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FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1926-27 BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1928

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 FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OF  THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1926-27
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Chasles F. Banfield, Printer to tile King's Most Excellent Majesty,
1927.  To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg herewith respectfully to present the Fifty-sixth Annual Report of the Public Schools
of the Province.
j. d. Maclean,
Minister of Education.
December, 1927.  DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
Minister of Education:
Hon. J. D. MacLean, M.D., CM., LL.D.
Superintendent of Education: Assistant Superintendent of Education:
S. J. Willis, B.A., LL.D. J. D. Gillis.
Inspectors of High Schools:
A. Sullivan, B.A., Victoria. J. B. DeLong, B.A., Vancouver.
Inspectors of Elementary Schools:
L. J. Bruce, Vancouver. W. H. M. May, Victoria.
F. G. Calvert, Vancouver. A. E. Miller, Revelstoke.
E. G. Daniels, B.A., New Westminster. H.   H.  Mackenzie,  B.A.,  Vancouver.
H. C. Fraser, M.A., Prince Rupert. J. M. Paterson, B.A., Nanaimo.
G. H. Gower, M.A., Prince George. J. T. Pollock, Vancouver.
T. R. Hall, B.A., Kelowna. P. H. Sheffield, B.A., Nelson.
V. Z. Manning, B.A., Cranbrook. A. C. Stewart, Victoria.
A. F. Matthews, ALA., Kamloops.
SPECIAL OFFICIALS.
Director of Elementary Agricultural Education and
Supervisor of Normal Schools:
3. W. Gibson, ALA., B.Paed.
Organizer of Technical Education: Officer in Charge of Correspondence Courses:
John Kyle, A.R.C.A. James Hargreaves.
Registrar: Officer in Charge of Free Text-books:
3. L. Watson, B.A. J. A. Anderson.
Director of Home Economics: Chief Clerk:
Aliss J. L. ALvcLenaghen, B.Sc. George Cruickshank.
N0RA1AL SCHOOL STAFFS.
Vancouver: Victoria:
D. M. Robinson, B.A., Principal. D. L. AIacLaurin, B.A.,  Principal.
A. Anstey, B.A. V. L. Denton, B.A.
W. P. Weston. H. Dunnell.
H. B. AIacLean. B. S. Freeman, B.A.
J. A. Macintosh, B.A. 0. B. Wood, B.A., M.A.
A. E. C. AIartin, B.Sc. Aliss G. G. Riddell.
A. R. Lord, B.A. Miss L- B- Isbister.
W. G. Black, B.A., ALA. Mlss Isabel Coursier.
Aliss L. A. Burpee. Model School:
Aliss E. AL Coney. Miss Kate Scanlan.
Aliss N. V. Jones, B.A. Miss I. AL F. Barron. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PART I. Page.
Superintendent's  Report    9
Inspectors' Reports—
High Schools   29
Elementary Schools   30
Alunicipal Inspectors' Reports—
New Westminster   42
Vancouver '.  43
Vancouver, South  46
Victoria  47
Reports on Normal Schools—
Vancouver  49
Victoria  50
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind  53
Report of the Organizer of Technical Education  55
Report of the Director of Home Economics  63
Report of the Director  of Elementary Agricultural  Education  66
Report of the Director of the Summer School for Teachers  70
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Free, Text-book Branch  74
Report of the Secretary,  Local  Committee,   Strathcona  Trust  76
PART II.      .
Statistical Returns—
High Schools  (Cities)     2
High Schools  (Rural Alunicipalities)     7
High Schools  (Rural Districts)     10
Superior Schools   11
Junior High Schools   12
Elementary Schools  (Cities)     14
Elementary Schools  (Rural Alunicipalities)     42
Elementary Schools  (Rural Districts)     69
Elementary  Schools   (Assisted)     75
Elementary Schools  (E. & N. Railway Belt)    85
Summary of Attendance in Rural Schools—Elementary  87
Summary of Enrolment in. the Schools of each City ,  88
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each Rural Municipality  '.  91
Enrolment (Recapitulation)    93
Subjects of Study pursued in High Schools in Cities   94
Subjects of Study pursued in High Schools in Rural Municipalities   98
Subjects of Study pursued in High Schools in Rural Districts   102
Subjects of Study pursued in Superior and Junior High Schools   104
Summary showing Number of Students pursuing each Subject of Study in High and Superior
Schools  108
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc.. in each of the Electoral Districts  110
PART III.
High School Entrance Examination—Names of Aledal-winners   117
High School Examination—Names of the Winners of Aledals and Scholarships   117
High School Entrance Examination Papers   119
High School Examination Papers—
Grade IX  131
Grade X  141
Grade XL  (Junior Matriculation)    152
Grade XII.  (Senior Matriculation)    170
Third-year Course, Commercial   ISO Al 18 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Vancouver, 94 marks; Harry Newman, St. Paul's School, 94 marks; Florence Thomas, Queen
Mary School, North Vancouver, 94 marks; Annie AL Laukkanen, Richmond East School, 93
marks.
Inspectorate No. 5: Torrance F. Shook, Alission School, 102 marks; Elsie L. AlcRae,
Agassiz School, 101 marks; Tony W. Fritz, Rosedale School, Chilliwack, 100 marks; Edith
Higginson, Sardis School, Chilliwack, 100 marks; Irene Savitsky, Mount Lehman School, 100
marks; Mabel Brearley, Dewdney School, 97 marks; Lyle Wicks, Alexander Robinson School,
Maple Ridge, 97 marks; Annie Zuback, Hammond School, 97 marks; Eric Dunning, Delta
Central School, 96 marks.
Inspectorate No. 6: William Dayton, Kerrisdale School, Point Grey, 105 marks; Harry V.
Astley, Edith Cavell School, Point Grey, 103 marks; Helen M. Reid, Queen Alary School, Point
Grey, 103 marks; Robert Dunn, Queen Alary School, Point Grey, 102 marks; Cyril Healey,
Edith Cavell School, Point Grey, 102 marks; Helen Shannon, Prince of Wales School, Point
Grey, 102 marks; Nancy Carter, Prince of Wales School, Point Grey, 101 marks; Frances A.
Alunton, Kerrisdale School, Point Grey, 100 marks; Grace Thrower, Lord Kitchener School,
Point Grey, 100 marks.
Inspectorate No. 7: Marjorie B. Craig, Selkirk School, South Vancouver, 105 marks; Ross
Helem, Brock School, South Vancouver, 105 marks; Jack Dowdle, Moberly School, South
Vancouver, 104 marks; Jack Griffiths, Van Home School, South Vancouver, 103 marks; Josie
Lougheed, General Wolfe School, South Vancouver, 103 marks; Peggy Lind, Tecumseh School,
South Vancouver, 102 marks; John Lindsay Thacker, Hope School, 102 marks; Adeline Cantone,
Norquay School, South Vancouver, 101 marks; William Lang, Brock School, South Vancouver,
101 marks.
Inspectorate No. 8; Linton D. Harris, Springbrook School, 105 marks; Phyllis L. Dodge,
Milner School, 104 marks; Robert Larmon, Milner School, 103 marks; Harrison Moxham,
Edmonds Street School, Burnaby, 103 marks; Eric Richard Parker, Nelson Avenue School,
Burnaby, 103 marks; Frederick Greer, Otter School, 101 marks; Jack Potkins, Nelson Avenue
School, Burnaby, 101 marks; Earl Enger, Cloverdale School, 100 marks; William Tomkinson,
Edmonds Street School, Burnaby, 99 marks.
Inspectorate No. 9: John Alan Smith, Darlington School, 103 marks; Jack Richmond,
Stuart Wood School, Kamloops, 101 marks; Arthur, Harold Tyrrel, Zetland School, Kamloops,
101 marks; Billie Hogg, Stuart Wood School, Kamloops, 97 marks; Douglas Taylor, Stuart
Wood School, Kamloops, 97 marks; Mary Matthews, Stuart Wood School, Kamloops, 94 marks;
Edward MacKenzie, Stuart Wood School, Kamloops, 94 marks; Lewis Crossley, Stuart Wood
School, Kamloops, 93 marks; Margaret Drage, Lloyd George School, Kamloops, 93 marks.
Inspectorate No. 10: Clarence O. Fulton, Vernon Central School, 105 marks; Fred Crooker,
Keremeos School, 102 marks; Frank P. Browne, Westbank Townslte School, 101 marks; George
H. Mossop, Summerland School, 101 marks; Frances Simms, Vernon Central School, 98 marks;
Betty Brown, Penticton School, 96 marks; Callum Thompson, Penticton School, 96 marks;
Philip C. Basham, Westbank Townsite School, 94 marks; John Gibson, Penticton School, 94
marks.
Inspectorate No. 11: Bertram Woodland, Revelstoke School, 102 marks; Jean Alargaret
McMullan, Salmon Arm School, 98 marks; George Albert B. Aleakins, Glenbank School, 90
marks; John Lawrence Monk, Grindrod School, 86 marks; Brenda Wellman, Golden School,
85 marks; Cecilia Elizabeth Rooney, McAlurdo School, 84 marks; Ruth Lindsay, Revelstoke
School, 83 marks; Jean Alton, Galena School, 77 marks; Alice E. Jones, Revelstoke School,
77 marks.
Inspectorate No. 12: George Kent, Alaclean School, Rossland, 104 marks; Ian Ritchie,
Nelson Central School, 103 marks; Frank Matovich, Trail School, 99 marks; Lome Stewart,
Nelson Central School, 98 marks; Gerald Boisjoli, Alaclean School, Rossland, 97 marks; Pauline
Hrooshkin, Trail School, 95 marks; Ronald Conway, Nelson Central School, 94 marks; Mildred
I. Patterson, Grand Forks School, 94 marks;  John Liebscher, Silverton School, 93 marks.
Inspectorate No. 13: Jack Bird, Camp Lister School, 104 marks; Olive L. Norgrove, Cranbrook School, 104 marks; Kathleen Sheppard, Wardner School, 103 marks; Frank Crawford,
Creston School, 102 marks;   Jessie A. South, Cranbrook School, 100 marks;   Aileen Spratt, PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27. Al 17
Elementary-school Pupils.
(Alarks possible, 130.)
Winners of the Gold Medals.—William Hodson, Ocean Falls School, 121 marks; Dorothy
Lane, David Lloyd George School, Point Grey, 110 marks.
Winners of the Silver Medals.—Edgar Maxwell, Prince of Wales School, Point Grey, 117
marks; Reggie Kelly, Nanaimo School, 113 marks; Archie J. Thompson, Booth Memorial School,
Prince Rupert, 113 marks; James J. Gibb, Vernon Park School, 112 marks; John Gibson,
Tecumseh School, South Vancouver, 112 marks; Howard Harding, Nanaimo School, 111 marks;
Donald J. Cameron, Quesnel School, 111 marks; Ernest Doe, Salmon Arm School, 111 marks;
John Williams, Ocean Falls School, 111 marks; John Blinco, Creston School, 109 marks; John
Scoular, Happy Valley School, 109 marks; Lillian T. Cupit, Grand View School, Vancouver,
108 marks; Alatteo Diorio, North Ward School, Victoria, 108 marks; Archie Green well, South
Wellington School, 108 marks; Gladys L. Griffin, Vernon Central School, 10S marks; Bob
Hewetson, Prince of Wales School, Point Grey, 108 marks; Douglas James, Lord Kitchener
School, Point Grey, 108 marks; Alex. J. Marling, Tillicum School, Saanich, 108 marks; Christine
Brew, Ingram Alountain School, 107 marks; Raymond Bromwell, Laura Secord School, Vancouver, 107 marks; John C. Christy, Kerrisdale School, Point Grey, 107 marks ; Donald Duncan,
Jubilee School, Matsqui, 107 marks; Philip J. Forster, Lynn Valley School, North Vancouver
Municipality, 107 marks; George Hill, Whonnock School, 107 marks; Gilbert Hooley, Henry
Hudson School, Vancouver, 107 marks; Alargaret Leask, Ocean Falls School, 107 marks; Edwin
Nodder, Brock School, South Vancouver, 107 marks; Violet Thompson, Grand View School,
Vancouver, 107 marks ; Eileen Alahoney, Kelowna School, 106 marks; Dorothy Wilson, St. Ann's
Convent, Victoria, 106 marks.
Winners of the Bronze Medals.—Vancouver Centre: Nancy Osbaldston, St. Patrick's School.
105 marks; Frances Powell, General Gordon School, 104 marks; Jack Hutchings, Florence
Nightingale School, 104 marks; Eunice Freedman, Hastings School, 102 marks; Marjorie
Coombes, Laura Secord School, 101 marks; Bob Findlay, General Gordon School, 101 marks;
Elizabeth Lalonde, St. Patrick's School, 100 marks; Rosa Lasser, Lord Tennyson School, 100
marks;   Alary AL AIcQuarrie, St. Patrick's School, 99 marks.
Victoria Centre: Sydney Weston, South Park School, 103 marks; Harold Henry Herd,
Margaret Jenkins School, 102 marks: Aluriel Davenport, South Park School, 101 marks;
Franklin M. J. Copley, North Ward School, 100 marks.
New Westminster Centre: Winifred Al. Hambrook, Lister-Kelvin School, 100 marks;
Charles E. Doherty, Central School, 96 marks.
Inspectorate No. 1: Robert C. Derrinberg, Saanichton School, Saanich, 104 marks ; Vincent
Butler, Keating School, Saanich, 103 marks; Reg. D. Bristowe, Craigflower School, Saanich,
101 marks; Douglas AlcKinnell, Craigflower School, Saanich, 9S marks; John E. Merritt, Cedar
Hill School, Saanich, 97 marks; Alona F. McAdoo, Tolmie School, Saanich, 96 marks; Jack
Neligan, Cloverdale School, Saanich, 96 marks; Geoffrey C. Page, Tolmie School, Saanich, 94
marks;  John A. Bulinckx, Alackenzie Avenue School, Saanich, 93 marks.
Inspectorate No. 2: Florence Lemon, Duncan School, 104 marks; David D. Campbell,
Esquimalt School, 103 marks; Clara E. Hayden, Ladysmith School, 103 marks; Phyllis Ryley,
Esquimalt School, 101 marks; Gwladys Downes, Monterey Avenue School, Oak Bay, 100 marks;
Alfred Greenway, Cedar East School, 100 marks; James A. Spragge, Alonterey Avenue School,
Oak Bay, 99 marks; John C. Gornall, The Willows School, Oak Bay, 98 marks; Dora Spurling,
Chemainus School, 97 marks.
Inspectorate No. 3: Charles Barry, Alountain School, 105 marks; Laura Johnstone, Hare-
wood School, 104 marks; Daniel Bullich, South Wellington School, 103 marks; Jack Egdell,
Nanaimo School, 103 marks; Robert C. W. Roberts, Errington School, 103 marks; Sydney
Robinson, Nanaimo School, 103 marks; Albert Bain, Nanaimo School, 102 marks; Audrey
AfcRae, Nanaimo School, 102 marks;   Cora Greig, Hilliers School, 101 marks.
Inspectorate No. 4: Lewis Upton, Bridgeport School, 103 marks; Lewis Faulkner, Bridgeport School, 102 marks; Joseph G. Alachesney, Blue Mountain School, Coquitlam, 102 marks;
Charlie Ovans, Lynn Valley School, North Vancouver, 99 marks; Ernest W. H. Brown, Queen
Alary School, North Vancouver, 96 marks; Charles J. Aiilsted, Lynn Valley School, North
b Muirhead,  of Vancouver.    The second prize of $40 was divided between Gerald Prevost,  of
Duncan, and Homer Taylor, of Hamilton, Ontario.
The following received honourable mention and book prizes: Roy Maconachie, Oak Bay
High School;   Kathleen Hambly, Aldergrove;   and Eleanor J. McNeil, Yarmouth, N.S.
DIAMOND JUBILEE OF CONFEDERATION.
The Diamond Jubilee of Confederation was fittingly celebrated in the elementary and high
schools of the Province. The late Premier Oliver, just a few months prior to his death, sent
out an official letter calling upon all the municipalities and the people of British Columbia
generally to take such steps as would ensure a celebration commensurate with the great
significance of the occasion, and this was followed by a letter from the Hon. J. D. MacLean
to the school principals of the Province, in which he bespoke their hearty support in making
the Jubilee celebration one long to be remembered by the boys and girls of British Columbia.
Recommendations for suitable programmes with the words and music of selected patriotic
school songs were supplied to all the teachers of the Province.
A special booklet bearing a special confederation message from the Hon. the Minister of
Education, and giving in concise and attractive form the story of the Canadian Confederation
and including much interesting information relative to British Columbia's entry into confederation, was sent to the teachers of the Province. This booklet will continue to be of value in
the schools on account of the large amount of valuable historical data which it contains.
The National Celebration Committee at Ottawa furnished large supplies of confederation
literature, most important of which was a teachers' handbook entitled " Sixty Years of Progress
in Canada." This will also continue to be a valuable source of geographical and historical data
for schools for years to come. The National Committee, on behalf of the Dominion Government,
also furnished a large supply of bronze souvenir medals commemorative of the Diamond Jubilee
of the Canadian Confederation. The extremely heavy task of ascertaining the number of
medals required for each school in the Province and the dispatching of the same was most
efficiently carried out by the Provincial Librarian. Many special addresses on confederation
topics were given in the schools by prominent men and women in the towns and cities throughout the Province, and these usually formed a part of the special school programmes arranged
during the month of June. School celebrations, large and small, held separately or in conjunction with civic celebrations, some of which extended over as many as four days, were carried
out from the centre to the most remote parts of the Province, and it is safe to say that the
remembrance of this great national celebration will long remain with every one of the hundred
thousand boys and girls now attending our British Columbia schools.
DIAMOND  JUBILEE  CANADIAN HISTORY  COMPETITION.
The National Committee for the Celebration of the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation
offered three medals for competition in Canadian history among the pupils attending the high
schools, and one hundred and eighty-two medals among the pupils of the elementary schools.
In the high-school competition one gold medal was open to the student who obtained the
highest mark in the Province, a silver medal to the student who obtained the second highest
mark, and a bronze medal to the student who obtained the third highest mark.
In the elementary-school competition one gold medal was offered to the leading boy in the
Province, one gold medal to the leading girl, thirty silver medals to the thirty pupils who made
the next best showing, nine bronze medals to the nine pupils leading in Vancouver, four bronze
medals to the four pupils leading in Victoria, two bronze medals to the two pupils leading in
New Westminster, and nine bronze medals to the nine leading pupils in each of the fifteen
inspectorates.
The names of the winners follow:—
High-school Students.
James A. Gibson, Victoria High School, winner of the gold medal, 96 marks; Cecil Hacker,
Prince Rupert High School, winner of the silver medal, 94 marks; Donald Matheson, King
Edward High School, Vancouver, winner of the bronze medal, 87 marks. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27. Al 1£
agriculture is given by specialists in science and agriculture holding degrees from Canadian
universities, and special attention is given to practical problems belonging to the special branches
of the agricultural industry as found in British Columbia.
In elementary schools agricultural instruction is a development growing out of the courses
in nature-study. Its practical application may take the form of school or home projects in
gardening, and this phase of the work has been strengthened by the timely co-operation of
Women's Institutes, Community and Parent-Teacher Associations. School fairs, which receive
aid from the Department, are frequently conducted in conjunction with this school agricultural
project work, and many of the agricultural and horticultural societies of the Province have
displayed commendable enterprise in stimulating interest in this as well as in other lines of
school-work. The school-ground improvement work which the Department has consistently
encouraged for years has made satisfactory advancement and is deserving of continued support.
SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND.
There were eighty-three children in attendance last year, of whom sixty-four were deaf,
seventeen blind, and two both deaf and blind. A change of some importance was made in the
method of instruction. It was found that some deaf children were not acquiring intelligent
speech and were not displaying an aptitude for lip-reading. As their presence in the classes
retarded the progress of the others, they were formed into a special group and were taught by
the Principal chiefly by means of written language.
At the close of the year one deaf girl and three blind boys completed the elementary school
course and won Entrance certificates. Aloreover, two blind pupils—one boy and one girl—
succeeded in passing the Junior Alatriculation Examinations. Another blind boy received the
High Distinction Certificate in Alusic given by the Associated Boards. It. is well to note also
the practical nature of instruction given in the school. The blind children were taught
basketry. All girls received training in housekeeping, plain sewing, and fancy-work, and the
older girls in dressmaking and millinery. The deaf boys were taught manual training. There
was also a class in typewriting. The Principal reports that almost all graduates of the school
are to-day in earning positions.
RECOGNITION OF BRITISH COLUA1BIA A1ATRICULATION CERTIFICATES
BY  THE UNIVERSITIES  OF  OXFORD  AND  CAMBRIDGE.
It is most gratifying to learn that the two great universities of the Old Country now give
recognition to work done in the high schools of this Province.
In 1924 the Council of the Senate of Cambridge University accepted the Junior or the
Senior Alatriculation certificate of British Columbia as entitling the holders to exemption from :—
(a.) Part I. of the Previous Examination if the certificate includes two languages other
than English, one of which is Latin or Greek, provided that the two languages
have been taken on one and the same occasion:
(&.)  Part II.  of the Previous Examination if the certificate includes  either mathematics or physics or chemistry:
(o.)  Part III. of the Previous Examination if the certificate includes English.
In November, 1927, the Congregation of the University of Oxford, after examination of our
Junior and Senior Matriculation requirements and after obtaining full information regarding the
standard of the examinations and the method of conducting them, decided to accept the Junior
Matriculation or the Senior Alatriculation certificate in lieu of Responsions   (i.e., Entrance),
provided that the holder of the certificate had taken two foreign languages and, in the case of
the Junior Alatriculation certificate, had made at least 60 per cent, in each of the two foreign
languages.
CONFEDERATION PRIZE ESSAY COAIPETITION.
This competition, which was arranged by the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the
Empire, was open to Canadian boys and girls attending secondary schools. The subject of the
essay was " Confederation;   its Social and Ethical Value to Canada."
Essays from all over the Dominion were received and judged by the National Educational
Committee, Toronto. This committee selected the best essays, which were sent to Lady Byng
for final judging and selection of prize-winners.    The first prize, $100, was won by Alargaret M 14 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
SUMMER SCHOOLS.
The interest which is being maintained by the teaching profession in the Summer Schools
is most gratifying. This year 364 teachers were enrolled in the Victoria Summer School, where
a programme of great variety was offered. The Inspectors report that evidence of the value
of the Summer Schools is clearly shown in improved service rendered by the teachers on their
return to their schools. Alany teachers also attended the Summer School of the University of
British Columbia, where an enrolment of over 500, composed chiefly of teachers, exceeded all
previous records. Aloreover, many teachers, several Normal School Instructors, and Inspectors
took advanced courses in educational subjects at Queen's and Toronto Universities, and also at
the Universities of Washington, California, Stanford, Chicago, and Columbia. In all, it may
safely be stated that over 25 per cent, of the whole teaching force of the Province were taking
courses this summer for the improvement of their academic standing and professional training.
It is not difficult to see what great impetus will be given to the work in the schools from the
contact of the teachers with one another and with the inspiring lecturers found in the Universities and Summer Schools.
HOA1E ECONOAIICS.
This branch of study was provided in the elementary and high schools of twelve cities,
three district municipalities, and one rural district. In the City of Victoria it finds a place in
the elementary schools only. New centres were opened at Courtenay, Cumberland, and loco.
There are fifty-seven centres altogether in the Province, with an enrolment of 2,131 high-school
students and 9,298 elementary-school pupils. A book of recipes for Home Economics classes
was prepared by the Provincial Director, was printed by the King's Printer, and made available
to the children at a cost of 25 cents. In the past much time was lost in the class-room due to
the copying of notes and recipes from the blackboard. The possession of this book of recipes
will save the girls valuable time. Alore and more emphasis is being given to classes in
nutrition. The enthusiasm and the hard work of the Provincial Director are giving a great
stimulus to the teaching of the subject of home economics. The course of study .for both
elementary- and high-school work in the subject was redrafted during the year with the assistance of specialists.
Home economics is being received with growing favour on the part of the general public
and School Boards are selecting teachers with higher qualifications. Of seventeen new instructors appointed this term, fourteen were University graduates having the degree of B.Sc.
MANUAL TRAINING AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
All cities of the first class and nearly all cities of the second class have manual-training
centres. There are technical schools at Vancouver, New Westminster, Victoria, and Point Grey.
Commercial studies are carried on in eleven centres. For two years a School of Decorative
and Applied Arts has been conducted in the City of Vancouver under the direction of Charles
H. Scott, formerly supervisor of drawing in that city, and has proved a great success. During
the past year seventy-six full-time students and twenty-one part-time students attended the
day classes and 432 the evening classes. Instruction is given in architecture and the kindred
studies of interior decoration and furniture design, metalwork in its various branches, clay
products and cement, typography and lithography, dressmaking, costume-designing and millinery.
Additions were made to the staff during the year—Mr. F. Horsman Varley, A.R.C.A., being
appointed instructor in drawing and painting and Air. J. W. E. Macdonald in design. The
school should prove of great value to the crafts and industries of Greater Vancouver.
Attention is drawn to the high standard of work being provided in our commercial high
schools. In competitions in typewriting open to students of all commercial schools or colleges
in the Province, the first, second, fourth, and fifth places in the Novice class went to students
attending the High School of Commerce, Vancouver. In the Senior class three out of five places
were won by students of our commercial high schools.
AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.
Agricultural courses were conducted during the year in eight high schools, with a total
enrolment of 602 students, the largest number recorded since the work began. The courses
extend over two years and are comparable with other high school science courses in that full
credit is given for them towards Normal Entrance and Junior Alatriculation.    Instruction in PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27. M 13
number of hours spent in observation of teaching. Towards the end of the year attention was
given to the teaching of a series of related lessons and to the routine of school management.
Thirty-eight schools in the City of Victoria and in the rural municipalities and rural districts
near the city were used by the teachers-in-training.
In September of this year the staff was strengthened by the appointment of Miss Isabel
Coursier, of Revelstoke, a graduate of Revelstoke High School, who took part of the University
course at Point Grey and then entered McGill University, where she graduated in the School of
Physical Education.    She will have charge of hygiene, folk-dancing, and organized games.
In the Vancouver Normal School 198 prospective teachers were enrolled. Of these, 170
gained standing at the end of the year.
During the year the school had the help of two additional instructors—Wm. G. Black, M.A.,
who lectured in educational psychology, history of education, and educational tests and measurements, and Miss Vivian Jones, B.A., who was assigned the work of hygiene, folk-dancing, and
organized games.
In this school, too, there was a large increase in the amount of practice-teaching—eight
full weeks, being double the period of any previous year. Twelve city schools and the small
schools in eleven rural municipalities were used by the teachers-in-training.
Training Class, University of British Columbia.—In the training class at the University
for University graduates sixty-five students qualified for the Academic Certificate—the highest
certificate issued by this Department. Pour of them passed with first-class honours and forty-
two with second-class honours. The course of training extends throughout the whole of the
University year. These University graduates are qualified to teach in the high schools as well
as in the elementary schools of the Province.
CONSOLIDATED SCHOOLS.
Perhaps the most important event in connection with the schools of Vancouver Island was
the establishment of two consolidated schools—one at Sandwick called the Tsolum Consolidated
School and the other at Comox.
The Tsolum Consolidated School serves the needs of the children of five rural districts and,
in addition to the work of the elementary school, instruction is provided in Grades IX. and X.
of the High School Course.
At Comox there was opened in September a consolidated school for the three rural districts
of Comox, Lazo, and Nob Hill   In this school also some high-school work is carried on.
Both schools were formally opened by the Hon. Dr. MacLean, Minister of Education.
The ratepayers of these areas are to be congratulated on the educational vision they have
displayed in deciding to unite their districts into large units of administration, so as to provide
superior facilities for their children's education.
TEXT-BOOKS.
The only important addition to the text-books prescribed for use in the high schools is
Professor McArthur's High School History of Canada. It will be used by all students in
Grades IX. and X. For many years there had been a feeling that more attention should be
paid in the high schools to the history of our own Dominion, but no suitable text-book for school
use could be found.
The new book ends with a chapter on Canadian literature and art and a bibliography of
reference-books for the teacher's use and for the school library. It may be mentioned also that
Dickie's fine set of Canadian History Readers has been added to the list of supplementary readers
for use in Grades I. to VIII.
The past year has seen a wonderful interest developed in the study of Canadian history
and geography. The efforts of the Vancouver Daily Sun, which conducted a very successful
competition in these subjects, are worthy of every commendation, and the celebration of
Canada's Diamond Jubilee played a large part in arousing the children's interest in the study
of Canada's progress. With the adoption of the books herein referred to the Department feels
that the history of our country will in future receive the attention that its importance demands. M 12
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
The following statement shows steady growth in the enrolment at the public schools during
each of the last ten years. The increase in the percentage of pupils attending the high schools
is most marked.
Year.
Enrolment at
High Schools.
Enrolment at
Elementary
Schools.
Total
Enrolment.
Percentage at
High Schools
of the Total
Enrolment.
1917-18	
1918-19	
1919-20	
1920-21....	
1921-22 	
1922-23                          	
5,150
5,806
6,636
7,259
8,634
9,220
9,889
10,597
11,779
12,906
62,366
66,200
72,607
78,691
83,285
85,668
86,315
87,357
89,909
92,102
67,516
72,006
79,243
85,950
91,919
94,888
96,204
97,954
101,688
105,008
7.62
8.06
8.37
8.44
9.39
9.71
1923-24.       	
1924-25 	
1925-26	
1926-27  	
10.27
10.81
11.58
12.29
It is evident from a study of the foregoing table that there is a constantly growing appreciation of the value of secondary education. In ten years the attendance at the elementary schools
increased 48 per cent., while at the high schools the increase in attendance reached 150 per
cent.
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
During the year a programme of studies was prepared for junior high schools, four of
which schools are now in operation in the Province. The distinction of being the first district
to establish a junior high school goes to the Municipality of Penticton, where junior high-school
work began with a tentative programme in September, 1926, under the direction of Principal
A. S. Matheson. In September, 1927, two large junior high schools were opened in Vancouver—
Kitsilano under H. B. King, M.A., and Templeton under H. B. Fitch, ALA. Some junior high-
school work was undertaken last year in Point Grey under Principal Allan Bowles and the
work is being extended this year.
The committee which acted with the Superintendent of Education in framing the curriculum
comprised the principals of the junior high schools; the High School Inspectors; Air. W. K.
Beech, Principal of the High School of Commerce, Vancouver; and Mr. Virgil AlacLeod,
Principal of the North Vancouver High School. Helpful advice and suggestions were received
from many other educationists who had made a study of junior high-school problems. The
completion of the programme of studies which has been authorized for use in the junior high
schools of the Province and the opening of several junior high schools this year mark an
important change in the educational system of the Province—a change fraught with great
possibilities for the future.
It is well, however, that Boards of School Trustees should not rush hurriedly into the
establishment of junior high schools. They should make sure that they already have in their
service or can secure principals and teachers who understand the junior high-school ideal and
are sympathetic with the aims and purposes of the school, and are also conversant with the
organization and administration of successful junior high schools in other places.
TEACHER-TRAINING INSTITUTIONS.
The enrolment in the teacher-training schools this year showed a considerable decrease
from that of the preceding year.
In Victoria Normal School 137 men and women were enrolled, the number being thirty-nine
less than the previous year. One hundred and twenty-four obtained certificates at the close
of the term. The standard of academic attainment has advanced, 45 per cent, of the class
having at least one year beyond Normal Entrance. The young men constitute 20 per cent, of
the total enrolment. An additional room for the teaching of science was equipped. An
important feature of the past year was the increase in the number of lessons taught and the PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Al 11
NEW SCHOOLS.
A new high school was opened at Brechin, near Nanaimo, and superior schools at Ashcroft,
Hope, New Alichel, North Cedar, and Qualicum Beach. Ninety-eight additional class-rooms
were opened in graded schools throughout the Province. Besides, schools were opened for the
first time in the following pioneer districts:—
Schools. Electoral District.
Great Central and Holberg Alberni.
Kincolith Atlin.
Chezacut, West Quesnel, and Ten Alile Lake Cariboo.
Aleadowbrook Cranbrook.
West Creston Creston.
Solarium Esquimalt.
Fraser Flats and Salmon River Fort George.
Willowford Lillooet.
Lily Lake and Marten Lake Omineca.
Testalinda Creek Similkameen.
The following statement shows what percentage of the pupils were enrolled in the different
types of schools:—
Schools.
No. of Pupils
enrolled.
Percentage of
Total Enrolment
of the Public
Schools of the
Province.
High schools  (cities)	
Elementary schools (cities)	
High schools (rural municipalities) ..
Elementary schools  (rural municipalities)
High schools   (rural districts)	
Elementary schools (rural districts)	
Junior  high   schools	
Superior schools	
Totals	
8,705
41,748
3,723
30,279
478
19,128
441
506
105,008
Per Cent.
8.29
39.76
3.55
28.83
0.45
18.22
0.42
0.48
100.00
The number of children of foreign parentage who attended the public schools of the Province
during the year was as follows:—
Nationality.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
Chinese..  	
773
451
90
261
26
815
1,560
266
871
1,594
528
299
113
211
.1
739
1,355
253
841
1,590
1,301
750
French  	
203
472
27
2.915
519
1,712
3,184
Totals	
6,707
5,930
12,637 Ai 10
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
The number of teachers employed in the different classes of schools and the average number
of pupils per teacher were:—
Schools.
No. of
Grade
Teachers.
No. of
Special
Instructors.
Average
Enrolment
per Grade
Teacher.
Average Daily
Attendance
per Grade
Teacher.
High schools   (cities)	
High schools   (rural municipalities)	
High schools   (rural districts)	
Junior high schools	
Superior schools	
Elementary schools   (cities)  	
Elementary schools  (rural municipalities)
Elementary schools   (rural districts)	
All schools	
260
123
24
12
25
1,110
863
919
3,336
41
4
33
30
20
37
20
38
35
21
195
31
28.08
25.90
16.89
30.54
17.19
32.41
28.18
17.27
26.39
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES.
The following table shows the number of teachers of each sex employed during 1926-27 and
1925-26, and also the number of certificates of each class held by the teachers:—
Schools.
Acad.
First.
Second.
Third.
Temp.
Special.
Male.
B'emale.
Total.
252
IIS
24
7
116
30
13
16
1
*1
18
5
419
271
92
152
36
4
523
510
100
347
66
49
49
12
18
5
7
5
3
3
1
41
4
5
93
52
176
77
11
21
7
252
188
60
90
17
125
50
13
4
10
951
727
217
444
91
301
127
High schools (rural districts)	
24
25
17
1,203
Elementary schools (rural munic.)
Regularly organized rural schools..
915
277
E. & N. Railway Belt	
108
Totals, 1926-27	
580
994
1,610
133
19
195
899
2,632
3,531
Totals, 1925-26	
548
887
1,603
158
20
171
866
2,530
3,396
* Held by a teacher in charge of a Preparatory class in the Technical High School, New Westminster.
The comparative cost of education per pupil in the different classes of school districts and
also the contribution made by the Government and the districts are shown hereunder:—
Schools.
Cost per
Pupil for
Year.
Contribution
by
Government.
Contribution
by
Districts.
Cost per
Pupil for
each Teaching-day.
In all high schools  	
In high schools  (cities) 	
In high schools   (rural municipalities)	
In high schools   (rural districts)	
In all elementary schools	
In elementary schools  (cities)	
In elementary schools  (rural municipalities)
In elementary schools (rural districts)	
$124.07
117.13
.132.64
183.66
72.15
75.06
64.16
69.10
$22.53
19.67
23.80
64.85
23.74
17.07
17.83
45.53
$101.54
97.46
108.84
118.81
48.41
57.99
46.33
23.57
$0.1
.61
.69
.96
.38
.39
.34
The Province met over 34 per cent, of the total cost of the maintenance of the high and the
elementary schools and also the cost of maintenance of the University, with the exception of
the sums received in fees from the students. REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF
EDUCATION, 1926-27.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., November, 1927.
To the Honourable J. D. MacLean, M.D., CM., LL.D.,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Fifty-sixth Annual Report of the Public Schools of British
Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1927.
ENROLA1ENT.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 101,688 to
105,008 and the average daily attendance from 85,293 to 88,306. The percentage of regular
attendance was 84.09.
The number of pupils enrolled in the various classes of schools is shown hereunder:—
Schools.
Cities.
Rural
Municipalities.
Rural
Districts.
Total.
High schools	
Junior high  schools ....
Superior schools	
Elementary schools	
Totals for 1926-27..
Totals for 1925-26..
Increase for year	
8,705
213
25
41,748
50,691
49,761
930
3,723
228
32
30,279
34,262
31,982
2,280
478
449
19,128
20,055
19,945
110
12,906
441
506
91,155
105,008
101,688
3,320
In addition to the numbers given above, there were enrolled in the—
Correspondence classes       391 pupils.
Night schools   5,176       ,,
Normal School, Vancouver       198 students.
Normal School, Victoria       137       „
Victoria College       191        „
University of British Columbia  1,582        „
Total  7,675
The pupils in attendance were distributed by sex and grade as follows:—
Grades.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
7,846
5,612
5,842
5,850
6,041
5,567
5,125
4,850
3,119
1,910
1,043
97
7,014
5,276
5,362
5,588
5,630
5,338
5,193
5,284
3,607
2,334
1,383
97
14,860
10,888
11,204
11,438
11 671
Grade II.	
Grade III              	
Grade VI 	
10,905
10,318
10,134
6,726
4,244
2 426
Grade VII :.	
Grade VIII                      	
Grade X	
Grade XI	
Grade XII	
194
Totals	
52,902
52,106
105,008  PART I.
GEKEEAL EEPOET. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
AI 19
Creston School, 100 marks; Bessie J. Vlasak, New Alichel School, 100 marks; Allan C.
McCurrach, Cranbrook School, 96 marks;   Aubrey Snow, Fernie School, 94 marks.
Inspectorate No. 14: Minnie Fox, Borden Street School, Prince Rupert, 105 marks; Harold
C. R. Eld, Granby Bay School, 102 marks; Kennedy McSwan, Ocean Falls School, 100 marks;
Joe Marchildon, Borden Street School, Prince Rupert, 99 marks; Alargaret B. Windt, Smithers
School, 99 marks; Jimmie Lee, Borden Street School, Prince Rupert, 98 marks; Beth Alutrie,
Borden Street School, Prince Rupert, 98 marks; Earl R. Gordon, Booth Alemorial School, Prince
Rupert, 96 marks;  Agnes AL Guyan, Booth Alemorial School, Prince Rupert, 96 marks.
Inspectorate No. 15: Patricia Carney, Prince George School, 100 marks; James P. Ratledge,
Quesnel School, 100 marks; Margaret S. Davidson, Stuart River School, 98 marks; Lois Dixon,
Fort George South School, 92 marks; Clara Wieland, Prince George School, 92 marks; Phyllis
Ellis, Prince George School, 86 marks; Coralie Dale, Quesnel School, 82 marks; Margaret
Newman, Fort George School, 81 marks;  William Waldron, Fort Fraser School, 73 marks.
HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city high schools during the year 1926-27 was 8,705. Of this number,
4,038 were boys and 4,667 were girls.
The number of divisions and the enrolment for 1926-27 and for 1925-26 in each city are
shown in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1926-27.
Total
Enrolment,
1925-26.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
3
8
3
7
3
2
5
3
8
2
4
4
1
9
8
21
2
1
1
3
5
5
4
4
1
6
90
11
6
35
81
266
69
169
51
75
38
133
94
221
42
119
80
54
276
252
705
57
39
14
77
150
136
99
99
11
148
3,498
335
145
1,172
79
235
64
161
60
72
37
142
103
208
37
105
93
52
264
259
665
41
43
Port Moody	
13
69
143
151
82
87
12
Trail 	
127
Vancouver	
3,149
317
158
1,059
Totals,  1926-27	
Totals, 1925-26                         	
37
37
268
251
8,705
8,077
8,077 AI 20
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL AIUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the rural municipal high schools during the year was 3,723. Of. this
number, 1,627 were boys and 2,096 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the year 1926-27 and the
year 1925-26 are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1926-27.
Total
Enrolment,
1925-26.
Burnaby	
Delta	
Esquimalt.	
Kent	
Langley	
Maple Ridge 	
Matsqui	
Mission 	
Oak Bay	
Peachland	
Penticton	
Point Grey	
Richmond	
Summerland	
Surrey  	
Vancouver,  South 	
Vancouver,  West	
Totals,  1926-27.
Totals, 1925-26.
21
21
13
4
3
2
3
4
2
3
7
1
5
32
4
121
108
441
91
75
33
87
82
60
68
216
21
142
1,068
92
64
139
944
100
3,723
3,304
404
82
62
36
68
68
60
67
205
16
162
854
88
70
123
855
84
3,304
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural high schools for the year was 478. Of this number, 210 were
boys and 268 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the years 1926-27 and 1925-26
are given in the table below:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1926-27.
Total
Enrolment,
1925-26.
Abbotsford	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
O
1
1
46
27
49
20
33
24
14
19
39
14
23
24
31
21
46
25
23
44
46
20
26
20
15
16
15
32
25
Ocean Falls 	
37
21
41
23
17
Totals,  1926-27 	
17
15.
24
21
478
398
398
Totals, 1925-26	 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
M 21
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the superior schools was 506.    The number of boys was 215;  of girls, 291.
The following table gives the names of the schools and the enrolment for the school-year:—
School.
Total
Enrolment,
1926-27.
School.
Total
Enrolment,
1926-27.
Ashcroft 	
Cassidy	
Cedar, North ....
Chase 	
Chemainus 	
Coalmont 	
Dewdney   	
Ganges Harbour
Greenwood 	
Hedley	
Hope 	
I.mnby 	
Michel,  New  ....
13
29
15
32
20
10
18
16
25
15
28
23
24
Oliver	
Parksville 	
Pitt Meadows ..
Qualicum Beach
Rolla	
Rutland 	
Saanich, North .
Silverton   	
Sooke   	
Squamish 	
Vanderhoof   	
Waldo 	
Total   .
22
12
25
14
20
18
23
18
22
19
18
506
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the junior high schools was 441. The number of boys enrolled was 218;
of girls, 223.
The following table gives the names of the schools, the number of divisions in each, and the
enrolment for the school-year :—
School.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1926-27.
5
1
5
193
35
213
Totals	
11
441 M 22                                            PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 41,748.   The number of boys was 21,288;
of girls, 20,460.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, the total enrolment for 1926-27, and the
enrolment for 1925-26 in each city are shown in the table below:—
Number
Number
Total
Total
City.
of
of
Enrolment,
Enrolment,
.
Schools.
Divisions.
1926-27.
1925-26.
Alberni	
1
4
119
120
1
13
501
496
Chilliwack  	
1
10
358
341
1
7
272
254
Cranbrook	
3
19
687
715
Cumberland	
1
13
503
505
Duncan	
1
12
420
418
I
3
104
91
1
1
1
2
19
9
2
22
694
313
56
792
753
396
101
813
1
1
1
3
16
9
96
658
330
103
607
339
Merritt	
1
4
9
26
311
1,008
350
1,112
Nelson ....
2
26
961
954
.
5
67
2,697
2,601
1
2
8
7
271
250
254
247
Port Coquitlam	
1
6
206
222
Prince George	
1
10
377
364
Prince Rupert	
3
23
805
811
1
1
1     .
1
3
30
16
11
5
2
30
485
609
460
195
52
1,091
19,260
611
470
181
48
959
19,208
3
42
1,545
1,527
1
16
18
133
734
5,013
742
4,971
Totals, 1926-27	
95
1,085
41,748
41,684
94
1,081
41,684
\ PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-2Z.
M 23
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS-
RURAL A1UNICIPALITIES.
The number of boys
The enrolment in the rural municipal elementary schools was 30,279,
enrolled was 15,508;   of girls, 14,771.
The following table gives the names of the several municipalities, the number of schools
in each, the number of divisions, the enrolment for the school-year 1926-27, and the enrolment
for 1925-26:—
Municipality,
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1926-27.
Total
Enrolment,
1025-26.
Burnaby	
18
15
2
6
4
11
1
2
16
9
11
9
2
2
1
2
10
1
7
15
7
4
1
21
5
16
4
98
31
3
11
7
18
14
5
30
25
20
18
16
3
13
O
125
9
30
60
8
7
8
45
24
209
21
3,875
959
101
261
190
492
470
190
929
859
572
550
659
61
500
114
4,791
83
1,157
1,925
254
207
306
1,340
808
7,905"
721
3,544
912
77
259
196
Delta           	
516
454
175
905
754
558
583
Oak Bay	
Peachland	
614
62
643
126
4,207
School for Deaf and Blind 	
79
1,019
1,871
242
Sumas    ....	
203
296
1,212
753
Vancouver,  South	
7,760
658
Totals,  1926-27    	
202
201
861
835
30,279
28,678
28,678
Totals,  1925-26           	
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the elementary schools, rural districts, was 19,128.   The number of boys
enrolled was 9,798;  of girls, 9,330.
SALARIES.
The following tables show the highest, lowest, and average salary paid to teachers during
the school-year 1926-27:—
High Schools.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Cities.
$1,400.00
2,500.00
2,050.00
1,800.00
2,600.00
2,250.00
2,000.00
1,700.00
3,100.00
$1,100.00
950.00
900.00
1,140.00
1,080.00
900.00
900.00
950.00
1,100.00
$1,200.00
$2,400.00
2,700.00
2,000.00
2,650.00
2,600.00
2,240.00
1,800.00
2,900.00
$1,800.00
1,675.00
1,600.00
1,600.00
1,400.00
1,800.00
1,600.00
1,800.00
$2,000.00
1,931.25
1,733.33
1,907.14
1,950.00
2,046.66
1,700.00
2,044.00
1,326.92
Chilliwack....	
1,280.00
1,282.85
Cranbrook	
1,267.36
1,316.66
Duncan	
1,137.50
1,250.00
1,501.00 Al 24
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27
Grand Forks	
Greenwood	
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Kelowna...	
Ladysmith... 	
Merritt	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster..
Port Alberni	
Port Coquitlam	
Port Moody	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke 	
Rossland	
Salmon Arm 	
Slocan	
Trail-Tadanac	
Vancouver	
Vancouver, North..
Vernon	
Victoria 	
For all' cities	
Rural Municipalities.
Burnaby 	
Chilliwack	
Coldstream	
Coquitlam	
Cowiehan, North	
Delta	
Esquimalt..	
Kent  	
Langley.. 	
Maple Ridge..	
Matsqui	
Mission	
Oak Bay	
Peachland	
Penticton -
Pitt Meadows 	
Point Grey	
Richmond -	
Saanich..-	
Salmon Arm -	
Sumas..	
Summerland	
Surrey	
Vancouver, North —
Vancouver,  South	
Vancouver, West	
For all rural municipalities..
Rural Districts
Regularly organized	
Assisted	
E. & N. Railway Belt..
Rural districts	
SALARIES—Continued.
High Schools.
Highest
Salary.
$2,000.00
800.00
800.00
500.00
500.00
800.00
500.00
500.00
500.00
150.00
400.00
950.00
250.00
000.00
.000.00
.800.00
.500.00
600.00
.100.00
000.00
540.00
600.00
600.00
000.00
3,200.00
2,600.00
2,000.00
1,600.00
2,300.00
2,000.00
1,800.00
2,240.00
3,600.00
1,600.00
2,750.00
4,074.00
2,300.00
2,500.00
2,000.00
4,000.00
2,880.00
4,074.00
3,500.00
1,600.00
1,260.00
3,500.00
Lowest
Salary.
$1,700.00
1,800.0O
1,500.00
1,500.00
1,500.00
1,700.00
1,800.00
1,920.00
1,550.00
1,750:00
1,750.00
1,800.00
1,950.00
1,800.00
1,700.00
1,750.00
1,700.00
1,650.00
1,715.00
1,400.00
1,700.00
1,600.00
1,900.00
1,200.00
1,400.00
1,350.00
1,500.00
1,620.00
1,800.00
1,740.00
1,750.00
1,500.00
1,600.00
1,350.00
1,920.00
1,800.00
1,200.00
1,400.00
1,400.00
1,260.00
Average
Salary.
$1,800.00
2,125.00
1,650.00
1,900.00
1,875.00
1,912.50
2,266.66
2,559.16
1,850.00
1,916.66
2,316.00
2,070.16
2,200.00
1,975.00
2,133.33
2,739.54
2,308,18
1,983.33
2,438.46
2,384.09
2,214.28
1,900.00
2,133.33
1,400.00
1,700.00
1,612.50
1,650.00
1,906.66
2,483.33
2,048.33
2,678.58
1,875.00
1,900.00
1,600.00
2,581.53
2,195.00
2,305.37
2,019.04
1,500.00
1,944.16
Elementaky Schools.
Highest
Salary.
$2,000.00
1,530.00
2,400.00
1,350.00
2,700.00
2,100.00
2,700.00
2,500.00
2,900.00
2,700.00
1,850.00
1,400.00
1,600.00
2,150.00
2,540.00
2,400.00
1,800.00
2,200.00
1,300.00
2,700.00
3,360.00
3,000.00
2,400.00
2,775.00
3,360.00
2,750.00
1,450.00
1,320.00
1,150.00
1,700.00
2,200.00
2,800.00
1,200.00
1,200.00
1,300.00
1,250.00
2,140.00
3,250.00
1,400.00
2,750.00
1,300.00
3,360.00
2,200.00
2,085.00
1,350.00
1,200.00
2,200.00
1,400.00
2,800.00
3,360.00
2,500.00
3,360.00
2,700.00
1,650.00
1,610.00
2,700.00
Lowest
Salary.
$900.00
1,080.00
1,100.00
1,150.00
1,150.00
950.00
1,050.00
1,060.00
900.00
860.00
1,080.00
900.00
950.00
1,050.00
1,100.00
1,000.00
900.00
1,100.00
1,100.00
1,080.00
960.00
1,080.00
900.00
1,025.00
860.00
800.00
850.00
1,200.00
900.00
850.00
900.00
900.00
1,000.00
800.00
800.00
850.00
840.00
1,000.00
1,000.00
950.00
900.00
1,020.00
850.00
700.00
1,000.00
900.00
1,200.00
800.00
960.00
1,020.00
960.00
700.00
800.00
900.00
900.00
800.00
Average
Salary.
$1,194.44
1,260.00
1,336.36
1,250.00
1,363.12
1,312.44
1,301.00
1,394.07
1,495.37
1,449.25
1,235.00
1,057.14
1,143.33
1,315.00
1,620.13
1,285.00
1,245.45
1,340.00
1,200.00
1,289.83
1,571.07
1,560.71
1,355.26
1,606.67
1,490.64
1,213.40
1,012.90
1,273.33
1,031.81
1,093.75
1,155.55
1,300.43
1,065.00
090.00
980.40
967.50
1,105.00
1,679.37
1,133.33
1,369.64
1,087.50
1,503.12
1,109.33
1,155.81
1,081.25
1,045.71
1,397.50
993.33
1,509.16
1,537.59
1,346.90
1,304.19
1,149.16
1,042.05
1,046.56
1,074.97
The average salary paid teachers employed in all high schools throughout the Province
was $2,338.41, and teachers in elementary schools, $1,302.60. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27. M 25
EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION, 1926-27.
Education Office:
Salaries     §20,021.40
Office supplies  6,823.86
Travelling expenses   1,147.86
Free Text-book Branch:
Salaries    4,979.74
Office supplies  3,905.06
Text-books, maps, etc  68,657.33
Agricultural Education:
Salaries     4,335.00
Office supplies  189.96
Travelling expenses   398.38
Grants in aid   5,529.04
Industrial Education:
Salaries     $10,314.60
Office supplies  2,189.98
Travelling expenses   2,903.61
Grants in aid   54,177.36
Night-schools     30,423.05
$100,008.60
Less Dominion of Canada subvention      41,636.94
         §8,371.66
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries    54,198.86
Office supplies  2,488.80
Travelling expenses   23,638.22
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries    $33,399.14
Office supplies  2,122.60
Travelling expenses   356.77
Fuel, light, and water   1,919.89
Maintenance and repairs  463.13
Students' mileage   1,212.64
Incidentals     868.00
$40,342.17
Less Normal School fees          7,590.00
         32,752.17
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries     $29,190.40
Office supplies    3,216.54
Travelling expenses   296.85
Fuel, light, and water   2,308.90
Maintenance and repairs   5,753.33
Students' mileage   5,140.28
Incidentals     1,751.06
$47,657.36
Less Normal School fees        5,210.00
 42,447.36
Carried forward      $329,884.70 M 26
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION, 1926-27—Continued.
Brought forward      $329,884.70
School for Deaf and Blind:
Salaries       $22,272.06
Office supplies  •.	
Travelling expenses 	
Fuel, light, and water 	
Alaintenance and repairs
Furniture, fixtures, etc	
Provisions  	
Incidentals   	
1,250.61
32.95
1,905.80
796.00
1,333.19
2,951.09
133.03
$30,674.73
Less   Board   and   tuition   of   pupils   from   Alberta   and
Saskatchewan        3,266.00
High.
Per capita grant to cities  $149,035.85
Per capita grant to rural municipalities      79,112.00
Per capita grant to rural school districts       18,106.40
Salaries of teachers in assisted schools         5,459.20
Salaries of teachers in E. & N. Railway Belt        6,216.00
School buildings, erection and maintenance	
Grants to libraries 	
Examination of teachers and High School Entrance classes-
Conveying children to central schools 	
Summer School 	
Incidentals	
University of British Columbia	
Less fees for examination and certificates..
Amount expended by : High.
Cities    $848,442.76
District municipalities      405,235.95
Rural school districts        42,110.00
Assisted school districts        7,190.00
Schools in E. & N. Railway Belt        7,490.00
Elementary.
$606,062.64
523,529.50
163,379.70
545,550.50
113,310.10
$257,929.45        $1,951,832.44
27,408.73
755,098.49
602,641.50
181,486.10
551,009.70
119,526.10
Elementary.
$2,421,080.07
1,587,336.87
325,204.14
87,612.67
38,085.00
223,720.85
4,434.40
32,067.2S
40,279.89
19,944.68
4,188.13
531,875.00
$3,423,565.55
20,624.30
$3,402,941.25
3,269,522.83
1,992,572.82
367,314.14
94,802.67
45,575.00
$1,310,468.71       $4,459,318.75
Grand total cost of education
9,172,728.71 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.                                            M 27
The following table shows the cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil on enrolment
and on average daily attendance during the past ten years:—
Year.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Average
Daily Attendance.
1916-17      '..:	
$22.47
22.64
24.88
27.20
29.01
29.33
27.92
27.36
27.17
26.09
26.40
$27.83
27.93
31.59
36.05
36.38
35.70
34.07
33.21
32.17
31.06
31.41
1917-18                              	
1918-19                                                       !	
1919-20	
1920-21                                                     	
1921-22                         	
1922-23. .  	
1923-24                                                          	
1924-25                         	
1925-26	
1926-27       ..                           	
'
The gradual growth of the schools and also the cost to the Provincial Government of maintaining them are shown in the following exhibit:—■
Year.
No. of
Teachers
Employed.
Number
of School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of
Attendance.
Government
Expenditure for
Education.
1877-78	
56
'     69
128
267
429
607
816
1,597
2,246
2,332
2,557
2,734
2,994
3,118
3,211
3,294
3,396
3,531
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
575   •
582
636
665
716
744
760
759
746
761
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
'57,608
67,516
72,006
79,243
85,950
91,919
94,888
96,204
97,954
101,688
105,008
1,395.50
1,383.00
3,093.46
7,111.40
11,055.65
16,357.43
23,195.27
43,274.12
54,746.76
56,692.38
59,791.39
68,497.57
75,528.38
77,752.98
79,262.23
82,726.14
85,292.92
88,306.00
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
81.09
78.73
75.45
79.69
82.16
81.94
82.39
84.45
83.88
84.00
$43,334.01
50,850.63
99,902.04
190,558.33
247 756 37
1882-83	
1887-88	
1892-93	
1897-98	
1902-03 .':.	
1907-08	
1912-13	
397,003.46
464,473.78
1,032,038.60
1,529,058.93
1,791,153.47
2,155,934.61
1917-18	
1918-19	
1919-20	
1920-21	
2,931,572.25*
1921-22	
3,141,737.95*
1922-23 	
1923-24	
1924-25	
1925-26	
1926-27 -	
3,176,686.28*
3,173,395.26*
3,223,670.82*
3,216,209.05*
3,402,941.25*
* This amount includes annual grant to  Provincial  University.
Further information regarding the work of the schools is given  in the reports of the
Inspectors and other officials.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education. OTIUM CUM DIGNITATE.
At "the end of the school-year 1926-27 there retired from active service in the teaching
profession Edward B. Paul, ALA., LL.D., Principal of Victoria College. Dr. Paul came to British
Columbia in 1886 and filled the following posts with much success: Teacher, Lillooet School;
Principal, Nanaimo High School; Principal, Esquimalt School; Principal, Victoria High School
for sixteen years; Alunicipal Inspector of Schools, Victoria, for twelve years; and Principal
of Victoria College for seven years. He has thus completed over forty years' service in very
important positions. Dr. Paul has been a valuable member of the Board of Examiners for many
years and also a member of the Senate of the University of British Columbia. As Emeritus
Principal of Victoria College he still keeps up his active interest in the college by delivering a
number of lectures on Roman history to students of the first and second years.
In recognition of his deep scholarship and wide culture, as well as of the excellent service
which he has rendered over so long a period of time, his Alma Alater, Aberdeen University,
two years ago, conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. Thousands of
persons, who attended his classes, many of whom have attained distinction in this Province and
in other places, recall with gratitude the days spent under Dr. Paul and the inspiration which
they received from him.
Hector AL Stramberg, B.A., has retired after a period of service in the teaching profession
in this Province extending from 1881. He filled posts in several small high schools and for
twenty-six years was Principal of New Westminster High School. Alany men who became
distinguished in the public and professional life of the Province and of the Dominion attribute
much of their success to the instruction and character-training given by Mr. Stramberg. Before
coming to this Province he taught school in New Brunswick, where Bliss Carman and Dr. Charles
G. D. Roberts attended his classes. Air. Stramberg is the author of some beautiful verses, the
latest poem appearing from his pen being a patriotic ode entitled " O Canada! "
Paul Alurray is well known to all the old-timers in the teaching profession. He, too, retired
at the end of June last. He taught in the Province for forty-three years, being connected with
the following schools: Maple Ridge for twenty-six years, Peachland, West Point Grey, Union
Bay, Pitt Aleadows, Brechin, and Elk Bridge. There was no more popular figure at Summer
School and at Teachers' Conventions than Air. Alurray, who maintained enthusiasm for the work
of teaching right up to the time of his retirement.
The Department extends its congratulations to these three great teachers and wishes them
continued good health for many years to come.   INSPECTORS' REPORTS.
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR A. SULLIVAN, B.A., VICTORIA.
The number of teachers in this inspectorate is now 252. Additional teachers were appointed
at the beginning of the school-year at Bridgeport, Chilliwack, Courtenay, Cumberland, Kamloops, Ladner, Ladysmith, Nanaimo, Oak Bay, Alagee, Lord Byng, High School of Commerce,
and Victoria. On Vancouver Island there are 99 teachers and on the Mainland 153. A high
school was established at Brechin near Nanaimo, a new high-school building' of three rooms was
opened at Esquimalt, and superior schools were established at North Cedar and Qualicum on
Vancouver Island, and at Ashcroft and Hope on the Mainland.
The subjects of Grade XII. were continued this year in the high schools of Chilliwack,
Duncan, Kamloops, Ladysmith, Nanaimo, and Salmon Arm. Revelstoke discontinued the teaching of Grade XII. subjects at the end of the past school-year and Duncan also closed its Grade
XII. division in June. This is a wise policy so far as the latter school is concerned. To teach
all the subjects of Grades IX., X., XL, and also Grade XII., which corresponds to a first-year
University course, is too heavy a burden for three teachers and allows too little time for the
teaching of subjects peculiar to the three high-school grades.
To the graduates of our University and teacher-training schools a full measure of praise is
due for the industry, zeal, and interest which they manifest in their work. Such qualities stand
out in clearest relief when these teachers are placed in charge of superior schools where they
teach not only the subjects of Grades IX. and X., but also those of Grade VIII. This entails
hours of preparation of lessons out of school and concentrated teaching in school, yet these
young graduates work effectively and teach enthusiastically. Those who complain that the
spirit of the pioneer and the early teacher is dying out need not be alarmed so long as there are
young people of such sterling quality in charge of our schools.
The announcement that a Canadian History has been authorized for study in Grades IX.
and X. has been received with favour. This is the year in which Canada is celebrating her
Diamond Jubilee. Never before in our high schools has such an interest been awakened in the
study of Canadian history. The students have taken part in oratorical contests, essay-writing
competitions, and historical pageants which had for their theme, " Canada's Progress since
Confederation." Their minds are open for the study of the history of their own country, hence
the new Canadian History has been authorized at an opportune time.
A more general interest Is being taken by high-school teachers and students yi games and
sports. Formerly there were too few taking part in games and proportionately too many looking
on. Full credit should be given those teachers on the staff who train, supervise, and direct the
physical activities of their students after school-hours, and on Saturdays when inter-school
games are played. The reports of games won or lost and various other performances of the
student body are usually given in full in the " School Paper," which is now becoming a very
interesting feature in the social life of the high school. Dramatic societies, literary and debating
clubs also form a very important part of school-life. The teachers who direct the students in
these extra-curricular activities give time, thought, and nervous energy thereto, their chief
reward being the creation of a better school spirit.
The Programme of Studies which has recently been issued for Junior High Schools has been
favourably commented upon by those who are especially interested in the mental and physical
development of boys and girls between 12 and 15 years of age. The principals, teachers, and
supervisors, who assisted in framing this programme, gave their time freely and attended many
committee meetings after school-hours and on Saturdays. Sub-committees also met frequently
for the purpose of reading and choosing suitable texts for the consideration of the general committee. The course is modelled after well-known Junior High School Programmes. It also
contains practical features not found in other courses of study. The text-books chosen, the time
allotted to subjects, and the options allowed should meet the needs of those engaged in junior
high-school work during the coming year. The results of practical experience will be the guide
in making future readjustments of the course, which is a tentative one. M 30 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR J. B. DbLONG, B.A., VANCOUVER.
During the year I was able to make 242 visits of inspection. All schools were visited once,
while some were inspected a second time and a few received a third visit.
Michel was raised to the status of a superior school during the year.
Because of their proximity to the Provincial University none of the schools of Greater
Vancouver or vicinity gives instruction beyond Grade XL, but there is an ever-increasing demand
from districts of the Interior for Grade XII. work. During the past year Senior Alatriculation
classes have been in operation in the following schools of my district: Cranbrook, Enderby,
Kaslo, Kelowna, Nelson, New Denver, Penticton, Rossland, Slocan, Trail, and Vernon.
While the high schools of this district have been steadily improving during the last few
years, yet I am convinced that the standard reached last year was more satisfactory than ever
before. Almost without exception the results obtained by the graded high schools on the June
examinations were most gratifying. I found all but two of my schools carrying out with care
and thoroughness the suggestions outlined in the Course of Study regarding experimental work
in physics and chemistry. I may add that the two exceptions were ungraded schools, where the
work was done under unfavourable conditions.
Among minor changes in the Course of Study for the present year the following may be
noted : A reduction in the limits for Grade XL history and Grade XII. chemistry; the replacing
of the old text on Virgil by a far more interesting book—" Slections from Virgil"; and the
introduction of Canadian history into the courses for Grades IX. and X.
The publication of a Course of Study for Junior High Schools is worthy of special mention.
The Superintendent of Education and the committee working under him spent a good deal of
time and thought in the preparation of this course. The foreword not only states the ideals and
purposes of the junior high school, but refers to the course as only a tentative one and invites
criticism from any who have made a thorough study of the junior high school.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR W. H. AL MAX, VICTORIA.
The district comprised the schools within the Municipality of Saanich, the rural schools on
the northern part of Saanich Peninsula, the schools on Saltspring and neighbouring islands, and
the schools on the Coast waters between Campbell River and Cape Scott; altogether fifty-five
schools containing 112 divisions.
With the^exception of two outlying schools, all divisions were inspected once and some of
them twice within the year;  in all, 159 inspections were made.
No high school has yet been established within this district and there are but two superior
schools; a few small schools on the islands carry one or more Grade IX. pupils. The Municipality of Saanich pays for the education of Grades IX., X., and XL pupils in the City of Victoria,
presumably beca'use this method is cheaper than the establishment of a high school within the
municipality, but I imagine the full effect of this policy upon the pupils has not been given much
consideration. Boards sometimes complain that sufficient thought is not given to the requirements of the rural child when a curriculum is being drawn up, and that the curriculum is
responsible for much of the migration from the rural districts to the cities, but no curriculum
will be effective in keeping the rural child home while Rural Boards continue to educate their
children in the cities or in large communities. Coming into constant contact with large numbers
of city pupils, their rural instincts surrender to city ideas, and thus these high-school pupils are
educated not only in the cities, but also into the cities.
In the section to the north of Campbell River the schools are mostly in logging camps, boom
camps, and sawmill villages. Conditions are sometimes difficult for the teacher in these places,
yet, notwithstanding, I found very little poor work in the class-room.
The following schools were, in my opinion, most efficient in physical exercises, namely:—■
Division 3, Craigflower, Saanich—Aliss Alargaret M. Coton.
Beaver Point School—Aliss Ingleborg Dohlmann.
Kaleva School—Air. Douglas W. J. Noble. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27. M 31
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR A. C. STEWART, VICTORIA.
During the year just closed there was a change in the territory allocated to this inspectorial
division. The schools on the Saanich Peninsula, including those in the Municipality of Saanich,
together with the school on James Island, became a part of Inspectorate No. 1, while Inspectorate
No. 2 was enlarged by taking in a number of additional rural schools situated between Ladysmith and Nanaimo, and also the schools on Quatsino Sound and Hardy Bay. While this
particular change in territory resulted in a decrease in the number of class-rooms to be
inspected and examined, at the same time it greatly increased the area and difficulty of travel.
These difficulties are not of a physical character. They arise from the infrequency of boats—
the only means of conveyance in certain parts of my district—and as a consequence the time
consumed is altogether out of proportion to the number of schools to be visited. For instance,
the examination and inspection of eight class-rooms on the Coast occupied thirty days, while by
far the greater part of the time was taken up in waiting for boats.
It is gratifying, however, to be able to state that the teachers in, at least, some of these
remote, isolated schools, are able to, and do, cover the curriculum of the elementary schools so
successfully that they are enabled to prepare pupils for entrance to high school. On San Juan
Inlet are two such small schools, and from these six pupils were successful in the recent
examination. The success attained by schools so situated is a measure and also a criterion of
the efficiency of our public-school system, and not only that, but also a tribute to the zeal,
interest, and enthusiasm of trustees, parents, and more especially the teachers. Where the
rural schools are measuring up to the standard there needs be little fear for the education of the
coming generation, and this desirable consummation can be brought about only by the intelligent
co-operation of all the elements and factors concerned in the success of the institution designed
for this purpose.
It is probably needless to observe that local quarrels, bickerings, and dissension over school
matters, and frequently unjust criticism of the teacher, her work and methods, are not conducive
to the best success in the school, but, on the other hand, and on the contrary, are very detrimental and damaging to the progress and training of the children. Then, again, it is frequently
said that teachers are not always all-wise, and very often by their conduct and lack of propriety
and wisdom add fuel to the flames of criticism.
In all other lines of human activity it is the general opinion that more allowance is made
for the young and inexperienced than in the teaching profession. This is, I think, generally
true, especially in the rural districts. We all have the same burden of human defects and need
all the helpfulness, sympathy, and encouragement possible from the community in which we
serve in order that we may rise in some measure and in some degree to the height of the service
required and demanded of us. Whatever the baffling conditions, whatever the adverse and
apparently unjust criticism, if we honestly and sincerely try and strive we shall at least enjoy
the luxury of self-respect. " Criticism," it has been wisely said, " is a study by which men grow
important and formidable at a very small expense; but every man can exert such judgment as
he has upon the work of others; and he whom nature has made weak, and idleness keeps
ignorant, may yet support his vanity by the name of a critic."
As in former years, during the last week in June, examinations for entrance to high school
were held at a number of convenient centres in this inspectorate for candidates who wished to
write. At these centres 219 candidates wrote, of whom 109 were successful, while 148 were
recommended for promotion without examination.
In this territory no move has as yet been made to apply to the schools the curriculum of the
junior high school, and unless it is generally applied in the near future in nearly all our
schools, one can readily foresee grave difficulties and in many cases great hardships as children
move from centres where junior high schools are in operation to districts where the old
curriculum in both elementary and high schools still holds sway. ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 3.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR J. AL PATERSON, B.A., NANAIAIO.
At the beginning of last year several schools in the extreme south and others in the extreme
north of this inspectorate were transferred to other inspectorates. There were left in this
district, however, fifty-two schools, with 154 teachers, all of which were visited at least once,
with one exception, North Gabriola, where the school-house was burned a few days before the
end of the school-year. Hilliers, too, lost its school during the year by fire. One new school,
Great Central, was established, while Alontrose was reopened.
A most gratifying movement took place during the past year in the Comox Valley when
consolidation was finally effected and the school districts of Headquarters, Grantham, Sandwick,
Alerville, and Dove Creek were united into one—the Tsolum Consolidated District; while Comox,
Lazo, and Nob Hill joined to form the Comox Consolidated School District. Next term will see
the upper grades in the Tsolum District centralized in a new four-room building at Grantham.
The two-room building at Comox has been enlarged to four rooms to accommodate the increased
enrolment at that place. These consolidated districts are purely rural, and this rather remarkable rural movement is, I believe, indicative of the widely spread desire of rural districts to give
their children the superior advantages so long enjoyed by the urban districts. Both these districts will next year have superior schools, so secondary education is being taken right out to
the farm. Attention to the details necessary for the smooth running of these consolidations
occupied a large part of my time during the summer and autumn months.
The increasing demand for secondary education is made rather vividly apparent in a review
of the growth of secondary schools in this district during the past six years. In 1921, when this
inspectorate was created, it contained eight high-school teachers ; next term there will be in the
same territory nineteen high-school teachers and eight superior schools.
In addition to this commendable evidence of healthy educational activity outside the school,
there is corresponding evidence within, shown by the teachers' attendance at the Summer School
and at the successful Teachers' Institutes held in the Comox Valley and Nanaimo, and by the
constant improvement in the standard of efficiency.
The Governor-General's medal for the highest marks obtained in this district in the High
School Entrance Examination was won by George S. Emerick, of Nanaimo, with 428 marks.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 4.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR J. T. POLLOCK, VANCOUVER.
Inspectorate No. 4 comprises the schools in the City Municipalities of Coquitlam, Port Moody,
and North Vancouver; the Rural Municipalities of Coquitlam, Richmond, North Vancouver, and
West Vancouver; the graded schools at Howe Sound and loco; and eleven assisted schools
extending along the Coast waters from Lake Buntzen School on the North Arm to Jervis School
on Jervis Inlet.
During the year there was a steady growth in the school population of the cities and
municipalities, necessitating additional accommodation and larger teaching staffs. Two wings
were added to the Ridgeway School, North Vancouver, thus providing eight modern class-rooms
for this growing city, where, for some time, five classes had been occupying temporary and, in
some cases, very unsatisfactory rooms. A one-room modern building was provided at Roche
Point, in the District of North Vancouver. A substantial building for the use of high-school
pupils and providing for home economics was recently opened in West Vancouver Municipality,
when four rooms at Hollyburn, which had been used for high-school purposes, became available
for public-school use. This enabled the Board to extend consolidation, and the pupils from the
one-room schools at Cypress Park and Whytecliff are now being transported to the large schools
at Hollyburn, where they have the advantages of closely graded schools. Two new rooms and
two additional teachers were provided for the Millside School, in Coquitlam Municipality.
In Richmond Alunicipality two rooms were added to Lord Byng School at Steveston and an
additional teacher was engaged. At Bridgeport the accommodation has been overtaxed for some
time.    However, the Board has made provision for a new high school which they expect to be completed in October. Then the rooms at present used by high-school classes will be utilized
to accommodate elementary-school pupils. At loco a room, electrically equipped, was provided
and Home Economics classes were started in January.
The majority of teachers continue to render faithful and efficient service. Alethods of
teaching continue to improve. With few exceptions, attempts at socialized recitations, project-
work, supervised study, and the teaching of silent reading are becoming more general. What
were at first rather crude attempts now show in some cases a marked improvement as the aim
and technique come to be better understood.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 5.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR II. H. AIacKENZIE, B.A., VANCOUVER.
This inspectorial district comprises the rural municipality and rural and assisted schools
(together with those of Chilliwack City) in the Fraser Valley to the number of 154 divisions.
In addition to these schools, eight Vancouver City schools, comprising 141 divisions, are included
in this inspectorate in regard to departmental examinations, appeals, and all matters that come
within the scope of special departmental administration.
All schools outside Vancouver City received one inspection, and so far as time permitted
a second inspection was made. A very considerable amount of time was consumed in the matter
of special visits to schools or School Board meetings in connection with various matters affecting
the departmental administration of the public schools.
In the reports submitted periodically throughout the year the standing, general progress,
and all matters relevant to school administration were reported upon. In rating the various
skills and performances of pupils in the different subjects of the school curriculum standardized
achievement tests were employed. The wide range of tests supplied by the Department to the
inspectorial staff made this work of scientific, objective measurement of school results possible.
Examination pass-lists, names of prize-winners in physical drill, and various statistical tables
appear elsewhere in the volume including this form of report.
In a retrospective survey of the schools of this inspectorate certain aspects of the work
cannot fail to give encouragement. In the first instance, I may mention the gradual but sure
tendency towards consolidation of schools. This movement is not proceeding with any undue
haste, it is true, but gradually the people of the rural municipalities are coming to be convinced
of the inadequacy of the one-room school to meet the educational requirements of the present
day, and, through their Boards of School Trustees, are inaugurating and extending a policy of
consolidation of the higher grades and the transportation of school-children of Grade VII.
standing and upwards to central, graded schools. Needless to say, the results of such a policy,
wherever adopted, are beneficial and immediate. To the children conveyed from the small
ungraded schools, or semi-graded schools, are extended the privileges of a well-organized, graded
school, staffed with teachers of experience. The teachers of the smaller schools, relieved of
the more arduous work of Grades VII. and VIII., are able to concentrate on the work of the
elementary grades, and to give a much more just allotment of time and attention to the teaching
of these grades.
Again, the general attitude of our teachers, almost without exception, towards all school
activities is most praiseworthy. The great majority of our. teachers make no claim to have
exhausted all knowledge, but ever display the spirit of a true student and searcher after
knowledge and truth. The large number of teachers who spend their money and vacation-
time in taking up summer courses at home and abroad bears ample witness to this. An ever-
increasing number of teachers are becoming students of the new education and are renouncing
the old Herbartian method of the past for a teaching technique based on the findings of scientific,
psychological research.
I wish to refer very briefly to the standard of achievement, that has been reached
in the various school subjects. All conclusions in this matter have been arrived at by
a study of the results of the standardized achievement tests given. And just here I wish to
state that in a considerable number of schools standard intelligence tests were also given. And
from the results of these tests I would boldly state that our native-born, white children are
c inferior to none, of whatever race, creed, or colour. The men and women who forced the barriers
of the Rocky Mountains were no morons, neither are their children nor their children's children.
As to achievement made in the school subjects, I am persuaded that in the " tool subjects " the
pupils of this Province have reached a very high standard—standards in the fundamentals of
arithmetic, particularly, being high, while spelling and writing maintain the high standard held
for some time past. The results in the " content subjects," however, particularly in Grades V.
and VI., are not so gratifying. Few teachers seem to have any definite aims in their work of
teaching English, history, and geography in Grades V. and VI. Why work, such as English,
that is usually well begun in the primary grades, or history and geography, that are generally
well taught in the senior grades, should fall away so absolutely in the intermediate grades is
one of the serious problems of elementary-school work.
There is one activity, amply provided for on the curriculum, that is sadly neglected in our
rural schools, and one that I should fain see given the recognition, time, and attention which
it so richly deserves, and I refer to music. Growing up in an environment where Nature
manifests herself in a thousand harmonious ways, in the music of the running brooks, in the
melody of the full-throated songsters, in the soft cadences among the conifers, in the pibroch
of the " pipers of Spring," why should rural children of all Nature's animate creatures alone
be mute?
Splendid work has been done in Vancouver City in the matter of vocal music in the schools,
and the musical festival, participated in by the school-children of Vancouver, is a joyful experience that one cannot soon forget. Alany of our rural teachers claim that they are seriously
handicapped in the work of teaching music owing to the lack of a piano or of any musical
instrument in the class-room. Parent-teacher societies and chapters of the Imperial Order of
the Daughters of the Empire have rendered the greatest assistance towards the establishment
of libraries In our rural schools—a work for which these organizations are deserving of much
praise. It may be, happily, that these same organizations may come to the assistance of the
rural-school teacher in the matter of musical instruction in the elementary schools. Just as
the library problem in our schools has been solved to a great extent, so will all other problems
be happily and satisfactorily solved by the active, unfeignedly interested, and whole-hearted
co-operation of all who are concerned with the mighty problem of education.
And as one views in retrospect the progress of the past few years in our schools it is
abundantly evident that from the dissemination of the ideas of the newer education, based
upon scientific research into the educational processes, a bountiful harvest will, in due season,
be reaped, and that it behoves every one associated with the work of education to seek diligently
these truths, for, in the words of the ancient chronicler, " There is a sound of going in the tops
of the mulberry trees."
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 6.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR LESLIE J. BRUCE, VANCOUVER.
Since the previous report this inspectorate has been reduced by the transfer of Burnaby to
Inspectorate No. 8, the closing of the schools at Read Island and Refuge Cove, and the closing
of the 2nd Division at Vananda; on the other hand, Powell River, Westview, and Britannia
Aline have each opened an additional division, and Point Grey has opened fourteen divisions
besides adding to its staff two relieving teachers. At the end of the school-year the inspectorate
comprised the elementary schools in Point Grey Rural Alunicipality, thirteen schools in or near
Powell River, eight in or near Lund, five schools on Howe Sound, and the Provincial School for
the Deaf and the Blind. It also includes the following schools in Vancouver City: Alexandra,
Central, Fairview, Henry Hudson, Lord Nelson, and Lord Roberts; these schools I was not
required to inspect. Not including those in Vancouver, there were in June thirty-six schools,
with 173 teachers.    Each teacher received from one to three visits.
The steady improvement in the teaching continues. Not only are the Normal Schools
turning out better teachers, but so many teachers are available that School Boards now have
the opportunity to obtain teachers who are likely to do at least fair work. Aloreover, a very
satisfactory number of the teachers are improving themselves by attending summer schools and
by reading educational journals and the latest books on the science of education. ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No.
REPORT  OF INSPECTOR  F.  G.  CALVERT,  VANCOUVER.
This inspectorate comprises the schools in the Municipality of South Vancouver, also the
nine rural schools of Boston Bar, Chaumox, Concord, Hope, Keefers, Lytton, North Bend, St.
Elmo, and Yale.    There are twenty-five schools, with a staff of 220 teachers.
During the year 261 inspections were made.
Five hundred and eighty-one pupils were promoted to high school. Of these, 556 were
granted Entrance standing without a final written examination. The Promotion Committee
based its judgment regarding a pupil's ability to do high-school work upon the results of a
series of tests. Terman Group Test of Alental Ability, Thorndike-AlcCall Reading Scale, Woody-
AlcCall Alixed Fundamentals, and Alonroe's Standard Reasoning Tests in Arithmetic were given
to all pupils in Grade VIII. In addition to these scores, the principals gave the average mark
of the pupil for the year in each subject upon the course of study. How closely these records
indicate the pupil's ability to do high-school work will be judged more fully when the correlation
between these scores and the pupil's standing at the end of his first year at high school is
obtained.
The work in the primary grades in the South Vancouver schools continues to maintain its
high standard of excellence. This is due largely to the excellent supervision given this work by
Aliss A. G. T. Reid.
In South Vancouver the schools are well provided with supplementary readers and other
materials, but in the rural schools in this inspectorate there is a dearth of library readers,
supplementary class readers, and other materials which go far in assisting teachers to accomplish
their work with a degree of efficiency.
The prizes given by the Strathcona Trust for excellence in physical training were allotted
this year as follows :—
Aliss AL A. Batcheler, 3rd Division, Sexsmith School, South A'ancouver.
Air. W. H. W. Hardwick, 2nd Division, Van Home School, South Vancouver.
Mr. F. P. Lightbody, 2nd Division, Gordon School, South Vancouver.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 8.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR E.  G. DANIELS, B.A., NEW WESTA1INSTER.
Since November 2nd, 1926, this inspectorate has included the elementary schools of Burnaby,
Langley, and Surrey Rural Municipalities, together with those of the Pacific Great Eastern
Railway Belt to a point about 25 miles above Lillooet, with a total of 186 teachers.
All classes have been inspected once during the year, while a considerable number were
visited twice and a few three times.
Of the 455 Grade VIII. pupils who desired promotion to high school in June, 183 were passed
by the Recommendation Committees, and 102, exclusive of medallists, wrote and passed the
Entrance Examination.
In all districts of this inspectorate school buildings have been maintained in good repair
and the equipment, especially as regards supplementary reading and books of reference, in many
cases shows a very commendable increase.
To keep pace with the steady growth of population in their municipality, the Burnaby School
Board found it necessary to open seven new class-rooms during the year. On January 15th a
by-law to cover the cost of ten additional class-rooms was passed by the ratepayers with a very
satisfactory majority. These were constructed in July and August of this year. Two new
class-rooms were added in Surrey Aiunicipality and one in Squamish.
In the work of those teachers who attended last year's Summer Schools there is a very
noticeable increase in grasp and vision, and in almost every case the quality of service rendered
shows distinct and definite improvement.
The work of a considerable number of teachers who have done good work in the past is
deteriorating somewhat, because they are not awake to the fact that Summer School Courses
and professional reading are necessary in this day of a public demand for increasing efficiency. M 36 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Although a few teachers maintain no professional attitude or deportment either inside or
outside the schools, the great majority look upon teaching not only as a means of obtaining a
livelihood, but as an honourable profession.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 9.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR A. F. MATTHEWS, ALA., KAA1LOOPS.
Eighty-five schools were in operation in this inspectorate throughout the whole or a part
of the year just closed. Of these, seventy-nine were rural or assisted schools employing one
teacher in each, one school of two divisions, three of three divisions, and two city schools with
a total of thirty-two divisions, making a total of 122 class-rooms in operation during the year.
One hundred and five visits of inspection on which official reports were given were made
to schools in this inspectorate during the year. Two visits were made to the great majority
of the rural schools, and in addition to these a number of visits was made to districts in
connection with school administration, adjustment of school district boundaries, and other
special work requested by the Department.
The attendance at the various schools in the inspectorate has been well maintained throughout the year. In several of the rural schools, where the average attendance has been very,
small heretofore, the growth in school population has necessitated an increase in the accommodation provided for the pupils. One division has been closed in Chase Superior School owing to
the removal of a number of families from that district on the closing of the lumber-mill there,
and one division was closed in the Merritt schools. The attendance fell off to such an extent
in the Barriere River School that it was closed for the latter half of the year.
A new assisted school has been established on the Upper Louis Creek Road in the vicinity
of Blucher Hall, and the schools at Knutsford and at Westsyde have been authorized to reopen
at the beginning of the present school-year.
An improvement is gradually being made in the accommodation provided for children in the
various rural schools. The improvements to school property carried out at Walhachin, Cache
Creek, and Spences Bridge are especially commendable, and the same is true of the improvements made to the Green Lake school building. A fine new school building has been erected at
Lackenby to replace the one destroyed by fire, and a new school-house is in course of erection
at Forest Grove. Better accommodation for pupils should be provided in Sullivan Valley and
in Campbell Ranch Districts if the schools are to continue in operation. Better accommodation
for two or three of the divisions in the Kamloops City schools should be provided at an early
date.
Examinations for entrance to high school were held at seven centres in this inspectorate
in the month of June. The percentage of successful candidates from the rural schools in this
inspectorate was smaller than the percentage of successful candidates in the whole Province from
the same class of schools. This lowering of percentage was due in a great measure to the
prevalence of sickness among school-children, weather conditions in outlying districts, and, m
particular, to increased attendance in the rural schools, with the consequent multiplication of
classes. The graded schools made a much better showing, as was to be expected, owing to
their better facilities for instruction. The Governor-General's medal for this district was won
by James Wallace Drinkwater, a pupil in the Lloyd George School, Kamloops, and the leader
in the Canadian History competition for this district was Alan Smith from Darlington Assisted
School. All the other medallists in this competition, with the exception of one from Zetland
Private School, were pupils in the Kamloops City schools.
The number of successful candidates for entrance to high school is not always the proper
criterion of a teacher's success in a school. Very often circumstances entirely outside of the
teacher's control militate against successful work with a Grade VIII. class. Nevertheless, better
results would be obtained in the Departmental Examinations if more attention were given to
detail in the teaching of the various subjects and to inculcating habits of neatness and accuracy
in all written work. Tests on the work covered should be judiciously applied throughout the
term, and every effort made to keep the pupils working up to their full mental capacity.    The teacher should not accept any work from a pupil that is not done to the best of the pupil's
ability. Careful organization of the school routine and careful preparation for each day's lessons
are essential parts of the teacher's work.
I believe that, in general, the character of the teaching in this inspectorate is steadily
improving. The teachers are, as a rule, genuinely interested in the work they are doing in the
schools and are continually striving for greater success in this work. One evidence of this is
the interest they are taking in their local conventions and in their desire to get something there
that will be helpful to them in meeting the problems that are continually arising in the class-*
room. The local Teachers' Convention is a fine medium for the interchange of ideas; it is a
sort of clearing-house for teachers' problems, and a source of information on helpful reading-
matter, educational topics, and teaching methods in general. It would be a distinct loss to
teachers, especially to those in rural districts, if the privilege of attending these conventions were
withdrawn from them.
Prizes for excellence in the teaching of physical training were awarded as follows:—
Schools of five or more divisions—Airs. Sadie Marshall, 9th Division, Merritt School.
Schools of two to four divisions—Aliss Jessie Patterson, 1st Division, Clinton School.
Schools of one division—Aliss Lillian B. Stevens, Duck Range School.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 10.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR T. R. HALL, B.A., KELOWNA.
Sixty schools, with a total of 157 class-rooms, were in operation during the year. A new
assisted school was established at Testalinda, 6 miles south of Oliver; Mission Creek, Allenby,
and Copper Alountain Schools were each increased from one to two divisions; the schools at
Allen Grove and Hendon were reopened. Kedleston and Sunnyside Schools were closed because
of lack of attendance.
Two hundred and one official visits of inspection were made during the year. In addition, a
considerable number of visits were made with the object of assisting with organization, helping
inexperienced teachers, etc. I feel that the year has been one of progress. The small assisted
school remains the chief problem, for it is here that the less experienced teachers are employed,
and it is likewise here that there is the greatest difficulty in obtaining supplies and equipment
requisite to successful work. I am glad to note, however, that there is from year to year an
improvement in the teaching conditions in these schools and that this improvement has been
above average during the past year. In regularly organized school districts Boards have for the
most part been most generous, while in the larger graded schools teaching conditions are
excellent.
The commendable enterprise of Principal Alatheson and the Penticton School Board resulted
in the establishment of the Penticton Junior High School at the beginning of the school-year.
The success of what is for this Province a pioneer development along educational lines reflects
great credit on those associated with the work.
The new regulations governing promotion to high schools have, in my opinion, proved very
satisfactory. This is due in no small measure to the spirit of co-operation manifested by public-
and high-school principals. Observation and inquiry during the year disclose a very general
opinion to the effect that the present method of promotion possesses distinct advantages over
former methods.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Ungraded schools—Air. F. Julian Willway, Stevenson Creek School.
Small graded schools—Mrs. A. AlcClymont, 2nd Division, South Okanagan School.
Large graded schools—Mr. T. Aldworth,  1st Division,  Armstrong and  Spallumcheen
Consolidated School.
There is increasing recognition of the importance of physical education, especially in a few
of the larger centres; this important function of the school is not, however, so generally recognized as it should be. Interest in school sports has been greatly stimulated by inter-school
athletic meets held in both the Okanagan and Similkameen Districts. M 38 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 11.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR A. E. A1ILLER, REVELSTOKE.
During the year the schools at Galena and Seymour Arm were reopened; a second division
was opened at Field, where a very creditable two-room building was erected; and an extra
teacher, making three in all, was added to the staff of the Athalmer-Invermere School. To offset
these increases the schools at Blaeberry and Trout Lake remained closed during the entire year.
In all, there were ninety-one schools in operation in this district, with a total staff of 125
teachers, showing a net gain of two teachers (with no change in the number of schools) as compared with 1925-26. Of these totals, three were graded city schools with a staff of twenty-four
teachers; seven were rural municipality schools (one graded) with a staff of eight teachers;
six were graded rural schools with a staff of fourteen teachers; eight were ungraded rural
schools ; one was a graded assisted school with three teachers ; and the remaining sixty-six were
ungraded assisted schools.
The standards of efficiency noted in previous reports are being well maintained. The
Entrance Examination results, a little disappointing in a few instances, were, on the whole,
good. The system, inaugurated a little over a year ago, of promoting Grade VIII. pupils of the
larger public schools to Grade IX. without examination appears to be working out satisfactorily
in this inspectorate, high-school principals and teachers placing themselves on record as highly
pleased with the material received in this way.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 12.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR P. H. SHEFFIELD, B.A., NELSON.
The boundaries of this inspectorate remained unchanged from the previous year, yet within
the district considerable growth and development took place. The assisted school at Blueberry
Creek was reopened after being closed for several years. An additional division was opened at
Winlaw in October and one at Slocan Junction in January. At Trail five new divisions were
added during the year, while Nelson and Glade each added one division. At Grand Forks one
division was closed on account of decreased school population. The superior division at Robson
did not reopen in September. Altogether there were in operation seventy schools, with 157
class-rooms, and employing 159 teachers.
It is gratifying to note the improvement in school accommodation throughout the district.
At Shoreacres a very creditable one-room school was built and made ready for occupation in
September. The Doukhobor Community erected additional one-room schools, each with residence
attached, at Glade and Brilliant in the Nelson area, and at Spencer in the Grand Forks area.
A small school was built at Upper Rock Creek, while additions or improvements were made at
Thrums, Slocan Junction, and Fife. At Trail Central School a creditable unit of eight classrooms and gymnasium was erected in the summer of 1926.
Every school in the inspectorate was inspected at least once, most of the rural schools and
some few city schools receiving a second inspection. In all, 221 official inspections were made
and reported upon. In addition, many informal visits were made to advise teachers or trustees,
or in connection with the routine work of administration.
In June 249 Grade VIII. pupils were promoted to high school. Of these, 196 were granted
Entrance standing upon the recommendation of Promotion Committees and fifty-three others
were successful in the Departmental Examinations.
This year being the sixtieth anniversary of the Canadian Confederation, patriotic exercises
were held in practically every section of the district. To the success of these celebrations the
teachers contributed very largely, by preparing their pupils for participation in the drills,
pageants, and musical programmes. In connection with the Provincial competition in Canadian
history to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee, the names of the medal-winners are submitted
elsewhere and need not be noted here. It is sufficient to say that the interest in the competition
was widespread and gave considerable impetus to the study of Canadian history. The prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded to: Miss Agnes E. Jerome,
Hume School, Nelson; Aliss Margaret V. Reisterer, Salmo; and Miss Elizabeth AL Page,
Crescent Valley. In this connection special mention should be made of the physical education
programme of the Trail-Tadanac schools. Here physical training is provided twice each week in
the gymnasium for all pupils of the intermediate and senior grades. Special competitive displays of physical exercises, to which all citizens were freely admitted, were held on two
evenings in June and were highly commended. Sports " meets " were held at Grand Forks,
Nelson, Trail, and Alidway. At the one held at Alidway, organized under the auspices of the
local Farmers' Institute, the pupils of some twelve rural schools met in friendly competition.
Throughout the inspectorate the teachers are manifesting a keen interest in their work and
in all opportunities for improving their professional efficiency. The Nelson and District
Teachers' Convention, held in October, was highly successful and well attended, some 220
teachers being present. Good use is being made, too, of the privileges extended by the Pro-'
vincial Library and the Nelson Public Library, whereby teachers in remote areas may borrow
professional books that otherwise would not be available. The number of teachers from this
district who attend one or another of the various summer schools increases from year to year.
This commendable attitude on the part of the teachers can only result in increased effectiveness
of the class-room instruction.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 13.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR V. Z. MANNING, B.A., CRANBROOK.
No change took place in the boundaries of this district, the inspectorate including all the
schools of the Cranbrook and Fernie Electoral Districts and the schools in the eastern part of
the Electoral Districts of Creston and Kaslo-Slocan.
A comparison with the statistics of five years ago indicates a steady growth. At that time
I reported 65 schools, 129 teachers, and 3,755 pupils, while during the past year there have been
3,966 pupils taught by 145 teachers. Alost of this increase has been in the town of Kimberley.
With the opening of school last September it was necessary again to open three new class-rooms
at this point. To accommodate the larger attendance the Board of Trustees had added a four-
roomed addition to the central school and built a very fine two-roomed building in the Chapman
Camp area. New schools were opened at Aleadowbrook, near Kimberley, and at West Creston,
while the schools at Curzon and Cooper Creek were reopened. A new room was opened in the
Michel District and the status raised to that of a superior school. At this place a twelve-roomed
school is under construction and its completion is eagerly awaited, so that the present unsatisfactory accommodation may be abandoned. The schools at Echo Lake and Wasa did not open
during the year owing to the average attendance falling below the required minimum.
Of the 129 teachers in 1922, there were fifteen teaching on " permits " and thirty with
third-class certificates. During the past year it was not necessary to issue any " permits " and
the number of third-class certificates has decreased to thirteen. The number of male teachers
has increased to twenty-nine, and of these sixteen spent the past summer at the Department's
Summer School or at summer schools conducted by Canadian universities.
During the year I made extensive use of the intelligence and standardized achievement tests
supplied by the Department. It is pleasing to note the extent to which standardized methods
are now being used by many of the principals and teachers in rating and grading their pupils.
Pupils were recommended for high school without examination at the Cranbrook, Creston,
Fernie, and Kimberley Schools, while Entrance Examinations were held at thirteen centres
throughout the inspectorate. The number of candidates qualifying for high school by the latter
method, while up to the average for the Province, was below the mark of former years. The
averages made in the examination subjects in this inspectorate were as follows : Arithmetic, 52;
spelling, 47 ; geography, 54 ; grammar, 49; drawing, 57; and Canadian history, 62. It will be
noted that the results in spelling and dictation are the lowest. A careful inspection of the
"answer papers in this subject indicates that more time in the class-room must be given to dicta- tion.    The Governor-General's medal for the candidate receiving the highest standing was won
by Olive Norgrove, of the Cranbrook Central School, with 413 marks out of a possible 500.
Conventions for the teachers of this district were held at Nelson and Fernie, the teachers of
the Kootenay Lake area attending the Nelson Convention and those from the eastern part of the
inspectorate attending the Fernie Conference. Large attendances were recorded at both
gatherings, which proved both stimulating and helpful.
Prizes for excellence in physical training under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust were
awarded as follows :—
Large graded schools—Miss Lena Wolfenden, 1st Division, Fernie School.
Small graded schools—Air. Howard Bowes, 2nd Division, Kaslo School.
Ungraded schools—Mr. Earl Marriott, Alice Siding School.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 14.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR H. C. FRASER, ALA., PRINCE RUPERT.
The boundaries of this inspectorial district remained unchanged throughout the year and
the number of schools varied little from that of the preceding year. There are altogether
seventy-eight schools, employing 124 teachers. Decker Lake School was closed and the Cedar-
vale School, which had been closed for four years, was reopened.
Creditable new buildings were erected at Cedarvale and at Francois Lake. A modern high-
school building, large enough to take care of the school population for some years, was erected
at Ocean Falls, with suitable laboratories and workshops. Manual-training instruction has been
adopted in this town for the boys, and until better arrangements in household economics can be
made a course in sewing has been provided for the girls. The auditorium gymnasium in this
building is used by both elementary- and high-school classes.
For the first time in years the school-work in many districts was appreciably interrupted by
a series of epidemics spreading over the greater portion of the year.
School Boards exercised more than usual care in selecting their teachers. Each year an
increasing number of teachers in this inspectorate hold first-class or academic certificates; some
School Boards will engage no one with lower standing and many make inquiries as to whether
these teachers show themselves progressive by attending summer schools. In line with this
demand for higher academic and professional standing, several of our best male teachers
resigned to complete their courses at the University.
Examination results compare favourably with those of the Province as a whole; about 70
per cent, of the pupils in Grade VIII. secured entrance to high school. A pupil of the Booth
Alemorial School, Prince Rupert, Archie Thompson, with 426 marks out of 500, was the winner
of the Gcsvernor-General's medal for this district.
The Diamond Jubilee of Confederation was suitably and enthusiastically observed in practically all of our schools; many of the teachers remained in their respective districts to assist
with the programme on Dominion Day. A fair proportion of awards for the special examination
in Canadian history were made to pupils of this district. Cecil Hacker, of the Prince Rupert
High School, won second place among high-school pupils of the Province and was awarded the
silver medal. William Hodson, of Ocean Falls Elementary School, has the distinction of winning
the gold medal for leading the public-school boys of the Province. Of thirty silver medals for
public-school pupils, three were awarded to pupils of this inspectorate.
The following teachers won prizes for excellence in physical training:—■
Large graded school—Air. Bergie Thorsteinsson, 3rd Division, Granby Bay.
Small graded school—Aliss Camille Peters, 4th Division, Kitsumgallum.
Ungraded school—Air. A. J. McLuckie, Port Clements.
In closing this report, I wish to bear testimony to the conscientious, unselfish work that is
carried on by many of the teachers working under conditions far from ideal, to the excellent
showing in Departmental Examinations by some of the pupils from remote centres, and to the
courtesy and co-operation of the various School Boards. ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 15.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR G. H. GOWER, ALA., PRINCE GEORGE.
This inspectorate comprises the schools in the Canadian National Railway Belt east of
Endako; those in the Cariboo District as far south as Lac la Hache; and those in the Peace
River Block.
During the year the following assisted schools were opened: Quesnel, AVest; Ten Mile
Lake; Lily Lake; Marten Lake; Salmon River; Fraser Flats; Chezacut (Chilcotin). An
additional teacher was appointed to the Prince George staff and a second teacher to the Fort
Fraser School. In all, there were ninety-eight schools in operation during all or some portion
of the year, employing 121 teachers. Of these, one was a graded city school, eight were rural
schools, and eighty-nine were assisted schools.
One hundred and seventy-seven visits of inspection were made during the year, as well as a
large number of special visits to rural districts in connection with matters of departmental
administration. It was again my privilege to inspect the high and superior schools within the
bounds of this inspectorate.
Although there have been no marked changes in this inspectorate since my last report, the
general tendency has been towards improvement. There were fewer changes among the teachers
during the past year than ever before and a larger number of teachers with experience were
employed. About 60 per cent, of the teaching staff had two or more years of experience to their
credit. In the great majority of cases the attitude of the teachers towards their work has been
good.
It is pleasing to note the very commendable effort that is being made by certain teachers in
rural areas to give instruction in the secondary-school subjects to boys and girls who would not
otherwise have an opportunity to cover the high-school courses. At the last high-school examinations eighteen pupils in rural schools completed the departmental requirements for their
particular grade, six passed with supplemental, and eight obtained partial standing. M 42 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
NEW WESTMINSTER CITY SCHOOLS.
REPORT OF R. S. SHIELDS, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
There was an increase of 162 in pupil attendance over 1925-26; this increase was for the
most part in the elementary schools.
It was found necessary to remove one of the educational landmarks—The John Robson
School. For nearly half a century this institution of learning served the youth of this city, and
during that time there passed through its doors thousands of pupils, many of whom have become
prominently identified with the public life of British Columbia and of Canada as a whole. On
January 5th the New John Robson School was formally opened by the Hon. Dr. AlacLean,
Minister of Education; this school, comprising eleven class-rooms, auditorium, and all necessary
offices, such as dental, medical, etc., was erected at a cost of $58,000. We feel certain that the
pupils passing through it will ably maintain the traditions of the past.
The past year was one of the most successful in the history of our schools ; each department,
working at full strength, was well repaid by the progress of the pupils.
The departmental system as used in Grades VI. to VIII. in some of the elementary schools
proved most successful and is being extended to take in all elementary schools.
The Alanual Training and Home Economics Departments have had a record year and we
wish to express our appreciation of the helpful sugge'stions and co-operation of Aliss AlcLenaghen
and Mr. John Kyle.
The physical development of pupils has received every consideration. Inter-class, inter-
school, and inter-city sports are well organized and conducted; we recognize the sacrifice of time
and convenience on the part of many teachers and appreciate their assistance.
The Aledical Department, in charge of Dr. D. A. Clarke and Aliss A. Stark, R.N., has, as in
other years, closely supervised the general health of the pupils and a most satisfactory condition
has been maintained.
Careful attention was paid in all classes to music and the results were gratifying. The
Lister-Kelvin School Choir, led by Aliss E. Milledge, accompanied by Miss AL Richards, won
second place and special mention at the festival held in Vancouver.
The present healthy condition of our school system is due to the harmonious, whole-hearted
co-operation of all its school-workers; to the helpful sympathy of all organizations interested in
school-life, and to the efficient and ever-ready assistance of the Board of School Trustees, leaders
of business, who unstintingly give of their time and energy in order that the youth of our city
may have every opportunity so to prepare themselves that when the responsibilities of citizenship
shall fall upon their shoulders they shall not be found wanting.
Throughout the year special days were commemorated and to all who assisted we express
our appreciation. In November a suitable Armistice Day programme was carried out at each
school. On Af ay Day perhaps the most picturesque and instructive pageant in the history of the
city was put on by over 2,000 of our school-children. " Confederation " was the central thought,
and this, combined with the colourful activities surrounding the crowning of the May Queen
elect, made it a day not readily forgotten by the thousands of people privileged to attend.
Near the close of the school term appropriate Confederation programmes were put on at all
city schools; we are indebted to the Department of Education for assistance in making these
exercises most instructive to pupils and parents.
Consistent with its expressed policy, the School Board has ever been alert to the needs of
the pupils of this city. Early in the year a dental clinic in charge of Dr. J. A. Sampson was
established; its need and its value to the health and progress of the youth of our schools need
not be enlarged upon in this report.
In order that more assistance might be given to girls, the appointment " Dean of Girls "
was recommended and approved by the Board; appointments were made to the Duke of Con-
naught High School, T. 3. Trapp Technical High School, and the Central School; appointments
at other schools will be made in the near future. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
Ai 43
The Trapp Technical High School was open two evenings per week from October 1st to
Alarch 30th for evening school instruction. The courses in woodwork, metalwork, electricity,
drawing, mathematics, auto mechanics, commercial courses, china-painting, basketry, home
economics, first aid, millinery, etc., were carried on much as usual, with increased numbers
attending; especially good work was done in teaching English to the non-English-speaking students and to those whose opportunities for the study of English had been confined to evening
classes. A pleasing feature of the evening classes was the large number of former day students
who came back to pursue further study in special subjects.
Again it is my pleasure to report the keen interest shown by our teachers in the various
Summer School Courses offered. During July and August more New AVestminster teachers
attended than at any period in the history of our schools;  this condition is most gratifying.
In June the City of New Westminster and the schools in particular suffered a very severe
loss in the death of the Chairman of the Board, Dr. E. J. Rothwell, AI.L.A. For many years he
devoted himself unsparingly to the cause of education in this city. His deep, practical interest,
his fine personality, and his wide experience, especially fitted him for that most important position which he held.    His very presence was a source of inspiration.
VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
REPORT OF J. S. GORDON, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
CHANGES IN ENROLA1ENT AND STAFF.
The maximum enrolment for the year—in February, 1927—shows an increase of 678 over
that of the preceding year, distributed in the three different types of schools as follows:—
•     Month.
Public
Schools.
Junior
High
Schools.
High
Schools.
Total.
18,713
18,404
184
159
3,262
2,918
22,159
21,481
February, 1926	
309
25
344
678
To provide for this increased enrolment certain changes in the number of teachers employed
were made.    These may be tabulated as follows :—
1926.           1927. 1926. 1927.
Public-school teachers   489 496
Ordinary classes     467 474
Special classes     22 22
Junior high-school teachers         7 7
High-school teachers      96 103
General Course     61 61
Commercial Course      15 22
Boys' Technical Course      17 17
Home Economics Course          3 3
Alanual-training teachers        22 22
Domestic-science teachers     17 17
Special instructors or supervisors .-.     11 13
Total :  642 658
Increase       16
SCHOOL ACCOA1A10DATION.
Notwithstanding the increase in school attendance during the year and the consequent need
of more class-rooms, Vancouver's school accommodation was much better at the close of the
year than it was at the beginning.    The improved conditions were effected by the completion
of the schools referred to in my last annual report. In Franklin District nine temporary, wooden class-rooms were abandoned when the new
fire-proof reinforced-concrete school, with eleven class-rooms and a good auditorium, was completed early in the second term of the year. Eight rooms of the old Grandview School and two
temporary class-rooms were also vacated in February, 1927, when the new Grandview School of
eleven rooms was completed. The first unit of the Templeton Junior High School, containing
nine modern class-rooms, was not completed till the beginning of the second term of the school-
year. As this was not a suitable time to begin junior high-school work, and as the rooms were
not urgently needed for other purposes, it was decided not to begin work in it till September,
1927.
BUILDING PROGRAA1AIE FOR 1927.
Early in the school-year the Board decided to take immediate steps to begin junior high-
school work in the south-west portion of the city as well as in the north-east at the beginning
of the next school-year. They also decided to secure, if possible, a sufficient sum of money to
purchase suitable school-sites while such could be secured where needed and at reasonable prices.
They accordingly appealed to the ratepayers in December for the sums required. These were
the following:—
(1.)  New Junior High School, Twelfth Avenue and Trafalgar Street.... $215,000
Addition to Templeton Junior High School, Templeton Drive and
Georgia Street     125,000
Excavations for both schools        10,000
Furniture and equipment of both schools       50,000
§400,000
(2.)  School-sites        50,000
Both these by-laws were endorsed—the first by a vote of 5,475 for and 2,189 against; the
second by a vote of 4,958 for and 2,289 against.
Work has consequently been proceeding on the two schools, and it is hoped they will both be
ready when schools reopen in September.
BUILDING PROGRAAIME FOR 1928.
Profiting by past experience, the Board resolved to make its building plans for 1928 early.
They accordingly decided in Alay, 1927, to ask for sufficient funds to complete the Laura Secord
School, corner of Lakewood Drive and Broadway, to build a new elementary school at the corner
of Rupert Street and Twenty-second Avenue, and to build a new technical school at a point to
be agreed upon later.
After the usual formalities were observed, two school money by-laws were submitted to the
ratepayers on June 25th. The first was for $365,000, the amount required to erect, furnish, and
equip a technical school. The second was for $270,000, the amount required to erect, furnish,
and equip the second unit of the Laura Secord School and a new elementary school in Beacons-
field District.
Both by-laws were endorsed—the first by a vote of 3,464 for and 2,219 against; the second
by a vote of 3,745 for and 1,960 against.
SCHOOL OF DECORATIVE AND APPLIED ARTS.
This school has just completed its second year—a very successful one. In fact, its growth
for the past school-year has been phenomenal. In October seventy-six full-time students and
twenty-one part-time students were attending the day classes, besides the 432 students attending
the evening classes. The pressing need for this school now is proper accommodation. The
teachers and students have been working in very cramped quarters for the past year, which
should give place to a school in keeping with the ability of the staff, the number of the students,
and the importance of the work to be done.
The difficulty of staffing this school, referred to in my last annual report, was overcome at
the beginning of the school-year by the appointment of two full-time men to the permanent staff.
In Mr. F. Horsman Varley, A.R.C.A., we have secured an artist of international repute as
instructor in drawing and painting ; and in Mr. J. W. G. Alacdonald we have a man well qualified
in every way as instructor in design. AVith such men and the talented part-time local instructors,
it is not surprising that the school is attracting students in such large numbers. >■ .'ii,«„;;;<;,.
FIRST   UNIT,  TEMPLETON JUNIOR HIGH  SCHOOL, VANCOUVER,  OPENED  SEPTEMBER OtH,   1927.
I
ui
is Us
i "
L£L,,i5!. ,s(L;:  'S„i;
IB   *
KITSILANO   JUNIOR  HIGH   SCHOOL,   VANCOUVER,   OPENED   SEPTEMBER   6tII,   1927.  CHANGES IN STAFF.
The number of changes in the teaching staff throughout the year was comparatively small;
but there were seven of these that we report with profound regret. These were claimed by
death after terms of very faithful service, ranging from a single term to thirty-six years. Those
who thus left us were: Miss H. L. AlacDonald, of Dawson School, after 16 years' service;
Mr. Leo. B. Brown, B.Sc, of King Edward School, after 4% years' service; Airs. Edith Baron,
of Livingstone School, after 13 years' service; Miss L. E. Frith, of the Psychological Department,
after 21 years' service; Mr. Henry J. Francis, Alanual Training Instructor, after a term's
service; Aliss AL A. B. Pope, of Fairview Junior High School, after 5 years' service; and
Aliss Bessie Johnston, A'ice-Principal of Strathcona School, after 36 years' service.
BUREAU OF MEASUREMENTS.
At the beginning of January, 1928, the Board opened, for the first time, a Bureau of Aleasure-
ments, placing as its director Air. Robert Straight, B.A., who, by virtue of his twenty years of
very efficient service in the elementary schools of the city, as assistant, vice-principal,' and
principal, and also by virtue of his fine record as a student of educational problems, had fully
merited promotion. Air. Straight was selected for this position from a large number of promising applicants from various Canadian and United States cities, and in the opening term of the
school-year was given leave to visit other cities and make a careful study of such problems as
he would have to deal with in his new sphere of work.
The Bureau has been in operation only six months ; but in that time it has done good work,
giving promise of abundantly warranting its existence. By establishing reasonably high
standards in the various subjects for the different grades, and keeping the different schools
posted as to how their students rank in comparison with others, it is hoped that a higher
standard will be attained in many instances. Valuable assistance is also looked for and may
reasonably be expected for principals, particularly of junior high schools and high schools, in
grouping their new students according to mental strength. Much time and careful study was
consequently given toward the close of the year to students who were to pass from the elementary schools to either junior high schools or high schools.
ORGANIZATION FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
For over a year junior high-school building operations have constituted the greater part of
the Board's building programme. Much thought has also been given to the equally, if not more
important, task of organizing the staffs for the two schools to be opened in September. Both
tasks, being new, have naturally presented unusual difficulties; but the latter more than the
former.
Given a sufficient sum of money, the erection of fairly satisfactory junior high-school buildings is a comparatively simple undertaking; and year after year the undertaking tends to become
more simple. The difficulties encountered and overcome one year will not likely give much
trouble when encountered later.
It is quite different, however, in the matter of staff organization. It presents difficulties
which even a more lavish expenditure of money than seems warranted or possible to secure
cannot permanently overcome. The School Board has already experienced much difficulty in
selecting the teaching force we deem indispensable to the highest success in the new type of
school. Indeed, we have found it almost impossible to secure the limited number of special
instructors in art, music, health education, and household arts that we require for two schools
with a combined enrolment of less than 2,000. It must also be apparent that the staffing of
these two schools in 1927 will make it more difficult to staff equally well other schools later,
unless something is done in the meantime to train the teachers required, but not now available,
for certain work.
One is justified in entertaining high hopes for the success of junior high schools in this
Province only to the extent a proper teaching personnel can be secured. But from Vancouver's
experience in organizing two junior high-school staffs of twenty-six and twenty-eight teachers
respectively, one may be pardoned for entertaining fears that each new venture along similar
lines, year after year, may find the schools with weaker and weaker staffs, owing to the fact
that the better material for staffing such schools will have been previously selected. Better
salaries alone will not secure the teachers required.    They will have to be trained in advance; M 46
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
and this should not be a difficult matter. There are many bright young teachers in this Province
to-day unable to secure teaching positions because there is a surplus of teachers prepared to
teach just what they can teach. If some of these, and others holding teaching positions, with
special aptitudes for the new subjects that are to be specially emphasized in junior high schools,
would only undertake to prepare themselves for the teaching of these subjects, it would prove
beneficial both for them and for the schools of the Province.
SOUTH VANCOUVER SCHOOLS.
REPORT OF ALEX. GRAHAAI, MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF  SCHOOLS.
ENROLA1ENT.
1925-26. 1926-27.
Elementary schools   7,737 7,895
High schools      853 944
Totals  8,590 8,839
Girls    4,432
Boys     4,407
During the school-year the accommodation in elementary schools has been increased by
addition of twelve class-rooms. Wings of six class-rooms each were built to the Aloberly and
Van Home Schools. An auditorium room was provided for in the basement of each of the
schools mentioned above. An annex of eight class-rooms was built on the High School site to
relieve overcrowding in that school. The manual-training centre for this school was moved
from the Gordon School to the High School site and established in an annex building. It is
estimated that this added class-room accommodation will be sufficient to take care of the increase
in school population until the end of the school-year 1927-28.
The staff at the end of June, 1927, was made up as follows:—
Male.
Female.
Total.
High-school teachers	
Elementary-school teachers....
Manual-training teachers	
Domestic-science teachers	
Supervisor   (primary  grades)
Doctor	
Nurses  	
Inspector	
Attendance officers.-.-	
Totals	
17
40
26
214
70
195
This staff, very ably assisted by Inspector F. G. Calvert, of the Department of Education,
has completed a satisfactory year's work. Principals, teachers, supervisors, and health officials
have given of their best to the work. Close co-operation on the part of all has been manifest
throughout the year, making good results possible.
Our teachers are more and more coming to look upon teaching as not a mere means of
earning a livelihood, but as a noble profession, calling for much self-sacrifice and the best effort
they are capable of.
Our teachers are in general giving more attention to the preparation of lessons and the
organization of the daily programme, with the result that more and better work is being done
to-day than ever before.
Extra-curricular activities in our schools now call for a great deal of self-sacrifice on the
part of all teachers on a well-organized staff. School sports are well organized and conducted
with a view to character-building and training in self-discipline. Aluch credit is due to the
teachers who devote time out of teaching-hours to this branch of educational work. A health-inspection staff of one doctor and two nurses has been able to take care of all
health situations and to cope with epidemics quite satisfactorily. Greater efficiency in this
department of school-work can only be attained by increasing the nursing staff.
The work in the primary grades has received careful direction at the hands of the primary
supervisor, who has worked unceasingly to improve the class of work done in these grades.
The work in the manual training and domestic science has been carefully supervised throughout the year and results have been up to expectation.
. The physical training of the pupils has been given due attention, and through physical
training physical comfort is improved, thus enabling the pupils to do better work and to do
that work with less effort.
In conclusion, I wish to thank the Department of Education, the Provincial Inspector of
Schools, the members of the staff, and the members of the Board of School Trustees, individually
and collectively, for unfailing courtesy and unstinted support in the work throughout the school-
year.
VICTORIA CITY SCHOOLS.
REPORT OF GEORGE II.  DEANE, MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The sum of $596,183 was expended for school purposes in the calendar year 1926. Of this
amount, the taxpayers of the city contributed $455,278 (76 per cent.), which was 29 per cent,
of the total civic expenditures for all purposes.
A substantial grant from the Provincial Government enabled the School Board, with the
co-operation of the City Council, to purchase at a very reasonable figure the " Craigdarroch "
property, which has accommodated Victoria College for several years. The building is located
on one of the most beautiful sites in the city and with comparatively small expenditures
surrounding lecture-rooms should provide ample college accommodation for years to come. In
such connection it is interesting to note the steady growth of this institution. In September,
1920, the enrolment at Victoria College was 73;  in September, 1927, 227.
While the total enrolment of pupils in all schools has varied but slightly during the last
five years, there has been a marked increase in the number of pupils attending Victoria High
School. In September, 1921, there were enrolled 852; in September, 1927, 1,206. Any further
substantial increase will create a serious situation surrounding accommodation.
The year's work in the class-rooms resulted in a good measure of achievement. Too much
emphasis cannot be placed upon the necessity of careful preparation with definite objectives for
each lesson. The skilful teacher will direct and compel the pupil to put forth a mental effort,
without which there can be little intellectual development. This cannot be accomplished in our
high schools by " lecture " methods and in our lower grades by merely entertaining the pupils
during the lesson period. The pupil must be trained to think and to apply himself diligently to
his tasks.    These habits will have the greatest influence on his future success as a citizen.
One of the most difficult problems the Victoria School Board has to solve is to administer
the schools so as to secure the highest efficiency according to modern standards at a minimum
cost to the taxpayer. As the great majority of our pupils never reach the University, the main
function of our public schools is to provide opportunities for securing that training which is
best adapted to the pupil's future career as a useful citizen. In view of the public demand to
keep the tax rate low, improvements such as the organization of middle schools involving large
expenditures surrounding new buildings and equipment must be postponed to some future date.
At present the Board, as far as it is financially able, is pursuing the policy, with the approval •
of the Department, of including in the programme for graded schools some of the courses which
are prescribed for junior high schools. As the majority of Grade VIII. pupils continue their
studies at the high school, the courses offered in our high school must influence to a large extent
the foundational work necessary in Grades VII, and VIII. Additions to the graded-school
programme, however, should not in any way jeopardize the main objectives of elementary-school
education and should not place an unreasonable burden on either pupil or teacher.
A notable event in the year was the Schools Pageant celebrating Canada's Diamond Jubilee
which was staged on July 2nd at the Willows Park by the schools of Victoria District, comprising
the Municipalities of Esquimalt, Oak Bay, Saanich, and Victoria City.    The highest commen- M 48 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
dation is due all who assisted to make this the most spectacular and pleasing feature of Victoria's
celebration.
The decision of Principal Paul to retire from active duty as Principal of Victoria College at
the end of the academic year was deeply regretted by the Board, his associates, and his many
friends in the community at large. Dr. Paul has been for so many years connected with
educational effort in this city, as Principal of Victoria High School, Alunicipal Inspector, and
Principal of Victoria College since its establishment, that he is looked upon almost as an integral
part of our educational system. However, as Principal Emeritus, he will deliver a special course
of lectures during the present academic year, thus enabling the students to continue to benefit
from his ripe scholarship and impressive personality.
The Victoria High School suffered a severe loss by the recent death, of one of its most
competent teachers, Aliss Jenny Alacleod, who was held in the highest esteem by her pupils
and fellow-teachers. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
M 49
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF D. M. ROBINSON, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The session opened on September 14th, 1926. During the preliminary term, September to
December, 188 students—161 young women and 27 young men—were in attendance. At the close
of the term in December, two students with previous Normal School training and teaching experience in Eastern Canada were granted diplomas;  four students discontinued the course.
At the opening of the advanced term in January, 182 of those attending during the preliminary term returned. These were joined by nine students with previous Normal School training.
In February a teacher from the Mother Country was allowed to attend for six weeks to qualify
as a teacher in this Province. Thus the total enrolment for the advanced term was 192. The
teacher from the Mother Country finished at the end of March. At Easter nine students were
advised to discontinue their course because of unsatisfactory work. Thus the enrolment at the
close of the session was 182.
The following will show clearly the enrolment and results of the session:—
Young Women.
Young Men.
Total.
Regular students	
Teacher taking short course	
Total enrolment....	
Withdrew, work unsatisfactory	
Discontinued course	
Failed	
Recommended for interim certificate
169
1
170
8
4
14
144
28
28
1
1
26
197
1
198
9
4
15
170
We were very pleased that the Department of Education made two additional appointments
for the session opening in September, 1926. Mr. William G. Black was placed in charge of instruction in the subjects of educational psychology, the history of education, and educational
tests and measurements. Miss N. Vivian Jones was assigned the work in hygiene, folk-dancing,
and organized games. Both Mr. Black and Aliss Jones have done exceptionally good work during
their first year on the staff.
The instruction in physical training was conducted by Sergeant-Major Wallace and
Sergeants Ward and Frost. Excellent work was done in this department. Of the 182 students
examined, 179 qualified for Grade B certificate.
During the session of 1926-27 the students had abundant practice-teaching. During the
term, September to December, the following schools in the City of Vancouver were used in
practice-teaching schools: Seymour, Hastings, Nelson, Grandview, Laura Secord, and Florence
Nightingale. During the term, January to June, the following schools in the Municipality of
South Vancouver were used: Wolfe, Carleton, Selkirk, MacKenzie, Tecumseh, and Gordon. At
all of these schools we met with the most kindly assistance—principals and teachers were most
anxious to help in every possible way. During the session students were engaged in practice-
teaching for eight full weeks—more than double the practice-teaching of any previous session.
In addition to this observation and practice-teaching in graded municipal schools, each student spent a week in some small school in an adjoining municipality. Small schools in Burnaby,
Richmond, North Vancouver, West Vancouver, Delta, Surrey, Alatsqui, Sumas, Chilliwack,.
Coquitlam, and Alaple Ridge were visited and here students acquired considerable experience in
teaching and managing small ungraded schools. We wish to thank the teachers of these small
schools for their hearty co-operation in this most important branch of teacher-training.
We are still of the opinion that existing observation and practice-teaching facilities should'
be supplemented by the establishment of a school in which the members of the staff should be in
the closest co-operation with the Normal School in the matters of organization, methods, and!
D management. For purposes of observation and experimentation by students such a school is an
essential in teacher-training.
During the closing days of the session students visited the following points of interest: The
botanical garden and stockyards at the University, the Indian village of Musquiam, the sawmills of the Alberta Lumber Company, the B.C. Fir and Cedar Company, and the Vancouver
Lumber Company, the Harbour Commissioners' grain-elevator, the Burrard elevator and the
Terminal elevator, the news plant of the Province and Sun, Ross and Howard Foundry, the
Arancouver Engineering Works, Shelly's Bakery, and the Fraser Valley Dairy. These visits
proved both interesting and instructive to the students and we wish to thank the managers of
these establishments for their courtesy and kindly assistance during these tours.
The session of 1926-27 was a most satisfactory one. The enrolment was not as heavy as in
past years and consequently classes were not too large: staff and students were in most hearty
co-operation and an excellent school spirit was strongly in evidence.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VICTORIA.
REPORT OF J. W. GIBSON, ALA., B.PAED., ACTING-PRINCIPAL.
In accordance with the amended regulations respecting the lengthening of the Normal School
session, the annual session covered by this report began on September 14th and closed on June
17th, with the usual school holidays at the Christmas and Easter seasons.
The total enrolment for the year was 137, which was thirty-nine less than the previous year.
The following table gives further details of enrolment:—
Women.
Men.
Total.
Number of students granted interim standing	
100
2
7
1
24
1
2
124
Number who discontinued during the year	
Number who failed	
3
9
Attended part time without credit	
1
Totals	
110            '               27
137
■
Of the number who left at the end of the fall term, two were Arts graduates and continued
their professional training in the Department of Education of the University of British Columbia.
Of those who were granted interim standing, four had had previous training and completed their
work at the end of the fall term, while three who had also had previous training entered in
January and finished in June. Of the total number to whom interim standing was granted,
twelve passed with honours.
As Principal AlacLaurin was unable to resume his duties at the beginning of the year, the
work of instruction was organized as follows : Air. J. W. Gibson (Acting-Principal)—Psychology,
science of education and school management, history of education, physiology, and hygiene (for
men only). Air. V. L. Denton—History, geography, and school law. Air. Hy. Dunnell—Art and
writing. Air. B. S. Freeman—Literature, nature-study, and school-gardening. Air. C. B. Wood—
Arithmetic, reading and spelling, grammar and composition. Miss G. G. Riddell—Alusic and
primary-grade work.    Miss L. B. Isbister—Household science and hygiene.
Aliss Kate Scanlan, as principal of the Alodel School and teacher of the senior division, conducted the work during the entire year in a highly efficient manner. On account of illness Aliss
I. Barron, who for eleven years had been teacher of the junior division, was granted leave of
absence, her place being filled satisfactorily by Mrs. AL Clifford, a teacher of mature experience
in primary-grade work. Aliss Barron was able to resume her regular work again in December
and to continue throughout the winter and spring terms.
At the end of April Aliss AL A. Lucas, who for nearly four years had given faithful and
efficient service as secretary and librarian, resigned, and was succeeded by Aliss Olive Piercy.
The course in physical training was conducted by Sergeant-Alajor Bain during the first term
and by Sergeant-Alajor Frost and Sergeant Ward during the second term. Altogether 123 students were awarded Strathcona B certificates. In addition to the usual course offered in physical training, classes in swimming were
organized and conducted at the Crystal Garden natatorium by Mr. W. Gordon Brandreth and
Mrs. Brandreth. Approximately seventy of the lady students attended these classes, twenty-six
of whom made such progress as to qualify for the diploma of the Royal Life-saving Society. The
students were able to secure swimming privileges at the Crystal Gardens at reduced rates and
those who participated thoroughly enjoyed the training as well as the recreation afforded.
Much credit is due to Aliss Isbister in connection with the inauguration of this most excellent
form of training and for the encouragement and supervision given to the young ladies during the
year. Training in swimming and life-saving is of value under any circumstances, but to have
the opportunity of enjoying this instruction under such exceptionally delightful conditions as are
to be found at the Crystal Garden is in itself a rare opportunity that every student should take
advantage of. To Air. I. W. Awde, Manager of the Crystal Garden, our thanks are due for many
courtesies and for continuous effective co-operation during the year.
An examination of the personnel and qualifications of the students entering the school in
recent years reveals the fact that a higher standard of academic or non-professional attainment
is steadily being reached. No less than 45 per cent, of the students of this year's class have
had at least one additional year in work of college grade, which means that the number of
teachers holding first-class certificates is increasing. This movement towards higher qualifications on the part of our young teachers is most commendable and is bound to result in a higher
standard of teaching efficiency throughout the Province. It is also gratifying to find that the
number of young men entering upon the teaching profession is increasing. This year the young
men students constituted 20 per cent, of the total enrolment and 67 per cent, of them held higher
than Normal Entrance standing.
Some improvements were carried out inside the building so as to facilitate the work of
teaching. An additional room for the teaching of science is being equipped, so that the students
will be able to do more and better work in that subject.
The improvement-work on the Normal School grounds has made satisfactory progress.
During the spring months I was able personally to supervise the work of grading and planting.
In the course of a few more years these grounds will be more nearly in keeping with the fine
quality of the building, but much still remains to be done.
The need for a larger area for school games and exercises out-of-doors necessitated the
removing of the demonstration gardens from the front section of the grounds. By purchasing
two additional lots on the opposite side of the building a very much better site for the gardens
has been provided and also a much-needed playing-space for the children of the Alodel School.
The need of increased accommodation for pupils wishing to attend the Alodel School has
become urgent; in fact, a much more efficient scheme than that now in operation ; a scheme
mutually advantageous to Saanich Municipality and to the Provincial Government should now
he considered. It should be kept in mind that the great majority of the students attending the
Victoria Normal School come from the great rural areas of the Province and from towns situated
in agricultural districts. No greater service could be rendered in the interests of improved
rural education than to give the teachers that are being trained for service in those districts a
first-hand knowledge of the most efficient type of rural school and to instruct them objectively in
the best rural-school procedure. Our present Model School of two overcrowded divisions is
entirely inadequate. It is true that we have available for practice-teaching several of the
Saanich schools, but we are able to use them only to a very limited extent during the year.
What we now need is a well-organized practice-school of from six to eight divisions, in effect
a model rural consolidated school, which would include all of the regular elementary grades and
Grade IX. as well, located in not less than 5 acres of ground convenient to the Normal School
and under its immediate direction. Such a school established as a joint undertaking of the
Alunicipality of Saanich and the Provincial Government would not he merely a graded city
school located in the country, nor even a graded suburban school, but a thoroughly efficient rural
school with a modern rural curriculum such as is to be found in hundreds of progressive rural
districts all over America. Such a model training-school as this, fully equipped to offer the best
type of training along modern lines and having a staff of carefully selected teachers, thoroughly
alive to the unrivalled educational possibilities of the country, sympathetic towards its conditions, and well informed as to its needs, would be of inestimable value to the Province. Such
a practice-school operated in conjunction with the Normal School would do a great deal towards
the general improvement of rural education through the better training of the young men and women who attend here in preparation for their work as teachers. No amount of lecturing and
reading about improved rural education could possibly equal direct observation of and participation in the exercises of such a school. The establishing of this size and type of model training-
school would not in any way affect the relationship of the Normal School to the schools of the
City of Victoria and of the adjoining municipalities. It would merely afford to the teachers-in-
training who come from the outlying districts—" east of Yale and north of the 50th parallel and
on Vancouver Island "—a much-needed opportunity of becoming thoroughly acquainted with the
finest type of rural school organization and instruction, and would at the same time adequately
provide for all of the children of the Alunicipality of Saanich from the city limits to Cadboro
Bay and Gordon Head in Grades I. to IX.
The lengthening of the Normal School term has proved beneficial to the students-in-training,
having made it possible to provide for more practice-teaching. The number of lessons taught
and the number of hours spent in the observation of teaching have been almost doubled, and
more attention is being given to the teaching of series of related lessons and to the routine of
school management. During the month of May practice-teaching was carried on in the Saanich
schools and in the most convenient rural schools, the students being assigned in pairs to the
various class-rooms and becoming responsible, under the guidance of the regular teachers, for
the entire school programme for a period of two weeks. This continuous teaching and management has enabled the students-in-training more fully to appreciate the composite nature of the
teacher's task and to apply their knowledge of educational principles to its best accomplishment.
It has also afforded a valuable opportunity for the staff of the Normal School more fully to
evaluate the ability and resourcefulness of the young teachers. Aluch credit is due to Mr. V. L.
Denton for the successful management of this scheme for practice-teaching in the rural schools,
as well as for able support in other lines of administration. The problem of arranging for the
daily transportation of the students to and from these outlying schools necessitated much
careful planning, and I am glad to say that Air. Denton arranged it all in a most satisfactory
manner.
Altogether thirty-eight schools were used during the year for student ohservation and
practice-teaching, and the relationship which existed between the teachers in these schools,
approximately 200 in number, and the Normal students was highly satisfactory. To the
principals of all these schools we owe much for the unfailing courtesy shown by them at all
times and for their hearty co-operation during the period of observation and practice-teaching.
The thanks of the school are due to Mr. George H. Deane, Alunicipal Inspector of Schools for
Victoria, and to Inspectors A. C. Stewart and W. H. May for much advice and assistance in
organizing this important work of practice-teaching in the schools of their inspectorates.
In conclusion, I wish to state that it has been a real pleasure to have had the opportunity
once again of participating in the training of young men and women for the teaching profession,
and to have been associated with such a capable and loyal corps of workers as comprise the
staff of this school. Their assistance at every turn was cheerfuly given; in fact, so much was
done by them throughout the entire year that my own duties were rendered wholly pleasant and
comparatively easy.    I wish to thank them all. SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND, POINT GREY.
REPORT OF S. H. LAWRENCE, PRINCIPAL.
The enrolment for the year was eighty-three, of whom sixty-four were deaf, seventeen blind,
and two both deaf and blind.
The school-work was conducted along general lines, similar to those of former years. The
most marked departure was the formation of a special class, composed of children eliminated
from all the grades. These children were not acquiring intelligent speech and were not showing
an aptitude for lip-reading. Their advancement was so slow that they were retarding the
progress of the other children in their respective classes. I took charge of them myself and
taught them chiefly by means of written language, and the results obtained have already
justified the experiment.
The school as at present constituted has been in operation for seven years, and the question
might very properly be asked, AVhat is it doing to justify the expenditure made each year to
maintain it?    I shall therefore, as briefly as possible, mention some of its accomplishments.
At the close of the year that ended last June one deaf girl and three blind boys received
Entrance Certificates, granted on the recommendation of Air. L. J. Bruce, Inspector of Schools.
Two blind pupils, a girl and a boy, wrote the Grade XL Junior Alatriculation Examination and
both were successful in obtaining a creditable pass with some margin to spare. Another blind
boy received the Higher Distinction Certificate, given by the Associated Board of the Royal
Academy of Alusic and the Royal College of Music, while two other boys received their
elementary certificates.
Our efforts were not confined wholly to literary and musical attainments. Instruction was
given along vocational lines. The blind were taught basketry, and both blind and deaf girls
received lessons in economic housekeeping, plain sewing, and fancy work. The older girls were
taught dressmaking and millinery, and the garments made by them reflected both neatness and
finished style.
Twenty deaf boys were instructed in manual training and turned out models that would
bear close critical inspection.
During the spring and autumn months the boys were given instruction in gardening and
general work done about a farm.
A class in typing was continued throughout the year and commendable progress was made
in that branch. Typing is very essential for the blind as very few people are able to read
anything written in braille.
The school does not pretend to send out its pupils with so complete a knowledge of any
trade and skill that they can compete with experts, but it aims to lay such a foundation as will
fit the child for good citizenship and become an asset to the State.
Of the number who have gone out from the school, all but a very small percentage are to-day
in earning positions. One boy has been with the Canadian Pipe Company in Vancouver for four
years, and so satisfactory are his services that he has been retained in slack periods when others
have been temporarily laid off. Two other boys are earning good wages at printing, one in
Vancouver and the other with the Vernon News, A'ernon, B.C. Two are doing farm-work in
the Okanagan, while another is employed with the Coca Cola Company in Vancouver.
Three girls are employed at dressmaking in A'ancouver, three others have positions in a
laundry, and two more work in a paper-box factory. They all like their work and try to give
good return for the pay they receive.
The general health of the school was good throughout the year. We had an outbreak of
German measles in the early spring, but this was almost unavoidable when the whole city was
filled with the disease. The class-work was seriously interfered with for a few weeks, but no
complications resulted from the disease.
In June two pupils contracted real measles when they were out for the week-end with
friends, but the watchfulness of the matron and the supervisors detected the symptoms before
the pupils affected mingled with the rest of the school and the infection did not spread. As the disease was very prevalent in the city and we were receiving children from the city
daily, the doctor advised closing the school earlier than the appointed time to avoid any further
outbreak.    We were thus able to get the children all home free from infection.
I regret to report that at the close of the term three of the teachers resigned. They were
all experienced and efficient and with the other members of the staff laboured assiduously in the
interests of their respective classes. Aliss Thompson left to accept a more remunerative position
in New York City, Aliss Aliller resigned to get married, and Miss AlcConnell was compelled to
give up on account of ill-health. I was able to fill these vacancies with three new teachers who
come very highly recommended, and I feel confident that the coming year will be one of
progress also.
I cannot close this report without expressing to you, Sir, and to the Honourable the Alinister
of Education, my deep appreciation of your kindly advice and helpful support at all times, and,
further, to record how keenly we all feel the death of the late Premier. The whole school had
learned to look upon him as a tender-hearted and loving father. 3 ;•-:-.•• .
W2
„ i,     ■■„'   ■■■'■'.■.■.     '.,■■.,     ..,.;■'.•...,■•       ^
: :     :
SCHOOL  FOR THE  DEAF  AND THE BLIND.  POINT  GREY.
CLASS AT BASKETRY   (SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND, POINT GREY).  TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., ORGANIZER.
A1ANUAL TRAINING.
Classes in the above subject are conducted in the following cities: Armstrong, Chilliwack,
Courtenay, Cranbrook, Cumberland, Kelowna, Nanaimo, New Westminster, Nelson, North Vancouver, Prince Rupert, Port Aloody, Rossland, Trail, Vancouver, Vernon, and Victoria. Similar
classes are also held in the following municipalities: Burnaby, Chilliwack, Esquimalt, Alaple
Ridge, Penticton, Point Grey, Pitt Meadows, Richmond, Summerland, South Vancouver, Surrey,
West Vancouver, and in the Rural Districts of Rutland, Harewood, and South Wellington.
A summary of manual-training statistics from these places is as follows :—
Alanual-training centres         86
Manual-training instructors  78
Elementary-school  pupils  attending  11,133
High-school pupils attending     1,910
It will be noted that the centres mentioned are situated in both urban and rural districts;
consequently considerable latitude is given to the instructors in drawing up courses suitable to
their special conditions. All courses, however, must be sanctioned by the Department of Education and are built up from an understanding of educational principles. Thus it is that we have
a Province rich in varied types of manual-training and educational hand-work. We also have
excellent examples of manual-training workshops and community centres built entirely by the
manual-training pupils. The instructors as a class are progressive and eager to improve their
standard of teaching, and they who are fortunate enough to be within reach of the Vancouver
Technical School attend classes in advanced work each Saturday morning. The elementary-
school manual teacher receives instruction in the subjects required for high-school manual
training and for junior high-school industrial arts departments, while those holding high-school
qualifications are prepared as instructors for technical or vocational schools. Instructors outside
of the Greater Vancouver area have the privilege of attending Summer School courses. So long
as we keep this line of advancement intact we shall not want for teachers in junior high and in
technical or vocational schools.
The number of centres and instructors in the Province keep gradually increasing and all
cities of the first class and all cities of the second class except six now provide instruction in
manual training.
The Department of Education has decided to discontinue granting special manual-training
diplomas to pupils, as it has had an effect of making people imagine that manual training is an
extra subject on the school curriculum instead of being an integral part of school education.
Under the new junior high-school idea the old name manual training is termed " industrial
arts," and woodwork is brought into partnership with metalwork, the whole being enriched with
the subjects of electricity and home mechanics. This advancement, however, tends to throw
further into the background those communities that have not yet adopted a good measure of
hand-work. It is to be hoped that at least most of the cities of the second class will definitely
decide to install equipment during the coming year and give their students the same opportunities
that they would receive in a city of the first class.
TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN DAY-SCHOOLS.
Technical high schools are established in New Westminster, Vancouver, Victoria, and Point
Grey; commercial courses only in Burnaby, Delta, Kamloops, Nelson, North Vancouver, Oak Bay,
Prince Rupert, Revelstoke, South Vancouver, Surrey, and West Vancouver. AI 56
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
The total number of students attending number 3,272 and they are distributed as follows:
Centre.
Technical.
Household
Science.
Commercial.
Art.
Burnaby	
Delta	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
New Westminster.
North Vancouver..
Oak Bay	
Point Grey	
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke	
South Vancouver..
Surrey	
Vancouver	
Victoria	
West Vancouver....
Totals	
147
530
163
48
19
211
100
24
41
38
100
78
31
129
32
25
170
27
870
268
32
134
895
278
1,065
134
These figures show an increase of 1,628 students over those of last year, and yet this is but
a fraction of the number that should be expected.
PROPOSED NEW TECHNICAL SCHOOL, A'ANCOUAHSR.
A great addition to the attendance of industrial students will undoubtedly be made when a
technical school for Greater Vancouver is built, as it will be at this school where the finishing
vocational courses will be provided. This technical school will form a link between the high
schools and industrial occupations. The Vancouver Board of School Trustees has purchased
25 acres of land in Hastings Townsite and plans are rapidly being completed for a building to
house classes whereat preparation and training may be received for some of the most important
industries of British Columbia. When this proposed technical school wins public confidence,
and when it is understood that a thorough training for industrial life is emphasized, a steadily
increasing stream of students will result. Care should be taken, however, to guard the technical
school for Greater Vancouver from becoming merely a technical high school and to preserve its
identity as a pre-eminently technical or vocational school. The high school of the future will
undoubtedly include a technical course as well as courses in academic, commercial, home
economics, and in some cases agricultural subjects; moreover, such a composite high school
with its parallel courses will do a great deal to prove the foolishness of the idea that one course
is inferior to another. The technical or vocational school for Greater Vancouver, however,
will mainly cater to the needs of students who have completed the technical high school course,
or to those who have found their aptitudes through the exploratory courses at the junior high
schools and have an intelligent idea of the occupation in which they desire to engage. Two
junior high schools are established in Vancouver and it is safe to predict that a good percentage
of the pupils will prove themselves more capable in the line of craftsmanship than in an academic
way. If these pupils do not intend to proceed to the university, the technical or vocational
school will be the most desirable institution to attend. On the other hand, if the students 'desire
to attend the science course at the university, a technical course at a composite high school
should be their avenue of approach. It would seem to be reasonable to expect the university
authorities to acknowledge such an educational development as a composite high school, and to
increase elective subjects at the matriculation examination so as not to work a hardship on
those students who elect to take the technical or home economics courses at the composite high
school. The great amount of shop-work in technical courses, which develops effectively the
initiative, ingenuity, industry, taste, skill, and self-expression of a student, should surely count
for something in admission to the university.
The overcoming of this matriculation difficulty will probably come simultaneously with a
decision to transform some of the larger high schools into composite high schools, for. one may
easily imagine the day when high schools in South Vancouver, Burnaby, and North Vancouver
will be impelled to enrich and increase their courses of study, while the technical or vocational PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27. M 57
school of Greater Vancouver will continue to work in close co-operation with industry and the
Apprenticeship Council of Vancouver.
Point Grey already possesses a junior high and composite high school at Magee, and pupils
after they pass through the junior high exploratory courses may take any of the four high school
courses provided—academic, technical, commercial, or home economics. The technical department has excellent equipment and the energetic and capable staff understand thoroughly what is
required to prepare a boy to become a manly, self-supporting citizen.
In the Vancouver Technical School it was found to be a mistake to divide attention between
the work for matriculation to university and direct preparation for industrial life; consequently
it was decided to dispense with matriculation subjects. This decision made no appreciable
difference to the total student enrolment in the school. Nevertheless, the bright, ambitious young
men in the technical or vocational school should be encouraged to go to university and be assisted
by a committee of the staff organized for the special purpose of giving vocational guidance.
Such a group of students could carry the additional load of a foreign language together with
history, and find their way to the university at the end of the fourth year, if not at the end of
the third. Their technical training, moreover, would equip them well to earn their living and
pay their way through university, and would prepare them particularly well for the work of the
applied science course in the university.
VANCOUVER SCHOOL OF DECORATIVE AND APPLIED ARTS.
The Vancouver School of Applied Design, which was opened last year, has been an
unqualified success. The enrolment far exceeded all expectations and there is no doubt that
the good work done will be found helpful to the crafts and industries of Greater Vancouver.
Due attention is being paid to architecture and the kindred studies of interior decoration and
furniture design, metalwork in its various branches from wrought iron to the precious metals,
clay products and cement, typography and lithography, dressmaking, costume design, and
millinery.
Victoria City might well follow the example of Vancouver in this respect, for the public
appreciation of both art and music in the Capital City is very pronounced and a serious effort
to establish a school of applied art would meet with an eager response. The City of Victoria
has made no educational progress during the past year in a technical way. It has not yet been
possible to give more than a two-year high-school technical course and none but those who
have passed the entrance to high school are admitted to the course. Considering the overwhelming advantages which are given to those pupils who wish to sit the matriculation examination in order to attend university, it is unfortunate that more is not attempted for those
pupils who are compelled to participate in industrial occupations without completing a high
school course. Victoria High School with its commodious grounds is one of those high schools
which is particularly well suited for the requirements of a composite high school. A technical
course in such a school and the inauguration of a school of applied art would provide the
necessary educational facilities for many students from all parts of Vancouver Island.
HIGH SCHOOL COMMERCIAL COURSES.
Good work is being accomplished in the commercial courses throughout the Province and we
have been dependent entirely upon the commercial teachers trained in British Columbia for
supplying vacant positions. This makes the commercial condition doubly satisfactory, and to
show how the high school commercial students measure up with those from private commercial
schools the following statement of awards is appended:—
AWABDS  WON BY   STUDENTS  AND  EX-STUDENTS  OP  THE  HIGH   SCHOOL   COMMERCIAL   COURSES
DURING THE YEAR 1926-27 AT VANCOUVER AND VICTORIA.
At the Canadian Typewriting Contest held during the spring of 1927 in Vancouver there
were three classes into which contestants were grouped:—
(a.)  The Novice class, the contestants of which must not have begun the study of typewriting earlier than August 1st of the preceding year.
(6.)  The Intermediate class, the contestants of which must not have begun the study of
typewriting earlier than August 1st two years previous to the contest,
(c.)  The Senior class, open to any typist living in Canada. The contestants of the Novice class came from students attending the local business colleges
and from the high schools. Since most of the business-college students remain in such schools
less than one year, their representatives were near the graduating stage. The high-school students were only the beginning classes. Yet, in this contest, the high-school students demonstrated their superiority most emphatically, as follows:—
First place:  Aliss Dorothy Colpitts, High School of Commerce, Vancouver.
Second place:  Miss V. M. Campbell, High School of Commerce, Vancouver.
Third place:  Aliss M. IL Stevens, St. Anne's Academy, Vancouver.
Fourth place:  Aliss AL E. Desrosiers, High School of Commerce, Vancouver.
Fifth place:   Aliss C. AL Difiin, High School of Commerce, Vancouver.
In the Senior or Open class the victory was equally as great.    In this division the five cups
were won by high-school or ex-high-school students, as follows :—
Championship Cup:   Aliss M. Hobbs, Britannia High School, Arancouver.
Runner-up Cup:   Mr. T. Alsbury, Magee High School, Point Grey.
Accuracy Cup:   Aliss D. E. Whiles, High School of Commerce, Vancouver.
Underwood Cup:   Aliss L. Alarchese, Britannia Lligh School, Vancouver.
Remington Cup:   Miss B. Blewett, High School of Commerce, Vancouver.
Both Miss Hobbs and Aliss Marchese were claimed by the Sprott-Shaw School, but their real
training was obtained at Britannia High School, where they were known as distinguished typists
before they left that school.
That accuracy is of more importance than speed in typewriting operation is the unanimous
opinion of all who employ stenographers, and it is a remarkable testimony of the thoroughness
of the high-school training to point out that in this contest the only two perfect papers were
handed in by high-school students. In the Senior Division, Miss D. E. Whiles, of the High
School of Commerce staff, wrote 1,994 words in 30 minutes without a single error. Miss Whiles
received her only training in typewriting during the school-year 1924—25 at the High School of
Commerce, Vancouver. She won, in this contest, the Senior Accuracy Championship of Canada,
beating every contestant from all Canadian schools and colleges. In the Intermediate Division,
Miss A. AlcKibhen, a student in the second year of Britannia High School, Vancouver, wrote 832
words in 15 minutes without a single error, winning the Intermediate Accuracy Championship
for all of Canada. Aliss McKibben received her only training in typewriting at Britannia
High School.
Vancouver Exhibition Typing Contest, August, 1927.—First prize, Britannia High School,
Alay Patterson;  second prize, Britannia High School, Annie AIcDonald.
During the school-year 1926-27 the High School of Commerce, Vancouver, won many special
awards, among which are :—
(1.) Typewriting Atvards.—Over 450 medals, certificates, gold pins, etc., from the Remington, Underwood, Royal, and L. C. Smith Companies, for proficiency and speed in typewriting.
One Remington typewriter for accuracy at sixty words per minute for fifteen minutes. Senior
Accuracy Championship for all of Canada, the student having written for thirty minutes at
sixty-six words per minute without a single error.
(2.) Shorthand Certificates.—Over 150 shorthand certificates issued by the Isaac Pitman
Company for speeds up to 150 words per minute. In these tests the examiners are outside
people acceptable to the Isaac Pitman Company and the papers are set by Pitman examiners.
(3.) Dominion Civil Service Certificates.—Twenty students passed the Dominion Civil
Service Stenographers' Examinations, one winning third place in all Canada. Alost of these
young people are now employed in Dominion Government ©ffices.
(4.) Provincial Civil Service Examinations.—Fifteen students passed the Provincial Civil
Service Stenographers' Examinations, one winning second place in British Columbia. In both
the Dominion and Provincial examinations the age-limit prevents many of our best students
from writing.
(5.) First-class Certificates for Wireless Operators.—Eight young men passed the Federal
Wireless Examinations, many of whom are now employed in that work. One young man after
eight months of study passed the highest in Canada.
(6.) Where our Students are employed.—During the past eight years over 2,000 of our
graduates have gone directly from our class-rooms into local business offices as accountants,
secretaries, stenographers, etc. Alany of these are now holding highly paid positions with the
firms with which they are employed. In the 1927 typing competition conducted by the United Typewriter Company in Victoria,
thirty-three high-school typists entered for the Senior and Intermediate- classes, but there were
no entries for the Novice class.
In the final official report from Toronto ten of these contestants received standing in the
Senior and one obtained the accuracy prize by writing 68.8 words per minute for half an hour
with only eight errors. In the Intermediate class six contestants received standing and one was
the runner-up for the speed prize and wrote 55.9 words per minute for fifteen minutes with
twelve errors.
When one considers that there were sixty-nine A'ictoria entrants in all three classes, one
must admit that the standard of typewriting in Victoria High School must be highly satisfactory
and that it merits public confidence; in fact, the high school commercial work in British
Columbia conducted under the direction of the Department of Education is excellent in character.
The teachers are well trained for their positions and the results are meeting the demands of
those who require office assistants.
Even the smaller high schools have their list of honours. Alagee High School, Point Grey,
for instance, obtained certificates, bronze, silver, and gold awards from the various typewriter
companies. Nine students passed directly from school into the Provincial and Dominion Civil
Service, and in the Dominion examination Miss Alice Dearden secured fifth place in all Canada.
While the high school commercial course is of three years' duration, it might be advisable to
provide a one-year intensive course for those who must, through economic reasons, become wage-
earners as soon as possible. From such a number there would surely be a fair number encouraged by success to carry on for a second year. At all events, the only way a one-year course
can be obtained at present is at private business schools set up to supply a pronounced demand
from the people, and those who cannot afford to attend more than one year at high school are
the very people who most require educational assistance.
Commercial courses are an important part of the technical education programme because
of the extensive nature of the work of warehousing and merchandizing. More people are at
present engaged in this line of activity than in manufacturing, and with the awakening of the
Orient and the settlement of Russia distributing warehouses will increase rapidly on the Pacific
Coast. We must guard, however, against the claim that has been made by some teachers that
the French language should become obligatory in the commercial course. In South Vancouver
the Board has taken this step and all commercial students are compelled to include French in
their course, notwithstanding the fact that there is no business need for it in British Columbia.
The same cannot be said of Chinese, Japanese, Russian, or Spanish, and the commercial importance of these languages is recognized on the Pacific Coast. The need for them will become
greater with the years and their commercial importance will increase with the growth of
trading facilities. •
The total sum expended on day technical courses, July 1st, 1926, to June 30th, 1927, was
867,835.57, of which sum 50 per cent, was reimbursed by a grant from the Dominion Government.
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
Night-schools were conducted in thirty-nine cities, municipalities, and rural districts in the
Province, with an attendance of 5.176 students.    The distribution of classes was as follows:—
Cities of the first, second, and third class: Chilliwack, 12; Courtenay, 28: Kelowna, 38;
Ladysmith, 39 ; Nanaimo, 71: Nelson, 53 ; New Westminster, 459 ; Port Coquitlam, 17; Prince
George, 28 ;  Trail, 24 ;   Vancouver, 2,713;   Victoria, 842.
Rural municipalities : Burnaby, 405 ; Chilliwack, 21; Esquimalt, 15 ; Kent, 34; Langley,
12; Maple Ridge, 111; Penticton, 30: Saanich, 70; Summerland, 43 ; Surrey, 49; North Vancouver, 56;   South Vancouver, 576;   West Vancouver, 40.
Rural districts : Brilliant, 12; Britannia Beach, 32 ; Britannia Alines, 44; Coal Creek, 15;
Granby Bay, 58; Greenslide, 13 ; Kimberley, 20 ; Aialcolm Island, 25 ; Alichel, 28; Ocean Falls,
223 ;  Powell River, 52 ;   Qualicum, 25;   Spencer, 14;   Tsolum, 19.
The undermentioned subjects were included in the night-school courses: English, English
for foreigners, subjects for Civil Service examinations, subjects for pharmaceutical examinations,
subjects for junior matriculation, citizenship and economics, mathematics, mechanics, physics,
machine construction and drawing, pattern-making, forging, machinists' work, steam engineering,
automotive ignition system, magnetism and electricity, electrical engineering, chemistry, metallurgy, coal-mining, building construction, carpentry and joinery, architectural design, estimating. navigation, forestry, paper-making, printing, commercial English, typewriting, stenography,
accounting (elementary and advanced), commercial languages (i.e., Spanish, Russian, Japanese,
Chinese, French), salesmanship, drawing and design, modelling, metal repousse, wood-carving,
embroidery, pottery, china-painting, show-card writing, dressmaking, millinery, costume-designing, laundering, bread-baking, canning, cookery, music (instrumental and choral), elocution, and
public speaking.
It is becoming more and more important that courses of work be drawn up for night-school
instructors; not that such courses should be adhered to in their entirety, but in order that
instructors may have a guide in arranging their subject-matter for effective teaching. This step
was unanimously agreed to at a recent conference held at Calgary of representatives of the four
Western Provinces of the Dominion. Each Provincial representative agreed to compile four
courses, and Alanitoba has already forwarded one course in electricity and one in forge-shop
practice. British Columbia has almost completed a course in building construction, furniture
design for cabinetmakers, sheet-metal work, and machine-shop practice. The desire to provide
complete courses for junior high school at the commencement of the school-year prevented the
completion of the night-school courses in this Province, but during the coming year we hope to
keep up the pressure and have on hand as fine a supply of technical material for night-schools
as can be obtained anywhere.
It has been gratifying to be of service to the members of Women's Institutes through assisting them to conduct educational work at night-schools. The teaching courses referred to would
be invaluable to Women's Institutes, for they are often compelled to engage instructors who have
little teaching experience and no teaching devices or equipment ready for the work they
undertake.
The splendid foundational work of the Apprenticeship Council of the Building Trades
Association should not be overlooked. Although expansion has been retarded owing to labour
trouble, yet in the near future there will be considerable expansion. The carpenters were the
first group to work with the council, but the sheet-metal workers, painters, plumbers, and
plasterers will soon take the final step. When the technical or vocational school in Vancouver is
erected and the workshops are being operated, then the Building Trades Association will have
an educational centre to place their indentured apprentices for that technical training which is
necessary to supplement the work in which they are engaged during the day.
The total expenditure on night-schools from July 1st, 1926, to June 30th, 1927, was
$30,447.05, and the Province obtained a Dominion grant of 50 per cent, of this sum.
TEACHER-TRAINING   IN   PREPARATION   FOR   POSITIONS   IN   TECHNICAL
SCHOOLS, JUNIOR HIGH  SCHOOLS, A1ANUAL TRAINING
SCHOOLS, AND COMMERCIAL SCHOOLS.
It is gratifying to report on the complete success of the system of teacher-training which
was begun some years ago in the Vancouver Technical School and to have the work highly
commended by the Dominion Director of Technical Education. It has been the custom as far as
possible to graduate instructors for technical schools from the ranks of those manual instructors
who previous to their entering the teaching profession had been craftsmen. As long as we can
continue to do this there need be no fear for the success of technical education, for the instructors are both expert craftsmen and teachers. It was also extremely satisfactory to be
found prepared for the educational advancement in junior high schools and to have instructors
well trained in industrial arts.
Thirty members were enrolled in these classes, some of whom were normal-trained schoolmasters and some craftsmen. The instructors in charge of the classes have been educated in a
very exacting way as educational hand-workers and they are well experienced in teacher-training.
It would seem to be advisable to continue this work of teacher-training, for we were unable
to fill all the vacant positions this year, and as far as we know there are no qualified manual
instructors out of employment in British Columbia at the present time.
The training of first-class certificated teachers as instructors in commercial subjects is undertaken at Summer School in Vancouver and by a further correspondence system which links up
the Summer School courses and permits the members to continue their studies wherever they
may be teaching in the Province. For this correspondence service the student is charged $20,
while the Department pays a similar amount if the report from the instructor is satisfactory. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27. M 61
The system has provided the Department of Education with an adequate supply of commercial
teachers for all new positions, and as all qualified teachers are at present engaged, the training
class should be continued. The total sum spent on teacher-training for the year July 1st, 1926,
to June 30th, 1927, amounted to $3,923.18, of which the Dominion Government paid 50 per cent.
CORRESPONDENCE CLASSES.
Lessons on Elementally School Subjects to Pupils who live beyond the
Reach of School.
This work proceeds with great regularity and for the year 1926-27 the enrolment numbered
184 girls and 207 boys, or 391 pupils in all. The number of lessons corrected and dispatched in
this period was 3,689.
Since 1919, when the classes started, until 1927 the enrolment of pupils numbered 1,580.
The staff works diligently under obscure conditions, but the result of their labours reach the
furthermost corners of the Province. The arrival of the lessons must be an important incident
in the lives of the pupils and their parents and we have many expressions from them of their
appreciation. Nevertheless, there is an almost unavoidable monotony in the work of learning
by correspondence and the necessity arises of introducing brightness and variety into the studies
by sending forth supplementary lessons. This has been accomplished by sending to these homes
each month a copy of the little school magazine called " School Days," published in Vancouver.
The additional contact cannot fail to be a great boon and incentive to further effort. These
pioneer families require all the assistance which can be given them to compensate for the hardships and disadvantages of their lives.
While there are many disadvantages when children do not meet their fellows at school, while
the enthusiasm of numbers and competition is missing, and the education which comes from
social intercourse is lost, yet the pupils of the correspondence courses have some advantages,
which may be enumerated as follows :—
(a.)  Each child is in a class by itself;  the instruction therefore is more personal than
in a class at school.
(6.)  The pupil may go rapidly or slowly as time or ability will permit.    The slow pupil
is not hurried along to keep up with the rest of the class, nor is the fast pupil
retarded,
(c.)  If illness or any other cause compels a pupil to lay aside his studies for a time, he
may resume.where he left off when the cause of delay has been removed.    He does
not miss several lessons as he would if attending a regular school.
(d.)  Questions not understood are repeatedly explained until the difficulties are cleared
away, which is not always the case in the class-room.
Lessons in Coal-mining and AIine Surveying.
This work is conducted to prepare men for the examinations demanded by the Department
of Mines in the interest of public safety.
The courses embrace the following:—
No. 1. Preparatory mining course for boys over 15 years of age who have left school.
No. 2. Course in mathematics.
No. 3. Course for fireboss, shiftboss, shotlighter's papers  (third class).
No. 4. Course of overman's papers (second class).
No. 5. Course in mine-manager's papers.
No. 6. Course in mine-survey work.
For Course No. 1 the charge is $5 per section and for Course No. 2, $10.
These two courses form a fundamental preparation to an intelligent attack on Courses 3,
4, 5, and 6.    Children who complete their correspondence-work in elementary-school subjects
would be well advised to proceed to No. 1 preparatory mining course, as it will be found to be of
high-school standard and of excellent educational value.
The fees charged for Course No. 3 amount to $15; Course No. 4, $25; Course No. 5, $35;
and Course No. 6, $35.
The enrolment in the mining courses number 209, but the actual numbers who send in
lessons fluctuate with trade conditions. We should do well to extend the correspondence courses which we so happily began and
which are well established. There is very little reason, for instance, why we should not launch
boldly into the work so ably conducted in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba, and
Alberta. We have now the courses and machinery for taking students in commercial subjects
such as book-keeping, typewriting, and stenography. We are nearly prepared to give electricity,
carpentry and joinery, sheet-metal work, drawing and design. In fact, an opportunity might
well be given students to prepare for all examinations demanded by the Provincial Government
for stationary engineers, electricians, etc.
The establishment of these correspondence or home-study courses would give the Department
of Education the teaching material and equipment necessary to give instruction in some high-
school branches to pupils living in sparsely populated districts where it is impossible to expect
superior schools. Moreover, it will make possible the introduction of the " Benton Harbour "
scheme, whereby the scope of work in small high schools may be broadened and an almost
unlimited range of studies may be taken by correspondence. The lessons, however, would be
supervised during school-hours by the high-school teacher, thus eliminating the most objectionable feature of correspondence-work. Any high school can introduce the system regardless of
size.
At Benton Harbour twenty-two different courses are offered, in some of which only one
student is enrolled. With the exception of two courses, there is not a sufficient number registered
for any one of the courses to justify hiring teachers for them. It seems obvious from this that
the correspondence plan is not designed to take the place of or to conflict with the regular high-
school work, but rather to supplement it with such material and subjects as cannot profitably
be offered because of the small number electing them. One of the most interesting features of
the plan is its range of influence. Out of the ninety-one students taking courses, seventy were
regular high-school students, while the remainder were drawn from various walks of life.
The total cost of the correspondence-work of the Province from July 1st, 1926, to June 30th,
1927, was $4,373.35, 50 per cent, of which was met by a grant from the Dominion Government.
EXPENDITURE.
The total expenditure from July 1st, 1926, to June 30th, 1927, on day technical classes,
night-schools, teacher-training for technical and commercial work, correspondence or home-study
courses, and expenses of administration amounted to $113,361.85, and of that sum $56,680.43 was
paid as a grant from the Dominion.
According to the latest report from the Dominion Director of Technical Education, the
Province of British Columbia, while ranking fifth for the cost of administration, stands second
in the Dominion for the number of day technical classes, second for the number of night-schools,
third for the total number of pupils, and second for the work of teacher-training. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27. Al 63
TECHNICAL EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS.
REPORT OF A1ISS JESSIE McLENAGHEN, B.Sc, DIRECTOR.
Classes in both elementary and high schools were conducted in the following cities : Armstrong, Chilliwack, Courtenay, Cumberland, Kelowna, Nanaimo, New AVestminster, Port Moody,
Prince Rupert, Vancouver, North Vancouver, and Vernon. Similar classes were also held in the
following municipalities: Penticton, Point Grey, and South Vancouver, and in the Rural District
of loco. Classes in elementary schools only were held in the- City of Victoria and in the
Municipalities of Burnaby and Esquimalt.
The development during the year is shown in the opening of new centres at Courtenay,
Cumberland, and loco in February. Fernie and West Vancouver have completed plans for
opening new departments with the beginning of the fall term, while Vancouver City has introduced well-organized departments in both the junior high schools. Point Grey has plans complete for adding two additional teachers in September, leaving the supervisor free from the
class-room. The centre at Rutland closed owing to the fact that the teacher's full time was
required at Kelowna.'
The following is a summary of the statistics from these centres:—
Number of home-economics centres       57
Number of home-economics teachers (including   supervisors)        59
Number of high-school pupils attending  2,131
Number of public-school pupils attending :  9,298
Home economics as presented in the schools during the past year has been varied both in
content and in method of presentation. Generally speaking, it is first introduced as clothing in
Grade VI. and is taught either by the grade-teacher, under a supervisor, or by a home-economics
specialist. This work throughout the Province has been confined to hand-sewing, so that the
number and the type of problems selected have been limited. The choice was not always determined by the interest of the child, but more directly because it served as means of teaching certain
stitches which it was deemed advisable that the students should know. Where larger articles
were selected, the limitation to hand-sewing resulted in these problems stretching over a period
so drawn out as to result in weariness and general lack of interest on the part of the child. It is
no longer considered essential that a class have complete control of all hand processes before
machine-sewing is introduced. The relative simplicity of machine technique makes it possible
for a girl to start early on garment-construction. This means not only an increase in the
practical value of the course, but also an increase in the number of problem-solving situations
that can be developed.
Through experiments conducted this year we have convinced those in doubt of the advisability of introducing machine-sewing in Grade VI. classes. In each instance it has resulted
in a decided increase in interest and in greater pride in achievement. The " cut" shows a
Grade VI. class taught by Aliss Ella Smith, Kitsilano Public School, Vancouver. Each girl
made a gingham dress at a cost of less than $1. This introduction of machine-sewing in the
grades necessitates additional expenditure for machines, but it is an expenditure which pays
good returns.
In Grades VII. and VIII. the programme has been more varied, but it has been largely
confined to cooking and sewing. An attempt was made in many instances to broaden out the
course to include more than mere technical processes. A study of materials from the standpoint of suitability of colour, texture, durability, and cost was introduced effectively by several
teachers. Originality of design was encouraged. However, in several instances garment-
construction was not introduced at all in the elementary grades.
In the food-work in the grades an effort has been made to develop a broader understanding
of foods beyond the mere development of technique. The logical procedure—i.e., the preparation
of carbohydrate foods, protein foods, etc.—has been displaced gradually by the psychological,
in which each dish is prepared because of its relation to a definite meal. Greater attention has
been given to actual meal preparation, but this branch of the work can yet be extended. The
preparation of individual quantities of foods is gradually being replaced by the preparation of M 64 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
family quantities, but as this change necessitates new equipment, larger in size, and demands a
market for the products, it is necessary that we " make haste slowly."
Teachers have been encouraged, when possible, to teach by experiment new underlying
principles in food-study. This method stimulates inquiry and encourages investigation. Home
practice-work has been slightly encouraged, but this phase of the work is yet in need of more
thorough attention. Both parents and teachers must realize that constant practice is essential
for efficiency and that the home is the natural laboratory for that practice. The display of
unsupervised problems made by some of the schools is worthy of consideration by those not yet
interested.
Unfortunately, many teachers have been handicapped owing to the loss of time in the classroom due to the necessity of copying notes and recipes from the board. This difficulty has been
eliminated by the publication by this Department of a recipe-book for the use of elementary and
junior high-school classes, which is to be sold to the pupils at a cost of 25 cents. It is to be
hoped that this book will not only save time in the class-room for more valuable work, but that
it will also be a means of stimulating greater effort in home practice. By its very entrance into
the home it should help to secure the interest and co-operation of the parents—something
absolutely vital to the success of any home-economics programme.
Nutrition-work is gradually receiving greater emphasis. The teaching of facts in nutrition
is not sufficient; the only real benefit received is that which results in changed habits in the
lives of the children. A definite check is necessary, and to facilitate this the Department of
Education, with the co-operation of the Department of Health, has provided for the use of the
home-economics classes the Baldwin-Wood Height-Weight Chart. It is fully recognized that
weight for height and age is not the only factor to be considered in determining a child's
physical condition, but that when used in conjunction with the diagnosis of the school doctor or
nurse it proves a great stimulus to general health improvement.
The work in the high schools in the Province varies greatly. Only three high schools are
giving the special course in home economics which extends over three years—namely, King
Edward High School, Vancouver; T. J. Trapp Technical School, New Westminster; and Magee
High School, Point Grey. The heaviness of the course, together with the general desire for
matriculation, bars many students from electing home economics. Four students this year have
taken the home economics course combined with the matriculation course, extending it over a
period of four years. When home economics is placed on the curriculum as an elective science
many of the difficulties which have to be faced will be eliminated. In most instances home
economies in the high school is given as a two-year general course. In some cases clothing alone
is offered. The time allowed is frequently very limited, but the achievement is in proportion to
the time allotted.
School libraries have been strikingly lacking in reference-books on home economics. It is
apparent that a cook-book and a book on simple stitches were considered all sufficient. School
Boards have responded most generously to an appeal for the most essential books, and I hope
gradually to see each centre well equipped. A beginning has been made toward placing books
in the hands of the students. " Foods—Preparation and Serving," by Bailey; " The Mary
Brooks Picken Method of Modern Dressmaking "; and " Human Physiology," by Ritchie, have
been authorized as text-books for senior high-school classes. I hope the time is not far distant
when students of home economics will be sufficiently independent to get a great deal of information from the printed page as is done by students of other academic subjects. Too long have
teachers been satisfied to " pour in " the desired information. Many students have already been
encouraged to begin a home economics library of their own, made up largely of clippings from
current magazines and free bulletins. Greater use of illustrative material is encouraged
generally. Public exhibits of work have been given generally throughout the Province for the
benefit of the public. In the majority of cases the exhibits were a credit to the teacher.
Costumes, together with proper accessories, exhibited on the person for whom intended, are of
much greater interest than those exhibited on hangers and made available for close inspection.
This method of display will be more generally adopted in another year.
Efforts were made to stimulate interest in the newer ideas in home-economics education
and to broadcast the best ideas of the various teachers by providing for class-room visiting, by
the publication of a news-letter in February, by the circulation of books from the home economics
library, and by the visits of the Director of Home Economics to each centre. The convention at
Easter offered an opportunity for open discussion of problems and the attendance and enthusiasm BBWtHlfflHIiniiiBi'  :'
'♦Si"****'1
i'v
mm
J\ _->/:.J|
dressmaking class (school for the deaf and the bund, point grey).
PUPILS OF MISS ELLA SMITH, K1TSILAN0 PUBLIC  SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.     EACH GRADE VI   PUPIL
HAS MADE A GINGHAM DRESS FOR HERSELF AT A COST OF LESS THAN $1.  were gratifying. Courses in home economics, for which credit is given at Columbia University,
were provided for at the Summer School. Almost 50 per cent, of the home-economics teaching
body in the Province attended, indicating that, generally speaking, the teachers are eager for
opportunities for self-improvement.
Owing to the lack of uniformity in the work offered throughout the Province it was deemed
advisable to call together a committee of leading home-economics teachers to redraft the course
of study. This committee met in Vancouver in February, and as a result a new public school
course and general high school course were outlined in considerable detail and the special course
for high schools was brought up to date. Later in the year a second committee drew up a
suggested programme for junior high schools. In each instance these courses are to act merely
as a guide to the teacher and should be adapted to the special needs of the community.
The work in the Provincial Normal Schools presents considerable contrast. In the Victoria
Normal the work is ably conducted by an efficiently trained specialist. The aim of the work is,
first, to give the teachers-in-training an appreciation and knowledge of the subject which would
enrich their lives and enable them to be intelligent regarding the relation of nutrition to health.
Second, to give training in such phases of the work as can be taught by the grade-teacher in a
rural or urban school where it is not possible to secure the services of a specialist. Special
emphasis is laid on industrial arts, noon lunch, elementary sewing, and nutrition. The final
exhibit made at the close of the term indicated the breadth of the interest stimulated. In the
Vancouver Normal, home economics does not appear on the course of study as such and no
specialist is engaged. A little elementary sewing and nutrition is taught by interested members
of the Faculty, but no unity is given to the programme.
The outlook for home economics in the future appears more promising. The interest of the
general public has been greatly stimulated. Trustees are more interested in the type of work
presented and are demanding better-trained teachers. It is interesting to note that out of
seventeen new instructors appointed this summer, fourteen had secured their B.S. degree in home
economics from recognized universities. This in itself spells success. No subject can reach its
maximum efficiency without the best teachers. The Alargaret Sayward Bursary of $100, presented by the Women's University Club, Arictoria, this year, is a stimulus to girls to take a
university course in home economics. AI 66
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1920-27.
ELEMENTARY AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF J. W. GIBSON, ALA., B.PAED, DIRECTOR.
Aly duties as Acting-Principal of the Victoria Normal School during the past year made it
impossible for me to give much time to the work of organization or inspection of agricultural
instruction throughout the Province. Regular instruction in agriculture was begun in the
Courtenay High School and satisfactory work accomplished under the new instructor, Mr. H. L.
Buckley, B.S.A. The high schools now offering instruction in agriculture, the instructors, and
the number of students enrolled during the year are as follows:—
School.
Instructor.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
Chilliwack	
F. J. Wetland, B.S.A.
33
20
25
17
14
30
17
f
\      100
67
30
22
50
26
29
23
99
100
H. L. Buckley, B.S.A  ..-..
,T. E. Britton, B.S.A	
A. M. McDermott, B.S.A 	
V. B. Robinson, B.S.A.....	
W. H. Grant, B.S.A	
50
47
67
40
59
II. 0. English, B.A., B.S.A	
G. V. Van Tausk, M.A., B.Sc.   .
40
Victoria	
199
Totals	
256
346
602
Whilst these instructors are technically qualified as specialists in science and agriculture,
they are usually called upon to teach other high-school subjects as well. Perhaps the chief
danger from the standpoint of efficiency of instruction in agriculture, or other science subjects,
lies in the fact that the time of these instructors is too completely occupied in class-room
instruction. If the teaching of agriculture is to be saved from the barrenness and futility of
mere book-learning and lecture-work it must include a great deal of field and laboratory study.
In order to reach its maximum value the study must maintain vital contact with the practical
agricultural problems of the Province and of the local community. For this reason, if an
instructor is to do justice to the subject, he must have a reasonable amount of school-time free
for the planning and preparation of excursions, for garden-work, and for laboratory experimentation. This is a matter which every science-teacher appreciates and which every high-
school principal should carefully consider in the allotment of class periods.
AGRICULTURAL INSTRUCTION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
During the last three years no special inducement has been offered to teachers in elementary
schools towards the conducting of practical work in elementary agriculture and no special
reports from teachers have been called for. For this reason accurate information relative to the
character and extent of the work done is not available. Alany teachers conduct practical work
in gardening and other agricultural projects as a matter of improved method and without
reporting it officially. Grants are allowed towards operating expenses of these projects only
when 50 per cent, or more of the pupils enrolled in the division take part in the work and when
application for recognition is made through the School Board. During the past year grants of
this character were paid out to the following School Boards on work done in thirty different
schools: Grand Forks, Lazo, North Arancouver Alunicipality, New Westminster, Salmon Arm
City and Alunicipality, Spring-house, Summerland, Surrey, and Victoria. A few schools maintain
very creditable school-gardens and turn them to valuable educational use, but in too many cases
demonstration-work in school-gardens has been completely abandoned. Grants to School Boards
to meet one-half the cost of operating school-gardens are still available, but only a few continue
to qualify for these grants. There is nothing compulsory about it, and unless the teachers themselves believe in the educational advantages to be gained and take the lead school trustees can
hardly be expected to do very much. In some cases local organizations such as Women's
Institutes,  Parent-Teacher and  community  associations  have  sponsored  the  work  and  have PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 192G-27. Al 67
rendered highly efficient service. Although the project method of instruction, that so many
teachers profess to believe in and which some are following with a fair measure of success,
really began in connection with school and home gardens and other forms of direct agricultural
instruction, it has come to be applied more of late to other subjects of the curriculum where
various forms of manual construction can be utilized.
HOA1E-GARDEN CLUBS AND SCHOOL FAIRS.
Home or out-of-school projects in gardening are being followed successfully in a number of
districts and are steadily gaining in favour. During the past year some very successful home-
garden clubs were reported from the districts already mentioned. As a further encouragement
to home-project work and as a stimulus to all departments of school-work the holding of school
fairs is encouraged and special grants allowed. A school fair may be held separately or in
conjunction with a regular district or agricultural fair. This public exhibition of children's
work helps to give them a greater interest in their own school achievement. It has an additional
value in that it helps to place before the parents and the public generally tangible evidence pertaining to the character and excellence of the work accomplished in the schools of the districts
represented. The school fair is held under the auspices of the School Boards concerned or of
some local organization approved by them. Alost agricultural fairs have children's sections and
find them advantageous as added attractions. During the past year grants, were paid to school
fairs held at Ashcroft, Burns Lake, Chilliwack, Fort Langley, Grand Forks, Lazo, Lynn Valley,
Rolla, Salmon Arm, Surrey, and Valdes Island. Some of the larger fairs also include competitions for boys and girls of school age in the judging of fruit, field crops, poultry, and live stock.
The management of the A'ancouver Fair and of the Provincial Fair at New Westminster give
special inducement to junior judging teams from all parts of the Province by paying their railway transportation to the fair in addition to the giving of valuable prizes. Valuable trophies
for annual competition have been provided by the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association,
the British Columbia Poultrymen's Association, and the British Columbia Agronomists' Association. To show how widespread the interest in these competitions has become some of the awards
recently made at the Provincial Fair at New Westminster are given. In the judging of five
classes of live stock the team from Ladner came first, one from Natal second, and one from
Golden third. In the judging of poultry the team from Natal came first, with New Westminster
second. In the judging of field crops the team from Kelowna came first, Ladner second, Golden
third. Natal fourth, New Westminster fifth, and Prince George sixth, whilst the highest individual- was from Richmond. In former years teams from other Interior points, such- as
Chilliwack, Kamloops, Langley, Summerland, Penticton, Cranbrook, Salmon Arm, Armstrong,
Alerritt, and Peace River, have participated. In every case the boys and girls composing these
teams are specially trained by volunteer coaches, who usually organize classes locally and select
three of the best to represent their respective districts. It is a noteworthy fact that not Infrequently the girls have outdistanced the boys in these judging competitions. Much remains to be
done towards the better organization of suitable junior agricultural clubs and judging-work
throughout the Province, much of which could be linked up with agricultural instruction in high
and superior schools.
IMPROVEMENT IN  SCHOOL-GROUNDS.
Some progress is being made in the improvement of school-grounds in different parts of the
Province, and although it takes years to make a really good school-ground, there is a constantly
growing number of such grounds in the Province. Some rural districts are surpassing the cities
in this matter. The aesthetic value of good school buildings and grounds, as well as their
practical utility, is more and more coming to be recognized. " School-houses are not only the
temples we erect to the god of childhood," said Dr. Claxton, late Commissioner of Education for
the United States, " they are also the homes of our children for a large part of the day through
the most plastic years of their lives, the years in which they are most responsive to impressions
of beauty or of ugliness and when their environment is, therefore, most important." This is
also true, of course, of the school-grounds. The establishing of a Provincial Schools Nursery has
already meant a great deal to the schools of British Columbia, and if adequately maintained
will help to place the Province in the enviable position of having the best-kept school-grounds
in Canada. Yet there are School Boards that are negligent in this matter and that need to be
constantly urged to make even the most necessary improvements.    The education of school- Al 68 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
children is no longer confined to the class-room. The whole school plant is involved in their
training and development. For this reason certain standards in school-grounds and equipment
should be insisted on. Satisfactory school-sites should be assured, for instance, before Government grants are paid towards the cost of school buildings or before plans of buildings are
approved. Mistakes in the selecting of school-sites, and also in the locating of school buildings
on school-sites, are often as irremediable as they are expensive, and the time has come when the
services of a trained specialist in modern school administration as relating to both rural and
urban schools, one thoroughly conversant with modern school requirements and practices, should
be made available. Indeed, modern educational procedure calls for the services of the specialist
at every step in the interests of economy as well of educational efficiency.
The school of the future, whether in city or country districts, must be built to suit the work
which is to be conducted in it, and the school programme is changing—has already changed.
Our best rural districts are making real progress in improved school accommodation. One of the
most modern school buildings in the Province is the Delta Central School, opened last month at
Ladner. It is located at the south side of the village and opened in September, 1927, and is one
of the most modern school buildings in British Columbia. The exterior of the building is stucco
laid on hollow tile; the roofing is an asbestos base covered with crushed red slate; the furnace-
room is lined with asbestos and sheet metal, so that the building is almost fire-proof.
The lower floor is on a level with the ground-line, so that there is no excavated basement,
a very desirable feature in most school buildings, as the rooms on that floor can then be constructed and lighted as well as any others in the building. The entrance to the lower floor is by
a doorway at either end of the building, and leading to a long, well-lighted corridor, on one side
of which are four excellent class-rooms and on the other the play-rooms, one in each wing, well
lighted and heated and with concrete floors, rough walls, and ceiling. Leading from each playroom on one side is an entrance to toilets and on the other an entrance to a well-lighted and
heated lunch-room, which is provided with tables and benches. Situated in the centre between
the two play-rooms on this ground floor is the furnace-room, with its two cross-connected hot-
water furnaces, heated by an automatic oil-heating system, a clock-switch lighting the Are in the
morning and turning it off in the evening, while a thermostatic control regulates the temperature
of the entire building.    The electric motor and ventilating-fan are also located here.
On the upper floor there is also a central corridor with four.large class-rooms on the front
of the building corresponding to those on the ground floor below. On the opposite side of this
corridor and in the centre of the building is the entrance to the auditorium or assembly-hall,
which extends back to the rear of the building and is capable of seating 250 people. The
entrance to the auditorium communicates by a stairway with the front entrance of the building
and at the opposite end are two fire-escapes (see cut on opposite page). The principal's office
is located on one side of the entrance to the auditorium and the teachers' room on the other.
Off this upper corridor there are also two class-rooms, one in either wing and immediately above
the two play-rooms. All class-rooms are well lighted, each having five large windows on the
pupils' left and reaching almost to the ceiling. The blackboards are of Sterling slate, which is
next best to real slate. The wardrobes take very little additional room, being located in the
walls at the back of each class-room. A partition comes down from the ceiling to within 7 feet
of the floor, and this 7-foot section in covered while the classes are in session by pulling down
solid, weighted shutters, the fronts of which are used as pinning-boards or as additional blackboards. An opening is left at the bottom of each shutter, through which warm air, drawn by the
fan ventilating system, ascends and dries any damp clothing as it passes out into ventilating-flues
in the walls above. The building is well placed in a good ground containing between 4 and 5
acres, and ample provision has been made for a sports-field, for recreation-grounds for girls,
and for lawns and decorative planting.
I am indebted to Air. G. H. Campbell, principal of the school, for much of the above information, and to Air. Taylor, of the Ladner Studio, for the photographs from which the accompanying
cuts were made.
Twentieth-century education, both in theory and practice, is radically different from that
of the nineteenth and calls for different equipment. Every means for safeguarding the health
of teachers and school-children, for promoting educational growth and social adaptability, and
for bringing young people to an intelligent appreciation of the leading vocations of the people
should be made use of in both city and country.    They must be given a chance to engage in more [
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EXTREME  varied activities than in the past. The day of the single class-room, with its stationary un-
adjustable desks, blackboard, and a teacher's table as the sole working equipment, has passed.
Besides the regular class-room, the improved one-teacher school now includes a small library-
room, which may also serve as a teacher's room, a work-room for boys or girls, or for both, and
a lunch-room provided with a stove where the hot noonday lunch can be prepared. As has been
stated, the school is really the child's home during a large part of the day and should provide
good living conditions as well as facilities for both work and play. The old-fashioned school
does not do this and our modern society must see to it that the school of the future will not
impose any unnecessary handicaps to the fullest and best development of children. The school-
life of the child must be an ever-abounding life—life at its best at progressive stages, physically,
intellectually, aesthetically, morally, and socially; and the whole school plant—rooms, grounds,
and equipment—must be made applicable and adequate to his growing needs.
Agricultural education is of value in both city and country, but the challenge of the country
demands more than mere instruction in things agricultural; it calls for equal educational opportunity for its future citizens, and that can be brought about only through sane educational
reorganization. M 70 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
SUMMER SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., DIRECTOR.
The Provincial Summer School for Teachers was held in Victoria from July 4th to August
5th, 1927. The school consisted of a student body of 364, together with a staff of thirty-four
instructors. A Demonstration School was also organized, having 230 pupils and a staff of nine
instructors.    The courses offered and the number enrolled in each are enumerated below:—
Nature-study       22
Social Science _       6
Physical Training     13
Health     14
Folk-dancing _     68
Primary Grade     94
Arocal Music     38
Choral Singing  ..._     69
Music Supervisors' Course     17
Art Courses (including Applied Art)      98
English Literature and Expressional Reading     45
Home Economics, Clothing, Nutrition, and Elementary Sewing     33
History       41
Geography  _     52
Penmanship  :     75
Alanual Training  '     27
Demonstration School    230
Of the number in attendance, 310 were women and 54 men. A further classification may be
made as follows :—
From cities in British Columbia  108
From rural municipalities  89
From rural and assisted schools   84
Unclassified and without schools  65
From points outside of British Columbia  18
Total  364
Among the instructors were Dr. H. M. Leppard, University of Chicago, and Miss Lillian
Locke, Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York. The former gave lectures in the
subject of geography and the latter in the subject of clothing.
COURSES OF STUDY, WITH THEIR CONTENT AND AIM.
Health Education.—The aims of this course may be briefly stated as giving teachers the
knowledge which will enable them to instruct children and parents to conserve and improve their
health and to establish right habits and principles of living in order that abundant vigour and
vitality may be assured. The subject-matter was thoroughly checked by Dr. H. W. Hill, Head of
the Department of Nursing and Health at the University of British Columbia, and by Dr. Young,
Provincial Department of Public Health. In accordance with this idea the work was divided
into three parts: (a) The Child Health Programme, embracing first-aid, home-nursing, and a
study of preventive measures; (b) folk-dancing, physical exercises, and playground games;
(c) aquatics. An important part of the health programme was the folk-dancing. Here could
be seen exercise, co-ordinate muscular action, and recreative mental stimulus at its 'best. The
lessons proved conclusively that nothing could be more wholesome, lovely, and conducive to
perfect physical well-being than folk-dancing.
Physical Training.—Physical education was attacked from a slightly different angle this
year, postural training being the key-note of both theoretical and practical work. Stress was
laid upon preventive exercises to combat common school deformities which handicap children in
their fight for good health.    In addition to this, Swedish exercises, club, and general gymnastics PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27. AI 71
performed to music were undertaken each day. A class in swimming and life-saving met
regularly at the Crystal Gardens and a number of teachers passed the test for the certificate and
bronze medallion of the Royal Life Saving Society, London, England.
Home Economics.—Under this head the course was divided into the following: (a) Clothing
and Nutrition Course for Elementary School Teachers and (6) Clothing Course for Teachers of
Home Economics. In the latter the aim was to stimulate rigid self-criticism on the part of the
individual teacher: First, of her own methods of .teaching this phase of home economics, and,
secondly, the content of the course as she is offering it. The subject was considered from two
angles—namely, appreciation and technique. In teaching appreciation the endeavour was to
arouse an interest to improve standards of dressing from the standpoint of beauty, practicability,
desirability, health, and economy.
Course in Teaching Methods and Manual Arts for Elementary School Teachers.—The students in this course obtained a survey of recent developments in educational theory and the
significant results of experimentation in the elementary field. The work was organized chiefly
around the common school subjects and an effort was made to interpret theoretical principles in
terms of method. Considerable attention was given to curriculum studies and the newer types
of school organization and class procedure. Observation in the Demonstration School was an
important feature of the course.
The object of the Manual Arts Course was to prepare teachers to handle successfully various
materials which will help them to develop self-expression, artistic taste, and manual dexterity
in their pupils. Teaching projects suitable for Grades I. to VI. were carefully planned, using
materials which are accessible to teachers. A special effort was made to correlate art, language,
reading, nature-study, and number-work.
Nature-study.—The purpose of this course was to give teachers a sympathetic understanding
of those natural phenomena with which the child comes into frequent contact. These were
mainly plant- and animal-life studies, though underlying principles and fundamental natural
laws were also treated. Discussions were engaged in regarding the life-histories and habits of
plants and animals commonly found in different parts of the Province where teachers work,
showing what lessons can be drawn from such studies and in what way the plants and animals
are of economic importance, thus providing teachers with subject material wherever they may be
located. In general the aim was to show the teachers what to teach, how to teach, and how to
obtain the necessary information.
English Literature.—An appreciation of the essential qualities of good literature was developed and applications showing the fundamental principles were studied. These were considered in relation to the teaching of poetry and prose selections.
Reading and Expression.—This subject should have been termed " The Foundations of
Expression." Exercises were undertaken to develop correct speech and right and enduring use
of the voice. No imitations, rules, nor conventional artificialities were allowed. An endeavour
was made to secure ease, precision, and harmony within themselves and to understand the
establishment of health, voice, and normal adjustment of body.
Vocal Music.—The work of this class included the subjects of voice-culture, sight-singing,
rhythmic work, the artistic interpretation of songs, as well as the study of the growth of music
from early times, and also the study of great composers with illustrations of their works; in
fact, it embraced the full vocal course as indicated in the Programme of Studies. Students were
thus enabled to obtain a comprehensive knowledge of the important subject of singing in schools,
of the requirements of the various grades, and also of becoming familiar with the New Music
Series recently prepared for the use of the schools in the Province.
Choral Singing.—This class dealt specifically with group singing of a more advanced type
and with the organization and conducting of the school choir. Emphasis was placed on imagination, picturization, atmosphere, word-painting, tone colour. A comprehensive programme of
songs suitable for school use was carefully selected.
Music Supervisors' Course.—Alore advanced training was undertaken in obtaining the finer
qualities of choral singing generally and interpretation particularly. The problems, aims, and
ideals of the music supervisor were discussed and much was accomplished to make music
beautiful, attractive, and inspirational.
Art Courses.—The First-year Art Course was primarily a refresher course and dealt entirely
with the public-school drawing and design. Blackboard-work, the teacher's best means of
illustration, formed an important part of the course.    The teachers were encouraged to work in M 72 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
various mediums to stress accuracy of observation in object-drawing and to develop an orderly
sense of arrangement and knowledge of colour-harmonies in design.
The Second-year Art Course dealt with high-school work, nature-studies in water-colour,
pastels, pen-and-ink, and still-life—groups of fruits, vegetables, etc.
The Third-year Course was arranged to suit those who wished to supplement the knowledge
of art and design gained in the First- and Second-year Courses. By outdoor sketching the students were enabled to see the harmonizing of colour in nature's great colour schemes. Such
points of interest as Beacon Hill Park, Alount Douglas Park, and the wharves were visited for
that purpose.    Figure-drawing, picture composition, and poster art were all studied.
In Applied Art stencilling was undertaken, block-printing, fabric design, posters, Christmas
cards, and cover designs for practical use. The arts of pottery-making and weaving were
featured. These crafts could be followed from the simple clay forms built by hand to the more
beautiful shapes thrown on the wheel. Glazing and firing were practised and a most complete
course from the crude clay to the perfected product was carried out. In a similar way wool-
weaving from simple cardboard looms made by children to the full-sized hand-loom was followed
and a complete demonstration of carding, spinning, and weaving was seen. The same idea could
be carried out in paper-making; from pulp to the complete book and in copper, silver, and gold.
Each of these deal with the natural resources of British Columbia and lend themselves to the
most recent ideas of teaching geograx>hy.
Art Appreciation lectures were regularly delivered on art and craft work from the earliest
periods to the present.
Social Science.—The Course in Social Science was designed to assist the members of the
group in acquiring greater familiarity with their social, political, and economic environments.
An organized training in appreciation of all phases of community life qualifies the teacher for
intelligent leadership in the school district. Aloreover, equipped with a broad understanding of
life—its ideals, its handicaps, its achievements, its failures—the teacher is enabled the better
to correlate all subjects in the Course of Study to every-day life and to become a wise counsellor
to the pupil not only in the economic problem of how to make a living, but in the wider field of
how to plan a well-ordered, useful, and happy life.
Geography.—The Course in Geography was given in the light of the most modern teaching
methods, for the nature of the subject has changed radically during recent years. The traditional study of rivers and mountains, the exports and imports, are grudgingly but surely giving
way to a study of human affairs in their relation to the natural environment. The purpose of
geography was described and explained, the relations between human activities on the one hand
and the natural scenes of such activities on the other; between man's travelling, playing, building, earning a living, and the natural environment of lake and river, forest and prairie, soil and
mineral, rain and sunshine. It was pointed out that with such an aim the geographic study of
British Columbia, for example, deals with what the people of the Province are doing or may do,
with how they are doing it, with where they are doing it, and emphatically with why they are
doing these things.
History.—The students taking the Course in History covered in brief review the main
periods of British history. Lessons in the Demonstration School on Roman Britain, Saxon
England, and Norman England were observed and large projects in flour, salt, and colour were
worked by the pupils to illustrate Roman roads, a Saxon village, and the manorial system.
Some of the main points in the colonization of North America were also dealt with during the
session and altogether a highly instructive course was given.
Penmanship.—The Penmanship Course gave teachers systematic daily practice in handwriting and a comprehensive course in the pedagogy of the subject. Emphasis was placed on
the ability to write legibly, rapidly, and beautifully. A few of the phases .of the subject which
were discussed were methods of developing and maintaining interest and enthusiasm among
pupils, socialization of the writing lessons, the use of standard scales and measurements.
Manual Training Courses.—These courses were held in Vancouver Technical School and the
students were composed of elementary-school manual-training instructors who were either preparing for the High School Alanual Training Certificate or preparing to teach in a Junior High
School. While most of the work was at the bench, yet each day a study and conference period
was held whereat works on educational psychology were studied. Amongst the various activities
of the men, courses of work in metal and electricity were prepared for the Junior High School. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27. M 73
Library.—The Victoria High School library was augmented by well over a thousand books
from other sources, the collection comprising the best material on every subject in the school
curriculum. Displays were made in the library of material for teaching these subjects and
exhibits from various publishing-houses were arranged. Pictures for art appreciation and as
aids to the teaching of history and geography were also on view and a most encouraging response
from the student body was the result.
Demonstration School.—This school, which was in charge of seven teachers, proved a great
boon to the Summer School students. Never before has such extensive use been made of the
class-rooms for observation, and each day classes of children were taken to a lecture-room set
aside for the purpose, where demonstration lessons were given in geography, history, English,
singing, etc. The good derived from these lessons was inestimable and praise was heard on all
hands from the student body. A manual-training centre was equipped in which projects were
carried out connected with history, geography, and other lessons. Singing, folk-dancing, and
organized school games were taught daily. Classes of children were organized in piano-playing
to prove the claim that lessons could be successfully given by the class method. This was ably
demonstrated by the instructor and the pupils made undoubted progress.
Concerts, Lectures, Sports, and Pastimes.—The weekly entertainments were opened by an
excellent dramatic recital by Mr. Harold Nelson Shaw, B.A., assisted by Mrs. Arthur Dowell and
Miss Dorothy Alorton as accompanist. Following this a song recital by Mr. Gideon Hicks and
Aliss Dorothy Letitia Hicks, with Mrs. Clifford Warn as accompanist, was much enjoyed. The
third week's concert was purely instrumental and in the form of a chamber music concert, with
Aliss Una Calvert at the piano, Miss Joy Calvert as violinist, and Miss Freda Setter at the
cello. Their repertoire captivated the audience. An instructive lecture was given by Aliss
Lillian Locke on '•' Principles of Good Dressing "; one on " Esperanto " by Airs. Alice Wicks;
and one on " The League of Nations " by Air. A. S. Averill.
Every Wednesday night the students met in the gymnasium in a social capacity, when
dancing was engaged in.
The school picnic was held at the Dominion Experimental Farm, Sidney, and we were much
' indebted to Mr. E. AL Straight and his assistant, Mr. E. R. Hall, for many favours which added
to the enjoyment of the party.    We were also indebted to Mr. I. W. Awde, Alanager of the
Crystal Gardens, for special season tickets, which made it possible for our students to visit and
enjoy regularly the salt-water bathing.
Tennis again proved alluring to a great body of teachers and competitions were keen and
full of good play. The following competitions were keenly contested: The ladies' doubles, mixed
doubles, men's singles, and ladies' singles.
The closing exercises of the pupils attending the Demonstration School were held in the
afternoon, and consisted of class singing, scenes from early pioneer life in the Province, a historical play, demonstration by the class in pianoforte-playing, folk-dancing, etc. The auditorium
and gymnasium were full to capacity.
A similar capacity audience gathered to see the closing exercises of the Summer School
students at night. The Vocal Music class provided the first part of the programme. The class
studying " Foundations of Expression " provided the second and the Choral and Music Supervisor's class provided the third part. The audience then dispersed to the gymnasium, where an
excellent colourful display of folk-dancing was witnessed.
The success of the Summer School and of these school functions was due to the wholehearted devotion of the staff and to the assistance of the various student committees, who were
always ready to render the necessary help. To the Board of School Trustees, who freely placed
the magnificent and commodious school at our disposal, and to the Alunicipal Inspector, School
Principal, and officials of the school, we owe our sincere thanks. M 74 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT. 1926-27.
FREE TEXT-BOOK BRANCH.
REPORT OF J. A. ANDERSON, OFFICER IN CHARGE.
The total number of free text-books, etc., issued during 1926-27 to the public schools
(elementary, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence Course for
children in isolated districts where there are no schools in operation, was as follows: 14,167
copies Canadian Reader, Book I.; 10,892 Canadian Reader, Book II.; 10,916 Canadian Reader,
Book III.; 11,341 Canadian Reader, Book IV.; 11,933 Canadian Reader, Book V.; 7,041
Narrative English Poems ; 10,746 First Arithmetic ; 10,329 Second Arithmetic ; 9,975 Gammell's
History of Canada; 10,187 Lang's Introductory Grammar; 1,352 How to be Healthy ; 2,980
Latin Lessons for Beginners; 15,108 Spelling for the Grades; 82 Trees and Shrubs, Food,
Medicinal, and Poisonous Plants of British Columbia; AlacLean Aiethod Writing Books—9,86S
Compendium No. 1; 9,724 Compendium No. 2; 10,266 Compendium No. 3; 12,441 Compendium
No. 4; 10,889 Senior Manual; 1,076 Commercial Manual; 327 Teachers' Alanual; 644 Supplementary Readers (Heart of Oak, Book One; Art-Literature Primer; Art-Literature, Book One;
Art-Literature, Book Two; Progressive Road to Reading, Book 3a ; Robin Hood Reader; B.C.
Phonic Primer; B.C. First Reader; B.C. Second Reader; B.C. Third Reader) ; 1,316 Citizenship
in B.C.; 69 Syllabus of Physical Exercises; 40,446 sheets Drawing Paper, 9 by 12 inches;
944,831 sheets Drawing Paper, 9 by 6 inches; 185 Union Jacks (3-yard Jack) ; 19 Flora of
Southern B.C.; 37 Alaps of the Dominion of Canada; 36 Maps of the World; 39 Maps of
British Columbia; 39 Maps of North America; 30 Alaps of the British Isles; 16 " Scrap of
Paper " ;  16 Fathers of Confederation ;  194 Teachers' Manual of Drawing and Design.
Two thousand nine hundred and nine requisitions were filled by this Branch during the past
school-year for free text-books and supplies. In addition to these, 1,230 orders were filled for
teachers and pupils from the outlying districts who wished to purchase text-books, other than the
ones supplied free, which could not be obtained in their vicinity, and for private institutions
desirous of purchasing books supplied free to the public schools. The sum of $5,549.04 was
received from this source and paid into the Treasury for the credit of Vote 81, " Text-books,
Maps, etc."
The supplies distributed free by the Free Text-book Branch during the school-year would
have cost the parents and School Boards $99,289.30 at prevailing retail prices. To purchase and
distribute these among the schools of the Province through the Free Text-book Branch required
an expenditure of $65,776.04, made up as follows:—
Text-books (laid-down cost)      $53,334.83
Distribution (freight, boxes, etc.)       2,895.33
Salaries of staff       4,406.76
Temporary assistance  748.50
Office supplies      4,390.62
Total      $65,776.04
The saving on the year's transaction to the school-children of the Province is, therefore,
$33,513.26.
Only one new text-book was added  to  those  on  the curriculum  during  the  school-year
1926-27.    This was Citizenship in B.C., and copies of it were placed in the various schools for
the use of the teachers in charge of Grades VII. and VIII. pupils.
During the past school-year the Free Text-book Branch was requested by several schools
to purchase library books for them.    These were dealt with and the books supplied at cost.    It
would be of great assistance in dealing with such requests if the teacher or secretary who
submits an order for library books would insert the name of the publisher after the title of
each book on the list.
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
Three of the night-schools in operation during the past school-year were supplied with textbooks of some kind by the Free Text-book Branch on the same conditions as in former years. RETURNS FOR 1926-27.
The annual reports of free text-books for the school-year 1926-27 are now on file, with one
or two exceptions. As in former years, these returns show that in some cases the teachers and
principals are not recording the number of books which they received from the Branch, nor are
they keeping an accurate record of the ones issued to the pupils. These records should be kept
in order, for the teacher or principal is expected to submit an accurate annual report at the
close of the school-year. M 76 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
THE STRATHCONA TRUST.
REPORT OF J. L. WATSON, B.A.,  SECRETARY, LOCAL COA1A1ITTEE.
INSTRUCTION OF TEACHERS IN PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1926-27.
A total of 303 students have qualified for Grade B physical-training certificates since last
report, as under:—
Normal School, Vancouver      173
Normal School, Victoria      123
Cadet Instructors' Course, Victoria  ,        7
The number of such certificates issued shows a decrease of 107 as compared with the number
issued in 1925-26. This decrease is due to the reduced number of students attending the Normal
Schools during the past year.
About 6,542 teachers and prospective teachers in this Province have now qualified as
physical-training instructors.
The gold medals awarded by the Local Committee at the close of the session in June last to
the student, at each of the Provincial Normal Schools, holding the first rank in instructional
ability in physical training were won by Miss Helen AlcGowan, Vancouver, and Miss Harriette
B. Harrison, Victoria. The Local Committee has arranged to make similar awards at the close
of the Normal School session in June, 1928.
PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1926-27.
The list of winners of Strathcona Trust prizes for excellence in physical training is as
follows:—
High Schools.
P. C. Tees and J. P. G. AlacLeod, King Edward High School, Vancouver; Aliss AL E. Gilley,
Duke of Connaught High School, New Westminster.
Graded Schools (Five Divisions or more).
Miss E. B. Murphy and S. J. Bryant, Cecil Rhodes School, Vancouver; Miss Elizabeth AL
Crake, Division 13, Prince of Wales School, Point Grey; Aliss AL A. Batcheler, Division 3,
Sexsmith School, W. H. W. Hardwick, Division 2, Van Home School, F. P. Lightbody, Division 2,
Gordon School, South Vancouver; Aliss A. AL Cameron, Division 6, Lister-Kelvin School, New
Westminster; B. Thorsteinsson, Division 3, Granby School, Anyox ; Miss Eliza Milligan, Division
8, Central School, Prince George; T. Aldworth, Division 1, Consolidated School, Armstrong;
Miss Lena Wolfenden, Division 1, Central School, Fernie; Airs. Sadie Marshall, Division 9,
Central School, Merritt; T. Prescott, Division 1, Central School, Salmon Arm; H. A. Eckardt,
Division 1, Central School, Alission; E. N. Longton, Division 1, Central School, Haney; Miss
Vivian J. Aspesy, Division 4, Central School, Cumberland; J. AL McLean, Division 7, Queen Mary
School, North Vancouver; Aliss Agnes E. Jerome, Division 5, Hume School, Nelson; Aliss
Donella Willing, Division 10, Lampson Street School, Esquimalt.
Small Graded Schools (Two to Four Divisions).
F. H. Johnston, Division 2, Douglas Road School, Burnaby; Miss Camille Peters, Division 4,
Kitsumgallum School, Terrace; Aliss Gertrude E. Alouat, Division 1, Fort George School; Mrs.
A. McClymount, Division 2, South Okanagan School; Howard Bowes, Division 2, Kaslo School;
Aliss Jessie Patterson, Division 1, Clinton School; Aliss Margaret AL Coton, Division 3, Craigflower School, Saanich; Miss Erica I. Gillam, Division 3, Alberni School; J. A. Stevenson,
"nivision 2, Millside School, Coquitlam; Aliss Alargaret V. Reisterer, Division 2, Salmo School;
Aliss Winnifred McGibbon, Division 3, Sooke Superior School.
Ungraded Schools.
Aliss Peggy C. Lucas, Annie Bay School;   Aliss H. Dragan, South Otter School, Langley;
A. J. AlcLuckie, Port Clements School; Noel G. Duclos, Bouchie Lake School;  F. Julian Willway, PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27. M 77
Stevenson Creek School; Earl Marriott, Alice Siding School; Miss Lillian B. Stevens, Duck
Range School; Miss E. L. Wilby, North Enderby School; Miss I. Dohlmann, Beaver Point School;
Douglas W. J. Noble, Kaleva School; Miss Elizabeth M. Page, Crescent Valley School; Miss
M. A. Brackett, Oyster School.
Three prizes of $10 each awarded to each of the seventeen inspectorates; amount expended
under this head, $450;   six prizes not awarded.
PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1927-28.
For competition among the various schools during 1927-28 the sum of $30 has been granted
to each of the seventeen inspectorates. This sum is to be divided into three prizes of $10 each.
For purposes of competition and inspection the schools are to be divided into three groups or
classes, namely : Group A, of five divisions or more; Group B, of two to four divisions, inclusive;
Group C, of schools containing only one room or division. In any inspectorate where this classification is found to be unsatisfactory the matter of dividing the schools into three groups or classes
for the purpose of awarding three prizes of equal value is to be left to the discretion of the
Inspector in charge.
The full amount of the award is to be expended for a picture or some piece of apparatus
(suitably inscribed) for the room in which the prize was won. Only those teachers who are the
holders of physical-training certificates granted under the Strathcona Trust are eligible t6
compete.
SCHOOL CADET CORPS, 1926-27.
The following report on the activities of the school cadet corps during 1926-27 was submitted to the Local Committee by Captain J. AL Gumming, Inspector of Cadet Services:—
" Number of cadets between the ages of 12 and 18 years trained during the
year 1926-27    5,961
Number present at annual inspection    5,483
Number of cadet corps, active  65
" The above shows a slight increase in the number of cadets trained and inspected over the
totals of the previous year.
" The Department of National Defence provided the necessary funds for three very excellent
cadet camps, which were held at the following places: North Vancouver, 16 instructors, 530
cadets ;  Victoria, 6 instructors, 142 cadets ;  Crescent Beach, 2 instructors, 46 cadets.
" The above camps were from six to eight days' duration and proved to be very popular with
instructors and cadets.
" Two courses for cadet instructors authorized and paid for by the Department of National
Defence were held at Iiodd Hill, Victoria, an ideal situation for courses of this nature; a
qualifying course (six weeks), held from July 18th to August 20th, was attended by twenty-five
prospective instructors drawn from various centres throughout the Province; a refresher course
(two weeks), held from August 1st to August 13th, was attended by twenty qualified cadet
instructors.
"Practically every cadet corps in the Province carried out a vigorous programme of rifle
shooting during the year. A very satisfactory number of entries was received for all Provincial
and national competitions, in many of which British Columbia units gained high places."
Hereunder is a list of the various cadet corps in order of merit as at their last annual
inspection, June, 1927:—
(Possible marks, 1,000.)
388. North Ward School, Victoria     885
388. Boys' Central School, Victoria     860
101. King Edward High School, Vancouver     855
101. Technical High School, Arancouver    850
530. T. J. Trapp Technical School, New Westminster     850
101. Britannia High School, Vancouver     845
388. Sir James Douglas School, Victoria     835
101. Alexandra School, Vancouver     815
101. Kitsilano High School, Vancouver     800 M 78 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27.
101. Cecil Rhodes School, Vancouver  790
388. Victoria West School, Victoria  790
388. South Park School, Victoria  790
530. Alission Cadet Corps, Mission  785
101. Central School, Vancouver  755
101. Aberdeen School, Vancouver — 755
938. Gilmore Avenue School, Burnaby  755
101. General Gordon School, Vancouver  725
530. Duke of Connaught High School, New AVestminster  725
388. George Jay School, ATictoria  710
101. Laura Secord School, Vancouver _  710
101. Technical High School, Vancouver  700
101. Simon Fraser School, Vancouver  695
101. Charles Dickens School, Vancouver  690
101. King George High School, Vancouver  6S0
101. Hastings  School, Vancouver  680
101. Livingstone School, Vancouver _ 680
101. Dawson School, A Co., Vancouver...  660
112. ATictoria High School, Victoria  650
101. Dawson School, B Co., Vancouver  650
101. Fairview School, Vancouver _ 645
101. Beaconsfield School, Vancouver  640
101. Lord Tennyson School, Vancouver  640
1126. Armstrong and Spallumcheen, Armstrong  630
1169. Sexsmith School, South Vancouver  630
388. Quadra Street School, Victoria  625
101. Lord Nelson School, A'ancouver  620
101. Macdonald School, Vancouver ,  620
101. Model School, Vancouver  615
101. Strathcona School, Vancouver  610
388. Burnside School, Victoria  580
388. Oaklands School, Victoria  575
1244. Quennell School, Nanaimo  560
101. Kitsilano School, Vancouver  550
388. Margaret Jenkins School, Victoria _  540
101. Lord Roberts School, C Co., Vancouver  510
101. Lord Roberts School, F Co., Vancouver  510
101. Henry Hudson School, Arancouver  510
101. Grandview  School,  Vancouver  510
892. Vernon Cadet Corps, Vernon  510
695. Nelson Cadet Corps, Nelson  510
Twenty-six prizes were awarded in accordance with the schedule adopted at the last meeting
of the Local Committee held October 26th, 1927, one-half to be paid to the corps and one-half to
the instructor provided he is a public-school teacher qualified as a cadet instructor. When the
instructor is not a public-school teacher, one-half of the prize reverts to the general fund of the
Local Committee.
The expenditure under this head for 1926-27 amounted to $337, and was made according to
the following schedule: 1st prize, $25; 2nd prize, $20; 3rd, 4th, and 5th prizes, $18 each; 6th
and 7th prizes, $16 each; 8th and 9th prizes, $14 each; 10th to 13th prizes, inclusive, $12 each;
14th to 26th prizes, inclusive, $10 each.
RIFLE SHOOTING.
From the grant for rifle shooting, 1926-27, prizes were provided for fifty qualified corps or
units specified in returns—namely, $3.75 each; this amount to form cash prizes for the three
best shots in each corps or unit (1st prize, $1.50;  2nd prize, .$1.25;  3rd prize, $1).
The expenditure under this head for 1926-27 amounted to $187.50. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1926-27. . M 79
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1926-27.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Committee for 1926-27 amounted to $1,559.97 and the
expenditure for the year $1,007.50, leaving a balance of $552.47. Of the latter sum, $510 has
already been voted for physical-training prizes for 1927-28.
Receipts.
1926-27. Balance on hand from 1925-26  $530.56
Interest to November 30th, 1926  17.79
Interest to May 31st, 1927 ;  8.22
Allowance to Secretary (added to fund)  10.00
Grant for 1926-27  983.40
Uncashed cheque paid into funds  10.00
$1,559.97
Disbursements.
1926-27. Gold medals for Normal Schools  $33.00
Prizes for physical training  450.00
Prizes for cadet-training  337.00
Prizes for rifle shooting  187.50
$1,007.50
Balance on hand     $552.47

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