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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1929

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL EEPOET
OF
THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR
FOE   THE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
192?
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
rrinted by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to tbe King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1928.  To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The Annual Report of the Department of Labour of the Province for the year 1927 is
herewith respectfully submitted.
A. M. MANSON,
Minister of Labour.
Office of the Minister of Labour,
June, 1928. The Honourable A. M. Manson,
Minister of Labour.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my Tenth Annual Report on the work of the
Department of Labour up to December 31st, 1927.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
J. D. McNIVEN,
Deputy Minister of Labour.
Department of Labour,
Victoria, B.C., June, 1928. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Deputy Minister      7
New Economic and Social Laws      7
A Record Provincial Pay-roll      7
" Hours of Work Act " in Operation        7
Reduction in Average Working-hours     8
A New Regulation      8
Extending the " Male Minimum Wage Act "      9
Minimum Wage Claims before the Courts      9
Minimum Wage for Females—A Contrast      9
New Legislation      9
Statistics of Trade and Industries   11
Returns from 4,597 Employers  11
A Return of Occupational Wages   11
Working Capital and Value of Production   12
Total Pay-roll of all Industries   12
Where Wage Payments have increased   14
Nationality of Workers   16
Percentage of Asiatics declining  ,  16
Prevalent Weekly Wages  18
Changes in the Wage-rates   21
Fewer Low-paid Workers   22
Larger Number of Apprentices  23
Employers with a Large Pay-roll   23
Statistical Tables  ,  24
The " Male Minimum Wage Act "   38
Two Orders made by the Board   38
Thousands receiving Higher Pay   38
Permits for Handicapped Workers   38
Changed Personnel of the Board   38
The Catering Inquiry   39
The Case for the Employers   39
Case for the Employees  40
The Catering Order issued  40
No Colour Distinction   41
More Whites and Fewer Orientals   41
Position of Camp Kitchen Employees   42
Decision reversed in Court of Appeal   43
Appeal refused by Privy Council   45
Flunkeys and the Minimum Wage  45
Another Reversal on Appeal  47
Labour Disputes and Conciliation   50
Vancouver Island Coal Industry  :  50
Report of Board of Investigation   50
Miners Vote against a Strike   53
The Situation at other Mines   53
Summary of Labour Disputes, 1927  55
Employment Service  56
Conditions during the Year  56
Business transacted   58
Seasonal Labour Requirements   58
Employment for Handicapped Men  59
Other Branches of Activity  60
Business transacted Monthly, B.C. Offices, 1927   60
Inspection of Factories  62 Page.
Report of the Minimum Wage Board  .",  65
Amendments to the Act   65
New Order for Mercantile Industry   65
Court Cases  :  65
Benefits to Employees   66
Statistical Section  67
Fluctuation of Average Wage   71
Status of the Workers   71
Comparative Figures before and after Minimum Wage Legislation   72
Conclusion     74
Appendix—Summary of Orders  75
Associations of Employers  79
Union Directory  :  81 REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF LABOUR
FOR 1927.
With the industries of the Province rather more than maintaining, on the whole, the high
level of prosperity which they reached in 1926, the labour record for 1927 is decidedly good.
Labour disputes were few and of slight importance, the total amount of working:time lost during
the year from this cause being 17,006 days. In the last three years the lost time from labour
disputes has been, respectively, 23,300 days in 1925, 28,016 days in 1926, and 17,006 days in 1927.
The latter figure is the smallest for any year since the Department of Labour came into existence.
NEW ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LAWS.
This fact calls attention to the great success which in recent years has attended efforts to
preserve amicable relations between employers and employed in our industries. It is a matter
of frequent comment how different is the situation to-day from that of former times, when our
industries were frequently in a state of turmoil. The change which has been brought about
is no doubt due to a number of causes, among which may be mentioned the ameliorating effect
of measures that are to-day among the laws of British Columbia, such as the " Hours of Work
Act," the " Minimum Wage Acts " for male and female workers, the " Semi-monthly Payment
of Wages Act," the Old-age Pensions Act," the " Mothers' Pensions Act," the " Workmen's
Compensation Act," and the steps which have been taken from time to time to mitigate the
hardships caused by unemployment. Such measures as these, carrying with them a recognition
of the point of view of those who labour for a living, cannot but have been an important factor
in introducing a better spirit into our industrial affairs.
A RECORD PROVINCIAL PAY-ROLL.
In the matter of industrial advancement the Province made a new record for the year, the
industrial pay-roll, as ascertained mainly from returns made to this Department, reaching a
total for 1927 of $177,522,758.14, which is $2,348,921.67 more than the previous highest figure,
that for 1926. As to the part played by various industries in bringing about this result, perhaps
the most welcome feature is the recovery made by coal-mining from the depression of the
previous year. Metal-mining, metal trades, and the public utilities also register a very satisfactory advance, which is offset, however, by a slight reduction in the figures for the lumbering
industry, contracting, pulp and paper, and Coast shipping. Our statistical report contains an
interesting section dealing with the nationality of workers in our industries, the principal
feature last year having been the continued reduction in the percentage of Orientals, which is
now down to 10.20. Industrial employment during the year reached its highest point in August
and its lowest in January. Wage-rates were, generally speaking, on the up-grade, and the
weekly average again shows a slight increase. A very pronounced reduction, during the past
two years, of the proportion of industrial workers receiving exceptionally low wages, and an
increase in the number of apprentices employed, are other points noted in the report.
THE "HOURS OF WORK ACT" IN OPERATION.
The provisions of the " Hours of Work Act" are being very generally observed by both
employers and employed. As the Act has now been effective for three or four years, its novelty
has disappeared, and the observance of the legal eight-hour day has become almost a matter of
routine in our industrial operations. Difficulties of administration have been gradually smoothed
over and regulations made to meet special conditions which have arisen. The principal industry
affected by the Act, as well as by the initial order under the " Male Minimum Wage Act," was
that of lumbering. When it became apparent during the summer that questions arising out
of the application of these Acts to the lumbering industry had been settled, and that the Board
of Adjustment had new duties to face in the way of setting up a legal minimum wage for the
catering and other industries, Mr. T. F. Paterson and Mr. F. V. Foster, members of the Board,
asked to be relieved of their responsibilities, in order that their places could be taken by others
more familiar with the new work to be done. Their resignations became effective, that of
Mr. Foster on September 30th and that of Mr. Paterson on November 30th, and the vacancies L 8
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
thus created on the Board of Adjustment were filled by the appointment of Mr. E. B. Perry and
Mr. Harry Wood, both of Vancouver, whose experience in the catering industry was invaluable
in the new work to be undertaken.
REDUCTION IN AVERAGE WORKING-HOURS.
The year's experience with the " Hours of Work Act," though somewhat uneventful, has had
the important result of further reducing the average weekly hours of work in our industries.
Such average during the past twelve months amounted to 48.55 hours weekly, which compares
favourably with an average of 48.84 hours in 1926. A comparative table of the average weekly
hours for our various industries may be given for the last two years, and also for 1924, the last
year before the " Hours of Work Act" became operative. These averages are compiled from
returns made to the Department of Labour by employers:—
Average Weekly Hours of AVork, by Industries.
Industry.
1924.
1926.
1927.
Breweries	
49.04
51.51
44.26
47.90
56.76
47.72
52.44
53.67
45.12
46.01
43.65
46.66
47.88
50.79
52.01
54.01
52.29
55.58
54.05
55.44
44.36
53.12
48.79
47.97
44.63
45.90
53.24
44.73
55.95
46.12
48.90
47.91
47.10
44.46
48.00
53.29
45.57
51.49
51.82
44.81
45.14
43.96
46.54
47.26
48.71
48.06
49.03
46.78
50.48
49.23
48.32
45.81
55.43
47.67
51.46
44.25
45.58
48.23
44.14
53.21
45.83
46.28
45.60
46.94
44.48
48.02
52.48
44.97
45.85
50.65
46.38
45.52
44.25
46.28
Leather and fur goods, manufacture of	
46.77
48.63
49.08
44.00
45.88
Planing-mills	
49.81
49.63
48.84
45.51
52.26
Miscellaneous trades and industries	
47.20
54.35
44.51
Printing and publishing .-.	
45.51
48.46
45.13
52.94
45.90
Wood-manufacture (not elsewhere specified)	
46.42
A NEW REGULATION.
The regulations made by the Board of Adjustment were amended on June 23rd, when
Regulation 9, which had provided for the non-application of the Act to ship-repair plants,
engineering-works, etc., " when engaged on urgent work which must be done in order that other
industries shall not be seriously handicapped in their operations," was rescinded, and a new
regulation substituted to the effect that " All persons employed in shipyards, engineering-works,
machine-shops, foundries, welding plants, sheet-metal works, belt-works, saw-works, and plants
of a similar nature, when engaged on emergency repair-work only, are exempt from the provisions of section 3 of the Act."
It will be seen that the original clause was capable of a wider interpretation than the new
one, experience having convinced the Board of the necessity for limiting the exemption which
was granted three years ago. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 9
EXTENDING THE "MALE MINIMUM WAGE ACT."
The administration of the " Male Minimum Wage Act" is the subject of a separate section
of this report. Until the close of the year now under review the only order made by the Board
of Adjustment under the Act was the one affecting the lumbering group of industries. In the
latter part of the year, however, the question of enforcing a legal minimum wage for male
employees in the catering industry was taken up, and public meetings were held and extensive
inquiries made into conditions in the business. The result has been an Order issued early in
the present year, bringing a minimum wage into effect for catering and restaurant employees
as from April 1st, 1928. The minimum fixed was virtually the same as that for the lumbering
industry—40 cents an hour—but a slight variation is provided for in order to establish the rates
of deductions for board, the pay also being somewhat higher in cases where the working-day
is divided into shifts.
MINIMUM WAGE CLAIMS BEFORE THE COURTS.
Claims of male employees under the Lumbering Order have come before the Courts. In one
such case the employers sought to interpret the Order as being non-effective in the case of cooks
engaged in lumber camps, and at the first hearing of the case the Judge's ruling was in their
favour. The Department of Labour, however, assisted the employees in carrying the issue to
the British Columbia Court of Appeal, and there a unanimous decision was given upholding
the claim for the legal minimum wage. The employers endeavoured to carry the case to the
Privy Council, but Lord Haldane, on behalf of their Lordships, refused to allow leave to appeal.
Another case, in this instance affecting the claim of a man engaged as a camp flunkey to be paid
the legal minimum wage, has since been the subject of contrary rulings by the Judges, and at
the time of this report going to press is awaiting a hearing on appeal by the Supreme Court of
Canada. The legal questions involved in these cases have affected only one particular class,
and that a comparatively small class, of the employees in the lumbering industry, those engaged
in the cook-houses. As regards the large general body of lumber-workers, both in the mills and
in the camps, their right to receive the legal minimum wage has not been seriously challenged.
MINIMUM WAGE  FOR FEMALES—A CONTRAST.
Only one change has been made during the year in the orders regulating the working-hours
and wages of female employees under the (female) "Minimum Wage Act." Since the Order
affecting the Mercantile Industry was made, the Minimum Wage Board had been empowered
to regulate working-hours as well as wages, and in accordance with this provision the hours have
now been limited to forty-eight a week. The Aet has been operative for a period of ten years,
and the report of the Minimum Wage Board gives an interesting resume of what has been
accomplished. Wage-lists which were supplied to the Board in 1918 show that in that year no
less than 56.84 per cent, of the female employees were receiving less than the legal minimum
wage to which -they would now be entitled.
NEW LEGISLATION.
Among the new laws which were passed in the last session of the Provincial Legislature,
those which are of special interest to working men and women may be briefly summarized:—
The " Civil Service Act Amendment Act, 1928," increased the maximum salary which may
be attained in the various classes and grades of the Provincial Civil Service. The original Act
was amended in certain details relating to the examination of applicants for the service.
The " Superannuation Act Amendment Act, 1928," also affects the position of civil servants,
as well as other employees contributing to the Superannuation Fund. In the case of a
contributor of not less than fifteen years' service, in the event of his death, a monthly allowance
to a widow or dependent relative may be the same as would have been granted to the
contributor had he been superannuated immediately prior to his death. This takes the place
of the original provision, which was for a refund only of contributions made by the deceased,
with accumulated interest. Another section provides for contributions and interest, in the event
of a contributor's death, to be paid to the contributor's widow, or person nominated by the
contributor in writing. Where there is no widow or person so nominated, the refund is made
to the personal representatives of the deceased. The " Coal-mines Regulation Act Amendment Act, 19.28," provides that the management of
a mine shall, on the written instructions of the employee, make payments of the whole or any
part of moneys due to the employee to any other person for hospital dues, sick and accident
fund dues, or union dues.
The " Trade Licence Board Act" provides that the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may,
on the application of a Municipal Council, constitute a Trade Licence Board for a municipality.
Such Board will be empowered to issue, transfer, renew, or cancel any licence or licences to do
business in such municipality, to regulate the conduct of business therein, and fix, charge, and
collect fees therefor. Licences may be refused by the Board if such refusal is considered
advisable in the public interest. In determining the advisability or otherwise of issuing or
renewing a licence, the Board may have regard to the better regulation, distribution, or zoning
of the class of business concerned, the suitability of the premises, the character of the merchandise, the fitness of the applicant to carry on the business, and other matters. The Board may
class and deal with tenant-farmers in the locality. If thought advisable, the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council may extend the application of the Act to unorganized districts.
The " Semi-monthly Payment of Wages Act " was amended so as to make the Act applicable
to a municipal corporation with reference to its " outside " employees.
In the " Woodmen's Lien for Wages Act" provision was made for the attachment of logs
or timber by order of the Registrar of a Court, on an affidavit being made by a claimant for
wages due. The " Woodmen's Lien for Wages Act Amendment Act, 1928," provides that the
statement by claimant in the affidavit may state that " he has good reason to believe, and does
believe, that the logs or timber are about to be removed out of the district or locality in which
the same then lie." Another new clause refers to the circumstances in which a Judge may order
logs or timber to be sold. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 11
STATISTICS OF TRADE AND INDUSTRIES.
Since the Department of Labour commenced its annual compilation of statistics in 1918,
there has been an almost continuous growth in the trade and industries of the Province. In only
one year, 1921, known in business circles as the year of the after-the-war deflation, was there
an actual set-back. In other years the pace of the increase has been varied; usually a period
of rapid advancement has been followed by one of comparatively slow progress and consolidation
of the gains already made. This is shown in the records of 1925 and 1926, both conspicuous for
industrial expansion, while in 1927 we have again gone ahead, but the speed has been somewhat
abated.
The object of the Department in making this annual collection of statistics is to acquire
information as to the pay-roll in our different industries, the weekly wages of the workers, their
working-hours, the nationality of the persons employed, and the fluctuation of employment in
each industry at different periods of the year. In the questionnaire addressed to employers
for the year 1927, however, the Department added a new inquiry, employers being invited to
state the amount of their fixed and working capital, and the gross and net values of the year's
production.
RETURNS FROM 4,597 EMPLOYERS.
The questionnaire is sent out to industrial employers at the beginning of the year, and
information along the lines indicated, covering the firms' operations for the preceding twelve
months, is requested by the middle of February. Had the request been complied with in every
case—and the period allowed seems to be a reasonable one—it would have been possible to
publish this report at an earlier date, thus enhancing its value to labour and to the business
interests of the Province. But with many employers the habit of delay seems incurable. The
Department has seriously considered the question of prosecuting the delinquents under section
8 of the " Department of Labour Act," which provides for penalties in such cases, and unless
there is an improvement in this respect on the part of a comparatively few employers this form
of compulsion may have, to be resorted to. Meanwhile we have to thank the employers who
made their returns both promptly and fully.
As to the employers whose returns were still missing when our final compilation was made,
a separate estimate has been made of their probable pay-roll for the year.
Returns were received this year from 4,597 employers, which is a record number, and an
increase of 75 over the total for 1926. The increase is relatively smaller than in previous years,
buf taking the figures for the last decade the progress has been very striking. When these
statistics were first collected by the Department in 1918, the number of returns received was
1,047. Every year since then has shown an increase, the number being 1,207 in 1919, 1,869 in
1920, 2,275 in 1921, 2,809 in 1922, 3,375 in 1923, 3,566 in 1924, 4,138 in 1925, 4,521 in 1926, and
now 4,597.
A RETURN OF OCCUPATIONAL WAGES.
In addition to the information covered by the statistical tables in the following pages, the
Department has again, for the third year in succession, obtained particulars as to the wages
paid in various occupations. Under the heading " Classified Weekly Wage-rates," each employer
gives the number of his employees receiving a stated amount in wages, but this does not convey
anything as to the wages paid for particular occupations. Thus, one could only surmise as to
whether the wages at a given figure, paid by a firm of building contractors, were those of a
carpenter, a bricklayer, a plasterer, a general labourer, or any other worker connected with the
building trade. To do away with this uncertainty, we have included in our questionnaire for
the last three years a supplementary inquiry as to the number of men following particular
occupations and their hourly rates of wages. In some cases, where wages are paid by the
month and the daily hours are irregular, it has been more convenient to employers to give the
wages on a monthly basis. The net result of this inquiry, however, has been to give the
Department a large body of useful information as to the wages paid for different trades or
callings. This has been tabulated and the rates of pay averaged, and though it constitutes a
mass of material too bulky for inclusion in the Department's report, it is invaluable for departmental reference. L 12
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
WORKING CAPITAL AND VALUE  OF PRODUCTION.
This year we added to our questionnaire a further inquiry, asking firms to state the amount
of fixed and working capital invested in their undertakings, and also the gross and net value
of their annual production. The information we have received under these headings has not
been by any means exhaustive, and it has evidently been found that this form of question was
more applicable to some branches of industry than to others, judging from the varying proportion of employers in different industries who have replied. Of the 4,597 firms who sent in
returns, 2,328 answered the question as to capital invested and value of production. The record
is therefore not sufficiently complete for any general conclusions to be safely drawn, but the
figures are nevertheless interesting. The 2,328 firms in question gave the aggregate amount of
their fixed capital as $398,759,337.63, and of their working capital as $119,804,900.93. The
former figures include land and buildings, machinery, tools, and equipment, while " working
capital " represents the value of materials, supplies, finished products, stocks in process, cash,
and trading accounts. Under the head of " Value of Production," the gross figure, representing
the total value of all commodities produced, was $220,933,494.71, and the net amount, being the
gross value, less cost of materials, was $97,331,140.18.
A LARGER PAY-ROLL FOR THE YEAR.
The figures for the annual pay-roll were given by all the 4,597 firms making returns, and the
total amount was $130,047,021.92. This compares with a pay-roll of $129,420,599.55 returned by
4,521 firms for 1926, with $115,943,238.60, the pay-roll of 4,13S firms for 1925, and $107,798,771.36,
the pay-roll of 3,566 firms for 1924. It will thus be seen that the substantial gain which was
made in two progressive years from 1924 to 1926 was more than held in 1927.
The payments to officers, superintendents, and managers reached a total of $13,248,217.64,
which represents an increase over the corresponding figure for 1926 of $848,353.73, or 6.84 per
cent. Clerks, stenographers, and salesmen received the sum of $11,172,114.73, compared with
$10,627,258.93 in 1926, the increase being equivalent to 5.13 per cent. The amount paid to
wage-earners, however, showed actually a slight percentage of decrease, the amount,
$105,626,689.55, being $676,787.16 lower than the corresponding total for the previous year, a
reduction of 0.64 per cent. Comparing these figures with those for 1922, we find that the five-
year period payments to officers, superintendents, and managers have increased 71.39 per cent.;
those to clerks, stenographers, and salesmen have increased 56.53 per cent.; and those to wage-
earners 48.09 per cent. The variation in these percentages probably expresses in some measure
the effect of labour-saving processes which have been introduced into industry in recent years,
while the greater specialization in different lines of business has accounted for larger proportionate payments to departmental heads and clerical staffs.
Of the total payments for salaries and wages in 1927, officers, superintendents, and managers
received 10.19 per cent.; clerks, stenographers, and salesmen 8.59 per cent.; and wage-earners
81.22 per cent. In the last four years the proportionate payments under these heads have been
as follows:—
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
Per Cent.
9.04
8.29
82.67
Per Cent.
9.1'7
8.36
82.47
Per Cent.
9.58
8.21
82.21
Per Cent.
10.19
8.59
81.22
100.-00
100.00
100.00
100.00
TOTAL PAY-ROLL OF ALL INDUSTRIES.
So far we have been dealing with the records, for 1927, of the 4,597 firms who sent in their
returns to the Department, but it must not be assumed'that these records account for the entire
industrial pay-roll of the Province. We must now consider a number of supplementary items.
Between the time of closing the classified list of returns and the date of sending this report to
press a number of late returns were received, and the additional pay-roll which they represented
amounted to $1,001,462.77.    There are other firms who have not sent in any returns at all, REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 13
though they are engaged in industries covered by the Department's inquiry. The names of
these firms are on our industrial list, and it has been estimated that their pay-roll for the past
year would amount to $6,350,000. The transcontinental railway systems, which are under no
obligation to make a detailed return on the lines of our questionnaire, have supplied us with
the figures for their pay-roll in British Columbia during 1927, and this gives a further sum of
$15,124,273.45. Contrasted with the similar figure for 1926, this item shows an increase of
$1,422,779.69, an important share of which may be due to the greater movement of wheat to the
Pacific Coast.
Workers under the Dominion or Provincial Governments whose duties are of an industrial
or semi-industrial character (not including salaried officials or clerical employees) are estimated
to receive in pay annually a sum of $6,000,000. Wholesale and retail firms, though they make
no statistical return to this Department, have a large number of employees whose work comes
under the same head, and for these a further $4,000,000 may be allowed. Similarly, we may
enumerate a group of other businesses not included in our returns, such as delivery, cartage
and teaming, warehousing, butchers, moving-picture operators, coal and wood yards, and auto
transportation. Their pay-roll for the year is set at $5,500,000. Another group, which includes
express companies and seafaring men on ocean-going ships whose homes are in this Province,
would account for $8,000,000 in wages, and, finally, a sum of $1,500,000 is set down as wages
for miscellaneous services not included under any of the above heads.
The industrial pay-roll of the Province, including all the above-mentioned items, may therefore be summarized as follows:—
Pay-roll of 4,597 firms making returns to Department of Labour  $130,047,021,92
Returns received too late to he included in above summary  1,001,462.77.
Employees in occupations included in Department's inquiry, not sending in
returns—estimated pay-roll   6,350,000.00
Transcontinental railways   15,124,273.45
Dominion and Provincial Government workers  6,000,000.00
Wholesale and retail firms ,  4,000,000.00
Delivery,   cartage   and   teaming,   warehousing,   butchers,   moving-picture
operators, coal and wood yards, and auto transportation  5,500,000.00
Ocean services and express companies  8,000,000.00
Miscellaneous    1,500,000.00
Total  $177,522,758.14
THREE INDUSTRIAL DIVISIONS.
In accounting the various returns which have been received for the last four years, they
have been divided according to the areas in which the industrial operations dealt with were
being carried on. In this manner we are afforded an interesting view of the comparative
progress made by our industries in different sections of the Province. Greater Vancouver, in
which we include the City of Vancouver and the adjacent areas of North Vancouver, South
Vancouver, West Vancouver, Point Grey, and Burnaby, last year accounted for 36.88 per cent,
of the industrial pay-roll of the Province. This compares with 36.44 per cent, in 1926, 35.05 per
cent, in 1925, and 36.05 per cent, in 1924. The rest of the Mainland, including also the Queen
Charlottes and other Northern Islands, claimed 43.60 per cent., a somewhat declining proportion
when compared with 46.31 per cent, in 1926, 45.93 per cent, in 1925, and 45.02 per cent, in 1924.
An improved percentage is shown by the third main division, which includes Vancouver Island
and the Gulf Islands, with 19.52 per cent., as against 17.25 per cent, for 1926, 19.02 per cent,
for 1925, and 18.93 per cent, for 1924. Dividing the totals given in the preceding paragraphs
in the same proportion as the figures in actual returns, we arrive at the following apportionment
of the industrial pay-roll of the Province for the past four years:—
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
$54,449,747.95
67,992,347.26
28,595,220.99
$56,065,917.19
73,469,545.69
30,424,357.92
$63,833,346.01
81,123,003.67
30,217,486.79
$65,470,393.20
77,399,922.55
Vancouver Island	
34,652,442.39
Totals	
$151,037,316.20
$159,959,820.80
$175,173,836.47
$177,522,758.14 For several years past the returns received have been divided into twenty-five groups, and
the same plan has been followed for 1927. Seventeen of these groups show a larger pay-roll
than they did in 1926, the increases amounting to $3,294,090.43. The remaining eight groups
show a falling-off, the decreases amounting to $2,657,667.96. The net increase shown by the
twenty-five groups is therefore $626,422.37.
WHERE  WAGE  PAYMENTS  HAVE  INCREASED.
A comparison of the wage payments in different industries with those of 1926 reveals few
conspicuous changes, most of the industries showing very little movement, either in an upward
or a downward direction. A good recovery was made last year by coal-mining, where, after
the rather poor showing of 1926, the pay-roll was advanced by over $650,000, bringing it to
approximately the same figure as in 1924 and 1925. The manufacture of food products, which
has been a rising factor over a period of years, showed a gain of $150,000. Laundries, cleaning
and dyeing were also $100,000 ahead of the previous year. This is expressive of the general
growth of the Province rather than of any particular section, and the same may be said of the
advance made by the metal trades to a figure of $200,000 higher than the previous year's. The
last-mentioned increase, however, is more than accounted for by the growing pay-roll of garages,
other sections of the metal trades showing a slight decrease. As may have been generally
expected, the pay-roll of metal-mining reached a record figure, notwithstanding that the comparatively low prices of metals in 1927 retarded somewhat the development of a number of
new mining ventures. The actual total is $218,000 over that for 1926. Greater activity was
also shown in the smelting industry, where the pay-roll went up by nearly $400,000. The metal-
mining and smelting industries combined have, indeed, more than doubled their annual wage
payments in the last five years. The miscellaneous group of industries adds nearly half a
million to its total for 1926, and in the printing and publishing industry there is an addition of
a quarter of a million. In the public utilities group, which includes street-railways, gas, water-
supply, electric lighting and power, and telephones, there was a notable gain of over $600,000.
Minor gains were also recorded by breweries, builders' material, cigar and tobacco manufacturing, garment-making, house-furnishing, jewellery-manufacturing, manufacture of leather and
fur goods, and paint-manufacture.
LOWER TOTALS  IN  SOME  INDUSTRIES.
The industries which show a reduced pay-roll for 1927 include some of the most important
in the Province. The falling away of the total for the pulp and paper industry to a figure some
$900,000 less than that for 1926 wipes out more than one-third of the phenomenal gain made by
this industry in that year. The reduction in the past year was not unexpected, as the business
of paper-making has been passing through a somewhat critical period. Similarly, the lumbering
industry had a quiet spell for a considerable portion of the year, and there was a reduction in
its pay-roll of over $300,000 as against that of 1926, though the industry held a gain of some
three millions in comparison with the two previous years. A drop of $435,000 in Coast shipping
is not easy to understand. The leading services made rather a better showing than in 1926,
but smaller operations had a less active year, and, moreover, fewer returns were received. The
high-water mark in contracting was reached in 1926, and this report shows a reduction from
that year's figure of a quarter of a million, which is scarcely surprising in view of the number
of important contracts which were completed either in 1926 or early in 1927. However, the
demand for new buildings and other important works does not show any real abatement, and
in some districts at least the contracting business is again going more strongly than last year.
The pay-roll of explosives and chemicals is about $100,000 less, though there are good indications
of approaching development in this industiy, and a slight reduction in oil-refining probably
reflects the unsettled conditions of this industry during 1927. For a reduction of $170,000 in
ship building and repairing, we need hardly look for any other explanation than the element of
chance which enters so largely into this business. The fall of nearly $400,000 in the pay-roll
of manufacturing miscellaneous wooden products is, however, somewhat disappointing, as this
business had been going ahead rather rapidly in previous years. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 15
A comparison of the pay-roll in the various industries for the past three years is given in
the following table:—-
Industry.
1925.
No. ot
Firms
porting.
Total
Pay-roll.
1926.
No. of
Firms
reporting.
Total
Pay-roll.
1927.
No. of
Firms
reporting.
Total
Pay-roll.
Breweries	
Builders' materials	
Cigar and tobacco manufacturing	
Coal-mining	
Coast shipping	
Contracting	
Explosives and chemicals ...
Food products	
Garment-making	
House-furnishing	
Manufacturing jewellery	
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing	
Manufacturing leather and fur goods.
Lumber industries	
Metal trades	
Metal-mining	
Miscellaneous	
Oil-refining I	
Paint-manufacture	
Printing and publishing	
Pulp and paper mills	
Ship-building	
Smelting	
Street-railways, etc	
Manufacturing wood (N.E.S.)	
Totals	
27
55
6
21
144
982
19
378
79
43
10
84
54
990
522
215
145
8
12
104.
11
35
4
101
1,390,
57,
7,475.
6,736
13,343:
564:
9,110
703,
515,
220,
1,363,
413,
32,015,
5,849
7,829,
2,715,
774,
192,
2,910,
3,989,
1,212,
5,037,
8,984,
1,929,
,093.14
309.48
,085.07
,214.61
,972.71
,560.02
,630.16
,298.75
,383.97
105.29
705.69
,415.91
,277.52
,830.90
,903.31
,541.92
,462.40
,587.52
,648.70
,339.76
,546.96
370.71
966.16
,065.58
922.36
33
72
7
27
146
1,191
9
441
82
42
9
77
58
974
579
260
117
21
9
126
13
40
3
85
82
$777,
1,652
55,
6,847,
8,515,
15,046
468,
10,294,
883,
646
236,
1,408,
458,
34,826,
7,386,
8,600,
2,205,
1,178,
223,
3,279,
6,289,
1,835,
5,275,
8,887,
2,137,
755.68
,946.45
722.32
756.57
.239.41
,488.07
600.30
,610.51
,661.63
.404.44
,981.78
574.44
.889.00
351.73
692.84
,887.09
.618.67
387.30
.448.47
828.06
.325.87
435.17
709.00
913.34
361.41
39
83
7
27
142
1,185
9
461
81
47
10
82
61
960
619
235
163
26
13
131
14
43
3
78
78
1,657.
62,
7,502.
8,076.
14,761.
358,
10,448,
905,
712
242.
1,508,
459,
34,514,
7,603,
8,818,
2,703,
1,133,
294,
3,523,
5,364,
1,667,
-5,644,
9,509,
1,753,
522.25
658.31
217.20
946.98
044.56
434.63
474.19
996.93
418.57
,870.28
,016.65
709.88
,456.24
,982.16
910.98
,386.82
694.92
817.99
,890.27
068.69
,085.27
187.32
,425.60
,310.15
495.08
4,138
$115,943,238.60
4,521
$129,420,599.55
4,597
$130,047,021.92
THE YEAR'S  FLUCTUATION IN EMPLOYMENT.
The tables showing the " Average Number of Wage-earners " for each month during the year
afford a very efficient gauge of the fluctuations in employment. Taking all industries into consideration, the month of January has very persistently registered itself as the period of lowest
employment, and 1927 was no exception to the rule. The reason is not far to seek. For most
of our seasonal industries the middle of winter is zero-time, and in other lines of business there
is the inevitable reaction during January from the heavy demand for goods before Christmas.
As to the highest point in industrial activity, the last few years have witnessed a change.
Formerly the peak would usually be reached in the early summer, but now the movement is
more in the nature of a gradual climb. Thus, in 1925, October was the month of most employment, in 1926 the month of September, and in 1927 August was the peak month. From January
to June there was an increase every month,.in July there was a slight set-back, and then in
August the highest figures for the year, though in the four months from July to September,
inclusive, the differences were almost imperceptible. Thence to the end of the year there was
a sharp decline for each month, the number of employees in December, however, being about
2,500 above the total for January. In showing a rise of employment in the early part of the
year and its fall in the last few months, 1927 has not differed essentially from other years;
though there has latterly been a tendency, which it is to be hoped will be continued, for
industry to reduce the spread between the highest and lowest demands for labour.
With only two of the smaller industries was February the peak month for employment.
One industry reached its peak in April, one in May, five in June, four in July, four in August,
two in September, one in October, and five in November. The low point was reached by seven
industries in January, four in February, one in March, three in April, one in May, two in June,
one in July, one in August, one in September, one in October, one in November, and two in
December.   The maximum employment period in the lumbering industry moved from May in 1926 to September in 1927;   in coal-mining it moved from January to November;   in Coast
shipping from March to June; and in the manufacture of food products from July to September.
HIGHER PROPORTION OF FEMALE WORKERS.
The proportion of female workers enumerated in our returns rose from 6.42 per cent, in 1926
to 6.88 per cent, in 1927. Some four or five of our twenty-five groups of industries appear to
have been responsible for this change. Most conspicuous among these was garment-making,
where in 1926 the number of female industrial workers ranged from 235 in January to 317 in
October. In 1927 the respective lowest and highest numbers of female workers were 439 in
October and 545 in November. On the other hand, the male workers in the same industry
declined from a range of 290 to 446 in 1926 to a low of 210 and a high of 232 in 1927. A* similar
contrast, though not so marked, is presented by the returns from firms engaged in the manufacture of leather and fur goods. In house-furnishing, and laundries, cleaning and dyeing,
where a larger number of females were employed in 1927, there was also an increase, though
not proportionately, in the number of male employees.
On the opposite page is given a table showing the variation in employment in each industry
during the past two years.
NATIONALITY OF WORKERS.
A careful analysis of the figures in the section of the return headed " Nationality of
Workers " gives a mixed impression of the personnel of the workers in our industries. These
workers are drawn from almost every part of the world, and in some industries at least it
would be possible, in a single operation, to meet with employees severally representing all the
five continents. In a new country this seems inevitable, and the condition has perhaps existed
almost from the time when men first sailed the seas or crossed the continent to make a living
in British Columbia. An interesting feature of the figures now before us is the proof they
afford of the fact that our industries are slowly but surely coming more under the dominance
of our own race.
The percentage of employees who were returned as natives of Canada and Newfoundland
did, indeed, show a slight decrease in 1927, being 36.01 as compared with 36.39 in the previous
year. There is a slight fluctuation here from year to year; for example, the percentage was
35.68 in 1925 and 36.42 in 1924. Natives of Great Britain have more than recovered the
reduction in their percentage last year, rising from 30.42 to 31.87 per cent. This is the highest
proportion of British workers for any one of the last four years, the figures in 1924 and 1925
having been 31.24 and 31.15 respectively. The actual number of British workers employed
increased last year by 817. Adding together the number of native Canadians, British, natives
of the United States and Australia, we find that natives of English-speaking countries aggregated
72.51 per cent, of the entire number of our industrial workers. This is the best record in the
last five years, the percentage having been as low as 69.61 in 1923 and as high as 72.33 in 1924.
PERCENTAGE OF ASIATICS DECLINING.
Asiatic workers in our industries were equal to 10.20 per cent, of the whole, the smallest
percentage in any year since these statistics were first compiled. In the previous year they
accounted for 11.56 per cent., and the drop this year is significant. The nationality record
began in 1918, when our industrial workers of Asiatic origin were equal to 20.37 per cent.
The fall to 18.35 per cent, in 1919 and 16.64 per cent, in 1920 occasioned little surprise at the
time, as a large number of ex-soldiers were gradually resuming their old places in industrial
work. There was a further drop to 14.45 per cent, in 1921, followed by a rise to 14.61 per cent,
in 1922, and then a succession of lower figures for the next three years—to 13.85 in 1923, 11.97 in
1924, and 11.30 in 1925. The year 1926 saw a slight upward move to 11.56 per cent., but now
the downward movement is resumed. The number of Chinese workers in our industries was
reduced last year by 1,571, and the number of Japanese by 290, but, oddly enough, there was
an increase in the total of Hindus from 750 to 839.
A curious feature of the record regarding the natives of Continental Europe is the decrease
in the total of natives of Scandinavian countries and Russia, partly balanced by an increase in
the number from other European countries. Natives of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland,
etc., are grouped together, and their total is 1,297 lower than in 1926, Russians also being
70 lower, but our returns show 111 more workers from France, 21 more from Italy, 139 more REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 17
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DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
from Germany, and 100 more from Austria and Hungary.    Taking the natives of Continental
Europe as a whole, their percentage declines from 15.62 to 15.05.
Dividing our industrial workers in groups as above referred to, the proportions for the
past five years are as follows:—
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
Per Cent.
69.61
15.45
13.85
1.09
Per Cent.
72.33
14.56
11.97
1.14
Per Cent.
70.85
15.91
11.30
1.94
Per Cent.
70.92
15.62
11.56
1.90
Per Cent.
72.51
15.05
10.20
From other countries, or nationality not stated
2.24
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
NATIVE CANADIANS AND BRITISH.
As the number of native Canadians in our industries does not differ greatly from the number
of native British, it is interesting to see in which industries respectively one or the other
predominates. In 1927 native Canadians were the most numerous section of workers in
breweries, cigar and tobacco manufacturing, contracting, the manufacture of food products,
garment-making, house-furnishing, the lumber industries, metal trades, metal-mining, paint-
manufacture, printing and publishing, and manufacture of wood (not elsewhere specified).
British employees held the first place in the groups of builders' materials, coal-mining, Coast
shipping, explosives and chemicals, manufacturing jewellery, laundries, cleaning and dyeing,
manufacturing leather and fur goods, miscellaneous trades and industries, oil-refining, pulp and
paper mills, ship-building, smelting, and public utilities. Oil-refining and explosives and
chemicals have crossed over from the former to the latter group, and house-furnishing has
become primarily an employer of the native Canadian. With these exceptions, the above lists
are the same as last year. The principal gain made by the British-born worker has been in
coal-mining, Coast shipping, the manufacture of food products, the lumber industries, the
miscellaneous group, pulp and paper mills, and public utilities.
RACIAL COMPARISONS BY INDUSTRIES.
In the lumbering industries the changes in the nationality of the workers have an added
interest in view of the fact that 1927 was the first complete year since the Lumbering Order
under the "Male Minimum Wage Act" came into operation. The largest reduction was in the
Orientals, Chinese being 926 and Japanese 279 fewer, but the natives of Scandinavia were also
reduced by 885, while, on the other hand, the natives of Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany,
and Austria all registered gains. There was also a reduction in coal-mining of 230 Scandinavians and 48 Chinese, while Italians, Austrians, and Russians newly drafted into this
occupation totalled over 400. The Chinese were less prominent in Coast shipping than in 1926,
their number being reduced by 62. The nationality figures in the contracting group show an
all-round decrease, the only item on the other side of the account being a slightly higher number
of Germans. The same country claims a small, though appreciable, increase in the manufacture
of food products, while the totals of Chinese, Austrians, and Scandinavians are down, and that
of native Canadians, as well as British, well above 1926. The rise in the number of British
in the smelting industry is offset by a reduction in the number of Scandinavians and Russians.
In the public utilities group the numbers all round are up, and Norwegians and Russians, as
well as Canadians and British, share in the increase.
PREVALENT WEEKLY WAGES.
For several years past an annual comparison has been made of the wages prevalent in the
different industries, the wages of adult males (only) being worked out on the basis of the
classified weekly wage-rates.    The same method has been followed in 1927 as in previous years.
In our questionnaire we invite employers to give the number of wage-earners within
specified limits, but it would not be practicable for us to request exact figures. Accordingly,
to take one example, the 9,867 wage-earners who received " $24 to $24.99 weekly " would no doubt REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. • L 19
include some receiving $24, some $24.25, some $24.50, some $24.75, etc., while the 12,246 who
received " $30 to $34.99 " would be made up, in unknown proportions, of those receiving $30, $31,
$32, $33, $34, etc. For the purpose of making an average it has been assumed, where steps
of $1 were given in our table, that " $24 to $24.99," for example, meant $24.50; and, where
steps of $5 were given, that " $30 to $34.99," for example, meant $32. Lest these assumptions
should be thought to err on the side of generosity, " $50 and over " was taken in all cases to
mean $50 only.
As the same method of computation has been followed for each of the years mentioned in
the table on page 20, the comparisons may be accepted as entirely fair. L 20
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Chaht showing Fluctuation in Industrial Wages.
1918
1919
I9SO
ISSi
25%
15%
IO%
5%
■
1
1 I
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P   ■&©-
Average Full Week's Wages in each Industry   (Adult Males only).
Industry.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
Breweries	
Builders' materials	
Cigar and tobacco manufacturing	
Coal-mining	
Coast shipping	
Contracting	
Explosives and chemicals	
Food products, manufacture of	
Garment-making	
House-furnishing	
Jewellery, manufacture 9f	
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing	
Manufacturing leather and fur goods.
Lumber industries	
Metal trades	
Metal-mining	
Miscellaneeus trades and industries...
Oil-refining	
Paint-manufacture	
Printing and publishing	
Pulp and paper manufacturing	
Ship-building	
Smelting	
Street-railways, gas, water, power,
telephones, etc	
Manufacturing of wood (N.E.S.)	
$28.67
28.82
23.97
32.83
28.45
28.82
26.34
25.67
29.38
26.00
33.54
27.32
29.85
24.70
30.33
32.00
28.40
35.73
24.14
36.30
25.41
29.87
31.98
29.55
23.48
$26.62
25.61
25.30
35.96
25.43
28.06
26.13
27.39
27.28
24.23
30.90
26.11
26.67
25.29
27.73
30.97
25.91
32.63
21.79
36.23
25.88
25.55
29.91
30.41
23.12
$26.55
26.83
23.32
36.96
28.36
28.31
26.63
25.61
29.85
24.74
32.65
25.07
26.73
25.92
28.04
32.21
25.83
32.71
23.13
38.09
27.90
25.88
34.16
29.42
23.33
$26.51
26.10
24.07
35.73
29.59
27.98
26.86
25.94
28.38
25.53
31.26
25.70
■26.44
26.15
26.37
31.84
25.85
33.06
24.69
39.52
27.69
26.79
35.14
29.84
22.55
$27.41
26.78
22.97
30.52
28.21
28.23
23.35
26.25
29.10
25.34
35.06
25.30
26.68
25.40
28.13
32.81
25.38
31.39
22.00
37.61
27.38
27.72
35.75
27.69
23.92
$27.32
27.38
22.24
30.06
29.59
29.06
23.79
26.20
29.48
25.67
36.69
27.00
26.90
25.56
27.92
33.34
24.61
31.48
21.94
38.25
27.47
28.74
32.90
29.26
25.26
$27.62
26.96
22.36
29.79
29.79
30.24
25.38
26.60
29.15
27.46
31.41
26.44
29.42
25.93
29.76
32.89
25.99
30.96
24.95
36.72
27.11
29.11
31.15
28.83
25.60 REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
I, 21
Chabt showing Fluctuation in Industrial Wages—Continued.
192 2
1923
1924
1925
30%
25%
20X
15%
IO%
SX
■
F
1
It
_|_
l i
- I
zn
 X
Jt_
11
__±
_   _±
01      a!--* -* OS
IO
o
03
t- •"#  Ol
ntag
f
4.6
16.9
25.4
rt
<M
CD
CO  iM  Ol
O
CO
Ci
■* <M OJ
(M
rt
a; Oi—<   ;    :    :
g     ft :    :    ;
<u    a  i    i    i
:    : fn
rU     HlO 6 »d
Q
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rH a a
CC.
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'O
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Cl  CD  © Cl CO Nf^ 1|   h;
N CO CO 05 ^ OtJI wed
rt  M rt rt —'
t-OOOOOOOfl
^iooiooiooioo
flrt<M^C0C0"tf-<tf   IO
ooooooofl
^ooooooofl
£ fi&
3CT.
2CK
15%
5%
192©
1927
30%
155!
IOX
5X
1
TT
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
■33      hi 0-1 ■* CO O   CO C O C^ Cl
3<H S       rt Cl rt   rt rt
ffl 0~
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o  a ,
i-tQ^rr-\rrO0O-0,rHtr3    D
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"a
OOO    O   O   O   O   3
|U g      01   -r,   ■
u os  'Sworn ooooo
•;>   ^rtlMCS   CO CO .tf Tfl lo
C: 00 0} t- 05-M^t-C^
00 O tH O O1DC0 ffl M
o^'ooci co o o ci oq
r1  C-l  CU rl  rr
OOOO oooo >
rt-MtMCOfO-^^O    °
» ra
..ooo   00003
%3-l+3+3-33+3-33+30i
^ IO O IO OOOOO
E -r-f 0-1 Ol CO CO ^ <tf O
P   W3-
CHANGES IN THE WAGE-RATES.
Changes in wage-rates during the
year were not very pronounced, and in
only one group, that of contracting, can
the alteration be traced partly to a dispute involving a stoppage of work, a
section of plumbers and painters having
received an advance in this manner. In
this group the average wage is the
highest for any year since 1920. Good
advances in the average rates are made
by some of the minor industries, such
as explosives and chemicals, house-
furnishing, manufacturing leather and
fur goods, paint-manufacturing, and the
miscellaneous group. In the metal
trades, where garages bulk more largely
in the return every year, the average
went up from $27.92 to $29.70. In the
lumbering industries the average advanced by 37 cents. L 22
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
In fourteen of the groups there was an aver
groups an average decrease.    The comparison
table:—■
age increase in the weekly rates and in eleven
may be conveniently shown in the following
Decreases.
Builders' materials   $0.42
Coal-mining  27
Garment-making  31
Jewellery, manufacturing of     5.28
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing 56
Metal-mining  45
Oil-reflning 52
Printing and publishing     1.53
Pulp and paper manufacturing 36
Smelting -.    1.75
Street-railways, gas, water, power,
telephones, etc 43
Increases.
Breweries   $0.30
Cigar and tobacco manufacturing..      .13
Coast shipping 20
Contracting     1.18
Explosives and chemicals     1.59
Food products, manufacture of 40
House-furnishing      1.70
Manufacturing   leather   and    fur
goods      2.52
Lumber industries  37
Metal trades      1.84
Miscellaneous trades and industries    1.38
Paint-manufacture     1.01
Ship-building 37
Manufacturing wood (N.E.S.) 34
FEWER LOW-PAID WORKERS.
The tables giving the number of wage-earners in each industry, tabulated according to the
weekly wages received, afford a comparison with similar tables in previous years which is, in
one respect at least, remarkable—that is, for the partial elimination of the wage-earners
receiving very low rates of wages. Our tables for 1926 showed that there were 9,498 adult
male wage-earners receiving less than $19 a week—in other words, less than 40 cents an hour.
In 1927 the number was reduced to 4,409. The difference is partly explained by the fact that
in 1926 " adult wage-earner " was taken to mean a person over 18 years of age, and in 1927
the line of division for adults and under age was set at 21 years, the change being necessary
to place our statistical tables in proper relationship to the " Male Minimum Wage Act." So that,
whereas in 1926 we had 1,752 male workers under 18 receiving less than $19 a week, in 1927
we had 2,776 male workers under 21 in the same category as to wages—a difference of 1,004.
Even if we reduce the total of low-paid adult males in 1926 by this number, 1,004, we still have
the low-paid adult male wage-earners reduced by nearly one-half during the past year. The
Male Minimum Wage Order in the lumbering industry has no doubt been the chief factor, but
not the only one, in bringing this change about.
If we compare the figures for the last three years, we see even a greater difference.
Adult Male Workers Employed at Low Rates of Wages.
Weekly Rate.
1925.
1926.
1927.
Under $6                               .         ..                   	
49
45
37
158
139
297
382
1,249
867
1,454
1,635
2,695
1,796
, 3,806
2
3
12
53
54
97
204
359
528
965
1,438
1,311
1,952
2,520
$6 to $6.99	
1
7 to    7.99     ..                                            	
11
8 to    8.99
10
9 to    9.99	
9
10 to 10.99	
44
11 to 11.99     ..
72
12 to 12.99                             .   ...                       	
194
13 to 13.99	
171
14 to 14.99	
317
15 to 15.99                                       	
619
16 to 16.99                       	
502
17 to 17.99	
1,199
18 to 18.99	
1,260
Totals	
14.609
9,498
4,409
The difference of 5,089 between the totals for 1926 and 1927 is chiefly attributable to the
rise in wages in the industries affected by the Lumbering Order—i.e., the lumbering industry
proper, pulp and paper, and the manufacturing of wood (N.E.S.). In these three groups
there were last year 4,318 fewer adult male workers receiving less than $19 a week than in
1926. Other industries exhibiting conspicuously a similar drift away from the lower wages
were contracting, explosives and chemicals, garment-making, the metal trades, the miscellaneous
group, paint-manufacturing, printing and publishing, and the public utilities. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 23
OTHER CONTRASTS WITH 1926.
At the other end of the scale we find fewer wage-earners receiving the highest rates of pay,
though here the difference between 1926 and 1927 is not so marked. In the former year there
were 2,797 wage-earners at rates between $45 and $50 weekly, and in 1927 the number had
fallen to 2,502; there were 2,446 persons receiving $50 and over in 1926, and only 2,073 in 1927.
Among these highly-paid workers the greatest difference between the two years was seen in
breweries, Coast shipping, metal-mining, printing and publishing, smelting, and the manufacture
of wood (N.E.S.).
This reduction in the number of our workers at the two extremes of the scale throws into
relief the greater percentage of wage-earners who are receiving from $25 to $30 and from $35 to
$40 weekly. This will be better seen from the diagram showing the changes in prevailing
industrial wages in the Province during the past ten years, which appears on pages 20 and 21.
The averages are calculated from figures supplied by each firm for the week of employment
of the greatest number, and represent the pay for a full week's work. Actual weekly earnings
in many cases at certain periods of the year would be lower owing to stoppages or broken time.
By pooling the figures for the above industries, and taking into account the respective numbers
employed in them, a general average wage for each year is arrived at:—
Average Industrial Wage for all Adult Male Wage-earners as computed from Returns.
1918    $27.97 1923   $28.05
1919   29.11 1924   28.39
1920   31.51 1925  27.82
1921   27.62 1926   27.99
1022   27.29 1927   28.29
It will be borne in mihd that between 1924 and 1925 there was a general lowering of hours
of work in many industries, and in some cases where workers were being paid an hourly rate
this led to a reduction in the weekly wage. The average weekly wage, however, has now
recovered to practically the same level as in 1924. It will be noted that in the last few
paragraphs the references to wage-earners have been to male workers only, as the wages of
female employees are dealt with in another section of the report.
LARGER NUMBER OF APPRENTICES.
In the last few years there has been a marked increase in the number of apprentices in our
industries. The returns made to the Department of Labour for four years past accounted for
898 apprentices in 1924, 1,115 in 1925, 1,281 in 1926, and 1,554 in 1927. This will be welcomed
as a healthy sign. It seems to imply that any tendency on the part of our youths to migrate
from British Columbia is already being checked, and it may also be taken as a guarantee that
in future our important industries in the Province will be in charge of our own native sons
in a greater measure than they are at present.
EMPLOYERS  WITH  A  LARGE  PAY-ROLL.
It has become customary for the Department to place on record the number of large firms
in the Province whose annual industrial pay-roll amounts to over $100,000. This record was
begun in 1921, when there were 118 of these large operations. The following year the number
increased to 164, and in 1923 to 200. The total fell to 196 in 1924, and remained at the same
level for 1925, but in 1926 it rose to 230. The returns for 1927 include 219 of these large firms,
or eleven fewer than in 1926, which certain -recent amalgamations may be partly responsible for.
Thirteen of these firms had a pay-roll of over $1,000,000, of which number three were between
$2,000,000 and $3,000,000, and two over $4,000,000. This list does not include any public authorities, Dominion, Provincial, or municipal, nor does it take account of transcontinental railways,
wholesale and retail merchants, or deep-sea shipping. In this company of the industrial giants,
lumbering, as usual, is an easy first, embracing 98 of the large firms, which compares with
102 in the previous year. The food products group comes next, with 18, and then there are
13 in the contracting group, 12 in Coast shipping, 11 in metal-mining, 10 each in the public
utilities and coal-mining, 9 ih the metal trades, 6 in ship-building, 5 in printing and publishing,
4 in pulp and paper manufacture, 3 each in breweries, builders' materials, laundries, cleaning
and dyeing, and the miscellaneous group, 2 each in house-furnishing, manufacturing wood
(N.E.S.), oil-refining, and smelting, and 1 each in explosives and chemicals, manufacturing
jewellery, garment-making, and paint-manufacturing. L 24
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
CONTENTS OF TABLES.
With regard to the tables immediately following, the general
headings of such tables are given hereunder and the trades included under each heading :—
No. 1. Breweries.—Under this heading are tabulated mineral-
water manufacturers and breweries.
No. 2. Builders' Material, etc. —Includes manufacturers of
brick, cut stone, Portland cement, lime, tiles, and firebrick ;
also stone-quarries and dealers in sand, gravel, and crushed
rock.
No. 3. Cigar and Tobacco Manufacturing.—Comprises only
these trades.
No. 4. Coal-mining.— This group contains also the operation of
coke-ovens and coal-shipping docks.
No. 5. Coast Shipping.—Includes the operation of passenger
and freight steamships, stevedoring, tug-boats (both general
and towing logs), and river navigation, but does not include
the operation of vessels in the offshore trade.
No. 6. Contracting. — Here are grouped building trades, painting and paper-hanging, plumbing a:«d heating, and sheet-
metal works ; also contractors for industrial plants, structural-steel fabricating, railway-fencing, sewers, pipes and
valves, dredging, pile-driving, wharves, bridges, roofing,
and automatic sprinklers. Firms making return as building
contractors, constructors of dry-kilns, refuse-burners, mills,
brick-furnaces, electrical contractors, hardwood and sanitary floor-layers, and bricklayers.
No. 7. Explosives, Chemicals, etc. — Includes the manufacture
of these commodities, also the manufacture of fertilizers.
No. 8. Food Products, Manufacture of.—This table includes
bakeries, biscuit-manufacturers, cereal-milling, creameries
and dairies, fish, fruit and vegetable canneries, packinghouses, curers of ham and bacon, blending of teas; also
manufacturers of candy, macaroni, syrup, jams, pickles,
sauces, coffee, catsup, and spices.
No. 9. Garment-making.—Includes tailoring, the manufacture
of buttons, pleating, embroidery, etc., jute and cotton goods,
shirts, overalls, knitted goods, millinery and ladies' outfitting.
No. 10. House Furnishings.—Comprises firms engaged in the
manufacture of furniture, beds and bedding, springs and
mattresses, upholstering, and carpet and linoleum laying.
No. 11. Jewellery, Manufacture of— Includes the repair as well
as manufacturing of jewellery and watches and optical
instruments (where same is carried on in a factory).
No. 12. Laundries^ Cleaning and Dyeing.—Includes these industries only.
No. 13. Leather and Fur Goods, Manufacture of.—Comprises
manufacturers of boots, shoes, gloves, harness, trunks, and
leather Indian novelties ; also furriers and hide and wool
dealers.
No. 14. Lumber Industries.—In this group are included logging, logging-railways, planing-mills, sawmills, shingle-mills,
and lumber-dealers.
No. 15. Metal Trades.—This group includes marine blacksmith-
ing, oxy-acetylene welding, boiler-making, iron and brass
foundries, garages, vulcanizing, machine and pattern shops,
galvanizing and electroplating; also manufacturers of
handsaws, nuts and bolts, pumps, marine engines, mill
machinery, and repairs to same.
No. 16. Metal-mining.—Includes all metalliferous mining.
No. 17. Miscellaneous Trades and Industries.—Here are
grouped returns from trades which are not numerous
enough to warrant special categories. They include manufacturers of soap, sails, tents, awning, brooms, paper boxes,
and tin containers ; also cold storage.
No. 18. Oil-refining.— Includes also the manufacture of fish-oil.
No. 19. Paint-manufacturing.—Includes also white-lead corro-
ders and varnish-manufacturers.
No. 20. Printing and Publishing.—This table includes the
printing and publishing of newspapers, job-printing, paper-
ruling, bookbinding, engraving and embossing, blue-printing, lithographing, draughting and map-publishing, and the
manufacture of rubber and metal stamps.
No. 21. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing.—Comprises only
firms engaged in that industry.
No. 22. Ship-building.—Comprises both wooden- and steel-ship
building and repairing, also construction and repair of small
craft, and salvage.
No. 23. Smelting. —Comprises firms engaged exclusively in that
industry.
No. 24. Street-railways, Gas, Water, Power, etc.— This group
comprises generating and distribution of light and power,
manufacture of gas, dissolved acetylene and oxygen ; also
includes gasolene lighting and heating devices, Mid supply
of water to municipalities.
No. 25. Wood, Manufacture of (not elsewhere specified).—Here
are grouped manufacturers of sash and doors, interior finish,
water-proof ply-wood, veneer, store and office fittings,
barrels, boxes, ships' knees, ready-cut buildings, wooden
pipes and tanks, wooden pulleys, wooden toys, caskets,
coffins, and undertakers' supplies.
Table No.  1.
BREWERIES.
Returns covering 39 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers $182,987.70
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc      64,212.15
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)   572,322.40
Total $819,522.25
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
January	
February....
March	
April	
May	
June	
316
338
366
360
376
405
33
36
33
41
55
65
July	
August	
September .
November ..
December...
409
401
371
368
363
350
49
24
24
30
27
33
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Under $6.00	
1
2
3
7.00 to    7.99...
2
8.00 to     8.99...
1
9.00 to     9.99
10.00 to   10.99...
2
1
11.00 to   11.99...
12.00 to   12.99...
4
2
1
6
4
1
10
25
2
29
13
2
1
1
40
1
16
13.00 to   13.99...
14.00 to   14.99...
15.00 to   15.99...
16.00 to   16.99...
17.00 to   17.99...
3
5
18.0Oto   18.99...
19.00 to   19.99...
20.00 to   20.99  ..
3
2
21.00 to   21.99...
22.00 to   22.99...
1
23 00 to   23.99...
24.00 to   24.99.
13
29
7
72
101
10
54
31
11
3
3
25.00 to   25.99...
1
26.00 to   26.99...
27.00 to   27.99...
28.00 to   28.99...
29.00 to   29.99...
30.00 to   34.99...
35.00 to   39.99...
40.00 to   44.99...
45.00 to   49.99...
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland..
Great Britain and Ireland...
United States of America...
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy.
Germany	
Austria and Hungary    	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Kussia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
249
143
18
1
2
5
13
4
2
13
5
6
51
11 REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 25
Table No. 2.
BUILDERS* MATERIAL—PRODUCERS OF.
Returns covering 83 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers     $201,748.57
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, ete       120,600.09
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)    1,335,309.65
Total $1,657,658.31
Average Number of Wage-earners.
January....
February...
March	
April	
May	
June	
Males.
Females.
811
894
1,011
1,065
1,212
1,241
July	
August	
September .
October	
November..
December...
1,329
1,222
1,118
998
995
765
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
$6.00	
to $6.99.
to 7.99.
to 8.99.
to     9.99.
to 10.99.
to 11.99.
to 12.99.
to 13.99.
to 14.99.
to 15.99.
to 16.99.
to 17.99.
to 18.99.
to 19.99.
to 20.99.
to 21.99.
to 22.99.
to 23.9
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
to 49.99.
and over.
Males.
21 Yrs.
& over.
4
73
19
68
3
42
142
81
69
113
53
87
68
48
32
128
79
73
57
40
Under
21 Yrs.
1
2
12
8
3
1
Females.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany    	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan. .'..',	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationalitv not stated 	
Males.       Females.
410
464
21
2
3
37
6
291
3
io
TABLE   No.   3.
CIGAR AND TOBACCO MANUFACTURING.
Returns covering 1 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers  $18,670.00
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc  6,098.25
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  37,448.95
Total  $62,217.20
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
January....
February...
May	
20
20
17
14
15
15
34
39
33
33
29
32
July	
September .
October ....
November..
December ..
15
15
13
15
16
17
32
30
25
32
32
25
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
$6.00.
to $6
to 7
to
to 9.!
to 10.1
tO 11.!
tO 12.!
tO 13.!
to 14.!
to 15.!
to 16.!
to 17.!
to 18.!
to 19.!
to 20.'
to 21.
to 22.!
to 23.1
to 24.-
to 25.'
to 26.
to 27.!
to 28.!
to 29.!
to 34.!
to 39.!
to 44.!
to 49.
8.99.
and over.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
21
3
10
3
2
1
2
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland..
Great Britain and Ireland...
United States of America...
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy.
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finlxnd, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated   	
Males.
12
3
4
Females.
20
19
3 L 26
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Table No. 4.
COAL-MINING.
Returns covering 27 Firms.
Table No.  5.
COAST SHIPPING.
Returns covering 142 Firms.
Salary and Wage Pay
Officers, Superintendents, and Manage
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc.
Wages-earners (including piece-worke
ments, 1927.
rs      *3
7,049.40
'8,913.82
t6,983.76
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc       623,153.14
re)	
1
6,9
$7,502,946.98
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males
.   Females.
Month.
Males.
females.
Month.
Male
.   Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
4,966
5,001
5,004
4,891
4,778
4.68C
July	
September .
October...
November...
December...
4,674
4,741
4,852
5,069
5,180
5,176
January....
February...
May	
6,04(
6,15s
6,17(
5,904
6,40C
6,50£
16
16
17
17
23
26
Jul
6,032
6,407
6,104
6,105
6,377
6,377
28
28
September..
November..
December ..
27
20
."
17
18
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Under tfl no       ..
1
1
$6.00 to  $6
7.00 to    7.
8.00 to     8.
9.00 to     9.
10.00 to   10.
11.00 to   11.
)9...
)9...
12
16.00 to   $6
99..
99..
7
)9...
3
8
18
2
36
28
1
22
13
3
34
11
8.00 to     8.99..
1
)9...
2
9.00 to     9
10 00 to   10
99..
»...
99..
20
11
21
56
39
139
105
189
140
62
63
282
391
312
318
290
196
72
1,123
80
656
1,250
473
139
248
1
1
)9...
3
27
27
72
56
12
24
114
65
80
122
119
103
615
420
100
390
346
136
1,023
618
314
173
89
ll.OOto   11.99..
12.00 to   12.99..
13.00 to   13.99..
14.00 to   14.99..
15.00 to   15.99..
16.00 to   16.99..
17.00 to   17.99..
18.00 to   18.99..
19.00 to   19.99..
20.00 to   20.99..
21.00 to   21.99..
22.00 to   22.99..
23.00 to   23.99..
24.00 to   24.99  .
25.00 to   25.99..
26.00 to   26.99..
27.00 to   27.99..
28.00 to   28.99..
29.00 to   29.99..
30.00 to   34.99..
35.00 to   39.99,.
40.00 to   44.99..
45.00 to   49.99..
50.00and over..
12.00 to   12.99...
1
13.00 to   13.99...
14.00 to   14.99...
1
1
50
3
9
15.00 to   15.99...
16.00 to   16 99...
17.00 to   17.99.   .
18.00 to   18.99...
12
19.00 to   19.99...
1
1
20.00 to   20.99...
1
2
21.00 to   21.99...
13
15
5
22.00 to   22.99...
23.00 to   23.99...
1
1
2
1
24.00 to   24.99...
20
1
25.00 to   25.99  ..
26 00 to   26 99...
27.00 to   27 99
4
28.00 to   28 99...
29.00 to   29.99...
1
1
1
35.00 to   39.99...
45.00 to   49.99...
Nationality of Employees.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Males.
Females.
Country of Origin.
Males.
Females.
874
2,740
65
3
48
20
446
27
264
124
279
102
409
2,740
3,689
177
20
9
65
111
15
7
263
62
23
360
5
Great Britain and Ir
United States of An
Great Britain and
United States of A
13
10
Italy	
Italy	
Austria and Hungar
Austria and Hungc
Other European cou
Other European co
1
77
All other countries
All other countries
ed..
56
248 REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 27
Table No. 6.
CONTRACTING.
Returns covering 1,185 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers $1,627,489.25
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc    1,385,094.39
Wage-earners (including piece-workers) 11,748,850.99
Total $14,761,434.63
Average Number of Wage-earners.
January.
February
March...
April
May	
June....
Males.
Females.
6,670
43
7,193
46
8,146
45
8,764
47
9,174
47
9,884
47
July	
August
September
October .. .
November.
December..
10,043
9,807
9,501
8,645
8,252
6,933
36
34
51
65
64
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
$6.00 ....
to $6.99,
to 7.99,
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99,
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99,
21.99,
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
21 Yrs.     Under
& over.    21 Yrs.
7
12
15
IS
33
92
77
653
232
484
1,019
-456
2,588
376
590
615
285
144
1,092
1,191
1.918
461
420
8
17
21
23
38
36
27
29
36
23
23
24
22
5
22
18 Yrs.     Under
& over.    18 Yrs.
10
4
Apprentices.
5
32
15
27
19
23
14
20
7
16
16
19
10
6
1
4
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany   	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc..
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
326
271
436
51
23
711
313
75
9
575'
38
26
3
Table No. 7.
EXPLOSIVES, CHEMICALS, ETC.
Returns covering 9 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers  $68,250.80
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc  102,840.91
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  187,382.48
Total $358,474.19
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
148
167
150
144
142
147
July	
August	
September..
November ..
December ..
145
147
147
142
142
155
February...
3
3
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
8 00 to    8 99
9.00 to     9.99
10.00 to   10.99..
11.00 to   11 99..
1
12.00 to   12.99..
13.00 to   13.99..
14.00 to   14.99
3
5
9
6
3
18
7
11
11
5
12
12
3
5
3
2
26
10
3
2
2
1
15.00 to   15 99
16.00 to   16.99
17.00 to   17 99
18.00 to   18 99..
19.00 to   19 99..
20.00 to   20.99
21 00 to   21 99..
22.00 to   22.99..
23.00 to   23 99
24.00 to   24.99
1
25.00 to   25.99..
27.00 to   27.99..
1
29.00 to   29 99..
30.00 to   34.99..
35.00 to   39 99
40.00 to   44.99
45.00 to   49.99..
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium    	
France	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
30
99
25
' 5* I. 28
DEPARTMENT OP LABOUR.
Table No. 8.
FOOD PRODUCTS—MANUFACTURE OF.
Returns covering lf61 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers $1,426,300.67
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc    1,383,727.91
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)    7,638,968.35
Total $10,448,996.93
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
February....
May	
3,605
3,592
4,041
4,934
5,713
6,742
793
735
800
785
932
2,026
July	
September .
October 	
November..
December ..
7,175
7,398
7,093
6,129
4,886
4,168
2,658
2,419
2,895
2,245
1,361
914
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
and over.
21 Yrs.
& over.
74
12
32
209
155
199
488
314
635
445
349
346
467
744
256
430
304
197
1,155
613
276
156
113
Under
21 Yrs.
4
2
12
25
14
28
15
75
32
28
42
53
11
30
3
24
17
8
2
9
2
11
1
1
3
18 Yrs.
& over.
1
265
10
4
36
74
225
234
387
234
461
179
278
153
147
81
74
35
49
51
30
36
19
10
Under
18 Yrs.
4
5
49
16
15
25
15
160
17
62
8
30
6
17
3
17
10
1
2
1
1
1
Apprentices.
5
14
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc..
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
331
155
37
24
21
619
105
50
,617
599
6
345
2,445
782
55
18
56
86
15
64
41
6
217
1
118
Table No. 9
GARMENT-MAKING.
Returns covering 81 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers $154,973.62
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc     97,734.12
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)   652,710.83
Total $905,418 57
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males.   Females.
January
February...
March	
April	
May	
June	
217
215
221
219
213
210
463
514
541
535
484
458
Month.       Males.   Females.
July	
August	
September .
October
November..
December ..
212
219
230
232
227
215
458
484
513
439
545
515
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
00 ....
$6.99.
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.'
and over.
21 Yrs.     Under
& over.    21 Yrs.
1
12
6
8
14
5
10
6
10
1
3
13
3
13
1
21
19
26
12
12
1
5
3
3
2
10
1
18 Yrs.
& over.
7
9
28
15
110
60
54
29
62
24
32
11
12
7
3
13
2
10
1
3
11
Under
18 Yrs.
11
1
6
12
1
■   2
Apprentices.
1
13
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland   	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.      Females.
1
1
2
2
6
13
10
21
225
193
19
2
8
4
14
1
4
17* REPORT OP THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 29
Table No. 10.
HOUSE FURNISHINGS—MANUFACTURING OF.
Returns covering 47 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers $132,187.83
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc     84,528.69
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)   496,153.76
Total $712,870.28
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males.   Females
January ..
February.
March....
April	
May	
June	
372
382
392
384
385
391
67
57
61
63
63
64
Month.       Males.   Females.
July	
August...
September.
October ...
November.
December..
378
386
396
419
422
388
63
64
65
67
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
$6.00..
to   $6.
to     7.
to     8.
to     9.
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
to   22.99.
23.9
to 24.99.
to 25.99.
to 26.99.
to 27.99.
to 28.99.
to 29.99.
to 34.99.
to 39.99.
to 44.99.
to 49.99.
and over.
21 Yrs.
& over.
2
2
7
7
7
56
14
19
31
28
11
2
5
Under
21 Yrs.
17
1
10
8
14
7
1
Females.
18 Yrs.
&over.
1
4
10
7
8
5
7
4
4
1
6
1
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan  	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
204
180
1
1
1
3
11
7
33
34
1
1
Table No.  11.
JEWELLERY—MANUFACTURING OF.
Returns covering 10 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers $27,040.00
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc 102,452.30
Wage-earners (including piece-workers) 112,524.35
Total $242,016.65
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
January.
February
March...
April.   ..
May	
June ....
Males.
Females.
74
3
74
3
74
3
74
3
72
3
69
3
Month.       Males.   Females.
July 	
August...
September
October...
November
December.
09
73
73
73
75
75
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
P^or Week of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
&, over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Under $6.00	
1
2
1
2
7.00 to    7.99..
1
10.00 to   10.99.
1
11.00 to   11.99..
1
12.00 to   12.99..
1
1
14.00 to   14.99..
2
1
16.00 to   15.99..
16.00 to   16.99..
1
1
1
1
1
17.00 to   17.99..
18.00 to   18.99..
1
19.00 to   19.99..
20.00 to   20.99..
21.00 to   21.99..
1
3
1
22.00 to   22.99..
i
23.00 to   23.99..
25.00 to   25.99 .
5
3
3
1
1
13
13
5
4
1
26.00 to   26.99..
27.00 to   27.99..
28.00 to   28.99..
29.00 to   29.99..
30.00 to   34.99..
35.00 to   39.99..
40.00 to   44.99..
46.00 to   49.99..
Nationality oi Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland.
Great Britain and Ireland...
United States of America...
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy.,
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan..  	
Japan	
All other countries 	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females. L 30
DEPARTMENT OP LABOUR.
Table No. 12.
LAUNDRIES, CLEANING AND  DYEING.
Returns covering 82 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers     $131,429.32
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc "    249,358.73
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)    1,127,921.83
Total $1,508,709.88
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males.   Females.        Month.        Males.   Females.
January.
February
March. .
April..   .
May	
June	
466
487
500
506
513
1,078
878
894
888
896
911
July	
August ...
September.
October ...
November.
December .
518
529
526
523
517
515
988
1,003
983
958
933
928
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
$6.00..
to   $6.!
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
to   20.9
to   21.9
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
to
to
to
to
to
to  27.99
to   28.99
to   29.99
to   34.99
44.99.
49.99.
and over .
21 Yrs.     Under
& over.    21 Yrs.
2
3
7
9
3
21
2
13
5
6
9
10
35
13
5
9
54
59
14
26
16
10
105
46
20
2
1
1
9
2
5
1
2
10
5
2
1
2
2
1
2
18 Yrs.     Under
& over.    18 Yrs.
4
1
2
17
2
20
338
142
139
54
29
52
11
23
4
6
1
11
19
17
12
21
3
Apprentices.
24
14
13
4
7
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland   	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia   	
Belgium	
France	
Italy	
Germany. .,	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries 	
Nationality not stated	
Males.
188
265
16
1
46
Females.
420
474
36
1
6
18
5
43
21
Table No. 13.
LEATHER AND FUR GOODS—MANUFACTURING OF.
Returns covering 61 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers, $ 69,155.90
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc    60,502.70
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  329,797.64
Total $459,456.24
Average Number of Wage-earners.
January..
February.
March
April	
May	
June	
Males.
Females.
216
95
215
93
215
91
213
92
196
95
208
96
July	
August	
September.
October ...
November .
December .
210
209
225
237
234
234
99
102
104
120
106
111
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
.00	
$6.99.
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
16.99.
16.99.
17 99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34 99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
and over .
21 Yrs.     Under
& over.    21 Yrs.
4
10
9
8
7
10
18
14
7
25
5
41
11
4
2
18 Yrs.
■fe over.
25
13
10
2
15
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland.
Great Britain and Ireland...
United States of America ..
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China.  	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
89
100
9
11
4
1
13
9
4
73
61 REPORT OP THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 31
Table No. 14.
LUMBER INDUSTRIES.
Returns covering 960 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers $3,209,084.47
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc    1,031,970.98
Wage-earners (including piece-workers) 30,273,926,71
Total $34,514,982.16
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males.    Females.       Month.       Males.    Females.
January..
February.
March
April	
May	
June	
18,981
21,452
22,920
24,079
24,662
25,045
48
50
51
57
July	
August...
September
October ..
November
December.
24,600
24,781
25,133
24,668
23,773
20,395
53
51
54
54
53
52
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.60
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
$6.00 .
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
99.
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
23.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
21 Yrs.     Under
■fe over.    21 Yrs.
3
1
15
9
38
300
98
8,022
1,173
3,355
1,151
854
3,633
1,194
731
1,805
877
518
2,723
1,449
864
788
746
2
1
5
6
11
14
8
40
35
87
51
84
35
39
83
23
7
19
18 Yrs.
& over.
6
14
2
9
5
2
5
2
2
2
1
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
87
332
435
204
246
179
277
830
097
• 21
526
42
4
Table No. 15.
METAL TRADES.
Returns covering 619 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers $1,502,174.45
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc   1,512,209.41
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)   4,589,527.12
Total     $7,603,910.98
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
January..
February.
3,409
3,528
3,661
3,735
3,785
3,765
86
97
101
99
102
103
July	
September .
October ....
November ..
December...
3,664
3,678
3,562
3,461
3,340
3,132
91
80
74
76
May	
J une.,
65
65
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Males.
Females.
Appren
tices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
17
28
24
30
16
32
26
44
33
32
68
20
44
19
21
23
15
2
9
3
5
3
1
15
1
6
7
4
14
52
15
36
51
68
146
104
247
170
291
223
126
132
115
65
929
613
194
108
92
38
7.00 to     7.99
8.00 to     8.99..
1
23
39
9.00 to     9.99 .
10.00 to   10.99
11.00 to   11.99.
1
4
1
1
16
32
ti-i
12.00 to   12.99..
13.00 to   13.99..
14.00 to   14.99..
15.00 to   15.99..
16.00 to   16.99..
17.00 to   17 99..
18.00 to   18.99..
19.00 to   19.99..
20.00 to   20.99..
2
22
18
5
17
5
3
2
2
1
1
1
2
33
13
15
18
23
4
3
7
21.00 to   21.99..
22.00 to   22.99.
1
4
23.00 to   23.99..
24.00 to   24.99
1
2
1
25.00 to   25.99..
26.00 to   26.99
1
2
1
27.00 to   27.99..
28.00 to   28.99..
1
29.00 to   29.99..
30.00 to   34.99..
35.00 to   39.99..
1
40.00 to   44.99..
45.00 to   49.99..
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
2,120
1,417
178
17
9
18
40
14
14
64
46
10
3
29
66
28
7 L 32
DEPARTMENT OP LABOUR.
Table No. 16.
METAL-MINING.
Returns covering 235 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers    $613,847.54
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc      285,802.20
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  7,918,737.08
Total $8,818,386.82
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
February....
March.  	
4,199
4,414
4,465
4,676
4,774
5,055
46
46
49
50
52
53
July 	
August	
September..
October   ...
November...
December...
5,179
5,318
5,302
4,900
4,885
4,444
55
53
53
52
53
June	
49
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
$6.00 to  $6.99...
7.00 to    7.99...
1
8.00 to     8.99...
9.00 to     9.99...
1
10.00 to   10.99...
1
1
11.00 to   11.99...
12.00 to   12.99...
1
1
5
12
13.00 to   13.99...
1
2
2
1
9
4
3
4
2
3
1
2
4
6
3
2
2
1
1
14.00 to   14.99...
15.00 to   15.99...
16.00 to   16.99...
3
1
17.00 to   17.99  .
is"
11
6
95
56
93
150
107
103
254
607
591
2,025
1,627
400
142
68
1
2
•■>
3
1
4
1
1
5
1
7
IS
7
7
18.00 to   18.99...
19 00 to   19.99...
1
20.00 to   20.99...
21.00 to   21.99...
22.00 to   22.99...
23.00 to   23.99...
5
1
1
25.00 to   25.99.
27.00 to   27.99...
29.00 to   29.99.
30.00 to   34.99...
1
35.00 to   39.99...
40.00 to   44 99...
45.00 to   49.99...
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland.
Great Britain and Ireland...
United States of America...
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy..
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China      	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
505
190
20
10
37
276
31
74
972
107
29
Females.
31
19
1
Table No. 17.
MISCELLANEOUS TRADES AND INDUSTRIES.
Returns covering 163 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers    $454,724.48
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc      426,408.96
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  1,822,561.48
Total      $2,703,694.92
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males.   Females.        Month.        Males.   Females.
January.
February-
March ...
April	
May	
June .-...
1,173
1,221
1,233
1,250
1,299
1,394
265
288
290
312
318
July	
August	
September,.
October
November..
December ..
1,378
1,372
1,327
1,316
1,329
1,272
318
332
326
349
348
319
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
60.00
$6.00 	
to $6.99.
to 7.99.
to 8.99.
to 9.99.
to 10.99.
to   11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99
15.99.
16.99.
17.99
18.99
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
to 22.99.
to 23.99.
to 24.99.
to 25.99.
to 26.99.
to 27.99.
to 28.99.
to 29.99.
to 34.99.
to   39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
and over .
21 Yrs.
<fe over.
12
10
23
13
70
42
93
204
184
114
72
47
74
60
22
151
96
33
10
15
Under
21 Yrs.
5
12
36
25
8
23
8
4
15
4
5
23
1
18 Yrs.
■fe over.
154
28
17
11
7
9
12
9
2
2
2
5
1
1
5
Under
18 Yrs.
5
8
5
11
1
4
2
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country 	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries	
Nationalitj- not stated	
Males.       Females.
734
51
5
7
4
13
2
2
24
20
13
4
215
162
3
14
1 REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 33
Table No. 18.
OIL-REFINING.
Returns covering 26 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers     $120,759.59
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc       186,457.72
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)       826,600.68
Total    $1,133,817.99
Average Number of Wage-earners.
January.
February
March...
April....
May	
June	
Males.
Females.
439
12
428
12
409
13
486
14
561
15
644
15
July	
August...
September
October...
November
December.
672
692
679
646
533
638
18
18
19
17
14
18
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
00 ....
to   $6.99.
7.9
8 99..
9.99..
10.99..
11.99..
12.99..
13.99..
14.99..
15.99..
16.99..
17.99..
18.99..
19.99..
20.99..
21.99..
22.99..
23.99..
24.99..
25.99..
26.99..
27.99..
28.99..
29.99..
34.99..
39.99..
to 44.99..
to 49.99..
and over..
21 Yrs.
& over.
11
19
7
10
6
50
5
14
95
58
43
37
125
125
152
46
19
35
Under
21 Yrs.
Females.
18 Yrs.     Under
& over.    18 Yrs.
Appren
tiees.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
345
343
34
5
3
3
4
133
11
2
10
2
Table No. 19.
PAINT-MANUFACTURING.
Returns covering 13 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers   $85,461.88
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc     93,142.50
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)   116,285.89
Total $294,890.27
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
January....
February...
March	
May	
June .......
103
106
113
115
116
115
11
11
12
13
13
13
July	
August	
September..
October	
November ..
December...
116
114
110
106
105
102
13
13
13
13
13
14
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
■ft over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
ft over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Under $6.00	
1
$6.00 to   $6.99..
7.00 to     7.99..
1
5
2
8
2
3
5
4
3
2
1
1
3
1
1
2
3
3
7
2
3
4
1
6
4
7
■2
2
6
4
10.00 to   10.99
1
12.00 to   12.99..
13.00 to   13.99..
2
1
14.00 to   14.99..
4
3
2
16.00 to   15.99..
16.00 to   16.99..
17.00 to   17.99
18.00 to   18.99..
19.00 to   19.99
1
20.00 to   20.99..
21.00 to   21.99..
22.00 to   22.99..
23.00 to   23.99..
24 00 to   24.99..
1
26.00 to   26.99
2
27.00 to   27.99 .
28 00 to   28.99
30.00 to   34.99
12
2
3
1
35.00 to   39.99..
40 00 to   44.99..
45.00 to   49.99..
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland .
Great Britain and Ireland ..
United States of America...
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy.
Germany   	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country ..  	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
76
40
1
1
u
8
3 L 34
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Table No. 20.
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING.
Returns covering 131 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers    $514,145.72
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen,etc  1,021,664.45
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)     1,987,258.52
Total $3,523,068.69
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males.   Females. Month.        Males.   Females,
Januarj-.
February-
March . .
April....
May	
June
127
133
143
136
140
143
July	
August. ..
September
October...
November
December.
1,087
1,083
1,096
1,096
1,128
1,127
136
142
158
139
152
149
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
$6.00	
to $6.99.
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
to 24.99.
to 25.99.
to 26.99.
to   27.!
28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
and over.
21 Yrs.     Under
&over.    21 Yrs.
13
9
14
15
6
10
11
7
18
5
16
5
16
36
5
16
3
6
44
56
148
194
65
1
18
11
7
12
14
7
13
6
4
3
3
3
6
1
4
18 Yrs.
•ft over.
1
4
5
1
11
17
12
12
n
2
Under
18 -Yrs.
Appren-
tices.
16
13
9
19
12
6
45
4
6
13
3
7
4
2
1
4
4
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland.
Great Britain and Ireland...
United States of America...
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy..
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries 	
Nationality not stated	
Males.      Females.
548
405
43
4
19
"52
UO
2
12
Table No. 21.
PULP AND PAPER—MANUFACTURE OF.
Returns covering 14 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers    $512,918.94
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc      235,150.02
Wage-earners (including piece-workers) , 4,616,016.31
Total  $5,364,085.27
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males.   Females. Month.       Males.   Females.
January	
February..
March	
April	
May	
June	
2,948
i960
1-934
2,971
2,899
2,992
80
83
79
78
July	
August...
September
October..
November
December.
2,972
2,875
2,699
•2,734
2,706
2,574
79
76
74
74
69
64
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
. 25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
.00 .
7.99..
8.99..
9.99..
10.99..
11.99..
12.99..
13.99..
14.99..
15.99..
16.99..
17.99..
18.99..
19.99..
20.99..
21.99..
22.99..
23.99..
24.99 .
25.99..
26.99..
27.99..
28.99..
29.99..
34.99..
39.99..
44.99..
49.99..
and over..
21 Yrs.
& over.
1
3
5
201
188
288
42
474
346
275
99
97
123
36
250
348
56
47
46 .
Under
21 Yrs.
11
24
9
20
2
65
44
16
8
3
3
2
4
8
1
18 Yrs.
& over.
9
12
11
14
1
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France   	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
109
5
4
13
227
6
39
97
105
16
95
501
iio
59
32 REPORT OP THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 35
Table No. 22.
SHIP-BUILDING.
Returns  covering Jf3 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers     $173,110.78
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc       101,367.99
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)    1,392,708.55
Total..-. $1,667,187.32
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males.   Females.
January.
February
March...
April
May	
June
1,347
1,172
1,294
1,243
1,468
1,336
Month.       Males.   Females
July	
August...
September
October...
November
December.
1,009
886
1,034
759
863
953
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
$6.00 .
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
$6.99.
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
and over.
21 Yrs.
& over
5
5
7
44
140
4
54
329
17
182
14
86
57
8
36
423
393
78
21
14
Under
21 Yrs.
10
11
2
6
7
1
1
4
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Appren.
tices.
3
4
1
11
5
4
3
6
1
1
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan   	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
719
925
41
3
2
6
17
1
6
137
4
1
Table No. 23.
SMELTING.
Returns covering 3 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers     $254,532.88
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc       371,517.90
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)    5,018,374.82
Total $ 5,644,425.60
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
January....
February...
March	
3,061
2,991
3,067
3,126
3,074
2,875
26
26
26
26
26
27
July	
August	
September..
October	
November ..
December...
2,689
2,640
2,681
2,747
2,704
2,657
27
27
27
27
27
32
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
.00 ....
$6.99.
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
17.99..
18.99..
19.99..
20.99..
21.99..
22.99..
23.99..
24.99..
25.99..
26.99..
27.99..
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
21 Yrs.     Under
ft over.    21 Yrs.
1
11
32
491
707
373
416
680
139
73
16
11
14
45
9
10
3
Females.
18 Yrs.  Under
& over. 18 Yrs.
10
Apprentices.
1
10
2
3
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland    	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries ,	
Nationality not stated	
Males.       Females.
807
:,385
84
9
6
4
443
139
117
29
17
5 L 36
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Table No. 24.
STREET RAILWAYS, GAS, WATER, POWER,
TELEPHONES, ETC.
Returns covering 78 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers    $570,927.45
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc 1,329,349.99
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  7,609,032.71
Total $9,509,310.15
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
February	
May. 	
June	
3,766
3,698
3,856
4,243
4,515
4,597
1,449
1,436
1,463
1,468
1,450
1,486
July	
September..
October
November ..
December...
4,581
4,651
4,585
4,585
4,148
4,182
1,478
1,451
1,437
1,401
1,408
1,465
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Y'rs.
Under $6.00	
1
$6.00 to   $6.99...
7.00 to    7.99 ..
1
1
1
1
1
3
8.00 to     8.99...
10.00 to   10.99  ..
1
1
4
1
1
2
11.00 to   11.99.   .
12.00 to   12 99...
14
189
64
7
403
193
25
127
42
225
51
69
5
7
11
15
200
13.00 to   13.99...
14.00 to   14.99...
16.00 to   15.99...
16.00 to   16.99...
17 00 to   17.99...
3
1
8
8
212
25
135
23
263
162
113
789
242
131
305
371
880
714
383
282
79
28
63
4
1
1
1
19.00 to   19.99...
20.00 to   20.99...
21.00 to   21.99...
22.00 to   22.99...
23.00 to   23 99...
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
25 00 to   25 99
3
27 00 to   27.99...
1
1
28.00 to   28.99...
1
2
30.00 to   34.99..
3
5
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America 	
Australasia	
Belgium    	
France	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated.	
1,827
2,706
163
18
2
9
130
10
23
201
217
22
27
4
4
21
Females.
684
70
Tables No. 25.
WOOD—MANUFACTURE OF (N.E.S.).
Returns covering 78 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1927.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers    $275,122.59
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc       117,855.41
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  1,360,517.08
Total  $1,753,495.08
Average Number of Wage-earners,.
January.
February
March. ..
April	
May	
June ...,
Males.
Females.
1,167
41
1,170
47
1,264
64
1,336
68
1,423
73
1,503
70
July	
August	
September..
October
November..
December ..
1,525
1,'528
1,467
1,438
1,380
1,227
67
57
44
31
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employmentof
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29 00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
$6.00 ....
to $6.99,
to 7.99.
to 8.99.
to 9.99.
to
to
to
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
and over.
Males.
21 Yrs.
& over.
20
2
17
17
9
49
60
233
96
123
61
39
109
33
50
55
91
30
160
96
80
5
12
Under
21 Yrs.
4
18
25
39
32
31
35
29
26
28
23
17
8
10
7
5
1
4
Females.
18 Yrs.
&, over.
6
12
14
6
2
1
2
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
11
1
3
3
3
6
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia    	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries	
Nationality not stated	
Males.      Females.
545
55
2
10
8
42
13
4
57
26
3
35
4
18
43
8
4 REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 37
SUMMARY OF ALL TABLES.
?130,047,021.92
Returns covering 4,597 Firms.
Total Salary and Wage Payments during Twelve Months ended December 31st, 1927:—
Officers,  Superintendents, and Managers   $ 13,248,217.64
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc   11,172,114.73
Wage-earners (Including piece-workers)    105,626,889.55
Returns received too late to be included in above Summary   $    1,001,462.77
Estimated pay-roll of employers in occupations covered by Department's
inquiry, and from whom returns were not received   6,3)50,000.00
Transcontinental Railways   15,124,273.4;5
Dominion and Provincial Government workers   6,000,000.00
Wholesale and Retail Firms   4,000,000.00
Delivery,   Cartage   and   Teaming,   Warehousing,   Butchers,   Moving-picture
Operators, Coal and Wood Yards, and Auto Transportation   5,500,000.00
Ocean Services and Express Companies   8,000,000.00
Miscellaneous     1,500,000.00
47,475,736.22
$177,5'2'2,758.14
Average Number of Wage-earners.
During the Month of
January...
February .
March..  ..
April	
May	
June	
July	
August...
September
October...
November
December.
Males.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland.	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy	
Germany	
Austria and Hungary	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc
Russia or other Slav country	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries    	
Nationality not stated	
35,257
31,994
3,547
245
246
609
2,654
473
963
7,605
2,736
584
6,379
839
3,621
39
2,236
Females.
65,567
4,822
68,922
4,609
72,601
4,809
75,703
4,804
78,849
4,940
81,440
6,089
80,681
6,754
81,072
6,491
80,324
6,969
77,411
6,212
74,580
5,398
67,976
4,932
Females.
4,882
2,637
236
6
11
30
83
92
26
164
82
12
6
238
3
153
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only.)
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.89.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34.99
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
Totals.
21  Yrs.
& over.
1
11
10
9
44
72
194
171
317
619
502
1,199
1,260
10,056
2,849
5,944
4,369
3,275
9,857
4,356
3,239
4,555
5,158
3,329
12,246
9,834
5,464
2,502
2,073
93,515
Under
21 Yrs.
51
101
97
151
185
246
150
328
236
249
344
269
186
183
190
128
139
86
82
118
35
48
25
58
29
31
24
1
3,770
Females.
18 Yrs.
& over.
1
278
21
16
87
119
497
740
923
957
859
312
611
272
487
217
189
73
69
110
43
64
36
16
66
22
12
7,109
Under
18 Yrs.
60
53
62
39
226
27
74
34
20
5
17
7
10
Apprentices.
35
123
74
148
100
145
116
57
76
58
35
20
18
9
12
15
7
21
4
6
5
9
1
11
3
1,554 THE " MALE MINIMUM WAGE ACT."
This Act governing the wages of male workers, when it was passed into law by the Legislature of British Columbia in the latter part of 1925, was a new departure in economic
legislation so far as the American Continent is concerned, though many law-making authorities
had passed measures affecting the wages paid to women. As such, it has attracted considerable
attention not only in our own Province, but over a very wide field outside.
TWO ORDERS MADE BY THE BOARD.
Under the law the power of fixing a minimum wage for various industries was conferred
by the Legislature upon the Board of Adjustment appointed under the " Hours of Work Act."
The Chairman of the Board is the Deputy Minister of Labour, and the other two members are
appointed by the Executive Council on recommendation of the Honourable the Minister of
Labour, who has been guided in his selection by the principle that they should respectively
reflect the opinions of the employers and the employed in an industry. Up to the time of
writing this report, two orders have been made by the Board, one affecting employees in all
branches of the lumbering industry, which became effective on November 1st, 1926, and the
other dealing with the business of restaurants and catering, which is due to come into effect
on April 1st, 1928. In each case the making of an order has been preceded by extensive inquiry
on the part of the Board, including the holding of public meetings at which all parties interested
were invited to state their views.
THOUSANDS RECEIVING HIGHER PAY.
In the working of the Lumbering Order considerable experience has now been gained. The
basic wage of 40 cents an hour has proved a good working compromise between the request of
labour for a higher minimum wage and that of the employers for a lower rate to be fixed. As
such it has been loyally accepted by the employers as a whole, and the process of bringing about
an increased rate of pay for several thousands of the lower-paid workers in the industry was
accomplished with a singularly small amount of friction. The fact that 1927 was, on the whole,
a good year for lumber production in the Province goes to show that the minimum wage set
by the Board was not beyond the ability of the industry to pay. Outside a few instances of
help employed in the kitchens of camps (which will be referred to later), not a single case
has come to the notice of the Board where a worker found it necessary to take action in Court
against his employer to secure the payment of the legal minimum wage.
PERMITS FOR HANDICAPPED WORKERS.
Under subsection (2) of clause 5 of the Act, the Board have power to grant permits to
authorize the payment of a lower wage to employees suffering from a handicap.
In their regulations they laid it down that the permits granted to employees of any firm
should not exceed 10 per cent, of the total number of persons employed. This provision has
been found to be more than ample, as not a single firm has ever approached the 10-per-cent.
limit. This may be better understood when it is explained that, in an industry employing in
all its branches somewhere in the neighbourhood of 40,000 workers, only 143 permits had been
granted up to the end of 1927, and some of these were given for only a short period. The number
of permits issued during 1927 was 60, various reasons being assigned by the applicants, such as
debility, loss of limbs, war injuries, unfitness for heavy work, partial paralysis, and advanced
age. In these cases the hourly rates set have ranged from 25 cents to 37% cents an hour.
A few permits have been given to able-bodied young men who were learning a trade, a low rate
being set for the brief period which was supposed to be necessary to enable them to acquire
efficiency.
CHANGED  PERSONNEL OF  THE  BOARD.
When the Board of Adjustment took over the administration of the " Male Minimum Wage
Act," it was realized that the industry most urgently calling for consideration was that of
lumbering. Mr. T. F. Paterson and Mr. F. V. Foster, members of the Board, had the advantage
of familiarity with conditions in this industry, and their knowledge proved of great value in
applying and administering the provisions of the law. In the latter part of 1927, it was felt
that the time had arrived for considering the making of a new order dealing with catering and
restaurants.    About this time Mr. Paterson and Mr. Foster asked to be relieved of their duties, REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 39
and it was suggested that new members of the Board should be appointed more familiar with
the occupations next to be dealt with. Still keeping in mind the importance of having the
interests of employers and employed represented on the Board, a request was made to the
restaurant proprietors and to the Cooks' and Waiters' Union respectively that they should submit
to the Honourable the Minister of Labour the names of a number of persons possessing their
confidence, from whom a selection could be made. This was done, and from the names submitted
Mr. E. B. Perry, restaurant proprietor, of Vancouver, and Mr. Harry Wood, general secretary
of the Cooks' and Waiters' Union in Vancouver, were selected. These two gentlemen, with
Mr. J. D. McNiven retaining his position as Chairman, were constituted the Board.
THE CATERING INQUIRY.
The new members were appointed on November 30th and at once commenced a survey of
conditions in the catering business. As it was their desire to hear the views of all parties
interested in the fixing of a minimum wage, they called public meetings, which were held in
the Parliament Buildings, Victoria, on December 8th and 9th, and in the Court-house, Vancouver,
on December 13th and 14th. Two meetings were held on each day, in the morning and afternoon, and were well attended, the first day's proceedings in each city being devoted mainly to
hearing the arguments of the employers, and the second day to the presentation of the case
for the employees. No hard-and-fast rules were observed, however, and every opportunity was
given to both sides to state their case.
THE CASE FOR THE EMPLOYERS.
It was argued on behalf of the employers that, for the less skilled forms of employment,
such as would be affected by a minimum wage, those in the business were already paying enough,
and could not afford to pay more. It was further represented that white men could not be
secured for menial jobs such as dish-washing, or that, if they accepted such employment in a
period of stress, they would not stick to it. Therefore, it was contended, a legal minimum
wage would mean, in the main, higher pay for Chinese employees, with the result that more
money would be sent out of the country. If white women were employed they could not do
the work, or, in any event, they could not do it as quickly as a Chinaman, and their services
would therefore cost more. A complaint was made that white kitchen employees take a job
in the kitchen and then throw it up without notice, leaving their employer in a fix. A Chinaman,
on the other hand, was more reliable, and if he could not turn up would send a substitute.
Several employers said they had tried white men and the experiment was a failure. With
inexperienced white help breakages were an expensive item. It was claimed in Vancouver that
that city had the reputation of being one of the cheapest places in the world for restaurant
meals, and that this was a distinct asset to the city so far as tourists were concerned. If such
reputation were sacrificed owing to an increase in the wage bill and consequent increase in
prices, it would be a loss to the city.
An argument had been put forward that restaurants in Eastern cities manage without
the employment of Orientals, and that those in the West could do the same; but this was
answered by the statement that the work done in the West by Orientals is done largely in the
East by negroes. If the price of meals were to be increased, said the employers, many customers
resident in the city would simply cease to use the restaurants, as they could not afford to pay
more than they were already paying. One large firm was of the opinion that, if the wages
of the lower-paid employees were increased, the management would have to accede to a demand
that the more highly-paid employees should receive a proportionate increase; but this assertion
was keenly disputed. Some of the employers suggested that, if Oriental help were eliminated,
and white help could not be obtained, there should be provision made for securing such help by
immigration. An interesting argument was that, if a Chinaman lost his employment with a
white restaurant proprietor, he would open a restaurant of his own—that this could be done
with very little capital, and that, in point of fact, the number of Chinese restaurants in Vancouver had increased very considerably in recent years. In this respect, attention was called to
the difference between the restaurant business and that of lumbering, where an Oriental
competitor would find it much more difficult to get a start in business.
As to existing rates of pay, it was urged by the employers that, taking tips into account,
those employees who came into contact with the customer were already well paid. The value
of meals taken by employees at the employers' expense in the restaurants was a vexed question. L 40 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Some employers expressed no objection to an employee having anything he wanted—-"if they
were not permitted they would take it, anyway." One employer declared that restaurant
employees " never go hungry, and never pay for a meal." Another employer said a proprietor
should be permitted to charge his help for meals, the same price as any ordinary customer,
and a further suggestion from the employers' side was a flat rate of $1 a day. Complaint was
made of the competition of candy-stores, drug-stores, ice-cream parlours, and other places where
light meals are served, and it was represented that numerous small restaurants where female
help only is employed would receive an unfair advantage if a minimum wage were set for male
employees.
CASE FOR THE EMPLOYEES.
The case for the employees rested mainly upon statements as to the low wages which many
restaurant-workers were receiving, and on the broad ground that such wages were not sufficient
to enable an employee to maintain a white man's standard of living. They submitted that the
cost of putting a minimum wage into operation had been exaggerated by the employers, and
that, such as it was, it could be absorbed by the business, even if the price of meals were not
increased. Many of the jobs now done in restaurants by Chinamen, they said, could be done
by white women, whose legal minimum wage was not appreciably higher than a Chinaman's
rate of pay. As to the supposed difficulty of inducing a white man to stick to the lowest-paid
work in a restaurant kitchen, cases were mentioned of kitchens which had maintained a white
Staff for years without frequent changes of personnel. There would be no trouble in that way,
said the employees, if a fair minimum wage were fixed, and a white man who had had a little
experience was more efficient than a Chinaman. They contended that the employers' fears
regarding the necessity for increasing the price of meals owing to a minimum wage order, with
consequent loss of business, were greatly exaggerated. The Government employment bureaus
always had a large number of men registered as willing to take employment in the kitchens.
It was complained, however, that a white man working in a kitchen under a Chinese cook had
no chance of learning anything, and therefore could not rise to a better job. That was often
the reason for a white man throwing up his job. A suggestion made by an employee in Victoria
was that, if the difficulty could not be overcome in any other way, a school for cooks should be
established. Canada, and Western Canada in particular, it was said, is the only country in
the world where kitchen employment is in the hands of a foreign race.
As to Chinese competition, the workers claimed that they had as much right to object to
it as the restaurant proprietors had. Moreover, they said very bluntly that the fact that
Chinese are opening restaurants is the fault of the white restaurant proprietors who have
employed them and taught them their business. As to tips, there was a consensus of opinion
among employees that gratuities are unreliable as a source of income, and that there are only
two months in the year, July and August, when they are really worth considering. One waiter
after another asserted that he would like to see them abolished. As to the value of meals
received by restaurant-workers, it was set down by the latter as .very low—not more than the
equivalent of one-and-a-third meals a day. Different opinions were expressed by employees
as to the quality of meals, and some employees went so far as to contend that they should not
be allowed for at all in the setting of a minimum wage. Another point made by the employees
was that their union had offered to co-operate with the employers in controlling the issue of
licences to Oriental restaurants, but that they could not get the employers to act.
THE CATERING ORDER ISSUED.
In addition to the oral statements at the meetings referred to, a number of written representations were received by the Board from interested parties in various sections of the Province.
The general position was considered at a number of meetings of the Board, both in the latter
part of the year now under review and in the early weeks of 1928. It was on February 29th,
1928, that the Board issued the following:—
" MALE MINIMUM WAGE ACT."
Ordeb establishing a Minimum Wage in the Catering Industry.
Pursuant to the provisions of the " Male Minimum Wage Act," the Board of Adjustment, constituted under the " Hours of Work Act, 1923," having made due inquiry, hereby orders:—•
1. That where used in this Order the expression " catering industry " includes all operations in or
incidental to the preparation, or to the serving, or to both preparation and serving of meals or refresh- REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 41
ments where the meals or refreshments are served or intended to be served in any hotel, restaurant,
boarding-house, eating-house, dance-hall, banquet-hall, social or other club, cafeteria, tea-room, lunchroom, lunch-counter, or in any other place where food is served and a charge is made for the same
either directly or indirectly, whether such charge is made against the persons who partake of the meals
or refreshments or against some other person; but does not include restaurants, boarding-houses, or
other places within the meaning of the expression " lumbering industry," as defined in any other Order
made under the " Male Minimum Wage Act."
2. That where used in this Order the expression " straight shift" refers to conditions of employment under which the shift or daily work period of employees is continuous, without any intermission
or period of time off duty other than time allowed for partaking of meals; and the expression " split
shift" refers to conditions of employment under which the shift or daily work period of employees is
not continuous, but is divided into two or more parts by one or more intermissions or periods of time
off duty other than time allowed for partaking of meals.
3. In the case of employees in the catering industry the conditions of whose employment provide
for the furnishing of meals at the cost of the employer to such employees during each day of employment, the minimum wage for such employees shall be:—
(a.)   In the case of a straight shift, the sum of thirty-two and one-half  (32%c.)  cents per
hour;   and
(6.)   In the case of a split shift, the sum of thirty-five (35c.)  cents per hour.
4. That, subject to the other provisions of this Order, the minimum wage for all employees in the
catering industry shall be:—
.(a.)  In the case of a straight shift, the sum of forty (40c.) cents per hour;  and
(6.)   In the case of a split shift, the sum of forty-two and one-half (42%c.) cents per hour.
5. That the number of handicapped, part-time, and apprentice employees in respect of whom a
permit may be obtained pursuant to the said " Male Minimum Wage Act" authorizing the payment
of a wage less than the minimum wage otherwise payable under this Order shall, in the case of each
employer, be limited to ten per centum of his adult male-employees.
Dated at Victoria, B.C., this twenty-ninth day of February, 1928.
J. D. McNiven, Chairman,
Haery Woon,
E. B. Peeby,
Members of the Board of Adjustment.
This Order applies only to male employees over the age of twenty-one years, and becomes effective
on April 1st, 1928.
The coming into effect of this Order, and its working by the test of practical experience,
belong to a later period than is covered by this report.
NO COLOUR DISTINCTION.
Inquiry is frequently made of the Department of Labour as to the extent to which Oriental
labour has been displaced in the lumbering industry by the operation of the Act. As was
explained fully in the report for 1926, the Act makes no distinction between white and Oriental
labour. The white employee, the Chinese, the Japanese, and the Hindus are equally entitled
to be paid the legal minimum wage. The Board of Adjustment, however, has always taken the
view that, if employers were obliged to conform to a higher standard of wages in the employment
of Oriental labour, such labour would tend to become less desirable from an employer's point
of view, and to a certain extent would be substituted by the employment of white help. Our
early inquiries showed unmistakably that, where white and Oriental helpers were engaged in
the same class of employment, the white man would usually command about a 25 per centum
higher rate of pay, by reason of his greater ability to respond to an unexpected emergency.
It seemed to follow that, if employers were compelled to pay their Oriental workers 40 cents
an hour, they would either be willing to pay their white workers more for work of the same
class, or else bring a larger number of white workers into the mills.
MORE WHITES AND FEWER ORIENTALS.
That this has really happened is shown by a comparison of the figures in our statistical
report with those of previous years. These are the totals supplied in returns forwarded to the
Department by employers engaged in all branches of the lumbering industry in all parts of the
Province. A more exact comparison is possible, however, in the case of thirty-one of the largest
sawmills in the Coast area, whose books have been examined by representatives of the Department. These inspections took place in November, 1926, just after the Lumbering Order had
been made operative, and again in October, 1927, and the figures given by the same employers
in their annual returns for 1925 have also been segregated for comparison. The result is shown
in the following table:— L 42
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Whites and Orientals employed at Thirty-one Large Sawmills in Coast Area.
Date.
Total
Employees.
Whites.
Orientals.
Percentage
of Orientals.
1925  	
6,489
7,111
7,841
3,582
4,672
5,399
2,907
2,439
2,442
44.80
34.30
October, 1927 ..                                 	
31.14
Compared with 1925, before the Lumbering Order was in effect, the total number of
employees working at these thirty-one mills showed an increase of 1,352. Tbe number of white
employees increased by 1,817, and the number of Oriental employees decreased by 465.
In 1925 there were 55.20 per cent, of white employees and 44.80 per cent, of Orientals.
In November, 1926, there were 65.70 per cent, of white employees and 34.30 per cent, of
Orientals.
In October, 1927, there were 68.86 per cent, of white employees and 31.14 per cent. )of
Orientals.
These figures show plainly that the amount of employment in the thirty-one mills has
increased considerably since the Order was made, and that there has also been a marked
decrease, both actually and relatively, in the employment of Orientals.
POSITION OF CAMP KITCHEN EMPLOYEES.
The question of the legal standing under the Act of kitchen and bunk-house employees at
lumber camps has been before the Courts. On April 13th County Court Judge Robertson, of
Prince George, decided two cases in which Cecil Compton and Harry Bruce, who had been
employed as cook and waiter in the boarding-house operated by the Allen-Thrasher Lumber
Company at Snowshoe, sued the company for the balance of wages which they claimed to be
due to them under the Lumbering Order. The plaintiffs had been working for $75 and $60 a
month, respectively, with board, and they stated in evidence that they had worked long hours,
sometimes as much as fourteen hours a day. Their claim was that they were entitled to be
paid 40 cents an hour for the total number of hours worked, less the value of the board they
had received.
Giving judgment on the Compton claim, His Honour Judge Robertson said:—
" This is an action to recover $155.40, being the difference in wages at $75 per month and
board and the minimum at 40 cents an hour fixed by the Board of Adjustment under the ' Male
Minimum Wage Act, 1925.'
" The order establishing a minimum wage in the lumbering industry was made on the 30th
day of September, 1926, published in the British Columbia Gazette on the same day, and the
wage came into force on the 1st day of November, 1926.
" The facts are not in any way contradicted. The plaintiff went to work for the defendants,
September, 1925, and worked until February 9th, 1927, with very few days off. His pay during
that time was $75 per month and board, all of which has been paid. The cook and his crew
are employed seven days a week.
" The establishment of the 40 cents an hour minimum operates from the 1st day of
November, 1926, and if the order applies to cooks, second cooks, and helpers, including waiters
or flunkeys, then the plaintiff is undoubtedly entitled to recover the amount sued.
" The question in issue is, ' Does a cook or helper come within the meaning of one engaged
in the "lumbering industry"? which words include all operations in or incidental to the
carrying-on of logging camps, sawmills, etc'
" Beyond doubt no operation can be carried out without the employees being fed, so that
every business in the world would apparently have as an incident to it the feeding of every one
connected with it.
" What is the meaning of ' incidental'? Webster defines it as ' dependent on and pertaining
to all operations.'
" In ascertaining the meaning of the words, of and incidental to the carrying-on, in the
present case, of a sawmill, is there a duty cast upon the employer to provide a boarding-house
for the employees?   I do not think so. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 43
*' There are duties of many kinds placed upon the employers: to provide, inter alia, proper
safety appliances, proper tools, and proper living-quarters for the employees, but it has not
been suggested that there is a duty placed upon the employer to feed his employees, and I do
not think there is any duty.
" There being, as I found it, no duty cast upon the employer to provide board for the men,
I find that the carrying-on of a boarding-house by an employer is in the nature of a bonus to
the employees, in that it avoids for them the necessity of cooking or paying board elsewhere.
" In the case at bar there is no obligation for a man working in the mill to board at the
boarding-house run by the employer, nor is there any rule compelling the employee to board
at the employer's boarding-house. In fact, a number of men employed in the sawmill do not
board at the defendant's boarding-house and strangers are supplied meals on request.
," Is a cook a worker in or incidental to the operation of a lumbering industry in the limited
sense that the words are used in the Order before referred to?
" The ' Woodmen's Lien for Wages Act' specifically mentions ' cooks ' as having a lien.
" I infer from the reading of the order that it meant to cover persons actually and physically
engaged in the operation of, among others, the turning into lumber the products of our forests,
and I find that the cook is not so engaged.
" The action is therefore dismissed with costs."
Following this decision, the plaintiffs communicated with the Board of Adjustment, stating
that, while they were dissatisfied with the Judge's ruling and desired to enter an appeal, they
were not financially in a position to do so. The Board deemed it desirable to have an authoritative decision in the matter, and instructed counsel to argue the case for the plaintiff Compton
in the Court of Appeal.
DECISION REVERSED IN COURT OF APPEAL.
The case was heard on appeal in Victoria on June 29th before Chief Justice Macdonald,
Mr. Justice Galliher, Mr. Justice McPhillips, and Mr. Justice M. A. Macdonald. Mr. Alexis
Martin appeared for the plaintiff, the appellant, and Mr. H. B. Robertson, K.C., for the
respondent company.
Chief Justice Macdonald, in giving judgment, said:—
" I think the appeal must be allowed. I am not at all sure that this workman could not
have claimed a larger sum than he has claimed. He was employed as a cook in a lumber camp,
and he was to be paid $75 a month and get his board.
" Tbe order of the Minimum Wage Board fixes the minimum wage at 40 cents per hour.
It is quite true that that order is not quite apt, or the circumstances apt to the order. If he
must be paid in cash 40 cents an hour, and I think that is the intention of the Act, otherwise
it would be impossible to carry out its provisions, then he would be entitled to 40 cents an hour
for the days that he worked, and the difference between that and the $75 a month, for which
he had contracted, would still be coming to him. This Act is intended, not for the protection
of the individual employee alone, but for the protection of all the employees in the industry;
and therefore it is not a right to be waived by one or another of the employees; and there is
no possibility either of contracting out of it or waiving its provisions. Employers will have to
amend their methods of doing business. If the employer in this case had said, ' I will pay you
$75 a month wages and I will give you your board, which we will value at $1.20 a day,' then
perhaps that could be regarded as a case where the difference only between $75 a month plus
the $1.20 a day board and the minimum wage could be arrived at. Employers will have to take
that into consideration. I am not deciding, and we are not called upon to decide, how it would
be if the employee were claiming the difference between the $75 a month and the minimum wage
in this case.   He is allowing for the value of his board.
" With regard to the contention that there ought to be a deduction for the number of hours
per day that this employee spent playing pool, or away from his work, I cannot accede to
Mr. Robertson's contention. The employment here was not employment by the hour; it was
employment by the month, and it was an employment as conceded to begin at 5 o'clock in the
morning and end at 7 o'clock at night; that was tbe working-day. And that working-day rules
this case, not the number of hours that he happened to be idle, and which it is claimed ought
to be deducted from that day.   I think the true construction of the Act requires me to find L 44
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
that the employee can neither contract out of it nor waive his rights under it, and that he is
entitled to his working-days, as fixed between himself and his employer, at 40 cents an hour."
Mr. Justice Galliher said:—
" I would allow the appeal and give judgment for the amount claimed."
Mr. Justice McPhillips said:—
" In my opinion the appeal should be allowed. With great respect to the learned Judge
in the Court below, I am of the opinion that he was in error in law in holding that a cook
working in the lumber industry did not come within the ambit of the ' Male Minimum Wage Act.'
In my opinion the cook does come within the ambit of that Act, because without a cook in these
logging camps and sawmills, especially in remote districts, it would be impossible to carry on
these undertakings at all. And I think that the Legislature had that fully within its knowledge,
and especially as we know in this country where there are such vast areas of timber, and many
of them very far removed from settlement. But whether within the settled or without the
settled area, I think in the whole lumber industry a cook who is employed in preparing meals
for the workmen must be held to be working in the lumber industry. It is a necessary part of
the carrying-out of that industry; and certainly would come within the language of being
incidental to the carrying-out of that industry.
" The Act is one in the nature of a declaration of policy on the part of the Legislature.
It is quite within the powers of the Constitution for the Legislature to pass such an Act. We
have had this Act before us, and we have had to consider it; and we also dealt with the powers
and the validity of a minimum wage; that is, that 40 cents an hour in the lumber industry was
a valid exercise of the powers given to the Board of Adjustment.
" Now that minimum wage was promulgated, and, as I have said, we passed on the matter
in the Rex v. Robertson & Hackett, and we held that it was within the power of the Board of
Adjustment to make the order it did.
" This Act also proceeds to define what the civil rights of the employee may be. Firstly,
we have 40 cents an hour fixed as the minimum wage. Then, secondly, we have the employee's
civil rights; he is entitled to that, and if he is paid less he may claim the full amount. The
Legislature has made a statutory contract for him. This view that I am now expressing is
quite within the ratio decidendi of the ' Workmen's Compensation Act' case (C.P.R. case) which
went to the Privy Council. There the Privy Council held that the ' Workmen's Compensation
Act' was a statutory contract made in favour of the workman. And in that particular case it
was the officers and sailors on the ' Sophia '; their dependents made a claim, to which the Board
acting under the ' Workmen's Compensation Act' were willing to accede, that the dependents
of the officers and sailors that went down on the ' Sophia' were entitled to compensation under
the ' Workmen's Compensation Act,' upon the view that they were employed in the Province of
British Columbia, going upon a British ship, and, notwithstanding it was lost within American
waters, that a term of their contract of service was the statutory one contained in the ' Workmen's Compensation Act'; that is, it was a civil right that they could claim. Now, here, the
Legislature has empowered the Board of Adjustment to fix the minimum wage. That has been
done. Then, having been done, the employer must guide himself in accordance with that. He
is disentitled, in my opinion, to pay less than the minimum wage. In this particular case it
is 40 cents an hour. The civil right is given by section 11: 'If any employee is paid less than
the minimum wage to which he is entitled under this Act, the employee shall be entitled to
recover from his employer, in a civil action'—which is this case—' the balance between the
amount paid and the amount of the minimum wage, with costs of action.' Now this is his
civil right, as it was in the Workmen's Compensation case; the dependents of the officers and
sailors have a civil right accorded to them by the Statute, and this plaintiff here has a civil
right accorded to him by the Statute. And to accentuate that, and to show that there can be
no departure from it, it is only necessary to turn to section 10, the penalty provision, which
reads: ' Every employer who contravenes any order of the Board'—now he would contravene
the order of the Board if he does not pay the minimum wage—' made under this Act by the
payment of wages of less amount than the minimum wage fixed by the Board shall be liable,
on summary conviction, to a penalty of not less than fifty dollars nor more than five hundred
dollars for each employee affected.' Now, this section denotes the intention and policy of the
law, and that is, that once the minimum wage is fixed, that minimum wage must be paid, and
penalties may ensue if not paid;  and, further, a civil action at law may be brought, such as REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 45
this is, and the employee, here to cook, is entitled to succeed. With great respect to the learned
Judge in the Court below, I think the action should have succeeded, and I would allow the
appeal."
Mr. Justice M. A. Macdonald said:—
" I would allow the appeal."
THE QUESTION OF COSTS.
Counsel argued the question of costs; Mr. Martin read a telegram from the Deputy Attorney-
General to Mr. Young, solicitor for the appellant, dated June 2nd, 1927: " Government will
undertake payment of costs of appeal Compton v. Allen and Thrasher in the event unsuccessful
Court of Appeal."
Macdonald, C.J.A.: " The order as to costs will be that the plaintiff is entitled to all costs
incurred by him for which he is responsible. Any costs that were not incurred by him he is not
entitled to, since he is only entitled to costs by way of indemnity."
Galliher, J.A.:  " I agree with the Chief Justice."
McPhillips, J.A.: " I think, upon the accepted facts of this case, the Attorney-General
intervened to see that this appeal would be heard on the ground, no doubt, that it was in the
public interest. The plaintiff, the employee, really prosecuted the appeal. All that the Attorney-
General undertook to do was this: that if the appeal was unsuccessful, the costs of the appeal
that the plaintiff would be put to would be borne by the Crown. The appeal has succeeded, the
event has happened; not the event that the Attorney-General said would impose any liability
upon the Crown, but the event has happended which removes any liability from the Crown.
And in my opinion the order should be as provided by Statute; i.e., costs follow the event."
M. A. Macdonald, J.A.:  " I agree with the Chief Justice."
APPEAL REFUSED BY PRIVY COUNCIL.
The respondent company sought leave to appeal from this judgment, but their application
was refused by the Court of Appeal on October 4th, 1927. They next carried the case to the
Privy Council in London, again applying for leave to appeal. This application was in turn
refused, and the judgment in favour of Compton accordingly stands.
In announcing the Privy Council's decision to refuse leave of appeal, Viscount Haldane
said:—
" Their Lordships do not think that this is a case in which they should advise the granting
of leave to appeal. If it had been a clear case of public importance taken up officially by the
Government of the Province, it might have stood differently, but the Attorney-General has not
thought fit to intervene. It is true he said below he would take care of the costs of the
respondent, and in that sense has supported him, but the Attorney-General has not intervened
in the appeal, as he might have done. That seems to their Lordships to show that he did not
regard the case as of that far-reaching public importance which alone would justify the granting
of leave to appeal in this case. Their Lordships will not say that, if the question arises again
in another form, in which the Government of the Province actively interest themselves, there
may not be a case for recommending the granting of leave to appeal, but they think in this
case leave to appeal should not be granted."
FLUNKEYS AND THE MINIMUM WAGE.
Another important decision was given on December 16th by Judge Cayley sitting in the
County Court at Vancouver. Two employees, H. G. Field and William Young, who had been
working in the kitchen and bunk-house at the International Timber Company's camp, claimed
the minimum wage of 40 cents an hour for the total hours worked, alleging that the pay which
they had received was less than the equivalent of that rate. A point of difference between the
parties was as to the number of hours actually worked, and the action also raised the question
of whether flunkeys and dish-washers, as distinct from cooks, were entitled to the benefit of
the Lumbering Order.
Mr. Justice Cayley said:—
" The only difficulty I have in this case is the decision in Compton vs. Allen and Thrasher,
by which, of course, I am bound. My difficulty is in understanding the precise effect of the
judgment as given by the Chief Justice of the Court of Appeal, particularly at that portion of L 46 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
it in which he says: ' It was an employment as conceded to begin at 5 o'clock in the morning
and end at 7 o'clock at night; that was the working-day. And that working-day rules this case,
not the number of hours that he happened to be idle, and which, it is claimed, ought to be
deducted from that day.'
" There was nothing conceded in this case as to the employment beginning at any particular
hour in the morning, or ending at any particular hour of the night.
" Field was engaged at a loggers' agency, under a written contract, signed by himself, to
act as a flunkey, wages to be by the day, at the rate of $3.20 per day. The length of the day
is not specified there, nor the hours which a flunkey has to work, nor the hour at which the
flunkey can consider his day over.
" It appears from the evidence in this case that in the particular camp at which this plaintiff
was engaged, flunkeys had to get up at 6 o'clock in the morning, and prepare for the breakfast
for the men, and that this work took them about four hours—that is preparing breakfast,
working around the dining-room, setting table, and various other employments of a similar
kind, and, after the breakfast was over, clearing away and washing-up, etc.; and the evidence
is that at about 10 o'clock this part of the work was over and that the flunkeys could do pretty
much as they chose until the noonday meal was to be prepared, when a similar working period
would recur for them, which would last from 11 o'clock in tbe morning until 2 o'clock in the
afternoon; then the men were practically off duty, and would come on duty again at either
4 o'clock or 4.30 in the afternoon preparing for the final meal, and their duty seemed to terminate
at 7.30 in the evening.    This makes practically three shifts of work for a flunkey during the day.
" Now, Field, in engaging to do this job, knew nothing of the particular hours which he
would have to work at the camp. No doubt, as soon as he got there, he found out just what the
company called for from him in actual work.
" The difficulty in the Chief Justice's judgment is to understand where he holds that because
a man may be called to attend to something at any hour of the working-day he must, therefore,
be considered as employed for the whole period of the working-day. I cannot conceive that
this is the intention of the judgment. In some respects, the fact that a man is perpetually on
call, as all house-workers are, has been recognized by the ' Minimum Wage Act,' where it is
stated that domestic servants are not included in the Act, and I should myself put flunkeys and
waiters and dish-washers in the rank of domestic servants. A domestic servant's work, in one
sense, is never done; this man's work, in the same sense, in never done; and I do not suppose
the Minimum Wage Board ever really contemplated that indoor servants should be regarded in
the same light as men who are habitually engaged in heavy work in a logging camp.
" However, the question has been decided, as far as a cook is concerned, by the Court of
Appeal in the case cited above. There has been no case cited to me to put a dish-washer in
the same rank as a cook, or to suppose that his work was ever regulated, or intended to be
regulated, by the Minimum Wage Board.
" The question is an important one and should go to the Court of Appeal to have it clearly
defined by them as to what the proprietors of logging camps are to understand hereafter when
they are making contracts with bunk-house servants and cook-house servants in their camp,
and, for that reason, I may as well make a straight decision on both questions that seem to be
involved in this action; that is, whether a dish-washer is to be regarded as a domestic servant
and, therefore, exempt from the Act, and, in the alternative, as to whether a dish-washer is to
be regarded as an all-day employee when his actual work only calls for working-shifts.
" As a matter of fact, during the course of his employment, the plaintiff and the cook went
into the question, while they were at the camp, as to how many hours of work they were called
upon to perform. The cook's name was Grote, and he said that Field figured out that the
flunkeys or dish-washers only worked eight hours a day, but he himself, however, thought
that Field was drawing it tight and he figured out they worked eight and a half hours a day.
So that, as a matter of fact, these men in these logging camps are quite well aware that the
actual work required of them does not necessitate actual work from them except for the three
shifts that occur during the day, and these shifts are in the periods that I have mentioned above.
Of course, extra work would be paid extra time.
" Even the loggers themselves, working under the eight-hour system, do not charge for
hours when they are taking their meals, and, in the present case, the thirteen hours claimed
by Field makes no allowance for meals at all, so that he is working for the company, according
to his claim, even while he is eating. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 47
" I am quite sure that the ' Minimum Wage Act' is indefinite, as the Chief Justice in the
Court of Appeal has pointed out, in many respects, that the position of the different classes of
workers has not been properly considered by the Minimum Wage Board, and the Courts have
sometimes to interpret the ' Minimum Wage Act' in many ways which may seem unreasonable.
In the case cited, Compton v. Allen, the Chief Justice himself calls attention to that fact, and
says that the only way to remedy it is for the employer to frame his contract in accordance
with what the ' Minimum Wage Act' would seem to require.
" However, the Act is there, and the judgment by which I am controlled is there, and I
distinguish the present case from Compton v. Allen because the evidence in the case before me
is different from the evidence in the case of Compton v. Allen: it was conceded in the latter
case that the employment was to begin at a certain hour and end at a certain hour. In the
case at bar there was no such concession. To the contrary, the contract entered into by Field
shows that he had not in contemplation any thirteen-hour day job at all. He must have known
well that in a flunkey's job he would only be busy at meal-times and for a short period before
and after meals, because the fact that he contracted to work for $3.20 a day, which is less than
loggers' wages, shows that he did not consider his job a hard one.
" I might add that there is something particularly obnoxious in a man working at a camp
on certain terms, knowing what hours the timekeeper has given him and raising no objection
until after he is paid off and has left the employment of his employer, and then running to a
lawyer to see whether he cannot stick the employer for some more money. I should not be
inclined to think that any man who works a day longer in a job after he has found out the
hours he has been allowed, I do not think that such a man should stay on his job and then be
entitled to the benefit of an action under the ' Minimum Wage Act.'
" I consider that flunkeys and dish-washers rank as domestic servants, and the ' Minimum
Wage Act' does not apply. If, however, it is decided by the Court of Appeal that the Act does
apply, then judgment will work out as follows: The plaintiff has worked three shifts daily in
this camp and is entitled to 40 cents an hour, no matter how his contract reads, for the hours
of work in each shift which have been proved in Court. These hours are four hours for
breakfast, three hours for lunch or dinner, and three hours for the evening meal, making a total
in all of ten hours. Deducted therefrom would be half an hour for each meal, leaving a balance
of eight and a half hours to be paid for at 40 cents an hour. This amount, I believe, the
plaintiff has been paid.
" The action is therefore dismissed with costs."
ANOTHER REVERSAL ON APPEAL.
The Board of Adjustment decided to appeal the case, which was argued for the plaintiff
Field on their behalf by Mr. Alexis Martin in the Court of Appeal at Vancouver on April 12th,
1928. The three Judges, Chief Justice Macdonald, Mr. Justice Galliher, and Mr. Justice M. A.
Macdonald, were unanimous in allowing the appeal, thus reversing the ruling of Mr. Justice
Cayley in the Court below.
The Honourable the Chief Justice said:—
" The appellant was employed by the respondent as cook's helper at its logging camp. By
order of the Board appointed pursuant to the ' Male Minimum Wage Act,' chapter 32 of the
Statutes of British Columbia, 1925, the expression 'Lumber industry includes (inter alia) all
operations in or incidental to the carrying-on of logging camps.' The appellant was engaged
under written contract at $3.20 per diem; his duties actually began at 6 o'clock in the morning
and ended at 7 o'clock in the evening; there was a period of idleness, although he remained on
call, between breakfast and dinner and again between dinner and supper. No stipulations
regarding those periods were made by the contract.
" The respondent makes alternative submissions; the one that appellant was a domestic
servant, excepted from the said Act by section 13 thereof; the other that there was a tacit
understanding or agreement that the actual hours worked should constitute a day. There is,
in my opinion, no warrant for this latter contention. It may be competent to employers and
employees to make agreements excepting certain hours out of the day, thus reducing the hours
to be paid for below those which otherwise would be included between the time of beginning
work in the morning and that of quitting in the evening. But in the absence of such an
agreement all hours must be included, as the Court held in Compton v. Allen (not yet reported).
The respondent argued that such an agreement tacitly existed here, but it has failed to prove L 48 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
it, while, on the other hand, the appellant makes it quite clear that there was no such agreement, and that he was always at the call of the respondent.
" The substantial question therefore is was the appellant within the Board's order? or
was he excepted therefrom by section 13 as being a domestic servant? Section 13 enacts that:
' This Act shall apply to all occupations other than those of   .   .   .   domestic servant.'
" In Compton v. Allen, supra, the Court held that a cook in a logging camp was within the
benefits of the Board's order and that the order was within the Board's powers. The question
as to whether he was a domestic servant or not, was, it is conceded, not raised in that case;
it was therefore suggested by counsel for the respondent that the Court should give leave to
argue it in this appeal.    In those circumstances we gave leave.
" The status of the employee is one to be determined on the facts of the particular case—
Pearce v. Lansdowne (1903), 69 L.T.R., N.S. 316. It is therefore necessary to consider the case
from the standpoint of the Board's order and also from that of the appellant's duties and his
personal relationship to his employer. The Board is by the Act denied the power to fix a
minimum wage for domestic servants; as such they are outside the Statute. The powers of the
Board enable it to fix a minimum wage for employees in occupations other than those referred
to in section 13. The appellant's occupation was that of cook's helper in a logging camp. He
may theretofore have been a domestic servant, or a farmer or a fruit-picker, but when he took
employment with the respondent he came within the order, provided always that his service
was incidental to the carrying-on of a logging camp.
" It is common knowledge, of which I think we may take judicial notice, that logging
operations in this Province are carried on almost exclusively in the wilclerness, and that a
logger must of necessity make provision for the board and lodging of his men. One of his first
cares is to build a cook-house and employ cooks and helpers to provide his employees with
board and lodging.
" The learned Judge was of the opinion that the appellant is to be classed as a domestic
servant; it therefore becomes necessary to see whether that finding is supportable, having
regard to what would have been his status apart from the Board's order and what was his
status under it; the latter is, of course, the real question, but a brief reference to some of the
cases cited relating to the former may be of assistance to a solution of it. We were referred to
several decisions of the English Courts under the 'Employer's Liability Act' and under the
' Unemployment Insurance Act, 1920,' which have some bearing upon the question. In In re
Self ridge's (1922), W.N. 241, Roche, J., held that a woman regularly employed in cleaning a
mercantile house though engaged in domestic work was not in contemplation of the Statute in
domestic service because she was employed in a business carried on for purposes of gain, and
therefore within that exception in the English Act. This, and other decisions of the same
learned Judge, is entitled to great respect, but the two Statutes are different, and have objects
which may well differentiate their interpretations. Domestic service implies, in this country at
least, a domestic establishment, not a business one.
" In Pearce v. Lansdowne, supra, this description of domestic servants is approved: ' Those
persons whose main duty is to do the actual bodily work of servants for the personal comfort,
convenience, and luxury of the master and his family and guests, and who for this purpose
become part of the master's residential or quasi-residential establishment.' I think the appellant
was not a domestic servant.
" But I am, however, more concerned with the construction of the Board's order than with
the common law definition of domestic servant, or with that applied under other Statutes.
I think there is much significance in the language used in the Board's order. The words not
only include persons 'engaged in the lumber industry,' but also those engaged in operations
' in or incidental to the carrying-on of logging camps.'    I would therefore allow the appeal."
Mr. Justice M. A. Macdonald said:—
"Two points require consideration. First, it was suggested that if the 'Male Minimum
Wage Act' (chapter 32, B.C. Statutes, 1925) applies the plaintiff is not entitled to payment
at the specified rate for thirteen hours each day because a cook's helper works every day in
three shifts—namely, from 6 a.m. to 10 a.m., from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m., and from 4 p.m. to 7 or
7.30 p.m., the interim between being rest periods. It is true that ordinarily the cook enjoys
comparative freedom when not preparing or serving meals and doing the work incidental
thereto, but the evidence does not show that these so-called rest periods were fixed and unalterable.    The cook or his helper were ' on call' throughout the whole period and in reality on. duty all day. The plaintiff is therefore entitled to payment for the whole working-day without
deduction for the periods when he may or may not be actively engaged. If this view creates
a hardship—and that is quite conceivable—the Courts cannot provide a remedy.
" The other point raised was under section 13 of the Act. It read as follows : ' This Act
shall apply to all occupations other than those of farm labourers, fruit-pickers, fruit-packers,
fruit and vegetable canners. and domestic servants.'
" It was argued that the plaintiff—a cook's helper—was a domestic servant and therefore
not within the Act. Decisions under the ' English Unemployment Insurance Act, 1920,' were
referred to. The frame of that Act differs from our ' Minimum Wage Act.' The subject is
approached from different angles. The English Act treats with and affects the individual.
' All persons of the age of sixteen and upwards who are engaged in any of the employments
specified in Part I. of the First Schedule to this Act, etc' (sec. 1).
" Our Act deals primarily with ' employees in the various occupations to which the Act
applies.' The lumbering industry as an occupation has a variety of employees in different
lines of work, some of whom in a literal sense have little or nothing to do with the actual work
of logging and lumbering. Each, however, contributes to the success of the business. That is
true of cooks and cooks' helpers. Their work is incidental to the business itself and contributes
to its successful operation. An employee in charge of a donkey-engine in a lumber camp may in
a restricted sense be regarded as an engineer. But he is engaged in the lumbering industry
within the purview of the Act. So, too, the cook's helper. Whether or not a person is a
domestic servant may vary with the facts of each particular case. If employed in the private
dwelling-house of the manager living at or near the works he would form part of his family
household and be properly classed as a domestic servant. It is different when, as here, he is
attached to the industry. The general boarding-house appertains to the business carried on.
It is an essential part of it, not merely ancillary to the main operation. The cook goes into the
logging camp to assist in the general work in a certain capacity. It is, to my mind, foreign
to the generally accepted meaning of the words ' domestic servant' to apply it to the plaintiff.
The words ' domestic servant' connote ' work as servants for the personal comfort, convenience,
or luxury of the master, his family and his guests, and who for this purpose become part of
the master's residential or quasi-residential establishment' (e.g., as in a club). None of these
elements are present in the case at bar.
" I would allow the appeal."
A further appeal in this case, to the Supreme Court of Canada, is pending at the time of
writing this report.
PROSECUTIONS AT DUNCAN DISMISSED.
Two prosecutions under the Act were taken by the Board of Adjustment at Duncan on
October 13th against a firm of lumber-manufacturers, but both cases were dismissed on technical
grounds. L 50 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
LABOUR DISPUTES AND CONCILIATION.
For the third year in succession, the loss to the Province from stoppages caused by labour
disputes was very small during 1927. Only eight strikes were reported in the course of the year,
and the stoppage altogether entailed a loss of 17,006 working-days, a total of 1,668 workers being
affected. This compared with the loss of 28,016 working-days, affecting 1,749 workers, in the
previous year. In 1925 there were 3,572 workers involved in strikes, with a loss of 23,300
working-days, but in 1924 the loss in nine disputes was no less than 223,876 working-days.
Whatever the reason, there is now much less of a disposition than formerly to resort to the
strike as a means of settling labour disputes.
VANCOUVER ISLAND COAL INDUSTRY.
At the time of writing the situation in the coal-mining industry of Vancouver Island has
been unsettled for a number of months. Contention" over wage-rates has, indeed, been a recurrent trouble over a period of years. In the latter part of the war period the miners' wages
were increased by approximately 90 cents a day, which was nominally a bonus, the actual
amount being subject to slight fluctuations according to variations in the cost of living and
market conditions. In 1925 the bonus was reduced to 30 cents a day, under an agreement which
was to hold good until September 30th, 1927. Prior to this date a committee of the Nanaimo
miners held a series of conferences with representatives of the employing company, having been
instructed by a mass meeting of the men to press for the return of the 60 cents a day by which
their pay had been reduced in 1925. The company's offer was to renew the old agreement with
the 30-cent bonus unchanged.
A second mass meeting of the men was held on the afternoon of Saturday, October 1st, and
was attended by Mr. J. D. McNiven, Deputy Minister of Labour, and Mr. F. E. Harrison, the
Dominion Government Fair Wage Officer. At this meeting the result was announced of a ballot
which had been taken on the question of acceptance of the company's offer. The voting was:
For accepting the company's offer, 208; against, 498. The meeting was addressed by
Mr. McNiven and Mr. Harrison, who counselled the men to continue at work, and to apply for
the appointment of a Board under the " Industrial Disputes Investigation Act." Discussion
ensued, in the course of which it appeared that some of the men desired a cessation of work,
but this attitude was abandoned on the assurance of Mr. McNiven and Mr. Harrison that a
Board would be appointed without any undue delay. A resolution was unanimously passed,
instructing the men's committee to make application for a Board under the Act, and to take such
steps as might be necessary to bring about the immediate application of the law. The resolution
further recommended the men to observe the provisions of the Act in every particular, and to
continue at work under the old agreement pending the report of the Board.
Mr. McNiven and Mr. Harrison then had an interview with the general manager of the
company, who took the view that the company had said their last word in offering to renew
the old agreement, and were content to let the dispute be adjudicated by a Board of Conciliation.
Application for the appointment of a Board was made to the Department of Labour at Ottawa
by the men's representatives the same evening.
A Board was appointed, consisting of Mr. D. S. Wallbridge, Mr. C. H. Barker, and Mr. Joseph
Hitchen. Its meetings were held in November, and after investigation the Board failed to
agree upon a unanimous report, and submitted the following:—
IN THE MATTER OF THE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION, OCTOBER, 1907,
AND OF A DISPUTE BETWEEN THE WESTERN FUEL CORPORATION OF CANADA,
LIMITED, EMPLOYER, AND ITS UNDERGROUND EMPLOYEES, EMPLOYEES.
The undersigned Board of Conciliation and Investigation in this matter report as follows:—
The Board held its first sitting on November 16th, 1927, at 10 a.m., the members of the Board
having duly taken the oaths of office required by the Act.
The employer was represented by John Hunt, manager, and by Mr. Lett, barrister, of the City of
Vancouver. The employees were represented by G. Joseph Hutton, and Joseph Dixon, president and
secretary of the Employees' Committee, and by Mr. Irvine, of Seattle, U.S.A.
Both parties stated they did not object to the representatives.
The question of what matters were to be taken up by the Board was raised, the employer stating
that only the wages were involved, the employees that certain conditions of their employment were in
question.    After some evidence had been put in as to what had taken place during the negotiations REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 51
leading up to the appointment of the Board and the filing of a statement by the employees as to what
they considered proper points to investigate, the Board ruled that the matters referred to in the statement filed on behalf of the employees be allowed to be investigated.
The most important matter was the demand of the men for a general increase of wages to the
extent of 60 cents a day. It appears that an agreement was arrived at in October, 1924, for three
years, fixing a schedule of rates of wages for the employees undeground, to which was added what is
called in the agreement a bonus of 90 cents a day, it being a condition that any increase or decrease
in the bonus should be governed by competitive conditions. In 1925 this bonus was decreased by 60
cents a day, leaving a bonus of only 30 cents over the base rates. The employees now demand an
increase in this bonus to the original 90 cents, and also object to having the increase referred to as a
bonus which can be altered at any time during the life of the agreement.
The Board heard a great deal of evidence on this point, whereby it appeared that competition at
Vancouver, the leading point of disposing of the coal produced, was very keen, not only in the coal
disposed of for power purposes, but also for domestic use, owing to the influx of coal from the Upper
Country mines, and from Alberta, where it is more easily mined than in the above employer's mines,
and also less subject to loss from breakage, as it can be brought directly to Vancouver by rail, also, a
certain amount of coal has been recently brought from Wales by freight-vessels. It also appears that
the use of fuel-oil and Diesel oil has cut largely into the use of Nanaimo coal for power purposes, and
that which is known as hog-fuel for domestic purposes. Steamships also coming into Vancouver were,
to a certain extent, obtaining their coal at the Seattle bunkers instead of at the Vancouver bunkers.
The statistics filed do not show that their original output is increasing, but, if anything, is decreasing,
and has been doing so for a number of years. Evidence was also given to the effect that no dividends
had been declared since the incorporation of the employer's company.
In considering this evidence the Board does not find itself in a position to advise any fixed rate of
wages higher than the present rate; that is, the base rate plus the 30 cents bonus. The Board would
recommend that the bonus should be made a certainty or fixed rate during the life of the agreement,
and not be left an uncertain quantity, as it is under the present agreement. The Board does not consider that the employees should receive any less wages than they are now receiving; any increase
over this amount might be by way of bonus as before. We would recommend that the life of any
agreement arrived at be for two years.
The question of the manner of working Section No. 5, North, and Section No. 7, Long-wall, was
gone into at some length. The work is now being done by day-work, and not by contract, and some of
the employees think it should be done by contract-work. The evidence given on this point on behalf
of the employers is to the effect that owing to the difficulties in these places, and the necessity,
especially in No. 5 North, of using machine cutters and of moving the miners from place to place there,
it would not be possible to work them to advantage by contract labour. They also showed that where
the miners did not make fair miners' wages by day-work their pay was made up and they were not
held strictly to the agreement scale.
The Board feels itself unable to recommend any changes in this report.
Though not in the agreement, workers in wet places are given increase in pay on the recommendation of the overmen. There was ai\ opinion on the part of the employees that their allowances in pay
should be fixed, but owing to the fact that the mine is under the sea the wet places vary from day to
day, or from one part of a.day to another, making it impossible to specify what places are wet, and
what dry, for any length of time;   the Board cannot see its way clear to make a recommendation.
The question of the price to be paid to the miners for cutting rock was raised. The agreement
provides for a price for removing white rock only. The employees urge that there should be no distinction made between white rock or black rock. The difficulty seems to be that the black rock is
difficult in some cases to be distinguished from the coal, and in some cases is merely a very small vein
running through the coal-seams or black dirt in the coal. The Board realize the difficulty and would
recommend that some way be found to meet this objection. As to the questions of extra pay for building up the side-walls with the cog-wood, for which a sliding scale of pay is allowed, the Board is not
prepared to make any recommendation.
A complaint was made that contract miners were compelled to take up some of their time in
unloading cog-wood from the cars without being paid, thus lessening their time in getting out coal. In
some cases the amount of time would be very small; in no case very long; but the Board think that
some consideration should be given by the company to this complaint.
The question of pay to the miners for pushing cars to the face of the coal for loading purposes was
also brought up.    Extra pay is allowed for them on a sliding scale, to be fixed by the overmen.
Considerable dissatisfaction was expressed on the part of the employees that, in the allowances of
extras, such as pushing cars, working in wet places, etc., the overmen should be allowed to decide the
matter, as in some cases injustice had arisen. The committee for the employees have the right to
receive complaints and carry them to the management, and in many cases the troubles are so arranged.
In some cases, however, it would seem that the party aggrieved for some reason does not complain to
the committee. It seems a difficult matter for the Board to make any recommendation. The overmen
are necessary in the carrying-out of the work, and their personality or fairness cannot be dealt with
in advance. The Board must, it seems, leave this matter to the endeavour of the company to deal
fairly with its employees and to carry out their agreement in a fair and equitable manner.
Respectfully submitted this 16th day of December, a.d. 1927.
To the Honourable Peter Heenan, Minister of Labour.
(Sgd.)    D. S. Wallbridge.
(Sgd.)    C. H. Barker. L 52 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
MINORITY REPORT.
1204 Victoria Road, Nanaimo, B.C.
To the Registrar,
Board of Conciliation and Investigation,
Department of Labour, Ottawa, Can.
In submitting my report of Board of Conciliation and Investigation instituted to investigate the
dispute between the Western Fuel Corporation of Canada and its underground employees, I regret not
being able to agree with the majority of the Board in their report to you.
The chief matter in dispute was the demand on the part of the employees for the restoration of
60 cents per day, which was taken from the employees in June, 1025. This 60 cents was part of 90
cents which was included in the 1924 agreement as our bonus, which bonus originated as a cost-of-living
bonus, based upon the findings of the cost-of-living commission instituted during the war period by the
Department of Labour.
Evidence was submitted to show that the present bonus would be 67.9 cents per day if based on
these findings. The standard of living as expressed in these figures is regarded as being far below a
reasonable standard by all parties.
The bonus is now based upon competitive conditions and is expressed in the agreement as follows:
" It being mutually understood by the company and its employees that any increase or decrease in the
bonus herein mentioned shall be governed by competitive conditions."
The employers in June, 1925, exercised their power and reduced the bonus from 90 cents to 30
cents. This was submitted to after a strike lasting seven or eight days. This reduction has had a
very serious effect upon the economic and living standards of the miners. Evidence was submitted to
show a reduction of $1.74 in the base rates since November, 1920. Other evidence was submitted by
the employees which show many reductions in the rates paid for timbers, cogs, and brushing.
Evidence was submitted by the employers to show the average wage of contract-men being improved, was also qualified by the statement of their representative " that the miners work harder."
The day-rate employee having no chance to improve his present wage, his wage remaining fixed,
whether working harder or not.
Evidence submitted by the employees show changes in customs and working conditions, which
have proved detrimental to the employees. The employer changing from contract rates of pay to flat
rates in certain sections of the mine known as No. 5 North and No. 7 Wall. In the case of No. 5
North, the chief reason given for the change was " That the company might reimburse themselves for
the expense in prospecting for this coal." Other reasons were also given, but this seemed to be the
chief reason. Some of the miners in this section were paid above the base rate, but this was shown
to be governed by the opinion of the overman as to the amount of coal that they produce, and not by
being placed upon an actual tonnage basis as in the agreement. This is one of the causes for much
dissatisfaction.
The employers submitted evidence indicating difficulty to meet competition in the market in the
form of fuel-oil, hog-fuel, and also a small amount of coal from Washington, U.S.A., Alberta, and the
Interior of British Columbia. In spite of this, their own figures show that for the years 1924, 1925,
and 1926 there is no reduction in their sales, and the figures submitted up to date for 1927 show a
possible improvement over previous years. A statement purported to have been made by the Hon.
William Sloan, Minister of Mines for British Columbia, was submitted, which is as follows: " With
continued growth of population and industries in the Province, expansion of the coal industry, he
believes, should take place, notwithstanding competition from other coals and from fuel-oils."
Selling-prices at the mines are shown to be reduced since 1925, but it is also shown that the cost
of production is also reduced correspondingly or even in a greater degree. The reduction in selling-
prices is shown to be 56.5 cents per ton. These figures are based on returns up to September this year.
An advance of 12.1 cents per ton in the selling-price is shown over the selling-price of 1926 in the
average taken up to September, 1927, which advance will be improved by the end of the year, the last
three months of each year having a considerable advance in selling-prices and also a reduction in cost
of production.    This shows the employer in a considerably improved position.
The company did not produce their balance-sheets, but merely stated that no dividends had been
paid to ordinary shareholders since 1924, when the company was reorganized. It is stated that there
are 3,000,000 shares of $1 each of common stock outstanding. There is an issue of 2,700,000 first-
mortgage bonds bearing 8 per cent., which interest was admitted to be met regularly out of the profits
of the business. The failure of the majority of the Board to obtain a balance-sheet and more definite
knowledge of the financial position of the corporation places them, along with myself, in a position in
which it is impossible to make any accurate estimate of the ability of the corporation to meet the
demand of the employees for a restoration of the 60 cents a day taken from the bonus of 1925. Their
admission of the possibility of an increase is expressed in their report, wherein it says : " Any increase
over this amount might be by way of bonus as before."
After thoroughly considering the evidence that was submitted, I consider the following as a basis
of agreement, not because of its sufficiency to meet the requirements of the employees and their families,
but because of the possibility of it being met out of the shown improvement of the company:—
(1.)  The deletion of the clause referring to competitive conditions.
(2.)  The restoration of at least 38 cents;  this is to be added to the present 30 cents, making
68 cents, and to be placed on all base rates in the agreement;   this will give the equivalent to the cost-of-living commission findings.
(3.)  This to apply from October 1st, 1927, and the term of the agreement to be for two years. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 53
(4.)  That full recognition be given to established customs and practices that have existed as
working conditions, changes of conditions only to take place after consultation with the
employees or their representatives.    Contract-work being paid where work is done under
conditions as specified in the agreement.
Dated at Nanaimo, B.C., this 19th day of December, a.d. 1927.
Respectfully submitted.
(Sgd.)    Joseph Hitchen.
To the Honourable Peter Heenan, Minister of Labour, Ottawa, Ontario.
A Charge of Victimization.
In order to refer to events which marked the further development of the situation, it is
necessary to carry the record into the year 1928. On February 6th a letter was received from
Nanaimo by Mr. R. H. Neelands, M.L.A., complaining that cases of victimization or discrimination had occurred among the mine employees at Nanaimo. Mr. Neelands brought the matter
to the attention of the Legislature in Victoria, and the Hon. the Minister of Labour promised
an investigation into the matter. On February 8th Mr. McNiven left for Nanaimo, where he
was joined by Mr. Harrison the same evening, and during the following three days they made
full inquiry into the subject of complaint.
It appeared that since the receipt of the report of the Board of Investigation the men had
held a series of meetings, and had appointed a new committee to move in the direction of
securing amended rates of pay on the lines of the minority report. Two of the members of
this committee, as well as the brother of a third member, and the son and son-in-law of a fourth
member, had been laid off from their employment at the mines, without, as they alleged, sufficient
reason. Mr. McNiven and Mr. Harrison had three interviews with the manager of the mine,
who emphatically denied that there had been any victimization or discrimination. Owing to
business conditions, he further said, it had been necessary to reduce the working-force at the
mine, and this accounted for some of the cases mentioned, while other lay-offs were explained
by working conditions in the mine itself. In none of the cases mentioned was it the intention
of the company to dispense with the men's services permanently.
Miners Vote Against a Strike.
Further meetings of the men were held, and it was decided to take a ballot of the employees
on the question of declaring a strike to secure the reinstatement of the men who had been
laid off.
The strike vote was taken on March 1st, and resulted as follows: For a . strike, 335;
against, 440; majority against, 105. Prior to this, the management had posted a notice to the
effect that the scale of wages thenceforward would be in accordance with the majority award
of the Conciliation Board, the 30-cent bonus becoming a part of the regular wage, and no longer
subject to cost-of-living fluctuations.
The Situation at other Mines.
An application for higher pay on behalf of the miners at Extension, South Wellington, and
Wellington was dealt with as a separate question, although the issue was virtually the same as
had been raised at Nanaimo. In this case the wage agreement did not expire until October 31st.
An offer by the employing company to renew the old agreement for a period of three years
without alterations was rejected by the men's ballot of 507 votes to 40. On October 16th the
men at Ladysmith held a mass meeting, and passed a resolution asking that the Board which
was about to be appointed for the Nanaimo dispute should function also in their case. On the
18th formal application was made on behalf of the men for the appointment of a Board. Meanwhile the employees of the company in the Comox District had agreed to continue the existing
agreement, subject to the company granting them any increase which might be secured by the
employees at Nanaimo as a result of the award of the Conciliation Board in that case.
Eventually a separate Board was appointed, and held its sittings in February, 1928. This
Board was also divided in its findings, but the majority reported that the conditions did not
justify a recommendation for an increase of pay.
PAINTERS, VICTORIA.
The painters and paper-hangers of Victoria, who claimed that their prevailing rate of pay,
70 cents an hour, was the lowest in any city on the Pacific Coast, applied through their union, L 54 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
in October, 1926, for an advance of 10 cents an hour. Negotiations during the winter months
failed to result in an agreement, and on February 1st the men, numbering about 100, struck
work. After the men left work negotiations were continued, and on February 15th they agreed
to return the following day, on the basis of a 75-cent hourly rate for an eight-hour day and
forty-four-hour week.
AERIAL TRAMWAY AND COAL-SCREENING EMPLOYEES, COALMONT.
A dispute which lasted only three days (including a Sunday) brought out twenty-five men,
employed as above, on April 15th. The workmen expressed dissatisfaction with the wages paid,
and it also appeared that there was a misunderstanding as to when the parties should meet to
discuss the matters at issue. The misunderstanding was removed and the dispute satisfactorily
settled, work being resumed on the 18th. •
PLUMBERS, VANCOUVER.
The plumbers of Vancouver and district, who were being paid at the rate of $8.50 for an
eight-hour day, sought to have the amount increased to $10. They made a request to this effect
in February, but, although several conferences were held with the employers, there was no
settlement, and a strike was declared, the men coming out on May 2nd. In all, the dispute
affected about 200 persons, 160 of whom were journeymen and 40 helpers. After the dispute
had lasted two weeks it was announced that the employers would in future run their businesses
on the " open-shop " principle, with the same rate of pay as before the strike. From the men's
side, however, it was stated that the services of a sufficient number of efficient men to do this
successfully could not be secured. There was also a complaint that an attempt was being made
to bring in strike-breakers from across the border, though it did not appear that labour of this
kind was ever a serious element in the dispute. The strike lasted eight weeks, and then a
settlement was made which was in the nature of a compromise. The pay was increased to $9
for an eight-hour day, with a five-day w*brking-week.
STRUCTURAL IRON AND STEEL WORKERS, VANCOUVER.
The structural-iron workers employed in Vancouver and district struck work on May 2nd
to enforce a request for better terms. These included an advance in wages from $9 to $10 a day
for erectors, and from $6.50 to $7.50 for fabricators, with a working-week of five days instead
of forty-four hours. For the employers it was contended that the cost of building was already
so high as to cause investors to refrain from carrying out building schemes. The men returned
to work oh May 16th on the same conditions that obtained before the dispute.
The steel-workers on reinforced concrete in the same area also left work on May 2nd, their
demand being for an increase in pay from $6.50 to $7.50 a day. They returned to work on the
16th without any change from previous conditions.
These two disputes affected the employment of about 135 men.
TAXI-DRIVERS, VANCOUVER.
A dispute affecting about sixty-eight taxi-drivers in Vancouver broke out on June 18th, the
men being dissatisfied with what they were receiving under a system of payment by percentage
of takings. They left work at 7 o'clock on a Saturday evening, demanding a guarantee of $3.50
a day, and were idle for the two following days. An agreement was then made under which
$2.50 a day was guaranteed, or 35 per cent, of their takings, whichever sum might be the greater.
Work was resumed on this basis and it was arranged that the agreement should stand for one
year' ELECTRICAL WORKERS, VANCOUVER.
Two firms in Vancouver were involved in a dispute with their electrical workers, who asked
for a wage increase of from $8 to $9 for an eight-hour day, and a reduction of the working-week
from forty-four to forty hours, or a five-day week. About forty men left work on July 14th.
The strike terminated on September 8th, work being resumed with the previous conditions
unchanged.
SALMON-FISHERMEN, NEW WESTMINSTER AND DISTRICT.
A one-day stoppage of work for about 1,000 salmon-fishermen on the Fraser River was
caused by a dispute on September 21st. The canneries, it was complained, had reduced their
prices both for sockeye and pink salmon. Work was resumed on the return of part of the
difference, the new scale being 30 cents for sockeye and 8 cents for pinks. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 55
PLASTERERS, VANCOUVER.
The men employed by certain firms left work on October 3rd, the subject of contention being
a provision in the union agreement that plasterers would accept material only from union
helpers. The union helpers also had an agreement that they would supply material only to
union plasterers. Two of the employers concerned agreed to conform to this rule, and the others
followed their example without any formal settlement being reached.
SUMMARY OF LABOUR DISPUTES, 1927.
Industry or Occupation.
Particulars.
l>4
Painters and Paper-
hangers—
Victoria	
Aerial Tramway and Coal-
_        screening Employees—
Coalmont	
Plumbers—
Vancouver	
Structural Iron and Steel-
workers—
Vancouver	
Taxi-drivers—
Vancouver.
Electrical Workers—
Vancouver	
Salmon-fishers—-
New Westminster
District	
Plasterers—
Vancouver..
Commenced February 1st. They asked for an advance in pay
of 10 cents an hour, to bring their hourly rate up to 80
cents. Returned to work February loth on a compromise
basis of 75 cents
Commenced April 15th. A question of higher wages was involved, but it also appeared that the strike was due to a
misunderstanding. Mutual explanations led to a resumption of work on the 18th
Commenced May 2nd. The men sought an increase of pay
from $8.50 to $10 for an eight-hour day. Settled on the
basis of $9 a day, with a five-day working-week
Commenced May 2nd. A wage advance was demanded of
from $9 to $10 a day for erectors, and from $6.50 to $7.50
a day for fabricators, with a working-week of five days
instead of five and a half. The steel-workers on reinforced
concrete also left work on the same day, asking for an
increase of pay from $6.50 to $7.50 a day. AU employees
returned to work on the 16th, with conditions unchanged
Commenced June 18th. The men were being paid with a percentage of takings, but demanded a guarantee of $3.50 a
day. Dispute lasted two days. Settled on agreement—
$2.50 a day guaranteed, or 35 per cent, of takings, whichever sum might be the greater. It was arranged that the
agreement should stand over for one year
Commenced July 14th, over an application for a rate of $9
a day instead of $8, and a forty-hour working-week instead
of forty-four hours. Employees of only two firms affected.
Work resumed September 8th, with conditions unchanged
Commenced September 21st. Men complained that the canneries had reduced their scale for both sockeye and pink
salmon. Settled on compromise, the dispute lasting one
day only
Commenced October 3rd. An agreement was in force between
union plasterers and union helpers that they would work
only with each other, and it was claimed that certain firms
were not conforming to such agreement. The firms in question at various times individually agreed to do so. No
formal settlement
Totals	
100
25
200
135
1,200
50
8,000
1,620
68
136
40
1,000
100
1,668
2,000
1,000
3,000
17,006 L 56 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
EMPLOYMENT SERVICE.
General Superintendent Jas. H. McVety, 714 Richards Street, Vancouver.
Branch Offices.
Vancouver, 714 Richards Street 1
Vancouver, 53 Powell Street  L W.  S. Dickson, Superintendent.
Vancouver (Women's Branch), 714 Richards Street J
Victoria, Langley and Broughton Streets ) tt   ^ . *    j   o        -3    *    .
■tr. 3   ■    i-tv ,   r,        -U-,   r       , j t>        tx     cj_   i   > H- Crisford, Superintendent.
Victoria (Women s Branch), Langley and Broughton Streets (
New Westminster M. Standbridge, Superintendent.
Nanaimo J. T. Carrigan, Superintendent.
Kamloops J. H. How, Superintendent.
Penticton A.   Gilley, Superintendent.
Nelson   Superintendent.
Cranbrook "Wm. Robson, Superintendent.
Revelstoke H. N.  Coursier, Superintendent.
Prince Rupert J. M. Campbell, Superintendent.
Prince George G. C. Sinclair, Superintendent.
Handicap Section.
("G. S. Bell, Clerk.
Vancouver, 714 Richards Street J R. L. (Mavius, Clerk.
|_ H. Parry, Clerk.
Victoria, Langley and Broughton Streets W. A. Turner, Clerk.
The following report is submitted by the General Superintendent of the Employment
Service:—
This statement, covering the work of the British Columbia branch of the Employment
Service of Canada, a branch of the Department of Labour, is the ninth annual report and covers
the calendar year 1927.
There are fourteen offices in operation in the Province, as follows: Vancouver (3), Victoria
(2), New Westminster, Nanaimo, Prince Rupert, Prince George, Cranbrook, Nelson, Revelstoke,
Kamloops, and Penticton. Separate offices are provided in Vancouver and Victoria for the
employment of women, and separate sections for dealing with the employment problems of men
handicapped through service overseas or in industrial occupations. Temporary offices were
operated in Vernon and Kelowna from May to December to take care of the seasonal labour
requirements in those districts.
CONDITIONS DURING THE YEAR.
While employment conditions during the year were better than the average, there was a
surplus of all classes of labour in every part of the Province, which was partly brought about
by an influx of immigrants from Central European countries. Some of the latter came to this
country as agricultural labourers, but showed a disposition to undertake other work if more
remunerative employment in keeping with their previous experience could be found. Unemployment conditions in the City of Vancouver during the winter were somewhat tense, and a quarter
of a million dollars was spent on relief during the period under review. During the year 8,184
persons were transferred to employment in other Provinces, 7,700 of these being harvest-
labourers.
The placement-work of the Employment Service was less than during the previous year,
owing to the surplus of labour and the absence of large construction-works capable of absorbing
large numbers of labourers. By close co-operation with the Immigration Department many
citizens were provided with employment in local industries, when, in the opinion of the
employers, the requirements could only be met by importation of labour from the United States.
The Handicap sections of the Vancouver and Victoria offices, although unable to place as
many men as during the previous year, did remarkably good work considering the natural
obstacles and the reduction in the number of opportunities due to the number of physically
fit men in the ranks of the unemployed. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 57
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ft L 58 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
BUSINESS TRANSACTED DURING THE YEAR.
The details of the business transacted are shown by a chart and tables, the figures showing
the business done by offices and by months. The total number of placements show a decrease
as compared with the previous year, due to the absence of large construction jobs, as already
referred to, and to the constant surplus of labourers who apply to employers in person and
make it unnecessary for them to use the offices of the Employment Service. The grade of
occupations has shown a steady improvement, the percentage of skilled and technical men
supplied to employers by the offices being much higher than in earlier years. The Vancouver
offices, at the principal centre of population in the Province, naturally fill the greater part of
the orders for men with unusual qualifications and for mechanics who are not available in the
outlying districts, and 1,826 persons were transferred from one office zone to another during the
year, the majority by the Vancouver offices. To other Provinces the offices sent 8,164 persons,
practically all of whom were farm-labourers for either spring or harvest work. The number
of persons placed during the year was 43,836, and of this number 28,989 were sent to " regular "
positions, the duration of employment ranging from one week to permanence. The balance,
14,847, filled " casual" vacancies where the employment was stated by the employer in the
first instance as likely to last less than one week, but many men placed in this way become
either permanent or intermittent employees. The number of women placed was 8,878, and of
this number 5,428 went to " regular " positions and 3,450 to " casual" employment, principally
in the domestic service branch. The foregoing figures include the record of the Handicap
sections of Vancouver and Victoria, a branch of the work which is dealt with in more detail in
another paragraph.
A graphical presentation of the work of the offices is shown on the chart which appears on
another page. Vacancies, placements, and applications are shown by separate lines and symbols.
The sharp rise in the figures for the months of August and September is caused by the transfer
of farm-labourers to the Prairie Provinces.
FARM-LABOURERS FOR PRAIRIE PROVINCES.
Following the transfer of 350 experienced farm-labourers to the Prairie Provinces for spring
ploughing and seeding, 7,703 persons were sent from this Province for harvest-work during
the months of August and September, the railway arrangements for reduced rates being the
same as in former years. Of this number, Alberta received 2,619 men and 329 women,
Saskatchewan 4,190 men and 446 women, and Manitoba 98 men and 21 women. Of the total,
5,687 had letters from farmers by whom they had previously been employed offering re-employment, and 3,544 came from rural communities, an increase of 901 over the previous year.
The number of settlers taking advantage of this opportunity has increased each year, indicating
that the arrangement is mutually satisfactory and assists the settlers in this Province in the
development of their land-holdings.
As usual, the demand for help from British Columbia exceeded the supply, and this
condition is likely to continue, as the more general use of machinery is shortening the duration
of the employment and causing a demand for a larger number of men, though for a shorter
period. The difficulty in securing sufficient help is being met by the introduction of a new
machine commonly known as a " Combine," which reaps and threshes the grain in one operation.
Several hundred of these machines were in use during the harvest season in Alberta and
Saskatchewan. On one farm in Alberta six machines, operated by twelve men, did the work
which, it is estimated, would under the usual methods have required 12 binders, 15 stookers,
and at least 60 threshermen. Increased acreage may offset any reduction in help requirements
made possible by the use of the machine, but, in any case, due to the superior type of men from
this Province who engage in this work, the demand for them is likely to exceed the number
available, even though the total requirements may be reduced. The success of this movement
from year to year is due to the co-operation of the Employment Service officials of Alberta and
Saskatchewan, and the substantial assistance of the railways in granting the reduced rates for
transportation.
SEASONAL LABOUR REQUIREMENTS.
Seasonal work in harvesting the berry, tree-fruit, and hop crops offered employment to a
large number of people during July, August, and September.   Reference has been made in previous reports to the problem of securing the help necessary to harvest the berry-crop on the
Lower Mainland. As the date the help is required depends entirely on weather conditions, to
recruit people in advance is almost impossible, and frequently, by the time the pickers are
actually required, they have found other employment to fill in the school vacation period.
Each year the scarcity of pickers becomes more acute, though growers spend a considerable
amount of money in advertising for help. Earnings, living conditions,, and weather are the
determining factors in this branch, the first two remaining to be solved by the growers. If
the new marketing programme works out to the advantage of the growers, conditions should
improve for pickers. In other parts of the Province berry and tree-fruit crops are handled
principally by local help, thus eliminating the board and housing problem and the expense of
transportation, which are important factors in districts where it is necessary to bring help from
a considerable distance.
In the Okanagan Valley the growth of tobacco has again become an outstanding feature,
some 600,000 lb. having been grown during 1927. The harvesting of the crop was taken care of
by local residents, and the stripping of the stems from the leaf promised employment for many
people during the winter months, but, unfortunately, marketing arrangements had not been
completed at the end of the year and the expected employment did not materialize.
The growing of hops in the Fraser Valley has greatly extended during the year, two new
farms being brought into production for the first time. These required 1,500 pickers, and our
Vancouver, New "Westminster, Victoria, and Nanaimo offices were able to meet the requirements.
Inclement weather marred the success of this work for the first two weeks, but those who
remained demonstrated that good wages can be made by young or middle-aged persons who are
willing to work, the rates being 50 per cent, higher than are paid in the State of Oregon. If
close attention is paid to the proper housing of the pickers, so that they can live under comfortable conditions, no difficulty should be experienced in meeting the labour requirements of this
important branch of agriculture.
The demand for cannery-help, where the rates of remuneration are fixed by the Minimum
Wage Board, was easily met by our offices, the assurance of a known minimum wage making it
comparatively easy to recruit women and girls for this employment, even at points remote
from the centres where the help was obtained.
EMPLOYMENT FOR HANDICAPPED MEN.
In January, 1925, there were 37,121 former members of the Canadian Expeditionary Forces
in receipt of pensions resident in Canada, and of this number, 5,410, or 14.5 per cent., were in
this Province. At the end of the period under review this number had risen to 6,189, or 14.8 per
cent, of the total, and to this number should be added approximately 2,000 Imperial pensioners
who have made their homes in British Columbia. When compared with the enlistments and
discharges in this Province, 8.95 per cent, and 8.16 per cent, respectively, it will be seen that
British Columbia has more than double its quota of handicapped ex-service men. The problem
of employment is further complicated by the fact that approximately 75 per cent, of the
handicaps are residing on the Lower Mainland and southern portion of Vancouver Island.
Although the official responsibility for the care of handicapped ex-service men rests with
the Dominion Government, employment problems were turned over to the Employment Service
in December, 1924, by an agreement between the Dominion and Provincial Governments, the
latter to provide special sections in the Vancouver and Victoria offices to handle this branch of
the work, but any additional expenditure for staff to be borne by the Dominion Government.
Under this arrangement disabled men secure a much wider range of opportunity of employment
than if they were dependent on employers sending to a special bureau where handicapped men
are exclusively handled. Despite the work of the Handicap sections and the hearty co-operation
of members of the Employment Service staff throughout the Province, the greater portion of
whom are ex-service men, many of them with severe handicaps, it is impossible to find employment for all the applicants. Many of them are suffering from the disabilities of age, aggravated,
no doubt, by war service, and in a constantly oversupplied labour market they are virtually
unemployable. The neurological cases are also extremely difficult to place, and the need for
" sheltered " employment or institutional care in such cases, to which attention was called in
last year's report, is still urgent. L 60
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
During the year 1,528 handicapped men registered for employment, 1,255 in Vancouver and
273 in Victoria. Of this number, 150 arrived in the Province during 1927, from many parts of
the Empire and the United States.
Situations were found for 1,935 men, 515 going to " regular " positions with a duration of
employment in excess of one week, and 1,420 to employment the duration of which was expected
to be less than that period. The Victoria office was responsible for 196 of the " regular"
placements and 456 of those of a " casual " nature. The balance, 319 " regular" and 964
" casual " placements, were made by the Vancouver office, and included 30 sent to other employment office districts. Included in the figures are 113 industrial handicaps placed in employment
through the Victoria and Vancouver offices. The difficulties to be met in placing handicapped
men in employment will be better understood by showing the number of positions available to
them. In the Victoria office 3,956 jobs were filled during the year, and in Vancouver offices
12,795 orders were received. All of these were open to handicapped applicants, but the kind
of work to be performed and the nature of the disabilities of the applicants made it impossible
to place more than comparatively a small number of them in employment. The employment
offices, it should be unnecessary to state, have no control over either of these factors, and many
men who are, for all practical purposes, unemployable in this Province might, where the
industries are less exacting in their demands for the worker's physical fitness, find better
opportunities for employment.
OTHER BRANCHES  OF ACTIVITY.
In addition to actual employment-work, the Service functions as a barometer of industrial
conditions, being widely consulted by bankers, semi-public organizations, prospective settlers,
and workmen who are considering moving from one part of the country to another. Every
possible effort is made to give first-hand reliable information in replying to inquiries, and,
although it is not always possible to confirm the optimistic reports circulated by those financially
interested in immigration, it is the view that a fair statement of existing conditions is, in the
long run, the best means of securing suitable population.
Organized in 1919, the Employment Service, with the majority of the original staff still in
the Department, has acquired a wealth of knowledge of the industries of this Province which
is available to both employers and workmen, and makes it possible to advise promptly on any
question affecting employment. Originally viewed with indifference or even with suspicion,
the Service is now accepted, and recognized, as an integral part of the industrial life of the
Province.
BUSINESS TRANSACTED MONTHLY, BRITISH COLUMBIA OFFICES, 1927.
Month.
Applications.
Employers'
Orders.
Placements.
Transfers
to B.C.
Transfers
out of
B.C.
8,951
8,523
8,679
10,650
8,213
8,012
9,449
11,205
13,049
7,659
7,952
9,263
1,906
1,757
2,536
2,795
3,205
3,762
3,540
5,543
4,124
3,528
2,634
2,202
1,815
1,653
2,443
2,716
3,017
3,506
3,477
5,246
3,780
3,379
2,547
2,073
27
39
79
238
125
116
192
364
340'
157
114
35
73
April	
162
45
June	
July	
22
31
2,480
5,276
68
19
3
Totals	
111,605
37,532
35,652
1,826
8,184 REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 61
BUSINESS TRANSACTED BY BRITISH COLUMBIA  OFFICES  IN 1927.
Office.
Applications.
Employers'
Orders.
Placements.
Transfers
to B.C.
Transfers
out of
B.C.
3,104
4,120
1,340
2,043
7,397
4,997
2,845
1,510
7,413
1,045
28,633
18,337
14,525
2,140
9,013
3,123
1,849
2,205
746
730
1,531
1,656
1,217
1,202
861
279
5,172
7,623
5,538
574
3,956
2,393
1,805
1,948
613
709
1,454
1,635
1,155
1,076
843
184
4,908
7,601
5,000
540
3,445
2,736
7
10
44
7
13
37
1
438
970
148
8
71
72
90
184
88
345
679
89
428
342
Revelstoke	
22
4,807
566
145
Victoria	
330
69
Totals	
111,605
37,532
35,652
1,826
8,184 INSPECTION OF FACTORIES.
Chief Inspector E. J. Stewart.
Assistant Inspector H. Douglas.
Assistant Inspector Miss A. C. McMullin.
Assistant Inspector .Mrs. Essie Brown.
The following report is submitted by the Chief Inspector of Factories:—
I have the honour of submitting herewith the annual report of the Factory  Inspection
Department for the year 1927.
The Department of Factory Inspection is charged with the inspection of all factories, as
defined by the " Factories Act," where three or more persons are employed, also all passenger
and freight elevators wherever located, all laundries operated for profit regardless of whether
any one is employed or not, and all industrial plants designated to us by the Workmen's
Compensation Board. In order to do this work effectively our visits to the several portions of
the Province are made at a time when the industries, a number of which are seasonal in
character and employ for short periods a large number of both male and female labour, are
working to their capacity. It is our duty to see that the provisions of the " Factories Act"
relating to health, comfort, and safety, etc., are observed. These very essential provisions in
the Act are not placed there for the purpose of restricting industry or to work a hardship in
any way. On the contrary, they help the employer to attain greater productiveness, and create
working conditions for the employee such that he and his family are saved the great suffering
through accident and sickness, which result from the absence of proper safeguards and sanitary
working conditions.
ACCIDENT-PREVENTION.
The Factory Inspection staff is constantly engaged in the work of assisting the management
of industrial plants to promote accident-prevention. When we visit a plant it is not usually
by appointment, as we desire to observe the average working conditions. Whether our visit
will prove beneficial to both employer and employee will depend largely on the amount of
interest shown in the adoption of our recommendations.
While accident-prevention activities are primarily for the benefit of employees in industry,
nearly all classes of the community secure benefits either directly or indirectly.
The placing of responsibility for accidents presents at times rather a perplexing problem.
When we investigate an accident it is not for the sole purpose of placing the blame for the
occurrence on any individual or firm. The one object in view is rather to try and prevent a
repetition of the occurrence in that and other industrial establishments throughout the Province.
The knowledge acquired through interviews with the employees and executives respecting the
causes leading to an accident enables us to explain to the management of a plant of a like nature
just how an injury was received by a workman in another plant, in order that corrective
measures may be taken to prevent a similar accident.
It should be remembered that the workmen in industrial occupations have no voice in the
location of a plant, the sort of machinery to be used, the tools they are supplied with, the form of
lighting, etc., these matters being entirely controlled by the management. It is only reasonable,
then, to expect the management to discharge its responsibility to its employees by seeing that
the equipment installed is properly protected before being placed in operation.
An incident may here be mentioned which was brought to our attention while investigating
a serious injury received by an employee in the course of his employment. Before going to
investigate the accident we looked up our previous orders to this firm. Upon arriving at the
plant and being shown where the accident occurred, we found the employer had not carried out
our instructions in full, with the result that the workman was incapacitated for work for a
considerable period.
Regardless of this, we were credibly informed that it was questionable whether the man's
position would be open for him when he was able to return to work, notwithstanding the fact
that he had fifteen years' service with the company. We have good reason to believe that the
injured party was about to become unemployed simply because he was the means of bringing
the Factory Inspector to the plant and forcing the owner to provide the necessary safeguards. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 63
This instance is a reminder that in the performance of our duties a certain amount of
diplomacy is required in order that the positions of the workmen whom we are trying to serve
shall not be jeopardized.
ELEVATORS.
Taking into consideration the number of people using passenger-elevators, the latter have
proved, where there is safe equipment and careful operation, the safest means of transportation
in general use to-day. Accidents do occur, however, and they are usually of a very serious
nature.
Practically all serious accidents occur at the landing-doors. By interlocking the landing-
doors with the control in such a way that the car cannot be started unless the doors are closed
and locked, this type of accident can be prevented. During the past year nineteen passenger-
elevators have been installed throughout the Province, all installations being provided with
interlocks.
Modern elevator-machines are far superior to those of an earlier type and operate at
greater speed. In order to make some of the earlier types of machine conform to requirements,
we have issued a large number of orders to have added equipment installed. However, freedom
from accidents in connection with both old and new equipment depends largely on proper
maintenance and operation after installation.
An experienced and careful operator is the best safety device of all. During the past year
813 permanent and 247 temporary elevator operators' licences were issued by this Department.
Before a permanent licence is issued to an individual the candidate must first have one month's
experience; then he or she is permitted to write an examination, and before the licence is
issued we endeavour to make the candidates realize the responsibility of their position and the
hazards in connection with the operation of elevators.
A regrettable fatality which happened during the year occurred in the following manner:
It appears that two passengers who wished to be taken from one of the upper to the lower
floor of a building pressed the signal-button for the elevator. As the licensed operator in the
building was also the night clerk and was busy at the time, another party, unknown to the
regular operator, and without any previous experience in operating an elevator, took the elevator
to the floor from which the signal was given, took the waiting passengers on and started the
car for the main floor. Upon reaching the floor he opened the door and allowed one passenger
to step out of the car, and then left the car himself. The other passenger, in leaving the car,
in some manner stumbled and fell against the handle of the car-switch, which caused the car
to ascend, resulting in his being crushed to death between the shaftway enclosure and floor
of the car.
PROSECUTIONS.
While authority is given in the several sections of the " Factories Act" to prosecute both
employer and employee for infractions of the Act, no prosecutions were instituted during the
year. The attitude of this Department has always been to refrain from prosecuting until every
opportunity has been afforded both the employer and employee to show their willingness to
comply with the law after being informed of its requirements. The Inspector may and does
at times find violations in a plant, such as improper ventilation, overcrowding of work-rooms,
insufficient sanitary conveniences, etc. These matters are brought to the attention of the
management and later confirmed in writing, a reasonable time-limit being given to comply with
the law. If at the expiration of that time the work has not been completed, an extension of
time, if requested, is very often granted. Should we find, however, during inspection, equipment
heing operated which is unsafe, we have no hesitation in prohibiting the operation of same until
such time as repairs are made or new equipment installed. During the past year, on three
occasions it was found necessary,# in the interests of safety, to post notices prohibiting the
operation of equipment which inspection disclosed to be defective. Experience has shown that
hy this method of procedure satisfactory results can usually be obtained without the necessity
of invoking Police Court proceedings.
FACTORY CONDITIONS.
The heating, lighting, and ventilation of factories to the satisfaction of all concerned is a
problem that is at times hard to solve. L 64 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
We receive complaints at times stating that a certain factory is not properly ventilated.
Upon investigation we usually find, after interviewing the employees, there is a difference of
opinion amongst themselves regarding the necessity for an open window, skylight, or door, as
the case may be. The arrangement of the location of the machinery, in order to obtain the
most satisfactory results in these very important provisions, has a direct bearing on whether
the working conditions shall be satisfactory to the entire staff of employees in the work-room.
Very often an open window here and there will provide the necessary ventilation during certain
seasons of the year, ^jet, on the other hand, it may also be the means of causing a draught
which affects those employees whose occupation requires them to be located close to the open
window, and to which they take exception.
Our jurisdiction extends to determining whether or not the factory meets the requirements
in so far as air-space for each employee is concerned, proper light, both natural and artificial,
heating and sanitary requirements, and ventilation.
It is gratifying to note the attention our manufacturers are giving to the welfare of their
employees when a factory is being built or the location of a factory is to be changed. This
Department is very often requested to look over the building and specify our requirements
before the premises are leased. This procedure, if more generally observed, would very often
save the employer both time and expense. We had during the past year to refuse to allow a
few buildings to be used for factory purposes, owing to the fact that structural conditions were
such that the employees would have been required to work with artificial light during the
entire day, and it was almost impossible to provide proper ventilation.
The amendment to section 4 of the " Factories Act," whereby children may now, upon the
written permission of the Inspector, be employed for a limited period in canneries, was the
means of this Department receiving twenty-four requests from parents who desired to have
their children employed in the canneries during the school holidays. The applications were
carefully considered and in most cases were granted.
OVERTIME PERMITS.
Permission to work their employees overtime was issued to twenty-one firms during the
year. A number of requests to work their staffs on holidays were, after investigation, not
acceded to. Permits of this nature are not issued unless the work to be performed is urgent
or some mishap occurs to the motive power or machinery.
CHILD-LABOUR.
It is very seldom indeed that we find a boy or girl under the age of 15 employed in a
factory. During the year under review, however, we found four boys under the legal age being
employed. One was working in a boiler-shop, two in a cold-storage plant, and the other in a
wood-working plant. In all cases the boys were over the age of 14 years, and their parents
and employers were under the impression that they were legally employed, neither the parents
nor the employers being aware of the amendment to the Act raising the age-limit to 15. In each
instance we prohibited their further employment. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 65
REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE BOARD.
Members of the Board.
Mr. J. D. McNiven, Deputy Minister of Labour, Chairman, Parliament Buildings, Victoria.
Mrs. Helen Gregory MacGUl, Judge of the Juvenile Court, 1492 Harwood St., Vancouver.
Mr. Thomas Mathews, Real-estate Broker 517 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Officials of the Board.
Miss Mabel A. Cameron, Secretary Parliament Buildings, Victoria.
Mrs. Essie Brown, Inspector Court-house, Vancouver.
To the Honourable the Minister of Labour,
Province of British Columbia.
Sib,—We have the honour to submit herewith the tenth annual report of the Minimum Wage
Board of British Columbia, covering the calendar year 1927.
CHANGE IN PERSONNEL OF STAFF.
The personnel of the Board administering the " Minimum Wage Act" for women has
remained the same since its inception. During the year, however, a change occurred in the
position of Inspector. Miss Violet Smart, who had acted in that capacity since August, 1924,
severed her connection with the staff, just prior to her marriage, thereby completing a three-year
term of most effective service in the interest of women employees. Mrs. Essie Brown, of
Vancouver, was appointed to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Miss Smart.
AMENDMENTS TO THE ACT.
At the 1927 session of the Legislature certain amendments were made to the " Minimum
Wage Act." One amending clause provides that an employer, upon being convicted of contravening an Order of the Board by paying an employee less than the wage to which she is entitled,
is liable to a penalty of not less than $25 and not more than $100, and in addition may be ordered
upon conviction to pay to the employee the difference between the wages actually paid and the
minimum wage fixed by the Board. Until the passage of this section the recovery of arrears of
wages by an employee entailed an action against her employer in a Civil Court, even after the
employer had been convicted in Police Court of a violation of an Order.
A further clause of the amending Act gives discretionary power to the Board, after an
Order has been in effect for not less than one year, to reopen the question without reconvening
or calling a conference, and to make an Order in amendment of or in substitution for the
existing Order.
NEW ORDER FOR MERCANTILE INDUSTRY.
By virtue of this authority the Board dealt with the Order relating to the Mercantile
Industry, which had been in effect since 1919. At the time the original Order was made no
power was vested in the Board to specify maximum hours of labour for employees. Subsequently
an amendment to the Act enabled the Board to regulate hours. The new Order reaffirms the
rates of pay that have been in vogue, and, in addition, restricts the hours of employment to
forty-eight a week. This Order was approved in September, but to obviate undue interference
with the Christmas commercial trade it was deemed inadvisable to bring it into force until
January 1st, 1928, upon which date it superseded the mercantile orders of 1919. A summary
of the new Order will be found in the Appendix to this report.
COURT CASES.
During the year the Board instituted proceedings against twelve employers for violation
of the law. In some instances employees had been required to work in excess of the maximum
hours prescribed by Order of the Board, while the remaining infractions pertained to non-payment of the legal wage.   A brief outline of the eases is as follows:—
1. In a restaurant an employee was found to be working excessive hours.   Proceedings
were instituted against the proprietor, who pleaded guilty, and was fined $25.   The employee
was not required to give evidence.
5 L 66 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
2. A firm of importers and exporters paid their stenographer (a young lady under 18 years
of age) less than the rates to which she was entitled under the provisions of the Order relating
to Office-workers. An information was laid against the firm, and when the case was called one
of the members of the firm entered a plea of " not guilty." A week's remand was granted.
When the case came up again, employer, employee, and the Inspector for the Board submitted
evidence.   The Magistrate convicted and imposed the usual $25 fine for a first offence.
3. An information was laid against a caf§ proprietor on the grounds that his two cashiers
bad worked in excess of forty-eight hours a week, contrary to the provisions of the Office Order.
The case lasted almost two hours. Testimony was given by the two girls, the Inspector, the
defendant, and his night manager.    The employer was proved guilty and fined $25.
4. The Inspector instituted proceedings against a dairy-lunch establishment for failure to
pay one of the staff the minimum wage and for requiring her to be on duty longer than the legal
hours. The defendant pleaded guilty to the first charge and the second was withdrawn. A fine
of $25 was levied and the Magistrate ordered payment to the employee of $9.60 in arrears, the
amount due since the amendment to the Act making such an order possible was passed.
5. The proprietress of a hotel situated a short distance from Vancouver was found to be
employing a waitress very long hours and paying an inadequate wage. Two informations were
laid against her. A fine of $25 was assessed and $14.50 paid in arrears to the employee. The
charge regarding hours was thereupon withdrawn.
6. A Vancouver factory was charged with employing a seamstress in the work-room for
unreasonably long hours. When the case came before the Magistrate the witness proved
unsatisfactory and the action was dismissed.
7. A beauty-parlour proprietor was brought to Court for neglecting to pay an employee the
legal wage. The case was dismissed on a technicality, but subsequently the employer paid the
young lady the arrears due her.
8. The proprietors of a tea-room, who employed a cook very extended hours, were brought
before the Police Magistrate by the Inspector, and were convicted on their own evidence. Their
testimony showed that the waitress had worked at least fifty-one hours a week during a time
that could not be considered as an emergency period. The employers were compelled to pay a
fine of $25.
9. An employee on the staff of a manufacturing plant outside Vancouver had not been paid
the legal wage. Upon the matter being brought before the Magistrate the defendant pleaded
not guilty. A conviction, however, was recorded and a fine of $25 imposed. The Magistrate
regretted he could not order the payment of arrears as a signed receipt was produced in Court
showing that same had been paid the employee the day before the case came to trial, in the
sum of $253.
10. Through a Police Court case an employee in a garment-factory received $42.50 in back
pay, and her employer was fined the minimum penalty of $25.
11. A charge was laid against the proprietress of a hotel for failure to pay the minimum
wage to a certain employee.. Three witnesses were called by the defendant's counsel and the
employee testified for the prosecution. The Magistrate concluded sufficient wages had been paid
and dismissed the case.
12. A contractor, responsible for the wages paid to the help in a fruit-cannery, was brought
to Court for disregarding the necessity of paying the legal minimum wage. As he did not wish to
give evidence the case closed undefended. The Magistrate imposed a fine of $25, $2.50 costs, and,
in default of payment of the fine, ten days' imprisonment. Arrears amounting to $10.76 were
ordered paid to the employee on whose behalf the action was brought.
BENEFITS TO EMPLOYEES.
During the year it transpired that certain employees experienced a tangible benefit under
the Board's administration of the Act and Orders, manifested in the collection of arrears of
wages due them from their employers. While, strictly speaking, the Board is not a collecting
agency, it often functions in an intermediary capacity to effect adjustments, which otherwise
would have to be made through the channels of the Court in actions started by the employees.
If extenuating circumstances attended the infraction of the law the Board deemed it inadvisable
to prosecute, but arranged a settlement in an amicable manner. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 67
The sum of $2,384.17 was paid to employees in amounts ranging from $1.20 to $253,
representing the difference between what they should have been paid and what they actually
received. These women and girls (eighty-three in number) were working in various occupations
throughout the Province, the delinquent employers being in the majority of cases proprietors
of small bakeries, tea-rooms, confectionery-stores, and beauty-parlours. Hotel help, factory
employees, cannery-workers, and a few office-girls were the others to experience the advantages
of having the Board's support in this practical way.
STATISTICAL SECTION.
Under power conferred by the " Minimum Wage Act," the Board requested pay-roll returns
■for the week of greatest employment during 1927 from establishments and firms whose staffs
were wholly or partially composed of women and girl workers. Replies were received from
3,455 employers, being an advance of 332 over the 1926 figure. When tabulated it was revealed
that 17,507 female employees had been accounted for, as against 16,070 for the previous year.
This is not the gross total of women workers in British Columbia, for domestic servants, fruit-
pickers, and farm-labourers are excluded from the operation of the Act.
From data submitted by employers the following tables have been compiled for each of the
aiine occupations and industries for which the Board has formulated Orders.
The Appendix to this report contains handy summaries of the various Orders.
Mercantile Industry.
1927.
1026.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Number of firms reporting	
"Number of employees—
Over 18 years	
Under 18 years	
Total weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years	
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years	
Percentage of employees under 18 years
Average hours worked per week	
480
3,282
635
$30,231.73
$6,250.50
$15.31
$9.84
16.21%
45.35
$42
$4
466
2,820
456
,508.65
222.50
$15.07
$9.26
13.92%
44.54
382
2,574
442
$39,017.26
$4,000.50
$15.16
$9.05
14.66%
43.24
335
2,124
341
$32,203.49
$3,028.00
$15.16
$8.88
13.83%
42.95
325
2,000
364
$30,520.25
$3,321.00
$15.26
$9.12
15.4%
42.95
For a week of 48 hours the minimum wage for experienced employees is $12.75; 797 or
20.35 per cent, of all employees reported in the above-mentioned industry received this amount,
2,337 or 59.66 per cent, of all employees reported received more than this amount, and 783 or
19.99 per cent, of all employees reported received less than this amount. Those receiving less
than the $12.75 included girls under 18, for whom lower rates are set, inexperienced workers
over 18 years of age, and employees who worked less than 48 eight hours and received pay on
a pro rata basis.
Laundry Industry.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Number of firms reporting	
Number of employees—
Over 18 years	
Under 18 years	
Total weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years	
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years	
Percentage of employees under 18 years
Average hours worked per week ,
59
822
137
$11,966.50
$1,396.00
$14.56
$10.19
14.29%
45.11
59
799
123
$11,484.90
$1,288.50
$14.37
$10.48 ■
13.34%
45.02
53
654
101
$9,545.70
$1,085.00
$14.60
$10.74
13.38%
45.46
53
625
84
$8,859.00
$889.00
$14.17
$10.58
11.859
43.69
53
558
60
$8,026.50
$667.00
$14.38
$11.12
9.71%
44.33 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
For a week of 48 hours the minimum wage for experienced employees is $13.50; 230 or
23.98 per cent, of all employees reported in the above-mentioned industry received this amount,
460 or 47.97 per cent, of all employees reported received more than this amount, and 269 or
28.05 per cent, of all employees reported received less than this amount. Those receiving less
than the $13.50 included girls under 18, for whom lower rates are set, inexperienced workers-
over 18 years of age, and employees who worked less than 48 hours and received pay on a
pro rata basis.
Public Housekeeping Occupation.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Number of firms reporting	
Number of employees—
Over 18 years	
Under 18 years	
Total weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years	
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years	
Percentage of employees under 18 years
Average hours worked per week	
375
1,877
68
$30,964.60
$918.00
$16.50
$13.50
3.50%
45.85
399
1,644
79
$27,264.81
$1,114.50
$16.59
$14.11
4.59%
45.54
356
1,450
67
$23,763.16
$990.50
$16.39
$14.78
4.42%
45.38
314
1,316
49
$21,493.42
$730.00
$16.33
$14.90
3.59%
45.97
287
1,174
47
9,164.50
$686.50
$16.32
$14.61
3.85%
45.42
For a week of 48 hours the minimum wage for experienced employees is $14; 380 or 19.54
per cent, of all employees reported in the above-mentioned industry received this amount, 1,317
or 67.71 per cent, of all employees reported received more than this amount, and 248 or 12.75 per
cent, of all employees reported received less than this amount. Those receiving less than the
$14 included girls under 18, for whom lower rates are set, inexperienced workers over 18 years-
of age, and employees who worked less than 48 hours and received pay on a pro rata basis.
Office Occupation.
1927.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Number of firms reporting	
Number of employees—
Over 18 years	
Under 18 years	
Total weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years	
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years	
Percentage of employees under 18 years
Average hours worked per week	
1,919
4,247
152
$81,380.57
$1,917.50
$19.16
$12.62
3.469
41.93
1,636
3,609
147
$68,838.71
$1,878.00
$19.07
$12.78
3.91%
41.94
1,523
3,354
128
$66,215.99
$1,640.00
$19.74
$12.81
3.68%
41.84
1,171
2,799
92
$54,758.49
$1,113.50
$19.56
$12.10
3.18%
41.90
1,133
2,595
93
$50,285.00
$1,155.50
$19.38
$12.42
3.50%
41.90
For a week of 48 hours the minimum wage for experienced employees is $15; 635 or 14.43
per cent, of all employees reported in the above-mentioned occupation received this amount,
3,285 or 74.68 per cent, of all employees reported received more than this amount, and 479 or
10.89 per cent, of all employees reported received less than this amount. Those receiving less
than the $15 included girls under 18, for whom lower rates are set, inexperienced workers over
18 years of age, and employees who worked less than 48 hours and received pay on a pro rata
basis. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 69
Personal Service Occupation.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Number of firms reporting	
Number of employees—
Over 18 years	
Under 18 years	
Total weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years	
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years	
Percentage of employees under 18 years..
Average hours worked per week	
103
337
22
$5,845.03
$264.00
$17.34
$12.00
6.13%
40.33
266
19
$4,381.00
$214.00
$16.47
$11.26
6.67%
38.67
65
221
18
$3,824.20
$220.00
$17.30
$12.22
7.53%
36.15
34
126
22
$2,009.79
$239.50
$15.95
$10.89
14.86%
38.14
34
91
18
$1,534.68
$208.00
$16.87
$11.56
16.51%
40.07
For a week of 48 hours the minimum wage for experienced employees is $14.25; 41 or 11.42
per cent, of all employees reported in the above-mentioned occupation received this amount,
233 or 64.9 per cent, of all employees reported received more than this amount, and 85 or 23.68
per cent, of all employees reported received less than this amount. Those receiving less than the
$14.25 included girls under 18, for whom lower rates are set, inexperienced workers over 18 years
of age, and employees who worked less than 48 hours and received pay on a pro rata basis.
In connection with the following table relating to the fishing industry it must be borne in
mind that the Order does not cover women and girl employees in the numerous fish canning
establishments in the Province.   Those coming within the scope of the regulations are engaged
only in washing, preparing, drying, curing, smoking, packing, or otherwise adapting for sale
or use, or for shipment, any kind of fish except canned fish.    This accounts for the few employees
included in the tabulations '
Fishing Industry.
1927.
1926
1925.
1924.
1923.
Number of firms reporting	
Number of employees—
Experienced	
Inexperienced	
Total weekly wages—
Experienced employees	
Inexperienced employees	
Average weekly wages—
Experienced employees	
Inexperienced employees	
Percentage of inexperienced employees..
Average hours worked per week	
5
16
$250.00
$15.62
40.09
4
26
$496.25
$19.09
48.00
21
2
$489.50
$24.00
$23.31
$12.00
8.70%
47.13
34
5
$601.44
$55.00
$17.69
$11.00
12.82%
50.59
31
1
$489.50
$13.50
$15.79
$13.50
3.12%
49.12
For a week of 48 hours the minimum wage for experienced employees is $15.50; 1 employee
or 6.25 per cent, of all reported in the above-mentioned industry received this amount, 6 or 37.5
per cent, of all employees reported received more than this amount, and 9 or 56.25 per cent, of
all employees reported received less than this amount. Those receiving less than the $15.50 were
employees who worked less than the 48 hours and received pay on a pro rata basis.
Telephone and Telegraph Occupation.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Number of firms reporting	
Number of employees—
Experienced	
Inexperienced	
Total weekly wages—
Experienced employees	
Inexperienced employees ,
Average weekly wages—
Experienced employees	
Inexperienced employees	
Percentage of inexperienced employees
Average hours worked per week	
127
1,553
116
$27,843.94
$1,240.00
$17.93
$10.69
6.95%
41.42
103
1,373
236
$24,386.21
$2,842.50
$17.76
$12.04
14.67%
41.22
86
1,312
220
$23,605.31
$2,655.00
$17.99
$12.07
14.36%
42.64
•   1,192
218
$21,256.75
$2,555.50
$17.83
$11.72
15.46%
42.29
$19,
$2,
94
1,089
204
426.18
289.50
$17.84
$11.22
15.78%
41.34 L 70
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
For a week of 48 hours the minimum wage for experienced employees is $15; 297 or 17.79
per cent, of all employees reported in the above-mentioned occupation received this amount,
1,079 or 64.65 per cent, of all employees reported received more than this amount, and 293 or
17.56 per cent, of all employees reported received less than this amount. Those receiving less
than the $15 included inexperienced workers, for whom lower rates are set, and employees who
worked less than 48 hours and received pay on a pro rata basis.
Manufacturing Industry.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Number of firms reporting	
Number of employees—
Experienced	
Inexperienced	
Total weekly wages—
Experienced employees	
Inexperienced employees	
Average weekly wages—
Experienced employees	
Inexperienced employees	
Percentage of inexperienced employees
Average hours worked per week	
339
1,907
385
$31,710.09
$3,847.00
$16.63
$9.99
16.80%
44.35
335
1,491
527
$25,343.79
$6,182.00
$17.00
$11.73
26.11%
44.51
296
1,471
329
$24,415.40
$3,409.00
$16.60
$10.36
18.28%
44.77
240
1,262
218
$20,510,60
$2,235.00
$16.25
$10.25
14.73%
43.65
234
1,107
249
$18,707.46
$2,494.50
$16.90
$10.02
18.36%
43.82
_!_
For a week of 48 hours the minimum wage for experienced employees is $14; 523 or 22.82
per cent, of all employees reported in the above-mentioned industry received this amount, 1,077
or 46.99 per cent, of all employees reported received more than this amount, and 692 or 30.19
per cent, of all employees reported received less than this amount. Those receiving less than
the $14 included inexperienced workers, for whom lower rates are set, and employees who
worked less than 48 hours and received pay on a pro rata basis.
Fruit and Vegetable Industry.
1927.
1926.
1925.
Number of firms reporting	
Number of employees—
Experienced	
Inexperienced	
Total weekly wages—
Experienced employees	
Inexperienced employees	
Average weekly wages—
Experienced employees	
Inexperienced employees	
Percentage of inexperienced employees...
Average hours worked per week (time-
workers)	
48
45
39
Time.
1,449
264
$24,228.64
$2,647.50
$16.72
$10.03
Piece.
207
31
$3,366.34
$339.50
$16.26
$10.95
Time.
1,262
255
$21,920.13
$2,520.00
$17.37
Piece.
435
503
$7,377.08
$3,251.50
$16.96
$6.46
Time.
783
222
$13,913.21
$2,170.00
$17.77
$9.77
Piece.
341
189
$6,923.65
$1,570.00
$20.30
$8.31
15.12%
46.14
30.88%
47.01
26.78%
47.56
For a week of 48 hours the minimum wage for experienced employees is $14.40; 152 or 7.79
per cent, of all employees reported in the above-mentioned industry received this amount, 954 or
48.9 per cent, of alf employees reported received more than this amount, and 845 or 43.31 per
cent, of all employees reported received less than this amount. Those receiving less than the
$14.40 included inexperienced workers, for whom lower rates are set, and employees who worked
less than 48 hours and received pay on a pro rata basis. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 71
Summary of all Occupations.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Number of firms reporting	
Number of employees—
Over 18 years, or experienced	
Under 18 years, or inexperienced..
Total weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years, or experienced	
Employees  under  18  years,  or
inexperienced	
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years, or experienced .'.	
Employees  under 18  years,  or
inexperienced	
Percentage of employees under 18
years, or inexperienced	
Average hours worked per week	
3,455
15,697
1,810
$267,
$18,
787.44
820.00
$17.06
$10.40
10.34%
43.92
3,123
13,725
2,345
$234,001.53
$23,513.50
$17.05
$10.03
14.59%
43.82
2,804
12,181
1,718
$211,713.38
$17,764.00
$17.38
$10.34
12.36%
43.58
2,287
10,355
1,242
$176,517.87
$12,644.50
$17.05
$10.18
10.71%
43.09
$164
$12.
2,195
9,612
1,251
,712.57
511.50
$17.14
$10.00
11.52%
43.31
I
Having in mind one of the oft-quoted objections to minimum wage regulations raised by
opponents to this form of social legislation—namely, that eventually the minimum would tend to
become the maximum for experienced workers—it is illuminating to note that, after a period
of nine years' testing in this Province, out of 17,507 employees only 3,056 or 17.46 per cent, were
reported as receiving the actual minimum for their respective classes of work.   Turning to the
higher scales of pay, we note that 10,748 women and girls, or 61.39 per cent, of all those reported,
were listed as being in receipt of wages in excess of the legal minimum.    This leaves a balance
of 3,703 or 21.15 per cent, to be paid below the minimum.    This latter class, of course, includes
young girls and inexperienced workers, for whom lower rates are set,  and employees of
experience whose working-week was shorter than 48 hours, with a pro rata reduction in their
remuneration.
FLUCTUATION IN AVERAGE WAGE.
Of the seven non-seasonal occupations, five record an increase over the previous year in the
average wages for the over-18-year or experienced workers. The higher rates for 1927 have
been found in the mercantile, laundry, office, personal service, and telephone and telegraph
occupations. (As there are comparatively few women employed as telegraphers they are
grouped with the telephone operators to form one class instead of two.)
In 1926 the only two occupations which registered increases in their mean wages were the
manufacturing and public  housekeeping.   For  1927  these  are the groups in  which  slight
decreases are found.
STATUS OF THE WORKERS.
While recent statistics compiled in the United States indicate that numerically married
women are becoming a more important factor in the labour market of that country each year,
in British Columbia there is no relative change in the 1927 figures as compared with those of
1926.    The following table is self-explanatory:—
Name of Industry.
Married.
Widowed.
Single.
Total.
683
289
567
415
454
83
81
10
755
183
43
169
125   •
101
11
24
1
48
3,051
627
1,209
3,859
1,737
265
1,564
5
1,148
3,917
959
1,945
Oflice	
4,399
2,292
359
1,669
16
1,951
Totals	
3,337
705
13,465
17,507
19.06%
4.03%
76.91%
100% L 72
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
It should be noted that " single " may also include some divorced, separated, or deserted
wives, as these often make the return under that classification.
UNINTERRUPTED SERVICE.
The question has often been raised by employers as to whether men or women remain most
steadily in their respective positions. With a superficial knowledge of conditions, the general
belief is that men are less apt to change than women. One argument advanced to prove this
theory is that marriage does not mean a cessation of work for the young man, but rather has
the tendency to hold him more firmly on account of his added responsibility. Assuming for the
sake of argument that such is the case, one must remember also that in the first place the single
girl often has the financial responsibility of the support of a relative, and the security of her
position is just as vital a factor in her life as it is in the life of the young man. In the second
place, women do not allow marriage to interfere with their business career to such an extent as
they did when the belief that men worked longer in one position was more prevalent than it
is to-day.
Suffice it to say that tables of labour turnover for men and women reveal that there is less
variation in the continuity of employment between the sexes than might be supposed.
Compilations of data for 1927 were made from the British Columbia employers' returns.
These, of course, relate only to women and girl workers, but a careful study of the following
table shows that almost 3% per cent, of the employees had been working for ten years or more
with the employer who reported to the Board. While the figures seem high in the class whose
service was less than one year, one must take into consideration the fact that the mercantile
industry with its 1,864 employees in this short-time service reported for the Christmas week,
during which period temporary help is engaged in large numbers and is included in the pay-rolls
sent in to the Department. The fruit and vegetable industry also, with 1,137 workers out of a
total of 1,951, raises the proportion of employees working less than one year very appreciably.
In many of the canneries and packing-houses work is available for a portion of the year only,
and the employees whose service record is given must necessarily be reported as working less
than twelve months..
Table showing Labour Turnover in each Group—Number of Employees in Continuous
Service of Employer reporting.
Name of
Industry.
01
ra
"G
01
p.
rn
u
m
01
tH
•■h
u
ta
u
a
03
m
u
a
01
CO
TO
U
S
01
ra
01
tH
IO
GO
U
Eg
01
Sh
3D
ra
tr
n
01
ra
U
or>
01
X
GO
tr
m
01
tH
05
rrt
u
a
01
Sh
o
tr
01
r-
O
u
o
ra
tr
tH EC
© Oi
a
ti
i-i ©
o a
r,S
01
r, ra
o
IS
rr3l
a
o
©
■M
O
cri
o
33
•rti
©
©
3D
©
O
CO
O
+3
G3
*
©
t5fe
42
22
1,864
360
689
196
376
107
286
86
213
57
108
35
106
30"
67
29
47
11
34
9
85
17
3,917
959
480
59
Public   house-
10
57
62
961
1,073
901
366
747
413
230
569
273
117
437
202
71
343
112
45
243
90
46
181
58
31
212
57
19
128
40
11
105
20
38
304
64
1,945
4,399
2,292
375
Office	
1,919
Manufacturing	
339
Personal service...
5
169
66
51
33
16
8
4
2
2
3
359
103
Telephone and
telegraph	
324
326
266
211
137
75
70
99
39
30
92
1,669
127
8
2
1
2
2
1
16
0
Fruit and vege-
350
1,137
201
107
73
36
19
11
6
2
5
4
1,951
48
Totals 	
5.56
6,791
3,005
1,981
1,447
986
623
506
503
288
214
607
17,507
3,455
COMPARATIVE FIGURES BEFORE AND AFTER MINIMUM WAGE LEGISLATION.
After a period of ten years' practical demonstration of minimum wage legislation the Board
is in a position to show its beneficial results.
From returns received in 1918 covering 4,820 employees over 18 years it was revealed that
2,739 or 56.84 per cent, were receiving less than the respective minimum wages now in effect REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927. L 73
to such employees. In contrast to these figures it is noted that, in 1927, 15,697 employees over
18 years of age were reported, of whom only 2,178 or 13.88 per cent, were in receipt of wages
less than the respective rates set for such employees. This percentage includes learners, for
whom lower rates are specified, and part-time workers.
To demonstrate the marked increase in average wages in each non-seasonal industry since
the first Order was made, a special table has been prepared, showing separately averages for
adult or experienced workers and the mean wages for the younger or inexperienced girls.
A perusal of these figures for the years 1918 and 1927 will prove with mathematical certainty
the benefit these regulations have been to the employees, for whose protection the law was
passed.
The following table is, therefore, included in this report:—■
Mercantile Industry.
Average weekly wages—                                                                  19i8. 1927.
Employees over 18 years    $12.71 $15.31
Employees under 18 years        7.70 9.84
Percentage of employees under 18 years  15.49% 16.21%
Laundry Industry.
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years     $11.80       $14.56
Employees under 18 years        9.78 10.19
Percentage of employees under 18 years  21.80%     14.29%
Manufacturing Industry.
Average weekly wages—
Experienced employees      $12.54       $16.63
Inexperienced employees         9.57 9.99
Percentage of inexperienced employees  28.64%      16.80%
Telephone and Telegraph.
Average weekly wages—
Experienced employees      $15.55       $17.93
Inexperienced employees       11.90 10.69
Percentage of inexperienced employees    8.70%       6.95%
Personal Service Occupation.
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years     $13.83       $17.34
Employees under 18 years        6.96 12.00
Percentage of employees under 18 years  15.38%        6.13%
Office Occupation.
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years     $16.53       $19.16
Employees under 18 years      10.88 12.62
Percentage of employees under 18 years     7.45%        3.46%
Public Housekeeping Occupation.
Average weekly wages-
Employees over 18 years    $14.23       $16.50
Employees under 18 years       11.77 13.50
Percentage of employees under 18 years    5.51%       3.50%
May we now direct attention to the benefits to the employers? Legislation of this
character would be futile if its advantages were to accrue to one class only. From the employers'
side of the question we learn that wages have become more standardized than before the Orders
were made. In hiring help there is less need of bargaining in regard to remuneration. The
legal wage is the basis. It is true, more care is exercised in selecting an applicant for a
position than prior to 1918, with the result that the standard of efficiency is higher than it
was then.   Lastly, the fair employer is assured protection from a competitor who, but for the L 74 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
law's requirements, might be paying much lower wages, and therefore, by undercutting prices,
draw trade to his establishment. For in these days of economic values the buyer is attracted
to the firm which will provide the lowest prices, the place where his dollar has the highest
buying-power.
CONCLUSION.
To employers who have replied promptly to the requests of the Board for pay-roll information, to the general public whose interest and help has strengthened the Board's desire to make
the legislation as effective as possible, to employees who have reported real or fancied infractions
for investigation by the officials, we extend our sincere thanks. In closing we would like to
appeal to employees to be more frank and less hesitant in bringing their troubles to the Board.
If they feel the regulations are being broken in any degree, however slight, the" chances for
rectification are much greater if the matter is reported before their dissatisfaction causes them
to leave their positions than if they wait until their position is no longer open to them. If such
a breach has occurred there is bound to be friction between employer and employee, which must
be overcome before an amicable settlement of the difficulties can be reached.
The Board is pleased to acknowledge that with few exceptions British Columbia employers
are trying to do the fair thing at all times, and if slight infractions have been found the Board
is confident that few of them have been wilful attempts to break the law.
We have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servants,
J. D. McNiven, Chairman.
Helen Gregory MacGill.
Thomas Mathews. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 75
APPENDIX.
SUMMARY OF ORDERS.
For convenient reference a summary of the Orders now in force is herewith appended-■:-
MERCANTILE INDUSTRY.
Weekly Minimum Wage.
Inexperienced
Workers.
Experienced Workers.
Under
18 Years of Age.
18 Years of Age or over.
$12.75.    Hourly rate,  26 Vie cents.
$ 7 50
for 1st   3
months.
$ 9 00 for 1st   3 months.
8 00
„   2nd   3
,,
10 00    „   2nd   3
8 50
„   3rd   3
,
11 00    „   3rd   3
9 00
„   4th    3
,
12 00    „   4th   3
9 50
„   5th   3
10 00
„   6th    3
,
Licences   required   in   this
10 50
„   7th   3
,
class.
11 50
„   8th   3
•
Above rates are for a 48-hour week.    Maximum working-period 48 hours.
Order has been in force since January 1st, 1928, superseding Order of February 24th, 1919.
LAUNDRY, CLEANING, AND DYEING INDUSTRIES.
Weekly Minimum Wage.
Experienced Workers.
Inexperienced Workers.
Under 18 Years of Age.
18 Years of Age or over.
$13.50.    Hourly   rate,   28%   cents.
$ 8 00 for 1st   4 months.
8 50    „   2nd   4
9 00    „   3rd   4
10 00    „   4th   4
11 00    „   5th   4
12 00    „   6th   4
$ 9 00 for 1st   4 months.
10 50    „   2nd   4
12 00    „   3rd   4        „
Licences   required   in   this
class.
Above rates are based on a 48-hour week.    Maximum working-period 48 hours,  governed, by
' Factories Act."
Order has been in force since March 31st, 1919.
PUBLIC HOUSEKEEPING OCCUPATION.
This includes the work of waitresses, attendants, housekeepers, janitresses, cooks, and kitchen
help in restaurants, hotels, tea-rooms, ice-cream parlours, light-lunch stands, and other places where
food is cooked, prepared, and served for which a charge is made; and the work of chambermaids, in
hotels, lodging-houses, and apartments where lodging is furnished, whether or not such establishments
are operated independently or in connection with any other business; and the work of all female
elevator operators.
Weekly Minimum Wage.
Experienced Workers.
Inexperienced Workers.
Under 18 Years of Age.
18 Years of Age or over.
$14.    Hourly rate, 29% cents.
$12 00
$12 00 L 76
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Above rates are for a 48-hour week. In emergency cases 52 hours may be worked. Time and
one-half shall be paid for work in excess of 48 hours and up to 52 hours.
When lodging is furnished, not more than $3 a week may be deducted for such lodging.
When board or meals are furnished, not more than $5.25 may be deducted for a full week's board
of 21 meals.    A fraction of a week's board shall be computed upon a proportional basis.
As elevator operators are required by law to pass an examination before running elevators, no
apprenticeship is permitted under the Minimum Wage Order.
Order has been in force since August 16th, 1919.
OFFICE OCCUPATION.
This includes the work of females employed as stenographers, book-keepers, typists, billing clerks,
filing clerks, cashiers, cash-girls (not included in other Orders), checkers, invoicers, comptometer
operators, auditors, attendants in physicians' and dentists' offices, and all kinds of clerical help.
Weekly Minimum Wage.
Experienced Workers.
Inexperienced Workers.
Under 18 Years of Age.
18 Years of Age or over.
$15.    Monthly   rate,   $65.
Hourly   rate,  31%    cents.
$11 00 for 1st   6 months.
12 00    „ 2nd    6
13 00    „   3rd   6
14 00    „   4th    6
$11 00 for 1st   3 months.
12 00    „   2nd   3
13 00    „   3rd    3
14 00    „   4th    3
Licences   required   in   this
class.
Above rates are for a 48-hour week.    Maximum weekly workingjperiod prescribed by Order, 4S
hours.
Order has been in force since August 16th, 1919.
PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATION.
This includes the work of females employed in manicuring, hairdressing, bartering, and other
work of like nature, or employed as ushers in theatres, attendants at shooting-galleries and other
public places of amusement, garages, and gasoline service stations, or as drivers of motor-cars and
other vehicles.
Weekly Minimum Wage.
Experienced Workers.
Inexperienced Workers.
Under 18 Years of Age.
18 Years of Age or over.
$14.25.    Hourly rate, 29u/io cents.
$10 00 for 1st   6 months.
11 00    „   2nd   6        „
12 00    „   3rd   6
13 00    „   4th   6
*$10 00 for 1st   3 months.
11 00    „   2nd   3
12 00    „   3rd   3
13 00    „   4th   3         „
Licences   required   in   this
class.
* These rates for learners do not apply to attendants at shooting-galleries and other public places of
amusement, garages, and gasoline service stations, or to drivers of motor-cars or other vehicles, from whom
no apprenticeship Is deemed necessary.
Above rates are for 48-hour week, which is maximum permitted.
Wages for Ushers.
Ushers in theatres, music-halls, concert-rooms, or the like, engaged after 6 p.m., on legal holidays,
and for special matinees, are entitled to a wage of not less than 30 cents an hour, with a minimum
payment of 75 cents.
Ushers working more than 18 hours a week, but not in excess of 36 hours, are entitled to not less
than $10.80 a week.    (Ushers in this category may be employed only between 1.30 p.m. and 11 p.m.)
Ushers working in excess of 36 hours a week up to 48 hours are entitled to not less than $14.25.
No distinction is made for ushers under 18 and over 18 years of age. No apprenticeship considered
necessary for ushers.
Order has been in force since September 15th, 1919. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 77
FISHING INDUSTRY.
This includes the work of females engaged in the washing, preparing, preserving, drying, curing,
smoking, packing, or otherwise adapting for sale or use, or for shipment, any kind of fish, except in
the case of canned fish.
Weekly Minimum Wage.
Experienced Workers.
Inexperienced Workers.
$15.50.    Hourly rate,  32Vm cents.
$12 75 for 1st    4 months.
13 75    „   2nd   4        ,,
14 75    „   Srd    4
Licences    required   for   inexperienced
employees 18 years of age or over.
Order has been in force since February 28th, 1920.
TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH OCCUPATION.
This includes the work of all persons employed in connection with the operating of the various
instruments, switchboards, and other mechanical appliances used in connection with telephony and
telegraphy, and shall also ihclude the work of all persons employed in the business or industry of the
operation of telephone or telegraph systems who are not governed by any other Order of the Board.
Weekly Minimum Wage.
Experienced Workers.
Inexperienced Workers.
$15.    Hourly  rate,  31%   cents.
$11 00 for 1st    3 months.
12 00    „   2nd    3
13 00    „   3rd    3
Licences   required    for   inexperienced
employees 18 years of age or over.
Above rates are for a 48-hour week. Maximum hours permitted are 8 per day and 48 per week,
except in cases of emergency, when 56 hours may be worked. Time and one-half is payable for hours
in excess of 48.    Every employee must have one full day off duty, in every week.
Where telephone and telegraph employees are customarily on duty between the hours of 10 p.m.
and 8 a.m., 10 hours on duty shall be construed as the equivalent of 8 hours of work in computing the
number of hours of employment a week.
In cases where employees reside on the employer's premises, the employer shall not be prevented
from making an arrangement with such employees to answer emergency calls between the hours of
10 p.m. and 8 a.m.
Order has been in force since April 5th, 1920.
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INDUSTRY.
This includes the work of females engaged in canning, preserving, drying, packing, or otherwise
adapting for sale or use, any kind of fruit or vegetable.
Weekly Minimum Wage.
Experienced Workers.
Inexperienced Workers.
$14.40.    Hourly   rate,   30   cents.
$11 00 for 1st    2 months.
Licences  required  for inexperienced
employees 18 years of age or over.
Above rates are for a 48-hour week. For work over 48 hours, but not in excess of 10 hours a day,
wages shall be not less than 30 cents an hour for experienced workers, and for work in excess of
10 hours' the rate shall be not less than 45 cents an hour.
For work over 8 hours, but not in excess of 10 hours a day, wages shall not be less than 23 cents
an hour for inexperienced workers, and for work in excess of 10 hours the rate shall be not less than
35 cents an hour.
Order has been in force since November 2nd, 1926. L 78
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.
This includes the work of females engaged in the making, preparing, altering, repairing, ornamenting, printing, finishing, packing, assembling the parts of, and adapting for use or sale any article or
commodity, but excepting fish, fruit, and vegetable drying, canning, preserving, or packing.
Weekly Minimum Wage.
Experienced Workers.
Inexperienced Woekers.
Schedule 1.
Schedule 2.
Schedule 3.
$14.    Hourly rate, 29%
cents.
$ 8 00 for 1st 2 mos.
10 00    „   2nd 2
12 00    „   3rd 2
$ 8 00 for 1st 4 mos.
10 00    „   2nd 4
12 00    „   3rd 4
$ 7 00 for 1st 6 mos.
10 00    „   2nd 6
13 00    „   3rd 6
Licences required for inexperienced workers 18 years of age or over.
Schedule 1 applies to establishments in which any of the following products are manufactured or
adapted for use or sale: Tea, coffee, spices, essences, sauces, jelly-powders, baking-powders, molasses,
sugar, syrups, honey, peanut butter, cream and milk products, butter, candy, confectionery, biscuits,
macaroni, vermicelli, meats, soft drinks, yeast, cans, buttons, soap, paint, varnish, drug and toilet
preparations, photographs, ink, seeds, brooms, whisks, pails, wash-boards, wooden boxes, clothes-pins,
matches, explosives, munitions, gas-mantles, and window-shades.
Schedule 2 applies to establishments in which any of the following products are manufactured or
adapted for use or sale: Cotton bags, envelopes, overalls, shirts, ladies' and children's wear, gloves,
hats, caps, men's neckwear, water-proof clothing, tents, awnings, regalia, carpets, furniture, bedding,
pillow-covers, loose covers, mattress-covers, draperies, casket furnishings, factory-made millinery,
knitted goods, blankets, brushes, machine-made cigars, and dipped chocolates.
Schedule 3 applies to the following occupations, or to establishments in which any of the following products are manufactured or adapted for use or sale: Bookbinding, embossing, engraving, printing,
dressmaking, men's and women's tailoring, ready-to-wear suits, paper boxes, jewellery, furs, leather
goods, hand-made cigars, boots, shoes, and handnmade millinery.
Schedule 3 does not apply to regularly indentured apprentices whose indentures have been approved
by the Minimum Wage Board.
The above rates are for a 48-hour week. No employee shall be employed more than 8 hours a
day, nor more than 48 hours a week, except when permission has been granted under the provisions
of the " Factories Act."
Order has been in force since November 20th, 1923. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 79
ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS.
In the preparation of tbe following list tbe intention has been to confine it to organizations
which have direct connection with the employment of labour, and not to include any which are
established purely for other business or social purposes. The list, which is numerically about
equal to that of last year, has been carefully corrected at the last possible moment before going
to press.
Box Manufacturers' Section, B.C. Division, Canadian Manufacturers' Association—Chairman,
C. J. Williams, Alberta Box Co., Ltd.', Calgary,
Alta.; Secretary, Hugh Dalton, 402 Pender
Street West, Vancouver.
B.C. Hotels' Association — President, T. H.
Whelan; Vice-President, Wm. Gilchrist; 2nd
Vice-President, J. J. Kahn; Treasurer, P. T.
Hartney; Secretary, J, J. Walsh, 611 North
West Building, 509 Richards Street, Vancouver.
B.C. Loggers' Association—Chairman of the
Board of Directors, T. A. Lamb, Lamb Lumber
Co., Ltd.; Vice-Chairman, N. A. English, Wood
& English, Ltd.; Secretary-Manager, R. V.
Stuart, 921 Metropolitan Building, Vancouver.
Oflicers elected annually on January 15th.
B.C. Lumber & Shingle Manufacturers' Association—President, Aird Flavelle, Thurston-Fla-
velle, Ltd., Port Moody; Secretary, R. H. H.
Alexander, 917 Metropolitan Building, Vancouver. Officers elected annually on third
Thursday in January.
Builders' Supply Section, C.M.A. (B.C. Division)
Chairman, A. J. Campbell, Hillside Sand and
Gravel Cb., Ltd., Vancouver; Secretary, R. V.
Robinson, 701 B.C. Mining Building, Vancouver.
"Canadian Jewellers' Association (B.C. Section) —
President, Allan G. Carruthers; Secretary-
Treasurer, A. Fraser Reid, 1635 Napier Street,
Vancouver. Executive (District) : J. W. Duncan, Victoria; M. J. Little, Victoria; H.
Thornycroft, Nanaimo; A. Clausen, New Westminster ; C. J. Whiten, Vernon; W. J. Kerr,
Kamloops;   J. Bulger, Prince Rupert.
■Canadian Manufacturers' Association (B.C. Division) ; Provincial Headquarters, 701-7 B.C.
Mining Building, Vancouver—Chairman, J. H.
Roaf, Clayburn Co., Ltd., Vancouver; Secretary, Hugh Dalton, 701 B.C. Mining Building,
Vancouver.
■Canadian   Manufacturers'   Association   (Victoria -
Branch), 1008 Broad Street, Victoria—Chairman,   J.   O.   Cameron,   Cameron   Lumber   Co.,
Ltd., Victoria;   Secretary, T. J. Goodlake, J.008
Broad Street, Victoria.
Canadian Storage & Transfermen's Association—
President, C. F. B. Tippet, 218 Front Street
'East, Toronto, Ont. (The Howell Warehouses,
Ltd.) ; Secretary, E. A. Quigley, Suite 10, 423
Hamilton Street, Vancouver. This Association
has Board of Directors of each Province.
• Canned Salmon Section, B.C. Division, Canadian
Manufacturers' Association—Chairman, J. S.
Eckman, Canadian Fishing Co., Ltd., Vancouver ; Vice-Chairman, C. Thomas, B.C. Fishing
& Packing Co., Ltd., Vancouver; Secretary,
Hugh Dalton, 402 Pender Street West, Van-,
couver;   Assistant Secretary of Section, R. E.
Lanning, 705, 402 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Clay Products Section, B.C. Division, Canadian
Manufacturers' Association—Chairman, James
Parfitt, Victoria Brick Co., Victoria ; Secretary,
T. J. Goodlake, 1008 Broad Street, Victoria.
Confectioners' Section, Canadian Manufacturers'
Association (B.C. Division)—Chairman, L. H.
Nicholson, National Biscuit & Confection Co.,
Ltd., Vancouver; Secretary, Hugh Dalton, 701
B.C. Mining Building, Vancouver.
Consolidated Shingle Mills of B.C., Ltd.—Secretary, E. M. Dearing, 907-8 Metropolitan Building, Vancouver.
Fish Meal & Oil Section, B.C. Division, Canadian
Manufacturers' Association—Chairman, G. A.
Birks, Hecate Fish Products, Ltd., Vancouver;
Secretary, R. E. Lanning, 705 B.C. Mining
Building, Vancouver.
Fishing Vessel Owners' Association, Inc.—President, L. A. Sandstrom, Pier 8, Seattle, Wash.;
Secretary, Capt. Fred. Ostrom, Pier 8, Seattle,
Wash.
Garment Manufacturers' Section, C.M.A. (B.C.
Division)—Chairman, J. H. Humphries, Standard Garments, Ltd., Vancouver; Secretary, R.
V. Robinson, 701 B.C. Mining Building, Vancouver.
General Cartage & Storage Association of B.C.—
President, Elmer Johnston, 1560 Main Street,
Vancouver; Secretary, E. A. Quigley, Suite 10,
Canadian Bank of Commerce Chambers, 423
Hamilton  Street, Vancouver.
General Contractors' Association—President, J.
Tucker; Vice-President, J. E. Buerk; Secretary, W. G. Welsford, 300 Pender Street West,
Vancouver.
Jam Manufacturers' Section, B.C. Division, Canadian Manufacturers' Association—Chairman, C.
D. Hunter, Empress Manufacturing Co., Ltd.,
Vancouver; Vice-Chairman, W. J. West, Farmers'
Canning Co., Ltd., Mission; Secretary, Hugh
Dalton, 402 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Master Sheet Metal Workers' Section, Canadian
Manufacturers' Association (B.C. Division) —
Chairman, Wm. G. Humphrey, Vancouver;
Secretary, R. V. Robinson, 701 B.C. Mining
Building, Vancouver.
Metal Trades Section, C.M.A. (B.C. Division) —
Chairman, W. I. Reid, Westminster Iron
Works, Ltd., New Westminster; Secretary,
Hugh Dalton, 701 B.C. Mining Building, Vancouver.
Metal Trades Section, Victoria Branch, Canadian
Manufacturers' Association—Chairman, E. W.
Izard, Yarrows, Ltd., Esquimalt; Secretary,
T. J. Goodlake, 1008 Broad Street, Victoria.
Millwork Section, B.C. Division, Canadian Manufacturers' Association—Chairman, T. T. Gadd, L 80
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Cedar Cove Sash & Door Co., Ltd., Vancouver;
Manager, O. Phillips, 707 B.C. Mining Building,
Vancouver.
Mining Association of British Columbia—President, Chas. A. Banks, Pacific Building, Vancouver ; Secretary, H. Mortimer-Lamb, Birks
Building, Vancouver.
Mining Association of Interior British Columbia
—President, J. P. MacFadden, New Denver;
Secretary, W. H. Burgess, Kaslo.
Mountain Lumber Manufacturers' Association—
President, W. K. Nichols, Giscome; Vice-President, H. P. Klinestiner, Lumberton; Secretary-
Treasurer, I. R. Poole, 204 Trades Building,
Calgary, Alta. Officers elected at annual meeting held in January.
Northern B.C. Lumbermen's Association—President, Geo. W. Nickerson, Prince Rupert;
Secretary-Treasurer, A. Brooksbank, Prince
Rupert.
Printers' Section, B.C. Division, Canadian Manufacturers' Association — Chairman, J. W.
Gehrke, Gehrke's, Ltd., Vancouver; Secretary,
Hugh Dalton, 402 Pender Street West, Vancouver; Manager, R. L. Norman, 706 B.C.
Mining Building, Vancouver.
Printers' Section, Victoria Branch, Canadian
Manufacturers' Association—Chairman, A. F.
Stevens, Acme Press, Ltd., Victoria; Secretary,
T. J. Goodlake, 1008 Broad Street, Victoria.
Retail Merchants' Association of Canada, Inc.,
B.C. Board—President, J. M. Watson, Vancouver ; 1st Vice-President, R. T. Wilson,
Nanaimo; 2nd Vice-President, J. F. Scott,
Cranbrook; 3rd Vice-President, T. J. Wilcox,
Kamloops; Treasurer, Wm. Kerr, New Westminster; Dominion Representative, D. H. Kent,
Vancouver; Secretary, Geo. R. Matthews,
Vancouver. Head Provincial Office at 420
Pacific Building, Vancouver. Branches are
established at Cranbrook, Nanaimo, Revelstoke,
and Vancouver. At New Westminster there is
a District Branch serving the principal towns of
the Lower Fraser Valley.
Salt Fish Packers' Section, B.C. Division, Canadian Manufacturers' Association—Chairman,
R. C. Gosse, Gosse Packing Co., Ltd.; Secretary, R. E. Lanning, 705 B.C. Mining Building,
Vancouver.
Shipping Federation of B.C., Inc.—Manager and
Secretary, Major W. C. D. Crombie, Shipping-
Federation Building, 45 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver ; President, F. H. Clendenning; 1st.
Vice-President, K. J. Burns; 2nd Vice-President, K. A. McLennan; Executive, David
Baird, E. Beetham, D. M. Cameron, H. W.
Cowan, W. M. Crawford, J. C. Irons, B. L.
Johnson, B. C. Keeley, R. L. Morton, R. G.
Parkhurst, and R. D. Williams. Meets for election of officers in January each year.
Shipyards' Section, C.M.A. (B.C. Division) —
Chairman, E. F. Cribb, Vancouver Dredging
and Salvage Co., Ltd.; Secretary, R. V. Robinson, 701 B.C. Mining Building, Vancouver.
Timber Industries Council of B.C.—President,
J. D. McCormack, Canadian Western Lumber
Co., Ltd.; Managing Director, W. MacNeill,.
911 Metropolitan Building, Vancouver.
Vancouver Association of Electragists—President,.
C. H. E. Williams, 509 Richards Street, Vancouver ; Hon. Secretary, J. C. Reston, 579'
Howe Street, Vancouver; Office, 425 Pacific
Building. Officers elected annually in September.
Vancouver Association of Sanitary & Heating
Engineers—President, C. Walter Murray, 137
Powell Street, Vancouver; Secretary, James
Galloway, 425 Pacific Building, Vancouver.
Officers elected annually in June.
Victoria Bread & Cake Manufacturers' Association—President, D. W. Hanbury, Golden West
Bakery; Secretary, Captain T. J. Goodlake,
1008 Broad Street. Election of officers annually
in January.
Victoria Builders' Exchange—President, William
Luney, 508 Sayward Building; Secretary, J. W..
Bolden, 2509 Prior Street. Officers elected
annually in January. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 81
UNION DIRECTORY.
In our endeavour to present an up-to-date directory of trade-union organizations and their
officials we have been greatly assisted by union secretaries and others, to whom our grateful
acknowledgments are tendered. The number of such organizations in the Province does not
show any material difference as compared with last year's, a few local organizations having
gone out of existence and others having been initiated. The Department will appreciate any
intimation of changes in the list which may be made from time to time.
TRADES AND LABOUR CONGRESS OF
CANADA.
President, Thomas Moore, Ottawa. Vice-Presidents, J. T. Foster, Montreal; Jas. Simpson,
Toronto; R. J. Tallon, Calgary. Secretary-
Treasurer, P. M. Draper, Hope Building,
Ottawa.
B.C. EXECUTIVE OF TRADES & LABOUR
CONGRESS OF CANADA.
Chairman, Percy R. Bengough, Room 803, 16
Hastings Street East, Vancouver; Secretary,
R. W. Nunn, 238 Queens Avenue, Victoria.
NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS.
Canadian Merchant Service Guild.
Vancouver—President, Capt. Jas. Findlay, 675
Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver; Secretary, A.
Goodlad, 675 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver.
Meets at Imperial Bank Chambers twice
monthly by special call.
Victoria—Vice-President, Capt. T. H. Brown,
408 Union Building, Victoria.
Radio Division, No. 3, of the Electrical Communication Workers of Canada—Secretary, C. T.
Foote, c/o Canadian Marconi Co., 500 Beatty
Street, Vancouver. Meets in Hotel Vancouver
at call of the Chair.
TRADES AND LABOUR COUNCILS.
Prince Rupert—President, S. D. Macdonald, P.O.
Box 268, Prince Rupert; Secretary, F. Derry,
Box 498, Prince Rupert. Meets at Carpenters'
Hall on second Thursday in each month at 8
p.m.
Vancouver, New Westminster and District—President, James Thomson, 802-3 Holden Building,
Vancouver; General Secretary-Treasurer, P. R.
Bengough, 803 Holden Building, Vancouver.
Meets first and third Tuesdays of each month
at Holden Building at 8 p.m.
Vancouver Building Trades Council—President,
E. H. Morrison, 404 Homer Street, Vancouver;
Secretary, W. Page, 815 Holden Building, Vancouver. Meets at 313 Holden Building on
second and fourth Tuesdays in each month at
8 p.m.
Victoria—Corresponding Secretary, E. S. Woodward, 1325 Carlin Street. Meets at 8 p.m. on
first and third Wednesdays in month at Trades
Hall, Broad Street/
DISTRICT LODGES AND COUNCILS.
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners.
District   Council   of   Vancouver—President,   W.
Wilson,
6
809    Holden    Building,    Vancouver;
Secretary, R. W. Hatley, 809 Holden Building,
Vancouver. Meets at 810 Holden Building on
second Thursday in month at 8 p.m.
Electrical Communication Workers of Canada.
British Columbia District Council No. 1—President, W. T. Burford, 4144 Fourteenth Avenue
West, Vancouver; Secretary, C. T. Foote, 745
Yates Street, Victoria. Meets in Room 132,
Hotel Vancouver, first Sunday in the month at
11 a.m.
International Association of Machinists.
Vancouver District Lodge No. 78—President, Bert
Oliver, 807 Holden Building, Vancouver;
Secretary, A. W. Tait, 1865 Tenth Avenue
West.    Meets at call of Chairman.
Allied Printing Trades Council.
Vancouver—President, R. H. Neelands, 4465
Quebec Street, Vancouver; Secretary, Thomas
Carroll, 842 Hamilton Street, Vancouver.
Meets at 804 Holden Building, Vancouver, on
second and fourth Mondays in month at 7.30
p.m.
Victoria—President, W. F. Emery, 1563 Gladstone Avenue, Victoria; Secretary, T. A. Burgess, Box 1183, Victoria. Meets at Room 411,
Canada Permanent Mortgage Building, at 8
p.m. on last Thursday in month.
British Columbia Federation of Civic and
Municipal  Employees.
President, W. J. Scribbens, 3208 Pender Street
East, Vancouver; Secretary, H. R. Simmers,
3675 Fifteenth Avenue West, Vancouver. Meets
at 251% Hastings Street East at call of Chair.
Civic Employees' Federation.
Vancouver—President, Chas. A. Watson, 1329
Thirteenth Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary,
H. A. Urquhart, 2015 Fourteenth Avenue West,
Vancouver. Meets, at call of Secretary, at
251% Hastings Street East, Vancouver.
Kettle Valley Railway System Federation.
President, J. W. Johnston, Penticton; Secretary,
Geo. Barr, Box 41, Penticton.
Theatrical Federation of Vancouver.
President, Harry Pearson, 243 Boundary Road,
South Vancouver; Secretary, E. C. Miller, The
Gresham, Smythe Street, Vancouver. Meets
at 991 Ne&on Street, at call of the Chair, at
10 a.m. L 82
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
TRADE UNIONS.
Ashcroft.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, No. 210—President, J. D. Nicol,
Savona; iSecretary, R. Halliday, Box 8,
Spences Bridge. Meets at Ashcroft at 7.30 p.m.
on third Saturday of January, April, July, and
October.
Burnaby.
Civic Employees' Union, No. 23—Secretary, Chas.
B. Brown, 2195 Linden Avenue, New Westminster.
Central Park.
Carpenters & Joiners (Amalgamated), No. 2605—
President, F. Williams, 2469 Twenty-ninth Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary, J. Muirhead,
2572 Monmouth Avenue, South Vancouver.
Corbin.
Corbin Miners' Association—President, David
Sheen, Corbin; Secretary, W. R. Sykes, Corbin. Meets in Miners' Hall every second Monday at 7 p.m.
Cranbrook.
Brewery, Flour, Cereal & Soft Drink Workers,
No. 308—Secretary, A. Mueller, c/o Cranbrook
Brewing Co., Cranbrook.
Locomotive Firemen & Enginemen, Brotherhood
of, Local No. 559—President, R. Bartholomew,
Cranbrook; Secretary, M. H. Johns, Box 214,
Cranbrook. Meets at 2.30 p.m. on first and
third Sundays in month at Cranbrook.
Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood of, Local No.
563—President, Hugh J. Brock, Box 551, Cranbrook ; Secretary, A. S. Saunders, Cranbrook.
Meets at 8 p.m. on second and fourth Mondays
in Maple Hall.
Machinists, International, No. 588—President, W.
Henderson, Box 827, Cranbrook; Secretary,
R. J. Laurie, Box 544, Cranbrook. Meets at
W. J. Flower's residence on first Sunday each
month at 3 pm.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
229—President, John Flynn, Cranbrook; Secretary, G. C. Brown, Cranbrook. Meets at
Odd Fellows' Hall, Cranbrook, no set date.
Railway Conductors of America, Order of, Local
No. 407—President, W. L. Rutledge, Box 838,
Cranbrook; Secretary, Joe Jackson, Box 215,
Cranbrook. Meets at Cranbrook on second
Sunday in month at 2.30 p.m.
Railway Carmen of America, Brotherhood of,
Local No. 173—President, W. Hewson, French
Avenue, Cranbrook; Secretary, J. F. Lunn,
200 Durick Avenue, Cranbrook. Meets at 8
p.m. at I.O.O.F. Hall, Norbury Avenue, on first
Wednesday in month.
Railway & Steamship Clerks, Express & Station
Employees, Baker Mt. Lodge No. 1292—President, J. Philpott, Cranbrook; Secretary, E. G.
Dingley, Box 728, Cranbrook. Meets in Auditorium, Cranbrook, on second and fourth Sundays in month at 3 p.m.
Railway Trainmen, Brotherhood of, Local No. 585
—President, P. C. Hartnell, Box 865, .Cranbrook; Secretary, H. B. Haslam, Box 784,
Cranbrook. Meets at Maple Hall every Sunday
at 8.30 p.m.
Duncan.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
533—President, W. H. Smith, Parksville; Secretary, H. W. McKenzie, R.R. No. 2, Duncan.
Meets in Duncan, at call of President, at 1 p.m.
Essondale.
Mental Hospital Attendants' Union, No. 34 (T. &
L.C.)—President, Wm. Mackie, Essondale;
Secretary, J. McD. Nicholson, Essondale. Meets
second Thursday of each month at 7 p.m. at
Essondale.
Fernie.
Brewery, Flour, Cereal & Soft Drink Workers of
America, International Union of, Local No. 308
■—President, J. W. Gladney, McPherson Avenue ; Secretary, J. E. Robson, Box 1071, Fernie.
Meets at 96 Howland Avenue, Fernie, on first
Monday of each month at 7.30 p.m.
Miners' Association (Independent), British Columbia—President, Enock Baddeley, Fernie;
Secretary, W. A. Harrison, Box 568, Fernie.
Meets at Iris Theatre, Fernie, every third
Thursday in summer and every third Sunday
in winter at 7.30 p.m.
Field.
Railway Carmen of America, No. 1454—President, Peter Decicco, Field; Secretary, Thomas
Barlow, Box 158, Field. Meets at Field on
first Thursday of month at 8 p.m.
Golden.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
165—President, J. Blysak, Golden; Secretary,
W. Rande, Box 164, Field. Meets at I.O.O.F.
Hall, Golden, on first Sunday of each quarter at
10 a.m.
Kamloops.
Carpenters and Joiners, United Brotherhood of,
No. 1485—President, J. H. Morrill; Secretary,
A. Longmore, Box 72, Kamloops. Meets at
Masonic Hall, Kamloops, on first and third
Thursdays at 8 p.m.
Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood of, Division
No. 821—President, A. Kenwood, Kamloops;
Secretary, T. J. O'Neill, Box 753, Kamloops.
Meets at Orange Hall on first and third Thursdays in month at 2.30 p.m.
Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood of, Division
No. 855—Secretary, L. Baker, Box 703 Kamloops. Meets first and third Sundays at Orange
Hall, Kamloops, at 2 p.m.
Locomotive Firemen & Enginemen, Brotherhood
of, Local No. 258—President, H. C. Embree,
817 Columbia Street, Kamloops; Secretary,
H. G. Keating, 410 St. Paul Street, Kamloops.
Meets at Orange Hall, Kamloops, at 2.30 p.m.
on first and third Tuesdays in month.
Maintenance-of-way Employees, Brotherhood of,
Lodge No. 15, Mount Edith Cavell—President,
C. L. Wilson, Irvine, Vavenby P.O.; Secretary,
Noel Montagnon, Pyramid, Blue River P.O.
Meets in Kamloops on first Sunday in January,
April, July, and October at 1 p.m.
Railroad Employees, No. 161—President, J. E.
Fitzwater, Kamloops; Secretary, N. Papworth,
Kamloops. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 83
Railway Carmen, Brotherhood of, Local No. 148
—President, O. E. Klemmer, North Kamloops;
Secretary, J. F. Corbett, 977 St. Paul Street,
Kamloops. Meets every second Tuesday at 7.30
p.m. in the Orange Hall, Kamloops.
Railway Conductors of America, Order of, Division No. 611—President, H. G. Dempsey, Nicola
Street, Kamloops; Secretary, A. G. Corry, Box
177, Kamloops. Meets at Orange Hall, Kamloops, on second and fourth Sundays in month
at 2.30 p.m.
Railway Trainmen, Brotherhood of, Local No. 519
—Secretary, V. A. Mott, Kamloops. Meets at
Orange Hall, Kamloops, on second Sunday and
fourth Tuesday in month at 7 p.m.
Kitchener.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, No. 229—Secretary, Geo. C. Brown,
Box 739, Cranbrook.
Matsqui.
Maintenance-of-way Employees, No. 31—President, P. E. Crick, Kamloops Junction; Secretary, F. Kent, Box A, Lytton. Meets at
C.N.R. Freight Office Building, Vancouver, at
11 a.m. on first Sunday in March, June, September, and December.
Michel.
B.C. Miners' Association —- President, James
Walsh, Natal; Secretary, Simeon Weaver,
Natal. Meets every second Friday at 7 p.m.
in the Michel Hall and the Natal Club Hall
alternately.
Mission City.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
168—President, F. W. Brunton, Hatzic P.O.;
Secretary, H. Anderson, Harrison Mills. Meets
at Vancouver on third Sunday in January,
April, July, and October at 10.30 a.m.
Nanaimo.
Carpenters, Amalgamated, of Canada—President,
Harvey May, Nanaimo; Secretary, John Kerr,
123 Craig Street. Meets at Warden's Store on
second and fourth Tuesdays at 8 p.m.
Letter Carriers, Federated Association of, No. 54
—Secretary, W. H. McMillan, 410 Bruce Avenue, Nanaimo. Meets at 7.30 p.m. on first
Tuesday of month.
Typographical Union, International, Local No.
337—President, R. J. Stewart, c/o Free Press
Office, Nanaimo; Secretary, L. C. Gilbert, Box
166, Nanaimo.    Meets at call of President.
Nelson.
Barbers' International Union of America, Journeymen, Local No. 196—President, Eli Sutcliffe,
Nelson; Secretary, F. W. Gill, Nelson. Meets
at Nelson at 8 p.m. on last Thursday in month.
Canadian Pacific Express Employees, No. 18,
Brotherhood of—Secretary, L. S. McKinnon,
212 Baker Street, Nelson.
Carpenters of Canada, Amalgamated (Nelson
Branch)—President, Herbert Thorpe, Fairview,
Nelson; Secretary, D. G. Mosses, 1020 Hall
Street, Nelson. Meets in Legion Building on
first and third Tuesdays in month at 8 p.m.
Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood of, E. J.
Hoskey Division, No. 579—President, J.
Simons, 203 Silica Street, Nelson; Secretary,
E. Jeffcott, Box 214, Nelson. Meets at Canadian Legion Building on Sundays at 10.30 a.m.
Locomotive Firemen & Enginemen, Brotherhood
of, Division No. 631—President, Chas. W.
Munro, Nelson; Secretary, Stanley Smith, Nelson. Meets second and fourth Sundays at 2
p.m. in I.O.O.F. Hall.
Machinists, International Association of, Local
No. 663—President-Secretary, Fred. Chapman,
Box 253, Nelson.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
181—President, Albert Olson, West Grand
Forks; Secretary, F. Gustafson, Box 265, Nelson. Meets last Sunday in March, June, September, and December at 2 p.m. at Nelson.
Railway Carmen of America, Brotherhood of,
Local No. 98—President, D. H. Heddle, Hall
Mines Road, Nelson; Secretary, G. B. Abbott,
Box 272, Nelson. Meets in K. of P. Hall,
Baker Street, on third Wednesday in month at
7.30 p.m.
Railway Conductors of America, Order of, Division No. 460—Chief Conductor, G. W. Allan,
Nelson; Secretary, A. B. Hall, 324 Gore Street,
Box 9S6, Nelson. Meets in K. of P. Hall at
1.30 p.m. on second Sunday in month'.
Railway & Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers,
Express & Station Employees, No. 1291—President, J. Brake, General Delivery, Nelson; Secretary, A. T. Richards, Box 701, Nelson. Meets
in Canadian Legion Hall, Nelson, at 8 p.m.
Railroad Trainmen, Brotherhood of, Kootenay
Lodge No. 558—President, A. B. Kerr, Savoy
Hotel, Nelson; Secretary, A. Kirby, 820 Carbonate Street (Box 258), Nelson. Meets at
Community Building, cor. Stanley and Victoria
Streets, at 10 a.m. on second Sunday in month.
Typographical Union, International, Local No.
340—President, Joseph Clinton, Box 766, Nelson ; Secretary, L. E. Pascoe, Box 935, Nelson.
Meets in Daily News Office, Nelson, at 5.10
p.m. on last Wednesday in month.
Nelson Island.
Quarry Workers' International Union, No. 161—
President, F. Goodruf, Pender Harbour; Secretary, Ernest Beard, Quarry Bay, Nelson
Island. Meets at Quarry Bay on second Friday
of each month at 6.30 p.m.
New Denver.
Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers, No. 98—Secretary,
A. Shilland, New Denver.
New Westminster.
Barbers' International Union, Journeymen, Local
No. 573—President, C. Moir, Columbia Street,
New Westminster; Secretary, Geo. Yorkston,
35 Eighth Street, New Westminster. Meets at
35 Eighth Street on fourth Thursday in month
at 7 p.m.
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders and Helpers,
International Brotherhood of, No. 466—Secretary, J. F. Lower, 519 Tenth Street, New Westminster.
Carpenters, Amalgamated, of Canada, Vancouver
and New Westminster—President, William Tay- L 84
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
ler, New Westminster; Secretary, James H.
Rowan, 215 Eleventh Avenue, New Westminster. Meets at Room 22, Hart Block, first and
third Wednesdays at 8.10 p.m.
Carpenters & Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of, Local No. 1251—President, John
Saunders, 628 Eighth Avenue, New Westminster; Recording Secretary, A. E. Corbett, 1564
Inverness Street, New Westminster. Meets at
Labour Temple on first and third Thursday in
month at 8 p.m.
Civic Employees of New Westminster, Union of—
President, Richard Reid, 515 Ninth Street, New
Westminster; Secretary, Rees Morgan, 313
Regina Street, New Westminster. Meets in
Labour Temple at 8 p.m. on first Tuesday in
month.
Civil Servants of Canada (Amalgamated)—President, Dr. Kenneth Chester, 310 Warren Avenue,
New Westminster; Secretary, F. McGrath, 316
Strand Avenue. Meets at G.W.V.A. Rooms on
third Monday in month at 8 p.m.
Fire Fighters, International Association of, No.
256—President, Wm. Mathew, 910 London
Street, New Westminster; Secretary, C. J.
Highsted, 355 Keary Street, New Westminster.
Meets at No. 1 Fire Hall (no set day) during
first week of month at 8 p.m.
Fishermen's Protective Association of B.C., Local
No. 1—President, L. Pattersen, R.R. No. 1,
New Westminster; Secretary, Harold Maiden,
Box 427, New Westminster. Meets at G.W.V.A.
Headquarters, Columbia Street, New Westminster, on first Saturday of each month at 2 p.m.
Longshoremen's Association No. 1, New Westminster and District, Independent—President, R.
Butters, 608 Eighth Avenue, New Westminster;
Secretary, W. Clitheroe, 124 Fourteenth Avenue
East, New Westminster.
Machinists, International Association of, Local
No. 151—President, T. Kenyon, Fraser Street;
Secretary, D. MacDonald, 360 Sherbrooke
Street, New Westminster. Meets in Hart
Block on second Friday in each month at 8 p.m.
Musicians, American Federation of (Musicians'
Mutual Protective Association), Local No. 654
—President, F. Staton, 906 Tenth Street, New
Westminster; Secretary, F. C. Bass, Box 115,
New Westminster. Meets in Labour Temple
at 2.30 p.m. on fourth Sunday in month.
Plumbers and Pipefitters, United Association of,
No. 571—President, C. Porter, 3408 Imperial
Street, New Westminster; Secretary, Lloyd
Elrick, Room 5, Cliff Block, New Westminster.
Meets at Holden Building, Vancouver, on first
Friday in month at 8 p.m.
Railway Carmen of America, Brotherhood of,
Local No. 280—President, J. Huggan, 529
Ninth Street, New Westminster; Secretary, M.
Sorley, 1556 Fourth Street, New Westminster.
Meets at Independent Labour Party's Headquarters, New Westminster, on third Friday in
month at 8 p.m.
Retail Clerks' International Protective Association, No. 1306—President, W. W. Callander,
321 Pine Street; Secretary, J. Ellis, 719 Thirteenth Street, New Westminster. Meets last
Thursday in month in Hart Block at 8 p.m.
Street & Electric Railway Employees of America,
Amalgamated Association of, Division No. 134
—President,    Herbert    Bell,    1551    Inverness
Street, New Westminster; Secretary, A. J.
Bond, 519 Fourteenth Street, New Westminster. Meets in Labour Temple at 7.30 p.m. on
second and fourth Tuesdays in month.
Typographical Union, International, Local No.
632—President, A. R. MacDonald, Box 754,
New Westminster; Secretary, R. A. Stoney,
Box 754, New Westminster. Meets in Labour
Temple at 10.30 a.m. on last Sunday in February, May, August, and November.
Notch Hill.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers,   No.   193—President,   W.   Annala,
Tappen;   Secretary, W. Loftus, Notch Hill.
Penticton.
Locomotive Engineers, No. 866—President, C. B.
Hulett, Penticton; Secretary, C. Cornock, Box
64, Penticton. Meets at Burtch's Hall, Penticton, on second and fourth Sundays of each
month at 2 p.m.
Locomotive Firemen & Enginemen, Brotherhood
of, Local No. 884—President, C. Tupper, Penticton ; Secretary, R. O. Blacklock, Box 385,
Penticton. Meets at K. of P. Hall on Thursday
twice a month at 2 p.m.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
1023—President, James Slatter, General Delivery, Penticton; Secretary, R. A. Eckersley,
R.R. No. 1, Summerland. Meets in Penticton
at 1 p.m. on second Sunday of every second
month.
Railway Carmen of America, Brotherhood of, No.
1426—President, V. O. Wilson, Penticton; Secretary, T. Bradley, Penticton. Meets first
Monday in month at 8 p.m.
Railroad Trainmen, Brotherhood of, Local No.
914—President, Herbert Nicolson, Penticton ;
Secretary, D. J. McAlmon, Box 342, Penticton.
Meets at Odd Fellows' Hall, Penticton, on first
and third Mondays of each month at 2.30 p.m.
Point Grey.
Fire Fighters' International Association, No. 260
—President, Edison Fralic, 190 Fortieth Avenue East, South Vancouver; Secretary, H.
Foulkes, 1395 Sixty-fourth Avenue West, Vancouver. Meets in Civic Federation Room, 251
Hastings Street East, on first Thursday of each
month at 10.30 a.m. and 8.30 p.m.
Port Alberni.
Longshoremen's Club (unchartered)—Secretary,
W. G. Bigmore, Port Alberni.
Prince George.
Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood of, Division
No. 843—President, W. Kemp, Prince George;
Secretary, M. O'Rourke, Box 124, Prince
George. Meets at Odd Fellows' Hall on second
and fourth Mondays of each month at 2 p.m.
Locomotive Firemen & Enginemen, Brotherhood
of, Mount Robson Lodge, No. 827—President,
R. Lawseth, Prince George; Secretary, C. H.
Olds, Box 129, Prince George. Meets in
I.O.O.F. Hall at 2 p.m. on first and third Sundays in the month.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers,   United   Brotherhood   of,   Neehako Lodge, No. 1870—Acting-President, G. A. Kennedy, Prince George; Secretary, T. Nielsen,
Box 162, Prince George. Meets at I.O.O.F.
Hall, Prince George;   date set at each meeting.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
202—President, C. M. Leclair, Snowshoe; Secretary, F. Swanson, Hutton Mills. Meets at
MeBride and Prince George about end of each
quarter.
Railroad Employees, Local No. 28—President, F.
C. Saunders, Prince George; Secretary, H. A.
MacLeod, Prince George. Meets at Tenth
Avenue, Prince George, on first Sunday in
month.
Railway Conductors of America, Order of, Local
No. 620—Chief Conductor, J. G. Sweeney,
Prince George; Secretary, J. E. Paschall, Box
305, Prince George. Meets in Prince George
on second and fourth Sundays in month at 8
p.m.
Prince Rupert.
Carpenters & Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of, Local No. 1735—President, John Vie-
reck, Box 694; Secretary, J. S. Black, Box
694, Prince Rupert. Meets in Carpenters' Hall
at 8 p.m. on first and third Wednesdays of each
month.
Deep Sea Fishermen's Union of the Pacific—-
Secretary-Treasurer, P. B. Gill, Box 65, Seattle.
Meets at Seattle, Prince Rupert, and Ketchiean
on Tuesdays at 7.30 p.m.
Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of,
Local No. 344—President, A. McRae, Box 457,
Prince Rupert; Secretary, S. Massey, Box 457,
Prince Rupert. Meets in Carpenters' Hall at
8 p.m. on first Monday of each month.
Longshoremen's Association, No. 2, Canadian
Federation of Labour—President, Sydney V.
Cox, Box 531, Prince Rupert; Secretary, Wm.
T. Pilford, Box 531, Prince Rupert. Meets in
Longshoremen's Hall on first Monday in month.
Machinists, International Association of, Local
No. 207—President, F. A. Rogers, General Delivery, Prince Rupert; Secretary, F. Dalby,
Box 804, Prince Rupert. Meets in Carpenters'
Hall at 8 p.m. on second Wednesday in month.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
335—President, J. E. McDonald, Caspaco;
Secretary, T. G. McManaman, c/o CN. Railway, Kwinitsa. Meets alternately at Usk and
Prince Rupert at call of President and Secretary.
Plumbers & Steamfitters of the United States and
Canada, United Association of, Local No. 495—-
President, R. Wilson, Box 209, Prince Rupert;
Secretary, W. M. Brown, Box 209, Prince Rupert. Meets in Carpenters' Hall at call of
President.
Railway Carmen of America, Brotherhood of,
Local No. 426—President, E. W. Tucker, Box
527, Prince Rupert; Secretary, E. Tulloch, Box
213, Prince Rupert. Meets in Carpenters' Hall,
Eighth Street, Prince Rupert, at 8 p.m. on
second Tuesday of each month.
Railway Employees, Brotherhood of, Division No.
154—President, H. R. Hill, General Delivery,
Prince Rupert; Secretary, L. A. Astoria, Box
32, Prince Rupert. Meets in Carpenters' Hall,
usually on the fourth Friday at 8.30 p.m.
Sheet Metal Workers, International Alliance,
Local No. 672—President, J. W. Ratchford,
Box 517, Prince Rupert; Secretary, Geo. H.
Dobb, 625 Tatlow Street, Prince Rupert. Meets
at 625 Tatlow Street on last Monday in month
at 7.30 p.m.
Steam & Operating Engineers, Local No. 510—
President, P. J. McCormack, Prince Rupert;
Secretary, B. R. Rice, 800 Eighth Avenue West,
Prince Rupert (Box 892). Meets in Carpenters' Hall at 8 p.m. on first Friday of each
month.
Typographical Union, International, Local No.
413—President, S. D. Macdonald, Box 689,
Prince Rupert; Secretary, J. M. Campbell,
Box 689, Prince Rupert. Meets in Carpenters'
Hall at 2.30 p.m. on last Sunday of each month.
Revelstoke.
Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers & Helpers, International Brotherhood of, Local No. 407—President, Alexander Spence, General Delivery,
Revelstoke; Secretary, Jas. M. Goble, Box 283,
Revelstoke. Meets in Selkirk Hall on the
fourth Saturday of each month at 8 p.m.
Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood of, Division
657—President, H. Carpenter, Fifth Street,
Revelstoke; Secretary, J. P. Purvis, Box 27,
Revelstoke. Meets in Selkirk Hall on first and
third Tuesdays of each month at 2 p.m.
Locomotive Firemen & Enginemen, Brotherhood
of, Local No. 341—President, S. J. Spurgeon,
Revelstoke; Secretary, G. P. Deptford, Revelstoke. Meets in Selkirk Hall, Revelstoke, on
second and fourth Wednesdays of each month
at 2 p.m.
Machinists, International Association of, Local
No. 258—President, A. W. Bell, Box 209, Revelstoke ; Secretary, Dugald Bell, Box 209, Revelstoke. Meets in Smyth's Hall at 8 p.m. on first
Monday of month.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
208—President, W. W. Leslie, Revelstoke; Secretary, P. Westman, Box 464, Revelstoke.
Meets in Smyth's Hall at 2 p.m. on first Sunday each quarter.
Railway Carmen of America, Brotherhood of,
Local No. 481—President, A. Watt, Box 111,
Revelstoke; Secretary, Chas. Lundell, Revelstoke. Meets in Smyth's Hall at 8 p.m. on
third Tuesday of each month.
Railway Conductors of America, Order of, Mount
Stephen Division, No. 487—President, C. J.
Treat, Revelstoke; Secretary, W. Lynes, Revelstoke. Meets in Selkirk Hall on second Monday and fourth Thursday of each month at 7.30
p.m.
Railway Trainmen, Brotherhood of, Local No. 51
—President, G. Forbes, Revelstoke; Secretary,
W. Maxwell, Revelstoke. Meets at Revelstoke
at 2 p.m. on first Sunday and at 8 p.m. on
third Monday of each month.
Smithers.
Commercial Telegraphers' Union of America, No.
53—Chairman and Secretary, W. Mitchell,
Smithers.
Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood of, Local No.
Ill—President, F. V. Foster, Smithers; Secretary, S. J. Mayer, Smithers.    Meets at Smith- DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
ers on first Tuesday and third Thursday in
month at 3 p.m.
Locomotive Firemen & Enginemen, Brotherhood
of, No. 902—President, B. Ross, Smithers; Secretary, J. B. Gibson, Smithers. Meets in
Whiteford Hall on first and third Sundays at
2.30 p.m.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
340—President, Jas. Stoynoff, Dorreen; Secretary, F. Simonds, Quick. Meets at Smithers on
third Sunday of March, June, September, and
December at 9 p.m.
Railroad Employees, Canadian Brotherhood of,
No. 157—Secretary, Hugh Forrest, Smithers.
Railway Carmen of America, Brotherhood of, No.
1415 (Bulkley)—President, J. S. Cathroe,
Smithers; Secretary, G. W. Smith, Smithers.
Meets at Social Hall, Smithers, on first Thursday in month at 7 p.m.
Railway Trainmen, Brotherhood of, Farthest
North Lodge, No. 869—President, C. E. Doo-
little, Smithers; Secretary, J. M. Graham, Box
101, Smithers. Meets at Railwaymen's Hall,
Smithers, on first and third Fridays of each
month at 8 p.m.
South Vancouver.
Civic Employees' Union—President, A. W. Richardson, 5775 Prince Edward Street, South Vancouver ; Secretary, W. S. Welton, 832 Twenty-
eighth Avenue East, South Vancouver. Meets
at Municipal Hall, South Vancouver, on second
Tuesday in month at 8 p.m.
Fire Fighters, International Association of, No.
259—President, James Urquhart, No. 3 Fire
Hall; Secretary, C. W. Goldsmith, 1105
Twenty-seventh Avenue East, South Vancouver. Meets at No. 1 Fire Hall, Kingsway, on
first Monday in month at 10.30 a.m. and 8.30
p.m.
Squamish.
Railway Carmen of America, Brotherhood of, No.
1419—President, Alec McDonald, Squamish;
Secretary, J. E. Holmes, Squamish. Meets
second Tuesday at 8 p.m. in the Presbyterian
Hall, Squamish.
Steveston.
Fishermen's Benevolent Society (Japanese Independent)—President, S. Yoshida, Steveston;
Secretary, G. Takahashi, Box 54, Steveston.
Meets at Steveston on first or second Sunday in
month.
Three Forks.
Maintenance-of-way Employees, Brotherhood of,
No. 173—President, Olaf Storbo, Zincton; Secretary, T. H. Horner, Kaslo. Meets at Three
Forks on Sundays at 1 p.m.
Trail.
Machinists, International Association of, Local
No. 763—President, A. Balfour, Box 114, Trail;
Secretary, T. Meachem, Box 74, Trail. Meets
in Miners' Hall at call of Chair.
Vancouver.
Automobile Mechanics, Lodge No. 702, International   Association   of   Machinists—Meets   in
Room   310,   Holden   Building,   Vancouver,   on
second and fourth Tuesdays at 8 p.m.
Bakery & Confectionery Workers, Local No. 468
—President, A. Morris, 2834 Vine Street, Vancouver; Secretary, Thos. Rigby, 3551 Commercial Drive, Vancouver. Meets in Holden
Building, 16 Hastings Street East, on second
Saturday of month at 8 p.m.
Bakery Drivers' Union, No. 464—President, T. R.
Adams, 992 Nicola Street, Vancouver; Secretary, Birt. Showier, 1115 Robson Street, Van-
'couver. Meets in Holden Building on second
Thursday of each month at 8 p.m.
Barbens' International Union, Journeymen, Local
No. 120—President, W. F. Dawe, 562 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver; Secretary, C. E.
Herrett, 814 Holden Building, Vancouver.
Meets at 310 Holden Building at 8 p.m. on
second and fourth Tuesdays in month.
Beverage Dispensers' Union, No. 676—-President,
W. H. Clancy, 1117 Tenth Avenue East, Vancouver ; Secretary, T. J. Hanafin, Room 5,
Flack Building, Vancouver. Meets at 310
Holden Building at 8 p.m. on last Sunday in
month.
Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers & Helpers, International Brotherhood of, Local No. 151—President, W. J. Bartlett, 1156 Howe Street; Secretary, A. Arman, 2048 Second Avenue West,
Vancouver. Meets at 16 Hastings Street East
at 8 p.m. on fourth Friday of each month.
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders & Helpers, International Brotherhood of, Local No. 194—President, Chas. McMillan, 1020 Hornby Street;
Secretary, A. Fraser, 5079 Ross Street, South
Vancouver. Meets at Holden Building at 8
p.m. on first and third Mondays.
Bookbinders, International Brotherhood of, Local
No. 105—President, Geo. Low, 441 Fifty-fifth
Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary, Thomas
Carrall, 842 Hamilton Street, Vancouver. Meets
at Business Women's Club, 601 Hastings Street
West, on second Tuesday of each month at
8 p.m.
Boot and Shoe Workers' Union, Local No. 505—
Secretary, I. G. Griffiths, 3622 McGill Street,
Vancouver. Meets at 804 Holden Building at
8 p.m. on first Wednesday in month.
Brewery, Flour, Cereal & Soft Drink Workers of
America, No. 300, International Union of the
United—President, Angus McLennan, 6538 Culloden Street, Vancouver; Secretary, W. McLean, 2035 Broadway West, Vancouver.
Bricklayers, Masons & Tilesetters' International
Union of America, Local Union No. 1, B.C.—
President, G. E. Halliday, 2867 Albert Street;
Secretary, Wm. S. Dagnall, 1244 Twentieth
Avenue East, Vancouver. Meets at 808 Holden
Building on second and fourth Wednesdays in
month at 8 p.m.
Bridge & Structural Iron Workers, International
Association of, Local No. 97—President, W. L.
Yule, 5821 Argyle Street, Vancouver, Secretary,
Paul Lauret, 1839 Main Street, or Box 302,
Vancouver. Meets at 611 Holden Building, 16
Hastings Street East, at 8 p.m. each Monday.
Bridge, Structural, Ornamental, Reinforced Ironworkers, Pile Drivers & Riggers, Local No. 1—
President, Bert. Bronson, 3004 Commercial
Drive; Secretary, Roy Massecar, Room 36, 163
Hastings Street West. Meets at 163 Hastings
Street West at 8 p.m. every Friday. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 87
Canadian Pacific Express Employees, Brotherhood
of, Local No. 15—President, Ernest E. Teal,
3307 Imperial Street, Burnaby; Recording
Secretary, E. Hill, 1916 Sixty-third Avenue
East, Vancouver. Meets at 535 Homer Street
on first Tuesday of each month at 8 p.m.
Carpenters of Canada, Amalgamated, Branch No.
1—President, Horace Rayner, 542 Sixty-second
Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary, J. T.
Bruce, 827 Cordova Street East, Vancouver.
Meets at 163 Hastings Street West at 8 p.m.
on second and fourth Tuesdays of each month.
Carpenters of Canada, Amalgamated (Shipyard),
Branch No. 2—President, A. A. Barratt, 5795
Prince Edward Street, South Vancouver; Secretary, W. Bray, 72 Sixteenth Avenue West, Vancouver. Meets at Flack Building, 163 Hastings
Street West, on first and third Tuesdays of
month at 8 p.m.
Carpenters & Joiners, United Brotherhood of,
Local No. 452—President, J. G. Smith,
Room 809, Holden Building; Secretary, W.
Page, 809 Holden Building. Meets at Room 213,
Holden Building, at 8 p.m. on second and fourth
Mondays in month.
Carpenters & Joiners, United Brotherhood of
(Floorlayers), No. 1875—President, E. C.
Woodward, 1402 Fifth Avenue West, Vancouver ; Secretary, A. Reid, 2339 Trafalgar Street,
Vancouver.
Cigarmakers, International Union of America,
Local No. 357—President, J. Halawell, 3939
Thirteenth Avenue West, Vancouver; Secretary, R. A. Shaw, 1022 Seymour Street, Vancouver. Meets at 804 Holden Building, Vancouver, at 8 p.m. on first Tuesday in month.
City Hall Employees' Association—President, W.
H. Lewthwaite, 2586 Eton Street, Vancouver;
Secretary, J. Tarbuck, 2792 Pender Street East,
Vancouver. Meets at 251% Hastings Street
East, Vancouver, at 8 p.m. on first Wednesday
of each month.
Civic Employees' Federal, Local No. 28 (Chartered by Trades & Labour Congress of Canada)
—President, R. N. Hogg, 1718 Commercial
Drive, Vancouver; Secretary, G. Harrison,
1182 Parker Street, Vancouver. Meets at
251% Hastings Street East at 8 p.m. on first
and third Fridays in month.
Civil Servants of Canada, Amalgamated—President, R. D. McMahon, North Lonsdale; Secretary, J. Linson, Patterson Road, Eburne.
Commercial Telegraphers' Union of America,
C.P.R. System, Division No. 1—Chairman, W.
D. Brine, P.O. Box 432, Vancouver; Secretary,
B. Rose, Box 432, Vancouver. Meets at Room
132, Hotel Vancouver, when necessary, at 11
a.m.
Commercial Telegraphers' Union of America,
Local No. 52—Chairman, J. Clark, 738 Sher-
burn Street, Winnipeg; Secretary, J. A. McDougall, 1633 Twelfth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of,
Local No. 213—Secretary and Business Agent,
E. H. Morrison, Room 111, 319 Pender Street
West. Meets at 404 Homer Street, Vancouver,
on Mondays at 8 p.m.
Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of,
Local No. 310—President, J. Harkness, Fourteenth Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary, F.
Buckle,   2525   Wellington   Street,   Vancouver.
Meets at 319 Pender Street West at 8 p.m. on^
Wednesdays.
Fire Fighters, No. 18, International Association of
—President, J. Anderson, No. 2 Fire Hall;
Financial Secretary, C. A. Watson, No. 3 Fire
Hall. Meets at 251% Hastings Street East on
second Thursday at 10 a.m. and third Thursday
at 8 p.m.
Granite Cutters' International Association of
America—President, Herbert Chandler, 5840
Ontario Street, South Vancouver; Secretary,
James P. Simpson, 2856 Eaton Street, Vancouver. Meets on third Friday of month at
Holden Building, 16 Hastings Street East, at
7.30 p.m.
Hod Carriers & Builders' Labourers, International, Local No. 602—President, S. E. Swift,
1916 Pender Street East; Secretary, J. A. Barrington, 4293 Welwyn Street, South Vancouver.
Meets in Holden Building, 16 Hastings Street
East, on first and third Fridays of each month
at 7.30 p.m.
Home Service Association, Local No. 16—President, Mrs. A. L. Siddall, 942 Fifteenth Avenue
West; Secretary, Mrs. M. F. Johnson. Meets
at Woman's Building, 752 Thurlow Street, on
last Friday in each month at 8 p.m.
Hotel & Restaurant Employees' International Alliance and Bartenders' International League of
America, No. 28 (Cooks and Waiters)—President, Thos. Edwards, 441 Seymour Street;
Secretary and Business Agent, John Cumming,
441 Seymour Street.
Jewellery Workers' International Union, Local
No. 42—President, Len C. Simpson, 3492
Thirty-eighth Avenue West, Vancouver; Secretary, F. C. Yarrall, 1836 Alberni Street, Vancouver. Meets in Holden Building on first
Friday in month at 8 p.m.
Lathers, Wood, Wire & Metal, International
Union, Local No. 207—President, R. V. Hen-
rickson, Vancouver; Secretary, W. V. Fontaine, 1828 Cbmmercial Drive, Vancouver,
Meets at 810 Holden Building at 8 p.m. on
second and fourth Mondays in month.
Lithographers of America, Amalgamated, Local
No. 44—President, C. Addie, 217 Twenty-third
Avenue, Vancouver; Secretary, J. Thompson,
Vancouver. Meets at Room 804, Holden Building, at 8 p.m. on third Wednesday in month.
Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood of, Kamloops
Division No. 320—President, G. P. Boston,
1763 Third Avenue West, Vancouver; Secretary, H. O. B. MeDonald, 1222 Pendrell Street,
Vancouver. Meets at I.O.O.F. Hall on second
Tuesday in month at 8 p.m. and on fourth
Tuesday in month at 2 p.m.
Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood of, No. 907.—
Chief Engineer, J. H. Jones, 1847 Kitchener
Street, Vancouver; Secretary, T. Retallack,
1749 Seventh Avenue East, Vancouver.
Locomotive Firemen & Enginemen, Local No. 656
—President, T. McEwan, 350 Fourteenth Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary, S. H. Water-
house, 823 McLean Drive. Meets at I.O.O.F.
Hall on first Thursday of each month at 8 p.m.
Lumber Handlers' Association (Independent) —
President, M. McGrath, 696 Powell Street,
Vancouver; Business Agent, Jas. Greer, 696
Powell Street, Vancouver. Meets second Thursday of the month at 8 p.m. at 696 Powell Street. L 88
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Lumber Workers' Association, Canadian (C.F. of
L.)—Secretary, D. H. Marr, 2016 Third Avenue West, Vancouver.
Lumber Workers' Industrial Union, No. 120
(I.W.W.)—Secretary, Geo. Murray, 318 Cordova Street West, Vancouver. Meets at 318
Cordova Street West on Sundays at 2.30 p.m.
Machinists, International Association of, Local
No. 692—Secretary, Percy R. Bengough, 2416
Pandora Street, Vancouver. Meets at 804 Holden Building at 8 p.m. on second and fourth
Tuesdays.
Machinists, International Association of, No. 702
—President, W. W. Hague, 3489 Forty-first
Avenue West, Vancouver; Secretary, J. A.
Holmes, 1754 Pendrell Street, Vancouver.
Mailers' Union, No. 70 (I.T.U.)—President, A.
R. C. Holmes, 6439 Cypress Street, Point Grey;
Secretary, Herbert E. E. Fader, 2718 Oxford
Street, Vancouver. Meets at 804, Holden
Building, on first Tuesday in each month at
6 p.m.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
167—President, C. J. Beck, 1612 Eighth Avenue
West, Vancouver; Secretary, A. D. McDonald,
Box 115, Vancouver. Meets at 804 Holden
Building at 11 a.m. on third Sunday in month.
Maintenance-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
1734—President, R. C. Harkness, Lozells P.O.;
Secretary, John Roscow, 14 Fourteenth Avenue
West, Vancouver. Meets at Eagle Hall at
10.30 a.m. on last Sunday in month.
Marine Engineers, National Association of, No. 7
—President, J. I. Marshall, 2247 Tenth Avenue
West, Vancouver; Secretary, E. Read, 232
Thirteenth Street West, North Vancouver.
Marine Transport Workers' Union, No. 510
(I.W.W.)—Secretary, Geo. Murray, 318 Cordova Street West, Vancouver. Meets at 318
Cordova Street West at 8 p.m. on Wednesdays.
Milk Wagon Drivers & Dairy Employees, Local
No. 464—President, J. A. Parry, Holden Building, Vancouver; Secretary, B. Showier, 2841
Triumph Street, Vancouver. Meets at 16 Hastings Street East, Vancouver, at 8 p.m. on second
and fourth Fridays in month.
Mill & Factory, Local Union No. 1599—President,
H. C. Matthews, 571 Eighteenth Avenue East,
Vancouver; Recording Secretary, H. G. Avery,
7964 Montcalm Street, Vancouver. Meets at
313 Holden Building on first and third Thursdays of each month at 8 p.m.
Millwrights' Union, No. 1638—President, —
Campbell; Recording Secretary, J. Murray;
Financial Secretary and Treasurer, H. P. Edge.
Moulders of North America, International Union
of, Local No. 281—President, John Brown, 638
Broadway West, Vancouver; Secretary, J.
Pinkerton, 2011 Seventh Avenue East, Vancouver. Meets at 16 Hastings Street East,
Vancouver, at 8 p.m. on first and third Fridays
in month.
Musicians, American Federation of (Musicians'
Mutual Protective Union), Local No. 145—
President, E. C. Miller, 991 Nelson Street;
Secretary, Will Edmunds, 938 Robson Street,
Vancouver. Meets at G.W.V.A. Auditorium,
901 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver, at 10 a.m. on
second Sunday in month.
Painters, Decorators & Paperhangers of America,
Local No. 138—President, H. A. Edwards, 864
Fifty-second Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary, A. E. Varah, 1442 Clark Drive, Vancouver. Meets at 163 Hastings Street West,
Vancouver, at 8 p.m. on second and fourth Tuesdays in each month.
Photo Engravers' International Union of North
America, Local No. 54—President, Thos. J.
Cairns, 2416 Vine Street, Vancouver; Secretary, Ivan V. Murphy, 3321 Twenty-ninth
Avenue West, Vancouver. Meets at 16 Hastings Street East, Vancouver, at 8 p.m. on first
Wednesday in month.
Pile Drivers, Bridge, Wharf & Dock Builders,
Local No. 2404—President, S. O'Connor, Box
320, Vancouver; Secretary, Wm. Reid, Box
320, Vancouver; Financial Secretary, J. Thompson, Box 320, Vancouver. Meets at 122 Hastings Street West, Vancouver, at 8 p.m. each
Friday.
Plasterers & Cement Finishers, International
Association of the United States and Canada,
Local No. 89—President, James Scott Wood,
3525 Twenty-ninth Avenue West, Vancouver;
Secretary, Alfred Hurry, 861 Thirty-fourth
Avenue East, Vancouver. Meets at Holden
Building, 16 Hastings Street East, at 8 p.m.
on first and third Wednesdays in month.
Plumbers & Steam Fitters of the United States
and Canada, United Association of, Local No.
170—President, S. G. Smylie, 3765 Thirtieth
Avenue West, Vancouver; Secretary and Business Agent, Wm. Watt, 984 Seventh Avenue
West, Vancouver. Meets at Holden Building,
16 Hastings Street East, at 8 p.m. on second
and fourth Fridays.
Policemen's Federation (Chartered by Trades &
Labour Congress of Canada), Local No. 12—
President, Chas. W. Spence, Vancouver; Secretary, W. M. Thompson, 1362 Seventeenth Avenue East, Vancouver. Meets at 16 Hastings
Street East at 7.30 p.m. on fourth Tuesday
in month.
Printing Pressmen & Assistants, International
Union of North America, Local No. 69—President, H. F. Longley, 308 Sixth Street, North
Vancouver; Secretary, Thos. S. Ezart, 1603
Fortieth Avenue East, South Vancouver. Meets
at 213 Holden Building at 8 p.m. on second
Tuesday in month.
Projectionists' Society, B.C., Local No. 348—
President, J. R. Foster, 1161 Granville Street,
Vancouver; Secretary, G. Gerrard, 2732 Carle-
ton Street, Vancouver. Meets on first Friday
in month in the Holden Building at 11.30 a.m.
Radio Division, Electrical Communication Workers of Canada, B.C. No. 3—Secretary, C. T.
Foote, 1414 Douglas Street, Victoria.
Railroad Employees, Canadian Brotherhood, Vancouver Division No. 189—President, C. Murphy,
Ivanhoe Hotel, Vancouver; Secretary, C. H.
Brown, 2118 Prince Edward Street, Vancouver.
Meets in I.O.O.F. Hall, Sixth and Main Streets,
on first Sunday in month at 11.30 a.m.
Railroad Employees, Canadian Brotherhood of,
Local Division No. 82—President, E. A.
Gamble, 1998 Forty-sixth Avenue East, South
Vancouver; Secretary, T. M. Sullivan, 2715
Dundas Street, Vancouver. Meets at Ivanhoe
Hotel, Vancouver, at 7 p.m.;   no set date. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 89
Railroad Trainmen, Brotherhood of, No. 144—•
President, G. H. Patterson, 1030 Robson Street,
Vancouver; Secretary, D. A. Munro, 70
Seventh Avenue West, Vancouver. Meets at
I.O.O.F. Hall, Hamilton Street, on first Tuesday at 7.30 p.m. and third Sunday at 2.30 p.m.
Railway Carmen of America, Brotherhood of,
Local No. 58—President, H. Warde, 1102
Twenty-third Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary, J. D. Vulliamy, 2215 Fifteenth Avenue
West, Vancouver. Meets at Cotillion Hall,
Davie and Granville Streets, on first and third
Fridays in month at 8 p.m.
Railway Conductors of America, Order of, Division No. 267—President, J. R. Burton, 1324
First Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary, J.
B. Physick, 1156 Thurlow Street, Vancouver.
Meets at I.O.O.F. Hall on first Sunday at 2
p.m.
Railway Employees, Canadian Brotherhood of,
Pacific Division No. 59—President, T. Spring-
born, 1131 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary, W. J. Wilson, 327 Eighth
Avenue West, Vancouver. Meets at Holden
Building, Vancouver, and G.W.V.A. Club, New
Westminster, on third Thursday each month
at 8 p.m.
Railway Mail Clerks' Association—President, H.
F. Hatt, 3184 Fifth Avenue West, Vancouver;
Secretary, F. W. Hitchcock, 3403 Twenty-
seventh Avenue East, Vancouver. Meets in
Room 18, Post Office Building, Vancouver, at
2.30 p.m. on last Tuesday of month.
Railway & Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers,
Express & Station Employees, Brotherhood of,
No. 630—President, J. Brodie, 1434 Eighth
Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary, W. J.
Mason, 110 Empire Building, Vancouver. Meets
at 337 Hastings Street West on second Monday
in month at 8 p.m.
Railway & Steamship Clerks, Lodge 626—President, R. G. Walker, 1052 Richards Street, Vancouver; Secretary, E. Baldock, 6433 Argyle
Street, Vancouver. Meets at C.P.R. Storeroom, foot of Drake Street, Vancouver, on
second and fourth Fridays in each month at
noon.
Railway & Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers,
Express & Station Employees, Brotherhood of,
Local No. 46—Secretary, F. H. Fallows, 1504
St. Andrews Street, North Vancouver. Meets
in I.O.O.F, Hall, Vancouver, on fourth Friday
at 8 p.m.
Retail Employees' Association No. 1 (Independent), Vancouver—President, H. O. Eccleston,
West Vancouver P.O.; Secretary, Robert
Skinner, 571 Twenty-second Avenue West, Vancouver. Meets at Willow Tea Pot, 837 Howe
Street, on first Thursday in month at 6.30 p.m.
Sailors' & Firemen's Union of Canada, National—
Secretary, W. Griffiths, 305 Cambie Street,
Vancouver.
Seafarers' Union of B.C., The Federated—President, R. Thorn, 565 Howe Street; Vice-President, D. Gillespie, Vancouver;   Secretary, W.
•    Donaldson, 2054 Wall Street, Vancouver.
Sheet Metal Workers, Local No. 280—President,
Austin Fisher, 1952 Fourth Avenue West, Vancouver ;    Secretary,   Daniel   Macpherson,   807
Holden Building, Vancouver. Meets at 313
Holden Building at 8 p.m. on second and fourth
Thursdays.
Shingle Weavers' Union, No. 17813—-President,
J. N. Chute, 1163 Pender Street East, Vancouver; Secretary, W. H. Matthew, Joyce P.O.,
South Vancouver. Meets in Holden Building,
Vancouver, on the fourth Sunday at 7.30 p.m.
Shinglers' Union (Independent), Vancouver—
President, Wm. Harris, 510 East Marine Drive,
Vancouver; Secretary, J. W. Austin, 565
Beatty Street, Vancouver.
Steam Engineers, Sawyers, Filers & Mill Mechanics of B.C., Canadian Society of Certified—
President, Robert Gray, Niagara Hotel, Vancouver; Secretary, T. T. Rutherford, 2043
Pandora Street, Vancouver. Meets on second
and fourth Mondays in month at 163 Hastings
Street West at 8 p.m.
Steam & Operating Engineers, International
Union of, Local No. 844—President, E. O.
Denis, 5211 Gladstone Avenue, Vancouver;
Secretary, Geo. Pettipiece, 641 Cambie Street,
Vancouver. Meets at 806 Holden Building at
8 p.m. on every Thursday.
Steam & Operating Engineers, Industrial Union
of, No. 882—Vice-President, W. G. Hulbert,
1639 Fourth Avenue West; Secretary, Chas.
Watson, 871 Thirteenth Avenue East, Vancouver. Meets every second Wednesday at 8 p.m.
in Room 806, Holden Building.
Steam Shovel & Dredgermen, International
Brotherhood of, Local No. 62—President, D.
Clark, Aldergrove; Secretary, G. D. Lamont,
223 Carrall Street, Vancouver.
Stereotypers & Electrotypers, International Union
of, Local No. 88—President, J. Murphy; Secretary, J. McKinnon, 3635 Fourteenth Avenue
West, Vancouver. Meets at 310 Holden Building at 4 p.m. on first Monday in month.
Stone-cutters, Association of North America—■
President, E. J. Thomas, 865 Fifty-eighth Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary, E. W. Tonge,
4119 Grace Avenue, New Westminster. Meets
at 810 Holden Building on second Tuesday in
month at 8 p.m.
Street & Electric Railway Employees of America,
Amalgamated Association of, Division No. 101
—President, H. W. Speed, 4560 James Street,
Vancouver; Secretary, John Price, 2533
Twenty-fifth Avenue East, Vancouver. Meets
at K. of P. Hall, Eighth Avenue and Scotia
Street, Vancouver, at 10.15 a.m. on first Monday and 7 p.m. on third Monday.
Switchmen's Union of North America, Local No.
Ill—Secretary, A. S. Crosson, 1228 Howe
Street. Meets at 209 Holden Building on first
Sunday in month.
Tailors' Union of America, Journeymen, Local
No. 178—President, F. Franco, 1744 Wolfe
Street, North Vancouver; Secretary, C. McDonald, Box 503 Vancouver. Meets at 16
Hastings Street East, Vancouver, at 8 p.m. on
first Thursday in month.
Taxi, Stage & Bus Drivers, Local No. 151—President, G. Shaw, 3 Kaslo Street, Vancouver;
Secretary, Birt Showier, 2841 Triumph Street.
Meets in Holden Building on second and fourth
Fridays in month at 12.30 p.m. and 4.30 p.m. L 90
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen & Helpers, No.
466, International Brotherhood of—President,
A. C. McKay, 70 Sixth Avenue East, Vancouver ; Secretary, A. P. Black, 880 Homer Street,
Vancouver. Meets at 213 Holden Building on
second and fourth Wednesdays at 8 p.m.
Theatrical Stage Employees' Federation & Moving
Picture Machine Operators of the United States
and Canada, International Alliance of, Local
No. 118—President, W. Copp, Taunton Street,
Vancouver; Secretary, H. Pearson, 243 Boundary Road, Vancouver. Meets at 991 Nelson
Street, Vancouver, at 9.30 a.m. on second
Friday in month.
Typographical Union, International, Local No.
226—President, C. S. Campbell, 804 Holden
Building; Secretary, R. H. Neelands, 804 Holden Building. Meets at Woman's Building,
Vancouver, at 2 p.m. on last Sunday in month.
Upholsterers' International Union No. 26—President, P. Clift, 392b Keith Road East, North
Vancouver; Secretary, J. W. Gordon, 2292
Wellington Avenue, South Vancouver. Meets
at Holden Building on second and fourth Mondays in month at 8 p.m.
Waterfront Freight Handlers' Association—Presi-
- dent, A. Boutin, 606 Powell Street, Vancouver;
Secretary, Peter M. White, 1500 Grant Street,
Vancouver. Meets in rear of 233 Main Street,
Vancouver, on first and third Wednesdays in
month at 8 p.m.
Waterfront Workers' Association (Independent),
Vancouver and District—President, Keith A.
Colquhoun, 132 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver;
Secretary, Allan L. Walker, 132 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver. Meets at 132 Dunlevy Avenue
on second Friday of every month at 8 p.m.
Wood-workers, Amalgamated Society of, No. 1
Branch—President, G. Richardson, 2856 Oxford Street, Vancouver; Business Agent, J.
McKinley, 607 Fifty-second Avenue East;
Secretary, C. E. Ellis, 1657 Thirty-sixth Avenue
East, South Vancouver. Meets at Flack Building, 163 Hastings Street West, at 8 p.m. on
second and fourth Tuesdays of each month.
Wood-workers, Amalgamated Society of, No. 2
Branch—Business Agent, J. McKinley, 607
Fifty-second Avenue East, Vancouver; Secretary, W. Bray, Vancouver. Meets at Flack
Building, 163 Hastings Street West, on first
and third Tuesdays at 8 p.m.
Vernon.
Typographical Union, No. 541—President, H. G.
Bartholomew, Box 643, Kelowna; Secretary,
W. B. Hilliard, R.R. No. 1, Enderby. Meetings
held at Vernon and Kelowna alternately on last
Saturday in month.
Victoria.
Barbers, Journeymen, International Union of,
Local No. 372—President, G. A. Turner, 616
Avalon Road, Victoria; Secretary, Jas. A.
Green, 1319 Douglas Street. Meets at A.O.F.
Hall on fourth Monday in month at 8 p.m.
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders & Helpers of
America, International Brotherhood of, Local
No. 191—President, L. Basso, 635 John Street,
Victoria;   Secretary, P. W. Wilson, 1837 Cres
cent Road, Victoria. Meets at Labour Hall at
8 p.m. on second Monday in month.
Bookbinders, International Brotherhood of, Local
No. 147—President, W. W. Laing, 125 Linden
Avenue, Victoria; Secretary, J. A. Wiley, 141
Clarence Street, Victoria. Meets at 203 Union
Building, Victoria, at 8 p.m. on fourth Friday
in month.
Brewery, Flour, Cereal & Soft Drink Workers of
America, International Union of United, Local
No. 280—President, Otto Dunaway, Chamberlain Street, Victoria; Secretary, Ernest Orr,
58 Sims Avenue, Saanich. Meets at A.O.F.
Hall, Cormorant Street, at 8 p.m. on second
Thursday in month.
Bricklayers, Masons & Plasterers of America,
International Union of, Local No. 2—President,
W. E. Mertton, 1039 Hillside Avenue, Victoria;
Secretary, J. H. Owen, 541 Toronto Street, Victoria. Meets at Forum Hall, Victoria, at 8
p.m. On second Monday in month.
Canadian Pacific Express Employees, Brotherhood of, No. 20—President, T. C. Johns, 2617
Graham Street; Secretary, F. E. Dutot, 1546
Bank Street, Victoria. Meets at Canadian
Pacific Railway Building, J104 Government
Street, on first Wednesday in month at 8 p.m.
Carpenters & Joiners, United Brotherhood of,
Local No. 1598—President, C. Chivers, Forbes
Street, Victoria; Recording Secretary, J.
Townsend, Box 26, Victoria. Meets at 717
Pandora Avenue at 7.30 p.m. on first and third
Mondays in month.
Civic Employees, Local No. 50—President, Samuel
Howard, 2514 Graham Street, Victoria; Secretary, W. E. Farmer, 2948 Scott Street, Victoria.
Meets at Main Fire Hall, Cormorant Street, at
8 p.m. on second Wednesday in month.
Cooks, Waiters .& Waitresses, Local No. 459—
President, M. Ludun, 808 Blanshard Street,
Victoria; Secretary, F. Dovey, Box 233, Victoria. Meets at Room 7, Surrey Building,
Yates Street, on first and third Tuesdays in
month at 3 p.m. and 8 p.m.
Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of,
Local No. 230—President, R. D. Lemmax, 1331
Pembroke Street, Victoria; Secretary, W. Reid,
2736 Asquith Street, Victoria. Meets at Harmony Hall, Fort Street, at 8 p.m. on first and
third Tuesdays of month.
Firefighters, City Union No. 258—President, P.
N. Guy, No. 8 Fire Hall, Duchess Street, Victoria ; Secretary, T. A. Heaslip, No. 5 Fire
Hall, Victoria. Meets at Headquarters Fire
Hall, Cormorant Street, at 8 p.m. on or about
first of each month.
Granite Cutters' International Association of
America—President, J. Eva, Orillia Street,
Saanich; Secretary, J. Barlow, Box 392, Victoria. Meets at K. of P. Hall at 8 p.m. on
third Friday of each month.
Letter Carriers, Federated Association of, No. 11
—President, W. J. Pearson, 2253 Dalhousie
Street, Victoria; Secretary, W. Ctagmyle, 2872
Inez Drive, Victoria.
Locomotive Firemen & Engineers, Brotherhood
of, Local No. 690—President, E. S. Cottle, 309
Mary Street, Victoria; Secretary, H. Richmond, 615 Wilson Street, Victoria. Meets at
A.O.F. Hall, Cormorant Street, on first Wed- REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER, 1927.
L 91
nesday and third Thursday in month at 7.30
p.m.
Longshoremen's Association, No. 38-^6, International—President, J. Wilson, 706 Blanshard
Street, Victoria; Secretary, Francis Older, 746
Humboldt Street, Victoria. Meets at 746 Humboldt Street on first Monday in month at 8 p.m.
Machinists, Local No. 456—President, A. Wallace,
44 Lewis Street, Victoria; Secretary, C. B.
Lester, 3226 Oak Street, Saanich. Meets at
City Temple Hall, North Park Street, on fourth
Thursday in month at 8 p.m.
Maintenanee-of-way Employees & Railway Shop
Labourers, United Brotherhood of, Local No.
2824—President, W. A. Wright, 601 Kelvin
Road, Victoria; Secretary, G. E. Wilkinson,
50 Sims Avenue, Victoria. Meets at Point
Ellice Station, C.N. Railway, on third Sundays
of March, June, September, and December at
2. p.m.
Musicians, American Federation of (Musicians'
Mutual Protective Association), Local No. 247
—President, Stanley Peele, 1210 MacKenzie
Street, Victoria; Secretary, F. V. Homan,
1707 Lee Avenue, Victoria. Meets at K. of P.
Hall on second Sunday in each month at 2 p.m.
in winter and 10.30 a.m. in summer.
Painters, Decorators & Paper-hangers, Brotherhood of, Local No. 1119—President, P. W.
Smith, 1994 Leighton Road, Victoria; Secretary, J. Whittle, 1747 Stanley Avenue, Victoria.
Meets at 717 Pandora Avenue on second and
fourth Wednesdays of month at 8 p.m.
Pattern Makers' League of North America—
President, J. LeSueur, 1272 Walnut Street, Victoria ; Secretary, J. A. McCahill, Box 851,
Victoria. Meets on second Monday each month
at 326 John Street at 8 p.m.
Photo Engravers, International Union of North
America (Auxiliary of Vancouver), Local No.
54—Secretary, Frank M. Day, c/o Engraving
Department, " The Times," Victoria.
Pile Drivers, Bridge, Wharf & Dock Builders,
No. 2415—President, E. E. Goldsmith, 2565
Graham Street, Victoria; Secretary, A. M.
Davis, 1506 Holly Street, Victoria. Meets at
16 Green Block, Broad Street, at 8 p.m. on
second and fourth Tuesdays of month.
Plumbers & Steam Fitters of the United States
and Canada, United Association of, Local No.
324—President, J. Fox, 2858 Austin Avenue;
Secretary, H. Johnson, 3261 Harriet Road, Victoria. Meets at Trades Hall, Broad Street, at
8 p.m. on second and fourth Tuesdays.
Policemen's Federal Union, Local No. 24—President, B. Acreman, Police Station, Victoria;
Secretary, Wm. Percival Richards, 2646 Blackwood Avenue, Victoria. Meets at Police Headquarters at 2.30 p.m. on first Tuesday in month.
Printing Pressmen & Assistants, International
Union of North America, Local No. 79—President, Thomas Nute, 534 Michigan Street, Victoria; Secretary, F. H. Larssen, 1236 MacKenzie Street, Victoria. Meets at Campbell
Building (sixth floor) at 8 p.m. on second
Monday in month.
Railway Carmen of America, Victoria Lodge No.
50—President, H. S. Halton, 2421 Douglas
Street, Victoria; Secretary-Treasurer, John H.
Booth, 2421 Mowat Street (Willows), Victoria.
Railway Conductors, No. 289—Chief Conductor,
E. H. Spall, Wellington, V.I.; Secretary, J.
Martin, 2109 Vancouver Street, Victoria.
Railway & Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers,
Express & Station Employees, No. 1137—President, E. J. Leonard, 1444 Begbie Street, Victoria ; Secretary, H. McDougall, 1484 Lang
Street, Victoria. Meets at Trades Hall at 8
p.m. on first Thursday in month.
Railway Trainmen, Brotherhood of, Local No.
613—President, W. T. Campbell, 68 Burnside
Road, Victoria; Secretary, W. M. Parlby, 780
Dominion Road, Victoria. Meets at A.O.F.
Hall, Cormorant Street, Victoria, at 8 p.m. on
second Tuesday and last Friday in month.
Retail Clerks, International Association of, Local
No. 604—President, J. Talbot, 1737 Bank
Street, Victoria; Secretary, H. H. Hollins,
Trades Hall, Broad Street. Meets at Trades
Hall, Broad Street, at 8 p.m. on second Tuesday
in month.
Sheet Metal Workers, International Association,
Local No. 134—President, Samuel McMinn, 634
Rupert Street, Victoria; Corresponding Secretary, Percy Pitt, 3080 Earl Grey Street, Victoria. Meets at Temple Hall, 842 North Park
Street, at 8 p.m. on first Thursday in month.
Steam Engineers, Sawyers, Filers & Mill Mechanics, No. 3—President, J. McKenzie; Secretary, B. Burton, Sidney. Meets at Trades Hall
at 8 p.m. on first Monday in month.
Steam & Operating Engineers, International
Union of, Local No. 446—President, C. Maclean, 2640 Avesbury Street, Victoria; Secretary, H. Geake, 1242 Faithful Street, Victoria
(Box 502). Meets at K. of P. Hall at 8 p.m.
on second and fourth Tuesdays.
Stonecutters' Association of North America
(Journeymen)—President, Joseph Barlow, Box
853, Victoria; Secretary, Wm. McKay, Box
853, Victoria. Meets at 8 p.m. on second
Thursday in Labour Hall, Broad Street, Victoria.
Street & Electric Railway Employees of America,
Amalgamated Association of, Division No. 109
—President, James P. Torrance, 2510 Blackwood Avenue, Victoria; Secretary, W. Turner,
2169 Fair Street, Victoria. Meets corner
Broad and Yates Street at 10 a.m. and 7 p.m.
on second Tuesday in month.
Tailors' Journeymen Union of America, Local No.
142—President, R. Mowbray, c/o Fyvie
Brothers, Government Street; Financial Secretary, H. D. Reid, 3034 Washington Avenue,
Victoria. Meets at 8 p.m. on first Monday in
month at Yates and Government Streets.
Teamsters & Chauffeurs, Stablemen & Helpers,
International Brotherhood of, Local No. 365—
President, N. Hanson, 1463 Bay Street, Victoria; Secretary, P. G. Rabey, 2571 Graham
Street, Victoria. Meets at Veterans of France,
Douglas and Courtney Streets, at 8 p.m. on
first Tuesday in month.
Theatrical Stage Employees & Moving Picture
Machine Operators of the United States and
Canada, International Alliance of, Local No.
168—Secretary, C. More, 949 Balmoral Road,
Victoria. Meets at Trades Hall; Broad Street,
Victoria, at 11.15 p.m. on first Thursday in
month. L 92 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Typographical  Union,   International,   Local  No. Willow River.
201—President, J. D. Davidson, 378 Burnside _
Road, Victoria;   Secretary, T. A. Burgess, Box Maintenance-of-way Employees, Railway & Shop
1183,  Victoria.    Meets  at  Campbell  Building Labourers, No. 202—President, C. M. LeClaire,
(sixth floor), Victoria, at 2 p.m. on last Sunday Snowshoe;    Secretary,   F.   Swanson,   Hutton
in month. Mills-
Upholsterers & Trimmers, No. 25—Secretary, J. Ymir.
F. Sharp, 570 Yates Street, Victoria.    Meets in
Campbell  Building  at 8 p.m.  on  second  and Mine, Mill and Smelters, International Union—
fourth Mondays in month. Secretary, W. B. Mclsaac, Ymir.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1928.
3,325-628-2240

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