Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. F. P. BURDEN,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1929]

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0300565.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0300565.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0300565-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0300565-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0300565-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0300565-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0300565-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0300565-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0300565-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0300565.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
RBPOET
OF
THE FOREST BRANCH
OP  THE
DEPARTMENT OE LANDS
HON.  F.  P.  BURDEN, Minister
G. R. Naden, Deputy Minister
P. Z. Caveehill, Chief Forester
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1928
PKINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1929.  Victoria, B.C., February 15th, 1929.
To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of the
Department of Lands for the year 1928.
F. P. BURDEN,
Minister of Lands. The Hon. F. P. Burden,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1928.
P. Z. CAVERHILL,
Chief Forester. < a
DO O
ri s
o «
p  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The year 1928 was generally successful from a forest standpoint. Commercially, it may be
reported that the cut and trade in forest products reached new heights, and the prices received,
if not all that could be desired, were a marked improvement over 1927, especially in the shingle
business. Pulp and paper felt the strain of overdevelopment and the consequent decline in
prices. .. .
The work of cruising and surveying our forest areas continued and much valuable information was gathered by our Research Division. No serious fire losses occurred and much work
was done on trails and other improvements, which will facilitate future control-work.
The work of the Branch is reviewed in detail hereunder.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
No material ■ change was made in the organization or personnel during the year. The
permanent and temporary staff is shown in the table herewith:—
Distribution of Force, 1928.
Permanent.
Temporary.
k
-a
a*
q
rt
p
"3
fe »
,8 9
■o
a
rt
■a
ri
o
£
rt
Forest District.
1-2
Q
O
O
(A
fci
0)
02
. o
be
jq
O
o
B
4>
.•fe
*|
3 o
ofe
3
O   "
g»|
"K .-
rt m
5<
£
8
O     .'
0%
u ~
qi rt
s|
09
tfi
QJ
O
fe
.3
"fc.
4jj
Q
1
1
o
K!
O
.22 a
> d
fc. +5
02 ■<
•9
c
OJ
"efl
o
CQ
<o
Jl
O  rt
II
I
1
et
>.
o
-jfri
II
rt
4-1   fc.
o o
Is.
'> a
Off
ID
io
c
«■
4
3
a
g
Be
s
n
O
of B
■" £
fe 2
OS
2
2
o
01
IB
H
CO-
CJ
>fc<
Si
a
rt
P3
rt
7
7
O
5
si
*0 d
£3
6
18
d
ri
p
o «
C rt
es «
4 03
BO
0 .
O O
ll
= 1
o
H
21
32
1
i
1
'/
i
3
7
12 ■
33
1
3
1
2
8
9
6
8
44
1
i
3
4
18
i
13
23
63
127
1
4
81
3
8
10
i
28
3
24
35
14
185
4
1
?
10
2
8
33
78
136
2
Totals	
4
1
2
6
6
34
20
2
11
59
11
87
3
74
142
20
78
500
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
Two new forests were placed under reserve during the year, bringing the total area now
included in Provincial Forests to 6,516,000 acres in eighteen forests.
The Morice Forest, 592,000 acres, covers the drainage-basin of the Lower Morice River, the
chief tributary of the Bulkley River. A preliminary reconnaissance of the area was reported
on last year and showed the presence of a large body of tie-timber, the utilization of which will
probably not commence for some years yet on account of the distance from the Canadian National
Railway and the expense of logging operations.
The Redonda Forest, 42,000 acres, covers the western island of that name, about 125 miles
up the coast from Vancouver. It has been calculated that the forest is capable of producing
a sustained annual yield of 3,000 M.B.M., but since 108,000 M.B.M. of the 181,000 M.B.M. merchantable timber now standing has been alienated under licence to cut, regulation for the time
being will be difficult. Owing to the shortage of middle-age classes, the amount which could
safely be cut annually now is less than the ultimate yield of the forest. This forest is not
considered large enough to form a " working circle," but will be managed together with adjacent
islands which are under reserve.
Forest Surveys.
The survey of the Nehalliston Forest, commenced last year, was completed. The total area
of the forest is 576,000 acres, but an additional 133,000 acres adjacent to the present boundaries were found to be more suited for forest purposes than for other development, and this additional
area is being recommended for inclusion in the forest. Of the whole area, 80 per cent, was
found to be productive forest land, including 194,000 acres of mature timber, 226,000 acres of
young growth, and 48,000 acres of recently burned-over land, which is not yet restocking
; satisfactorily. The merchantable timber is estimated at 1,800,000 M.B.M., of which 53 per cent,
is spruce. Great damage has been done during the past few years to lodgepole pine by bark-
beetles, 6,500,000 ties having been destroyed. The fir is also attacked, and it is feared that
further damage will be done before the epidemic dies out. This forest forms an important
reserve of future pulp-wood supply and tie-timber for the Canadian National Railway.
A survey of the Yahk Forest was commenced. This forest lies in the south-east corner of
the Province, west of the Kootenay River and south of Cranbrook. It adjoins large tie limits
owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway and is itself an important reserve for the future
production of both ties and saw-timber. The estimates are now being compiled and the
productive capacity of the forest ascertained.
A survey of the Shuswap Forest. This area lies south of the Dominion Railway Belt and
includes the greater part of the Shuswap River drainage. It is at present the scene of important
operations in the production of cedar telegraph and telephone poles and, to a lesser extent, of
railway-ties. Estimates are now being compiled, and it is planned to place the forest under
definite management on a sustained yield basis in order that its production and the local
industries which it maintains may be made permanent.
In connection with the survey of the Shuswap Forest, 43,409 acres of surveyed land bordering on the present boundaries of the forest were examined for agricultural as well as forest
value. Parcels totalling 9,127 acres were found to be excellent farm lands, while 34,282 acres,
although having some grazing value, are more suitable for forest-growth than agricultural
development.
An examination was made this year of a large part of the Sayward Land District, Vancouver
Island; An area of 394,400 acres, bounded on the south by the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway
grant, on the east and north by Johnstone Strait, and on the west by the boundary of the
Sayward Land District, has been found to be unsuitable for agricultural development but very
productive forest land. This area has already produced some of the finest stands of timber in
British Columbia. There are estimated to be 277,900 acres of virgin timber, totalling 12,540,000
M.B.M. still standing, of which 90 per cent, has been alienated under licence or lease for timber-
cutting. Areas aggregating 46,000 acres have been logged off during the last thirty years, the
greater part of which is reproducing, though some 12,400 acres, owing to the destruction of
natural seedlings and seed-trees by slash fires, may require partial or complete planting to
produce a second crop without undue delay.    This area is under consideration for forest reserve.
In connection with the above examination, the soil and agricultural possibilities were
investigated. Approximately 15,000 acres, which have been excluded from the proposed forest,
were found to be suitable for agricultural development; most of this land is situated between
Campbell River and Menzies Bay. There is also a smaller area at Rock Bay. The former tract
will in the future be readily accessible when the Island Highway is extended north to Menzies
Bay.   On all these lands the cost of clearing and stumping will be heavy.
The surveys that are being made of the Provincial Forests are not intensive cruises, but the
work is done in just sufficient detail to give a reasonably accurate knowledge of the timber
resources, both mature and immature, in each forest, and to arrive at a first estimation of the
annual yield which each forest can supply in perpetuity. At the same time, as a result of
treating each forest as a unit, it is possible to plan definite improvements, bo.th in management
and protection.
As the utilization of each forest increases and approaches the maximum which the forest
can supply under natural conditions without depletion, additional technical supervision will be
needed to work out in greater detail the plan of management and to supervise its operation.
In some of our Provincial Forests that time is already approaching, as indicated by the demand
that exists for timber; the entire estimated yield of the Little White Mountain Forest was
recently sold for a period of twenty-five years, the contract being obtained by a local sawmill.
A great deal of the second growth in Interior forests is lodgepole pine, which does not
produce logs of a quality and size acceptable to present sawmills, although it may be assumed
that a use will be found in the future for this class of material for railway-ties or pulp. Therefore, in regulating the cut of a forest for the support of a local sawmill industry, it is necessary FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 7
to disregard, for the present, large areas of second growth. For this reason, the estimate of
annual yield made use of in preliminary regulation may be much less than the ultimate yield
when there is a market for every class of material and when the age-classes are more evenly
distributed as a result of scientific management of logging operations.
The following table summarizes the results found by surveys which have been made of a
number of Provincial Forests. Two annual yields are shown—the first column being that which
is recommended as a basis for preliminary management, and the second being that which the
forests will ultimately produce under better conditions of regulation and markets, but less than
the ground is capable of producing were economic conditions in British Columbia such as to
permit the intensive treatment given to well-managed forests in Europe.
Present Stocking and Estimated Annual Yields of Provincial Forests.
Mature
Timber
(Merch.
Acres).
Immature Timber (Acres).
Estimated Annual
Yield (in F.B.M.).
Name of Forest.
Age
0-20.
Age
21-40.
Age
41-60.
Age
61-80.
Age
81-
100.
Age
over
100.
Total.
Present
(recommended).
Ultimate.
Interior.
Little White Moun-
29,800
36,100
79,300
18,700
237,300
11,200
6,000
11,000
23,000
12,100
29,300
19,800
22,800
6,000
153,200
2,900
3,560
4,170
7,870
1,200
27,600
18,500
60,100
16,900
67,400
150
120
750
570
400
44,800
25,800
87,800
25,000
101,500
2,100
3,400
7,500
9,600
200
122,000
1,900
6,600
4,200
2,200
10,600
2,100
109,200
■88,800
186,600
48,100
504,000
3,050
3,680
4,920
8,440
3,700
2,000,000
2,700,000
6,600,000
3,400,000
76,000,000
1
r i4,ooo,odo
3,000,000
9,000,000
7,000,000
Grizzly Hill 	
17,500,000
4,900,000
Babine* 	
59,900
87,500,000
Coast.
Hardwicke Island
West Thurlow Island
East Thurlow Island
Sonora Island 	
22,400,000
5,000,000
Totals
464,500
250,800
19.2,490
287,000
142,700
72,600
14,900
960,490
107,700,000
153,300,000
* The estimated annual yield of the Babine Forest includes lodgepole pine capable of supporting an annual cut of 700,000 hewn ties, increasing to 1,000,000 under better silvicultural treatment. The remainder
of the estimated yield would supply 135,000 cords of pulp-wood annually.
RECONNAISSANCE.
An extensive reconnaissance was made of a portion of the Herrick River watershed with a
view to completing information on the whole drainage-basin of the McGregor River. On the
Herrick there are estimated to be 36,200 acres of timber land, carrying 234,000 M.B.M. spruce
and 130,000 M.B.M. balsam. No land suitable for agricultural development was found. In the
whoie of the McGregor drainage-basin, totalling 2,030 square miles, there are 480 square miles
of timbered land and 1,550 square miles of burned, non-merchantable, and barren areas. Of the
timbered land, 183,100 acres have been examined by a 5-per-cent. cruise or by extensive reconnaissance and found to carry 1,647,000 M.B.M. of spruce and 587,000 M.B.M. of balsam. The
drainage-basin is being recommended as a Provincial Forest.
An extensive reconnaissance was also made of the Upper Neehako watershed, in the Prince
Rupert District. The Neehako is a main tributary of the Upper Fraser River and drains the
eastern slopes of the Coast Range. The area examined is located directly south of Burns Lake,
on the Canadian National Railway, and comprises a large lake system, of which Eutsuk Lake is
the largest. The area explored contained approximately 5,770 square miles, of which 2,880 square
miles were found to be productive forest land, 650 square miles were estimated to carry timber
of commercial value, 1,390 square miles carry immature timber, and there are 840 square miles
not satisfactorily restocked. The timber stands are composed principally of lodgepole pine
suitable for tie material, intermixed with low-grade spruce and balsam, which may be utilized
for pulp.
Out of the above area, the Nadina watershed, comprising 490 square miles, has been recommended as a Provincial Forest. The Nadina is a tributary to Francois Lake. Within the forest
210 square miles are well timbered, being estimated to carry 2,500.000 lodgepole-pine ties, B 8
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
50,000 M.B.M. spruce, and 30,000 M.B.M. balsam. This timber may be taken out by flume to
Francois Lake;   thence by the Endako to the Canadian National Railway.
The Kingcome River watershed from the inlet to merchantable-timber line was examined.
The watershed has a total area of 12,000 acres, of which 5,900 acres are productive forest land,
although a considerable portion of it is subject to intermittent flooding. The whole area is
Crown land. It has been logged with the exception of 500 acres of timber on difficult logging
chances. Seven hundred acres of the 5,400 acres of logged-off land are now satisfactorily
restocked; 400 ■ acres have a deciduous-forest cover, while the balance contains very sparse
reproduction.    This area formerly carried an excellent stand of spruce-hemlock.
In conjunction with the reconnaissance, a soil examination was made of the more accessible
portion, totalling 3,000 acres. This area has a soil suitable for agricultural development, but
expensive clearing and river-improvement make agricultural development impracticable, and-
under present conditions the land should be held for forest-growth.
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
In addition to the examination of many areas in different parts of the Province for which
applications had been received to purchase, pre-empt, etc., 48,800 acres of Crown land, already
surveyed for settlement and lying west of Prince George, particularly in the vicinity of Vanderhoof, were examined. A little over 25,000 acres were found to be suitable for agricultural
development, with generally a silt-loam soil, and requiring only fairly light clearing of poplar
and young spruce. Most of the remaining acreage of non-agricultural land has some grazing
value and carries a light stand of immature aspen, spruce, and lodgepole pine.
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of " Land Act."
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert. .
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Totals...
Applications for
Crown Grants.
818
279
1,097
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
No.
30
5
1
1
Acres.
4,109
666
120
1,650
365
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
29
13
6
22
20
6
Acres.
4,279
1,577
960
3,052
2,718
549
13,135
Applications to
Purchase.
42
45
11
47
98
82
Acres.
7,196
8,317
1,418
7,210
22,877
12,017
59,035
Miscellaneous.
11
329
1
23
21
65
Acres.
1,526
51,443
300
2,929
2,934
5,728
64,860
Classification of Areas examined in 1928.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert....
Southern Interior
Vancouver.	
Totals	
Acres.
17,110
62,003
2,798
15,659
29,173
18,294
145,037
Agricultural
Land.
Acres.
2,905
32,697
481
4,412
2,793
8,523
51,811
Non-agricultural Laud.
Acres.
14,205
29,306
2,317
11,247
26,380
9,771
93,226
Merchantable.
1,136
2,739
735
Intimate of
Timber on"
Merchantable
Timber Land.
M.B.M.
6,397
2,926
22,712
31,891
11,784
75,710
FOREST RESOURCES OF THE PROVINCE.
Work continues on the new inventory of our forest resources, commenced several years ago.
From time to time more up-to-date estimates for different areas will be available, but, on account
of the size of the Province and the varying intensity and type of forest-cover, this stock-taking
must be carried actively forward for some years before a really reliable final figure for the
whole Province will be obtained. The compilation of the estimate for Vancouver Island was
completed during the year, and there is found to be 3,700,000 acres of mature timber containing
95,000,000,000 feet, board measure. In addition, there are 200,000 acres of young growth fully
stocked, 38 per cent, over 25 feet in height and 62 per cent, from 1 to 25 feet in height; 191,000
acres partially restocked; and 103,000 acres, where repeated burns, lack of seed-trees, or other
causes make natural regeneration slow or doubtful. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 9
FOREST RESEARCH.
During 1928 continued progress was made with the various investigative projects in hand,
particularly in the fields of reforestation and forest yield. These are described in order in the
following:—
Seed Dissemination.
Studies of seed dissemination have now been conducted over a period of three full seasons.
During 1925-26 the work was confined to an area near Gordon Pasha Lakes, but in the following
years it was extended to include representative areas on Vancouver Island. The studies are
made by means of shallow wooden trays, or " seed-traps," which are placed both in the forest
and in logged-off land at varying distances from green timber. The material summarized in
the table herewith is based on a total area of 3,372' square feet of seed-traps, situated in six
localities.
The seed-crops for the past three years have been' poor in both quantity and quality. It is
reasonable to expect that in an average seed-year larger numbers of seeds would be distributed
than are indicated by the table.
The quality of the seeds caught in the traps is indicated by the following table:—■
Table showing Percentage Viability of Seeds caught in all Traps.
Season.
Average
1925-26.
1926-27.
1927-28.
Viability.
Fir               	
y
25
20
38
ability, Per Cen
14
17
58
t.
12
9
40
Per Cent.
17
Hemlock	
15
45
In making seed collections cones of only good quality are selected and in the extracting
process the poorer seed is eliminated. For this reason the average quality of seed secured from
the collections is higher than that of the seed normally distributed in the forest. This is
illustrated in the tables presented herewith; the average viability of the Douglas fir seed of
the annual collections was 28 per cent., while the average viability of seeds of the same species
taken from seed-traps was only 17 per cent.
Seed Collections.
The seed-crop for 1928 was generally poor for all species except cedar, which produced good
quantities of seed in Southern Vancouver Island and the Lower Fraser Valley. A summary of
conditions on the Coast is contained in the following table:—
Production of Tree-seed, 1928.
Fir.
Hemlock.
Cedar.
Spruce.
Southern Vancouver Island and adjacent mainland	
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Good
Poor
Fair
Good   a
Poor
Fair
Good
Fair
Northern Vancouver Island and adjacent mainland	
Prince Rupert	
Queen Charlotte Islands	
In reforestation-work the principal seed collections are of Douglas fir, and unfortunately
there has not been a good crop of this species since the abundant year of 1923. During 1928
the only good crop of cones located was at the northern end of Vancouver Island in a stand
of scrub timber unsuitable for reforestation purposes, and it was not possible to secure
appreciable quantities of good seed. B 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Characteristics of the Douglas fir seed obtained in the collections of the three years prior
to 1928 are contained in the following table.   Tests of the 1928 seed have not yet been completed.
Year.
No. of Pounds of
Seed per Bushel
of Cones.
No. of Seed
per Pound.
Viabilltv,
Per Cent.
No. of Viable
Seeds
per Pound.
No. of Viable
Seeds per
Bushel of
Cones.
1925	
1926	
0.21
0.36
0.22
63,221
101,875
123,968
21
28
35
13,276
28,525
43,388
2,788
10,269
1927 	
9,545
0.26
96,355
28
28,396
7,534
Standard average for Douglas fir.
1.25*
46,000f
54f
25,000
31,000
* Tourney, J. W.
t Tourney, J. W.
Seeding and Planting.    1916.    P. 101.
Testing of Tree Seeds.    1928.    P. 38.
It will be seen from the above table that seeds maturing in the three seasons under consideration are low in viability, light in weight, and low in number per bushel of cones, compared
with standard values for good seed. These results confirm the commonly accepted opinion that
during years of poor seed-crops the seeds which are produced are of poor quality.
Annual Seed Fall, Southern Vancouver' Island and Adjacent Mainland.
Viable Seeds per Acre caught each Month at Various Distances from Green Timber, being
Averages of Results on Six Sites for- Seasons 1925-26, 1926-27, and 1927-28.
Fir.
Distance
from Green
Timber in
Chains.
Area of
Seed-traps
in Sq. Feet.
33
a
m
w
33
O
o
o
0>
Q
a
1-5
31
a
31
U
C3
3
ti
a,
H
>3
ess
CJ
a
a
t-i
r%
3
1-3
H
ta
33
O
G.T.
5
10
15
386
432
384
216
324
132
324
192
432
300
84
156
660
67
76
257
34
76
■67
110
34
76
110
73
110
45
403
67
90
330
37
37
2,127
135
152
134
20
25
30
40
135
76
50
60
70
80
Totals..
3,372
803
434
220
110
73
155
560
330
37
37
2,759
Hemlock.
G.T.
366
■716
217
143
131
170
210
195
194
186
327
2,489
5
432
278
236
130
95
87
93
72
34
4
1,029
10
384
128
56
120
150
165
176
102
59
956
15
216
34
34
34
67
34
28
39
270
20
324
113
97
61
23
49
47
26
10
426
25
132
84
26
110
30
324
192
45
81
63
35
63
14
63
7
46
15
27
30
27
7
2*->7
40
296
50
432
28
'62
85
57
48
24
304
60
300
32
22
48
48
'OO
48
SO
10
313
70
84
75
95
170
80
156
76
20
96
Totals..
3,372
1,525
923
757
602
685
718
521
364
225
366
6,686 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 11
Cedar.
Distance
from Green
Timber in
Chains.
Area of
Seed-traps
in Sq. Feet.
01
O
o
33
33
C
311
■a
u
eg
9
rg
3
31
c
a
^5
S
rz
Aug.
Total.
G.T.
5
10
15
20
396       1
432
384
216
324
132
324
192
432
300
84
156
12,200
180
38
9,955
167
58
84
2
49
4,160
153
69
26
4
3
73
3,671
110
40
34
12
15
25
3,632
99
49
8
12
30
12
7
2,152
49
58
12
56
12
7
3,754
37
38
22
90
30
5
4,286
53
26
91
179
574
16
22
16
260
22
16
147
12
74
44,865
848
414
203
437
25
30
40
50
116
24
39
60
70
80
49
196
Totals..
3,372
12,467
10,315
4,488
3,907
3,849
2,346
3,976
4
635
628
298
159
74
47,142
Studies op Seedling Survival.
The investigation of survival of young seedlings of Douglas fir and associated species, which
was begun at Gordon Pasha Lakes in 1926 and extended at Cowichan Lake in 1927, was continued at the latter place during 1928. Eighteen new plots were laid out; these were arranged
to take into account conditions of aspect and slope on unburned cut-over land as well as on
lands which have been burned over. The plots were sown with seed of Douglas fir, hemlock,
cedar, and spruce, and records were kept of the period and percentage of germination. The
seedlings which appeared were examined periodically and the dates and causes of mortality were
noted. Records of temperature, humidity, and precipitation were kept in order to correlate
the weather conditions and the behaviour of the seedlings. At the same time the plots established in previous years were also kept under observation.
The object of this work is to secure definite information as to the causes and extent of
mortality which occurs among young seedlings during the first few years after their establishment in cut-over areas by natural seeding from near-by stands of timber or scattered trees.
History Map Studies.
In 1924 there was undertaken tbe preparation of special maps of representative blocks of
logged-off land in the Douglas fir region for the purpose of recording the changes taking place
on these areas after logging. The principal features which were noted were the changes
occurring as a result of logging, the condition of the forest-cover and other vegetation, and the
occurrence of forest fires. This work was continued in 1925 and it was planned to re-examine
the areas at regular intervals in the future.
In 1928 all the areas previously mapped were reinspected and certain new areas were added
to those already included in the maps. During the season an aggregate of 52,000 acres were
examined in eight districts of the region, four districts on Vancouver Island and four on the
Mainland ; 1,304 sample plots were established which are closely representative of the combined
area of 52,000 acres and, due to their diverse location, approximately representative of the
conditions of the entire area logged in the region within the past fifteen years. The plots were
each 0.01 acre in area and were laid down contiguously in strips which were located to give
a typical cross-section of each cut-over area examined.
Of the 52,000 acres actually represented by the study, 29,470 acres have been burned after
logging and on 12,500 acres the slash remains unburned; this is approximately the same proportionate relation that the number of plots in the Burned type bears to that in the unburned type
as expressed in Table I. herewith.
From the data obtained during this study the reproduction shows a decided tendency to be
numerically greater on lands not burned after the logging operations than on those areas which
have been subject to one or more slash fires; however, Douglas fir constitutes 30 per cent, of
all the seedlings on burned areas, which is double its percentage on non-burned areas. Consequently the distribution of Douglas fir is approximately equal in quantity per unit area on each B 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
type of site. The Lower Mainland provides the highest average number of seedlings per unit
area found in any district; figures derived from Table II. show that there are 2,250 seedlings
per acre on the plots in this district.
Conditions on, Unburned Areas.—On this type there are more seedlings per acre than On land
which has been burned. This is due partly to the abundant germination of hemlock-seeds after
logging, and also to the scattered advance growth of young trees which are released from
suppression as a result of logging operations. The seedlings on an area which started their
growth under the mature timber and escaped the ravages of logging operations have a distinct
advantage in competition with the ensuing vegetation. If tree seedlings have not gained
supremacy by height-growth, or density of cover, on unburned areas within five years after
logging they appear to be unable to survive the dense cover of salmonberry and huckleberry
(Rubus spectabilis and Vaccinium ovalifolium) brush which develops on many coastal areas
where the slash remains unburned. Restocking is retarded as a result of this dense cover until
the salmonberry-huckleberry stage in the vegetation gives way to a higher and more open cover
of woody and herbaceous weed species, thus producing a condition favourable for the survival
of tree seedlings. Hemlock seedlings are found to constitute over 50 per cent, of the stand
where conifers have become established in unburned slash, and among the remaining seedlings
cedar is more than twice as numerous as Douglas fir. Details of the conditions existing in the
various districts are found in Tables I., IL, and III. herewith.
Conditions on Burned Areas.—On burned sites the first cover is principally fireweed
(Epilobium angustifolium), which maintains a supremacy for four to five years. Except in
cases of exceptional density, fireweed is not a deterrent to the germination and establishment
of tree seedlings; rather does the abundance of the seed-crop during the season preceding and
the seasons following the time of logging appear to influence the rate of re-establishment.
In any case the mortality among seedlings is very high during the first three months after
germination, due to insolation of both the soil and the plant; it follows that areas most protected
from drying by position or cover are relatively the most favoured. On the burned sites as a
whole the cover of tree seedlings is composed almost entirely of three common species, Douglas
fir, western hemlock, and western red cedar, in practically equal proportions.
In all districts which have been examined the number of seedlings on most of the burned
land is less than 500 per acre; exceptions occurred in the areas studied in the Lower Mainland
and Johnstone Strait Districts. In general the most abundant species occurring on the burned
type are cedar on the Lower Mainland, Douglas fir on Central and Southern Vancouver Island,
and hemlock on Northern Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of Johnstone Strait. Further
details are found in the tables.
General Conclusions.—These findings show that slash-burning and other fires, under the
conditions governing their occurrence at present, create a numerical superiority of Douglas fir
only in parts of the region where the tendency of natural regeneration is strongly towards
Douglas fir under all typical conditions; and that in the southern portion of the Douglas fir
region on the Mainland the fires give cedar a definite advantage over hemlock on the areas
measured, Douglas fir being numerically inferior on both types. In locations where the herbaceous and woody cover tends to develop into a dense brush the rate of regeneration is
apparently retarded as much as it is by burns.
Probably 60 per cent, of all the cut-over lands in this region are carrying less than a
satisfactory minimum of 1,000 seedlings per acre. This condition is due largely to a lack of
natural seeding by reason of the remote location of seed-trees as a result of logging and fire,
and during recent years this unsatisfactory condition- has been accentuated by poor seed-crops.
Explanation of Tables.—The three tables following illustrate phases of relative density of
seedling establishment and are based on data collected throughout the region.
The tables are divided into two types of site—namely, areas logged and unburned, and
logged areas on which the slash has been accidentally or intentionally burned. The data in each
table are from an analysis of 1,304 plots, each 1/100 acre in area, including all coniferous species,
and on areas logged since 1914.
Table I.: This table shows the relation of the number of plots in any seedling class (number
of seedlings per acre) to the whole number of plots in the type, or in the region. The upper
seedling class is extended to embrace the plot having the maximum number of seedlings on it. this idle land was once productive forest.
A fire burned over this area after logging and destroyed both seed-trees and new growth.
Natural reforestation will be slow and unsatisfactory.
seed-trees ensure second growth.
After logging a Arc ran over this area, but the seed-trees shown in the background have
produced a satisfactory new stand and reforestation is successful.  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 13
Table II.: This shows the relative density of reproduction within each district of the region
and between districts by the percentage classification of all plots in each district into classes
of the number of seedlings per acre on each plot. The table also shows the relation between
districts of the numbers of seedlings found on the plots.
Table III.: By the distribution of the species according to the proportion in which they
occur in each district, there is shown: (1) The relative abundance of species in different parts
of the region; (2) the actual distribution of species throughout the districts according to burned
sites and unburned sites, by the number of seedlings occurring on the plots; and (3) that there
is a lack of any constant density relation between all districts of the region.
Table I.—Distribution of Plots by Reproduction Classes.
Number of Seedlings per Acre on 1/100-acre Plots.
 i ' ' *"
0  ,	
1 to  500	
501-1,000 	
1,001-2,000 	
2,001-3,000 	
3,001-4,000	
4,001-5,000 	
5,001-28,000  .'......	
Total No. of plots examined 	
Percentage of plots in each type	
Logged and
burned.
No. of Plots.
Logged
only.
No. of Plots.
Total in  Seedling
Class.
Per Cent.
161
275
116
116
50
29
18
54
819
36
130
80
83
53
29
15
59
485
37
197
405
196
199
103
58
33
113
1,304
15
31
15
15
8
4
3
9
100
Table II.—Percentage Distribution of Plots by Reproduction Classes and Districts and
Seedling Distribution by Districts.
■LOCATION  OF AREAS EXAMINED.
Logged and burned.
Logged only.
Number of Seedlings per
Acre on the Plots.
•a
a
33 H
rt~
b rt
r3>
|go
Con
■a a rt
V3y-n
31
.    >
go-d
Sop
C  C   Oi
S>3
top
sh a d
0)
fl
o
rtrtrtS
Tfl
— m ■
-6
a
5s
gi5
rr>
a ^
5 >
% ca
33  31 s
5 C es
o.^Hi
m>33
g O'O
rti a a
a a rt
Ok* rtrt
ti   3.
Boo
tr n rt
^>3
fl
o
1-2
0+-'
'Jl
tj
u
+J
—,   -fr
Perc€
ntage
Distr
butioi
I of P
ots b;
! Repi
oducti
on CU
is ses.
o	
'7
23
15
22
13
8
3
9
100
6
44
18
13
6
4
1
rt 8
100
17
36
19
17
6
2
1
2
100
32
3S
8
9
3
3
3
4
100
28
32
11
9
3
2
2
12,
100
13
44
25
6
6
6
100
19
34
15
14
6
4
2
6
100
6
IS
16
22
13
8
2
15
100
14
54
13
9
4
O
3.
100
10
10
40
10
20
10
100
3
28
18
12
11
6
5
17
100
18
23
25
12
-8
■   2
6
.6
100
2
■27
21
18
16
2
5
9
100
7
1 to 500          	
26
501  1,000       .: —...
17
1 001-2,000 	
17
2,001-3,000      	
11
3,001-4,000	
6
4,001-5,000 	
4
5,001  28,000
12
Per cent,, of plots in dis-
100
Av. No. of seedlings per
plot of 0.01 ac	
20
15
9
9
16
17
13
~819
24
11
39
23
14
20
91
Basis, total No. of plots
144
120
175
233
131
16
221
65
10
84
49
' '56
485 B 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Table III.—Percentage Distribution of Species by Districts and Seedling Distribution
by Species.
Logged and burned.
Logged only.
Location of Areas examined.
F.
H.     C.
B.
S.
P.
Y.
Index.
•F.    H.
C.
B.
S.    P.
Y.
Index.
Percentages by Species o£ Total No. of Seedlings in each District.
10
3
75
65
19
1
30
43
31
16
6
60
56
34
43
66
9
26
15
41
33
*
*
2
*
*
*
2
1
1
*
*
*
3
1
1
4
*
*
1
1
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
3
6
18
57
9
*
14
51
73
7
23
70
92
52
40
20
74
14
9
7
29
4
*
5
3
*
3
*
2
*
*
1
1
1
*
*
2
*
6
*
1
100
100
Southern Vancouver Island 	
Central Vancouver Island 	
Northern Vancouver Island
Johnstone Strait 	
All  districts        	
100
100
100
100
100
Average No. of seedlings per
plot of 1/100 acre	
4
4
4
t
t
t
t
13
3
11
6
1
t
t
t
21
* represents value of less than % of 1 per cent.
f represents value of less than  %.
F. represents Douglas flr.
H. represents western hemlock.
C. represents western red cedar.
B. represents balsam flr (Abies amabilis and possibly a few Abies grandis).
S. represents Sitka spruce.
P. represents western white pine and occasional lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).
Y. represents western yew (Taxus brevifolia).
Plot Remeasurements.
During the season twenty-seven permanent experimental plots were re-examined, the objects
of the study being as follows:— .
Plots.
Seed dissemination   6
Direct seeding of Sitka spruce  1
Natural regeneration of Douglas fir and associated species   11
Mortality of seedlings of Douglas fir and associated species   5
Planting of coniferous species   2
Douglas fir yield study   1
Slash decay   1
Forest Nurseries.
Thirty beds of Douglas fir and Sitka spruce were sown at the experimental nursery and
these were handled in a variety of ways throughout the year for the purpose of securing information on various phases of forest nursery practice. The germination on spring-sown beds was
much superior to that on the beds sown the previous fall; growth in the two cases was practically the same. Ground has been prepared at the nursery for experimental transplanting-work
in 1929 and new beds will also be added.
This experimental nursery-work has been undertaken as preliminary to the establishment of
a forest nursery on a larger practical scale to produce tree seedlings for the reforestation
of those areas of cut-over land on Vancouver Island and the Lower Coast where, usually as
a result of repeated forest fires, natural regeneration is inadequate. The selection of a site for
such a permanent nursery requires most careful consideration, since it is desirable for it to
have conditions of climate, soil, and vegetation as similar as possble to those of the areas where
the seedlings will be planted. During 1928 a survey has been made of the region and a large
number of sites have been examined. It is expected that a final selection will be made in the
near future.
Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Station.
Most of the forest-research work for spruce-balsam and lodgepole-pine stands is carried.«n
at the Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Station. The station is centrally located in the important
spruce-balsam forests of the Upper Fraser Valley and is proving to be an ideal place for both
basic research and the practical application of silvicultural practice in experimental cuttings, ■*4%-Ml
fl) OJ
JO '"■
C ttf.
o> g
_rt.Se
33   >-r
i oi'O
p ^, a^
Site"0
05 .
S 5 s
3 O rt,
o uB
■H W rQ
g ^   1)
o    .2
o   . rt,
 r,   33
•S & s
=( o -
O bUrtH
~ •«■ &
oi m JJ
ir. a ti
>'   a
Sob
If «
£3     -O I
o rt.
°,°
■3!l vi *
i.firtrt
■O .rt, 0)
S-d'5-
a »•?
.£ S"S
Mil
T    33  33
sst;
H S P
is is
o c  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928. B 15
studies of brush-disposal, and other phases of work. While the main object is to secure the
information necessary to maintain the productivity of the valuable forests of the region, the
station also serves as an example of a demonstration forest managed on a sustained-yield basis
and with proper methods of reforestation and fire-prevention.
The principal research project at Aleza Lake has been a study of the factors controlling the
establishment of spruce reproduction. During the past three years this work has been carried
on by means of a series of plots exposed to natural seed-supply and an additional set of plots
on which spruce-seed was sown artificially on both humus and exposed mineral soil. A certain
amount of further work is still required before the complete results of the study can be presented
in final form, but the main conclusions which may be drawn at present are as follows:—■
(a.) On the forest-floor of the mature spruce-balsam stand there exists a characteristic
layer of raw humus bearing a growth of moss which varies in thickness under different conditions of aspect and drainage. Beneath this organic horizon the mineral soil is usually a heavy
clay and exhibits a definitely podsolized structure.
(&.) Raw humus of this type presents unsuitable conditions for both germination and
survival of spruce seedlings. It is uncertain if it is also unfavourable for balsam, but this is
probably the case.
(c.) In cut-over areas there is little change in the general structure of the soil-type for a
considerable number of years after logging, and during this time conditions remain unfavourable
for the natural reproduction of spruce. On such areas there springs up a dense growth of
herbaceous and shrubby vegetation which further inhibits the establishment of new seedlings.
(d.) The failure of spruce to secure a foothold on raw humus soil is due to two causes.
In the first place, while the moisture content of the soil may be exceedingly high during the
early spring, considerable fluctuations occur very rapidly with changing conditions of precipitation, air temperature, and relative humidity; by the time the season has advanced sufficiently
for the soil to become warm enough for seed germination the moisture content of the surface
layer is so low that the seeds lying in the humus are unable to absorb the water necessary for
the physiological processes of germination. Secondly, when germination does occur, as happens
occasionally, the organic matter of the surface soil becomes so dry during hot periods of the
summer that the young seedlings die as a result of insufficient moisture for transpiration and
growth.
(e.) During dry periods the loss of soil-moisture is caused partly by evaporation and run-off,
partly by transpiration of the undergrowth, and to a considerable extent by root competition
of the overwood of mature trees. On sample plots in which root competition has been eliminated
by trenching the soil-moisture is greatly increased, but even under these conditions germination
on humus soil continues to be a complete failure.
(/.) Where the humus has been removed artificially on sample plots by scraping or raking
the conditions become very favourable for spruce reproduction. In the mineral soil exposed in
this way the absolute moisture content based on the dry weight of soil is lower than that of the
humus, but fluctuations are less and a better general level is maintained throughout the season.
In dry periods the amount of moisture available for seedlings is greater. Seeds germinate
readily and can survive through the dry periods of summer as well as the adverse conditions
of low temperatures and heavy snowfall during the winter.
(g.) In mineral soil on sample plots where root competition has been eliminated by trenching,
germination and survival are increased. Conditions are also more favourable on northern than
on southern slopes, since in the latter case higher temperatures and increased exposure to
insolation produce greater mortality among the young seedlings, particularly during the first
growing season.
(ft.) On mineral soil with conditions of equal seed-supply spruce appears to become established more readily than balsam.   Further investigation is necessary to clear up this point.
The practical application of the results given above would require artificial treatment of
forest soil to break up or remove the surface humus and expose the mineral soil. This could
be done in strips or patches between the clumps of advance reproduction and it would rarely
be necessary to attempt such treatment over the entire surface of a logging operation. The
work would have to be done several years before cutting, for after the removal of the overwood
the competition offered by new herbaceous and shrubby growth in the cut-over area would be
so severe that new seedlings could not become successfully established. B 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The cost of such work, while considerable, would not be excessively high; it would probably
constitute less than 5 per cent, of the cost of the logging operation as a whole. Such methods
have been employed for many years in coniferous forests of Europe and will undoubtedly form
a well-established feature of forestry practice in this country under more intensive economic
conditions. . .
Plans are under way to apply the results of the investigations on an experimental scale in
cuttings at Aleza Lake during 1929 and subsequent years for the purpose of developing practical
reforestation methods which will be applicable to the forests of the surrounding region.
Under the management plan of the station forest the second annual cutting was completed
in the winter of 1927-28. In connection with this operation a, study was made of the cost of
slash-disposal by live burning and this method was applied over an area of 12 acres. Following
the cutting a series of fifteen plots was established for the purpose of studying the progress of
natural reforestation on the cut-over area.- ,-....-.
Development-work at the station was continued. The buildings and grounds were improved
and experimental sowings were carried out in the small nursery maintained for investigative
work. Four miles of new trctil were constructed and a survey made of 1% miles of road which
will be required in the near future for experimental logging-work.
At the close of the field season a shprt ranger conference and instruction school was held at
the station in conjunction with the district staffs of the Northern Interior. Problems of forest
administration and fire-prevention were dealt with and practical instruction was given in various
phases of field-work. The rangers also had the opportunity of becoming familiar with the
research-work and of observing the results of its practical application in the experimental
cuttings and slash-disposal. .
Forest Pathology.
In connection with the detailed growth studies which are being made in the various forest
types of the Province, information is required as to the effect of the disease factor upon yield,
and with a view to laying the foundation for a careful investigation of this factor in the case
of Douglas flr a preliminary survey was undertaken during the past season. This study was
carried out by Professor Dickson, of the University of British Columbia, and the field-work was
made possible by the co-operation of the following logging companies:—■
The Canadian Puget Sound Logging Co. at Point-no-Point, B.C.
The Shawnigan Lake Logging Co. at Shawnigan Lake, B.C.
The Empire Logging Co. at Cowichan Lake. B.C.
The Great Central Sawmills, Ltd., at Great Central, B.C.
Tbe Bloedel, Stewart & Welch Logging Co. at Campbell River, B.C. ■
The work extended over a period of five weeks and during that time the above operations
Were visited in the order named, commencing at the south of Vancouver Island and terminating
at Campbell River. Some of the most important stands of Douglas fir on Vancouver Island
were therefore included. No detailed analysis of the disease conditions could be made under
the circumstances, but an attempt was made to collect data which would be as nearly as possible
representative of the areas visited.
On commencing work in each new locality, the operation was first inspected to obtain a
general idea of the conditions and to locate the most suitable areas for study. Since it was
impossible to do any cutting and dissecting of trees especially for this study, areas where the
timber had been recently felled and bucked but where loading has not yet commenced were
found to be most satisfactory. In such areas bucked trees were selected promiscuously and
examined as closely as possible for defects due to decay, data being taken as to stump age,
diameter, amount and nature of decay at stump; length, top diameter, and condition as to
decay at the top of each log; condition of the branch stubs and the number and positions of
the sporophores. More detailed examinations of individual trees were not possible, since they
were bucked only in lengths of approximately 40 feet, which prevented the measurement of the
actual extent of decay in the logs.
Data were obtained upon a total of 185 felled and bucked trees, 86 of which were perfectly
sound.    In the remainder, four important decays were found, namely:—
(1.)  Red-brown butt-rot due to Polyporus schwcinitzii.
(2.)   Conk-rot due to Trametes pint.
(3.)  An unidentified yellow stringy butt-rot.
(4.)  Brown trunk-rot due to Fames officinalis. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 17
Numerically, these rots occurred in the above order, but, although no accurate measurements were made, it was obvious that the common butt-rot due to P. schweinitzii is of relatively
minor importance as far as volume of rot per tree is concerned. " Long-butting " would, in
most cases, eliminate it completely, whereas in the case of conk-rot and brown trunk-rot affected
trees were frequently total culls. The unidentified butt-rot was found to be causing considerable
difficulty for scalers, due to the fact that it was very variable in extent. In most cases it
extended much higher up the tree than did the common butt-rot.
As far as distribution is concerned, the red-brown butt-rot was fairly uniformly represented
in all the areas examined, but in the case of the other rots there was considerable variation in
the different localities. Conk-rot was sometimes serious, in one area 23.7 per cent, of the trees
being infected. On one portion of this area 70 per cent, of the cull was found to be due to
Trametes pini, 25 per cent, to Fomes officinalis, and the remainder to Polyporus schweinitzii.
The results of the survey are summarized in the following table:—
Summary of Results of Preliminary Pathological Survey in the Douglas Fir Regions
of Vancouver Island.
Locality.
No. of
Trees.
Average
Age.
Per Cent.
Fir in
Stand.
Butt-rot
(P. schw.).
Butt-rot
(V).
Conk-rot
(T. pini).
Trunk-rot
(F. offlc.)
Sound
No.
Per
Cent.
No.
Per
Cent.
No.
Per
Cent.
No.
Per
Cent.
Trees.
Point-no-Point	
Shawnigan Lake
Cowichan Lake
Great Central	
Campbell River
55
42
39
23
26
400
420
220
300
250
55
75
80
90
90
17
17
14
7
9
31
40.5
36
30.4
34.6
6
2
1
15.4
9.0
3.9
4
10
3
2
7
7.3
23.7
7.7
9.0
26.9
4
3
1
9.5
7.7
4.5
33
15
17
11
10
Totals
185*
64
34.6
9
4.9
26
14.0
8
4.3
(46.5%)
* The apparent discrepancy in the totals is due to the fact that some trees contained more than one rot.
FOREST MENSURATION.
During the year a yield table has been completed for Douglas fir in the Coast region to
replace the preliminary one published in 1924 and a new table has been prepared for Engelmann
spruce in the Interior.    Both of these tables are presented herewith.
Accurate information on the rate of growth of our different forest types is required both for
the management of our individual Provincial Forests and for the determination of general forest
policy. It is desirable that the annual cut of timber in the Province should not exceed the
growth, but the determination of the total amount of growth each year requires careful and
comprehensive study.    The preparation of yield tables forms an important part of this work.
The table for Douglas fir is based on 108 sample plots measured on Vancouver Island and the
Lower Coast; these plots were measured for area, age, and volume of timber; they were well
distributed by age-classes and locality. They are representative of average conditions in well-
stocked young forests throughout the region. In the portions of the table presented here the
values refer to the total stand of all trees 1 inch and over in diameter, breast-height, with the
exception of the table of board-foot contents, which is based on trees of 7 inches and over.
The spruce table is based on sixty-six sample plots measured in the Babine and Nehalliston
Forests in the Central Interior. Values are for all trees of 1 inch and over in diameter, except
the column for board-feet, which is based on trees 9 inches and over.
In both tables the classification of site or location quality is based on the average height-
growth of the thrifty trees of the stand at 100 years of age; this height represents the " site
index " of the tables. The methods of compiling the tables are those outlined by Bruce,* with
subsequent modifications as suggested by Reineke.f Furthermore, detailed tables for intermediate site-classes and partial stands or further information concerning the methods of
compilation may be secured on application to the Research Division of the Forest Service at
Victoria.
* Bruce, D.    A Method of Preparing Timber-Yield Tables.    Jour. Agr.  Research.    32 :543-557,  1926.
t Relneke, L. H.    A Modification of Bruce's Method.    Jour. Agr. Research.    35 : 843-855, 192'7.
2 B 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
All tables of yield which have been prepared up to the present have applied to even-aged
stands, in which one species formed either the entire stand or at least the dominant overwood.
Such tables have been based on plots measured in stands of average full density, but they can
be readily applied to stands which are under—or over—stocked. A considerable proportion of
the forests in the Province are either uneven-aged or composed of two or more species, and it
is necessary to devise a means of measuring and predicting their rate of growth. During the
past year a study has been undertaken for this purpose in the forest at the Aleza Lake Experiment Station, which is typical of the uneven-aged forests of spruce and balsam in the Interior.
As a start in this work a plan of investigation has been worked out and measurements completed
on a series of permanent sample plots.    Work of compilation is going forward.
Yield Table for Typical Even-aged Stands of Douglas Fir in British Columbia
(Coast Region).
Site Index 50.
Total Age.
Trees
per Acre.
Average
D.B.H.
Average
Dominant
Height.
Basal Area
per Acre.
Volume.
Forest
Form
Factor.
Volume.
10
4,000*
4,000*
3,000*
2,080
1,277
914
694
'559
474
413
368
334
305
284
268
257
Inches.
0.4
1.3
2.1
3.3
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.4
8.3
9.0
9.8
10.4
11.0
11.6
12.2
12.7
Feet.
3
10
19
28
36
41
44
47
49
SO
51
S3
55
56
57
59     i
12
60
99
122
137
150
161
170
177
1S4
191
19S
204
211
218
225
Cu. Ft.
IS
264
784
1,351
1,932
2,348
2,663
2,908
3,111
3,293
3,482
3,671
3,853
4,042
4,231
4,417
0.457
0.437
0.418
0.400
0.38S
0.380
0.374
0.367
0.363
0.358
0.356
0.351
0.347
0.344
0.339
0.336
Bd. Ft.
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
! Over.
Site Index 80.
Inches.
Feet.
Cu. Ft.
Bd. Ft.
10
3.S00*
3,000*
0.6
1.6
S
16
13
63
30
445
0.457
0.437
20
30
2,500*
2.6
30
104
1,321
0.418
1,023
40
1,430
4.0
45
128
2,277
0.400
6,274
■50
877
5.5
58
145
3,257
0.388
10,813
60
628
6.S
66
158
3,958
0.380
14,418
70
477
8.1
71
169
4,490
0.374
17,177
80
384
9.2
75
178
4,903
0,367
19,313
90
326
10.2
78
187
5,243
0.363
21,226
100
284
11.2
80
194
5,552
0,358
22,962
110
253
12.1
82
201
5,870
0.356
24,608
120
229
12.9
85
209
'6,189
0.351
26,299
130
209
13.,7
'87
215
6,496
0.347
27,946
140
195
14.4
89
222
6,815
0.344
29,637
150
184
15.1
92
230
7,133
0.339
31,283
160
177
15.7
94
237
7,446
0.336
32,974
* Over. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 19
Site Index 110.
Total Age.
Trees
per Acre.
Average
D.B.H.
Average
Dominant
Height.
Basal Area
per Acre.
Volume.
Forest
Form
Factor.
Volume.
Inches.
Feet.
Cu. Ft.
Bd. Ft.
10
3,000*
2,300*
0.6
7
14
44
0.457
20
2.0
99
67
652
0.437
30
1,810
3.3
42
111
1,938
0.418
1,897
40
950
5.1
61
136
'3,339
0.400
11,632
50
583
6.9
80
154
4,775
0.388
20,047
60
417
8.6
91
16S
■5,804
0.380
26,730
70
317
10.1
98
ISO
6,583
0.374
31,843
80
25S
11.6
103
190
7,18S
0,367
35,805
90
217
12.9
107
198
7,690
0.363
39,352
100
189
14.1
110
206
8,140
0,35S
42,570
110
168
15.2
113
214
S,607
0.356
45,622
120
152
16.2
116
222
9,074
0.331
48,757
130
139
17.2
120
229
9,524
0.347
51,810
140
129
18.1
123
236
9,991
0.344
34,945
150
122
19.0
126
244
10,458
0.339
57,997
160
117
19.8
129
252
10,916
0.336
■61,132
* Over.
Site Index llfi-
Inches.
Feet.
Cu. Ft.
Bd. Ft.
10
2,500*
1,810
0.9
2.7
9
28
14
71
59
'879
0.457
0.437
20
30
1,110
4.4
S3
US
2,612
0.418
2,787
40
581
6.7
78
144
4,500
0.400
17,089
50
337
9.2
102
163
6,436
■0.3S8
29,451
60
253
11.3
113
17S
7.S24
0.380
39,268
70    ■
194
13.4
124
191
S,S73
0.374
46,783
80
156
15.3
131
201
9,689
0.367
52,600
90
132
17.1
136
210
10,366
0.363
57,812
100
115
T8.'6
140
219
10,972
0.358
62,539.
110
103
20.1
■   144
227
11,602
0.356
67,023
120
93
21.5
148
233
12,231
0.331
71,629
130
'85
22.8
152
242
12,S38
0.347
76,113
140
79
24.0
136
251
13,467
0.344
80,719
150
75
25.1
160
259
14,097
0.339
83,203
160
72
26.2
164
267
14,715
0.336
89,809
Over.
Site Index 170.
Inches.
Feet.
Cu. Ft.
Bd. Ft.
10
1,500*
784
480
1.3
4.1
6.S
11
34
65
15
73
121
74
1,096
3,257
0.457
0.437
0.418
20
30
3,714
40
251
10.4
95
148
3,612
0.400
22,771
SO
154
14.1
124
167
8,026
0.388
39,244
60
110
17.4
140
183
9,756
0.380
52,326
70
84
20.7
151
196
11,065
0.374
62,339
SO
68
23.6
159
206
12,083
0.367
70,091
90
57
26.2
165
216
12,926
0.363
77,033
100
50
28.6
170
224
13,682
0.358
83,334
110
44
31.0
175
233
14,467
0.356
89,309
120
40
33.0
180
241
15,252
0.351
95,446
130
37
35.0
185
249
16,008
0.347
101,422
140.
34
36.9
190
257
16,794
0.344
107,559
150
32
38.6
193
266
17,579
0.339
113,534
160
31
40.3
199
274
18,350
0.336
119,671
* Over. B 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Yield Table for Typical Even-aged Stands of Engelmann Spruce in British Columbia.
Sight Index 50.
* Over.
Sight Index 70.
Stand
Age.
.Entire  Stand comprising all Trees 1"  4-
9" D.B.H.
AND  OVER.
Total.
B.H.
No. of
Trees.
Average
D.B.H.
Average
Height.
Average
Height of
Dom. and
Co-D.
Basal
Area
per Acre.
Total
Cu. Vol.
per Acre.
Merch.
Vol.
Sq. Ft.
Bd. Ft.
20
3
15
2,000*
2,000*
1.4
10
7
17
28
325
30
40
25
2,000*
1.9
16
24
49
'625
50
35
2,000*
2.4
23
30
75
1,163
60
45
2,060
2.9
31
35
97
2,020
70
53
1,910
3.3
3S
40
115
2,S60
200
80
65
1,760
3.6
42
44
128
3,415
700
90
75
1,360
4.0
44
47
137
3,790
1,400
100
■85
1,400
1.3
46
50
143
4,050
2,200
110
93
1,240
4.7
4S
52
147
4,230
3,100
120
, 105
1,110
5.0
50
55
150
4,400
3,900
130
115
997
5.3
51
56
152
4,520
4.S0O
140
125
898
5.6
53
58
154
4,620
5,650
150
135
816
5.9
54
59
155
4,700
6,500
160
145
748
6.2
55
61
157
4,760
7,400
170
155
6S1
6.5
56
62
158
4,825
8,300
180
165
631
6.S
57
62
159
4,SS5
9,250
190
175
586
7.1
5S
63
160
4,943
10,250
200
185
546
7.3
59
64
161
5,003
11,150
Sq. Ft.
Bd. Ft.
.20
5
15
25
35
1,800
1,430
1,230
1,190
2.0
2.9
3.6
10
13
21
10
24
34
43
10
31
55
83
440
830
1,570
30
40
50
300
60
45
1,080
4.3
30
SO
109
2,720
1,500
70
55
974
4.9
40
56
129
3,850
3,200
80
65
893
5.4 ■
49
61
145
4,590
5,200
90
73
795
6.0
57
66
154
3,090
7,300
100
83
707
6.5
60
70
161
5,440
9,400
110
95
631
6.9
63
73
166
5,710
11,400
120
103
563
7.4
65
76
169
5,920
13,300
130
113
506
7.9
67
79
172
6,070
15,1*50
140
125
457
8.3
69
81
174
6,200
16,900
150
135
416
8.8
70
83
175
6,310
18,700
100
145
379
9.2
72
85
177
6,400
20,200
170
155
349
9.7
73
86
178
6,480
21,600
180
165
322
10.1
75
S7
179
6,560
22,900
190
175
299
10.5
76
88
ISO
6,640
24,150
200
185
278
10.9
77
89
1S1
6,725
25,300 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 21
Sight Index 90.
Stand
Age.
Entire Stand comprising all Thees 1" +
9" D.B.H.
AND  OVER.
Total.
B.H.
No. of
Trees.
Average
D.B.H.
Average
Height.
Average
Height of
Dom. and
Co-D.
Basal
Area
per Acre.
Total
Cu. Vol.
per Acre.
Merch.
Vol.
Sq. Ft.
Bd. Ft.
20
5
1,300
1.2
9
13
11
240
30
15
713
2.9
IS
'30
33
340
40
25
569
4.4
29
44
39
1,050
740
50
33
545
o.o
41
55
90
1,970
2,300
60
45
492
6.6
56
64
117
3,410
6,000
70
55
445
7.5
6S
72
138
4,825
11,000
80
65
405
8.3
75
79
154
3,760
15,800
90
75
359
9.2
79
85
164
6,385
20,000
100
85
321
9.9
S3
90
172
6,825
23,500
110
95
285
10.7
S7
94
177
7,160
26,500
120 .
103
254
11.4
90
98
ISO
7,420
29,000
130
115
228
12.1
92
102
183
7,620
31,100
140
125
207
12.8
95
104
185
7,785
32,800
150
135
18S
13.5
97
107
187
7,915
34,300
160
145
171
14.2
99
109
1818
8,025
33,600
170
155
157
14.9
101
111
1S9
8,130
36,700
ISO
165
145
15.5
103
112
190
8,235
37,500
190
175
134
16.2
105
114
192
8,340
38,300
200
185
125
16.8
107
115
193
8,445
39,000
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY.
Insect-control work on the Kelowna watershed was carried through to completion during
the year. In all, some 1,200 trees were cut and burned at an average cost of $1.65 per tree.
Costs ran somewhat higher than formerly', due to the fact that infested trees were scattered,
this being a final clean-up. Lodgepole-pine stands infested with the bark-beetle (Dendroctonus
monticola) were the subject of the control measures, and the benefit of past control-work was
indicated by weak broods and the reduced spread of the infestation found in the course of this
season's work. The immediate surroundings of this project are now fairly clear and it is
concluded that further control measures will be unnecessary.
Investigation made of the outbreaks of this beetle in lodgepole-pine stands in the Kettle
Valley, notably near Greenwood and Rock Creek, indicates the cost of artificial control-work
would be greater than the economic value of the timber, particularly as the infestation is so
widespread. The same consideration applies to outbreaks in lodgepole-pine stands in other parts
of the Province, more especially when the stand is overmature and there is no immediate prospect
of utilizing the timber.
Mr. Ralph Hopping and his assistants, of the Entomological Branch of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, were actively engaged in investigation of destructive tree-insects throughout
all parts of the Province.    The results of these investigations may be summarized as follows:—
Further field surveys were made of an outbreak of the black-headed tip-moth (Peronea
variana Fernald) near Britannia Beach. The main host of this defoliator is western hemlock,
but occasionally balsam and Douglas fir were also found to be attacked. The larvae feed on the
current year's growth, though, when this is finished, they will eat the previous year's growth
and even 2-year-old needles. This year the infestation showed no increase over last year, but
instead appeared to be less severe. A few trees may die, but no widespread killing is to be
expected.    This moth was also found in a small infestation at Indian River.
A severe infestation of the western-hemlock looper (Ellopia somniaria) was found at Indian
River, North Arm of Burrard Inlet. This infestation resulted in the heavy defoliation of
hemlock, cedar, balsam, and vine-maple. Two other defoliators of minor importance, Peronea
variana and Nepytia phantasmaria, were found working in conjunction with the Ellopia somniaria.
Subsequent investigation revealed a parasite working on approximately  15 per cent,  of the B 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
hemlock-looper adults. Another outbreak of the hemlock-looper was reported on Gold Creek,
on the west side of Alouette Lakes. An intensive study of these infestations is planned for
1929. Two lines of action are suggested to cope with these outbreaks—namely, to clean-cut the
area or to dust by means of airplanes.
During the season of 1928 studies were made of the life-histories and habits of Phlwosinus
punctatus Dec. and Pseudohylesinus nebulosus Lee. at the seasonal experimental station at Pender
Harbour.    A study was also made of predators and parasites of these two species.
Further field studies were made of certain phases of the life-history of the western-cedar
borer (Trachykele blondeli Mars) and the effect of seasoning on the larvae. Pole-timber infested
by the borer was used in the seasoning experiments.
FOREST-FIRE RESEARCH.
Further field-work was carried out in connection with fires originating from spark-emitting
engines and their control by arresters. The conclusions arrived at after two seasons' work
are:—■
A donkey-engine with the exhaust outside is safer than the same engine with exhaust inside
the stack and equipped with the most efficient spark-arrester.
Most donkeys now in use will maintain their output with equal efficiency when the exhaust
is placed outside the stack.
In long hauls, 1,200 feet and up, small engines have more reserve power when the exhaust
is inside the stack.
When the exhaust is placed outside the stack a distinct saving in fuel is recorded.
THE INDUSTRY.
Value to Province.
The total value of the industry, including value of product, transportation within the
Province, etc., reached $93,787,000, an increase of $10,000,000 over 1927 and a new high record.
The increase was due not only to an increased volume in forest products, but to a substantial
increase in the price of shingles and an improved price on sawn lumber.
Estimated Value of-Production.
Lumber	
Pulp and paper..
Shingles	
Boxes..
Piles, poles, and mine-props   	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties	
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the wood-using
industry	
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
Logs exported	
Pulp-wood exported	
Totals .
847,600,000
15,018,000
9,869,000
2,072,000
2,200,000
l,500,0i0
1,715,000
2,000,000
500,000
4,200,000
986,674,000
$41,800,000
13,938,000
10,000,000
2,272,000
2,100,000
1,400,000
2,242,000
2,100,000
550,000
4,300,000
$80,702,000
§41,350,000
14,466,000
10,000,000
2,200,000
2,400,000
1,800,000
1,990,000
2,100,000
1,617,000
3,870,000
148,000
$81,941,000
$84,802,000
$40,487,000
18,505,000
6,600,000
1,707,000
4,030,000
1,405,000
1,440,000
2,100,000
2,000,000
4,561,000
52,000
$83,087,000
$48,346,000
16,755,000
10,000,000
2,601,000
4,684,000
1,633,000
1,873,000
2,200,000
2,100,000
3,580,000
115,000
$93,787,000
Water-borne Trade.
The increase in water-borne trade was 25,090 M.B.M. This increase was due to stronger
demands from Japan and Europe. Australia, which is a large potential market for British
Columbia softwoods, showed a marked falling-off, absorbing only 30,000 M.B.M., as compared
with 53,000 M.B.M. in 1927. Improved transportation facilities and closer trade relations between
these two great units of the British Empire would do much to secure a larger part of the
Australian lumber market for Canadian producers. The stationing of a Lumber Commissioner
at Sydney, who would keep in touch with architects and builders, would, I believe, materially
assist in increasing our trade, especially through the replacing of redwood by cedar in joinery
and of Baltic lumber by Douglas fir and hemlock. These British Columbia woods are eminently
suited for many purposes to which the foreign woods are put and could be retailed at a reduced
price. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 23
Water-borne Lumber Trade.
Destination.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
Feet B.M.
78,003,423
11,252,890
717,600
36,398,234
105,916,915
16,201,290
8,221,032
4,803,236
248,611,600
4,361,139
994,341
3,665,241
677,756
1,705,394
177,041
Feet B.M.
34,848,783
12,169,230
752,906
25,595,993
79,107,984
41,527,008
10,681,208
2,228,150
313,104,821
134,690
544,604
3,454,183
6,883,150
•229,608
Feet B.M.
40,228,887
12,619,730
2,168,921
10,783,086
67,671,449
53,845,679
8,875,544
3,359,869
361,016,940
56,863
667,012
2,610,143
12,820,848
835,317
Feet B.M.
36,809,373
16,201,328
1,160,947
4,615,921
177,193,559
41,575,593
17,651,788
1,653,675
400,347,692
221,378
8,792,765
3,791,670
2,573,529
154,038
Feet B.M.
53,502,046
10,847,545
2,168,973
9,178.973
191,597,552
36,427,449
18,562,680
3,566,713
392,074,528
1,734,314
16.023,319
1,884,632
Feet B.M.
29,843,132
8,531,322
10,304,032
16,902,137
219,361,557
67,075,872
13,625,781
India and Straits Settlements	
411,577
384,107,908
56,681
8,356,571
5,496,319
333,660
Egypt	
2,649,559
12,047
740,230,330
1,149,573
521,707,132
531,262,318
577,560,288
712,743,256
765,556,122
Pulp and Paper.
Inquiries relative to suitable locations for pulp and paper plants continue to pour into the
Department, and some active investigation-work was carried out during the year. No new
construction-work was undertaken and the pulp capacity remains as in 1927. The production
of paper was slightly higher. During the year the industry had to face declining prices, due
to overdevelopment in the Eastern field, and the value of pulp products shows a decline of
1% million dollars. The following tables show the pulp and paper products manufactured,
the ground wood and 55,000 tons of the sulphite pulp going into the manufacturing of newsprint :—
Puu.
Pulp.
1920. .
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
Tons.
92,299
16,380
108,665
Tons.
68,502
6,519
89,725
Tons.
86,894
9.674
100,769
Tons.
99,878
9,932
107,266
Tons.
89.S39
14,403
112,001
Tons.
92,514
16,856
121,363
Tons.
108,381
15,000
136,123
Tons.
119,005
13,700
163,548
Tons.
120,413
15,050
170,005
Sulphate	
Paper.
Product.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
Tons.
214,010
18,745
1928.
Other papers	
Tons.
136,832
9,792
Tons.
110,176
6,934
Tons.
124,639
7,945
Tons.
142,928
7,709
Tons.
136,281
9,653
Tons.
148,201
9,261
Tons.
176,924
10,389
Tons.
225,477
15,960
Lumber Trade Extension.
The Lumber Commissioner for Eastern Canada is in constant touch with architects, contractors, home-builders, and manufacturers. The exhibit in Toronto has been enlarged to
include a comprehensive range of British Columbia woods, plain and finished, for interior trim.
This has been of great value in creating interest in the possibilities of our woods and has
attracted much favourable attention. Excellent results have been achieved through the distribution to interested parties of finished specimens and literature descriptive of the qualities
inherent in our woods and the variety of effects available through their use. Special displays
of our woods have been arranged for and distributed among manual-training schools and retail
lumber-dealers, special care being given to the displays for dealers exhibiting in fall fairs.
Closer co-operation with retail lumber-dealers throughout the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec
has been deeply appreciated by them, and has resulted in a quickening of interest and, in some
cases, has made possible the removal of unjustifiable prejudices.
Exhibits were arranged for the " Better Home Show " in London, Ontario, and the Building
Exhibition held concurrently with the Quebec Retail Lumber Dealers' Association Convention B 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
in the City of Montreal last March. Results at Montreal were very encouraging and a follow-up
campaign arranged by the Lumber Commissioner resulted in great interest being shown by
architects in the Province of Quebec, which has led to, and is encouraging, the greater use of
our woods. The Lumber Commissioner co-operated with the Consolidated Shingle Mills of
British Columbia in their campaign to offset the competition of substitute roofings, the
co-operation giving greater effectiveness to that campaign.
Timber Administration.
The following tables give details of work done in connection with timber administration.
Points worthy of special note are :—
The log-scale of all material was 3,207,000 M. feet, an increase of 12.3 per cent. Increases
were noted in all districts except Prince Rupert and Cariboo. The increase in the Vancouver
District was 342,717 M.B.M. and in the Fort George District 36,101 M.B.M. By species Douglas
fir led in the increase with 194 million feet; increases were also recorded in cedar, spruce,
hemlock, lodgepole pine (jack-pine), and cottonwood. In comparing the classes of land from
which the cut was made, it is noted that the increase took place chiefly on old Crown grants,
but increases did occur on all classes. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 25
"3H
o ?
■ 00     •
.    -co    •
■ i-
• o   •
. to    .
-SO     ■
IO
.Ol     .
. fc*    .
. CD     .
.Ol     .
. o"   .
.     -CO
N
CO
■*
CM
■ 00     •
■ o   -
■ IN     ■
.   .o   ■
. ua
. to
■ io   ■
.   TjH        -
'
8$
o
00
CO
p
CM
to
oo"
so
00
<M     .
00     •
eo" :
r-i
CO    ".
tfl
aS"
§
Jl
©J
CD
O*
C-l
co"
.Ol
«o
Tj-T
«>
«0
W
©a
CO
■ CO     .
■ Ol     •
.(O     .
. -D*    .
. 00     .
00
cc
OS
co"
■ CO
■ o
■CO
1 iO
CO      •
0 ■
01 •
00
CO     .
00     .
1*   ■
CO     •
«   ■
CO     .
eo
CO
c»
o"
co
m
&r
CO
o"
3
.«   ■
. co    -
.00    •
JoT  .
.Ol     .
.00    ■
■of '
; oo  ;
00
<g
i~
qS
3
«?
(M
30
Ol
iff
t-
00
CO
93
co"
iO
Ol"
O
CM
CS
«
iff
M
o
C-l
OO
lO
CO
■ eo
■ o
*°1
'.of
eo
■ c-f
' ■■■#
<M
■CU
• CM
■°i
' eo"
Ice
■ o
•oi
(M
•CO
.5
. iO
■ ci"
' IO
• >o
"n"
■ io
.©
" CO*"
:oi
00
Cl
coco
<m*
00
ri
w
E-i
I
M
CO
OS
M
3
B
rr
O
O
M
ffl
CD lO 0*CO'
-3JO! CO CO
"-• CO O 00
tp a. tt> co
o co"eo"eo
oo co
t- —.
iO -V
h eo occ
•1 (M CO 0
0t~ CO
a co oo
3 iO CD
0 ^ iO
eo eo
.;.;,  ;.■!•■  t»-r-iOiO00l^0icC'*O
5"Op-*i-HiO--0^C00000t^--rf     "
corbin     MNft     «"»o*eo
io oo ■•*     -mca     coooco
r-i ir; CO      "■ -'•
- O «
eo eo
W*
U UJ Ol C UJ u pj T 1CJ
•* Ol "* io 00 C~ "O t- CO
"" co" 3      00 »o" io"     rn
Ol 00        C^  lO rH        rt
r-tt£> CO £M
CO CO
1-   -H
JO CO
Ol
fi a
o
H««o-XOco'w*0»'*fflMCOinifto©'«OHiNTfinifl»HCOtCHiaoHCiON-!iiNin     ocooco
WGO-H-.HHIMH-*®'*iOG:0  ^CO-OOOCDCDC-IOOC^-^COr-lO'^'Ol'^CO'OrH^eOCOCOOJCO'JOrHOO     . r- I- 00 N
r-.eocooii-tcortoooocOeoi^cO(M(N'-t-o      Tttj-ajrHTfi^e-qcMtMcocy.      co -N "*      r- go co      cdj>t-h    -eoeor-
c: co oi
eo co co
CO rH
oeo ■* «
iO CO ■* "W
(M O OS CO
tDc-coOlCMrHCSCiCOOCM
ot-o^fr-MioiNOiooo
00        1- CO CO t- O Ol CO        CO
■^■COOO-fCOCOOrHCOPV
HHCMOMOOCO-OOr
iOCD       O WMCC "J"M<C
eo co
oi ei
COOOr- -frHrHOCOOOCOCO^COOOt-^
lO'CrHioeoioincotNcOrHioeoooicoo
;___ i-h oo eo r- as oo     i—i ■* io (M co co eo      u
CO CO 00 i-H C-f CC"io"       ^# ©lo'i-Hi^" '*"(—*       r-
0«M
O CO CO
rH -WH--.
in to o c "5 w-N
h!oSh2oS
ntDNOOMNOMNW
ff. nOuitDOH««C)«
CO iO CN O       COOOiO       NO
r—
OMQ«JO
(MOS r-i rH
N-HlJJ
OOCO
CO Ol Tf CO
CO Ol WN
c oi i-h eo
CO C^ CM CO
COOCO
1— (M
Ol
iM fM
lO CO
t- (M        r-i
■H- (M
oTuj IM*Q
O) Ol       00
'■S6*i|f3i|g3
■H   ci -C Bi "-   u .C &H ^:   O
rtC&H^ ©--a 5^-
C o  QJ -
"UJ3'J
2  O  CU ,
2 a£S
? ca £ c ? 23 £
"3-S F^
.23 uj=6h
Q 0"W«'  ■—  O ffl
tf5 a fl >=< ™ © j3
B r-r-z-3
- & .
- 9  - B 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
5?
oo
Ph
ti B ri sa
O CO Tji O"
io co -«o t
JOV   I   "**
t>        Ol
io" I o-f
OOODul
OOMO
■CSQN
CO CO
iO©    .
00 t-H    •   O
•Too   I f-T I io
occ
t— 00 00
■* CD^O
co cTo
CS IN I-
00 IN IO
lO 00
lO rH
0O O
os c"    oi
^S Is
Iss
r-i eo -O
t-H O O
IO i-H tji
CO cs
(M Cl
00
■rt(OMI-
182
264
803
950
;  'OO
; co in
I O -»o
CO IO
CO IO
I    rH CC
I   O iO
■* -tf to t-
t- O 00 CN
ONOW
cTco r^co
ci cm r- Qp
iO iO io iO
r-
T»l
X
00
lO
<p
o
Ci
t—
a
io
T*
CO
is-
Tji
CO
3 '8
-1"
g>
o
tt
«3
ft    1   CO
3 1
r-
eo
CO
CO
©
a
CO
cs
t>
Cl
■N
*N
o « o fc
J§1J
'c~£ 1 B FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 27
00
i
S3
w
■5
s
H
a
r\
B
a
<
a
S
B
i-i
o
O
H
c
ea
H
«i
H
O
<N
CD     -
L
i^
i--
to   ;
CO
• CO t^- CO
- IO i.S Cl
- O io m
o
o
t- © T-( fir
O Cl ■* oo
coco" o eo
Cl O <N -J>
lOlOrHN
CO CO
CO
Tji
r-
CM
(M
Cl t-  Tfl  CO
CO CO 00 X
O 00 Ol CO
(ft 1-
C6-P
CO O
Tf
.,,
: *» '■&
°j£ es
oC o 2
cj O s o
C&HtdM
si
.5 a
B*
O, ea C -
S    i
S 1"
P.-§»;
N O H M -11 01
O CS tji lO 00 CS
IO X. -o OO «* H
CD CO O (M CO 00
0>0(Nl-'*»
CO tji ©Cl IO i-h
CO IO Tji Q0 0C
l-o
eo
03
CM
O r- — r^ co co
OC3H03TCD
lO O N 00 00 00
I-." cm" CO* O 00 CO
t WNoaco
IQ-MHiicON
lO CD C
IO CO 0
HlO'
3 CO CO
hCOO.
5 COP-
Tf CO CO
CO    1
o
eoooiocDGOTti t-w Ico
OTficOt^CO-Ji lei io
r- eo OS i-H OOO    '   -
©"r-*o"co*. "_
io i— oo r~ cs th
MHiMCOOC
-i:
C! IM iO Tfl CM O
Tf r- tj. o >o oi
CO Ol CM CM CM •*
rH I> Tji"t~ IN iO
onnsshx
!M IO iO Ol CS -N
•Si
■NNO0DC0
• CO tO Cl CO *0
• CO iO tji iq cj
!   TjTl^pH   I©   tp
. CS  TJI rH Tfl CO
. «.j O O X o
i«l|fi
« erf I- o ti
(M O Tf> CO
Cl
lO CM Tfi lO
CM
(M
«
00
o
t-
Cl
Of)
01
rH
00
|
o
CO
Tfl
0C
"3
iO B 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Logging Inspection, 1928.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
98
298
5!
435
396
343
"a
"3
50
289
91
261
580
752
148
587
144
743
976
1,098
432
1,353
435
Southern Interior	
1,754
2,534
3,088
Totals, 1928   	
1,623
50
2,023
3,696
9,596
Totals, 1927	
1,584
133
1,873
3,590
8,661
1,475
84
1,921
3,453
7,921
Totals, 1925	
1,262
54
1,730
3,046
7,321
Totals, 1924	
1,245
69
1,853
3,167
7,466
Totals, 1923	
1,010
166
2,140
3,316
2,652
6,892
Totals, 1922	
914
691
159
1,579
4,654
Totals, 1921	
186
1,331
2,208
2,796
4,053
Totals, 1920	
605
220
1,961
2,703
Trespasses, 1928.
Forest District.
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
Quantity
CUT.
01 53
05 5
"s'i
6 ui
■=5.5
Amount.
Feet B.M.
Lineal
Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
6
13
5
16
46
19
105
39
219
34
67
455
04
82,323
3,783,349
313,857
788,650
898,873
2,750
18,310
1,585
14,335
46,400
14,899
98,279
535
579
3,578
21
154
4,399
766
8,663
2,467
160
2
'9
1
12
§    354 62
8,478 01
151 72
1,342 79
4,147 05
3,312 91
Totals, 1928	
878
399
541
645
5,867,052
4,713
16,599
817,787 10
Totals, 1927	
83
84
2,200,926
1,972,843
47,871
2,862
9,660
9
9 9,097 53
144,357
433
1,563
10,233
6
Totals, 1925	
87
3,486,609
98,456
16,820
4
114,534 94
Totals, 192-1	
68
570
2,182,808
54,068
767
7,646
2
$ 8,539 86
Totals, 1923	
105
1,015
6,712,868
121,202
1,598
2,591
20,082
8
$27,860 08
98
1,059
3,002,881
98,903
27,022
21,605
16
316,406 30
Totals, 1921	
98
1,938
3,222,673
209,395
1,639
10
$15,924 22
73
1,788
4,904,079
104,048
1,882
6,716
10
$17,119 85
In timber-sale business the number of sales increased by 25 per cent. The amount of timber
sold, however, is very much less than during the previous year, when one large sale in excess of
one billion feet was made for pulp-development purposes. The average price received per
thousand feet for saw-timber records a drop of 13 cents. This does not mean that there has
been a drop in the basic stumpage prices, but rather that the timber included in recent sales is
less accessible. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 29
Timber Sales awarded by Districts, 1928.
District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piling
(Lineal Feet).
No. of
Posts.
209,400
650,800
19,800
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(No. of Cords).
607
54
1,607
16,741
9,400
20,319
No. of
Railway-
ties.
53,156
422,505
379,137
271,170
857,320
13,170
Estimated
Revenue.
40
32
190
238
295
238
2,966.50
8,331.00
35,055.52
53,452.95
58,234.60
36,888.80
2,221,434
1,222,000
51,982,477
98,082,633
282,913,400
88,828,816
65,000
707,618
609,258
2,269,264
2,183,080
702,782
6,537,002
7,332,939
$     10,900 14
35,806 11
235,873 34
Southern Interior ....
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver	
325,999 70
408,222 86
327,471 78
Totals, 1928...
1,033
194,929.37
258,097.26
118,815.23
94,015.25
146,652
626,250,760
1,611,612,079
880,000
48,728
1,996,467
$1,344,273 93
Totals, 1927...
821
687
613
769
736,100
22,057
1,380,553
1,044,999
666,142
$2,666,678 32
Totals, 1926...
295,486,743
5,497,707
6,629,449
207,190
12,877
13,455
40,334
$1,038,536 69
Totals, 1925...
189,022,314
$   795,802 20
Totals, 1924...
302,813,267
516,397,438
6,336,071
6,234,342
47,640
2,418,633
$1,226,460 87
Totals, 1923...
852
163,464
23,150
2,304,161
$1,513,970 84
Totals, 1922...
671
631
108,501
249,572,808
3,304,254
149,300
41,580
880,307
993,417
6,415,349
$   862,888 49
Totals, 1921...
91,614
188,971,774
2,479,095
34,291
$   646,487 65
Totals, 1920...
594
121,690
440,649,765
245,209,300
2,811,095
86,726
52,557
$1,799,039 03
Totals, 1919...
356
61,809
2,899,000
5,000
957,804
$   664,372 09
Average Sale Price by Species.
Saw-timber,
Douglas fir	
Cedar	
Spruce 	
Hemlock	
Balsam	
White pine	
Western soft pine..
Tamarack	
Other species	
Totals
Figures for 1928,
Board-feet.
55,958,000
48,666,266
110,797,541
49,423,655
26,034,838
4,553,000
9,316,780
6,448,800
9,917,880
'321,015,760
Price
per M.
$1 51
1 61
1 65
85
83
2 98
1 77
1 23
1 09
$1 40
Figures for 1927.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
57,144,445
$1 63
80,839,900
1 68
146,694,173
1 71
26,344,700
9fi
31,931,100
6H
4,992,940
3 16
12,354,:00
1 73
6,617,505
1 07
. 2,175,116
1 12
$1 53
(318,094,079
Figures for 1926.
Board-feet.
Price
Per M.
57,772,863
$1 67
37,147,1-19
2 01
106,636,017
1 76
40,746,817
1 01
21,478,293
79
6,370,450
3 98
5,225,470
2 04
425,000
1 47
10,344,68*
1 47
}2S6,146,743
$1 66
Figures for 1925.
Board-feet.
41,960,515
38,953,370
46,374,625
26,028,240
12,763,909
7,193,280
5,909,580
1,082,850
3,855,945
5184,122,314
Price
Per M.
$1
78
2
05
1
91
1
03
1
05
3
74
2 07
1
46
1
20
SI
74
* Note.— 204,235,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1928 totals,
t Notk.—1,293,518,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1927 totals.
X Note.—9,340,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1926 totals.
§ Note.—4,900,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1925 totals.
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1928.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Posts.
1,618,138
915,311
34.860,864
35,658.865
40,800,237
89,354,916
203,208,331
214,209,921
24,456
701,896
400,260
3,138.065
2,686,077
721,540
964.00
166.00
617.00
6,406.63
774.52
15,571.20
24,389.35
27,508.54
67,031
90,922
438,970
348,403
762,274
7,109
1,000
33,600
316,745
24,838
70
Totals, 1928	
7,672,294
1,714,709
376,253
Totals, 1927	
6,368,269
4,974,620
1,359,902
' 86,109
%           Totals, 1926	
242,973,524
251,141,398
16,676.45
20,808.14
17,294.00
17,666.55
37,345.91
1,198,922
1,077,414
83,763
Totals, 1925	
4,885,352
Totals, 1924	
230,148,675
4,541,371
1,543,915
. 856,628
Totals, 1923	
207,473,848
187,217,151
2,753,632
Totals, 1922	
1,523,744
2,169,550
1,638,549
672,699
495,672
Totals, 1921	
179,780,066
10,483.00
831,423
654,829
Totals, 1920	
168,783,812
107.701,950
17,703.00
12,208.00
573,286 B 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Areas cruised for Timber-sales, 1928.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George	
Kamloops  	
Prince Rupert	
Southern Interior ..
Vancouver 	
Totals, 1928
Totals, 1927
Totals, 1926
Totals, 1925
Totals, 1924
Number
cruised.
189
32
338
272
244
1,111
Acreage.
3,083
48,600
7,443
72,159
63,995
38,609
233,889
119,436
179,609
Saw-timber
(M.B.M.).
4,059
128,535
5,958
340,601
131,590
143,332
754,095
974,626
369,717
353,225
451,476
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
2,700
2,118,882
676.328
2,505,034
3,397,600
923,155
9,623,599
7,092,844
4,236,881
9,113.052
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
1,831
2,208
1,965
17,530
19,682
37,520
519,464
110,424
960,105
410,071
19,020
2,056,604
1,747.441
1,299,826
43,266
21,027
15,248
57,441
1,389,604
1,873,954
41,554
Posts
(No.).
20,400
403,630
447,630
35,600
20,200
14,477
The export of logs shows a marked drop from the previous year, being only 211,947 M.B.M.,
as compared with 281,584 M.B.M. in 1927. Moreover, the movement of logs from Washington
to British Columbia points showed a considerable increase. Logs have been imported in small
quantities before, but during 1928 32,000 M.B.M. were brought into British Columbia for manufacture at local mills. In addition to logs, 18,641 lineal feet of poles and piling, 11,464 cords
of pulp-wood, and 12,659 hewn railway-ties were exported to the United States.
Export of Logs during 1928.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir	
F.B.M.
16,172,935
4,249,601
140,713
F.B.M.
62,360,551
42,651,640
1,071,970
F.B.M.
.16,123,557
31,579,191
291,675
F.B.M.
F.B.M.
94,657,043
Cedar	
78,480,432
1.504,358
30,678,521
4,172,503
.    1,466,275
961,983
26,116
37,305,398
48,510,833
30,678,521
4,172,503
Yellow pine
White pine
1,466,275
961,983
26,116
1928   	
1927   	
1926	
1925	
1924	
Totals
20,563,249
106,0S4,161
47,994,423
51,584,928
53,113,521
40,312,806
211,947,231
Totals
36,545,972
32,195,991
34,501,748
23,416,816
144,942,558
105,322,879
281,584,291
Totals
33,845,324
224,477,715
Totals
96,701,737
111,801,016
38.901,670
210,417,961
Totals
49,549,135
55,763,860
240,530,827 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 31
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Forest District.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
Japan.
Kamloops—
2,242,623
117,701
59
106,608
571,788
464
1,239
643,946
3,349,199
25,383
719,918
8,456,817
746
11,464
7,022,038
9,839
13,498
638,688
$270,124
15,201
420
69,318
74,332
4,640
7,434
390,860
468,887
4,313
444,694
1,268,372
2,986
114,640
1,123,526
108,229
113,549
296,278
1,S96,435
466,240
2,661,350
8,089,686
746
11,464
5,627,354
2,389
12,659
346,188
117,701
59
106,608
105,548
464.
1,239
643,946
787,849
25,381
719,918
1,394,684
9,839
11,109
526,029
Railway-ties : No.
Fort George—
Prince Rupert—
Vancouver—
366,131
Southern Interior—
Total value, 1928 *	
$4,777,803
84,248,582
Total value, 1927	
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1928.
Operating,
Shut Down.
*               1
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
d
rr  13
£ W
aO„-
S >,".
I'Sj
16
600
75
488
1,626
9,114
11,919
12,176
12,962
11,475
11,986
11,273
d
V a
$ 3 «
cfl C  33
aoS
"85
8,195
8,280
12,042
d
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
M.B.M.
d
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
Shingles, M.
3
22
6
27
83
174
3
53
56
65
33
6
4
12
22
43
137
170
183
614
310
1,045
2,459
2,549
1,675
2,121
2,618
2
12
200
270
2,240
Totals, 1928	
314
120
15
2,710
Totals, 1927	
375
110
22
2,740
Totals, 1926	
391
87
15,614
15,322
15,636
102
6
460
Totals, 1925 ',.
363
82
109
103
9
625
Totals, 1924	
359
78
20
16
1,780
352
107
16,144
72
90
1,493
2,054
745
Totals, 1922	
292
9,683
8,912
108
15,544
8
680
Totals, 1921..                   	
289
79
10,885
78
2,029
6
788
Totals, 1920	
341
10,729
109
13,426
37
909
2
30 B 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
PRE-EMPTION INSPECTION REPORTS, 1928.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Cariboo     501
Fort George   480
Kamloops     102
Prince Rupert   164
Southern Interior   275
Vancouver   257
Total   1,782
ANALYSIS  OF  ROUTINE  WORK.
Draughting Office, Forest Branch.
January......
February.  ...
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September....
October ..
November....
December .  ..
Totals
Timber-
42
26
30
24
27
12
29
29
34
43
69
37
Number of Tracings made.
Timber-
Examination
marks.
Sketches.
88
57
117
32
154
41
64
30
100
58
73
28
62
32
77
411
67
33
69
25
78
38
92
30
1,022
444
Hand-logger
Licences.
Miscellaneous.
12
25
24
29
11
12
8
10
In
25
11
5
Totals.
204
203
258
155
200
128
122
165
140
167
199
165
2,106
Blue-prints
from Reference Maps.
45
11
2
12
6
18
10
17
57
49
6
13
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued for the Years 1926, 1927, and 1928.
1926. 1927.
Old Crown grants      130 111
Crown grants, 1887-1906      162 121
Crown grants, 1906-1914      165 138
Section 53, " Forest Act "      270 269
Stumpage reservations       45 45
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land Act "      14 18
Dominion lands (general)        28 23
Dominion lands (timber berths)        20 18
Dominion lands  (Indian reserves)        21 12
Timber-sales  :     689 821
Hand-loggers          16 8
Special marks ■.         7 1
Rights-of-way           1 3
Pulp licences  ,        3 3
Totals 1,571 1,591
Transfers and changes of marks      178 202
HAND-LOGGERS' LICENCES.
Number issued
1926.
85
1927.
51
1928.
53 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 33
FOREST FINANCE.
The following tables give details of our forest finances. Revenue shows a drop in stumpage
and royalty. The latter item includes timber-tax, and the decline in export is directly reflected
herein. The charges for materials cut were $2,598,000, as compared with $2,542,000 in 1927, an
increase of $56,000. The expenditure for administration was $371,179.35, an increase of only
$35.05, while expenditure under special appropriations shows a decrease of $6,480.06.
The present condition of the Scaling Fund, the Forest Protection Fund, and the Forest
Reserve Account is given in their respective tables.
Forest Revenue.
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals	
Penalty fees and interest	
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)..
Trespass penalties	
Scalers' examination fees.	
Exchange	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous '	
Grazing fees	
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands..
Total revenue from forest sources
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1928.
$1,015,705 19
4,285 00
33,035 56
1,400 00
79,396 72
520 70
40,649 01
551,102 88
10,943 97
1,646 65
1,774,417 41
1,147 84
103 74
12,058 89
275 00
271 09
589 71
4,444 25
$3,531,993 61
12,541 98
388,860 46
$3,933,396 05
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1927.
$982,914 98
2,000 00
27,639 13
1,275 00
95,236 93
88 93
32,494 57
608,765 14
10,936 58
1,681 85
1,825,909 80
1,778 02
156 75
6,481 83
235 00
345 16
703 90
3,767 83
$3,602,411 40
16,629 20
424,023 04
$4,042,963 64
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1926.
$1,063,812 90
2,400 00
32,549 14
2,250 00
90,010 89
254 91
20,637 75
672,324 74
7,173 84
1,498 82
1,779,553 60
1,344 75
98 17
11,677 12
350 00
693 04
300 50
3,651 95
$3,590,482 12
12,328 64
410,684 46
$4,013,495 12
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1925.
$1,130,556 52
3,465 00
28,017 75
2,776 00
92,485 38
283 33
17,045 45
512,399 28
6,296 67
1,403 43
1,658,043 07
1,044 25
253 24
17,841 58
160 00
620 12
1,097 95
4,699 66
$3,478,387 68
14,114 89
398,393 85
$3,890,896 42
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1924.
$1,180,179 56
4,650 00
64,653 05
2,460 00
99,974 25
136 92
19,943 01
537,786 50
7,491 04
2,033 96
1,521,001 39
1,564 85
763 27
14,685 27
430 00
1,332 26
654 92
9,392 22
$3,469,112 46
14,240 66
298,973 97
$3,782,327 09
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1923.
$1,283,300 77
3,750 00
100,045 86
5,300 00
102,062 40
72 22
28,383 49
431,007 99
9,933 97
3,509 00
1,477,027 24
1,160 89
667 53
11,362 99
495 00
3,168 40
1,559 17
6,907 36
$3,468,714 28
13,651 01
308,041 92
$3,790,407 21
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1928.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
Tax.
Trespass
Penalties.
Seizure
Expenses.
Government Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stumpage.
Forest District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver ....
Cariboo	
Prince Rupert.
Southern Int'r.
Fort George ...
Kamloops	
$1,S23,9«S 71
4,124 13
119,931 50
205,167 86
122,131 98
19,495 75
$1,794,819 93
$1,767,710 60
$ 3,337 06
•293 83
815 47
4,394 56
11,855 53
170 72
$    74 25
15 45
178 00
80 29
1,753 08
2 60
$ 136 58
" 2000
$1,159 70
26 69
8 50
$18,943 82
1,333 82
$117,365 99
6,803 82
$123,169 81
$114,979 79
$203,229 81
6,434 38
164,289 60
142,912 43
96,819 39
22,606 83
$1,668,215 92
9,867 79
292,378 90
352,583 64
232,569 98
42,276 80
Totals,
Totals, 1927
$20,867 17
$ 7,343 44
$2,103 57
$ 789 47
$ 156 68
$ 163 57
$   98 34
$1,194 89
$2,032 43
$20,277 64
$17,169 14
$17,279 88
$635,292 44
$631,948 72
$2,597,882 03
$2,642,137 16
Totals, 1926
$1,774,494 75
$ 1,589 83
$59,804 57
$10,860 22
$25,508 75
$1,142 38
$ 913 29
$1,147 41
$119,704 75
$613,365 09
$2,528,822 43
Totals, 1925
$1,754,605 06
4(1,842,070 96
$ 197 08
$ 548 37
$ 741 66
$1,254 80
$18,794 39
$14,760 12
$116,682 68
$651,486 17
$2,603,738 04
Totals, 1924
$ 708 24
$2,179 42
$1,175 22
$103,691 71
$597,071 65
$2,271,890 69
Totals, 1923
$1,499,355 83
$ 746 59
$15,743 96
$108,713 66
$467,048 15
$2,119,033 72 B 34
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Tear 1927-28.
Headquarters ....
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George. ...
Prince Rupert....
Southern Interior.
Vancouver 	
Totals.
Forest District.
i 86,783 33
8,576 83
7,560 00
15,202 J 5
21,086 00
41,670 85
50,682 75
$231,561 91
Temporary
Assistance.
$2,068 84
195 00
1,611 92
1,068 87
2,620 15
634 74
$8,199 52
Lumber-trade extension	
Reconnaissance, etc'.	
Insect-control	
Grazing: range improvement.
Expenses.
$ 22,998 68
4,884 46
3,224 31
7,208 37
25,652 09
20,557 06
46,892 95
$131,417
$111,850 85
13,656 29
10,784 31
24,022 44
47,806 96
64,848 06
98,210 44
8371,179 35
11,074 05
38,152 31
9,263 05
4,923 72
Grand total    $434,592 48
SCALING FUND.
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1027  $10,665.11
Expenditure, fiscal year 1927-28  139,242.26
Charges, fiscal year 1927-28      $133,564.98       	
Balance, March 31st, 1928          16,342.39        	
$149,907.37 $149,907.37
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1928  $16,342.39
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1928           109,976.98
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1928     $113,923.98       	
Balance,   being   excess   of   expenditure  over
charges            12,395.39       	
$126,319.37    $126,319.37
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1927 	
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1927	
Expenditure, fiscal year 1927-28       $66,189.67
Balance         20,222.58
$86,412.25
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1928	
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1928	
Expenditure for 9 months to December 31st, 1928      $60,838.52
Balance, December 31st, 1928          31,659.03
$16,722.25
69,690.00
$86,412.25
$20,222.58
72,274.97
$92,497.55     $92,497.55 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 35
CROWN-GRANT TIMBER LANDS.
Area of Private
Timber Lands
(Acres).
1919     883,491
1920     867,921
1921     845,111
1922     887,980
1923    i  883,344
1924     654,668
1925     654,016
1926     688,372
1927     690,438
1928     671,131
Average
Value
per Acre.
$9.48
11.62
10.33
11.99
11.62
15.22
40.61
39.77
39.01
38.62
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1928.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1927.
Average Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value per
Acre since
1927.
96,773
145,565
83,931
41,997
328
33,758
7,129
82,100
12,640
10,340
16,590
42,540
58,040
6,046
33,354
- 2,289
- 3,681
- 4,920
- 4,131
+ 2,222
- 1,159
- 1,769
+     906
- 1,227
360
115
- 1,297
- 1,327
- 19,147
$54 56
47 38
67 34
9 67
14 98
9 52
10 64
43 87
8 77
19 29
22 38
15 16
10 12
93 74
35 26
$38 62
+$ 1 39
-     1 28
+        42
08
+        29
1 68
14
42
-     2 20
5 01
+        15
+    9 S3
62
671,131
- 9     39
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1928:—
Balance (deficit) at April 1st, 1927      $181,305.51
Expenditure, fiscal year 1927-28      $496,326.26
Less  refunds           23,575.70
 472,750.56
$654,056.07
Collections, fiscal year 1927-28     $170,316.60
Collections under special levy      135,956.17
Government contribution       300,000.00
      606,272.77
Balance  (deficit)       $47,783.30
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1928       $47,783.30
* Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1928       355,833.90
Carried forward  $403,617.20
* There is an amount of approximately $72,000 repayable by Forest Protection Fund to Vote 117 to
cover expenses of permanent employees, maintenance of motor-cars and launches, etc. B 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Brought forward   $403,617.20
Collections, April-December, 192S      $135,188.15
Collections under special levy, '9 mos., April-Dec, 1928 8,475.06
Government contribution        225,000.00
 368,663.21
Balance  (deficit)        $34,953.99
Forest Protection Fund Expenditure.
Patrols and fire prevention 	
Tools and equipment.
Fires	
Improvemen ts and
maintenance	
Totals	
Fiscal Years.
1921-22.
1922-23.
1923-24.
1924-25.
1925-26.
1926-27.
1927-28.
9 Months,
April 1st to
Dec. 31st, 1928.
$-:27,738
118,933
106,891
17,779
$202,994
91,812
508,992
37,609
$254,792
81,408
75,503
21,667
$433,370
$344,532
25,418
268,034
5,690
$377,427
33,976
650,138
11,890
81,073,431
$356,462
30,063
514,845
14,172
$358,835
30,409
84,600
22,482
$231,561 10
28,806 45
73,739 02
21,527 33
$471,341
$841,407
$633,674
$916,142
$196,326
$355,833 90
Expenditure by Districts for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1928.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George
Prince Rupert   ..
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Victoria 	
Totals....
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention
$ 22,447 41
24,112 32
28,869 99
21,876 24
100,127 39
121,846 42
39,554 87
$358,834 64
Tools and
Equipment.
$ 1,289 57
1,579 19
2,754 17
633 37
11,782 06
10,099 77
2,270 96
$30,409 09
Fires.
$ 4,244 60
1,652 86
30,909 38
6,566 48
24,544 98
16,781 98
$84,600 28
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
! 472 95
1,965 72
1,908 62
735 82
8,768 33
8,630 81
$ 28,454 53
29,210 09
64,442 16
29,811 91
145,222 76
157,358 98
41,825 83
$496,326 26 n
00
CM
2
<
m
D
0
u
I
tn
DQ
P
O
O     tf     cc     pq
Mlllll  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 37
FOREST-PROTECTION.
The weather was generally favourable for fire-control until late in the season. During
May, June, and July the rainfall was well distributed and humidity was consistently high.
From the middle of August and extending to the end of September there was a period of high
hazard, when fires spread rapidly, and it was during this period that the great part of our losses
occurred. The following table shows graphically the distribution of rainfall, as compared with
the ten-year average. The discrepancy of precipitation was strikingly general during the months
of August and September, and on the Coast during the entire season. The situation might be
expressed in this way: From 110 reports received, 32 showed excess precipitation and 78 rainfall
below normal—and in many cases only 10 to 25 per cent, of normal.
May.
June.
July.
August.
September.
Coast.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-J-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
—
Prince Rupert.
Prince George.
Cariboo.
Southern Interior.
Kamloops.
+  shows Increase over ten-year average.
— shows decrease over ten-year average.
In general, statistics show a rise in cost and damage concurrently with an increase in fire
occurrence. A notable exception to this is our record for 1928, when fire occurrence was up
32% per cent., but fire control and damage show a decrease. It may be fairly claimed that
betterments in equipment and detection facilities, noted elsewhere, have contributed to a large
extent in the favourable results achieved, when in spite of increased fire occurrence the weighted
average of all statistics shows the most successful year on record.
Fire Occurrence.
The Forest Branch reported 1,642 fires and the Dominion Forest Service 310. These
constitute an increase over 1927 of 32% per cent., the increase being slightly greater in the
Railway Belt than in the remainder of the Province. Of the Forest Branch fires, 49.2 per cent,
were extinguished under % acre and S3.5 per cent, under 10 acres. B 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FlEES,  1928,   CLASSIFIED  BY  SlZE AND  DAMAGE.
Total Fires.
Forest District.
d
fc
33   u
o £
rti£
g B
O »
■- £■)
112
106
179
148
620
477
6.82
6.45
Prince George	
10.90
9.02
37.76
29.05
Totals	
1,642
100.0
100.0
Totals, 1927	
1,284
100.0
100.0
Totals, 1926	
2,147
100.0
100.0
310
Under \ Acre.
\ Acre to 10 Acres,
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage
■3S?
H-g
HO
H-E
HO
H-g
HO
_
■»s
33O.
jO
0
&?
fc
g c
F =
B c
B B
£ s
c B
§
^
6
o »
Q ■»
S.fc
d
O m
0 «
,. Oj
d
O m
tr   £
O rn
'~,2
■c
£8
0)
fc
ft,fc,
p<&<
fc
~ —
Ph6<
6.21
fc
a/&,
— [5
D
hS
O
48
42.86
5.94
35
31.25
29
25.89
10.74
98
14
74
69.82
9.16
24
22.64
4.26
8
7.64
2.96
101
2
3
34
18.99
4.21
80
44.69
14.18
65
36.32
24.08
153
22
4
40
27.03
4.95
47
31.76
8.33
61
41.21
22.59
116
24
8
368
59.35
45.54
212
34.20
37.59
40
6.45
14.82
601
17
2
244
51.15
30.20
166
34.80
29.43
67
14.05
24.81
439
23
15
803
100.0
564
100.0
270
100.0
1,508
102
32
49.20
34.35
16.45
160
91.84
6.21
1.96
716
100.0
408
100.0
100.0
1,184
63
37
55.76
31.78
12.46
92.22
1,802
4.90
2.88
919
100.0
711
100.0
517
100.0
176
169
42.81
33.12
^1_
Jl^.
24.07
83.94
8.19
7.87
143
103
64
284
14
12
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1928.
Forest District.
ti
E
"e
be
34
48
20
4
194
22
322
19.61
C
gj
1 i
OH
.3
rti
B.
O
i*,
it
S    .
•m 33
it O
as
t.
01
!§
m 33
t-,333
it  t.
—  -°
'3 0
SC
0
.Si
0
to
fs-
E *; rt
.fe O-ii
S3 E «
8
3
33
36
18
51
a
0
31
rt
5c
K O
31 S
'3Z  33
33   333
m
P.
O
1 c
1.1
rt
•5
0
B
m
la
rt E
ro
E
as
O
E
£
B
E
&
"rt
O
H
•rt.   C
°'i
0* i
s£l
rt >
(.-go
^ z ■-
fcHC,
34
16
45
59
62
59
24
3
5
200
50
8
6
21
24
103
132
1
3
1
4
1
3
3
2
3
2
7
63
19
2
40
6
6
30
1
2
'2
26
53
4
1
13
6
3
14
112
106
179
148
620
477
6.82
6.45
10.90
9.02
37.76
29.05
274
16.69
28-2
17.18
294
17.90
149
9.07
13
0.79
80
4.87
103
6.27
84
5.12
41
2.50
9
3.00
1,642
100.00
63
20.30
32
10.30
♦68
21.90
58
18.70
20
6.45
5
1.60
33
10.65
22
7.10
310
100.00
Per cent	
* In addition to the 68 railway fires shown as having occurred in the Dominion Railway Belt, 165 other fires occurred, but
were handled entirely by the railway organizations. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 39
©
O
a
fc
<1
rr
So*
t- M !D 00 N ■*
J1MC0 0300
00     •
O     -
O     •
CD     •
00     ■
■* a M H W N
N ■* ■» ffl W lO
CO     -
to    •
■■tf     ■
o 5
3s
•80uiAoatx ut saai^
^ui^qSij ui !,u9ds
I^ox jo -%ud'j aa<j
N iO 00 CO O
S -  g
i : 8
•sj^noa
:/:■ -:i c-l ^ «N
rH 00 CO rH CO O
I- ffl -tf CD CO tM
CO
*■"
CO
'000'OTS'
J9A0 C)S00
■ooo'oig
o? ooo'eS 5soq
■ooo's*
o^ OOO'IS lsoO
• <M rH CO rH -tf
•000'IS
01 001$ ISOQ
S6.
'001$
uuqj ss9[ 4S00
cd ■* o o 00 un
•80UIA0JJ UI SSJT^I
{T-^ox* jo ^ua'o jaj
vpu^sia UI B9Jt£
lv)o£ jo'^na'o ^d
CD 1- >H iO (M <N
■tf r— rH O CO CD
Ci t- 00 -tf O <N
<M -tf CD in m 10
w  I
WO
to -'
*xtjx MVI -SaiiCcd
:jou spuuq uo pd^uaj&uo
00 CO CO it; ■**■ CD        -tf CO
•h « «     i> -a
Singed spocq pui: pweri
umojq lu-eovA uo paqcuiSuo
■■tf 00 CD » CD ri
■TH COW
•eajij i-nox
IW
NO
: o &S u.
. cn 0) 3  _ CJ
o o <u oj 2 5
■■§£§§! §
c3 ** C *- S 3
O   V
03   O
eg 0)
o a>
HPh
•90UIAOJJ UI 83Jl,J '
l^ox jo --mio Md
4.82
34.10
3.47
4.14
18.76
13.77
CD
0
d   •
-3#
Gi     '.
0"    -
CO
'lOU^STQ UI S8JIJ
I^ox jo'-qua'o J9<i
-tf co ir; 10 00 00
lO 00 CO O CO CO
O
O N H lO C. N
r- 10 co «* -t -tf
'ON
Cl CD r- 00 00 CD
n m ifl c& 0 ■-1
CO CM
-*5S
C: tt
I"-06
tea
-tf
00 <M
O Ci
rH CO
CO
CO B 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
&
r
.OJ
2
\
1
r-
■
CM
\
j
9
/
/
/
ID
/
/
/
cm
/
I
2
/
10
/
w
/
2
M;
CM
v
0)
\
v
(0
\
CM
2
(U
CJ
ro
S
5?
/
i
/
/.
0)
\
01
\
0)
o
o
O
o
o
o
\
o
0
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
\
o
o
o
n
a
0
,
o
0
o
\
o
o
o
a
()
\
o
o
c
\
aj       §j
o
CM
o
o
10
u
■j
0
fl
o
o
io
o
CM
o
0)
39=
0
<
u
<
O
U  Q
< tt
-1 y
z
u u
CD J
Id         J)
m u. u
^ o
__j0
*A
fe 2 -»
° h V
< Z
2<cr
a S u
< y m
Z o a
D       L.
z
O q:
I
01
m
u £
Z r  B 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1928.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George    ....
Prince Rupert	
Southern Interior	
Vancouver	
Total.	
Per cent	
Dominion Railway Belt,
Per cent	
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
1
14
S
32
26
20
6
38
24
37
21
37
40
2
32
43
16
26
1
88
63
97
226
1
67
45
110
166
1
4
258
186
330
507
0.05
0.30
15.70
11.32
20.09
30.87
56
19
78
85
18.06
6.13
25.16
27.42
September.
31
18
44
356
21.67
72
23.23
Total.
112
106
179
148
620
477
1,642
100.00
310
100.00
FiRE-CONTKOL   COST.
The cost to the Forest Branch for fire-fighting was $73,939, a figure which approximates the
cost in 1923, the record low year since 1918. Of all fires, 48.36 per cent, were extinguished at
a cost of less than $100 each, 97 per cent, cost less than $1,000 each, 2% per cent, cost between
$1,000 and $5,000, and only one fire cost in excess of $5,000. The average cost for all fires was
$45.06.    This is the lowest average cost since 1916.
The cost to other organizations for fire-fighting is reported as $40,261.
Fire Damage.
The total area burned over was 106,977 acres. Only 2,926 acres of merchantable timber
burned, with a net stumpage loss of $18,578. These are the lowest figures since the organization
of the Forest Branch. The area of reproduction destroyed was 28,836 acres. This is an increase
over 1927 of about 47 per cent. The total damage to forests is estimated at $103,001, which is
the lowest loss since 1923, when the figure was $74,238.
Damage to property other than forests was low this year, being $95,534, as compared with
$74,606 in 1927 and with $431,588, the average for the previous ten-year period.
The graph herewith shows the major factors of fire statistics each year from 1918 to the
present. The general comparison of one year with another is readily made. How 1928 stands
out among recent years as one of low loss, cost, and damage is at once apparent. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 43
CO
C4
Oi
o
fa
H
a
w K (9 o
H SO g
so S
i 5 w
. b s « h
» 2
Si
J o
-tf nO rH -tf O CD
O CO O CO O f
O     ■
O     •
O     ■
MWOOHH
rt >* H n (M
O     ■
O     -
O     ■
O     -
O     •
O     -
H SO H  Ifi H h I    HO
CO CO rH  lO iQ r-> O       ■
rH (M CM Cl_CO t-H O O
&*     co co i-T© "jfc-? I co"3
CO O I  01
Jr-   • CO
CO C rH
sfS H
XCOOCOOO
O     ■
C     ■
O     ■
-NHWNO>
t-h        HH-fl
O     -
O    -
O     -
O    •
O     ■
C-l -JO Ol CJ Ci CO
|-» 0-] CD CO O CO
CO O CO Cl O CO
.    i-h 0 r- CD O CO
I_ +■■■>     NCO-*iQN!M
O     ■
O     ;
O     ■
«0>     !>• ■* CO CO OS OO
O     •
O     •
O     -
O     •
O     ■
O     ■
(N CO CT. tf in IN
rH CO Cl rH CC CO
01        NHNt-Om
tZ        t^Ui Its"I^T i-H Ci
•ujuara
•HJxddQ 1
03 ^soj
•paujnq
138.11/
pacfBiui^sa
Oiooi-tfr-tf   1 os t-
O CJ CO iO 00 CD        CO C
lO   CO 00   CD (M   rH       \     r-t.
-tf     o ofcfoT I i>^
. * e
j 5 s a oj
O O   U U S n
"C § .5.2 s a
Cfl   C!   l,   !_ n «
H O
1 sS
wg
CO
■tf O Trt O
*   *     fr»   •
ao     coo
■o3buii3Q
<S&
rH rH IO UI CO O
C-1        -O O 00 C3
H             ©3
iO CO
o; -tf
-#    •
0
moo
rH   O
rt |Q
oa c-i
CO     •
•139 J V
2,413
24
1,092
4,094
1,769
592
■tf CQ
CO CO
Ol     ■
■tf eo
00 C-]
Od     ■
-# 0-1
Cl 0
CO      ■
co"'0
■tf ^J rH CO CO lO
UO c
-tf Cl
O   T-H
*aJ3^iu«Q
MiQONffilO
ITS IO
CO     •
ft   -
^U9saj<{
<^
COd5t-.N
a*
S"
sf«
pa^Buji^sa
<M
C-l Ol CD --tf r- 00
CM CO
■'B9JV
CO -CM  rH 90  rH
gfS
c£S
1"
1-1
0   ■
aScdran^s
«&
<N        C-l CO CJ
rfS
£■=
«S
OJ
»»K
3
£s
•ajqiiAi^s
jC^u-onf)
an
5< "s
§<"
wxciwato
Ol Q
37
3,02
36
2,93
3,00
14,36
•paKist
ifyl^UOTlO
£s
<3s
si
CgCl
CO
•CM CD Ol t- CO CO
■tf
to
Cl     •
»c t(i
CO
'139.IV
<
"
rf*
rtrH
s=>
00
rti oj       ek qj       en aj
la    'f B 44
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1928.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging-
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
9       12
26
83
110
48,432
9     55
500
6,147
|      45
4
36,939
$   385
1,023
1,773
$      67
71
972
1,133
93,291
0.07
0.08
1.02
1.18
97.65
Totals	
$48,663
86,702
836,988
$3,181
$95,534
100.00
$17,952
Comparison of Damage caused by E'orest Fibes in the Last Ten Years.
1923.
1922.
1920.
Total number of fires	
Area burned (acres)	
Standing timber destroyed or
damaged (M. ft. B.M.)	
Amount salvable (M. ft. B.M.)...
Damage to forests	
Damage to other forms of property 	
Total damage	
1,642
106,977
24,069
9,060
$103,001
95,534
1,284
101,944
86,176
44,834
$141,102
74,606
2,147
659,871
398,694
109,385
930,373
749,891
$198,535
$215,708
$1,680,264
2,521
1,023,789
1,024,508
350,770
$2,121,672
625,518
$2,747,190
2,174
402,214
207,651
102,832
$    665,078
540,291
$1,205,369
1,530
157,601
87,371
37,891
$  74,238
617,649
2,591
1,568,585
729,941
117,006
$1,531,300
693,016
1,330
145,838
68,476
39,553
9 97,332
1,251
389,846
229,253
49,575
$485,963
473,900
$691,887
$2,224,316
$292,553
$959,863
1,141
433,797
287,520
93,559
$393,183
345,787
$738,970 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 45
ro
a
<
K
a
H
<!
W
M
o
f=i
fa
o
fa
p
<
O
Q
H
25
Ol
Ol
ITS O CD -Cl
rtrtHIM
rt«rt
'NiQOrtO-O
• Ol        CM (M "tf m
3
o
d
Ol
-tf CD NH
© -tf d
CO d d
COIr- -tf d © KS
■ Cl        O CO CD CO
Ol
-tf CO CO d     r CO © © O -tf -tf
CD O 00 ■ CO d p-l -tf CO O
rH CO Ol ■ r^        rrt Ol
CO CD (M
■tf Cl CO
oi co eo
■ if! OJ CO Cl Ol O
■ «a oi o co o co
■CO        Ol        (NO
a co co   -co oj
oi so ci -tf in r— t-
O -tf rH CO  rH O CO
  rH rH rn 0J
MCON
CO Ci CO
CD -tf CO
CO C-l ttf 1-^ CO O -tf
00 © i—I CO O "ft CO
d d        r-1 rH i-h &5
I"- rH CO
in io r~
m to eo
WMiC
rH oo co
ift —I irt
- -tf c: eo o eo -* r^
■ Ol -tf irt co © oo -tf
• Ol irt rrt
be
J.gl
B £ 9
:|fe
■ bto u
■-op,
: 5 «■-* i
O o
eS i
CO
P
PQ
^xuuad qnoq^iA\ ^9S saarj
h r- oo i-h ©
■[OJ^uoq paduosa saa;^
•j9ao paujnq uaav
C M N « N O
-tf C -t- d CO ©
oj co -tf eo oo ©
•pDnss; sqiuijaj
r-t rd CD © -tf CO
'ft t- r~ Ol Ol rH
■w ** rd © i— co
8g
CD ©
vnuuaj ^noi^iM ^98 saui^
6    :  i1"1  ; :  ;
fc    : :     : : :
i-h eo
CO
d'
d CO
CO
00
•[oj^uoq padcosg saai^
d         -M     -drH     .
fc   :     :
ift ©
Ci
ift CO
CO
•J8A0 pauanq uaay
Acres.
150
36
81
152
135
d CO
ci  -
Ol
-tf
t— Ift
00    ■
00 d
■pausex s^imaaj
•     © CO X © © l>
O     co --i O-l CO -tf 00
I-. Ift
CO -tf
■3d     •
Cl
h- ■*
© ©
5i*
PS i
•quuaad ^uoqcjiM 39s saai^
o
•joa^uoo pgduosa sajjj
6
fc
■ ■>*    - Ol
CO
Ci Ol
oo
00
OJ Ift
•J9ao pauunq ■eaay
0)
<1
O Ol OJ -tf
■*
cc
CO
IN
0-1 ©
-tf ©
CO     •
©
CO CD
© t-
©   •
of*
-paussi B^iuuej
d
fc
rrt Cl -tf CO © ift
n«HNN
O in
o m
rH 00
© O
•^iituaj qnoq^iM qas saa^r
fc   : • :       :
lOf-
eo
r-l t~-
•Hi
'loa^uoo padnosg S9jiLj
^      CO 1-i      • 00 rH -tf
fc         :
l>00
rHCD
CO
Ol ift
ift
Tji
•J9A0 p9uanq tiaay
Acres.
1,980
46
284-
265
615
9,996
13,186
3?. 22
14,075
40.38
■pansst s^iuuaj
V     00 -h CO 00 d ©
. °     © CO CO © — -h
fe     d                      HH
Ol CO
CO ©
CC      •
d 00
d
tf c
o fc
IS
'3IUU0J !jnoq^IM ^9S 89JIj[
^     C>l irt CO -tf © ©
'A
s
rrt ©
00
qojquoQ padcoea saat^
•     . d co 23 if **■
■— o
t^ CO
©'
CO
Ift -tf
eo ift
©
uaAO pauanq ugay
Acres.
2,101
478
5,110
2,902
1,854
7,671
20,019
58 03
t-. Ol
30 CO
°°r-5
■pgnssi s^iuiagj
No.
422
418
1,391
774
1,502
4,091
00 -tf
Ol©
oooo
CO ©
rH -tf
©.1ft
CO ©
.   O   g*hH   L.
O  O 0J 0) £  5
S a 2 ^ £ «
E|£,SsC
tf «"E C q e8
O La Dh PnOjt>
o  OJ Hazard Reduction.
Fall weather proved favourable for slash-burning and 27,452 acres of logging-slash were
disposed of by operators under the supervision of forest officers. High winds on one occasion
spread some fires beyond the area intended and some damage was done to logging equipment,
but in general the burning was carried out satisfactorily and at moderate expense.
In addition, permits during the season covered the burning of 13,186 acres and accidental
fires burned over 18,116 acres of logging-slash, making a total of 58,754 acres burned during
the year.
The policy followed by the Public Works Department in clearing road-slash has again been
carried out when conditions were favourable, and satisfactory results have been attained.
This policy reduces very materially the hazard along the public highways.
Railway companies have complied satisfactorily with the requirements of the Board of
Railway Commissioners for Canada with respect to clearing of rights-of-way.
Publicity.
An intensive programme of publicity was carried out during " Canadian Forest Week."
Co-operation of the Dominion Forest Service, the Canadian Forestry Association, and Provincial
and local committees of public-spirited citizens resulted in a widespread and effective campaign
for the preservation of the forests from fire.
The Canadian Forestry Association, with the co-operation of the Forest Branch, produced
a new film for use by the lecture parties which toured the Province during the fire season.
Two completely equipped parties were maintained during the entire season and every accessible
district was visited.
Fall fairs were utilized as an opportunity, through prepared forest and fire scenes, to spread
the forest-protection message. The Canadian Forestry Association's exhibit at Vancouver again
attracted much attention. Special attention was given to newspaper advertising and local
interest in the forest was featured. Pencils bearing the forest-protection slogan were distributed
to all rural schools.
Fike Detection.
The lookout system was further extended during the past season, particularly on the South
Coast, where three new stations were established. Several of the points in the Southern Interior
which were tried out in 1927 were developed into permanent lookouts. Altogether thirty-two
lookout stations were in operation during the last season. It is believed that these have contributed in no small measure to the success in dealing with fires, 83% per cent, having been
extinguished under 1.0 acres.
Aeroplane patrol was employed in the Kootenay Lake region from June to September, where
they supplement the lookouts and cover areas not yet developed. They are especially used for
scouting after lightning-storms to see if any strikes are developing into fires.
Fire-wkatheb Forecasts.
The co-operation of the Dominion Meteorological Office in Victoria in sending out warnings
whenever fire weather seems imminent, as well as the regular weather forecast, has undoubtedly
been of much assistance in directing fire-control. Each evening during the hazardous period
weather and humidity statistics were supplied by the Meteorological Office to Radio Station
CFCT, Victoria, and broadcast. Special radio talks, outlining the general situation, were also
given periodically during the season from this station.
An extended use of humidity-recording instruments was made by the logging companies
operating in the dry section of the Coast. To operate or not to operate was determined largely
from the records of these instruments. The new regulation requiring wetting-down at operating
donkeys when humidity falls below 60 per cent, was largely responsible for the increased number
of hygrographs at the camps. The results, as indicated by fire occurrence, of wetting-down
around donkeys cannot be stated until a few years' figures are available and the practice
faithfully carried out. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928.
B 47
Prosecutions for Fire Trespass, 1928.
d
a
a
_;
CJ
CJ
a;
a
o^
*v
OJ
O £
13 ti
Fines.
aj
ta _,j
CC .ii
rA
fl-w
o g
btfc
g 4^
o £
w o
fe
in
fe
cc g
oo-g
a
T3
'3
c
o
a
|.
o
B
cfe
O  1H
~ o
<u a
> o    .
£*§;§
a o £
O  -fc,  OJ
Is
O oj
g o
>fe
GO
Ooo
CJ ©
o a
12
G o
gift
rt-
a o
Q©
fl w
O o>
11
■+3 O
12
O
-fl
bo  .
fl+J
= £
3 55
ffift
o
ft
h
O
cu
3
•3
a
■u
cc
ft
g
o
be bb
c 2
QJ   3
J2
be
(fl
O
.5
c-s
.2 ^
c o
OJ A
oi '
43*3
11
O    QJ
Si
■SO
62
09
CJ
fl
01
c
01
V
32
s
*9
OJ
-a
c
OJ
ft
3
CO
i
GO
fl
ft
0)
5
c
Forest District.
No.
Amount.
%
01
rt
O
4
1
1
1
1
1
$ 25 00
1
1
1
1
1
1
25 OU
Prince (icorg'e .
4
i
i
3
75 00
1
Prince Rupert.
South. Interior.
i:2
i
i
5
2
1
11
275 00
i
10
31
27
i
1
8
11
5
—
l
9
10
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
9
225 00
1
1
1
2
3
2
Totals
3
25
625 00
1
Totals, 1927.
3
3
1
23
$600 00
EQUIPMENT, IMPROVEMENTS, AND MAINTENANCE.
„    . . Cabiboo.
Equipment—
Three Chevrolet cars  $2,570.00
One fire-fighting pump   307.00
One boat and outboard motor  445.00
Total     §3,322.00
Improvements—■ "
Beaver Lake Tool-cache  $95.00
Horsefly Tool-cache   84.00
Strathnaver Tool-cache  161.00
Bowron Lake Boat-house   142.00
Tinas Portage  64.00
Mount Begbie Lookout   910.00
Miscellaneous  12.00
Total  $1,468.00
Maintenance—
Mouse Mountain Lookout  $136.00
Lac la Hache Camp-site  112.00
Cottonwood Camp-site   155.00
Blackwater Tool-cache   32.00
Lillooet Tool-cache   35.00
Quesnel Lake Boat-house   65.00
McKinley River-Boss Lake Trail  88.00
Horsefly River Trail   20.00
Beaver Lake Trail  40.00
Miscellaneous   53.00
Total     $736.00
Equipment- Kamloops.
One Chevrolet car   $850.00
One hand-speeder   85.00
Hose and pump equipment   25.00
Fire-fighting tools and equipment  ,  680.00
Total     $1,640.00 B 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Kamloops—Continued.
Improvements—
Clearwater-Blue River Trail   $800.00
Canoe River Trail   400.00
Canoe River Boat-house  45.00
Blue River Ranger Station Woodshed  30.00
Celista Creek Cut-off Trail   108.00
Garnet-Cayenne Trail   320.00
Tumtum Trail   45.00
Little Clearwater Ranger Station   175.00
Horseshoe Ranger Station  '.  50.00
Fadear Mountain Lookout   400.00
Baldy Mountain Lookout   1,610.00
Parky-Bonaparte Lake Trail   75.00
Chipp Creek Lookout  50.00
Alder Lake-Mile 60 Trail  90.00
Lemieux Creek-Mahood Lake Trail   460.00
Total  $4,658.00
Maintenance— •
Barriere-Adams Lake Trail  ,  $325.00
36 miles of miscellaneous trails   425.00
Barriere Forks-Brennan Creek Trail   50.00
Clearwater-Blue River Trail  170.00
Main Clearwater Trail   80.00
Adams River-North Thompson Trail   310.00
Adams River Wagon-road   235.00
Upper Thompson River Trail   125.00
Miscellaneous   600.00
Total     $2,320.00
Equipment- FoRT Geoeoe'
Three Chevrolet cars   $2,640.00
Six fire-fighting pumps  1,869.00
Fire-fighting hose   1,540.00
Smoke-chasers' kits   303.00
Fire-fighting tools and equipment  498.00
One rowboat   50.00
Total     $6,900.00
Improvements— ■	
Pilot Mountain Lookout  $134.00
Prince George Lookout   64.00
Stewart Lake Breakwater   207.00
Miscellaneous   50.00
Total     $455.00
Maintenance— •	
Beaver River Trail   $661.00
Clearwater Trail  98.00
Mud River Trail   494.00
Willow River Trail   148.00
Buckhorn Lake Trail   96.00
Tsinkut Mountain Lookout   84.00
Miscellaneous     100.00
Total    '.  $1,681.00 ■     FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928. B 49
Prince Rupebt.
Equipment—
One Chevrolet car   $850.00
Three fire-fighting pumps   978.00
Six hand-tank pumps   93.00
One gasoline-speeder   390.00
Two hand-speeders   170.00
Fire-fighting tools and equipment   710.00
Miscellaneous     38.00
Total     $3,229.00
Improvements—
Black Mountain Telephone-line  $1,407.00
Fire-line construction   75.00
Total  $1,482.00
Maintenance—
Francois Lake Boat-house   $12.00
Southern Interior.
Equipment—
One Ford car  $704.00
Eight Chevrolet cars  6,680.00
One outboard motor   274.00
Eighteen hand-pumps   220.00
One rowboat  100.00
One launch  (Amabilis II.)    4,682.00
Fire-fighting hose  861.00
Two power-grindstones   255.00
Sixty-five sets 6-10-25 men cooking outfits  2,351.00
Fifteen telephone sets   505.00
Fire-fighting tools and equipment   2,540.00
Total  $19,172.00
Improvements—
102% miles of trail   $5,950.00
Goat Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   760.00
Sugar Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   1,133.00
Snow Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   1,515.00
Wigwam Telephone-line   866.00
Johnson's Landing-Lardeau Telephone-line   1,028.00
Siwash Mountain Telephone-line   794.00
U.S. 83-Cambie River Telephone-line ....  57.00
Old Glory Telephone-line   158.00
White Rock Lookout   371.00
Goat Mountain Lookout   282.00
Livingstone Mountain Lookout  272.00
Elise Mountain Lookout  276.00
Gold Creek Ranger Station Cabin   379.00
Myra Cabin   343.00
Lower Yahk Cabin   510.00
Beaver Mountain Lookout   46.00
Reno Mountain Lookout   32.00
Carried forward   $14,772.00
4 B 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Southern Interior—Continued.
Brought forward  $14,772.00
Improvements—Continued.
Siwash Mountain Lookout  12.00
Gold Creek pasture-fence   432.00
Flathead Ranger Station fence  590.00
Whatshan Lake Boat-house  300.00
Christina Lake Boat-house   241.00
Red Canyon Creek Camp-site   32.00
Anchor-buoy   130.00
Total     $16,509.00
Maintenance—
715% miles of trail   $9,709.00
Casey Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   415.00
Moyie Mountain Lookout Telephone-line  98.00
Baldy Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   106.00
Little White Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   237.00
Elk Valley Telephone-line   252.00
Reno Mountain Lookout Telephone-line  304.00
Beaver Mountain Lookout Telephone-line  :  107.00
Phoenix Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   32.00
BX Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   21.00
Gold Creek Telephone-line  50.00
Little Slocan Telephone-line  :  85.00
Kettle River Telephone-line  56.00
Duncan River Telephone-line   60.00
Casey Mountain Lookout  24.00
Moyie Mountain Lookout   24.00
Saddle Mountain Lookout   101.00
Wilson Creek Lookout  .'..  58.00
Snow Mountain Lookout   28.00
Reno Mountain Lookout  27.00
Old Glory Lookout   27.00
Lone Tree Butte Lookout  54.00
Beaver Mountain Lookout   30.00
Sugar Lake Boat-house  190.00
Mabel Lake Boat-house   54.00
Four-mile Camp-site   155.00
South Fork Camp-site   20.00
Flathead Ranger Station Cabin   56.00
Duncan River Cable Crossing  39.00
Miscellaneous   147.00
Total     $12,566.00
Vancouver.
Equipment—
Two Ford cars   $1,415.00
Nine Chevrolet cars   7,563.00
Twelve fire-fighting pumps  4,100.00
Eighteen hand-tank pumps  280.00
Fire-fighting hose  3,465.00
One hand-speeder   88.00
Carried forward  $16,911.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928. B 51
Vancouver—Con tinned.
Brought forward  $16,911.00
Equipment—Continued.
Fire-fighting tools and equipment   1,532.00
Four outboard motors   697.00
Miscellaneous   76.00
Total  $19,216.00
Improvements—
Three tool-caches   $100.00
Campbell River Ranger Station   18,250.00
Douglas Ranger Station     545.00
Pitt River Cabin   110.00
Boise Creek Trail   90,00
* North Vancouver Lookout   62.00
Hollyburn Lookout  37.00
Stave-Harrison Lake Trail   237.00
Mount Beecher Lookout  858.00
Mount Bruce Lookout   1,062.00
Mount Shepherd Lookout   600.00
Miscellaneous    ,  29.00
Total     $21,080.00
Maintenance—
Nitinat-Cowichan Lake Trail   $250.00
Nanaimo Lakes South Fork Trail   290.00
Jackson Bay-Port Neville Trail  193.00
Mount Benson Lookout Telephone-line  90.00
Shawnigan Lake-San Juan Trail  96.00
Bush Creek Camp-site  33.00
Pitt River Cabins   82.00
Oyster River Camp-site   28.00
Seven-mile Creek Bridge  41.00
Lynn Valley Cabin ;  26.00
Sidney Arch   31.00
Myrtle Point Ranger Station  24.00
Cameron Lake Camp-site   67.00
Miscellaneous  51.00
Total    :  $1,302.00
; GRAZING.
Authorization.
No change in the number of live-stock authorized to graze during the 1927 season was made
for the season of 1928.    The authorized numbers for the latter season are as follows :—
District.                                                                                    Cattle and Horses. Sheep.
Cariboo        30,000 5,000
Cranbrook        2,500 9,000
Fort George         500 	
Kamloops          4,000 1,500
Nelson         2,000 500
Prince Rupert          300 	
Vancouver         200 	
Vernon      20.500 10,000
Totals  ,     60,000 20,000 B 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The increase in the number of sheep now being carried on the ranges of the Province
indicates that the 1929 authorization figures will have to be increased for the Cariboo, Vernon,
and Kamloops Districts.
Range and Live-stock Conditions.
The extremely heavy fall of snow during the winter of 1927-28 increased the growth and
quality of the forage Both the spring and fall ranges were good. The early snowfall drove
most of the herds into the feed-yards before the fall ranges were heavily grazed. In most
sections, however, the snow went off early and the early turnout had the advantage of the
unused forage of the fall ranges, which brought the cattle and sheep through the early spring
without the usual per cent, of shrinkage which attends the spring turnout in average years.
Throughout the Southern Interior a dry spell in August and September had its effect on the
growth of cattle, particularly in those herds that were allowed to hang about on the overgrazed
spring ranges.
Range-cattle Industry.
. The return to prosperity in the shape of high prices which took place in the latter part of
1927 still continues, and prices will keep up for at least three years or until such times as the
general shortage is substantially decreased. It is rather unfortunate that the stockmen have
not followed suggestions that they give close attention to increasing their calf-crop. Had this
work been undertaken three years ago they would have reaped a harvest of handsome profits
at this time.
There is some talk of increases in the United States tariff on beef and other Canadian
products. Should such increases be imposed the price of live stock on the hoof in Canada would
immediately drop from 2 cents to 4 cents per pound. Drastic action is not anticipated, however,
for the reasons that there is, and will be, a heavy shortage, particularly of beef cattle, in the
United States for the next three years at least; the present prices of beef and lamb on the
hoof in the principal markets of the United States are exceptionally high; the imposition of
an increased tariff will not benefit the United States beef or mutton producer, because people
cannot afford to pay higher prices and have been refusing to do so; and the feeders of the middle
or corn States, who are finding it difficult to carry on with the present high prices for stackers,
will undoubtedly attack attempts to increase the cost of marketing Canadian live stock on the
United States markets.
. Sheep Industry.
The number of sheep in the Province this fall is recorded as approximately 170,000. This
is a heavy increase over 1926, when the numbers given approximate 130,000. There has been an
increase in the number of range bands as well as in the farm flocks. Generally speaking, the
interest in the production of sheep throughout the Province is keen.
The Branch has heen somewhat concerned regarding the desire of many, whose^ranches were
suited only to the carrying of farm flocks, to go into the sheep business on a large scale and run
range flocks. A great deal of time during the past three years has been taken up in visiting these
ranchers and suggesting the methods they should follow in raising sheep in connection with their
farms. While all farms will carry successfully small flocks of from 50 to 200 head of sheep,
there is not sufficient spring, fall, and winter grazing available on and near the majority of
them to warrant the owners considering the ranging of large range flocks.
The good effect of this advice is being manifested in the formation of community sheep-
breeders' associations, the main purpose or object of which is to make provision for the
co-operative handling of the sheep on the summer ranges. The flocks belonging to each member
are carried on the ranches . of each during the spring, fall, and winter months. They are
assembled in one flock or band after shearing and herded on the mountain ranges from about
May 15th to October 31st in charge of a competent herder. At the close of the summer grazing
the co-operative charges for herding, camp-tending, etc., are prorated and the flock separated
to go into their individual winter-quarters. In this way the owners are range-sheep men as
well as farm-flock men, and more sheep can be carried in the farm flock by getting them away
from the farm as part of a community flock during the summer months.
On the whole, the sheep business of British Columbia, in both its farm- and range-flock
phases, is in a very healthy condition, and while the increase has been rapid in the past three
years, from now on the importation of sheep for breeding purposes will be on a steadier basis. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1928. B 53
Fewer men are rushing into the business who are ill-prepared through lack of experience and
suitable ranches to engage in it.
There is little danger of overproduction. There will be comparatively few range bands in
British Columbia owing to the low percentage of spring and fall grazing. The big increase of
the future will be found in the farm flock for the carrying of which British Columbia farms are
so excellently suited. The annual consumption of lamb in Canada is about 5 lb. per capita.
In New Zealand it ranges about 75 lb., and in Great Britain about 56 lb. The near future will
undoubtedly see increased consumption in Canada, so that overproduction of lamb need cause
no concern at this time.
Wild Horses.
The control of wild horses on the Crown ranges was continued during the past season in a
small way. Only in the Cranbrook and Cariboo Districts was any work done. In those districts
stallions to the number of nineteen head were destroyed in the Cranbrook and thirty-three in
the Cariboo District. Lack of funds prevented any extensive work being done in any of the
districts.
A total of 3,560 useless horses have been removed from the Crown ranges by the Government
to date, so it may be said that the backbone of the wild-horse problem has been broken so far
as the Crown lands outside of the Dominion Railway Belt are concerned.
The Chilcotin and the Vernon District stockmen are requesting additional work, and should
funds be available further control-work can be undertaken.
Range Improvements and Live-stock Management.
During the season of 1928 an increased interest in the construction of range improvements was taken by the stockmen and the following projects were carried to completion :■—
Cost.
Four mud-holes     $205.00
Five drift-fences  2,724.66
Seven drift-fences repaired       179.85
Four breeding-grounds       513.70
Two corrals  ,      544.40
Four holding-grounds       561.45
One holding-ground repaired      341.35
One trail       112.00
One bridge  7.50
Total  $5,189.91
Should the policy be continued it will not be long before the Crown ranges are in a highly
improved condition and the handling of stock thereon will be rendered easy. In general the
benefits accruing from this work are not fully realized by the stockmen. Losses in bog-holes
have been very extensively reduced by the fencing-up of the dangerous places. The drift-fences,
water-development projects, trails, etc., that are being constructed mean so much in the better
control of the live-stock that increased weights and quality in finish is becoming increasingly
evident. Should these projects be taken advantage of in more active management on the range
by the stockmen, cattlemen in particular, the great value of them will be more clearly manifest
in the increased beef-cheque.
Grasshopper-control.
No work was undertaken during the past year other than to keep watch over areas from
which past poisoning operations had practically eliminated the grasshopper, and to See to it
that plenty of poison materials was available at points where an outbreak might be expected,
as well as to supply those ranchers with poison materials who wished to carry on individual
work on their ranches.
It is to be hoped that past poisoning-work has so decreased the pests that they will not be
troublesome again. Now that we know how to handle them it will be easy to check any
reported outbreak. B 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Future Outlook.
In general the future of the live-stock industry of British Columbia looks bright for another
three years at least. The only cloud in the sky at present is the prospect of an increase in the
tariff on Canadian products going into the United States. It is not anticipated that drastic
action will be taken in this respect for the reasons mentioned under " Range-cattle Industry."
The average calf-crop is stiil 20 per cent, lower than it should be. Even if stockmen paid
more attention to securing great calf-crops through active and intelligent control of the breeding
herds on the open range, it is not likely the increase would mature in time to bring in the prices
secured during the past eighteen months.
The sheep industry has a good future in British Columbia. Many now going into the
business will soon drop out, but the numbers of sheep will show a steady increase, particularly
on the farms, in the shape of flocks of from 50 to 200 head, and as experience is gained they will
be a profitable source of revenue to the farmer.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1929.
1,825-220-4800

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0300565/manifest

Comment

Related Items