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SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FIRE MARSHAL FOR THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA STATISTICS, 1928 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1930]

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 SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE FIEE MAKSHAL
FOR   THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATISTICS, 1928
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Trinted by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1929.  To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia,
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Seventh Annual Report of the Fire Marshal
for the year ended Decemher 31st, 1928.
Victoria, B.C., March 31st, 1929.
R. H. POOLEY,
Attorney-General. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Fire Marshal 5-7
Table I.—Inspections made and Orders issued 8, 9
Table II.—Fires reported 10, 11
Table III.—Causes of Fires ! : 12, 13
Table IV.—Classification of Property 14-21
Table V.—Summary ,     22
Table VI.—Loss of Life     23 REPORT OF FIRE MARSHAL.
Office of Fire Marshal,
Vancouver, B.C., March 31st, 1929.
The Honourable R. II. Pooley, K.C..
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my Seventh Annual Report as Fire Marshal, together with
statistics showing the amount of loss, causes of fires, and different occupancies involved, for the
year ended December 31st, 1928.
Our total losses for the year amounted to $2,667,554, against $2,622,995 for the year ended
December 31st, 1927, a loss increase of $44,559. The increase was principally in cities and
unorganized districts. The cities snowing an increase of over $10,000 were Kelowna, with a
total of $111,964, an increase of $83,682; Port Alberni, $22,501, an increase of $18,211; and
Nelson, with $17,770, an increase of $11,416 over 1927. In our two largest cities, Vancouver
while reporting thirty-five more fires decreased its loss $34,327 compared with 1927, whereas
Victoria with an increase of thirty-nine fires had an increased loss of $3,167 over the same
period. While the district municipalities as a whole show a decreased loss for the year, yet we
find Langley with an increase of fifteen fires and a total loss of $91,060, an increased loss of
$66,998; Tadanac with twenty-seven fires and a loss of $12,681, compared with six fires and
a total loss of $340 in 1927, an increase of $12,341. Chilliwack has an increase of seventeen fires
and an increased loss of $22,547.
The increased loss of $112,302 in the unorganized districts is not surprising considering the
great industrial development of the past year, and also in view of the fact that in this territory-
there is practically no fire protection available.
We are glad to note the excellent record of the village municipalities and the fire districts.
The latter includes the majority of our small towns in the unorganized districts.
Table IV. of our statistics shows us that the major part of our losses accrued in what may
be classed as industrial risks and in dwellings, the former showing a loss of approximately
$1,000,000 and the latter $800,000. It would appear, therefore, that our fire losses fall heaviest
on those who can least afford them—namely, the wage-earners and home-owners.
A study of the fire causes given in Table III. shows an alarming number of fires due to
defective construction of chimneys, fireplaces, electrical installations and stoves. It is obvious
that the majority of these defects come within the purview of the building by-laws, if any, of
the different cities and municipalities. We find, however, that only a few of our larger cities
and municipalities have such by-laws, and in some cases where they exist they are not properly
enforced, due largely to the fact that their enforcement is in the hands of men who have no
training for the duties entrusted to them. As a result of this, we had in 1928 291 fires involving
a loss of $396,002, which, in my opinion, could have been easily prevented by a proper system of
inspection.
I am convinced that in all cases where there are no building by4aws in force we will be
forced to take action under section 36 (e) of the "Fire Marshal Act " and make such regulations
as will control the situation. In this connection I may be permitted to refer to the action of
the Electrical Energy Inspection Department of the Government, who have recently put in force
in the Province the Canadian Electrical Code. The proper enforcement of this Code will practically eliminate the fires due to defective electrical installations.
During the year our local assistant fire marshals throughout the Province have made
43,075 inspections and issued 4.938 orders to eliminate fire hazards. One hundred and three
persons or firms were charged with failure to obey orders and seventy convictions obtained.
There were twenty appeals to the Fire Marshal from orders issued by the assistants, all of
which were investigated and passed on, and no appeals from his decisions were made to the
Courts. The decrease in inspection work in comparison with 1927 may indicate that conditions
in the various districts have improved and that frequent inspections are not necessary. But
judging from the reports brought in by the inspectors from this office sent out to check up the
work of the assistant fire marshals, a large part is due to the fact that these men are not
getting the support and co-operation from their councils to which they are entitled in view of the importance of their work. It would appear that some of our councils treat the job of
assistant fire marshal as of little importance and the work is given to men who are already
overloaded with other duties, and in almost every case without an increase in salary or proper
facilities to carry out their duties. There can only be one result of this spirit, and we see it
in conflagrations which practically wipe out business districts in our rural municipalities as well
as in some of the smaller cities.
At the request of the Department of the Honourable Provincial Secretary, an inspection of
all hospitals, children's homes, and public institutions throughout the Province has been made
during the year, and such orders issued and recommendations made as were required to bring
them up to a reasonably safe standard from the view-point of fire prevention and protection.
In this connection I may be permitted to mention the excellent work of the department responsible for providing an adequate water-supply for fire protection at Tranquille as well as the
fire-alarm equipment at Essondale. When the fire apparatus now under consideration for
Essondale is installed and the organization of the fire department completed, the fire protection
for this important institution will be up to a very high standard.
While this office has not complete figures, yet such as we have indicate that the value of
new buildings erected during the past year has gone well over the $100,000,000 mark. Plans
for public and semi-public buildings have been submitted to this office for advice and suggestions
as to their proper protection from fire. In every case this service has been gladly given and our
recommendations have been carried out.
During the year there has been a large increase in the number of gasoline storage plants.
This has been largely due to the ruling of this office that the practice of delivering drums of
gasoline in front of filling-stations on the streets of our towns and villages constituted a
dangerous fire hazard and must be discontinued. As a result of this, modern storage plants
have been erected at strategic points throughout the Province and tank-wagon service provided.
In all cases plans showing the location and construction of these plants have been submitted to
this office by the companies interested, proposed sites have been inspected and, if found satisfactory to the local authorities, have been approved. We take the responsibility of seeing that
the tanks are properly installer! and protected.
Owing to the congestion of traffic on our highways the practice of allowing the installation
of gasoline service-pumps on public streets has received serious consideration. This in view
of the fact that the type of pump now in use has a 10-gallon glass container mounted on the
top, which in event of a collision would release 10 gallons of the highly inflammable contents
and create a serious fire hazard. I referred the question as to the powers of the councils under
the Municipal Acts to grant permission to use a public highway for this purpose, to city and
municipal solicitors, who advised that after a careful reading of the Act they were of the opinion
that councils had no such authority. In view of this, assistant fire marshals were instructed
that if any such pumps were in a hazardous position they were to be ordered removed and all
future installations prohibited.
During the year special attention has been given to public and private schools. All have
been inspected and reports as to condition of buildings, means of egress, and fire protection are
on file. A system of standard fire-drills has been prepared by this office and is now being
enforced throughout the entire Province. Plans for new buildings have been examined and
such recommendations as were necessary for safety made and enforced.
All fires that, have occurred have been investigated by assistant fire marshals and reports
filed in this office. In all cases where a doubt as to the origin has arisen, a special investigator
has been sent from this office, and, if found advisable, an inquiry held. During the year seventeen fire investigations have been held by members of our staff and twelve inquiries. In one
case a charge of arson was laid and a conviction obtained.
Table VI. shows that sixteen adults lost their lives through fire during 1928. We regret
that this is an increase of four in comparison with the total of 1927. This is the first year since
1918 that a child has not been burned to death in British Columbia.
Motion Picture Theatre Act.—The wTork delegated to the Fire Marshal under the regulations
passed pursuant to the above Act have been faithfully carried out during the year. All theatres
were inspected, many of them twice. It was found necessary to order improvements on eighty-
seven to bring them to a proper standard of safety. Three new theatres with a seating capacity
of approximately 2,100 were opened during the year.    Plans and specifications were checked and REPORT OF FIRE MARSHAL, 1928. I 7
approved and periodical inspections made during construction.    In  addition,  twelve existing
theatres were remodelled and brought up to regulation standard.
The ten film exchanges operating in the Province are housed in a fire-resistive building
located in Vancouver.    Twenty-two inspections have been made and conditions checked up.
Under the film-report system inaugurated in 1927 472,000 feet of defective film has been
removed from service during the year, against 105,000 feet the previous year. We had six fires
in theatres during- the year, with a total loss of $4,376. Four of these fires were caused by
defective film. Owing to the great care exercised in the construction of projection-rooms there
was no panic and no loss of life.
The advent of the synchronized picture machines during the year has necessitated a revision
of our regulations to provide for safety. This matter received our serious attention and such
recommendations as were necessary to meet the situation were made and enforced.
In connection with our inspection of kinematograph machines, we found that the reflector
type of arc now largely used has increased the fire hazard a very considerable extent. In many
cases temperatures are four times greater than with the old type of lamp. This condition has
called for a more rigid inspection of both machines and films. One hundred sixty-eight machines
were inspected and alterations and repairs ordered.
Our inspector, in his capacity as Government representative on the Examining Board for
projectionists, has assisted in conducting twenty-two examinations during the past year.
I think it only proper that I should refer in this report to the retirement during the year
of the veteran fire chief of the City of Vancouver. Chief Carlisle has for over forty years
watched over the lives and property of the citizens of Vancouver to protect them from fire.
He has seen the city grow from a village in the bush to the third city in Canada. During these
years, under his wise administration, the Vancouver Fire Department has been brought up to a
high standard of efficiency. While primarily a fire-fighter, Chief Carlisle has always been a
consistent advocate of organized fire prevention work. When the " Fire Marshal Act" was
passed by the Legislature he was the first local Assistant Fire Marshal appointed, and immediately proceeded to organize the fire prevention work in Vancouver. As a result the Vancouver
Fire Department has a fire prevention branch which is one of the best in Canada. In addition
to this, his wise counsel has always been at the service of the Fire Marshal, and through him
to the people of British Columbia. While he has now retired from active service he still holds
that which is worth while, the honour, respect, and appreciation of those who were privileged
to be associated with him in his life-work.
Permit me again to express my appreciation of the splendid co-operation and assistance
given by the members of my staff in carrying out the work entrusted to us, to the Assistant
Fire Marshals for the work they have done in the cities and districts, and to Colonel McMnllin
and the members of the Provincial Police for the work done in the unorganized districts.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
J. A. THOMAS,
Fire Marshal. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
TABLE I.—INSPECTIONS MADE AND ORDERS  ISSUED BY ASSISTANT
FIRE MARSHALS.
Name.
Inspections.
Orders.
City Municipalities (33).
21
1,093
43
106
43
474
374
23
35
653
1,196
1,691
'764
63
47
313
395
236
423
17
1,574
23,264
'284
4,898
Chilliwack	
91
9
27
31
4
6
Merritt     .. ..                     ..             	
6
189
94
26
-
127
175
112
11
Tr.iil
31
3,503
14
212
Totals   	
38,030
4,733
District Municipalities (30).
66
'66
4
76
17
50
16
116
2,571
41
19
995
29
Delta	
8
Kent	
1
2
Oak Bay	
11
13
13
40 REPORT OF FIRE MARSHAL, 1928.
I 9
TABLE I.—INSPECTIONS MADE AND ORDERS ISSUED BY ASSISTANT
FIRE MARSHALS—Continued.
Name.
Inspections.
Orders,
District
Mil
nieipaliUes—
-Continued.
28
10
10
36
1
6
Totals
4,121
134
Village
Municipality
cs (1).
AhhnrsfnrrT
5
20
9
'241
4
13
S
2
36
3
Totals
29:2
49
Fire Districts (I
3).
2
4
11
10
12
36
4
480
31
S3
9
4
 f	
1
Hetllev                                     	
9
4
4
Totals
632
22
43,075
4,938
47,221
'52,134
49,889
49,l677
4,437
Grand
5,003
4,759
Grand
'5,304 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
TABLE II.—FIRES REPORTED.
Districts reporting.
Number.
Amount of
Loss.
City Municipalities (33).
2
1
10
6
20
1
S
3
S
10
19
15
6
6
32
21
42
34
12
4
S
13
16
9
9
19
'587
7
167
$1,265
Chilliwack    	
3.9S5
3,443
17,942
_io
6,450
1S,S37
14,015
Greenwood	
6,625
111,964
4,406
3,646
4 423
Merritt	
17 770
10 294
17 724
■m 501
6 7S4
10,916
25 245
6 05S
14,326
5,778
Trail     -	
29,497
608,309
73 2'73
23.107
1,095
$1,074,509
District Municipalities (30).
73
34
9
4
19
1
3
32
13
13
7
5
16
24
15
5
227
17
37
'5
so
3
10
6
24
$45,S73
4S.695
12.S64
Delta                                	
8,177
"0.688
150
10.62S
91,060
39,484
29 158
17 122
6,877
11,728
Oak Bay                        	
1.4S1
0 °59
6,797
56,937
14,371
15 614
1,S31
36,767
6,142
9.502
2,085
49,113 REPORT OF FIRE MARSHAL, 1928.
I 11
TABLE II.--FIRES REPORTED—Continued.
Districts reporting
Number.
District Municipalities—Continued.
Tadanac....	
West Vancouver.
Totals..
Village Municipalities (7).
Abbotsford	
Burns Lake	
Creston	
Mission	
Smithers	
Terrace	
Vanderhoof	
Totals..
Fire Districts (23).
Anyox	
Burns Lake	
Dawson Creek..
Golden	
Hazelton	
Hedley...	
loco	
Kimberley	
Lucerne	
Moyie	
Nakusp	
Oliver	
Pacific Mills, Limited.
Port Essington	
Pouce Coupe	
Powell River	
Princeton	
Quesnel	
Rolla	
Sandon	
Stewart	
Telkwa	
Union Bay	
Totals	
Unorganized Districts (15).
Boundary	
Fort George 	
Fort St. John	
Hazelton	
Kamloops	
Kootenay, North-east	
Kootenay, South-east	
Kootenay, West	
Lillooet	
Nanaimo	
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver-New Westminster	
Vernon	
Victoria ,	
Yale	
Totals	
Grand totals..
Note.—Construction of buildings—
Fire-resisting	
Brick or concrete	
Frame	
20
729
23
S
1
8
26
13
34
34
9
' 60
10
43
22
'25
15
~33l7
■2,196
21, loss
223,
1,952,    „
2,196,
Amount of
Loss.
$12,681
7,762
$565, S46
$34,890
2
7
3
3
2,002
10.24S
6,830
4,422
.    19
$58,392
1,403
10,027
1,0S2
2,187
4,273
584
1,848
400
3,270
1,700
$34,774
$52,267
13,136
1,800
33,005
49,663
24,823
132,162
83,4-54
24,457
135,617
125,049
93,308
51,175
93,939
20,178
$934,033
$2,667,554
$5,801
431.344
2,230,409
$2,067,554 I 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
TABLE III.—CAUSES OF FIRES.
Causes of Fires.
Ashes against wood	
Burning sulphur ignited table...	
Cake-racks too near oven	
Candle" carelessness	
Can of cresol being heated, exploded	
Carburettor back-tiring	
Child playing with fire in fireplace	
Clothes left on hot-water pipe	
Clothes too near fireplace	
Clothes too near stove or stove-pipe..	
Cloth used to clean stove ignited •	
Coal-gas explosion	
Coal-oil carelessness	
Coal-tar overflowing into fire under tank	
Coat too near chimney	
Collision	
Cushion too near gas fireplace	
Defective chimney -. ,
Defective feed-pipe connection..	
Defective film	
Defective fireplace	
Defective furnace or furnace-pipe...	
Defective gas connection	
Defective lamp	
Defective matches	
Defective motor	
Defective oil-stove	
Defective stove or stove-pipe	
Defective wiring :	
Dutch oven back-firing-	
Electrical appliances	
Exposure	
Feed-line being repaired, electric light broke, igniting gasoline.
Fire-crackers	
Floor-boards ignited from exhaust-pipe	
Furnace explosion	
Furnace or furnace-pipe insufficiently protected	
Gasoline carelessness	
Gasoline explosion	
Gasoline leaking on exhaust-pipe	
Gasoline-stove explosion	
Gasoline-toreh carelessness	
Gasoline-torch explosion	
Gas-plate insufficiently protected	
Grease on stove	
Hot flat-iron put in bed	
Hot stove-lid dropped on floor	
Incendiary	
Incubator upset	
Knives laid on gas-stove, handles ignited	
Lamp explosion	
Lamp upset	
Lantern explosion	
Lantern upset....	
Lightning	
Live coals	
Loose plank on plank road broke gasoline-tank	
Match carelessness	
Matches, children with	
Matches, mice with	
Mattress too near stove	
Molten metal falling on floor	
Molten metal, touching water, exploded	
Oil-pipe cracked in oven	
Overheating of machinery bearings 	
Number.
Amount of
Loss.
18
1
1
13
1
30
1
1
2
30
1
10
8
1
1
6
1
147
'2
4
24
14
1
1
4
3
3
52
36
1
96
102
1
11
1
1
'5
10
3
15
1
3
3
5
17
1
'2
18
1
1
7
10
1
1
7
21
1
27
48
■5
1
1
1
1
1
$4,707
20
97
263
50
'24,229
30
17
296
4,584
138
1,067
3,519
15
5
4,240
2
169,089
1,050
4,226
11,977
28,350
'25
73
73
'2,100
695
117,202
61,142
1,843
33,211
175,23S
■271
847
5
14,395
2,1S7
5,193
167
3,038
2,642
12,397
350
557
10,311
50
70
78.071
775
17
11,673
7,258
1,863
860
1,302
1,681
200
1'2,8S1
14,567
1,881-
8
10
150
183
3,247 REPORT OF FIRE MARSHAL, 1928.
I 13
TABLE III.—CAUSES OF FIRES—Continued.
Causes of Fires.
Number.
Amount of
Loss.
Paper from fireplace	
Paper from stove	
Rug left on gas-radiator	
Short circuit	
Smokers' carelessness	
Sparks from acetylene welder	
Sparks from battery	
Sparks from boiler	
Sparks from burning rubbish	
Sparks from bush tire....	
Sparks from chimney	
Sparks from engine	
Sparks from fireplace ..
Sparks from furnace or furnace-pipe.	
Sparks from locomotive	
Sparks from mill burner	
Sparks from motor	
Sparks from picking-machine	
Sparks from slash fire	
Sparks from smoke-stack  	
Sparks from smudge lire..  	
Sparks from stove or stove-pipe	
Sparks in gasoline vapour 	
Spontaneous combustion 	
Static  electricity	
Stove explosion	
Stove or stove-pipe insufficiently protected
Sun's rays	
Tar boiling over	
Tea-wagon left too near fireplace	
Thawing pipes	
Unknown	
Wood too near furnace	
Wood too near stove....	
Totals	
1
4
1
98
377
1
1
5
11
11
250
'2
111
5
3
9
4
1
1
5.
2
35
a
41
6
3
79
1
1
1
3
266
3
4
$13
479
551
140,60S
143,603
50
50
4,200
4,086
22,189
176,347
567
3,215
1,859
766
16,510
72,195
33.8S7
12,810
110,231
3,183
23,295
2,624
136,307
■2,263
1,245
78,736
6
74
12
479
832,841
1,254
2,340
2,196
$2,667,554 I 14
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
TABLE IV.—CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY BURNED AND CAUSES.
Property.
Causes.
Amount of Loss.
Apartments
Automobiles
Bakeries .
Banks
Barber-shops
172
Barns     41
Ashes against wood   2
Candle carelessness   1
Clothes left on hot-water pipe   1
Clothes too near stove   2
Defective chimney   2
Defective furnace  1
Defective match   1
Electrical appliances  1
Fire-crackers  r.  1
Gas-plate insufficiently protected   1
Grease on stove   1
Lamp  upset   1
Match carelessness  3
Short circuit    1
Smokers' carelessness  32
Sparks from chimney   7
Sparks from fireplace   3
Sparks from stove   2
Spontaneous combustion  1
Stove insufficiently protected    1
Carburettor back-firing  21
Collision  6
Defective feed-pipe connection   2
Defective wiring   4
Exposure   9
Feed-line being repaired, electric light  broke,
igniting gasoline    1
Fire-crackers    1
Floor-boards ignited from exhaust-pipe   1
Gasoline carelessness  2
Gasoline leaking on exhaust-pipe   13
Incendiary     1
Lightning   1
Loose plank on plank road broke gasoline-tank 1
Match carlessness  1
Matches, children with  1
Short circuit    65
Smokers' carelessness   10
T'n known  32
Cake-racks too near oven  1
Exposure    2
Candle carelessness  :  1
Electrical appliances  1
Exposure   1
Smokers' carelessness  1
Unknown     1
Clothes too near stove   1
Electrical appliances   1
Coal-oil. carelessness  1
Defective fireplace  1
Exposure   2
Lamp upset   1
Lantern explosion  1
Lantern  upset   1
Match carelessness   2
Matches, children with   3
Smokers' carelessness   2
Sparks from burning rubbish   1
Spa-ks from bush fire  1
$1,413
12
17
19
129
24
9
23
45
12
128
10
5,454
699
85
48
8,594
4
$6,184
4,240
1,050
2,570
1,153
271
10
5
702
2 229
500
160
200
1,200
100
22,101
1,827
15,683
$97
7 H<>2
$50
49
3,817
54
50
$64
1,084
$600
117
1,470
1,700
1,863
860
8,402
2.454
5,230
2.800
475
$16.7.'
60,245
,419
4.020 REPORT OF FIRE MARSHAL, 1928.
I 15
TABLE IV.—CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY BURNED AND CAUSES—Continued.
Property.
Barns and stables   2
Barracks     1
Blacksmith-shops     3
Boarding-houses    6
Boat-building sheds   2
Bottling-works     1
Bunk-houses      4
Canneries   2
Carpenter-shops   ,  2
Chicken-brooders  3
Chicken-houses     9
Churches    4
Clubs  4
Dry-cleaning establishments.... 5
Dry-kilns    1
Dwellings   1,266
Causes.
Sparks from smudge fire   1
Spontaneous combustion     6
Unknown  18
Exposure  1
Unknown  1
Stove insufficiently protected  1
Exposure   1
Unknown  2
Defective chimney   1
Incendiary   1
Smokers' carelessness  3
Sparks from chimney   1
Smokers' carelessness  1
Sparks from furnace   1
Exposure   1
Sparks from bush fire   1
Unknown  3
Sparks from chimney   1
Unknown     1
Short circuit   1
Smokers' carelessness   1
Defective oil-stove  1
Lamp explosion   2
Defective lamp   1
Defective stove-pipe   1
Exposure   1
Smokers' carelessness  1
Unknown  5
Defective furnace   1
Stove insufficiently  protected  1
Unknown     1
Wood too near furnace  1
Exposure  .'.  1
Smokers' carelessness  ,  2
Sparks from chimney   1
Sparks from chimney   1
Sparks from motor   1
Static electricity  3
Sparks from smoke-stack  :  1
Ashes against wood   8
Burning sulphur ignited table  1
Candle carelessness   10
Child playing with fire in fireplace   1
Clothes too near fireplace   2
Clothes too near stove or stove-pipe   25
Cloth used to clean stove ignited   1
Coal-gas explosion   6
Coal-oil carelessness   6
Coat too near chimney  1
Cushion too near gas fireplace   1
Defective  chimney    118
Defective fireplace   22
Defective furnace or furnace-pipe  7
Amount of Loss.
$25
25,385
38,983
$3,000
650
$143
18,906
$1,539
2,700
23
46
$7,110
50
$908
27,628
$228
107,366
$6,608
1,941
$300
2,362
$73
125
10
12
3,025
$11,144
91
7.145
610
$138
289
43
$7
490
1.382
$2,170
20
189
30
296
4,313
138
323
2,819
147,681
11,829
7,397
$90,364
3,650
12
19,049
4,308
7,160
210
28,536
107,594
8,549
2,002
3,245
18,900
1,879
78 I 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
TABLE IV.—CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY BURNED AND CAVSES—Continued.
Property.
Causes.
Amount of Loss.
Dwellings and barns   1
Electrical plants   3
Electrical sub-stations   1
Engines     2
Factories  (bed and mattress) 1
Factories (box)  3
Defective matches   3
Defective stove or stove-pipe   39
Defective wiring   19
Electrical appliances  74
Exposure  42
Fire-crackers     6
Furnace or furnace-pipe insufficiently protected 4
Gasoline carelessness  3
Gasoline explosion    1
Gasoline-stove explosion  1
Gasoline-torch carelessness    1
Gasoline-torch explosion   1
Gas-plate insufficiently protected   2
Grease on stove  12
Hot flat-iron put in bed   1
Hot stove-lid dropped on floor   2
Incendiary     12
Incubator upset   1
Knives laid on gas-stove, handles ignited  1
Lamp explosion   5
Lamp upset   6
Lightning  4
Live coals  20
Match carelessness  16
Matches, children with   34
Matches, mice with   4
Mattress too near stove    1
Paper from fireplace  1
Paper from stove  3
Short circuit  6
Smokers' carelessness   179
Sparks from burning rubbish  5
Sparks from bush fire     6
Sparks from chimney  210
Sparks from fireplace  107
Sparks from furnace or furnace-pipe  4
Sparks from locomotive  1
Sparks from mill burner  1
Sparks from smoke-stack   1
Sparks from smudge fire   1
Sparks from stove or stove-pipe   32
Spontaneous combustion    10
Stove explosion   3
Stove or stove-pipe insufficiently protected  58
Sun's  rays   .'  1
Tar boiling over  1
Tea-wagon left too near fireplace  1
Thawing pipes  3
Unknown  103
Wood too near furnace  2
Wood too near stove  3
Incendiary •  1
Short circuit   2
Unknown  1
Lightning  1
Short circuit     1
Sparks from battery    J
Spontaneous combustion   1
Exposure   1
Short circuit   1
Unknown    1
$64
50,089
26,512
13,083
26,621
769
2,167
446
50
2,642
14
5
31
2,208
50
70
8,662
775
17
9,311
4,083
122
1,646
2,465
9,310
1,358
8
13
444
1,129
45,216
394
6,585
163,081
2,379
1,809
631
5
33
3,157
22,847
4,749
1,245
70,408
6
74
12
479
133,037
644
2,330
$17,180
50
50
$975
74,400
135
,497
4,500
17,230
1,000
787
75,510 REPORT OF FIRE MARSHAL, 1928.
I 17
TABLE IV.—CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY BURNED AND CAUSES—Continued.
Property.
Causes.
Amount of Loss.
Factories (cider and vinegar)
Factories (furniture)  	
Factories   (roofing material).. 1
Factories  (sash and door)  3
Factories  (saw)  1
Factories (shoe)  1
Factories (varnish and paint) 1
Factories (wood-pipe)   1
Factories  (wood veneer)   1
Fishing-boats  — 4
Foundries  1
Fur-dressing plants   1
Garages     56
Garages and dwellings   4
Gasoline-stations   3
Grandstands    1
Greenhouses   3
Halls   6
Hay-stacks  1
Hospitals   4
Sparks from motor   1
Exposure  1
Sparks from picking-machine  1
Spontaneous  combustion   1
Coal-tar overflowing into fire under tank   1
Exposure   1
Sparks from mill burner  1
Sparks from smoke-stack    1
Defective furnace  1
Exposure  1
Unknown  1
Short  circuit   1
Defective furnace  1
Carburettor back-firing  1
Coal-oil carelessness .*.  1
Gasoline explosion  1
StoAre insufficiently protected    1
Matches, children with  1
Incendiary     1
Ashes against wood   2
Carburettor back-firing  2
Defective chimney   1
Defective motor .-.  1
Defective oil-stove   1
Defective wiring  4
Exposure  5
Gasoline carelessness    2
Gasoline explosion  1
Gasoline leaking on exhaust-pipe  1
Gasoline-torch carelessness  1
Gasoline-torch explosion  1
Match carelessness  1
Short circuit  4
Smokers' carelessness   7
Sparks from burning rubbish   1
Sparks from chimney  2
Sparks in gasoline vapour   1
Spontaneous combustion  1
Stove insufficiently protected  2
Unknown  15
Exposure  1
Smokers' carelessness  1
Unknown     2
Defective motor  1
Gasoline leaking on exhaust-pipe   1
Sparks in gasoline vapour  1
Smokers' carelessness   1
Short circuit   1
Unknown     2
Defective chimney  1
Smokers' carelessness   2
Unknown     3
Smokers' carelessness   1
Defective chimney  1
Electrical appliances   2
Short circuit  1
33,887
73
$186
10
55
$141
100
100
560
$567
11,143
263
1,928
150
9,855
5,295
260
17
291
11,383
225
15
2,400
5,513
550
57
324
131
161
21,068
$3,572
700
10,416
$50
518
I.3O0
$1,363
7,650
9,409
15,285
.>oo
106
17
$71,000
34,049
15
251
440
35,056
25,431
238
01
001
25
61,000
71,596
14,688
2,868
250
9,013
24,744
600
158 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
TABLE IV.—CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY BURNED AND CAUSES—Continued.
Property.
Causes,
Amount of Loss.
Hotels     70
House-boats
Launches ....
Laundries
Logging camps
Offices
10
Lumber-piles  1
Lumber-yards     3
Machine-shops   2
Mining property  4
Oil-refining plants   1
Pile-drivers    1
Pool-rooms  2
Post-offices  1
Printing-offices     1
Ashes against wood '.  1
Candle carelessness  1
Defective chimney    2
Defective oil-stove   1
Defective stove  1
Defective wiring  ;  1
Electrical appliances   1
Exposure  1
Furnace-pipe insufficiently protected   1
Match carelessness  2
Short circuit  1
Smokers' carelessness  47
Sparks from chimney   6
Stove insufficiently protected  1
Unknown     3
Unknown  2
Carburettor back-firing .,  6
Short circuit   1
Sparks from chimney   1
Unknown  2
Smokers' carelessness  1
Sparks from chimney   3
Unknown   2
Wood too near stove  1
Dutch oven back-firing   1
Smokers' carelessness  1
Sparks from boiler  1
Sparks from bush fire   1
Sparks from engine  '..  1
Sparks from slash fire  1
Sparks from stove-pipe  1
Static electricity   1
Stove insufficiently protected   1
Sparks from locomotive   1
Smokers' carelessness   1
Sparks from bush fire   1
Unknown  1
Stove insufficiently protected   1
Unknown     1
Gasoline carelessness : 1
Smokers' carelessness   1
Sparks from smoke-stack   1
Unknown     1
Defective  chimney  1
Gas-plate insufficiently protected   1
Lamp upset  1
Paper from stove  1
Smokers' carelessness  3
Sparks from chimney   1
Unknown     1
Oil-pipe cracked in oven    1
Sparks from chimney  1
Exposure  1
Matches, children with   1
Smokers' carelessness   1
Spontaneous combustion   1
$14
12
10,747
245
6,310
9,827
40
7,605
20
238
199
6,603
1,254
5
54,761
$6,761
3,025
500
3.825
$263
386
14,833
10
$1,843
668
3,500
11,561
542
12,810'
400
508
1,375
$7
2,464
1,309
$104
6,750
$3,250
2,000
110,000
41,008
$115
500
3
35
397
18
1,500
$1,548
25
$97,880
305
14,111
15,492
33,207
60
3,780
6,854
156,258
2,568
183
44
1,573
153
756 REPORT OP FIRE MARSHAL, 1928.
I 19
TABLE IV.—CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY BURNED AND CAUSES—Confirmed.
Property.
Causes.
Amount of Loss.
Pulp-mills       3
Railway-stations        1
Restaurants   —    11
Rooming-houses      37
Roundhouses
Sawmills 	
Schools
11
Sheds       19
Shingle-mills        7
Slaughter-houses       1
Smelting plants      21
Sparks from chimney  1
Spontaneous combustion  1
Unknown  1
Exposure        1
Defective chimney     2
Defective stove-pipe  1
Grease on stove  2
Smokers' carelessness  2
Sparks from chimney  2
Stove insufficiently protected   1
Unknown  1
Defective chimney  3
Defective wiring  1
Electrical appliances  3
Exposure :   1
Gas-plate insufficiently protected  1
Incendiary     1
Live coals    1
Short circuit    1
Smokers' carelessness  19
Sparks from chimney  4
Sparks from fireplace     1
Stove-pipe insufficiently protected   1
Sparks from locomotive   1
Ashes against wood  1
Defective furnace  1
Overheating of machinery bearings   1
Short circuit  1
Sparks from mill burner  :...  3
Static electricity  1
Unknown —  7
Defective chimney  1
Defective fireplace  1
Defective stove-pipe  ' 1
Lightning         1
Short circuit    1
Sparks from chimney     3
Spontaneous  combustion     1
Stove-pipe insufficiently protected  1
Unknown  1
Ashes against wood  3
Defective stove-pipe  1
Matches, children with     2
Smokers' carelessness     2
Sparks from burning rubbish    2
Sparks from bush fire     1
Sparks from chimney    1
Sparks from mill burner     1
Unknown  6
Sparks from boiler  1
Sparks from mill burner  3
Unknown     3
Unknown    .'.  1
Can of cresol being heated, exploded  1
Coal-gas explosion  2
Defective wiring     1
Match carelessness  1
Molten metal falling on floor  1
$6,677
18,191
.814
$296
2,886
716
21
68
256
52
$80
200
40
2,317
3
200
35
75
2,241
70
751
1,150
$350
200
3,247
168
15,550
173
39,087
31
800
20
371
2,671
20
350
1,324
$190
5
15
250
77
196
8
15
1,230
930
11,121
$50
125
50
5
10
15
4,295
7,180
75
58,775
6,250
1,986
12,721
300 I 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
TABLE IV.—CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY BURNED AND CAUSES—Continued,
Property.
Causes.
Amount of Loss.
Stables
Stores
00
Stores and apartments       19
Stores and dwellings
Molten metal, touching water, exploded   1
Short circuit   1
Sparks from acetylene welder  1
Sparks from boiler   3
Sparks from chimney  1
Sparks from motor  2
Spontaneous combustion  4
Static electricity  1
Unknown  1
Exposure  1
Matches, children with  1
Smokers' carelessness  2
Unknown  2
Defective chimney   5
Defective furnace  1
Defective stove  3
Defective wiring  1
Electrical  appliances  8
Exposure  12
Fire-crackers     1
Gasoline carelessness   2
Gasoline-torch explosion  :  1
Grease on  stove  1
Lamp upset  1
Rug left on gas-radiator .. 1
Short circuit  3
Smokers' carelessness   21
Sparks from burning rubbish  1
Sparks from chimney   1
Sparks from engine   1
Spontaneous combustion    6
Stove or stove-pipe insufficiently protected  2
Unknown     18
Ashes against wood —  1
Clothes too near stove  1
Defective gas connection  1
Defective motor  1
Defective wiring  1
Electrical  appliances   1
Match carelessness  1
Matches,  children with  2
Smokers' carelessness     7
Sparks from ehimney , 1
Spontaneous combustion  1
Unknown  1
Clothes too near stove   1
Coal-gas explosion  1
Defective chimney  4
Defective stove-pipe  1
Defective wiring   2
Exposure  4
Fire-crackers           2
Furnace explosion   1
Grease on stove  1
Matches, children with   2
Smokers' carelessness  2
Spax-ks from burning rubbish    1
Stove insufficiently protected ..'.  2
Unknown     4
$150
100
50
30
5
15
55
20O
100
$1,868
435
825
400
$434
8,084
7,413
200
7,133
38,522
10
475
120
195
1,460
551
476
5,049
255
100
25
6,540
90
69,267
$3
43
25
122
768
7
428
201
411
86
830
15,805
$145
179
6,590
7,224
3,453
14,234
23
14,395
7,147
102
26,551
10
217
20,548
$945
140,390
.18,729
100,818 REPORT OF FIRE MARSHAL, 1928.
I 21
TABLE IV.—CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY BURNED AND CAUSES—Continued.
Property.
Stores and hotels
Stores and offices       14
Stores, offices, and apartments      1
Stores, offices, and rooms       4
Stores and rooms      29
Street-ears  2
Tents        2
Theatres   6
Tug-boats   4
Undertaking-parlours   1
Warehouses  26
Totals   2,196
Causes.
Defective chimney   1
Defective stove   1
Smokers' carelessness  1
Defective chimney  1
Defective furnace  1
Defective stove  1
Electrical appliances   2
Exposure  1
Smokers' carelessness  6
Spontaneous combustion  1
Unknown  1
Smokers' carelessness      1
Defective stove-pipe  1
Exposure  1
Smokers' carelessness  1
Unknown  1
Defective chimney  1
Defective wiring  1
Electrical appliances   2
Exposure     1
Incendiary  1
Short circuit   2
Smokers' carelessness  10
Sparks from chimney  1
Spontaneous combustion   2
Stove or stove-pipe insufficiently protected  4
Unknown     4
Short circuit  2
Smokers' carelessness  1
Unknown  1
Defective film    4
Exposure     1
Unknown  1
Gasoline-torch carelessness   1
Sparks from smoke-stack   1
Spontaneous combustion  1
Stove insufficiently protected   1
Sparks from chimney  1
Coal-gas explosion  1
Defective   chimney       2
Defective stove-pipe  1
Defective wiring  1
Exposure     0
Matches, children with  1
Matches, mice with  1
Short circuit  1
Smokers' carelessness  3
Spontaneous combustion      3
Unknown  6
 ...:         2,196
Amount of Loss.
14,189
34
$320
1,000
747
6
3,523
661
12
7,188
$20,014
5,279
05
20
$10
2,554
11,629
6,250
500
10,295
4,778
50
62,962
3,703
17,583
$25
250
$4,226
3 39
11
$1,000
05
175
250
$14,283
13,457
3,732
25,378
120,314
28
275
4.376
1,490
250
$440
77
7,400
5,153
4,881
1,900
523
400
5,241
7,047
90,932
         123,994
$2,667,554 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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I   r,   r,  <5  CQ  O   fc   Q REPORT OF FIRE MARSHAL, 1028.
I 23
TABLE VI.—LOSS OF LIFE, 1924-28.
Cause of Fire.
Loss of Life.
Adults.
Children.
Bunk-house....	
9
1
1
1
1
1
'2
Defective stove-pipe	
Molten metal, touching water, exploded...	
Totals,  1928    	
16
8
8
5
1
Totals,  1927	
4
Totals,  1926	
10
Totals,  1925	
4
Totals,  1924	
5
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chari.es F.  Banfield, Printer to tbe King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1929.
625-629-6621

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