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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1929

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
OF   THE
COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 81 ST, 1927
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1928.  To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for the year
ended December 31st,. 1927, with Appendices.
WILLIAM SLOAN,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia, December Slst, 1927. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT FOR 1927.
Page.
Value of Fisheries and Standing of Provinces  5
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia  5
Salmon-pack in British Columbia in 1927  6
Salmon-pack by Districts  7
Digest of Reports from Salmon-spawning Areas  8
Production of Fish Oil and Meal  10
Contribution to the Life-history of Sockeye Salmon  11
The Halibut Investigation  14
APPENDICES.
Contribution to Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.    (No. 13.)    By Drs. W. A. and Lucy
Clemens -  16
Spawning-beds of the Fraser River.    By John Pease Babcock  39
Spawning-beds of the Skeena River.    By Robert Gibson „  42
Spawning-beds of Rivers Inlet.    By A. W. Stone  43
Spawning-beds of Smith Inlet.    By A. W. Stone  46
Spawning-beds of the Nass River.    By C. P. Hickman  48
The Salmon-pack Statement in Detail  50
Salmon-pack of Province, by Districts, 1912 to 1927, inclusive  53
Sockeye-salmon Pack of Entire Fraser River System, 1912 to 1927, inclusive...  56
Sockeye-salmon Pack of Province, by Districts, 1912 to 1927, inclusive  56
Production of Fish Oil and Meal, 1920 to 1927, inclusive  56 FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT
FOR 1927.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF PROVINCES, 1926.
The value of the fishery products of Canada for the year 1926 totalled $56,360,633.
During the year 1926 British Columbia produced fishery products of a value of $27,367,109,
or 48 per cent, of Canada's total.
In 1926 British Columbia again led all the Provinces in the Dominion, as has been the case
for many years, in the value of her fishery products. Her output in 1926 exceeded in value
that of Nova Scotia, the second in rank, by $14,861,187, and also exceeded that of all the other
Provinces combined by $10,479,507.
The market value of the fishery products of British Columbia shows an increase over that
of any former year of nearly five million dollars, due chiefly to the large salmon-pack, which
was marketed for almost four millions more than the high record, halibut and pilchard products
making up the balance of the increase.
The capital employed in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1926 was $31,862,753, or 53
per cent, of Canada's total of $57,906,684. Of the $31,862,753 capital engaged in the fisheries
of British Columbia in 1926, $9,609,209 was employed in catching and handling the catches and
$22,253,544 invested in canneries, fish-packing establishments, and fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1926 was 20,598, or
26 per cent, of Canada's total of 78,779. Of the 20,598 engaged in British Columbia, 12,162 were
employed in catching and handling the catches and 8,436 in packing, curing, and fish-reduction.*
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of the fishery products
of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1922 to 1926, inclusive:—
Province.
1922.
1923.                  1924.
1925.
1926.
$18,849,658
10,209,25S
4,685,660
2,858,122
2,089,414
1,612,599
908,816
•245,337
331,239
10,107
$20,795,914
8,448,385
4,548,535
3,159,427
2,100,412
1,754,980
1,020,595
286,643
438,737
11,917
$21,257,567
8,777,251
5,383,809
. 3,557,587
'2,283,314
1,201,772
1,232,563
482,492
339,107
18,773
$22,414,618
10,213,779
4,798,589
3,436,412
3,044,919
1,598,119
1,466,939
494,882
458,504
15,370
$27,367,109
1,2,'50S,922
>5,32S,478
3,152,193
Quebec	
Prince Edward Island	
3,110,964
1,358,934
'2,328,803
444,288
749,076
17,866
Totals	
$41,800,210
$42,565,545
$44,534,235
$47,942,131
$56,360,633
THE SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British Columbia for the
year ended December 31st, 1926, is given in the following statement:—
Salmon  $18,776,762
Halibut   .:  4,543,720
Herring   1,528,734
Cod   336,759
Pilchards, oil, meal, etc  1,256,721
Clams, quahaugs   105,409
Black cod   89,371
Crabs   63,295
Soles ....'  45,675
Shrimps   13,125
Oysters     35,746
Carried forward   $26,795,317
* As this report goes to press the Commissioner is in receipt ol a preliminary report on the fishery
products of the Province for the year 1927, issued bv the Dominion P,ureau of Statistics, R. H. Coats,
Statistician, from which the following data are taken : The value of the fishery products of British Columbia
in 1927 totalled $23,227,904, a decrease of $4,139,205 compared with the production in 1926. N 6
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
The Species and Value op Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Brought forward   $26,795,317
Flounders, brill   6,303
Red cod   26,013
Perch   9,804
Smelt   17,161
Sturgeon   5,737
Octopus   3,052
Skate   4,290
Oolachans   2,086
Whiting   637
Trout   494
Bass   306
Whales  270,127
Fish-oils, grayfish, etc  88,031
Fish-meals     94,020
Fish-fertilizer     14,157
Fur-seals   29,550
Miscellaneous  24
Total   $27,367,109
The above statement shows that the salmon-fisheries of the Province in 1926 produced
$18,776,762, or 68% per cent, of the total of her fishery products.
The total halibut landings were marketed for $4,543,720, and herring for $1,528,734.
The foregoing data are derived from the " Fisheries Statistics of Canada," issued by the
Bureau of Fisheries, Ottawa.
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON,  SEASON 1927.
Fraser
Kiver
District.
Skeena
Biver
District.
Rivers
Inlet
District.
Nass
River
District.
Queen
Charlotte
Islands
District.
Vancouver
Island
District.
Outlying
Districts.
*
Grand
Total.
Sockeyes	
Fancy Red Springs	
61,393
5,032
2,893
10,528
10,621
37
24,079
102,536
'67,259
83,996
11,955
5,681
1,402
'65,269
SI
397
130
12,026
3,158
387
279
329
1,980
81
5
24,835
3,449
1,619
1,701
10,149
45
58,834
S'2,'561
220,270
60,204
2,103
2,463
1,194
30S.0S2
27,758
13,521
White Springs	
15,239
20,770
i582
26,326
38,768
19,006
9
2,094
671
1,122
96
3,966
16,609
3,307
973
42,588
36,206
149,856
1,742
4,845
275
102,374
162,732
247,626
563,194
284,378
187,716
69,773
39,828
109,889
373,463
295,587
1,306,634
* Including Smith Inlet.
MILD-CURED SALMON, SEASON 1927.
The pack of mild-cured salmon in 1927 totalled 2,730 tierces, a gain over 1926 of 547 tierces.
The 1927 tierced pack represented approximately 2,184,000 lb. of spring salmon.
THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE IN 1927.
The salmon-pack of the Province in 1927 totalled 1,360,634 cases, as against 2,065,190 cases
in 1926, 1,719,282 cases in 1925, 1,745,313 cases in 1924, and 1,341,677 cases in 1923.
The pack of 1927 consisted of 308,052 cases of sockeye, 56,518 cases of red and white springs,
162,732 cases of cohoes, 247,626 cases of pinks, 563,194 cases of chums, and 22,512 cases of
" bluebacks and steelheads." The sockeye-pack was 1,012 cases more than in the preceding
fourth year. As in recent years, the bulk of the pack consisted of pinks and chum salmon.
Their combined pack totalled 810,820 cases, or 59 per cent. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 7
THE 1927 PACK BY DISTRICTS.
The Fraser River System.—The catch of all species of salmon made in the Fraser River
system in the Province totalled 284,378 cases. It consisted of 61,393 cases of sockeye, 18,453
cases of springs, 24,079 cases of cohoes, 102,536 cases of pinks, 67,259 cases of chums, and 10,658
cases classed, in pack statements, as " bluebacks and steelheads."
The sockeye-pack in Provincial waters of the Fraser system in 1927 was 24,296 cases less
than in 192-6 and 13,078 cases more than the average of the preceding four years. It was 29,738
cases larger than in the preceding fourth year.
The sockeye-pack in the State of Washington waters of the Fraser system totalled 97,594
cases. It was 52,921 cases more than in 1926 and 50,192 cases more than in the preceding fourth
year.
The combined pack of sockeye in Provincial and Washington waters of the Fraser system in
1927 totalled 158,987 cases, the largest since 1917. It was 100 per cent, greater than four years
ago. In this connection it is interesting to note that the present runs of sockeye to the Fraser
River system now enter those waters much later in the seeason than was formerly the case.
The following statement gives the approximate weekly pack of sockeye taken from the British
Columbia waters of the Fraser River system for the year 1927:—
Approximate Weekly Pack of Soclceyc, Fraser River, 1927.*
Week ending. Gases.
July 23   13,000
July 30      1,272
Aug.   6      1,832
Aug. 13      2,648
Aug. 20      3,261
Aug. 27      4,866—Cases packed up to Aug. 27  15,179
Sept.   3      6,824
Sept. 10      5,192
Sept. 17   13,490
Sept. 24     8,996
Oct.    1      2,986
Oct.    8     4,177
Oct.   15      2,587
Oct.   22        954
Oct.   29      1,008—Cases packed from Aug. 27 to Oct. 29   46,214
Total cases  61,393 Total cases  61,393
The foregoing tabulation shows that but 15,179 cases, or close to 25 per cent, of the total
pacli of sockeye from Provincial waters of the Fraser River system, consisted of fish taken up to
August 27th. The September pack was 34,502 cases, or 58 per cent., and the October pack
11,712 cases, or 19 per cent. Records up to 1914 show that the bulk of the sockeye-pack in
Provincial waters of the system was made in July and August; that comparatively few cases
were packed in September, and none in October.
Data showing by weeks the pack of sockeye taken in the State of Washington waters of
the Fraser River system in recent years are not obtainable. It is, however, well known that up
to 1914 the bulk of the catches were made in July and August and that comparatively few cases
were packed at a later period.
This was due to the fact that in the earlier years the market was limited and the canners
were able to meet demands with cans filled from the early run, and because the early-run fish
were in better condition. When the early runs became depleted and finally almost destroyed it
became necessary to draw on the late-running fish to supply the increased demand. As stated,
up to 1913 most of the canners on the United States side of the line pulled oat their traps in
August. Up to that period there was little demand for pinks and chums. With the war's
development of a market for the latter the traps have been operated until late in the fall, with
the result that they have drawn heavily on the late runs of sockeye.   And that is true of the
* Including pack at Esquimalt of fish caught in Juan de Fuca Strait. N 8 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
Fraser fishery in British Columbia waters. Furthermore, the hatcheries on the Fraser, with
the exception of the one on the Birkenhead, at the head of the Harrison-Lillooet Lakes section,
being no longer able to secure sockeye-eggs from the waters above Hell's Gate, have drawn
exclusively upon the Pitt and Cultus Lake runs for eggs. Since 1913 the hatcheries, with the
exception already noted, have been propagating eggs collected from the sockeye which entered
the Fraser in late September and in October and November, and some eggs have been collected
in December.    The results of such operations naturally produce late-running fish.
The Skeena River.—The salmon-pack in the Skeena River District in 1927 totalled 187,716
cases. It consisted of 83,996 cases of sockeye, 19,038 cases of red and white springs, 26,326 cases
of cohoes, 38,768 cases of pinks, and 19,006 cases of chums.
In addition to the pack of spring salmon canned on the Skeena, 803 tierces of red springs
were tierced. The pack of sockeye was distinctly disappointing. The run of 1927 was derived
from the brood-years 1922 and 1923. It was 9,281 cases less than the pack of 1922 and 49,735
cases less than in 1923. The pack of 38,768 cases of pinks was the smallest recorded on the
Skeena for many years; it was 139,799 cases less than the average pack in each of the preceding
eight years. It was 91,317 cases less than that of its brood-year 1925. The catch of chums was
also the smallest since 1923. It was 25,981 cases less than the average of the last four years
and 69,387 cases less than in 1926.
Rivers Inlet.—The salmon-pack in the Rivers Inlet District in 1927 totalled 69,773 cases,
consisting of 65,269 cases of sockeye, 2,094 cases of cohoes, 671 cases of pinks, 1,122 eases of
chums, and 508 cases of springs. The sockeye-pack of 65,269 cases should be compared with those
of its brood-years 1922 and 1923. It exceeded the former by 15,381 cases and was 47,885 cases
less than the latter. It wras 15,487 cases less than the average of its brood-years. The catch
of al] other grades was, as is usual, very small.
Smith Inlet.—The salmon-pack made from salmon taken in the Smith Inlet section totalled
29,366 cases, of which 22,682 cases consisted of sockeye, 732 cases of pinks, and 2,605 cases of
chums. Up to last year pack statements have not shown the pack of this section separately, the
pack having been credited to the Rivers Inlet District; hence dependable comparisons with
previous years cannot be made.
The Nass River.—The salmon-pack in the Nass River District totalled 39,828 cases, much
the smallest pack made there in the last twelve years. It consisted of 12,026 cases of sockeye,
3,824 cases of springs, 3,966 cases of cohoes, 16,609 cases of pinks, and 3,307 cases of chums.
Vancouver Island.—The salmon-pack on Vancouver Island totalled 373,463 cases. It was
the largest recorded on the Island. It consisted of 24,838* cases of sockeye, 6,769 cases of
springs, 58,834 cases of cohoes, 52,561 cases of pinks, 220,270 cases of chums, and 10,149 cases
classed in pack statements as " bluebacks." With demands for pinks and chums the salmon-
catch of Vancouver Island.shows a notable increase.
Queen Charlotte Islands District.—The catch of salmon in the Queen Charlotte Islands
produced a pack of but 109,889 cases, consisting of 102,374 cases of chums, 4,845 cases of cohoes,
2,060 cases of springs, and 329 cases of sockeye. The total pack was the second smallest made
in this district in the last sixteen years. The pack for each of the last four years is as follows:
1923, 352,839 ;  1924, 408,934 ;  1925, 522,756;  and 1926, 844,114.
Outlying Districts.—The salmon-pack in outlying districts totalled 266,221 cases, of which
37,522 cases contained sockeye, 5,411 red and white springs, 39,598 cohoes, 35,474 pinks, and
147,251 chums.
REPORTS FROM SALMON-SPAWNING AREAS OF THE PROVINCE.
During the year 1927 the Department again inspected the salmon-spawning areas of the
Fraser and Nass Rivers and Rivers and Smith Inlets. Unfortunately, Fishery Overseer Gibson,
who has for some years annually inspected the spawning areas of the Skeena, was taken ill on
the eve of his departure and, being laid up for several weeks, was unable to make an inspection.
The following is a brief summary of the spawning-bed reports, which will be found in full
in the Appendix of this report:—
The Fraser River.—The inspection of the spawning-beds of the Fraser River was again made
by Mr. Babcock, his twenty-fifth annual inspection.
* The catch of sockeye by the traps in Juan de Fuca Strait and packed at Esquimalt is here credited
to the Fraser River District, since they were taken from the run to thafriver. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 9
As in previous years, the inspections of the spawning areas of the Fraser River basin were
made in August, September, October, and November. Mr. Babcock says: " I saw and heard of
fewer sockeye in the spawning area of the Fraser basin above Hell's Gate Canyon in August and
September of this year than in any other of the preceding twenty-four years in which I have
hunted there for them in those months. It was like hunting for a needle in a haystack. In most
of the lakes in the Upper Fraser basin—which includes Stuart, Fraser, Francois, Quesnel, Seton,
Anderson, and Shuswap—visited in August and September, I did not see or hear of more than
a few hundred sockeye in any of them."
Reports made to Major Motherwell indicate that a few thousand sockeye spawned in the
Horsefly River, a tributary of Quesnel Lake, in October, but sockeye were not reported as having
been seen in any other tributary of that great lake during the season. In this connection,
Mr. Babcock states that it should be noted that in the big years, when the Fraser produced more
sockeye than any other river in the world, the runs of sockeye to the Upper Fraser basin were
always greatest in August and September and that, with the exception of Seton, Anderson, and
Shuswap Lakes, comparatively few sockeye reached there after September. So few sockeye have
reached the upper lake section of the Fraser since 1913 that it is being forgotten what vast
numbers spawned in the tributaries and on the gravelled shoals of the great lakes in the big
years, and that up to 1906 a considerable number spawned in them in the lean years. It should
be remembered that over 4,000,000 sockeye were noted as they entered Quesnel Lake in 1909,
and that the number which reached Chilko Lake that year was approximately as great. Even in
1913, the year of the disastrous blockade in Hell's Gate Canyon, over 550,000 sockeye were
counted as they entered Quesnel Lake in August, and the reports of that year indicate that as
great a number reached both Chilko and Shuswap Lakes. In view of the foregoing records it
is apparent that there is little warrant for terming a run of a few thousand fish to any of those
lakes as " a good run," or to forecast a good run from their spawning. There can be no considerable return four years hence from the sockeye which spawned in Quesnel, Chilko, Stuart,
Fraser, Francois, Seton, or Anderson Lakes in 1927.
Referring to the sockeye run to the Shuswap Lake section in 1927, Mr. Babcock states that
no sockeye are known to have reached Shuswap area in August and September. However, a
considerable number made their appearance in Little and Adams Rivers about the middle of
October. The waters in both rivers, were much higher than in 1926, with the result that the
fish were more widely scattered and it was more difficult to form an estimate of their numbers.
The opinion is, however, expressed that their numbers were less than in 1926 and that approximately 100,000 spawned there this year. The fish seen there were strictly of the upper river-
basin type—the type which formerly spawned in vast numbers in all the great lakes of the
Fraser above Hell's Gate. The females were nearly as highly coloured as the males. They were
much more highly coloured than any of the sockeye which spawned in the Birkenhead, at the
head of the Harrison-Lillooet Lakes section, and they were very much larger and far more
highly coloured than any of the sockeye which spawned in Cultus, Morris, or Pitt Lakes, or any
other area in the Lower Fraser. In this connection it is recalled that in Dr. Gilbert's report
for 1918, referring to the fish-lakes of the lower basin, it is stated that " we affirm without
qualification that they are as distinctly populated as though located in separate streams independently entered from the sea."
Mr. Babcock states that, notwithstanding the belief that very few sockeye spawned in the
Shuswap or any other area of the Fraser above Hell's Gate four years ago, he is of the opinion
that the fish seen in Adams and Little Rivers in 1927 were the product of fish which spawned in
the upper river-basin four years ago.
Referring to conditions in Hell's Gate Canyon in the Fraser River, Dominion Officer Scott
is quoted as having reported to Major Motherwell that very few sockeye were seen there in
July and August, and that but a limited number were seen there in September, but that a
considerable number reached there early in October and passed through without delay.
Presumably the latter were the fish that were later noted in Adams and Little Rivers, Shuswap
area. Officer Scott reported that a very large number reached the Gate on October 25th, but
that water conditions were unfavourable and that many of the fish, which appeared in njood
condition, either had no inclination to or were not strong enough to pass above the Gate.
That some of them did pass through the Gate at that time is evidenced by the fact that sockeye
in numbers were seen shortly afterwards in both the Fraser and the Thompson above Lytton. N 10 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
What became of the fish of the late October run that are supposed not to have passed through
is problematical, as no dead were observed at the Gate or below it, and no dead or living fish
were seen passing down-stream. Where the sockeye that passed through Hell's Gate late in
October and in November, and which were seen in the Fraser and Thompson above Lytton,
spawned is also unknown, notwithstanding that Provincial and Dominion officers tried to locate
them.
The early run of sockeye to the Birkenhead River, at the head of the Harrison-Lillooet Lakes
section, was distinctly disappointing—the smallest September run in years. Some uneasiness
was felt until October, when a good run of fish began, equal in number to those which have
spawned in that section for many years. The Birkenhead is the only section in the Fraser River
basin where the run of sockeye shows no sign of diminishing. The egg collection there totalled
37,000,000 and the beds were abundantly seeded naturally.
The Skeena River.—Notwithstanding that Fishery Officer Gibson, who has for years
annually inspected the spawning-beds of the Skeena basin, was through illness prevented from
doing so this year, the Department has, through Major Motherwell, been supplied with information that shows that the sockeye runs to all the tributaries of Babine Lake, the main spawning
area of the Skeena, were as abundant as in recent years. The fish were some ten days later in
arriving than usual and ran some fifteen days later. The hatchery made the usual collection
of eggs. The sockeye run to Lake Lakelse was very disappointing—not up to the average and
not sufficient to warrant any considerable return from this year's spawning. The egg collection
there totalled but 3,500,000, as against 15,000,000 in 1926. The collection in that year, however,
was some 4,000,000 larger than usual.
Rivers Inlet.—The inspection of the sockeye-spawning area of the Rivers Inlet run was again
made by Fishery Officer A. W. Stone. He reports a very satisfactory seeding. With a few
exceptions he found a greater number of sockeye in all the tributaries than in either of the
brood-years 1922 and 1923 of this year's run.
Smith Inlet.—Fishery Officer Stone again inspected the spawning area of the Smith Inlet
run. In his report he states that the catch from the run was larger than in either of the
brood-years 1922 and 1923 and that the escapement which reached the spawning area in 1927
was as good if not better than in either of those years. This is the more remarkable because
of the fact that not less than 550 gill-nets were employed, 50 per cent, more than in either 1922
or 1923. After inspecting the spawning area Officer Stone expresses the opinion that the
spawning this year should produce as great a return four and five years hence as this year.
The Nass River.—The inspection of the spawning area of the Meziadin Lake section of the
Nass River basin was again made by Fisheries Inspector C. P. Hickman. It was his twentieth
yearly inspection. He reports that, on reaching the head of Meziadin Lake on September 10th,
very little evidence of an early run of sockeye was found on spawning-beds where in former
years he had noted considerable evidence. On some of these beds he could find no live or dead
sockeye, and no dead were observed on the lake-shores. On reaching the falls in the Meziadin
River, below the lake, he found a considerable run of sockeye that were in good condition.
They increased in number up to the 21st instant, on which date eighty per hour were passing
through the fishway.    The run ceased on the 25th.
By the use of a set-net in the Nass above the mouth of the Meziadin rt was demonstrated
that very few sockeye were passing up that stream; but nine sockeye were taken in the net in
the eight days it was set.
Mr. Hickman expresses the opinion that the spawning-beds of the Meziadin were poorly
seeded—that the late run was not large enough to offset the absence of an early run.
PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL.
The production of fish oil and meal in 1927 shows substantial increase over any former year.
The nineteen pilchard-reduction plants on the west coast of Vancouver Island produced 2,673,876
imperial gallons of oil, a gain over that of 1926 of 775,155 gallons, and 12,169 tons of meal,
a gain over 1926 of 4,221 tons. Whale reduction produced 437,967 imperial gallons of oil and
996 tons of meal. Herring and other fish produced 545,580 gallons of oil and 4,490 tons of meal.
Total fish- and whale-oil production, 3,657,423 gallons.
The reliable " Pacific Fisherman's Year Book for 1927 " gives the total fish-oil production
on the Pacific Coast in that year as 7,867,063 gallons. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 11
CONTRIBUTION  TO  THE  LIFE-HISTORY  OF  THE   SOCKEYE   SALMON.
The thirteenth contribution to the series of papers on the life-history of the sockeye salmon
issued by the Department, which is contained in the Appendix of this report, is contributed by
Dr. W. A. and Dr. Lucy S. Clemens. It deals with the constituents of the runs of sockeye to
the principal rivers in the Province in 1927. The present paper, together with those which have
preceded it, constitute one of the most detailed continuous records of any fishery in existence.
They cover the runs of salmon to Provincial waters for the last fourteen years. The following
is a brief summary of the present paper:—
In this paper it has been deemed advisable to adopt a modification in the terminology for
describing the age-classes comprising the sockeye runs to the various rivers. The terminology
adopted was instituted by Dr. C. H. Gilbert in a recent extensive publication on the sockeye
runs to Alaska, and Drs. Clemens have adopted it in their text and tabulations because of its
simplicity and also in order to make these reports easily comparable with the Alaska ones. In
the previous reports issued by the Department the various age-groups were distinguished at
maturity and the years spent in fresh water as " four-years-old, one-year-in-the-lake," or " five-
years-old, two-years-in-the-lake." In the new terminology these terms are used symbolically and
are as follows: 4o and 5 •—in which 4 and 5 represent the age of the fish and the 2 and 3 the
year of its life in which the fish left the fresh water. Fish which spend one year in fresh water
migrate in their second year; hence the terms " four-years-old, one-year-in-the-lake " and " 4 "
are synonymous. Likewise " five-years-old, two-years-in-the-lake " and " 5 " are synonymous,
and so on. That age-group known as the sea-type, in which the fish go to sea as fry in their
first year, are designated as 3  and 4 , according as they mature at the age of three or four years.
The Fraser River Sockeye Run in 1927.
In some respects the sockeye run to the Fraser River in 1927 was encouraging. The total
pack amounted to 158,987 cases, of which 61,393 cases were packed with fish taken in Provincial
waters and 97,594 in the State of Washington. The pack of 1927 was almost double that of
1923, from which it was largely derived. It is also to be noted that the increase is proportionately divided, in that both the British Columbia and the State of Washington packs are
doubled. The increased pack was accomplished by a larger escapement to the spawning-beds of
the Lower Fraser and, at least, tf> Shuswap Lake in the Upper Fraser basin. The run of 1927,
Drs. Clemens state, would appear to arrest the alarming decline in the runs of 1911, 1915, 1919,
and 1923 series.    An apparently disconcerting feature in this year's run as well as that of
1923 is the fact that the increase was made up largely of very late-running fish.    Large numbers
even appeared throughout October and November.
In view of the developments in the runs of the past two years it is impossible to predict
the extent of the run in 1928. The packs of the recent years in this cycle—namely, in 1916, 1920,
and 1924—have been slightly over 100,000 cases. There would therefore appear to be no reason
to expect a pack of less quantity than this, especially since the report of the spawning-beds in
1924 as given by Mr. Babcock showed that there had been an exceptionally good seeding in the
Birkenhead and fairly large runs to the Pitt and Cultus Lake areas.
The material for this year's study consisted of data and scales from 1,371 sockeye salmon
selected at random from April 20th to October 3rd and included in fifty-two samplings'.
Characteristically, the .4 and the 5 age-groups were predominant in the run of 1927, being
represented by 1,262 individuals, or 92 per cent, of the total of 1,371. No specimens three years
of age (grilse) were recognized in the collection of 1927.- Those four years of age totalled 1,159
and those five years of age 103. The data as to length and weight are given in. Tables II. and
III.    (See Appendix.)
The females in the 4 class slightly outnumbered the males. Their average lengths were
considerably greater than those of the past three years and very slightly less than those of their
progenitors in 1923.
In the 1927 run there were but fifty-two individuals in the 5 and the 6 age-groups, forty-one
of which were five years old and eleven six years old. The sea-type was represented by twenty-
seven individuals three years of age and thirty individuals of four years of age. Quite a
normal one.
Drs. Clemens point out that the foregoing analysis applies only to the early portion of the
run to the Fraser and that no means have yet been found to obtain samples of the late-running
sockeye. N 12 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
The Rivee s Inlet Sockeye Run of 1927.
In dealing with the sockeye run to Rivers Inlet in 1927, Drs. Clemens give the pack as
64,461 cases and call attention to the fact that in their report for 1926 they pointed out that the
indications were that the 1927 run would be composed largely of four-year-old fish, and that
this prediction was borne out, as the run of 1927 consisted of 83 per cent, of four-year-old
individuals and only 17 per cent, of five-year-olds. The average pack over the period of the
past fifteen years has been 84,000 cases, so that the 1927 pack is relatively small and probably
all that could be expected from the spawnings of 1922 and 1923.
. The Drs. Clemens do not find much hope for a large run to Rivers Inlet in 1928. The
escapement to the spawning-beds in 1918 was very poor and this was confirmed by the analysis
of the run in 1923, when the five-year-old fish formed but 24 per cent, of the run. A large run
of these fish cannot be expected in 1928. In 1924 there was an exceptionally good escapement
and that year the samplings showed that the four-year-old fish constituted approximately
44 per cent, of the catch. There should therefore be a fair return of five-year-old fish in 1928.
Data and scales from 1,224 fish were obtained from the 1927 run of sockeye to Rivers Inlet,
secured between June 29th and August 3rd. The various age-groups were represented as
follows : 991 individuals of the 4; group, 198 of the 5? group, 32 of the 5 group, and 3 of the 6
group. The average lengths of the four-year-old males was below that of four years previously,
while that of the females was slightly above. The average length of the five-year-old males was
exactly the same as that in 1922—24.2 inches. The average weight of the females of both the
four-year and the five-year-olds was considerably above that of their progenitors in both 1923
and in 1922. There was no significant change in the proportion of the sexes in the age-groups
in 1927.
The Skeena River Sockeye Run of 1927.
The pack of Skeena sockeye totalled 83,996 cases, somewhat below expectancy and may be
associated with the failure of the run to Lakelse Lake. The failure of the run to that lake
section cannot be accounted for and is puzzling in view of the fact that the reports from its
spawning-beds in 1922 and 1923 indicated abundant seedings.
As was anticipated, the four-year-old fish in the run predominated, amounting to 1,330
individuals out of a total sampling of 2,131 fish, or 62 per cent..
The run in 1928 will be derived from the seedings of 1923 and 1924. The packs in those
years were very large and the reports from the spawning-beds state that they were very large
and successful spawnings. These facts alone, Drs. Clemens state, would indicate a very large
return in 1928, except that in 1923 the five-year-old fish formed but 34 per cent, of the run and
in 1924 the four-year-old fish formed but 25 per cent, of the run. If, therefore,, the Skeena run
is composed of two distinct races, one maturing at the age of four years and the other at the
age of five, the run in 1928 should not produce a pack much in excess of 80,000 cases.
The percentages of the various age-groups in the run of 1927 are practically identical with
those of 1926—namely, 62 per cent, of the 4,o and 28 per cent, of the 52 group.
The total number of fish examined in 1927 was 2,131, in seventeen samplings from June 21st
to August 19th. In general the average lengths and weights of the various age-groups were very
slightly above those of their progenitors. The females again outnumbered the males in all
year-classes except the six-year-old class. Of the total of 2,131 fish examined, there were 937
males and 1,194 females.
The Nass River Sockeye Run of 1927.
The small pack of the year 1927, Drs. Clemens state, demonstrates most conclusively the
trend of the sockeye run of the Nass River. However loath one may be to acknowledge that this
run under present conditions is doomed, still the fact remains the same, and. can be interpreted
in only one way ; that is, instability and decline. Last year they called attention to a few signs
possibly indicative of a brighter future for this river, but they amount to nothing in view of
the run in 1927. The brood-year pack was large, 31,277 cases—the greatest with one exception
since 1916—and Inspector Hickman's report of the spawning-grounds in 1922 indicated a good
seeding, yet the pack of 1927 of 12,026 is the second smallest on record. If some explanation
for this and similar past occurrences could be found the outlook might be better. So far no
suggestion of the nature of the conditions which bring about such contradictory results can be
offered.    The futility of predictions from year to year is evident.    If expectations could be BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 13
relied upon, nothing but a very small pack can be looked for in 1928, both because the spawning-
beds were poorly seeded in 1923 and also because the brood-year pack was small. In connection
with the small run in 1927, it is interesting to note that when Mr. Hickman made his annual
inspection of the Meziadin watershed of the Nass River in September he found very few indications of there having been an early run. He saw no dead spent fish collected along the shores
or floating about Meziadin Lake. Apparently the run was very small and was practically fished
out, so that no appreciable number of fish was left to reach the spawning-grounds. True,
Inspector Hickman witnessed the arrival at Meziadin falls of a late run of large-sized sockeye,
but did not think it was sufficient to offset the failure of the early run.
The usual eight age groups were all present in the run of 1927. The 2,100 samples collected
at regular intervals from June 20th to August 15th comprise the material upon which this year's
analysis was made. In comparing the percentages of the principal age-classes of 1927 with those
of 1926, one sees considerable increase in the 5   class and a decrease in the 6   group, but, as
3 3   ° mi
Drs. Clemens pointed out last year, 1926 was unusual in having such a high percentage of older
fish.
In 1927, as in past years, the general averages in weights and lengths of the Nass run have
been maintained. The maintenance of size is a racial characteristic and is not true of the runs
of other river systems, in which a noticeable reduction in size occurs from year to year. Another
racial characteristic of the Nass run is noted. The size of the fish seems to be directly linked
with age; for instance, the smallest fish are three years old and the largest are seven, with
the intermediate sizes arranged according to increasing age. In the Fraser, Skeena, and Rivers
Inlet size apparently is not related to age, but to the number of years spent feeding at sea.
For example, all Fraser fish having lived three years in the ocean are approximately the same
in size, and similarly those having had four years of sea-life are of almost identical size. The
average length of the 5 's of the 1927 Fraser fish is low and looks like an exception, but it is
probably due to the fact that nineteen fish only were available for the basis of the average.
Additional evidence is afforded, by Tables XXVI. and XXVIL, of the close relation between size
and age in fish of the Nass. The average lengths and weights of the principal age-groups for
the last nine years are tabulated according to age, and we find the corresponding size correlation;
that is, generally speaking, the youngest fish are the smallest and the oldest are the largest.
Drs. Clemens note that it is interesting to find year after year that, in spite of its instability
and complexity, the Nass run exhibits remarkable uniformity in the seasonal succession of the
various age-groups; 5 is the dominant group and is present throughout the entire run, but with
varying intensity. Two other classes also found throughout the run are the 4,/s and 5 's. Their
maximum numbers occur during the second and third weeks of July. The sea-type groups are
found during the early part of the run and the six- and seven-year-old fish are present only in the
latter weeks of the run.
Referring to the Meziadin and Bowser Lake sockeye colonies in the Nass run, Drs. Clemens
note that in September, according to the usual custom, Inspector Hickman gathered sockeye
material from the falls of the Meziadin and from the Nass above the junction with the former.
As was the case in 1926, although the Nass above the junction was fished with a set-net
continuously for eight days, only a very small number of sockeye were taken. The data thus
obtained are so very small in amount that a comparison between the two colonies is hardly
warranted. However, Tables XXX. and XXXI. support one claim of difference between the
two—that is, that the Meziadin fish are larger than the Bowser—and it is interesting to again
note that this year these large late-running and older fish are especially associated with
Meziadin Lake, for none of them were netted in the Nass above the junction. If Bowser Lake
is an important spawning area of the Nass it must be for the early, and not the late, run fish.
There appears, Drs. Clemens state, to be two general tendencies in the sockeye runs to the
river systems of the Province. The first is a gradual reduction in the average size of the fish,
especially marked in the case of the Fraser fish, but not evident in the Nass runs. This condition
may have been brought about by the selective action of the gear used, since up to this time a
regulation has been in force prohibiting the use of nets of smaller mesh than 5% inches.
Reports from spawning-beds generally have indicated the presence of large numbers of small
males, which doubtless had passed through the nets. The restriction as to size of mesh will
be removed after 1928. If smaller mesh is used thereafter the smaller fish—mainly males—
should be generally reduced in numbers.    However, the capture of a greater proportion of the undersized fish will mean a smaller average size in the records in coming years and a new series
of data will be recorded. A second tendency in the sockeye runs is toward the development of
late runs, again particularly pronounced in the case of the Fraser River. It appears that the
late-running fish are little, if any, interfered with by fishing operations and that they are
gradually increasing in numbers.
In concluding their report, which was filed May 1st, 1928, Drs. Clemens state that " We
cannot bring this paper to a conclusion without reference to the untimely death of Dr. Charles H.
Gilbert.* He will always be remembered as the pioneer worker in the sockeye-salmon investigations in British Columbia. To his detailed, laborious studies over a period of years—1912 to
1925, inclusive—we owe almost entirely our present knowledge of the life-history of the sockeye
of our waters. He instituted and developed this series of annual reports of the runs to our
principal salmon-streams. These studies constitute one of the most detailed continuous records
of any fishery in existence. All of his reports are storehouses of most valuable knowledge, for
to this work Dr. Gilbert brought his keen intellect and his broad biological training. His death
is indeed a great loss and one which will be felt by all who are interested in the conservation
of the salmon of the Pacific Coast."
The entire text of Drs. Clemens's paper, together with its thirty-one tabulations, is reproduced in the Appendix of this report. It is a most valuable addition to the series which have
been issued annually by the Department since 1912.
THE HALIBUT INVESTIGATION.
During the months of November and December, 1924, the International Fisheries Commission,
created by the Halibut Treaty exchanged between Canada and the United States for the investigation of the life of the Pacific halibut and the condition of that fishery, held public meetings
in Prince Rupert and Vancouver, as well as in Ketchikan and Seattle, in order to place before
those interested in the industry the essential facts developed by its investigation, and that all
interested might present to the Commission their views as to the measures which they deemed
desirable for the conservation of the fishery.
At these meetings the Commission presented the character and drift of the evidence that
had been collected and which was being considered in the drafting of the report which the
Commissioners proposed to submit to the Canadian and United States Governments early in 1928.
The evidence disclosed by the Commissioners, like that developed by the Provincial investigations in 1914-16, showed an alarming depletion on all the halibut banks of the eastern North
Pacific, and especially on the banks south and east of Cape Ommaney, in South-eastern Alaska,
which includes all the banks off the British Columbia Coast. It was shown that, while the total
catch of halibut by the Canadian and United States vessels as a whole is fairly well maintained,
with production in 1927 10,000,000 lb. less than the high record of 1915, on all the frequented
banks an alarming depletion has taken place and still continues at a rapid rate. The catch has
been kept up only by a marked increase in the number of vessels and men engaged and in the
intensity of fishing. The annual catch per skate of gear shows an amazing decline. The
situation in a general way has been recognized for some time by those engaged in the industry.
It was at their desire that the present treaty was exchanged and the present investigation
undertaken—that the facts might be determined and measures adoped to correct depletion.
At these meetings it was shown that the first aim of the Commission has been to determine
beyond question the actual condition of the fishery; and, second, the conditions which must be
met in applying remedial measures, and the nature of such remedies. The Commission has by
every known statistical and biological method studied the past and present abundance of halibut,
fishing conditions, and the movements of the commercial fleets on all the banks from Oregon
to Behring Sea, as well as the migrations, racial differences, rates of growth, and spawning
habits of the halibut. Though highly scientific in method, the investigation has been conducted
along entirely practical lines and with a close adherence to facts and the avoidance of
unsupported theory or speculation.
The present condition on the banks has been disclosed largely through the study of
statistics, which include remarkably complete records of commercial landings for the past twelve
years, and by a digest of the logs of many fishing-vessels.    Such records conclusively show a
* Doctor Charles H. Gilbert, Professor of Zoology at Stanford University, California, from the opening
in 1891 to his retirement at the age of 65 in 1925, died on April '21st, 1928. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 15
general decline in the abundance on all the banks. The most striking examples of depletion are
found in the southerly areas, which have been fished for the longest period. The banks south
of Goose Island, off the northern coast of British Columbia, are so depleted as to be relatively
of little importance, whilst those of the banks off Yakutat, in Alaska, indicate depletion. The
situation there is so complicated by the effect of the closed season as to be open to discussion.
Comparing present conditions in Hecate Strait with those disclosed by the Provincial investigations of eleven years ago, it is shown that the catch per skate in 1906 was close to 450 lb.
In 1914 it dropped to 143 lb. and in 1926 was but 47 lb. per skate. Furthermore, the records
show an undiminishing rate of decline. A somewhat similar decline is shown on the Portlock
bank in Alaska.
The records of halibut landings in Prince Rupert of fish taken in Hecate Strait in the twelve
years for which data have been compiled show a marked decline which cannot be attributed to
the effect of the closed season from November 15th to February 16th, because there has been
a drop in every month of the year.
A further evidence of depletion of the halibut is shown by the increase in the percentage of
small and immature fish landed. This is particularly the case in the catches made in Hecate
Strait region. The catches from that area now include not only large quantities of " chickens "
under 11 lb. in weight, but also many " baby chicks " of less than 5 lb. each. Furthermore, the
statistics of the commercial catches by no means tell the whole story of the destruction of small
fish, because no record is kept of the large numbers of " baby chicks " that are fatally injured
by being " shacked off " the hooks as the gear is taken aboard.
At all the public meetings of the Commission it was emphasized that the purpose the
Commission had in mind was the desire to maintain the fishery without destroying the future
supply. The meetings throughout were largely attended, and marked by a spirit of harmony
and an earnest desire on the part of all concerned to co-operate with the Commission in designing
measures for the preservation of the halibut-fishery.
As stated, the Commission will file its first report early in 1928. The Province is represented
on the Commission by its chairman, Mr. Babcock. N 16 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS  TQ  THE  LIFE-HISTORY  OF  THE   SOCKEYE   SALMON.
(No. 13.)
By Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo,
and Lucy S. Clemens, Ph.D.
INTRODUCTION.
It has seemed advisable to adopt a modification in the terminology for describing the age-
classes comprising the sockeye runs to the various rivers. This terminology was instituted by
Gilbert* in a recent extensive publication on the sockeye runs of Alaska, and we are now
adopting it in text and tables because of its simplicity and also in order to make these reports
easily comparable with the Alaskan ones. In the past the points mentioned in naming the
various agegroups were age at maturity and the number of years spent in fresh water, as
four-years-old, one-year-in-the-lake, or five-years-old, two-years-in-the-lake. In the new terminology the points selected are the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the fish
migrate from fresh water. These are used symbolically as follows : 4' and 5 , in which the 4 and 5
represent the age of the fish and the 2 and 3 the year of its life in which the fish left the fresh
water. Fish which spend one year in fresh water migrate in their second year; hence the terms
four-years-old, one-year-in-the-lake and 4 are synonymous. Likewise five-years-old, two-years-
in-the-lake and 5 are synonyms, and so on. That age-group known as sea-type, in which the
fish go to sea as fry in their first year, are designated as 3 and 4 , according as they mature
at the age of 3 or 4 years.
1.   THE FRASER RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1927.
(1.) General Characteristics.
In some respects the sockeye run to the Fraser River in 1927 was very encouraging. The
total pack amounted to 158,987 cases, of which 61,393 cases were packed in the Province of
British Columbia and 97,594 in the State of Washington. Referring to Table I., it will be seen
that this pack is almost exactly double that of 1923, from which it was largely derived. It will
be further noted that the increase is proportionately divided, in that both the British Columbia
and the Washington packs are double their respective amounts of 1923. This increased pack
was accompanied by a large escapement to the spawning-beds of the Lower Fraser and at least
to Shuswap Lake, in the Upper Fraser area. The run of 1927 would appear to arrest the
alarming decline in runs of the 1911-15-19-23 series. An apparently disconcerting feature in
this year's run as well as in that of 1926 is the fact that the increase is made up largely of
very late-running fish.    Large numbers even appeared throughout October and November.
In view of the developments in the runs of the past two years it is impossible to predict the
extent of the run in 1928. The packs of the recent years in this cycle—namely, in 1916, 1920,
and 1924—have been slightly over 100,000 cases. There would appear to be no reason to expect
a pack of less quantity than this, especially since the report of the spawning-beds in 1924 as
given by Mr. Babcock showed that there had been an exceptionally good seeding in the Birkenhead and fairly large runs to Pitt and Cultus Lake areas.
The material for this year's study consisted of data and scales from 1,371 sockeye salmon
selected at random from April 20th to October 3rd in fifty-two samplings.
(2.) Age-groups.
Characteristically the 4 f and 5^ age-groups were predominant in the run of 1927, being
represented by 1,262 individuals, or 92 per cent, of the total of 1,371.    No specimens three years
* Gilbert, Charles H., and Rich, Willis H., 1927.     Investigations concerning the Red-Salmon Runs to the
Karluk River, Alaska.    Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish., Vol. XLIII., Part II.    Wash.
t See Introduction, above. LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON. N 17
of age (grilse) were recognized in the collections of 1927. Those four years of age totalled
1,159 and those five years of age 103. The data as to length and weight are given in Tables II.
and III.
It will be observed that the females in the 4^ class slightly outnumbered the males. The
average lengths were considerably greater than those of the past three years and very slightly
less than those of their progenitors in 1923. (See Table IV.) Because of an unavoidable
accident it was impossible to obtain the weights of the fish after August 27th, but the data up
to that time are given in Table III.
In 1927 there were but fifty-two individuals in the 5 and 6 age-groups, forty-one of which
were five years of age and eleven six years of age.
The sea-type was represented by twenty-seven individuals three years of age and thirty
individuals four years of age.    The occurrence was thus quite a normal one.
The data thus presented by the sampling of the run to the Fraser River in 1927 do not show
any unusual features. It should be pointed out again that this analysis applies only to the
early portion of the run. No means have yet been found of obtaining samples of the late fall-
running fish.
Table I.—Fraser River Packs, 1910-27, arranged in accordance with the Four-year Cycle.
B.C 1910—   130,432 1914—198,183 1918— 19,697 1922— 51,832 1926— 85,689
Wash  248,014 338,230 '50,723 48,566 44,673
Total  398,446 533,413 70,420 100,398 130,362
B.C 1911—     58,487 1915— 91,130 1919— 38,854 1923— 31,'655 1927— 61,393
Wash  127,761 64,584 '64,346 47,402 97,594
Total  186,248 155,714 103,200 79,057 158,987
B.C 1912—   123,879 1916— 32,146 1920— 48,399 1924— 39,743
Wash  184,680 84,637 62,654 69,369
Total  308,5159 116,783 111,053 109,112
B.C 1913—   719,796 1917—148,164 1921— 39,631 1925— 35,385
Wash  1,673,099 411,538 102,967 112,023
Total  2,392,895 559,702 142,598 147,408 N 18
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
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i_r
tt
CO
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T-
rH N 20 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
Table IV.—Average Lengths, Fraser River Sockeyes, of the Age-group 4o,
for a Term of Years.
Males. Females.
Average lengths for five years prior to 1919  25.0 24.1
Lengths in 1919 ,  24.1 22.8
Lengths in 1920  24.1 23.2
Lengths in 1921   23.7 23.0
Lengths in 1922   24.0 23.0
Lengths in 1923   24.3 23.3
Lengths in 1924   23.8 22.8
Lengths in 1925  23.5 22.9
Lengths in 1926  22.6 22.3
Lengths in 1927  24.1 23.1
2.   THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1927.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The 1927 pack at Rivers Inlet amounted to 64,461 cases. In our report on the 1926 run we
pointed out that the indications were that the 1927 run would be composed largely of four-year-
old fish, and this prediction has been borne out (Table V.). The 1927 run consisted of 83 per
cent, of four-year-old individuals and only 17 per cent, of five-year-olds. The average pack over
the period of the past fifteen years has been 84,000 cases, so that the 1927 pack is relatively
small, but probably all that could be expected from the spawnings of 1922 and 1923.
There would not appear to be much hope for a large run in 1928. The escapement to the
spawning-beds in 1918 was very poor, and this was shown by the analysis of the run in 1923,
when the five-year-old fish formed but 24 per cent, of the run. A large run of these fish cannot
be expected in 1928. In 1924 there was an exceptionally good escapement, and in that year the
samplings showed that the four-year-old fish constituted approximately 44 per cent, of the catch.
There should therefore be a fair return of these fish in 1928.
' (2.) Age-groups.
Data and scales were obtained from 1,224 fish taken in twelve samplings from June 29th
to August 3rd. The various age-groups were represented as follows: 991 individuals of the
42 group, 198 of the 52 group, 32 of the 5   group, and 3 of the 6   group (Tables VI. and VII.).
The average lengths of the four-year-old males was below that of four years previously,
while that of the females was slightly above. The average lengths of the five-year-old males
was exactly the same as that in 1922 (Table VIII.).
The average weights of the females of both the four-year and five-year-olds was considerably above that of their progenitors in 1923 and 1922 respectively (Table IX.).
(3.) Distribution op the Sexes.
There is no significant change in the proportion of the sexes in the age-groups. The four-
year-old males outnumber the four-year-old females and the five-year-old females outnumber the
five-year-old males. Since the five-year-old fish were comparatively few in numbers the percentage total of males was high—namely, 62 per cent.—and that for the females but 38 per cent.
(Table X.). LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
N 21
Table V.—Percentages of 4.
and 5   Age-groups, Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, in Runs of
Successive Years.
Run of the Year.
Percentage,
Four and Five
Years old.
Brood-year from which
derived.
1912 (112,884 cases)	
1913 (61,745 cases)	
1914 (89,890 cases)	
1915 (130,350 eases)	
1916 (44,936 cases)	
1917 (61,195 eases)	
1918 (53,401 cases)	
1919 (56,258 cases)	
1920 (121,254 cases)	
1921 (46,300 cases)	
1922 (60,700 cases)	
1923 (107,174 cases)	
1924 (94,S91 cases)	
1925 (159,554 cases)	
1926 (65,581 cases)	
1927 (64,461 cases)	
5 yrs. 79%
4 yrs. 21%
5 yrs. 20%
4 yrs. '80%
5 yrs. 65%
4 yrs. 35%
■5 yrs. 87%
4 yrs. 13%
5 yrs. 76%
4 yrs. 24%
5 yrs. 67%
4 yrs. 33%
5 yrs. 43%
4 yrs. 57%
•5 yrs. 54%
4 yrs. 46%
5 yrs. 95%
4 yrs. 5%
5 yrs. 51%
4 yrs. 49%
5 yrs. 18%
4 yrs. 82%
5 yrs. 24%
4 yrs. 76%
5 yrs. S6%
4 yrs. 44%
•5 yrs. 77%
4 yrs. 23%
5 yrs. 40%
4 yrs. 60%
■5 yrs. 17%
4 yrs. 83%
1907 (87,874 cases).
1908 (64,652 cases).
1909 (89,027 cases).
1910 (126,921 cases).
1911 (88,763 cases).
1912 (112,884 cases).
1913 (61,745 cases).
■ 1914 (89,890 cases).
.   1915  (130,350 cases).
■ 1916 (44,936 cases).
1917 (61,195 cases).
1918 (53,401 cases).
1919 (56,258 cases).
.   1920  (121,254 cases).
1921 (46,300 cases).
1922 (60,700 cases).
1923 (107,174 cases). N 22
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
Table VI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1927, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
F.
Total.
19	
19%	
20	
20%	
21...,	
21%	
22	
22%	
23	
23%	
24	
24%	
25	
25%	
26	
26%	
27	
27%	
28	
Totals	
Ave. lengths.
2
3
13
66
97
110
137
61
38
53
'39
17
10
3
1
670
22.1
2
8
19
48
74
62
60
28
10
321
22.4
11
7
11
17
1
1
3
8
16
14
22
22
16
11
7
4
1
72
126
23
24.6
24.2
22.5
23.2
2
3
16
76
122
16'2
217
138
140
112
82
59
48
22
15
8
1
1,224
Table VII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1927, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number op
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2%   	
1
5
36
136
139
83
66
59
■    '58 '
21
19
16
8
7
6
3
2
'5
2
22
43
•56
39
62
32
19
15
16
6
3
3
3
1
1
4
5
10
15
7
4
6
3
4
4
2
4
■      1
1
4
9
13
8
9
14
10
12
8
11
10
7
2
'6
3
1
3
3
4
4
2
1
3
1
1
1
2
1
4
1
....
1
1
1
1
3	
3%	
S
39
4	
162
4%	
191
158
5%	
129
6                    	
145
6%    .:.:.	
115
7         	
64
71/,     	
48
8           	
51
sy2    	
26
9       	
26
9%	
10    	
24
12
10%  	
11
11     	
13
11% 	
3
12      	
1
Totals	
670
321
72
126
23
9
3
1,224
Ave. weights
5.'3
io.S
7.3
7.6
5.7
6.8 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
N 23
Table VIII.—Average Lengths in Inches of Rivers Inlet Sockeyes for Sixteen Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912	
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.9
22.9
22.5
22.3
22.4
22.9
22.5
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.8
22.1
22.8
23.0
22.8
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
22.3
22.6
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.2
22.9
22.4
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.8
26.0
25.2
24.6
24.6
24.9
25.5
25.1
24.'6
24.6
1913	
25.2
1914..	
25.2
1915	
25.1
1916	
25.0
1917	
24.4
1918	
24.5
1919	
24.4
1920	
25.0
1921	
24.2
1922	
24.2
1923	
24.1
1924	
24.3
1925	
24.8
1926	
'24.6
1927	
24.2
Table IX.—Average Weight in Pounds of Rivers Inlet Sockeyes for Thirteen Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914	
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.3
■5.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
5.1
4.8
4.9
5.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
5.2
5.8
7.3
7.3
7.6
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.9
«.9
7.3
6.8
1915 1 .....
6.6
1916              	
6.7
1917  	
6.2
1918	
6.7
1919	
5.9
1921	
6.0
1922	
7.0
1923	
5.9
1924	
6.1
1925	
6.2
1926	
6.3
1927	
7.6
Table X.—Relative Numbers of Males and Females, Rivers Inlet Sockeyes,
of the h0 and 5^ Groups, 1915 to 1927.
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
Average percentages—
Four-year males	
74
75
74
79
74
65
66
71
74
66
63
68
Four-year females...
26
25
26
21
26
35
34
29
26
34
37
32
Five-year males	
40
42
49
45
48
38
3S
33
31
34
32
36
Five-year females....
60
58
51
55
82
62
62
'67
'69
66
68
64
Percent, total females-
45
52
'53
66
■58
49
51
61
62
50
41
51
62
Percent, total males    .
55
48
47
34
42
51
49
39
38
SO
59
49
38 N 24 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
3.   THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1927.
(1.)  General Characteristics and Age-groups.
The pack of the Skeena River District amounted to 83,996 cases. This was somewhat below
expectancy and may be associated with the failure of the run to the Lakelse area. The failure
of the run to this region cannot be accounted for at the present time, and is puzzling in view of
the fact that the reports from the spawning-beds in 1922 and 1923 indicated abundant seedings
(Table XL).
As was expected, the four-year-old fish predominated in the run, amounting to 1,330
individuals out of a total sampling of 2,131 fish, or 62 per cent. (Table XII.).
The run in 1928 will be derived from the seedings of 1923 and 1924. The packs in these
years were very large and the reports from the spawning-beds state that there were very large
and successful spawnings. These facts alone would indicate a very large return in 1928, except
that in 1923 the five-year-old fish formed but 34 per cent, of the run and in 1924 the four-year-old
fish formed but 25 per cent, of the run. If, therefore, the Skeena run is composed of two distinct
races, one maturing at the age of four years and the other at the age of five, the run in 1928
should not produce a pack much in excess of 80,000 cases.
The percentages of the various age-groups in the run of 1927 are practically identical with
those of 1926. (See Table XII.) Sixty-two per cent, of the run was composed of fish of the
4^ age-group and 28 per cent, of the 5   age-group.
(2.)  Lengths and Weights.
The total number of fish examined in 1927 was 2,131, taken in seventeen samplings from
June 21st to August 19th. The details of the examination are given in Tables XIII. to XVIII.
It will be seen that in general the average lengths and weights of the various groups are very
slightly above those of the progenitors.
(3.) Proportions of the Sexes.
The females again outnumber the males in all the year-classes except in the six-year-old
class.    Out of the total of 2,131 fish, there were 937 males and 1,194 females (Table XIX.). LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
N 25
Table XI.—Percentages of 4   and 5   Age-groups, Skeena River Sockeyes,
in Runs of Successive Years.
Run of the Year.
Percentage,
Four and Five
Years old.
Brood-years from which
derived.
1912 (92,498 cases)	
1913 (59,927 cases)	
1914 (130,166 cases)....
1915 (116,553 cases)....
1916 (60,923 cases)	
1917 (65,760 cases)	
1918 (123,322 cases)....
1919 (184,945 cases)....
1920 (90,869 cases)	
1921 (41,018 cases)	
1922 (96,277 cases)	
1923 (131,731 cases)....
1924 (144,747 cases)....
1925 (77,784 cases)	
1926 (82,360 cases)	
1927 (83,996 cases)	
o yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
'5' yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
43%
57%
50%
50%
75%
25%
64%
36%
60%
40%
02%
38%
59%
41%
69%
31%
82%
18%
24%
76%
19%
81%
34%
66%
75%
25%
47%
53%
30%
70%
31%
69%
1907 (108,413 eases).
1908 (139,846 cases).
1909 (87,901 cases).
■ 1910 (187,246 cases).
1911 (131,066 cases).
1912 (92,498 cases).
1913 (52,927 cases).
1914 (130,166 cases).
1915 (116,'553 cases).
-1916 (60,923 cases).
1917 (65,760 cases).
■ 1918 (123,322 cases).
. 1919 (184,945 cases).
. 1920 (90,869 cases).
1921 (41,018 cases).
1922 (96,277 cases).
1923 (131,731 cases). N 26
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
Table XII.—Percentages of the Principal Year-classes, Skeena River Sockeyes,
from 1916 to 1927.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1916	
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
02
62
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
'69
45
26
28
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
18
1917	
191S	
6
1919	
4
1920	
8
1921	
3
1922.....	
2
1923	
7
1924	
1
1925	
1
1926	
3
1927	
1
Table XIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1927, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
8
5
3
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
20%	
1
6
13
18
49
69
SO
120
108
74
36
17
3
11
48
109
172
187
124
62
17
'6
2
5
12
19
45
55
34
32
25
8
3
2
2
14
'25
65
63
67
61
32
15
5
1
3
8
18
17
21
13
3
1
1
2
12
24
26
21
10
2     .
1
1
3
2
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
3
2
3
1
21   	
6
211/.     	
24
22
69
22%	
175
23   	
291
23% -"■	
24	
24%                  	
342
361
287
25	
25%     	
223
166
26	
26%	
27   	
90
52
81
27%	
28	
28%	
8
3
2
Totals	
394
736
242
349
86
97
15
12
2,131
Ave. lengths	
23.9
23.3
25.7
24.8
24.1
23.5
25.2
24.9 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
N 27
Table XIV.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1927, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
5
2
5
3
e
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
31/,	
4
31
89
104
170
116
54
17
8
1
41
200
237
175
69
11
2
1
3
16
31
62
47
35
23
12
8
4
1
15
50
92
83
00
29
11
3
5
11
17
27
19
4
2
1
3
■28
36
20
2
2
1
1
3
5
3
1
1
1
1
6
2
2
1
4
4	
4%	
5	
5%	
80
348
468
529
6.-	
6%	
7	
71/0	
358
183
87
44
8	
8%	
9	
17
8
4
9%	
1
Totals	
1594
736
242
349
80
97
15
12
2,131
Ave. weights	
5.4
5.1
6.5
5.9
5.4
5.0
0.0
5.8
Table XV.—Average Lengths of Skeena River Sockeyes, 4   and 5   Age-groups,
for Sixteen Successive Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912	
24.6
23.5
24.2
24.2
23.9
23.6
24.1
24.3
23.8
23.8
23.6
23.7
24.1
23.6
23.8
23.9
23.5
22.9
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.2
23.1
23.2
23.1
23.3
22.8
23.4
23.3
20.4
25.5
26.2
25.9
26.2
25.5
25.9
25.7
26.2
,25.2
25.3
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.6
25.7
25.2
1913	
24.7
1914	
25.1
1915	
25.0
1916                                       	
25.0
1917	
24.7
1918 ,.	
25.0
1919	
24.8
1920....,	
25.3
1921	
24.2
1922	
1923 :	
24.5
1924	
25.2
1925      	
24.7
1926	
24.8
1927	
24.8
Table XVI.—Average Lengths of Skeena Sockeyes, 5   and 6   Age-groups,
for Twelve Successive Years.
Year.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Six-vear
Males.
Six-year
Females.
1916	
24.1
23.9
23.9
24.3
24.1
24.2
23.8
23.9
24.7
24.1
24.6
24.1
23.8
23.8
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.2
23.6
23.3
23.8
23.0
26.2
25.4
25.2
25.8
26.2
24.9
24.6
25.6
25.8
25.8
26.0
25.2
24.8
1917	
25.0
1918	
24.7
1919	
24.7
1920	
25 1
1921	
24 2
1922	
24 1
1923	
24.4
1924	
24 8
1925	
24 8
1926	
25 0
1927	
24 9 N 28
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
Table XVII.—Average Weights of Skeena River Sockeyes, 4
for Fourteen Successive Years.
and 5   Age-groups,
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914	
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.8
6.1
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.1
5.3
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.5
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.0
4.7
5.1
5.1
7.2
6.8
7.1
6.4
6.9
7.0
7.2
0.4
0.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.5
0.5
6.3
1915	
6.2
1916                                                    	
6.3
1917                          	
6.0
1918	
6.4
1919       .. .                                         	
6.2
1920	
0.4
1921.                                    	
5.7
1922	
5.7
1923      	
5.7
1924	
6.3
1925	
5.8
1926    	
5.8
1927	
5.9
Table XVIII.—Average Weights of Skeena River Sockeyes, 5   and 6   Age-groups,
for Thirteen Successive Years.
Year.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Six-year
Males.
Six-year
Females.
1915	
5.9
5.8
5.5
5.7
6.1
6.3
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.9
5.5
5.9
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.8
5.1
4.9
5.2
5.0
6.6
7.1
6.3
0.6
6.9
7.3
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.6
6.9
6.9
6.0
6.0
1916	
5.9
1917	
5.8
1918	
6.1
1919	
6.3
1920	
6.3
1921	
5.6
1922	
5.7
1923	
5.4
1924	
5.8
1925    	
5.4
1926	
6.2
1927	
5.8
Table XIX.—Percentages of Males and Females in each of the Different Year-groups,
Skeena River Sockeyes, in a Series of Years.
Year.
4
2
I
2
5
3
6
8
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912        	
54
69
60
55
70
65
63
53
41
44
52
60
50
57
40
45
46
31
40
45
30
35
37
47
59
56
48
40
50
43
60
55
42
47
47
45
43
48
46
46
37
44
41
37
43
42
43
41
58
53
53
55
57
52
54
54
63
56
59
63
57
58
57
59
56
65
61
52
43
50
52
56
46
45
48
47
44
35
39
48
57
50
48
44
54
55
52
53
54
58
56
45
41
43
53
40
46
47
49
56
1913 	
1914	
1915	
1916        	
46
1917	
42
1918        	
44
1919	
55
1920	
59
1921	
57
1922	
47
1923	
60
1924         	
54
1925..	
53
1926	
51
1927    	
44 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
N 29
4.   THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1927.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The small pack of the year 1927 demonstrates most conclusively the trend of the run of the
Nass River. However loath one may be to acknowledge that this run under present conditions
is doomed, still the facts remain the same, and can be interpreted in only one way; that is,
instability and decline. Last year we called attention to a few signs possibly indicative of a
brighter future for this river, but they amount to nothing in view of the run of 1927. The
brood-year pack was large with 31,277 cases, the greatest, with but one exception, since 1916, and
Inspector Hickman's report of the spawning-grounds in 1922 indicated a good seeding, yet this
pack of 1927 is the second smallest on record (12,026 cases). If one could find some explanation
for this and similar past occurrences the outlook might be different, for possible remedy might
be found. So far no suggestion of the nature of the conditions which brings about such contradictory results can be offered.
The futility of predictions from year to year is evident. If expectations could be relied
upon, nothing but a very small pack could be looked for in 1928, both because the spawning-beds
were poorly seeded in 1923 and also because the brood-year pack was small.
In connection with this small run of 1927, it is interesting to note that when Mr. Hickman
made his annual inspection of the Meziadin watershed in September he found very few indications of there having been an early run. He saw no dead, spent fish collected along the shores
or floating about Meziadin Lake. Apparently the run was very small and was practically fished
out, so that no appreciable number of fish was left to reach the spawning-grounds. At Meziadin
Falls, Inspector Hickman saw the arrival of a late run of large-sized sockeyes, but he does not
think it was sufficient to offset the failure of the early run.
(2.) Age-groups.
The usual eight age-groups are all present in the run of 1927 and are indicated in Tables
XXI. and XXIII. Two thousand one hundred samples collected at regular intervals from June
20th to August 15th comprise the material upon which this year's analysis has been made. There
is nothing of unusual interest to which attention should be called. Table XX. gives the percentages of the principal age-classes for each year from 1912 to 1927. In comparing the
percentages of 1927 with those of 1926, one sees considerable increase in the 5 class and
a decrease in the 6 group, but, as was pointed out last year, 1926 was unusual in having such
a high percentage of older fish. A glance at the following tabulation, in which the data of
Table XX. have been combined into three time intervals of five years each, shows that 1927
conforms rather closely to the general averages for the last five-year period, 1922-26.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1912-16	
1917-21	
11
13
11
22
15
7
62
65
77
5
7
1922-26.                        	
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
Except for the very small size of the run, that of 1927 is normal in all respects and a study
of it adds nothing new, but simply confirms the analyses of former years. The lengths and
weights are fully tabulated in Tables XXI. and XXIII. In 1927, as in past years, the general
averages have been maintained.    (See Tables XXII. and XXIV.)
This maintenance of size is a racial character and is not true of the runs of the other river
systems, in which a noticeable reduction in size occurs from year to year. Another racial
characteristic is brought out in Table XXV. In the Nass, the size of the fish seems to be directly
linked with age; for instance, the smallest fish are three years old and the largest are seven
years old, with the intermediate sizes arranged according to increasing age. In the Fraser,
Skeena, and Rivers Inlet, size apparently is not related to age, but to the number of years spent N 30
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
feeding at sea. For example, all fish having lived three years in the ocean are approximately
the same size, and similarly those having had four years of sea-life are of almost identical
size. The average length of the 5 's of the 1927 Fraser River fish is low and looks like an
exception, but it is probably due to the fact that nineteen fish only were available for the basis
of the average.
Tables XXVI. and XXVII. give additional evidence of the close relation between size and
age in fish of the Nass River. The average lengths and weights of the principal age-groups for
the last nine years are tabulated according to age, and we find the corresponding size correlation;
that is, generally speaking, the youngest fish are the smallest and the oldest fish are the largest.
(4.) Seasonal Changes during the Run.
It is interesting to find year after year that, in spite of its instability and complexity, the
Nass run exhibits remarkable uniformity in the seasonal succession of the various age-groups;
5 is the dominant group and is present throughout the entire run, but with varying intensity.
Two other classes also found throughout the run are the 4 's and 5 's. Their maximum numbers
occur during the second and third weeks of July. The sea-type groups are found during the
early part of the run and the six- and seven-year-old fish are present only in the later weeks
(Table XXVIII.).
(5.) The Meziadin and Bowser Lake Sockeye Colonies.
In September, according to his usual custom, Inspector Hickman gathered sockeye material
from Meziadin Falls and from the Nass River above its junction with the Meziadin. As was the
case in 1926, although the Nass was fished with a set-net continuously for eight days, only a
very small number of sockeyes were taken. This Bowser material is so very small in amount
that a comparison between the two colonies is hardly warranted. However, Tables XXX. and
XXXI. support one claim of difference between the two; that is, that the Meziadin fish are
larger than the Bowser. It is interesting to note again this year that these large late-running
and probably older fish are especially associated with Meziadin Lake, for none of them were
netted in the Nass River. If Bowser Lake is an important spawning area it must be for the
early, and not the late, rim of fish.
The second distinction between these colonies—namely, that the Meziadin population
remains longer in the fresh water than does the Bowser colony—is true as far as the data go,
but they are altogether too incomplete to make satisfactory interpretations.    (See Table XXIX.)
Table XX.—Percentages of Principal Age-groups present in the Nass River Sockeye Run
from 1912 to 1927.
Year.
Percentage op Individuals that spent
One Year in Lake.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Two Years in Lake.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1912 (36,037 cases).
1913 (23,574 cases).
1914 (31,327 cases).
1915 (39,349 cases).
1916 (31,411 eases)..
1917 (22,188 cases)..
1918 (21,816 eases)..
1919 (28,259.eases).
1920 (16,740 cases).
1921 (9,364 cases)...
1922 (31,277 eases).
1923 (17,821 cases).
1924 (33,590 cases).
1925 (18,945 cases).
1926 (15,929 cases).
1927 (12,026 cases)
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
2
2
10
1
6
2
2
13
4 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
N 31
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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
Table XXII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths of Principal Classes
from 1912 to 1927.
4o
8
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912 (inches)	
1913        	
24.6
24.1
24.6
24.0
24.5
23.4
25.0
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
24.9
24.9
23.3
23.5
22.7
23.5
23.3
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
26.5
25.6
26.1
25.9
26.4
25.5
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2   ,
25.9
26.1
25.3
25.1
24.8
25.1
25.2
25.0
24.7
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25.2
26.2
26.0
26.3
26.5
26.5
25.3
25.9
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.4
25.2
25.5
25.9
25.6
24.7
25.0
25.'8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
27.0
26.0
26.9
26.6
27.9
26.5
27.2
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
27.9
27.6
25.6
26.6
1914        „        	
25.6
1915        „        	
25.3
1916        „	
25.7
1917        	
25.5
1918        „        	
25.2
1919        „        	
26.7
1920       „        	
25.9
1921        „	
26.2
1922        „        	
25.9
1923        „        	
26.5
1924        „        	
25.4
1925        „	
25.4
1926       „        	
27.0
1927        ,,        	
26.5 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
N 33
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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
Table XXIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights of Principal Classes
from 1914 to 1927.
4
2
5
2
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914 (pou
1915 ,
6.2
5.6
6.0
5.3
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.2
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.5
5.2
5.4
3.4
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.4
■5.8
7.4
6.9
7.2
6.8
7.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.1
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
7.2
7.0
7.2
6.3
7.2
6.7
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.5
6.6
6.2
5.8
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.2
7.9
7.2
8.1
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
7.8
7.8
6.8
6.5
1916         ,
6.4
1917         ,
6.4
1918
6.7
1919         ,
6.7
1920        ,
7.0
1921         ,
6.6
1922         ,
6.6
1923         ,
6.8
1924         ,
6.5
1925         ,
6.3
1926
7.1
1927
7.0
Table XXV.—Nass, Fraser, and Skeena Rivers and Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1923, 1926,
and 1927, grouped by Number of Years spent on the Sea-feeding Grounds.
Age.
Nass.
Fraser.
Skeena.
Eivers Inlet.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3
Year 1923.
Three years at sea—
Inches.
23.1
24.3
26.2
25.5
25.9
27.2
Inches.
22.4
23.7
25.5
24.3
25.3
26.5
Inches.
23.0
24.0
23.5
25.5
25.8
,25.4
Inches.
22.6
23.0
22.7
24.2
24.1
24.3
Inches.
23.7
23.9
25.3
25.6
Inches.
23.1
23.2
24.5
24.4
Inches.
22.4
23.0
24.6
Inches.
4
5
4
One-year-in-lake type	
Four years at sea—
22.3
23.0
24.1
6
Two-years-in-lake type
Year 1926.
3
Three years at sea—
23.7
24.9
.26.1
24.5
26.1
27.9
22.3
24.1
25.3
24.0
25.3
27.0
23.4
22.6
23.2
25.4
24.6
25.5
22.5
22.3
22.4
24.6
24.0
23.7
23.8
24.6
25.6
26.0
23.4
23.8
24.8
25.0
22.8
22.9
25.1
25.6
4
22.9
5
4
Two-years-in-lake type    ..
Four years at sea—
23.1
24.6
6
Two-years-in-lake type
26.8
Year 1927.
3
Three years at sea—
23.4
24.9
26.3
25.6
26.3
27.6
23.5
24.2
25.9
24.1
25.2
26.5
23.4
24.1
21.7
25.1
26.1
25.3
22.2
23.1
22.0
24.5
24.6
24.6
23.9
24.1
25.7
25.2
23.3
23.5
24.8
24.9
22.1
22.5
24.6
4
5
4
One-year-in-lake type	
Two-years-in-lake type ,
Four years at sea—
22.4
23.2
5
6
One-year-in-lake type	
Two-years-in-lake type    ..
24.2
24.3 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
N 35
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THE COMMISSIONER OP FISHERIES, 1927.
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rH LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
N 37
Table XXVIII.-
-Number of Individuals of each Class of Nass River Sockeyes running
at Different Dates in 1927.
Date.
4
2
52
5a
63
%
\
\
\
Number of
Individuals
examined.
June 20	
3
4
4
7
9
12
16
17
9
24
14
9
'13
2
8
3
2
12
8
1
13
8
7
9
8
12
14
17
15
8
6
1
3
4
1
70
65
39
148
86
112
97
98
87
58
112
86
93
95
56
152
95
62
1
2
2
1
2
3
2
7
5
9
6
5
10
7
9
2
2
2
5
2
2
30
33
13
13
6
1
2
1
1
120
June 21	
113
June 24	
55
June 28	
.   182
July 1	
108
July 4	
129
July 8	
122
July 12	
122
120
July 19	
83
July 22	
161
July 25	
120
July 29	
119
120
64
175
113
74
156
147
1,611
71
4
2
9
.100
2,100
Table XXIX.—Percentages of Meziadin and Botvser Lake Runs, showing Different Number
of Years in Fresh Water.
Years in Lake.
No. of
Specimens.
One
Year.
Two
Years.
Three
Years.
Meziadin, 1922           	
13
2
6
40
33
18
16
27
22
80
84
76
93
94
60
64
79
80
'5>o
78
20
3
24
■5
3
3
4
18
10
Meziadin,  1923           	
63
160
43
Meziadin,  1927	
85
Bowser,  1922          * 	
15
Bowser,  1923	
Bowser,  1924	
41
34
45
Bowser,  1926	
Bowser, 1927	
11
9
Table XXX.-
-Average Lengths of the Meziadin and Bowser Lake Sockeyes for
the Years 1924-27.
Year.
Meziadin Lake.
BowsEtt Lake.
M.                 F.
M.
F.
1924    ....                         	
26.8
28.1
27.1
25.7
26.3
25.8
25.5
23.8
25.9
24.7
23.6
1925                                     	
23.3
1926	
24.8
1927	
23.7 N 38
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
Table XXXI.—The Lengths of Individuals comprising the Meziadin and, Bowser Lake
Runs in 1927.
Length in Inches.
Ndmbek of Individuals from
Meziadin Lake.
Bowser Lake.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3
1
5
13
7
5
3
2
1
5
1
1
2
11
8
6
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
22 %                  .           	
1
23%	
1
24	
1
24%     	
25    	
25%     .                                	
26	
26%	
27                     	
1
27%	
28   	
28%	
29	
■29 JA 	
Totals	
45
40
4
27.1
25.8
24.7
23.7
GENERAL REMARKS.
There appear to be two general tendencies in the sockeye-salmon runs to the river systems
under consideration. The first is a gradual reduction in average size of the fish, especially
marked in the case of the Fraser River fish but not evident in the Nass River runs. This
condition may have been brought about by the selective action of the gear used, since up to
this time a regulation has been in force prohibiting the use of nets of smaller mesh than 5%
inches. Reports from spawning-beds generally have indicated the presence of large numbers
of small males which doubtless had escaped the nets. The restriction as to size of mesh will
be removed after 1928. If smaller mesh is used thereafter the smaller fish should be gradually
reduced in numbers. However, the capture of these smaller fish will mean a smaller average
size in the records during the coming years and we shall be entering upon a new series of data.
A second tendency is toward the development of late runs, again particularly pronounced in
the case of the Fraser River. It appears that late-running fish are little, if any, interfered with
by fishing operations and they are gradually increasing in numbers. The situation merits
careful consideration.
We cannot bring this paper to a conclusion without reference to the untimely death of
Dr. Charles H. Gilbert. He will always be remembered as the pioneer in the sockeye-salmon
investigations of British Columbia. To his detailed, laborious studies over a period of years
we owe almost entirely our present knowledge of the life-histories of the sockeye of our waters.
He instituted and developed this series of annual reports of the runs to our principal salmon-
streams. These studies constitute one of the most detailed continuous records of any fishery
in existence. All of his reports are storehouses of most valuable information, for to this work
Dr. Gilbert brought his keen intellect and his broad biological training. His death is indeed
a great loss and one which will be felt by all who are interested in the conservation of the
salmon of the Pacific Coast. SPAWNING-BEDS OF FRASER RIVER. N 39
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE FRASER RIVER.
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit the following report of my twenty-fifth yearly inspection
of the sockeye-salmon fishing and spawning areas of the Fraser River, made during the year
1927 :—
The Catch in the Fraser River System.—The catch of all species of salmon in the Provincial
waters of the Fraser River system this year produced a pack of 284,378 cases, as against 274,951
cases in 1926, 276,855 cases in 1925, 212,059 cases in 1924, and 226,869 cases in the fourth
preceding year, 1923.
The pack consisted of 61,393 cases of sockeye, 18,453 cases of springs, 24,079 cases of cohoes,
102,536 cases of pinks, 67,259 cases of chums, and 10,658 cases classed in pack statements as
" bluebacks and steelheads."
The pack of sockeye was the second largest made since 1917. It was 24,296 cases less than
in 1926 and 29,738 cases greater than in the preceding fourth year. The pack of pinks—it was
a " pink " year—was 2,736 cases greater than in the brood-year 1925. The pack of chums was
21,206 cases less than in 1926 and the cohoe-pack was 2,668 cases greater than in the brood-
year 1924.
The catch of sockeye in the State of Washington waters of the Fraser River system in 1927
produced a pack of 97,594 cases, as against 44,673 cases in 1926, 112,023 cases in 1925, 69,369 cases
in 1924, and 47,402 cases in 1923.
The total catch of sockeye in the entire Fraser River system in 1927 produced a pack of
158,987 cases, the largest since 1917. It was 50,192 cases greater than in the preceding fourth
year.
The catches of sockeye made in Provincial waters of the Fraser River system in 1927 again
illustrated the tendency towards a late run. Of the 61,393 cases packed this year, 2,412 cases
were packed in July, 13,381 cases in August, 37,565 cases in September, and 8,035 cases in October.
Over 70 per cent, consisted of sockeye caught after September 1st. Before the sockeye run to
the Fraser was so depleted the pack was made from fish caught before August 25th, and comparatively few were caught later. Only in a few of the big years were sockeye in numbers taken
from the Fraser in September and October.
The Spawning Areas of the Fraser River.—As in previous years, the inspections of the
sockeye-spawning areas of the Fraser River basin were made in August, September, October,
and November. In addition to the information gained from personal observation, I am greatly
indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell, Dominion Chief Inspector of Fisheries in the Province, for
furnishing me copies of the spawning reports made him by his many assistants stationed at
important points in the Fraser basin, and I am also indebted to members of the Provincial Police
and to many white and Indian residents on the Fraser and its numerous lake-fed tributaries for
valuable information.
I saw and heard of fewer sockeye in the spawning area of the Fraser basin above Hell's Gate
Canyon in August and September of this year than in any one of the preceding twenty-four years
in which I have hunted there for them in those months. It was like hunting for a needle in a
haystack. In most of the lakes in the Upper Fraser basin, which includes Stuart, Fraser,
Francois, Quesnel, Seton, Anderson, and Shuswap, visited in August and September, I did not
see or hear of more than a few hundred sockeye in any of them.
The reports made to Major Motherwell indicate that a few thousand sockeye spawned in
the Horsefly River, a tributary of Quesnel Lake, in October, but sockeye were not reported as
having been seen in any other tributary of that great lake. In this connection it should be noted
that in the big years, when the Fraser produced more sockeye than any other river in the world,
the runs of sockeye to the Upper Fraser basin were always greatest in August and September,
and that with the exception of Seton, Anderson, and Shuswap Lakes comparatively few sockeye
reached there after September. So few sockeye have reached the upper lake sections of the
Fraser since 1913 that it is being forgotten what vast numbers spawned in their tributaries in
past big years, and that up to 1906 a considerable number spawned in them in the lean years.
It should be remembered that over 4,000,000 sockeye were noted as they entered Quesnel Lake in N 40 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
1909, and that the numbers which reached Chilko Lake that year were approximately as great.
Even in 1913, the year of the disastrous blockade in Hell's Gate Canyon, over 550,000 sockeye
were counted as they entered Quesnel Lake in August, and the reports of that year indicate that
as great a number reached both Chilko and Shuswap Lakes. Those which entered Quesnel and
Chilko in August of 1913 consisted of fish which passed through Hell's Gate during high water
in July before the blockade became effective, and those which reached Shuswap consisted of
fish that were assisted over the blockade late in the season.
In view of the foregoing records it is apparent that there is little warrant for terming a run
of a few thousand to any of those lakes " a good run," or to forecast a good return from their
spawning. There can be no considerable return four years hence from the sockeye that spawned
in the Quesnel, Chilko, Stuart, Fraser, Francois, Seton, or Anderson Lakes this year.
The Sockeye Run to Shuswap Lake Section.—As already stated, no sockeye are known to
have reached the Shuswap area in August and September this year. However, a considerable
number made their appearance in Little and Adams Rivers about the middle of October. In
company with Dominion Fishery Officer Shotton I saw them spawning in those waters on October
25th. The waters in both rivers were much higher than in 1926, with the result that the flsh
were more scattered and it was more difficult to form an estimate of their numbers. I formed
the opinion that the number there was less than in 1926—that approximately some 100,000 were
seen spawning there this year. The fish we saw there were strictly of the upper river type,
which formerly spawned in vast numbers in all the great lakes of the Fraser above Hell's Gate.
TEey were large, strong fish with carmine-red bodies and green heads and tails. The females
were nearly as highly coloured as the males. They were much more highly coloured than any
of the sockeye which spawn in the Birkenhead River, at the head of the Harrison-Lillooet Lakes
section, though they were about the same in size. They were very much larger and far more
highly coloured than any of the races of sockeye which spawn in Cultus, Morris, and Pitt Lakes,
or any other area in the Lower Fraser. In this connection it is well to recall that in Dr. Gilbert's
report of 1918, page 13, referring to the fish-lakes of the lower basin, he states that " We affirm
without qualification that they are as distinctly populated as though located in separate streams
independently entered from the sea."
Notwithstanding that it was believed that every few sockeye spawned in the Shuswap or
any other area in the Fraser above Hell's Gate four years ago, I am of the opinion that the
fish that we saw spawning in Adams and Little Rivers this year were the product of fish that
spawned in the upper river-basin four years ago.
Hell's Gate.—Conditions at Hell's Gate Canyon in the Fraser were under constant observation throughout the season. Dominion Fishery Officer T. E. Scott, who has been stationed there
since 1913, advised Major Motherwell that very few sockeye were seen there in July and in
August, that but a limited number were to be seen there in September, and that a considerable
number of sockeye reached the Gate early in October and passed through with no delay.
Presumably the latter were the fish that were later noted in Adams and Little Rivers, Shuswap
area. On October 25th Officer Scott reported that a very large run—" the largest run seen there
in some years "—reached the Gate. Water conditions were, however, unfavourable, and many
of the fish, which appeared in good condition, were not seen passing through—" either the fish
had no inclination to do so, or they were not strong enough." That some of them did pass the
Gate at that time is evidenced by the fact that sockeye in numbers were seen shortly afterward
in both the Fraser and the Thompson above Lytton. What became of the fish in this late October
run that are supposed not to have passed through the canyon is problematical, as no dead were
observed at the Gate or below it, and no dead or living fish were seen dropping down-stream.
However, Officer Scott reports that from the end of November to December 10th some thousands
of sockeye flsh which closely resembled those seen at the Gate entered and spawned in Kawkawa
Lake, a small lake near Hope. They differed notably from those which ordinarily spawn in that
lake in August and September. He had never known sockeye to enter that lake so late in the
year.    The number of females greatly outnumbered the males.
Where the sockeye spawned that passed through Hell's Gate late in October and November,
and which were seen in the Fraser and Thompson above Lytton, is unknown, notwithstanding
that Provincial and Dominion officers tried to locate them. They were not seen in either
Shuswap or Seton Lakes, or reported from any other lake section. SPAWNING-BEDS OF FRASER RIVER.
N 41
The Run to the Birkenhead.—The early run of sockeye to the Birkenhead River, at the head
of the Harrison-Lillooet Lakes section, was distinctly disappointing—the smallest September
run in years. Some uneasiness was felt until October, when a good run began and equalled in
numbers those that have spawned in that section for many years. The Birkenhead is the only
section in the Fraser basin where the run of sockeye shows no sign of diminishing. The egg
collections at the Birkenhead totalled 37,000,000 and the beds were naturally abundantly seeded.
All but in colour the sockeye which spawn in the Birkenhead closely resemble the fish that
have spawned in Adams and Little Rivers in each of the last two years—fine, large, well-
conditioned flsh.
I am indebted to Major Motherwell for the following statement showing the number of
salmon-eggs collected from the Fraser and other streams this year:—■
Salmon-egg Collections, British Columbia Hatchekies, 1927.
Hatchery.
Sockeye
Salmon.
Spring
Salmon.
Cohoe
Salmon.
8,550,170
7,800,000
3,860,000
3,301,500
37,000,000
5,249,000
20,649,000
3,526,000
5,000,000
1,134,000
525,000
Rivers Inlet	
Totals            	
94,935,670
1,134,000
525,000
Respectfully submitted.
Victoria, December 30th, 1927.
John Pease Babcock,
Assistant to the Commissioner. N 42 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE SKEENA RIVER.
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—With reference to conditions on the spawning-beds of the Skeena River this year, I beg
to forward the following information kindly supplied by the Hatchery Superintendents at Babine
and Lakelse Lakes :—
Babine Lake.—The sockeye run to all creeks in this area was good, every creek being well
seeded and up to the average in numbers. The fish were about ten days late in making their
appearance and the run lasted till fifteen days later than usual. The run to Hatchery Creek
was large in comparison to the average year. The fences were removed in this creek on
September 24th and the sockeye continued to enter the creek in numbers until October 15th.
The last sockeye were seen spawning on October 26th. Some 7,800,000 sockeye-eggs were
collected for the hatchery, of which 750,000 were planted in Salmon Creek, at the head of
Morrison Lake. Weather conditions were ideal during the spawning season, the water being
low, which ensures protection from freshets later. The run of pinks and cohoes was also good
to this area, a larger number of cohoes than usual being seen in Hatchery Creek.
Lakelse Lake.—The sockeye-spawning season in the Lakelse Lake District was a very
disappointing one. The total sockeye-eggs collected for the hatchery only amounted to 3,500,000,
nearly all of which were taken at Schullabuchan and Williams Creeks. The fish were much
later than usual in appearing off the fences. Spawning operations continued well into October
until a severe freshet washed away the fences, allowing about 800 fish to proceed to the upper
waters. Little results are anticipated from this natural seeding, however, owing to the many
severe freshets encountered later. Apparently there is no known reason for such a poor run of
sockeye and it would appear that something out of the ordinary has been responsible for such
a small return to Lakelse Lake District this season. The Dominion authorities have, however,
placed 6,000,000 sockeye-eggs in the hatchery, being forwarded from the South, which will
supplement to some extent the small natural collection of 3,500,000.
I have, etc.,
R. Gibson,
Constable i/c Port Essington Detachment. SPAWNING-BEDS OF RIVERS INLET. N 43
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF RIVERS INLET.
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my report upon the inspection of the Rivers Inlet watershed for the year 1927.
In my report for 1922, one of the brood-years from which this year's run of sockeye was
derived, attention was drawn to the unsatisfactory state of the head rivers, comprising the
Indian, Cheo, and Washwash. An improvement had been noted in 1923, but the combined
spawning of both years hardly warranted looking for a big return; yet such did happen, as
will be shown by the following, and is largely due to the measures adopted by the Dominion
Fisheries in planting eyed eggs from the hatchery and liberating the young fry into each
stream. That they were successful in the Indian and Washwash there is no doubt, since the
spawning-beds have been fully restored from the depletion which was all too apparent in the
brood-years.
In order to examine the rivers at the height of the spawning it was necessary to leave much
earlier than usual, so, making the necessary arrangements, we left for the head of the lake on
September 11th. Making camp, the examination of Indian River was undertaken first. It is
restricted in size, but makes up for this handicap by spawning-beds unsurpassed by any river
or creek on the lake. In the clear water, from the windfall near the mouth up to the falls about
half a mile distant, sockeye in a teeming mass covered every available foot of gravel. It was
indeed a wonderful showing of fish and equalled the big-year runs. In size they averaged about
5 to 6 lb., closely corresponding to tests made at the canneries in the beginning of the fishing
season, when the sockeye averaged fifteen to sixteen to the case. Males outnumbered the females
two to one.
The spawning-grounds of the Cheo River, which cover an area of 3% miles, did not contain
so many sockeye as on the Indian River, but nevertheless a fair run had taken possession of
the beds. They could be seen spawning on the gravel-bars above each riffle, and again in between
the log-jam and the falls.
The fish were small like those on the Indian, the males and females being aboujt equally
divided in numbers.    No obstructions impeded the movement of the salmon up-stream.
The Washwash River, lying over on the extreme right of the lake, was again in a deplorable
state of chaos. Windfalls and log-jams covered the lower portion in every direction; this,
however, did not prevent the sockeye reaching the spawning-beds above, as was evidenced by
the immense numbers depositing their ova on the gravel-bars to within a short distance of the
falls 2 miles distant. A big school of spring salmon had taken possession of the beds, all ranging
from 30 to 60 lb. in weight. The run of sockeye is a great improvement on the numbers which
returned in the brood-years and is an indication of the beneficial results obtained from the
egg-planting carried out for some years by the hatchery, and to which I have already referred.
In size they represented a very much higher average than those met with on the other streams.
Males outnumbered the females two to one.
There were no sockeye in the Sunday Creek or Sheemahant River, as it was too early in the
spawning season, so postponed the inspection until after my return from Smith Inlet. Weather
conditions were extremely unfavourable when I did arrive back and continually delayed the
inspection. The rivers were so high that it was impossible to accurately estimate the run, and
in some cases it was necessary to make repeat visits. The Dalley River, situated about 7 miles
from the mouth of the lake, and directly opposite Quap, contained a run of sockeye equal to the
fine showing of fish which returned in 1922-23; the gravel-beds up to the falls 4% miles distant
being covered with a living mass of sockeye. They were undersized fish averaging 5 to 6 lb., the
males outnumbering the females two to one.    This stream is free from all obstructions.
Crossing to Quap, indications outside pointed to a very big run of sockeye, but the water
was so high none would come into the river and the hatcherymen were compelled to wait
patiently until the lake had gone down. Going on to Asklum River, situated about 12 miles up,
it was satisfactory to note so many sockeye on the spawning-beds. The lower part of the river
near the mouth did not contain many fish, but the upheaval of the bars indicated abundant
spawning prior to my visit.    Farther up the sockeye were noted in large numbers, all in an N 44 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
advanced stage of spawning, males and females being about equally represented. In size they
were not up to the average. If the recent " freshet" had not uncovered the eggs from those
fish that had already spawned out, thereby causing considerable damage, the fine run of sockeye
manifest all the way up should result in a big return four and five years hence. No obstructions
impeded the movement of the fish up-stream.
The Machmell River, one of the largest tributaries of the lake, was in " freshet," and it was
necessary to wait until the river had gone down before attempting to cross into the " Nechants,"
which flows into it about half a mile from the mouth. When it was possible to examine this
stream, a big run of sockeye had taken possession of the spawning-beds right up to the rough
water, and favourable numbers were noted in the small creek adjacent. The run is composed
mainly of small sockeye averaging 5 to 6 lb. in weight, males outnumbering the females two
to one.
The recent " freshet" had considerably interfered with the collection of eggs for the
hatchery, as the high water rose above the fence at Jeneesee and permitted the greater portion
of the sockeye run to pass on to the spawning-beds above. Here they were seen in countless
numbers spawning right up to the falls. In the deep pools dense masses schooled up. It is one
of the best runs I have seen here and compares with the remarkable showing in 1922-23. Prior
to.the "freshet" the hatcherymen had obtained a fair collection of eggs—some 3,000,000—
otherwise their efforts would have been in vain, since few sockeye remained outside. Some
exceptionally large sockeye were seen in this creek, but the greater portion were small, the males
outnumbering the females at least four to one.
In 1922-23 very unsatisfactory results were recorded at the Sheemahant River, one of the
largest and most productive salmon-streams on the lake. In past years the Indians invariably
obtained their winter's supply of salmon from here, but in late years this has not been possible
and they have been compelled to seek other streams. There apparently appears to be no improvement, since few sockeye were to be observed as we made our way up the river. It was very
disappointing. What few sockeye were spawning on the gravel-beds were fine specimens of the
sockeye race, averaging 7 to 8 lb. in weight.    Males and females were about evenly distributed.
Sunday Greek did not fall behind this year, as was evidenced by the fine run of sockeye
which had taken possession of the gravel-beds. They were big fish and compared favourably
with those seen on the Sheemahant. Indians told me that they had been successful in catching
about 200 sockeye from this creek.
The Indians located at the smoke-house near the " Narrows " were catching a large number
of sockeye and cohoe from the fine run of flsh which had taken possession of the spawning-beds.
Large and small sockeye were intermixed, the males and females being about in equal proportions.
Returning once more to Quap River, I found that during my absence the hatchery crew had
completed the collection of eggs, obtaining altogether about 17,000,000. For a time it looked
rather hopeless, as weather conditions were so unfavourable, but with a lower temperature the
lake had gone down, rousing the waiting thousands of sockeye to a mad rush to the spawning-
beds. Caught in the pens, they were quickly spawned out, as high as 2,000,000 eggs being collected
in one day. When the hatchery was full, the pickets were taken out of the fence and the fish
allowed to proceed to the spawning-beds above. In making my way up the creek countless
thousands were seen making full use of the gravel-beds right up to the head. In deep pools
schools waited, even at this late stage still green. It is without exception the most prolific
salmon-spawning stream on the lake. Sockeye averaging 7 to 8 lb. predominated the run, the
males and females being about evenly represented. The spawning-beds at the mouth of the
Hatchery Creek and also those inside were alive with spawning fish, the male sockeye outnumbering the females two to one. In size they corresponded closely with the run at Quap,
averaging 7 to 8 lb. in weight.
The spawning-beds situated around the Indian rancheries and at the head of the Owikeno
River showed up just as favourably as they did in 1922-23. Indians located here had been able
to fill their smoke-houses sufficiently to meet their winter's need, and expressed the opinion that
it was one of the greatest sockeye runs experienced there for some time. It was only necessary
to make a short drift with their net and it was full. That they had not denuded the spawning-
beds of salmon was amply demonstrated by the countless numbers breaking water in all directions. Spring and chum salmon occupied the spawning-grounds lower down the river, especially
chums, which were spawning in very large numbers. SPAWNING-BEDS OF RIVERS INLET. N 45
In summing up the results of the inspection of the Rivers Inlet watershed, I am of the
opinion that, providing the exceptional, "freshets" which occurred frequently during the
spawning season had not harmed the spawning-beds by the continual scouring-out they received,
the fine run of sockeye observed on all the tributaries of Lake Owikeno, with the possible
exception of the Cheo, Sheemahant, and the Nechants, should produce a return equal in extent
to that recorded this year.
In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation for courtesies extended by Mr. L. Hogan,
Manager of the Rivers Inlet Cannery; to Mr. F. Tingley, Superintendent of the Dominion
Hatchery; and the men at the spawning camps.
Respectfully submitted.
A. W. Stone,
Provincial Fisheries Overseer.
Rivers Inlet, B.C., November 14th, 1927. N 46 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF SMITH INLET.
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my report upon the inspection of the spawning-grounds at
Smith Inlet for the year 1927.
In the brood-years 1922-23, conditions on the spawning-beds were reported exceptionally
good, and it was anticipated that, providing the eggs had not been damaged by the " freshets "
which occurred at that time, a very favourable run might be expected when the sockeye returned
as adults. In this case we were not disappointed, because not only did the canneries combined
put up a larger pack, amounting to about 25,000 cases, but the escapement to the spawning-beds
was as good if not better than that recorded in 1922-23. It may be said that this is not borne
out by the returns of each individual fisherman, whose average catch for the season was low.
In seeking an explanation the answer may be summed up as follows: An overabundance of
fishing-gear, consisting of no less than 550 gill-nets, or 50 per cent, over and above the fishing-gear
operated during the brood-years. The gill-nets were extended over a very wide area of water,
and each taking their toll, reducing the average catch to a low level. Such intensive fishing has
given pause for reflection, and the canneries and the fishermen are now seeking a method favourable to both, whereby the fishermen may increase their catches, at the same time curtailing the
enormous amount of fishing-gear in operation. The only solution is to cut down the number
of fishermen to a level commensurate with the supply. In the course of years the inspection of
the spawning-beds has demonstrated very clearly that there is a limit to the extent of the sockeye
runs each year, and only by stringent regulations enforced by the Dominion Fishery authorities
have the runs been kept up to the standard.
Leaving for the spawning-grounds at Long Lake on September 23rd, I made camp at the
head of the Docee River (the overflow to the lake), and commenced the inspection at this point.
Spring salmon in very large numbers were encountered all the way up and along the shore-iine
at the mouth of the lake. Intermingled with the springs, schools of cohoe were observed and
were so big that it was necessary to look closely to distinguish them from the springs. The run
of spring salmon is well up to the average of former years in numbers.
The small creek situated about 7 miles up from the mouth of the lake, and known as Quay,
contained a fair run of sockeye, and a few schools were noted spawning on the gravel-beds
outside.    They were small in size, the males and females being about equally divided.
Proceeding up to the Geluch River, situated at the head, I was again held up on account of
the extreme high water caused by the abnormal rainfall, and was compelled to wait until the
river had subsided. It is about 3% miles in extent and comprises the main spawning-beds of
the sockeye, especially the early run. When it was possible to inspect the beds, the thousands
upon thousands which covered them all the way up, coupled with the extensive numbers inside
the adjacent streams, showed clearly that the run equalled the spawning seasons of 1922-23.
Notwithstanding this favourable showing, there was ample evidence of a further run of sockeye
which later would enter the river. All along the shore-line at the head of the lake big schools
were seen swimming around waiting, while for a distance of a mile the lake was alive with
jumping fish. The males outnumbered the females at least three to one. In size they were
small, averaging between 5 and 6 lb. in weight. No log-jams or other obstructions impeded the
movement of the salmon up-stream. Skirting the lake-shore to the Delabah River numerous
small schools were seen at the foot of each small mountain stream.
The Delabah River, situated about 2 miles from the lake and about 1% miles in extent,
again showed productive seeding. The spawning-beds from the mouth up contained a run of
sockeye equal in extent to that recorded in the brood-years. This river undoubtedly receives the
later run of sockeye, since it is composed mainly of fish from 7 to 8 lb. in weight, or about 80 per
cent, of the run. Males and females were about equally represented. At the entrance to the
Delabah and along the shore-line of the lake, big schools were seen, all in the green stage, and
others breaking water in all directions.
Returning back to the mouth of the lake, cohoe continually broke water, indicating an
extensive run of this species of salmon to the spawning-beds later.   All other cohoe-streams SPAWNING-BEDS OF SMITH INLET. N 47
contained big runs of these fish, but pinks according to all reports were a failure. Chums were
coming into streams in large numbers, but, on account of the close season in effect, none were
caught.
In summing up the results of the inspection of the spawning-beds at Smith Inlet, there
should be no falling-off in the numbers which will return four and five years hence.
Respectfully submitted.
A. W. Stone,
Fisheries Overseer.
Rivers Inlet, B.C., November 14th, 1927. N 48 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE MEZIADIN LAKE DISTRICT
OF THE NASS RIVER.
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In obedience to instructions from the Department, I have the honour to submit the
following report on my annual inspection of the salmon-spawning areas of the Meziadin watershed of the Nass River:—
Leaving New Westminster on August 31st, I arrived at Stewart on September 3rd and there
met Mr. A. E. Young, who had again been deputized by the Department of Marine and Fisheries
to make the trip into the Nass in their interests. As in past years, we joined forces and, after
having engaged two suitable assistants for the trip and assembling our outfit, left Stewart by
pack-train on September 7th. The weather on the way in was very wet, which made the fording
of streams and glacier-crossing very dangerous. The British Columbia Government is building
a new high-level crossing over the glacier, which it is expected will be finished this fall. The
new trail will obviate the necessity of travelling over the moraine on to the glacier and will
make the pass much less hazardous in the future. Arriving at the head of Meziadin Lake on
Saturday, September 10th, we proceeded to put the canvas canoe together and patch up the holes
in order to make it seaworthy. Weather conditions were still unfavourable, a high wind
prevailing which did not permit of any lake-work being done on the 11th; however, it cleared
after the wind subsided and remained fine for several days. We then made a thorough examination of the sockeye-spawning beds at the head of the lake, also on both shore-lines for a
considerable distance down. There was a noticeable scarcity of salmon on these grounds, and
in places where usually a large number are congregated very few were to be seen; in many
instances the grounds were entirely barren. Those that were to be observed constituted a few
odd pair, and it was also noticeable that these salmon were of a late run. There was an entire
absence of sockeye in their red spawning livery, and no dead spent fish were to be seen floating
around or collected on the lake-shore, which plainly indicates that the early run of sockeye to
these spawning-grounds was greatly below the average.
After completing our examination at the upper end of the lake we packed the canoe and
proceeded down. There was no improvement to be found at Hanna River or McLeod Creek, and
no salmon were to be seen leaping in the lake. We reached Meziadin Falls in the evening and
made camp at the fishway cabin. On entering the cabin we found nearly everything of value
had been taken away, including a number of hand-made fish-net corks. There is no doubt but
that this is the work of Indian trappers who winter in the district, and it is to be regretted that
we are not able to leave anything in the cabin with safety, as we have to make everything new
in the way of nets for experimental work.
On September 14th we inspected the Meziadin River at both the upper and lower falls
and were pleased to note the arrival of a fresh run of sockeye. They were in splendid condition,
of large size, and were not any way in an advanced stage toward the spawning period. The
run improved daily, reaching its peak on September 21st. The number at this time passing
through the fishway was about eighty per hour and these conditions prevailed for several days.
At the time that we left the falls on our return journey, September 25th, the larger part of the
run had passed up, but there was still a fair number congregated below.
In taking observations of salmon below the fall and of their passing through the fishway,
it was noticeable that they display more activity in the late afternoon and in the evening.
There were a few early-run fish that had been trying to overcome the fall on the far side. These
were somewhat battered up and were now working over to the fishway and passing through
without difficulty.
Cohoe salmon were very late in arriving at the fall this season, the first making its appearance on September 23rd. Only a few were seen and we have no knowledge or indication as to
what the later run may be. In our net operations on the Nass River above the Meziadin we
caught the only cohoe on the 23rd, which corresponds with the first arrival at the fishway.
Sunday, September 18th, we inspected the spring-salmon spawning-beds below MeBride
Rapids in the Meziadin River. From observations taken at this place I should state that the
run of springs had not been as good as usual.    There were not many in the pools and little sign SPAWNING-BEDS OF NASS RIVER. N 49
of dead spent fish; those salmon that were on the beds appeared to be undersized. As usual,
hordes of trout were to be seen taking spring-salmon eggs. In the water below these rapids
for a distance of about 2% miles the river widens and makes a natural retaining-pond for young
salmon, there being very little current to induce the young fish to go out with the freshet, and
this probably accounts for the larger percentage of older fish on the Nass than is to be found
in other sockeye-rivers. Many young salmon were to be seen here, both fry and yearlings. Fry
were to be seen leaping in the deeper water, and at other times both fry and yearlings were in
the goose-grass, which no doubt affords them great protection from their natural enemies.
Upon our arrival at the falls cabin we made a new set of corks and hung a net for use in
the Nass River above the Meziadin River in an effort to intercept the salmon run farther north.
We had the net finished on the 16th and made a fine set in the main river. The net was fished
continuously night and day from September 16th until September 24th. The results were most
disappointing, our catch being very small, taking only nine sockeye and one cohoe; September
16th, 1 sockeye; 17th, 2 sockeye; 18th, nil; 19th, 4 sockeye; 20th, 1 sockeye; 21st, nil; 22nd,
1 sockeye; 23rd, 1 cohoe;  24th, nil.
The river was in such a favourable condition that we were able to get a good set with the
net during the whole time of our operations, and it is evident that had there been a good run
of salmon to the upper waters we would have had far better results for our efforts. In addition
to scales obtained from salmon caught in the main river, we took a considerable number from
below the falls on the Meziadin River.
The fishway and crib-work is in good condition. There was quite a large growth of vegetation between the logs in the crib-work; this we cleaned out, leaving it in good shape. There is
no sign of deterioration in the cement-work of the basins of the fishway.
After completing our work we left the falls on our return journey on Sunday, September
25th. Wet weather continued the whole of the time on the return trip, again making travel
dangerous and difficult.    We arrived at Stewart on September 29th.
In summarizing conditions on the salmon-spawning grounds of the Meziadin watershed of
the Nass River, I have to submit that they were of a very complex nature owing to there being
little evidence of an early run of sockeye and to the arrival in fair numbers of a late run of
large-sized fish which took place during the time of our inspection. I am of the opinion that the
spawning-beds will not be amply seeded, as the late run will not offset the lack of an early run.
Water conditions were extremely favourable, there being an abundance in all streams, with
the lake high.
The run of spring salmon was not up to the average and the fish on the grounds were undersized. Cohoe had not arrived in any appreciable numbers, only a few having reached the fishway
at the time of our departure.
Respectfully submitted.
C. P. Hickman,
Inspector of Fisheries.
New Westminster, B.C., October 18th, 1927. N 5C
REPORT
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c STATEMENT SHOWING SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE.
N 53
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OP   THE   PEOVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND  SPECIES,  PROM 1912 TO  1927,  INCLUSIVE.
Fkaser River.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
Sockeyes	
Springs, Red	
Springs, White	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Bluebaeks and Steelhead
Totals	
61,393
7,9'25
10,528
67,259
102,336
24,079
10,658
85,689
12,783
20,169
S8.495
32,256
21,783
13,776
35,385
7,989
23,701
66,111
99,800
36,717
5,152
284,378
274,951
I
276,853
39,743
2,982
4,648
109,495
31,968
21,401
1,822
31,655
3,834
4,279
103,248
63,643
20,173
13
51,832
10,361
6,300
17,895
29,378
23,587
817
39,631
11,360
5,949
11,'233
8,178
29,978
1,331
212,059
226,869
140,370
48,399
10,691
4,432
23,884
12,839
22,934
4,522
107,650      136,661
 I	
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916,
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
Sockeyes	
Springs, Red	
Springs, White	
Chums....	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Bluebaeks and Steelheads
Totals	
38,854
14,519
4,296
15,718
39,363
39,233
15,941
19,697
15,192
24,833
86,215
18,388
40,111
4,395
148,164
10,197
18,916
59,973
134,442
25,895
4,951
32,146
17,673
11,430
30,934
840
31,330
3,129
91,130
23,228
5,392
18,919
138,305
43,514
31
19S.183
11,209
15,300
74,826
6,272
43,504
719,796
3,573
49
22,220
20,773
16.01S
167,944
208,857
402,538
127,472
320,519
349,294
782,429
123,879
13,856
9,826
12,997
574
36,190
199,322
Skeena Rivee.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
83,996
19,038
19,006
38,763
26,326
582
82,360
30,594
63,527
210,081
30,208
754
81,146
23,445
74,308
130,079
39.168
713
144,747
12,028
25,588
181,313
26,968
214
131,731
12,247
16,527
145,973
31,967
418
96,277
14,176
39,758
301,655
'24,699
1,050
41,018
21,766
1,993
124,457
45,033
498
89,364
37,403
3,834
177,679
18,068
1,218
Totals
187,716
407,524
348,859
390,858
338,863
477,915
234,765
332,887
1919.
1918.
1917.
i
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
184,945
25,941
31,457
117,303
36,559
2,672
398,877
123,322
22,931
22,573
161,727
38,759
4,994
-65,760
16,285
21,516
148,319
38,456
1,883
60,2'93
20,933
17,121
73,029
47,409
3,743
116,533
15,273
5,769
107,578
32,190
1,798
130,166
11,740
8,329
71,021
16,378
52,927
26,436
92,498
23,833
504
66,045
18,647
97,5818
39,835
Steelhead Trout    .
Totals	
374,306
292,219
223,158
279,101
237,634
164,055
254,258 N 54
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OP   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, PROM 1912 TO 1927, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Rivers Inlet.
1927.
1926
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelhead Trout.
Totals	
65,269
608
1,122
671
2,094
9
69,773
65,581
685
11,727
12,815
7,286
11
'192,323
496
11,510
8,625
4,946
94,891
545
4,924
15,105
1,980
116,850
'599
3,242
10,057
1,326
53,584
323
311
24,292
1,120
82
4S.615   I 125,742
364   | 1,793
173   | 1,226
5,303   | 25,647
4,718   | 2,908
97   I    	
98,105      217,900      117,445      132,274        79,712
59,272
133,248
1919.
1918.     I     1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelhead Trout
Totals	
56,258
1,442
7,089
6,538
9,038
53,401
1,409
■6,729
29,542   |
12,074   I
61,195
817
16,101
8,065
9,124
44,936
1,422
20,144
3,567
15,314
130,355
1,022
5,387
2,964
7,115
S'9,890
566
5,023
5,784
7,789
61,745
594
I
112,884
1,149
3,845
2,097   I       8,809
3,660   |     11,010
I    	
SO,367
103,155   |     95,302   j     S5,3S3
146,S38   I   109,052
68,096      137,697
Nass River.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
12,026
3,824
3,307
16,609
3,966
96
15,929
'5,964
15,392
50.S15
4,274
375
18,945
3,757
22,504
35,530
8,027
245
33,590
2,7-23
26,612
72,496
6,481
1,035
17,821
3,314
25,791
44,165
7,894
595
31,277
2,062
11,277
75,687
3,533
235
9,364
2,088
2,176
29,488
8,236
413
16,740
4,857
12,145
43,151
3,700
560
Totals               	
39,828
92,749
89,008
142,939
99,580
124,071
51,765
81,153
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
2S,259
3,574
24,041
29,949
10,900
789
21,816
4,152
40,368
59,206
17,061
1,305
22,188
4,496
24,938
44,568
22,180
1,125
31,411
3,845
11,200
59,593
19,139
1,498
39,349
3,701
11,076
34,879
15,171
113
31,327
3,385
25,569
25,333
9,276
23,574
3,151
2,987
20,539
3,172
36,037
6,936
3,245
12,476
12,468
Steelhead Trout
	
Totals    	
97,512
143,908
119,495
126,686
104,289
94,890
L_
53,423
|_
71,162
* Including 40,000 cases caught in Smith Inlet and 20,813 cases packed at Namu. STATEMENT SHOWING SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE.
N 55
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OP   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1912 TO 1927, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Vancouver Island District.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.     ;     1920.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
24,835
6,769
220,270
52,561
58,834
10,194
373,463
25,070
5,222
174,383
86,113
51,351
5,383
10,895
5,664
127,520
51,384
59.747
4.832
15,618
283
165,161
63,102
30,593
2.510
12,006
138
120,520
30,149
21,342
7,0'97
15,147
886
108,478
36,943
18,575
5,495
6,936  |       6,987
3,230  |     29,211
34,431   |    12,591
10,660   |     14,391
11,120   |    20,555
3,151   1    -
Totals	
347,722
260,042
277,267
191,252
185,524
69,328   |    74,170
Queen Charlotte and other Districts.
1927.
.  1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
Sockeves	
60,533
7,826
'252,230
36,481
47,433
973
62,383*
3,650
348,682
380,243
47,183
973
49,962
5,002
305,256
120,747
40,269
1,520
40,926
4,245
195,357
141,878
26,031
497
24,584
2,711
148,727
146,943
29,142
732
47,107
4.988
80,485
113,824
31,331
409
18,350
4,995
21,412
14,818
18,203
2,790
64,473
15,633
30,946
247,149
33,807
Steelheads and Bluebaeks....
3,721
Totals	
4'05.47'6
844.114
522,756
408,934
352,839
278,144
80.568
S95.728
1
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.           1912.
1
54,677
14,766
165,717
110,300
35,011
702
51,980
8,582
90,464
201,847
42,331
1,009
32,902
6,056
112,364
112,209
30,201
865
45,373
11,423
160,812
143,615
70,431
712
98,600
9,'488
40,S4'9
83,626
4S,966
985
87,130
7,108
70,727
111,930
43,254
1
149 336          79 464
7,246
52,758
83,430
28,328
22,837
Chums	
37,734
128,296
65,806
Totals	
381,163
404,793
294,597
432,366
313,894
320,168
285,898
334,187
Total packed by Districts in 1912 to 1927, inclusive.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
Fraser	
284,378
187,716
69,773
39,828
373,463
405,476
274,931
407,524
98,105
92,749
347,722
844,139*
276,855
348,859
217,900
89,008
263,904
522,756
212,059
390,858
117,445
142,939
277,267
604,745
226,869
338,863
132,274
99,580
191,252
352,839
140,570
477,915
79,712
124,071
185,524
278,144
107,650
234,765
59,272
51,765
69,528
80,568
136,661
332,787
157,522
Nass River	
Vancouver Island
81,133
84,170
395 223
Grand totals...
1,360,634
2,065,190
1,719,282
1,745,313
1,341,677
1,285,946
603,548
1,187,616
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
167,944
398,877
80,367
97,512
267,293
381.163
210,851
374,216
103,155
143,908
389,815
404,793
402,538
292,219
95,302
119,495
325,723
294,597
127,472
223,158
85,383
126,686
320,519
279,161
146,838
104,289
349,294
237,634
109,052
94,890
782,429
164,055
68,096
53,423
199,322
254,258
137,697
71,162
Nass Kiver	
Vancouver Island	
432,366
313,894
320,169
285,898
334,187
Grand totals...
1,393,156
1,626,738
1,557,485
995,065
1,164,701
1,111,039
1,353,901
996,826
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet. N 56
REPORT OF THE  COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1927.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OP THE ENTIRE FRASER
RIVER SYSTEM FROM 1912 TO 1927, INCLUSIVE.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
61,393
97,594
138,987
85,689
44,673
35,385
112,023
39,743
69,369
31,655
47,402
51,832
48,566
39,631
102,967
48,399
State of Washington	
62,654
Totals    	
130,362
147,408
109,112
79,057
100,398
142,598
111,053
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
38,854
64,346
103,200
19,697
50,723
148,164
411,538
32,146
84,637
91,130
64,584
198,183
335,230
719,796
1,673,099
123,879
State of Washington	
184,680
Totals    	
70,420
559,702
116,783
155,714
533,413
2,392,893
308,559
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1912 TO 1927, INCLUSIVE.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
61,393
83,996
65,269
12,0.26
24,833
60,533
308,052
85,689
82,360
65,581
15,929
25,070
62,383
35,385
81,146
192,323
18,945
14,757
49,962
39,743
144,747
94,891
33,590
15,618
41,014
31,655
131,731
116,850
17,821
12,006
24,584
51,832
96,277
53,584
31,277
15,147
47,107
39,631
41,018
48,615
9,364
6,936
18,350
48,399
89,064
125,742
16,740
6,987
64,473
Totals            	
337,012
392,51S
369,603
334,647
295,224
163,914
351 405
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
38,854
184,945
56,258
28,259
6,452
54,677
19,697
123,322
53,401
21,816
6,243
51,980
148,164
65,760
61,195
22,188
9,639
32,902
32,146
60,923
44,936
31,411
9,223*
36,150
91,130
116,553
130,350
'39,349
198,183
130,166
89,890
31,327
'719,796
52,927
61,745
23,574
123,879
92 498
112,884
36,037
98,660
87,130
149,336
79,464
Totals    	
369,445
276,459
339,848
214,789
476,042
536,696
972,178
444,762
* Vancouver Island's pack not previously segregated.
PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL, B.C., 1920-27.
From Pilchards.
From Herring.
From Whales.
From other
Sources.
Year.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal.
Oil.
Whalebone
and
Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal.
Oil.
1920
Tons.
Gals.
Tons.
310
2,218
Gals.
Tons.
503
'326
485
292
347
340
345
Tons.
1,035
230
910
926
835
666
651
Gals.
604,070
Tons.
466
489
911
823
1,709
2,468
1,752
1,948
Gals.
1921	
44,700
7-5 461
1922	
283,314
706,514
645,657
556,939
46S.206
437,967
1923 .  .
180,318
241,376
354,853
217,150
250,811
1924
1925	
2,083
8,481
12,145
493,653
1,898,721
2,610,120
1926
1927	
13,700
173,343
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F.  Banfield,  Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1928.
1,825-628-2480

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