SOcooS
ftiegen SternBtumen non Brennenben garBen.    ©rofien aber in ben
3roeigen ftatterten fingenbe 33b'gel, unb ^)irfd)e, Crftelje  unb  anbere
SBatbtiere fprangen htftig burd) bie 93itfd)e.
(d.) „3n ber Ie|ten Sftadjt—Sdjauber faf-jt mid), roenn id) baran benfe—Dernal)m
id) augftlid)e§ S[8et)gefd)rei, roetct)e§ offenBar au§ ber fietjte einer meiner
SOJitgefangenen fam.    3d) fal) groei Slugen im -Konbtid)! funfetn unb
Ijorte 3Cobe§roct)e(n.   (Sin gud)§ mufjte in ben ©tall eingeBrodjen fein.
ccDie 2tngft oerliel) mir Srafte, id) groangte mid) burd) ba§ (Sitter
metneS fierfers? unb gelangte in§ greie.    -3d) roar gerettet.    SDcetne
gliigel trugen mid) in biefe§ Sat, roo id) BleiBen roitl, Bi§ ber SSinter
fommt."
(«.)       Unb l)eute gaB ber 35ater ein Sd)roert mir in bie .Spanb,
Unb roeil)te mid) gum ficimpfer fur @ott nnb 3Satertanb.
(Sr maf^ mid) mit ben Slicfen nom J?opf Bi§ gu ben %t\)x\,
Wxx roar's, at§ tiit' fein 2luge fiinaB in§ ,£>erg mir fel)n.
3d) I)iett mein ©d)roert gen .gmnmet, unb fd)aut' il)n fidjer an;
Unb beud)te mid) gur ©htnbe nid)t fd)led)ter al§ ein SJcann.
5Da fprad) er, unb bie 3L3ange roarb il)m roie 33lut fo rot:
©tiitf gu mit beinem Sdiroerte, bu fleiner .Spnbriot!
(/) <Sr fpridjt im Sdjlaf gum 3?naBen:
,,®et) l)in uor§ ©d)lofL o 3raerg,
Unb fiel), oB nod) bie CJtaBen
.Sperftiegen urn ben -Berg.
Unb roenn bie alten 9ia6en
S'Jod) ftiegen immerbar,
(So mu§ id) aud) nod) fd)tafen
-BergauBert fjunbert 3at)r."
2. Translate at sight:—
(Sin Some, ein cgud)§ unb ein (Sfet gingen gufammen auf bie 3agb. 2lt§ fie
einen npirfd)1 getotet fatten, BefafI ber Some bem (Sfet bie 33eute gu teiten.
SDiefer mad)te brei gleict)e Seite unb Bat ben Somen gu roiiflen. 3)er Sbroe,
roetd)er erroartet ^t)atte, einen grogeren -teit at§ bie anberen gu Befommen,
roar gornig unb totete ben (Sfet. (Sr 6efal)t benn bem gud)§, eine neue
Steilung gu mad)en. dDiefer legte faft atteS »or ben Somen unb Befiett nur
fefr roenig fur fid). ,,3Ber I)at bid) fo teiten getel)rt ? " fragte il)n ber
Sbroe. ,,®ie .Spaut be§ <Sfet§," antroortete ber gud)§.
1 Stag.
3. Put into German :—
A boy once saw a little rose on the heath. It was so beautiful that he ran
quickly to see it more closely. He said to the rose, "Little heathrose,
I like you so much that I am going to pluck you." But the little rose
replied, "If you break me, I shall prick you with my thorns, so that
you will always have to think of me." But that did not help it any
and it had to suffer in that the wild boy plucked it.
4. Write in German a description of your home.     (At least half a page.) Value.
10
5
10
10
10
10
20
25
PA.RT III.—APPENDICES.
M 163
Greek.    (Time, 2 hours.)
1. Decline throughout ov, iytfi, avijp, p-jrap.
2. Decline pAXas (three genders) in the singular; ypvo-ovs (three genders) in the plural.
3. Conjugate the imperfect indicative and the present imperative and optative of dfiu.
4. Conjugate the pluperfect passive indicative of TreiOa, the present active subjunctive
of rifj.dta, the aorist passive indicative of aya>.
5. (a.) When does eo-ri become eo-rt ?    When does an enclitic lose its accent?
(b.) Write the Greek preposition for the following meanings, indicating the case
governed : out of, on account of, by (of the agent, with passive verbs).
(c.) How is means expressed in Greek? time within which? manner? When
is -v movable used ?    What is a proclitic ?
6. Write   the   principal   parts   of   ei/xi,   7ropevop.ai,   ypd<j>o>,   kotxthi,  cjxvkdrToi,  na\em,
Aa/i/3avou, yjia.op.ai, taut, <f>evya>.
7. Ti-anslate into English :—
(a.) iroXtp.iov Se Toy YLvpov p.r) Trol-qo-Wfiev.
(b.)  (pitira  ovv rrolovs re Kal ttoo-ovs ev ry (rrparia €?X65 o-<frtvo'oV'qTa<;.
(c.)  £' yap tis aAAos to avrb tovto iron'/o-uev, -eydiye ovk av iTrai,vto-aiji.i.
(d.) ao-iruji Kal aKivaKais Sena rj/JLipas eTroXe/jLovv aAAryAois.
(e.)  Tots    S'   "EWrio-iv    hpop.ai    iav   if/ricjiio-oivTai,   tg>    rav   Uepcraiv   o-TpaTnyut
o-vp,Tropt:veo-6ai.
8. Translate into Greek : —
(a.) Do not bring this wagon into the market-place.
(b.) If you had not asked Cyrus for bowmen, you would have been defeated
easily.
(c.) Your bows are not handsome, but they are strong.
(d.) In all these places he destroyed the bridges so that the Persians might
not retreat.
(e.) Were you not afraid that he would be a bad friend?
History.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Ansicer any four questions.]
25        1- How did each of the following contribute to the success of the Protestant Reformation:  Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, Elizabeth, Henry VIII.?
5        2.  (a.)  What is meant by Puritanism?
20 (o.) What was the attitude of the typical English Puritan of the first half, of the
17th Century towards the King, the Roman Catholic Church, the Stage, the
Bible, the Parliament?
9       3. (a.) Name three ways in which the life of the working-man was improved by the
Industrial Revolution.
9 (6.) Three ways in which it deteriorated.
7 (c.) Was its general effect good or bad?
25        4. What were the great problems facing France after 1871?    Show, briefly, how these
problems were met, and describe the political condition of France in 1914. M 164
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1920-27.
Value.
25
10
15
15
10
16
9
5. Compare the Canada of 1867 with the Canada of 1927 under the following headings :—
Geographical extent.
Population, and its distribution.
Means of communication.
Relation to the British Government.
Relation to the King.
6. (a.) Why did Great Britain enter the World War?
(6.)  How did the Treaty of Versailles affect the British Empire?
7. (a.) What conditions in Russia made the revolution inevitable?
(b.) Were any of these conditions similar to those that caused the French Revolution?
8. (a.)  List some of the important accomplishments of the League of Nations.
(&.)  Give three reasons for its failure to accomplish more.
Latin Authors and Sight Translation.    (Time, 2% hours.)
A. Caesab, De Bello Gaxlico, Books IV. and V.
1. Translate:—
8 Pugnatum est ab .utrisque acriter.    Nostri tamen, quod neque ordines servare
neque flrmiter insistere neque signa subsequi poterant atque alius alia ex navi
quibuscumque signis occurrerat se adgregabat, magnopere perturbabantur;
hostes vero, notis omnibus vadis, ubi ex litore aliquos singulares ex navi
egredientes conspexerant, incitatis equis impeditos adoriebantur, plures
paucos circumsistebant, alii ab latere aperto in universos tela conjielebant.
3 (a.) Ab utrisque.    What would ab utroque mean?
(&.) Account for the case of signis, plures.
2. Translate:—
Q Secutae sunt continuos complures dies tempestates, quae et nostros in castris
continerent et hostem a pugna prohiberent. Interim barbari nuntios in
omnes partes dimiserunt paucitatemque nostrorum militum suis praedlca-
verunt et quanta praedae faciendae atque in perpetuvrin sui liberandi facultas
daretur, si Romanos castris expulissent, demonstraverunt.
7 (ei.)  Account for the case of dies, suis, faciendae, castris;  the mood of continerent,
daretur, expulissent.
3. Translate:—
6 Posteaquam id obstinate sibi negari vidit, omni spe impetrandi adempta, principes
Galliae sollicitare, sevocare singulos hortarique coepit ut in continenti
remanerent; metu territare, non sine causa fieri, ut Gallia omni nobilitate
spoliaretur; id esse consilium Caesaris ut quos in conspectu Galliae inter-
ficere vereretur hos omnes in Britanniam traductos necaret.
4 (ei.) Account for the case of id, nobilitate; the mood of remanerent, vereretur.
B. Virgil, Aeneid IL, Lines 1-505.
4. Translate:—
4 Pars stupet innuptae donum exitiale Minervae
et molem mirantur equi; primusque Thymoetes
duci intra muros hortatur et arce locari,
sive dolo seu iam Troiae sic fata ferebant.
1 (a.) What is noteworthy about the mood of duci?
5. Translate:—
6 Hie Ithacus vatern magno Calchanta tumultu
protrahit in medios;  quae sint ea numina divum PART III.—APPENDICES. M 165
Value.
flagitat.    et mihi iam multi crudele canebant
artiflcis seelus, et taciti ventura videbant.
bis quinos silet ille dies tectusque recusat
prodere voce sua quemquam aut opponere morti.
3 (a.) Account for mood of sint.
(b.) Why  is bis quinos used instead of  duo  quinque,  and  quemquam instead of
aliquem?
6. Translate:—
4 Tunc etiam fatis aperit Cassandra futuris
ora dei iussu non umquam credita Teucris.
nos delubra deum miseri, quibus ultimus esset
ille dies, festa velamus fronde per urbem.
2 (a.) What is noteworthy in the use of credita?
(6.)  Give two possible explanations of the mood of esset.
7. Translate:—
2 Sat patriae Priamoque datum:   si Pergama dextra
defendi possent, etiam hac defensa fuissent.
4 (ei.) Account for the case oi.dextra, the mood of fuissent;  the tense of possent.
(b.)  Scan the second line.
8. Translate:—
4 Iliaci cineres et flamma extrema rneoruni,
testor, in occasu vestro nee tela nee ullas
vitavisse vices Danaum et, si fata fuissent
ut caderem, meruisse manu.
1 (a.)  Scan the third line.
C. Sight Translation.
35        9- Translate at sight: —
Darius autem, cum ex Europa in Asiam redisset, hortantibus amicis ut Graeciam
redigeret in suam potestatem, classem quingentarum navium comparavit
eique Datim praefecit et Artaphernem bisque dueenta milia peditum, decern
milia equitum dedit, causam interserens se hostem esse Atheniensibus, quod
eorum auxilio Iones quandam e suis urbibus expugnassent suaque praesidia
interfecissent. Illi duces cum classis ad insulam Euboeam venisset celeriter
Eretriam ceperunt omnesque eius gentis cives abreptos in Asiam ad regeni
miserunt. Inde ad ritticam accesserunt ac suas copias in campum Marathona
deduxerunt. Is abest ab oppido Atheniensium circiter milia passuum decern.
Hoc tumultu tarn propinquo tamque magno Athenienses permoti auxilium
a Lacedaemoniis petiverunt Phidippumque cursorem eius generis, qui
hemerodromoe vocantur, Lacedaemonem miserunt, ut nuntiaret quantum
esset periculum. Domi autem creant decern praetores, qui exercitui praees-
sent, in eis Miltiadem. Inter quos magna fuit contentio, utrum moenibus se
defenderent an obviam irent hostibus acieque decernerent. Unus Militiades
maxime nitebatur, ut primo quoque tempore castra flerent: id si factum
esset, et cives fortius pugnaturos, cum viderent de sua virtute non desperari,
et hostes eadem re fore tardiores, si animadverterent Athenienses audere
adversus se tarn exiguis copiis dimicare.
redigere=reduce, bring.
interserere=allege.
hemerodromoe = day runners.
primus quisque=first possible.
obviam ire=meet.
castra facere=take the field. M 166 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Latin Grammar and Composition.    (Time, 2 hours.)
1. Write the genitive plural of:—
civis fortis	
res gesta 	
hie fructus 	
the dative singular of:—
haec respublica 	
ilia spes	
quod flumen 	
the ablative singular of:—
idem tempus	
onus grave 	
the genitive singular of:—
eadem legio 	
uter frater  c	
iter longius	
the accusative plural of:—
caput suum	
illud genus 	
3       2. Write the genitive singular (with the adjective in the superlative) of:
respublica libera 	
the accusative plural (with the adjective in the comparative) of:—
mare latum 	
the ablative singular (with the adjective in the superlative) of:—
cornu gracile 	
14       3- Write the second singular present indicative of:—
proficiscor 	
nolo   	
abeo 	
differo (active and passive)	
the second singular perfect indicative active of:—
mitto	
the third plural present subjunctive active of:—
rego  	
mitto	
iubeo    '.	
volo   	
the perfect infinitive active of:—
cognosco   	
the singular present imperative passive of:—
rego  	
the singular present imperative of:—
proficiscor 	
nolo    '..,	
12       4. Write in Latin:—
(a.) You (sing.) were being heard.
(6.)  We shall begin to retreat.
(c.) You have said.
(d.) To have learned.
Value.
13 Value.
PART III.—APPENDICES. M 16
(e.)  To take thought for one's self.
(/.)  This circumstance was of great service to our men.
(g.) At the beginning of summer.
(h.)  I shall become consul.
(i.)  I was informed.
(j.)  I do not know whither we are going.
5. Translate into Latin :—
5 (ei.)  When hostages have been received the troops will retire into winter quarters.
4 (b.) Caesar himself will occupy the same camp.
4 (c.) The neighbouring states promised to give hostages.
6 (d.) They informed me that you would not venture to advance.
6 (e.)  He asked us which of the two had been the more useful friend.
6 (/.)  I do not know who has been placed in command of this camp.
4 (g.) They said they had not waged war upon us.
Q (h.) Caesar sent Volusenus into Britain in advance to find out what the Britons
were doing.
Q (i.)  He asked my brother whether he was willing to remain all day.
5 (/.)  The soldiers advanced with such speed that they soon overtook the enemy's
rear guard.
6 (k.)  He urged us not to believe that he was willing to spare the lands of the
barbarians.
Physics.    (Time, 2% hours.)
[The last question and any other seven constitute a full paper.]
12       I. (a.) A body weighing 300 pounds is to be pushed by hand up a 12-foot plank
into a wagon 4 feet high.    What is the smallest force required if friction
be neglected?
(6.) What is the least force that must be applied to a cubic foot of wood of mass
30 pounds that it may be wholly immersed in a liquid of specific gravity 2?
12       2.  (a.) A certain mass of gas occupies a volume of 100 cc. at a temperature of 17° C.
and a pressure of 80 cm.   What volume will it occupy at a temperature
of —23° C. and a pressure of 60 cm.?
(&.) Define the following terms:  Absolute zero, B.T.U., heat of vaporization. '
M 168
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
12
12
12
12
12
12
16
3. (ei.)  Find the resulting temperature when 100 grams of iron at 90° C. are immersed
in 80 grams of water at 10" C, contained in a copper vessel of mass 20 grams.
Specific heat of copper is 0.094 and that of iron is 0.113.
(&.)  When water freezes or ice melts and when water vaporizes or water vapour
condenses heat effects are produced.    Explain clearly how this affects the
climate.
4. (a.) At a time when the velocity of sound in air is 1,100 feet per second a certain
air column in a pipe closed at one end is found to be the shortest that is
in resonance with a tuning-fork of frequency 200.   What is the length of the
air column?
(6.)  Define  the following  terms:   transverse  wave  motion,  wave  length,  octave,
discord.
5. (a.) An object is placed 20 cm.  from a concave mirror of focal length 30 cm.
Calculate the position,of the image.    What kind of image is it?
(6.)  Name one common defect of the eyes.    Use diagrams to describe the nature of
this defect and the means of correcting it.
6. (a.) By means of a drawing show how to locate the position of the image of an
object placed within the focal length of a convex lens.
(6.)  Make a sketch of the field of force revealed by iron filings  (1)  between two
like magnetic poles, (2) between two unlike poles.
7. (a.)  How does the intensity of light depend on the distance from the source?   Prove
this law.
(&.)  Make a diagram to illustrate the principle of the D'Arsonval  galvanometer.
Mark the poles of the magnet, the direction of the current in the coil, and
indicate clearly the direction of motion of the coil.
8. (a.) A carbon lamp takes 0.5 ampere at 110 volts pressure.   Find the cost of operat
ing the lamp for 10 hours at 5 cents per k.w.h.
Or
How much heat is given off in 10 minutes by an electric heater which takes
6 amperes at 110 volts pressure?
(&.) Use the electron theory to explain why a pith-ball is first attracted to and
then repelled from a charged ebonite rod.
9. (a.) A force of 50 dynes acts on a mass of 10 grams which is free to move.    If the
body starts from rest, calculate:—
(1.)  The acceleration.
(2.) The distance the body goes in the first 10 seconds.
(3.)  The effective work done upon the body in the first 10 seconds.
(6.) Calculate the effective horse-power of a steam-pump that can raise 100 cubic-
feet of water per minute to a vertical height of 33 feet. '•
PART III.—APPENDICES. M 169
Grade XI., Normal Entrance.
Geography.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Questions are of equal value.    Answer five only.]
1. (a.)  In British Columbia on December 22nd the sun follows a certain path across the sky.
Locate clearly the sun's position in its path at sunrise; at noon; at sunset,
(b.) What is the principal factor governing the average temperature of a region?   What other
factors exert a modifying influence?   Name and locate regions to illustrate your
answers,
(c.)  In a direct flight at an average rate of 125 miles an hour, how long will it take an
aeroplane to fly between two locations, if their respective latitudes are 5° North
and 4° South, the longitude of each being 110° West?
2. (ei.)  How is delta land formed?    Explain its economic value.    Locate three deltas associated
with ancient civilization.
(b.) Account for the formation of the following rocks:   marble, limestone, granite.
. (o.)  How is the supply of raw material produced for each of the following manufactured
goods and in what countries are such supplies chiefly  obtained:   rope, worsteds,
velvet, mohair, calico?
3. (a.)  Describe the main surface features of the province of Quebec and show how these divide
the province into natural divisions.    (Illustrate by a sketch-map.)    What are the
chief natural resources of each of these divisions?
(&.) Discuss which province has the better manufacturing facilities, Quebec or Ontario.
4. (a.)  Write comprehensively on the fishing industry of British Columbia.
(&.) From what points in British Columbia along the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway east of Mission do branch lines run? Name the other terminal point of
each branch line. In projecting these lines the engineers took advantage of what
physical features?
(c.) By means of a sketch show the rivers of British Columbia which belong to the Mackenzie
river system.
5. (a.) Explain clearly how the coast-line of Europe has influenced its development.
(&.) Locate definitely and state the industrial or commercial importance of each of the
following: Antwerp, Fiume, Bergen, Grimsby, Q-alatz, Derby, Barcelona, Nancy,
Milan, Helsingfors.
(c.) What is the largest river in Europe and into what body of water does it empty?
6. (ei.)  Draw  a  sketch-map  as  large  as  your  paper  will  permit  and  locate  the  following:
Singapore,    Peking,    Yang-tse-kiang,    Manila,    Hong-kong,    Shanghai,    Yokohama,
Formosa,   Canton,   Hwang-ho.
(b.) What agricultural products are common to both India and the United States?    State the
region in each country where they are produced extensively.
7. (a.)  Describe the outstanding features of the Amazon and the Nile rivers.
(&.)  Name and locate the British and the French possessions in Africa.
(c.) What is the largest city in the world south of the Equator?   Account for its growth. ■
M 170
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
14
14
14
14
14
14
16
Grade XII., Senior Matriculation.
Algebra.    (Time, 3 hours.)
1. Solve the equations :—
(a.) x2 + Jx2 - fkc+1 - 5a: + 1.
(b.) x + y + 2 = 7
x2 + y2 + z2 = 21
yz = x2.
are required to make a sum of
(a.) How many terms of the series 10, 5, 0,
(-750)?
(b.) The 4th term of a G.P. is 10 and the 7th is f.    Find the series and its sum to
infinity.
n /an + cn
V b^To>'
(c.) Derive the Harmonic mean between a and 6.
3. (ei.)  If _ = - = - , prove that each ratio = ==
X   '        b    d    f    V b-d+f
(b.) Given that x2,+ y2, ax + by, a2 + b2 are in continued proportion, prove that
x, y, a, b, are in proportion.
4. (a.) If x varies inversely as y and y varies inversely as z, prove that z varies as x.
(b.) The squares of the times of revolution of planets around the sun vary as the
cubes of their mean distances from the sun. The earth's time of revolution is 1 year and its mean distance is d. Find the time of revolution of
Mars around the sun in years, given that its mean distance is 1.5d.
5. (a.) Form the equation whose roots are 5 + v7 and 5 - Ji.
(b.) Prove that the roots of the equation (a + b)x2 - (a + b + 2c)x + c = 0 are always
real provided a, b, c are real.
6. (ei.) How many different committees of four persons can be chosen from 10 persons ?
How is the result affected if the chairman of each committee is always to
be the same person?
(6.) A car seats 7 passengers including the driver.    In how many different  ways
can five persons be seated if only two can drive ?
/        1\"
7. (ei.) Write down the general term of (x2+ -)    and hence show that there will be
a term independent of x in this expansion if n is a multiple of 3.
(6.) Write down and simplify the first three terms of the expansion of (1 —x)~~z-
(c.) The   amount   of  $100   bearing  compound   interest   for   10 years  at  5%  is
$100(1.05)10.    Use the Binomial Theorem to find this amount to the
nearest dollar.
Biology".    (Time, 3 hours.)
[Questions are of equal value.    Answer five only.    Illustrate answers by sketches
or diagrams.]
1. Trace the circulation of the blood in mammals, from the time it leaves the left ventricle until
it returns to it again.   Explain what changes take place in the composition of the blood
during its course.    How was the circulation of the blood discovered, and by whom?
2. Describe the structure of a nerve cell, a muscle cell, a food-storage cell, a palisade cell, and
the epidermal cell of a leaf.    State the function of each, and show how the structure is
related to the work it performs.
3. Discuss nutrition under the heads:  digestion, absorption, and assimilation. PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 171
4. Explain what Is meant by alternation of generations;   illustrate by reference to the life
histories of a hydroid and a moss.
5. Compare the structure of the hind limb of (ei) a bird,  (b) a cat, and (c) a horse;   in each
case show how it is related to the mode of life of the animal.
6. Explain fully the following terms and illustrate by reference to examples:   colloid, diffusion,
enzyme, fertilization, osmosis, plasmolysis, pollination, symbiont.
Chemistry.    (Time, 3 hours.)
[Questions are of equal value.   Answer ten only.    Atomic weights are
given at end of paper.]
1. A certain gaseous compound was found to contain 80% of carbon and 20% of hydrogen by
weight. Also, one litre of it weighs 1.2314 gms. at 20° C. and 750 mm. pressure. Calculate
its formula.
2. Describe, with equations, the chemical reactions involved in the manufacture of either
(a) sodium carbonate by the Le Blanc or salt cake process, or (b) sodium bicarbonate
by the Solvay or ammonia process.
3. Discuss fully, in  reference to  a solution of cupric bromide in  water,  three  methods  of
displacing ionic equilibria.    Write all necessary equations.
4. For the neutralization of 77 cc. of a certain alkaline solution, 25 cc. of normal hydrochloric
acid are required. What is the normal concentration of the alkali? If the alkali was
sodium hydroxide, what weight of it was present? If it was barium hydroxide, what
weight of it was present?
5. Describe, as fully as possible, the chemistry of the chamber process for the manufacture of
sulphuric acid.
6. Discuss oxidation and reduction under the following headings:—
(a.) oxidation by oxygen,
(6.)  oxidation by other negative elements,
(o.)  oxidation and valence,
(d.)  oxidation and ionization.
7. Write on the oxidizing action of nitric acid under the following headings :—
(a.)  oxidation of hydrogen,
(6.) oxidation of heavy metals,
(c.) oxidation of non-metals,
(d.)  aqua regia.
8. (ei.) What is an ester?   Describe the preparation of any one.   Why are such actions not
regarded as neutralizations?
(6.)  Describe, with equations, the preparation of any one soap and also show why this soap
does not act well in hard water.
9. (ei.) Name the chief ores of iron.
(&.) Describe the chemical and physical conditions existing in the blast furnace while iron
is being formed from the ore.
(c.) What is steel?
10. Outline the history of the discovery of radium.
11. Give an account of the analytical reactions of any two of the following :   (a) silver, (&) lead,
(c) mercury,  (d) zinc.
Atomic weights:   C=12.005, H = L008, 01=35.46, Na=23.00, Ba = 137.37. M 172 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1920-27.
English Composition.    (Time, 3 hours.)
Value.
25       1. In the following sentences point out what is incorrect and rewrite each sentence in
better form:—
(a.) Take pains with spellingand you can avoid all misspellings.
(6.) This hotel will be built on the site of the New Haven House, which is soon
to be torn down, opposite the Green, and is unquestionably the most
desirable location in the city for such a building.
(c.) He tried to frighten the mouse from under the bureau, but that was impossible, and then he tipped it over, and the creature ran out, but it did
not escape for Fido sprang upon it and bit off its neck.
(d.) I was riding in an automobile the other day when we ran over a spaniel
dog and killed it in spite of all we could do to get out of it.
(e.)  Not wishing to insist, nevertheless, this point demands attention.
15       2. Examine the following paragraph so as to show how far it exhibits the laws and
devices of good paragraph structure:—■
However original and iconoclastic Shaw may be in respect to interpretative
prefaces and artistically cast stage-directions, in the matter of dramatic
construction and technique he has been notably rigorous, rather than careless,
in his attempt at realistic representation. In minor matters of punctuation,
it is true, he has freely gratified his own preferences and likings—using
spaced letters for emphasis, omitting commas and apostrophes whenever no
doubt as to the sense is involved, avoiding quotation marks for titles and,
indeed, in biblical fashion, dispensing with punctuation on every possible
occasion. All these things are merely matters of taste. But the conventional
technique of the drama, the customs, tricks, and devices of stage-draft, he
ordinarily accepts without question. In Widowers' Bouses in its first form,
he made the explicit division into scenes; since that time, he has made each
of his plays, as far as scenes go, a continuous whole, unbroken save only by
division into acts, and by a succession of asterisks where a lapse of time is
to be understood. In this respect, he has carefully preserved his rule of
writing down nothing that might remind the reader of an actual stage or
a theatric representation.
10       3. Discuss briefly how to plan an expository essay.   Illustrate your discussion by making
a plan for your answer to question 4.
50       4. Write an expository theme of about 300 words on one of the following topics:—
(a.) Opportunities for a young man in commerce  (or teaching, or mining, or
agriculture).
(6.)  Why I like  (or dislike)  Modern Poetry,
(c.) The present system of examinations.
(d.) Why I prefer the study of Science to the study of Languages (or the study
of Languages to the study of Science).
English Literature.    (Time, 3 hours.)
14       1- "The home-sickness of the poet may be home-sickness for beauty, or for permanence,
or even for the past."
(a.) Quote, or fully paraphrase, a poem in Methuen's Anthology which illustrates
any one of these three phases or any other phase of the " home-sickness "
of the poet. PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 173
Value.
12      2.
12      3.
12        4
12        5.
14      «•
12        7.
12        8.
(b.) Mention as many poems as you can which would illustrate the above quotation.
Write a brief note on each poem to show why you mention it in this
connection.
In l%-2 pages write a criticism of any one of the following: (a) "The Hound of
Heaven";   (b) "The Great Lover";   (c) "The Souls of the Slain."
Write an essay of about 300 words on one of the following, drawing your illustrations
from Methuen's Anthology:—
(ei.)  " The passion of love sets as few of the younger poets on fire as the passion
of politics."
(6.)  Attachment to the soil as an inspiration for the modern poet.
Contrast Electra and Julius Caesar as to the following particulars:—-
(ei.)  The motive of the main action.
(7).)  Unity,
(c.)  The influence of the women characters on the main action.
Discuss briefly the dramatic significance of any three of the following:—
(a.) The macaroon incident in A Doll's House,
(b.) The opening scene in Julius Caesar,
(c.) The quarrel scene in Julius Caesar.
(d.) The tiff between Sir Peter and Lady Teazle in The School for Scandal.
Discuss the change in the character of Nora in A Doll's House. Do you think the
change has been adequately accounted for in the play? Give reasons for your
answer.
Basing your answer on " Wandering Willie's Tale," " The Gold Bug," and " The
Vision of Mirza," discuss various methods of opening the short story.
Write briefly on any two of the following:—-
(a.) The supernatural element in "Wandering Willie's Tale."
(6.) The mediaeval elements in "The Sire de Maletroit's Door."
(c.) The structure of " On Greenhow Hill."
French Language.    (Time, 3 hours.)
25        1. Traduction :—
Great as his misfortunes were Molit5re was no cynic. He was fond of magnificence
and dress, he loved good cheer and gay companions. We are not surprised to
learn that the lively wit and the generous heart of such a man made many
friends. In their society he often passed a joyous evening at his country
house near Paris, but he preferred no doubt those quiet evenings in the rue
du Vieux-Colombier, where, three times a week, he was accustomed to meet
that handsome writer of tragedies Racine, Boileau the literary critic, and
the kind La Fontaine whose fables are immortal.
N.B.—Soulignez tous les mots que vous changez ou ajoutez dans 2, 3, et 4 (6), 4 (e).
15       2. Mettez les verbes en italiques au temps convenable :—
Si vous ouvrir toute grande la porte du salon j'entendrai peut-6tre un discours
quelconque qui pouvoir m'interesser, pourvu que les beaux esprits savoir
exactement de quoi ils parlent, ce qui n'est pas toujours le cas.    En faire .
M 174
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
10
25
25
trop de phrases compliquer, il est possible qu'on devenir obscur en conversation et je crains bien que le public ne comprendre pas tout. II y a longtemps
que vous s'apercevoir et que vous se plaindre de la preciosite de ce cercle,
et aussltQt qu'un comgdien bien connu voir ces gens, la semaine derniSre je
crois, il ecrivit une fine satire dont voici des exemples:—■
Pensiez vous qu'une jeune fille se pouvoir accommoder de leur personne.
Voudriez done que fuller imprimer mes souliers en boue?
Par ma foi il faudra que vous voir cette piece de theatre.
C'est une ville que nous avons prendre a l'ennemi.
Un roman 6tre bientSt fini si tout le monEle vous ressemblait.
3. Reconstruisez  les  phrases  suivantes  en  conimengant  par  c'est,  ce  sont,  ou  voild
devant les mots en italique, et introduisez le pronom relatif conv-enable:—
Je regarde les boulevards.
Nous comptons sur votre belle amie.
Elles parlent de ces professeurs.
lis ont vu de grandes usines parmi ces montagncs.
L'ouvrier a parle au fils de I'academicien.
Son camarade est le fermier de la valine.
Je pense A cela.
Une belle robe se fait pour cette cliente.
II est monte jusqu'au sommet de Zei tour.
La salle est decoree de boiseries superbes.
4. (a.) Traduisez en frangais idiomatique:—
(1.) He needs paper and so do I.
(2.)  You are rich enough, are you not?
(3.)  Is this man having a house built?    I think so.
(4.) Are you not hungry?   Yes, I am.
(5.) Are you this child's mother?   Yes, I am.
(6.)  Plaeez les accents oil ils sont necessaires :—-
(1.)  Je veux aller la, pres du mur, voir les fruits murs de la voisine.
(2.) Le desert est bien different des descriptions faites au dessert par le
voyageur.
(3.)  Vous esperez voir la gelee et moi j'espere qu'il ne gelera pas.
(4.)  Elle ira ou je veux, ou bien elle sera punie.
(c.)  Changez les noms soulignes en pronoms:—
(1.)  Les bancs sont au Se~nat pour les senateurs seuls.
(2.)  Montrez des costumes a ces laquais.
(3.)  Je montrerai la danse aux visiteurs en Provence.
(4.) II visitera I'atelier ou Ton fabrique les machines pour Mme. Durand.
5. Donnez l'equivalent francos des phrases suivantes & i'aide de synonymes ou par la
reconstruction, tout en gnrdant l'iclee originale.    (Exemple:   II croit partir dans
huit jours=Il pense s'en aller la semaine prochaine.)
(1.)  Ses manieres sont du dernier bourgeois et il ne se soucie gufire de faire des
visites de rigueur.
(2.)  L'habitant  de Paris n'a pas  tort  de  cherir ses boulevai'Els et  ses  beaux
monuments.
(3.) L' " immortel " accueille le nouveau venu " sous la coupole."
(4.)  Le bel esprit souhaite fort qu'il puisse aller au petit coucher.
(5.) Rien ne gene le regard dans cette etendue.   L'ensemble forme une eeuvre
magnifique. PART III.—APPENDICES. M 175
French Literature.    (Time, 3 hours.)
Value.
20       1- Faites en frangais un commentaire general sur ce passage et expliquez ensuite les
expressions en italique.    II ne faut pas traduire le passage:—
Cathos.—En effet, mon oncle, ma cousine donne dans le vrai de la chose.   Le
moyen de bien recevoir des gens qui sont tout 3. fait incongrus en galanterie?
Je m'en vais gager qu'ils n'ont jamais vu la carte de Tendre, et que Billets-
Doux,  Petits-Soins,  Billets-Galants et Jolis-Vers  sont des terres inconnues
pour eux.    Ne voyez-vous pas que toute leur personne marque cela, et qu'ils
n'ont point cet air qui donne d'abord bonne opinion des  gens?    Venir en
visite amoureuse avec une jambe toute unie, un chapeau disarme" de plumes,
une tete irrdgulidre en cheveux, et un habit qui souffre une indigence  de
rubans    .    .    .     !    Mon   Dieu,   quels   amants   sont-ce   19.!    Quelle  frugaliti
d'ajustement et quelle secheresse de conversation!    On n'y dure point, on n'y
tient pas.    J'ai remarqug encore que leurs rabats ne sont pas de la bonne
faiseuse, et qu'il s'en faut plus d'un grand demi-pied que leurs hauts-de-
chausses ne soient assez larges.
30       2. Traitez l'un des sujets suivants :—■
(a.) Pourquoi Molifire critique-t-il les Precieuses?
(&.)  Conversation entre deux dames a l'Hotel de Rambouillet sur la question du
mariage.
20       3. Donnez le frangais moderne pour les expressions suivantes:—
(ei.) C'est a la cavaliere.
(b.) Je veux vous dire l'air que j'ai fait la-dessus.
(c.)  Je veux caution bourgeoise qu'ils ne me feront point de mal.   .
(d.) Je vois des yeux qui ont la mine d'etre de fort mauvais gargons.
(e.) Votre complaisance pousse un peu trop avant la liberalitS de ses louanges.
(/.) J'apprends les jolis commerces de prose et de vers.
(g.) Je m'en escrime un peu quand je veux.
(h.) Voyez-vous pas qu'il faut le surcroit d'un fauteuil?
(i.) Attachez un peu sur mes gants la r&flexion de votre odorat.
0'.) J'ai mal au cceur de la seule vision que cela me fait.
15        4. Traduire:—
De l'autre cotS de la piste, et ne la dominant que d'un ou deux mStres, les gens
" chic " se sont confortablement installes et dinent, tout en suivant des yeux
les coureurs. C'est un petit diner, un petit souper plutot, bien parisien:
des coupes de champagne, une corbeille de fruits magniflques, rien de plus.
Mais les toilettes sont de la plus exquise elegance; le grand decollete est de
rigueur et m6me, sur une de ces robes, une petite bretelle de brillants
remplace la simple epaulette de ruban ordinaire. Une autre de ces jeunes
femmes porte un pendantif; elles ont de jolis peignes dans les cheveux, mais
dans l'ensemble tres peu de bijoux, a peine de bagues.
15       5. Traitez en quelques lignes (dix au maximum) deux des sujets suivants:—
(a.) lie paysan frangais.
(6.) Les vieilles danses frangaises.
(c.) Un monEOme d'etudiants.
(d.) L'academie frangaise. M 176
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
German Grammar and Composition.    (Time, 3 hours.)
Value.
20
Berlin, June 6th, 1927.
20
10
6
9
1. Put into German :—
(a.)
My dear Paul,
As I have been here now for a week, I must write to tell
you about my trip. I am glad to say that the weather was fine,
the ship comfortable and the passengers interesting, so I had a
very good time. I thought that Hamburg was one of the finest
cities I had ever seen, but I could not stay there long as I wanted
to get to Berlin as quickly as possible. I like the arrangement of
the German trains better than ours. Instead of one long coach
with seats on each side of the aisle, there each coach is divided
into several compartments and has a corridor which leads past the
doors of the compartments. Although I have taken long walks
every day and have examined many fine buildings, I have not yet
seen all the interesting things in Berlin. I shall tell you more
about them in my next letter.
With kindest regards,
Your old friend,
Fritz.
(b.) The two friends had wanted to go to Munich by way of Heidelberg
and the Black Forest, but they had to change their plans as Paul's
uncle wished them to come to him more quickly. He was afraid
that he might have to take a trip and he wanted them to feel at
home before he went away. Fritz did not like the new plan, for
he was sorry not to be able to see such interesting places and he
thought that they might perhaps not be permitted to do as they
pleased at the home of Paul's relatives. Paul succeeded in convincing him, however, that Uncle Otto would help them gladly if
he knew what they wanted to see and that they would learn more
if they had an experienced guide.
2. Put into German :—
(1.)  At what time do you prefer to have breakfast in the morning,—at half
. past six or a quarter past seven ?
(2.) The old aunt, with whom my brother lived, has gone to Germany.
(3.) We may find many beautiful things in it which will interest us.
(4.) He did not succeed in having the tower built.
(5.) She should have gone home, as her mother has not been able to stay.
3. Rewrite in the passive :—
(1.) 9J.ein Ottrel (abet mid) ein, il)n ju 6efud)en.
(2.) Sie SMitfe -fjafien enblid) ben -Bifctjof aufgefreffett.
(3.) Man ttrirb oft biefe @aga erg(il)(en.
4. Change the following infinitives into present, imperfect and perfect tenses :—
(1.) ®ie -Burg emporragen au§ bem SBalb.
(2.) 3Bir uerBringen ben Sag auf bem SEaffer.
(3.) @r untemet)men bie 2lr6eit. ■;'.-   .     ■
PART III.—APPENDICES. M 177
Value.
6        5. Rewrite in indirect speech :—
(!•) (5r fagte, ,,3Jct) mu§ gu .fpaufe BleiBen, ba id) franf Bin."
(2.) @r antroortete, ,,3d) roerbe feine Beit l)aBen, ba§ gu tun."
(3.) @ie erroiberte, ,„5d) Bin gu .Spaufe geBIieBen, roeil id) miibe geroorben Bin."
9 6. Put into German :—
(1.) If I have money enough, I shall take a trip this summer.
(2.) If I only knew where I could get the money, I should make my plans
at once.
(3.) If they had been able to stay longer, they could have seen much more.
20        7.  Write in German a description of a summer holiday.    (At least 20 lines.)
German Translation.    (Time, 3 hours.)
1. Translate :—
10 (a.) (gine 2lu§fct)rei6uitg erging an bie beutfdjen JMnftler, fie fottten getdjnungen
unb -Borfdjlage fiir ba§ SBerf etnfenben, unb bem, bet bie Beften
einfanbte, fottte bie ->lu§ful)ritng iiBertragen roerben. -Bon affebem
l)iirte SRaria nid)t oiel, benn fie ging nid)t met)r unter bie Seute, bie
fie fdjon fopffd)itttelnb bie .SpimmelSBraiit nannten. ©ie leBte einfam
in it)rem flehten (5rferftiiBd)en, nnb immer triiBer roarb ber -Blicf,
mit bem fte gu bem fjolgernen 6l)rtftu§ aufBlicfte, ben il)r §an§ einft
gefdmi^t. (Ss ging nun tn§ fiinfte %af)X, bat] .£>an§ nid)t§ mel)r l)atte
l)oren laffen. greilid) fonnte unb burfte er il)r ja ntd)t fd)reiBen, unb
greunbe l)atte er in -Breifad) nid)t.
10 (b.) Unb roenn and) ber -Baum fid) au§ ber @rbe l)66e, unb roenn aud) ber
Saifer au§ bem @raBe ftiege, unb roenn and) 9tuppad)er§ .fperg fid)
erroeidjte—roa§ l)alfe e§ itjm ? Jjiiippadjer felBft fonnte il)m feine
£od)ter nid)t mel)r geBen, benn er l)atte fa einen @ib getan, bafj er fte
nur IjaBen folle, roenn er einen 2lltar fertige, ber rjo^er fet al§ bie
•fttrdje, in ber er ftel)e! 2l6er bie§ roar ja unmoglid), unb fo roar aud)
fein SBunfd) unmoglid)—unb ess l)atte ein -Bunber gefd)el)en miiffen
urn il)m gu l)ilfen. 2l6er SBunber tat ©ott nid)t fiir ein fo un-
BebeutenbeS 3Kenfd)enfinb, rote er roar.
2. golgenbe >5ragetr auf S)eutfd) gu Beantroorten :—
7 (<*•) -JBa§ roar ,,ba§ 2Berf," roofiir bie JMnftler geidjnungen einfenben fottten?
7 (6-) 2Bie Befam .Spans bie C^bee gu feinem 2lltar?
3. Translate :—-
6 («.) SRoBert.    Ol) bod), mein ^err—geftern, al§ id) in ba§ SOlufeum roottte—
fommt mir ein .Sperr entgegen, reilt mir fel)r frennblid) mit, bafj gleid)
gefdjloffen roiirbe—er mufjte mir rool)l ben gremben anfel)en, unb
fd)lug oor, mit il)m gu friitjftiitfen. 3d) banfte guerft, aBer er Bat
mid), fein @aft gu fein, unb fo naljmen roir eine fel)r gute 3ttal)igeit
ein. 2H§ er Begal)len roill—benfen ©ie—l)at man il)m fein -portes
monnaie geftol)len. •
8 . (b.) feaxxn.   £>ie 58i6liotl)ef l)a6en ©ie total bemoliert,—.cperr 5D?ar§lanb
fommt  aud)  iiBer  ©ie —id)  modjte  nid)t in Salter ^paut ftetfen. M 178 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
(-Betfeite.) 3jeijt roirb er roo 1)1. gemig l)aBen. (Saut.) ©uten SOJorgen,
^err ©ibfon!   (216).
©iBfon.    3)a§ ift \a eine oerbammte @efd)id)te.— ©d)ief)en—ba§ ift \a
Unfinn—aBer oor Beugen *>ie ® .K »erfprod)en, ba§ ift ber fi§lid)fte
$unft—fo eine alte @d)ad)tel la§t nid)t locfer—fommt mir nad),
roenn id) and) burd)6renne;—o roel)—ba ift fie fdjon! —
6 (a) (1.) $Ba§ bie IRedjmtng Betrifft.
(2.) ®a§ fel)lte mir gerabe nod).
(3.) Saffen ©ie fid) nid)t gu oiel non il)nen gefatten.
(4.) iTRan muf-j il)m aBer gut fein.
6 (d.) (-1.) It has just occurred to me.
(2.) That will not do in this case.
(3.) What is the matter with you1?
(4.) That does not concern us.
4. Translate:—
8 (a.) 3)enfe id) an ben gro§en itaifer, fo roirb e§ in meinem ©ebadjtniffe roieber
red)t fommergriin unb golbig, eine lange Sinbenattee taud)t Bliiljenb
empor, auf ben lauBigen 3ra^iSett fi^n fingenbe 9fad)tigatten, ber
SBafferfatt raufd)t, auf runben -Beeten ftefjen -Blumen unb Beroegen
traumljaft il)re fdjonen .fpaupter. 3d) fpred)e oom ^ofgarten gu
cDiiffelborf, roo id) oft auf bem Stafen lag unb anbadjtig gul)6rte,
roenn mir SRonfteur Se ©ranb oon ben ^riegStaten be§ grofjen
j?aifer§ ergal)lte unb baBei bie 3ftarfd)e fd)ltig, bie roaljrenb jener
£aten getrommelt roitrben, fo bafj id) atte§ leBenbig fa.1) unb l)orte.
6 (b.) Gf§ mar nod) fel)r frill), al§ id) ©ottingen oertief?, unb ber gelel)rte * * lag
geroi§ nod) im -Bette unb traumte roie gerool)nlid), er roanble in einem
fdjonen ©arten, auf beffen -Beeten lauter roeifje, mit Sitareu be;
fdjriebene $apierd)en roact)fen, bie im ©onnenlid)te lieBlid) glangen,
unb iron benen er l)ie unb ba mel)rere pffucft unb miiljfam in ein neue§
SSeet oerpflangt, roafjrenb bie 9Jad)tigatten mit il)ren fii-geften Xonen
fein alte§ .Sperg erfreuen.
8 (c.) @r mad)te mid) aud) aufmerffam auf bie 3n>ecfmaf3igWt unb 9lu&Iid)feit
in ber SRatur- -Die -Biiume finb griin, roeil grim gut fiir bie 2lugen
ift. 3d) gaB il)ni red)t unb fiigte fyingu, ba§ ©ott ba§ 9tinboiet)
erfd)affen roeil gleifdjfuppen ben 5D?-enfd)en ftarfen, ba§ er bie (Sfel
erfd)affen, bamit fie ben SRenfdjen gu -Bergleidmngen bienen fonnen,
unb bafj er ben 9Jlenfd)en felbft erfdjaffen, bamit er gleifdjfuppen effen
unb fein (Sfel fein fott. SJlein -Begleiter roar entgiicft, einen ©leid)=
geftimmten gefmiben gu l)aBen, fein 2lntlitj erglangte nod) freubiger,
unb Bei bem 216fd)iebe roar er geriil)rt.
8 5. (ex.) What outstanding qualities in Heine are  illustrated   in these  passages'!
(Answer in English.)
10 (b.) 3Ba§ bad)te petite non (Snglanb ?   non @t)atefpeare ?   (2luf 33eutfd) gu Beant-
roorten.) PART III.—APPENDICES. M 179
Geometry.    (Time, 3 hours.)
f.N.B.—Graph paper is supplied.   Diagrams should be drawn to as large a scale as
convenient to illustrate questions Jt and 6.]
Value.
14       1. ABC is a triangle and AD is the perpendicular to BC.   Prove that the rectangle
AB.AC is equal to the rectangle contained by AD  and the diameter of the
circumcircle of ABC.
14 2- In a right-angled triangle any rectilineal figure described on the hypotenuse is equal
to the sum of the two similar and similarly described figures on the other two
sides.
14 3. DEF is the pedal triangle of ABC. Prove that A, B, C are the escribed centres of
the triangle DEF.
4       4- (a-) Find where the line through (2, 4) whose slope is 3 cuts the line 2x+y=2.
Q (6.) If the line AB whose equation is x+5y=5 cuts the axes of x and y respectively
in A and B, find the length of AB and the co-ordinates of the point P which
divides AB externally so that PA:PB=1:2.
4 (c) Find the tangent of the acute angle between the lines 2x+y=2 and x+5y=5.
4 (d.) Find the equation of the line through the intersection of the lines in (c) which
is perpendicular to the former of these lines.
Q (e.) Find the equation of the circle described on AB as diameter, given A  (5, 0)
B  (0, 1).
6 (/.) Find the equation of the line joining  (—2, —3)  to   (4,, —1)  and place this
equation in the " intercept " form.
12       5- (°-) Derive the equation of a line in the "slope" form.
(6.) A point  (x, y)  moves so that it forms with the fixed points  (ei, 0)   (0, b)
a triangle of constant area A.   Write down the equation of the locus of
the moving point and show that its slope is (—b/a).
16 6. Find the co-ordinates of the centre and the radius of the circle x'+y^Sx—8j/+19=0.
Show that 2x+3y=7 is the tangent to this circle at (2, 1) and verify that the
length of the perpendicular drawn from the centre of this circle on this tangent
is equal to the radius.
History.    (Time, 3 hours.)
[Write on any five questions.]
16       1. Give four causes of European Expansion in the 15th and 16th centuries.
4 Name four of the more important explorers that took part in the movement.
12       2. What was the great difference between the Indian policies of New France and of the
English Colonies?
8 What was the attitude of the Spanish?
10       3. Account for the victory of England over France in North America.
10 What effect did the defeat of France have upon the attitude of the Thirteen Colonies?
20       4- Describe the conditions of life in a loyalist settlement in the early days of Upper
Canadian history.
10       5- What is meant by "responsible government"?
10 How was it gained in Canada? M 180 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
12       6. Write a brief description of political  and social conditions  in British  Columbia
before 1871.
8 Why did British Columbia enter the Dominion?
15       7. Why are the years 1896-1912 known as the " Era of Prosperity " ?
5 Discuss immigration as a cause or a result of this prosperity.
20 8. "The great problem of Canada is the problem of unity." Is this a just statement?
Explain.
20 9- Describe ten important inventions that have changed the lives of Canadians during
the past one hundred years. (Note.—These inventions need not necessarily have
originated in Canada.)
Latin Authors.    (Time, 3 hours.)
10       1- Translate:—
Summa enim sunt omnia, Quirites, sed ea magis ex aliorum contentione quam
ipsa per sese cognosci atque intellegi possunt. Quern enim possumus impera-
torem ullo in numero putare cuius in exercitu centuriatus veneant atque
venierint? Quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare
qui pecuniam ex aerario depromptam ad bellurn administrandum aut propter
cupiditatem provinciae magistratibus diviserit aut propter avaritiam Romae
in quaestu reliquerit?
(a.) Explain the derivation and the syntax of veneant; the meaning of centuriatus.
(b.) How were the following years significant in Cicero's life:   B.C. 70, 63, 58, 49?
10       2. Translate:—
Quae civitas umquam fuit antea, non dico Atheniensium quae satis late quondam
mare tenuisse dicitur, non Carthaginiensium qui permultum classe ac marl-
timis rebus valuerunt, non Rhodiorum quorum usque ad nostram memoriam
disciplina navalis et gloria permansit, quae civitas, inquam, antea tam tenuis
aut tam parvola fuit quae non portus suos et agros et aliquam partem regionls
atque orae maritimae per se ipsa defenderet?
(a.) Where were Athens, Carthage, and Rhodes?
(6.) Write short notes on Hortensius, publicani, ordines, vectigalia, provincia.
10       3. Translate:—
Quae cum ita sint, C. Manili, primum istam tuam et legem et voluntatem et
sententiam laudo vehementissimeque comprobo; deinde te hortor ut auctore
populo Romano maneas in sententia neve cuiusquam vim aut minas perti-
mescas. Primum in te satis esse animi perseverantiaeque arbitror; deinde,
cum tantam multitudinem tanto cum studio adesse videamus quantam
iterum nunc in eodem homine praeficiendo videmus, quid est quod aut de
re aut de perficiendi facultate dubitemus?
(a.) Explain the reference in legem, multitudinem, iterum nunc.
(b.) Account for the mood of pertimescas, dubitemus; the case of animi.
10       4. Translate:—
Hinc nescio qua dulcedine laetae
progeniem nidosque fovent, hinc arte recentes
excudunt ceras et mella tenacia fingunt.
Hinc ubi iam emissum caveis ad sidera caeli
nare per aestatem liquidam suspexeris agmen
obscuramque trahi vento mirabere nubem,
contemplator:  aquas dulces et frondea semper
tecta petunt.   Hue tu iussos asperge sapores,
trita melisphylla et cerinthae ignobile gramen. PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 181
Value.
10
10
(a.)  Comment on the use of nescio, the form of contemplator.    Why is mirabere used
rather than miraberis?
(b.)  Show the poetical value of the words excudunt, frondea, tecta.
5. Translate :— '
Atque equidem, extremo ni iam sub fine laborum
vela traham et terris festinem advertere proram,
forsitan et, pingues hortos quae cura colendi
ornaret, canerem, biferique rosaria Paesti,
quoque modo potis gauderent intuba rivis
et virides apio ripae, tortusque per herbam
cresceret in ventrem cucumis; nee sera comantem
narcissum aut flexi tacuissem vimen acanthi
pallentesque hederas et amantes litora myrtos.
(a.) Scan the second line.
(&.) Explain the case of sera.
(c.) How would the general idea in the first two lines be expressed in prose?
6. Translate :—
Hie tibi, nate, prius vinclis capiendus, ut omnem
expediat morbi causam, eventusque secundet.
Nam sine vi non ulla dabit praecepta, neque ilium
orando flectes;  vim duram et vincula capto
tende;  doli circum haec demum frangentur inanes.
Ipsa ego te, medios cum sol accenderit aestus,
cum sitiunt herbae et pecOri iam gratior umbra est,
in secreta senis ducam, quo fessus ab undis
se recipit, facile ut somno aggrediare iacentem.
(ei.) Explain the reference in hie, nate, morbi.
(b.)  Scan the second line.
(c.)  What part does this episode play in the poem?
5       7. Translate:—
Illo Vergilium me tempore dulcis alebat
Parthenope studiis florentem ignobilis oti,
carmina qui lusl pastorum, audaxque iuventa,
Tityre, te patulae cecini sub tegmine fagi.
(a.) Explain the references in illo tempore and in the last line.
10       8. Translate:—
Interea magno misceri murmure caelum
incipit,  insequitur commixta grandine nimbus:
et Tyrii comites passim et Troiana iuventus
Dardaniusque nepos Veneris diversa per agros
tecta metu petiere;   ruunt de montibus amnes.
Speluncam Dido dux et Troianus eandem
deveniunt.   Prima et Tellus et pronuba Iuno
dant signum:  fulsere ignes et conscius aether
conubiis, summoque ulularunt vertice Nymphae.
(a.) Explain the references in Tyrii, Dardanius nepos Veneris.
(b.) Why is et placed after dux in the sixth line?
10
9. Translate:
At vero Aeneas aspectu obmutuit amens,
arrectaeque horrore comae, et vox faucibus haesit.
Ardet abire fuga dulcesque relinquere terras, M 182 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
attonitus tanto monitu imperioque deorum.
Heu quid agat? quo nunc reginam ambire furentem
audeat affatu?  quae prima exordia sumat?
atque animum nunc hue celerem, nunc dividit illuc,
in partesque rapit varias perque omnia versat.
(a.) Scan the first two lines.
(6.) Explain the reference in aspectu.
(c.)  In what sense would Vergil have said that Aeneas was pius?
10     10. Translate:—
'En quid ago? rursusne procos irrisa priores
experiar, Nomadumque petam conubia supplex,
quos ego sim totiens iam dedignata maritos?
Iliacas igitur classes atque ultima Teucrum
iussa sequar? quiane auxilio iuvat ante levatos
et bene apud memores veteris stat gratia facti?
quis me autem, fac velle, sinet ratibusve superbis
invisam accipiet? nescis heu, perdita, necdum
Laomedonteae sentis periuria gentis?'
(a.) Explain the references in veteris facti, Laomedonteae periuria gentis.
5     11. Translate:—
Ilia graves oculos conata attollere rursus
deficit;  infixum stridit sub pectore vulnus.
Ter sese attollens cubitoque annixa levavit,
ter revoluta toro est oculisque errantibus alto
quaesivit caelo lucem ingemuitque reperta.
(a.) Explain the case of reperta.
(b.) Give the dates of Vergil's birth and death and of the composition of his major
poems.
Latin Prose Composition, Sight Translation, and Roman History.    (Time, 3 hours.)
A. Latin Prose Composition.
50       Translate into Latin:—
(ei.)  I am envied, but you are despised.
(6.) After he had made this promise he threatened to undo (infectum reddere)
everything that we had done.
(c.) Both you and your brother, he replied, were in good health.
(d.) You cannot, said he, injure your country without bringing loss and ruin upon
yourself and your own affairs.
(e.) Why were you the first to persuade Antony and the others to go, and were
the last to go yourself?
(/.) The Senate and Roman people passed a resolution that Cicero defend the
country.
(fir.)  Don't suppose that I would not have come and don't say that I refused.
(h.) Caesar's transports were prevented by winds and waves from crossing immediately to Britain.
(i.) I could wish that you had said less and done more.
(j.)  If pleasing the bystanders is the same as winning, why did Sulpicius neglect
this? PART III.—APPENDICES. M 183
B. Sight Translation.
Value.
35       Tres pueri ad Iudum1 ventitabant.   Ludi autem magister eos multa et utilia docere
voluit:   curam enim adhibebat non modo ut Latine et Graece loquerentur, sed et
ea quae geometrae et mathematici scripsissent intellegerent.   At, cum tres menses
haec didicissent, ludi magister experiri voluit, utrum ea quae docuisset in memoria
retinerent necne.    " Die mihi," inquit ille, " orbisne terrarum circum solem an sol
circum  orbem terrarum  volvitur?"    Pueri  autem  quid  responderent  nesciebant:
primus igitur respondit orbem terrarum circum solem moveri, secundus autem rem
contrarie dispositam  esse  affirmavit.    Sed  tertius  in  diversas  partes  distractus,
" Uno  die,"   inquit,   " sol  circum orbem  terrarum,  altero  orbis  terrarum  circum
solem movetur."
1 ludus=school.
C. Roman History.
15       Answer any three of the following:—
(1.) Write a note on animism.
(2.) Give an account of the destruction of Carthage, and state the reasons Rome
had for desiring the elimination of that city, and the schemes she used
for securing a pretext for the accomplishment of the object.
(3.) Write a short history of Sulla's campaign in Greece.
(4.) What were the causes and effects of the introduction of slave labour in the
cultivation of larger Roman estates?
Physics.    (Time, 3 hours.)
[Answer question one and any eight of the remainder.]
1. A loaded elevator weighing 2,500 pounds starts upward with an acceleration of 4 feet
per second per second.   If this force could be maintained uniformly, find:—
2 (ei.) the distance it would ascend in 3 seconds from rest,
2 (o.) the velocity at the end of 3 seconds,
6 (o.)  the total pull in the cable,
4 (d.) the work done,
6 (e.) the power at the end of the 3 seconds.
5 2.  (ei.)  Calculate the air pressure in grams per square  centimetre and pounds per
square inch when the barometer stands at 30 inches.
5 (&•)  State what is meant by capillarity and show why the surface of water in a
glass vessel is elevated at the side of the vessel while it is lowered in the
case of mercury.
5       3. (ei.) Describe an experiment to verify Boyle's Law.   Give reasonable observations
for two settings of the apparatus and show how they confirm the law.
5 (b.)  Show how the kinetic theory of gases gives an explanation of Boyle's Law.
5 4. (ei.) State the laws of transverse vibrations of a stretched string. A certain
stretched wire gives 100 vibrations per second. What will be the frequency
of another wire of the same material but with twice the diameter, one-third
the length and five times the tension of the first?
5 (6.) An open organ pipe is 6 feet long.   Find its pitch approximately.   How will
this pitch be affected by changes in temperature and in barometer pressure
in the air?   What overtones may be present in the note? ■
M 184
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
5
5. (a.)
Describe, briefly, an experiment to find the velocity of sound In glass or in
metal by Kundt's method, giving some idea of the actual results obtained.
5
(».)
The weight of a litre of air at standard temperature and pressure is 1.29 grams.
Find the weight of a cubic metre of air at 20° C. and 80 cm. pressure.
5
6.  (ei.)
A locomotive whose efficiency is 7 per cent, is developing on the average 400
horse-power. Find its fuel consumption per hour if the coal furnishes
14,000 B.T.U.'s of heat per pound.    (Take 778 for mechanical equivalent.)
5
(6.)
Define the terms, relative humidity, critical temperature and pressure, convection currents, and boiling-point.
5
7.  (a.)
Describe, with the aid of a suitable diagram, a method of finding the velocity of
light.   What is this velocity in air?
5
(&-)
Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of the lenses and the formation of
the images in a telescope or a compound microscope.
What is meant by the term magnifying power in the instrument chosen?
6
8. (a.)
An object is placed 30 cm. in front of a spherical mirror and its image is found
to be 20 cm. behind the mirror. Find, from the formula, the focal length of
the mirror and whether it is convex or concave. Then draw a diagram,
roughly to scale, showing object, mirror, and formation of the image.
4
(b.)
What are complementary colours? Show the difference in the result of adding
two illuminations of complementary colours and mixing two pigments of
the same two colours.
10
9. What is meant by: —
(a.) dielectric constant,
(B.) counter-electromotive force in a motor,
(c.) polarization of an electric cell,
(d.) x-rays,
(e.) radioactivity?
5
10.   (EI.)
What weight of copper would be deposited in an hour by a current of 10 amperes
between copper electrodes in a solution of copper sulphate? Draw a
diagram showing the directions of current and ions and naming the
electrodes. (Use symbols for any.quantity involved if the numerical value
cannot be recalled.)
5
(6.)
A 60-watt, 110-volt lamp is immersed in 500 grams of water at 10° C. and the
current is turned on for 30 minutes. Find the final temperature of the
water and the cost of the electricity used at 5 cents per kilowatt-hour.
Trigonometry.    (Time, 3 hours.)
[Note.—Sufficient data are appended in the table.~\
15
1.  (a.
) Find, without tables, the exact numerical value of
cos230° - 2 tan 135° + - sin 90°.
4
(b.
17
) If A is acute and cosec A = — , find tan A and sin 2A.
15
(ej.
) Express 51° 20' in radian measure.    (Use rr = 3.1416.)
10
2. (a.
) If 3 tan A + cot A = 5 cosec A, find A.
(6.
) Prove cos (180 + A) = - cos A. PART III.—APPENDICES. M 185
Value.
12 3. Prove any two of the following :-
(a.)   -g—=      h    =—-..= 2R.
sin A    sin B    sin C
(6.)™^^/
(s - a)(s - b)
ab
(c) sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B.
i c a    t   \ t> sin 10° +sin 26°        , _<.<,
15 4. (a.) Prove -=cot 72 .
cos 10° + cos 26°
(6.) Draw neatly the graph of sin x from x = 0° up to x = 360°.
(c.) If r is the radius of the inscribed circle of a triangle, prove l\ = rs.
16 5. (a.) The string of a kite is 200 ft. long and makes an angle of 28° 25' with the
ground.    How high (to the nearest foot) is the kite above the ground if
the string is assumed to be straight 1
(b.) At a certain point the angle of elevation of a mountain peak is 15° 49', and
at a distance 4,000 yds. farther away in the same horizontal plane the
angle of elevation is 12° 36'.    Find the height of the peak.
14        6. Given a = 81, 6 = 63, c = 36, use the formula in 3 (b) and logarithms to find C.
18        7. Given A = 12° 36', b = 10, a = 8, solve the triangle.
Angle sin cos tan cot log sin
3°
13'
.0561
.9984
.0562
17.7934
2.74906
12°
36'
.2181
.9759
.2235
4.4737
1.33888
15°
49'
.2726
.9621
.2833
3.5300
1.43546
28°
25'
.4759
Number
9
27
63
81
175
206
.8795
.5411
1.8482
log1 (mantissa only)
.95424
.43136
.79934
.90849
.24304
.31387
1.67777 M 186 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Third-year Course, Commercial.
Accountancy Practice.    (Time, 3% hours.)
[Note to Peesimng Examines.—Please provide candidates with Journal and Ledger paper.]
James Morris and Henry Wallace enter into partnership, sharing equally, on January
1, 1926.
James Morris invests Warehouse property, $12,400, on which there is a Mortgage of
$5,000 with interest accrued, $175; Warehouse Fixtures, $900 less depreciation
5% ; Office Fixtures, $600 less depreciation 3% ; Bills Receivable, $2,500; Accounts
Receivable, $5,700; Interest accrued on Bills Receivable, $120; Cash on Deposit,
$2,000;  Mdse. on hand, $3,000.
He owes on personal accounts, $4,560; on Bills Payable, $3,900, and Interest thereon,
$110.
Allow 10% off Bills and Accounts Receivable for possible bad debts.
Henry Wallace invests 80 shares Molson's Bank Stock valued at $125 per share;
A half-yearly dividend on these shares, due but not paid, $400; Cash to make his
investment equal to that of James Morris.
On June 30, 1926, the records show: Goods purchased on account, $18,000; Purchases
returned, $375; Discounts allowed on purchases, $1,100; Goods sold on account,
$22,000; Sales returned by customers, $500; Discounts allowed to customers,
$1,500; Accounts Receivable paid in cash, $6,800; Accounts Receivable settled by
customer's acceptances, $9,500; Bills Receivable paid in cash, $9,200; Accounts
Payable settled by cash payment, $11,000; Accounts Payable settled by drafts,
$6,000; Bills Payable paid in cash, $7,000; Sold for cash 30 shares Molson's Bank
Stock at $130 per share; Delivery Truck bought for cash, $1,200; Received cash
for dividend due on Molson's Bank Stock, $400; Received cash for Interest, $150;
Paid cash for Interest, $225; Paid cash for Insurance, $250; Paid cash for Wages,
$1,500; Paid cash for Freight Inward, $265; Two accounts amounting to $1,300
paid only 60c. on the dollar, the proceeds being received in cash; Paid for Office
Supplies, $275;  Water and Light paid in cash, $250.
Make Journal Entries for these items.    (Explanations not required.)
Open Ledger Accounts and post the Journal.
Make a Trial Balance.
Using the Journal Method, close these books and prepare a Statement of Assets
and  Liabilities.    The  Inventories  are  as  follows:    Mdse.  unsold,  $5,200;
Insurance unexpired, $180;   Office Supplies on hand, $175;   Depreciation at
5% on Warehouse and Office Fixtures and Delivery Truck;   Allow 5% off
Accounts and Bills Receivable for possible bad debts.    Interest accrued on
Mortgage, $325.
The business is now to be taken over by The Morris Trading Co., Limited, which has an
authorized capital of $50,000 divided into shares of $100 each.    James Morris and
Henry Wallace are to receive $5,000 for Good-will.    They are to be paid for their
interest in the business with fully paid-up shares in the new Company, any surplus
over these amounts being placed to their credit.
The other shareholders are J. Robb, W. Mills, R. Davis, and S. Harvie, who each take
30 shares, 25% of which they pay in cash.
17 2. (a.) In the books of The Morris Trading Co., Limited, what are the Journal Entries
for its organization; and what are the Journal Entries for the first payment
on the shares of the new stockholders?
11 (b.)  Give Journal Entries for closing the Partner's Accounts in the old books.
16
1.    (EI.)
16
(&.)
8
(c.)
32
(d.) Accountancy Theory.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Note to the Presiding Examiner.—No other paper than the Examination Books is necessary.]
Value.
5        1.  (a.) What is a " Synoptic Journal "?
5 (b.)  State the advantages and disadvantages of its use.
10 (c) Rule up a form for the Synoptic and make a sufficient number of entries in it
to have at least one amount in each column.
15       2. Explain and illustrate the use of the following accounts : Accrued Assets;  Deferred
Charges;   Reserve for Depreciation.
10       3. Describe what you consider the most advantageous way of recording sales of merchandise in a Wholesale business.
20       4- What is the Imprest System of dealing with Petty Cash?    Draw up a Petty Cash
sheet and enter a number of illustrative items.   Explain its operation fully.
20       «>. What accounts are usually placed under each of the following headings :—
Current Assets;
Fixed Assets;
Deferred Charges to Operation;
Current Liabilities;
Operating Income or Trading;
Operating Expense;
Non-operating Income or Financial Income;
Non-operating Expense?
15        6. What is the difference between:—■
(ei.) A Capital Expenditure and a Revenue Expenditure;
(b.) A Reserve and a Reserve Fund ;
(c.)  Cumulative Preferred Stock and Common Stock?
Arithmetic, Rapid Calculation.    (Time, 30 minutes.)
Paper A.
[Note.—Candidates are to be supplied with working paper, but answers must be handed in on
the actual examination paper. At the end of 30 minutes the answers to this section will be
collected and the paper of general questions distributed to the candidates.]
1-0       1. Complete Trial Balance, supplying amount of Capital:—
Cash      16,200
Ace. Rec    20,400
Notes Rec      5,200
Ace. Pay  15,800
Notes Pay  12,250
Mdse. Inv     30,500
Purchases   120,960
Sales  144,440
Real Estate      5,000
Building        18,000
Res. Depn. Bldg  1,000
Off. Furn         600
Res. Depn. O. Furn  120 M 188
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
Delivery Equip  2,000
Res. Depn. Del. Equip C	
Sales Salaries   1,500
Off. Salaries   2,200
Taxes   250
Off. Supplies   200
Ware.     „        350
Gen. Expense   860
Purch. Disct	
Sales        „        1,200
Int. Paid   350
Int. Earned	
Exchange  100
Capital	
500
1,500
260
10
Mr. A. C. Ayres.
Terms:  30 days.
Vancouver, B.C.,
June 5, 1927.
Bought of MjisoN & Oo.
10
39 bbls. Sugar, ea. 200 lbs. net @ 5%e
40 cans Lard, ea. 12% lbs. @ 15c	
44 boxes Prunes, ea. 25 lbs. @ 12y2c	
12 Hams, total of 150 lbs. @ 17y2c	
3 doz. tins Chicken, per tin 8c	
Give extensions and total.
3. Check over the following to the nearest cent :-
120 H.S. Geometry @ $1.80 less 40 and 25 off  97
45 Dom. H.S. Arith. @ $1.60 less 20 and 25 off  41
60 Cash Book @ $4.00 less 25 and 10 off  163
25 M. L.L. Sheets @ $12.00 per M. less 12y2 and 10 off [ 235
Casing   I 4
20
19
00
27
50
530
16
10
4.
A Customer,
City.
1927
1927
May
1
2/10
n/30
S
a 120
00
May
11
Cash
C
a 100
00
11
2/10
n/30
S
b 80
00
21
,,
C
b 80
00
21
2/10
n/30
s
c 100
00
23
Return
J
c 10
00
Above account is paid in full May 31 by check,
posting and close account.
State amount of check and complete PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 189
Value.
20
10
10
Find to the nearest cent the interest on:—
$97.00 for 63 days at 5% per annum	
16.20 for 37 days at 7% per annum	
119.25 for 12 days at 5y2% per annum....
260.00 for 142 days at 4% per annum	
180.11 for 41 days at 4%% per annum....
Total-
SO       6.
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
Total
hrs.
Rate
per
hr.
Amt.
A. Brown
C. Dane	
8
8
4
8
8
8
8
4
8
7
8
6
8
8
1%
4
8
8
8
4
4
8
8
4
8
8
8
4
8
8
8
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
8
8
2%
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2y2
8
6
8
8
8
8
2
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
7
4
8
8
8
8
8
6
8
4
8
8
8
8
8
4
8
4
8
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
6
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
.80
.70
.60
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
E. Forbes
G. Hare	
I. Jones	
K. Lawson....
M. Nixon
0. Peters
Q. Ross	
S. Thomas
Total hours...
1
Complete the above time sheet and make out the wages for the two weeks.
7. Divide    981) 1234567899 (
8. Find sum of:—
16%% of $9.60 =
66%% of $4.20 =
3% X $12.60 =
1% X $1-38=
30 X 8X 12^0.=
Arithmetic, General.    (Time, 2y2 hours.)
Paper B.
[Note.—Time allowed for both papers in Arithmetic is 3 hours; after the expiration of 30
minutes, answers to Section A (Rapid Calculation) will be collected, and Section B (General)
will be distributed to candidates.]
[To Candidates.—Each question is valued at 10 marks.]
1. A commission agent sells a car-load of apples, 1,000 boxes, 40 lbs. each, at l%c. a lb.    After
deducting commission at 2%% and paying freight and other expenses, $32.50, he sends
check to the producer for the balance. If the producer pays exchange on the check of
y8 of 1%, what amount does he actually receive for the apples?
2. What will it cost in Canadian currency to pay an English invoice of £95 subject to cash
discount of 2% if the £ is quoted at $4.85 and brokerage is y8% ?
3. Find the compound interest on $60.75 for 5y2 years at 6% compounded annually.
A draft for $210 drawn 30 days after date and bearing interest at 7% per annum is discounted 12 days before maturity at 6% per annum. What are the proceeds to the nearest
cent?
5. A buys a house and lot for $5,000 (house $4,000, lot $1,000) and rents it at $42 a month.
The taxes per year are 30 mills on the land assessed at $900, and 30 mills on half of M 190 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
improvements assessed at $3,800; depreciation on building is 2%% per annum, repairs
to building are % of 1%. What net income does the owner receive per year and what
per cent, is this on his investment?
6. A demand note for $500 dated May 1, 1927, and bearing interest at 6% per annum has
following payments endorsed: June 2, 1927, $200; June 15, 1927, $200. How much will
be due July 15, 1927?
7. A, B, and C are partners and Jan. 1 their respective investments were $5,000; $3,000;  $2,000.
On July 1 A made a further investment of $2,000 and on Oct. 1 he withdrew $4,000. On
Aug. 1 B withdrew $1,000 and on Sept. 1 he invested a further $3,000. C on March 1
invested a further $2,000 and on Sept. 1 a further $1,000. Divide among them a net
profit of $1,200 according to their average monthly investment.
8. A Joint Stock Co., Limited, is capitalized at $50,000—6% cumulative preferred stock and
$150,000 common stock. At the end of their financial year the net profit is $9,500.
The preferred dividend was not paid last year and the directors decide now to pay the
two years' preferred dividend and to pay a dividend on the common stock after setting
aside a Reserve Fund of $500. What per cent, dividend will this allow on the common
stock? What cash dividend will be received by a shareholder who owns $5,000 preferred
stock and $25,000 common stock?
9. What is the present worth of an annuity of $1,200, deferred five years and continuing for
six years, money being worth 6 per cent. ?
10. What is the circumference of a circle whose area is 5,544 sq. ft. ?
(1.06)5 = 1.3382;  (1.06)6 = 1.4185.
Business Correspondence.    (Time, 2 hours.)
[Candidates may use pen and ink or typewriter, and in questions 1 and 2 must show
the addressed envelopes.]
1. You are " Credit Man " in the wholesale grocery establishment of Wilson & Ryan,
Vancouver, B.C. Your firm has received a request for credit from Frank H.
Moore, Nanaimo, B.C., formerly carrying on business at Weston, Ont. Mr. Moore
gives you, as one of his references, the name of Eby, Blain & Co., wholesale
grocers, Toronto, Ont.
Value.
10 (ei.)  Write a letter to this firm asking for the information you think necessary in
the case.
10 (&■) Draft Eby, Blain & Co.'s favourable reply to your inquiry.
10       2.  (a.)  Give a summary of the elements that should be incorporated in a series of
Collection Letters.
4 (&■)  State the main difference between a sales letter and a collection letter.
10 (c) Write the second letter to a delinquent debtor, who has, heretofore, been a
valued customer, and whose patronage you wish, if possible, to retain.
8 (d.)  This debtor has not responded in any way to your letter.    Outline the steps
you would take until you secure payment.
4 S. (a.) The majority of customers' complaints are said to fall into four classes.   Give
a title for each class.
8 (6.) State briefly the best plan of answering each of these complaints.
6 (c.) Mention three elements that should enter into the answer to customers' com
plaint letters.
10       4.  (a.) Describe fully, using carefully drawn illustrations, The Direct Name System
of filing.
5 (6.) In what cases is Geographical Filing the most suitable system? ■
PART III.—APPENDICES. M 191
Value.
5 5.  (ei.)  Give a brief description of the Shannon System of Filing.
5 (b.) For what purposes is its use suitable?
5 (c.)  What are its defects as an up-to-date system of filing in a large office?
Commercial Geography.    (Time, 2 hours.)
25        !• Draw an outline map of British Columbia, indicating thereon the following:—
(a.) Puget Sound, Howe Sound, Burrard Inlet, Cousins Inlet, Swanson Bay.
(6.) Fraser,  N.  and  S.  Thompson,  Columbia,  Kootenay,  Nass,   Similkameen,
Okanagan, Skeena, and Peace Rivers,
(c.)  Okanagan, Arrow, Kootenay, and Nltinat Lakes.
(ei!.)  Peace River Block.
(e.) Canadian Pacific, Canadian National, and Pacific Great Eastern Railways.
(/.)  Leading centres of the following industries:   Lumbering, Mining, Fishing,
Dairy-farming, Fruit-growing, Pulp and paper manufacturing.
(g.) Hydro-electric power plants.
5        2. " The Peace River district will become the granary of North America."    Discuss this
statement fully from a commercial standpoint.
10       3. Compare  Vancouver   and   Seattle   under   the  following  heads:    (a)   geographical
situation; (6) population; (c) industries; (d) commerce; (e) future possibilities.
10       4. Give a short description of Canada's trade with:   (a)   Great Britain;   (6)  United
States; (c) the British Empire; (d) South America; (e) China.
15        5. On an outline map of South America show the following :—
(a.)  Seven chief political divisions.
(6.)  The three great Highlands,
(c.)  The three principal river systems.
(d.)  The districts  devoted  to  the production of wheat,  coffee,  sugar,  rubber,
nitrate of soda, tin, copper, flax, emeralds, cattle-ranching,
(e.) Exact position of the two largest cities.
15      .6. (ei.) Where are the chief iron-mining regions of North America?
(6.) Name six industrial centres where iron and steel are made,
(c.) Compare the United States with Great Britain in the iron and steel industries
for world trade.
1-0       7.  (ei.) Name the chief oil-producing areas in North America.
(b.) Locate the other great oilfields of the world, and indicate their best markets.
10       8. Compare Belgium with Switzerland under the following:   (a) geographical situation;
(6) physical features; (c) manufactures; (d) commerce; (e) tourist trade.
Commercial Law.    (Time, 2 hours.)
5       1. How does the Bills of Exchange Act define a bill?   Which of the following will
conform with your definition?
2 (ei.) A'promise to pay Robert Smith $325 " and also all other sums which may be
due him."
2 (&•) An order to pay the proceeds of a shipment of goods "value about $10,000."
2 (e;.) A promise to pay $500 "in equal monthly instalments of $100, the first
instalment to become due on the 1st of August, 1927." M 192 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
2 (d.) An order to pay $1,000,  " and deduct same from moneys coming due to
me on account of Mrs. Wilson's residence."
2 (e.) A promise to pay "in merchantable timber, etc.    If not so paid within the
time, then the same is to be paid in cash."
20       2. Comment on the following, so as to show that you understand the legal points
involved:—
(a.) Ellison was surety upon a note for Adams. After the note became due,
the maker of the note called at the bank where it was payable and
procured from the holder an extension of payment for 30 days. How
does the extension operate so as to affect the surety?
(6.) Thackeray, Webster, and Scott were engaged in the insurance and collection
business. Webster, one of the partners, purchased lumber in the name
of the firm, to repair houses of which they had charge, and gave a note
with the firm's name on it. Will the other partners be bound by this
note?
(c.) Travis authorized his agent to purchase a certain house and lot for him for
$10,000. The agent bought the property for $8,500, and then sold it to
his principal for $10,000. Afterwards Travis was informed of the facts
in the case.    Did he have any remedy against the agent?
(d.) Blight, a fruit-grower, made an oral agreement to deliver to Young & Co.
his entire apple-crop for two successive seasons. The crop was delivered
the first season according to agreement, but the second season, Blight,
for reasons best known to himself, refused to deliver any of his crop.
Can Young & Co. recover damages for breach of agreement?
(e.) Defendant owed plaintiff a sum of money which was admitted by the former
to be $100. Plaintiff agreed orally to accept $80 in payment of the
debt, and this amount was paid to him. He thereafter brought suit
to recover the remaining $20.    Can he succeed?
10 3. Discuss Chattel Mortgages under the following heads : (ei) registration; (b) removal
of mortgaged goods; (e) causes for taking possession of mortgaged goods; (d)
assignment of mortgage; (e) Statute of Limitations.
15       4. Vancouver, B.C., January 12, 1927.
Three months after date I promise to pay to the order of W. W. Williams,
Five hundred Dollars ($500) at the Royal Bank here, value received, with
interest at 8% until paid.
James Robinson,
Arthur Swanson, Surety.
On the back of the above note are the following names in order:—•
W. W. Williams.
For value received I hereby guarantee payment of the within note.
N. Sumner.
Protest and notice of protest waived.
Jas. Spring.
Pay to Geo. Alcock without recourse.
Sam Ross.
Pay Thos. Simpson only.
Geo. Alcock.
This note is in the hands of Simpson as holder. ..
(a.) What kind of a note is it?
(6.)  When is the due date, and how much is then due?
■ ■: (c.)  What is the contract of each of the endorsers?
(d.) Where should the note be presented for payment? PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 193
Value.
20
20
(e.)  To whom should notice of protest be sent, and what information should then
be given.
(/.)  If the note is finally paid May 15, 1927, how much was required to settle it,
including $5 protest fees?
5. (a.)  When should the contract between employer and employee be in writing?
(b.)  What is a reasonable notice of discharge of employee?
(e.)  When may the employee be discharged without notice?
(d.)  What is the employee's remedy in case of wrongful dismissal?
(e.)  For what acts of the servant is the master liable generally?
(/.)  Can employees be compelled to work on Sundays and legal holidays?
6. (a.) Explain the steps to be taken in the formation of a Joint Stock Company under
the B.C. Companies Act.
(6.)  What is a Prospectus, and what information should it contain?
(c.) Name five advantages of incorporation over a partnership form of organization.
Shorthand Dictation.
[Note to Presiding Examiner.—Candidates are to be provided with plain white letter paper,
or books, for transcripts, and with Stenographic note-books for taking down notes. Notes
may be taken with either pen or pencil and transcripts may be either pen-written or typewritten. The material should be given to the Dictator fifteen minutes before he is required
to dictate so that he may prepare the timing of his dictation.]
[Note to Dictator.—The dictation must be at uniform rate of speed with close attention to the
quarter-minute marks on the copy and with watch in hand. The matter must not be read
to the candidates prior to their actual note-taking. Allow three minutes' rest after dictating
each section. Candidates will hand in transcripts of the three pieces—A, B, C. They must
attach their shorthand notes to each piece, and should see that their examination number
is on each loose sheet. Each piece should be transcribed on a separate sheet, and may be
either typewritten or pen-written.]
(Arranged for dictation at 80 words per minute.   Syllabic intensity 1.5.)
One morning not long ago I was afforded the opportunity of seeing more of Victoria and the
coun 1 try around than is usually given to a visitor in several days. A friend suggested
that I go with I him in his car to see for myself some of the beauty spots surrounding this
island city. Eager to view the scenic I attractions possessed by this much-praised island,
I accepted the invitation.
In bright sunshine we passed through the city and I out upon the north road, past well-kept
farms and gardens to where the virgin forest stands. Entering this realm we soon found
our [ selves climbing a winding road which grew steeper as we ascended. Past stately pine
trees towering above our heads, with glimpses | of water and mountain ranges seen through
the enormous trees, we reached the top of what proved to be a miniature moun I tain.
Here stood a vast dome-shaped building, dazzling white—the celebrated observatory, which
houses the second largest tel I escope in the world.
Coming out into the open again, I was thrilled at the grandeur of the view before me. From
an I altitude of seven hundred and twenty feet above sea-level, we looked over the tops of
forest giants, upon I the beautiful setting of Prospect Lake, with its artistic summer homes
dotted about the lake-shore, backed by the prime I val forest. The lake, a sheet of placid
water, reflected in its clear depths the snowy whiteness of swift-moving clouds. I Turning
away from this scene of beauty, another view greeted my gaze: Mount Douglas, Elk Lake,
and the Straits of Georgia, I all of which could be absorbed in one grand view.
13 M 194 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Unwillingly I moved away. My guide was anxious to show me more. Leaving I this realm
of Nature and Science, we wound a perilous way down to the north road once more, and
sped through leafy glades to where I the famous gardens stand. The sunken gardens are
truly wonderful. I looked down upon the flowers and shrubs so carefull I y planted between
the rocks, the green grass growing like a carpet around the flower-beds.? and I thought of
the land of the I fairies wherein the sprites and elves make merry.
Three miles away we reached the Mill Bay Ferry. Here the car was stowed on hoard and
with I several others we crossed the waters of the inlet to another landing at the foot of
the mountain. It took about for I ty-five minutes to cross the six miles of water, and
throughout the journey one was lost in admiration of the scene.
" B."
(Arranged for dictation at 100 ivords per minute.   Syllabic intensity 1.5.)
The present year is Canada's Diamond Jubilee and plans and arrangements are being made for
the appropriate celebration of the happy I anniversary. The occasion is one for thanksgiving, and perhaps we may be pardonecl if we indulge in a little quiet pride and con-
gratu | lation among ourselves in looking back over the sixty years of Canada's corporate
life. It is a record of steady achievement of which I no nation of ten million people need
be ashamed, and no doubt the First of July, 1927, will be celebrated from one end of the
Dominion to I the other in a fashion worthy of the event.
Suggestions have been made from time to time in the press and on the platform that some
concerted effort I should be made to create, or at any rate to foster and develop, a vigorous
and active " national consciousness." These suggestions are in I variably well meant.
Usually they come from individuals who have given some serious thought to social and
national problems. In I certain cases they bear the mark of the confused thinking which
sometimes accompanies honest enthusiasm. At a public gathering recently a I visitor to
the city expressed the opinion that the schools of the Province are not doing as much as they
ought to do in the matter of fos I tering national spirit, and he advocated a more extensive
study of Canadian literature with that end in view. This paper I believes that our teachers
are fully alive to their opportunities in teaching civic and national duty and in inculcating
patrio I tic sentiment in accordance with the very definite instructions to be found in the
official programmes of study. Moreover, a glance at I the list of authorized text-books for
public schools is all that is necessary to show that Canadian literature already occupies I a
considerable place in the daily school-work. It is reasonable to assume that the Canadian
Poetry Book, Selections from the Makers of I Canada, and Selections from the Canadian
Poets should afford ample material for the inculcation of Canadian national I sentiment.
An extremist might suggest that additional works by Canadian writers should take the place
of Scott, Dickens, Lamb, Ruskin, and Stevenson, at present I on the programme, but such
a proceeding would not meet with general approval in any province of Canada,
It is both interesting and I instructive to Canadians, young and old, to distinguish English
literature produced in Canada from English literature produced I elsewhere. Such a classification no doubt has its uses, but it is of very restricted value as influencing the educator's
choice I of material for a school course in English literature. Excellence of literature not
geographical distribution should be the factor.
" C."
(Arranged for dictation at 120 words per minute.    Syllabic intensity 1.5.)
Gentlemen of the Jury,—As this is the first case this term that you are called upon to consider
and determine, not only for your benefit but for the benefit of the I other members of the
panel who are in the court-room, I shall take a moment or two in calling your attention to
your duties as jurors. You are the sole judges of the facts. I The court is here simply to
call your attention to the law governing the case, and the mere fact that during the trial
I denied motions or overruled objections interposed I to the admission of testimony must
not be accepted by the jurors as any expression of opinion on my part, for I have no opinion
to express. PART III.—APPENDICES.
M 195
A plaintiff who comes into court must prove his or her case by a fair margin of evidence. By that
we do not necessarily mean the number of witnesses that are called. It I is the quality and
not the quantity of proof that is offered, and if the jury determines that the evidence is
evenly balanced, then the plaintiff has failed to make out I his case, and the verdict ought
to be for the defendant.
If the jury determine that any witness has wilfully testified falsely as to any material facts,
they | have a right to disregard the whole of such witness's testimony. The jury in considering the testimony of any witness should also consider the interest I that such witness
may have in the result of the verdict, and should carefully weigh the testimony given by
such a witness.
When you go to your jury-room, you must consider I the testimony admitted during the trial,
and remove from your mind whatever impression may have been made by any expression of
opinion of counsel, not borne out | by the evidence in the case, and let your verdict be the
result of deliberation. Let it not be brought about by reason of sympathy for one or
prejudice against I the other. The question of a man's colour, religion, or previous occupation, or the fact that the defendant is a corporation, must not be considered by the jury I in
determining the facts in this case.    Before the law all men are equal.
The court instructs the jury that this action is brought to recover damages for personal injuries I
which the plaintiff claims by reason of the careless and negligent conduct of the defendant.
There appears to be no dispute that the plaintiff received certain injuries, but the mere I fact
that he received injuries is not in itself sufficient to warrant a jury in finding a verdict in
his favour, for he must show, not only that he received the I injuries, but that he in nowise
contributed to the result. If he in any way acted as an imprudent person would have acted
under the circumstances, or if he in I the slightest degree contributed to the result, he
cannot recover, and your verdict should be for the defendant.
The jury is further instructed that ordinary care I is that degree of care which persons of
ordinary care and prudence are accustomed to observe under similar circumstances. Ordinary care as applied to the I defendant in this case would be such care as persons of
ordinary care and prudence would exercise, having in mind the business they are conducting,
and the circumstances as I disclosed by the evidence in this case.
You are further instructed that ordinary care as applied to the plaintiff would be such care as
applies in ordinary circumstances.
Stenography Practice.
[To the Presiding Examiner.—The following letters are to be dictated to the candidates once,
at 80 words (syllabic intensity 1.5) per minute. To facilitate this, the selections are divided
into quarter-minute sections. The punctuation-marks are not to be read, but paragraphs
must be indicated. One-quarter of a minute must be allowed after reading each letter before
beginning the next. After taking the dictation, candidates are to be allowed one hour for
transcription on the typewriter, for addressing envelopes, and for folding and enclosing
letters and carbon copies. Candidates must hand in both their typewritten letters and their
shorthand notes. Please ask candidates to type their examination numbers on the top of
each letter and also on the upper left-hand corners of their envelopes. Candidates should
pay special attention to display and folding of letters.]
Value.
18
1. Victoria, B.C., June 11, 1927.
Frank D. Smith, Esq.,
Prince Rupert, B.C.
Dear Sir:   We are enclosing herewith, in I accordance with your recent request, one
of our booklets,  " How  to Judge a  Watch." M 196
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Value.
21
32
11
There has been some delay in getting out this j booklet, which will account for our
not having sent it to you sooner, but we trust that it will be none the less acceptable I and that you will find it both interesting and instructive.
If there is no jeweller in your neighbourhood now handling I our watches, write us
and we shall be glad to tell you where they can be obtained.
4.
Very truly yours,
Enclosure.
(105 words.)
Mr. T. Henry Clarkson,
Nanaimo, B.C.
Vancouver, B.C., June 15, 1927.
My dear Sir: We desire to announce that I our Fall and Winter models are now ready
for your inspection.
The new designs are specially graceful, are fashioned from the most exclusive cloths
of this country and England and retail at from $25 to $65.
Our entire product is I prepared in our own work-rooms by the best tailors obtainable, and can be compared only with the very highest grade cus I torn work.
In our Furnishing Department you will find a complete assortment of the newest
things in gentlemen's furnish I ings, for dress or business wear.
Looking forward with pleasure to an early call from you, we beg to remain,
(121 words.)
Very truly [ yours,
Vancouver, B.C., June 20, 1927.
Messrs. Frank L. Rogers & Co.,
92 Second St.,
Seattle, Wash.
Gent | lemen: About three months ago our Sales Manager wrote to all users of our
products, asking for certain informa I tion with a view of improving our service
to the public.
Many of our customers replied, giving us valuable I suggestions that gave us an
opportunity to help them.
Since then we have given a great deal of time and painstaking I attention to the
general improvement of our service, but we want to improve it still further.
It is only through I the co-operation of our customers that we can know their needs
and how best to provide for them.
In order that we I may know whether you are getting the service you are entitled to
and which we want you to have, and in order that we | may know that our
products are earning you the greatest returns on your investment, we will ask
you to fill out, sign, and mail | the enclosed postal at your earliest convenience.
If there are any suggestions not covered by the card, please write us I fully.
(184 words.)
Yours very truly,
Vancouver, B.C., June 20, 1927.
Miss Elizabeth T. Brown,
Nelson, B.C.
Dear Madam: If you have not already j sent a renewal of your subscription, please
sign the return postal attached hereto, and mail it at once, that you may be I sure
not to miss the July number. You may remit the amount of the subscription, $3,
at your convenience.
Yours I very truly,
(62 words.) Value.
18
5.
Vancouver, B.C., June 21, 1927.
| such as checks, postal
one year, $2; two years,
Mr. James Macdonald,
Kamloops, B.C.
Dear Sir:   We accept anything that looks like real money
orders, currency, or stamps.    The subscription price is—
$3;  five years, $5. I
Your subscription has recently expired, but we can keep your files complete if you
will be so good as to renew promptly. I The easiest way to subscribe is to take
a five-dollar bill, pin it to this letter, and send it to us in the en I velope we
are enclosing.
This is all at our risk.    Try it!    You will be surprised at the ease with which it
can be done.
Yours I very truly,
(102 words.)
Typewriting.
[To the Presiding Examiner.—The Typewriting paper consists of two parts, A and B. In
Part A, 900 five-stroke words are given and the candidates are to be allowed 15 minutes.
In Part B, the candidates are also to be allowed 15 minutes, and as many words as possible
should be written. No carbon copies are required in either Parts A or B. The work should
be done in double spacing.]
Part A.
50 When we spend an afternoon shopping at a great West End store and pass slowly
from department to department, admiring if not selecting from the infinitely varied
assortment of tempting wares, we seldom pause to think of the beginning of it all.
We are impressed rather with its air of permanence and inevitability. To inquire
into its origin and growth seems amid such dignified surroundings strangely out
of place and discourteous. Yet these businesses are not one with the everlasting
hills. In some cases their birth was very recent. Nor were they all ushered in
with ceremony and advertising; many emerged in the most humble circumstances,
just frail, diminutive children of a mighty hope, and had to struggle long against
poverty and neglect. But all businesses have this in common: they are at first
a venture into the unknown, entered upon with much the same hopes and fears as
those of a gardener when planting a rare rose-cutting or of an explorer When
starting for the Pole. What are the motives that induce men to undertake the
risks and labours of a new business? Sometimes they are actuated by the desire
for greater wealth or an ample income; sometimes the longing for freedom
persuades them to throw up a good post; sometimes they feel the need for self-
expression ; sometimes the thirst for revenge impels them to make a late employer
" put up his shutters " ; sometimes they seek merely to educate the public. Usually
their motives, like most human motives, are mixed, with the desire for gain predominant. Equally varied are the reasons deciding the nature of the business.
A man may have special knowledge of customers, as when a traveller starts in
opposition to his late employer. Such a " connexion " is so valuable that responsible
employees have generally to undertake not to use knowledge of this kind in a new
post. On the other hand, a man may have special knowledge of goods, may, indeed,
seek to market his own invention; or may have special opportunities of obtaining
large supplies cheaply, as was the case with " Army Surplus " firms. Now and then
the ostentation of neighbours would seem to indicate abnormal profits: when the
greengrocer sees the butcher in a new car, he wishes to go and do likewise. Often
the choice of business is determined by special training. Just as there is fixed
capital, so there is fixed labour. For the experienced printer to start as a draper
would be as foolish as to expect a printing press to weave cloth.    Some businesses, M 198 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
however, are incomplete unless they are carried on in a certain locality. The place
determines the reputation of the goods and the price at which they can be sold.
The Bond Street hat is often identical with its humble Rye Lane sister except for
the name inside, and the address in the Harley Street neighbourhood at once
distinguishes the medical consultant from the ordinary practitioner. But high
rents and improved means of transport are tending to break down this localization
of retail trade; and just as manufacturers are shifting farther and farther into
the country and erecting factories at convenient sites along the railway route where
rates are low, so the different classes of traders are leaving their old haunts in
the City, and migrating to the outskirts of the metropolis, to places within reach of
the electric railways. The principal factor, however, deciding the nature of the
business is the amount of cash at the individual's command. This, of course, need
not be his own money. Indeed, one of the principal services rendered by those who
start businesses is that they devise means whereby other people's savings, which
would otherwise lie idle, may be employed to produce wealth. The sources of the
business promoter's capital are manifold. In the first place, he may rely on his
own money. Most small shopkeepers originally do so. He may put into the business
cash that he has by him, or he may mortgage, that is, pledge, property, such as
houses and land, as security for loans. To rely wholly on mortgages, however, when
starting a business would put the promoter very much in the hands of the mortgagee, and it is not often done; but a very large percentage of businesses raise
money later in this way. The promoter may have wealthy relatives anxious to
" put him on his feet " with as little risk to themselves as possible. They are
enabled to share in his enterprise without committing the whole of their possessions by the special legal provision known as limited partnership, or registered
joint stock companies.
(901 five-stroke words.)
Typewriting.
[Candidates are allowed 15 minutes only for this paper.   No carbon copy is required.
The work should be done in double spacing.]
Part B.
Value.
50 Business and industry are dominated by prices. They determine the whole course
and pace of production and distribution. The myriad forms in which the wealth
of this country is to-day expressed—food, clothing, buildings, means of transport,
machinery, things useful, things beautiful—all alike are the result of the study of
prices and probable prices. A consideration of prices decides on the one hand if
a new enterprise can be embarked upon; on the other hand, if an old undertaking
shall be allowed to languish and die, or be rejuvenated and given a new lease of
life. When we are perturbed over the spending of our incomes, we may take
comfort in the thought that ultimately the prices that rule business are ruled by
us. They reflect all our present and probable whims and wants, fancies and
fashions ; and those who mould our ideas, mould prices at the same time. Demand,
which is what the economist calls our spending intentions, decides prices. Business
is pursued for selfish ends. Within the varying framework of demands, each kind
of business must in the long run have prices sufficiently high to yield to business
men a reward comparable with that obtainable from other forms of business.
This average long-term price, the economist's " normal " price, tends to provide
to all business men and industrialists an equal return, the same interest on capital,
the same wages for services, the same profit for risk-bearing and special ability.
That is the broad economic force underlying prices, groping its way like a tireless
blind man. But prices from day to day are subject to a multitude of minor
influences that conceal the general tendency and that result from the standpoint
of the individual supplier and the individual buyer.   It is these we now want to study. Each gets as much as he thinks he can. The cost of each commodity or
service is borne in mind, but cannot be allowed to decide. The seller, manufacturer, and trader alike, pockets his gain or cuts his loss. The company that
has invested hundreds of thousands of dollars in factories and plant and machinery
not easily convertible to other uses must be content to sell its product at a price
that provides only a small margin above the cost of materials and labour, and
then wait and work for better things. The bus company must cut its fares on .the
tram routes and increase them judiciously elsewhere. The railway must carry
foreign fruit from the Coast to the Prairies more cheaply than it carries local fruit
a shorter distance, or the foreign fruit would not come by rail at all. All traders
are like the transport companies: they charge what the " traffic" will bear.
Sometimes their hands are weakened or strengthened by the character of their
goods. Ripe pears must be sold at any price; corn and coal will keep. Sometimes the value of their goods arises almost solely from that human perversity
which makes us desire most what the other fellow has not got. Early strawberries
selling at fifty cents a basket, and plovers' eggs, give food for thought in more
senses than one. On the other hand, there is the even stronger propensity impelling
us to imitate: contemplate the price of last season's " model " or of Oxford trousers
when the fashion has passed. Sometimes an invention or new machine will alter
in a month the whole aspect of a trade, and stocks will have to be sold at a fraction
of the former prices. One point in connection with pi-ices calls for special mention.
A price is, of course, an offer to exchange a definite quantity of a certain commodity
for so much money. It will, therefore, be increased if the quantity or the quality
of the commodity is lowered without a corresponding change in the money, or if,
when the money-figure is decreased, the quantity or quality is disproportionately
lowered. Many traders and manufacturers endeavour to meet competition by
altering the commodity rather than the amount of money asked for it, since an
increase in the latter woukl be at once noted. A transport company may increase
its effective price very considerably by adopting a " strap-hanging" policy, by
neglecting the cleaning of its vehicles, by economizing in lighting or by using old
stock. Caterers may manage to make more profit out of a five-cent cup of coffee
than out of the ten-cent variety. Increased commodity taxes may be passed to
the consumer, even while he is assured that they are being borne by the manufacturer, if the materials used are slightly changed. When the success of the
advertising campaign for a particular preparation is certain, its cost may be wiped
out by a small adjustment of machinery, so that slightly less is put into the tubes
or bottles or cartons containing the product. Bakers could meet a popular demand
for cheaper bread by varying the constituents of the dough. Many hard things
have been written and said about trade combinations and monopolistic combines.
It is sometimes forgotten that such attempts to " squeeze the market" are, after
all, merely in agreement with the practice of all business and most economic
activity.
(1,022 five-stroke words.)
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1927.
6,825-11-27-0444

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0300573/manifest

Comment

Related Items