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Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to'the King's Most Excellent Majesty,
I To His Honour James Alexander Macdonald,
Administrator of the Government of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I have trie honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1929.
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., March 15th', 1930. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture—,1. B. Munro, B.S.A      5
Report of Departmental Secretary—Wm. J. Bonavia      10
Report of Departmental Secretary re Fall Fairs—Wm. J. Bonavia      17
Report of Colonization Commissioner, Vancouver—Dr. W. I-I. Gaddes     19
Report of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests—W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.    21
Report of Chief Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Vancouver—W. H. Lyne ....    28
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver—J. W. Eastham, B.Sc     35
Report of Assistant Entomologist, Vernon—M. H. Ruhmann, B.A     39
Report of Director of Markets, Victoria—W. W. Duncan     42
Report of Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria—Dr. A. G. Knight, V.S     50
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria—Dr. A. G. Knight, V.S     55
Report of Recorder of Brands, Victoria—George Pilmer      58
Report of District Agriculturist, Courtenay—H. S. French, B.S.A     59
Report of District Agriculturist, New Westminster—R. G. Sutton, B.S.A     06
Report of District Agriculturist, Kamloops—G. W. Challenger, B.S.A     70
Report of District Agriculturist, Smithers—S. S. Phillips, B.S.A     75
Report of District Agriculturist, Prince George—C. C. Kelley, B.S.A     79
Report of District Agriculturist, Williams Lake—G. A. Luyat, B.S.A     81
Report of District Agriculturist, Grand Forks—Paul C. Black     86
Report of Dairy Commissioner, Victoria—H. Rive, B.S.A     90
Report of Chief Poultry Instructor, Victoria—J. R. Terry      96
Report of Provincial Agronomist, Victoria—Cecil Tice, B.S.A  102
Report of Provincial Apiarist, Victoria—W. J. Sheppard  107
Report of Apiary Inspector, Lower Mainland District—A. W. Finlay  108
Report of Apiary Inspector,  Okanagan,  Shuswap, and Thompson Valley Districts—J. F.
Roberts     109
Report of Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria—Mrs. V. S. McLachlan  109
Appendix No.
1. Correspondence received and dispatched, 1928 and 1929   114
2. Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1929   114
3. Lots sold on the South Okanagan Lands Project, 1929   116
4. British Columbia Greenhouse Survey, 1929  117
5. British Columbia Bulb Survey, 1929  117
6. Pruning-schools, 1929 ..  118
7. Pruning Demonstrations, 1929  118
8. Total Amount of Fees collected for Fruit and Vegetables during 1929 at the Various
Ports of Entry  119
9. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry in British Columbia
(including those condemned)    119
10. Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., condemned at all Ports of
Entry in British Columbia   120
11. Imported  Fruit,  Vegetables,  Rice,   Beans,  Peas,   Corn,  etc.,   inspected   at  Vancouver
(including those condemned)  120
12. Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., condemned at Vancouver  121
13. Imported Plant Products fumigated at Vancouver   122
14. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Vancouver (including those condemned)   122
15. Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver   123
16. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Victoria (including those condemned)   124
17. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Outside Ports during 1929   124
18. Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates were issued  124
19. Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates were issued at Ports other than
Vancouver   128 I 4 CONTENTS.
Appendix No. Page.
20. Nursery Stock inspected for Export for which Certificates were issued   129
21. Fruit and Vegetables inspected for Export from British Columbia for which Certificates
were issued    130
22. Fruit shipped without Certificates from Vancouver via Panama Canal   131
23. Cattle and Hides shipped during 1929   131
24. Premises inspected and Cattle T.B. tested by Provincial Inspectors   134
25. Inspections in Lower Fraser Valley by Provincial Veterinary Inspectors and T.B. Test
carried out by Federal Inspectors under T.B. Restricted-area Plan  136
26. Premises inspected under " Milk Act " and Cattle T.B. tested by Provincial Inspectors .... 136
27. Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia  137
2S. Milk-testers' Licences issued during 1929  .*  137
29. Combined Milk-testers' and Cream-graders' Licences issued during the Year 1929   138
30. Creamery Licences issued during 1929     139
31. Sugar-beets, Armstrong, 1929   141
32. Soil Analysis   142
33. Estimated Honey Crop, 1929   144
34. Provincial Demonstration Apiaries  145
35. Middle-entrance Hive Reports, 1929  147   REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.
Honourable William Atkinson,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Report of the Department of Agriculture
for the year 1929. •
In line with the policy adopted in 1928, whereby agricultural production statistics were based
on the actual live-stock increase and crop yields of the calendar year, the Statistical Report
has again been compiled. On this basis the agricultural production for 1929 is estimated at
$65,000,000, as compared with $58,664,243 for 1928 and $53,265,915 for the year 1927; thus the
agricultural production for 1929 shows an increase of approximately $6,335,757.
Special encouragement during the past year has been extended to the live-stock industry.
The endorsation of the Government was given to the plan of assisting the Empire Marketing
Board to the extent of 50 per cent, of the cost of ocean transportation on pure-bred registered
approved live stock brought in under supervision from the United Kingdom to British Columbia.
Thus encouraged, certain Ayrshire-breeders of the Province imported from Scotland upwards
of eighty head of registered Ayrshire dairy cattle of high producing strain.
The Department of Agriculture participated in the gift of a herd of twenty-four pure-bred
Ayrshire dairy cattle given to the University of British Columbia by a group of Scottish donors
headed by Captain J. C. Dun-Waters, of Fintry. These <animals constitute an excellent foundation herd of the Ayrshire breed.
The finishing of feeder cattle from the ranges of the Interior in the Fraser Valley has been
facilitated by the relaxation of the regulations under the Federal Department of Agriculture.
It has been made possible for live-stock men to segregate the unfinished cattle at the stockyards,
subject them to tuberculin test, and isolate non-reactors in feed-yards, where they are put into
good condition for slaughter. This is a great assistance to live-stock raising and is helping to
establish a beef-finishing industry in British Columbia.
In the past immense quantities of elevator screenings have been exported from British
Columbia Terminal Elevators to the State of Washington, where a very valuable live-stock
business has been built up. The initial undertakings in this connection in 1929 have paved
the way for the finishing of our own beef cattle within the Province and it is intended that
elevator screenings will be utilized for this purpose.
In July, 1929, the Fraser Valley had completed its first century of dairy-farming. It was in
July, 1829, that the first dairy animals were brought up the Fraser River to Fort Langley, where
the first dairy-farm on the Mainland of British Columbia was established. In taking the livestock census of the Province in 1929, it is found that there are now 177,291 head of dairy cattle
of all ages as well as 239,155 head of beef animals on the farms and ranges of the Province.
This is a splendid growth since the pioneers hewed out their first small clearings, and it is a
very satisfactory increase in live-stock production since 1G27, when the cattle population
amounted to 151,870 dairy and 212,493 beef animals.
The importance of the live-stock industry is being kept before the farmers, who are beginning
to appreciate the fact that no permanent system of agriculture can be established on an economical
or efficient basis without the solid foundation of farm animals to uphold the superstructure,
which takes in many specialities and cash crops.
There is still plenty of room for expansion in the sheep industry, in spite of the fact that
the flocks of the Province have been increased from 130,132 sheep in 1927 and 170,255 in 1928
to 205,532 sheep in 1929. The importations of mutton and lamb as well as other meat products
are still too large and efforts are being made to reduce the imports and increase local production.
The present aim is to produce sufficient live-stock products to supply our domestic requirements
and at the same time prepare for an export market.
The Department of Agriculture is encouraging the production of early lamb for a hungry
market in the Coast districts, leaving the late market for lamb produced in the Interior and
on the Prairies. The wool-clip of the Province increased from 722,000 lb. worth $116,000 in 1927 and
980,548 lb. worth $264,748 in 1928 to 1,162,697 lb. valued at $232,539 marketed in 1929.
Careful attention is being paid to the proper finishing of hogs and the swine industry is
showing satisfactory development. In 1927 British Columbia farmers produced 2,560,368 lb. of
pork and pork products; in 1928 the production was 3,021,000 lb.; while in 1929 the production
was 3,875,000 lb. This indicates a very satisfactory condition in a branch of the industry that
deserves special attention. The problems of parasites and diseases in swine are being given very
close study.
Although this Province does not produce sufficient butter and cheese to supply the domestic
market, the dairy industry is making progress. From a total production of $12,681,000 value
in 1927 and $12,934,156 in 1928, the dairy production has advanced to a total value of $13,200,000
in 1929.
Two years ago British Columbia's poultry population was 3,157,069 birds and the egg production was 11,338,633 dozen eggs. At that time a search was being made for markets for poultry
products and in 1928 more than 400 car-loads of British Columbia eggs were exported. In 1929
the poultry flocks of the Province have increased to 3,973,620 birds that have produced 16,481,871
dozen eggs. Markets for this increased production have been found at a better average price
than was obtained last year. There were 397 car-loads of eggs exported in 1929, including a
shipment of 481,580 dozen eggs which were marketed in the United Kingdom. These eggs arrived
on the British markets in good condition and a satisfactory trade is being developed.
The Markets Branch of the Department of Agriculture has made satisfactory strides since
its organization in June of this year. The efforts of the various marketing agencies have been
co-ordinated and are being directed from Victoria, where close attention is paid to the problems
connected with the marketing of all agricultural products. In the past the marketing of fruits
and vegetables received almost exclusive attention, and while the services to the fruit-growers
are being maintained and strengthened, the marketing services in connection with general
agricultural products has been greatly increased.
During the past year grapes grown in the Okanagan Valley have been shipped in large
quantities to a winery on Vancouver Island, where they were received with favour, and a large
proportion of the annual crop for a period of years has been contracted for.
The Okanagan apples have, as usual, won many premier awards at international events
held during the year. At the same time it is reported that a premium of from Is. to 3s. per box
has been received for British Columbia dessert apples at the auctions in England in competition
with fruit from the Pacific North-west States.
Excellent advertising was secured for British Columbia apples in 1929, both in the United
Kingdom and Eastern Canada. By means of a battery of apple-vending machines the Delicious
apples were so successfully introduced to the people of Toronto in November that Delicious apples
increased in price by 25 cents a box in that city.
Valuable assistance was rendered the growers of small fruit during the berry-harvest this
year. Just previous to the harvest season it was evident that there would be a considerable
surplus of strawberries, for which a satisfactory fresh-fruit market could not be secured in view
of the fact that the growers were not under control this year.
In order to prevent the demoralizing of the fresh-fruit markets by possible gluts of berries,
the Government gave financial assistance which enabled the berry-growers to have their fruit
processed for later markets, and the Department of Agriculture officials supervised the processing
of the berries.
Means were provided whereby 287 tons of strawberries were processed by freezing with
144 tons of sugar, making a total of 431 tons of finished product, which was placed in cold storage
in barrels and other containers and held for satisfactory prices, which are confidently expected
in view of the fact that the jam-manufacturers are running short of necessary supplies of berries.
The experiment in berry-processing undertaken by the growers with Government assistance
in 1929 has furnished sufficient information regarding the various methods practicable that the
growers are now in a position to proceed on their own account with the processing of their
surplus berries in future years.
The methods of processing adopted in 1929 were: The 2 plus 1 method, in which berries and
sugar at the rate of approximately two of the former and one of the latter are frozen and held
at a low temperature;   the sulphur-dioxide method, in which a solution of sulphur-dioxide of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 7
required strength and proper quantity is added to the fresh ripe fruit for the preserving of
the pulp at normal temperatures for later use in the manufacture of jam and preserves; and
to a lesser extent the solid-pack method, in which berries are placed in cans and sterilized
without sugar. Of these three methods, the sulphur-dioxide gives promise as a means whereby
exportable surpluses may be efficiently and economically handled. The solid-pack is quite satisfactory for domestic use in hotels, camps, and institutions where fairly large quantities of
berries are used at any one time. The 2 plus 1 method is very much favoured by the growers,
who believe that a considerable quantity of fruit can be disposed of in cartons in large centres.
The tobacco industry has during 1929 become fairly well stabilized and gives promise of
opening up a channel through which a number of farmers in several districts may increase their
financial returns. British Columbia leaf grown in the Okanagan Valley and in the Sumas area
of the Lower Fraser Valley is being blended and finds ready sale on the retail markets of the
Coast cities at remunerative prices. The situation is very satisfactory as compared with that
which existed during the years 1926 to 1928, when the industry was in a most chaotic state.
For a number of years this Province has been importing large quantities of concentrates for
the feeding of dairy cattle, swine, and poultry, and at the same time the manufacturers of edible
fish-meal have been looking to foreign countries for markets that would buy the surplus meals
from the fish-reduction plants. Having learned from reliable sources that British Columbia
fish-meals made from pilchards and dogfish were being used to good advantage by farmers of
other countries in the rations of their farm animals, this Department made careful investigations
and then proceeded to demonstrate to the farmers of this Province the advantages of using this
British Columbia product in the rations of farm animals.
The fish-meal production in British Columbia is large. In 1927 more than 17,000 tons of it
were manufactured and the bulk exported; in 1928 the production was in excess of 19,000 tons,
most of which went to foreign countries.' In 1929 the total production exceeded 20,000 tons and
manufacturers are facing a problem in finding a market for their output. In this connection the
assistance that has been rendered by the Department of Agriculture in stimulating local interests
in this valuable concentrate and demonstrating to the farmers that it is economical when used
judiciously in the rations of farm animals has been much appreciated by the fishing industry.
It is estimated that upwards of 4,000 tons of fish-meal have been fed to live stock in this Province
during 1929, as compared with about 1,000 tons in 1928.
For the first time in the history of the Peace River Block the Government of British
Columbia has been represented in that territory by an official of the Department of Agriculture.
This service has been much appreciated by the settlers in the Peace River District and a permanent office is being established at Pouce Coupe.
Incidentally, it is interesting to note that agriculture in the Peace River District preceded
agriculture in British Columbia. In 1807 Daniel Williams Harmon sowed the first garden, cereal
and legume seeds, at Fort Dunvegan, in the Peace River country, and three years later he brought
seed from that outpost of the Northwest Fur Company to Fort St, James, the capital of New
Caledonia, where in 1810 he sowed the first seeds of such crops on the shore of Stuart Lake.
This Department has successfully utilized the radio for the broadcasting of market intelligence and agricultural information. Daily during the height of the small-fruit harvesting season,
information concerning the Prairie markets and intelligence of general use to the producers was
broadcast from a Vancouver radio-station.
Preparation for two events of international interest has been commenced this year. An
exhibit showing the natural resources of British Columbia is being prepared for the World's
Poultry Congress, which will be held in London, England, in July, 1930. In assembling this
exhibit the Department of Agriculture is receiving the co-operation of the Mines, Fisheries, and
Lands Departments, and arrangements are completed for the staging of the display in the Crystal
Palace next summer. The other event that is being given every assistance is the World's Grain
Show, which is to be held in Regina in the summer of 1932. Already committees have been
appointed and are at work with the farmers, who are being encouraged to prepare exhibits which
will be sent to Regina to compete against entries from all parts of the world.
In this connection the success of an entry of Stirling field peas grown at Ladner, in British
Columbia, and exhibited at the Chicago International Hay and Grain Show in November deserves
mention. This entry of field peas of a variety which was originated on the Saanich Peninsula
of British Columbia seven years ago secured a grand championship as well as the first prize in
the above-mentioned International Show. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In 1929 there were more clubs and more junior club members engaged in the raising of live
stock and poultry than in any previous year. More than 1,000 boys and girls in 105 Poultry
Clubs raised creditable flocks of poultry. There were 112 boys and girls in 10 Calf Clubs who
raised 112 calves, and also 17 Swine Clubs in which 196 children raised 378 hogs.
In addition to these junior clubs, there were 31 competitors in the bacon-litter contest who
raised 306 hogs.    Sheep Clubs in 1929 in six districts had a membership of 29, to whom 262 ,
breeding ewes were supplied for the establishment of farm flocks.
Many Bills affecting agriculture were presented by the First Session of the Seventeenth
Legislative Assembly.    The chief points of interest in these Acts are presented below:—■
" Game Act Amendment Act."
A number of important changes to the " Game Act " have been made ; chief among these being
the power to constitute and alter game districts and the appointment of a Game Commissioner,
Game Inspectors, and Wardens.    The Game Conservation Board thus passes out of existence.
Game-farming: Authority is given for the issue of game-farmers' licences which entitle the
holder to carry on the business of breeding game birds in captivity for sale for breeding purposes
and for sale for food;   these licences are not transferable.
Trap-lines: Additions to the regulations as to trap-lines provide for the granting of registration securing the exclusive use of a trap-line to the same licensed trapper for a period of five
years, with the right to a further renewal for five years. In the case of a trap-line registered
for a period of years a lay-over for one year may be permitted, authorizing the licensed trapper
to allow game to remain untrapped during the period of the lay-over.
Where the registered owner of a trap-line may be unable through illness or otherwise to
carry on trapping, he may nominate by writing the person who shall, within the period fixed by
the regulations, have the prior and exclusive right to become the registered holder of the trap-
"Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act Amendment Act."
The clauses relating to the inspection of dairies and dairy premises are repealed owing to
these matterg now being provided for in the " Milk Act " and regulations issued in connection
with same.
" Stock-brands Act Amendment Act."
Authority is given for the designation of a brand for the exclusive use of the Department
of Agriculture in the branding of cows which are proved to be poor milk-producers. Where any
cow is branded with this brand, with the consent of the owner, any person who obliterates,
removes, or defaces the impression of the brand is guilty of an offence against this Act.
" Agricultural Act Amendment Act."
An amendment is made to that part of the Act dealing with the spraying of fruit-trees where
regulations are not being observed; formerly an Inspector had to report the circumstances in
writing, but now the Minister may direct the spraying of trees without waiting to receive the
written confirmation of the report which may arrive after.
" Apiaries Act Amendment Act."
An amendment to this Act deals with the registration of apiaries. After June 30th this
year no bee-keeper shall keep any bees except in an apiary which has been registered. Applications for registration are to be made under regulations which have been issued and certificates
will be issued without any fee. Penalties are provided for bee-keepers who keep bees in an
unregistered apiary or for any person who permits any bees to be kept on land owned or
occupied by him without that land being registered as an apiary.
This legislation is particularly interesting in view of the fact that in 1919 a registration fee
for bee-keepers was first imposed and then cancelled after the second session of the 1921
Legislature. The records for these years show the following registration of hives: Year 1919,
7,375 hives;   year 1920, 6,739 hives;   year 1921, 5,769 hives.
It is hoped that compulsory registration without a fee will enable the Department to obtain
accurate records.    The estimated number of hives at the close of 1928 was 19,213. " Sheep Protection Act Amendment Act."
This Act is amended by striking out the clause relating to the payment of claims for sheep,
goats, and poultry killed or injured by dogs in a municipality. Formerly the Council had the
power by by-law to restrict the payment of claims to any one or any two of these classes. This
discriminatory power is now removed, and where a municipality has a dog-licensing by-law
claims may be filed with the Municipal Clerk for payment from the " Dog-tax Fund." The
Council, however, still has absolute discretion as to the amount of the damages.
" Noxious Weeds Act Amendment Act."
The changes in this Act deal with the sale and movement of elevator screenings. Formerly
the export of screenings by vessel was exempt from regulation, but provision is now made for
the issue of regulations to prescribe the manner of shipment and the modes of conveyance by
which screenings from grain recleaned at a grain-elevator in the Province may be exported.
Penalties are provided for enforcing such regulations.
" Produce Marketing Act Amendment Act."
Numerous amendments were made to the above Act along the line of strengthening the
powers of the Committee of Direction. The boundaries of the area in which the marketing of
all tree-fruits is controlled is extended this year considerably beyond the Railway Belt, which
was last year's northern limit. The additional area taken in includes roughly the lands adjacent
to the Pacific Great Eastern Railway from Lillooet to Quesnel, the northern boundary now
following the 53rd parallel to the Alberta boundary. This also takes in the main line of the
Canadian National Railway from Kamloops to the Yellowhead Pass. Some of the important
additions to the Act are as follows:—
Powers of Committee.— (a.) Where Committees of Direction have been constituted, limitations on their powers may be imposed or removed by Order in Council.
(b.)  A committee shall have power to act as the agent of the shipper upon his request.
(c.) Products of shippers shall not be marketed without inspection by an authorized person;
the cost of such inspection to be paid by the shipper, unless such product has already been
inspected under Dominion Statutes and a certificate issued.
(d.) Bags, boxes, crates, etc., shall be marked with tags, labels, or stamps supplied by the
committee, indicating the class, variety, etc., also what levies have been paid and that a
shipper's licence is held.
(e.) Shippers are to make returns at such times as may be ordered and to file all necessary
(/.) Shippers are to file copies of contracts and accounts with persons whose products are
being marketed.
(g.) Terms of sale of a product may be prescribed, including the maximum brokerage which
may be paid.
(/(.)  Growers are to make returns of the different products grown and of their acreage.
(i.) For the purposes of obtaining information relating to the marketing of a product within
its authority, books and records of railway companies, express companies, or any common carrier
may be inspected.
.{).) Judges of County Courts have jurisdiction to grant interim orders and injunctions to
restrain a breach or threatened breach of the Act or regulations.
Shippers' Grievances.—Where a shipper claims to be aggrieved by the suspension or cancellation of his licence, instead of requiring that his complaint be determined by arbitration, he may
appeal to a County Court Judge sitting in Chambers.
Licensing of Shippers.— (a.) A shipper has to be resident for a period of six months in the
Province immediately preceding his application for a licence, unless he. is the registered owner
of the land upon which he carries on business. •*
(b.) The committee may classify as a shipper of car-load lots any licensee who markets
15 tons or more of product during the period covered by his licence (20 tons was the minimum
(c.) No grower and no dealer shall engage in any marketing transaction with a shipper who
is unlicensed, and it is the grower's duty to satisfy himself that a shipper is licensed. I 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Co-operative Associations Act Amendment Act."
Pools.—The rules of an association may provide for the carrying-on of its business as a pool
association, in which case such rules shall provide, among other matters, for the following:—
(a.) The division of territory into districts and the formation of one or more local
(b.)  The number of directors to be elected from each district and the manner of election.
(o.)  The method of forming new districts.
(d.) The method of summoning district delegates to general meetings, which may be called
at any time by not less than 25 per cent, of the district delegates.
The rules may also provide for the formation of an executive committee, defining its
functions subject to the general direction and control of the directors, and may provide for the
remuneration of district delegates and members of the executive committee.
Voting.—Each member shall vote only at the meetings of the local organization of which he
is a member, and the district delegates only shall be entitled to attend and vote at all general
meetings of the association, each delegate having one vote. An extraordinary resolution shall
mean a resolution passed by a majority of not less than three-fourths of such district delegates
as are present in person at a general meeting of the association of which notice has been
duly given.
" Dairy Products Sales Adjustment Act."
This Act, passed for the relief of dairy-farmers, assumes an equal responsibility on the part
of all milk-producers in respect to marketing, and the measure is designed to correct inequalities
in payment of proceeds that have arisen. Clause 2 is devoted to definitions. Clauses 3 and 4
deal with the organization by districts, subject to permission from the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council, of dairy-farmers and outlines the procedure necessary. The appointment of a committee
of adjustment is provided for. Clauses 5, 6, 7, and 8 refer to eligibility for membership in the
committee and duration of term of office of its members. Rules are laid down governing its
operations and office.
Clauses 9 and 10 enumerate the powers of the committee to ascertain prices and totals of
manufacture and production, and to compute, by methods prescribed, the amounts to be realized
by assessment of dairy-farmers; and, further, to allocate, apportion, and redistribute these
amounts according to principles approved by the committee.
Clauses 11, 12, and 13 deal with neglect to comply with the requirements of the committee,
and also with the duty of the committee towards the dairy-farmer and towards the Minister.
Clause 14 concerns the licensing of a dairy-farmer by the committee to sell milk or manufacture
dairy products, and clause 15 gives the right of a dairy-farmer to appeal against an action of the
committee in this regard.
Clause 16 states the duty of the dairy-farmer as to the keeping of accounts in such form as
is made necessary under the Act.
The remainder of the Act is occupied with provisions for further regulations by the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council: Penalties for obstructionists and for offenders; for gazetting
of Orders in Council; for the prevention of price-fixing or arbitrary action as to disposal of
produce on the part of the committee, and for its suspension by the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council, and for the right to appeal.
Respectfully submitted. J. B. MUNRO.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report for this office for the year
ended December 31st, 1929.
More than the usual activity was in evidence with regard to staff movements. The resignation of Dr. D. Warnock, V.S., O.B.E., as Deputy Minister on December 17th, 1928, left that office
vacant until your own appointment as Deputy Minister on January 2nd.    In April the death of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 11-
Miss Florrie Gates after a brief illness was a great shock to her colleagues.    The details of the
changes were as follows :—
Staff Appointments.
Jan.     2.   J. B. Munro, Deputy Minister.
„      2.   W. J. Bonavia, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes.
April   1.   J. L. Webster, District Field Inspector.
„       1.   G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist.
„       1.   W. Sandall, Field Inspector.
„      1.   Miss D. E. McQuaid, Stenographer, District Agriculturist, Cranbrook.
„       1.   Miss T. M. Suffa, Stenographer, District Agriculturist, Kamloops.
May     1.   Miss Joan Ridgway, Stenographer, Field Crop Branch.
June 10.   W. W. Duncan, Director of Markets.
Aug.    1.   R. DeLisle, District Agriculturist.
Sept.    1.   J. Jenkins, Junior Clerk and Messenger.
Dec.     1.   Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner.
„       1.   Miss L. L. Gold, Stenographer, Inspection of Fruits, Vancouver.
Resignations, etc.
Jan.   31.   Miss L. S. Koyl, Stenographer, General (resigned).
,,     31.   D. D. Munro, District Agriculturist (resigned).
April 24.   Miss F. Gates, Stenographer, Field Crop Branch (died).
June 30.   E. R. Bewell, District Agriculturist (resigned).
Aug.   31.   Miss M. Hicks, Stenographer, Fruit Inspection  (resigned).
Sept. 30.   R. L. Whitlaw, Junior Clerk, General (resigned).
Transfers.        .
Miss A. L. Sjodin, from Government Sub-agency, Ashcroft, to be Stenographer,
Inspection of Fruits, etc., Vancouver.
Feb.  11.   Miss M. Sluggett, from Inspection of Fruits, etc., Vancouver, to be Stenographer, General, Department of Agriculture.
The total number of letters received at headquarters was 33,462, as against 33,052 last year.
(See Appendix No. 1 for details.)
In the writer's office the correspondence shows a progressive increase;   incoming letters
increasing 5 per cent, and outgoing letters 12 per cent, over the figures for the year 1928.    Since
appointed Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes also the business in this section of departmental
work has been very substantially increased.
The Live Stock, Accountant's, and Women's Institute Branches also show much increased
Circular Letters.—The total number of circular letters issued covered the usual wide range,
but the actual totals were somewhat less than in 1928.    The details were as follows:—
Agricultural Associations      1,555
Apiaries Branch         310
Dairy Branch     8,990
Farmers' Institutes      2,695
Field Crop Branch     6,287
Goat-breeders' Association      2,125
Horticultural Branch      2,465
Minister's Office         710
Miscellaneous       2,595
Poultry Branch -     5,025
Recorder of Brands       325
Statistics Branch     1,565
Stock-breeders' Association      1,405
Women's Institutes      3,064
Total   39,116 I 12
During the past year two new pound districts were organized—at Swan Lake (West),
near Vernon, on July 30th and in the Mill Bay-Cobble Hill area on September 28th. At the close
of the year applications for pounds were under investigation at Wildwood, near Powell River,
and at Happy Valley, near Victoria.
From examination of pound-keepers' returns there were considerably less estrays captured
during 1929 than previously, the inference being that stock was being better looked after in
pound areas ;  also there were no convictions.    The following table gives full details:—■
Operation op Pound Districts, 1929.
No. of
Sales of
charged for
Fees paid
to Pound-
B.X. (Vernon)      	
.. ..
Swan Lake West (Vernon)	
* Two mules also captured.
The following Orders in Council were some of the important ones affecting agriculture:—
April 6th: Regulations based on the " Apiaries Act " providing for registration of beekeepers.
April 12th :  Proclamation of Christina Lake Bull District.
May 2nd :  Constitution of North Kamloops Protection Spraying Zone.
September 26th :   Designation of nine Women's Institute Districts.
October 10th: Hog-grading regulations for British Columbia in conformity with the " Live
Stock and Live Stock Products Act" (Canada).
October 25th: Constitution of the Lower Mainland Dairy Products Sales Adjustment
October 30th :  Proclamation of a bull district at South Francois Lake.
October 31st:  Grand Forks Bull District, change of dates for bulls being at large.
The Department issued during the year certificates for special rates on seven car-loads of
crushed lime rock for fertilizer purposes, aggregating 215 tons. This was all for Vancouver
Island points. The decrease in quantity was partly due to the cessation of activity of the Comox
Limestone and Fertilizer Company, which alone shipped 337 tons in 1928.
During the year 1929 ten new Farmers' Institutes were incorporated, thus giving evidence of
the continued progress of this movement, now in its thirty-third year. Six of these new institutes
were formed in Central British Columbia, which is now well organized, the details being as follows: February 22nd, Williams Lake; April 24th, South Saltspring; May 15th, Houston;
August 16th, Creston ; September 10th, Canim Lake ; September 20th, Lone Butte ; September
23rd, Kispiox; November 20th, Pinantan; November 26th, Riverside (Peace River) ; December
23rd, Kelly Creek.
The total number of institutes now in operation is 179, or a net increase of nine over the
previous year.
Further inquiries have come in recently from the Peace River Block, the last great west, and
it is hoped that one or more institutes can be reorganized in the Okanagan Valley, where mixed
farming is now increasing rapidly.
The total recorded membership for 1829 was 0,720.    This may be increased somewhat as
many annual returns are still to be received and examined.    The membership in 1928 was 6,485.
. Whilst possibly we do not find so many institutes as in past years with very large memberships, there are twenty-four with a membership between fifty and a hundred and seven over a
hundred, as follows :—
South Vancouver  310
Fernie  243
North Vancouver  188
Delta   183
Surrey  177
Matsqui    169
Metchosin    131
Large numbers are not everything, and as a rule a medium-sized organization with good live
officers actively carrying out programmes does better for a community.
Meetings held.
Special attention was given during the past year to Farmers' Institutes asking for lecturers,
every effort being made to give talks and demonstrations on subjects asked for. During February
and March Messrs. S. S. Phillips and H. E. Waby visited a large number of institutes in the
Bulkley, Lakes, Nechako, and Prince George Districts, special attention being paid to poultry
matters. This campaign was followed up by a distribution of settings of eggs of popular breeds
at nominal figures, forty-one districts taking part. Other institutes visited by one or more
lecturers were as follows : Alberni, Black Pool, Comox, Deroche, Durieu-Hatzic Prairie, Elphin-
stone Bay, Gibsons Landing, Inonoaklin, Langley, Nakusp, Nanaimo-Cedar, Needles, North
Okanagan. Pitt Meadows, Powell River, Qualicum District, South Saanich, Surge Narrows, West
Quesnel, Whaletown, etc.
During the past year I was able to visit a number of institutes, especially in the interior of
the Province, and four conventions were attended: January 26th, District D at Kamloops;
June 4th, District H at Williams Lake; June 20th, District B at Telkwa; November 13th,
District E at New Westminster.
In June in the Shuswap Lake and East Kootenay nine institute meetings were held, as
follows: June 1st, White Creek Valley; June 2nd, Celista and Magna Bay; June 10th, Horse
Creek; June 11th, Windermere; June 12th, Wardner; June 13th. Grasmere-Roosville and
Newgate ;  June 14th, Cranbrook ;  June 15th, Jaffray.
In September and October a very successful series of meetings was held in the Nechako,
Bulkley Valley, and Skeena Districts. Mr. J. B. Munro, Deputy Minister, was present at two
of these meetings, and throughout I was accompanied by Mr. A. J. Hourston, of the Department,
who showed educational movie pictures on various subjects, including range cattle, poultry-
raising, sheep and wool production, etc.
Sept. 27.   Fort Fraser   115
„     28.   Vanderhoof        60
30.   Colleymount     17
Oct.     1.   Burns Lake      25
2. Palling     20
3. Forestdale    ...    70
5.   Houston        30 I 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Oct.     8.   Telkwa        65
9.   Driftwood  (Smithers)       25
„     10.   Evelyn  :     65
„     11.   Hazelton      22
„     14.   Terrace      65
Total   579
Average attendance, 48.
As will be seen, these meetings were very well attended and much appreciation expressed.
Two meetings of the Advisory Board were also attended—Vancouver, June 28th and 29th,
and Victoria, December 2nd to 6th.
Activities of Institutes.
Gopher-control Work.—Under the departmental policy of paying a small grant to institutes
conducting campaigns against gophers and ground-squirrels, a great deal of good work was done
in the past year by the following twenty institutes: Arrow Lakes, Brisco, Black Pool, Baynes
District, Barriere, Chinook Cove-Chu Chua, Elk Valley, Grasmere-Roosville, Horsefly, Horse
Creek, Jaffray, Lower Slocan. Valley, Midway, Moberly-Donald, Martin's Prairie, Mount Cartier,
Northern Okanagan, Rock Creek, Winlaw, and Winfield.
Other farmer organizations assisted also, including the Appledale Progressive Association,
the Ukrainian Labour-Farmer Association, and the Upper North Thompson Agricultural
The record for tails turned in seems to be held by the Rock Creek Farmers' Institute,
2,778;  Black Pool Farmers' Institute with 1,000.
Fall Fairs.—Thirteen Farmers' Institutes held fall fairs, as against ten in 1928, as follows:
Crawford Bay, Edgewood, Elphinstone Bay, Fort Fraser, Howe Sound, loco, North-east Burnaby,
Pemberton Meadows, Sayward, South Burnaby, Tappen, Windermere, and Whonnock. Of these
the two latter were the best, being all-round fairs, including live-stock exhibits. Edgewood, on
the Lower Arrow Lake, was a new event which has started off well. Judges are supplied free
as to the regular Fair Associations.
Field-crop Competitions.—It will be recollected that mention was made last year of the
proposed revival of field-crop competitions amongst Farmers' Institutes, and the Provincial
Agronomist has now drawn up regulations under two heads—(ra) combined field-crop and cleaned-
seed competitions and (b) field-crop competitions.
In the case of the regular field-crop competitions, which are limited to Farmers' Institutes,
six contestants are required; the choice of crop is left to the institute, but seed must be registered or approved by the Department, with a minimum plot of % acre; entries to be filed by
June 15th.    Prize-money provided is $25 and an institute may organize two of these competitions.
Ploughing-matches.—The revival of interest in good ploughing and its encouragement by
ploughing-matches continued during the year. Two matches were held in the spring and eight
in the fall, at the following points: Midway, Saanichton (spring and fall), Armstrong, Courtenay.
Ladner, Chilliwack, Langley, Matsqui, and Pitt Meadows. The Minister of Agriculture made a
grant of $100 in each case in aid of the prize-money ; half of these matches were under the
auspices of the local institute and the others under the Agricultural Association or a special
Pure-bred Sires purchased.
The Live Stock Branch of the Department had a record year with regard to filling requisitions for pure-bred sires from institutes, and much credit is due to that Branch for the trouble
taken in selecting good animals, often difficult to get at the price-limit set. No less than thirty-
three bulls were supplied, six of dairy and twenty-seven of beef type, as against eighteen bulls
in 1928; fourteen rams and five boars were also supplied, as against three rams only the year
Stumping-powder and Rebates.
Stumping-powder purchased by institutes totalled 11,339 cases, valued at 865,602.48, a slight
increase on the previous year. Two thousand nine hundred and thirty-nine farmers applied for
the rebate on 8,212 cases of powder, the total sum refunded being $20,530; these figures also
show a slight increase. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 15
District Conventions and Resolutions.
Eight out of the nine District Farmers' Institutes held their conventions, Vancouver Island
being the only exception.    Districts D and E also held semi-annual meetings.
District B, Skeena and Bulkley, at Telkwa, June 20th.
District C, Nechako, at Prince George, November 14th and 15th.
District  D,   Kamloops,   at  Kamloops,   January   26th;    semi-annual   at   Salmon   Arm,
August 2nd.
District E, Lower Fraser, at New Westminster, February 8th; semi-annual at New Westminster, November 13th.
District F, West Kootenay, at Robson, June 6th.
District G, Okanagan, at Vernon, November 5th.
District H, Cariboo, at Williams Lake, November 15th.
District I, East Kootenay, at Cranbrook, October 9th and 10th.
Resolutions  submitted from district conventions to  the Advisory  Board for  the  annual
meeting at Victoria totalled 109, practically the same as in 1928, and covered the usual wide
range.    Of the above total, thirty-two were endorsed by the Board, twenty-five of which were
selected for submission to various departments or officials for action, whilst eight were reserved
to be presented to the Agricultural Legislative Committee during the session at Victoria.    These
eight comprised the following matters :   Travelling clinics;   reverted lands to be available for
pre-emption;   the Oriental question;   the coyote bounty, increase of cougar bounty;   provision
of a saving clause in the " Veterinary Act " ;  and free firearms for sheep and cattle herders.
The Advisory Board met twice during the year—at Vancouver on June 26th to 28th to meet
the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture in connection with the sudden removal of the coyote bounty,
and the regular annual meeting at Victoria, December 2nd to 6th.
British Boys for British Columbia Farms.
During the past year the Province has been visited twice by Mr. W. R. Little, Commissioner
of Colonization at Ottawa, with regard to making arrangements with the Provincial Government
to bring out this spring a number of British boys, not to exceed fifty, to be placed on farms.
A preliminary notice was sent to Farmers' Institutes in June to obtain some idea as to what was
thought of the scheme; replies, however, were disappointing in number. An agreement is now
about to be signed between the Ottawa and Provincial Governments, all arrangements being in
the hands of Dr. W. H. Gaddes, Colonization Commissioner. The boys, who are between 15 and
17 years of age, will be carefully selected in the Old Country, brought out in parties between
March 15th and April 15th next year, and assembled at the Agassiz Experimental Farm.
This scheme, although new to British Columbia, has proved successful in other parts of the
Dominion. In 1928 Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan took sixty boys each; New Brunswick
slightly less; Manitoba, 100 boys; and Ontario between 200 and 300; all arrangements having
worked out very satisfactorily.
Fourteen new Women's Institutes were incorporated during the year 1929, as follows:
March 19th, Balfour and Queen's Bay and South-west Burnaby; April 23rd, East Chilliwack;
May 3rd, Comox; May 16th, Silverton and Slocan City; June 27th, Cherry Creek; July 25th,
West Saskatoon; September 14th, Fraser Lake; October 19th, Sunnyside; October 22nd,
Okanagan Mission and Salmo and District; October 26th, Needles-Fauquier; October 31st,
Lac la Hache.
The total number of Women's Institutes in operation was 132, with a membership of 4,186.
Flower-shows, Exhibits of Women's Work, etc.
Fifty flower-shows were organized and held during the year, being several less than in 1928.
This was no doubt due to the very dry weather during the growing season in many parts of the
Summarizing the districts, the following main activities were recorded:—
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.—Eleven flower-shows; two " better babies " clinics ;
one dental clinic.
Lower Mainland.—Fifteen flower-shows;   two " better babies " clinics.
Okanagan and Dry Belt.—Twelve flower-shows;   two " better babies " clinics.
Kootenays.—Eleven flower-shows;   one dental clinic. I 16
Central British Columbia.—One flower-show.
Appendix No. 2 gives full details.
The total number of new bulletins, circulars, and reissues printed was 65,450, whilst the
dispatch by mail and other means totalled 51,477; both figures being somewhat less than in 1928.
The details of publications sent out were grouped as follows:—
Dairying  1,791
Diseases and Pests   5,663
Field Crop   1,995
Fruit and Vegetable Growing  7,182
Live Stock   2,615
Poultry   9,631
Settlers' Information   7,911
Survey     2,847
Miscellaneous  7,859
Reports   3,983
Total  51,477
Amongst new publications may be mentioned : " Cantaloupe;growing in the B.C. Dry Belt,"
" Celery Culture," and " Exhibition Standards for Fruit and Vegetables," all by the Horticultural
Branch, and Bulletin No. 105, " Tree-fruit Farming in B.C.," published by this Department for
the University of British Columbia.
The following statement shows the publications issued in 1929:—
April 2
Planting Plans and Distances	
Care and Feeding of Dairy Cattle..	
Hog-raising in B.C	
Middle Entrance Hive	
Cantaloupe-growing in B.C. Dry Belt	
Silos and Silage  	
Butter-making on the Farm	
Certified Mill; and Butter-fat Records	
Strawberry-root Weevil.	
Brand Books —  	
Tree-fruit Survey...	
Exhibition Standards for Fruit and Vegetables....
Apiary Registration Regulations 	
Creameries and Dairies Regulations 	
Poultry-raising   Competitions    ..
Gardening on a City Lot	
Noxious Weeds.. _	
Regulations re Poison Licence	
Cow-testing   Regulations   	
Use of Water in Irrigation	
North Kamloops Protection and Spraying Zone
Stock-breeders' Directory	
Central B.C  -
Tree-fruit F'arming in B.C	
Agricultural  Statistics,   1923	
Milk Inquiry Commission   	
Imported Cabbage-worm  	
Climate of B.C., Tear 1928	
23rd Annual Report, Department of Agriculture
Brand Book Supplement....  	
List of Publications 	
Poultry Competitions  	
Dairy Circular No. 1 	
Women's Institute Districts....	
Dairy Circular No. 2 	
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands	
Celery  Culture	
Varieties of Fruit  recommended-	
Some Facts about B.C	
Sheep Calendars	
Pea-weevil Circular •	
Hort. Circ. 62 ...
Bulletin 67 	
Bulletin '60 	
Hort. Circ. 69 ...
Bulletin 66	
Bulletin 71 	
Dairy Circ. 10 ...
Hort. Circ. 33 ...
1928 Edition 	
Dept. Circ. 49 ...
Dept. Circ. 50 ...
Hort. Circ. 43 ...
Field Crop Circ.
Dept. Circ. 47 —
Leaflet    .-.
Dept. Circ. 51 ...
Bulletin  103   .....
Hort. Circ. 37 ...
Dept. Circ. 33
Hort. Circ. 70
Hort. Circ. 64
Dept. Circ. 4 4
Respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
I 17
Wm. J. Bonavia.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report in connection with the fall
fairs of the Province for the year 1929.
The past year has been notable for the losses by fire sustained by two associations, the
Royal Agricultural & Industrial Society losing all its buildings by a disastrous fire on July 14th
and the Nelson Agricultural & Industrial Association suffering a similar loss in August. The
year 1929 also marked the celebration of the Diamond Jubilee Exhibition of the Royal Agricultural & Industrial Society, this being the sixtieth fair held, although the society held its first
fair in 1865, sixty-five years ago.
One new Fair Association was incorporated during the past year, the Sumas-Abbotsford
Agricultural Association on August 27th, the total number now standing at fifty-nine.
Four exhibitions and sixty-eight fairs were held, being a net increase of seven fairs over
the previous year.    The events were located as follows:—
Exhibitions. Fairs.
Circuit   I.—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands      1 12
„       II.—Lower Fraser Valley     3 22
„     III.—Okanagan and C.P.R. Main Line   10
„      IV.—East and West Kootenays  12
V.—-Central B.C *  12
Totals     4 68
The additional fairs were held as follows: Lower Fraser Valley, 2 ; Okanagan, 2; Kootenay,
1; Central British Columbia, 3 ; whilst one fair less was held on Vancouver Island ; net increase,
The number of judges supplied by the Department continues to grow each year, no less than
117 being employed, of whom thirty-five were staff officials and eighty-two from outside the
Department, distributed as per attached table:—
Fruit and vegetables	
Field crops	
Live stock	
Poultry and rabbits	
Dairy products	
Domestic science and women's work
Total judges, year 1928	
Practically no complaints as to judges' work reached the Department. Much matter of
interest is reported by these judges in addition to some hundreds of score-cards which form the
basis for the returns and placings already issued to members of the British Columbia Fairs
Association on November 22nd, 1929.
Some of the more striking features are as follows:—
Highest total score for a fall fair, Armstrong, 89.3 per cent. Highest score for—
Fruit and vegetables, Ladysmith and South Burnaby, 9 out of 10 points.
Grains, field crops, and potatoes, Armstrong, 9 out of 10 points.
Live stock, Armstrong, 10 out of 10 points;  Matsqui, 9 out of 10 points.
Poultry, South Vancouver, 5 out of 5 points.
Dairy products, Aldergrove, 4 out of 5 points.
Domestic science and ladies' work, Terrace, 9.5 out of 10 points.
Support of fair by local exhibitors, Surrey, 4.6 out of 5 points.
Interest of public in exhibits and judging, Fulford Harbour, 14.5 out of 15 points.
Taking the circuits as units representing parts of the Province, the following placings are
Fruit and Vegetable Exhibits— Ay Per Cent.1'6'
Circuit     I.—Vancouver Island      76.2
,,        II.—Lower Mainland      73.1
„       IV.—Kootenays      65.3
III.—Okanagan       64.4
Improvement was shown at Vancouver Island and Lower Fraser Valley fairs for these
classes; the extremely dry season in the interior of the Province accounting for the lower
scoring at Interior point's.
Grain, Field Crops, and Potato ExhiMts— Avp'er Cent.1'6"
Circuit     I.—Vancouver Island      67.3
V.—Central British Columbia     66.9
„        II.—Lower Mainland      61.5
III.—Okanagan  :..    54.3
IV.—Kootenays .-. *     50.9
Placings were here very similar to those in 1928, with lower scorings throughout due to
seasonal conditions.
Live Stock Exhibits— AVperScfnt°.''e'
Circuit III.—Okanagan      76.0
„ I.—Vancouver Island      66.7
,,        II.-—-Lower Mainland  :     66.5
„        V.—-Central British Columbia     63.5
IV.—Kootenays     62.0
The figures here give food for thought, the Okanagan fairs averaging the highest scorings
for live stock in the Province. Led by Armstrong, there are a group of some five fairs here that
have strengthened their live-stock classes materially, being well supported by breeders. Vancouver Island live-stock exhibits improved slightly, the Lower Mainland fairs being down several
points for these classes, viewed as a whole, although there were two or three exceptions.
The legislative vote for Agricultural Fairs was increased for the fiscal year 1929-30 from
$45,000 to $60,250; this increase took care of the Winter Fair at Vancouver and also enabled a
rate of 30 per cent, to be paid to fairs, as against 25 per cent, in 1928. Needless to say, this
increase was appreciated, being along the lines of what the British Columbia Fairs Association
has been emphasizing for several years. The sum of $37,272 was expended by the Department
on regular percentage grants and $9,594 on special grants. Nine special grants were made,
including $2,000 for the Armstrong Fair and an instalment of $4,500 on account of the new
live-stock building at Vancouver. Owing to the very regrettable destruction by fire during the
summer of the buildings at Queens Park, New Westminster, the Government decided to make a
special grant of $15,000 to the Royal Agricultural & Industrial Association to enable it to carry
on; legal difficulties were discovered, however, and the sum will have to be provided by a
supplementary vote to be passed at the present session of the Legislature.
This association concluded a successful year's work, the membership including practically
all bodies holding fairs during 1929.    Reference has already been made in the previous report to the holding of district fairs meetings during the winter in the interior of the Province, so as to
maintain interest in the organization and to better handle the sequence of dates, etc. It is hoped
that similar meetings will be maintained in the future. The annual meeting of the association
was held at New Westminster on March 20th, with a record attendance.
The 1928 summarized records for the British Columbia Fairs Association show total receipts
of adhering organizations as $460,288.55 and expenditures $444,844.61, with cash prize-money
paid $132,525.05, the figures for receipts and prize-money both constituting new records.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Dr. W. H. Gaddes.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report that this office was opened on December 27th, 1928.
Preliminary to formulating any definite policy of colonization, it appeared necessary to have
sufficient suitable land available in various parts of the Province and priced to suit the requirements. Efforts were concentrated on the land settlement and development areas. As some of
these had cost the Province large sums of money and were still very expensive to carry, steps
were taken to reduce the losses to a minimum. We co-operated with and helped to direct policies
of other departments in questions relating to lands.
The reclaimed Government area was about 10,000 acres, of which about 1,063 acres had been
alienated prior to 1929. About 4,000 acres were farmed by the Government at considerable loss.
Concentrated attention was given to this and earnest effort's were made to sell it in a retail way.
This met with indifferent success, but about 362 acres were sold during the year, amounting in
value to $41,365, as per list attached. It would appear that local prospective buyers adopt a
waiting attitude and expect prices reduced below true value when sales are attempted direct
from the Department. Other means of cutting this loss were considered, and it has now been
decided to call for tenders for the whole area. There is good reason to believe that a satisfactory
price will be received and further development and settlement of this property will proceed under
private ownership.    (See Appendix No. 3.)
On inspection a different situation was found—lands were priced too high for the class of
property. This was gone into thoroughly and adjustments and reclassifications made in accord
with its various uses and possibilities. Considerable acreage had been sold for fruit and other
crops for which the land is not suitable. The Government had undertaken the development of
about 340 acres of orchard, with a view of selling it in lots. This proved disappointing and very
costly and a heavy loss has been made. Owing to poor soil and other adverse conditions, many
trees could not survive the winters and large numbers had to be replanted annually, entailing
a considerable yearly charge. In order to correct this a revaluation of the property was made
to facilitate its sale. The other lots under the water system were revalued and suggestions
made as to crops, endeavouring to divert the use to dairying and other suitable practice. Selling-
agents were appointed at different places. The result so far has been satisfactory. Through the
Kelowna agents the development area was disposed of at a fair price and a number of other lots
have been sold locally. The cost of carrying has thus been considerably reduced. Mr. Steward,
the Project Manager, reports: " Lands are selling well since the revised prices have come into
force and every one feels very optimistic as to our future here." A complete list of the lots sold
in 1929 to November is attached.    (See Appendix No. 3.) I 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
This development area in the Kootenay had at one time 100 families residing on it. This
number had dwindled to twenty and many places were becoming run down and neglected.
Eighteen additional families have been placed there this year. The price of their farms will
average about $2,200 apiece, and it is not the intention to add to these until they are firmly
established.    Next spring further settlers can be accommodated.
There are about 100 families on this development area. A number of improved farms have
reverted and there has been no increase in the number of families this year. The place is not
very attractive, and although several parties have investigated it, no sales have resulted. The
Government has not undertaken any farm-work and the annual expenditure is small.
These are areas which were set aside under the direct control of the Land Settlement Board
and were classified and priced some time ago. Outside the development areas, they have proved
to be the easiest to handle, and some success was met in individual settlement on these lands,
principally in the neighbourhood of Prince George. A list of these can be obtained from the office
of the Land Settlement Board. A further list of lands, pre-empted or sold, both those reverted
and those not heretofore alienated, can be got from the Superintendent of Lands.
Activities were not confined to Government lands, but settlers were sent to different parts
of the Province who were interested in private properties.
Prospective settlers were directed and advised.
This season's work has brought out clearly the necessity of getting all reverted lands and
those not yet alienated—particularly in settled districts—classified, priced, and listed for sale.
' Steps are now being taken to accomplish this.    The present method of having to get inspection
after a man has become interested in a piece of land, and requiring from ten days to two months,
is not conducive to land-sales or settlement.
Sales at Creston, Oliver, Land Settlement Board areas, and to individuals along the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway, represent a value of $234,765 approximately, as follows:—
Sumas land sold        $41,365.00
Oliver land sold         103,400.00
Creston land sold, say   40,000.00
Other than development areas, say ....  50,000.00
Total       $234,765.00
Reports were made on the following:—
(1.) Economic conditions  in the Okanagan in  regard  to  irrigation  and  the water
districts' loans from the Conservation  Fund.
(2.)  On matters pertaining to Dewdney Dyking District.
) Certain areas at Sumas in regard to taxes and reclassification of land.
) Oliver—claims on fruit-trees.
) Oliver—reclassifying and pricing lands.
) Creston—reclassifying and pricing lands.
) Nicomen Island—in connection with dyking and taxation for same.
) Pacific Great Eastern Railway and natural resources.
) Colonization and industrial development.
Time was spent inspecting land areas and general conditions in Central British Columbia
and in the Peace River District. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 21
Land-sales along the line of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway were constantly kept in view
and fifteen applications for settlers' transportation were issued.
The Government has undertaken to place fifty British boy immigrants and arrangements
must be made to take care of them.
Respectfully submitted.
" W. H. Gaddes.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith submit the report of your Horticultural Branch for the year 1929.
In the Coast sections the past year has been one of the driest on record. In Victoria, which
has a forty-year average of 27.37 inches, the total precipitation was only 17.28 inches. This may
be taken as a fair example of the low precipitation which was registered not only on Vancouver
Island, but on the Lower Mainland as well. Following as it did the extremely dry year of 1928,
the lack of moisture was particularly acute. In the irrigated sections of the Interior there was
practically no flood-water, with the result that many districts were forced to make use of their
storage-water at the beginning of the season. Fortunately the storage-supply, supplemented with
several heavy fall rains, was sufficient to mature the crop satisfactorily. In the Kootenay
districts similar conditions prevailed to those which existed in the other parts of the Province.
In all parts of the Province the early part of January was mild. This was followed by an
extreme cold spell which lasted for several weeks. The spring was late, and while May was
warm the small-fruit shipments were from a week to ten days later than the previous year.
The late cold spring also affected such early crops as tomatoes, cantaloupes, etc., both with
regard to tonnage and earliness of shipment. Fall conditions generally were very satisfactory
from a harvesting standpoint, with the result that such crops as apples, onions, potatoes, etc.,.
were gathered and stored with a minimum of trouble.
Tree-fruits.—At this time it is impossible to state definitely the actual production of each
kind of tree-fruit. Estimates would indicate, however, that the total production was somewhat
less than in 1928. Apples were approximately 25 per cent, less than in the previous year.
Other tree-fruits, with the possible exception of cherries, were also lighter. Cherries on the
whole were an excellent crop and the excellent weather conditions which prevailed at the time
this crop was harvested permitted a much larger tonnage being shipped than in the past year.
It may be safely said, however, that the prices realized for all fruit will make the total receipts
at least equal to the 1928 returns.
Small Fruits.—The indications at the beginning of the season were for an extremely large
crop of strawberries, and in view of the fact that the Small-fruit Committee of Direction was
not operating and jam contracts apparently were not forthcoming, Government aid was secured
to handle the surplus. (See section dealing with Berry Processors, Limited.) The prices
realized for fresh-fruit shipments were on the whole equal to those of 1928. Raspberries were
considerably lighter and the prices were much better than in the previous year.    The major part I 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of the loganberry-crop was sold to the wineries, the returns being the same as in past years—
namely, 8 cents per pound. There was considerable winter-injury to the canes in some sections
and the crop of the fruit generally was light. Blackberries were a heavy crop and more than
supplied all market requirements. The same may be said of other small fruits, and particularly
in the case of black currants. Usually there is a good demand for this fruit at satisfactory
prices.    This year, however, there appeared to be a surplus and large quantities went to waste.
Vegetables.—Greenhouse vegetable production is expanding each year and the production
of greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers this year will show a marked increase. In many cases
these vegetables are used to make up mixed cars, while there is also a large tonnage shipped in
straight cars, shipments being made to Prairie points and also as far east as Toronto.
In the outdoor Vegetables (which include canning-crops but not potatoes) the area devoted
to this production is estimated at well over 8,000 acres. This may be roughly divided as follows:
Tomatoes, 3,000 acres; onions, 1,200 acres; peas, 2,000 acres; remaining acreage, other crops.
In many cases these shipments of fresh vegetables are sent out in mixed cars as well as being
used to supply the home market. The lettuce-crop is one instance. During the months of June,
July, and August practically none is imported into the Port of Vancouver, while during the other
nine months of the year over 43,000 crates were brought in.
The returns this year for vegetable-crops of all kinds have been with one or two exceptions
satisfactory. Cannery tomato prices were lower than in 1928, the growers receiving $17.50
per ton, as against $18.50 per ton in 1928. The returns on onions also have not been as good
as last year and a large tonnage still remains unsold.
Tobacco.—There has been little change in the tobacco production situation in the last year.
No planting was done in the Okanagan outside of the Experimental Station. The largest
commercial planting undertaken was in the Fraser Valley on the land known as the Sumas
Reclamation Area. Approximately 100 acres were planted, all of which was harvested and at
the present time is being manufactured for sale.
Seed Production.—It is rather difficult to state definitely the present value of flower- and
vegetable-seed production in the Province. There has been a gradual increase in the acreage
devoted to this work and the value of the product marketed. A conservative estimate would
place the total acreage between 300 and 400 acres. Your Horticulturist had an opportunity this
summer of visiting the seed-producing areas of California, Oregon, and Washington. While it is
highly improbable that the size of the seed industry will reach the point at present held by some
of the States to the south, nevertheless there are possibilities for this work in British
Columbia and on the whole it is well worth encouraging. A. complete report on this trip was
placed before you earlier in the year.
Last spring it was thought, in view of the large acreage planted to strawberries and the fact
that the Berry Growers' Committee of Direction would not be operating, that there would be a
surplus of approximaely 600 tons of strawberries which it would be impossible to ship as fresh
fruit. Uneasiness was also increased due to the fact that canners were not placing contracts
to the same extent as in previous years. With these points in mind the growers approached the
Government with a view to securing assistance to take care of this surplus. The result was
that the Berry Processors, Limited, was formed as a holding company to handle this fruit for
the growers, and the Government agreed to loan money to be used in providing sugar and barrels
necessary for putting the berries up in what is known as a 2 to 1 cold pack. Plants were established at each of the following places: Victoria, New Westminster, and Hatzic. At these points
the berries were collected, mixed in barrels, with the right quantity of sugar, and placed in
storage. As the surplus was not as heavy as anticipated, only 287 tons of berries were handled
in this way. This tonnage of fruit, together with 144 tons of sugar, made a total pack of 2,101
barrels. Up to the present approximately 450 barrels have been sold, leaving 1,651 barrels yet
to be disposed of. It was hoped that a larger tonnage would have been sold previous to this
time, but unfortunately marketing conditions have been such that more could not have been
marketed, although no trouble is anticipated in the sale of these berries previous to the 1930
crop being placed on the market. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929.
I 23
A survey of the greenhouse acreage is made by your Branch every two years. The last
survey was made in 1927 and the completed survey for 1929 shows that there has been an increase
of 22.4 per cent, in acreage. According to the 1929 survey, there are 260 growers engaged in the
greenhouse business, with a total area of 3,385,081 square feet. (For further information regarding this survey in so far as it relates to districts, growers, areas, etc., see Appendix No. 4.)
While there is a heavy importation of bulbs of all kinds into British Columbia, there is at
the same time an increasing home production. No attempt, however, has been made previous to
this year to ascertain the total acreage devoted to the.production of bulbs in the Province. This
year a survey was made of all sections. The figures as shown by this survey indicate that there
are approximately 159 acres in bulbs in British Columbia. Details showing the acreage in
different sections, as well as the acreage in different kinds of bulbs, may be ascertained by
reference to Appendix No. 5.
The holding of pruning-schools and pruning demonstrations has been undertaken by your
Horticultural officials for a number of years. The number attending these schools and demonstrations varies from year to year. The fact that there is a demand for this work may be taken
as an indication that it is proving of service to the grower. During the past year eight schools
were held with an attendance of eighty-five, and thirty-four demonstrations with an attendance
of 376.    Details with regard to this work are shown in Appendices Nos. 6 and 7.
Strawberries.—It has been felt for some time that there should be an improvement in the
kind of strawberry which was being grown in the various small-fruit areas. Three varieties
were selected for trial—namely, Aroma, British Sovereign, and the No. 122. The first is a
variety extensively grown in Missouri and used for car-load shipment to the different consuming
centres. The British Sovereign has been grown on the Lower Mainland for the past two years.
It has proven to be a most satisfactory berry from a shipping and canning standpoint and it
was thought advisable to try it out in other sections. The third variety, known as No. 122, was
introduced into the Lower Mainland sections, and as it was claimed to be particularly good for
canning it was included for trial with the other two. The plants were distributed according to
sections as follows :—•
British Sovereign	
No. 122	
These varieties were planted last spring and will be producing next year.    A careful check
will be kept of the varieties named in order to ascertain their suitability for the different sections.
Broccoli.—This crop is of more importance on Vancouver Island than in any other section of
the Province.    This year 4 oz. of Late and 4 oz. of Early Butner's broccoli, obtained from Mr. F.
Burner, of Roseburg, Oregon, were distributed to a number of growers.    Reports on hand at
the present time indicate that it germinated well.   In a number of cases the flea-beetle practically
destroyed all plants.    The excessively dry weather also made it difficult for the young plants to
become established.    Results from these plantings will depend to a large extent upon winter
The improvement of soil conditions and the supply of plant-food is an important consideration by the individual engaged in the production of fruit and vegetables.    In the fruit districts I 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the use of cover-crops, either permanent or seasonal, is general and is usually an indication of
good cultural practice. Cover-crops are often supplemented with various commercial fertilizers.
The right use of fertilizers for both vegetable and fruit crops is a very broad question, and the
results obtained are often not conclusive, due to the fact that plots on which work may be undertaken are not wholly under our control. Satisfactory results, however, have been obtained in
some cases and in view of this a continuance of the work is recommended. A general outline
of the work as carried out this year in the different districts follows :—■
Cannery Peas.—This work was undertaken on Sea Island, in the Fraser Valley, by
Mr. G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist. Mr. Clarke reports as follows on the two plots
on which the work was carried out:—
" The variety of pea used in both instances was the Alaska. This variety is the earliest
seeded and gives in most instances the poorest yields, less than a ton per acre.
" Each 5-acre block was marked off into five 1-acre blocks, and treated similarly: Plot No. 1,
1,500 lb. of ground limestone; Plot No. 2, 1,500 lb. of ground limestone and 300 lb. of sulphate
of potash; Plot No. 3, 300 lb. of sulphate of potash; Plot No. 4, 750 lb. of superphosphate;
Plot No. 5, no treatment.
" It would have been better to have been able to put the limestone on the land the fall before
or earlier in the spring, but it was not until March that it was decided to make the start in
this work.
" The late spring, with stormy weather in April, did much to work the fertilizer into the
" On account of the small acreage and the rush of harvesting it was practically impossible
to keep the loads coming to the machines separated in order to get a count of the number of
boxes of peas per acre.    This, I believe, could be arranged at another time.
" The following conditions in the field were noted and will be of assistance in future work
on this type of land :—
" Plot No. 1: Vines, 4 to 5 feet in length. Peas ripened and filled evenly, vines and pods
remained green, and peas did not lose quality and grade by not being cut and handled immediately when ready.
" Plot No. 2 :   Practically no difference to Plot No. 1.
" Plot No. 3 : Vines, 2 to 3 feet in length. Pods filled well, but vines changed to yellow
colour quickly and had to be cut and handled immediately when ready, otherwise grade and
quality of peas were lowered.
" Plot No. 4: Pea-growth checked by the strong weed-growth present and crop was not as
good as check.
" Plot No. 5: Vines averaged about 20 inches, and not as strong as No. 3. Vines turned
yellow quickly and peas had to be handled rapidly.
" Note.—A corner of the check-plot received a small application of superphosphate in error
and this section was weedy as in Plot No. 4.
" The same observations were to be noted in the two blocks, although the No. 1 Plot would
yield slightly higher than the No. 2 Plot.
" It will be noted that the lime and lime-and-potash plots were outstanding, and it will be
seen that peas that will not wait a couple of days or so to be harvested without losing in quality
are undesirable, as it is likely to mean a loss to the grower, and the canneries cannot rely on the
quality of the pack."
Tree-fruits.—AVork with fertilizer on apples and cherries has been undertaken in both the
Okanagan and Kootenay Districts. At Salmon Arm complete fertilizer with varying quantities
of potash is being tried. As this work was only started in the fall of 1928 it will be continued
for two more years. By the end of that period some results may be shown. Work of a similar
nature is also being undertaken at various points in the Okanagan. In addition to the demonstration-work being attempted to show that fertilizers increase production, fertilizers are also
being applied to plots in order to ascertain the keeping value of fruits produced on such plots.
Trials are also being conducted using large quantities of fertilizer per tree in order to ascertain
whether or not large supplies of such fertilizer in the soil on which fruit-trees are being grown
would have any effect in eliminating or reducing certain physiological troubles, such as corky
core, drought-spot, etc. The time of application of fertilizers (spring or fall) is also receiving
consideration and plots have been established in the hope of demonstrating the most suitable
time of application.   DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 25
Perennial Canker (Glososporium perennans).—This disease, which has caused considerable
loss in some of the orchard sections of the United States, may be found in practically all districts
of the Okanagan Valley. Recognizing the necessity for a careful checking-up in the spread of
this disease in our fruit areas, the Dominion Plant Pathological Branch, in co-operation with the
officials of your Horticultural Branch, made a survey of the Penticton, Keremeos, Kaleden, and
Summerland Districts. A total of 242,990 trees was inspected. Of this number, 352, or 0.14
per cent., showed one or more cankers. Recommendations have been made to the growers as
to the best method of handling diseased trees. The work will be continued in 1930 in three other
districts—namely, the Naramata, Peachland, and Westbank Districts.
Codling-moth (Cydia pomonella).—Codling-moth control-work similar to that carried out in
previous years was again undertaken at Kelowna, Okanagan Landing, and Kamloops. In
addition, spraying was done for the first time in the Vernon City area along similar lines to
that in which it is handled in the Kamloops and Kelowna areas. In the case of the three city
areas the cost of the work is charged against the city and collected through the taxation office.
The cost of the Okanagan Landing area work is paid for by a codling-moth committee, which
raises funds by assessing the growers.
San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus pcmiciosus).—The only infestation of San Jose scale in the
Province known to this Branch is to be found at Spences Bridge. This infestation has been
carefully watched and attempts made to eradicate it entirely, but with indifferent success due to
the fact that it was located in some very rocky bush land. Somewhat different methods were
adopted in the past season. Mr. C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, who has charge of this
work, reports as follows:—
" At Spences Bridge, where this pest has persisted in certain wild growth for many years,
the orchards were again sprayed with lime-sulphur (1-9) last spring and the trees have remained
free from the scale. In addition to the customary cutting and burning-over of the infested brush
area in the spring, this area was treated with a solution of sodium arsenite (strength 1 lb. to
10 gallons of water) on June 10th in an endeavour to completely kill out the brush. On inspection of the area in the fall, it was found that, with the exception of a few weak shoots on some
of the dogwood-roots, the rest of the brush was showing no sign of life. It would seem advisable
to repeat this treatment next summer, when complete eradication of the brush should result.
A power-sprayer was used to apply the solution."
Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).—The only potato-beetle infestation in the
Province is found in the East Kootenay section. The work of supervising the control of beetles
in this area was in charge of F. A. Marsack, who has reported fully upon this work. A few
quotations from Mr. Marsack's report will give a fair idea of the general situation:—
" The largest area of control extends from the United States boundary at Newgate northeast to Fernie and Natal and north to Premier Lake, while the smaller area extends from the
United States boundary at Port Hill north to Creston and Duck Creek. So far the beetle has
not been seen west of this point.
" Unfortunately new infestations have taken place this season north of Premier Lake.
" The two small infestations that occurred at Wilmer in 1927 and at Parson in 1928 have
been successfully blotted out and no infestations have occurred in any adjoining fields from these
two areas.
" It has been found impossible to eliminate the potato-beetle entirely in the southern and
old infested areas from Premier Lake to the United States boundary, but good control has been
achieved in every district and the beetles kept down to a minimum. Especially is this the case
in the Cranbrook area, where adult beetles were fairly numerous this spring.
" The field potato-crops in the largest potato-growing district of the East Kootenays—
namely, Cranbrook—are looking particularly fine and promise a good yield. Many growers are
surprised that their efforts at control have produced such good results.
"The bulk of the dust (Cal. Ars. 6-1), 1 pint calcium arsenate to 6 parts hydrated lime,
was stored in Cranbrook at Warden's Transfer Company's warehouse, and was shipped from
there to thirteen different distributers, most of whom were secretaries of Farmers' Institutes.
The majority of the dust distributed was from the office of the Provincial Department of
Agriculture at Cranbrook, where orders for dust on Warden's office were given to growers. I 26
" Whilst the complete eradication is impossible in the older infested parts, the control-work
as being carried on will certainly delay and perhaps prevent the spreading of the beetle any
farther north and west into the interior and west sections of British Columbia.
" Should the control-work now be discontinued, it would mean that many growers would
not purchase any dust, especially those growers in the newly infested areas where the beetles
are not yet doing very noticeable damage to their plants."
It is hoped that it will be possible to continue this work next year.
Club-root of Cabbage (Plasmodiophora brassiecc).—Club-root is found scattered throughout
the Province, but has never been of outstanding commercial importance. In 1928, however, it
did serious damage in the Armstrong District. This Branch, co-operating with the Dominion
Plant Pathology Branch, undertook to demonstrate certain control measures. Mr. H. H. Evans,
Assistant District Horticulturist, was in charge of the work for our Department. The following
is Mr. Evans's report:—
"In the Armstrong District in 1928 there occurred a-serious outbreak of the cabbage club-
root disease, affecting about 75 per cent, of the fields. As this district produces possibly 90 per
cent, of the winter-cabbage crop of the Okanagan, the problem became of major importance.
In conjunction with the Dominion Pathological Branch at Summerland, a chart survey was made
showing degree of infection, soil-acidity, soil-type, crop-rotation, fertilizers, and other factors
of information. During the winter of 1928 it was decided to conduct a liming experiment for
control of this disease.    Two lots were chosen, No. 1 containing % acre and No. 2 containing
2 acres, of which % acre was badly infected;  this % acre was utilized for the work.
" In each plot the % acre was staked, % acre being limed and the balance left for check-work.
Owing to the work not starting until spring, burned limestone, was procured and piled in the plots
for air-slaking. This was spread on May 10th and thoroughly worked in with spring-tooth and
smoothing harrows. Planting was performed by the owners on June 9th to Danish Ballhead
" The work on Plot No. 1 proved abortive owing to the owner changing his mind without
our knowledge, and just before the time to set the cabbage, he without advising us planted the
field to potatoes, leaving only half the limed plot for cabbage-plants. In Plot No. 2 the work was
carried out as scheduled and we received every assistance from this grower. Inspections were
made during the growing season, and it was noticeable through this period that plants in the
limed plot were making better progress than those in the check-plot. On October 2nd, Mr. G. E.
Woolliams, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Summerland, and your assistant made a field count in
Plot No. 2 of both limed and check plots. The difference in the stand was quite noticeable to
the eye.
" The following tables portray the work and results.    The application of burned lime at
3 tons per acre may appear heavy, but it was thought advisable owing to the lateness of commencing the work and the soil-acidity reaction, which was about P.H. 5.7 or strongly acid.
" Table 1.—Percentage of Infection Root Examination.
Unlimed Plot.
No. counted.
Per Cent.
No. counted.
Per Cent.
100 0
" Table 2.-
—Count of Heads Fit for Commercial Cutting.
Limed Plot.
Unlimed Plot.
No. counted.
Per Cent.
No. counted.
Per Cent.
41 4
58 6
" In both degree of root-infection and commercial value of the crop there is shown a distinct
benefit from the liming process, with difference enough to justify the experiment, especially when
the lateness of the lime application is considered. If this plot can again be planted to cabbage
in 1930, greater beneficial results should become apparent as the lime will at that time have
become more active in its neutralizing effects."
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorous) Inspection.—Fire-blight on the whole was not as serious
as in 1928. Growers have handled the various outbreaks satisfactorily. Your officials carried
out the usual winter inspection, checking up on the work done and, where orchards passed
inspection, posting a notice to that effect. During the past season 17,561 acres of orchard were
inspected and 17,355 acres passed inspection.
Nursery Inspection.—A careful check of all fruit-trees grown in the various nurseries is
made previous to shipping. In some cases this can be undertaken at the time of digging; in
other cases the trees are dug and " heeled in " and the inspection made as required by the shipper.
During the past season the stock in twenty-two nurseries was inspected. In these nurseries a
total of 95,767 trees were carefully inspected, of which quantity only 1,636 trees, or 1.7 per cent.,
were condemned and destroyed. In addition, where the presence of certain scale-insects makes
it necessary, the ornamental stock is also inspected.
Car Inspection.—For a number of years the inspection of refrigerator-cars for codling-moth
has been carried out at the principal railway points. This work is started about the first of
August and continued until the middle of September, the length of time depending upon the
district and the car movement. Where the findings in any car warrant it, those cars are superheated, a charge being made by the railway companies for this work. During the past season
a total of 1,737 cars were inspected, of which only fifteen cars were superheated.
Inspection of Protection Spraying Zones.—There are at the present time four protection
spraying-zones—namely, Keremeos, Westbank, Okanagan Centre, and North Kamloops. The
last-named one was in operation this year for the first time. Osoyoos, which came under the
zone regulation last year, petitioned to have the zone cancelled. While the regulations may at
first prove rather irksome to some growers, the results have on the whole been very satisfactory.
Other districts would no doubt undertake the formation of zones, but the Department regulations
with regard to spray-machine requirements prevent them from undertaking this work.
Inspection of Imported and Exported Plant Products.—The officials of this Branch have
co-operated whenever requested with the Inspection Branch in inspecting imported plant products
as well as export products. The car inspection of fruit and the issuing of export certificates
forms a considerable portion of their work during the fall period.
The supply of horticultural publications has been kept up to date. Whenever necessary, all
publications have been revised and reprinted. A new circular dealing with celery-growing and
written by Mr. H. H. Evans was printed and added to the list of circulars for distribution.
The Horticultural News Letter was again issued during the summer season (May 23rd to August
19th) to all interested individuals. The mailing-list is carefully revised each year, with the
result that it is not very large.    During the past season it numbered about 180.
In addition to the issuing of crop reports through the medium of the News Letter, the
obtaining of crop-production figures is a part of the work of your various Horticultural Field
Representatives. These figures when secured are forwarded to the Statistics Branch and are
incorporated in the yearly Agricultural Statistics Bulletin.
Press articles are also prepared from time to time as required.
The work undertaken in the past year by your officials, in so far as the various Fall Fairs
and Horticultural Societies are concerned, is very similar to that done in other years. This
consists mainly in acting as judges of fruit, vegetables, and flowers. In some cases, however, in
some of the smaller centres, Horticultural Branch officials act as secretary. Every assistance
is given by your officials and their efforts are, I believe, appreciated by the exhibitors as well ashy the fair or society management. I 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
As mentioned in the 1928 report of your Horticulturist, Mr. J. C. Roger resigned his position
as Field Inspector at Penticton. This position was filled by the appointment of Mr. J. L. Webster.
Mr. Webster is a British Columbia man, a graduate in horticulture, and has obtained his practical
experience on the home ranch in Vernon.
Before concluding this report I wish to express my appreciation of the excellent co-operation
which your Horticultural Branch has received at all times from the Dominion Fruit Inspection
staff, as well as the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of British Columbia. Thanks are
also extended to the various railway officials in the Province, who have so ably assisted in the
carrying-out of work in which we were mutually interested.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Robertson,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
W. H. Lyne.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report herewith the work of your Inspector of Imported and Exported
Horticultural and Field Products and his staff of assistants during the year ended December
31st, 1929.
The duty of this Branch of your Department is that of preventing the importation of
injurious insect pests or plant-diseases that may seriously affect horticultural or agricultural
resources within the Province of British Columbia. It also includes compliance with the regulations of other Provinces within the Dominion of Canada and any foreign country provided for
their own protection.
By endeavouring to comply with the regulations of other countries as regards that which is
exported from this Province we protect to a great extent the reputation of the products we export.
For the purpose of protecting our own Province all plant products, such as fruit, vegetables,
rice, corn, peas, beans, etc., were inspected at the several ports of entry where Quarantine Officers
were provided for that purpose. Any such products found to be infested or infected with insect
pest or disease of economic importance were refused entry and either returned or destroyed at
the expense of the shipper or consignee.
Certificates were issued and fees collected on products that passed inspection, and condemnation certificates were provided for that which was condemned, but for which no fees were
Certain varieties of products not classed with those likely to be infested or infected with
pest or disease of economic importance were allowed entry under observation without the
formality of issuing inspection certificates or collecting fees. Such products, however, could
be transferred to the list of those incurring certificates and fees in the event of circumstances
justifying such action.
All Quarantine Officers stationed at ports, other than Vancouver and Victoria, under the
direction of your Chief Inspector remitted to him at the end of each month the fees they had
collected, also duplicates of certificates issued and record forms pertaining to all other necessary
details. Included also was their personal voucher for actual time incurred, for which they were
entitled to remuneration at the rate of $5 per day.   All such personal vouchers, provided they DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 29
were in order, were promptly forwarded to the Chief Clerk and Accountant, Department of
Agriculture, Victoria, who arranged for their settlement by cheque from the Treasury Department.
Inspection fees collected by the Quarantine Officer stationed at Victoria were immediately
deposited to the account of the Provincial Treasury, but duplicates of certificates issued and
record forms referring to importations during the month were forwarded to your Chief Inspector
at Vancouver, who returned them after examination and certification, bar certain records he
retained for his files.
Inspection fees collected at Vancouver were immediately recorded in the office of your
Inspector, after which they were turned into the office of the Government Agent, followed at
the end of each month with the duplicates of certificates issued, and Forms L, H, and M,
recording same.
Nursery stock, which includes all trees, shrubs, plants, and bulbs in a transportable stage,
is responsible for carrying the largest assortment of insect pests and plant-diseases with which
the plant quarantine officials have to deal. Furthermore, it is a commodity that will stand the
least abuse and requires the most careful treatment when being transferred from one country
to another. For that reason special facilities have been provided for its inspection on arrival
in British Columbia. They consist of a properly constructed inspection and fumigation station
at Vancouver with a specially trained staff of men. Such an arrangement during the last twenty-
five years has been found to be the most efficient and economical method of dealing with that
class of stock. Therefore all nursery stock imported into British Columbia, with the exception
of a small quantity permitted to be inspected elsewhere, must be forwarded to Vancouver for
inspection and, if necessary, fumigation.
By mutual arrangement between the two Governments your. Inspector and his staff, while
complying with our Provincial regulations, also comply with the regulations under the Dominion
" Destructive Insect and Pest Act " as regards nursery stock imported into this Province, and
by way of this Province into other parts of Canada. By that method duplication and two sets
of officials are avoided.
Reference to small quantities of nursery stock allowed to be inspected at other points than
Vancouver refers to stock imported under special permit from the Prairie Provinces into the
eastern parts of British Columbia; also bulbs and greenhouse plants when consigned to parts
of the Province where it is convenient to inspect them. In that connection your Inspector is
sometimes assisted by the field staff of your Provincial Horticulturist.
Inspection certificates were issued permitting the distribution of all imported nursery stock
that passed inspection, and condemnation certificates referred to that which was condemned
owing to insect pests or disease. All condemned stock was returned to the shipper at his or the
consignee's expense or destroyed.
Inspection fees were collected on all imported trees and shrubs that passed inspection, but
not on greenhouse plants or all perennial plants and bulbs. A fee was charged for strawberry-
plants exceeding 1,000 in number that passed inspection. All fees collected were turned in to
the Government Agent at Vancouver, the same as fees for imported fruit and vegetables.
The quantities of fruit, vegetables, rice, corn, peas, beans, and nursery stock imported during
the year 1929 are attached to this report in tabulated form. Similar products imported during
1928 are also given by way of comparison, including that which was condemned each year.
Insect pests and diseases for which imported nursery stock was condemned were as follows:
San Jose scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus) on fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs from the
United States;   European scale  (Aspidiotus ostrceformis) on fruit and ornamental trees from United States and Europe; oyster-shell scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi) on fruit-trees and ornamental
shrubs from United States and Holland; rose-scale (Aulacaspis rosw) on rose-bushes and
blackberry-vines from United States ; Diaspis pentagonia scale on ornamental trees from Japan ;
Aspidiotus camellia scale on ornamental shrubs from Japan; Chionaspis scale on ornamental
shrubs from Japan; Leeanium hesperidium on ornamental shrubs from Holland and United
States; Leeanium hemispherieum on ornamental shrubs from Holland and United States;
Leeanium scale bitubereulatus on ornamental trees from Holland; woolly aphis (Eriosoma
lanagera) on apple-trees and seedlings from United States; pear-aphis (Eriosoma pyri) on
pear-trees from United States ; Phylloxera on grape-vines from United States; lace-wing bug
(Leptobyrsa rhododendri) on rhododendron shrubs from Holland; large narcissus-fly (Merodon
equestris) and small bulb-fly (Eumersus strigatus) in narcissus bulbs from England, Holland,
and United States ; chrysanthemum-midge from United States ; Anomalu beetle in earth on roots
of shrubs from Japan; bulb-mite infesting bulbs from United States and Holland; eel-worm or
nematode in bulbs from Holland and United States.
Root and crown gall on fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs from United States and
Holland; anthracnose bark-rot and canker on fruit and ornamental trees from United States;
hardrot (Scptoria) and scab infecting gladiolus conns from United States and Holland ; Botrytis
or fire-disease infecting tulip bulbs from Holland and United States; hyacinth yellows (Bacterium hyacinthi) infecting hyacinth bulbs from Holland and United States.
By far the larger portion of nursery stock from Europe arrived by direct boat to Vancouver
via Panama Canal, by which route the cold overland trip from the Atlantic Coast was avoided.
The majority of the stock arrived in good and fairly good condition, provided it had been
properly packed for the long journey. There were a few exceptions, such as stock arriving in
a frost-injured condition in spite of the all-sea route. In some cases it was not easy to determine
if the injury had occurred previous to loading aboard the boat or in an overcold chamber after
being placed on board. Several of the overland shipments arrived in a more or less frozen
condition during the coldest part of the winter.
Stock by mail seldom arrived in perfectly good condition, due either to suffocation or frost-
A considerable portion of the frozen stock was saved by carefully thawing it out at the
Vancouver Inspection Station before attempting to unpack it for the necessary inspection.
Other shipments arrived in a worthless condition, simply owing to their not having been
properly packed.
Stock from Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and China arrived in fairly good condition when
properly packed and not confined in mail-bags, as did also that from the United States.
Stock of a soft herbaceous nature or other stock in foliage usually suffered most by mail.
The following insect pests and diseases were responsible for the condemnation and rejection
of imported fruit and vegetables, quantities of which are given in tabulated form attached to
this report: Codling-moth larva? infesting apples and pears from United States and apples
from New Zealand; scale-insects (Aspidiotus auranti) infesting oranges from United States and
Mexico and grapefruit from United States; corn-ear worm (Heliothis armager) infesting sweet
corn in cob from United States; brown-rot (Sclerotinia fruitigena) infecting cherries from the
United States;  bacterial soft-rot and Fusarium rot infecting potatoes from United States.
Plodia moth larvse infesting peanuts from the Orient, walnuts from Manchuria, almonds
from Spain, dried raisins and currants from United States and Australia, dried pears, apricots,
and nectarines from United States; pea-weevil (Bruchus pisorum) and bean-weevil (Bruchus
fabw) infesting peas and beans from Japan; weevil infesting nuts from Spain; Plodia moth
infesting chili peppers from Mexico. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICDLTURE, 1929. I 31
Mediterranean flour-moth (Ephestia keuhniella) ; weevil (Calandra oryza) ; flour-beetle
(Tribolium confusum), infesting rice from Japan and Siam. Rice was isolated until passed
through cleaning and polishing machines.
Mediterranean moth; Angoumois moth; weevil; Tribolium beetle, infesting corn from
Argentine. Corn dumped into hopper outside building and conveyed through cleaner and crusher.
Empty sacks sent to fumigation-station and fumigated with carbon bisulphide.
Your Inspector is usually requested by consignee, shipper, transportation or insurance firms
to issue inspection reports in connection with any shipment of nursery stock or other plant
products that arrive in bad condition. Notification is always given to those concerned in the
event of a shipment being condemned for pest or disease.
Owing to certain pests and disease connected with various small fruits from the United
States, all imported unpreserved gooseberries, currants, raspberries, blackberries, loganberries,
and strawberries were transferred from the observation-list to the regular inspection-list,
involving closer inspection and inspection fee.
The change of procedure went into effect on August 1st and importers were notified- accordingly one month in advance. The fees for the inspection of such fruit are based on containers
not exceeding 20 lb. net contents. For each lot of ten containers or under the fee will be 50 cents ;
for each lot of over ten and not exceeding sixty-six containers a fee of $1; and for each lot
exceeding sixty-six containers a fee of 1% cents for each container. The fee for containers
exceeding 20 lb. net contents are based on the above scale per 20 lb. in place of number of
The insect pests and diseases referred to as responsible for a closer inspection of the imported
small fruits are : Fruit-worm (Zophodia gorssulariw) and fruit-fly maggot (Epochra canadensis), infesting gooseberries and currants. Also negro-bug (Corimelocna pulicaria), infesting
raspberries, blackberries, and strawberries. In addition to the insects mentioned, the fruit
sometimes arrived in bad condition owing to mildew and blue mould, all of which may justify
shipments or part of same being condemned and refused entry.
Owing to the increased importance of commercial bulb production within the Province and
the necessity for closer inspection of imported bulbs as described in the Annual Report for 1928,
arrangement has been made by which inspection fees will be charged, commencing April 1st,
1930. For the same reason fees will also be charged for the inspection of imported perennial
roots and other herbaceous plants. The proposed fees will be according to the scale already
provided in the regulations for the inspection of nursery stock other than standard fruit-trees,
with the exception that they will be based on one stated valuation of the stock. The prescribed
valuation, unless amended, will be $15 per thousand for larger bulbs, such as lily, narcissus,
hyacinth, tulip, and gladiolus, and $10 per thousand for the smaller kind, such as crocus, snowdrop, etc., and all perennial roots and other herbaceous plants, bar strawberry-plants, which will
be valued at $2.50 per thousand. The minimum fee will be reduced from 50 cents to 25 cents
to cover the smallest quantities.
Besides plant products that are continually arriving by rail freight, express, and mail, and
of late years by auto-truck, there are those arriving daily from all parts of the world by boat.
During the year 1929, boats to the number of fifty to fifty-six arrived at Vancouver each week.
Most of them contained some plant product or other that required the attention of the Plant
Quarantine Officer. No such products were allowed to leave the point of landing until inspected
and passed by one of the staff Inspectors, whose first duty was to carefully examine the boat's
manifest describing her cargo. In the event of there being any passengers on board, their
baggage was inspected by a Customs Officer, who would call the attention of the Plant Quarantine
Officer to any plant products found. I 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In consulting the tabulated list of imported fruit and vegetables attached to this report,
the unusual quantity of potatoes will be noted. They were practically all from the United States,
and though some of them were new potatoes that arrived before our own were in season, by
far the largest quantity arrived in direct competition with our own. Possibly this was owing
largely to the unsatisfactory condition of the market in recent years having discouraged production within our own Province, and also the quantity of low-grade potatoes that were produced.
Such a condition is to be greatly lamented in view of the fact that we can produce in British
Columbia, by careful cultivation, rotation of crop, selection of seed, and quality of soil, potatoes
equal in grade and quality to any in the world. Unfortunately by far the largest portion of
production has been left to Chinamen, who in spite of their reputed energy have failed to follow
the rule by which good results may be obtained.
Reports obtained are to the effect that, with the exception of five car-loads of elevator-run
grain screenings which went to feed-yards in the Vancouver and New Westminster Districts,
all such screenings were exported from the Province or recleaned and ground to comply with
Provincial " Noxious Weeds Act."
While some of the samples of recleaned or ground screenings did not come within the grade
prescribed by the Act, it appears to have been the intention of those responsible to comply.
There appears to have been some confusion regarding certain details in connection with
screenings used by feed-yards which the proposed amendment to the " Noxious Weeds Act " and
regulations by which it will be administered will put in order. It is very apparent that considerable educational work is necessary with those in charge of feed-yards, and with individual
farmers who wish to use elevator-run screenings, or even recleaned screenings, if the best results
are to be obtained. . *
Possibly, in view of reports received, it will be necessary to arrange for a closer check on
eggs imported from the United States by enlisting the services of the district agricultural officials
as Inspectors under the Provincial " Eggs Marks Act." Also amending the Act to the extent
of requiring all transportation companies or conveyors to report to the local Inspector any
foreign eggs at the time they arrive.
Owing to the comparatively small quantity of eggs imported from the United States during
the year 1929, no great harm has been done with regard to those that did not strictly comply
with the Act as to marking each egg with the name of the country of origin. That is no excuse,
however, why the Act should not be properly enforced.
Certain Quarantine Officers on the staff of your Inspector who are stationed at Interior
points have been instructed to keep a lookout for the United States eggs and see they are
properly marked. Similar arrangement has been made regarding entry of foreign eggs at the
By reports received, less than 100 cases of United States eggs arrived in the interior of the
Province and only a few sets for hatching at the Coast. Most of those arriving in the Interior
were marked before or after arrival.
Salt eggs from China arriving at the Coast amounted to 738 cases during the year, all of
which were used exclusively by the Chinese.
A tabulated list attached to this report records the quantity of trees, shrubs, plants, and
bulbs exported, also the names of the countries to which they were shipped. Certain varieties
of stock exported exceeded the quantity of the previous year; i.e., fruit-trees, ornamental trees
and shrubs, rose stock, ornamental plants, roots and bulbs. Though not greatly in excess of that
exported the previous year, there was sufficient to indicate a moderate progress each succeeding
Previous to shipping, all nursery stock exported was carefully inspected, and certificates
issued proclaiming it to be apparently free from insect pest or disease. In the work of inspecting
such stock your Inspector was greatly assisted by the district field officers of your Department
as well as the officers on his own staff.    For such inspection no fees were charged,  on the   DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 33
principle that your Department desired to encourage the exportation of stock produced in the
Province and ensure its good reputation.
Another tabulated list attached to this report records the quantities of fruit and vegetables
exported from the Province during the year 1929 for which inspection certificates were issued.
It also includes the names of the countries to which they were exported.
With the exception of New Zealand, Australia, and certain States in the United States,
certificates proclaiming the products apparently free from insect pest or disease and in clean,
sound, merchantable condition were optional. Usually, however, a request for the certificate
was made by the shipper, transportation company, bank, or consignee. In no case would a
certificate be granted unless the condition of the products was according to statement such
certificate contained.
Certain onion-growers in the interior of the Province have requested that imported onions
be transferred from the observation-list to the regular inspection-list, involving inspection fee,
owing to the possibility of such onions being infected with the pink-root and neck-rot. This
question, however, will receive further consideration regarding the importance of the diseases
referred to. Large quantities of seedling onion-plants imported from Texas, U.S.A., by Okanagan
growers involved far more risk of importing disease than ordinary commercial importation of
mature onions.
The possibility of a quarantine being placed on rose stock exported from British Columbia
to Eastern Canada and Eastern United States owing to so-called infectious chlorosis is causing
some alarm to our nurserymen. The primary cause for such a suggestion appears to be from
rose stock exported from the State of Oregon to one of the Eastern States, said to have been
infected with this peculiar disease. There is some evidence of this disease in the British
Columbia Manetti stock which is being carefully investigated by our Plant Pathologist, Mr. J. AV.
Eastham, and Dr. W. Newton, the Dominion Pathologist. It is doubtful, however, if the disease
will prove to be of a sufficiently serious nature to warrant any drastic procedure.
It has been necessary to place some restriction on certain nursery stock in the Coast section
of British Columbia where the Leeanium coryli scale is prevalent, and also extends along the
Coast section of the States of Washington and Oregon. The quarantine is an effort to prevent
the pest spreading farther east, and efforts are being made to control it in the infested area.
So far it is not known to extend farther east than Coquitlam, and the large nurseries in the
Chilliwack District are allowed to export stock to the United States and elsewhere accordingly.
quarantine' for satin-moth.
All cottonwood, poplar, and willow, to which the satin-moth confines its attack, is withheld
from transport to points east, The quarantined area extends from the western coast to a
straight line of demarcation from Hazelton to Princeton, B.C.
Since September 1st, 1926, when the ■ ITederal Department of Customs ordered Customs
Officers to cease acting as Provincial inspectors of imported fruit and vegetables, protests have
been made against closing certain ports to the entry of fruit and vegetables from the United
At the time of the order mentioned, explanation was made to the Hon. the Minister of
Customs as to the reason for Customs Officers acting as inspectors for the Provincial Government.
He was informed that for economic reasons, where available, a resident at the port in question
was selected and trained to inspect the fruit and vegetables arriving from the United States.
Also that such an inspector was remunerated at the rate of $5 per day for actual time incurred.
Furthermore, that at certain ports the Customs Officer was the only residential man available
for the work. The reply received from the Hon. the Minister was that he did not consider it
necessary for every little port along the United States boundary to be open to fruit and vegetables from the United States. He also issued orders to Customs Officers at the British Columbia
boundary ports that fruit and vegetables subject to Provincial inspection must not be allowed
through any port where such inspection was not provided for.
The foregoing detail explains the reason why the Dominion Cannery Company at Oliver, B.C.,
was denied inspection service that would permit them to import cheap tomatoes from the United
States through the port of Osoyoos last September. The nearest qualified inspectors were the
two Provincial horticultural officers stationed at Penticton, and it was not convenient for them
to make daily trips to Osoyoos owing to other duties they had to perform. Moreover, the
Dominion Canners could have obtained their tomatoes from the B.C. Okanagan District if they
had made satisfactory contracts with the growers earlier in the season.
Your Inspector again had the honour of representing British Columbia at the annual conference of the AVestern Plant Quarantine Board, which on this occasion was held in the State
Capitol Building at Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A., July 29th to 31st, 1929. Members of the Board
are all leading plant-quarantine officials from the eleven AVestern States of the United States,
Northern Mexico, the Hawaiian Islands, and British Columbia. Other delegates are Federal
plant-quarantine officials, nurserymen, commercial distributers, and transportation representatives.
The duty of the Board is that of obtaining all possible data pertaining to the distribution
of destructive insects and plant-diseases in the numerous commercial products that are liable
to contain them. Also with a view to enacting consistent and efficient regulations governing
the movement of such products. Each annual conference is held in a different State or Province
within the territory which the Board represents.
The office of your Inspector, situated in the Court-house at Vancouver, is headquarters for
all matters dealing with plant quarantine and inspection work in connection with imported
or exported plant products within the Province of British Columbia. Daily reports are received
from the several transportation companies regarding the arrival of miscellaneous plant products
by boat, train, express, or mail, all of which receives the prompt attention of the staff. All details
of inspection are carefully recorded. Certificates are issued and inspection fees collected.
Inspection reports are issued to consignees, shippers, or transportation companies who request
them in order to settle claims.    All correspondence is attended to with care and dispatch.
Records and reports are also received from the Quarantine Officers stationed at ports of
importation within the Province other than A'ancouver. Such reports consist of monthly remittance of inspection fees collected during the month, with all details regarding them. These are
recorded and filed and the fees paid in to the Court-house cashier and paymaster, who also
receives the fees collected in Vancouver.
All copies of Dominion permits to import nursery stock are on file and are checked upon
the arrival of the stock to which they refer. Emergency permits are also issued to consignees
entitled to them. Dominion export inspection certificates are on hand for use when nursery
stock for export is inspected by your Inspector or his staff.
Record report sheets of plant products imported into Canada by way of British Columbia
are forwarded to the Division of Foreign Pests Suppression at Ottawa and also those recording
exports. Your Inspector is assisted by two lady-clerk-stenographers in addition to other members
of his staff, and a recording officer supplied and paid by the Dominion Entomological Branch,
All Provincial, horticultural, and agricultural bulletins are on hand for public distribution
to those who care to come and get them. People coining for information always receive prompt
and courteous attention.
The office is also shared by J. AV. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, and G. E. W.
Clarke, District Horticulturist, who also assist in dispensing information when present. J. A.
Grant, Prairie Markets Commissioner, is also accommodated with desk when in Vancouver.
The official correspondence has increased during the last few years. Incoming letters in 1929
numbered 2,489, and outgoing, 2,197.
Respectfully submitted. AV. H. Lyne,
Inspector of Imported and Exported Horticultural
and Field Products. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 35
J. AV. Eastham, B.Sc.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1929.
Apple-scab (Venturia inacqualis) is probably the worst enemy of the Kootenay apple-grower.
Even in the seasons least favourable to its development it takes a serious toll of the fruit of
susceptible varieties, so that preventive spraying can never be omitted. Moreover, in bad seasons,
like 1927, it may cause severe loss even where four or more sprays of a standard fungicide have
been applied with every care. In previous years the spray schedule recommended has been
based on stages in the seasonal development of the tree ; i.e., " semi-dormant," " pink," " calyx,"
" three weeks," etc., these sprayings being spaced so as to give the maximum amount of protection
to the tree. At the same time these stages in the seasonal growth of the tree at which they
are to be applied are easily recognized by the grower.
It has been long known that the original infection in the spring comes from ascospores
developed in the scab-infected leaves which have been lying on the ground all winter, and that
discharge of the mature ascospores only occurs after rain. In recent years it has been shown
that while the climatic conditions which bring about growth of the trees in spring also cause
the spores to mature and discharge, there is no close correlation between the stages of development of the fungus and the host. In one season or locality there may be a heavy spore-discharge,
and consequent infection, before the " pre-pink " stage, whilst under another set of conditions
there may be little discharge and infection until the late blossom or even petal-fall stage. In the
latter case, therefore, the earlier sprays are more or less a waste of labour and materials.
Attempts have accordingly been made to direct spraying operations on the basis of direct observation of spore-maturity and spore-discharge and weather forecasts. It is claimed this has been
done with a considerable degree of success in certain apple-growing districts of the State of
Ohio, and the Kootenay growers have been very desirous of having the method tried out in their
district. Unfortunately it involves a technique of laboratory and microscopic method which the
ordinary grower cannot employ for himself, and necessitates practically the entire attention of
a plant pathologist for some weeks.
Owing to other plans for 1928 such a project could not be undertaken at that time, but an
attempt was made to assist in the timing of the Kootenay sprays without actually being on the
spot. Infected apple-leaves from certain orchards were sent in from time to time by Mr. E. C.
Hunt. These were kept under observation, in moist chambers, in the laboratory here, and on
the first discharge of spores a telegram was sent to Mr. Hunt, who at once advised the growers
to spray. Those who did so, instead of waiting for the " pink " spray, got distinctly better scab-
control.    It seemed, therefore, worth making this project a major line of work for 1929.
I arrived in Nelson on April 18th and made my headquarters in the office of Mr. E. C. Hunt,
who collaborated with me throughout. A general survey of the territory was made, and leaves
collected at Kaslo, AVillow Point, Nelson,- and various points on the Arrow Lakes as far north
as Nakusp, while other samples were sent in from Erickson, Creston, and Boswell. Leaves from
under Mcintosh trees or from Mcintosh orchards were taken where available. Microscopic
examination showed no appreciable difference in ascus-development at this time. No asci were
near maturity. Spore-traps were put out on April 24th. One was located in the Mcintosh block
of Mr. J. J. Campbell at AA7illow Point (1) and another in the orchard of Mr. Cook (2) just
across the lake from Nelson. Each consisted of small-mesh chicken-wire pegged down over the
old leaves. Care was taken to see that the upper leaves showed an abundance of perithecia.
Ten microscope-slides smeared with a thin film of vaseline on the lower side were placed on the
wire, changed and examined daily. Each trap was in duplicate, one lot of leaves being watered
daily until the first spore-discharge. Leaves were also taken in daily from the same locations
for microscopic examination.
On the 29th, 0.18 inch of rain fell, and on the 30th a few spores were found in Trap 2.
There appeared to be no difference in the number of spores from the leaves moistened daily and
those left under natural conditions. Spores not being mature, it is probable that the difference
in treatment over a period of five days did not appreciably affect the rate of development. :      ■      ■
I 36
Warning that it was time for the application of the first spray was at once phoned or wired
to the representative growers in the different sections, with the request to distribute the information as widely as possible. A notice was also sent to the Nelson Daily News, which appeared
May 1st.    Trees were at this time in the cluster-bud stage.
May 1st a few spores were found on Trap 1 (Willow Point), and from this date spore-
discharge occurred intermittently, depending on weather conditions until June 7th, when observations ceased, a period of thirty-nine days. It was not worth while continuing observations on
ascospore-discharge after this date, since conidial production was then abundant on unsprayed
trees.    However, leaves could still be found with hundreds of undischarged perithecia.
Rain fell on eleven days in May, but not more than 0.38 inch in any one day, and the weather
was cool, with minimum temperatures 32 to 45. It was found that a rainfall of 0.02 inch was
sufficient to liberate a considerable number of spores, though it is doubtful if much infection
followed such light rains, as the trees dried up quickly as a rule. On May 13th the recommendation for the " pink spray " was made, and that for the " calyx " on the 27th. The heaviest
spore-discharge occurred around June 3rd and 4th during a rain period of four days (1.35
inches). As many as 500 ascospores could be found in the low-power field of the microscope at
one time. Rain fell on ten of the first seventeen days of June, and on the 16th it was recommended to put on a " little apple " spray. No further sprays were recommended. Lime-sulphur
was the material recommended—1-35 for the first, 1-40 for the second, and later 1-45. Some
burning occurred and injury seemed worst where arsenate of lead was used in combination.
Rain fell on sixteen days in June to a total of 4.03 inches, giving, as will be seen later,
abundant opportunity for infection. During July, August, and September, however, rain only
fell on twelve days, the heaviest being 0.40 inch, and the total for the three months 1.53 inches.
The four sprays recommended, therefore, proved adequate for protection and it is doubtful if
a later spray would have paid.
Owing to the scattered nature of the Kootenay fruit-growing sections it was not possible to
check up the results from all sections where growers had put on the scab sprays as recommended
during the season. However, a number were very carefully checked and the following is a
summary of results :—
A. F. Adam's Orchard, Kaslo, B.C.
Trees picked.
,   picked.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
Gravenstein  (not
All from 1 tree
All from 1 tree
Sept.  20,   21
Sept.   20,   21
76 7
* On this tree one limb on the top of the tree with 144 apples showed 95 per cent, scabby fruit, which
clearly indicated that this one limb had not been sprayed.
Renter & Latham's Orchard, Kaslo, B.C.
Mcintosh (sprayed)
Mcintosh  (not
Northern Spy
Northern Spy  (not
Mcintosh (sprayed)
Northern Spy
Apples from 3
trees, 1 complete
All from 1 tree
All from 1, part
from 2 more
All from 1 tree
Oct. 1, 2
Sept. 21
Oct. 8
Oct. 8
J. J. Campbell's Orchard, Willow Point.
All from 4 trees
All from 3 trees
Sept.   23,  25
Oct. 7
No check or unsprayed tre'e left in this orchard.
Note.—One Mcintosh  tree in  this orchard  from  which  the fruit was  picked  and  counted  had  only
1.9 per cent, scabby fruit, and one Northen Spy only 1.4 per cent. scab. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929.
I 37
Applelon Bros.' Orchard, Sunshine Bay, B.C.
Trees picked.
Date picked.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
Mcintosh (sprayed)....
Mcintosh  (not
AH from 6 trees
All from 1 tree
Sept. 24;
Oct. 2
Sept. 24
Note.—Quite a lot of variation in this orchard as to the percentage of scabby fruit. Best tree only
7.9 per cent.; worst, 32.2 per cent, scabby fruit. Of the clean fruit on the unsprayed tree, only three apples
were of marketable size.
Mrs. J. Sewell's Orchard, Sunshine Bay, B.C.
Mcintosh (sprayed).
Northern Spy
Ali from 4 trees
All from 1 tree
Sept. 26
Oct. 26
Note.—This orchard was sprayed by Appleton Bros.;   trees smaller and more easily sprayed ;   also old
leaves ploughed under in the spring and orchard clean-cultivated.
J. D. McDonnell's Orchard, Willow Point, B.C.
Mcintosh (sprayed)....
All from 3 trees
Sept. 25
Mcintosh (sprayed)t
(first spray omitted)
Two boxes from
each of 7 trees
Sept. 25
t Three times only.
A. Forslund's Orchard, Edgewood, B.C.
Northern Spy
All from  1  tree
Oct.  12
In considering these results it is to be noticed that all the spraying was done by growers
themselves in the ordinary routine of a commercial orchard, with the equipment and labour
normally available.    It was not demonstration spraying done by officials.
This also explains why only two Mcintosh trees were left completely unsprayed as checks.
AVhen it is almost certain that the crop will be a total loss, a grower is naturally reluctant to
leave such trees, especially in a district where experimental spraying, with adequate cheeks, has
been carried on for a number of years. The 519 apples on the unsprayed Mcintosh at Sunshine
Bay showed 98.7 per cent, scab and only three apples of marketable size. Most of the fruit, as
one grower described it, resembled " pickled walnuts " more than apples. Commercially, its crop
was a total loss. A number of other unsprayed Mcintosh trees in yards in the districts were
examined, and while actual counts were not made it was apparent that the crop would be a
total loss.
In the Mcintosh block at J. J. Campbell's, over an acre in area and trees about 25 years old,
scabby fruit was reduced to an average of 5% per cent., and much of this was so slightly spotted
as to be marketable. This is probably as near complete control as can be obtained with this
variety, in an average season and on a commercial scale. One of the spore-traps was located
in this orchard and the grower had the advantage of knowing daily what the indications were,
and was ready to begin spraying at once when the recommendation was made.
In other cases where the results were not so good, adverse factors in location, time taken to
cover the orchard, high winds during one or more sprayings, as well as differences in the skill of
those doing the spraying, have to be considered. On the whole, however, the results were a
considerable improvement over 1928 conditions and most growers were satisfied with the results.
That improved conditions were not due to the season is evidenced by the check-trees.
It is hoped to carry on this line of work for another season, and preferably two, so that it
is somewhat premature to draw conclusions at this stage.    However, it is perhaps desirable to give a warning against hoping for too much. It would appear that observations of this kind
have considerable value in fixing the time of the first spray to secure most effective protection
and in determining when the heaviest infection is liable to occur, but the results, so far as the
results of one season warrant any general statement, do not offer much hope of reducing the
number of sprays without incurring undue risk. During the 1929 season spore-discharge occurred
more or less continually over a period of thirty-nine days, with the heaviest discharge a month
or more after the first discharge. AVith even the most perfect weather forecasting it would have
been doubtful policy to have omitted any one of the four sprays recommended. As a matter of
fact, however, the weather forecasts available could render comparatively little assistance.
A forty-eight-hour forecast is the least that could be safe in deferring a spray when spores are
ready to discharge, and even this is a small margin when a large orchard has to be covered
before the rain comes.
In the thirty-nine-day period of spore-discharge rain fell on sixteen, and very few of these
were forecasted. The rest would probably be regarded as " local showers." It was found,
however, that a rainfall of 0.02 inch could liberate spores freely, and while in most cases such
showers may dry off sufficiently rapidly, especially if they fall during the daytime, to prevent
infection, they may not always do so. Showers of this intensity may occur locally at points in
the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes without being general over the whole area. Under such conditions it would be unsafe to advise a grower to defer spraying when ascospores are ready to
discharge and the trees in a susceptible condition.
AVe take this opportunity to thank the Nelson Daily News for its co-operation in the work
by giving the recommendations a prominent position on its front page. In this way many
growers could be advised who could not be reached directly.
In the season of 1928 there was an outbreak of Monilia fruit-rot (brown-rot) on sweet
cherries, the first record of this trouble in the Kootenays. The loss on some trees would be
as high as 20 per cent. This season a very careful watch was kept for the appearance of the
disease on the fruit, both previous to and during picking-time. Extensive examinations were
made of fruit on the trees, and of the culls from packing-houses, but no trace of it was seen.
Although June was wet, with rain on sixteen days, totalling 4.03 inches, July was very dry,
rain falling at Nelson only on five days, the total rainfall for the month being 0.42 inch. The
corresponding figures for 1928 were 4.03 inches for June and 1.17 inches for July. The dry
weather, no doubt, protected the fruit during its susceptible stage, but it is still remarkable
that a disease which had occasioned considerable anxiety, and been widespread, in one season
should disappear in the next so completely that it could not be detected in the field.
The discovery of the presence of a new disease on an economic crop naturally causes much
anxiety to those concerned, especially until it has been determined how destructive such a
disease is likely to be and what means of control are available. The propagation of roses in
this Province has been carried on in a large and increasing way during the past few years and
extensive shipments made to the Prairies and the Eastern Provinces. In the spring of 1929,
complaint was made by two firms in Ontario, who had brought in large shipments of British
Columbia roses and stock for propagation, that they were affected by a disease called " infectious
This disease was unknown to us here, and apparently was only brought to the attention of
plant pathologists in 192S, and at that time had only been noted in roses grown under glass.
The symptoms as given by Dr. R. P. AVhite, who first drew attention to the disease, are as
follows: " The general condition of diseased plants is a dwarfing, lack of root-development,
inhibition of ' breaks,' reduced blooming, and general lack of vigour. The symptoms, as expressed
on the foliage, are: (1) Dwarfed leaflets; (2) distortion of the leaflets; (3) pronounced clearing
of the veins, especially near the midrib, giving the appearance of a solid yellow area. Upon
magnification of the yellowed area, however, it is readily seen to be a yellowing which is limited
to the veins and veinlets, the lamina retaining its normal green. The thickness of the leaf in
these areas is reduced."
So far as present information goes, the disease is found chiefly in the region bordering the
Pacific Coast.    First reports seemed to indicate that it was confined to Manetti stock and plants DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 39
on such stock, but unfortunately we have found it also on plants budded on multiflora stock.
It was at first hoped that the disease found in Ontario was confined to plants purchased in
Oregon by nurseries here and reshipped, but unfortunately our survey showed the disease to be
present in the nurseries. So far it has only been found in stock grown out-of-doors. AVhile the
leaf symptoms observed here agree with those given by Dr. AVhite, the general effect on the
plant seems less severe. Even in the most marked cases found there has been little injury to
either the quantity or quality of bloom and little stunting of the plants. In most cases the
disease was found only by the closest inspection of the individual leaves.
In the nurseries where the disease has been located drastic roguing has been done, but it is
too early to know how effective it has been. At present the only known method of transmitting
the disease is by budding or grafting, but as it is of the virus type it is probable there are natural
insect carriers.    Further investigation will be carried on next year.
Respectfully submitted;
J. AAr. Eastham,
Provincial Plant Pathologist.
M. H. Ruhmann, B.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir.—I beg to submit a report of the entomological activities of this Branch during the
year 1929.
The staff of the Entomological Branch consisted of: Max H. Ruhmann, Assistant Entomologist in Charge;   Miss C. M. Bigland, Junior Laboratory Assistant.
Field-work.—One hundred and sixty-three field investigations were made by request; of
these, ninety-four proved to be entomological problems, fifty-three were physiological and sixteen
pathological troubles. Recommendations for control or recommendations for the' avoidance of
conditions found were given in each case.
Survey of Insect Prevalence.—A constant watch is kept on the prevalence of economic insects
during the season, so that possible epidemics may be foreseen and provided for.
Laboratory-work.—The following numbers of specimens were received at the laboratory for
identification and advice: Insects and other arthropods, 640 ; plant-diseases, 61; weeds, 52 ; or
a total of 753 specimens were received and identified for growers, schools, and officials of the
Department of Agriculture. Their economic status and recommendations for control were also
Entomological Collection.—The entomological collection of the Entomological Branch consists
of many thousands of specimens and are stored in cabinets and Schmitt boxes. The collection
contains a large number of economic forms which are required for reference purposes.
Visitors at the Laboratory.—During the active season visitors are frequent; such mostly
comprise tourists interested in entomological work and many are active workers in economic
research and represent scientific institutions from various parts of the British Empire and
foreign countries. Countries represented during the past year were Australia, India, Great
Britain, Switzerland, Japan, and the United States of America.
Occasionally research students visit the laboratory for the purpose of studying research
methods, such usually remaining for a week or two. Mr. R, S. C. Carpenter, from the India
Office, London, England, and Messrs. F. G. Holdaway and Frank Melville, Australian research
students, were recent visitors. Local visitors consist mostly of groups of school-children accompanied by their nature-teacher.
Minor Routine.—The minor laboratory routine, such as the care of the entomological collection, pinning and preserving specimens, the care of submitted material for identification, and
care of the laboratory equipment, also the library and stenographic work, are attended to by the
Junior Laboratory Assistant. I 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Exhibitions and Fall Fairs.—As many exhibitions and fall fairs are attended annually as
possible and economic entomological exhibits are there displayed. Arrangements have been made
with the Dominion Entomological staff in British Columbia to make a combined display where
possible. Through this arrangement excellent displays were made at Vancouver, New AA7est-
minster, and Victoria during 1928 and at A'ancouver and Victoria during 1929. To cover as
much territory as possible the displays are divided for the Interior fall fairs, the Dominion
Branch taking one circuit and the Provincial Branch another. In this way it was this year
possible to place an exhibit at Grand Forks and Kelowna by the Provincial Branch and Armstrong and Salmon Arm by the Dominion Branch. All exhibits were well attended by visitors
and appeared to be greatly appreciated.
Bird-house Competitions.—For a considerable number of years the AVomen's Institute at
Vernon has financed the holding of a bird-house exhibition; these houses are constructed by
the children at their manual-training classes. The average number of bird-houses exhibited
annually in competition, over the last five or six years, is approximately 100. The AVomen's
Institute at Armstrong has followed suit and for the past three years has held an annual
exhibition. This movement should be encouraged and extended throughout the Province; it
tends to foster a greater interest in our economic birds not only by the children, but also by
the adults, with the result that desirable birds are greatly increased, particularly in rural communities.    We have been regularly called upon to judge these exhibits since their inception.
Investigational Work in the Control of Codling-moth.—In this work we received considerable
assistance during the past year from Mr. Ben Hoy, District Horticulturist at Kelowna, in the
work of brood-studies by trapping. By this work we were able to get a fair indication of flight
periods of this moth; this information is required for the regulation of the spray dates of this
insect. Two types of bait were used—the molasses-water-yeast, and Panamalt, a proprietary
material prepared by the Fleischmann's Yeast Company; the latter material appeared to give
more consistent results and will be further tested.
Oil Sprays, with Particular Reference to Summer Use.—-As a result of three years' cooperative experimental work by the oil-spray committee of the Association of the Western
Horticulturists, Plant Pathologists, and Entomologists, and owing to the urgent demand from
fruit-growers in areas particularly heavily infested with codling-moth for a more effective spray
than the arsenical sprays now generally recommended, the following suggestions are being
published by the committee:—
Suggestions for the Use of Oil Sprays in 1930.—The members of the AVestern Oil Spray
Project wish to make the following suggestions regarding the use of oil sprays on fruit-trees
in the North-west, with particular reference to apples and pears. These suggestions are based
on data accumulated from experimental work during the past three years.
Oils for Dormant Sprays.—(1.) Dormant oil sprays should be applied in the spring before
the bud-scales separate and before the buds show green. Injury may result if sprays are applied
during the critical period (delayed dormant) of bud-development. This period occurs between
the time the buds first show green and the cluster-bud stage.
(2.) There is no evidence that low temperatures, following sprays applied in the spring
during the dormant period, result in injury.
(3.)  Oils of relatively low sulphonation test (50-70) can be safely used.
(4.)  Stable emulsions have proven safer than quick-breaking emulsions.
Oils for Summer Sprays.—The following suggestions are made to growers who are planning
on using oil sprays for codling-moth control:—
(1.) The number of applications of summer oils should not exceed three; under most
conditions not more than two are advisable.
(2.) The use of oil alone has not given control of the codling-moth. Oils should be used
only in combination with lead arsenate or nicotine sulphate.
(3.) Oils in combination with lead arsenate should be applied during the height of the egg-
laying period of the first brood, but if sulphur sprays are applied after the dormant period no
oils should be used in the first brood sprays.
(4.) Because of the difficulty of removing spray residue, the oil-lead-arsenate combination
should not be used after July 25th, but the oil-nicotine sulphate combination may be used after
this date. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 41
(5.) Oils ranging in viscosity from 65-75 have proven most satisfactory, except that for
Newtowns or other varieties susceptible to oil-injury the viscosity of the oil should not exceed 55.
(6.)  Oils with a sulphonation test not less than 85 are satisfactory.
(7.) Caution.—Oils in combination with lead arsenate should not be allowed to stand in
pipes or spray-tanks, but should be applied immediately, after being mixed. Fruit sprayed with
this combination after the spray has been allowed to stand in tanks or pipes for some time can
be cleaned only with great difficulty;   this spray mixture is also ineffective in control.
(8.) For more specific recommendations regarding the use of oil, local authorities should
be consulted.
From these suggestions it will be seen that certain points appear to have been definitely
established, the most important of which are:—
(1.) The oil specifications which can be safely used for dormant and summer sprays.
(2.) That certain varieties of apples are subject to injury from a standard oil spray and
require an oil of lower viscosity; of these the Newtowns and AVinesap appear to be the most
outstanding (Southern Oregon and Idaho).
(3.) The lime-sulphur-oil danger during the summer period; the safety period between such
applications is not definitely determined, but tentatively given as six weeks, with a possible
reduction of time by modifying the emulsifler of the oils.
The Tarnished Plant-bug (Lygus pratensis).—This insect caused considerable anxiety to
fruit-growers of the Interior in the early spring. In the Okanagan Valley the orchards were
particularly affected before the buds opened and injury continued for some time after growth
had started. As no remedy is known for the satisfactory control of this insect in the adult stage,
nothing could, be done. When general growth of weeds and grasses was well started the insects
abandoned the trees. The result of their injuries was quite severe and showed an approximate
average loss to all fruits of 15 per cent., but reaching as high as 80 per cent, in some of the
Mcintosh blocks. Mclntoshes were particularly affected, and the greatest amount of injury
was caused in orchards adjoining range land and waste areas. The last occasion that this
insect caused unusual damage was in 1921, when considerable local injury resulted. This year's
epidemic is the most severe yet recorded in the Interior.
The Codling-moth (Carpocapsa pomonella).—The codling-moth is steadily increasing its
area of infestation; the only large fruit sections still free of this insect are in the \7ernon ana
Salmon Arm areas. The infestation in the City of A7ernon has escaped beyond the city limits
and has entered the southern portion of the B.X. District.
Wireworms (Elaterklai).—This is the most important entomological problem in the West
to-day, for the reason of its steady increase of injury to crops and our lack of knowledge of
commercial control. The situation is serious in British Columbia. Inquiries are being received
from the Kettle River Valley, the Okanagan A7alley, and the Bulkley Valley; the trouble is,
however, greater than the inquiries received would indicate, as lands which have been under
cultivation over a number of years are more or less seriously infested; this is, however, not yet
realized by the growers. The situation is also serious throughout the AA7estern States south of
our Province, and for a number of years concentrated effort and large sums of money have been
spent in an attempt to find a satisfactory solution.
Woolly Aphis of the Apple (Scizoneura lanigera).—Owing to the great increase of the woolly
aphis of the apple and the perennial canker, with which it is thought to be associated, intensive
study has been under way by members of the Dominion Entomological staff working in co-operation with the Plant Pathologists of the Experimental Farm at Summerland, B.C., in an effort
to improve the present methods of control. The work has now proceeded so far that it is
probable that tentative recommendations will be issued early in 1930. This problem has become
doubly serious, in that there is a possibility of the Imperial Government contemplating an
embargo on apples produced in districts where the trees are infected with perennial canker.
Ticks (Dermcentor spp.).—The ticks are usually considered from the view-point of animal
parasites and their importance to the relation of public health is not generally realized. Ticks
are the transmitting agents of the Rocky Mountain spotted fever and also Tularaemia. Although
neither of these diseases appears to have been recorded by public health authorities, there is
every reason to believe that these diseases do occur in the semi-arid sections, of this Province,
though perhaps only in a very mild form. 1
I 42
The virulent form of " spotted fever " is only known to occur in a section of the Bitter Root
Valley of Montana and in the Kirby Creek area of AA7yoming, where a mortality of as high as
90 per cent, has been recorded; this disease is distributed over large areas of the North-western
States, though in milder form. The medical health records at Hamilton, Montana, show
numerous records of this disease right up to the International Boundary from the easternmost
point of British Columbia to as far west as the semi-arid conditions occur.
At Hamilton, Montana, a large laboratory is established in charge of Dr. R. R. Parker, with
a permanent staff of twenty men. The work is divided into two sections; the medical health
section, under Dr. Parker, is devoted to the direct study of the disease and the production of
vaccines. The entomological section devotes its attention to the rearing and distribution of tick
parasites under the direction of Professor R. A. Cooley.
Of the tick-borne diseases of domestic animals, the sheep-tick paralysis is well known in this
Province. This disease and its cause was first described by Dr. Seymour Hadwen when at the
Agassiz Experimental Farm in 1914.
Respectfully submitted.
Max H. Ruhmann,
Assistant Entomologist in Charge.
AA7. AV. Duncan.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Markets Branch for the year ended
December 31st, 1929.
Last June the Markets Branch was organized, with W. Wallace Duncan as Director of
Markets; J. A. Grant, Markets Commissioner at Calgary ; and Thos. G. Coventry, Markets
Representative at London, England.
Mr. Grant carried on at Calgary as he has been doing for the last thirteen years. The office
there was opened in 1912. The Markets Bulletin was issued from Calgary office from June 15th
to November 2nd—twenty-one issues all told. In addition, market reports were broadcast over
CJOR daily during the berry season.
AVhen it became known that the Berry-growers' Committee of Direction would not function,
there was little time to find an alternative. Consequently there developed heavy L.C.L. shipments, particularly to Calgary and Edmonton, but extended as far east as Saskatoon and Regina.
The consigned L.C.L. shipments backed up when peak movement was on, from June 24th to 31st,
and came in competition with car-lot shipments, which resulted in price-cutting to clean the
market. Car-lot berries were as low as $2.25 per crate delivered, and L.C.L. berries were even
The Government's assistance to the growers, which enabled them to process their berries,
relieved the situation, as it enabled the berries to be processed that otherwise would have arrived
on the Prairie market on the three days' holiday, over July 1st. Thus the market cleared and
the hot weather shortened the crop, so that when Wynndel berries arrived the market was bare,
and with their heavy uniform shed-pack they got the highest returns for their crop.
Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland strawberries were of superior quality to the season
1927 and 1928, but owing to the heavy early supply from Missouri and Arkansas which flooded
the Prairie markets at low prices, just ahead of the British Columbia shipments, the public did
not respond to the better quality and lower prices ruled for British Columbia strawberries.
British Columbia shipped eighty-five cars of strawberries as well as heavy L.C.L. shipments.
There were 103 cars of strawberries imported.
The British Sovereign strawberry came on the market in great supply for the first time
this year. Its attractive appearance on arrival, being a good shipper, attracted the attention
of jobbers and retailers throughout the Prairies. Many favourable comments were made as to
its future, and one Winnipeg jobber, who was "sold" on the Clark's Seedling (Hood River),
said:   " If this berry maintains its good qualities we will not need to import Hood Rivers." We are pleased to note here that heavy plantings are being made of this variety at all points
in British Columbia where strawberry-growing is carried on commercially.
There were 350 tons put down 2 plus 1 and frozen, most of which is still in storage. There
should be a demand for this fruit both from Canada and the United States after the New Year,
when the jam companies have used up their own stocks, providing the growers can sell *at a price
to allow the manufacturer to sell his finished product at competitive prices. The quantity put up
in 1-lb. cartons for family use was limited on account of not having the containers, but there
is a big market ready to be developed for these small containers throughout the Prairies during
the winter months. There were 45 tons put down in tins, solid pack, and they were all sold for
export before the last were packed. The growers got what seemed a good price at the time, but
the price on strawberries advanced in the United Kingdom by the time they reached their
Five barrels were shipped by the Gordon Head Association in S.O. 2 as a trial shipment to
England, and the Holsum Packing Company shipped nineteen barrels to a jam-manufacturing
company in London. This accounts for all of the strawberries that were put down in S:0. 2 form.
Unfortunately there were not 100 tons as the Government had expected when the price of strawberries was so high in England. All or practically all berries imported into England are in
S.O. 2 form. They do not care for the 2 plus 1 frozen pack, because they have to pay freight and
duty on sugar, so we are unable to sell our processed berries in England even at the prevailing
high prices. Mr. Coventry reports that all of our surplus crop could have been sold in England
at £80 per ton, if it had been put up in S.O. 2 pack, but the 2 plus 1 cannot be moved at £50
per ton on account of the sugar duty and extra freight on same.
The raspberry season of 1929 was favoured with excellent shipping weather and was more
extended by time than usual. Supplies were short and fair prices ruled. Quality and condition
of arrival was excellent. The deal was well controlled from shipping end after the first week's
shipping. Importation of a car to Calgary for July 1st had an upsetting effect on the early
market; prices sagged as the trade had heavy supplies of strawberries and cherries which were
selling at low prices, and brokers in charge of selling the British Columbia L.C.L. raspberries
rolled them to Regina and eastward to avoid the glutted Calgary market. The jobbers took a
heavy loss on this imported car and did not repeat the mistake during the rest of the raspberry
The co-operative shipping control at Haney and Hatzic, along with the short supply and long
shipping season, helped to maintain the price. The L.C.L. consignment shipments to Calgary and
Edmonton were a disturbing factor. In all, forty-seven cars of raspberries were shipped and
many L.C.L. shipments. A few samples of raspberries were processed in the 1-lb. cartons for
the purpose of trying them out.    Also a few blackberries.
AA7hen the cherry deal started it was found that one shipping organization could take advantage of car-lot rates, while the other had to use L.C.L. This brought them together, as it was
known that importations would be heavy from the United States, and the British Columbia crop
was fully equal to the demand. The late season forced ripening, and the selling-force of the
shippers kept the market regulated by selling at same desk and sharing the distribution equally.
Governor AVood, Early Richmond, Yellow Spanish, May Duke, White Heart, and Centennial
were barred off the market by the Committee of Direction on July 3rd. The Prairie housewife
uses the Bing and Lambert cherries for preserves and even pickles them. They will not use
the smaller sizes unless forced to by crop-failure of the larger sizes. The AVindsor sold at a
reduced price and was fairly popular, more because it is cheaper. Lower prices were set by the
Committee of Direction for cherries sent to Manitoba, and one Regina wholesale dealer, who
could not get a share of the car-lot division, purchased his needs in Winnipeg and sent them by
freight to Regina and was able to undersell his competitors in Regina.
The plum demand is largely confined to California plums. AVhen the Italian prune is ready
prices tumble. These are offered in suit-case lugs at from 30 to 60 cents per 16 lb. As this
suit-case size is illegal in Canada, the exporters in AA7ashington have the legal-sized crate made;
these contain 18 lb. of prunes and are quoted at same price as the 16-lb. size, giving a bonus of
2 lb. of plums to Canadian buyers.    This is one way of selling under home-quoted prices. The plum and prune growers of Canada have not only to compete with the early supply
satiating the appetite of their home customers, but are under the handicap mentioned above from
the prunes, and in addition they do not store prunes as do their competitors, and as their marketing season is short prunes come on the market from American storage after the Canadian supply
has ceased.
Complaints have been received that all prunes, both imported aand domestic, arrive too
green on the Prairie markets. The Summerland Experimental Farm is growing prunes for
dehydrating experiments and for this purpose the fruit is allowed to become full ripe before
picking. This station sent three cases of prune plums to Calgary office, beginning about the
time that commercial shipments were past, and sending one weekly. They all arrived in good
commercial condition and were larger sized than the usual shipments. The flavour was so
superior that a well-known broker remarked: " These are a luxury." They all arrived in
excellent marketing condition and the first box had at least three weeks' selling-life in it.
This experiment proves that greater weight and size would result in deferring picking until
the sugar content had fully developed. The consumer would be encouraged to eat more. Underripe prunes hurt the sale, and holding them to ripen in the heat of the jobbers' warehouse does
not improve the flavour. It would appear that they should be left on the tree until firm ripe,
picked and shipped, and what is needed for the later market should be placed in cold storage
The supply of British Columbia grown apricots is increasing yearly. Growers of small
unwanted varieties, formerly shipped as No. 2, are finding it difficult to place them. The size
and quality of apricots shipped in 1929 was better than usual. Some tree-rub defects developed
on well-grown specimens just enough to place them below No. 1 grade, but not enough to injure
the carrying or eating quality of the fruit. The apricot deal in general was satisfactory, but
here again we notice AVashington apricots from cold storage filling the market for months after
the British Columbia apricots were cleaned up.
The fresh peach supplies were reported short in the United States for 1929. This did not
lessen the amount imported into Canada. British Columbia peaches are improving in pack and
quality; the chief complaint is that they are picked too green. G. II. Hale is securing a premium
over the Elberta. Rochester and Vedette varieties are filling the earlier demand more satisfactorily than the Triumph, Alexander, and Crawford. Additional use of fertilizer can still be
applied as the size is scarcely up to the AVashington standard. Further planting of the right
varieties is still safe in British Columbia from a market view-point.
British Columbia 1929 pear marketing was equal to any previous year. Further planting of
D'Anjou and Bartlett is needed to catch up with Prairie market demand. Horticulturists will
recommend the right districts to plant in. Flemish Beauty is popular, but more likely to be
overdone than the two former varieties. Bosc is also a favourite. If pear-culture is practised
in earnest, it should be profitable as the Canadian AVest pear market demand is far greater than
the supply. Storage pears from AA7ashington come on after British Columbia pears are marketed
and command a good price.
The acreage planted to grapes in the Okanagan Valley is increasing. There is room for a
broad expansion in favoured localities. The grapes from British Columbia have caught the
public favour and are considered superior to the Ontario grapes. Washington shipped heavily
of grapes to the Prairie market this year and won favour by their consistent good pack and
quality. British Columbia grape-growers have a big marketing advantage over AVashington,
inasmuch as they can sell their surplus to British Columbia wineries. AVe recommend that
grape-growing be systematically taken up with a view to securing the Prairie and wine-making
Owing to the heavy crop in 1928 and the heavy unsold carry-over of SOO cars to 1929, selling
agencies were worried.    Mr. Grant expressed the conviction that these would be all sold before DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 45
May, which proved to be the case, and many AA7inesaps and Newtowns had to be imported. This
should encourage further planting of AA7inesap and Newtown apples as there is a market for
these until June the following year. Care should be taken to place them in proper storage
immediately after picking, as a day's exposure in the orchard or packing-house lessens their
life when placed in cold storage. Greater study is needed in placing all kinds of fruit in cold
On the suggestion of Mr. AA7. Sanford Evans an extensive cold-storage experiment is being
carried on now with five cars of apples, the result of which will be available from time to time.
AVe note that the Melba, early variety, is popular. AVealthy apples were well marketed this
year. It is safe to say that before spring demand is over all British Columbia apples will
move at fair prices, where properly taken care of.
There were approximately 400 cars of apples in storage at main-line and Okanagan points
on December 31st, 1929.
We wish to point out to apple-growers that Eastern orchardists are planting Mcintosh
heavier than any other variety and that AVestern orchardists are planting the Delicious variety
on an extensive scale.
The sponsoring of the nickel-in-the-slot machine at the Royal AA7inter Fair, Toronto, proved
a big success .and was responsible for the advance of 25 cents per box on Delicious apples in
Toronto. The Markets Branch is very much impressed with the unlimited possibilities of the
Eden Apple Service Company's nickel-in-the-slot vending-machine from an advertising point of
view for British Columbia apples and the encouragement for a larger distribution of same.
It would appear from the various opinions received and from the sales that it might be
advisable to consider reducing the number of grades that go on the market, such as the loose
bulk apples, the sales of which are increasing. A box bulk in boxes with the lids off of, say,
60 lb. to a box. Combine Household and 0 grades put up in an unwrapped tier pack. Combine
most of the fancy and extra fancy into the only wrapped, grade, or if any choice extra fancy
apples are packed for fancy trade demand, they should be carefully selected specimens and
command a price at least 75 cents per box more than the fancy quotations.
The total export of apples to Britain and Europe for 1928-29, 620,848 boxes. Of this amount,
from 70 to 75 per cent, are marketed by the Associated Growers through their agents in England.
The balance is exported by individual growers and groups of independent growers. This year
they have sold mostly at f.o.b. shipping-point prices, and altogether the average price has been
It is pointed out that any apples that go into cold storage in Britain, when taken out are at
a disadvantage, as this fruit is marked " Ex Storage " and sold at a reduction in price anywhere
from Is. to 2s. per box less than is obtained for fruit taken direct from the ship, although both
are equally as good.
Mr. T. G. Coventry arrived in London on July 15th, 1929, to take up his duties as Markets
Representative for British Columbia. His activities cover five months, and his time has mostly
been take up with agricultural problems.    Other lines will receive his attention later.
We wish to direct attention to the growing preferences of the buying public to attractive
labels and packages. About 85 per cent, of the retail buyers are women and they are easier
attracted to specialties than men. A7arieties that were popular ten years ago are discounted
to-day. Strawberries that are not red and shapely are unpopular. Loganberries, gooseberries,
and all the currants drag on sale. Sour cherries and nearly all plums are hard to move. In
peaches the G. H. Hale is outclassing the Elberta. Apples have been reduced in demand, at
top price, to a few varieties.
The year 1929 will go on record as the heaviest year in many for importing fruits and
vegetables of a kind grown in Canada. Over 100 cars of strawberries were imported before any
were ready to ship from British Columbia, this being a late season in British Columbia and all
fruit-ripening dates'were late. More vegetables were imported than ever before, especially in
head-lettuce, celery, and potatoes. This year the Canadian North-west has imported in the
vicinity of 1,500 cars of potatoes. I 46
Celery, forced and field rhubarb, hothouse tomatoes,.and Oliver cantaloupes are so much in
the same position as they were in 1928 that extended comments on them seems unnecessary.
All of these commodities are retarded in distribution by forcing them into cars too large for
safety, both from a loading and marketing standpoint. AA'e consider that such commodities
as are mentioned, if shipped in small quantities of each, but with a proportional mixture of early
vegetables in the car, that a wider distribution could be expected.
Field-grown tomatoes were produced in great volume, but the quality of the bulk of the
shipments was inferior to last year, and while many districts improved their pack, the deal was
not as satisfactory as 1928. The prevailing dry weather had something to do with the irregular
sizes offered, but the fault lay in the growers continuing to grow and market the Earliana variety
until long past its time for dessert and culinary use. Later varieties should replace this variety
within two weeks of the start of planting. A7arieties that have bright, clean red colour and,
uniform size should be grown. Prices were well maintained considering the quality of produce
offered. Two main-line shippers excelled in their pack; although some very nice cars came
from Kelowna and Vernon, they did not have the consistent good pack of the main-line shippers.
Cucumbers showed a decided improvement over other years in pack and quality. The price
was higher as the result of more care at shipping-point. AA7ith a few exceptions, both field-grown
cucumbers and tomatoes can stand more rigid culling out, as by far too many rank, misshapen,
and discoloured specimens are shipped that would pay better to keep at home.
The demand for British Columbia vegetables was heavier than usual, partially due to the
dry weather prevailing all over the Prairies, and when the British Columbia supply fell below
the demand the importation of vegetables was heavier than usual.
Potatoes from British Columbia in 50-lb. sacks made their appearance on the Winnipeg
market on July 12th, and this size of a sack took well with the trade.
The known shortage in the United States did not lessen importations from there. On October
1st the Maritime Provinces secured a reduced rate on potatoes, and from then on until the middle
of November heavy interprovincial trade in potatoes took place, most of them going into storage.
By the middle of December the potatoes in storage at Prairie points exceeded any previous
year and the price commenced to sag. By Christmas potatoes imported from the East and the
United States were selling cheaper wholesale in Calgary than they were in Vancouver. British
Columbia importations to the Prairies were adversely affected in price by the heavy importations
into the Prairies in October, as well as by the big buying done by Prairie jobbers in Maritime
potatoes. The following table will be of interest to show the conditions prevailing this year
compared with the past five years:—
Potato Importations from United States to Prairies.
1929 (approximately)  1,500
There is a growing tendency on the part of Canadian railways to build larger steel cars.
They claim that the large type of car is more economical as a carrier. The fruit and vegetable
industry does not lend itself to this large car, with a minimum weight of 36,000 lb.
Experiments covering several years in carrying fruit and vegetables over United States lines
has convinced the railway companies there that a car with a minimum from 17,000 to 29,000 lb.
is necessary for the safe transportation of perishable fruit and vegetables. They have built
and equipped refrigerator-cars for fruit and vegetable carriers, and if the railway companies
attempted to raise the minimum strenuous protests from the perishable-produce dealers would
follow. The Canadian railway companies have so far not given the consideration necessary to this
subject. Mixed cars of fruit and vegetables are increasing yearly and their volume from
shipping-point to country points now exceed the volume from shipping-point to city distributing-
The demand for carriers of this size comes from dealers and shippers, and at present the
matter is under serious consideration by the railway companies against the small cars and the
shippers solidly on the other side. In discussing this matter with the Western superintendents
of traffic for both Canadian lines in Winnipeg, we found that they favoured the larger cars, but
upon being assured that the perishable trade would not stand the large car, neither at loading
or distributing end, it was suggested that the larger cars could be used with a small minimum.
As far as the railway companies were concerned, they wanted the small minimum to produce
equal revenue to the large minimum.
This matter should be pressed to a decision by representatives of the shippers taking up the
matter with the transportation specialist, Mr. AVheeler, of Ottawa, as, in our opinion, traffic
rates, safe minimum, and extra stop privileges for freight-movement are necessary to secure the
limit of distribution. To this may be added storage-in-transit privileges, now enjoyed by apple-
shippers, be extended to all fruits and vegetables, fresh and processed, as transportation arrangements of a satisfactory kind are second in importance to a tariff of sufficient strength to conserve
the Canadian market for Canadian producers.
The new plant of Bulman's, Limited, A7ernon, was completed and operated this fall, taking
care of all the cull apples they could secure. With the assistance of the Markets Branch, a
special mixing-privilege rate on dehydrated apples was granted and the growers got a direct
benefit of $1 to $2 per ton more for their apples.
The dehydrated vegetables are being developed to considerable extent by Bulman's, Limited,
and this year took care of a large tonnage of surplus onions. Samples of these onions and carrots
have been taken to the AVest Indies by Mr. H. Hastings to report on the possibilities of doing
trade there in these products.
The canned fruit and vegetable business has shown a big increase this year over previous
years, but improvements can still be made in our packages, and particularly labels, when we
compete on the foreign markets.
Our Markets Representative in London reports : " It is very noticeable that the Canadian
exhibition stuff here on their displays of Canadian products of this nature exhibited nothing from
our Province, which I presume is chiefly because such products are not at the present time a very
good advertisement. On the other hand, they display a great deal of Ontario stuff and products,
particularly the Dominion Packers, because their samples are good and therefore likely to lead
to business. AVe are satisfied that the Exhibition Branch would do everything they could to help
this Province when they can get the proper material to deal with, or our canners take the
trouble to get in touch with them."
A most successful fruit-show was held at Birmingham, England, this year, and the British
Columbia fruit exhibit under the Markets Representative, assisted by Mr. P. A. Taylor, proved
a big attraction. AVe received many congratulations and favourable comments from representatives of the British Department of Agriculture and all the leading men of the fruit industry
in Great Britain.
In following the effect of this show a few weeks later, it was found that the distributers of
British Columbia apples in Birmingham were getting Is. per box more than similar distributers
were getting in other parts of the country for the same quality of apples.
AVe note that sheep-breeders are endeavouring to get together to improve the quality of
their marketing product and extend the marketing season. AVe intend to encourage further
co-operative marketing amongst the sheep-breeders, so that they may take advantage of the
bare market in British Columbia from the early part of the year to August.    It is imperative I 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
that they finish their stock at the time when prices are highest—namely, from the first of the
year to August—as during that time the importations are heavy and prices high. Unless this
is accomplished, overproduction would soon be reached for the other months of the year.
There is a scarcity of feed, especially in Southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Upon inquiry
we were informed that the Alberta Government had arranged to supply the Southern farmers
with the surplus feed from Northern Alberta, and when spring approached it would be found
just how the balance was working out. Alberta officials noted our information that there was
a surplus of hay in Central British Columbia and promised to advise us on the situation. AVe are
watching this situation, which promises an outlet for the Central British Columbia surplus, and
will deal with it at the psychological moment.
Honey-producers in British Columbia are not at present producing enough honey for export
trade. Our Branch has arranged with them to secure market news from other Provinces and
keep them informed on prices and production at competitive-points by means of a mimeographic
letter at intervals as the occasion requires.
A new high-bush blueberry named the " Pioneer " has proved successful at Brighouse. It is
doing well on the peat land of that district. A sample of these berries took well in Calgary.
It was proved that as a pie-berry it was superior to the wild variety. There is a prospect of a
very large demand for this fruit in its fresh state. Some of our American dealers are offering
to take any surplus we may have for their processed business. Small quantities are being carried
in cold storage for winter trade.
A great deal of investigation has been done into the manufacturing of cider both here and
in England. At present experimental work is being done by Dr. Newton, Pathologist, Sidney,
with technical assistance from the Department of Agriculture, on samples of Okanagan apples
shipped to them. The Experimental Farm, Summerland, is testing various varieties for apple
brandy, which ought to be interesting. Concentrated apple-juice has a wide market, but the
royalties and cost of plant to manufacture same are big items.
Our Markets Representative has had considerable dealings, both with the agents and also
with the Exhibition Branch in England, where loganberry-juice has been given great prominence;
prices quoted, however, are higher than the market apparently will stand. The loganberry
outlook is very promising and many growers have a five-year contract to supply their output.
The most important work done by our overseas representative was the marketing of storage
eggs from British Columbia. Previous shipments of our storage eggs had gone to Glasgow, but
unfortunately did not arrive in good condition through lack of precaution in shipping. However,
this shipment of 5,000 cases was mostly sold in London and the industrial districts of the Midlands and North, with a few cases going to Glasgow.
Very wide publicity was given these eggs through a series of photographs taken at the docks,
which included representatives of the brokerage firm handling them, high officials of the Department of Agriculture of Great Britain, the Superintendent of the Docks for the Port of London
Authority, and others. These photographs were reproduced and written up in the Daily Mirror
and the Northcliffe-Rothermere Press.
If this trade is developed along sound and proper lines, with due care exercised in shipping,
we look for an enormous expansion in the next few years. Eggs of good quality that can readily
sell around 50 cents per dozen in England from October until the end of February will easily
supplant the foreign trade, which now holds the market, and we think we can safely make the
statement that any quantities in the future that the Poultry Pool care to ship for export will be
disposed of readily. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 49
A great deal of information has been received from our Markets Representative regarding
the possibilities of marketing clover-seed in England. However, this year they have a heavy
crop and the prevailing prices are too low to encourage export business from here. The year
1930 should be a good year for farmers to grow clover for seed and other purposes as seed is
extremely low-priced. All the timothy-seed held by farmers in Central British Columbia has
been sold.
Several requests were made from British Columbia to the Calgary office for a market for
turnips, but owing to the excellent growing condition for turnips in Alberta there is a very
limited demand from there.
Owing to adverse conditions in 1927-28 causing a heavy carry-over to 1929, very little
planting took place in the Interior in 1929. Considerable blending has been done by a large
firm in Vancouver, which has undertaken to specialize in British Columbia tobaccos, selling it
under its own brand.    The undertaking of this venture should prove a gauge for production.
British markets were not available to British Columbia hops. Owing to the local heavy crop
they could be purchased at a price in Britain equal to the transportation charges and duty from
British Columbia. AVith the assistance of the British Columbia Branch of the Canadian Manufacturing Association, the brewers of the Prairie Provinces, Ontario, and Quebec were circularized
in a selling campaign. This resulted in the sale of considerable quantities of British Columbia
hops, which, however, were limited on account of the necessity of having the foreign hops for
blending purposes. Hopes are entertained that with the selling campaign of last fall an increased
Canadian consumption will be effected.
Your Director accompanied the Canadian Chambers of Commerce party on their tour of the
Peace River District in September, going into the British Columbia block.
This is a vast country aud of necessity at present all trading must go through Edmonton
on account of the railways, but with Coast connections this country will develop rapidly and will
have a tremendous amount of grain and farm produce to send out to British Columbia, and in
return will provide a direct market for our fruit and early vegetables.
AArhen on this trip we made valuable personal contact and supplied British Columbia strawberries, kept in a fresh state by cold-storage processing with sugar, at various banquets in
Edmonton and Calgary. The Armstrong growers supplied the celery and the Oliver growers
the cantaloupes, all of which were much appreciated and very complimentary remarks passed
on these products.
Your Director spent considerable of his time with Mr. AV. Sanford Evans, Royal Commissioner conducting the fruit investigation, familiarizing himself with marketing conditions,
both from the growers' point of view and also from the distributing end.
This took us through the Okanagan, the Kootenay districts, and south of the line to
A\7enatchee and Yakima. Also a trip through to Winnipeg; calling on the principal brokers,
jobbers, departmental and chain stores, also retailers, along with some consumers. Information
was gained that otherwise would not be available under ordinary circumstances. A full report
on the investigation will be issued by Mr. Sanford Evans at a later date.
Three outstanding events of interest to British Columbia will take place during 1930—the
British Industrial Fair to be held in Birmingham and London in February, the World's Poultry
Congress to be held in London in July, and the World's Horticultural Congress to be held in
London in August.
Your Markets Representative will keep in close touch with these gatherings and watch any
development that may arise to extend British Columbia trade in Great Britain.
Upheavals at distributing-points are due in the near future.    The organizations who buy our
produce have" been losing money for some time and they blame the inroads of chain stores for
their loss, as if they do not buy direct from the shipper they can get very low quotations on
imported car-lots when purchased from wholesalers. Several cars were bought in 1929 by a
large retailer, and the wholesale profit on the car was less than a broker's commission. The
country trade supplied in cars by direct route from shipping-point and sold by the Western
jobbers is greater than the city demand. These orders are taken by commercial travellers sent
out by the jobbers. The Prairie city retailers are fully organized and about six of them buy for
the whole, and usually they purchase from the jobber who quotes the best price on standard
The situation is seething with restlessness on the jobbers' part as well as on the chain stores,
and many schemes are being thought out in the manoeuvre for advantage by each party. Jobbers
threaten to establish buying agents in British Columbia, purchase at best price possible, and
invoice goods out at Committee of Direction prices. Being shipped to their own houses from
their agents, the invoice would mean little or nothing to the party who had purchased the goods
and they could sell them at any price they pleased when they reached the Prairies. If this scheme
is legal, the price-setting factor now in the power of the Committee of Direction would be
The selling agencies of British Columbia have worked together and have secured good
distribution and returns for the growers under very trying conditions. It will be a step backward if this unity is marred in any way, because the shadow of weakness on the part of the
shippers will be adversely reflected on the distributing end. It is imperative that they stand
solid and approach and feed the Prairie market as a Provincial unit. Growers have no' further
protection from the southern importations than the Customs duty, which in many cases is not
sufficient to keep the Canadian market for Canadian producers.
Respectfully submitted.
W. AV. Duncan,
Director of Markets.
Dr. A. G. Knight, A7.S.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Live Stock Branch for the year
ended December 31st, 1929.
Conditions as affecting live stock throughout the year have been fair. An increase in
numbers of beef and dairy cattle, sheep and swine is shown by the returns. The general inclination of the farmer is to endeavour to secure better breeding sires. His sincere efforts to do this
are shown in the price that he is willing to pay at sales where pure-bred male animals of merit
are offered. Desirable males showing pronounced breeding, indicating quality of ancestry,
usually command good prices. The fact of this desire on the part of the stockman will have
far-reaching effects towards improving the quality of our animals offered on the market.
Although the initial outlay for sires of good quality is somewhat higher than the general run
of sires offered on the market, yet this will prove economical in the long run when the progeny
from bulls of quality are put on the market. The offspring of desirable sires usually put on
flesh more economically and, in the case of dairy cattle, milk and butter-fat is produced at a
lower cost than from stock of poor quality.
There has been a tendency on the part of stockmen in some cases to rush their stock to the
market in an unfinished condition. This may be partly due to the tendency of market prices to
fluctuate or become unstable and also due to the shortage of feed. The shortage of feed in some
of the Prairie Provinces was quite marked and it was anticipated that the stockmen of such
Provinces would rush their live stock to the market. This was probably true to some extent,
but, however, it did not become general. Small numbers were put on the market, but buyers
from other sections where feed was more plentiful took up the unfinished stock and thus avoided the general rush to the market and the consequent lowering of prices. Those sections where
feed is more plentiful have absorbed such cattle that would otherwise have been put on the
market in an undesirable condition. The general advice to the stockmen at the present time
is not to become stampeded by local conditions, but to retain at least their breeding stock and
endeavour to finish their unmarketable stuff at home.
The general trend of the live-stock industry in British Columbia is upward. This is shown
by the increase, year after year, in our live-stock population, but we are still short of our home
demand. The increase in beef cattle and swine is scarcely in proportion to our increased population, while in sheep, on the other hand, we are rapidly attaining the position of supplying our
own demands.
The employing of qualified live-stock judges year after year is having a beneficial effect in
establishing a general type in all classes of live stock, the placings of the judges giving a lead
or an ideal for the live-stock men to breed up to. Also in recent years commendable action has
been taken by the fair managements, especially in the dairy classes, in the establishment of a
basis of placing prizes on production, together with type. This fact will tend to establish the
utility side as well as the show-ring type of animal. Also in the swine classes the fair managements have seen fit to award additional prizes or money for all such classes of bacon'hogs of
approved types. These types of hogs lend themselves to the production of bacon, which is in
the greatest demand by the consuming public. This also may be said of certain sheep classes
which are adaptable to this country and favoured on the market as superior mutton sheep.
The Department of Agriculture is endeavouring to encourage the use of better sires throughout the Province and has carried on the policy of free freight on animals purchased through
the Live Stock Branch on requisition from Farmers' Institutes. This policy applies to the
supplying of male animals, such as dairy and beef bulls, rams, and boars.
At the present time there is little interest taken in the breeding of horses. From time to
time there are spasmodic efforts made by a few individuals to stimulate interest, but this phase
of our live-stock industry apparently has lost interest among our stockmen. Some little effort
is being made in the Lower Fraser A7alley amongst some of our more prominent farmers and
Government institutions to endeavour to devote some attention to the production of heavy horses.
There is still a limited demand for horses of good weight. This combined with quality commands
a good price on local markets. Horses over 1,600 lb. command a price of around $250 per head,
while lighter horses from 1,200 to 1,400 lb., adaptable for express-work, will run from $125
to $200.
Our horse population increased from 62,418 head in 1928 to 66,183 during this past year,
made up as follows : Stallions, 2 years old and over, 668; mares, 2 years old and over, 28,422;
geldings, 2 years old and over, 30,398; colts and fillies, under 2 years, 6,695. Considering the
number of mares, 2 years old and over, and the colts and fillies under 2 years, we can realize
that a very small proportion of the mares are bred and very few colts raised in proportion.
The number of mules given is 196.
A few of our prominent horsemen are considering the advisability of forming a British
Columbia Horse-breeders' Association. This matter will n'o doubt come up at the forthcoming
annual meeting of the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association to be held in the near future,
when the matter will be discussed.
The returns of beef cattle show an increase in numbers. The general condition of the beef-
cattle industry has been fair. During the past year there has been a slight drop in prices, but
the stockmen are optimistic as to the future. British Columbia is still importing considerable
numbers of beef cattle to supply our local demand. Owing to drought conditions during the
latter part of the summer and fall pasturage conditions were not the best. Consequently,
considerable numbers of unfinished cattle were drifted into the market. It was found at times
that it was difficult to dispose of this class of cattle and it could only be sold at a much lower
price than the general run of market cattle. The market is demanding a better quality of beef
and this is being stimulated by the beef-grading policy of the Dominion Government. A number
of our stockmen have been experimenting and conducting feeding experiments to improve the I 52
quality of beef. Such beef, when well finished, commands the premier price and this has stimulated interest in this phase of handling unfinished beef cattle. The top price of beef is running
around 7% cents per pound.
There is a steady demand for good-quality bulls and our stockmen are prepared to pay fair
prices. At the Kamloops Bull-sale, held in the spring of this year,'eighty-five bulls were sold,
comprising the following :—
No. of Head.
High Price.
Low Price.
, 540.00
I may point out that in the Shorthorns there were a number of short yearlings and a greater
number of younger animals, which lowered the price. The great demand for range bulls is for
long yearlings and 2-year-olds. There are still considerable numbers of bulls imported into
British Columbia from Alberta and Eastern points to supply the requirements of our range
stockmen. If some means could be devised whereby these bulls could be bred within British
Columbia, it would give our stockmen an opportunity .to purchase their requirements near at
home.    (See Appendices Nos. 25 and 26 for cattle and hides shipped.)
The number of dairy cattle has increased during the past year at the ratio of about 10 per
cent, of last year's figures, which stood at 102,963 cows kept for milk purposes. The figures given
for 1929 are 113,050 cows kept for milk purposes and 20,064 yearlings raised for milk purposes.
The dairy industry shows a steady development and stability and is not subject to fluctuations the same as in some other lines of domestic stock. Prices for dairy cattle have remained
on a par with 1928, good-grade milch cows of suitable ages running from $100 to $175; 2-year-olds,
from $65 to $90.    AVith pure-bred dairy cattle prices depend largely on type and quality.
The Cow-testing Associations, which are conducted under the Dairy Branch, have been a
factor, in that work has been carried on for a few years in raising the standard of production
in our main dairy districts. In fact, the production of milk and butter-fat in a number of our
grade herds is practically on a par with the pure-bred dairy animals. It appears that the purebred breeder will have to use more effort and pay more attention to production lines to hold his
own with the dairymen raising grade cattle. It is quite true that the standard of our dairy
cows has been brought to the present pitch by the use of pure-bred sires, but to still increase our
production and also to unify type it is necessary for our pure-bred breeders to put considerable
effort and thought into their breeding operations.
The Dominion Government has conducted the advanced registry for dairy bull's, and where
applications are made to the Live Stock Division, at Ottawa, bulls that qualify are classed
according to Grades A and AA.
The purpose of grading these bulls is to establish the identity of superior bulls for breeding
purposes, and if the lives of these bulls can be preserved after they have been proven it will be
a factor in maintaining good breeding bulls to increase milk and butter-fat production amongst
our dairy herds and thus eliminate the undesirable pure-bred and off-type sire.
Increased interest has been shown in swine production during the past year. Inquiries have
been made for pure-bred sows and boars of desirable type. More interest is being taken in the
production of strictly bacon-hogs, as this type of hog produces the quality of bacon for which
there is a growing demand amongst our consumers. The price of bacon at the beginning of the
year was somewhat above the price received for 1928, but during the latter part of the year
considerable numbers of hogs were rushed on the markets from the Prairie Provinces owing
to the shortage of grain feed, which tended to lower prices temporarily. We expect, however,
to see the price go back in the beginning of the new year on a par with the beginning of 1929. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 53
There are a number of areas in this Province that are well adapted for the economical
production of swine, and it is in these districts that we anticipate the development of a permanent
business amongst our farmers or those interested in swine production.
Boys' and Girls' Swine Clubs have increased to eighteen, with a membership of 263, and the
total number of hogs raised by the boys and girls was 378. These hogs were scored and graded
by a Dominion judge. As a result considerable numbers were classed as strictly bacon-hogs of
desirable type. Boys' and Girls' Swine Clubs were formed in the following districts : Armstrong
(2), Berkshire and Yorkshire; Bulkley A7alley (1), Yorkshire; Chilliwack (1), Yorkshire;
Cranbrook (2), Berkshire and Yorkshire; Elphinstone Bay (1), Yorkshire; Grand Forks (1),
Yorkshire; Jaffray (1), Yorkshire; Kamloops (2), Berkshire and Yorkshire; Kersley (1),
Yorkshire; Merville-Grantham (1), Yorkshire; Midway (1), Yorkshire; Rock Creek (1), Yorkshire;   Salmon Arm (2), Yorkshire and Berkshire;   Terrace  (1), Yorkshire..
The Dominion Government assisted in the Boys' and Girls' Club work by paying one-third
of the prize-money ; $342.95 was paid out to the boys and girls in prize-money on swine by this
Department, this being one-thifcl of the total money allotted for this work, the Dominion Government paying one-third and the local association in each community paying the remaining one-
third of the money.
We expect to increase the number of clubs during the coming season and endeavour to
stimulate interest among our younger people in swine production.
The C.P.R. and C.N.R. granted a free trip to the Toronto Royal Winter Fair, which was
held in November, to the winning team of ciubs represented along their lines. Harry Naylor and
Hugh McLeod, of Salmon Arm, were the winners of the C.P.R. competition and Robert Hornby
and Jim McCallan, of Armstrong, were the winners of the C.N.R. competition. The selection
of these teams took place at the Colony Farm, where representative teams from the various
clubs throughout the Province took part in a swine-judging competition. This competition was
well attended by other parties interested in swine production.
Armstrong Club " B " won the swine inter-club competition, prizes being donated by the
Dominion Government.
The competition in the production of bacon litters aroused considerable interest, considering
that this was only the second year in which this competition was held. The following districts
were represented; altogether there being forty-five contestants in this competition, with a
production of 374 pigs: Armstrong, Chilliwack, Courtenay, Kamloops, Kersley, and Salmon Arm.
This is a commendable feature of swine production and it is hoped to increase the number of
entries in the coming year.
Sheep continue to hold the premier place of interest and show the largest increase in production of any class of our domestic live stock. In 1928 we had 96,164 sheep and 74,091 lambs,
making the total sheep population 170,255. In 1929 our figures show 110,834 sheep and 94,098
lambs, making a total of 205,532, an increase of 35,277 head.
A large number of inquiries was received in the Live Stock Office as to the possibilities of
sheep-raising in British Columbia, some desiring location and range possibilities. Numbers of
sheep were brought in from Montana and AVashington during the fall of this year. These may
be classed as Rambouillet high-grade ewes suitable for range conditions.
There has been a greater demand for pure-bred rams. A successful ram-sale was held at
Kamloops, where rams were offered for sale, made up chiefly of the Down breeds, although a
few Rambouillet .rams offered by the University of British Columbia brought top prices at this
sale, the highest being $110. At this sale there were offered 1,300 head of grade Rambouillet
ewes, brought in from Montana by two American contributors. These were put up for auction
and realized from $10 to $11 per head, the ewes being 3 and 4 years of age.
Some little difficulty has been experienced by the sheepmen this summer owing to poisonous
weeds on some of the summer ranges. This appears to be one of the drawbacks to the further
development of the sheep industry, along with the limited amount of good spring and fall range
in this Province and the difficulty of getting back to the summer range owing to lack of trails.
Another important matter at the present time in the sheep industry in British Columbia is
the marketing of lambs. AVe are endeavouring to educate our sheepmen to get their lambs off
before the bulk of the range lambs are ready, so as to spread the marketing of the range lambs I 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
over a longer period in the year than formerly. In the interior of the Province it would be
necessary to provide lambing-sheds and extra feed for the early lamb-crop. If the lambs could
be dropped during the beginning of March they could possibly be put on the market along through
July, August, and early September, thus realizing somewhat higher prices and avoiding the
fall rush.
During the past year some $6,000 was set aside for the promotion of the sheep industry.
This money has been spent in providing special sheep fairs, offering prizes for special classes,
and in the formation of Sheep Clubs.    Six clubs were formed, as follows:—
No. of Members.    No. of Ewes.
Deroche     5 50
Hazelmere      6 52
South Pender Island     4 40
Hornby Island     5 42
Aldergrove     4 36
Ganges  '.     5 42
The average price per head was approximately $15.50, delivered. The Dominion Government
supplied a ram for each club free of charge. The repayment for these ewes is extended over
a period of four years from the time they are delivered.
The club that was formed at Errington in 1928 had a fair lamb-crop, which was quite
encouraging, considering that the ewes were picked up from a number of breeders. A number
of the lambs from these ewes were exhibited at the'Coombs Fair and made a very creditable
showing.    The members appear to be quite satisfied with results obtained.
The loss of sheep killed by dogs was heavier than during the previous year. Compensation
under the " Sheep Protection Act " was paid as follows:—
Sheep:  Total number killed, 159 ;  amount, $2,027.75.    Poultry :  Chickens, 134;  turkeys. 90;
ducks, 9 ;  geese, 22;  total number killed, 255 ;  amount, $535.75.
Four claims are held in abeyance awaiting more particulars.
This branch of animal husbandry has been well maintained, with increasing sales to outside
points. Three car-lots and many individual lots have been shipped to Ontario, a number of
sales were made at very high prices to the United States, and, for the first time, a shipment
was made to Mexico, as well as the usual shipments to the Prairies and the Yukon.
The Dominion Government has been carrying on Record of Performance tests for milk goats
in Victoria and Vancouver Districts and some highly satisfactory records are being made. Special
dairies for goat's milk in the Coast cities are operating successfully.
Interest has been concentrated in the three breeds, Saanens, Toggenburgs, and Nubians, the
total in the Province being probably over 13,000, of which about 1,000 are pure-bred. Angoras,
which supply mohair, number over 200.
The distribution of sires through Farmers' Institutes has become an established feature of
the Live Stock Branch work and during the past year considerable activity has been carried on
along this line. The following is list of institutes supplied with pure-bred sires: Baynes
District, one Shorthorn bull and one Suffolk ram; Big Bar, one Yorkshire boar and one Berkshire boar; Bella Coola, one Red Poll bull; Croydon, one Shorthorn bull; Camp Lister and
Huscroft, one Shorthorn bull; Forest Grove, one Red Poll bull and one Aberdeen Angus bull;
Houston, one Aberdeen Angus bull; Hoodoo Lake, one Hereford and one Holstein bull; Kersley,
two Oxford rams, two Yorkshire boars, and one Red Poll bull and one Shorthorn bull; Mud
River and Beaverley, one Suffolk ram ; Newgate, four Hereford bulls and two Aberdeen Angus
bulls; Palling, one Holstein bull; Quick District, one Shorthorn bull; Salmon Arm, one Jersey
bull; Soda Creek, three Aberdeen Angus bulls, one Red Poll bull, one Dorset Horn ram, one
Oxford ram, and three Rambouillet rams; South Bulkley, one Aberdeen Angus bull and one
Oxford ram; Turtle A'alley, one Hereford bull; West Quesnel, one Shorthorn bull and one Red
Poll bull; AVilliams Lake, one Red Poll bull and two Rambouillet rams; Wistaria, two Oxford
rams and two Red Poll bulls; AVhite Creek ATalley, one Ayrshire bull and one Guernsey bull;
making a total of thirty-three bulls, fourteen rams, and five boars. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929.
I 55
I herewith append report from the Recorder of Brands relative to this phase of the work
of the Live Stock Branch.
A good deal of interest was shown by the boys and girls in the organization and carrying-out
of their club-work. This work was also fostered by the parents of the children and by other
parties interested in Boys' and Girls' Club work.    Calf Clubs were formed as follows:—
Armstrong (Dairy)	
Bulkley Valley	
Chilliwack  (Guernsey)	
Chilliwack (Jersey)	
Cranbrook  (Dairy)	
Gleneden (Salmon Arm).—
Jaffray (Dairy)	
Kamloops (Beef)	
Kamloops  (Dairy)	
Kensington Prairie	
Totals (10 clubs)
112 $800.00
The Province pays two-thirds of the prize-money for calves exhibited at the close of the
season and the local association pays the remaining one-third.
The Boys' and Girls' Club work is giving results in the way of stimulating interest in livestock production wherever these clubs are formed, the adults of the community taking a keen
interest in the competitions at the close of the season. It is our intention to further encourage
and promote the development of Calf and Swine Clubs, and also bacon-litter production, paying
special attention where these lines of stock can be raised economically and successfully and
become a permanent part of the farming industry in such districts.
The general trend of the live-stock industry is to increase the number of breeding stock,
and if prices remain where they are it will tend to encourage the live-stock producer to provide
a better quality of sires. In so far as range beef cattle is concerned, the numbers probably could
not be increased unless there was a corresponding increase in acreage under cultivation to provide
winter feed.
The quality of our pure-bred stock as brought out to our exhibitions during the past year
was such as to cause favourable comment.    This is the result of careful selection of sires as
to pronounced blood lines in type and production.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Live Stock Commissioner.
Dr. A. G. Knight, A7.S.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit annual report of the A'eterinary staff for the year ended December
31st, 1929.
The health of the stock throughout the Province is, as a whole, in good condition. A few
diseases of a common nature have been reported from certain districts from time to time. These,
upon investigation, have proved to be of a minor character and have not occasioned any severe
loss. It is a noticeable fact, however, that in certain areas pastures are somewhat overgrazed
and insufficient winter feed provided, and when a disease has obtained a little headway in such
sections it has proved more or less severe owing to the lessened vitality of the animals. The
following diseases have been brought to our notice throughout the year:— I 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
This trouble among our domestic animals has been reported from the Bulkley and Nechako
Valleys, Pemberton Meadows, and one or two minor cases in the Eraser A7alley. AVe find, however, that if this disease is taken in time and the dams treated with iodine during the gestation
period, very little of this trouble appears in the new-born stock. This treatment is more or less
generally followed at the present time and I am pleased to state that this particular disease is
not occasioning any great loss among our stockmen to-day. The treatment is comparatively
simple and inexpensive and when properly administered as prescribed by your Veterinary staff,
or through certain articles in the papers, very little trouble should be occasioned from this
particular disease.
This disease has been reported from time to time, outbreaks occurring in small areas, usually
only a few animals being affected outside of what may be termed the Cariboo area, where
considerable losses have occurred, especially during the late fall and winter months. However,
during the last two years hsemorrhagic septicaemia aggressin, bacterin, and serum have been tried
with beneficial results. Just which of these three treatments are most beneficial has not been
definitely stated. However, the aggressin is used more as a prophylactic treatment and is of
more recent origin than the bacterin or serum. The stockmen using this material for treatment
have reported good results, minimizing their losses to a great extent, and probably will be used
more extensively throughout the Cariboo and Chilcotin areas in the treatment of this particular
disease among their cattle.
This disease has also been reported by one of your Veterinarians on A7ancouver Island among
pigs, but confined to very few cases, where one sow and her progeny were affected. This disease
has been reported for the past several years, but I cannot say that it was any more extensive
throughout the Province during the past year than previously.
The Department has been in receipt of letters from various parties throughout the Province
relative to this disease. This disease is probably more widespread throughout the Province, more
so than any other one disease affecting our domestic live stock.
Up to the present time our investigators who have had this disease under observation and
experimental work have not advised any definite control measures. The agglutination test is
probably the most reliable at the present time, but this has not proved a definite means of control.
Considerable losses have occurred in certain individual herds through this disease. Advice has
been given as to sanitary measures to be adopted ; isolation of infected animals or animals that
have aborted and other known means have been advised to protect the adjoining cattle or herds.
Although this disease is not listed under our " Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act," it may be
advisable to incorporate this under the Act in so far, at least, as to prevent the sale of animals
that have aborted or other cattle that have been in contact. At the present time there is no
means of preventing an owner with a badly infected herd from selling his herd and distributing
such animals among healthy stock, which tends to spread the disease to localities that were
formerly free.
We have been called upon from time to time to hold post-mortems on animals that have
died, and upon such investigation have found parasitic infestation to be the cause of death.
This is more especially true with parasitic infestation of sheep, this class of domestic animal
appearing to suffer more in this regard in this Province than our other live stock.
Stomach-worms, lung-worms, and liver-fluke appear to be the most common parasites affecting sheep, while in pigs we have certain forms of worms which have caused rather severe
financial' losses. Young and older animals of all descriptions when badly infested with internal
parasites become unthrifty, lose weight, and thus occasion considerable financial loss, as an
unthrifty animal due to such parasites is an unprofitable animal when so affected. Considerable
advice as to the handling and treatment of infested sheep and swine has been given by
your A7eterinary staff, and where such advice has been lived up to good results have been obtained.
This phase of the health of our domestic live stock will probably require more of our attention
in the future, as there is a tendency to rather overstock pastures.    Thus animals grazing over   DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 57
such pastures when infested with parasites only spread the disease more rapidly among those
animals that are obliged to graze over such areas. To offset this, advice has been given to
divide the fields into small lots and rotate the sheep from one pasture to another. In this way
the animals are not obliged to graze so close to the ground and this obviates a good deal of the
trouble of a parasitic nature.
This matter has also been brought to the attention of the British Columbia Swine-breeders'
Association and it reports that considerable work has been carried out in the treatment of
affected herds.
This disease is of such minor occurrence that it is causing practically no loss among our
domestic animals. It does not appear to be as prevalent as a few years ago. No doubt the
present method of treating the incipient cases with potassium iodide may account for the
subsidence of this disease. It is probably more troublesome among certain areas of our range
country than among our dairy animals, but, in any case, as already stated, it does not occasion
any alarm.
As in past years, there have been a few cases reported to this office, which, upon investigation, appear to be due to poisonous fodder. More particularly when animals are turned out
in the spring and keen for a little green feed they are apt to visit the margin of lakes and swampy
ground where water-hemlock is present. This is a hardy plant and appears to be one of the first
plants to be seen in the spring, thus making it somewhat tempting to animals that have just
passed the winter on dry feed. It is in the spring and early summer that most of the losses
occur. AVhere a sufficient quantity of the plant is taken death occurs very rapidly, and thus it
is very difficult to treat such animals that have partaken of the plant. However, our stockmen
more or less recognize the deathly nature of the plant and are endeavouring to keep their animals
off such areas as much as possible. This can be accomplished better where animals are
under fence, such as in the Fraser Valley, Vancouver Island, etc., but it is somewhat more
difficult in our pioneer districts, where stagnant lakes with marshy borders are prevalent.
Owing to the excessive dry season in our range country considerable losses have occurred
by the plant known as Astragalus campestris. This is not entirely fatal, although a number of
animals have died from eating excessive quantities of the plant, but it is the economic loss that
affects the stockmen the most. After a period of grazing or eating of this plant the animals
become emaciated, have a wobbly gait, and it takes such animals some months before they can
fully recover, and, in fact, in several cases where life is prolonged they are often of little use,
either as meat or breeding animals.
It is a plant that remains fairly green during the dry period and therefore is probably
somewhat more attractive to animals during such an exceptionally dry year as we have just had,
and for this reason it is probably more prevalent during this year than has been reported for
some years previous. The plant is found between an altitude of 2,000 to 4,000 feet, and as such
altitudes comprise most of our range area, it is a very difficult matter to control animals grazing
over such areas.
The loss from lupines and larkspur is practically nil, although one or two cases of lupine-
poisoning have been reported on, but the loss has not been severe in any one case.
Your A'eterinary staff have been busy during the past year in the testing for tuberculosis
throughout the Province outside of the Fraser Valley T.B. Restricted Area. The majority of
the cities and towns throughout the Province demand a certificate of T.B. test and a certificate
certifying grade of the dairy premises before they will issue a licence to a vendor to dispose of
his milk produced within the city of town. Such being the case, the time of your Inspectors, as
already stated, has been taken up quite largely with this work.
To date, 1,179 herds consisting of 10,114 head of cattle have been tested and 214 reactors
found and disposed of. Before compensation is paid the owner has to cleanse and disinfect the
stables where such animals have been held.
The intradermal test is used almost exclusively, although on certain herds the ophthalmic
and subcutaneous tests have been used to check up on the intradermal. I 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
During the latter part of 192-8 the Dominion Inspectors commenced the third test of the
Fraser Valley T.B. Restricted Area. From January 1st until March, 1929, the Dominion Government continued this work, completing the testing some time in March, although certain infected
herds were retested a second, third, and fourth time by the regular staff of Dominion Inspectors,
and this entailed more or less supervision or help from the Provincial staff until along in June
or early July. At the completion of this test 46,480 animals were subjected to the tuberculin
test in the Fraser A7alley T.B. Restricted Area; 351 animals reacted to the test, making the
percentage of reactors 0.76 per cent.
Beginning November 1st of this year the Dominion staff commenced the fourth test of this
area. At this time about one-half of the area has been covered. The Dominion Government
anticipates, however, being able to put on more Inspectors, which will facilitate the completion
of the work probably within the next two months, inspecting and retesting infected herds.
The Provincial staff's work in connection with this area is the locating of the Dominion
Inspectors in the various districts so as to avoid overlapping of work, arranging transportation
for Dominion Inspectors, collecting of all reactors, and arranging for transportation of same
to the killing plants, and the checking-up of all reactors in the abattoirs. Owing to the scattered
nature of the testing at any one time and the small number of reactors, trucks have to be used
in collecting these animals for delivery to the abattoirs. This entails considerable time. The
reactors are removed as promptly as possible after the completion of the test by the Dominion
The total results of the tests so far as carried out in the T.B. Restricted Area are proving
gratifying. As already stated, the final result of test for last year showed only 0.76 per cent, of
reactors were found.    (See Appendices Nos. 27, 28, and 29.)
The inspection of dairies under the new " Milk Act " has been vigorously carried on during
the past year. To date the total number of premises inspected and herds examined is 2,343,
involving the total number of 32,570 cows.
Your Inspectors report that conditions have improved considerably where reinspection has
been carried out on unsanitary premises. New milk-houses have been erected where necessary,
improvement of stabling conditions, cleanliness of cows, sterilization of milk utensils, etc., all
show a great improvement. Your Inspectors are endeavouring to make this work as educational
as possible without entailing too much hardship on our dairymen, but at the same time
insisting firmly on improving conditions under which milk is produced. The Medical Health
Officers of various cities and towns are also working in conjunction with your staff and are thus
able to check up on various dairies to meet the city requirements, and in this way the Medical
Health Officers have been of considerable assistance to your staff in improving conditions.
Appendices Nos. 24-26 give a list of herds T.B. tested in districts and the listing and grading
of premises in their various grades as provided by the " Milk Act." A great majority of those
graded under " C " have been visited a second time and conditions greatly improved. AVe have
found it necessary, however, in two cases to prohibit the parties from selling milk, as they showed
no improvement after the first notice in the sanitary arrangements of their dairies or stables.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Chief Veterinary Inspector.
Geo. Pilmer.
Dr. A. G. Knight, V.S.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the year ended December 31st, 1929.
Statements showing shipments of cattle and hides from the various districts of the Province
are included in Appendix No. 23. DEPARTMENT OF xlGRICULTURE, 1929. I 59
The number of brands recorded and renewed during 1929 was as follows:—
Cattle-brands recorded   167
Horse-brands recorded  127
Renewals, horse and cattle  402
Total  *  696
Number of hide licences issued        64
Number of renewal notices issued      686
Number of letters inward   1,446
•Number of letters outward   1,443
A new edition of the brand-book showing all brands on record at December 31st, 1928, was
published in an improved style, and for the convenience of stockmen a synopsis of the main
provisions of the various Live Stock Acts was printed at the back of the book. The Acts included
were the "Stock-brands Act," " Animals Act," "Grazing Act," "Trespass Act," and "Sheep
Protection Act." In spite of many demands for a year or so prior to publication for an up-to-date
brand-book, the number sold so far does not exceed TOO, although arrangements were made for
the widest possible distribution, so that stockmen could obtain copies without trouble in any
section of the Province. Following out a new policy in a desire to give better service to stockmen, Supplement No. 1 showing brands issued for the first six months of 1929 was published
early in the fall, and another supplement will soon be published giving the brands for the second
six months of the year.
Referring to the statement in last year's report that several important amendments to
strengthen the Act were under discussion with the stockmen, the matter was followed up as
outlined in my memorandum of the 17th instant, but, as already stated therein, it will be
impossible to do anything until the stockmen get together and come to a decision.
Following the tightening-up last year, complaints of inefficient inspection and of hides being
shipped for inspection into other districts than those in which they were collected have practically ceased.
Apparently there are still many unregistered brands being used. Instructions were issued
to Brand Inspectors to check up on these and report them. Inspector Cahilty, at Kamloops, has
been active in this work as usual, and many brands which had been allowed to lapse have been
put in good standing.    There is room for a stricter check-up, however.
Several prosecutions  were  made  during  1929  at  AVilliams  Lake,   South  Okanagan,   and
Cranbrook, and stiff sentences given, which should help in preventing infractions of the " Brand
Act."    As stated previously, reluctance of stockmen to lay information is a hindrance to more
effective work along this line.
Respectfully submitted.
George Pilmer,
Recorder of Brands.
H. S. French, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as District Agriculturist for the East Kootenay
District and for the North A7ancouver Island District. I 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Weather and General Conditions.
AVeather conditions during the early part of January were quite mild and cloudy, but after
the 8th of the month there was a sudden change, the weather becoming very cold; between that
time and February 26th, with the exception of a few days, the thermometer registered between
zero and 38° below. As there was very little snowfall the frost penetrated to a great depth
into the ground, the result being that where the soil was light, and gravelly the water-mains in
some cases had frozen. In a number of places the farmers had to have water hauled from some
distance, both for domestic use and for watering the stock, or have the stock driven' to the water.
Towards the end of February the weather became much milder, the result being that the roads
were very wet and in places quite impassable. The month of March began quite warm, with
the sky clear. Changeable, cloudy weather continued through April and a few degrees of frost
were registered. The month of May was changeable. AVeather conditions for the month of
June was also changeable, the nights being cool and the days quite warm and pleasant. Crop
conditions for the most part of this time were favourable—hay, grain, and root crops making
good progress, with the prospects of bumper crops. However, when July came, some very hot
and dry weather was experienced, the result being that some of the grain-crops, especially on
the higher lands, had to be cut for hay instead of for grain. Even in those places where it was
cut for grain the yields were far below those expected. The hot weather also had a very detrimental effect on the hay and root crops.
Live Stock.
The live-stock industry in the East Kootenay District can still be divided under the following
headings: Beef cattle, dairying, sheep-raising, swine, and poultry. Each one will be dealt with
separately in this report.
Beef Cattle.—Although there is not the large number of beef cattle in the East Kootenay
District as there used to be, there are some very fine bred beef cattle which would do any district
credit. There has been brought into the district a number of sires and several offsprings of
these animals have been sold. It is to be expected that as a result of this more high-grade
animals will be found as time goes on. With the present price of beef keeping up, it should
be an incentive for more farmers, who have ample range at their disposal, to raise more good
beef stock.
Dairying.—Dairying has made big strides in the East Kootenay District the last few years.
Many dairymen are improving their stock by buying good sires—paying more attention to keeping
records of each cow, and in this way they are able to eliminate the poor producers and fill their
places with higher-producing ones. The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company and other
good dairymen have done a great deal to bring the standard of dairy cattle in the district up
to a much higher grade. A great improvement has been noted regarding some of the dairy-
barns and the methods employed. Milk-houses have been built and better lighting of barns has
been accomplished, and practically every dairy-farmer is conforming with the requirements laid
down by the " Milk Act." The result of this is that the milk and. cream produced in the district
is now of a very high quality. Every assistance has been given to the Dairy Inspector as regards
the inspecting of dairies and dairy herds. Dairies and dairy cattle were inspected in the following places this spring: Brisco, Cranbrook, Marysville, Windermere, Invermere, Spillimacheen,
AVardner, Jaffray, Fernie, Natal, and Newgate. It is pleasing to note that the district is now
comparatively free from tuberculosis. Dairymen are very particular now in seeing that they
have their herds inspected regularly and when any reactors were found they were, destroyed at
once. As a result of this there are at the present time several accredited dairy herds in the
East Kootenay District.
Sheep-raising.—The number of sheep kept in the district remains about the same as last
year. There was one new breeder in the district at Jaffray. The district was very unfortunate
in losing its largest sheep-breeder during the early summer (i.e., Mr. Doyle, who died). No doubt
when the estate is settled a number of the sheep will be sold for lamb or mutton and a number
will be kept in the district for breeding purposes.
Being a director of the British Columbia Sheep-breeders' Association, every assistance was
given to the  secretary,  Miss Lauder,  at Kamloops.    Your Agriculturist was  responsible  for assembling all the wool in the East Kootenay District at Cranbrook and for having it shipped
out. A car-load, amounting to about 18,000 lb., was shipped out on June 28th, 1929, to the
British Columbia AVool-breeders' Association in Western Ontario. In order to have all breeders
ship their wool at the proper time a considerable amount of ground in the district had to be
covered. Even then there were a few who did not get their shipments in at the time stated.
These were shipped to Kamloops to be reforwarded with some of their late shipments to Western
Ontario. In addition to the above work, considerable advice was given regarding sheep-breeding
and the proper grading and packing of wool.
Swine.—Swine-breeding has been carried on much the same as last year, though the district
suffered a great loss in the death of Mr. Doyle, who was the largest swine-breeder in the district.
More interest was taken in breeding swine in the Jaffray District this year. The Yorkshire
breed is still the predominating breed throughout the district. The Consolidated Mining and
Smelting Company have made a great improvement in their piggery at their Marysville farm.
Although they imported a number of pigs from Alberta, it is felt that they will be able to raise
all their pigs for their own immediate consumption. They have a number of very good sows
and constantly have a number of young pigs coming along. Bacon ton litters were organized
in the district, there being about six intending to join, but by the time of the fall fair there were
only four litters left.
Poultry.—Poultry-raising has been carried on this year along the same lines as previously,
but the Poultry Association was again organized and appeared to put more life into the situation.
The poultry-show has not been run for a few years, and this also was reorganized, with the
result that in February, although the weather was very cold, a very creditable show was held.
Many fine birds were shown, although if the weather had been milder there would have been
more. A7ery good exhibits were shown from outside places as Fernie and Kimberley, as well
as local birds from the Cranbrook District. A great deal of the success of the poultry fair was
due to the very able assistance of Mr. J. Saunderson, secretary of the poultry-show, and to
Mr. A, B. Smith, president.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
Your Agriculturist has done a certain amount of work among the boys and girls. Two Pig
Clubs were organized in the Cranbrook District and one in the Jaffray District. Two Calf Clubs
were also organized, one in the Cranbrook District and one in the Jaffray District. Most of this
work was partly in conjunction with the Farmers' Institute. In addition to organizing these
clubs, assistance was given to the members in locating stock of the right age, and a great deal
of information regarding type and feed and feeding of the different stock in the clubs. Earmarking of the pigs was done by your Agriculturist. A very successful number of Poultry Clubs
were organized by Mr. G. L. Landon, District Poultry Inspector, of Nelson. The clubs were both
for the heavy and light breeds, and in each case the members gave a good account of themselves.
Potato-bug AVork.
Potato-bug work was carried out along the same lines as the previous year, although
Mr. Marsack is now in charge of it, Mr. Dennys having been transferred to other work this
year. Your Agriculturist assisted Mr. Marsack, and this official deserves great credit for the
very efficient manner in which he carried out this work. A good check was kept on dusting
operations, and although the infestation was quite serious in places, damage was kept down as
well as possible. An amount of potato-bug poison was shipped in this year, and each one desiring
poison could obtain same by receiving a written order from the Agricultural Office and taking
it down to the warehouse where the poison was stored. An additional quantity of poison was
again ordered this year, which, in addition to that which was held over from last year, was
ample to fill the requirements of this season's operations. A number of new potato-dusting
machines were brought in from Nova Scotia, and these were distributed around the districts
where most needed, under the supervision of Mr. Marsack.
Fertilizer Experimental AVork.
A number of fertilizer experiments were carried on this year with both the complete
fertilizer and the Trail superphosphate.    Eight plots of each were carried out in the districts I 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of Mayook, Fort Steele, Cranbrook, AVasa, and Natal. In selecting these places care was taken
to have both low and high lands and also to have varieties of soil. From time to time throughout the season these plots were checked and the various growths of the crops were noted.
Comparisons were made between the fertilized and the unfertilized plots which were in each
case kept as a check. Varieties of the following were used in the experiments: AVheat, oats,
timothy, alfalfa, clover, root-crops, and potatoes.
In addition to the above experimental work, variety tests were carried out on two places
in the Cranbrook District. These consisted of wheat and oats. There were in all some 140
varieties. At various intervals throughout the season these plots were inspected by your Agriculturist, and good growth was noted in most of the varieties, although it was found after leaving
the district that one plot had become so dry that it was more or less of a failure.
Land Settlement Board.
The work in conjunction with the Land Settlement Board this year consisted chiefly in
making inspections and reports of properties and of settlers, especially those who were badly
in arrears or those who were having difficulty in successfully carrying on their farming operations. In some cases where settlers were badly in arrears with their payments, every assistance
was given in the matter of advice regarding ways in which it was felt they would be able to
have a greater chance of success. They were advised strongly to also endeavour to use all
possible means by which they could lessen their debt to the Board, and if such were done and
they showed that they were earnestly endeavouring to do so, there would be a possibility whereby
their entire loans would be consolidated and they would be placed on a new basis, and in this
way they would be given another chance. The occasion has arisen when your Agriculturist has
had the privilege of taking some of the Land Settlement Board officials from Victoria over some
of these places in the East Kootenay District. It has been pointed out clearly that the Board
is doing whatever it can in order to more or less re-establish these settlers on a better basis.
Farmers' Institutes.
Your Agriculturist, again being appointed secretary of the East Kootenay District Institute,
has attended to all correspondence connected with this office and has always kept closely in
touch with all the institutes throughout the district. Announcements of meetings and any
special work which came up from time to time was also attended to. Every assistance had
been given to the Advisory Board member and the president when called upon. He also had
the pleasure of taking Mr. Bonavia, Superintendent of Institutes, around to the institutes in the
district. Meetings were held at Horse Creek, Brisco, Invermere, AVardner, Jaffray, Fernie,
Baynes Lake, Newgate, Grasmere, Marysville, and Fort Steele. At all these places addresses
were given by the Superintendent and your District Agriculturist. The Superintendent very ably
gave the members a clear conception of the policy to be carried out by him in regard to institute-
work. At all these meetings your Agriculturist gave an address along various agricultural lines,
also on Pig and Calf Clubs. At several meetings an address was given by Mr. Hay, president of
the District Institute, and also by the secretary of the Cranbrook, Poultry Association, Mr. J.
Saunderson. It was pleasing to note that at most of these meetings the attendance was.very
good. Exceptionally good meetings were held both in Jaffray and Marysville. At the latter
meeting Mr. Morton, Sheep and Swine Promoter for British Columbia, of Vancouver, and
Mr. G. L. Landon, District Poultry Inspector, of Nelson, were in attendance. Lantern-slides
were shown on different phases of sheep-breeding by Mr. Morton, and also some poultry-slides
on poultry and poultry-house construction by Mr. Landon. Arery instructive addresses were given
by these men, as well as by Mr. Hay and Mr. A. B. Smith, Advisory Board member. The meeting
concluded with a luncheon and every one in attendance pronounced this meeting to be one of
the most successful held in the district.
Other AAJork.
As your Agriculturist was a director of the Stock-breeders' Association and the Sheep-
breeders' Association, various work came up from time to time relative to these two associations.
Much correspondence has been handled through the office, both departmental and work affiliated with the AVool-breeders' Association, Stock-breeders' Association, Farmers' Institute, potato-bug
work, Boys' and Girls' Clubs, and the Cranbrook Agricultural Association.
Having received instructions from Victoria to report at ATctoria as soon after July 10th as
possible, to take over the duties of District Agriculturist in the North Vancouver Island District,
with headquarters at Courtenay, all arrangements were made, business in Cranbrook settled,
and the transfer made. Having arrived in A7ictoria on July 15th and after receiving various
instructions with reference to the new district being taken over, Courtenay was reached on
July 16th.
At Courtenay the first few days were taken up with handling correspondence, becoming
familiar with the near-by district, and getting acquainted with the people in the district. On
July 19th, 1929, a visit was made to the Grantham District with Mr. H. Rive to attend the
stump-pulling demonstration, which had been organized by the Department of Agriculture and
the local Farmers' Institute. A fairly good representative number of members of the institute
were present, including, in addition, the Hon. AVilliam Atkinson, Minister of Agriculture, and
J. B. Munro, Esq., Deputy Minister. Some good work was done, although, in the opinion of your
Agriculturist, a mistake was made by the manufacturer of the stump-pulling machine in pulling
too large a stump to start with. As a result of this and a large charge of powder which was
set off under it when the cable was taut, the machine was sprung. As soon as the machine was
put on to smaller stumps far more headway was made and some very good work accomplished.
During the evening a meeting was held in the Agricultural Hall, at which there was a good
attendance. The Hon. Mr. Atkinson and Mr. Munro were the speakers of the evening, and both
gave very good addresses on the policy to be followed by the Department of Agriculture and
other matters which came up.
AVeather and General Conditions.
On arrival at Courtenay on July 16th weather conditions were found to be for the most part
ideal from an agricultural standpoint. For a few days after arrival there was some rainfall,
but, with the exception of a few days now and then, there has been very little rainfall, many
places in the district being dry. Throughout the district many wells have gone dry—wells in
some cases which have never dried up before. The result of this was that people were compelled
in some cases to carry water from some distance, both for domestic use and for watering the
stock. For the most part of this year, hay and grain crops have been above the average, but
root-crops have been below the average in many places.
Live Stock.
Live stock in the North A'ancouver Island District can be listed under the following headings :
Dairying, poultry, beef-raising, sheep-raising, and swine. Each will be dealt with separately in
this report.
Dairying.—Dairying being the main agricultural industry of the district, a certain portion
of your Agriculturist's time has been taken up with work relating to the dairy industry. Many
problems have come up from time to time, and these have been looked into where considered
advisable and advice given. Most of the dairy cattle on the Island are either Jersey or Jersey
grades. Among these there are some exceptionally high-producing cattle and, like other parts
. of British Columbia, there are also some poor producers. AVhenever cases of this latter kind
arise the farmers are advised to dispose of them, which in most instances they- are doing. It is
gratifying to note that some of the highest butter-fat producing cattle in the Province are to
be found in this district. A very good creamery is operating in Courtenay and most of the
dairymen of the district patronize it. It is regrettable to note that so many dairy cattle have
been leaving the district, sold to dairymen elsewhere or killed for beef. Dairymen here
are for the most part following along strictly improved lines, paying attention to having their
cows tested. At one time there was considerable tuberculosis on the Island, but at the present
time this district can be considered comparatively free from that disease.
Beef-raising.—Beef-raising in this district has not been carried on very much; still there
are at least six breeders in the district at the present time.    The herds consist chiefly of Aberdeen Angus and Shorthorn breeds. It is felt by your Agriculturist that there is ample room for
beef-raising to improve on the Island, as there are hundreds of acres of land which could be
made into excellent range for beef cattle. At the present time it appears to be of very little
value for anything. The one big drawback would be the lack of cultivated ground where a
breeder could raise sufficient hay and feed for his stock during that time of year when pastures
would be of very little use. It is the intention of your Agriculturist to endeavour to bring the
beefmen together and support more beef-raising in order that the market can be supplied with
first-class local meat instead of importing it, or instead of consuming Jersey meat from old cows
or those that lack finish for beef purposes. It is felt that by getting these men together sufficient
good meat could be procured for not only local consumption, but for outside markets. As a result
of encouraging beef-raising on the Island, one man purchased a car-load of beef cattle consisting
of about twenty-five head from the Live Stock Exchange of ATancouver, and is now feeding them
for selling purposes. These cattle were a very uniform lot, and this man should do well with
them as he has ample feed.
Sheep-raising.—Another important industry that is successfully carried out on A7ancouver
Island is sheep-raising, but it is felt, on the part of your Agriculturist, that owing to the large
acreage of unlogged land and the extremely mild climate, and owing to the fact that sheep can
range outside for the greater part of the year, this section of stock-raising could be very well
enlarged upon. There is at the present time a number of sheep-breeders on a small scale, but
there are no breeders with very large flocks. The one difficulty with some of the breeders,
especially on the logged-off land, is that of being able to supply feed for winter use or for that
time when the pastures are of very little use. The majority of the breeders at the present time
sell through the Co-operative Sheep-breeders' Association. Some breeders have experienced
difficulty in having sheep killed and molested by dogs. An occasional black bear or cougar makes
its appearance in the more outlying districts, but these will soon disappear when the country
becomes more settled.
Swine.—Hog-raising is being carried on in various parts of the district and is proving
profitable at fair prices. The Yorkshire is the predominating breed in this district, as well as in
other parts of the Province and Dominion. Some exceptionally fine-type bacon-hogs are raised
in the district. The majority of the hogs this year were sold in the logging camps, to the butcher-
shops, or to a Chinaman. The average price this year for pigs was 13 cents per pound live
weight. At some previous time car-load lots have been shipped out, but this year there were no
car-load lots to be assembled.
Poultry-breeding.—Poultry-breeding is gradually becoming one of the leading industries of
agriculture in the district. Many modern commercial chicken-houses have been built during the
last few years. Hatching and selling day-old chicks has become a good line of the poultry
business, and another branch of this business is the raising of broilers. Egg production is still
the main object, of the poultry industry and with car-load shipments markets in other countries
are becoming available. Turkeys do excellently in the district where plenty of free range is
available.    Ducks are also kept, but on a very small scale.
A very successful Egg Pool was organized in April and as a result poultry-raising and egg
production has been brought into prominence in this district. Exceptionally good prices have
been obtained through the Pool. Total shipments for the season up to December 7th, 1929, was
as follows: First Pool, May 25th, 1929, 30,198 dozen ; second Pool, 38,086 dozen ; third Pool,
23,160 dozen ; fourth Pool, 24,902 dozen: fifth Pool, 26,197 dozen; sixth Pool up to December
7th, 4,802 dozen.
These eggs are all assembled at Courtenay and shipped to Nanaimo, where they are assembled
in car-load lots, which are shipped to A7ancouver or other cities on the Mainland. In studying
the above table of egg shipments for this year, one can see that the local Egg Pool has certainly
been a great success, and shows that egg production promises to be one of the most important
industries in this district.
Field Crops.
Although potato-growing has not been carried on quite as extensively as it has been some
previous years, it is expected that with the very satisfactory prices received this year more
interest will be taken this coming season. Some of the crops throughout the district were below
normal, but there were also some exceptionally good crops where the soil was properly worked LINE-UP OF CALF CLUB CALVES AND OWNERS AT SURREY FALL FAIR,  1929.
and care taken in the selecting of the seed. In many cases fertilizers were applied and in this
way good results were obtained. Because of this the total production would be similar to that
of last year. It is gratifying- to know that this district always has been able to give a good
account of itself at the Coast exhibitions. Your Agriculturist gave every assistance and advice,
when the occasion demanded, with reference to cultivation and harvesting the crops. Assistance
was given to the Potato Inspector in visiting all the potato-growers to advise them as to the
various grades laid down by the "Fruit and Vegetable,Act."
In addition to potatoes, very good crops of grain, chiefly wheat and oats, have been harvested,
as well as such root-crops as turnips and mangels. This district won a first prize this year for
field turnips at the Vancouver AVinter Fair in quite a large class.
It is very gratifying to note that the Lazo AA7omen's Institute also won a prize at this Winter
Fair for the Women's Institute exhibit of potatoes. In all these matters your Agriculturist gave
all assistance possible in the selection of exhibits, and gave instructions regarding the standard
requirements in selection of entries. Such crops as corn, sunflowers, artichokes, and grain are
grown for ensilage purposes.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
The Boys' and Girls' Club work in this district consisted in following up the work which had
been done by your Agriculturist's predecessor in regard to organizing a Pig Club, which consisted
of sixteen members. However, steps were taken to visit each one, and it was found that some
had never been able to get their pigs and some had left the district, which finally left the total
number of members as thirteen when the Dominion official judged the pigs. Each member was
encouraged to show his pigs at the Courtenay Fall Fair; however, owing to the fact that some
found it inconvenient to bring their pigs into the fair, they were told to keep their pigs until
Mr. Garrison judged the pigs in the district, which was some time after the fair was held. Every
assistance was given to the remaining members and instruction was given in regard to the feeding
of the bacon-type pigs. A certain amount of instruction was given on judging bacon-type pigs,
and finally two boys were selected to represent this district in the competition held at the Colony
Farm for representatives of each Pig Club in the Province of British Columbia. The boys gave
a very good account of themselves. A number of the pigs that were brought to the Courtenay
Fair were judged and given special prizes, thus compensating the members for the trouble they
were put to in bringing their pigs to the fair. The type of pigs in the local club were all
exceptionally good bacon type. The only difficulty was that some of the pigs were a little overweight and on account of this were heavily scored when judged for bacon-type pigs.
In addition to the Boys' and Girls' Club, a ton-litter contest was organized in the district.
In this there were around seven litters, but some of the farmers thought that their pigs were
getting too fat and consequently had disposed of most of them. This finally left four litters in
the contest. It may be said that for the most part these pigs were exceptionally good bacon type,
as will be seen when this district came third in the Provincial contest.
Fall Fairs.
Your Agriculturist acted in the capacity of judge for live stock at the following fall fairs
this year: Burquitlam, Cobble Hill, Alberni, Coombs, and Abbotsford; dairy cattle being the
prime feature in most of the fairs. Owing to the fact that the judge appointed for the fall fair
at Courtenay found it impossible to appear, swine, sheep, and goats were judged at this fair by
your Agriculturist by request. Your Agriculturist has also assisted in judging field crops, vegetables, and school-work. AVestminster Exhibition and the A7ancouver Winter Fair were attended.
At the AA7estminster Exhibition assistance was given to the management of some of the dairy
classes in the inter-club competition which took place there.
' Farmers' Institutes.
Every assistance has been given to the president of the Farmers' Institute and to all relating
to the institute which comes up from time to time. A ploughing-match was held under the
auspices of the Farmers' Institute on October 30th, 1929, at which there was a fairly good
turnout. In some cases the men were right in the midst of potato-digging and did not like to
take the time off for attending the match, consequently the entries were not as large as they I 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
should have been. There were six entries in the adult class and two in the juvenile section.
Some very good ploughing was done, but no doubt, if the soil had not been so dry, the ploughing
would have shown up much better.   This is the second match held in this district this year.
Other Work.
Added to the above-mentioned work, many calls by farmers were made to this office for
information relative to problems which confront them from time to time. These have been dealt
with, and where a personal call has been requested to a man's property a trip has been made and
the matter looked into, including such matters as planting trees, draining land, taking levels,
testing soils, and many other matters along agricultural lines.
In addition to this, the following meetings have been attended : Meetings of the Ploughing
Match Committee, Egg Pool Committee, Agricultural Committee, Farmers' Institute Executive,
Co-operative Growers' Committee, and the meeting of officials of the Department of Agriculture
at Vancouver on November 23rd, 1929.
Respectfully submitted.
H. S. French,
District Agriculturist.
R. G. Sutton, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows: It is probable that the volume of work carried
on in this office this year will not appear to be very great. There are two reasons for this. The
first is that the work only commenced on March 1st, when the office was first opened. The second
is that the writer was unable to carry on any work for a period of six weeks because of serious
Conditions generally were not as favourable as in other years. This was in a measure due
to a cold late spring, followed by a hot dry summer. The autumn for the most part remained
dry and not until late December was there any considerable precipitation, and that has come in
the form of heavy snowfalls followed by showers. Fall ploughing was carried on to some extent,
but this operation was hampered by the unusual dryness of the soil. The prolonged drought has
also made itself apparent in the failure of numerous farm wells. Water-supply in some localities
has accordingly become a serious problem.
Crops generally have been fair to good. The hay-crop, due to the cool backward spring and
hot dry summer, was lighter than usual. Grain-crops did well and were probably up to average.
The fine weather at harvesting-time enabled harvest and threshing to be carried on under favourable conditions. Ensilage-crops yielded well and the fine fall permitted corn-crops to reach a
fair stage of maturity before ensiling. Potato-crops and root-crops have been fair to good, with
a few exceptions.
Live-stock conditions, it is presumed, are much the same as in other years, with a noticeable
tendency to increase the number of sheep kept in farm flocks. This increase is largely seen in
localities where the lighter upland types of soil predominate, and here sheep can be raised to
advantage and with considerable benefit to the soil.
From the time of opening this office until the present there have been a number of calls to
address meetings of Farmers' Institutes and other rural organizations. Topics discussed at these
meetings have usually been stated in the request for the address, and have been confined largely
to questions of soil treatment and fertility problems and to feeding and breeding of dairy stock.
The work of addressing these meetings entailed considerable driving and also a large amount of
study in preparation of the material to be used at the meeting. AVhenever possible the district
where the meeting was to be held was visited previous to the meeting and various farmers
interviewed on the ground. 1ST AND 2ND PRIZE-WINNERS  AT HATZIC CALF
CLUB,  YEAR 1929.
In conjunction with the Agronomy Branch, some work was done in the way of fertilizer
test plots. Two sets of these were carried on, one in the Agassiz District and one at Pemberton
Meadows. In each district six representative farms were selected and soil samples taken for
analysis from each farm. Samples of fertilizers as supplied were also taken for check. During
the growing season all the plots were visited and the progress of the test noted. Since harvesting
of the crop, reports from the operators of the farms have been received and results compiled.
This work will be of particular value in forming a basis for fertilizer recommendations later
on. All information and observations from these plots have been forwarded to the Agronomy
AA7orklng again in conjunction with the Agronomy Branch, a field-crop and cleaned-seed
competition in oats was conducted in the district. This work was handicapped by being late
in starting, but ten entries were obtained and the competition organized. Each of the contestants
was visited and the growing crop scored. Contestants were also encouraged to exhibit the seed
from these fields at the Provincial Seed-show. The competition has not yet reached completion,
as the final results rest on samples of the seed as submitted to the Seed Laboratory at Calgary
for test. This work furnished a good opportunity to observe the extent and nature of weed-
infestation and soil and crop conditions. It is hoped it can be extended and developed for the
coming year, so that each community may be able to organize its own competition. If this is
done it will do more than anything else to encourage the use of best-grade seed and the eradication of weeds. It will also work for improved soil-culture and will encourage the exhibiting of
good seed at the fairs and exhibitions.
During the early part of the season considerable time was given to the organization of
Live Stock Clubs among rural school-children. Live Stock Club work formed the topic for
several addresses given at meetings through the district. A considerable amount of corresponding and canvassing was done, with the result that two Calf Clubs and two Pig Clubs were formed.
The Pig Club at Chilliwack started with sixteen members, but only eight of these materialized into club members. The time spent in canvassing and organizing should have produced
better results. The fact, however, that in that district skim-milk finds a ready market for
processing deters many from raising pigs, and the result is Pig Clubs are not easily formed in
such districts.
The other club, at Elphinstone Bay, had nine members and produced some very fine pigs.
More time should have been spent with this club, but the remoteness of the district and the
press of other work prevented.
Each of these two clubs was sponsored by the local Fair Association, which contributed
one-third of the prize-money. The members of each club were visited during the season, the pigs
inspected and tagged, and problems of feeding and raising discussed with parents and children.
Later in the season the members of the club at Chilliwack were coached in swine-judging in
preparation for the Pig Club field-day held at Essondale in the fall.
A request was received from Murrayville District asking that a Pig Club be formed there.
A certain amount of canvassing and corresponding was done and two meetings were held in an
effort to start the work, but it was found impossible to get the minimum number of entries, so
the project was dropped for this year.
Two Calf Clubs were formed; one was at Hatzic Prairie and one at AA7est Kensington. Both
of these clubs made a good showing and were productive of a great deal of interest and appreciation. The one at West Kensington carried through with a membership of nine and some very
fine calves were raised. They were largely grade Holstein calves and made a fine showing when
judged at the Surrey Fall Fair. Canvassing and correspondence were necessary and two meetings were held before the organization was complete.
The club at Hatzic had a membership of twelve and raised some very good calves. Here
they were largely grade Jersey with a few pure-bred Jerseys. Being a little distant from the
nearest fall fair, the members requested to have their calves judged at a field-day held in their I 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
own district. This was arranged and a judge obtained. The calves were shown and judged on
the school-grounds before a good attendance of parents and children.
Each of these clubs was sponsored by the local Farmers' Institute, which contributed one-
third of the prize-money.
Each member of both clubs was visited during the season, the calves inspected, and advice
given regarding raising and economy of calf-feeding. The feeding records kept by the members
were particularly good, and from a study of them one was able to arrive at the cost per day for
raising calves during a period of from four to eight months. The Kensington Club showed a
range of feeding costs of from 9 to 43 cents per day. In the case of the higher figure the cost
was due to the excessive use of whole milk. In the case of the lower figure the calf was raised
on a ration based on skim-milk and meal, ft is worthy of note that the calf raised on 9 cents
per day was the winner of the club and was a fine growthy specimen of pure-bred Holstein.
The Hatzic Club showed good feeding records, some of which were much more economical
than in the case of the Kensington Club. A brother and sister raised two calves to 6 months of
age on less than 5 cents per day. Their ration consisted almost entirely of skim-milk, bran, and
pasture. Their calves did not stand first, but were, nevertheless, good thrifty specimens of
average dairy type.
These feeding records were in each case- examined, scored, and returned to the contestants
with a written criticism.
Two Pure-bred Calf Clubs were organized in the district, but under the agency of the
particular Breeders' Association. One of these, the Jersey Calf Club of Chilliwack, held a field-
day during the summer. This was attended and a judging and exhibiting demonstration given
before an attendance of some fifteen boys and girls with their parents.
An attempt was made in two or three districts to organize bacon-litter contests. Only one
of these attempts was successful. That was at Chilliwack, where five entries were obtained.
In this case, as with the Pig Clubs, each contestant was visited during the season, the pigs
inspected and tagged, and advice given regarding feeding and management. The pigs in these
entries were judged at the same time as the Pig Clubs, and at judging-time it was found that
two of the five litters had reached maturity a week or ten days before, and rather than hold
them against a falling market the owners had sold them off. As stated before, in districts where
a good market appears for skim-milk the majority of fanners consider this product more valuable
sold than fed. For this reason no great amount of interest is taken in hog-raising and it
continues to be a minor undertaking.
During the summer a request was received from the Ladner Farmers' Institute for assistance
in training a judging team for entry at the Coast exhibition judging contests. Arrangements
were accordingly made and a judging class held twice a week on various stock-farms of the
district. A class of ten boys took advantage of this work and gave excellent promise of results.
The project was, however, seriously interrupted by illness and the work for a time dropped.
In spite of this handicap, one team from this class entered the contest at Vancouver and won
third place, and another team took fourth place at New Westminster in the face of strong
The following fall fairs were attended in capacity of judge: Mission, Matsqui, and Agassiz.
At Mission Fair field crops were judged and at the other two dairy cattle, sheep, and swine.
Two district AA7omen's Institutes held garden shows at Patricia and Fern Ridge. Both of these
were attended, the exhibits judged, and addresses given on appropriate subjects.
For the last few years the Sumas and Matsqui Districts have made wonderful strides in the
production of red and alsike clover seed. Other years the growers have been able to dispose
of their crop without too much difficulty, but owing to heavy production of this seed all over
the continent they are this year experiencing considerable difficulty in finding a market for it. In an effort to assist in the marketing of this crop an attempt was made to organize the growers
into some sort of selling association on more or less of a pool basis. Circular letters were sent
out and a certain amount of canvassing done, and then three meetings held at Abbotsford in
order to bring the organization to a head. At the first meeting the growers requested some
sort of provisional constitution or guiding set of by-laws. This was accordingly prepared and
presented at the second meeting. It was readily accepted, but certain obstacles arose which
prevented the immediate perfection of the organization. The third meeting was not well
attended and the matter has been carried over into the New Year, when it is hoped some definite
results can be obtained.
In the district of Pemberton Meadows the turnip-crop is a very important one, as large
quantities are shipped each year to A7ancouver for table use. This year trouble has appeared
in the form of water-heart and has been the cause of serious loss to the growers, as wholesale
houses have refused consignments because of this trouble. Inquiries have showed that this same
trouble had appeared this year in the Cariboo District and on the Lower Mainland. The matter
is receiving attention at present in an effort to determine the cause of the defect. Letters of
inquiry have been sent out and a questionnaire prepared and forwarded to the growers in those
While on a trip to Pemberton during the summer it was noted that cream shipped from that
district to Vancouver went in ordinary cans. AATiile en route, at stations and on wharves, the
cans were sometimes subjected to direct sunlight or at best to ordinary air temperatures. In
hot weather this exposure could have no other effect than a lowering of the grade on arrival.
Remembering that there were a number of thermos, or double-walled cream-cans lying, unused,
in the creamery at Vanderhoof, it was suggested that the Department sell these thermos cans to
the cream-shippers at Pemberton. This suggestion was acted on and twenty of these cans were
sent to Pemberton and purchased by the cream-shippers. Subsequent advice shows that they
have been receiving the best grade for their cream even during the hottest summer weather.
Some time was spent this fall with growers of high-grade seed in advising and assisting in
cleaning seed exhibits for the Provincial Seed-show, the Toronto Royal Show, and the Chicago
International Seed-show. It is interesting to note that seed-growers from the district took a
number of awards at the Provincial Show at A7ancouver. Also one grower was awarded two
firsts and a championship at Toronto and first and championship at Chicago in field peas.
A7arious meetings not listed before have been attended and the discussions entered into.
Chief among these were the meeting of the Seed Board at Vancouver, the British Columbia Fall
Fairs Association at New Westminster, and the field-crop and vegetable exhibitors at New
This office has frequently been used by farmers of the district requesting outlines of
economic dairy rations and the proper combinations of dairy feeds.' Others have requested
fertilizer formula? for various soils and proper methods of soil-culture. Considerable time and
study has been given to progress of certain soil-culture methods and fertilizer applications on
the peat soils of Pitt Meadows. The proper treatment of soils of this type is a problem of some
magnitude and by close observation and study some points have come to light which are very
valuable as a basis for future recommendations.
A volume of correspondence has been dealt with and this shows a tendency to increase as
the work of the office becomes better known.
In conclusion, it is wished to express very great appreciation of the assistance and
co-operation rendered this office by all branches of the Department, with particular reference
to the assistance and consideration tendered during illness.
Respectfuly submitted.
R. G. Sutton,
District Agriculturist. I 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
G. AV. Challenger, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as District Agriculturist, Kamloops, for the year
ended December 31st, 1929.
The season of i929 in the Southern Interior may be described as a dry "one, particularly
during the late summer and early fall months. The snowfall of the winter of 1928-29 was light,
the spring opened with a very cold and blustery April, and crops did not get well started until
well on into May and June. Rainfall during May and June was light, followed in July by a
hot spell, which was characterized by very hot and dry winds. Due to the late spring, the lack
of soil-moisture, and the drying winds so early in the summer, crop-growth was much below
normal, particularly in the dry-farming areas, and ranges were very bare, the bunch-grass not
having a chance to develop normally. The summer continued very hot and dry and the dry
conditions were carried into the very late fall. A minimum of rainfall and snowfall was
recorded during the months of November and December. The summer and fall, however, were
excellent ones for the proper harvesting of the various farm crops, which were put up in excellent
condition. The open fall and early winter pennitted the late grazing of the ranges in the cattle
and sheep sections.
Grain-crop yields for 1929 were considerably lower than in 1928, particularly in the dry-
farming sections. Due first to the late spring and then the hot and dry summer, the grain-crops
did not show the same growth of straw and development of grain as in 1928. Fall grains, however, came along in many cases quite well, and it would appear, particularly in the dry-farming
sections, that our farmers would be well advised to grow as much fall grain as possible. There
is considerable work being done in connection with wheat varieties in the dry-farming sections
of the Southern Interior by your Department, • and is a matter of considerable importance, due
to the fact that our grain-farmers cannot hardly compete with wheat-producers in other sections
of the AVest in yield, particularly of the red spring varieties. Fall wheat in the Okanagan yielded
Hay-crop yields this year throughout the district were average, but the quality was very
good, due to excellent weather conditions at time of harvesting. Irrigation-water was none too
abundant, but, generally speaking, no severe shortage of water was felt. Considerable alfalfa-
hay has been baled in the Thompson Valley around Kamloops and Ashcroft and shipped out to
Coast points at prices from $2 to .$4 per ton over that of last year.
An alfalfa-mill for the grinding of alfalfa-hay into alfalfa-meal has been established at
Ashcroft, and this plant is using a very large tonnage of the alfalfa-hay produced in that section
and shipping the product to Coast points for dairy-cattle feeding particularly. The hay-crops
in the Nicola Valley were not quite as large as in 1928, which was an abnormal year as far as
total yield was concerned, but the total hay put up is considered well sufficient to carry all cattle
through the winter. Salmon Arm reports considerable shipments of timothy and alfalfa hay
at prices above 1928. The Okanagan hay-crop was not above average, particularly on the
non-irrigated farms of the Armstrong District.
Corn and root crops were average. Potato acreage was much smaller than last year, and
the average yield per acre was considerably lower as well. Sweet corn for cannery purposes
has proved successful in the South Thompson A7alley and a large acreage is being planned
for 1930.
Ranges suffered considerably during the year due to the drought conditions. The backward
spring, followed by the hot dry summer, was not conducive to the development of a thick growth
of bunch-grass on the fall and spring ranges, and the general condition and carrying capacity
of the ranges was much below that of 1928.
The cattle-ranchers of the district, as in the Province and Dominion as a whole, are continuing to experience good prices for beef.   There has also been a considerable attempt on the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 71
part of many of the cattlemen to build up their herds to their former number of head which
they carried previous to the time of decline in prices following the war, towards which end many
have been doing considerable purchasing of " cow-stuff " particularly, to replenish their herds.
The calf-crop during 1929 was very satisfactory and a minimum of trouble from diseases and
poison-weed has been experienced by the cattlemen -throughout the Southern Interior. More
attention is being paid to better methods of breeding, feeding, and management. Nicola A7alley
steers again won all the first prizes at the fat-stock shows at Kamloops and Vancouver during
The majority of the steers produced in the Southern Interior, as in other range parts of the
Province, are marketed as grass-finished beef during a period from June 1st to December 31st.
Only a small number of our rangemen do any winter-finishing for the spring market, due possibly
to the high cost of grain and the good prices received for grass-finished stuff during the summer
and fall. It would appear, however, that those of our cattlemen who are finishing a few steers
during the winter are receiving a considerably better price per pound live weight for their
grain-fed stuff than for ordinary grass cattle, which is more than paying them for additional
expense in feed and care. It is hoped from the standpoint of supplying our markets at the
Coast with good beef over the whole year that more winter-finishing of steers will be carried on
during the next few years in our Province. The farmers along the irrigated valleys and in the
mixed-farming areas might have conditions more adaptable to winter-finishing of steers than our
rangemen. Suffice it to say, however, that, year by year, our market is demanding a better
article, and our cattlemen should and are endeavouring to meet this demand for better beef as
much as possible.
The eleventh annual Provincial Bull-sale and Fat-stock Show held under the auspices of the
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association, assisted by the Provincial and Dominion Departments of Agriculture, was held in the Arena, Kamloops, March 28th and 29th. The entry of
bulls was quickly picked up at good prices. Top price for thirty-two Hereford bulls was $465;
low price, $175; average, $316.90. Top price for forty-one Shorthorns, $540; low, $85 ; average,
$211.90. Top price for twelve Angus, $280; low, $100; average, $193.75. Top price of the sale
was $540, paid by Mr. R.. H. Helmer, Nicola Lake Stock Farms, for " Lancaster Supreme,"
No. 192141, entered by W. W. Sharpe, Stettler, Alberta.
The fat-cattle section had the largest entry of any fat-cattle show held in conjunction with
the Provincial Bull-sale, there being a particularly large entry in the car-lot and group classes.
These were picked up at prices ranging from $8 to $10.10 per 100 lb. by buyers from the leading
packing-houses, and single steers brought prices up to 20 cents a pound live weight, the average
being around 11 to 12 cents.
.The feature of the fat-stock show was the winning of the grand championship by Miss Annie
Turner on her blue-grey steer, which went to Calgary and also won the championship over all
other entries at the Calgary Bull-sale the following week. The Guichon Ranch, Quilchena, won
grand champion car-load on a lot of fifteen Hereford steers. The influence of the bull-sale in
improving the beef cattle of the Province and promoting more winter-finishing of steers is very
Possibly the most important development of the beef-cattle industry during 1929 was the
organization and incorporation of the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers'. Association. The
membership of this association is composed of beef-cattle producers throughout the Province,
the aims and objects of the association being to promote, develop, encourage, and protect the
beef-cattle industry in all its phases, and to co-operate with associations, societies, and organizations having objects in whole or in part similar to those of this association, and with the Federal
and Provincial Governments to secure the enactment of necessary legislation and enforcement
thereof and improvement of transportation and market conditions in connection with the
industry. The British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association has received the unanimous
support of the beef-cattle men of the Province. No active promotion-work other than the organization was carried on during 1929. This association has also been asked to take over the
carrying-on of the annual Provincial Bull-sale and Fat-stock Show held at Kamloops in March,
the bull-sale being primarily a beef-cattle matter.
The British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association has been active during the year along
several lines. The annual meeting was held in ATctoria on January 30th. Mr. Mat. Hassen.
Armstrong, was elected president;  Mr. A. D. Paterson, Ladner, vice-president.    The association I 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
was represented at the Western Canada Live Stock Union meeting in Edmonton on February
20th to 22-nd by Directors McMorran, Bulman, and Smith. The annual bull-sale, as mentioned
above, was held on Wednesday and Thursday, March 28th and 29th. A summer meeting was
held at Vancouver during the exhibition week. A meeting was also held during the Vancouver
AVinter Fair. The work of the directors during the year has been largely of an investigational
nature as to the advisability of the association carrying on under its present constitution, due
to the fact that other separate associations are now promoting various individual phases of the
live-stock industry. In the past the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association has endeavoured to encourage all phases of the live-stock industry, but it is now felt that the work of the
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association is now duplicating that of the separate associations
mentioned above.
The British Columbia Shorthorn Breeders' Association has been doing considerable promotion-work during the year in encouraging the further use of Shorthorn cattle. Towards this end
a field-day was held at Douglas Lake Ranch on June 5th, where members of the Provincial
Association met and discussed various phases of the Shorthorn business and inspected the purebred Shorthorn cattle of the Douglas Lake Cattle Company. This association is supported by
membership dues from pure-bred breeders of the Province and also a grant from the Dominion
Shorthorn Association.    The annual meeting was held in Kamloops at the time of the bull-sale.
The British Columbia Hereford Breeders' Association has not been very active during the
year, due to the small membership. The range beef-cattle men are still importing a large number
of Hereford bulls, both by private treaty and by purchasing at the annual Provincial Bull-sale,
from Alberta and Prairie breeders. It would appear that there is a splendid opening in British
Columbia for two or three real good breeders of pure-bred Hereford cattle to fill the requirements
of our beefmen for Hereford bulls. So many of our rangemen prefer the Hereford breed that
it would appear that we might be justified to encourage a few breeders in our own Province
rather than have this money going to support an industry in another part of AVestern Canada.
Your representative has endeavoured to assist the live-stock industry and the stockmen of
the Province by acting as secretary of the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association, British
Columbia Shorthorn Breeders' Association, British Columbia Hereford Breeders' Association,
and British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association during 1929.
The sheep industry in the district continues to develop and increase and considerable
importations have been made during 1929. The lamb-crop was much lower than in 1928, due
possibly to weather conditions in the spring. Range sheepmen, however, marketed a considerable
number of lambs in August and September at good weights. Some difficulty was experienced in
October and November in marketing lambs, as the Coast markets could not absorb the large
number of range lambs which were ready. This matter had been foreseen by some of the larger
sheepmen, who lambed a considerable number of their ewes a month earlier than in 1928, so that
they had quite a few lambs to ship before the big rush came in from the mountains. I think
this matter is one of considerable importance, and our rangemen are realizing that they must
market their lambs over a longer period and possibly cull some of the poorer lambs and finish
them during the winter.
The annual sheep-sale, under the auspices of the British Columbia Sheep-breeders' Association, was held in Kamloops on October 9th, at which time some 1,300 head of Montana ewes were
offered for sale by two American contributors. Due to the fact that the sheep market had
dropped $2 per head a week previous to the sale, the prices received were not large, ranging from
$10 to $11 per head for 3- and 4-year-old ewes. The offering of rams was much superior to
that offered at the sale in 1928 and brought better prices as well. Outstanding, of course, were
the University Rambouillet rams, one of which brought the top price of the sale of $110, going
to J. A7. Drumheller, of Cayley, Alberta. The offering of Hampshire rams was also picked up
quickly by the sheepmen at prices from .$30 to $67.50 for ram lambs. There was a great improvement over the 1928 sale. It is expected that the sheep-sale will also grow and develop as the
bull-sale has done, and that it will have as beneficial an effect in improving the sheep industry
of the Province as the bull-sale has done and is doing for the beef industry.
Many of the sheepmen ran into difficulties this summer in the way of poison-weeds on some
of the summer ranges.    This seems to be one of the greatest drawbacks to the further develop- ARMSTRONG DAIRY  CALF  CLUB  MEMBERS  AND  THEIR ANIMALS AT
ment of the sheep industry along with the limited amount of good spring and fall range in our
Province, and the difficulty of getting back to the summer ranges because of lack of trails.
Undoubtedly we have room for a great many more sheep in British Columbia, but until we have
more early spring and fall range available, and our sheepmen learn how to handle the bands on the
ranges to prevent losses from poison-weeds, and our summer range becomes more accessible,
and our sheepmen become educated to market their lambs over a longer period and to do some
winter-feeding, our sheep industry may not go ahead as fast as we would like it to do.
Undoubtedly a very important matter at the present time in the sheep industry in British
Columbia is the marketing of lambs. Anything we can do to educate our farm-flock sheepmen
to get their lambs off before the bulk of the range lambs are ready, and to suggest to our range
sheepmen that they lamb their ewes so as to spread the marketing of the range lambs over a
longer period in the year than formerly, and also to do some winter-feeding of lambs, would be
in the best interests of the sheep industry.
The British Columbia Sheep-breeders' Association has had a very busy year. The amount
of wool handled by this co-operative association has greatly increased over the figures of 1928.
The association also erected a wool warehouse in the City of Kamloops at considerable expense,
which building is a very modern structure and a great credit to the association. Various matters
in the promotion of the sheep industry were carried out during the year. The office of the
secretary of this association is immediately adjoining the office of your Department here.
Dairy cattle and milk production has increased steadily during the year, particularly in the
Okanagan and Salmon Arm Districts. These are essentially mixed-farming areas and are fast
becoming outstanding in the Province as dairy-cattle districts. The Cow-testing Associations are
doing good work in improving the herds by eliminating the non-producers. Your Dairy Commissioner has undoubtedly reported the formation of the Cow-testing Association at Salmon Arm,
which, I understand, is held in high esteem by the farmers of that district. In this connection
I am fully convinced that the Salmon Arm Valley from the geographical situation along the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and from the fact that the farmers in this section can
produce year after year large crops of roughages in the form of alfalfa-hay, corn silage, as
well as large crops of the various grains, as well as having an abundance of excellent pasture
during the spring and summer, all of which is conducive to heavy milk production, that this
district is one of the greatest potential dairy-cattle sections in the Province. I feel that we can
look, in the near future, to a great development of the Salmon Arm District along dairy-cattle
Towards the improvement of the dairy cattle in the Southern Interior, other than through
the Cow-testing Associations, there has been several pure-bred dairy sires of the various breeds
brought in. Under this scheme the Bull Association at AVhite Lake, in the Notch Hill-Salmon
Arm District, purchased two young bulls during 1929, one an Ayrshire, another a Guernsey.
This is the third pure-bred Ayrshire bull which they have had in that district under your
Department plan. The type and quality of the dairy cattle in this district, as well as their
productive abilities, are outstanding, and it is a noteworthy example of the effect of good sires
on the improvement of dairy herds. The Guernsey bull is used by the members of the Bull
Association who have Guernsey cows. This is their second pure-bred Guernsey, and their cattle
are also showing improvement.
Other dairy sires have been placed at other points in the Southern Interior under this scheme
as well and are giving good results. In this connection I am strongly of the opinion that the
further encouragement and development of the pure-bred sire plan, as now in effect under your
Live Stock Branch, particularly in the use of pure-bred dairy bulls, would result in a great
improvement of the dairy cattle of the Province, particularly in the outlying dairy sections,
and I would strongly recommend that this policy be brought to the attention of the various
institutes throughout the Province in the hope of replacing many of the inferior bulls now in
use by real good sires, selected by your Live Stock Branch, under this plan.
The pure-bred breeders of dairy cattle in the district have clone considerable promotion-
work in their respective breeds; noteworthy among these is the importation of a lot of twenty-
nine 2-year-old Ayrshire heifers from Scotland by Captain J. C. Dunwaters, of Fintry, which
importation was put up for public auction at Armstrong on Octqber 28th and brought an average I 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of $305 per head. The British Columbia Jersey Cattle Club put in a Pure-bred Jersey Calf Club
at Armstrong in the fall, distributing some twenty-five calves to boys and girls in the district
at figures around $125 a head.
Calf Club work under the Live Stock Branch in the district was carried out mainly with
dairy calves, a good showing being made at Armstrong, Salmon Arm, and Kamloops Fairs, with
Boys' and Girls' Dairy Calf Clubs. At Armstrong Fair particularly, keen interest was taken
by the boys and girls in their Calf Club work and a good line-up of fifteen grade calves was on
display. The calves were all Jerseys with the exception of three. The club was judged by
Mr. Elmo Ashton, Canadian Jersey fieldman, who also gave the boys and girls an instructive
talk on feeding and showing of dairy calves.
Further development of the swine industry has taken place, particularly in the mixed-
farming and dairy-cattle sections. The shipments from the Armstrong District this year showed
a steady increase over previous years and the hogs are improving in quality and type. Many
good boars of the bacon breeds have been imported into this district during the last three to
four years and their effect is very noticeable. In the Salmon Arm and Tappen sections, where
Yorkshire sows were put in a few years ago by the Dominion Live Stock Branch, we also notice
a considerable increase in the number of hogs kept and in quality. With the inauguration of
the bacon-litter competition in the Notch Hill, Salmon Arm, and Tappen Districts in 1929, a
further boost to the swine industry there was thus given, with the result that the farmers there
are paying more attention to type and quality. The bacon-litter competition in the Armstrong
District had thirteen entries, all the litters being of good type and quality. The Kamloops
bacon-litter competition had six entries. The sections of the district which are not dairy-cattle
sections are going ahead slowly in hog production.
Boys' and Girls' Swine Club work in the district has undoubtedly had a considerable effect
on the number and quality of the hogs kept. The Armstrong District again comes to the fore
in Swine Club work, winning first and third in the Provincial inter-club competitions. It is
worthy, of mention at this time also that the C.N.R. Swine Club judging-team from British
Columbia to the Toronto Royal AVinter Fair was again selected from the Armstrong District.
The C.P.R. team was from Salmon Arm. Your Representative inspected and ear-marked all the
entries in the Swine Clubs and bacon-litter competitions at the above points.
There has not been very much development in the horse industry in the Southern Interior
during 1929. The rangemen are breeding a few mares and raising some heavy horses. The
farmers in the Okanagan and Salmon Arm sections have raised a few colts during the year.
It is worthy of mention at this time that two outstanding imported Clydesdale stallions, the
property of Mr. George Jackson, of Salmon Arm, travelled the Okanagan and Salmon Arm
Districts during the year, and many of the farmers took advantage of this opportunity of
breeding a few mares. The Clydesdale stallions of Mr. Jackson were taken to the Coast shows,
where they were awarded grand championships at A7ancouver, A7ictoria, and New AA7estminster.
Some considerable interest is being taken in light horses in the Nicola A7alley, where several
Dominion Government assisted stallions are standing at service. The foals by the stallions
were shown at the Kamloops Fall Fair, September 2nd to 4th, where they were inspected by
an official of the Dominion Horse Division, Ottawa. A'ery few horses, either heavy horses or
light horses, have been marketed during the year from this district.
Boys' and Girls' Club work, as mentioned above, has been carried on in various sections of
the district. Clubs were organized at Kamloops, Salmon Arm, and Armstrong, where the various
projects, such as swine-raising and calf-raising, were carried on during the year, as well as junior
live-stock judging. Judging-teams represented these districts at the A7ancouver, New AVest-
minster, and Colony Farm judging competitions, winning second, fourth, and fifth at Vancouver;
first, second, and fifth at New Westminster; first, second, and third, C.P.R. competition at Colony
Farm;  first, C.N.R. competition at Colony Farm.    Following instructions from your office, your DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 75
Representative here selected a team from the winners at the Provincial live-stock judging competitions and took them to the Pacific International Live Stock Exposition at Portland, Oregon,
October 26th to November 2nd, to compete in the 4-H Club Junior Live-stock Judging Competition. The British Columbia boys competed with forty-seven teams from seven States, and
were placed thirty-fourth in the competition. You have a detailed report of this competition.
I would strongly recommend that the connection thus established with the Pacific International
Live-stock Judging Competition be continued, and that the winning team at the Vancouver or
AA7estminster Exhibitions, provided that the winning team is from a Junior Live Stock Club
sponsored by the Provincial Live Stock Branch and the members fulfil their club projects for
the year, be sent to the Pacific International Live Stock Exposition to compete there at the
1930 competition.    It would be a great boost to the Live Stock Club work in the Province.
In connection with the Junior Club work carried on during 1929, I would like to take this
opportunity of acknowledging the assistance given by the following men, who took a very active
part in the work in their own districts: G. F. Ibbotson, Salmon Arm; Robert Hornby, Armstrong ; and Robert Jamieson, Kamloops. These men spent a lot of time and effort along Junior
Club lines, and their work in this regard is much to be commended. AA'ithout the whole-hearted
support of the above men, and others who also assisted, the carrying-on of the club-work throughout the whole district would have been extremely difficult.
Farmers' Institutes in the district were addressed at various times throughout the year when
called upon, and assistance to the members in solving their agricultural problems by this means
and by personal contact has been given. Your Representative also acted as live-stock judge at
the Salmon Arm, North Okanagan, Kelowna, and the Falkland Fall Fairs.
A considerable amount of grasshopper poison-bait material was distributed in the Nicola
and Kamloops Districts, as well as two shipments to the Cariboo from the Government
distributing-station here. The poison-bait used in the vicinity of Kamloops was mixed and
prepared at your mixing-station here and distributed ready to apply. The shipments of poison
to the Nicola and Cariboo were in the form of quantities of the ingredients of the poison-bait,
the mixing being done by the ranchers who applied for the materials. Closer check on the
poisoning of grasshopper-infested areas and further departmental supervision would appear to
be required in the future. Due to the dry season, grasshopper trouble was more in evidence than
in 1928. The Nicola A7alley Stock-breeders' Association is discussing the possibilities of compulsory grasshopper-control work in the Nicola Valley, which should be a more effective means
of combating the grasshoppers than by individual effort.
The office of your Department in Kamloops is being used by a great number of the farmers
and live-stock men, either through correspondence or by personal calls, for the obtaining of
information of an agricultural nature, with particular reference to the live-stock industry.
Respectfully submitted.
G. AV. Challenger,
District Agriculturist.
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I wish to submit my annual report for 1929.
Continuing the policy of 1928, the Department again put out a quantity of first-class seed to
farmers and Farmers' Institutes; this seed to be used as a multiplying crop to ensure a good
source of cleaned seed in each district. Due to climatic conditions, drought, early frost, etc., the
result of this work was not as encouraging as in 1928, but was still of great benefit to the district. I 7(
The following is a list of seed distributed ; each farmer and Farmers' Institute agreeing to return
an equal amount of cleaned seed after the crop was harvested:—
Name of Farmer.
Marquis wheat....
Marquis wheat....
Marquis wheat....
Marquis wheat....
Marquis wheat....
Garnet wheat	
Fall wheat	
Daubney oats	
Victory oats	
Alaska oats	
Alaska oats	
Victory oats	
Victory oats	
Abundance oats...
Victory oats	
Arictory oats	
Victory oats	
Victory oats	
Victory oats	
Hannchen barley
O.A.C. 21 barley.,
O.A.C. 21 barley..
O.A.C. 21 barley..
O.A.C. 21 barley.
O.A.C. 21 barley..
P. Blue peas	
P. Blue peas	
P. Blue peas	
P. Blue peas	
Sterling peas	
Sterling peas	
Sterling peas	
Sterling peas..	
Sterling peas	
Grimms alfalfa....
Grimms alfalfa....
Grimms alfalfa....
Grimms alfalfa....
Red clover	
,T. Morland, Smithers.
J. Owens, Evelyn.
A. MacMillan, Evelyn.
Wm. Billiter, Smithers.
Letchford Bros., Telkwa.
Farmers' Institute, Francois Lake.
E. S. Peet, Wistaria.
J. Price, Barrett Lake.
J. Price, Barrett Lake.
G. Shepherd, Quick.
Farmers' Institute, Colleymount.
Letchford Bros., Telkwa.
Letchford Bros., Telkwa.
J. Morland, Smithers.
J. Morland, Smithers.
Farmers' Institute, Houston.
B. Janack, Topley.
O. Ekman, Telkwa.
C. Buber, Barrett Lake.
G. AVright, Quick.
Letchford Bros., Telkwa.
J. E. Walker, Francois Lake.
J. Henkel, Francois Lake.
Ed. Mohr, Wistaria.
P. Kerr, Wistaria.
T. Hyslop, Telkwa.
AV. C. Little, Woodcock.
Farmers' Institute, Houston.
C. Hunter, Colleymount.
J. Price, Barrett Lake.
C. D. Sieh, Smithers.
G. Oulton, Smithers.
C. Hunter,  Colleymount.
Farmers' Institute, Wistaria.
J. Roberts, Francois Lake.
A. McMillan, Evelyn.
C. Hunter, Colleymount.
A. E. Newens, Smithers.
D. T. Greene, Quick.
In addition to seed distributed, the Provincial Department of Agriculture co-operated with
the Dominion Seed Branch and held two combined standing field-crop and cleaned-seed competitions ; one was held with oats in the Bulkley A7alley and a second was held with wheat in
the Lakes District.    The following farmers competed in these competitions:—
Bulkley Valley (Oats).—Id. H. Brawand, Smithers; Geo. Gilmour, Telkwa; E. Morin,
Smithers; E. Preece, Smithers; J. AV. Bateson, Smithers; C. D. Sieh, Smithers; H. Wearne,
Quick ;   O. Ekman, Telkwa ;  A. Trail, Telkwa.
Lakes District (Wheat).—John Fleming, Grassy Plains; F. J. Smith, Francois Lake; Chas.
Hunter, Colleymount; AV. P. Boden, Streatham; E. J. Mohr, AVistaria; A. Blayney, Grassy
Plains;   E. A. Beach, Francois Lake.
During the months of February and March Junior Poultry Clubs were organized in the
Bulkley Valley, Skeena, and Lakes District.    It was felt that by interesting boys and girls in
club-work the standard of farm poultry could be raised.    A great many Farmers' Institutes were
interested in this organization.
A great deal of live-stock improvement was made this year. Five pure-bred bulls were
brought in by various members of local institutes.    In addition, several dairy and stock men DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 77
brought in pure-bred animals.    Three pure-bred rams were brought in.    The following is a list
of animals supplied this Farmers' Institute:—
Bulls.—Aberdeen Angus, N. Mclnnes, Houston ; Aberdeen Angus, AA7m. N. Clark, Forestdale;
Holstein, A. Kain, Palling;  Red Poll, O. Anderson, Streatham;  Red Poll, Chas. Moore, Wistaria.
Rams.—Oxford Down lamb, C. H. Watson, Topley; Oxford Down lamb, AA7m. Ellison, Ootsa
During the past few years certain institutes have shown lack of interest in institute-work.
However, several of these have reorganized under new officers and are showing more interest.
This applies to the Institutes at Houston, Francois Lake, Burns Lake, and Hazelton.
Great interest in live stock was shown by boys and girls. Two Swine Clubs were organized,
one in Terrace and one in the Bulkley Valley. The Terrace Club was under the direction of the
Terrace Women's Institute and the Bulkley Valley Club was organized by Mr. James Manning,
of Telkwa. Mr. Manning also organized the Bulkley Valley Calf Club. These clubs have had a
marked influence in improving live stock in the district. The stock was shown at the Terrace
and Bulkley Valley Fall Fairs.
List of Members of the Bulkley Valley.—Swine Club.—Frank Ekman, Telkwa; Henry Killer,
Telkwa; Joe Dockrill, Telkwa; June MacMillan, Evelyn; Beryl MacMillan, Evelyn; Stuart
Croteau, Telkwa; Leslie Donaldson, Telkwa ; Robert Barger, Telkwa; Roy Barger, Telkwa;
Eileen Letchford, Telkwa ;  Kathleen Storey, Evelyn;   Mac. Storey, Evelyn.
Calf Club.—Frank Ekman, Telkwa ; Henry Killer, Telkwa; Joe Dockrill, Telkwa ; Stuart
Croteau, Telkwa ; Robert Donaldson, Telkwa ; Leslie Donaldson, Telkwa ; Edith Killer, Telkwa ;
Gordon Chapman, Telkwa ; Melvin Chapman, Telkwa; B. Greene, Quick; E. Greene, Quick;
Roy Barger, Telkwa; Stewart Tompkins, Telkwa ; A7ivian Turner, Quick; Leonard Turner,
Quick;   E. F. Greene, Quick.
Two fall fairs were held this year, one in Smithers and one in Terrace. Both fairs showed
improvement over previous years in the amount of prize-money paid and increased attendance.
In addition, a school-children's fair was held in Burns Lake. The annual flower-show was held
in Hazelton and the annual seed-show for the Skeena, Bulkley A7alley, and Lakes District was
held in Smithers;  all of which were well attended and keen interest shown by competitors.
This district attracted considerable attention due to the efforts of the two junior judging-
teams which competed at the Provincial Exhibition held in A7ancouver and New AVestminster.
The personnel of the teams were as follows :—
To Vancouver.—Frank Ekman, Telkwa ;   Stuart Croteau, Telkwa;  F. Greene, Quick.
To New Westminster.—AVilliam Greene, Quick; Byron Greene, Quick; Robert Donaldson,
Coaches.—James Manning, Telkwa;   S. S. Phillips, Smithers.
The Vancouver team took first prize in A7ancouver for the judging of poultry, bringing back
challenge cup and silver medals. Both teams stood high in all competitions and individual
members brought back substantial cash prizes. The New AA7estminster team took first prize for
the judging of field crops, bringing back challenge cup and gold medals.
It is evident that there is less water in the district than there was several years ago. To
relieve this situation the Provincial Government purchased a well-drilling machine to be used
by farmers to drill wells. Five wells were dug that gave satisfaction before the machine ceased
operations, due to poor management and lack of proper equipment. It is understood that the
Government intends to properly equip this machine and place it in charge of an efficient operator.
This will be a great benefit to the farmers. In fact, a great number would have to give up
farming if not assured of an adequate water-supply.
This office of this Department has put a great number of buyers in touch with producers
throughout the season. .
Land settlement has been slow. There are very few new settlers coming into the district.
In order to sell any land held by the Land Settlement Board it will be necessary to make a
substantial reduction in price. The price was set some years ago on Land Settlement Board
property and fixed by Order in Council. At that time land values were considerably higher than
at present. This matter is now in the hands of Dr. Gaddes, Commissioner for Colonization and
Land Settlement, and it is assured that a revaluation of this property will be made in the
near future.
The Department has three cleaning plants, located at Francois Lake, Barrett Lake, and
Telkwa. These plants were equipped last year with screens for cleaning grain and about 90 tons
of seed-grain was cleaned last spring. This assures local farmers of a good supply of clean
seed, and it should not be necessary in future to send out of the district for seed which costs
considerably more in price.
The plant at Telkwa was originally located in Smithers and was moved to Telkwa because
it was felt that Telkwa was more central and also free storage in the Government barn was
available. The barn has been reconstructed by the Central British Columbia Seed-growers'
Association. The plant is in charge of Mr. George Gilmour, former manager of the association,
and is in a position to give excellent service to farmers at a very reasonable charge.
The district is handicapped owing to the fact that there is no qualified veterinary surgeon
located here. Two outbreaks of infectious abortion occurred in dairy herds in the district.
In order to check this the Department offered the services of Dr. MacDonald, who spent six
weeks in the district advising farmers as to control measures and also conducted the regular
tests for tuberculosis. Dr. MacDonald was followed later by Dr. Sparrow, who spent several
weeks in the district conducting tests for tuberculosis. This service was greatly appreciated
by the local farmers.
Fertilizer demonstrations were carried out on the farms of the following farmers: C. H.
Thomas, Terrace ; F. Frank, Terrace ; C. F. A. Greene, Terrace; Hamlin & "Thompson, Terrace ;
John Love, Hazelton;  Dr. AVrinch, Hazelton;  AV. Billiter, Smithers;  E. C. Barger, Telkwa.
Each farmer used 400 lb. of commercial fertilizer on % acre, using the other y2 acre as a
check-plot. The mixture consisted of 10 per cent, sulphate of ammonia, 10 per cent, nitrate of
soda, 20 per cent, sulphate of potash, and 60 per cent, superphosphate of lime.
The following requirements were strictly followed: (1) All work to be carried on by farmer
free of charge ; (2) all seed to be supplied by the farmers free of charge; (3) all crops to become
the property of the farmer; (4) all fertilizer to be supplied by the Department free of charge;
(5) a certain portion of each y2 acre to be weighed after harvest and records to be kept of yields.
These records showed very satisfactory results. They have been forwarded to the Provincial
Agronomist and will be published in his report.
Throughout the year your Agriculturist attended thirty-three institute meetings, delivering
addresses on agricultural subjects. During the visit of the Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Mr. Wm. J. Bonavia, fourteen meetings were held and moving pictures were shown to
illustrate points in better farming. These pictures were greatly appreciated and proved very
popular at institute meetings.
Throughout the season various farms infested with noxious weeds were inspected and control
measures were recommended. Municipal officials were asked to do all possible to control weeds
in municipalities ; road superintendents and Canadian National officials were also visited and
co-operation requested. Inspections were also made of threshing outfits and all owners of
separators were advised that section 17, subsection (2), of the "Noxious Weeds Act" would be
It is obvious that noxious weeds are increasing in the district and farmers are asking that
a more efficient control be established. In the vicinity of Smithers and along certain parts of
the Canadian National right-of-way perennial sow-thistle is well established, and although these
are cut in many instances they still survive and increase, due to their creeping root system.
A great many complaints are made by Farmers' Institutes regarding this condition.
It is evident that if weeds are to be controlled in this district the present " Noxious AVeeds
Act" will need considerable revision and special inspectors appointed to look after enforcement.
The growing season of 1929 was less satisfactory than usual. Due to light snowfall and no
spring rains there was a great shortage of moisture. Consequently the hay-crop was very light
and grain-crops were held back until June for want of moisture. There was very little warm
weather; consequently grain did not mature and a great deal was caught by early fall frost.
This had to be cut for green feed and there is now a surplus of green feed in the district. Farm
produce is moving slowly and prices are not as good as was expected earlier in the season. This
is due to general depression throughout the country, and particularly on account of tie contracts
being cut down 50 per cent, and the closing of some of the local mines, which in the past have
provided a good market for farm produce.
Respectfully submitted.
S. S. Phillips,
District Agriculturist.
C. C. Kellby, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows:—
From January 15th until the last week of February temperatures ran from 10° to 40° below
zero without relief. Following this extended period of cold weather, the snow left the ground
and there was a tendency towards an early spring. This, however, did not materialize, and it
was well towards the middle of April before work on the land was possible.
Spring began with a general drying of the ground and conditions remained ideal until the
seeding operation was completed. AA7inter-killing in legume and grass pastures was not important.
Spring weather until May 15th remained dry, cool, and frosty, which held natural growth backward to a considerable extent.
On or about the middle of May cool rainy weather commenced, sufficient moisture falling to
meet all requirements for that month. Cool rainy May weather extended into the month of June,
with no relief or rise in temperatures. The showery cool weather started a huge growth in
fodder and pasture crops and provided an ideal stand of grain. Daily storms and showers proved
the rule throughout July, with only a few warm dry days, temperatures averaging around 60°.
All crops showed exceptional growth and moisture was not a limiting factor. Roots, hay, and
grain all showed a very promising condition. At this time growth in general and the stand of
grain was one of the greatest ever experienced in the district. The vegetation of all crops was
rank and green.
During the last week of July the continuous rainy condition, which extended from May 15th,
moderated and was followed by cool mild days. Until August 15th moderately clear weather
was experienced throughout the district. Crops continued in abundant growth, showing the first
signs of maturing after the middle of August.
Hay and clover harvest began about August 1st. After the 15th wet weather caused some
damage. AVith the exception of barley, the grains matured very slowly. Lack of maturity was
a problem between McBride and Endako.
September weather proved more ideal for harvesting operations by a distinct break in former
conditions, which allowed harvest to be carried on without difficulty. The loss from frosted
grain was low, and although some hay was overmature when cut, this loss  was more than .
compensated by the high yields of grain.    The total grain yield was the greatest in the history
of the: district, especially in the neighbourhood of Vanderhoof.
The farmers are well satisfied that 1929 has proved a very favourable year for agriculture
in the Central Interior. The bumper crop, as compared with crops elsewhere, will undoubtedly
increase outside interest in the district.
From April 15th your Agriculturist became directly concerned with the Nechako Creamery
at Vanderhoof, which was commencing operations under the management of Bums & Co.
The operation of this creamery in the past had not been satisfactory and it became an object
to put an institution on a paying basis which had failed financially for a number of years.
Splendid co-operation was received from the company manager and considerable time was spent
during the summer in visiting farmers and gaining their support. In this connection a number
of meetings were addressed and work was done which will bring the main results in 1930.
However, it is satisfactory to report that the plant has been placed on a more sound business
basis than at any time since it was built, and. that there is a surplus on the year's operations
which will be distributed among the cream-shippers. During the year the Department has been
kept in close touch with the various activities connected with the creamery by means of progress
reports on the subject.
Early in the year it became evident that there was an increased interest in the Prince George
District by prospective settlers. Thirty families were settled by this office during the year and
over $15,000 worth of business was conducted in the interests of the Land Settlement Board.
The various items involved land rentals, tie contracts, land-sales, collections on loans, and
collections in regard to instalments on property.
The large holdings of the Land Settlement Board in the Central Interior makes this work
the most time-taking and important item of business conducted at the Prince George office.
Complaints of all kinds and inquiries from the Victoria office were investigated. A report in
connection with the setttlement clause of the Land Settlement Board contract with purchasers
was also prepared. As the work in connection with the activities of the Land Settlement Board
involves a very scattered area, a considerable amount of travelling was done.
AA7honever possible meetings were attended and addresses given on agricultural topics.
Boards of Trade in the various towns throughout the district were also addressed from time to
time, and the need of co-operation with the farm population was duly stressed.
Your Agriculturist was appointed secretary of the District C Farmers' Institute and in that
capacity was able to arrange several successful meetings and start a half-yearly convention.
By this method of approach it was possible to bring the twenty-three institutes of the district
into closer touch and sympathy with one another and a basis has been laid for closer co-operation
in the future. It is felt that the farmers of the Central Interior are beginning to show an
increased interest in institute matters and that better results will be obtained in 1930.
Your Agriculturist acted in the capacity of judge at the Prince George, Fort Fraser, Smithers,
and Prince Rupert Fairs in August and September, and addressed the Rotary Club while at
Prince Rupert on the agriculture of the Central Interior. In November he also acted as judge
of grains and seeds at the Vancouver AVinter Fair.
Attention was given to fair-work in the district during the year in the interests of local
fairs and the forthcoming International Hay and Grain Show.
Throughout the season attention was given to the promotion of good seed in the district.
A clover competition received every attention, and although the lateness of the season did some
harm to the expected results, a foundation is gradually being laid on which the production of
clover-seed in the Central Interior may be increased from year to year. Seed-work of all kinds
is still in its infancy in this district;   progress, however, is evident.    The number of producers RANGE STEERS READY FOR SHIPMENT AS JUNE BEEF,  STUMP LAKE,  NICOLA VALLEY.  DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 81
of good seed is becoming larger each year. In order to intensify interest in good seed production,
a seed-show was held at Prince George in November in conjunction with the semi-annual meeting
of the District C Farmers' Institute.
Office-work and ordinary stenography requires about one-third of the time available. In
addition to being a regular agricultural office representing all branches of the Department, the
Prince George office is also a ifield office for the Land Settlement Board and has an extensive
filing system.
In addition to this, there are a sufficient number of visitors in the form of prospective
settlers, farmers, and others to warrant the office being kept open at all times, but since no
stenographer is provided this is not possible.
In addition to reports and regular routine, a considerable amount of mimeograph-work was
turned out during the year. This was of an educational nature and proved of great assistance
in strengthening various farm organizations that could not be reached often enough in the
ordinary way. Office-work was also done in connection with the first convention of the Department, held at A7ancouver, where your Agriculturist acted as provisional secretary.
An important item of work carried on in the latter part of the season was a research in
connection with and the construction of a new " Noxious Weeds Act" for the Province. In this
regard an exhaustive survey was made of the 'work dealing with noxious weeds in all other
Provinces, which was then consolidated in concentrated form into a suggested Act for British
Work on this Act has been continuous after the close of the active season at Prince George,
and the final improvements and preparations in connection with the same were completed at
Respectfully submitted. C. C. Kelley,
District Agriculturist.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the report of the office of the District Agriculturist, 150-Mile
House, for the year ended December, 1929.
The season of 1929 was over the district as a whole a fairly satisfactory one. Up to the
middle of January the weather was quite mild, with very little snow, which afterwards came,
followed by severe cold lasting till the beginning of February. The promise of spring came
during the middle of March with a thaw which bared the ground of snow. AA'ith light snowfalls
and spring frosts, seeding did not begin till quite late in the spring and during this period rains
occurred from time to time. The months of May and June had every appearance of being two
wet months, but the numerous wet spells could only be termed as drizzles; enough, however,
to disturb haying operations during the latter part of June. The summer months were cool but
dry, no moisture falling till the snow came in December. The fall and early winter were ideal,
but a very cold snap came during the middle of December, causing the stockman heavier feeding
to his whole herd.
The year 1929 was not quite as favourable as that experienced in 1928, due to prices falling
off badly towards the heavy shipping season. The range season being an exceptionally dry one
resulted in much of the beef towards the fall to be marketed in an unfinished state. The
numerous grasshopper outbreaks in the Chilcotin area, with ideal conditions for hatching, went
a long way in making the condition worse. Considerable amount of hay was left from the
winter of 1928-29 and assisted to a large extent the light hay-crops on the meadows. Grazing
on the ranges continued till late fall and in some cases early winter where good winter range
was available. The trend of the beef-cattle industry seems to be that the cattlemen are marketing their stuff at an earlier age, following the marke; demands more closely and thereby getting
quicker and cheaper returns. There seems, however, to be a possibility for some of the beefmen
to market their product with a greater finish, and it is those who have a favourable location for
the growing of grain and alfalfa and are adjacent to the railway who might be well repaid for
marketing cattle in higher condition. A few adopting this method of putting their unfinished
cattle on good alfalfa-hay found it a profitable undertaking, getting at the same time advantage
of a higher market. The type of cattle found over the range is improving from year to year,
due to the heavier importations of late years of " typy " bulls into the district. There is, however, still difficulty to be found with regard to the administration of the " Animals Act " over
the range. There are some 600 bulls being used each year in this area and it is not always easy
for the cattleman to secure bulls of desirable type. In view of the number of bulls required to
cover this district, your Agriculturist strongly recommends that a bull-sale be held in AVilliams
Lake to supply the rancher with his needs.
The sheep industry has not gone ahead this past season with the same stride as in the few
years back, probably due to the lack of range, lower mutton prices, and to the coyote menace.
The latter has given some considerable trouble to the sheepmen located in bushy areas;. One
large band of over 2,000 head was brought into the district this past year. The limiting factor
seems to be the location of suitable and accessible range. For larger bands than 200 in number
most of the country seems to be not very favourable owing to the heavy growth of underbrush,
which prevents herders from giving the needed supervision to the bands. It may be pointed out
that the bands are practically all of a breeding without the banding instinct, a characteristic
which would seem to be of great assistance in this area. The smaller bunches as a side-line are
a very profitable enterprise. Community herding in a few years, should it develop, will go a
long way in giving the sheep industry in this country a boost, since at present most of the flocks
are too small to employ the services of a herder. The lamb-crop obtained was approximately
from 90 to 100 per cent, over the entire district.
The dairying industry, which formerly was very rapidly increasing in some parts of the
territory, has taken a decline, due of course to the higher prices paid for beef. The tendency
for the dairymen is to lean towards the mixed type of farming, with the result that numerous
Red Polled and dual-purpose Shorthorn bulls have been imported under the institute scheme, and
in one case several pure-bred Red Polled females. AVhere so much range is available near by
and the prices of beef good, it seems that bigger profits lie in the shipping of cream along with a
few head of beef from the range.
The hog industry seems to be rapidly increasing in the grain-growing and mixed-farming
areas. One area which is engaged in dry-farming finds it in normal years to be more profitable
to market their grain in the form of pork. Several good bacon-type boars have been imported
and in one or two cases breeding females.
The general trend in the horse business seems to be that horses are produced only for general
purpose on the ranches and farms. There are but very few registered draught stallions in the
district and no horses are being reared to reach the higher markets.
A light stallion for racing purposes was imported last spring from England to head a string
of mares in the production of racing stock. There are at present two light stallions of splendid
blood lines in the district.
In the southern end of the district the grain-crops were light, due to the light rainfall, but
the north showed considerable improvement. AVith the moisture being more plentiful and the
altitude lower, the grain-crops got away to a better start and some very heavy yields were
The hay-crop in general was very light over the whole of the district, due to lack of moisture
again; this of course does not include the alfalfa-crops where irrigated. The latter crop under
those conditions yielded abundantly and in many places three good crops were taken. The
harvesting of the first crop was somewhat disturbed by the continual drizzle in the latter part
of June. The other crops of alfalfa-hay were stacked under ideal conditions. An alfalfa-mill
is being installed at Soda Creek on one of the ranches and will engage in the production of meal
during the coming year. The proposition has every indication of being successful, and, if so,
will be a market for local hay. The natural-hay meadows gave very poor yields, but the stockman in many cases has had hay left over from the previous year. Most of these meadows are
sod-bound and unproductive; your Agriculturist wishes to point out the need of experimenting
with some of the tame grasses on these in order to establish a more productive crop. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 83
The potato acreage was small this year compared with last year and the yield, especially
where not irrigated, was lighter than usual. Most of the varieties, with the exception of the
Netted Gems, were troubled with scab. The certified-seed growers realized a good price for their
product and most of the crop was sold for seed purposes shortly after harvesting. Spring frosts
nipped the crop in many places, but without damage. The acreage for the Cariboo and Lillooet
Districts was estimated roughly at 60 acres.
Roots were late in coming on and gave a lighter yield, but were of excellent quality.
The apple-crop in the Lillooet District was lighter than normally and was not of as good
quality, due to a shortage of water. Apple-diseases were present and ruined some of the crop
for market in the Cariboo. Your Representative recommends that some attention be given to
this district by some of the fruit experts, since this section is able to produce under normal
conditions apples and other fruit of excellent flavour and quality.
The vegetables and melons, where irrigated, were abundant and of good marketable type.
The tomato-crop was good.
Garden and truck crops around the town markets of the Cariboo were good and had a long
period for growth without early fall frosts. Beans were damaged in numerous localities by the
late spring frosts.
Two co-operative car-loads of wool left AVilliams Lake prepared for shipment to the East
via Ashcroft. With co-operative shipments there is considerable saving in freight, along with
less possibilities of making errors in shipment, since all wool is checked before loading and again
checked at Ashcroft. The sheepmen were instructed from this office on the methods employed
by the organization in shipping. In order to receive a better introduction to the sheepmen
and their problems over the district, this office handled all the wool-sacks and strings, along
with some dip. It might be pointed out the shipment showed a large increase over that of the
year before.
The grasshopper-infestation this year did not show any evidence till the beginning of July,
a time when every one was busy with his hay-crop. Unfavourable seasonal conditions prevented
hatching till late. A7ery little damage was done to crops and this was due to their lateness in
coming from the egg-beds. The ranges suffered considerably in the Chilcotin area from the
hoppers, the Lower Chilcotin and Canoe Creek Districts being the worst. A considerable quantity
of grasshopper-extermination supplies was used on the ranges on Big Bar Mountain, China Gulch,
and Empire A7alley. Poison and bran was supplied through this office to the Chilko Ranch, Riske
Creek Range, and Springhouse as well. A small quantity was supplied near Quesnel. Taking
the Chilcotin as a whole, all the open spaces where the most nutritious grasses grow were heavily
infested with hoppers. It was a very unsatisfactory year in which to attempt exterminating
them, since every one was busy haying. Organized fighting is a matter which must receive
attention in the near future, since at present the efforts of one are destroyed by the other
without co-operation. Your Representative attempted with considerable success to organize
several of the larger cattlemen on the Riske Creek Range into a fight against the pest. The
time in which this was done was short, since haying intervened, but the results of combined
efforts showed itself clearly in the number of hoppers destroyed. In the opinion of your District
Agriculturist, a number of these organized groups should be out at the proper time—namely,
when the hoppers are about to leave their hatching-grounds.
Other pests which have been giving difficulty are the cutworm, the onion-maggot, and in
some cases the strawberry-weevil.
In this district there are at present fourteen institutes. Two fresh institutes were organized
this year from this office. An attempt has been made by your District Agriculturist to revive
those which have been inactive, and with some campaigning twelve out of the fourteen institutes
in the Cariboo were represented at the District Convention held at Quesnel in the fall. This
gave an indication to the central body that most of the institutes were supporting it. AVith the
exception of two institutes, all have been visited by your Representative once and some twice I 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
at their meetings, with an address given at each. The purchase of pure-bred sires under
institute scheme was outlined to those newly organized, with the result that purchasing was
greatly stimulated. Through some institutes grasshopper-bait was distributed and spread
co-operatively, and under others a Pig Club and Poultry Club were formed. Your Agriculturist
is secretary of the Cariboo-Lillooet District Institute.
Through a committee of three from the Kersley Institute—Messrs. Yorston, Hogg, and
Barlow—a Pig Club was revived in the institute amongst its junior members. Some difficulty
was had in locating young pigs suitable for this work, but finally all the members were entered
with two pigs each. A very keen interest was taken by all the members, also by the parents in
the work of their children. These pigs were all exhibited in a well-finished condition at the
Quesnel Fair in September. During the course of the summer your Representative held meetings
once a week on an average with the members of the club, giving them instructions in feeding and
in judging pigs. It was some time before the members knew whether they would be eligible for
Toronto as guests of the C.N.R. or not, since the club was considerably over 20 miles from their
nearest road. They were finally made eligible for the Provincial competition, but at that time
one of the members was being taken away for a Provincial junior judging-team, so it was made
impossible to compete in the above competition.
Among'ftie members of the above club junior stock-judging work was carried on and during
the months of July and August judging classes were held twice each week. The boys and girls
showed a keen interest in the work and developed fast. Two junior teams were sent, one to
each fair on the Coast. The highest score in judging live stock for boys under 21 was taken by
one of the boys from here at New AA7estminster. High honours in poultry-judging were captured
by a girl of the team. Other prizes were won in live stock and field crops. Later on in the fall
a Provincial junior judging-team for the International Live Stock Show at Portland was
organized for the first time, and one of the boys from this district was chosen through his good
work at New Westminster as a member of the team. Coaching to this member of the team was
given by your Representative up till the time he left for the South.
Your Agriculturist assisted the organizing of three Poultry Clubs amongst the boys and girls,
two of which were in Quesnel and one in AA7est Quesnel. Those in the town of Quesnel itself
raised some very good birds, while the other club in AVest Quesnel was not quite so successful,
since the hatchability of the eggs was not very high.
Seventy-five school boys and girls were joined up in a home school-garden competition, the
seed for which was supplied through this office. A field prize was to be given by the Quesnel
Fair for the best garden, but your Agriculturist was only able to judge sixty out of the seventy-
five when the fair came, with the result that the prize could not be awarded, but it may be
pointed out that amongst them were some splendid gardens, and a good showing was made by
the boys and girls in the display of vegetables they exhibited from these at the Quesnel Fair.
Two fairs were held in this district, the one at Quesnel being almost strictly agricultural,
the other at AVilliams Lake being a live-stock exhibition. The fair at Quesnel was quite
successful, with a keen interest taken by the farming public and the town. The one at
Williams Lake, still in the stages of development, made slow progress from last year; the
interest taken and the support given was poor. A car-lot competition of beef was attempted for
the first time without any degree of success. The Pacific Great Eastern Railway was generous
in offering free transportation of live stock to and from the fair. Your Representative acted in
an advisory capacity on the Fair Board and attended all meetings held during the year, as well
as doing field-work in support of the fair.
Your Agriculturist acted as judge at the school fair held at Burns Lake and assisted with
the judging at the Quesnel Fair.
A combined district exhibit representative of the Cariboo and Lillooet Districts was taken
to the New Westminster Fair. Considerable time was spent in organizing the two districts into
one for the purpose of this exhibit. The collecting of material was difficult, due to the widely
scattered district. A good showing was made in spite of the many handicaps, and fourth prize
was won by the exhibit in competition with the Lower Mainland. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 85
It was possible this year to have a bacon-litter competition for the first time in the district.
Only four entries were received, but some could not enter, due to having losses in their litter
before entering.    These litters in the competition were all ear-tagged before weaning.
Many losses have been reported to this office through plant-poisoning of sheep and cattle;
the weed causing the trouble is the timber milk-vetch, or, under its right name, known as
Astralagus campestris. Cows with calves on the range are the animals mainly affected, also
along with the bulls in heavy service. Several bands of sheep have been affected. In several
cases your Agriculturist was called upon to investigate the trouble, which was found to be due
to the above weed. Animals thus affected never reach the market in any condition and in many
cases die before ever reaching it.
During the latter part of the winter of 1928-29 a calf sickness developed in the Chimney
Creek District, with several losses. It was impossible to give any cause for this sickness other
than an infectious disease. During the early part of the winter of 1929-30 the same sickness
again occurred, with a few losses. All the larger herds were inoculated with hemorrhagic
septicaemia vaccine without any apparent benefit. In many cases the coccidiosis treatment was
administered to the whole herd without definite results. Blackleg was reported in two districts;
one case, upon sending a specimen to Dr. Bruce, Animal Pathologist, Agassiz, turned out to be
not blackleg, but some other cause. In the other case reported this came in late and your
Agriculturist was not able to investigate it. Several diseased flocks of poultry were examined
and found to be infected with avian tuberculosis. The flocks were destroyed and the premises
cleaned in each case. Tuberculosis in fowl is common in this district owing to the confined
condition during the long cold spells.
Many cases have arisen where your Representative was called upon to give assistance in
sickness amongst live stock in the district. A demonstration was given on the bloodless-castration
method on calves.
Six demonstration plots using a fertilizer mixture 3-10-10 were conducted with certified
seed-potatoes for the Field Crop Branch under direct supervision from this office. The season
was an exceptionally dry one, with the result that the phosphorus and potash did not become
available. A difference in favour of the fertilized plots was noticed in the vines, but the tubers
did not show any benefit either in weight or in uniformity. Your Agriculturist recommends that
the potash and phosphorus fertilizer be applied in the fall in order that they become more soluble
from the winter moisture for the growing crop in the early summer.
Seed-grain tests were supervised for the Department of Agronomy of the University of
British Columbia.
No inquiries have come in from land-seekers during the past season. The Land Settlement
Board has a considerable amount of property for sale in this district, but it was impossible to
dispose of any of it this year.
There is a great variability in soils of this district; no two areas are alike in soil reaction
or texture. AA7here most work can be done is on the hay meadows which are sod-bound and
poorly drained. Numerous tests were taken in the Chilcotin area on the meadows there, endeavouring to puzzle out the varieties of grasses most suited to the soil conditions found.
A number of unofficial experiments were conducted from this office with chemicals on weeds.
The material used was sodium chlorate on couch-grass. In every case the stand of couch-grass
was killed and did not produce any renewed growth ; whether the material killed the weed
outright it is hard to say at present, but the next year should expose its usefulness as a weedkiller for this weed. The grass was experimented upon when beginning to form seed, cut, and
the chemical applied at the rate of T lb. to the gallon of water and 100 gallons of the solution
to the acre. The tennis clubs were advised to use this material and these claim to have had
surprisingly good results.
A large amount of seed-grain and some alfalfa-seed was distributed through this office for
the Provincial Agronomist.    The growing crops from these seeds all received supervision and I 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
inspection in some cases during the course of the summer. It was found impossible to stage a
seed fair for the first time in the Cariboo, due to the district not being ready for it. Considerable
pioneer work is required along this line before it can be put on successfully.
The office of the District Agriculturist is receiving the full support of the public in the
district, but is out of reach from many by being located at the 150-Mile House. Owing to the
lack of quarters and any available space in Williams Lake the office had to be moved to the
150-Mile House in April, unfortunately at the busiest time of the year. Through this office much
information by means of correspondence, bulletins, and pamphlets has been given out, as well
as the handling of brand-books and institute matters.
Respectfully submitted.
G. A. Luyat,
, District Agriculturist.
Paul C. Black.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1929 as District-
Agriculturist in the Grand Forks District, as follows:—•
The year 1929 has been one of the driest on record in the Grand Forks District. Little or no
rain fell during the autumn of 1928 and there was a very light snowfall last winter. By the
first week in March the snow had all gone. In March, April, and May the weather was generally
cool and cloudy, with only three light showers during these months. June opened with a fairly
heavy shower on the 1st, followed by a few light showers later on in the month. Only one shower
occurred during July, on the 22nd, and this was followed by continuous warm dry weather up
to the night of September 6th, when we had our first light frost. From then on until the end
of October the weather was fine and generaly warm, with only two light showers of rain on
October 16th and 29th. The first really hard frost occurred on the night of October 30th. The
month of November was extremely dry, with generally fine days and light frosts at night.
In December the frost had penetrated the ground to no great depth, when the first fall of snow
.occurred on December 8th. Since that time there has fallen a total of about 11 inches.
Fortunately this snowfall has been accompanied by an unusual amount of humidity, and this
should help the moisture situation considerably.
While the Kettle River has been the lowest it has been known to be for years, it has
provided sufficient water for the irrigated area in the Grand Forks Aralley. The farmers who
are fortunate enough to be within this area have had good crops of alfalfa, potatoes, etc., this
past season. Conditions in this irrigated area have been in sharp contrast to those in the
sections of the district which have had to depend upon natural rainfall, or on water by gravity
from the surrounding hills. All the creeks had gone dry very early in the season, with the
result that drought conditions became really serious. As a consequence, most of the grain, and
to a somewhat lesser extent the hay-crops, in the Midway-Rock Creek-Bridesville sections have
been extremely light. The grain-crops in many instances were almost a complete failure.
The farmers in these districts are facing the winter with their live stock in poor condition, and
very slim stocks of feed on hand with which to carry them over till spring. As a matter of fact,
numbers of beef cattle have already had to be sold on the market at a considerable sacrifice.
On the irrigated area of the Grand Forks Aralley the crops, as has already been intimated,
were very good. The yield of alfalfa-hay was exceptionally so, and due to the continued fine
weather three cuttings were secured in first-class condition.
Potatoes, which form one of the major sources of revenue in the valley, were a very good
crop and much better in quality than that of last year. Last season at least 45 per cent, of the
potato-crop was rendered unsaleable by the ravages of wireworms. This year there was comparatively little damage from this pest.    This is doubtless due to the fact that our farmers are DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 87
paying more attention to the rotation of crops and thereby getting away from worm-infested
Ensilage corn, while a fairly good yield, was not as heavy as that of last year. Other hoed
crops were generally satisfactory. There was a greatly increased acreage in onions this season,
and these were a very good crop except in two or three instances where germination was light
owing to poor seed.
Alfalfa-hay yielded three good cuttings. The acreage in alfalfa is gradually being increased
from year to year. There is a ready market for baled alfalfa-hay at the Consolidated Mining &
Smelting Company's dairy-farm at Trail. This market is already being taken advantage of by
some of our farmers, and doubtless will be to a greater extent in the very near future. An
attempt is being made, however, to suggest to the farmers that it would be much more to their
advantage to keep the bulk of the alfalfa-hay crop at home and feed it on the farms.
Grain-crops.—Usually a considerable acreage, more especially in the Bridesville District, is
devoted to fall wheat. This year there was none whatever. Very little fall wheat was sown
last autumn on account of the total absence of moisture in the soil, and what little seed there
was sown failed to germinate. Consequently there was an increased acreage seeded to spring
wheat, oats, etc. The yield from this spring grain was, as has been stated previously in this
report, a very light one. In many cases in the Rock Creek-Bridesville District the grain-crop
was a complete failure, with a few notable exceptions. In the Grand Forks Valley the crops
of spring wheat, oats, and barley were fairly good, and the yield of grain would have been very
much better if it had not been for the hot dry weather which prevailed at the time the heads
were in the dough stage, thus preventing proper filling.
The apple-crop was approximately 70 per cent, of last year's yield. Pears and prunes were
light; the latter especially so. The same is true of the cherry-crop. This is not a cherry-
growing district, however, and very few are grown.
The codling-moth situation in the valley is becoming more and more widespread, and unless
prompt and thorough measures are taken to check this pest it will soon become serious. Almost
no scab was in evidence this season. Aphis were unusually prevalent, but no great harm appears
to have been done.   A7ery little trouble was experienced with other insect pests or fungus-diseases.
Fruit-growing, formerly the principal industry in the Grand Forks Valley, has lately fallen
upon rather evil days. Likewise, the somewhat extensive orchard area in the Midway-Kettle
A7alley section, planted in 1907-08, has practically ceased to exist. The planting of these orchards
was in the first place a decidedly ill-advised project. This was chiefly for the reason that only
a very inadequate irrigation system (which was very cheaply constructed) had been provided
to supply water to the trees. Another vital drawback to successful orcharding in these districts
was the fact that the area planted is a veritable frost-pocket, killing frosts during the blossoming
period being experienced for three years out of five on an average.
AVhile late spring frosts severe enough to injure orchards at blossoming-time are of very
rare occurrence in the Grand Forks Valley, similar conditions have obtained here, but to a lesser
extent. Practically all of the original orchards in the valley were set out before the installation
of the present irrigation system. Some of these, it is true, were provided with individually
owned pumping outfits, but these were never adequately used. Little or no attention was given
to cover-cropping to protect the tree-roots from injury by sub-zero temperatures during winter.
Clean cultivation of the orchards was almost the invariable rule, and no effort was made to
provide plant-food for the trees or to supply humus to the soil. The result has been that, while
the young orchards did very well up to bearing age, the soil failed to supply the greatly increased
demand for plant-food required by the trees after they came into fruit production. Another
contributing factor to the failure of these original orchards was the planting of varieties quite
unsuited to local conditions.
Lack of humus in the soil, to enable it to hold moisture, and absence of any protecting
cover-crop, rendered the trees (already weakened by lack of plant-food) an easy prey to root-
injury by sudden drops in temperature and penetrating winter frosts. Conditions of this kind
occurred some four years ago, with the result that hundreds of trees were either killed outright
or so weakened that they have since died.
At the present time practically all of the producing orchard area is confined to the western
end of the valley.    These orchards are for the most part being intelligently handled as regards feeding, cover-cropping, spraying, etc. Unfortunately, however, the same cannot be said of the
rather extensive orchard acreage owned by the Doukhobors in this western end of the valley.
AVhile the Doukhobor-owned orchards are handicapped (more particularly this past season) by
lack of sufficient irrigation-water, they are also suffering from lack of proper treatment in feeding
and cover-cropping. The Doukhobors also have paid very little attention to adequate spraying
of their orchards. The application of lime-sulphur as a dormant spray appears to be their idea
of all that is required. Now that the codling-moth pest has obtained a foothold in their orchards,
the Doukhobors are waking up to the fact that this dormant lime-sulphur spray is not enough.
Your Representative has for some time past been endeavouring to impress upon the orchard-men
in the community the vital necessity of thorough arsenical spraying to combat the codling-moth
menace. It is gratifying to be able to say that the men in charge of the orchards appear to have
awakened to the seriousness of the situation and have expressed their intention to use arsenical
sprays this coming season.
Small Fruits.—Strawberries, of which only a very small acreage is grown, were a somewhat
light crop. Raspberries were also a light yield. This was due to not only the very dry season,
but also to the result of more or less damage to the canes by winter-injury. Currants and
gooseberries were hardly up to the average in quantity.
Fertilizer Experiments.—Following out the policy which was adopted in 1927 and 1928,
a series of experiments to determine the value of commercial fertilizers on certain crops was
again put into practice this year. During the two previous seasons these tests were conducted
entirely upon potatoes. A7arious combinations of a complete fertilizer were used and the results
were most gratifying.
This year six farmers in the Grand Forks A7alley undertook to conduct tests on as many
acre-plots. Only one of these was in potatoes, the remaining five being in onions. In addition
to these plots, six additional tests were conducted in the Midway and Rock Creek Districts; three
acre-plots being selected in each of these two districts. The formula of the fertilizer used in all
of these twelve tests was the same—namely, 3-10-10. Your Representative regrets to report
that, except in three or four instances, the results obtained from these fertilizer tests were this
year very disappointing. AVhere irrigation was practised there was a marked increase in crop
yield on the fertilized plots, as against those where no fertilizer was used.
All of the plots in the Midway and Rock Creek Districts were planted to potatoes, and all,
with two exceptions, had no irrigation whatever. The results on these plots (with the two
exceptions noted) were consequently very negative. This of course could hardly have been
otherwise, since moisture is absolutely necessary in order to get any benefit from an application
of commercial fertilizers. The two exceptions mentioned, in the plots in the Midway District,
although receiving an extremely small amount of irrigation, showed substantial increases in
crop results from the use of the fertilizer applied. A detailed report of these fertilizer tests
is being submitted separately to the Soil and Crop Branch of the Department of Agriculture.
Triple Superphosphate Test.—A small quantity (100 lb.) of triple-strength superphosphate
was received from the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Company at Trail for experimental
purposes. This was used on a 1-acre test-plot of oats, but owing to the extremely dry season,
and the oats being without irrigation, the results were hardly noticeable. It is hoped that we
may be permitted to make further tests, under more favourable conditions next year, not only
with this fertilizer manufactured at Trail, but also with complete fertilizers furnished by the
Department of Agriculture.
Fall Wheat Tests.—As has been the case during the two previous years, several varieties
of fall wheat have again this season been under test through the co-operation of the Agronomy
Department of the University of British Columbia. These tests were conducted at Grand Forks,
Midway, and Bridesville.    The results for this year have not yet been worked out.
Pig Clubs.—Boys' and Girls' Pig Clubs were conducted this past season at Grand Forks,
Midway, and Rock Creek, with a total membership of forty-six boys and girls. These were only
moderately successful in winning their share of prizes. The class of pigs secured for the clubs
was not up to the standard of previous years, and weather conditions were against the contestants, but it is hoped to remedy these handicaps next season. boys' and girls' dairy calf club,    line-up at kamloops fair, 1929.
■'0;-Mh-':    V":-:' :-,-'-:.-"-- ■■
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1st prize, boys' and girls' beef calf club, shown at kamloops fair,
1929, by miss lottie gowans, of bestwick.  DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 89
Calf Clubs.—Two Boys' and Girls' Calf Clubs were formed last summer, one at Midway and
the other at Rock Creek. A number of heifer calves, half of which were pure-bred and half
grade Ayrshires, were secured from the dairy-farm of the Consolidated Mining & Smelting
Company at Trail, through the kindness of the manager, Mr. Wm. Forrest, at a very nominal
price per head. These calves are an excellent lot, out of good producing cows, and the members
of the two clubs are greatly pleased with them. Mr. Forrest has very generously offered to
donate two pure-bred Ayrshire bull calves to the clubs, and his offer has been accepted. This
foundation stock should prove of great value to the districts.
Boys' and Girls' Garden Contest.—A boys' and girls' garden contest was again conducted at
Grand Forks, with twenty contestants. The gardens entered were very good indeed and gave
evidence of keen interest on the part of the youthful gardeners.
As intimated in the report of last year, an Illustration Station in the Grand Forks A7alley is
now in course of preparation, under the direction of Mr. A. E. Richards, Supervisor of Illustration Stations for British Columbia. The station is centrally located, on the farm of Mr. John
Lawrence. It embraces approximately 21 acres and the soil is typical of that of the valley
generally. The land is in the irrigated area of the district, but so far has never been irrigated.
To put the land in shape for illustration purposes considerable preparatory work has been done
this year. Some 1,600 feet of metal fluming and SOO feet of metal underground pipe has been
installed. Considerable levelling has also been done and the land is now in good shape for next
season's operations.
A farmers' field-day under the auspices of the local Farmers' Institute was held on July 10th.
A large number of farmers and their families and also a considerable number of townspeople
attended this field-day. A trip was made through the valley and a number of farms were visited.
Your Representative acted as guide and directed attention to the various features of interest
en route. The day ended with a visit to Sunnyside Farm, owned by the Canadian Bank of
Commerce, where the farm manager, Mr. Ralph, and Mrs. Ralph acted as hosts at an al fresco
lunch, during which a number of speeches were made, by Dr. C. M. Kingston, M.L.A., and others.
A joint picnic was held by the farmers of the Grand Forks Valley and those of the North
Fork District on August 21st. The picnic was held in a beautiful grove on the river-bank on the
farm of Mr. Jesse Fisher, North Fork, and was largely attended by the farmers and their families
from both districts.    A fine " get-together " time was had.
Your Representative made the annual inspection, at digging-time, of the nursery stock at
the Riverside Nurseries. A report of this inspection is being forwarded to the Provincial
Horticulturist at A7ictoria.
The following fall fairs were attended this year, where your Representative acted as judge:
Fernie and Cranbrook (livestock); Armstrong (fruit); Tappen (fruit and vegetables) ; Haney
and Milner (field crops) ; Creston (fruit and vegetables) ; and the AA7inter Fair at Vancouver
(field roots).
Some twenty-odd farmers' meetings were attended during the year, at eleven of which
addresses, chiefly on live-stock topics, were given by your Representative. These meetings
included several at Grand Forks, Midway, and Rock Creek, as well as meetings at Needles,
Edgewood, Nakusp, Burton, and Bridesville.
Several articles on various subjects were contributed during the year to the local and
outside press. I 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
An increasing number of visits from the farmers of the district and officials were recorded
at the office.
The amount of office-work involving correspondence, reports, etc., is constantly increasing.
Respectfully submitted.
Paul C. Black,
District Agriculturist.
H. Rive, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as Dairy Commissioner for the year 1929.
For several seasons past the progress of the dairy industry has been very materially affected
by climatic conditions. Cold backward springs have occurred for three years; extreme heat in
summer for two. One wet fall seriously hampered the successful harvesting of the late cuttings
of alfalfa and grain.    During two early falls drought with scanty pastures has been experienced.
The season just elapsed has shared fully in these irregularities. Through wet and cold
weather early in the year the production of milk suffered with the delayed coming of suitable
pastures, though these apparently wintered well enough. Barn feeding consequently continued
longer than usual. Production at the end of April was below that of last year for the period,
but for the month of May, with the advent of finer weather, a very large flow of milk occurred,
surpassing the totals of the previous May substantially. The months of August and September
generally were very warm. Some rain fell on the Lower Mainland ; none on Vancouver Island.
The Southern Interior of the Province was also very dry. Moderate but very welcome rains had
been general in June, but the Central Interior experienced during spring and summer far more
than usual. Growth, consequently, of things in general was stimulated to a marked extent in
this area.
Throughout British Columbia green crops, silo mixtures, showed fair yields only. Hay in
some parts only gave good crops.    Roots generally were lighter in yield than usual.
Prices for dairy feeds increased with the prices of grains as the year advanced. Hay in
most sections cost rather more than in the year previous.
Prices for dairy products have not differed materially from those of the two past seasons;
the trend, however, being downwards.
During 1929 there have been in operation thirty-one butter-factories, two cheese-factories,
two condenseries, one powdered-milk factory, forty-four ice-cream plants (many of these small),
and several farm-cheese establishments. Little change has occurred in the disposition of these,
the greatest movement or alteration being in connection with town businesses.
On account of the season, as noted, no appreciable increase in total of creamery butter
manufactured is presented for the year. Due, also, to increasing demands of the other branches
of dairy-work, the normal rate of increase is apparently lessening. Stated in other words, the
requirements for condenseries, ice-cream plants, and fluid supplies for human consumption are
growing more rapidly than the dairy industry as a whole. Inasmuch as the industry in general
continues to make progress, the development of these more remunerative channels is to be
regarded as satisfactory. Butter from outside sources may be used with no misgivings if
replacing butter-fat sold through more profitable outlets and providing our development of new
dairy areas steadily proceeds.
At Oliver and at Natal proposals have been made that creameries be established. The Oliver
District is still pioneering in dairying (for the greater part shipping only cream for manufacturing) and would do well to seek improvement in its transportation facilities to the outlets
that exist in Penticton for the present. A small creamery, manufacturing butter only, leads
to-day a very troubled and precarious existence, the costs of manufacture inevitably being high.
A brief report on the situation and on a meeting attended in the district was submitted earlier
in the year. The movement at Natal concerned a group of small fluid-milk distributers, a
consolidation of whose interests might prove economically desirable.
A steady movement of dairy cattle has gone on from Vancouver Island and, to a slight
degree, from other points to the Lower Mainland T.B. Free Area. It is felt that enough cows
have been lost to the Island to affect appreciably the totals of production for the year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 91
Owing to the varied conditions of climate to be met with in the Province the regular work
of the Provincial Dairy Inspectors is subject to adjustment and modification. In the Interior
driving from creamery to creamery can be carried out for seven full months only. On the Lower
Mainland and Vancouver Island such travel is possible most of the year, with an occasional
softening of roads to a degree prohibitive of motor traffic, extending usually for not more than
a few weeks. The creameries in Vancouver, therefore, are subjected to regular calls in winter
as well as in summer; the rest of the Lower Mainland over a period of ten months and those
of the Central and Southern Interior to frequent visits for the seven months' season. Fortunately, also, these periods correspond closely to those of the greatest production in the districts
indicated. Summer dairying principally is carried on in the Interior, with more winter-milking
of cows at the Coast.
To-day, with the progress of the industry, calling on all patrons of all factories cannot be
carried out. The work of rendering all aid and assistance possible to improve dairy conditions
enjoined on these Inspectors under the " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act " must be
carried out mainly at the creameries and factories visited.
To check closely the work done by the licensed cream-graders and by the licensed milk and
cream testers, accordingly, constitutes a large portion of the duties of the Inspectors. Calls on
very neglectful patrons are also made. Factory buildings, equipments, storages, and drainage
systems are scrutinized as to sanitation and general cleanliness.
The creameries on Vancouver and Saltspring Islands with those in the Interior have been
called on for inspectional purposes during 1929 principally by F. C. AVasson. A portion of his
report is here given :—
" From January 1st to March 1st was devoted to the annual cream-graders' licence course in
Vancouver (January 21st to February 9th) and the AA7estern Canada Dairy Convention held in
the Hotel A7ancouver, February 12th to 15th. Both of these involved considerable work preceding
and following the actual dates of session. During the- month of March some time was spent in
the office compiling figures on dairy production. From March 15th to April 30th visits were
made to creameries on A7ancouver and Saltspring Islands, special attention being given to the
grading of cream and the manufacturing of butter. Farmers were met at the creameries and
on their farms, where the production and care of milk and cream was discussed. Some time
was given at A7ictoria training men in the use of the Babcock test and giving examinations for
testers' licences.
" From May 1st to August 7th time was given to calling on creameries and dairies in the
Okanagan, Kootenay and Columbia, Cariboo and Central British Columbia Districts. Particular
attention was given to the grading of cream. Instruction was given in butter and ice-cream
making and the use of the Babcock test. Examinations were given for milk-testers' licences.
From August 7th to 26th assistance was given at Vancouver and Victoria Fairs, preparing butter
for judging, helping the judges, and making out score-cards. August 27th until mid-October
was spent in the Okanagan, Cariboo, Kootenay, and Columbia Districts, visiting creameries and
dairies, checking cream-grading and general methods employed at the various factories. Mid-
October until November 30th was spent visiting creameries on A7ancouver and Saltspring Islands.
In all, 161 calls were made on creameries and 100 calls on dairy-farms."
The factories of the Lower Mainland have during the year been inspected regularly by
F. Overland.    Herewith is presented an extract from his report for the year:—
" Regular calls were made on all creameries on the Lower Mainland. In May one visit was
made to those on Vancouver and Saltspring Islands, and one month was spent with the creameries
of the North Okanagan. The work carried on consisted of general instruction and checking of
grading and testing.
" Some butter-scoring has been done with creameries and samples taken for the B.C.
Creamery-Run periodically.    Assistance has been given wherever possible.
"Farm Dairies.—Calls were made on farm dairies of the Lower Mainland and assistance
was given in planning the building and remodelling of dairies. The main work of farm dairies
has been with those that are bottling and delivering milk. In some cases where producers were
experiencing trouble and with some beginners, visits have been paid and assistance given.
" A number of applicants were examined for milk-testers' licences during the year. I 92
" Much time was taken up at Vancouver and New Westminster Fairs with the dairy exhibits,
and help was also given with the All Canada Butter Competition at the time of the AVestern
Canada Dairy Convenion in Vancouver last February."
It may justly be claimed that the sanitary conditions prevailing at the creameries of the
Province are good. A better appreciation exists to-day than heretofore of the need for absolute
cleanliness (in the bacterial sense) of all equipment coming into contact with milk or cream.
The raw product is therefore also improving with the demands of the maunfacturer.
The practices employed in the grading of cream at creameries in the territory adjacent to
and south of Salmon Arm were the subject of a special investigation by this Branch in the month
of June. A report and a further sub-report, dated June 20th and July 26th respectively, on the
whole matter were submitted.
The use of definite and standardized grades in the purchase of cream as set forth in the
regulations under the " Creameries and Dairies Act " has been common practice since January
1st, 1926. That is to say, by medium of licensed cream-graders to whom the grades are known,
the cream of all patrons of all creameries should be correctly and equitably graded. AA7ithout
disinterested graders it is exceedingly difficult to prevent, on frequent occasions, the allotting of
grades unwarranted to ensure a patron's custom.
The two condenseries of the Province (Borden Co., South Sumas, and Fraser Valley Milk
Producers' Association, Delair)  show for the year a substantial increase in output.
These three products are manufactured on the Lower Mainland, though as yet in no great
quantities.    In comparison with the older brands the quality of the local product is good.
The quantity of cheese manufactured in British Columbia is not increasing. The Ferrara
Factory at Chilliwack, making two Italian varieties, and that of the Fraser A7alley Milk Producers' Association at Sardis, turning out principally a modified Cheddar, represent all our
factory maunfactures at present.    A few thousand pounds only are made on farms.
There is urgent need for definite experimental work that will afford information as to
varieties to make and sell in our own markets.
The multiplicity of brands and kinds of cheese from without that can be purchased in
British Columbia offers proof of a market at our doors, but the standardized ideas in respect
to varieties to make must be modified to suit the competition to be encountered.
British Columbia Production and Imports of Cheese.
•     S7,088
354 424
The system of Cow-testing Associations is gradually being extended; there are now twelve
such with fourteen routes in operation. Under regular test in these, the year through, are some
6,000 cows and in round terms some 430 dairy-farmers are directly interested in the records of
cows obtained by these means. There are now to be found associations all over the Province,
where dairying is considered seriously, excepting only the South Okanagan and the AA7est
Kootenay. The task of keeping the fourteen routes supplied with reliable supervisors is very
difficult indeed, and much interrogation of applicants takes place during the whole year, together
with training of likely ones.    This Department, besides furnishing the testing outfit and all books and stationery required, contributes materially towards the supervisor's salary, the balance
being defrayed by the local association from testing fees paid by members.
During a supervisor's first year, $50 monthly is paid by this Department; in the second year,
$55; and during the third year, $60. (The total amounts so furnished each association are
given in Appendix No. 30.)
It cannot be expected that the institution of new associations can proceed as quickly as has
been the case in the last few years, nor is it possible to devote the time to canvassing for members
that occurred previously. The routine of existing associations requires constant supervision;
the certificate system demands continual checking of applications and a close scrutiny of ear-tag
particulars of heifer calves is also necessary. The aim at present is, therefore, to make safe,
by sound method and efficient arrangement, all existing associations, and to institute new ones
as demand arises through the spread of information from members and others.
In order to afford opportunity to supervisors for holidays a relief-man was taken on at
intervals for some months, in the person of G. G. Grimes, ordinarily in charge of the Cow-testing
Association at Chilliwack.    His work was carried out satisfactorily.
At the end of sixteen years' experience with Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia,
it is felt most strongly that to effect permanent advancement something further must take part
and place in the plans for herd improvement. The work done through these associations being
most praiseworthy and its immediate benefits naturally being dwelt upon constantly to impress
non-members, the fact is generally lost sight of that milk and fat recording is but a means to
an end and not an end in itself.    That end is permanent herd improvement.
It becomes more evident as the lactation records from associations multiply that the
elimination of poor producers remains the main factor in increasing herd averages even after
ten years of such foundation-work. The rate of progress' has then become quite slow and
amounts to no more than a very few pounds of butter-fat per cow per annum. It is true that
this condition is to be expected and that an inevitable slackening will occur at the point in the
experience of every cow-testing organization when poor producers to weed out are less easily
found. It is here that it becomes manifest that very few individuals, not to say associations,
having found their good producers or foundation cows, continue to secure increased herd
averages through good sires. There has not been on the part of members of these associations,
nor is there yet, a realization that co-operative effort to ascertain and preserve for the common
good proven sires must be resorted to for continued and systematic progress in herd results.
The diversity of breeds favoured plays a part in this, hindering neighbourly action and concerted
district effort. For a continuation of benefit and to prevent actual retrogression it is imperative
that means be devised to indicate to the average dairy-farmer where bulls of proven merit can
be secured. A very great measure of help can be afforded by the real breeders of pure-bred
dairy cattle whose interests also are best served by the unearthing and proving of pure-bred
bulls of superior value and influence.
The work of these associations has continued in the charge of G. H. Thornbery. An extract
from his report is herewith presented:—
" Calls have been made on all associations during the year, excepting the Bulkley A7alley, for
the purpose of visiting members and holding conferences with the supervisors. At such times
matters relating to the work were dealt with and, when necessary, suggestions for improvement
were made. A large number of certificates of production have been endorsed with particulars
of subsequent records qualifying for certification, but owing to the extra work entailed in
organizing new associations sufficient time was not available in which to complete this work.
The issuing of certificates by the Department of Agriculture for records which comply with
certain requirements is good advertisement for the work that is being carried on by the Cow-
testing Associations in the interests of dairy-herd improvement. Lists of cows with particulars
of their records are published in the daily papers and monthly magazines from time to time.
In the event of a dairyman wishing to sell some or all his cows he can obtain a very much
higher price for them if they have certificates of production. During the year particulars of
several hundred records qualifying for certification have been received by the Dairy Branch.
The work entailed in checking, recording, and filing applications and preparing certificates and
issuing same, and the preparation of lists for publication, also the annual report of all records
completed during the year, is steadily increasing. I 94
" A number of meetings have been addressed during the year on the subject of herd
" D.O.T. Tags.—In order that a heifer's first calf may be eligible for a D.A.B.C.O.P. tag if
her dam completes a record qualifying for certification, a provisional tag is used bearing the
letters D.O.T. (Dam on Trial). In this way the particulars of parentage are recorded in the
event of an animal qualifying for a D.A.B.C.O.P. tag."
A film in the interests of herd improvement, and so titled, has been prepared for use
throughout the Province. A great deal of travelling was undertaken to secure the necessary
details and much subsequent editing and titling has taken place. The film is of three reels.
The ungrudging co-operation of A. J. Hourston, who operates the camera and prepared the film,
is gratefully acknowledged.
Testers were provided for official work at the Colony Farm, Essondale, and at the Dominion
Experimental Farm at Agassiz.    No increase in this phase of testing-work seems likely.
The course for the year was held January 21st to February 9th at premises on Keefer Street,
A7ancouver, belonging to Almond's, Limited. Fourteen were in attendance, including thirteen
applicants and one licensed grader reviewing. Eleven successfully passed the examinations and
were duly issued cream-graders' licences.
At this course applicants for a licence are brought into contact with innumerable samples
of cream under commercial conditions and a thorough understanding of the existing standards
is insisted upon of successful ones.
Owing to the space used on this occasion being required for milk-plant work, another move
has been necessary. The course for next year will be conducted at the building formerly
occupied by the Arctic Ice Cream Company, corner Gore Avenue and Powell Street, Vancouver.
The dates are January 20th to February 8th.
The usual duties of supervision of the judging of the dairy classes were carried out at the
three principal fairs—Vancouver, Victoria, and New Westminster. At Vancouver and A7ictoria
the judging was done by H. J. Crowe, Dominion Grader, Regina, Sask., and at New AVestminster
by K. G. McKay, Chief Dominion Grader at AVinnipeg, Man.
Suitable accommodation for dairy exhibits is not provided by these exhibitions. At two of
these major fairs the space allotted is most unsuitable as to location.
The number of exhibits is exceedingly good. In the creamery-butter classes the average
of the three fairs was 160 boxes, or forty per class.
Vancouver Winter Fair.—Space was secured and an exhibit prepared and shown by this
Branch on the subject of herd improvement. The work of each of the Cow-testing Associations
to date was summarized in chart form. Graphic illustrations with models emphasized the utter
worthlessness of poor producers. The film prepared by this Branch was run off twice each day
and attracted numbers of people and much favourable comment.
In accordance with instructions, calls were paid on all District Agriculturists of this Department in the early summer. Plans for extension services in reference to dairying were discussed
and arrangements were made for the dissemination of dairy literature where required. This
trip took considerable time on the part of the writer. Many points in the Southern Interior
(excepting only the East Kootenay) and the Central Interior were visited.
It is very much to be doubted that there exist in this Province areas adapted to an unqualified
specialization in dairy cattle; it is also most certain that there are few parts not to be benefited
by the keeping of cows and the application of a mixed husbandry.
Twenty  applicants  were examined.    Sixty-three  licences  were  issued,
testers holding licences during 1929 see Appendix No. 31.)
(For  the  list  of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 95
Fifty-one licences to cream-graders were issued. Two were single licences ; forty-nine were
combined cream-graders' and milk-testers' licences. Three were temporary only, subject to
further examination.    (For the list of cream-graders so licensed see Appendix No. 32.)
To forty-eight persons, firms, companies, or associations buying milk or cream on the basis
of the butter-fat content, licences were issued. (For the list of creameries and dairies so
licensed sec Appendix No. 33.)
Through the kind interest of the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture, the Dairy Commissioner
was enabled to visit Toronto for the fourth annual Dairy Industries Exposition, which was held
in that city at the Royal Coliseum, October 21st to 26th. During that week there were held also
in Toronto the twenty-ninth annual convention of the International Association of Ice-cream
Manufacturers, the twenty-second annual convention of the International Association of Milk
Dealers, and the first annual meeting of the Society of Dairy Engineers. At the end of the week
preceding, the annual meeting of the Canadian National Dairy Council was held.
Several hundred exhibitors from Canada, the United States, and from European countries
took part in the exposition. A very instructive and wonderfully complete display of all possible
types of dairy machinery for every imaginable purpose was to be seen. It was difficult to do
justice to the exhibition and attend all meetings, so the days available were devoted to viewing
the Dairy Industries Exposition and attending the meetings of the Canadian National Dairy
Council and the International Association of Milk Dealers, missing unavoidably most of the
sessions of the Dairy Engineers and the Ice-cream Manufacturers.
The whole constituted a valuable and stimulating experience for any one concerned with
the industry.
At the last session of the Legislature an amendment to the " Stock-brands Act " was passed,
permitting the use by Cow-testing Associations, under the direction of this Branch, of a brand
for proven poor producers.
An amendment to the " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act " has been prepared and
approved by the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture, and will be submitted to the Legislature at
the coming session.
It provides for the establishment, at the discretion of the Minister, of cream-grading areas.
These areas will be supplied by this Department with competent cream-graders who will grade
for one or more creameries. The cost of the service will be defrayed by assessment on a cream
or butter-fat basis of all creameries in the participating area. A more efficient control of
grading-work is to be expected as a result of the coming into force of these provisions.
Meetings were attended and addressed on dairy topics at the following places: Pitt Meadows,
Kelowna, Winfleld, Vernon (2), Natal, Oliver, Notch Hill, Carlin, Salmon Arm (2), Grindrod,
Armstrong, Sooke, and Milner.
The regular convention of the association for 1929 was merged in the AVestern Canada Dairy
Convention, which was held in Vancouver, February 12th to 15th, inclusive, and was highly
No summer meeting was held, but it is hoped to visit the Central Interior in the coming year.
The regular competitions were continued, but no new ones were instituted. The next annual
meeting and convention takes place at New AVestminster, January 14th and 15th, 1930.
Dairy Circular No. 16, "Annual List of Certified C.T.A. Records," and two C.T.A. leaflets
were issued. Dairy Circular No. 1.7, " The Story of the Feed Unit," is in the press and will be
available early in the new year. I 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The volume of inquiries, applications, reports, etc., received in connection with cream-
grading, testing, licensing, and herd-improvement activities has increased materially during
the year.
Respectfully submitted.
Henry Rive,
Dairy Commissioner.
J. R. Terry.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith report for the year 1929.
The abnormally cold weather in February, whilst deplored at the time, proved a blessing in
disguise in many ways later on in the year. Owing to the unseasonable weather mentioned, we
would be safe in saying that 75 per cent, of the laying fowls of the Province were checked in
egg production. This prevented the usual early hatching of chicks, with the result that prices
of eggs were maintained at a fairly high level late in the spring at a time when usually a big
drop takes place. Many breeders hatched much later than usual in an endeavour to make up
for the lack of early-hatched chicks. In the fall, however, instead of the usual surplus of
matured pullets for sale, there was a scarcity, with the resultant high prices.
Due to the formation of a branch of the Canadian Egg Pool in this Province, marketing
conditions for eggs were possibly for the first time put on a regular businesslike basis. Despite
a few mistakes made, which are natural to any big organization newly started, the fact that
several hundred additional producers have joined the Pool since organization is sufficient proof
of its value to producers.
It is pleasing to record the fact that there has been an increase in the proportion of heavyweight fowls kept on the average ranch.
The prices received were in the main satisfactory. Prices would have been much higher
if it had not been for a tremendous influx of fowls just before Christmas from the Prairies.
Particularly was this true in the case of turkeys, our Provincial breeders being hit very severely
through this importation. This was due to the lack of markets in the big Middle West cities of
the United States owing to the Stock Exchange crash; the result being that the Prairie surplus
of live and dressed fowls was sent westwards.
As mentioned in previous reports, it would appear that the breeders of this Province must
expect very serious competition from the Prairie breeders in the event of crop-failures. AA7hen
bumper grain yields are recorded very few of the Prairie farmers wish to bother with fowls.
The demand for pullets, both half-grown and fully matured, was well up to average, but,
owing to the restricted hatching-period it was impossible to supply the demand.    Prices were,
if anything, a little above the average.    Grain prices were well up and it would appear that
producers more or less have to be reconciled to the fact that prices in the future will be regulated
by the grain-producers.
The exports of eggs were well up to average, the total approaching nearly 400 cars. It is
interesting to note that a special shipment from the Co-operative Association to Great Britain
was a means of opening up a possibility of again enabling Canada, and this Province in particular, to get a foothold on the British markets. The reports on the conditions of the eggs were
very satisfactory, and with helpful advertising from the Provincial Markets Branch satisfactory
prices were secured. It would appear that this market can be secured, provided the produce is
of the very best quality.   DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 97
The following is a comparison of prices of eggs (wholesale) from 1905-1929, inclusive:—
Cents. Cents.
1905 24% 1918  50
1906 29% 1919 60%
1907  31 1920 57%
1908 :...., 31% 1921 39%
1909 33% 1922 32%
1910 34% 1923 28
1911 34% 1924 32
1912 41 1925 32
1913 35 1926 30
1914 35 1927 29
1915  32% 192S 29
1916 34 1929 30
1917 41
These figures are not received by the Statistician, from Ottawa, until early spring. !
With the exception of the extremely cold weather during February, the rest of the year was
very favourable. It is noted that in years of drought and plentiful sunshine the mortality
amongst growing stock is greatly reduced. This holds particularly true with regard to turkey-
The past year has been an average one for breeding operations, although during the snap
already referrejl to many hundreds of good breeding fowls were sold owing to the check-up in
laying and the necessity of curtailment on account of high feeding cost. Moreover, this forced
marketing was no doubt due to the advertised change in attitude of the feed merchants, in
refusing to allow extended credit as in the past.
Hatching results were uniformly good, as predicted in the 1928 report, wherein was
mentioned the fact that after a year of abnormal losses the succeeding year would prove
The Provincial Record of Performance Association reported a good year, although, owing in
part to the comparatively quiet times in the United States, the shipments there were not up to
expectations, despite the fact that a very extensive advertising campaign was inaugurated.
Private breeders, particularly those with heavy-weight fowls, report heavy demand for
surplus stock and hatcheries also report good business. During fall the large public hatchery
mentioned in the last report has been reorganized and its plant greatly enlarged. This concern,
together with several big breeders, already report very large orders for breeding stock and eggs
next season.
The Instructor for the Fraser A7alley, Mr. Jas. Allen, with office at Court-house, New West-
minster, in which district is located about 85 per cent, of the poultry population of the Province,
reports a general feeling of optimism present, consequent upon the operations of the Egg Pool.
The losses in this district from fowl paralysis has this year been confined to comparatively
few birds on individual plants. The Instructor reports that many breeders who suffered heavy
losses in 1928 took under advisement the introduction of new blood, with the result that flocks
have been free of paralysis during the past season.
As in the past, much of the Instructor's time is taken up with the problems of beginners,
many of whom have the misfortune of purchasing poor-quality stock from sources which preclude
the operation of an up-to-date poultry plant. The point is continually stressed that, when
commencing, reliable stock which is healthy should be purchased from breeders and paying the
prices commensurate.
The Instructor for the Interior and northern parts of the Province, Mr. H. E. AVaby, located
at Salmon Arm, reports a successful season amongst breeders, there being a continuance of
increase in proportion of heavy-weight fowls kept. AVith a view to encouraging the breeders in the least accessible parts of the Northern Interior,
the Department supplied hatching-eggs from the popular breeds at a-nominal figure. Forty-one
districts secured eggs; the total number of eggs distributed was as follows: 278 settings,
totalling 3,614 eggs. In the past many of the northern breeders have secured stock and eggs,
oftentimes inferior, from Eastern sources or from hucksters or dealers in the Province. Satisfactory hatches were secured and the nucleus of some fine breeding flocks started.
The Instructor reports increase in turkeys raised, but unfortunately, owing to the heavy
importations, breeders were faced with the problem of reducing their breeding flocks and in some
cases going entirely out of this class of stock.
The District Instructor for the Kootenays, Mr. G. L. Landon, who is located at the Courthouse, Nelson, reports a decline in the poultry population in the Kootenays and Boundary
country, due in the main to poor hatching in the early part of the season and the higher price
of grain. During the year many car-loads were imported into the district from our own Coast
sources and from the Prairies. In most of the urban centres there are located numerous mining
properties, and it may be safe in saying that the per capita egg-consumption in such districts is
highest in the Province.
Following up protests by Poultry Associations, Farmers' Institutes, etc., as to the many
infractions of the Federal " Egg Grading Act," the Federal Government has now placed an
Inspector at Nelson to cover all the Interior. It is hoped that marketing conditions will now
greatly improve through this step.
The egg-laying contest organized at Grand Forks last year was unable to continue, much to
regret of Interior breeders. The District Inspector lent very valuable assistance while the
contest proceeded in getting out weekly reports and by making inspections regularly.
Turkeys and water-fowl continue to hold their own in this territory, although turkeys
dropped heavily in price after Thanksgiving.
A survey of feed shipments was made by the District Inspector in connection with the
agitation for lower freight rates. A total of 500 cars of feed was imported in the territory
during the year. Nelson, Grand Forks, Trail, and Nakusp were the principal distributing-points
for this material.
This year has been a banner year for this phase of the Department's work. A grand total
of 105 clubs was organized, being over forty clubs more than last year, which was also a
record year.
For the first time since this work was inaugurated clubs were organized in the Northern
Interior. Taking advantage of the presence of our District Instructor in the locality, at a series
of lectures there, clubs were formed in practically every district visited. Despite the big handicap
experienced by many of the competitors in finding difficulty to get sufficient broody hens when
needed, many hundred chicks were hatched, and several competitors succeeded in winning bronze
medals awarded by the Provincial Poultry Association for outstanding work, in addition to cash
prizes donated by the Department. In some of the clubs the eggs had to be shipped by express,
then by mail per water and land transportation,
The Interior led in number of clubs, closely followed by the Okanagan and Kootenay
Districts. In many of these places the children also exhibited their flocks at the local fall fairs
and district group poultry-shows. The Mission, A7ernon, and Langley Prairie Districts exhibited
the pick of their birds at the Provincial Poultry-show during the Fat-stock Show, A'ancouver,
and succeeded in winning many eash prizes.
At Mission, district team judging competitions were held during the AVinter Poultry-show.
Children were brought in from clubs in adjacent centres and competed for cash prizes. The work
of the contestants was of high merit. Many of the former competitors at Mission and Vernon
are now grown up and are regular exhibitors in the adults' classes, both utility and fancy.
A total of 8,453 eggs was supplied to 738 members. This total equals all the eggs supplied
club members during the first ten years of operation. Nearly one-half of the eggs supplied were
Barred Rocks and the remainder in the following order as to numbers used: Single Combed
Rhode Island Red, AVhite AVyandottes, and White Leghorns. Very fair average hatches were
recorded. A.remarkable feature of the competitions, noticeable right since inauguration, has
been the fact that urban clubs raise by far the best chicks. This may be due to the fact that,
generally speaking, the city children have no other interests, whereas those on farms have other kinds of live stock to attend to as well.    The clubs at Ladysmith, where all the children were
living in town, reared possibly the best all-round flocks in the Province this year.
The prize-winners throughout the Province were again presented with silk badges and
diplomas and in each district the highest scoring girl and boy were each given bronze medals by
the Provincial Poultry Association. In many districts the local Poultry Association donated
prizes in cash and goods to club members exhibiting at local fairs and shows. The thanks of
the Branch are due the many breeders, the school principals and teachers, and the high-school
agricultural experts for their very successful efforts in getting the clubs organized in the different
This association, which was inaugurated in 1910 under Department auspices, and assisted
each year by a grant from the same source, finished the year with the following local associations
affiliated: Cranbrook, Chilliwack, Cowichan, Enderby, Fernie, Grand Forks, Kelowna, Kamloops,
Maple Ridge, Mission, Nanaimo, Penticton, Revelstoke, Salmon Arm, South Vancouver, Strawberry Hill, Summerland, Vancouver, Vernon, A7ictoria, and AA7est Kootenay, a total of twenty-one
associations with a total aggregate membership of over 2,000. The largest association, Penticton,
has over 300 members and operates a general supply-store for its members. Last year its turnover was over $40,000. The majority of the local members are commercial breeders and operate
their ranches exclusively for market rather than for show or fancy points. The Provincial
Association .also had over 200 members from the Province at large.
The local associations held nine local shows, known as " district groups," during the year,
and the Provincial Association held its annual Provincial Show at the same time and place as
the A7ancouver Fat-stock Show. The show itself had over 900 more entries than last year, and
a pleasing feature being the many new faces amongst exhibitors.
With the co-operation of the Federal Department, excellent cash prizes were again awarded
in the dressed-poultry classes. At the close of the show the usual auction of exhibits was held
and all reeords were smashed in the matter of prices paid. The Lieutenant-Governor, Hon.
Randolph Bruce, paid $3 per lb. for a 22-lb. turkey and the best dozen dressed White Rock
cockerels fetched 85 cents per pound. Several other turkeys sold for $1.10 per pound and $6 was
paid for the first-prize dozen Barred Rock eggs.
Poultry-judging competitions were held by the association at the three larger fairs—Vancouver, New AA'estminster, and Victoria—in collaboration with the respective Fair managements.
Boys and girls of 'teen age from all over the Province competed. A feature of the judging at
A7ancouver was the sensational win made by a team from the Northern Interior, trained by
S. S. Phillips, Department District Agriculturist, from Telkwa. These boys won a silver cup,
bronze medals, and cash prizes in addition.
The officials of the association were appointed to various important committees dealing with
the welfare of its members—the Dominion Poultry Council, AVorld's Poultry Congress, the
Farmers' InstitutesAdvisory Board Conference, and the directorate of the local Fair Boards.
" Fowl paralysis," which threatened at one time to menace the industry in the Fraser Valley
districts, did not make its appearance in epidemic form as feared. Many breeders who had
previously suffered were able by more vigorous culling and the introduction of new blood to
escape the threatened visitation. It is the opinion of this Branch, from observation and practical
experiments, that most of these so-called " new " diseases and epidemics can be avoided by the
mating of disease-resistant stock—vigorous, thrifty breeders, which have never been sick at any
time; stock which has not been forced for growth or egg production. Many instances can be
quoted of poorly eared-for, run-down Stock, that has reproduced progeny that has proven very
unsatisfactory when sufficiently vigorous to live to maturity.
In some instances cases of alleged " paralysis " were found to be caused by intestinal worm
trouble; in others, similar symptoms were found among some flocks which had been forced by
feeding too high a proportion of concentrates or widely advertised " laying " spices or condiments.
The practice of confining young chicks suspected of diarrhceal trouble to the range only of
the brooder-house for the first few weeks, and also as a preventive of worm-infestation or
coccidial trouble, has been gradually extended during the past season. In some cases cement
yards have been provided, others have utilized wooden floors, and some have removed colony
brooders to fresh, clean ground. I 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
It should be pointed out that there is still need for greater care in culling the breeding stock;
males must have more than a pedigree of high-producing parents to recommend them. The hens
used must be up to standard weight, matured in age, and known never to have suffered from any
form of disease. The history of many well-known successful breeders of this Province and elsewhere has proven that in every case breeding stock has been the most vigorous and strongest
obtainable, bulwarked by constant and persistent culling, together with reasonable cleanliness in
housing, penning, intelligent feeding, not only for obtaining the maximum number of good
hatching-eggs, but to eliminate excessive mortality, and to provide thrifty progeny that will carry
on with the minimum of trouble.
Many carcasses of diseased fowls were sent to members of the Branch for post-mortem
examination, the majority being light-weight varieties. The heavy proportion of this class of
fowls kept in the Province naturally supplied the most cases for dissection and diagnosis. As in
the past, ovarian trouble furnished the majority of specimens examined. Bronchial trouble,
especially amongst fowls confined to houses during the winter or even entire season, is increasing.
In cases where the fowls are so housed and the birds more or less " crammed " for eggs, heavy
mortality was experienced.    In one case 30 per cent, of the fowls died.
An increase in the crop of this class of fowl has again to be recorded. It is no doubt true
that the abnormally dry season just experienced and the excellent weather conditions prevailing
during hatching and rearing accounted for the increase in a great measure, but it is nevertheless
true that much more care has been bestowed by owners to breeding conditions, stock, and progeny.
Some of this naturally has been due to the fact that prices paid for breeding stock has been
greatly increased during the past few years, with the result that more attention has been given.
The Island districts, particularly Gabriola and adjacent islands, were able to show a great
increase in stock marketed. Most of the fowls raised were of the Mammoth Bronze variety,
being about 95 per cent, of the total.
In the Interior and northern parts and the Fraser A'alley districts the rearing season was
good and increases reported. All of the leading breeders catering to the requirements of those
unable to breed their own stock record a big demand for heavier breeding stock, especially
females. This is a very encouraging sign, and no doubt is due in great measure to the efforts
of the British Columbia Turkey Club, which adopted the slogan, " No breeding hens in the flock
under 14 lb. and no male under 20 lb." This precaution is a wise one. Too many breeders still
market all the biggest of the season's crop and keep over the smallest females for next season's
Several breeders report very encouraging sales outside -the Province, at prices averaging
from $3 to $1 per pound, with many egg sales at $1 per egg. The recording of high prices
received for specimens appears to have almost as much lure as the high prices reached by mining
or oil stocks. At the recent Provincial Show the highest price ever paid for a turkey carcass
($3 per pound) immediately started a big demand for the Branch's bulletin on turkey-raising;
this despite the fact that ordinary prices received were disappointingly low. This condition was
brought about by the fact that the usual channel for marketing the crop from the Prairies was
closed by higher tariff and the slump brought on by the stock-market crash. As a result many
of the 600,000 turkeys raised in Saskatchewan alone were dumped on Coast markets. This
proved a godsend to consumers, but was a calamity to Provincial breeders. Many of them were
lucky enough to market a majority of their stock at Thanksgiving, at which time prices were
relatively high and profitable. In addition, the breeder had his surplus off his hands before the
unfavourable weather came on. This factor often accounts for a big loss in mortality, especially
in the youngest and immature stock.
It would appear that with the increase of settlers on the Prairies there is going to be a big
crop of turkeys produced there annually, and this fact must be taken into consideration by local
breeders. Foreign-born farmers, used to low prices in the old countries, are apparently pleased
and satisfied with the comparatively high prices received here; hence their production totals
this year. Next year it is expected that over a million turkeys will be marketed from Saskatchewan alone. To cope with this menace it behoves local breeders to cull more severely, keep only
as many birds as can be given the very best of care, raise the weight of breeding stock, and hatch
the earliest time possible and also market likewise. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 101
Very little competition can be given ordinarily by the Eastern breeders, who are satisfied if
they get young stock hatched early in May. Here we beat that by weeks and must do so to hold
our market for local producers.
At present it looks as if the Thanksgiving market is the one to cater for, and by disposing
of a majority of the young stock at this time the breeder will be able to give more room and
time to the preparation of the remainder for the Christmas and New Year market.
Turkey-killing demonstrations were given at A7ernon and Colquitz during the Christmas
season by members of the Branch. The meeting at Vernon was the best one ever held for this
class of work. Breeders came from as far as Salmon Arm, over 30 miles, to the meeting, and
the co-operation of the A7ernon Poultry Association was very much appreciated in ensuring
success. The Provincial Turkey Club sponsored the meet, which was held at the ranch of the
president, Mrs. M. S. Middleton. Many of those present assisted in killing and plucking turkeys,
and the ladies were also in the forefront in this particular. A successful meeting, followed by
refreshments, also added to the event. At Colquitz a killing demonstration, at which nearly
forty turkeys were killed and dressed, was given. A goodly crowd turned out and the turkeys
were supplied by the Provincial authorities at AA7ilkinson Road institution.
The British Columbia Turkey Club, with nearly forty members, reported progress, and whilst
the members have not yet embraced the opportunity of adopting the Federal system of flock
approval and record of merit, it has same under advisement.
The market for ducks, particularly the heavy-weight varieties, has been good throughout the
year and breeders report added numbers sold. The cross-breeding of Muscovy and Pekin ducks
still is the most popular for table purposes. The Vancouver market absorbs large quantities of
this class. During the year there was a steady demand for duck-eggs as in the past, and for
this purpose the light-weight varieties, Runners and Khaki Campbells, were utilized. There
appears to be good openings for importers to bring out improved strains from Great Britain and
thus retain the popularity of this valuable variety. The Provincial Duck Association has been
able to carry on and extend its usefulness, through the unselfish efforts of its officials and
members, who realize the importance of this phase of poultry endeavour.
Although prices were disastrously low for turkeys, the same is not true for geese marketed
during the past season. AA7ell-fleshed stock fetched good prices and the totals produced also
showed an increase.
The Toulouse breed still maintains its popularity, although there have been increases in
the white and African varieties kept. Many breeders desiring to experiment by cross-breeding
could not do better than cross an African gander with Toulouse geese. The progeny are quick
maturing, of excellent size, and good eating. Several fairly large geese-breeding ranches are
now in operation, but none are being solely used for this purpose. The present practice of a few
good geese on each farm able to support and care for them is to be commended. AVhere the
owner has the ability, liking, and room for geese-breeding on a large scale there appears to be
profit in the venture. Specializing for high-class Hebrew trade and sale of breeding stock and
feathers are good openings. The late Mr. Corfield once operated a big ranch of this kind at
Cowichan Bay Flats, an ideal site for the venture. Acres of succulent marsh-grass, with streams
for swimming and breeding purposes, made an excellent location. Hundreds of Toulouse were
raised annually, despite the inroads of vermin, such as rats and mink.
The Provincial and local Rabbit Associations report successful shows during the past year,
with increased entries, particularly in the well-known fur-bearing varieties. The export of wool
from breeders appears to have received a set-back in Great Britain, due apparently to the
enormous increase in breeders over there through stimulation of high prices and judicious
advertising. There are several firms now here who appear willing to assist in the formation
of a co-operative spinning and carding establishment. Until this work is properly taken in
hand there will always be a loss experienced by those encouraged to embark in this work by
reports of very high yields of wool, and big profits by disposal of same. There is apparently very
little market here as yet for wool and allied products. It is hoped that the Provincial Association will attempt to solve this matter, which is of importance if the sale of stock for this work
is to continue. I 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The usual breeders' directories were published by the Branch to assist breeders and those
desiring stock. Many good specimens of rabbits were sent to shows of our Southern neighbours,
and in many cases such specimens were bought there by those desirous of improving their stock.
Exports have been good and a better class of stock sent out. This will bespeak better business
in the future and means added reputation to our breeders.
During the year the Soviet Government of Russia, through its Poultry Department, translated copies of our Branch bulletin for use of farmers there. The Government there desires to
encourage small-stock farming amongst its peasants and ranchers.
There has to be recorded a great increase in the inward and outward flow of correspondence
by all offices of the Branch. At Nelson a big increase was caused by the issuance of reports and
statements of the Interior Egg-laying Contest. Many interviews were given throughout the
Province, both by means of office visits and at shows or meetings. Members of the staff attended
and lectured on many occasions at Farmers' Institute and Women's Institute meetings, Poultry
Associations and Shows, Agricultural Societies, Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs, and judging-
teams. During the year, also, members judged at fall fairs, poultry meetings, and at winter
poultry exhibitions. Many breeders were met at these events and interviews given, at which the
advice sought for was proffered.
Additional supplies of trap-nest records were needed to supply the demand for these forms.
Many new breeders are now taking up this work, either part time or permanently.
The faithful attention to the many details of their duties of the three Branch Instructors
is again appreciated and recorded, and the writer also desires to bear testimony to the efficient
manner in which the Branch's clerk-stenographer, Miss M. Marquart, has carried out her duties
during the year.
Respectfully submitted.
J. R. Terry,
Chief Poultry Instructor.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Field Crop Branch for the year
ended December 31st, 1929.
The season of 1929 was not an altogether satisfactory one for the production of field crops.
Spring work was considerably retarded, due to cold, backward weather, and as a result crops
were seeded about three weeks later than usual in most, districts. In addition to this, rainfall
was considerably below the average, resulting in an insufficient supply of moisture. In Central
British Columbia, however, the season was much earlier than usual.
Fall-sown crops, including winter oats, generally came through the winter well, although
there were many fields of fall wheat which did not look any too promising in the early stages
on account of dry weather at seeding-time. The percentage of frost-damage to root-crops in
storage was considerably higher and potatoes in pits suffered considerably.
The acreage sown to spring grain was larger than usual in most districts, but the crops did
not fill out or yield as well as was expected due to the dry season. In Central British Columbia,
however, in the vicinity of Prince George and Vanderhoof. the grain-crops produced large yields
on account of plenty of moisture. In the Peace River District oats generally yielded well and
some good yields of wheat were obtained on breaking and summer fallow, with lighter returns
from fall and spring ploughing.
The hay-crop throughout, the Province was not as large as in the previous years, although
there were sections which produced excellent returns. The alfalfa-crop did not yield as well
nor was it as good quality as the 1928 crop. The acreage planted to potatoes was much smaller
than in the previous year and the crop generally did not turn out as satisfactorily.    All other DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 103
root and ensilage crops varied from fair to good. Swede turnips were affected by drought and
considerable damage was done by the flea-beetle and aphis. Corn was late and patchy in many
districts. In the Fraser Aralley sugar-beets which were being grown for sugar production suffered
on account of the dry weather. Pasture was scant in many districts, due to the lack of rain.
The production of timothy-seed in the Bulkley A'alley was small as most of the timothy was
cut for hay. Alfalfa-seed was also a light crop in the Lytton-Lillooet Districts. In the Fraser
Valley, in the neighbourhood of Sumas and Matsqui, red.and alsike clover seed turned out well,
approximately 170 tons being produced.
Several changes have taken place in the staff of this Branch during the year. S. S. Phillips,
one of the Assistant Agronomists, was appointed District Agriculturist at Smithers, while G. A.
Luyat, who was temporarily employed in the Field Crop Branch, was transferred to AVilliams
Lake in the capacity of District Agriculturist. James Travis, Field Inspector, was stationed
in the British Columbia section of the Peace River District for several months.
In order to encourage the production of registered seed-grain and root-seed in the Province,
the following quantities of stock seed were placed with farmers in various parts of the Province:
Wheat, 330 lb.;  oats, 2,500 lb.;  mangel, 38 lb.;  swede turnips, 5 lb.
This seed, which is grown at- the University farm at Point Grey, is purchased by the
Department of Agriculture. Farmers who are carefully selected by departmental officials as
being proficient in their farming operations are given the opportunity of securing this seed.
In view of the large quantities of root-seed imported annually by Canada, it is felt that
British Columbia, on account of her favourable soil and climatic conditions, should be able in
the course of time to ward off these imports. It is realized, however, that in order to do this
the highest possible grade of seed must be produced by our growers. Hence the reason for
distributing proper stock seed. In the case of seed-grain, however, Canada does not import;
nevertheless, the need for a supply of good reliable clean seed of registered grade is apparent to
any one who has studied the seed-grain and weed situation in this Province.
The following quantities of Registered or No. 1 seed-grain or grass-seed were distributed by
this Branch :  AVheat, 5,100 lb.;  oafs, 3,482 lb.;  barley, 1,778 lb.;  alfalfa, 75 lb.;  peas, 1,746 lb.
Most of this seed was placed in districts where information was either required concerning
the adaptability of certain varieties to a district or where it was felt a supply of good seed from
outside sources was necessary. As most of the districts affected were receiving attention along
these lines for the first time, due possibly to being more or less isolated or a long distance from
headquarters, the seed was supplied to the farmer free of charge, but on the understanding that
he was to return to the Department an equal quantity of similar seed after harvest. The seed
so returned will be used for redistribution in the same district next year.
On account of the limited funds it has not been possible to carry on a very extensive weed
campaign. However, considerable educational work has been undertaken by this Branch and
also by many of the District Agriculturists who were appointed AA'eed Inspectors.
Tests have been conducted with various chemicals to ascertain their value as sprays for
the control of weeds. The results so far obtained are too indefinite to recommend or condemn
any of the chemicals which have been used, but it would appear desirable that these tests should
be continued for several years under various conditions. Chemicals which have been used are
sodium chlorate, Bear Brand Weed Killer, Alsask, and Atlacide. The tests were chiefly conducted on A'ancouver Island and the Lower Mainland under the supervision of Mr. AValter
Sandall, although some tests were made in the Peace River District under the supervision of
Mr. James Travis.    Other tests were scattered throughout the Province.
In his report on this work, AValter Sandall says: " I find that at certain times these weedkillers when applied are more effective than at other times, and am of the opinion that the
question of climatic conditions or period of the plant-growth may be the cause of the irregularity.
The following instances will convey some idea as to how the above conditions may have an ■
influence on the degree of effectiveness of the various weed-killers: Based upon observations, it
would seem that the best time to apply a chemical weed-killer is when the plant has attained
its full growth or nearly so. Poor results have been recorded after the plant becomes hard and
woody. It has also been found quite effective when applied after a dry spell and the moisture
content in the soil is low. It seems at.this period that the plant absorbs the moisture more
readily through the leaves and in turn is carried down through the rooting system."
In addition to the above work, some assistance was given to the AVomen's Institute Branch
in carrying on weed competitions in schools on the southern part of Vancouver Island.
In order to ascertain whether soy-beans could be satisfactorily grown in the Fraser A7alley,
100 lb. of registered soy-beans were obtained from Ontario for test purposes and put out on
several farms. Part of the seed was inoculated and part uninoculated before sowing. However,
no apparent difference in the crop was noted between the two lots of seed.
Unfortunately, duo to the late arrival of seed, the beans were sown rather later than is
customary. Observations made in the field, together with reports submitted by farmers, would
lead one to believe that soy-beans can be produced satisfactorily for forage purposes in the
Fraser A7alley.    Under certain conditions it would also appear quite possible to ripen seed.
In co-operation with the Armstrong Board of Trade and the Provincial Horticultural Branch,
over forty tests with sugar-beets have been conducted on various farms of the Interior this year.
The districts in which these tests were conducted are as follows : Armstrong, Grindrod, AA7infield,
Kelowna, Falkland, Kamloops, Salmon Ann. Grand Prairie, Chase, and Lumby. Two varieties
of beets supplied by the Federal Department of Agriculture were distributed.
The object of this work has been to ascertain the possibilities of the sugar-beet industry
in this part of the Province.    The beets were forwarded to the Dominion  Chemist by this
Department.    Appendix No. 34 gives the complete report of the analyses.    Due to the dry season
the tonnage secured was not large, but the sugar content of the beets was very satisfactory
. in most cases.
The work carried out by this Branch in the British Columbia section of the Peace River
District this year has been of considerable value. Mr. James Travis, who has been stationed
in that area for several months, has devoted the greater part of his time to seed and weed work.
He has, however, given considerable attention to agricultural matters in general. The Peace
River District, on account of its suitability for grain production, needs to be closely watched if
the introduction and spread of bad weeds is to be prevented. In accordance with instructions
received from the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture, arrangements have already been made for
two seed-cleaners to be shipped into that area.
One outbreak of perennial sow-thistle and another of Canada thistle, both of which occurred
for the first time, were effectively checked through applications of sodium chlorate spray.
In order to encourage the growing of pure seed the following quantities of seed-grain were
distributed : 400 lb. of spring wheat, Registered and No. 1 seed grades; 600 lb. field peas of
Maple and Stirling varieties. Some good results were obtained with Reward wheat and Stirling
and Maple field peas.
A portion of the report of Mr. James Travis reads as follows: " The Peace River District
at the present time is comparatively free from noxious weeds. Until recent years grain-growing
had not been practised to any great extent. Oats was the main crop grown and were cut on the
green side and used for feed purposes. AVith the advance of settlement, always a few strides
ahead of railway development, much land has been devoted to grain-growing, and to-day a
considerable quantity of wheat, oats, barley, etc., is produced and shipped to market. It naturally
follows that grain containing weed-seeds of all kinds has been brought in and used for seed
purposes in districts handicapped through lack of necessary cleaning machinery, and in some
instances through negligence and indifference on the part of the settler, with the inevitable
result that certain noxious weeds have encroached on lands through the settlement. Nevertheless, the districts, owing to the peculiar nature.of their location, have escaped wholesale infestation and under proper supervision should retain the reputation of being comparatively free from
noxious weeds for a number of years to come. 05
" The recent announcement by railway authorities of an extension of steel from Alberta into
British Columbia territory to be built in 1930 has a direct bearing on the weed situation. It is
a well-known fact that the spread of weed-seeds inevitably accompanies the steel; freight-cars,
second-hand machinery, feed, and wind-borne refuse being some of the causes of infestation.
" Formation of Seed-growers' Associations is going forward and the policy of the Department
in furnishing seed-cleaning machinery will greatly assist the districts in keeping clean in addition
to promoting the industry.
" Early in the season a series of meetings were held throughout the important centres, in
co-operation with Mr. AV. D. Albright, Superintendent of the Experimental Station at Beaver-
lodge. Part of the time was given over to a discussion of the weed question, touching on the
methods of eradication, identification, etc. Throughout the season this subject was taken up in
agricultural meetings at various points.
" During the summer months an endeavour was made to arouse interest and secure action
by addressing the schools and exhibiting weed specimens.
" In order to check the spread of sow-thistle in the neighbourhod of Rolla and make the
farmers in the vicinity acquainted with this particular weed, a public spraying demonstraion
was given."
Special Mixture.—In order to ascertain the value of fertilizer in the production of field crops,
tests have been conducted with fertilizers in each of the districts mentioned below. A special
fertilizer mixture prescribed by this Branch was used and consisted of 10 per cent, nitrate of
soda, 10 per cent, sulphate of ammonia, 20 per cent,- potash, and 60 per cent, superphosphate.
As a rule eight farmers in each district conduct these tests on a 1-acre plot basis; that is,
% acre fertilizer applied at rate of 800 lb. per acre and % acre unfertilized.
Names of districts in which these demonstrations were carried on are as follows: Comox,
Cranbrook, Vernon, AVellington, Kersley, Coombs, Grand Forks, Salmon Arm, Pemberton
Meadows, Grindrod, Armstrong, Central British Columbia, Agassiz, Rock Creek, and Midway.
The results of the above tests are incomplete at the time of preparing this report.
Triple-superphosphate Tests.—Through an agreement reached with the Consolidated Mining
and Smelting Company of Trail, tests with triple superphosphate were conducted in the following
districts: Cranbrook, Vernon, and Grindrod. The fertilizer for these tests, which were conducted on a 1-acre basis, was supplied free of charge by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Company and applied broadcast at the rate of 100 to 150 lb. per acre, depending on the crop to
be grown. Due to the very dry conditions in the districts where these tests were conducted, it
was practically impossible to secure definite results. It is hoped, however, to continue these
tests this coming year.
Samples of soil have been taken on many farms during the year by officials of the Branch
and samples have also been submitted for analysis through the mail. The samples of soil, as
in the past years, have been turned over to the Provincial Analyst of the Mines Department.
The various samples for which reports have been received are to be found in Appendix No. 32.
It should be pointed out that the sending-in of soil samples by farmers is not being encouraged, as many of them do not understand the proper procedure to adopt in taking samples.
Furthermore, the object of sending in samples of soil for analysis is generally not well understood.
Local Seed Fairs.—Three local seed fairs have been held during the year—namely, Smithers,
Prince George, and Dawson Creek. This latter place is located in the Peace River District and
it is the first time that a seed fair has been held in that area. Although the entries were not
large, the general interest shown would lead one to believe that future seed fairs will be well
supported in the Peace River District. The object of these fairs is to encourage local interest
in seecl-work and they also act as a feeder for the Provincial Seed Fair held at the time of the
Winter Fair.
Winter Fair.—As chairman of the seed, field-root, and potato sections of the AVinter Fair,
your Agronomist has devoted a great deal of attention to the work which is connected with
this position. Considerable effort and extra correspondence is necessary in order to secure
satisfactory results.    In this connection it should be mentioned that the number of seed entries I 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
at this year's fair was far in excess of %ny previous year, and all the important sections of the
Province were represented.
Plans are under way for creating interest in the World's Grain Show, which takes place in
Regina in 1932. Your Agronomist has been made secretary of the Provincial committee which
was recently appointed.
The Province of British Columbia once again made a name for herself at the International
Hay and Grain Show held at Chicago. Mr. AA7. G. Gibson, Ladner, to whom a great deal of credit
is due, captured first prize and the championship with yellow field peas of the Stirling variety,
sixth prize with field beans, and twenty-sixth prize with spring wheat; while AA7illiam Rogers,
of Tappen, captured seventh prize with barley.
Six hundred acres of logged-off land forming part of a 2,000-acre block were seeded down
under the supervision of Mr. AV. Sandall, of this Branch, on the Hillcrest Lumber Company's
property at Duncan. This undertaking, which is in the nature of an experiment, is being
conducted in co-operation with the Provincial Live Stock Branch and the Dominion Department
of Agriculture.
Large areas of the land had been burned over some time previous to seeding, as charred
stumps were still standing, and charred and partly rotten uncomlnercial logs lying about the
ground. There was very little second growth at this time. Undergrowth such as wild raspberry,
willow, and alder was to be found in the earlier logged-off sections, but not to any great extent;
there were also spots covering possibly 2 or more acres showing a fair growth of bracken.
The land is of glacial origin and is rolling, and many rocks and boulders are to be found
upon the higher knolls. The low-lying lands consist of a friable sandy loam, and the bench
lands are made up of a similar soil, with a greater proportion of sand and more or less gravel.
These soils run to various depths, from 2 to 6 feet, and underlaid with a porous sandy clay.
The grasses used in seeding consisted of the following: Orchard-grass, western rye, perennial
rye, tall oat, timothy, Kentucky blue, red-top, brome, sweet clover, red clover, alsike clover, and
white Dutch clover.
The kinds and quantity of grass used in the various sections depended on the kind of soil.
The average rate of seeding was 10 lb. per acre.
Due to the very dry season, it is impossible to report whether the seeding of this area has
been a success. It is hoped, however, that a proper inspection of the entire area can be made
during the coming spring months.
Samples of seed-grain were taken from the seed-drill at the time the farmer was seeding his
grain to ascertain the condition of the seed being sown. These samples are now being analysed
at the Dominion Seed Laboratory in Calgary.
Five combined field-crop and cleaned-seed competitions were conducted in the Province in
the following districts: Prince George and A7anderhoof, alsike clover and red clover; Bulkley
A7alley, oats;  Lakes Districts, wheat;  Fraser A7alley, oats.
This work entails considerable time being devoted to the organization end of the work.
The crops are judged while growing and the seed is scored after it has been harvested and
cleaned. Prizes are given by the Department on the basis of total score obtained for both the
growing crop and cleaned seed.
In addition to the work already referred to, your Provincial Agronomist visited all the
important sections of the Province this year to obtain first-hand information regarding field-
crop matters. Among the districts visited was the British Columbia section of the Peace River.
This was the writer's first visit to this area and he was amazed at the vast area of fertile
agricultural lands in that section of the Province.    All the district offices of the Department were DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 107
visited and the co-operation of the District Agriculturists was sought.    The following work was
also attended to :—
(1.) Producers of clover-seed in the Fraser Valley were visited and information obtained
concerning the production and marketing of the seed.
(2.)  Practically all demonstration plots were visited.
(3.)   Sugar-beet plots in the Interior were inspected.
(4.)  Assisted with the judging at the following fairs:   Salmon Arm, Armstrong, A7ictoria,
New AVestminster, and Vancouver.
(5.)  Judged clover competitions at Prince George and Vanderhoof and oat competition in
Bulkley A7alley.
(6.)  Addresses, office duties, and correspondence.
Your Provincial Agronomist wishes to express his appreciation of the valuable assistance
rendered during the year by various officials attached to the Branch and by D. E. AVhittaker,
Provincial Analyst. Hearty thanks are also extended to the officials of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, University, and to the District Agriculturists for their co-operation during
the year.
Respectfully submitted. Cecil Tice
Provincial Agronomist.
W. J. Shepi>ard.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report as Provincial Apiarist; also the estimated honey-
crop report, demonstration apiaries report, middle-entrance hive reports, and the reports of
A. W. Finlay and J. F. Roberts, Apiary Inspectors, for the year 1929.
The total estimated honey-crop of the Province for 1929 amounted to 989,393 lb., representing
a general average of 50 lb. per hive, this being 3,686 lb. more than last year's total estimate.
The exceptionally cold spring and dry summer following was the main cause of a disappointing
yield in many districts. The lack of irrigation-water in some parts of the Dry Belt adversely
affected the honey-flow in some parts of that section of the Province. (See Appendices 33
and 34.)
Foul-brood inspection was carried out as far as possible as in former years; 4,390 combs
affected with American foul-brood were destroyed, as against 5,250 in 1928, for which the usual
compensation at the rate of 20 cents per comb was paid by the Department.
Regulations for the registration of apiaries were formulated early in 1929 in accordance
with the amendments to the " Apiaries Act" passed at the last session of the Provincial
Legislature. Copies of these regulations, together with application forms for registration,
were mailed to all the known bee-keepers in British Columbia. Advertisements were also
inserted in the press. Up to the present only 1,490 applications for registration have been
received out of the estimated total number of 2,753 apiaries in the Province.
Middle entrances were supplied by the Department of Agriculture in the spring of 1929 to
the owners of demonstration apiaries, and also several other bee-keepers, who had previously
signified their willingness to give this system of bee-keeping a trial and report results at the end
of the season.
The object of the trials was not so much to ascertain whether larger honey yields could be
expected from middle-entrance hives than from hives with bottom entrances, but to make sure I 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
that the yields would be as much. The total yields, as will be seen from the reports received,
were very nearly equal.
It having been established that bees come through the winter much better with a top
entrance than with a lower one, the middle entrance, which becomes a top entrance as soon as
the supers are removed, would appear to be the most cdnvenient system to adopt.
Winter losses in British Columbia have been frequently as high as 35 per cent, in some
districts with bees kept in bottom-entrance hives.    (See Appendix 35.)
In spite of the disastrous fire that destroyed the permanent buildings in the Exhibition
grounds at New AVestminster, the honey exhibits assembled at the fair under canvas surpassed
those of previous years and reflect great credit on the exhibitors and those responsible for the
general arrangements.
All of which is respectfully submitted. -,y   j   k>hfppabd
Provincial Apiarist.
A.   AV.   Fl.NI.AY.
W. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report as Apiary Inspector for the Lower Mainland District for
the year 1929.
The winter of 1928-29 was unusually severe on the Lower Mainland, causing heavy losses
in bees, which was further aggravated by cold winds and wet weather during April, May, and
June. Many colonies that survived the winter were lost through starvation during the spring
months, when they should normally have been building up on the usual early sources of nectar.
The total colony loss in the Fraser Valley was estimated at 35 per cent., but the actual loss in
bees was much higher if the large number of weak surviving colonies were taken into account.
Conditions appeared to be very unfavourable for a honey-crop, but improved during July and
August, when warm weather became general. Strong colonies at this time secured a good crop
from alsike clover. Fireweed yielded nectar only in moist, low areas. The Lower Mainland
yield for 1929, while still below normal, exceeded that of the previous season by almost 15 per
cent, and was of a much superior quality.
Apiary inspection was delayed during the spring months owing to the inclement weather,
but as many calls as possible were attended to, especially where bee-keepers required a permit
to move colonies.
General field-work with the object of controlling disease in the Greater A7ancouver area was
commenced in April by Assistant Inspector A. Keir, and the work was just started when Mr. Keir
was compelled to resign owing to ill-health. I was unable to carry on this work in a satisfactory
manner owing to so many special calls requiring nearly all of my time.
Several demonstration apiary and bee-keepers' field meetings were attended and practical
demonstrations and instructions given.
The office at the Court-house, New AVestminster, was attended two days per week for
answering correspondence and making microscopical examinations of samples of comb and
smears sent in for bacterial diagnosis. One hundred and sixty-one smears and ten samples of
comb were received and examined ; ninety-four were found to be affected with American and
forty-eight with European foul-brood, twenty-nine being sterile.
Reports on the results of these examinations were promptly sent out, together with instructions for treatment or arrangements made to render assistance where required.
Respectfully submitted. A   w   Finlay
J. F. Roberts.
W. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report as Apiary Inspector for the Okanagan, Shuswap, and
Thompson A7alley Districts for the season 1929.
The unusually long cold spell during the month of February and the late spring was
responsible for a good many winter losses. Many colonies were found to be dead before
feeding could be started,. The dandelion and fruit-blossom honey-flow was practically negligible,
whilst in other seasons a super of honey is usually taken from this source. Various locations
in the Okanagan and Thompson A7alley Districts suffered a great lack of irrigation-water, this,
of course, having an adverse effect on the honey yield.
Spray-poisoning from arsenate of lead again took its toll of bees in 1929. Although the loss
from this cause was not so bad as in the previous year, some of the larger apiarists are seriously
considering moving their colonies from the fruit-belt unless this is remedied. This, of course,
will make it bad for the pollination of the fruit-trees.
The benefits which will eventually accrue from registration of apiaries have not been
apparent this year, as although up to the present it has brought to light a good many bee-keepers,
there are still a number apparently ignorant of the law who have not registered.
Respectfully submitted.
J. F. Roberts,
Apiary Inspector.
Mrs, V. S. McLachlan.
J. B. Munro, B.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report of the AA7omen's Institute
Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1929.
The outstanding feature of this year's work is an increase of membership in the individual
institutes to 4,186, and the formation of fourteen new institutes—AVest Saskatoon, Lac la Hache,
Fraser Lake, Comox, South-west Burnaby, East Chilliwack, Sunnyside, Okanagan Mission,
Cherry Creek, Balfour and Queen's Bay, Salmo, Needles, Silverton, and Slocan City.
District conferences were held in the newly designated districts as follows: Nelson and
Nakusp; Courtenay and Victoria; Kelowna and Salmon Arm; Mission and Chilliwack; and
The Department paid transportation (where the. legal fare was over $2 return) for one
delegate from each institute, and since the conferences were also combined with health conferences, the Board of Health provided similar assistance for a second delegate from each
institute, so that at least two members from each institute were able to have the benefit of
both conferences.
Nearly every institute sent delegates, who appear to have found the meetings both instructive and enjoyable, and it is noteworthy that, although the actual expense to the Department
was smaller as a result of the decentralization, the attendance was four times that of previous
In March, according to instructions received from the Hon. the Minister, the Superintendent
visited the Institutes at Valdes, Cortes, and AA7haletown, where unfortunately she was stormbound for several days, so was unable to keep her engagements at Lazo, Denman, and Hornby.
She, however, reorganized the Comox District Institute, disbanded in 1925, and visited Qualicum.
A few months later she also visited Lazo. In June, en route for the Biennial Conference of the Federated AA7omen's Institutes of
Canada at Saskatoon, the Superintendent visited the three institutes in the Bulkley Valley and
organized a fourth at Fraser Lake. Returning from the conference via Cranbrook and Nelson,
she spoke at fourteen meetings in the Kootenay and met representatives from nearly all the
remaining institutes in that region. Since her tour four new institutes have been formed in the
Most institutes now work along the lines of the ten committees and niake their conveners
responsible for promoting the work of their special committee in some way. The Branch makes
every endeavour to assist conveners who appeal for help in their work, and again gratefully
acknowledge the help of the Open Shelf Department of the Travelling Library; the Board of
Health; the Provincial Archivist, Mr. Hosie, who has given great assistance to those institutes,
compiling records of the pioneers in their district; and to Mr. J. Kyle, Director of Technical
Instruction, who devotes much time and attention to helping institutes to hold night-school
classes in handicrafts and domestic subjects.
The junior girls' judging contest is the most noteworthy work of this section. The local
contests are becoming better organized and there is more local interest. Each district again sent
teams to the Provincial competition at the A7ancouver Fair, where the Armstrong team won for
the third time.
The Vimy Institute has further extended this work and under Mrs. T. C. Robson arranged
a successful junior girls' competition at the Cowichan Fair among the three or four near-by
Every advantage is taken of the provisions of the Night-school Act and classes in dressmaking have been held by the AA7estbank, Field, Valdes, Nakusp, and Grindrod Institutes.
Glove-making classes were enjoyed by the Esquimalt and Oliver Institutes, while Rutland, Mount
Ida, Okanagan Centre, and Squamish have studied basket-making. Esquimalt holds physical-
culture classes and Prince George has started manual-training and domestic-science classes for
the winter. The importance of training the children is fully realized and A7emon and Armstrong
each held classes for girls in cookery and sewing and for boys in making bird-houses. At the
subsequent exhibition at Vernon ninety bird-houses were entered for competition and the girls
had 250 entries in cookery and sewing. Qualicum and Strawberry A7ale each hold well-attended
folk-dancing classes for both boys and girls.
There has been a slight decrease in the number of flower-shows and fall fairs this year,
although Burton City had to postpone their fair on account of drought and fire-hazards.
The institutes also give practical and financial help with the local fall fairs.
A new scheme tried out this year by the Colwood, Langford, and Luxton Institutes was a
competition among their schools for the eradication of noxious weeds. The Field Crops Branch
provided prizes for the best individual collection of mounted and named weeds, for the best
school collection, and for the best essay. Although some adjustments will have to be made, the
scheme has proved practicable and will probably be extended next season.
To stimulate the children's interest in agriculture, competitions were also organized by the
following institutes: Potato-growing, Cortes, Howe Sound, Otter, Sayward, and Fern Ridge;
school and home gardens, Mission (with 101 children competing), AVestbank, Harrop, Upper
Lynn, and Mount Ida; caterpillar eradication, Langley Prairie (where 28,390 rings were
collected), Royal Oak, Hatzic, White Rock, and Strawberry Vale.
Terrace had a Swine Club; penman held a children's flower-show; Cannor held a competition for the best collection of native shrubs and trees; while Beaver is at present running
a competition among the school-children for pot bulb-culture.
For the adults pruning schools and demonstrations have been organized by Surrey, Luxton,
and Hazelmere Institutes, and Sayward, by a third successive victory, now owns the cup
presented by the A7ancouver AVinter Fair for the best AA7omen's Institute exhibit of potatoes. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1929. I 111
Addresses and demonstrations by the departmental officials are frequent items on institute
programmes and greatly appreciated.
This committee is always popular and undoubtedly work along these lines leads to happier
and more permanent settlers. The frequent card parties, dances, and children's parties organized
by institutes provide welcome diversions for the community, as well as furnishing funds for
other activities.
The provision of a community hall is one of the first cares of an institute. The East
Chilliwack Institute, only organized last April, has bought a lot and is now building a hall, with
sufficient funds in hand to pay for it. Others working to fill this need of their communities are
Balfour, Grindrod, Howe Sound, East Kelowna, Valley, Silverton, and Royal Oak; while at
least six more are improving their existing buildings.
On May 10th last, after some years' hard work, Okanagan Falls had its new hall opened
by the Lieutenant-Governor. North Shuswap Lake has made a public park and picnic-ground,
which was opened by the Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes in the summer. Denman has
obtained a doctor for the island; Boswell a life-buoy; Silverton a pulmotor and two buoys,
Shawnigan has cleaned up the bathing-beach and established bathing-huts. The institute
generally raises the funds if a piano is needed for a district. Howe Sound has purchased a radio
for the community. Cemeteries everywhere receive attention, and the new Needles Institute
had not been going more than three months before they had obtained a site for the cemetery, for
which (according to one member) they had been vainly striving for years.
Most institutes have committees to watch over and assist their schools, or else have representatives on the Parent-Teachers' Association. School libraries receive frequent gifts, Agassiz
expending $63 on this purpose; and prizes are awarded for outstanding work by the pupils,
Howe Sound giving $50 in school prizes last summer.
The school buildings are also watched over by the institutes. Terrace has made sidewalks
round the school;   Crawford Bay and West Saanich built play-sheds.
Hot school lunches are provided for the children by most rural institutes, and first-aid kits
have been supplied for their schools by Langley Prairie, A7alley, Silver Creek, Burton, Coghlan,
and AVillow Point Institutes, while Keremeos is raising a fund to establish a Catherine Armstrong memorial scholarship.
Little practical work can be done along these lines beyond welcoming and assisting new
settlers. Some institutes make a practice of preparing the home for the new settlers when it
is known when they will arrive, having a fire lighted and kettle boiling, etc.
Miss Franklin, secretary of the Society for the Overseas Settlement of British AVomen,
London, visited British Columbia in October and spoke at the Victoria Conference. This society
always notifies this office and the local institute is promptly put in touch with the new settlers
as soon as they arrive.
The question of markets for homecrafts is still exercising the minds of the Provincial Board.
Rug-making and glove-making are still the most profitable industries, but Crawford Bay and
Harrop are working up a business in crystallizing fruit. A certain amount was sold on the
Christmas market this year, but it is impossible to say as yet whether this will be a practicable
home industry.
In order to promote the " Buy-at-Home Campaign " and also to ensure the use of the correct
colours for the Chinook rugs, the Provincial Board is arranging to purchase a supply of wool
from the A7ictoria AA7oollen Mill to be sold to the institutes for the rug-making. This wool is
found to be better quality for the purpose and cheaper than that obtained from the East or
from England. I 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Summerland and Royal Oak make pottery, using local clay. The Denman Island lace-
making is spreading to near-by islands. Glove-making is practised in the Okanagan and Langley
Prairie, and many institutes make a fair income from making wool comforters, using local
Members of the Legislature who will speak on current legislation are always welcome at
institute meetings. The Hon. J. Hinchliffe, Minister of Education, found interested audiences
at Victoria, Mission, and Chilliwack when he explained recent changes in the Education Act, as
did Mr. Abriel when speaking on the fruit-marketing question at Nakusp; Hon. J. W. Jones at
Kelowna, Dr. Borden at Nelson, Captain Fitzsimmons at Nakusp, and Dr. MacNaughton at
Courtenay. At Kelowna a resolution was formulated asking for the extension of the " Mothers'
Pensions Act" to include widowers when necessary, and this resolution is at present being
considered at institute meetings up and down the Province.
This is perhaps the most active of all the committees and a considerable sum of money is
dispensed each year for this purpose. Colwood has given $100 to the Othoa Scott Endowment
Fund, Cobble Hill $92 to the Solarium, and New Denver $75 to the Eileen Anderson Fund.
AVestbank, Salmon Arm, Mission, and Hatzic contribute towards the upkeep of the District
Nurse. Hatzic and Nakusp and Lynn Valley are equipping wards in their local hospitals; Armstrong and AVest Saskatoon are working for X-rays for their hospitals; Valdes Island holds
dental clinics; and Bonnington has started a fund for this purpose. Baby clinics are held
regularly by the Nelson, Esquimalt, AA7estbank, Shawnigan, and A7aldes Women's Institutes.
For the well children Langford and Fraser Lake have organized companies of Girl Guides
and Shawnigan has Brownies. Poplar Grove helps with the Scouts, and North-east Burnaby,
instead of celebrating May 24th with processions, combined with the Farmers' Institute to
improve the community playground.
For the last two Christmases the Chilliwack Institute has run one of the few successful
community chests to provide Christmas fare for the community.
Health exhibits were organized by fifteen institutes, using material provided by the Board
of Health. To arouse interest in advance among the school-children and their parents, competitions in making health posters were organized and the best posters used to decorate the
stalls. The Board of Health makes a 25-cent per capita grant for these exhibits, which appear
to have aroused great interest.
The Othoa Scott Endowment Fund for Crippled Children has been reorganized, with Mr. Alan
Morkill, Canadian Bank of Commerce, Victoria, as treasurer and Miss Leighton as secretary.
Subscription to this fund is purely voluntary, but already there is $1,477.04 in the bank towards
the objective of $10,000 available for all time to help crippled children.
It is noteworthy that the crippled children who were being helped by Nakusp and Mount
Lehman Institutes are now both home and able to walk. With the help of neighbouring institutes, Strawberry Hill is providing for the treatment of a child at the Sunlight Clinic in North
The work of this committee is developing along interesting lines. Co-operating with the
British Columbia Historical Society, institutes are collecting historical data of their own communities. The report of the District Convener at the Kootenay Conference indicated that several
institutes in that district are developing an intelligent and growing interest in the local history.
The value of this can be appreciated when it is known that Mr. J. Hosie very kindly drafted
a simple plan of procedure in compiling history, which can be secured from this Branch upon
All institutes report their activities in the local press, the Nelson Daily News and the Comox
Argus giving particularly valuable publicity. Editors generally seem pleased to publish reports,
and the help that such support gives means much to the institute movement. At the Nelson
Conference the Nelson Daily News offered a prize to the delegate preparing the best report on
the conference for her institute. The first conference held in Courtenay was tendered a banquet by the Board of Trade, while
friendly placards were displayed in all the shop windows, " Welcome to Courtenay, Women's
The increase in the number of institutes is maintained, and where ten were formed last year
fourteen new institutes have been organized this year. Nelson is the largest with 173 members
and South-west Burnaby is second with 146.
There is much harmonious co-operation between the institutes and the Department. Requests come in for all sorts of information, which, with the assistance of other departments, it
is generally possible to forward promptly.
Sixteen circular letters have been distributed; 2,276 letters have been received and 1,468
replies sent out.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
V. S. McLachlan,
Superintendent, B.C. Women's Institutes. I 114
Correspondence received and dispatched by the Department of Agriculture  (at A7ictoria)
for the Years ended December 31st, 1928 and 1929.
Office of the Deputy Minister—
General and Secretary's office.
Accountant and Chief Clerk...
Farmers' Institutes	
Women's Institutes	
Agricultural Associations	
Apiaries Branch	
Dairy Branch	
Field Crop Branch	
Horticultural Branch	
Live Stock Branch—
General :	
Statistics Branch	
Women's Institute Branch 	
AVomen's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1929.
Name of Women's Institute.
Vancouver Island and Gul) Islands.
Qualicum District	
Valdes Island	
Valdes Island	
Strawberry Vale.... 	
Luxton and Happy Valley..
Lake Hill 	
South Saltspring Island	
Cedar ....
Denman Island	
May 4	
June 20	
May 28 to  30	
June '22	
June 26	
July 4	
July 4	
July 17.	
August 7	
August 24	
August 28 „	
August 30	
September 2	
September 12 and 13
September 13 and 14
F.S. ; B.B.C. ;  S.C.W.
Dental Clinic.
F.S.; W.AV.; H.Ex.
W.W. ; H.Bx.
F.S.; W.W.;
W.W. ;
Exhibit at Fair.
F.S.; Baby-show.
H.Bx. ;
H.Ex. ;
I 115
APPENDIX No. 2—Continued.
AArOMEN's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1929—Continued.
Name of Women's Institute.
Lower Mainland.
White Rock	
Upper  Sumas	
Hazelmere &