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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1928

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
OP   THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1926
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Chables P. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1927.  ^—~
To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1926.
B. DODSBEY BARROW,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., October 6th, 1927.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture—Dr. D. Warnock   7
Report of Departmental Secretary—Wm. J. Bonavia  11
Report of Departmental Secretary re Fall Fairs—Wm. J. Bonavia   17
Report of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests—W. H. Bobertson  ... 20
Report of Chief Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Vancouver—W. H. Lyne.... 30
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver—J. W. Eastham   35
Report of Assistant Entomologist, Vernon—M. H. Ruhmann   38
Report of Markets Commissioner, Calgary—J. A. Grant   42
Report of Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria—Dr. A. G. Knight   47
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria—Dr. A. G. Knight   51
Report of District Agriculturist, Kamloops—Geo. C. Hay   53
Report of District Agriculturist, East Kootenay—A. L. Hay   57
Report of District Agriculturist, Prince George—R. G. Sutton  5iS
Report of District Agriculturist, Smithers—D. D. Munro  01
Report of District Agriculturist, Courtenay—E. R. Bewell   63
Report of Dairy Commissioner, Victoria—H. Rive   64
Report of Chief Poultry Instructor, Victoria—J. R. Terry   67
Report of Provincial Agronomist, Victoria—C. Tice   72
Beport of Statistician, Victoria—G. H. Stewart  76
Report of Provincial Apiarist, Victoria—W. J. Sheppard   78
Report of Apiary Inspector, Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island Districts— A. W. Finlay 79
Report of Apiary  Inspector,  Okanagan,  Shuswap, and Thompson Valley  Districts—J.  F.
Roberts     81
Report of Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria—Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan   81
APPENDICES.
Appendix No.
1. Correspondence received and dispatched, 1925 and 1926   86
2. Co-operative Activity of Farmers' Institutes with Receipts over $1,000, 1926   87
3. Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1926   88
4. Tree-fruit Survey (Acreage in Okanagan Horticultural District), 1920 and 1925   89
5. British Columbia Berry Acreage, 1926   90
6. Pruning Demonstrations, 1926   90
7. Pruning-schools, 1926   91
8. Packing-schools, 1926   91
9. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry in British Columbia
(including those condemned)    91
10. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at all Ports of Entry in British Columbia .... 92
11. Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., inspected at Vancouver (includ
ing those condemned)    93
12. Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., conElemned at Vancouver   93
13. Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., fumigates! at Vancouver   94
14. Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which no Certificates were issued   95
15. Imported Nursery Stock inspectes! at Vancouver (including those condemned)    97
16. Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver   98
17. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Victoria (incluEling those condemned)   98
18. Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Victoria   99
19. Apples exported to England and European Ports via Vancouver and Panama Canal dur
ing 1926, and for which no Certificates were issued   99
20. Products for which Export Inspection Certificates were issued at Vancouver and Oka
nagan,  1926    99
21. Nursery Stock inspected for Export, for which Certificates were issued   100
22. Results of Seed-treatment Experiment   100
23. Cattle and Hides shipped during 1926 (District—Cariboo and South)   101 N 6 CONTENTS.
Appendix No. Page.
24. Districts covered by Inspectors testing for Tuberculosis in 1926   103
25. Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act," R.S.B.C. 1924.. 105
26. Cream Graders' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act," R.S.B.C.
1924, as amended 1925  107
27. Creamery or Dairy Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,"
R.S.B.C. 1924   107
28. Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia   109
29. Summary of Milking Periods completed during 1926   109
30. Soil Analyses   110
31. Synopsis of Certified Seed-potato Work in British Columbia, 1926   113
32. Summary of British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Inspection-work, 1926   113
33. Report on Field Inspections made in Certified Seed-potato Districts, 1926   114
34. Synopsis of Diseases in all Varieties of Potatoes inspected for Certification in British
Columbia, 1926   115
35. Report on Inspection of Tubers made before grading Certified Seed-potatoes, 1926  116
36. Estimated Honey-crop, 1926   116
37. Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—
(a.)  Fraser Valley  118
(6.)  Kootenays   118
(c.)  Okanagan,  Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys   119
(d.) Vancouver Island   119
(e.)  Summary     120 Jcj   U2   O
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WfeS I REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OP AGRICULTURE.
D. Warnock, O.B.E.
Hon. E. D. Barrow,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Report of the Department of Agriculture
for the year 1926.
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
The year 1926, viewed broadly, was one of temperatures above the average and of precipitation below the average, the warm dry summer being conducive to numerous forest fires which
were especially severe in the Kootenay districts. The year opened with ideal weather in January
and February throughout the Province, a great deal of outside work being accomplished; in
Central British Columbia there were exceptionally mild conditions with every indication of early
spring. March weather continued favourable for spring work, which was well advanced, but
by April further rain was beginning to be needed. Heavy rains fell in May, especially in the
Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island districts, in some cases proving harmful to spring grains
and to the strawberry-crop. June was a good month for farmers, the small-fruit men doing well
as a whole and hay being an early and heavy crop. July was very dry again, with high temperatures ; pastures failed to quite an extent and range lands suffered also. In August there were
showers which improved corn and roots, but did not help pastures to any extent; range feed
also was short. Threshing was, however, generally completed by the close of the month.
September was marked by heavy precipitation commencing about the second week, with frosts
at night in Interior points. Many of the fall fairs suffered financially on account of the
unseasonable weather this month. In October the weather cleared up again and the harvest
was completed satisfactorily. Heavy rains were experienced in November and December, with
frosts and some snow by the close of the month.
As evidence of the unusual dry weather during 1926, especially in the Coast districts, the
following figures are illustrative:—
Total Ave. Total
Precipitation, Precipitation,
1926. 10-year Period.
Inches. Inches.
Victoria      21.11 27.65
Vancouver     53.21 58.76
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION.
The year 1926 is notable for the highest record made so far in agricultural production, the
total value for the year being estimated at $71,362,209, as against $65,153,513 in 1925, or an
increase of 9.53 per cent. Increases were recorded in live stock, meats, poultry and eggs, dairy
products, fruit, grain, honey, wool, hops, and seeds, the most outstanding gain being in fruit
and dairy products. Taking these items in more detail, it is noted with regard to live stock
that every class of farm animal showed a substantial increase,! beef and dairy cattle being in
the lead, the increase in sheep also being most encouraging. There are now 102,853 sheep,
as against 62,247 last year, while the total value of live stock increased from $18,256,229 to
$20,752,433. All meat products showed advances, especially beef and veal. Dairy products
advanced from a total of $10,629,350 to $11,627,300; creamery and dairy butter both contributing
substantially, although the largest single increase was in fresh milk, with a total of 15,775,000
gallons produced.
The tree-fruit crop was the largest on record, but there was a slight decrease in prices.
The total value of fruits produced was $7*585,520, as against $5,413,894. Small fruits were
ascertained by a survey to have decreased considerably in acreage, although both production
and value showed an increase on 1925. Cantaloupes in the Oliver District totalled forty car-loads
shipped, as against twenty-six in 1925. N 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Grains yielded 5,018,412 bushels, an increase of over 7 per cent.; the crop area now having
increased to 135,490 acres.
Hay and fodders were good, clover and timothy averaging 2 tons to the acre, with a total
of 321,481 acres.
CONTROL OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS.
Following negotiations with the Dominion Government and in conformity with petitions
received from a preponderance of dairymen in the Lower Fraser Valley, the Dominion Health
of Animals Branch declared the Lower Fraser Valley to be a restricted area for the eradication
of bovine tuberculosis. The area covered roughly 5,600 square miles, including nineteen municipalities and the Cities of Vancouver and New Westminster, as well as much unorganized territory
extending up the Fraser Valley to some 5 miles north of North Bend. The first general test
commenced on February 22nd, giving 3,643 reactors out of 46,174 cattle tested, a percentage of
7.9 per cent., with a 60-day retest giving 769 reactors, or 3.3 per cent, of tubercular animals.
Provincial tests in other parts of the Province on 9,688 head showed 454 reactors, or 4.73
per cent., which compared with the figures for 1925 and 1924, which were respectively 4.18 per
cent, and 4.64 per cent.
INSECT AND OTHER PESTS.
Codling-moth Control.—An Order in Council was approved on February 4th reducing the
proportion of growers in favour to 60 per cent, where a compulsory spraying zone was desired,
the Horticultural Regulations being amended as follows:—
" Protection Spraying Zones.
" Upon receipt in writing by the Board of a request signed by 60 per cent, of the growers in
any district, the Board may constitute a Protection Zone with the object of undertaking the
control or prevention of any fruit pest. Upon such zone being established, all directions given
or issued by the Inspector having charge within such zone shall be carried out by the growers
operating within the zone, and any grower failing to carry out the directions of the Inspector
shall be liable to the penalties provided for by the Act."
In pursuance of this policy the whole of the Okanagan Valley was declared a codling-moth
control area by Order in Council on October 8th, with the Kamloops District following suit on
November 24th.
GRASSHOPPER-CONTROL.
During the past year active measures for the control of grasshoppers were continued in
co-operation with the officers of the Dominion Entomological Branch.
At the opening of the season the following sections were afforded further aid in poison and
bait ingredients: Riske Creek and Gang Ranch ranges in the Chilcotin; the North Thompson
Valley; the South Thompson Valley from Ducks to Shuswap; the North Okanagan Valley,
including Larkin ami Armstrong; the Rock Creek and Midway sections; the Nicola country
and the Peace River Block.
The intensive work done in the Nicola for several years has borne good results, fair
co-operation being obtained from the ranchers and stockmen and the general situation on these
ranges during 1926 has much improved. The Okanagan Valley was again threatened with a
serious grasshopper and cricket pest, the latter insects being very numerous on the ranges near
Vernon. Poison-bait mixing plants at Armstrong and Vernon were established and the situation
kept well under control.
The Peace River conditions were more difficult to contend with owing to the distance from
headquarters, the difficulties of transportation, and high cost of freight. Mixing-stations were,
however, established at Fort St. John, Rolla, Dawson Creek, and Pouce Coupe, and with the
energetic co-operation of the farmers, who appreciated the work being done by the Department
to save their bountiful crops, the situation was kept well in hand ; the cost of poison bait, freight,
etc., for this work in the Peace River District alone was $12,000; whilst during the past three
seasons $68,000 has been expended on control measures throughout the Province. At the close
of the season the only district where control measures had not been either entirely or in the
greater part successful was in the Chilcotin country, where no doubt a special campaign will be
necessary in 1927. c."v      ' .    ■ •■ .
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«  SEED PRODUCTION.
It is encouraging to report the progress made in seed production during the past year in
various parts of the Province, and to feel that departmental work along this line is proving
effective. In Central British Columbia chiefly in the Bulkley Valley, 350 tons of timothy-seed
was grown and sold at the excellent price of 8 cents per pound f.o.b. point of loading. Power
seed-cleaning plants have been established by the Department at Smithers, Burns Lake, and
Barrett, to the great advantage of the growers.
The opening of the grain-elevator at Prince Rupert also gave a stimulus to wheat-growing,
especially in the Vanderhoof District, between 500 and 600 acres being seeded to Marquis wheat,
the average yield being estimated at 25 bushels to the acre and a considerable quantity being
held for seed for 1927.
Alsike and clover seed is also being experimented with on a moderate scale, and officers
of the Dominion Seed Branch consider there are good possibilities for the production of these
seeds as well as orchard-grass and meadow-fescue in Central British Columbia.
The Department was much gratified by the successes of timothy-seed growers in Central
British Columbia at the International Grain and Hay Show at the Live Stock Exposition held
at Chicago, November 27th to December 4th. The timothy-seed class comprised fifteen exhibitors,
the first, sixth, and eighth prizes being captured by growers from Southbank and Telkwa. The
competition was keen, experienced growers from Montana, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Alberta and
Saskatchewan being competitors.
The production of red-clover seed in the Lower Fraser Valley is also becoming of importance,
some 500 acres being harvested for seed this fall, with the prospect of a very large increase
in 1927.
Seed-potato inspection and certification was carried on by the Field Crop Branch in thirty
districts in the Province, 511 acres being inspected ; 392 acres finally passed both field inspections
and the first tuber inspection, with an estimated production of 18,080 sacks of certified seed.
During the year the seed-cleaning plant at Penticton (the United Seed Growers), which had
been subsidized jointly by the Provincial and Dominion Governments for several years, was
closed down and the shareholders paid off.
TOBACCO-GROWING.
Tobacco has been grown in the vicinity of Kelowna, in the Okanagan Valley, for more than
thirty years, the types principally produced being used for cigar binders and fillers. In the
decade between 1900 and 1910 the increase in the acreage planted to tobacco was very slow,
and by 1910 a maximum of only 100 acres was under cultivation. During the war production
declined, and in the slump in the post-war period, in which industrial troubles were experienced,
interest in tobacco-cultivation steadily declined and there was no commercial crop between
the years 1921 and 1924.
In 1925, at the instance of both the Federal and Provincial Departments of Agriculture, the
Tobacco Division initiated experimental work in the Okanagan Valley, at several points in the
vicinity of Kelowna, and at the Summerland Experimental Station. Briefly, the work of the
season demonstrated conclusively that tobacco may be cultivated on a large area in the Okanagan
Valley, and that many of the commercial varieties grown in Eastern Canada succeed admirably
in that territory.
The greatest disadvantage with which tobacco-culture in the Okanagan Valley has had to
contend in producing for domestic manufacture has been the lack of suitable markets, the
tobacco-manufacturing industry of the Dominion being centred largely in Ontario and Quebec,
and the British Columbia product being at a distinct disadvantage. A further disadvantage has
been the lack of handling facilities for the types of tobacco which are used in plug, smoking, and
cigarette mixtures.
In 1926 the acreage in the Okanagan under tobacco did not exceed 50 acres; a Vancouver
manufacturer contracting for the purchase of the crop. Field experiments at Kelowna and on
the Dominion Experimental Stations at Summerland and Agassiz were continued during the
year as to varieties and cost of production, the outlook for this revived industry being
encouraging. N 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FUR-FARMING.
Although not strictly under the purview of the Department, the intimate connection of the
fur-farmer with the agricultural life of the Province makes a few remarks on this industry,
not entirely out of place.
No branch of animal production has attracted wider attention or developed more rapidly
in the past eight years than fur-farming. There is ample basis for a sound industry in British
Columbia in propagating fur-bearing animals, provided certain essentials are provided, such
as selection of stock, correct breeding and feeding, a knowledge of the characteristics and
behaviour of the animals in captivity, and good organization on the ranch. Fox-farms at
the Coast appear to be as successful as those in the Interior, where severer winter conditions
are experienced.
At the close of 1925 (the latest figures available) there were 120 fur-farms in operation
in this Province, the value of fur-bearing animals on same being $442,370, the value of animals
sold during the year $107,730, and the value of pelts sold $13,973.
The International Fox and Fur Show held at Hastings Park, Vancouver, from December
8th to 11th, under the auspices of the British Columbia Silver Fox Breeders' Association, was
most successful, the Department making a grant to the association of $500 in aid of expenses.
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS.
The value of agricultural imports again showed a gross increase over the previous year,
the total being $21,059,361. Allowing for the value of exports from the Province, this sum
represents 25 per cent, of the value of agricultural products, consumed within the Province.
In other words, in spite of the commendable progress made in agricultural production within
recent years, for every $100 worth consumed by our population $25 worth is brought in either
from other Provinces or from foreign points. The rate for 1925 was $25.10 and for 1916 it
was $37.70.
The chief imports in 1926 from other Provinces were: Live stock, $6,269,336; grains,
$6,094,466; dairy products, $3,346,884; and meats, $1,140,234. From foreign points the outstanding figures were: Dairy products, $1,058,506; vegetables (including canned), $675,765;
fruits (including canned), $552,623;  grains, $700,167;  and meats, $456,410.
Exports of agricultural products from British Columbia are steadily growing, as the
following table shows:—
1923 $5,886,372 1925 $6,731,709
1924  6,022,019 1926  8,408,638
As might be expected, fruit and vegetable exports account for the major portion, the figure
for these in 1926 being $6,294,788; meats, poultry,' and dairy products are also increasing
slowly.
AWARDS WON BY BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In addition to the honours won at the Chicago International for timothy-seed, previously
referred to, the past year proved outstanding for our agriculturists in many other lines of
activity.
British Columbia apples won outstanding recognition at the Imperial Fruit-show, held in
London, England, and also at the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair at Toronto in the fall.
At London, England, the first, second, and third prizes in the British Empire Section,
Dessert Class (open), were won by British Columbia apples, with Mcintosh Red and Jonathan
varieties. In the Cooking Class (open) the first and second prizes were won with Rome Beauty
and North-west Greening. In the Overseas Section British Columbia captured first, second,
and third prizes in the Mcintosh Red, first in Jonathan, first in Cox's Orange, first in Spitzen-
burg, and first in Newtown.
At Toronto in November the British Columbia exhibit of apples was the outstanding feature.
The championship sweepstakes were captured with the Delicious variety, and eight first
awards were won with Delicious, Greening, Jonathan, King, Newtown, Spitzenburg, Northern
Spy, and Wagener apples, besides many other awards.
In live-stock, British Columbia stock-breeders captured a full share of the honours for
Jerseys at the Pacific International Exposition at Portland, seven " first," five " second," and
numerous other awards being won by the Spencer herd;   whilst Leicester, Dorset, and Cheviot DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 11
sheep from Chilliwack and Sardis flocks were equally successful. Saanich rabbit-breeders won
many awards at the Convention of National Rabbit and Cavie Breeders at Anaheim, California,
and potato-growers from Vancouver Island and the Grand Forks District did well at the Pacific
North-west Potato-show at Spokane.
Jersey records were also made during the year as follows:—
" Farleigh St. Mawes Retta," one of the Summerland Experimental Farm herd of Jerseys,
achieved 11,606 lb. of milk and 636 lb. of fat as a senior 2-year-old on official test in the 305-day
class. This is a world record, subject to the confirmation of the production figures by the Ottawa
authorities.
" Patricia Oxford Janet," owned by Lester Whitaker, Armstrong, B.C., as a 4-year-old Jersey
gave 14,935 lb. milk and 872 lb. butter-fat in 305 days. This cow was reared on the Calf Club
plan for boys and girls under the auspices of this Department.
Respectfully submitted.
D. WARNOCK,
Deputy Minister.
REPORT OP DEPARTMENTAL SECRETARY.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report for this office for the year
ended December 31st, 1926.
STAFF.
The changes in the staff during the year followed the usual average, the appointments and
resignations being as follows :—
Permanent Appointments.
S. S. Phillips, Assistant Agronomist, Field Crop Branch.
J. Noble, Inspector, Fruit Inspection Branch.
G. L. Landon, District Poultry Instructor, Poultry Branch.
T. B. Mathieson, Inspector, Fruit Inspection Branch.
Miss C. Stephenson, Stenographer, Land Settlement Board.
Miss L. F. Koyl, Stenographer, General.
Miss N. Larkcom, Stenographer, Live Stock Branch.
Removals.
Dr. B. R. Ilsley, Veterinary Inspector, Veterinary Branch  (died).
C. Good, District Poultry Instructor, Poultry Branch (resigned).
Mrs. L. J. Wasson, Stenographer, Minister (resigned).
Miss W. R. Parsell, Stenographer, General (resigned).
H. W. Epps, Inspector, Fruit Inspection Branch (resigned).
Temporary Appointments.—An average number of seasonal appointments were made, mostly
in connection with seed-potato certification-work.
Buoy Russell Ilsley, V.S.—The older members of the staff were shocked to hear of the
unexpected death, following an operation, of Dr. B. R. Ilsley, of Armstrong, who had been in
charge of T.B. test-work in the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts for many years. Dr. Ilsley
was appointed Veterinary Inspector in succession to Dr. H. H. S. George as far back as
February, 1911.
CORRESPONDENCE.
The correspondence of the Department showed a strong upward movement throughout the
year; letters received totalled 30,648, an increase of 23 per cent, over the previous year; whilst
letters dispatched totalled 28,388, an increase of almost 4,000 letters, or 16 per cent., over the
year 1925. The heaviest increases have occurred in this office, that of the Chief Clerk and
Accountant, the Live Stock Branch, the Poultry Branch, and the Women's Institute Branch.
1926.
April 1.
April 1.
May 29.
Dec.    1.
Dec.    1.
Dec.    1.
Dec.    1.
1926.
Jan. 23.
Jan. 31.
May 31.
July 31.
July 31. N 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The full details are set out in Appendix No. 1, while the general increase in letters mailed
out is shown in the following figures: Year 1923, 20,957; 1924, 21,855; 1925,, 24,498; 1926,
28,388.
Circular Letters.—The number of circular letters sent out was 27,485, being a decrease on
the previous year.    The character of these letters is shown by the following grouping:—
Agricultural Associations     1,020
Dairy Branch      4,920
Farmers' Institutes      1,207
Field Crop Branch     5,908
Goat-breeders' Association     1,972
Horticultural Branch      1,475
Miscellaneous       3,745
Poultry Branch     3,050
Statistics Branch      1,840
Women's Institutes      2,348
Total  27,485
POUND DISTRICTS.
During the past year there were less applications than usual for the establishment of pound
districts. Three districts were organized, as follows: April 21st, Oliver; July 21st, Okanagan
Mission;  August 28th, North Kamloops.
The West Nicomen application that had been carried over from 1925 was disallowed by the
Hon. Minister after thorough investigation and report.
At the close of the year an application from Westview (Powell River) was under consideration.
During the year the Department was notified that the Municipality of Trail had taken over
the administration of practically the whole area included in the Trail East Pound District, and
that owing to Creston being incorporated as a village municipality the greater portion of the
Creston Pound District was now covered by local by-law.
There were fifty pound districts in force at the close of the year, of which Golden, Hedley,
Kaslo, North Saanich, Quesnel, and Willow Point had no pound-keepers appointed.
The following table is a summary of reports received from the various pound districts.
No convictions were recorded in 1926.
Operation of Pound Districts, Year 1926.
Pound District.
ESTRAYS
CAPTURED.
Horses.       Cattle.
No. of
Sales of
Estrays.
Amount
realized
from
Sales.
Fees
charged for
Sustenance.
Pees paid
to Pound-
keeper.
Balfour	
B.X o	
Brilliant.	
Burton  (Carroll's Landing).
Cowiehan	
Dewdney	
Harrop	
Ladysmith...	
North Bend....	
North  Kamloops	
Okanagan Centre ,	
Okanagan  Mission 	
Oyama	
Passmore	
Perry Siding and Appledale
Totals	
4
8
19
1
5
19
12
13
9
54
1
11
2
1
1
2
21
40
12
28
11
14
9
1
7
19
144
180
$15.00
36.25
20.00
.50
2.00
25.50
13.50
$149.00
27.50
.60
2.00
36.60
23.10
40.45
50.28
2.00
1.30
28
$112.75
$332.83
$18.00
169.35
5.60
7.95
59.20
4.00
3.00
5.00
16.05
29.10
33.55
72.28
1.50
6.50
$431.08 .i-Ajf|  ORDERS IN COUNCIL.
Protection Spraying Zones.—On February 4th an Order in Council was approved reducing
from 80 to 60 per cent, the number of growers required to petition the Board of Horticulture
to constitute a protection spraying zone.
" Codling-moth Control Act."—On April 21st the area within the Kamloops municipal limits
was constituted a codling-moth control area and on October 8th the whole of the Okanagan
Valley was constituted a codling-moth control .area; whilst an additional area adjacent to the
City of Kamloops was included on November 24th.
Regulations of the Board of Horticulture.—A revised issue of these regulations was approved
on May 14th.
Regulations for Women's Institutes.—A revised issue was approved on November 24th.
LICENCES.
Agricultural poison licences to a total of twenty-one were issued to firms dealing in spray
materials, weed-killers, and sheep-dips, where the same contained ingredients as specified in
regulations under the " Pharmacy Act."
Horticultural licences were issued to forty-three nursery firms and ten agents, being an
increase of nine licences on the previous year.
PROVINCIAL SEED BOARD.
Two meetings of the Board were held during the year—i.e., on March 2nd and May 21st—
both in Victoria. Resolutions passed at the first meeting dealt, amongst others, with the
difficulty found in producing vegetable and garden seed in competition with imports of same on
which little or no duty was collectable; registration of certain seeds proved suitable for British
Columbia; necessary changes in the " Seeds Act" re percentage of germination for field-root
and garden-vegetable seeds, etc.
At the May session the most important resolution passed was one following a report by a
committee of the Board re duties on vegetable and garden seeds. This was transmitted for
action to the Canadian Seed-growers' Association and the Canadian Horticultural Council.
Valuable discussions on the production of registered seed in Central British Columbia also took
place, showing the necessity of educational work in the various districts interested.
CRUSHED LIME ROCK FOR FERTILIZING.
Four certificates were issued by this office for the special rate on lime to Island points, a
total of 90 tons being distributed. This figure, however, does not show the total movement, as
lime produced by the Western Canada Lime Company at Popkum and shipped by the Canadian
National system does not require a departmental certificate to obtain the benefit of the special
rate.
In December the Comox Limestone and Fertilizer Company was incorporated at Courtenay,
the object being to sell crushed limestone to farmers at as low a rate as possible, the raw material
being obtained from Texada Island. Crushing and pulverizing machinery has been purchaseEl
and the company will be in a position to start crushing right after the new year. Application
has been made through this office to the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Company for special
rates to all points.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
Started in the year 1897 with two institutes, this movement has progressed steadily until
at the close of the year 1926 there were 147 institutes in good standing, with a membership of
5.930. Whilst a larger membership was actually recorded for one year in 1915, the whole movement is now on a much more solid foundation and institutes are to be found in every part of the
Province. The progress in Central British Columbia has been especially notable in the last
two or three years.
There are many phases of work undertaken by these bodies. Whilst in the heavily timbered
Coast districts the supply of cheap stumping-powder through the arrangements made by the
Department has been one of the more important features, in isolated sections in the Interior
other features have been quite prominent. Feed, flour, fertilizer, groceries, binder-twine, apple-
boxes, seed, pure-bred stock, and numerous other commodities have been purchased at consider- able advantage to members of these bodies. In the Kootenay Sections, where such rodents as
gophers and Columbian ground-squirrels are a serious pest, competitions have been organized
by institutes amongst the young people, resulting in an abatement of these pests; while in
Central British Columbia a good deal of attention has been given by institute members to the
production of timothy-seed.
Substantial progress was evident throughout the year with regard to these important rural
organizations. Eleven certificates of incorporation were issued by the Registrar, as follows:
January Sth, Fort Fraser; April 7th, Topley; April 8th, Sidmouth; May 19th, Fadear Creek;
May 25th, Quatsino ; June 4th, Palling; June 23rd, Nicola ; June 26th, Colleymount; July 13th,
Interior;  November 10th, Midway ;  December 29th, Port Kells.
The total number of institutes in good standing at the close of the year was 147, as against
140 in 1925, whilst the membership was 5,930, an increase of 345 members. The twelve institutes
with the largest membership were:—
North Vancouver  254
Delta   !  243
Surrey   190
Islands  148
Cowiehan  135
Grand Forks  114
Metchosin   114
Nechako  112
Coquitlam   109
Kootenay Lake   107
Chilliwack     104
Otter District     87
Meetings.
Special requests for Department speakers were received during the early part of the year
from the following institutes: Barriere, Bear Creek, Comox, Howe Sound, Metchosin, Pemberton
Meadows, Qualicum, Salmon Arm, Sooke, and Whonnock; whilst Tappen was visited by several
officials on the occasion of a district meeting re the incorporation of a new institute. At several
points our officials were accompanied by Mr. A. Morton, Dominion Sheep and Swine Promoter,
and Mr. W. Hagar, Egg Inspector for Vancouver Island.
No meeting of the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes was held during 1926 owing to
the legislative session being postponed to early 1927.
District Institute meetings were as follows : February 3rd, District C, at Prince George;
February 12th, District D, at Kamloops; February 12th, District E, at New Westminster;
February 25th, Districts F and H, at Nelson; March 4th, District A, at Victoria; September
23rd, District B, at Terrace; October 13th, District I, at Cranbrook; October 27th, District G,
at Kelowna.
A special half-yearly meeting was also held at Nelson on September 24th.
A report dealing with the legislative activities of the Board in 1925 was issued by the
Secretary, a second edition of 500 copies being required in September.
Fairs held by Farmers' Institutes.
Ten fairs were held during the year by Farmers' Institutes, the majority of which have
become well-established events, and as experience has been gained these community efforts in
outlying districts have proved themselves fully equal to the fairs put on by the regular Agricultural Associations with their years of procedure behind them. Institute fairs were grouped as
follows:—
Circuit I.—Luxton, September 1st.
Circuit II.—Gibson's Landing, August 28th; North-east Burnaby, September 4th; Pemberton Meadows, September Sth; Whonnock, September 14th; Central Park, September 15th;
Fern Ridge, October 6th.
Circuit IV.—Fernie, September 7th and 8th; Crawford Bay, September 11th; Boswell,
September 14th and 15th.
Co-operative Activities of Farmers' Institutes.
Twenty-nine institutes reported receipts of over $1,000 during the year; the total volume
of business for members being slightly less than in 1925. Crawford Bay and Kootenay Lake
Institutes showed further increases, the former having a total revenue of $20,462.89. (Appendix
No. 2 gives full details.) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 15
Farmers' Institutes whose Receipts were over $1,000 in the Years 1924-26.
Year.
No. of
F.I.
Receipts.
Expenditures.
Powder, Fuse,
and E^Caps
bought for
Members.
Feed, Flour.
Hay, Fertilizer, and
Seed bought.
Miscellaneous
Purchases.
1924   	
1925	
1926   	
28
28
29
$101,866.64
107,753.15
103,846.34
$93,424.92
100,551.18
95,562.80
$32,527.92
35,412.88
31,303.72
$36,198.01
54,563.15
48,388.27
$10,236.76
6,449.31
7,215.67
Stumping-powder.
The total number of cases of powder supplied to members of Farmers' Institutes and similar
bodies in connection with clearing land for agricultural purposes was 11,749 cases, of a value
of $76,213.93.
Gopher-control.
Work similar to that of the previous year was carried on in 1926. All Farmers' Institutes
and farmers' organizations in districts where gophers and Columbian ground-squirrels are a
pest were circularized as to the conditions of the departmental grant. The following organizations took active part either in competitions or by other methods for destroying gophers, etc.:
Appledale Progressive Association; Balfour Farmers' Institute; Blackpool United Farmers;
Burton Potato-growers' Association; Elk Valley Farmers' Institute; Kootenay River Farmers'
Institute; Mount Cartier Farmers' Institute ; Northern Okanagan Farmers' Institute; Okanagan
Centre Farmers' Institute; Rossland Farmers' Institute; Spallumcheen Farmers' Institute;
Winfield Farmers' Institute;   Winlaw Farmers' Institute.
The best records reported were from Elk Valley, which held two competitions, 1,462 tails,
and Appledale, 968 tails. " Cyanogas " a preparation of calcium cyanide, was tried out in several
districts with very favourable results. A Department official at Salmon Arm reported as
follows:—
" I am pleased to report that we have had wonderful success with ' Cyanogas.' I took the
trouble to visit a ground-hog bank that has been infested with ground-hogs for the last ten years
and which has been continuously poisoned, trapped, and shot over. Every hole was filled with
weeds and covered lightly with earth after the cyanide was placed in the hole, and after three
days not one was uncovered. One hole in a stone pile had a rock placed in front and the groundhog in this hole was lying dead near the entrance.
" I took some cyanide at noon and placed it in about a dozen gopher-holes and returned in
a few minutes, passing the first holes poisoned; these holes were not closed up. I found three
dead gohpers lying at the entrance of their holes; this was in a very few minutes."
WOMEN'S INSTITUTES.
The year closed with a total of 111 institutes in operation, being a net increase of one over
the year 1925. Five Women's Institutes were incorporated during the period, as follows:
January 23rd, Howe Sound ; April 7th, Tarrys-Thrums; May 17th, Midway; June 14th, Canoe;
September 23rd, Edgewood and Fire Valley.
The total membership was 3,127, as against 3,186 last year. This decrease was reflected
in some of the larger institutes, which showed a lessened membership as compared with the
previous year.    The following table shows the figures for the leading institutes:—
Membership.
Year 1926. Year 1925.
Cranbrook      67 57
Kelowna        61 65
Nelson       60 59
Creston        58 44
Hatzic :    56 60
Parksville      55 59
Qualicum        53 80
Kaslo       50 38
Peachland      49 55
Penticton     49 37 N 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Financial.
The total revenue of all institutes for the year was $51,030.34 and the expenditure $41,347.70.
The institutes with revenues over $1,000 were as follows (Kelowna and Victoria again
leading as in 1925) :—
Kelowna $2,271.82; amount raised per capita, $37.24
Victoria  2,017.19; „ „ 44.82
West Saanich  1,601.46; „ „ 80.07
Salmon Arm  1,560.60; „ „ 55.73
Vernon  1,427.22; „ „ 31.71
South Saltspring Island  1,329.25; „ „ 34.14
Okanagan Falls  1,269.78; „ „ 52.90
Pitt Meadows  1,034.84; „ „ 54.46
Tappen  1,032.99; „ „ 46.95
Strawberry Vale  1,009.41; „ „ 59.37
Flower-shows, Exhibits op Women's Work, etc.
Sixty-five of these events were held during the year, as against seventy in 1925. The
following grouping shows rough details, whilst a full list is containesl in Appendix No. 3:—■
(a.) Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.—Twenty events, including one fall fair, two bulb-
shows, fifteen flower-shows, three health exhibits, etc.
(b.) Lower Mainland.—Twenty events, including sixteen flower-shows, etc.
(c.) Okanagan and Dry Belt.—Fifteen events, including one fall fair, fourteen flower-shows,
one better-baby clinic, etc.
(eJ.)  Kootenay.—Fifteen events, including eleven flower-shows, two fall fair exhibits, etc.
PUBLICATIONS.
The total number of bulletins and circulars distributed to the public by mail, etc., was
52,453, this being a reduction on the previous year, due in large part to a more careful issue of
departmental literature at the Coast exhibitions, where in past years a somewhat lavish distribution had occurred.   The details were as follows :—
Live-stock and mixed farming   12,676
Poultry bulletins and circulars      9,812
Horticultural circulars    13,460
Agricultural Department circulars      5,568
Dairy  circulars      2,934
Research bulletins        450
Field-crop circulars          739
Miscellaneous bulletins      3,142
Annual reports         679
Miscellaneous     2,993
Total   52,453
The issue of new bulletins and circulars, as well as reprints, amounted to a total of 53,150.
A valuable new publication was Bulletin No. 98, " Roots ami Root-growing," by Professor
Paul Boving, of the University of British Columbia, which filled a blank long felt in the official
literature of the Department. -^^—
DEPABTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 17
The following statement shows the details of the various editions :-
Date.
Name.
Description.
No.
1926.
Jan.   15
,.      27
Feb.   22
Mar.     2
2
8
„      13
„ 22
April 8
8
„ 19
„ 20
„ 27
„ 30
May 14
„ 20
June 1
„ 17
„ 22
„ 23
July 28
„ 30
Aug. 9
„ 27
Aug. 31
Sept. 14
„ 18
„ 22
„ 25
Oct. 4
„ 28
Nov. 11
Dec. 8
„ 23
Agricultural Legislative Report (Advisory Board of F.I.)
Spray Calendar,  1926 	
Natural and Artificial Incubation and Brooding (3rd Ed.)...
Cabbage-root Maggot   (Revised Ed.)   	
Care and Feeding of Dairy Cattle  (2nd Ed.)  	
Goat-raising in B.C.   (4th Ed.)   	
Varieties of Fruit recommended for Planting in B.C. (Revised   Ed.)   	
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands  (4th Ed.)   	
Hints on Egg-hatching 	
Locust-control 	
Grasshopper-control   	
Climate of B.C.  (11th Ed.)  	
Agriculture in the Similkameen, etc.  (2nd Ed.)  	
Certified Milk and Butter-fat Records 	
Grasshopper-control   (2nd  Ed.)   	
Board of Horticulture Regulations 	
Bee-keepers'   Calendars	
Roots and Root-growing 	
List  of  Publications   	
Agricultural   Statistics,  1925  	
Rules governing Cow-testing Associations 	
List of Publications 	
Report of Department of Agriculture for Year 1925  	
Ropy Milk in B.C	
Tell the Truth about Cows 	
Apple Scab  (Revised Ed.)   	
Agricultural Legislative Report (Advisory Board of F.I.
(2nd Ed.)   	
Peat and Muck Soils  (2nd Ed.)  	
Rhubarb   Culture   	
B.C. Fairs Association 	
Some Facts about B.C.  (3rd Ed.)  	
A  Farm Dairy   Sterilizer  	
Women's Institute Regulations  	
Queensland Scheme of Orderly Marketing 	
Bulletin  39   	
Hort. Circ. No. 32
Bulletin  No.  67  ....
Bulletin No.  64  ....
Hort.  Circ.  No.  64  	
Agr. Dept. Circ. No.  33
Poultry  Circ. No. 25 	
Hort. Circ. No. 63 	
Leaflet   	
Bulletin   No.   27   	
Agr. Dept. Circ. No. 43 ..
Dairy  Circ.  No.   11   	
Leaflet   	
Leaflet   	
Bulletin No. 98 	
Leaflet	
Bulletin No. 97 	
Dairy Circ. No. 12 	
Leaflet   	
20th  Annual 	
Research Bulletin No. 1
Leaflet   	
Hort. Circ. No. 44 	
Field Crop Circ. No. 5 ..
Hort.  Circ. No. 67 	
10th  Annual  Report  ....
Agr. Dept. Circ. No. 44
Dairy Circ. No. 13 	
Booklet   	
Leaflet   	
Total	
750
2,000
2,500
1,000
2,500
5,000
1,000
2,500
2,500
1,500
1,000
1,500
1,000
1,000
1,000
750
500
2,500
1,000
1,500
1,500
1,000
900
1,000
3,000
1,000
500
1,000
1,000
250
1,000
5,000
2,000
1,000
53,150
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Secretary.
BEPOET OF DEPAKTMENTAL SECEETAEY RE PALL FAIES.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report on fall fairs held in the Province
during the year 1926.
The total number of incorporated Agricultural Associations is now fifty-eight, two bodies
having had their charters cancelled during the year by the Registrar of Companies; i.e., the
Abbotsford-Sumas Agricultural Association and the Penticton Agricultural and Horticultural
Society; no fair had been held at these places for a number of years and the " Societies Act"
had not been complied with in the matter of filing returns.
A certificate of incorporation was issued by the Registrar of Companies to the Woodpecker
District Fair Association on October 11th;   this is a newly developed district in a Land Settlement Board area between Prince George and Quesnel, and two small fairs had been held before
incorporation was applied for.
2 N 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FAIRS HELD.
The total number of exhibitions and fairs held was actually sixty-three, although sixty-seven
associations and miscellaneous bodies had reserved dates earlier in the season. This figure is
a decrease on the year 1925, when sixty-nine events were held. The following table shows the
fairs grouped in the five circuits into which the Province is divided:—■
Exhibitions and Fairs held in British Columbia, Year 1926.
Exhibitions and Fairs.
Circuit
I.
Circuit
II.
Circuit
III.
Circuit
IV.
Circuit
V.
1
1                 3
4
1
3
10
3
8
2
2
12
6
3
Totals	
13
21
8
13
8
Grand total for Province, 63.
The Knutsford Stock-show, held for so many years on Dominion Day, was omitted.
An outstanding feature of the year was the second annual Winter Stock-show held under
the auspices of the Vancouver Exhibition Association. The Apple-show that was staged at the
same time was the most notable event in Provincial horticulture since the National Apple-show
held in 1910.
JUDGES.
A grand total of ninety-one judges was supplied by the Department, including thirty-nine
Department officials and fifty-two from outside sources, as follows:—
Staff Judges. Outside Judges.
Fruit and vegetables      13 5
Flowers        1 2
Field crops        7 2
Live stock        7 14
Poultry          4 16
Dairy        3
Women's work      2 12
Honey          2 1
Totals     39 52
REPORTS ON FAIRS BY JUDGES.
In spite of the dry and early season, judges' reports were encouraging and indicate that not
only were exhibits at most fairs of higher standard, but that the management and general
arrangements showed improvement; this is clearly borne out in the table of score-card placings,
many fairs having improved their position over the previous year.
The type, colour, and quality of the fruit displayed at the majority of fairs showed that
considerable time and thought, with an ideal in view, had been exercise in the selection of
exhibits. The recommended standards being printed in the prize-lists have done a great deal
toward improving the class of exhibits.
Vegetable exhibits and displays also showed improvement, but there is still considerable
educational work to be done as regards varieties, commercial requirements, and importance
in the districts.
Floral exhibits are becoming quite an important factor in all fairs, and from now on, with
the formation of local horticultural societies, this division will increase in importance.
Most fair committees are adopting more uniform prize-lists, while classes of commercial
value and importance for the district are being emphasized and brought to the fore.
Live-stock exhibits were also of high standard, a noticeable feature being the better competition at the smaller fairs in these classes; some local fairs also that had not hitherto provided for live-stock entries now do so, making them thus more truly representative of their
communities. SCORE-CARD RECORD.
The score-card which has now been used by Department judges for three seasons was
slightly altered this year after consultation with judges and officials, as follows:—
(a.)  Poultry, maximum decreased from 10 to 5 points.
(6.)   Support of fair by local exhibitors, maximum decreased from 10 to 5 points.
(c.) Interest of public in exhibits and judging, maximum increased from 10 to 15 points.
(d.)  Management of fair, maximum increased from 15 to 20 points.
There was considerable change of positions amongst the fairs in all five circuits, full details
being advised to all associations at the close of the season.
EXHIBITIONS.
The three Coast exhibitions maintained the same relative position; all were, however,
scored higher than in 1925. New Westminster attained the high score of 93 per cent. Victoria
scored 83.5 per cent., a gain practically of 10 points, and Vancouver 84 per cent., with the
management rated at the maximum attainable.
Circuit I., Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands (13 Fairs).—The Saanichton Fair headed the
list, with the highest score (83.9) hitherto made in this circuit. Ladysmith made the biggest
gain, qualifying for third position with an excellent score, although no poultry was shown.
In this circuit six fairs improved their score and three went back. Of the smaller events,
Metchosin and Sayward are particularly deserving of mention.
Circuit II., Lower Mainland (21 Fairs).—Matsqui headed the list, also with a record score
of 86.4 per cent, for this circuit. This was a not unexpected result as plans had been well laid
early in the season. Chilliwack pulled up to second place, with North Vancouver a good third;
Surrey,- Langley, and Agassiz following, with a practically identical score. Agassiz advanced
from thirteenth place in 1925 to sixth this year.
In this circuit nine fairs improved their position and nine fell back, Mission, that headed
the list last year, only achieving eighth place.
Circuit III., Okanagan and Dry Belt (8 Fairs).—Salmon Arm led in this circuit with a score
of 82.3 per cent., with Armstrong a good second. Ashcroft jumped to third position from the
eighth last year and shows evidence of becoming a good district show. Five fairs improved
their position in this circuit.
Circuit IV., East and West Kootenay (13 Fairs).—Cranbrook led in this circuit with the
highest score hitherto made (79.8), being an increase of 13 points over last year. Fernie, holding their first fair, took the very creditable position of second place with a 75-per-cent. score.
No less than nine fairs improved their position in points in this circuit, the greatest gains
being made by Cranbrook and Creston. Trail management was awarded 19 points out of a
possible 20, and this fair would be a strong competitor for premier position in the Kootenay
Circuit if only live-stock exhibits were included.
Circuit V., Central British Columbia (8 Fairs).—There were two fairs less in this circuit
than in 1925, Prince George being cancelled at rather short notice. Smithers again took first
place, but with a reduced score (71.9 per cent). Terrace made the best increase in points,
being ranked second.    Prince Rupert fell back slightly.
GRANTS.
The Agricultural Fairs vote for the fiscal year 1926-27 was $38,000 and exceeded the vote
of the previous year by $3,000. A grant of $2,000 was made to the Armstrong and Spallum-
cheen Agricultural Association at Armstrong to replace certain buildings that had been
destroyed by fire, and a payment of an extra $1,000 to the winter poultry-shows, which haEl
been cut this amount since 1924, and an additional sum of $5,000 was provided by special
warrant as a grant to the winter stock-show at Vancouver.
The vote alloweEl a grant of 21 per cent, to be paid to fairs based on the previous year's
cash prize-money, as compared with 20 per cent, in 1925.
THE BRITISH COLUMBIA FAIRS ASSOCIATION.
This association attained its highest membership during the past year, fifty-eight Fair Associations and other bodies holding fairs paying their fees to same. A well-attended annual meeting was held at New Westminster on April 6th, at which resolutions were passed dealing with N 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the giving of instructional talks by judges, the classification of fairs, and the provision of a
separate vote for the three Coast exhibitions.
JUDGES' RECOMMENDATIONS.
Considerable useful criticism is included in the judges' reports forwarded to the Department at the close of the fair season and extracts from same are preparesl and sent out before
the next season's work commences. The following suggestion appearesl to be of particular
interest: " At many fairs classes of important crops of recognized varieties suitable for the district might be entered in the prize-list, such crops to be judged during the growing season and
scored accordingly. This would have an educational value and teml to establish authentic
information for new settlers and others. These classes would tend also to impress on growers
the value of good seed of good varieties, and demonstrate the value of the more economic
methods of handling. The harvested crops couIeI then be exhibited with such information as
was necessary, together with score-cards and remarks on the crop."
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Secretary.
REPOET OF PROVINCIAL HORTICULTURIST AND INSPECTOR
OF FRUIT PESTS.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year 1926.
SEASONAL CONDITIONS.
The past year has been on the whole extremely mild in practically all sections of the Province. At most points in the Okanagan and the Kootenay the temperature never dropped to zero,
and where it did it was only for a very short period. As the trees had gone into the winter in a
thoroughly matured conElition they started growth in the spring without any winter-injury.
This, coupled with the fact that the severe winter-injury of the preceding year had materially
shortened the crop, resulteEl in a very heavy crop of both tree and small fruits. The tree-fruit
crop was in fact one of the largest on record in the Interior sections. Mild weather also prevailed in the Coast sections, with the result that the small-fruit crop was larger in many sections
than in 1925.    Over-wintering vegetables came through the winter in excellent condition.
A serious drawback to the mild winter, however, was the light fall of snow. This, coupled
with the fact that most of the melting snow soaked into the ground, made but very little run-off,
which is so essential to the filling of irrigation reservoirs. As a result the irrigaion-supply was
limited and required careful rationing of the water in practically all districts during the growing period. The fall season was marked by a frost of from 12° to 14° about the middle of
September. There was some damage to the tree-fruit crop, although not serious. On the other
hand, the onion-crop suffered severely and a loss of approximately 25 per cent, was reported.
The tomato season also as a result of this frost was materially shortened, causing a loss to the
growers and decrease in the quantity packed.
MARKET CONDITIONS.
It is not the intention of your official to discuss fully the markets and marketing of horticultural products. This has been done by the Markets Commissioner. It is thought advisable,
however, that the following points should be recorded in this report:—
The returns on tree-fruits have not yet been compiled, but indications are that they will
be lower than for 1925. Small fruits shipped to the fresh-fruit trade were also lower in price
than in 1925. The jam and canning trade, however, paid a better price than in the previous 5rear.
Hothouse products, such as tomatoes and cucumbers, show an increase in quantity. New markets
had to be secured for this crop. The result was that, including spring and fall shipments, ten
cars of tomatoes were shipped to Toronto and Montreal and gave most satisfactory returns. The acreage in cantaloupes showed an increase over the past year. In 1925 approximately
twenty-six car-loads were shipped from the Oliver District. In 1926 over forty car-loads were
shipped. The prices received were not quite as good as for the previous year, due to the poor
returns on the last few cars, which reached the market when climatic conditions were unsatisfactory on the Prairie.
ORCHARD SURVEY.
The last orchard survey made by your Horticultural Branch was undertaken in 1920. This
covered the principal tree-fruit areas of the Interior—namely, the territory included in the
Okanagan and Kootenay Horticultural Districts. As five years hail elapsed since that survey
it was thought advisable to undertake another survey. Field-work was finished in the fall of
1925 and the figures compiled during the early winter of 1926. The details of this survey,
showing acreage in different tree-fruits in the various districts, has been issued in printed form
for distribution. A brief summary giving a comparison of acreage in the two horticultural
districts for 1920 and 1925 is appended.    (See Appendix No. 4.)
SMALL-FRUIT SURVEY.
A survey of the small-fruit acreage has been made by your Horticultural Branch every two
years. This was again undertaken during the past season in co-operation with the Statistics
Branch. The last survey shows a decrease of approximately 1,000 acres in comparison with
the 1924 figures. (For tabulated figures showing acreage devoted to the various small fruits
in the different districts see Appendix No. 5.)
CROP ESTIMATES AND REPORTS.
In addition to the obtaining of final figures on fruit and vegetable production which it is
necessary to secure each year for the Statistics Branch, your Horticultural Branch issues from
time to time during the growing season fruit- and vegetable-crop estimates. These are issued
through the medium of the News Letter. In addition, reports are issued on crop conditions at
various times to newspapers and banks. In order that there may be a uniformity of figures
published your Branch co-operates with the Dominion Fruit Branch in the securing and tabulating of these figures.
NEW CROPS.
Under this heading should be mentioned such crops as tobacco, seed-growing, production of
bulbs, etc.
During the past year there were between 50 and 60 acres devoted to the growing of tobacco
in the Okanagan Valley, principally in the Kelowna District. It is anticipated that 1927 will
see a considerable increase in the acreage devoted to this crop, not only in the Okanagan, but in
other districts as well.
Seed-growing, while hardly a new industry, is one that is gaining in importance each year.
Flower-seed forms the major portion of the seed produced, with perhaps the exception of certain
vegetable-seed, such as peas. As stateil in previous reports, the growth of the industry will
depend upon the development of markets. The security of stock seeds of pure strain for foundation stock is an important phase of this work. This is being undertaken by the Dominion Experimental Farms and Faculties of Agriculture of the various Provincial universities.
Another horticultural crop which is creating increased interest in bulb production. In 1925
British Columbia imported 2,924,585 bulbs. The major portion of these come from Holland.
More of the Provincial as well as the Dominion requirements could be produced in British
Columbia. At the present time there is between 20 and 25 acres devoted to bulbs in the Province.
A large percentage of this acreage is devoted to producing cut flowers. Those, however, who
have bulbs for sale find a ready market.
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES.
As pointed out in a previous report, a number of Horticultural Societies have been formed,
principally at Interior points, for the promotion of interest in amateur horticulture. The
number of these societies has been increased during the past year. One of the results has been
the holding of some very successful local flower-shows.   These have been assisted by officials N 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of your Branch in various ways, such as in organizing, secretarial work, and in the capacity
of flower-judges. An attempt was made to bring these various units together under one head,
to be known as the " British Columbia Horticultural Council." Up to the present this has not
been successful.
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD.
Another phase of agricultural work which the officials and particularly the fieldmen of your
Branch are asked to undertake is a certain type of field-work for the Land Settlement Board.
This comprises appraisal-work for loans and the issuing of information to possible purchasers
regarding Land Settlement land which may be for sale.
PRUNING AND PACKING SCHOOLS.
There is always a demand during the winter period for instruction in pruning. Your Branch
attempts to meet this demand not only by personal instruction upon individual ranches, but
also by the holding of three-day pruning-schools and one-day demonstrations. In the case of
pruning-schools a charge of $1 per pupil is made for the three-day course. No charge is made
for the demonstrations. During the past year eleven pruning-schools were held, with an attendance of 102. One-day demonstrations, numbering twenty-six, were held, with an attendance
of 310.    (For detailed information see AppenElices Nos. 6 and 7.)
There is not the demand for packing-schools that there was a number of yeai'S ago. This is
due to the fact that there is more centralized packing than formerly. The present demands are
principally from outlying districts. This last season only two schools were held, with an
attendance of twenty-six pupils.    (For detailed information see Appendix No. 8.)
BULLETINS AND PRESS ARTICLES.
From time to time bulletins have been issued to meet the demand for information on horticultural subjects. At the present time there is a large number covering a variety of subjects.
They require constant revision and it is also necessary to issue bulletins dealing with subjects
not already covered. During the past season a bulletin on rhubarb-growing was issued, as well
as assistance given in compiling a bulletin on irrigation and issued by the Water Rights Branch
of the Department of Lands. It is hopeEl during the coming year to issue bulletins dealing with
cover-crops, cantaloupes, and oil-sprays.
As in past years, the News Letter was prepared and issueEI by your Branch to all growers
and interested parties. This was done only during the spring and summer. The time of issuing
changed from weekly to fortnightly.
Press articles dealing with topical subjects have been sent out from time to time and serve
to keep the public informed as to what work your Branch is undertaking, as well as giving
the widest publicity to certain recommended lines of work which should be carrieEl out by the
growers.
INSPECTION-WORK.
Nursery Inspection.—As in the past, your Inspectors have inspected ail the principal
nurseries in the Province. This work ensures the shipment of tree-fruits to purchasers that are
free from disease and insect pests. During the past year there was a total of 93,800 trees
inspected ;   6,160 or 6.5 per cent, of these were condemned and destroyed.
Car Inspection.—While the old policy of spraying for codling-moth control was dropped
at the end of 1925, it was thought advisable to continue the inspection and treatment of all
fruit-cars entering the Okanagan and Kootenay fruit-districts during the months of August and
September.
Inspection of Imported and Exported Plant Products.—This work officially comes under the
supervision of the Inspector of Imported and Exported Horticultural and Field Products. It
has been necessary, however, for the officials of your Horticultural Branch to undertake inspection of certain shipments arriving at outside points. The same also applies to inspection of
plant products originating at outside points for export and which may require an export certificate. Fruit and vegetable export shipments from the Okanagan require these export certificates.
Details as to number of export certificates issued will be found in the report of your Inspector
• of Imported and Exported Horticultural and Field Products. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 23
COMPULSORY SPRAYING.
It was decided by the Government that the old system of quarantine areas and the spraying
of same for the control of codling-moth would be discontinued at the end of 1925. Districts
were, however, given the opportunity of forming compulsory spraying zones. An Order in
Council was passed which made this possible upon receipt of a petition from any district signed
by 60 per cent, of the growers. Your Branch also thought it advisable that there should be
certain regulations as to the number of spray-machines. This requirement was finally placed
at one 4-horse-power machine for every 50 acres. Regulations were also drafted based upon
the "Agricultural Act," Part II., R.S.B.C. 1924, which outlined the actual spraying requirements and penalties for non-compliance. Because of certain deficiencies in the Act under which
this work would have to be carried out no spraying zones were formed. It is expected, however,
that with the amendment to the Act which it is proposed to make at the next meeting of the
Legislature there will be a number of zones established during the coming year.
DEMONSTRATION-WORK IN THE CONTROL OF DISEASES AND
INSECTS AFFECTING TREE AND SMALL FRUITS.
In order that recommendations made by the officials of your Branch should be more effective
it is essential that demonstration-work of various kinds be carried out. With this in mind a
number of demonstrations in the control of diseases and insects affecting both tree and small
fruits have been carried out in the past and will be continued and extended in the future. The
following will give some idea of the work undertaken in 1926 and to be undertaken in 1927:—
Apple-scab (Venturia inequalis) Sprays.—Control-work for apple-scab was carried out at
Salmon Arm and Willow Point. As to the Salmon Arm work, C. R. Barlow, District Field
Inspector, makes the following statement at the conclusion of his report on this work:—
"The conclusion to be drawn from the results appear to be: (1.) That in a season when
precipitation is moderate or light even the weakest solutions of lime-sulphur used will control
apple-scab effectively in the Salmon Arm District. (2.) That in such a season the use of
spreaders with the lime-sulphur is of little or no benefit."
While one phase of the above work was to ascertain the value of spreaders in scab-control,
the work as undertaken at Willow Point by E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, and J. W.
Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, was to ascertain the value of liquid lime-sulphur as
against dry lime-sulphur, both from the standpoint of effectiveness of control and relative cost
of spray materials. This is a repetition of the work as carried out in 1925. It is not necessary
to include the whole report of the work done in this report. A couple of statements taken from
Mr. Hunt's report sums up concretely the results of this work: "(1.) The resEilts this year are
also more in favour of the liquid lime-sulphur. (2.) On the basis of this season's work, as
well as that of last year, the dry lime-sulphur brands will have to be put on the market at
prices much lower than the lowest quoted to have much chance of displacing the liquid form in
commercial orchard work."
Cherry Blossom-blight (Monilia oregonensis) Spray.—This work, carried out in 1925 by
E. W. White, District Horticulturist, was continued in 1926 along similar lines. The following
is an extract from his report: " The severity of the infection in 1926 was materially less than
in previous years, but whether this was due to the spraying or general climatic conditions is
hard to determine.    It is proposed to continue this work in 1927."
Rose-scale (Aulacaspis rosm) Spray.—Work carried out during the past season in the
Mission District by G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, is a continuation of work started
by W. Downes, Assistant Entomologist, during the previous year. Mr. Clarke reports on this
work as follows :—
" A spring spray control for the rose-scale was applied this year with very favourable and
decided results in favour of the whale-oil soap application which proved very satisfactory for
the fall spraying the previous year.
" On March 26th the weather was warm and the scale had the general appearance of
loosening from the canes. Sprays were applied at this time and on April 2nd specimens were
taken and forwarded to Mr. W. Downes at Victoria."
The following is a copy of the report received on the sprays used:—
" The canes were beginning to wither when I received them, and on this account the mortality shown as the result of lime-sulphur and oil sprays may not have been as high in reality, N 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
as many of the insects may simply have been dead or dying from lack of nourishment, most of
them being still plump. On the other hand, there was no doubt whatever as to the effectiveness
of the soap sprays, the dead insects being shrunken and evidently dead for several days, and the
eggs also showing the characteristic effect of soap sprays.
" Whale-oil soap, 1 lb. to 1 gallon, cold, 100 per cent. dead.    Eggs killed.
Whale-oil soap, % lb. to 1 gallon, hot, 99 per cent. dead.    Eggs killed.
Liquid lime-sulphur, 1-16, 69 per cent, eggs unaffected.
Allover oil, 1-12, 71 per cent, eggs unaffected.
Dormoil, 1-12, 47 per cent, eggs unaffected.
' Para ' spray, 1-48, hot, 41 per cent, eggs unaffected.
" From this it would seem that soap sprays can be applied in the spring with success.
The results with the other materials are only approximate, the amount of scale material being
insufficient to obtain an accurate idea of the effect, but they indicate that such materials are
of very little value for rose-scale control unless used very much stronger."
Cherry Fruit-fly (Rhagoletis cingulata) Spray.—This insect has made its appearance in
certain of the Kootenay cherry sections. With regard to this insect, E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, reports as follows: " This much-dreaded pest has made its appearance in a few of
the cherry-orchards in the Boswell District. The flies were first reported in 1924, and were
quite bad in 1925 in a few trees. In 1926 some spraying was done for the control of this pest,
the work being carried on by Mr. Ginol at Ginol's Landing, near Boswell, B.C. The following
remedy was used: % lb. of arsenate of lead, 2 quarts of syrup or molasses, and 10 gallons of
water. One pint of this solution is enough to effectively spray a full-size cherry-tree. Three
such sprays are required during the season for the control of the flies. This spray is applied as
coarse drops on the foliage of the trees, special attention being paid to the sunny side of the
trees, where most of the flies are found and will feed on the sweetened poison bait. The first
application should be promptly made on the appearance of the first flies, which is usually in
this section about June 10th. The second application is put on in two weeks' time and the
third two weeks after the second. Mr. Ginol followed the above instructions this past season,
and he states: ' The spray was most satisfactory, and I have not seen a maggot in a cherry
this year.' Last year and this year where spraying was not carried out the cherry-maggot was
present on a number of varieties of cherry-trees. The May Duke and Olivet seemed to be worst,
although some of the Royal Anns and other sweets were infected."
Strawberry Leaf-roller (Ancylis comptana).—E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, reports
that this pest is found in almost all the strawberry-fields in the Slocan Valley and South-west
Kootenay. Growers in those sections are experiencing heavy losses and in some cases over half
the crop has been destroyed.    Control measures are being planned for the season of 1927.
Strawberry Root-weevil (Otiorhynchus ovatus).—This is one of the most important pests
attacking strawberries. It is found not only in the Coast sections, but in the Kootenay sections
as well. There have been a number of controls recommended and your staff has worked with
the Dominion Entomological staff in attempting to arrive at some satisfactory control that might
be considered as commercially feasible. During the past year a poisonous bait has been used
with most satisfactory results and this work will be continued during the coming year. The
weevil-bait, however, is at the present time being recommended to the growers, and as it will
be manufactured in British Columbia during the coming year there will likely be large quantities used.
Previous to trials with bait the weevil-barrier was recommended and had been used commercially. In order to demonstrate the efficacy of the barrier system your Horticultural Branch
in 1919 established a plot of 5 acres at Gordon Head on the ranch of Councillor G. A. Vantreight.
In addition to control methods worked out on this plot, production figures were also kept and a
regular rotation followed. As the results of this plot have been recorded in each annual report
it is thought advisable that they again be presented. The following is an extract from the
report of E. W. White, District Horticulturist:—
" Demonstration Strawberry-plot, Gordon Head.—Control of Lot 5 in this plot was relinquished when the plants were removed in the fall of 1925, after the harvesting of the second
crop. However, control has been retained over Lot 6, which bore its first crop of strawberries
in 1926. Oats and barley, Prince George.
4,     ,.->
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Settler's home and garden near Telkwa, owned by J. G. Donaldson.  " Opportunity is taken at this time to express appreciation for the earnest way in which
Councillor G. A. Vantreight carried out the work on the plot during the year. Councillor
Vantreight has kept accurate records on Lots 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 and this information is available
to the Department.
" The work in connection with the weevil-barrier was very carefully and efficiently carried
on by Wm. Downes, Assistant Entomologict, Dominion Entomological Branch.
" The following is a summary of the work carried out on the various lots during 1926 and
a summary of crops grown since the inception of the plot in 1919:—
"Lot 1.—1919, clover; 1920, Sir Walter Raleigh potatoes; 1921, planted to strawberries;
1922, first crop; 1923, second crop; 1924, third crop, seeded to fall wheat; 1925, seeded to
clover and rye-grass, wheat cut for hay; 1926, clover. The crop was cut on June 5th, raked on
June 9th, cocked on June 10th, and hauled in on June 30th. The crop was a most excellent
one, yielding approximately 4 tons of hay.
" Lot 2.—1919, Sir Walter Raleigh potatoes; 1920, planted to strawberries; 1921, first crop;
1922, second crop, seeded to fall wheat and clover;  1923, reseeded to clover, wheat cut for hay;
1924, clover; 1925, clover; 1926, clover. The crop was cut on June 4th, raked on June 9th,
cocked on June 10th, and hauled in on June 30th. The crop was light, yielding approximately 2
tons of hay.    This lot was ploughed on August Sth and harrowed twice on September 27th.
" Lot 3.—1919, fall wheat; 1920, oats and vetch; 1921, Sir Walter Raleigh certified seed-
potatoes ; 1922, planted to strawberries; 1923, first crop; 1924, second crop, seeded to fall wheat;
1925, east and west sides killed out, these portions seeded to oats, whole lot seeded to clover and
rye-grass, wheat and oats cut for hay; 1926, on the east and west sides there was no catch
of clover and rye-grass, so these portions were ploughed on February 10th, seeded with 65 lb.
of oats on March 3rd, and harrowed in the same day. On June 4th the clover-hay on centre
half of the lot was cut; it was raked on June 9th and cocked on June 10th. The oat-hay on
the east and west sides was cut on June 24th, raked on June 26th, and cocked on June 27th.
On June 30th the clover-hay was hauled in and was an excellent crop of about 2 tons. On
July 1st the oat-hay, which was a light crop of about 1 ton, was hauled in.
" On August 6th the portions of this lot which were in oat-hay were ploughed and they
were harrowed twice on September 27th. On December 6th the remainder of this lot, which was
in a one-year clover-sod, was ploughed also.
" Lot 4-—1919, planted to strawberries; 1920, first crop; 1921, Sir Walter Raleigh certified
seed-potatoes; 1922, oats seeded to clover, reseeded to clover in fall; 1923, again reseeded to
clover in the spring, volunteer crop of oats, some clover and grass; 1924, clover; 1925, clover;
1926, clover. The crop was cut on June 5th, raked on June 9th, cocked on June 10th, and
hauled in on June 30th.    It was a fair crop estimated at about 2 tons.
" On August 5th and 6th this lot was ploughed and on September 27th it was harrowed twice.
" Lot 5.—1919, fall oats; 1920, spring oats seeded to clover; 1921, clover; 1922, Sir Walter
Raleigh certified seed-potatoes; 1923, planted to straw-berries; 1924, first crop; 1925, second
crop, seeded to fall wheat; 1926, wheat-hay. The crop was cut on June 9th, raked and cocked
on June 12th, and hauled in on July 1st.    The. crop was very fair and estimated at about 2 tons.
" On December 3rd and 4th this lot was ploughed.
" Lot 6.—1919, fall oats; 1920, English Wonder peas, ploughed down June 10th and Sir
Walter Raleigh potatoes planted, seeded to fall wheat; 1921, seeded to clover, wheat cut for
hay; 1922, clover; 1923, clover; 1924, Sir Walter Raleigh certified seed-potatoes; 1925, planted
to strawberries; 1926, first crop.
" The spring crop on this lot consisted of five cultivations and four hoeings. It was necessary to cut the runners on May 21st and the straw was laid and set on May 22nd and 23rd.
" The first picking of the spring crop was made on May 25th and the last on July 2nd. On
the next day the plants were cut down and the straw and leaves burnt on July 7th. On July 9th
the patch was hoed and on July 12th it was cultivated and irrigated.
" The fall work consisted of five cultivations and three hoeings. It was also necessary to
cut the runners on August 20th.
" The spring crop was one of the largest harvested on the demonstration plot and the fall
crop was almost equal to a spring crop in a poor season. N 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" The following table shows the dates of picking and the Ejuantities of both crate and jam
berries harvested for the spring and fall crop in 1926:—
* Or I-/24 crates.
Fall Crop.
* Or 3 n/« crates.
Variety Magoon.
Date of Picking.
Crates.
Hallocks.
Lb. Jam-
berries.
M
Ji.
3
17
32
69
89
19
"12.
5
61
15
15
12
8
8
6
12
12
,      30               	
ne    2	
5	
9 .           	
,      10	
,      13	
,      14   	
,      18                               	
,     19	
,      20                                  	
,      23	
,      23                                  	
210
,      23	
10
,      24	
252
,      25	
153
,      30	
153
Ji
ily     2	
31
Totals	
409
46*
809
Sept.    3	
1
1
3
4
5
1
7
8
4
3
8
8
6
6
2
4
6
8
6
2
4
1
3
2
1
6
1
4
4
1
2
1
18
14
6
19
5
12
12
2
5
„     10	
„      14	
„      17	
„      18	
„     21 .'.	
22
„     24	
„     25	
„      28	
„      30	
Oct.     2	
9	
12              	
„      13	
„      15	
„      16	
„      19	
20.                	
„      21	
„      23	
„      26	
„      30	
Nov.    3	
5	
6	
„      12	
„      13	
„      18 1	
„     20 :	
„      26	
Totals	
123
93* DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 27
" At the approximate average price received for the crate shipments, jam-berries, and local
sales of the fall crop, the gross return per acre would be as follows:—
41022/24 crates at average price of $2.50   $1,027.29
809 lb. jam-berries at 11 cents          88.99
1262i/24 crates at average price of $2.74         347.64
Total gross receipts   $1,473.92
' " Irrigation of Lot 6.—The Gordon Head District having a domestic supply of water, furnished from the Victoria waterworks system, which can also be used for irrigation purposes,
Mr. Vantreight decided to irrigate Lot 6 at his own expense."
EFFECTIVENESS OF SPRAY MATERIALS.
Trials with various spray materials were carried out during the past year. This was undertaken to demonstrate the effectiveness of certain new materials in comparison with materials
already in common use. In other cases it was undertaken to determine time and, if possible,
secure cost data in the use of certain sprays.
Oil Sprays.—Reporting on this work which was carried out in 1924 and 1925, H. H. Evans,
Assistant District Horticulturist, makes the following statement: " The only work with oil
sprays in the past year was on the original plot, which is still being sprayed to note any effects
of cumulative oil injury."
Arsenical Sprays.—The fruit-growers of the Province have in the past and even at the
present time used exclusively arsenate of lead as an insecticide in combating leaf-eating insects.
In some of the fruit-growing centres of the East calcium arsenate has been used. For the past
three seasons your Branch has tried out these materials in order to observe and record whether
or not there was any burning action on fruit and foliage, the comparative value of these materials
from an insecticidal standpoint, and their action in combination with other sprays. It is
impossible to report in detail on this work, but the following summary by H. H. Evans, Assistant
District Horticulturist, explains briefly the finding up to the present:—
" Applications of calcium arsenate over three seasons under variable climatic conditions
has resulted in no burning or russeting of foliage or fruit.
" Arsenate of lead has shown consistently slightly better control of leaf-roller than that
obtained from calcium arsenate.
" The addition of calcium-caseinate spreader to both arsenicals has given slightly the best
results.
" Calcium arsenate in combination with lime-sulphur shows no apparent chemical reaction,
as there is evident no deposit of sludge.
" Arsenate of lead in combination with lime-sulphur causes a decided reaction and the
deposit of a black sludge in the spray-tank.
" Several authorities seem agreed that this combination creates an excess of free soluble
arsenic. To the writer's knowledge the above combination will cause severe burning under certain atmospheric conditions.
" The addition of 2 to 3 lb. of lime per 100 gallons of spray to the above combination practically eliminates this objectionable reaction. The addition of calcium-caseinate spreader at the
rate of 1 lb. to 80 gallons of spray also assists in retarding the chemical reaction. In any
case the lime-sulphur should be put in the tank last, and just before the spraying commences.
" From close observation regarding the sticking qualities of calcium arsenate and arsenate
of lead the latter has proved superior.
" Calcium arsenate has apparently come to stay as a spray material in the fruit-growers'
programme, as the difference in its cost and that of arsenate of lead is an economic
consideration."
It is proposed to carry on this work for another year.
Codling-moth Sprays.—Tests were commenced this year to determine the correct number
of sprays and the best times of application in the control of codling-moth. This work was
undertaken by B. Hoy, Assistant District Horticulturist.    This work will be continued in 1927.
Green Aphis Sprays.—To determine the efficiency and comparative cost of materials in the
control of green aphis a series of sprays were applies! composed of various new materials as N 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
well as those already in use.    The results show that our present recommendations for the
control of green aphis are quite satisfactory.
VEGETABLE VARIETY AND FERTILIZER WORK.
With a view to ascertaining the possibility of growing certain vegetables from the standpoint
of value for canning and shipping purposes as well as for seed-work? this Branch secured a
small quantity of seed for trial purposes last spring. A brief summary of the work undertaken
follows:—
Corn Varieties.—The following varieties were tried out at Vernon: Golden Bantam, Kendall's Early Giant, Leonard's Narrow Grain, Country Gentleman, and Stowell's Evergreen.
These varieties, if they will mature in the ordinary season, could be used for shipping green as
well as demonstrating the possibilities of this crop from a canning-factory standpoint. Some
of these varieties will be tried out in 1927 with additional varieties.
Asparagus.—A small quantity of Mary Washington seed was secured and placed with
growers for trial purposes. This is a new variety and it is hoped that it will prove satisfactory in this Province, when it could be used not only in the vegetable-shipping business, but
for cannery purposes as well. The fact also that it is a pure strain would make it possible to
put in on the seed market. It will be three years before it comes into commercial production.
It is hoped to increase the plantings in 1927.
Lima Beans.—Three varieties of this bean—Fordhook Bush Lima, Burpee's Improved Bush
Lima, and Henderson's Bush—were tried in the Oliver section during the past summer. It
was felt that, in view of the fact that this bean is imported from the South, it would be advisable
to demonstrate whether or not this crop could be grown in British Columbia. The results
obtained, while not outstanding, were sufficiently satisfactory to warrant a further trial during
the coming season.
Onions and Tomatoes.—Fertilizer-work on these crops was carried out as a continuation of
last year's work. Tomatoes showed satisfactory results. Onion records, however, were not
kept as the plot on which the work was done was badly infested with wireworm and cutworm.
It is hoped that it will be possible to continue this work, and if so a report may be made at
the end of 1927.
Celery.—Fertilizer and storage tests were undertaken with this crop. The fertilizer-work
was undertaken with a view to ascertaining whether or not it would be possible to improve the
quality and increase the yields in celery in districts where it is of commercial importance.
The tests were very comprehensve, embracing as they did a number of plots and a number of
fertilizers in combination and separately. The results, while too detailed to be given in this
report, may be said to have been very satisfactory. Before a report is issued in detail it is
advisable that the work be carried on for another year at least.
In conjunction with this work celery-storage tests were undertaken. One crate of celery
from each plot was obtained by the Department and placed in cold storage for observation on
the keeping qualities of the celery grown with various fertilizer applications. The results were
very satisfactory and warrant a continuation of the work.
ORCHARD FERTILIZER TESTS.
In the Okanagan Valley our work with fertilizer in orchard tracts was continued. This has
proven very satisfactory and by following out this work for another year it should be possible
to make a complete report with recommendations.
Fertilizer-work on fruit-trees was also undertaken on Vancouver Island. Various fertilizers
as well as lime were used. Reporting on this work, E. W. White, District Horticulturist, makes
the following statement: " Results were not of a very tangible nature this year. The crop was
extremely light and scattered and no record was kept of it. The trees had received quite a
severe pruning-back in the spring and most of them responded with a fair amount of new
growth, while on some the new growth was negligible. It was not possible this year to
correlate the new growth with the application of the fertilizers."
It is intended to repeat the experiment in 1927.
PEST-CONTROL AVORK.
San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus pemiciosus).—As pointed out in the 1926 report, there are only
two sections where this scale is found—namely, Kaslo and Spences Bridge.    In the Kaslo Dis- $!*
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i*.;  DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 29
trict the area under quarantine was again sprayed with the dormant spray of oil. E. C. Hunt,
District Horticulturist, reports as follows on the work which was undertaken : " The quarantine
area at Kaslo for the San Jose scale was again sprayed this year by the Department. This
year the area was sprayed on March 17th to 20th. Two brands of oil spray were used this
year, Ortho Kleenup Oil and Allover Oil. The Allover Oil spray was used for the first time
this year. An 8-per-cent. solution was the strength used of both materials, and both gave very
satisfactory results in the control of this pest. The Allover Oil, coming from Penticton by
local freight, cost 47 cents f.o.b. Kaslo, while the 1925 price of the Ortho Oil was 43 cents f.o.b.
Kaslo, this latter material being put out by the California Spray Chemical Company. This
area was thoroughly inspected this summer and fall by Dominion and Provincial Entomologists
and reported (as far as it was possible to tell) the scale eradicated, and this area has now
been lifted from quarantine."
.    While the quarantine has been lifted, it has been thought advisable to apply another oil
spray next spring.    This should remove all doubt as to eradication.
As to the Spences Bridge area, it may be stated that no scale is to be found in the orchards,
and in the surrounding area the control measures as carried out in the past were repeated
in 1926.
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorus).—The blight inspection as carried out in the past was
again undertaken in 1926. Our reports show that in the Okanagan Valley the fieldmen of your
Branch inspected 17,201 acres, of which 12,258 acres passed inspection as free from fire-blight
infestation. Work on fire-blight inspection and assistance to growers was also carried out in
the Kootenay sections where fire-blight was prevalent.
Codling-moth (Cydia pomonella).—While the quarantine-work as carried out in previous
years was discontinued, codling-moth control work was undertaken in certain districts. In some
cases assistance was given under the " Codling-moth Control Act"; in other cases the work
was undertaken by the Department and paid for by groups of growers. AVork of a similar
nature will in all probability be undertaken in 1927.
Grasshopper-control.—This work was again undertaken by your staff in 1926 and along
similar lines to that which had been carried out in previous seasons. It will likely be necessary
to carry out this work again in 1927, although it is anticipated that the requirements will not
be so heavy in the horticultural districts as in previous years.
FALL FAIRS.
Your Horticultural staff were kept busy during the late summer and early fall acting as
judges at the various fall fairs held throughout the Province. The number of fairs was
approximately the same as last year. A full report on each fair was submitted by the individual
judge to the Secretary of the Fall Fairs Association. In aildition to these fairs, assistance
was also given at the time of the Potato, Bulb, and Seed Show in the judging of potatoes,
vegetable and flower seeds. In co-operation with the Dominion and University officials, the
judging of the entries at the National Apple-show in Vancouver was undertaken.
LECTURE-AVORK.
Lectures have been given as requested on various horticultural subjects. This, together with
the press-work which your officials are able to do, helps materially in bringing to the attention
of the public the best methods to follow in the different horticultural lines.
ACKNOAVLEDGMENT.
Your Horticulturist wishes to take this opportunity of expressing his appreciation of the
assistance which he has received at all times during the past year from his own staff as well
as from Dominion and University  officials.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Robertson,
Provincial Horticulturist. .
N 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF CHIEF INSPECTOR OF IMPORTED FRUIT AND
NURSERY STOCK, VANCOUVER.
AV. H. Lyne.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report herewith the work of the Inspector of Imported and
Exported Horticultural and Field Products and his staff of assistants during the year ended
December 31st, 1926.
AVith the object of preventing the importation of any destructive insect pest or plant-disease
of economic importance to the industrial interests of the Province, all imported plant products
were carefully inspected.
The inspection of plant products exported from this Province to other Provinces and
countries was carried out to the extent deemed necessary and within the appropriation allotted
to this Branch of your Department. The reason for so doing was that of protecting the
reputation of our products in foreign markets and compliance with the plant-quarantine laws
of other countries.
INSPECTION OF IMPORTED FRUIT AND A'EGETABLES.
The inspection of imported fruit and vegetables, including rice, corn, peas, and beans, was
carried out at points of entry into the Province where Provincial Quarantine Officers were
stationed.
Quarantine Officers stationed at points other than Vancouver and Arictoria were paid for
actual time incurred owing to the work not being sufficient to occupy the whole of their time.
The six officers, two clerk-stenographers, and your Inspector stationed at Vancouver received an
annual salary in monthly payments. At A'ictoria one officer only received a regular salary, his
one assistant being paid for actual time incurred.
CERTIFICATES AND FEES.
Inspection certificates were issued and fees collected on fruit and vegetables that passed
inspection, bar certain varieties not so liable to carry injurious pests or disease. All condemned
products were shipped out of the Province by the most direct route or destroyed at the expense
of the shipper or consignee.
UNITED STATES BOUNDARY INSPECTION.
Besides commercial shipments of fruit and vegetables imported through ports along the
United States boundary, small quantities sometimes involving pests or disease are brought in
by tourists or other travellers. Such material, though insignificant in value, is capable of
establishing serious pest or disease in the Province and necessitates inspection or rejection.
Owing to the limited population at certain points of entry men were not always available
to act as Inspectors. Under those circumstances, by permission of the Customs Department at
Ottawa, Customs officers stationed at points mentioned were trained to act as Provincial
Inspectors of imported fruit and vegetable products. They were paid by the Provincial Government for actual time incurred in such inspection, which usually amounted to only a few hours
each month.
CUSTOMS OFFICERS ORDERED TO CEASE ACTING AS PROVINCIAL INSPECTORS.
On September 1st, without previous warning, your Inspector received notice that orders had
been issued from the Customs Department at Ottawa that Customs officers must cease acting
as Provincial Inspectors of imported fruit at once. In reply to written consultation with the
Hon. the Minister of Customs, your Inspector was advised that imported fruit and vegetables
subject to Provincial inspection would be allowed to enter only such ports where Provincial
inspection was provided. He was also advised that it was not desirable to provide Provincial
Inspectors at all the small ports of entry into the Province.
Owing to some of the important points of importation being provided with Provincial
Inspectors who were not Customs officers, your Inspector was able to make arrangements
preventing as much confusion as possible for the time being. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 31
NOTICES POSTED AT BOUNDARY.
Complying with the resolution passed at the annual convention of the British Columbia
Fruit-growers' Association at Vernon, January, 1926, a conspicuous notice was displayed at each
of the boundary ports. The notice called the attention of tourists and travellers to the Provincial
regulations prohibiting the entrance into the Province of any fruit or vegetables infested with
insect pests or infected with disease.
NEW APPOINTMENTS AT BOUNDARY POINTS.
The following Quarantine Officers were appointed, taking the place of Customs officers who
had been ordered to cease acting as Provincial Inspectors of imported fruit and vegetables :
Geo. M. Thrift, at White Rock, B.C.; R. P. Johnson, at Kingsgate, B.C.; R. Williams, at
Newgate, B.C.; AV. H. Dawes, at Sidney, V.I., B.C.
Other new officers will be appointed to fill vacancies along the boundary as required, but
gome of the less important ports may remain closed to the entrance of fruit and vegetables;,
FRUIT, ETC., FROM OTHER COUNTRIES.
Although by far the largest quantity of fruit and vegetable products are imported from the
United States, a considerable percentage arrives from many other parts of the world, and
consist of the following: Oranges and rice from Japan; oranges, grapefruit, peanuts, yams,
taro, and rice from China; walnuts and corn from Manchuria; rice from Singapore; bananas,
pineapples, cocoanuts, and yams from Fiji Islands; oranges, lemons, grapes, and onions from
Australia; bananas and pineapples from Hawaiian Islands; bananas, pineapples, limes, nuts,
and corn from South America ; lemons and nuts from Italy ; grapes and nuts from Spain; figs
and dates from Turkey.
PESTS AND DISEASES FOR WHICH PRODUCTS AA'ERE CONDEMNED.
Apples and pears from the UniteEl States infested with codling-moth larvte; sweet cherries
from United States infected with brown-rot; oranges from California, U.S., infested with scale-
insects (Aspidiotus auranti and Mytilaspis) ; grapefruit from Florida, U.S., infected with
stem-end rot; lemons from Italy infested with Aspidiotus auranti; tomatoes from Mexico
infested with tomato-worm (Heliothus armager) ; potatoes from United States infected with
Fusarium rot; sweet potatoes from United States infected with black-rot; sweet potatoes from
China infested with weevil (Cylas formicarius).
PESTS  AND  DISEASES   FROM  OVERSEAS.
Owing to the British Columbia seaports being the first line of defence against the numerous
plant pests and diseases prevalent in various parts of the world, a sharp lookout is maintained.
All manifests of ships arriving from foreign countries are carefully checked by your Inspector's
staff of Quarantine Officers. Any products liable to carry serious insect pest, fungus or
bacterial disease are held for inspection. A Quarantine Officer is within convenient call during
the inspection of passengers' baggage by the Customs officers, who are instructed to report to
him any plant products they find.
OTHER PRODUCTS FUMIGATED.
In the event of rice, corn, peas, beans, peanuts, etc., arriving badly infested with moth,
beetle, or weevil, the consignee is given the option to fumigate or ship out of the country.
PEA AND BEAN AVEEVIL.
Of the pests infesting imported storage products, the two species of Bruchus weevil attacking
peas and beans are most important. These particular insects will remain in the product during
the storage period and the next season's crop is infested by the pest being carried to the field
at the time the seed is planted. For that reason hundreds of tons of peas and beans from
United States, Eastern Canada, and Japan have been fumigated at Vancouver.
A tabulated list of fruit, vegetables, etc., imported and inspected during 1926 accompanies
this report. It also includes similar importations during 1925 by way of comparison. The
amounts of that which was condemned and that which was fumigated are also given. IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK.
Trees, shrubs, plants, and bulbs are all included in the term " nursery stock " and must
come to Arancouver for inspection, and certain trees and shrubs for fumigation, unless a permit
has been obtained by the consignee to have a particular shipment inspected at some other point
in the Province. So far the permit referred to is confined to greenhouse and herbaceous plants,
including bulbs, from other parts of Canada, and to outdoor trees and shrubs from Alberta,
Saskatchewan, or Manitoba. That referring to trees and shrubs is limited to residents in the
East Kootenay District, in which case arrangements were made in 1925 to have the stock
inspected at Cranbrook.
Permission to inspect greenhouse plants and bulbs at points other than Vancouver was
granted several years ago, but it has not always been convenient to carry it out. During the
latter part of 1926 it was decided to arrange for systematic inspection at certain points in the
Province where it would be most convenient for the District Horticulturist or Field Inspector
to do the work.
REASON FOR PERMIT.
The permit is necessary in connection with imported nursery stock to which a concession has
been granted for two very particular reasons: First, to ensure its inspection in connection with
the special arrangement under which it is imported; secondly, to avoid confusing the transportation companies regarding the proper place to deliver the shipment.
CONSIGNEE MUST APPLY FOR PERMIT.
Application for permits must be made by the consignee to the Chief Inspector of Imported
Plant Products, Court-house, Vancouver. The application should contain the name and address
of both consignee and shipper, also the kind and quantity of stock required and whether to
be shipped by freight, express, or mail.
If the permit is granted, the consignee is provided with an official address-tag authorizing
the transportation company to deliver the shipment to a certain place for inspection. The tag
is forwarded to the shipper by the consignee at the time the stock is ordered, so it can be
attached to the shipment.
DOMINION PERMITS.
The regulations under the Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest Act " provide that every
person who imports nursery stock into the Dominion of Canada must first apply to the Secretary
of the Destructive Insect anEl Pest Act AElvisory Board, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa,
for a permit to import. This permit must not be confused witli the British Columbia Provincial
permit already referred to, as it applies exclusively to nursery stock from foreign countries.
All such importations entering by way of British Columbia must be inspected at Vancouver,
and the same Dominion ruling applies to foreign importations entering by way of any other
port if the shipment is intended for British Columbia. For that reason the inspection-work
at Vancouver was carried out by your Inspector and his staff as usual in compliance with the
agreement in 1912 between the Dominion and our Provincial Department of Agriculture.
LIST OF NURSERY STOCK IMPORTATIONS.
A tabulated list of the nursery stock imported and also that condemned is included with this
report. The insect pests and diseases responsible for part of the stock being condemned were
as follows :—■
Scale-insects : Aspidiotus perniciosus and ostrwformis on fruit-trees from the United States ;
Aspidiotus forbesi, hedera, and rapax on fruit and ornamental trees from the United States,
Europe, and Japan; Chionaspis on ornamental shrubs from Japan; Aulacaspis on raspberry-
canes from the United States ; Lecanium caprw or coryli on ornamental trees from Europe;
Lecanium olea anEl hemisphericum on ornamental shrubs from the United States.
Aphis:  Erisoma lanigera on apples-trees and seedlings from the United States.
Phylloxera on roots of grape-vines from the UniteEl States.
Flathead borer in apple-trees from the United States.
Root-borers: Sanninoidea exitiosa in peach-trees from the United States; narcissus-fly
larva? in narcissus bulbs from Holland and United States; Nematode and bulb-mite in bulbs
from Holland. '-"■:- oi:    ;: ■ ■
"-4.CfC
One hundred and twentv-five acres of heavy land cleared on the farm of Kherkoff Bros, at Woodpecker,
32 miles south from Prince George.
";      '
'    -       i-'Ci--.-"
'
%mtm
Ileal pasture for the dairy cow.    A part of Blackburn Bros.' herd, Prince George.  DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 33
Crown-gall, sour-sap, anthracnose infecting fruit-trees and seedlings from the United States.
Hyacinth yellows and Fusarium rot infecting bulbs from Holland.
NURSERY STOCK VIA PANAMA.
Most of the large shipments of ornamental nursery stock from Holland and Belgium,
including some from England and France, arrived at Vancouver via Panama Canal. That is
fast becoming the popular route since most of the direct boats have improved their storage
accommodation, by which the stock arrives in good condition.
Some small shipments by rail from Atlantic ports arrived at Vancouver frozen and badly
damaged.
Our nurserymen are impressed with the importance of utilizing the resources of this
Province for propagating their stock, though most of them continue to import a large proportion of what they sell. Some of the most enterprising are endeavouring to make headway with
their own propagation, especially in the line of ornamental trees, shrubs, and rose stock, and
every possible encouragement should be given them. Ornamental stock seems to offer the best
prospect, and that is what they are importing most heavily, nearly all of it coming from Holland.
NURSERY STOCK EXPORTED.
Although the export of nursery stock from the Province is not very large, each year shows
some progress both in the amount and number of countries to which it is exported, as may be
seen by the tabulated list attached to this report. It consists of all kinds of stock, fruit and
ornamental trees and shrubs, plants, bulbs, and seed.
NURSERY STOCK EXPORT CERTIFICATES.
Practically all nursery stock exported from the Province is carefully inspected by this
Branch of your Department, assisted by the staff of your Provincial Horticulturist. Provided
it passes inspection as being apparently free from pest or disease and in gooil, sound, merchantable condition, a certificate is issued to that effect. One of the principles on which that
procedure is based is that we do not allow pest-infested stock to be imported and will not allow
any to go out. Also that many of the countries to which the stock is exported demaml Government certificates of inspection.
FRUIT AND VEGETABLES EXPORTED.
A tabulated list of fruit and vegetables exported and for which export inspection certificates
were issued is provided with this report, including the names of the countries to which the
products were exported.
EXPORT CERTIFICATES.
Export inspection certificates were issued after careful inspection on shipments of fruit
and vegetables to countries demanding Government inspection; also on shipments to other
countries if requested by shipper, consignee, or transportation company. Each certificate stated
the name and address of shipper and consignee; also name of inspector, transportation company,
and where grown. The marks, quantity, containers, and variety were itemized, followed by
the declaration that the products were apparently free from insect pest or disease and in clean,
sound, merchantable condition.
In the inspection of shipments from the interior of the Province your Inspector was ably
assisted by the staff of the Provincial Horticulturist stationed in the various districts, and
on some occasions by the Dominion Grade Marks Inspectors.
CO-OPERATION AVITH FEDERAL DEPARTMENT.
The 1912 agreement between the British Columbia and Dominion Departments of Agriculture, so far as your Inspector and his staff are concerned, calls for the following procedure:—
Inspection of imported nursery stock at the Vancouver Inspection and Fumigation Station,
jointly built and owned by the two Departments of Agriculture.
Inspection of all imported plant products other than nursery stock shipped to points in
British Columbia and as far east as AVinnipeg. Also reporting to the Division of Foreign Pests
Suppression, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, foreign plant products other than nursery
stock arriving on the Pacific Coast for points beyond AVinnipeg.
3 The inspection of the nursery stock involves the checking of all Dominion permits issued at
Ottawa in connection with each shipment that is imported. Copies of each permit are mailed
from Ottawa and filed at your Inspector's office under card-index. Your Inspector is permitted
to issue an emergency permit to a consignee receiving his first shipment and having failed to
apply to Ottawa for permit owing to his not being conversant with the regulations; or in the
event of a consignee receiving a shipment regarding which he had no previous knowledge.
DOMINION OFFICER APPOINTED.
In order to assist your Inspector in rendering to Ottawa regular weekly reports regarding
imported plant products, A. G. Fuller was appointed for that purpose on November 10th, 1926.
The appointment was made by the Entomological Branch, Dominion Department of Agriculture,
from which source Mr. Fuller is paid for his services.
WESTERN PLANT QUARANTINE BOARD.
In the early part of June, L. S. McLaine, Chief of the Division of Foreign Pests Suppression,
Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, paid an official visit to your Inspector in order to check up
the co-operative work of the two branches concerned in foreign-pest control. Mr. McLaine
also accompanied your Inspector to Olympia, AA'ash., U.S., to attend the Eighth Annual Conference of the AVestern Plant Quarantine Board, June Sth to 11th. Delegates were present from
the several AArestern States, Northern Mexico, and Hawaiian Islands. There were also present
representatives from the U.S. Federal Horticultural Board, AVashington, D.C., the U.S. Postal
Department, Pacific Coast Nurserymen's Association, railway and express companies. Plant
quarantine regulations affecting the Pacific Coast area were earnestly discussed with a view to
uniform and consistent administration. Papers of considerable interest in connection with the
work were also read and important resolutions passed.
NURSERYMEN'S CONVENTION.
Your Inspector was invited to address the delegates of the Pacific Coast Nurserymen's
Association at their annual convention in Victoria, July 22nd and 23rd. The subject requested
was " Fumigation and Plant Quarantine Regulations." A suggestion to the nurserymen to
propagate their stock at home in place of importing was well received. It was generally agreed
that British Columbia was an ideal place for the propagation of ornamental conifers and several
other varieties of trees.
NEW APPOINTMENT TO PERMANENT STAFF.
Captain Thomas B. Mathieson was appointed to the permanent staff of your Inspector,
August 15th, taking the place of H. AAr. Epps, who resigned to attend to business affairs of
his own.
"EGGS MARKS ACT."
The British Columbia " Eggs Marks Act" of 1923 apparently continued to hold its moral
effect, considering the small number of eggs imported, which were as follows :—
United States Eggs.—Eighty cases to A'ancouver, all of which were broken from the shell
before being distributed to the trade, mostly to bakeries. A few odd cases were imported by
private parties for setting, and an occasional case for private use in a logging camp. Twenty-
five cases arrived at Prince Rupert, but were refused by the consignee and returned to Seattle.
Four hundred and thirty-five cases arrived at Arancouver, but were used as ships' stores on
ocean passenger-boats and were not taken out of bond.
Chinese Eggs.—Of 3,000 cases of Chinese frozen canned eggs that arrived at A'ancouver,
1,100 went to Toronto and the balance were placed in the Vancouver Ice and Cold Storage Warehouse, where they still remain.    They arrived last July 12th.
There also arrived in the Province during the-year 1,986 cases of Chinese duck-eggs, 120
eggs to the case, each egg encased in mud for preservation. They are used exclusively by the
Chinese.    The thought of them would hardly increase one's appetite for chop suey.
OFFICE ROUTINE.
During the year the office of your Inspector, situated in the Court-house at Vancouver, was
visited by a large number of people in quest of information.    The numerous bulletins referring to horticultural subjects, insect pests, and plant-diseases were always in demand. J. AV. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, and Ernest Clarke, District Horticulturist, who also share
the offices, very ably assisted in dispensing information when they were on hand.
Daily reports were received from transportation companies re arrival of boats or cars
containing various imported plant products subject to inspection.
A careful record was made of all work carried out by the officers on your Inspector's staff.
The reports of those stationed at ports other than A'ancouver were received each month, carefully
checked, recorded, and acknowledged. Any correction, advice, or information necessary was
promptly attended to.
Applications for inspection reports were occasionally received from consignee, shipper, or
transportation company, in order to adjust claims arising from various causes regarding which
the evidence of an Inspector was considered important.
All general correspondence received prompt and careful attention. During the year 1,781
letters were received and 2,018 sent out.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Lyne,
Inspector of Imported and Exported Horticultural
and Field Products.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST, VANCOUVER.
J. AV. Eastham, B.Sc.
Dr. D. Warnoek, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for 1926.
SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS.
The experiment carried on in conjunction with E. S. Hunt for testing the efficiency of dry
lime-sulphur in comparison with the liquid form was continued in 1926. The work was carried
out as before in the orchard of J. D. McDonnell, Willow Point, near Nelson, the same plots
being used and the same strength of spray. The Mcintosh trees alone were used in the test,
the plots being as follows:—
Plot 1.—Sherwin-Williams D.L.S., 4-40 pink, 3-40 calyx, 3-40 later.
Plot 2.—Sherwin-Williams D.L.S., 5-40 pink, 3%-40 calyx, 3%-40 later.
Plot 3.—Liquid L.S., Commercial 32%° Beaume, 1-35 pink, 1-40 calyx, 1-40 later.
Plot 4.—Hemingway's D.L.S., 4^10 pink, 3-40 calyx, 3-40 later.
Plot 5.—Hemingway's D.L.S., 5-40 pink, 3%^10 calyx, 3%^0 later.
Plot 6 (Check).—The end tree of Plot 3, a Mcintosh, was left unsprayed as a check.
Dates of Spraying.—The pink spray was put on April 24th; the calyx, May 11th; and the
third spray, May 31st. During the following three weeks the weather was moist and favourable
to scab, so that to prevent loss to the owner it was thought necessary to give a fourth spray.
As sufficient of the materials under test were not on hand, a spray of liquid lime-sulphur at a
dilution of 1^5 was given to all plots, except the check, on June 23rd. All sprays were applied
with a gun. The make of sprayer was a " Pontiac Special " and the pressure was maintained
around 200 lb.
The apples were picked September 9th to 14th, with the following result:—
Plot.
Tree.
No. of Apples.
Clean.
Scabby.
Per Cent. Scabby.
1
9
3,343
3,145
198
5.9
■ 2
3
2,081
1,989
92
4.4
o
2
2,948
2.874
74
2.5
4
2
1,746
1,645
101
5.8
5
2
1,601
1,478
123
7.7
6
1
1,208
211
997
82.5 N 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
It was intended to take the tree in the same position right across the plots to make the
counts, but as one or two had a light crop this was not rigidly adhered to, the adjoining tree
being taken. The count of the liquid lime-sulphur was made on tree No. 2 in the row—i.e., next
the unsprayed end tree (Plot 6)—so that it would, if anything, be exposed to more infection
than any other tree.
Scab was worse in 1926 than in 1925, as shown by the percentage of scabby fruit on the
unsprayed tree being 82.5 as compared with 65. The generally lower percentage of scab on the
sprayed plots is no doubt due to the fact that four sprays were given instead of three. The
results this year are also more in favour of the liquid lime-sulphur. However, it should be
remembered that every spot that could be definitely identified as scab was counted, though it
might not be sufficient to lower the grade of the fruit. From a commercial standpoint, therefore,
the difference between Plots 1, 2, 3, and 4 would be very slight. Any of them could be regarded
as commercially clean.
Costs.—The dry material cost about 23 cents per pound at Nelson (f.o.b. price plus freight).
Taking the pink spray as a basis of comparison, 1 gallon of the mixed spray of a strength of
4 lb. in 40 gallons would cost 2.3 cents, and of the stronger mixture (5-40) 2.9 cents. Liquid
lime-sulphur at 45 cents a gallon and at a dilution of 1.35 would cost 1.3 cents per gallon, or
rather less than half the stronger D.L.S. For the later sprays the figures would be 1.7 and
2.2 cents respectively, against 1.1 for liquid lime-sulphur. If home-made lime-sulphur were used
the cost would be considerably less.
The manager of the Burton Co-operative Growers' Exchange informs me he was able to buy
Sherwin-AA7illiams dry lime-sulphur in Spokane in 200-lb. drums, and after paying duty and
freight distribute it to the members at 13 cents per pound. On this basis the cost per gallon
of the mixed spray would be 1.3 cents for the 4-40 and 1.6 for the 5-40, against 1.3 cents for
1-35 liquid lime-sulphur. For the later and weaker sprays the figures would be 1 cent and
1.1 cents for the 3^0 and 3%-AO dry lime-sulphur, against 1.1 for a 1^0 liquid lime-sulphur.
In barrel lots liquid lime-sulphur would cost about 40 cents per gallon instead of 45, or
about 0.1 cent less per gallon of mixed spray than the figures given above.
Summarizing the results of two years' work, it may be said that dry lime-sulphur has proveEl
satisfactory in control of scab, although not quite as effective as the liquid. The relative cost
depends largely on quantity purchased and shipping distance and may not exceed that of the
liquid.    In such a case there would be little to choose between the two materials.
The dry form is less bulky to handle and store and probably less liable to deteriorate in
storage. On the other hand, it is less convenient to weigh and handle the fine powder in the
orchard during actual spraying operations than it is to measure out the liquid.
POTATO-WORK.
Through the courtesy of the Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz, which placed at our
disposal about % acre of land, it was possible to make a beginning in experimental work under
fielEl conditions. The land in question was in a high state of cultivation and had not had a
crop of potatoes on it within the memory of the farm staff. Planting, readings, and part of
the work of harvesting was done by officials of the Provincial Department of Agriculture, while
the preparation of the land, cultivation, and help in harvesting was given by the farm. Unfortunately the very dry season was not favourable to heavy yields, a factor to be taken into account
in considering the figures which follow:—
Tiiermogen Test.
Three rows of Netted Gem 120 feet long were planted—namely, Rows 37, 36, and 35 of one
of the experimental plots at the Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz. Row 37 was the end
row of this plot. The distance between rows was 36 inches and between sets 14 inches. The
seed was cut and planted on May 13th.    Thirty-one pounds of seed were used for the three rows.
The Thermogen paper was laiEl down as soon as the plants showed above ground. It was so
placed that the space between the above-mentioned rows was completely covered up to the stems
of the plants. In other words, the centre row was covered on both sides and the two outer rows
on one side only. The Thermogen was applied for a little over half of the rows, the remaining
halves being used as checks.    The paper was held in place by pieces of 2 by 4 every 10 feet.
At digging-time it was found that weeds hasl made great growth in the narrow slit along the
row where the soil could not be readily covered by the paper, although this was more than a couple of inches across. It was practically impossible to weed this even by hand as the paper
would tear in trampling on it. Barnyard grass and other weeds 4 feet high and often forming
dense clumps occurred all the way along and very much increased the labour of digging. On the
other hand, couch-grass had not been suppressed even underneath the paper, since in many cases
it had burst through it and formed green spears on the upper side.    The yields are as follows:—
Thermogen.
Hills.
Weigbt of
Tubers, 4 oz.
and up.
Weight of
Small
Tubers.
Total.
Weigbt
per Hill.
53
57
56
50
36
siy2
17
25
13%
67
61
45
Lb.
1.27
1.07
0.80
Check.
Row 37 	
48
50
50
47
43 y2
36%
24
19 %
is y2
71
63
52
1.50
Row 36 	
1.26
Row 35 	
1.04
The hill on the boundary-line of the Thermogen paper in each row was discarded and the
weight not taken. It will be seen that in each case that portion of the row which had no
Thermogen had a heavier yield of potatoes per hill than the part where the Thermogen was
applied. The soil was as uniform as could be obtained, but owing to the exceptionally dry
season it is possible that there might be some difference in moisture conditions, although this
was not obvious during the growing season. This is, I think, the only criticism that could be
made against these results.
It would have probably been better if the paper had been so placed that the edges of the
strips overlapped and holes cut in just sufficiently large to allow the potato-shoots to come
through. The labour so entailed, however, seemed prohibitive for a potato-crop under field
conditions.
Experiments with Seed Disinfectants.
Three organic mercury compounds—namely, Semesan Bel, D.D.D. 12 Bel, and D.D.D. 37
Bel—were tested out in comparison with the standard 1-1,000 cold corrosive sublimate treatment.
The plots consisted of single rows running not quite east and west and each about 220 feet
long. The rows were 3 feet apart and the sets 14 inches apart in the row. This would give
theoretically 103 sets to the row, but the sets were dropped by hand without measurement or
spacing, so that the number of sets planted might vary slightly. It was not possible at the
date when this experiment was planned to secure enough seed of the right kind to carry out
the experiment in triplicate.
In order to secure a little better check on the results, two samples of seed were used. The
first was Netted Gem which had been culled out of certified-seed stock for scab and rhizoctonia,
the former being present only in slight amount. Had this been available in sufficient quantity
it would have been very good material for the purpose, since it was of good vigour but heavily
infested with rhizoctonia. There occurred, however, a considerable proportion of sclerotia,
probably too large for successful treatment by the ordinary means. The other seed used, Gold
Coin, was purchased on the New AVestminster market and was of a type unfortunately still used
by some growers for seed purposes. The tubers were small, many of them being only an ounce
in weight, and where cut sets had to be used the tubers were simply cut in half. They were
heavily covered with rhizoctonia, but the sclerotia were of a softer texture, and in some cases,
when examined under the microscope, seemed to show a consiilerable admixture of peaty matter.
These potatoes were from peaty soil.
A certain amount of soft-rot had developed in one of the sacks of Gold Coin and an attempt
was made to have a check on this and the effect of treatment by planting a row of cut seed
from this sack.    Such seed would be more or less smeared with the rot organisms. On the inspection made on July 16th the plants treated with the Dupont preparations were
perceptibly more green and vigorous than the others. This apparently applied to all so treated
and was confirmed independently by two other observers. By August 30th, however, this1
difference was no longer perceptible.
The dates of planting were: Plots 1-4, May 18th; Plots 7-13, 15-17, 20, and 21, May 19th;
Plots 5, 6, 14, 18, and 19, May 20th.
In harvesting, owing to weather and labour conditions, it was not possible to weigh the
hills separately, but they were dug separately to ensure correctness in the number of hills.
The results are applicable only to rhizoctonia, since there was not enough scab on any of
the plots to give material to work with. The affected tubers were put into three classess according to the amount of rhizoctonia on them, any tuber having a sclerotium over an eighth of an
inch in diameter being considered heavily infested even though the number of sclerotia might
be small.
A summary of the- results is attached herewith, only the total weight of tubers showing
rhizoctonia being given.
So far as these results go, and it should be remembered that they are for one season only
and not fully duplicated, D.D.D. 37 Bel would appear to be the only one of the three organic
mercury compounds tried which compares favourably with the standard corrosive sublimate
treatment for rhizoctonia-control. It is hoped to repeat the tests with this material in the
coming year.
Plot 21 furnishes an instructive illustration of the loss which may result from untreated
cut seed containing rot organisms. A stand of less than 44 per cent, resulted. Had the ground
been wet and cold it is probable the loss would have been still greater.
This row also showed blackleg, and it is interesting to note that in nearly all the succeeding
plots, 26-37, a certain proportion of blackleg ranging from 2 to 9 per cent, developed, although
none was found elsewhere in the field. These latter plots were part of the variety tests and
the seed untreated, but the same planting-pails used for Plot 21 were used for these without
disinfection, and it is a fair conclusion that these had been contaminated by the infected seed.
In addition to the above work, a series of about fifty plots was run to test the seed certified
the previous season. This was intended in part as a check on the inspection-work of the
previous season and an indication of what might be expected where this seed was planted for
certification elsewhere in the Province. Owing to the lateness of the season before final arrangements for the work were made, it was not possible to secure samples of all seed certified the
preceding season, so that the results are not given here.
A considerable amount of disease material was selected from these plots for experimental
work next year.
Respectfully submitted.
J. AV Eastham,
Provincial Plant Pathologist.
REPORT OF ASSISTANT ENTOMOLOGIST, VERNON.
M. H. Ruhmann, B.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The following is a "report of the entomological activities of this office during the past
year.:—
The Provincial Entomological staff consists of: Max H. Ruhmann, Assistant Entomologist
in Charge;  Miss C. M. Bigland, Junior Laboratory Assistant.
The office of the Provincial and Dominion Entomological Branches being grouped in the same
building at Vernon facilitates the close co-operation of the Provincial and Dominion officers,
permitting of a greater range of investigation and individual specialization and eliminates the
possibility of duplication of work.
The winter of 1925-26 was unusually mild, the lowest temperature recorded at the Vernon
Laboratory being 14° F. Under these conditions such insects as the black cherry-aphis and
the woolly aphis of the apple successfully wintered over on the trees.   Insect activities com- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 39
menced earlier in the spring; oviposition by the cabbage-maggot was observed on May 2nd and
the onion-maggot on May 12th. The blister-mite of the apple was much in evidence where a
controlling spray had been neglected or where such spray had been too long delayed.
During April and May an infestation of a Pseudococcus sp. was reported as being severe .on
plum at Nelson, on apple at Revelstoke, and on apple and black currant at Sorrento.
Bulb-mite injury was unusually severe and appears to be on the increase, and is being
widespread by the distribution of such bulbs as gladioli, narcissi, etc., from infested gardens.
A heavy flight of the apple-tree bark-weevil (Magdalis wncscens) was reported from a local
orchard on June 1st. Upon investigation it was found that a considerable number of old apple-
trees had been pulled out of this orchard in the spring; the stumps, trunks, and heavier limbs
had been stacked near the house to. be used as fuel, and large numbers of these weevils were
emerging from this wood-pile, flying through the orchard and ovipositing on the healthy trees.
In the immediate vicinity of this wood-pile the weevils were as thick as bees in an apiary. It
was a good object-lesson in showing the advisability of burning such material before emergence
of the weevil occurs. This weevil was first recorded from the Salmon Arm District in 1914.
Since this time it has become thoroughly established in all the older orchards of the Okanagan
Valley.
Cutworms were the cause of considerable loss in truck-crops. The flight of cutworm-moths
during the late summer was unusually heavy and a severe outbreak of cutworms is anticipated
in the spring of 1927. Every endeavour will be made to induce growers to use control measures
in the early spring.
For a number of years wireworms have caused loss in fiehl and garden crops, particularly
potatoes and onions. During the past year they were unusually abundant and Elestructive,
onions being particularly affected. Fortunately these outbreaks have so far been local, and
although individual fields may be heavily infested and the crop severely injured, the percentage
of injury in any one district is not high.
Loss through the onion-maggot has been light during the last two years. The field in which
control experiments have been conducted for a number of years has been exceptionally free from
this pest.
An unusual outbreak of the hemipteron, Leptoceris trivitattus, occurred in the Okanagan
Valley, which attracted considerable attention in the fall when they congregated in large numbers in and around buildings, seeking quarters in which to hibernate. A similar outbreak
occurred at Grand Forks in 1921, where they continued to appear in large numbers until 1924
and are still quite numerous. Many people obtained considerable relief by spraying the insects,
where they had congregated on outside walls and verandahs, with coal-oil applied by the use
of a small hand-syringe.
The grasshopper situation in the Province is under the direct supervision of E. R. Buckell,
of the Dominion Entomological staff, with headquarters in Vernon. He has been very successful in organizing the various districts affecteEl in their control-work, estimating supplies requireEl
and instructing the various control organizations in the preparation and application of the
poisoned baits. The situation, particularly in the Okanagan ATalley, is greatly improved and
comparatively slight injury was causesl during 1926.
The cricket, Anabrus longipes, appeared in epidemic form in early April in restricted areas
from South Vernon to Kelowna, causing severe loss in truck lands immediately below the range
lands, particularly at Vernon. The migration of the nymphs commenceEl on April 5th. An
effort was immediately maEle to organize the growers to institute control measures. Trenching
below the main irrigation-ditch was at first, attempted, but owing to the loose gravelly nature
of the soil at this point the effort was not satisfactory.. As an area extending for 5 miles along
the main irrigation-ditch was affected, flood-water was turned into the ditch for a period of six
days to check the advance of the crickets until more satisfactory measures could be applied.
The growers were advised to erect a fence of 12-inoh boards placed on their sides and flashed
with a 3-inch strip of tin on the upper side. The co-operation in the work by the Asiatics, who
were mainly interested, was not satisfactory; some immediately erected such fences, some
ignored the advice until they realized that their time-honoured method of beating tin cans
proved unavailing, and after their crops hail suffereEl severely they went to the other extreme
and some constructed a fence of sheet tin, 18 inches high. In one instance, to protect a field
of cabbage, a perfect trench was first dug, then the upper wall of the trench was completely
lined with sashlights.    The protection was perfect, but at a cost probably exceeding the value of the crop.   The loss of crop in this section exceeded 50 per cent.; in some instances the entire
crop on some fields was completely destroyed.
The Colorado potato-beetle situation in the East Kootenays is quite serious, extending from
the boundary north to Cranbrook, east to Michel, and west to Creston. A. A. Dennys, of the
Dominion Entomological staff at Arernon, made a thorough survey of this area. He will organize
and supervise thorough control measures, and an effort will be made to thoroughly control this
pest and minimize the possibility of further spread.
CODLING-MOTH   (Cydia pomonella) .
Owing to the great seasonal variation in the emergence of the adult, oviposition, and the
hatching period of the eggs of the first brood of the codling-moth, an investigation has been
started to ascertain what bearing, if any, local climatic conditions may have on the matter,
and the possibility of utilizing meteorological readings to regulate the time of the application of
the first cover-sprays. For this purpose meteorological readings are being taken in a number of
districts;   life-history studies are being conducted under insectary conditions at Vernon.
The first cover-spray is considered to be a very important spray in the control of the first
brood of the moth, and its application must be made just previous to, or coincide with, the
hatching period of the eggs. To apply the first cover-spray at a fixed period after the calyx-
spray is not sufficiently accurate, and although it may occasionally be correct, it might easily
be either too late or too early; in such event satisfactory control is not obtained and the spray
material and cost of application is a loss. The later sprays can be more satisfactorily timed by
definite periods after the application of the first cover-spray. Until some satisfactory means
is found by which a grower may definitely determine the proper time for the application of the
first cover-spray, each district will be advised through its local press Or other satisfactory means
as nearly as possible the time to apply the first cover-spray. Growers, however, must be prepared to act immediately such information is given.
SAN JOSE SCALE  (Aspidiotus perniciosus).
An outbreak of the San Jose scale was recorded in a small orchard area at Kaslo in the
summer of 1924. This area was immediately placed under quarantine by the Horticultural
Branch and eradication measures commenced in the spring of 1925. A watch was kept on the
infestation and the progress of the eradication measures noted by the Entomological Branch.
At the last inspection in the fall of 1926 it was found that the eradication measEires had been
successful, very careful examination failing to locate any living scale. It is recommended that
a final application of spray be made in this area in the spring of 1927, and that the quarantine
be then taken off and a close watch be maintained over it to guard against reinfestation.
WOOLLY APHIS  (Schizoneura lantgera).
Owing to the difficulty of controlling this pest a number of experiments were conducted
during the past summer in an effort to secure more effective control. During 1925, owing to the
fact that no area of heavy infestation was available for satisfactory tests under commercial
conditions, a number of preliminary tests were made on individual colonies, for which calcium-
cyanide (Cyanogas) dust was used. The dust was applied with a hand-blower and both
Grade A and Grade B were tested. In all such tests excellent control was obtained, particularly
by Grade A dust, with which 100 per cent, control was obtaineEl in each colony treated. The
weather conditions when these tests were made were ideal—no wind, humidity 48, and bright
sunshine, with temperature of 87° F. There was no injury to foliage through burning. In
1926 some severe infestations were available for commercial treatment. An orchard was selected
which is receiving particularly good care; all trees are vigorous and healthy and from 12 to 14
years old, with infestation particularly heavy. Climatic conditions were not favourable for the
application of dusts, being showery, humidity over 90, continuous light winds, and temperature
of 76° F. to 93° F. An average of 1 lb. of Cyanogas was used per tree. Applications were
made over a period of six days, June 17th to 22nd ; earliest 4.30 a.m., latest 7 p.m. On no
occasion, however, were climatic conditions favourable. No dust was applied while foliage
was wet and no burning resulted. Owing to the limited range in height of the hand-dusters,
observations were only made on the middle and lower portions of the trees treated; in no case
was a higher kill than 40 per cent, obtained.   After these tests were completed, infestation being CrS-oVo
Eggm*
„..;.--
'.iiF*
*■■■,
Hi
Asters for seed. Westholme, Vancouver Island
Tractor-ploughing, Courtenay Ploughing-match, November 17tb, 1920.  still severe, the entire orchard was sprayed by the owner with a nicotine spray, using the
formula: Black Leaf 40 per cent., % pint; freshly slaked lime, 2 lb.; casein, 10 oz.; water,
100 gallons. This spray was thoroughly applied during June 24th to 26th and resulted in a
98-per-cent. control. Two trees were not treated with this spray and were used to test a 2-percent, miscible-oil spray and a Japanese oil-soap emulsion (Togotin) respectively. The oil-soap
emulsion was ineffective; the 2-per-cent. miscible-oil spray resulted in 50 per cent, control and
gave severe foliage burning. On investigation it was found that sodium arsenite had been used
as a preservative in the manufacture of this material; this would aggravate any tendency the
oil might have to cause burning.
The control by the nicotine spray was immediate, thorough examination on June 27th showing a 98-per-cent. control. About July 15th woolly aphis had practically disappeared from all
infested orchards, many of which had not been sprayed; this was entirely due to natural control. About the middle of August slight reinfestation occurred in many orchards, but failed to
Elevelop to any serious extent. During this month a small orchard of apple-trees from 4 to 5
years old, which showed considerable infestation, was thoroughly dusted with a 5-per-cent.
nicotine dust prepared locally, which gave excellent control, nearly 100 per cent, in this case;
weather conditions were favourable for the application of dust and the trees not large, the
material being easily applied with a hand-blower.
SNOWY TREE-CRICKET (iJEcanthus niveus).
A severe outbreak of this insect was reported from an orchard in Keremeos, which resulted
in practically the complete loss of the peach-crop in the affected orchard. An investigation was
made at the earliest opportunity and it was found that the insect was breeding and ovipositing
in a large briar-patch in the orchard. It was advised that the briar-patch be uprooted and
burned before the spring of 1927;   this should result in complete control of the infestation.
The snowy tree-cricket has been recorded in various parts of the Okanagan Valley over a
considerable number of years; this, however, is the first occasion that serious loss has been
incurred through this insect in British Columbia.
POCKET-GOPHER.
The pocket-gopher has been a serious problem in our orchards for many years. Poisoned
baits and traps of various kinds have been used for a considerable time; the success with these
means of control can usually be measured by the care and thoroughness of their application.
Their application is unfortunately costly in time, patience, and care, and, unless conscientiously
given, successful control must not be expected. In an effort to find a less exacting means of
control the application of calcium cyanide (Cyanogas), both in the dust and granular forms,
was tried during the past summer. On June 28th ten active runs were selected for treatment;
five were treated with Cyanogas Grade A dust and five with the granular form. A minimum of
1 oz. of the material was used for each run, all runs being treated in both directions from where
an opening was made. Where dust was used it was blown in from the nozzle of a hand-blower.
The granules were applied with a long-handled spoon and placed as far back in the runs as
possible;   all openings were immediately closed after the gas had been applied.
The runs were carefully opened on June 30th, two days after treatment; in each case the
odour of the cyanide was very distinct for from 3 to 8 feet in each direction from the opening
at which the Cyanogas had been applied. The main runs were openeEl up as far as they could
be traced; the shortest being 47 feet, the longest 63 feet, with a maximum depth of 33 inches.
Each main run had many branch runs, most of which were blocked. In four instances the main
run was blocked at one end, 3 to 5 feet beyond the point where the Cyanogas had been applied,
and two were blocked at both ends. In no case were dead gophers found. There is no time
saved in the application of Cyanogas as compared with poisoned baits or traps; the material is
costly and has not proved effective.
COLUMBIAN GROUND-SQUIRREL.
Excellent results were obtained with Cyanogas at the rate of 1 to 1% oz. for each colony.
The material was applied with a long-handled spoon and placed well back in the opening; It
was rarely found necessary to make a second application. ANTS.
Ants are occasionally troublesome in the orchard, lawn, or garden. The use of Cyanogas
for these insects has given excellent results. Two or three openings are made with a long-
pointed stick well down into the nest; about % oz. of Cyanogas Grade A dust is poured into
each opening; then all openings are closed. It is usually only in the case of very large nests
that a second application is necessary.
GREENHOUSE FUMIGATION.
The fumigation of greenhouses for the control of various insects, such as aphids and mealy
bugs, was satisfactorily accomplished with the use of calcium cyanide Grade A dust. The
exact amount of the dust to use will depend on the tightness of the greenhouse, but a minimum
of Vs oz. for each 1,000 cubic feet should be used. If the house is not sufficiently tight, this
amount must be gradually increased Eintil the minimum effective dose has been ascertained for
each house. The tests made have been conducted in greenhouses containing lettuce, tomatoes,
carnations, roses, and other fairly hardy plants. A number of plants are very susceptible to the
fumes of cyanide, and if any doubt exists as to the ability of certain plants to stand fumigation
with cyanide they should be removed from the house during fumigation. AVhere the old system
of fumigation with potassium or sodium cyanide and sulphuric acid has been safely used, the
calcium cyanide will be found satisfactory and has the advantage of being less troublesome
and less dangerous to use.
The essentials for the use and application of calcium cyanide under greenhouse conditions
are:—■
(1.)  Accuracy in measuring the cubic capacity of the house.
(2.) Be sure that there are no plants in the house which are especially susceptible to injury
from cyanide fumes.
(3.)  Be accurate in weighing the dose.
(4.) Choose a still night; never fumigate until at least one hour after sunset and never
enter the greenhouse during the process of fumigation.
(5.)  Do not water the house for at least twenty-four hours before fumigation.
(6.) Minimum temperature shoukl be 55° F., with a tendency to rise; do not fumigate
on a falling temperature; this will cause condensation of moisture on the plants, which will
make them susceptible to injury by the fumes.
Application.—When the dose has been weighed out place it in an air-tight container; when
the house is quite ready lightly scatter the dose along the walks of the house, distributing it as
evenly as possible;  then close the house and leave closed overnight.
N.B.—Cyanide fumes are very poisonous; therefore the material must be handled with
great care. After the fumes have been fully generated from the calcium cyanide it is no longer
dangerous and no special precautions are necessary to eliminate the residue from the house.
Where sodium or potassium cyanide and sulphur acid are used the remaining sludge is very
poisonous and must be handled accordingly, preferably by burying deeply in the ground.
Respectfully submitted.
Max H. Ruhmann,
Assistant Entomologist in Charge.
REPORT OF MARKETS COMMISSIONER, CALGARY.
J. A. Grant.
Dr. D. Warnoek, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report for the year 1926.
The mild winter of 1925-26 carried through the A'ancouver Island broccoli-crop intact, and
as this is not a usual occurrence a large surplus over home needs was experimented with by
marketing it by car-lots on the Prairies and Eastern points. The experiment was successful as
far as distribution went, but not as profitable to the growers as might have been, due to heavy
transportation charges. HOTHOUSE PRODUCTS INCREASE IN VOLUME.
This new semi-winter crop started Prairie marketing for 1926, and it was followed by hothouse tomatoes and cucumbers, which also took a distribution as far as Ontario and Quebec.
A very favourable impression was created and some surprise expresseEl by Eastern merchants
that Vancouver Island had such possibilities. The quality of the broccoli was equal to anything imported, and the hothouse product was admitted by all to be superior to anything
offered in competition.
The volume of hothouse product marketed in 1926 was the greatest on record and this
industry has prospects of an annual increase in volume for some years to come.
BRITISH COLUMBIA STRAWBERRIES EARLY ON MARKET.
Strawberries were also increased in production over the past two years, but the crop and
volume moved was considerably below the record one. The early season of ripening caused
the car shipments to overlap with the Missouri crop at the start. Application of the " dumping "
clause, and the peak of the southern berry season being past, restored the prospect for fair
prices and satisfactory prices were made during the remainder of the shipping season. L.C.L.
on consignment was a disturbing factor in Alberta and Saskatchewan and resulted in lowering
prices below what supply and demand warranted.
RASPBEBRIES.
Raspberries were a fair crop and fine quality. Prices were forced down at start of season
below what was profitable to growers. AVinnipeg jobbers imported Puyallup berries which were
rolling unsold and diverted to Winnipeg. They paid over $4 per crate for them delivered when
British Columbia shippers had more than ample for their needs, but refused to roll them at
$3 offered, their price being $3.50 delivered for equal stuff.
British Columbia raspberries were sold to canners at the time berries were firmest for
shipping, and when the cannery demand slackened and berries were ripe the jobber's price
of $3.25 was accepted and berries rolled in freely. Considerable loss was taken at that time
through mould and overripe berries. The raspberry marketing was not as might have been.
L.C.L. on consignment also played a disrupting part in the nearer Prairie markets. The real
cause of the trouble was the want of earlier organization.
Loganberries sold well, but the volume was small.    Loganberries do not ship well when ripe.
Gooseberries were overproduced and were a drug on the market most of the time.
CHERRIES.
Warm weather causes .tree-fruits to overlap. Bing and Lambert cherries from British
Columbia overlapped the raspberry-crop in an unusual manner and was a factor in bearing
the price of the raspberries when they commenced to roll in volume. Cherries were estimated at
from sixty to seventy cars, but the volume marketed more than doubled the estimate, to the
surprise of shippers and jobbers. This unusual condition, without being prepared for, resulted
in poor prices at peak of the season.
The warm weather prevailing in all parts of British Columbia forced the Kootenay cherries,
which are usually two weeks later than most Okanagan points, on the market with the peak of
the Okanagan stuff and added to the marketing troubles, resulting in a low price all round.
An effort was made to ship about twenty-two cars to Eastern markets to ease the situation on
the Prairies, but the experiment was not profitable, although it did help in stabilizing conditions
at Prairie points.
From the start of the marketing season overlapping seemed to be general, coupled with a
supply greater than anticipated. Every commodity suffered by the unusual consumer's choice.
Just as soon as British Columbia cherries began to clean up, an unusual volume of cantaloupes,
pears, early apples, plums, peaches, and even the last year's Winesaps arrived from California
and AVashington, closely followed by some fine British Columbia apricots and field tomatoes.
APRICOTS IN VOLUME.
British Columbia apricots of No. 1 size made a fine impression, as this was the first year
they came to market in volume. They were superior to AVashington Moor Parks that were in
competition with them. It is regrettable that so many British Columbia No. 2 apricots were
shipped.    There is no demand for small apricots and they went begging. .
N 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
UNUSUAL VARIETY OF COMMODITIES OFFERED.
As early as the middle of July British Columbia shippers were rolling apples, pears, peaches,
apricots, yakamines, and field tomatoes, and from this it can be estimated how fast commodities
follow on. At the time British Columbia strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, loganberries,
and currants were offered on sale, onions, celery, peppers, peas, squash, and other vegetables were
on the market from British Columbia.
AVALANCHE OF PRUNES.
The prune-crop of the Pacific Coast was unusually heavy and from the start of their season
low prices were quoted. Weeks before British Columbia prunes were ready to roll the price
of 30 cents per case was quoted from AValla Walla and offering $60 a car brokerage to induce
the brokers to sell. Before a car of British Columbia prunes rolled (the British Columbia crop
was heavy) prunes were being imported by regular jobbers and by retail chain stores by car-lots
and even on consignment. " Dumping " was ineffective, as when British Columbia prunes did
come on, the market was flooded by imported prunes. The Prairies were " full of prunes "
and with the British Columbia quota added the slump was complete. American prune-growers
lost heavily on their crop and they without intent " made it hot" for British Columbia prune-
growers.
BULLETIN COMMENTS ON SITUATION.
The Bulletin published the following comment on August 28th: " A congested market in all
lines has led to unstable prices, or, in other words, the supply is greater than the demand.
Twelve cars of imported fruit and twenty-five cars of British Columbia fruit and vegetables
arrived in Calgary during this week."    Harvest commenced about this time.
UNSEASONABLE WEATHER UPSET MARKET ARRANGEMENTS.
Cantaloupes rolled from Oliver and immediately displaced all imported stuff. The demand
was good and fair prices were realized. Excessive rainfall with cool temperature put country
roads in bad shape and interfered with distribution. From this time on the jobbers' troubles were
too many to relate; suffice to say that at the end of the year not more than one jobbing firm
in Calgary made money out of 1926 business.
Considering the difficulties and in view of the above conditions, the men in charge of the
selling end of the fruit and vegetable business rendered excellent service.
BRITISH  COLUMBIA APPLE-CROP A RECORD  ONE.
The apple-crop in British Columbia for the year 1926 establishes a new record in volume.
The quality was also above the average. Over 5,000 cars of marketable apples were produced
in interior. British Columbia, chiefly in the Okanagan and Kootenay sections. Price-setting
arrangements were exceptionally good, as the Associated Growers and Sales Service, who
handled 90 per cent, of the total crop, worked in harmony throughout the selling season, and
made a determined effort at a critical time to stabilize the markets, with some success.
The consumption of apples at country points on the Prairies from September to Christmas
was greatly reduced, first, because of the uncertainty of work for the harvesters, and, second,
by the impassable conElition of the roads at many points. In spite of the best efforts of the
British Columbia organized shippers the city markets on the Prairies were forced by independents, chiefly by price-cutting, and while this was met by the organized shippers it resulted
in a policy on the part of dealers of buying from hand to mouth and defeated the end in view—■
namely, forcing a large volume on the market.
MARKET NEEDS DISCUSSED.
In view of the heavy crop marketed in 1926, it would be in place to name the commodities
that in our opinion are sufficiently planted in British Columbia, and those that are insufficiently
grown for the Prairie markets as well as for home markets and canneries.
Rhubarb.—Rhubarb-planting can be increased, provided the growers go in for early vegetables to mix in the cars. Unless the early vegetables are more grown it would be unwise to
increase the rhubarb acreage, as the AValla Walla districts, where direct competition comes
from, furnishes cars heavy to rhubarb, but containing asparagus, spinach, green onions, and
radish, and with this mixture of needed vegetables their cars are in preferred demand.    If DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 45
British Columbia rhubarb-growers include vegetables and hothouse tomatoes and cucumbers in
their rhubarb cars they can almost double the present planting, as this would shut out Southern
supply.
Small Fruits.—During the spring of 1926 a very heavy planting of strawberries took place
and the bearing acreage is close to, if not in excess of, any previous planting. This commodity
should not have any further acreage planted in 1927.
Raspberries are already planted in sufficient acreage for the present markets and the same
advice can be applied to them.
Loganberries for wine purposes would seem to be in greated demand, but we are not familiar
with the situation and therefore cannot advise upon it.
Gooseberries and blackberries are overplanted ancl a reduction of the acreage would bring
better prices to the producer.
Peaches.—There is a market on the Prairies for three times the amount of peaches as are
at present grown in British Columbia. The varieties, after early sorts «uch as St. John and
Triumph are past, should be largely the J. H. Hale and Elberta. The Elberta is a popular
large variety and 75 per cent, of all the peaches imported are of that sort. Canneries demanEl
Lemon Cling and other Cling varieties as these hold up better than Freestone peaches. This
demand should have studied consideration with a view to meet the cannery demand. As a
market variety the Cling has not been tried.
The questions for growers to solve are: AVill the Cling peach succeeil in British Columbia,
and where?    What is the approximate demand for cannery purposes?
AVe understand that Clingstone peaches of the Lemon and other popular varieties are being
tested out at Summerland Experimental Farm and also at Vineland, Ontario. It will pay
intending planters to ascertain what these tests result in and govern themselves accordingly.
Apricots.—Indications are that sufficient planting of the apricot is now made, at least for a
few years to come. The Osoyoos and Oliver Districts are specializing in apricots, and as the
trees are young, heavy-bearing time will likely find that they have enough planted for all present
market requirements. Trees that produce small size or No. 2 apricots should be done away
with, as there is no demand for them.
Cantaloupes.—Cantaloupes from Oliver should not exceed forty-five cars for Prairie distribution. These cantaloupes were favourably received in Toronto and Montreal this year before
the home stuff appeared, but after that it is impossible for them to compete on these markets.
During the early period, when Ontario and Quebec can take our cantaloupes, the home market
will be found more profitable, as the supply at that time is less than the demand.
Cherries.—Bing and Lambert cherries and any late variety of the size and colour of the Bing
and Lambert can safely be planted in the cherry-growing parts of the Kootenay district. Sufficient early cherries are now planted in the Okanagan and Oliver Districts of varieties other than
the Bing and Lambert. However, in the Oliver, Osoyoos, and Keremeos Districts, where the
season is usually two weeks ahead of others, more Bing and Lambert cherries should be planted.
No other cherries are in popular demand and should not be planted excepting as fertilizers'.
Plums and Prunes.—The plums and prunes of the Interior run rather small. Early varieties
from British Columbia come in sharp competition with Oregon and California late sorts. The
imported varieties are chiefly Italian, Climax, AArickson, and Tragedy. The varieties from
British Columbia are Peach Plum, Bradshaw, Italian, Pond's Seedling, Yellow Egg, Black Diamond, Lombard, Imperial Gage, Columbia, and a few Damsons. From Ontario come the true
Greengage and Damson plums and there is considerable demand for them. About the only
planting needed of this produce in British Columbia is Italian, Trageily, Damson, and Greengage.
Pears.—More pears of the Bartlett type can be used. The demand is greater than the
supply now that cold storage is available. The DeAnjou variety can also be grown, so can the
Bosc and any good late variety, such as Winter Nelis. Last year Canada imported pears to the
value of $42,000 from the United States. Pears require both favourable climatic and soil conditions and the Horticultural Branch should be consulted as to districts and location for pears.
Apples wanted.—In Penticton, Kaleden, Oliver, Osoyoos, and districts to the south it would
be safe to plant a large amount of AA^inesaps. At present this variety is imported from Washington. They are in great demand for their colour, late keeping, and good quality. AArith them
can be grown the Yellow Newtown variety. It might be well to plant Astrachan, Yellow Transparent, and extra-early varieties in these early districts, including Keremeos. Tomatoes.—The pack of field tomatoes has improved, but at start of season the trade complains that in every 4-lb. basket they find tomatoes all the way from green to ripe. Care should
be taken to have all tomatoes in a 4-lb. basket uniform as to ripeness. This can only be regulated by packing in the packing-shed. It is impossible to pack uniform ripeness in a field pack.
Kelowna growers pack in the packing-house and their tomatoes are easily worth 20 cents a
crate more than the average pack from British Columbia that comes on the Prairie market.
Unless uniform ripeness and uniform pack is maintained, uniform price would be unfair. In
1926 the average field pack kept prices from advancing when the market was bare.
Onions.—The box pack of onions were highly spoken of by the trade. So were onions packed
in Saxoline sacks. " Sample Grade " was used after the frost. This grade does not protect
either seller or buyer and onions shipped under " Sample Grade " were sold subject to the report
on condition of arrival.
British Columbia onions are the best onions grown, and with more care in packing and
practice of storing they should exclude all others from the Prairie markets. Ontario and
Quebec merchants speak highly of British Columbia box-pack onions and much export trade
can be looked for.
COLD STORAGE.
In Washington we find that cold storage is more used by fruitmen than in British Columbia.
American prunes and pears come to Prairie markets before British Columbia stuff is ready, and
after British Columbia prunes and pears have cleaned up we find AVashington rolling them to
Prairie markets from their cold storage.
We have sufficient cold storage in Prairie cities and at the Coast to take care of much more
fruit than has ever been offered, also excellent storage at Kelowna and Vernon.
At time of writing, February 18th, 1927, we find that British Columbia has only the following cars of apples in storage: Vancouver, 10; Calgary, 13;. Edmonton, 1; Saskatoon, 2;
Regina, 6; Toronto, 10; Chicago, 3; New York, 28; Great Britain, 20; with some 48 in the
interior of British Columbia. The 28 cars held in New York are Mcintosh Red. In addition to
the above, about 100 cars of apples are held in common storage.
At same date we find Prairie jobbers ordering AVinesaps and other apples from AVashington,
which are being delivered to fill their needs. This has been going on for years. This year the
Prairie markets will absorb about 200 cars more than we have available to meet their normal
demand. Prices are good for these C Grade apples, the cost being $2.16 laid down in Calgary,
and prices are advancing.
In view of the overlapping of winter and fall apple-sales from October to Christmas, and
the selling of apples from early-ripening districts at the same time as late-ripening districts,
when apple prices were such as to return the grower little or nothing, it might be the opportune
time to suggest that systematic storage should be practised in British Columbia, because, if
apples were firm and available now, these AVashington AA7inesaps and other varieties would not
be imported in any appreciable quantity.
SUMMARY OF THE SITUATION.
Summarizing the fruit and vegetable marketing season of 1926 into seven features, they
would be as follows :—
(1.)  The noticeable betterment in the buying-power of Prairie farmers.
(2.) The early season in the West and the late season in the East, which resulted in unusual
competition with points not usually competitors. The overlapping of berries with the cherry-
crop and the ripening of fruit from early and late districts simultaneously instead of the usual
difference of two weeks.
(3.) Excellent crop conditions and fine growing weather on Prairies up to August 10th, and
the cool, wet weather from that date on retarded harvesting and threshing, and had also the
effect of turning what was at the start an early-marketing season in British Columbia into a
very late one.
(4.) A record crop of stone-fruit in the AVestern States and British Columbia. Also a
record crop of apples in British Columbia, which exceeded 5,000 cars for commerce. The quality
was of high order in all fruits and the breakdown, so far reported, was almost confined to
large-sized apples. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 47
(5.) The large increase in the distribution of hothouse tomatoes and cucumbers. The
shipping of Arancouver Island broccoli to Ontario and Quebec and the entering on that market
with hothouse tomatoes and cucumbers in car-lots.
(6.) The introduction of blower "line" cars by the two operating express companies was
also a feature of 1926, and the results of this innovation were favourably commented on by the
trade.
(7.) Although not new, but extremely hazardous in a year of a record crop, was the
unstabilizing of the market by price-cutting by unorganized independents and uncontrolled consignment to the trade, both wholesale and retail.
The evolution of orderly marketing has at last reached a definite stage. The unfair relations existing since 1920 between what the farmers have to buy and what they can sell their
produce at has reached a point that the farmer hesitates to carry on. The greater the crop
he produces the smaller his profits are. A general demand is made by producers for systematized growing and marketing reform.
Legislation has been asked for to establish a control board for the purpose of stabilizing
and regulating markets with a view to supplying and feeding them, thereby extending them by
time. At time of writing such legislation is being considered, and if passed some far-reaching-
reforms may be effected during the 1927 season.
Respectfully submitted.
J. A. Grant,
Markets Commissioner.
REPORT  OF  LIVE  STOCK  COMMISSIONER,  VICTORIA.
Dr. A. G. Knight, V.S.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Live Stock Branch for the year 1926.
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
Conditions concerning the live-stock industry with regard to breeding, feeding, marketing,
and prices received have shown some improvement over 1925. The mild winter of 1925 and the
beginning of 1926 was in favour of the live-stock breeder and feeder, the stock coming out of
winter quarters in fair condition and leaving the stockmen in many cases with a surplus of hay
to carry over for another season or for marketing purposes. As a result of the light snowfall
of the winter, water for irrigation purposes was curtailed very seriously in some sections. This,
in conjunction with the plague of grasshoppers, caused a very serious shortage of hay, the crops
being very light. Therefore the surplus of hay left over will take care of this shortage, and by
reports received to date the stockmen will carry through the winter in these particular dry
sections without serious loss.
Grain reports indicate average yields. The harvesting weather in general was favourable
and the quality of the grain was somewhat above the average. Hay and grain crops in the
Lower Fraser A^alley were well above the average yield. This is also true of corn and other
forage-crops for silage purposes. Root-crops got away with a good start owing to the spring
range, but suffered the latter part of the summer from lack of moisture, but on the whole the
crops were fair.
Arancouver Island hay-crops were well up to the average yield. The early spring range was
favourable for growth, but both hay and corn crops suffered before cutting and finished with
only fair yields.    If it had not been for the early range the crops would have suffered seriously.
The stockmen I find as a whole are paying more attention to the quality of their breeding
stock, particularly to their stock bulls, but, as pointed out in my previous report, the Province
is short of pure-bred beef bulls of good quality. The general run of prices paid for bulls is not
high enough to induce many breeders to establish expensive high-quality herds for breeding
purposes. The small stockman is not in the position to pay the price for animals of good
quality. GooeI prices are paiEl by our larger men on a few choice individuals, and I find that
the use of these bulls is raising the standard in these herds of the type and quality over the
general run of cattle. No doubt, if the price of beef cattle was increased to the stockmen,
better prices could be paid for good breeding bulls. HORSES.
The reports for the past year show an increase in the number of horses, the number in 1925
being 57,016, and in 1926, 61,158. This increase is largely accounted for by the more complete
returns or figures given by the Indian Department at Ottawa on the number of horses on the
Indian reservations within the Province. This class of horses, however, does not represent any
increase in value to the Province, as the type found on the reservations are small and have
practically no commercial value.
In work-horses the supply has barely kept pace with the demand, but as the older horses
are discarded and new settlers take up land the supply of colts will not be sufficient to meet the
depreciation and take care of the requirements of the market. Horses weighing from 1,200 to
1,500 lb. meet the requirements of the average farmer, and of this class we are able to meet the
demand at prices ranging around $75 to $125; while choice animals, well matched and sound,
may bring $200 each.
For drayage purposes in our cities the demand is for heavy horses weighing around 1,600
lb. and up; good prices being realized ranging from $300 and up. AVhile the market is somewhat fastidious as to weight and quality, there is a steady demand for this class of horses at
remunerative prices. At the present time we have very few or no stallions of the required weight
anEl type to produce heavy horses. Quite a number of good mares are available, both pure-bred
and high grade, that should produce horses to meet the call of the market.
Good heavy draught stallions are required in many districts throughout the Province. The
continued reduction in the number of mares bred and foals raised will eventually result in an
acute shortage of work animals. Individual farmers should study carefully the type and power
best suited to their own farms and determine the individual needs for horse replacement three
to ten years from now.
CATTLE.
The census returns for cattle for 1926 show 338,244 head, as compared with 297,946 head for
1925, showing an increase of 40,298. Of the total number, 107,537 head may be classed as dairy
cattle, which is composed of cows and stock over one year of age. Prices for beef cattle show
an upper tendency, better figures being realized during the past year than 1925. There is a
steadily growing demand for light-weight beef cattle, some markets reporting a spread of $1
per hundredweight between light and heavy cattle of choice grades for beef purposes. The
trend of the market demand is towards younger and light-weight animals of better quality.
This means more rapid turnover, which is in line with the general policy of all business to-day,
to meet the new conditions and also the building-up of the quality of our herds, reducing costs,
increasing efficiency in production and marketing, and taking steps to meet the demands of the
consumer. The prime need of the majority of our stockmen is the more general use of high-
class bulls, without which we cannot look for much improvement in the quality of our meat-
supply. To cheapen the cost of productive breeding, herds should be carefully culled and cared
for and calf-crops increased so that a greater quantity of beef of a higher quality could be
obtained from our producing herds. As the Province imports 34,184 head of beef cattle, to meet
the consumptive demand increased production should be encouraged consistent with the economical production of our farms and ranches. At the Kamloops Bull-sale 154 head of bulls were
sold to Provincial buyers, ranging from bull calves to mature animals, at prices from $50 to
$500 per head. An average price of $128.20 per head was realized on the entire lot, the offerings
being made up of 27 Aberdeen Angus, 51 Hereford, 76 Shorthorns. A number of pure-bred
Shropshire ewes and rams were brought in from Ontario and sold at fair prices, the top ram
bringing $60;   the bulk of the ewes and rams ranging from $22.50 to $35.
DAIRY CATTLE.
There is in the Province around 170,537 head of dairy cattle; milk cows number 85,572
head; yearlings raisesl for dairy purposes, 21,965, an increase over the previous year of 3,677
cows and 793 yearlings. The dairy industry has made substantial progress during the past
year, prices realized for dairy products remaining approximately on a par with 1925. The
Cow-testing Association, under the supervision of the Dairy Division, is rendering valuable
assistance to the dairymen. As a result of this work unprofitable cows are weeded out of the
herds. The producer is also stimulated to take an increased interest in his work and apply
better methods to his business.    Taking the Province as a whole, improvement must come DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 49
through more careful breeding, and this can be done only as a result of more accurate knowledge of the producing ability of individual cows. There is a steady demand for good dairy
cows, prices ranging somewhat higher than the past few years; the general run of prices being
from $120 to $150 for choice animals, $65 to $80 for 2-year-olds, and $35 to $45 for yearlings;
while inferior dairy stock were on a par with last year, running from $20 to $30 for yearlings
and $50 to $80 for mature animals. There has been an ordinary demand for pure-bred cows
and heifers. The tendency among our better class of dairymen is to acquire a few choice
animals as a nucleus for the building-up of a pure-bred herd.
A few dairy bulls have been imported from south of the line with a view to further improvement of blood lines. The four dairy breed associations are active in furthering the interest of
their respective breeds. A number of breeding animals from each of the breeds have been
exported chiefly to the Prairie Provinces. The Holstein Association has appointed a fieldman,
in the person of Mr. Harold Steves, to extend the interest of the breed in the four AVestern
Provinces. Inquiries have been received from the Orient for dairy cattle, but owing to unsettled
conditions the orders have not materialized. The written report relative to the 1925 shipment
to Shanghai states that the British Columbia cattle made a very creditable showing in production
and proved very satisfactory.
SWINE.
The prices and demand for breeding stock have stimulated an increased interest in hog
production, prices at the beginning of the year running around $13 per hundredweight, but dropping towards the close of the year to $10.50 per hundredweight. There was produced in the
Province around 40,813 hogs, whereas there is shipped in to meet market requirements 29,294,481
lb. of pork. We therefore have ample room for expansion of this industry to meet our Provincial
requirements.
Boys' and Girls' Swine Clubs were organized in Cranbrook, Midway, Rock Creek, and
Salmon Arm Districts. The three first mentioned districts are specializing in select bacon-hogs
of Yorkshire breeding, while the Salmon Arm have adopted the Berkshire, the type running more
to thick-smooth. It is the intention of the Live Stock Branch to enlarge on the Boys' and Girls'
Club work during the coming year with the idea of extending assistance and encouraging the
production of suitable types of hogs. Education work is rendered the boys and girls in the
modern methods of breeding, feeding, and care of hogs to obtain the best results. The types
produced and exhibited at the club fairs are commendable, the pigs brought out being a better
average lot than the majority of hogs shown by the farmers of the same districts.
This Branch, in conjunction with the Dominion Department, selected and placed among the
farmers fifty-one brood sows, nineteen being placed in the Tappen District and thirty-two in the
vicinity of Haney and Hammond, in the Lower Fraser. These gilts were all pure-bred of
Yorkshire breeding. A boar of the same breed was placed in these districts by the Dominion
Department through their loan policy of supplying boars to local associations.
A series of meetings were held on Vancouver Island, the Lower Fraser, and Interior points
during the months of November and December, the topics of discussion being selecting animals
for breeding purposes, feeding hogs for select bacon, diseases and common ailments of pigs,
slaughtering, dressing and curing of various cuts of the carcass. Mr. Foster, sent out by the
Dominion Department of Agriculture at the request of the Provincial Department, proved a
capable man in handling all phases of the hog industry. The meetings were well attended,
interest being taken in the proceedings, and demonstrations and meetings of a similar nature
will be repeated in other sections of the Province during the fall of 1927, provided arrangements can be made.
SHEEP.
The sheep industry has enjoyed another prosperous year: the prices for wool and lambs are
high enough to encourage extension. Sheep, as in the past few years, appear to be one of the
main attractions in the live-stock interest. The number of sheep in the Province have approximately doubled since 1923. AVe have to-day around 102,853 head, composed of breeding ewes
and lambs. The greatest increase is largely in the Interior. Breeding ewes have been brought
from Alberta and Saskatchewan and a number from south of the line. A number of sheep
imported and coming into our range areas carry considerable Rambouillet blood, which is more
suitable under range conditions.    Owing to the grazing areas in the Interior being more readily N 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
available for summer pasturage and the country suitable for alfalfa and other legumes for
winter-feeding, the range districts will no Eloubt be more attractive to the sheepmen than the
Coast. This will probably appeal more to the small man with limited capital, as well as being
an inducement to the man who wishes to engage in the sheep business on a larger scale. Owing
to the heavy cost of clearing on the Coast the number of sheep will not show such rapid increase
as in the Interior districts, and at present the farm flocks west of the Cascade Mountains are
run on rough pasturage and as a side-issue to other mixed-farming operations.
As a consequence of the increased production imports of mutton into British Columbia have
been much reduced within the last two or three years, as shown below:—
1926. 1923.
Sheep imported from other Provinces for mutton purposes     42,855 57,986
Sheep imported from various points        2,201 5,347
Total number sheep imported       45,056 63,333
Mutton imported from other Provinces (pounds)     417,826 211,366
Mutton imported from various points  (pounds)       952,908 1,341,725
Total number pounds mutton imported  1,370,734 1,553,091
Thus money that was formerly sent out of the Province for mutton and lamb is being
retained within our borders.
In the middle of May and the first part of June a series of meetings were held on Vancouver
Island, Nicola, Lillooet, and Cariboo Districts on the care and handling of sheep; demonstrations in ticking, dipping, methods of preparing wool for marketing, and the dressing of carcasses. Literature on sheep-raising was distributed at the meetings. The meetings were well
attended and much interest shown in the various demonstrations.
Prices for wool, so far as returns have been sent in, run from 15 cents for the coarser
grades and 32 cents for the finer grades, although the final returns from the Canadian Co-operative may alter these prices; but indications point that the average price for all grades will run
around 23 cents, which is somewhat lower than the average received for 1925. There
has been shipped through the British Columbia Wool-growers' Association to the Canadian
Co-operative at Toronto 210,000 lb. of wool, the largest quantity handled by the association from
its existence, which is a very creditable showing for the past year; 161,000 lb. being shipped
by the Provincial Association in 1925.
The grading of rams by an official of the Dominion Department of Agriculture was conducted as in 1925 and is much appreciated by the sheepmen. The grading creates more confidence between the breeder and purchaser, as the price paid is according to quality and sets a
standard by which to make selections for either grade or pure-bred flocks.
GOATS.
There is continued activity amongst those interested in goats. The demand for goat's milk
is active and the price paid by consumers is above the price of milk from the cow. The goat
fills a need where conditions do not warrant the keeping of cows. Saanens and Toggenburgs
hold the lead in numbers. By improving the milking ability of the Nubians they would increase
their popularity. The estimate of all goats in the Province is well over 10,000, composed of
approximately 750 pure-breds. The membership of the British Columbia Goat-breeders' Association is 434. Other Provinces are looking to British Columbia for foundation stock and we
may look forward to an outlet along this direction in the future.
BRANDS.
The total number of brands recorded, as contained in the last issue of the brand-book, is :
Cattle, 2,378; horses, 1,727. During the year new cattle-brands issued, 120; renewed, 420;
new horse-brands issued, 98;  renewed, 222.
A list of cattle and hides shipped each month from the various districts of the Province
is included in Appendix No. 23. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 51
PURE-BRED MALE ANIMALS  FOR  FARMERS'  INSTITUTES.
During the year two Oxford Down rams were purchased on behalf of institutes, one shipped
to Columbia Valley Institute and one to the South Bulkley; eight bulls, comprised of one Red
Poll shipped to Baynes Lake, four dual-purpose Shorthorns to Kersley Farmers' Institute, two
Jersey and one Holstein to the Spallumcheen;   one Yorkshire boar to the Nechako Institute.
Remittances to the Department on the prices of the animals shipped are up to date.
FAIRS.
The quality of the stock exhibited at our fall fairs was particularly noticeable by more
uniformity and fixity of type as shown by the animals in their various classes. Our larger fairs
found it necessary to enlarge their accommodation for cattle, and the increased space so allotted
for the exhibits was fully occupied and taxed to its capacity. The second Winter Fair held in
Vancouver in December was successful in bringing out some very creditable exhibits of car-loasls
and pens of live stock, the heavy-horse class being commendable in numbers and quality. More
attention given to commercial stock-judging according to marketing requirements will do more
than anything else to encourage the use of high-class sires in breeding all classes of stock; also
in preparing prize-lists to emphasize the line of agriculture best suited to their respective
districts.
The live-stock business, to be successful, would necessarily have to cater to pEiblic demands.
The live-stock men have been passing through difficult times in recent years, but judging the
industry as we find it to-day we can look forward with confidence to the future.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Live Stoek Commissioner.
REPORT OF CHIEF VETERINARY INSPECTOR, VICTORIA.
Dr. A. G. Knight, V.S.
Dr. D. Wamock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit report of the Veterinary Branch for the year January 1st to December
31st, 1926.
The year has been singularly free from any serious outbreaks of contagious diseases among
live stock in the Province. Two outbreaks of sheep-scab occurred in the Province early in the
season, but these are at present in quarantine under the supervision of the Federal Inspectors.
Goccidiosis is still prevalent in the Interior, but confined to certain local districts, and the
trouble is not widespread. It can be largely controlled by internal antiseptics and precautionary
methods.
ACTINOMYCOSIS AND ACTINIMO-BACCILOSIS.
AVhile the former is not prevalent to any large extent and is not causing any serious alarm,
the latter has proved somewhat more serious in one of our feeding establishments, as quite a
percentage of the feeder cattle were affected. It has also been noted in a number of our dairy
herds, usually affecting two or three animals a year. Such cases are isolated by quarantine and
the sale of milk from cows so affected prohibited. The animals are usually promptly destroyed
by the owner.
On April 1st a flock of sheep were reported as being in an emaciated condition and a number
had died. This flock was situated in the vicinity of AVhonnock. The owner reported that a
number had died and that a number were in a very unthrifty condition. On inspection these
were found to be suffering from a nodular disease. The advice given the owner as to the
handling of the disease was carried out and no other trouble was reported.
ABORTION AND STERILITY.
Abortion in dairy cows has, for some years past, proven a source of great trouble and of
considerable loss to the dairy-farmer. This disease has a very wide distribution and may be
found among all classes of cattle kept under a variety of conditions. N 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Although the disease is chiefly reported by owners of dairy cattle, we also find it among
beef stock kept upon the open range. It is impossible to form anything like an accurate estimate
of the money loss caused by this disease, as we have no figures or data with reference to the
number of calves lost, nor are we able to place a price on losses of a secondary nature, such as
sterility, which is always more or less associated with it. At the present time there are no
remedies which can be depended upon to eradicate the infection from the body or to bring about
normal birth from an infected cow. Apparent favourable results from remedies are as a rule
due to a spontaneous disappearance of the disease rather than to the treatment given. Research-
work on this disease is being conducted by the Dominion Government laboratories and by other
Government specialists throughout the world.
HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICAEMIA.
One case of hsemorrhagic septicemia on Arancouver Island was investigated. Five heasl of
young stock had died, the mature animals escaping infection. All the stock on this farm had
access to pasture on swampy ground. Practically all cases investigated for this trouble in
British Columbia had occurred under similar conditions; that is, cattle, especially young stock,
which had become infected were pastured on ground that was subject to an overflow at certain
times of the year, such ground being of a swampy nature. AVe usually find by placing the cattle
on higher ground, although on the same farm, they generally escape infection.
An investigation was made by this Department in the Lac la Haehe District, where a stockman had lost three head of cattle. The cause of death in this case was due to poisoning. The
emaciated condition of another herd in the same vicinity was found due to lack of nutrients in
the feed.
TUBERCULOSIS.
During January the time of three of the Inspectors was taken up in securing the names and
signatures of farmers petitioning the Government to establish a restricted area in the Lower
Fraser Valley. The dairymen were practically unanimous in signing up for the establishment
of such an area. The necessary signatures being secured, the petition was forwarded to Ottawa
and a restricted area established in the following boundaries:—
" Commencing at a point on the easterly boundary of the Dominion Government Railway
Belt where it is intersected by the northerly boundary of Township 11, Range 23, west of 6th
meridian; thence west along the north boundaries of Townships 11, Ranges 23, 24, 25, and 26,
to the north-east corner of Section 34, Township 11, Range 26; thence south along the east
boundaries of Sections 34 and 27 in said Township 11, Range 26, to 9-Mile Creek; thence southwesterly along the centre line of 9-Mile Creek to the Fraser River; thence north-westerly along
the centre line of the Fraser River to the mouth of Nahatlatch Creek; thence up-stream of saisl
Nahatlatch Creek and passing through Nahatlatch Lake and along the centre of the Upper
Nahatlatch River to the westerly boundary of the Railway Belt; thence southerly and westerly
following the westerly and northerly boundaries of the Railway Belt to the north-west corner
of the Railway Belt; thence west to the shore of Howe Sound; thence southerly through Howe
Sound and passing to the east of all islands in said Sound to the Gulf of Georgia ; thence through
said Gulf of Georgia to the International Boundary; thence easterly along the International
Boundary to the point where it is intersected by the easterly boundary of the Dominion Government Railway Belt; thence northerly along said easterly boundary of said Railway Belt to the
point of commencement."
The Federal Veterinary Inspectors commenced the tuberculin-testing of cattle within this
area on February 22nd. Four of the Provincial Veterinary staff were employed assisting the
Dominion Inspectors, arranging for transportation from farm to farm, supervising the collecting,
loading, shipping, and disposal of reactors. The four Inspectors were employed on this work
until the end of September. The Federal Government employed nineteen Inspectors in the
area besides the officials supervising the cleansing and disinfection of the yards and stables
on the premises where reactors were found. The transportation of the Veterinary Inspectors
within the area was borne by the Provincial Government. All reactors found were destroyeEl
and the herds in which tuberculosis was found have been retested for the third time. The
total number of herds in the T.B. restricted area is 5,567; the number of animals tested in the
restricted area to date is 46,989 head, and 3,607 reactors, equal to 7.68 per cent. On the first
retest of diseased herds 16,858 head were tested, with 644 reactors, equal to 3.83 per cent.    On DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 53
the second retest of diseased herds 6,017 head were tested, with 62 reactors, equal to 1.04 per cent.
The compensation paid by the Federal Government to November 23rd, 1926, was $154,420.75.
Your Provincial Inspectors have been carrying on the tuberculin-testing of dairy cattle at
the request of owners throughout the Province; 1,237 herds have been tested, with a total
number of 9,688 head, 454 reactors, or 4.73 per cent.; 50 premises have been classed under
Grade A, 305 under B, and 882 under C. A list of the districts covered, together with number
of premises visited, number of cattle tested, and number of reactors, together with the grading
of the premises according to sanitation, is included in Appendix No. 24. Your Inspectors have
also been engaged part of the time on the sanitary inspection of stables and dairies. The general
report is that there is a gradual improvement, especially in the older sections.
All of which I beg to submit.
A. Knight,
Chief Veterinary Inspector.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, KAMLOOPS.
Geo. C. Hay, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1926.
SHEEP INDUSTRY.
AVith particular reference to sheep-farming, it must be noted that the breeding of sheep still
continues to be one of the most remunerative of farm enterprises; while recent years have not
shown any appreciable increase in the Canadian sheep population, the disposition is quite
pronounced towards adding to the numbers in flocks existing, and also of new ones being started.
The 1925 sheep population of Canada was estimated by the Canadian Co-operative AVool-growers'
Association at about 1,575,000, yielding approximately 11,000,000 lb. of wool, in comparison with
10,187,000 lb. in 1924 from 1,455,417 sheep. These figures also bear interesting comparison with
an estimated total of something better than 2,000,000 sheep in 1920 and 1921. All these figures
are exclusive of lambs.
British Columbia Provincial Government statistics estimates the 1926 sheep population to
be 102,853, as compared with 62,247 in 1925, an increase of 40,606. AVhether or not other
Provinces have increased in the same proportion or not I have not been able to ascertain.
WOOL-MARKETING.
A review of present-day Canadian wool-marketing methods necessitates considering the
operations of the Canadian Co-operative AArool-growers, Limited, which organization represents
one of the most successful marketing organizations functioning in the Dominion on a co-operative
basis. Formed in 1918 as a Dominion company for the purpose of grading and marketing wool,
the association has grown steadily and has been the means of bringing about better and steadier
returns to the grower for his product. It also acts as a valuable intermediary in bringing about
a better understanding between the growers and consumers.
For the most part last season's AVestern domestic wools are still held intact, awaiting some
kind of a market, and, with one or two exceptions, the same may be said of all other Canadian
wool where the chief grades are Low Medium and above. The reason for the wool being yet
in store is the absence of demand, resulting in an inactive market and lower quotations. It is
in this kind of a year that the growers' organization serves best the grower's interest.
Of course it may be said that the wool could have been sold at shearing-time, but from
knowledge of the facts it is doubtful if in 1926 any more wool could have been sold at shearing-
time than was sold. That is, the Canadian clip would have remained largely in the growers'
hands, which would tend to make for a difficult and perhaps embarrassing situation. Against
this—thanks to the efforts of the growers themselves back in 1917 and 1918—they organized their
own company, with the result that the wool each year as soon as ready could be shipped, graded,
stored, insured, and held, pending a demand for the product; and, from the financial standpoint,
to draw a cash advance against the wool at time of shipment. '
N 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
All season the growers' organization has had, and still faces, a difficult market. Not only
is it hard to secure prices which would give satisfaction to shippers, but it is a problem to find
customers for wool in quantity. Mills are buying only for immediate requirements, which makes
for small movements of stocks. The coal strike in England has had its effect on that market;
the decline in cotton has also had its effect, so that the present conElitions are not local, but apply
to England, the United States, and in fact to all wool centres, with prices on what business is
passing some 20 per cent, below those of a year ago this time.
The Canadian Co-operative AVool-growers, Limited, is carefully watching the situation, and
whenever it is possible markets the wool as favourably as the market warrants and to the best
of their ability. They believe they will be able to market all the 1926 clip and make final
settlement to the growers before the 1927 clip commences coming on the market.
Late settlements to growers is very disappointing this season, but at the same time there is
a very general appreciation of the fact that the 1926 wool-marketing situation is accounted for
by world-wide conditions over which the growers' organization had no control.
BRITISH  COLUMBIA  STOCK-BREEDERS' ASSOCIATION.
The British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association has had an active year dealing with the
question of live-stock marketing as well as its regular business. Numerous meetings have been
held throughout the live-stock sections of the Province and keen interest has been aroused in
this important problem.
To attempt to deal with live-stock marketing is to approach a very important problem in
Canadian agriculture at the present time. That this is an important present-day agricultural
problem needs no argument, because successful marketing of agricultural products is generally
recognized to-day as the greatest agricultural problem of any country. Live-stock marketing-
has not made any advanced strides of success over that of other products of the soil. Therefore
the marketing of live stock is one of the important present-day agricultural problems of this
country.
It is well known that the outlet for Canadian live stock has been through three channels—
namely, the domestic market, the British market, and the American market. Due to tariff
adjustments from time to time, the American market has lacked the continuity necessary for
a well-ordered trade. The geographical position of the British market means that heavy transportation will always prove a handicap to a satisfactory trade in that particular country. The
domestic market, of course, is the most important of all, since it consumes the large proportion
of our home production and which in respect to beef is approximately 85 per cent. The Canadian
live-stock marketing problem, therefore, briefly, is the economic regulation of live-stock shipments through the three channels mentioned, the domestic, British, and American markets, in
accordance with supply and demand.
The announcement of a $5 per head reduction in ocean freight rates should materially
stimulate export shipments to the Old Country during the coming year.
To study the live-stock marketing problem one must study the practice of Canadian livestock marketing. This is to deal with the operations of the public stockyards of the country,
where the exchange of live stock from producer to packer or retailer takes place. These public
markets are under Federal administration and governed by the " Live Stock and Live-stock
Products Act." The Act allows for the establishing of a live-stock exchange on each public
market, and gives to this exchange a large measure of control over the operations of the stockyards. The members of the exchange are the commission agencies operating under licence on
the yards. The " Live Stock and Live-stock Products Act," under which the live-stock exchanges
operate, was passed in 1917, and under this system the practice of marketing live stock through
commission agencies is established very generally throughout Canada (British Columbia being
an exception).
In recent years co-operative live-stock marketing has advanced to a point of demanding
recognition. The sponsors of the movement are evidently not satisfied with the prevailing
practice of stockyard operations and are agitating for a redrafting of the " Live Stock and
Live-stock Products Act."
The following are four resolutions which sum up the result of a day of consultation and
discussion by the various interests which had assembled in Regina, February 18th, at the call of the Minister of Agriculture, Hon. W. A. Motherwell, to consider possible changes in the " Live
Stock and Live-stock Products Act," to meet difficulties in trading complained of by co-operative
organizations :—
(1.) "That this meeting believes that legislation and regulations should recognize equally
the commission method of trading and, the co-operative system of trading, both to be under
Government regulations." Moved by Hon. Geo. Hoadley and seconded by A. B. Claypool,
representing Alberta Live-stock Producers.
(2.) "Resolved, That the 'Live Stock Act' be so amended to take away from the live-stock
exchange its present power of control over the operation of the stockyards and over the marketing of live stock, and that such control be placed under the sole and direct administration of
the Dominion Department of Agriculture." Moved by Hon. George Hoadley and seconded by
George Bevington, representing the Alberta Co-operative Live-stock Producers.
(3.) "Resolved, That the matter of rules and regulations governing business on live-stock
yards be dealt with by the Department of Agriculture, having regard to the rules and regulations enacted by the Government under the present Act, and submitting these uniforming laws
to different live-stock exchanges, Provincial Departments of Agriculture, and different organizations likely to be affected thereby, and, after further revising, a committee be named representing
different interests to go over these rules and regulations and make a final draft."
(4.) "Resolved, That in any new rules and regulations provision be made for trying out
the plan of selling live stock by auction on the various yards in Canada."
So much for the Canadian point of view of this problem.
It would appear, therefore, that there is quite a decided prevailing difference of opinion in
respect to economic practice of Canadian live-stock marketing.
AVhether the economic regulation of Canadian live-stock shipments to market will eventually
be solved through the commission method of trading or the co-operative system of trading, or
both systems, remains to be seen.
AVithout voicing any personal opinion, I simply wish to draw to your attention the fact that
the people engaged in the practice of marketing the live stock of Canada are not, agreed as
to the best methods of marketing.
Therefore the economic regulation of live-stock shipments to market, which is recognized
as the live-stock problem of this country, awaits its solution at the hands of the people
engaged in the practice of marketing and who at the present time are not agreed as to the best
methods of practice.
THE KAMLOOPS BULL-SALE.
The Eighth Annual Kamloops Bull-sale was held in March and was the first sale held in
the new Arena. Besides the usual entry of beef bulls and breeding females, the sale included
a number of sheep, hogs, and horses, as well as a very marked increase in fat-stock show entries.
Altogether the eighth annual was regarded as a record event in the history of the sale.
The AVynn-Johnson challenge cup—for the best British Columbia born Hereford bull, any
age, entered in the sale; cup to be won three years by the breeder before being owned and to
be in the possession of the winner from one sale until the next—was won by the Tranquille
Sanatorium Farm, Tranquille, B.C., with " Tranquille Hero," 56238, which was purchased by
FreEl Gavin, Vernon, B.C.
The Farm & Home challenge cup—for the best British Columbia born Shorthorn bull, any
age, entered in the sale; cup to be won three years by the breeder before being owned and to
be in the possession of the owner from one sale until the next—was won by P. E. French, Vernon,
B.C., with " Broadview Archer," 175725, which was purchased by Guichon Ranch, Quilchena, B.C.
The Hudson's Bay challenge cup—for the best British Columbia born Shorthorn bull or
female born in the calendar year preceding the sale; cup to be won three years by the breeder
before being owned and to be in the possession of the winner from one sale until the next—was
won by James Turner, Cadboro Bay, B.C., with " Augusta Star," 176908, which was purchased
by John P. Tarves, New Westminster, B.C.
The Spencer challenge cup—for the Grand Champion animal of the Fat-stock Show; cup to
be won three years by the winner before being owned and to be in possession of the winner from
one sale until the next—was won by James Turner, Cadboro Bay, B.C., with a 2-year-old
Shorthorn heifer. N 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
City of Kamloops challenge cup—for the winning district team in stock-judging competition;
cup to be won three times before becoming the permanent property of any district—was won
by the Grand Prairie District.
BRITISH COLUMBIA SHORTHORN AND HEREFORD BREEDERS'
ASSOCIATIONS.
The British Columbia Shorthorn and Hereford Breeders' Associations have each endeavoured
to safeguard the interests of their respective breeds as well as to encourage their production.
Diplomas and prizes have been awarded to successful contestants in competitions at different
exhibitions. As secretary of these associations your Agriculturist has dealt with the various
problems of concern to each.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUB WORK.
The usual lines of Boys' and Girls' Club work has been conducted throughout the year.
An excellent exhibition of well-finished market calves was held at the Annual Kamloops Bull-
sale, as well as a very keen live-stock juElging competition, which was encouraged by substantial
prizes given by the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association and a handsome challenge cup
by the City of Kamloops to the winning district team. Kamloops District was also represented
at the Vancouver and New AVestminster Fairs by teams which participated in judging live stock,
field crops, and poultry.
GRASSHOPPERS.
Grasshoppers continued to be a plague to the district during the season of 1926. A mixing-
station was carried on for several months in the City of Kamloops, which was appreciated
by the farmers, who readily took away the mixed bait, which very materially checked the
destruction by the grasshoppers.
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD.
Throughout the year numerous reports and appraisals on farm loans have been made for
the Land Settlement Board. On account of the series of dry years in the district more calls
have been made for loans, and also more attention has been necessary to those behind in their
payments.
MEETINGS.
Throughout the year various meetings have been arranged and on different occasions
addresses were given on agricultural topics. Farmers' Institute meetings, AVool-growers' meetings, Breed Association meetings, Boys' and Girls' Club meetings, etc., have been arranged for
and assistance given.
FAIRS.
Various fairs throughout the Province were attended and in the capacity of judge assistance
was granted whenever possible.
OFFICE.
The above lines of work, together with frequent inquiries for information at the office in
Kamloops, has kept your Agriculturist especially busy during the past year. An effort has been
made at all times to assist the local farmers in finding the best markets for their produce and
stock. These various lines of work conducted by the Department of Agriculture in this district
are appreciated by the local farmers and others interested, as noticed by the steady increase
of correspondence as well as the increase in number of visitors. The efforts of the Department
to develop the agricultural interests of the district are at all times greatly appreciated by all
concerned.
Respectfully submitted.
Geo. C. Hay,
District Agriculturist. o
CQ
a
S  REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, EAST KOOTENAY.
Angus L. Hay, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as District Agriculturist in the East Kootenay
District for 1926.
FARMERS' INSTITUTE MEETINGS.
Throughout the year Farmers' Institute meetings have been attended in all parts of the
district and addresses given on different phases of agriculture. Acting as secretary of the
District Institute of District I, your Agriculturist gave all possible assistance to the association
through the year, particularly in connection with arrangements for its field-day held in July
at the Experimental Farm at Invermere, and the annual convention held in Cranbrook in
October.
FAIRS.
Numerous fairs were attended during the year, at several of which your Agriculturist acted
in the capacity of judge of different branches of the live-stock exhibits. Being secretary of the
Cranbrook Agricultural Association, all possible assistance was given the directors during the
summer months, and particularly at the time of the fall fair. Unfortunately the weather was
extremely bad during the first two days of the fair, which resulted in practically no attendance,
but the last day being fair there was a good attendance, and with some local assistance financially
the association cleared up the business for 1926 with no deficit.
LIVE STOCK.
In February, again being appointed British Columbia director of the Canadian Swine-
breeders' Association, your Agriculturist attended the annual meeting of this association in
Toronto. AVhile in the East, at the request of the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association,
some time was spent locating entries for the Kamloops Bull-sale. Also your Agriculturist while
in the East was requested to attend the annual meeting of the Canadian Co-operative Wool-
growers' Association as delegate from British Columbia in lieu of Mr. George C. Hay, who was
unable to attend, due to the dates conflicting with the dates of the annual Kamloops Bull-sale.
In May your Agriculturist attended the meeting of the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association held in the Cariboo and Chilcotin Districts.
Throughout the year, acting as director of the British Columbia AVool-growers' Association,
all possible assistance was given to sheep-breeders in the district. In July a co-operative shipment of wool was made from Cranbrook, which included the clip from practically every flock of
any size in the East and AVest Kootenay, totalling approximately 16,000 lb.
It is regrettable to note that several breeders have experienced losses in this industry, due
to the ravages of the coyote, and a few have disposed of their flocks.
Assistance is continually given to stockmen in the way of locating and purchasing good
stock. In this connection, at the request of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company,
of Trail, B.C., last November, your Agriculturist went East to Ontario and Quebec and purchased
two car-loads of registered Ayrshire cattle for their dairy at Trail. Practically all these cows
have already freshened and are giving good satisfaction.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUB WORK.
The East Kootenay Boys' and Girls' Swine Club work was again conducted in this district
and for the third time won first place in the Provincial club competition. Upwards of thirty pigs
were shown, all being exhibited in first-class condition. Keen interest was shown in this work
throughout the summer months and a splendid display of Yorkshire pigs would have been staged
at the Cranbrook Fall Fair had the weather been fit. This club-work advanced one step this
year in this district, a ton litter competition being staged, in which four entries competed,
consisting of litters of thirteen, eleven, and two tens, the first litter weighing approximately
2,700 lb. at 6 months of age.
Keener interest than ever before was shown this year in the boys' and girls' live-stock
judging competitions.    Teams were coached in the following districts for the Coast fairs: N 58 '   BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Cranbrook, Golden, Natal, and Jaffray; and at the Vancouver Fair stood first, second, fourth,
and ninth respectively. At the New Westminster Exhibition teams were entered from Golden
and Cranbrook and stood first and fifth respectively.
POTATO-WORK.
During June, July, and August considerable time was spent combating the ravages of the
potato-beetle, calcium arsenate and arsenate of lead being used. The growers greatly appreciate
the assistance given by the Department of Agriculture in the way of supplying free poison.
OFFICE-WORK.
The office-work continues to increase; correspondence is on the increase and each year the
office is used more by the farmers as a means of obtaining agricultural information. Being-
secretary of the District Institute, secretary of the Agricultural Association, secretary of the
Boys' and Girls' Clubs, considerable time must be spent in the office, but your Agriculturist
endeavours to spend as much time as possible, particularly during the summer months, visiting
farmers throughout the district, where the local problems of the. farmers can be handled with
the greatest efficiency.
Respectfully submitted.
Angus L. Hay,
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, PRINCE GEORGE.
R. G. Sutton, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows:—
The past year was, as a whole, a very favourable one for farmers in this part of Central
British Columbia. A very mild winter permitted of considerable saving in the matter of
winter-feeding. This was followed by excellent growing conditions during the summer, resulting
in high yields in almost all crops. Practically the only adverse conditions throughout the whole
season were: First, cold weather in April, causing considerable damage to new seeding of
legume-crops; and, second, the early cold snap on September 21st, when the potato-crop suffered
severe damage.
FIELD CROPS.
The hay-crop for the year was a gooEl average, with grain and root crops exceptionally heavy.
The season has brought considerable progress and also the opening-up of several new avenues of
production which heretofore had not been tried.
Chief among these is that of wheat-growing on a commercial scale. During the spring a
communication was received from the management of the new elevator at Prince Rupert, asking
that samples of wheat grown along the line of the Canadian National Railway be forwarded for
examination. Accordingly a number of farmers were visited and samples of wheat collected
and forwarded to Prince Rupert. After receiving a very favourable report on these it was
suggested to farmers of the district that they engage in commercial wheat-growing on a modest
scale for a start.
The idea was taken up by a number of farmers around A'anderhoof; between 500 and 600
acres being sown to Marquis wheat. A close watch was kept on this crop during the growing
season. Weather conditions remained favourable, so that the crop was all cut and practically
all threshed before the bad weather set in in late September. A good yield was received;
estimated at 25 bushels per acre average. The quality averaged fair, but would have been better
had better seed been used.
To date one car-load has been shipped to the elevator and more is expected to move shortly.
A considerable quantity is being held for seed, as the acreage sown next year will probably be
many times that of this year. This is a move of great importance to the district. As mentioned
in previous reports, timothy-hay has been the main crop of the district for some years. Its
production has grown year by year in the face of a fairly stationary market. The only possible
result has been a decrease in price and last year a small carry-over.   This year the situation DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 59
is so far improved, in that the acreage sown to wheat has reduced the acreage in hay. It will
do this to a further extent next year, with the result that the production of hay is bound to show
a decline and thus a surplus will be avoided.
This move towards a more diversified type of farming is also noticeable in the fact that
A'anderhoof District this year shipped out a car of alfalfa-hay. It has approximately two more
cars available. For some years there have been several small areas in alfalfa, some well
established, some otherwise, but the production has been negligible until this year. This amount
has been grown by two farmers. They got two crops during the season and an average production of 3 tons per acre. The area in this crop will increase year by year, providing another
source of revenue and in turn reducing the volume of timothy-hay production. It is very
gratifying to note the establishment of alfalfa in the district, as each year considerable time
and thought have been given to studying conditions with a view towards the successful growing
of this crop.
SEED PRODUCTION.
After having put the possibilities of seed-growing before the farmers for a number of years,
it is gratifying to note that a start has been made. Approximately 5 tons of timothy-seed have
been threshed and now wait the cleaning-machine. This seed is of excellent quality and equal
to the now famous Bulkley A'alley seed. This amount will probably all be taken by local
Farmers' Institutes and next year it is probable that a large acreage will be saved for seed.
Considerable time was spent all through the season, studying this crop, discussing hay production
and seed production, and in analysis of the market for the two products.
SOIL-AVORK.
There has been more time and study given to this subject than to any other. There are
several distinct types of soil in the district, and the characteristics and peculiarities of these
are under observation all the time. Different systems of tillage anEl the effect of climatic
conditions have been observes! and discussed with farmers all over the district. Underdrainage
has been discussed and estimates given. A few men have improvised rudimentary systems; the
effect of these was watched with a view of recommending general adoption of the practice.
LIVE STOCK.
The live-stock situation is much the same as last year. About one car of dairy stock, two
to three cars of horses, and one car of sheep have been brought into the district during the year.
The dairy stock were purchased for the retail milk trade in Prince George; the horses were for
logging camps and the sheep were purchased by a farmer at Croydon east of here. A slight
change has been noticed in the demand for young dairy stock. Formerly few calves were raised,
but now there is a small but growing demiand for heifer calves. This demand is largely due
to the progress made by the two local creameries. By keeping in touch with buyers and sellers
it is possible to assist both parties in a number of cases. A few visits have been made to
farms where sickness was reported among stock. In each case these were found to be common
ailments and responded to ordinary treatment.
Working in co-operation with one of the largest dairymen of the district, an attempt was
made to break some milk cows of the habit of eating young willow-shoots while on pasture.
Such a habit induced a very bitter taste in the milk. Varying proportions of different mineral
compounds were introduced into the feeding ration, but so far with little success. The matter
will be under consideration again during the coming summer.
Occasional requests come in for an inspection for soundness in horses offered for sale. One
such request came from the local agent of the Canadian National Railways, asking for an
inspection of a car-load of horses claimed to have been injured in a minor railway accident.
Advantages of dairying, care and feeding of dairy cows, and prospects for sheep and swine
raising have been the subjects of talks given at farmers' meetings, both formal and informal.
HORTICULTURE.
Some time has been given to the study of the obstacles in the way of fruit-growing. Climatic
conditions preclude the possibility of any general development in this line, but a number of
small fruits and bush-fruits are giving good results. In the case of strawberries a number of
farmers set out young plants during the year.    This was particularly noticeable in the Newlands N 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
District to the east. Visits were made to practically all these men; varieties and cultural
methods discussed and advice given. Some attempts are being made to establish cane-fruits.
In certain localities these have done well. These farms have also been visited and advice given
in regard to pruning and propagation.
Late this fall a definite move was started towards forming a Horticultural Association in
the town of Prince George. This is primarily for the purpose of encouraging floriculture and
landscape-gardening as applied to city homes. It is a very necessary move and it is hoped will
prove a very useful one.
BIOLOGICAL AVORK.
A close watch is always maintained during the growing season on all crops. Any evidence
of insect pest or fungus disease is studied, and where possible identified and control measures
adopted. So far few crops have been appreciably damaged. During a period of wet weather
in the summer clover-blight showed on a rather widespread scale. It was particularly noticeable
on second crop. It caused little or no damage and disappeared after a few days' dry weather.
Some time was spent with market-gardeners in an attempt to control " damping-off " in hotbed
plants. Wheat-fields and other grains were watched for evidences of smuts or rusts. Common
smut in oats appeared to be the only one of importance.
In regard to potato-diseases, there was the usual blackleg, rhizoctonia, mosaic, and some
of the minor diseases. A great improvement, however, is noticeable over last year, and it is
believed this is due to better seed selection and treatment.
Several outbreaks of wireworms were observed. These did more damage in potatoes than
any other crop. They were at their worst on upland benches. Lack of rotation and a mild
winter were contributing causes.
During the hot, dry weather of midsummer a close watch was kept for any showing of the
grasshopper pest. They were found in two places—at A'anderhoof, working in grain-fields, and
also at Quesnel. Little damage was done and they disappeared after a few days of cool,
showery weather.
Warm weather in May brought out a brood of the tent-caterpillar. While they denuded a
great many forest trees, the outbreak was not so bad as last year and was of no economic
importance.
As has been previously stated, the district is practically weed-free. Occasionally noxious
weeds find their way in; these are watched for and where possible are eradicated. Particular
care is taken to prevent their spread on cultivated fields. Specimens of such weeds and also
of wild herbs of the poison group have been taken to farmers' meetings, exhibited, and control
measures discussed.
FARMERS' INSTITUTE MEETINGS.
The mild weather made it possible to use a car all winter and thus a greater number of
institutes were reached than would otherwise have been possible. Talks were given on a number
of topics; charts and diagrams were prepared to illustrate points under discussion. In June
a series of meetings was arranged during the visit of the Dairy Commissioner and the Poultry
Instructor. Another series was arranged in July for an official of the Soil and Crop Branch.
The following table sums up this work:—
Table of Farmers' Meetings addressed in 1926.
Date.
Place.
Time.
Attendance.
Subject.
(1.)   Jan.   29	
(2.)  Feb.     3	
Evening	
Afternoon	
Evening	
55
35
58
15
38
32
15
55
50
35
5
Prince  George	
Fort  Fraser	
(3.)   Feb.   20	
(4.)  Mar. 31	
(5.)   May   19.
Pine View	
Prince  George	
(6.)  May   21	
(7.)   June    5	
(8.)   June 25
Evening	
Prince  George	
Pine View	
Fort Fraser	
(9.)   July   13	
(10.)   July   21	
(11.)   July   24	
Soil-fertility.
Mud River	
Evening	
Crop-rotation. Jobnson Bros., Salmon Valley.    Red clover for seed.
TM
t,~-?0..4fm£
Breaking new land in preparation for next year's crop.    A Larson. Prince George.  FALL FAIRS.
The following fall fairs were visited in the capacity of judge: Chilliwack, September 1st
to 3rd; North Vancouver, September 3rd and 4th; New AVestminster, September 6th to 11th;
Aldergrove, September 15th; Duncan, September, 17th and 18th; Langley, September 21st and
22nd ;  Surrey, September 22nd and 23rd;  Smithers Seed-show, November 12th.
MARKETING.
Early in the summer a request came in from the central executive of the Farmers' Institute
to prepare a paper on marketing conElitions with reference to such bulk crops as hay, grain, and
potatoes. Furthermore, the paper was to outline, if possible, plans which might aid in the
formation of some sort of marketing agency. Considerable time was spent in collecting data
and in working out feasible plans. The paper was delivered at a meeting of delegates from the
various local institutes, and at a later elate steps were taken to form a marketing organization
along lines suggested. Close touch is maintained with this organization and every assistance
is being given them.
MISCELLANEOUS.
In the fall a number of farmers were visited with a view of encouraging them to.exhibit seed
or potatoes at the Provincial Seed and Potato Fair. A number did exhibit, but this year's quality
was below average on account of the frost in September. A number of farms were visited where
quantities of potatoes and roots are being held in storage for the spring market. Suggestions
and advice were given in regard to insulation, ventilation, sorting, etc.
CONCLUSION.
So far as possible, individual farmers have been visited and their work discussed on the
ground. In so large a district, however, this is only possible to a very limited extent. Articles
for the press are composed from time to time; these are of a practical nature and deal with
seasonable subjects. During the summer as much time as possible is spent in the field, but it is
necessary to spend at least three days a week in the office in order to keep up with the correspondence. No less than 1,200 letters were received and answereEl during the year, and when it is
remembered that there is no assistance in the office the amount of work involved is obvious.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
R. G. Sutton,
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, SMITHERS.
Duncan D. Munro.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I am pleased indeed to be able to report that the season of 1926 has shown a decidedly
marked increase over any preceding year in agricultural production in this district.
The settlers generally throughout the district are adopting more up-to-date methods in preparing the soil and harvesting their crops. Perhaps the most noticeable change is in the
increased acreage each year of fall ploughing over previous years; with the result that the
1926 production of grains has increased as follows: Wheat, 175 per cent.; oats, 30 per cent.;
barley, 45 per cent.
There will be at least seven car-loads of wheat, 1926 crop, for export, which has been sold
through the Alberta AVheat Pool, to be shipped to the Government elevator at Prince Rupert,
which is under lease to the Wheat Pool.
However, as the Pool does not. handle oats and barley at the Prince Rupert elevator, and
as these grains, for feed purposes, cannot be shipped East and compete with Alberta, nor to the
southern part of the Province on account of excessive freight rates, we therefore must to a
very large extent depend on local consumption, which is limited; with the result that there
is a surplus of oats in the district, and we must conclude that this condition will continue to
exist unless an export market is found by way of the Pacific. N 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In the meantime we are endeavouring and hope to succeed in placing two or three car-loads
of seed-oats in Alberta. This would seem possible owing to the small and inferior oat-crops of
the past season in that Province. However, this is an exception and cannot be depended upon
as a steady market.
The abattoir at Prince Rupert is proving to be of decided assistance to the beef-producers of
the district. Car-load shipments started moving to the abattoir early in July, and all beef
offering was shipped and marketed by January 10th. Formerly the settlers allowed their beef
animals to roam the hills until driven home by snow and cold, when all were offered for sale
at one time, temporarily oversupplying the markets; with the result that prices were forced
downward to a point lower than the cost of production.
The old methods of feeding and caring for beef animals—i.e., in winter, feeding only sufficient to sustain life until new grass appeared in the spring—has almost entirely disappeared.
Settlers are now more inclined to keep smaller herds, giving them better winter care, so that
they can market their beef almost any month in the year, which is more remunerative than
the former system of both feeding and marketing.
Quite a number of settlers are becoming interested in sheep-raising. Last fall a double-deck
car-load was shipped from Lethbridge by Robert Kelley, of Houston, taking advantage of the
25-per-cent. reduction in freight rates offered by the railway for a limited time.
We are keeping in touch with this shipment and the last report we had was that they were
doing splendidly. I feel sure that quite a number of sheep will be brought into the district
in 1927.
Several farmers have also gone in for hog-raising in a small way, and should within the
next two years be able to ship hogs in car-lots to the abattoir in Prince Rupert.
Had it not been for the coyotes the production of turkeys and chickens would easily have
during the past season doubled former productions, but owing to this menace I feel that not
more than 65 per cent, of the number produced in 1925 was marketed.
However, good prices were obtained. Dressed turkeys sold for from 40 to 41 cents per
pound f.o.b. point of shipping, according to quality. Dressed chickens sold for from 30 to 32
cents per pound f.o.b. point of shipping. However, I feel sure that the coyote menace reached
its peak in 1926, and should annually decrease, from natural causes alone, for the next
seven years.
Dairy production has also shown an increase, especially the whole-milk and sweet-cream
shipments to Prince Rupert. We are pleased to report that the commodity rate on cream has
been extended to 300 miles, instead of, as formerly, 200 miles east of Prince Rupert. For
instance, the former rate on a 5-gallon can at a greater distance than 200 miles up to 250 miles
was $1.30, the new rate is 70 cents; on an 8-gallon can the former rate was $2, present rate
75 cents; on a 10-gallon can the former rate was $2.40, new rate 85 cents. This is quite an
advantage, especially as the Bulkley Valley is from 230 to 265 miles distant from Prince Rupert.
A very large percentage of the cream shippeel to Prince Rupert is from the Bulkley Valley, which
is outside the former commodity-mile limit.
The most outstanding feature in 1926 was the increased production of timothy-seed. From
the 1925 crop 90,000 lb. was marketed, and from the 1926 crop there will be from 750,000 to
770,000 lb., all of which has been sold to Vernon and Buckerfield, Limited, Vancouver, at 8
cents per pound f.o.b. shipping-point, based on Grade No. 1, and they provide the sacks.
Eighty-five per cent, of the seed is grading No. 1; 15 per cent, of the seed is grading No. 2;
1 per cent, of the seed is grading No. 3. On purity analysis alone 99 per cent, of the seed would
grade No. 1, but owing to the fact that in threshing the seed has been hulled in excess of the
25 per cent, permitted in Grade No. 1, and 35 per cent, permitted in Grade No. 1 C.W., the
result is that 14 per cent, is grading No. 2.
However, we do not think the entire blame should be placed on the different men in charge
of the threshing outfits, as most of them had no previous experience in threshing timothy-seed,
and it would appear that an extremely hot spell, from July 1st to July 15th, had something to
do with the high percentage of hulled seed, as it was noted that in sections where there was
ample moisture and later-maturing timothy the percentage of hulled seed was much less.
Had it not been for the power seed-cleaning plants provided by your Department, and
located at Smithers, Barrett, and Burns Lake, the timothy-growers of the district would have
sustained a heavy financial loss, as it was quite apparent that the 1926 crop would be very DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 63
much in excess of the demand.    Anticipating this, we ascertained from the railway company
that 143 car-loads of the 1925 crop had been shipped from the district.
A survey was then made, the result of which showed that on June 1st, 1926, there was still
for sale, either baled and in warehouse, on the track, or on the farms, 165 car-loads of hay,
1925 crop. We let this be known, with the result that a very large percentage of the timothy
was harvested for seed.
Had it not been for the installation of the cleaners, which enabled the settlers to convert
their timothy into seed, it would have resulted in a financial loss and a severe set-back to the
district.
Throughout the district the mining industry has made substantial progress in the past year
and this should react favourably upon the farming industry, giving a home market for many
farm products. At Topley a very large deposit of gold-silver ore was found in June, and this
has since been taken over by the Standard Silver Lead Mining Company, of Spokane, which is
pursuing an active programme of development on the property.
Adjoining claims have been bonded by the Porcupine Goldfields Development and Finance
Company, Limited, and are being developed as well. In the region tributary to Telkwa the
Cassiar Crown Mine has been reopened on Grouse Mountain and the new work done there has
been very favourable.
New expansion of the Duthie Mine, on Hudson Bay Mountain, near Smithers, is resulting
from a year of marked progress there. A concentrator is now being installed, which should
make possible the handling of the lower-grade ores at a profit.
In conclusion, it is safe to assume that the district has gone over the top in the development stage, and we may safely predict a marked improvement in conditions generally in 1927.
Respectfully submitted.
Duncan D. Munro,
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, COURTENAY.
E. R. Bewell, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit for your consideration the following report of my work as District
Agriculturist at Duncan and Courtenay for the year ended December 31st, 1926.
I continued as District Agriculturist at Duncan until March 31st, 1926. During February
it was decided that my office would be of service to a greater number if located at Courtenay
instead of Duncan, so it was arranged to make the change on April 1st, 1926, when I transferred my office to Courtenay.
Before I left Duncan I had arranged for a crushed limestone and superphosphate of lime
demonstration, in which thirty-two farmers took part, and some very good results were obtained,
which demonstrated that lime or limestone is needed on Vancouver Island.
A similar demonstration was arranged and carried out in the Courtenay District, twenty
taking part in it, which proved that limestone was required, but the price was too high at $7
to use very much.
I spent considerable time investigating sources of supply, cost of towing, etc.; finally it was
decided to form a company, which is made up of local farmers, and a plant was installed to
crush limestone here. The rock is toweEl over in large scow-loads from Blubber Bay and is
being crushed and sold to farmers at $4 per ton in bulk.
While at Duncan I continued as secretary of the Stock-breeders' Association, but resigned
this position when I came to Courtenay.
When I arrived here there was in process of formation a Vegetable-growers' Association.
I spent considerable time on this, but it did not get functioning until late in the season and
was not supported even by the growers, so they suspended operations until 1927 as the cost of
operating was too high. They are planning to operate again in 1927 if they can arrange to
handle the fruit and potatoes as well as vegetables.
I have followed the practice of being in my office mornings and visiting farmers in the afternoons, inspecting stock, crops, soils, and taking levels for drainage. Flower, seed, and bulb growing is getting starteel in this district and I gave considerable
information along this line. Potato-growing has developed, but the growers have been dissatisfied owing to the lack of markets for their produce and prices obtained for same. Prospects
appear brighter for this industry now, so it should develop to a very important industry.
During the summer and fall I arranged for a potato field-day, which J. W. Eastham and
AV. Downes attended. A very profitable day was spent; about sixty farmers turned out. In
the fall a ploughing-match was arranged. It was staged on short notice, but considerable
interest was shown, and it is planned to make it an annual event. xV bacon-hog demonstration
was also arranged for and held in December.
I attended several meetings during the year and gave addresses on potato-growing, seed
and bulb growing, etc.; also judged at fall fairs at South ATancouver, Metchosin, Pemberton
Meadows, and Whonnock.
A large supply of department bulletins is kept on hand and a large number were distributed
during the year.
A great many letters were written and information sent to prospective settlers.
Respectfully submitted.
E. R. Bewell,
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DAIRY COMMISSIONER, VICTORIA.
H. Rive, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agx-ieulture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report as Dairy Commissioner for the year 1926.
The dairy industry in British Columbia maintains a very steady and uniform progress. It
continues also to furnish year by year a larger proportion of the total of agricultural products
of the Province and to merit whatever of assistance and encouragement can be given it.
Little out of the ordinary has occurred during the year. Dairy crops throughout have been
fair, though portions of the Interior suffered greatly from drought in the early summer. Mill-
feeds have remained high in most instances. Prices for dairy products stiffened somewhat as
the year advanced.
CREAMERIES.
Nearly all creameries during 1926 have increased in production over previous years. This
increase in most cases, while actually not large, yet represents a very good percentage of
improvement and a corresponding reduction in charges of operation, which, with several of our
smaller country institutions, are too high. Calls have been made on all creameries as frequently
as possible during the year.
The Lower Mainland has twenty-nine licences under the " Creameries and Dairies Act,"
representing butter and cheese factories, condenseries, ice-cream plants, and milk-supply houses.
F. Overland, Dairy Instructor and Inspector for this area, states in his report:—
" Regular calls were made on the creameries of the Lower Mainland, and one on those of
Vancouver and Saltspring Island. The grading of cream was done regularly at all creameries
and special calls were often made in the interests of this work. Frequently on these occasions
the butter on hand was also graded, so that the results of the cream-work could be checked.
" Regular calls were made on all dairies on the Lower Mainland and assistance given in
the care and handling of milk and cream.    About 200 calls were made to farm dairies.
"There has been considerable improvement in the care and handling of milk on the farm
and in the quality of milk handled at the distributing plants.
" Figures regarding the dairy butter manufactured on the Lower Mainland were secured.
Much of the dairy butter manufactured was found to be sold direct from the farmer to the
consumer on the New Westminster market and elsewhere. Some 200 calls were made in
carrying out this work. -m
v ^'sfeCoS" as?*^** %&&'*■, ■
MH>2t.
Looking south-west across the Kootenay River near Wasa, in the Kootenay Valley.
eaag^ . « -...»♦  *..u  ■» vfe-* * a«
Coiling timothy-hay on the A. Johnson farm at 0-Mile Creek  " Assistance was given during the year at the cream-grading courses held for two and three
weeks in February and November-December."
The rest of the Province, comprising Vancouver and the Gulf Islands, the Okanagan,
Kootenay, Columbia, and Cariboo Districts, with Central British Columbia, has twenty-eight
licences under the Act, representing chiefly butter-factories with some ice-cream plants and
milk-supply houses. F. C. Wasson, Dairy Instructor and Inspector, in reference to work in
these districts, reports as follows:—
" The months of January and February were spent in visiting dairy and creamery plants
near Victoria, assisting at the Dairy Convention held at New AVestminster, and with the cream-
graders' course held at the premises of the Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Vancouver,
in February.
" During March and early April visits were made to creameries on Arancouver and Salt-
spring Islands. Instruction was given in cream-grading and butter-analysis. Calls were made
on most of the farmers shipping cream to Saltspring Creamery.
" Work with creameries of the Interior was started about the middle of April. The greater
part of the spring, summer, and early fall was spent visiting creameries, dairies, and ice-cream
plants in the Okanagan, Kootenay, and Cariboo Districts. Time was given to cream-grading,
butter-analyses, and general inspection-work.
" The late fall and early winter was spent with the creameries and dairy plants on Vancouver and the Gulf Islands and assisting with the cream-graders' course held at the Fraser
Valley Milk Producers' Association, Vancouver, in November. Information in regard to the
amount of dairy butter manufactured on Vancouver Island was secured.
" In all, 130 visits were made to the different creameries and ice-cream plants and about
150 to smaller, dairies and producers."
AVith the introduction of cream-grading regulations, a check on the work being done by
the licensed cream-graders of the Province has become most necessary. Accordingly, much time
has been spent by the Dairy Instructors on the weigh-stands of creameries, viewing the work
done by the person appointeel. For the first year of operation the results may be considered
satisfactory, the required grades being very generally observed and payment being made on this
basis. There still exists much laxity of discrimination in some localities and a disinclination
to penalize, sufficiently patrons for poor cream, but throughout some improvement has been
effected. The larger factories had for several years previous voluntarily practised cream-
grading, with good results to the quality of butter manufactured. It may fairly be assumeEl
that a very few seasons' experience under the cream-grading regulations will be productive of
much good and add in a great degree to the efficiency of methods employed on dairy-farms in
caring for cream and of workers in butter-factories. The returns received from cream-graders
of cream graded during 1926 may be summarized as follows: Table, 2 per cent.; special, 48
per cent.;   first, 40 per cent.;   second, 10 per cent.
For the first year of operation under the regulations a laxity in grading may be considered
as indicated by the relative percentages of special and first grades allotted, but it is confidently
expected that future years will bring a stricter practice throughout.
CHEESE-MAKING.
Little can be said regarding progress in this branch of dairying. Supplies of milk being
needed in more remunerative channels, less cheese has been manufactured than for several years.
A factory for the manufacture of AVisconsin brick cheese was started during the year at
Edgewood.
ICE-CREAM.
A steady increase in quantity of ice-cream manufactured is apparent everywhere. The
need for a qualified ice-cream instructor continues. Some forty-four firms in British Columbia
have ice-cream plants and are manufacturing.
CONDENSERIES.
The condenseries operating at Ladner, Abbotsford, and South Sumas did not have during
the past season as large an output as usual. The explanation in this case also is that other
and more remunerative outlets for milk were available. The amounts of powdered milk and of
casein manufactured were somewhat greater, though still relatively small.
5 N 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
COAV-TESTING—MILK RECORDS.
Nine Cow-testing Associations are now operating in the Province. Six are in the Fraser
ATalley, with one each in Comox, the Okanagan and the Bulkley Valleys. These may all be
stated to be in good condition as regards both finances and membership.
The system has undergone modification and changes until it can now be considered to be
operating on thoroughly practical, reliable, and well-thought-out lines.
Concerning these matters, the assistant in charge, G. H. Thornbery, writes in his report:—
" Up to the end of 1925 all cows were allowed 365 days to a milking-period. During the
latter part of that year all associations were asked to consider whether or not the 365-day
milking-period should be dropped in favour of the 305-day milking-period. All associations
heartily approved of the idea and from the beginning of 1926 the 305-day milking-period has
been adopted for all except 2-year-olds. No limit was set for calving-date after test, but all
records completed by animals which freshen again within 400 days of previous calving-date
qualify for the designation 'Calved Within Period' (C.AV.P.)."
During the year much thought has been given to the preparation of a circular in which are
laid down rules and regulations governing all phases of Cow-testing Association work. This
has been the means of bringing uniformity into the work of all associations and of furnishing
those concernetl with definite instructions and rulings as to the carrying-out of the regulations.
Considerable time has been spent in visiting members of Cow-testing Associations. Frequent
conferences have been held with Supervisors, when problems arising from the work were
discusseel.
At the reqEiest of a number of dairymen a testing centre has been started' in the Districts
of Peardonville and Poplar. Owners of herds situated near Cowiehan, Bradner, and Mount
Lehman continue to make use of the centres in these localities.
Rapid strides have been made by the system of certification of records since its inception in
1922. In the early part of 1925 a system of tattooing heifer calves from cows which had completed records qualifying for certification was formulateEl. The system met with gooEl results,
but in the case of black-eared animals tattooing was not a success. After taking the matter up
with all associations it was decided to discard the tattooing altogether and adopt in its place the
ear-tag.    This is considered a great improvement.
AArith the adoption of definite rules and regulations governing the issuing of certificates, the
system of Cow-testing Associations is on a sound basis, and as the strictest supervision is
observed during the monthly visits of Superviors the records possess the highest of reputations.
DAIRY LEGISLATION.
No change in legislation Elirectly concerning this Branch or the work of its staff has
occurred. There is contemplated, however, a revision of the " Milk Act " to enable the Veterinary
Inspector to grade dairy herds and farms more effectively. The pasteurization of all market-
milk supplies, except those from Grasle A farms, is being considered. Much time has been spent
with Dr. Knight, Chief Areterinarian, in regard to these matters.
TESTERS' LICENCES.
Eleven applicants were examined by this Branch and 109 licences were issued. (For the
list of testers holding licences during 1926 see Appendix No. 25.)
CREAM-GRADERS' LICENCES.
Thirty-five licences to cream-graders were issued. Twenty-three were single licences, the
applicants already possessing testers' licences for 1926. Twelve combining cream-graders' and
testers' licences were issued. Five licences were temporary only, the applicants being subject
to further examination before renewal will be permitted. (For the list of cream-graders so
licensed see Appendix No. 26.)
DAIRY AND CREAMERY LICENCES.
Licences were issued to fifty-seven persons, firms, companies, or associations buying milk or
cream on the basis of the butter-fat content. (For the list of creameries and dairies so licensed
see Appendix No. 27.) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 67
FALL FAIRS.
Assistance was given as usual with the classes of dairy exhibits at the three largest fairs
of Arictoria, Arancouver, New Westminster, and that of Chilliwack. It is pleasing to record that
the dairy classes at the three chief exhibitions have been considered worthy of greater attention
than heretofore from the Dominion authorities in their allocation of judges. J. R. Sweeney,
Dominion Grader at AVinnipeg, judged at Victoria and Vancouver, and Dr. J. A. Ruddick,
Dominion Dairy Commissioner, at New Westminster.
CREAM-GRADER'S LICENCE COURSES.
AArith the introduction of cream-grading regulations and the licensing of cream-graders,
licence examination courses must periodically take place. The first was held at the premises
of the Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Vancouver, from February 1st to 13th,
inclusive.
Equipment necessary to the course has been secured and for power a motor is rented.
Steam is obtained from the boilers of the building.
Forty-two factorymen attended the course. Thirty-five successfully passed the prescribes!
examinations.
On the occasion of this, the first course to be held, the Department allowed transportation
expenses to one representative from each creamery in the Province.
The governing regulations taking effect only on January 1st, 1926, the holding of the course
at the end of the previous year was not possible. This is intended for the future, as it will
permit licences for successful ones to date from the first of the oncoming year.
The second course was held November 22nd to December 10th, inclusive, 1926, at the same
place. Twenty-two persons attended. Twelve successfully passed the examinations and will be
granted licences for the year 1927.
THE BRITISH COLUMBIA DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION.
The usual activities of this association were continued in 1926. Prizes were offered for
C.T.A. and R.O.P. records, and a new contest called the " creamery-run competition for butter-
makers " was instituted with good success.
The convention of 1927 is to be held at Chilliwack in January.
PUBLICATIONS.
Publications for 1926 included: Dairy Circular No. 11, Annual List, Certified C.T.A.
Records; Dairy Circular No. 12, Rules governing C.T. Associations in B.C.; Dairy Circular No. 13,
A Farm Dairy Sterilizer.
OFFICE.
The correspondence of the Branch continues to grow. Several thousand market reports are
annually sent out and as many dairy bulletins and circulars. Cow-testing Association affairs
make considerable demand on the time of the clerical staff; the number of certificates now
annually increasing at the rate of 50 per cent.
CONCLUSION.
The services of the two dairy instructors and inspectors, of the assistant in charge of cow-
testing   (milk  record)   work,  and  of  the  clerk-stenographer  of  this  Branch  continue  to  be
deserving of commendation.
Respectfully submitted.
Henry Rive,
Dairy Commissioner. N 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF CHIEF POULTRY INSTRUCTOR, VICTORIA.
J. R. Terry.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report for the year 1926:—
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
The prices received for eggs during the year were a little lower than those obtained during
the past few years. This condition was to a great extent caused by the abnormally mild winter
season throughout Canada. During January, when prices generally average around 40 cents
per dozen, eggs .were forced down to as low as 17 to 20 cents wholesale. In the eastern portion
of the Dominion, and also the Prairies as well, the weather experienced was such as to encourage
very heavy egg production—an unusual experience for these parts. The result was that the
dealers were unable to market the cold-storage supply, and in sacrificing prices for this product,
the returns for fresh eggs were very adversely affected. At one time, in the East, cold-storage
eggs bought by retailers were selling for 40 cents per dozen, and British Columbia fresh eggs
of high grade were standing in car-lots in the same locality unable to find a purchaser at
25 cents per dozen. The cold-storage dealers were very heavy losers, and among them
were many new to the business, attracted by the profits made the year previous. This class of
speculator was, strange to relate, drawn from men engaged in businesses having no connection
with produce of any kind.
The price of poultry-meats was, if anything, a little better than the year previously. An
innovation was made during the year, that of shipping car-lots of dressed poultry to Eastern
markets—a remarkable proceeding when one remembers that many thousand pounds of dressed
poultry is still imported. Several poultry-fatteners of Vancouver combined during the summer
months and dispatched a car-lot of prime fattened Leghorn broilers, totalling nearly 18,000, to
Montreal. In addition to fetching good prices per pound, the shipment helped to steady prices
for an article that is almost a drug on the market each summer. It is also worthy of record
that a Vancouver fattener was able to fill a large order for the same class of product for a big
firm in Los Angeles, California. When it is remembereEl that there are many millions of Leghorns in that State it is all the more remarkable that the shipment was made. It appears that
the methods of killing and dressing broilers there—by means of scalding and skinning—does not
allow the product to be kept as long as birds killed by bleeding and* dry-picking.
The price of day-old chicks averages! aboEit 20 cents each, with a range of from 50 cents for
higher-grade stock and about 17 cents for the lower grades.
During the summer season many thousands of Leghorn pullets from 8 to 10 weeks of age
were sold.    The prices ranged from 75 cents to $1.25 each.
The price of feedstuffs remained high throughout the year, and it is difficult to state if it
will ever moderate, now that the feed-dealers supply and the producers demand such a large
number of complicated feed mixtures, containing, in many cases, very expensive concentrates.
In addition, the majority of feed merchants now have on their staffs experts receiving goodly
remuneration. ,
PRICES OF EGGS.
The following is a comparison of prices (wholesale) from 1905-1926, inclusive:—
Cents. Cents.
1905   24% 1916  ,  34
1906   29% 1917  41
1907   31 1918   50
1908   31% 1919   60%
1909   33% 1920   57%
1910   34% 1921   39%
1911  34% 1922   32%
1912   41 1923   28
1913   35 1924   32
1914   35 1925   32
1915   32% 1926   30 .
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 69
As usual, during the year the Coast shippers sent many car-loads of eggs to Eastern and
Prairie points, as well as many express shipments of smaller proportions. Among the shipments
were many eggs produced by the Co-operative Creamery patrons througnout the Province, particularly those of Cowiehan, Comox, Fraser Valley, and the Southern Okanagan points.
IMPORTS.
From Canadian Provinces the dressed-poultry imports totalled 1,026,622 lb., valued at
$293,158.
The total number of eggs received from the Eastern Provinces was 143,490 dozen, valued
at $40,012.
The total imports from foreign points of dressed poultry and eggs were valued at $33,335,
being a decrease of $26,237 for the year.
The number of day-old chicks brought in was 14,087, at an average price of 15% cents.
EXPORTS.
Poultry products were sent out to the value of $487,674.    Of this total, live poultry accounted
for  $51,715,   the   number   of  birds  being   19,486.    Dressed   poultry,   valued   at   $45,205,   was
also shipped out.    Eggs exported totalled 1,132,620 dozen, valued at $390,754.
WEATHER CONDITIONS.
An abnormally mild winter was experienced throughout the Province, with an early spring,
and drought conditions throughout the summer and early fall. In all districts the rainfall was
many inches below normal, and a grave situation, owing to the drying-up of the ranch water-
supplies, prevailed. Many breetlers had to transport water from a distance, an operation both
costly and time-consuming.
As a result of the mild winter many breeding hens that were not expected to be producing
until the end of January, on the average, were laying almost to capacity in January and Feb-,
ruary. The result was that there were many complaints of poor fertility and low hatching-power
of eggs during the early part, of the incubation period.
BREEDING OPERATIONS.
The Provincial Record of Performance Association, continuing their policy of heavily advertising in foreign countries as well as in the eastern part of the Dominion, were able to report
an increase of business done. Many repeat orders were received. The fact that birds on record
in this Province have a larger egg yield than any other Province has been a great advertisement.
Many breeders not connected with the official recording association, but at the same time
operating breeding establishments with private records, also report increasing sales of hatching-
eggs, stock, and chicks during the year.
DEPARTMENTAL AVORK.
During the year the Branch officials again visited all sections of their districts. The
Instructor for the Kootenays, having returneEl to commercial work at his own request, left vacant
a position which was filled by a capable expert, who had been previously employed on similar
work in the Province of Quebec. There has been a continuation of mining activity in this district, with the result that the poultry industry has steadily gone ahead. It is worthy of mention that in the smelting districts all of the men employes! are forced, through the fumes
adversely affecting their digestive systems, to live almost entirely on raw eggs, and tremendous
quantities are consumed in the Trail and Kimberley sections. The District Instructor reports
a large increase in the number of fowls now kept by the ranchers, who a few years ago confined
their activities entirely to fruit-raising. The disastrous condition of that industry has turned
many ranchers to the possible solution of their difficulties by means of mixed farming, of which
poultry-keeping is one of the major branches.
The Fraser Valley section still continues to hold its supremacy as a poultry-raising centre
and the District Instructor at New Westminster again reports tremendous strides. Many of the
ranches now operating are the equal of the best of those of the adjoining State of AVashington.
AVith so many, especially those with a lack of knowledge, of capital, and acreage combined,
going into the business, it is to be feared that quite a few will not find the industry the
" El Dorado " they pictured. It behoves the beginner to seek advice and experience before
launching heavily into a business that demands more than the average amount of knowledge as
to live-stock rearing, salesmanship, and executive ability.   At the end of the year quite a boom N 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
seems to have started in duck-raising. The Instructor, knowing the limitations of the market,
warned those thinking of taking up this branch in a large way without thought as to where
their products were to be sold.
The Interior and Northern districts, covered by the Inspector stationed at Salmon Arm, are
reported by him as having developed very steadily during the year. The Northern section,
which was visited in the summer-time and at which many demonstrations were given, is proving
to be an ideal place to enable the ranchers to ship out a car-load lot or two. These were choice
specimens and fetched very remunerative prices. The abundance of cheap range country,
unlimited almost in extent, proves an itleal place for turkey-raising. The poultry-breeder has
many advantages in this district to offset the somewhat milder winter conditions obtained at
the Coast. AVheat is now grown in great quantities, whilst the alfalfa and clover fields yield
cheap greenstuff's for the fowls. Most of the ranchers are able to supply milk ad lib. to all
kinds of stock as well.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' POULTRY CLUBS.
Mission District again carries off the palm for having organized the largest number of clubs
in one centre. At the local fall fair, held at Mission City, the largest show of children's poultry
held in the Dominion takes place. This year over 400 birds were shown. The children of this
city also exhibit their best birds at the leading fairs at the Coast and prove invariably successful
in carrying off the majority of prizes.
The total number of clubs organized was fifty-one.
Most of the clubs are locates! in the Okanagan District, with the following totals: Salmon
Arm, 9; Armstrong, Vernon, and Enderby, 4 each ; North Bend, 3; Grindrod and Mara, 2 each.
There are also two clubs at Sidney, on A'ancouver Island, and two at Ashcroft.
The total number of eggs supplied the clubs was 6,526, made up of 502 sittings, and the
following breeds.were used: Barresl Rock, AVhite AAryandotte, White Leghorn, Buff Orpington,
and Rhode Island Red.
The recent winner at the Agassiz contest originally started as a Boy ansl Girl Poultry Club
member and was given a sitting of eggs by the Mission Club. It was recently stated that this
young breeder now has a flock of birds valued at over $20,000, all of which has been built up
from less than 100 birsls.
PROAHNCIAL POULTRY ASSOCIATION.
The association finished a successful year with a slightly increases! membership, consisting
of about 75 per cent, engaged as utility farmers, with the rest listed as fanciers. During the
year associations were affiliated, being the same number as the year previously. The association
became affiliated with the National Canaslian Produce Association, an organization that now
numbers all of the big poultry-selling farmers' co-operative bodies amongst its members. The
association was represented at the Congress at AVinnipeg during the summer, at which the grading of market poultry was thoroughly sliscussesl with Dominion Government officials. The new
regulations are to be shortly enforced throughout the Dominion.
The matter of arranging for a series of contests to be competed for by chefs, restaurant
and hotel proprietors, etc., for the purpose of selecting a poultry-dish that could be nationally
known was also taken up. It is hoped to greatly extend the sale of dressed poultry by this
means.
The Provincial Poultry-show was again held at A'ancouver and proved one of the best ever
held. In addition to the increased entry and enhanced quality of the stock, the fact that the
show was held at the same time and place as the new Provincial Fat-stock Show was the means
of bringing the poultry-show to the attention of thousands of out-of-town visitors. Many sales
were made in all sections. An innovation was the exhibit of dressed fowls for valuable cash
prizes given by the Dominion Government. The exhibit of dressed turkeys was among the best
ever shown in the Dominion. The whole exhibit was a credit to the fatteners and producers
of the stock.
The live-bird exhibits comprised specimens of every breed in the standard, together with
entries of new British breeds of ducks and fowls. The Branch staff were in attendance and
assisted in judging many of the exhibits.
The association donated the usual silver cup at the Coast fairs for poultry-judging competitions amongst the boys and girls, and the contests were all uniformly successful, the competi- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 71
tion at New AVestminster being the largest ever held.    The contestants were from all parts of
the Province.
The first egg-show ever held in the Province was organized by the association in the fall in
connection with the Provincial Seed ansl Potato Show held at Arictoria. The eggs shown were
donated by exhibitors and the prize-money was given by the association. At the conclusion of
the show the several hundred dozen eggs were auctioned off and the sum of $67 received was
given to the British Columbia Solarium. The show was a decided success and many comments
of approval were made regarding the new style of egg-stand utilized by the association. This
stand, some 12 feet long by 6 feet wide, will easily accommodate over 3,000 eggs ansl is1 being
adopted by other associations.
AVORLD'S POULTRY CONGRESS.
During the year much organization-work was done throughout the Dominion, and the Provincial Committee, composed of representatives of every branch of the industry, held a meeting
at the Arancouver Fat-stock Show, at which plans were made regarding the shipment of birds
to the Congress. Earlier in the year a Congress official visited the principal poultry sections
here and a meeting was also held at New Westminster, at which many points were explained.
It was decided at that time to ask for an adequate exhibit of the Provincial resources, as well
as the live-stock exhibit, if funds were available. The poultry exhibit from the Province is to
consist of both exhibition and utility stock.
AArATER-FOAVL.
This branch of the industry continued to increase at a rate that appeared to assume
" boom " proportions as far as duck-raising was concerned. AA'arnings were issued by members
of the Branch as to the danger of easily swamping a limited market, but, due to much publicity
in newspapers ansl periodicals, many breeders were added. The unfortunate conditions that
existed in 1912 were apparently going to be repeated.
The continued drought militated against a cheap supply of greenstuffs being provided for
the maximum profitable raising of geese, but, nevertheless, an increase in this class of stock is
to be recorded, with the Toulouse breeds in the leasl. AVhere plenty of grass and creeks or
streams are available, geese can profitably be raised at very small cost and trouble.
TURKEYS.
Whilst the Province cannot as yet compete in numbers with any of the Prairie Provinces as
to turkeys produced, yet the number of fowls raised during the past year proved that we are
gradually catching up with the Eastern sections. The slry belts and the Northern Interior prove
ideal locations for turkeys. At Thanksgiving, Christmas, ansl New Year the breeders were able
to supply vast quantities for Coast markets, as well as to export to the United States. Some
Prairie turkeys were, as usual, imported, particularly at Christmas. Several of the larger
fattening establishments brought in range birds ansl fattened them here with good success.
The losses from blackhead or coccidiosis were less than expected, due in a good measure
to the abnormally slry conditions. Owing to plagues of grasshoppers and Rocky Mountain
crickets an effort was made to secure Government loans to import large quantities of Prairie
turkeys, but owing to the hazardousness of the undertaking the loans were not forthcoming.
A fortunate visitation of disease amongst the pests and the good work of the turkeys in the
affected districts, combined with Government-assisted spraying ansl baiting operations, staved
off what might have proves! a very calamitous event. It was also found that Leghorn cockerels,
now selling annually at very low prices, could profitably be used in small areas to clean up the
grasshoppers.    The cockerels are also of great service in keeping down strawberry-weevils.
RABBIT-BREEDING.
An increase in number of breeders is again to be recorded, with a more healthy condition
of the industry. There are now more commercial rabbitries operating and a large number of
high-priced breeding stock is being regularly shipped out, principally to United States points.
Many breeders are now sending pelts co-operatively to Great Britain, where, apparently, better
prices are received for certain breeds. The exhibits of rabbits at the leading fairs and rabbit-
shows are annually becoming larger, and better quality is apparent. Many breeders now exhibit
regularly at the largest rabbit-shows in the United States and have succeeded in winning maximum awards. N 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
DISEASES.
During the year the losses from coccidiosis and white diarrhoea showed an increase of the
preceding period. The adoption of a plan advised by many Government institutions, both in
Eastern Canada and the United States, of providing cement runs for chicks for the first ten or
twelve weeks to avert heavy losses from taintesl soil, particularly worms and coccidiosis, may
have to be resorted to.   Many plants reported losses up to 25 per cent, from these troubles.
Post-mortems were held on birds sent in or examinations were made at the ranches direct.
What might be termed the " March, April, and May " disease amongst the light-weight varieties
was again the most numerous of cases reported. Fewer cases of tuberculosis were met with,
due in a great measure to the gradual cleaning-up of this disease amongst dairy herds.
OFFICE-AVORK.
The officials again met many persons desiring information regarding the inslustry ansl also
received the usual number of communications. The actual figures of inward and outward mail
were:   Received, 1,424;   dispatched, 1,635.
MEETINGS, DEMONSTRATIONS, AND JUDGING-AArORK.
The Branch attended and lectured at Farmers' and Women's Institutes, Poultry Associations,
and other meetings. They also held demonstrations—killing ansl dressing, culling and caponiz-
ing.    At the fall fairs ansl poultry-shows members of the staff officiated as judges as usual.
The continues! efficient efforts of the three Instructors ansl clerk-stenographer throughout the
year is again noted and appreciated.
Respectfully submitted. j   jj_ Terry
Chief Poultry Instructor.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL AGRONOMIST, VICTORIA.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,--! beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Field Crop Branch.
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
During the winter months of 1925-26 precipitation was light throughout the interior of
British Columbia. On this account very little storage-water or snow remained in the mountains
to provide irrigation-water in sections that depend on it for their moisture. The winter was
especially mild and all fall-sown cereals, as well as the hay meadows, came through in splendid
condition. Copious spring rains in the Fraser Valley ansl on Vancouver Island produced a hay-
crop that surpasses! any of those of the preceding years. Ideal growing weather continued until
the end of June and pastures held up well until early July. Haying and harvesting conditions
were specially good and normal yields of grain were secured.
In the Interior sections, owing to a shortage of irrigation-water, field-crop yields were
slightly below the average. This is especially true of the East Kootenays, South Okanagan,
Kamloops, Similkameen, and Boundary Districts. In the North Okanagan and Shuswap Lakes
areas field crops were good. The wheat produced in the interior of the Province was good and
the quality of the grain was high.
In Central British Columbia there, was plenty of moisture during the growing season and,
following the mild weather, crops made an early growth, which brought on haying and harvesting from a week to ten days earlier than usual. Early frosts were reported from many sections
of the Province, which cut down corn and other tender crops that were still green and considerable damage to the potato-crop was reported.
The acreage of potatoes this year was considerably larger than that of 1925, but the yield
was not as great.
SOIL INVESTIGATIONS.
Much of the soil-work this year has been done through personal visits to the farms where
assistance was required. Seven hunslred and thirty such visits were made during the past year.
In all cases fields were carefully examined and occasionally soil samples were taken for analysis
at A7ictoria.    Fifty samples were analysed in 1926.    (See Appendix No. 30.)   Our observations this year lead us to believe that subbing of the soil or breaking up the
hard-pan by means of a pick-plough or soil-subber may serve the twofold purpose of bringing
lime to the surface and permitting the roots of legumes and other plants to penetrate deeper
into the subsoil. On those soils that suffer from acidity, in spite of their normal lime content,
it has generally been notes! that underdrainage is inadequate.
Considerable activity among prospectors in search of phosphate-deposits have been noted
in the Fernie section of the East Kootenays. Large areas in this district have been staked as
phosphate claims ansl some development-work has been slone. Samples from one of the claims
were brought in by J. B. Munro, Assistant Agronomist, and upon analysis were found to contain
50 per cent, of lime phosphate ansl 25 per cent, of lime carbonate.
LIME AND FERTILIZER COMPETITIONS.
A comprehensive system of tests with lime and superphosphate were planned in 1926 for
the Cowiehan and Comox Districts on Vancouver Island. The work was undertaken by this
Branch in co-operation with the Dominion Seed Branch. In both districts the local Agricultural
Society was the organization which fostered the scheme and the materials were purchased
through the local Creamery Association. Ground limestone was used and the cost of this material
to the farmer was $6.50 per ton (sacked). In addition to the cost of the lime there was a small
handling charge.
The main ideas in conducting the competitions were as follows:—
(1.) We wished farmers to establish experimental plots on their farms in order that they
might get first-hansl knowledge of the actual requirements of their respective soils.
(2.) Having sufficient evidence already that lime and fertilizer were required on the Island
soils, we desired to bring these facts to the attention of the farmer, and there is no better way
than by field demonstration.
The number of competitors in the Cowiehan District was thirty and in the Comox District
twenty. The size of the plot was 2 acres and it was divided into four sections, as follows :i
(a) % acre treated with 100 lb. of superphosphate and 1 ton of lime; (b) % acre treated with
150 lb. of superphosphate; (c) % acre untreated—check-plot; (d) % acre treated with 1 ton
of lime.
The farmers in both the Cowiehan ansl Comox Districts were visited early in the year and
detailed information given well in advance of the time the tests were begun.
AAreather conditions were not satisfactory for positive results, especially on high ground,
where moisture was deficient. On ground well stored with humus even the late applications
showed improvements In the crops.
From this year's operations we have confirmed our belief that spring applications of lime
and fertilizer must be made early. With the exception of soluble nitrates, they should be
appliesl well in advance of seesling, especially on soil deficient in moisture during the summer.
On wet, peaty soil even the June application of lime and superphosphate gave good ressilts, for
moisture was abundant. The combines! use of lime ansl superphosphate gave the most generally
improves! results, though lime alone on acid soils and superphosphate alone on neutral soils
followed closely. This is slue to the fact that with a deficiency of lime the superphosphate does
not function to the best advantage.
The two competitions reported on, we believe, have served very useful purposes. They have
stimulated the use of lime in both districts and particularly in the Comox District. The Comox
farmers have purchased machinery and established a plant for the crushing of lime rock.
FORAGE AND PASTURE CROPS.
A further advance in the establishing of alfalfa-fields on Vancouver Island has been noted
this year. Many farmers who put in small test-plots in 1925 are well satisfied with the successes
they have achieved and as a result are increasing their acreage.
Experimental work with artichokes was undertaken on a 1/40-acre plot in Victoria. Tubers
were secured from AV. H. Crane, Nanaimo, and planted on March 5th, 1926. The yield of
artichokes was approximately 27 tons of stems and leaves and 22 tons of tubers to the acre.
A fertilizer analysing 3-10-7 was used at the rate of 1 ton per acre. From observations and
experiments extending over two years, we are convinced that the Improved White Jerusalem
artichoke is a forage-crop worthy of attention. Analytical data on this crop were presented
in the annual report of this Branch for 1925. N 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Several new crops have been noted in different sections of the Province this year.
Speltz was this year grown for seed for the first time in the Salmon Arm District and
yielded satisfactorily on dry land without irrigation in a year of scant rainfall.
Both the Manhardy and Altaswede clovers have been introduced into the Lake District of
Central British Columbia and are proving satisfactory in their initial years.
Ensilage corn, mainly of the North-west Dent variety, is being grown extensively in the
vicinity of White Lake and Notch Hill, adjacent to the Shuswap Lake area. Several silos
have been erected here and an ensilage-cutter has been supplied by the Department to the
Farmers' Institute for use in the district.
POTATO, BULB, AND SEED SHOAV.
The annual British Columbia Potato-show was held in Victoria, November 24th to 27th,
under the direction of this Branch, working in co-operation with the Victoria Chamber of
Commerce, the British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Growers' Association, and the Victoria
and District Gardeners' Association. On account of the increasing importance of the bulb ansl
seed industry in the Province, non-competitive exhibits of bulbs were staged and competitive
classes for seeds of all kinds arranged. Although the number of entries were not as large as
last year, due to the unfavourable season, nevertheless the general enthusiasm and interest
shown in the exhibition was much greater than it ever has been before.
During the week the annual meeting of the British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Growers'
Association took place and much useful business was conducted.
Addresses on potatoes, bulbs, ansl seeds were given by prominent officials and were well
received.
POTATO-IMPROVEMENT AVORK.
The system of seed-potato inspection and certification continues to form a very important
part of the work of this Branch. In this connection it is interesting to note that the number
of growers of certified seed-potatoes and the general interest in the work is increasing annually.
The demand for British Columbia certified seed-potatoes is becoming keener each year from
points across the border.
Extent and Progress.—Four hundred and thirty fields covering thirty districts were inspected
for certification purposes during the year. The total number of acres inspected was 511.75, of
which 408.25 passed the two field inspections. A number of tables have been prepared giving
detailed figures covering the inspection-work for 1926.    (See Appendices Nos. 31-35.)
Federal Aid.—The Division of Botany of the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, continues
to provide Inspectors to assist in the inspection of the crops. This assistance is very much
appreciated, for it would be difficult to give all the districts applying for inspection this service
without this additional aid.
Test-plot.—During the past year this Branch co-operated with the Provincial Plant Pathologist in the establishment of a potato experimental plot at the Dominion Experimental Farm,
Agassiz. (The results of this test-plot will be found in the annual report of the Provincial
Plant Pathologist.)
BRITISH COLUMBIA CERTIFIED  SEED-POTATO  GROWERS' ASSOCIATION.
This Branch has continued to assist the British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Growers'
Association in every way possible during the past year. Your chief official, who is now an
honorary director of the association, has attended every executive meeting and given all possible
advice.
CANADIAN SEED-GROAATERS' ASSOCIATION.
In his capacity as director of the Canadian Seed-growers' Association for British Columbia,
your Provincial Agronomist attended the annual meeting which was held at MacDonald College
and Oka Agricultural Institute, Quebec. A report on the seed situation in the Province was
presented.
POTATO INVESTIGATIONS.
After attending the annual meeting of the Canadian Seed-growers' Association in Eastern
Canada your official was instructed to proceed to the Maritime Provinces to obtain first-hansl
information regarding the potato situation in those Provinces. Afterwards the States of
Colorado and California were visited with the object of ascertaining the possibilities of shipping  PAET III.
APPENDICES. our seed-potatoes into those States.    A full report of this trip has already been prepared and
presented to the Department.
PROVINCIAL SEED BOARD.
Meetings of the Provincial Seed Board were held whenever necessary during the year.    Your
official is chairman of this Board.
FIELD-CROP SEED-IMPROVEMENT AVORK.
Considerable encouragement and assistance was rendered the sees! industry during the year
by officials of this Branch working in conjunction with the Dominion Seed Branch.
D. AV. Thompson, B.S.A., who was employed on potato-inspection work in 1925, was stationed
during the summer of 1926 at Smithers with the sole object of assisting with the development
of the seed industry in Central British Columbia. In addition to this, the Department has
loaned three Clipper cleaners for use in that section.
Conditions in Central British Columbia are admirably suited to timothy-seed production.
During the past season some 2,500 acres of timothy have been harvested for seed in the Bulkley
Aralley, Francois and Ootsa Lake Districts. The total output will be approximately 250 tons
of seed, which has been sold on the basis of Grade No. 1 at a satisfactory price.
Early in the year a combined field and clean-seed competition was instigated in this area
and success was achieved, in that over forty farmers took part.
The standing fields of timothy were judged on a basis of 40 per cent, for freedom from
weeds and approximate yield, the resulting clean seed counting 60 per cent.
Early in November a local seed-show, the first of its kind in Central British Columbia,
was held in Smithers.    Prizes were offered for grains, potatoes, and grass-seeds.
It is interesting to note that exhibits of timothy-seed from Central British Columbia were
sent to the International Hay and Grain Show, Chicago, ansl captured first, sixth, seventh, and
eighth prizes. The exhibitors taking first honours were Messrs. Haven and Braaten, of South-
bank.
Apart from the subject of timothy-seed production, it should be pointed out that a movement
is already on foot to test out red clover, alsike,, and other grasses as; seed-crops in the Central
British Columbia area.
Turnip-seed was introduced to thirty growers last spring, and this next year we expect the
majority of these men to set out roots and produce seed.
Approximately 3 tons of meadow-fescue seed were sold from this area last year at 16 cents
per pound.
The production of red-clover seed in the Fraser Valley is assuming importance. In the fall
of 1926 some 500 acres were harvested for seed and next year there will be ten times the present
acreage available for seed production.
Root-seed production work is developing steadily. Last spring this Branch, in co-operation
with the Dominion Seed Branch, distributed a large quantity of the highest grade of root-seed,
which had been produced under most exacting conditions at the University of British Columbia,
among farmers residing on the Lower Mainland and on Vancouver Island.
Large quantities of elite and registeresl seed-oats were also distributed by this Branch
among farmers living on the Lower Mainland.
STAFF.
The staff of the Field Crop Branch during the past year has consisted of three permanent
and three temporary officials. Two of these latter men have been employed on potato-inspection
work, while the other devoted his entire time to seed-improvement work in Central British
Columbia.
J. B. Munro, Assistant Agronomist, has devoted the greater part of his time to soil investigations and forage-crop problems; while S. S. Phillips has supervised the potato-inspection work.
ACKNOAVLEDGMENTS.
Your Provincial Agronomist wishes to take this opportunity of expressing his appreciation
of the valuable assistance rendered by the various officials and clerk-stenographer attached to
the Branch;   also for the co-operation received from Provincial,  Dominion,  and University
officials interested in field-crop problems.
Respectfully submitted. Cecil Tice,
Provincial Agronomist. N 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF STATISTICIAN, VICTORIA.
G. H. Stewart.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Statistics Branch for the year ended
December 31st, 1926.
The estimated value of agricultural production for the year 1926 is $71,362,209, as against
$65,153,513 for the year 1925, an increase of $6,208,696, or 9.53 per cent, in the value of
production; the quantity production, however, showed a much greater increase. In all lines
of production, with the exception of vegetables, marked increases are shown.
Total imports of agricultural products during the year amounted to $21,059,361, an increase
of $1,483,845, or 7.58 per cent. Imports from other Provinces in Canada are valued at $17,437,350,
as compared with $16,755,676 in 1925, while imports from foreign points are valued at $3,622,011,
an increase of $802,171 over the previous year.
As an offset to the increased value of importations, a satisfactory feature of agricultural
production is the large increase shown in the value of our exports.
It is estimated that the total value of exports for the year amounted to $8,408,638, this
being an increase of $1,676,929, or 24.91 per cent.
FRUITS.
Records show the fruit-crop to be the largest on record. Prevailing prices for all fruits
were slightly less than the previous year.
The total production of all fruits amounted to 213,580,000 lb., as compared with 136,082,000
lb. in 1925, representing an increased yield of 77,498,000 lb., or 56.94 per cent. The total value
of the fruit-crop is placed at $7,585,520, which is an increase of $2,171,626.
The total apple-crop was 175,414,000 lb., as compared with 122,878,000 lb. in 1925.
Other tree-fruits showed an increase of 421.57 per cent, in siuantity production. The 1926
crop amounted to 25,432,000 lb., as against 4,876,000 lb. in 1925.
Small fruits produced amounted to 12,734,000 lb., valued at $1,307,432, as compared with
a production of 8,328,000 lb., valued at $1,019,885, in 1925, indicating an increase of 52.90 per cent,
in quantity and 28.19 per cent, in value.
The quantity of fruits exportesl greatly exceeded that of any previous year.
A"EGETABLES.
The total vegetable-crop amounted to 250,744 tons, or 277 tons less than in 1925.
The acreage of potatoes shows an increase of 1,906 acres, or 9.37 per cent, over the previous
year. The yield per acre, however, was 8.04 per cent, less, caused chiefly through drought during
the summer.
Market vegetables show an increase in production of 3,219 tons.
Although the acreage planted to fielsl tomatoes was considerably greater than the previous
year, slue to early frosts in September the crop was materially shortened. The crop amounted
to 17,437 tons, which was 4,394 tons less than the 1925 tonnage.
There was an increase of 64 tons in the quantity of greenhouse tomatoes produced; the
1926 crop amounting to 984 tons, valued at $336,754.
A marked increase occurred in the yield of outdoor cucumbers. The 1926 crop amounted
to 1,430 tons, valued at $74,775, as against a yield of 875 tons, valued at $40,941,> in 1925.
GRAINS.
The total area sown to grains was 135,490 acres, an increase of 2,726 acres over the previous
year.
The production of all grains amounted to 5,018,412 bushels, valued at $4,453,939, an increase
in quantity production of 361,093 bushels, or 7.75 per cent., and an increase in value of $202,618,
or 4.76 per cent.
The price of wheat fell from $1.43 a bushel in 1925 to $1.36 a bushel in 1926; oats from
64 cents a bushel to 63 cents.    Similar reductions are noted in the price of all grains. FODDERS.
The area planted to fodders was 1,015 acres less than the previous year.
Fodder-crops aggregating a total of 720,375 tons, valued at $10,457,459, were prosluced, as
compared with 700,816 tons, valued at $11,629,132, in 1925.
Clover and timothy averaged 2 tons to the acre, as against 1.83 tons in 1925.
Prices were exceedingly low; clover and timothy averaging $16.40 and alfalfa $17.50, as
against $18.90 and $19.85 in 1925.
DAIRY PRODUCTS.
The dairying industry in British Columbia continues to make steady progress, the production
for 1926 exceeding that of any previous year.
The value of all dairy products was $11,627,300, compared with a production of $10,629,350
in 1926, indicating an increased value of $997,950, or 9.39 per cent.
The quantity of creamery butter produced amounted to 3,849,276 lb., which was 367,574 lb.,
or 10.55 per cent., above the 1925 figures. Dairy butter increased 275,200 lb., or 13.45 per cent.,
during the year.
Cheese produces! amounted to 194,070 lb., as against 434,257 lb. manufactured in 1925.
The quantity of fresh milk consumed was 15,775,000 gallons, this being 1,665,000 gallons
more than the previous year.
Evaporated milk manufactures! amounted to 172,762 cases, which was 37,842 cases less
than in 1925.
The increase in the quantity of ice-cream made during the year was quite pronounces!.
The 1926 production amounted to 542,597 gallons, valued at $825,124, as against 489,869 gallons,
values! at $741,442, produces! in 1925.
LIVE STOCK.
The value of all domestic animals is placed at $20,752,433, representing an increased value
of $2,496,204 over the year 1925.
Horses increased in number from 57,016 in 1925 to 61,158 in 1926, the increase for the year
being 4,142.
Dairy and beef cattle both showed an increase in numbers ; there now being in the Province
338,244 cattle, an increase of 40,298 during the year.
Swine increased in number by 4,255.
Sheep increased in number to the extent of 40,606; there now being in the Province 102,S53,
which is an increase of 65.23 per cent, 'for the year.
The numbers of poultry increases! 15.15 per cent, during the year. There are now in the
Province 2,784,361 birds.
Egg prosluction for the year amounted to 9,956,375 dozen; this being an increase of 1,512,506
dozen, or 17.91 per cent.
The quantity of eggs exported during the year amounted to 1,132,620 dozen; this being an
increase of 392,140 doz., or 52.95 per cent.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Meats marketed during the year aggregated 42,489,711 lb., valued at $2,410,461, as compared
with the 1925 production of 34,117,300 lb., valued at $1,781,896. Prices on the whole ranged
higher than during the previous year.
The hop production amounted to 966,438 lb., valued at $367,246, as against 848,211 lb., valued
at $322,320, in 1925.
A large increase in the prosluction of honey is noted, 898,257 lb. being produced at a value
of $197,616, an increase in quantity of 40.72 per cent.
Seeds produced show an increase in value of 135.78 per cent.
Wool produced amounted to 566,168 lb., valued at $124,557, as compared with 345,060 lb.
produced in 1925, values! at $93,166.
During the summer months, with the assistance of S. II. Hopkins and officials of the
Horticultural Branch, a small-fruit survey of the entire Province was made, the results of
which have been submitted to you.
The total number of letters received by the Branch during the year was 2,284. while the
total number dispatches! was 1,253. N 7S
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
During the year eight circular letters, aggregating in all 1,860 letters, were sent out to
Farmers' Institutes, manufacturers of dairy products, etc. In addition to these, over 2,200
crop-report forms were sent out to crop correspondents.
AVeekly reports have been prepared for banking institutions, as well as numerous reports
for manufacturing and financial interests in Canada and the United States.
The compilation of the data for the 1925 Statistics Bulletin was carried on during the
months of January, February, March, and April, and 1,200 copies of the report were issued
in May.
AVith the compilation of the June census returns, the monthly reports of crop correspondents,
the time spent in assisting farmers in the work of keeping farm records, and the attention given
to correspondence, and other routine matters, the entire time of your Statistician has been fully
occupied.
All of which is respectfully submitted. q.  jj_ Stewart
  Statistician.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL APIARIST, VICTORIA.
AV.   J.   SlIEPPARD.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report as Provincial Apiarist, together with the estimated honey-
crop report, the demonstration apiaries reports, and the reports of A. AV.  Finlay and J. F.
Roberts, Apiary Inspectors, for the year 1926.
THE HONEY-CROP.
The honey-crop of the past season, estimated at 898,257 lb., is the largest recorded to date,
being 186,901 lb. in advance of 1922, the next best year. The average per hive, estimated at
52 lb., is lower than 1922, when it was 61 lb. per hive. The increase in the number of hives
over 1922 is 5,397.
The season promised exceptionally well at the commencement, as the winter previous was
phenomenally mild, so that the bees came through with but very few losses. The early expectation of a much larger crop of honey than was actually taken was not realized as unfavourable
conditions for nectar-secretion developed later in the year. Long-continued dry weather and
smoke from forest fires considerably lessened the duration of the honey-flows. Fireweed, the
mainstay in some districts, yielded but very little honey. However, there was a good yield
from the clovers, so that the quality of the honey taken was of the very best. The average yield
per hive of 52 lb. compares well with 41 lb. for the year 1925. The total number of apiaries is
2,471, compared with 2,406 for 1925, and the total estimated number of hives is 16,988, as
against 15,505 for the year previous.    (See Appendix No. 36.)
DEMONSTRATION APIARIES.
The demonstration apiaries in the different parts of the Province continue to serve a useful
purpose in imparting information  and showing what  the various locations  are  capable of.
There is room for an extension of these apiaries, especially in new districts, where opportunities
exist for increasing the honey production.    (For reports of demonstration apiaries see Appendix
No. 37.)
FOUL-BROOD INSPECTION.
Three hundred and twenty-four colonies in sixty-three apiaries in the Province were found
to be affected with American foul-brood. The Lower Mainland shows 122 fewer colonies affected
than last year, but the Okanagan shows an increase of 60.
Territory.
Colonies
AFFECTED.
Apiaries.
Brood-comes destroyed.
1926.
1925.
1926.
1925.
1926.
1925.
208
9
87
20
330
22
27
43
3
16
1
56
8
8
2,860
108
1,680
400
3 220
Kootenays   	
302
270
Totals	
324
379
63
72
5,048
3,792 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 79
Compensation was given by the Department for 5,048 brood-combs destroyed.
As a good many bee-keepers with large apiaries have now installed sterilizing outfits for
treating super-combs with the water-formalin solution, this will no doubt assist considerably in
keeping American foul-brood unsler control. Unfortunately, operating this equipment is very
unpleasant work, necessitating the wearing of a gas-mask as a protection against the irritating
vapour given off by the formalin.
IDENTIFICATION OF BEE-DISEASES.
More bee-keepers are taking advantage of being able to send samples of diseased, or
suspected diseased, comb to either the Department of Agriculture, Victoria, or to the Courthouse, New AVestminster, at both of which places there are microscopes for making examinations
of same, it being practically impossible to determine the differences between American foul-brood
ansl European foul-brood with the naked eye in certain stages of these diseases:. The treatment
of the two diseases being different, it is important that the continued use of this service should
be fully taken advantage of by the bee-keepers.
BIG HONEY YIELDS  FROM SAVEET CLOVER.
Increasingly large yields of honey are being annually obtained in districts in which sweet
clover is being grown as a cover-crop in the orchards and where it has become established in
waste lands.    The honey taken in these districts is of the very best quality.
LARGE APIARIES INCREASING.
The extent and number of large apiaries is increasing in the Province, and inquiries are
being continually received for information as to suitable locations for establishing new apiaries.
If some satisfactory means could be found to market British Columbia honey at stabilized prices
the industry would go ahead much more rapidly than at present.
All of which is respectfully submitted. „r   j   gHEPPAKD
Provincial Apiarist.
REPORT OF APIARY INSPECTOR, LOWER MAINLAND AND
VANCOUVER ISLAND DISTRICTS.
A.   AV.   FlNLAT.
TV. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report for the season of 1920.
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
The season of 1926 opened with encouraging conditions for bee-keeping on the Lower Mainland. The winter preceding had been very mild, with few extremes in temperature. It was
feared that colonies under such circumstances would have consumed heavily of their winter
stores, but early inspection found most of them to be in excellent condition.
In many localities bees were reported to be bringing in pollen early in February from the
willows, ansl sufficient nectar was obtained early enough to save them from having to draw
greatly on their remaining stores. AVinter losses were very light and were due, in most cases,
to colonies being queenless.
The earliness of the season made it possible to commence field-work sooner than usual, and
advantage was taken of the mild weather to examine several apiaries that had been treated
for disease the season previous, in addition to others reported or suspected to be diseased.
Special calls for inspection were also received early in the season and were promptly attended to.
A considerable amount of honey was gathered from the maples and dandelions during April.
May opened cool and wet and continued so until the end of the month, so that the honey gain
of April was used up for brood-rearing. During the month of June and the early part of July
colonies gained steadily in weight with clover-honey and a record crop was anticipated, but
continued dry weather was unfavourable for nectar-secretion afterwards. Fireweed was a
failure, except in a few localities on low ansl wet lands. The crop in general on the Lower Mainland may be considered fair, as, although disappointing in most of the fireweed locations, it was most satisfactory in the districts depending mainly
on clover, therefore making a more even average for the different districts and a much larger
total yield than last year.
A contributing factor to the better general average honey yield is the improved equipment
and methods of bee-keeping adopted by the majority of bee-keepers as a result of the educational
propaganda that has been instigated.
Box-hive bee-keeping that was all too common a few years ago is now almost non-existent.
DEMONSTRATION APIARIES.
The Provincial Government demonstration apiaries, established in the various districts for
the purpose of demonstrating the essential equipment and proper methods of manipulation for
successful bee-keeping, again show a greater average production of surplus honey per colony than
that of the districts in which they are locates!. Supervision of the demonstration apiaries by
the Inspectors is of necessity less every year since they were first established, owing to the
steady increase in the size and number of apiaries, whereby more inspection-work has to be
done and more special calls have to be attended to.
Many of the demonstration apiaries are used as centres for bee-keepers' meetings ansl field-
days, and their usefulness is further emphasized by the appearance of an increasing number of
surrounding apiaries being modellesl on similar lines and obtaining larger honey yields.
FIELD-WORK, ETC.
Field-work was chiefly confined to answering calls for inspection where owners desires! to
move bees from one locality to another, and to general inspection for the control of bee-diseases.
About 400 apiaries were visited, many of them several times where disease was found, and
approximately 3,000 colonies examined. American foul-brood was found in forty-three apiaries,
208 colonies being affected, or about 7 per cent, of the total examined. As most of this work
was done in territory known to contain disease, and outside calls answered where disease was
reported or suspected, the ratio given is very high in comparison with districts known to be
free, or fairly free, from disease, which woulsl probably not average 2 per cent, of the whole.
AVhere disease was found in commercial apiaries consisting of twenty-five or more colonies,
ansl it was consideresl aslvisable to use the formalin method of treating combs, permission was
given to aslopt this system for treating super-combs, the brood-combs being destroyed by burning-
and compensation paid for them, with the understanding that the money would be applied to
assist in the purchase of proper formalin sterilizing equipment.
Several commercial bee-keepers have installesl sterilizing plants for using the formalin
treatment, with apparent success, thereby saving for further use super-combs that woulsl otherwise have had to be destroyed.
The diagnosis of bee-diseases by microscopical examination of samples, or smears, of diseases!
brood sent in by the bee-keepers for this purpose has been carried on, and saves much time that
would otherwise be taken up in visiting apiaries to make a personal examination where disease
was suspected. This service is much appreciated by the bee-keepers, as it provides positive proof
in the early stages of disease and ensures prompt treatment. Ninety-two samples of diseased
brood and smears were received during the season. Sixty-seven were found to be American
foul-brood, twenty-one European foul-brood, and four proved to be sterile.
EXHIBITIONS.
The splendid exhibits of honey and other apiary pi-oducts at the three principal fall fairs
—namely, Vancouver, Victoria, and New AATestminster—again exceeded those of previous years
and were features of great attraction to the visitors. The quality of the honey shown was of the
highest standard, and in the commercial and other displays more attention had been given to
originality of design ansl artistic attraction, which made them more strikingly interesting.
Respectfully submitted.
A.   AV.   FlNLAY,
Apiary Inspector. Apiary Inspector.
REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES, VICTORIA.
Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Women's Institutes of British
Columbia for the year ended December 31st, 1926.
GENERAL.
There have been four new institutes incorporated during the year 1926—Howe Sound,
Midway, Canoe, Edgewood, and Fire Valley—whilst Kootenay Valley has changed its name to
Tarrys-Thrums. Institutes that have either lapsed or suspended operations are Gordon Head,
Barnston Island, Fern Ridge, Matsqui, Milner, Naramata, Glenmore, and Fruitvale. These
institutes may revive.
The year 1926 has seen fulfilled the great object for which we have been working since
February, 1925; that is, the completion of the sun-cure home for crippled children. The site,
building, equipment, which includes its own electric lighting and water system, has cost something over $51,000.    The institution opens on March 1st free of debt.
There were three district conferences held—the Islands District Institute in Victoria, the
Lower Mainland in New Westminster, and Kootenay and Boundary at Nelson.
6
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 81
REPORT  OF APIARY INSPECTOR,  OKANAGAN,  SHUSWAP, AND
THOMPSON VALLEY DISTRICTS.
J. F. Roberts.
TV. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report as Apiary Inspector for the Okanagan, Shuswap, ansl
Thompson Valley Districts for the season of 1926.
My work this year has been much extended owing to the increase in bees, more especially
in the Okanagan A'alley. The number of apiaries is larger, but the increase in the number of
colonies has been greater proportionately. A good deal of my time has been taken up in
educational work.
In several of the large orchards, where bees have been kept solely for pollinating the fruit-
blossoms, the owners have found that they can obtain honey from them as well, with proper
attention.
American foul-brood has shown up here and there in the Okanagan, but it only became
serious in one instance when a diseased colony was robbed out by the bees from the surrounding
apiaries.    This district is now, to the best of my belief, free from disease.
A greater interest has been taken in bee-keeping in the Okanagan this season, which should
be further stimulated by the larger honey yield and the fact that honey has been moving freely
on the market.
The honey yield in the Shuswap District has not been so high as in the Okanagan, but has
been an improvement on last year. Bee-keeping here is increasing and some of the apiarists
are planning for more hives next season. A number of people are also making a start in a small
way with the idea of making this a profitable side-line. American foul-brood has shown up
slightly in this district.
The Thompson territory has given good returns, especially in the Ashcroft District, where
splendid crops of very high-grade honey have been taken. The average for this territory woulsl
have been very much higher if some of the irrigation-water had not given out on some of the
larger acreages of alfalfa and clover.    American foul-brood has been found here to some extent.
In conclusion, I would add that the season just passed has been a satisfactory one in every
way for the majority of the bee-keepers in the districts named.
Respectfully submitted. J. F. Roberts, N 82 BBITISH COLUMBIA.
The British Columbia Women's Institutes were for a third time represented at the Canadian
National Exhibition in Toronto through the kindness of Sir Henry Thornton again granting free
transportation to the various exhibits from the different Provinces.
The exhibit this year features seeds and bulbs with the idea of educating the public, particularly the Eastern public, to the superior quality of seeds and bulbs produced in British
Columbia. This will have a direct influence on many of the country-women as it is an industry
in which many are interested. Mrs. Wm. Rutherford, of Nelson, accompanied the exhibit, and
the Department was very fortunate indeesl in having the services of Mrs. Margaret L. Murray,
whose business took her East at that time. A'ery encouraging reports of the work of these two
members have been received in the Department.
COMMITTEE-WORK.
The ten committees are progressing very favourably. Many institutes appoint ten conveners
for the year; each convener is responsible for one monthly programme on her subject. A large
number of conveners apply to the Department for assistance in preparing a programme. We are
hoping for the year 1927 to have material on hand and, with the co-operation and assistance of
the travelling library, to be able to supply subject-matter for any programme under the ten
committees.
HOME ECONOMICS.
Interest in home economics is growing. This is especially noticeable since the drive for the
endowment of the Home Economics Chair at the University of British Columbia, initiated by
the Parent-Teachers' Association. The institutes as a whole throughout the Province have
co-operated enthusiastically, and we confidently expect, with the growing interest through 1927,
that the objective of $80,000 will probably be reached. The books given for prizes at flower-
shows stealing with home-making were so much appreciated that we have added to our list
very materially, and have at the present time a list of books to recommend to the institute
libraries or to institute members on this subject.
There are indications of a revival of interest in cookery. Requests have been received for
instruction through the night-school classes in this branch, but especially have we noticed an
interest in the preparing of exhibits for the various fairs. AVe have completed arrangements
with the technical branch of the Education Department whereby a course of three lessons can
be put on giving full instruction on this subject.
It is with pleasure that I have to report the appointment of Miss Jessie McLenaghen, Provincial Supervisor of Home Economics of British Columbia. Miss McLenaghen's office is in the
Department of Education and she will be of great help to our institutes, especially, I think, in
helping the conveners of home economics to prepare programmes under this subject.
The relation of the Education Department to the Board of School Trustees still needs
emphasizing; the fact that the Board of School Trustees is the only body to which the Department of Education can legally pay money is not sufficiently understood. All classes must be
held under the auspices of the School Board and all instructors must be engaged by the School
Board, the Department of Education paying four-fifths of the salary of the instructor in unorganized districts and three-fifths in municipalities, the class or the institute, or both, making up
the remaining one-fifth, together with any expenses of heating, light, or transportation of the
instructor. I again urge the reading and discussion, under the home-economics work, of the
report on domestic science by the Organizer of Technical Education, Department of Education,
found always in the annual report of the Department of Education. This gives information on
the progress of the teaching of household science in our schools and should be of great interest
to all rural mothers.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND CHILD-AVELFARE.
The work for crippled children has been the outstanding feature of the Public Health ansl
Child-welfare Committee during the year 1926. As reference has already been made to the culmination of our hopes and efforts, I need make very little further reference. At the end of
the year there were forty applications from crippled, delicate, and undernourished children
for admission to the institution when completed. It is the hope of many of us that little
Othoa Scott, the child on whose behalf the first appeal was made and whose case was thes
starting-point of this great work, will be, if not the first, at least, among the first patients at the Solarium. Early in the year it was found for convenience' sake more expedient for the committee to incorporate under its own name; in grateful memory of Queen Alexandra, and her
love and interest in crippled children, the name " Queen Alexandra Solarium for Crippled
Children " was chosen. That due credit might be given our own organization the certificate
of incorporation carries directly under this title the statement, " Initiated by the AAromen's
Institutes of British Columbia."
To-day there are seventeen Public Health Nurses in rural districts of British Columbia.
They have been placed in these districts through the influence ansl support of local Women's
Institutes, and it is through the AVomen's Institutes and their influence that the Department of
Health expects to reach every rural school district in the Province.
There are many districts in British Columbia to-day that would establish and maintain a
nursing service if a suitable person could be sent into their district to organize the voluntary
agencies interested in this work. There are many requests coming in from different parts of the
Province for information and for assistance in organizing.
The Provincial Department of Health sends the annual report of the health conditions of
the Province, with the report of the medical inspection of school-children, to the secretary of
every institute, with the request that the report found on the first pages, together with the
report of the medical inspection of schools and the figures in relation to the local schools, be
made the subject-matter of the monthly programme on public health and child-welfare. We
have tried to supply a roll-call of pithy paragraphs, dealing with various branches of Provincial
public health, and the question-box, bringing out the salient facts of work under way, conditions,
needs, and remedies.
All this is having its effect, as showing in an increased interest and a growing demand from
rural communities for public-health nursing ansl slental services.
EDUCATION AND BETTER SCHOOLS.
There is still a very strong and increasing interest in the work of this committee.
Many institutes report discussion of the " Educational Survey " as the subject-matter for
an address in the monthly programme under the heading " Education and Better Schools."
Of the sixty-five flower-shows held this year, each included an exhibit of school-children's
work, while some institutes held only exhibits of school-children's work. About all the institutes
report school picnics and Christmas treats for school-children.
Hazelmere AVomen's Institute in the Lower Mainland has the great credit of first inaugurating the annual school picnic for its district, which has grown to tremendous proportions. The
school picnic to-day consists of the schools in the Municipality of Surrey and it necessitated a
special train of the British Columba Electric Railway to carry the children from Cloverdale to
Stanley Park.
Langley Prairie Women's Institute has taken the keenest interest and has held, with a
tenacity of purpose worthy of emulation of every institute in the Province, to the improvement
of the sanitary conditions of the three schools in its immediate vicinity, and has the satisfaction
of reporting that at last sanitary conditions are entirely up to the standard.
In Peachland the friendliness and co-operation between the School Board and the Women's
Institute is greatly to be admired and is a condition of affairs which we hope will prevail
eventually between every institute and every School Board.
Many institutes report hot lunch or milk for the rural school-children being provided.
I again emphasize the benefit of reasling the annual report of the Department of Education,
especially as a programme on education and better schools, the Superintendent's report, and the
Inspector's report on the local district. Again I emphasize the recommendation—the Women's
Institutes to co-operate with the Provincial Inspector of their school district and, if possible,
arrange a conference between their members and this official when he visits the school district.
There are many points on which the School Inspector can assist the institute in bettering the
conditions of the local schools. Again, that the members communicate with J. AV. Gibson,
Department of Education, for advice on improving and beautifying school-grounds; and communicate with Mr. Kyle, Department of Education, for advice on choosing and arranging pictures for the school-rooms and books for the school library. Communicate with H. Killam,
Travelling Library, Parliament Buildings, for advice on the selection of books for a community
library. N 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
LEGISLATION.
The interest in this branch is still maintained. The members are becoming more and more
interested in the legislation passed at each session of the House, and it would be well if we
could have a summary of such legislation prepared by this branch ansl submitted to every
institute in the Province. In some instances the institutes are comparing the laws on our
statute-books in relation to women and children and on education with similar laws of other
countries.
Many institutes are reporting the fact that application has been made to their local members
of Parliament for " Votes and Proceedings " during the session.
If the district conveners can be supplied with the summaries of legislation it would be of
great help to the institutes in their districts, as the slistrict conveners can confer with the
institutes regarding such information.
IMMIGRATION AND SETTLEMENT.
Progress is not very marked in this committee. There is not yet a clear understanding by
many of our members of the importance of a sound immigration policy to the future of the
Province. Many of our members appear to be anxiously concerned at the influx of settlers
lest it will mean fewer opportunities for the young men and women born in the Province. It
seems difficult for our members to grasp the idea that with increased population comes new
ideas, increased markets, and, as has been founsl in the republic to the south of us, an increased
prosperity. Many of our institutes are in direct communication with authorities at Ottawa and
in Great Britain, and in conversation with Miss Charlotte AA7hitton, the Executive Secretary of
the Canadian National Chilsl Welfare Council, the hope was expressed that each institute in the
Province might make its membership responsible for one new farmer-settler. This could be
worked out if the institutes would constitute themselves a committee of reception, while the
immigration authorities in Great Britain would constitute a committee of selection.
PUBLICITY AND NATIONAL EVENTS.
There is nothing spectacular to report this year under this heading. The " Buy B.C.
Products " campaign is still being carried on through the agency of the institutes, and the
idea of national and historical events is being taken up by the institutes as they gradually
co-operate with the British Columbia Historical Society.
The institutes are reporting their activities in the local papers; in the Vancouver, Victoria, and Westminster papers; and in the Western Home Monthly. Country Life devotes one
page to institute activities, specializing a certain feature of the work.
INDUSTRIES.
As a result of the institute exhibit at the Canadian National Exhibition in Toronto, Mrs.
Murray is enthusiastic over the marketing of hardy chrysanthemum blooms in the Prairie cities.
It is expected that she will make a trip to the Mainland and Island institutes in an effort to
foster the commercial growing of these blooms.
There is a movement towards reviving the old handcrafts, such as quilt-making, hooked
and braided rugs, while the more modern glove-making, basket-making, and woven rugs are
receiving attention; but unless we can arrange for some central selling-point and provide instructions in order to standardize the work the commercial possibilities are Very uncertain.
AGRICULTURE.
The growing of blooms, seeds, bulbs, etc., is rapidly taking its place as one of the commercial possibilities of agriculture for women. This was brought out very conspicuously following
the seed and bulb collection comprising the Women's Institute exhibit at Toronto, ansl we are
hoping to develop this to a greater extent in the year 1927.
At the Provincial Potato, Bulb, and Seed Fair held at A'ictoria in November the Women's
Institute exhibit was again an important feature. A unique part of the programme this year
was the catering done by the AVomen's Institutes in the vicinity of Arietoria. The manufacturers
and Agricultural Associations were asked for donations of foodstuffs. The members of these
institutes did the cooking and all menus as far as possible were comprises! entirely of British DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 85
Columbia products. All foodstuff as far as possible was donated. Luncheon was served to the
Rotarians, supper to the Canadian Society of Technical Agriculturists, and a banquet on the
last evening, and the proceeds were donated to the Queeen Alexandra Solarium Fund.
COMMUNITY BETTERMENT.
This is the principal work of the Women's Institutes; in fact, it might be said that all of
the committees are really branches of the community betterment, for, after all, a healthy community with good educational facilities, under good laws, with flourishing inslustries and fruitful
fields, make up the ideal living-place, and all of the committees after all aim for that great
goal. Especially under this heading comes such work as community centres, the improvement
of roadways, roadsides, cemeteries, and other local community projects. In fact, what has
hitherto been considered everybody's business and nobody's business, the institutes have taken
up and are making their special duty, and every community in which a Women's Institute
operates shows this influence. Perhaps, under this heading, shoulsl come mention of the rural
social-service work, which is carried on and of which half has never yet been told, and perhaps
it is just as well that the institutes recognize the admonition, " Let not your left hand know
what the right hand doeth." Not an institute in the Province but what has through the year
been the good Samaritan to some individual or some family in their community.
AVOMEN'S INSTITUTE AVORK AND METHOD.
The year started with 111 institutes; four new institutes have been incorporated—Howe
Sound,' Midway, Canoe, and Edgewood and Fire Valley; while the Kootenay Valley Institute
has changed its name to Tarrys-Thrums. The total membership is 3,127. The institutes received
from different sources, including the balance on hand at the beginning of the year, $51,030.34,
and expended $41,347. The receipts inclutled the per capita grant from the Department. The
institutes showing the largest sums of money handled are: Kelowna, $2,271.82; Victoria,
$2,017.19; West Saanich, $1,601.46; Salmon Arm, $1,560.60; A'ernon, $1,427.22; South Salt-
spring Island, $1,329.25; Okanagan Falls, $1,269.78; Pitt Meadows, $1,034.84; Tappen, $1,032.99;
Strawberry Vale, $1,009.41.
The latter part of this year an inquiry was received as to the method of increasing the
interest in the institutes in order to attract more members. It has always been found that an
institute with some specific objective is never lacking in enthusiasm, interest, or membership.
Therefore the recommendation to all institutes to have a yearly objective, and the nearer home,
the more local this objective is, the stronger and more effective becomes the membership.
Institutes die from inanimation;   never from overwork.
The institutes in the Province have contributed to the Crippled Children's Fund in Vancouver, to the Queen Alexandra Solarium Fund, to the Federated AVomen's Institutes of Canada
treasury, to the Near East Relief, to the Home Economics Endowment Fund, and other worthy
objects.
For the year 1927 we expect to hold the third biennial conference of the Provincial
Women's Institutes, where the ten committees will report.
It is surely a matter of satisfaction and pride to the institutes throughout the Province
to know that the promoters of any Provincial-wide movement are turning more and more to
the Women's Institutes for assistance, not so much financially, as to have the weight of the
institute organization behind their movement. I have heard it said by several in leading
positions, " AVhat the Women's Institutes support always succeeds." Such a reputation has
placed the AVomen's Institutes in the far front of the women's organizations in the Province of
British Columbia.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) V. S. MacLachlan,
Superintendent, British Columbia Women's Institutes. N 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX No. 1.
Correspondence received and dispatched by the Department of Agriculture  (at ATictoria)
for the Years ended December 31st, 1925 and 1926.
Office.
Received.
Dispatched.
1926.
1925.
1926.
1925.
Office of the Deputy Minister—
5.S56
3,130
2,836
611
491
384
1,579
1,851
2,370
3,416
1,277
2,713
2,284
1,850
4,095
2,000*
2,078
995
604
1,575
2,074
2,448
1,047
1,582
2,462
2,194
1,700
3,185
2,191
905
446
706
502
1,938
■2,465
2,253
3,268
2,179
3,162
1,253
3,935
3,298
2,000*
961
590
982
Apiaries Branch	
1,760
3,278
2,158
Live Stock Branch—
1,071
951
2,225
1,349
3,875
Totals                 	
30,648
24,854
'    28,38'S
'24,498
* Estimated. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N S7
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ijo3fli,;;fc«s,,»koo,.«».cjjiu«.b.« N 88
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 3.
Women's Institute Flowee-siiows, etc., 1926.
Date of
Show.
Name of W.I.
Remarks.
April
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
May
June
July
jj
Aug.
Sept.
7
9
19
24
6
8
13
21
28
16-
'21
25
26
25
3
3
4
13
lfi
20
9
15
16
17
24
30
7
14
31
6
6
21
28
31
2
3
11
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Dec.
25
26
Vancouver Island.
Metchosin 	
IEoyal Oak	
Valdes Island...	
Parksville :...  	
Luxton and Happy Valley	
Qualicum Beach and District
Whaletown  	
Colwood  	
Esquimalt...  	
Victoria...	
Garden City 	
Langford	
Lake Hill 	
Valdes Island. 	
South Saltspring	
Royal Oak	
Cowiehan	
Cobble Hill	
Lazo	
Mackenzie (Bella Coola)	
Lower Mainland.
Hatzic	
Hazelmere  	
Atchelitz 	
Langley Prairie	
Agassiz    	
Upper Sumas	
Burquitlam	
Surrey	
Mount Lehman	
Coghlan	
Langley Port   	
Mission :	
Port Kells	
Howe Sound	
Cannor	
Clearbrook Road	
Pitt Meadows .'	
Squamish Valley	
Central Park	
Lynn Valley	
Okanagan and Dry Belt.
Winfield	
Armstrong...	
Rutland	
Okanagan Centre	
Keremeos  	
Salmon Arm...	
Summerland 	
Valley 	
Mount Ida	
Grindrod	
Peachland  	
Silver Creek	
Tappen	
Malakwa	
Kalamalka	
Bulb-show.
Bulb-show.
Flow-er-show
Flower-show
Flower-show
Flower-show
Flower-show
Flower-show
Flower-show
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's w-ork and school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show.
Health exhibit;   " better babies " clinic.
Fall Fair.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work ;
health exhibit.
Flower-show.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of school-children's work ; vegetable-show.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work ; health exhibit.
Flower-show.
Flower-shoW.
Exhibition of
Exhibition of
Flower-show;
Flower-show;
Flower-show.
Flower-show.
Flower-show.
Flower-show ;
Flow-er-show ;
Flower-show ;
Flower-show;
Flower-show;
Flower-show;
Flower-show ;
Flower-show ;
Flower-show;
Exhibition of
Flower-show;
Flower-show;
Flower-show;
Flower-show;
Flower-show ;
Flower-show ;
Flower-show.
Flower-show;
Flower-show.
Flower-show.
Flower-show ;
Flower-show ;
Flower-show;
Flower-show;
Flower-show ;
Exhibition of
school-children's work,
women's work,
exhibition of women's work,
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women
exhibition of women
exhibition of women
exhibition of women
exhibition of women
exhibition of women
exhibition of school-
exhibition of women
exhibition of women
women's work,
exhibition of women
's work and school's work and school-
s work.
's work and school-
s work and school
's work,
children's work.
s work and school
s work and school
s work and school
children
s work
children's work
children
s work
children
s work
children
s work
children
s work
children
s work
exhibition of school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work ; health exhibit.
" better babies " clinic.
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
fruit-show.
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
school-children's work. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 89
APPENDIX No. 3—Continued.
Women's Institute Floweb-shows, etc., 1926—Continued.
Date of
Show.
Name of W.I.
Remarks.
June 12
18
16
28
18
19
21
26
July
Aug.
Sept.
1
„       11
„ 22-24
„ '22-'24
Oct.        1
11
Kootenay.
Creston	
Maple   	
Boswell-Sanca...	
Kaslo	
New Denver...	
Cranbrook  	
Willow Point	
Burton City	
Nakusp	
Arrow Park	
Crawford Bay	
Bonnington and S. Slocan
Slocan Valley	
Rock Creek	
Harrop and District...	
Flower-show.
Exhibition of
Flower-show.
Flower-show.
Flower-show.
Flower-show :
Flower-show :
Flower-show ;
Flower-show.
Flower-show ;
Flower-show;
Exhibition of
Exhibition of
Flower-show;
Exhibition of
women's work.
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
women's work at Nelson Fair,
women's work at Nelson Fair.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
women's work.
APPENDIX No. 4.
Tbee-fbuit Suevey.
Acreage in Okanagan Horticultural District.
1920.
Apples  14,902.9
Crabs  861.8
Pears    882.9
Plums  313.9
Prunes  642.2
Sour cherries   130.0
Sweet cherries   337.4
Apricots  457.0
Peaches   676.9
Totals   19,205.0
Acreage in Kootenay Horticultural District.
1920.
Apples   o  6,846.3
Crabs  57.8
Pears  435.0
Plums     315.4
Prunes   401.3
Sour cherries  117.2
Sweet cherries   308.1
Apricots  -.....;  2.9
Peaches   31.3
Totals  8,515.3
1925.
15,805.0
587.2
1,003.0
298.4
477.2
102.1
412.0
730.1
749.1
20,164.2
1925.
5,353.8
47.7
311.7
186.1
171.3
70.6
326.1
10.2
21.5
6,499.0 N 90
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 5.
Bbitish Columbia Beeby Acreage, 1926.
District.
01
is
o
hi
a
Raspberries.
Blackberries.
Loganberries.
Strawberries.
1926.
1925.
Pre.
1926.
1925.
Pre.
1926.
1925.
Pre.
1926.
1925.
Pre.
Fraser Valley	
Kootenay-Boundary .
North Okanagan	
1197
397
67
110
608
2385
49|
11
2}
1/24
63 1/24
46J
23 1/12
2
i
1/20
72
1,1954
99 7/12
45J
94
714
1,505}
5 7/12
3/10
81
1/20
129J
71
12*
§
15 2/5
165 1/10
1«
24
417i
H
577 5/6
85J
34
6
193
8664
261J
61 7/12
84
83
1641
500J
396 5/24
126}
14 7/12
10 2/5
oi
f
3
78 1/12
i
191/10
43 3/5
23
2254
666}
13}
Vancouver Island	
1254
Totals	
92i
676 19/24
1,640}
1781
8024
2,042 1/24
District.
00*
s
f.
a
Red Currants.
Black Currants.
Gooseberries.
Rhubarb.
1926.
1925.
Pre.
1926.
1926.
Pre.
1926.
1925.
Pre.
1926.
1925.
Pre.
Fraser Valley	
Kootenay-Boundary .
North Okanagan	
1197
397
67
116
608
2385
H
17/12
11/20
17 5/24
11/12
i
2§
10|
I
8
1
11
104
1}
4
1
1
H
894
29}
18 9/10
44
24J
167
1}
1/15
2}
i
33 5/6
94
6J
17/12
111
63 1/24
75J
33f
88*.
If
j
4
2
1
34
40*
1}
17/12
Vancouver Island....
i
5 7/24
1/15
31
294
2 2/15
26|
13 11/19.
U
80ft
123 1/12
.
.
34 1/20
191 11/1
J
67 17/24
2434
Total acreage, 5,201% acres.
APPENDIX No. 6.
Pruning Demonstrations, 1926.
District.
E.  W.  White..
R. Randall	
B.  W.  White..
G. B. W. Clarke..
E. C. Hunt.
Islands.
1. Sahtlam	
2. Denman Island	
3. Whaletown	
4. Port Washington...	
'5. Browning Harbour	
Lower Mainland.
1. Whonnock	
'2. Dow Road, Burnaby	
3. Otter District	
4. North Vancouver	
Kootenay.
1. Nelson	
2. Harrop	
3. Willow Point	
4. Winlaw	
5. Erie	
6. Thrums	
Okanagan.
1. South Canoe	
2. Salmon Arm	
3. Salmon Arm	
4. Notch Hill	
5. Salmon Arm High School .....
6. Vernon (Winfield)	
7. Vernon (South)	
8. Westside Swan Lake	
9. Kelowna	
10. Oliver (West Lateral)	
11. Oliver (South)	
Total number of demonstrations, 26 ;  total number of pupils, 310.
Instructor.
C. R. Barlow..
H. H. Evans..
Ben Hoy	
R. P. Murray .
January 26 ..
February 6 ..
February 8 -
February 9 -
February 10
January 28 ..
February 13
February 22
March  20   ....
February 13
February 16
February 18
February 19
March 12 ....
March  24  ....
No. of
Pupils.
February 26
March  3  	
March  4  	
March  11  ....
March  31  ....
January 27 -
February 12
February 22
March  15   ....
February 22
February 23
4
25
9
12
14
22
18
9
14
12
4
S
<5
7
40
25
10
12
10
6
14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 91
APPENDIX No. 7.
Pruning-schools, 1926.
District.
Instructor.
Dates.
No. of
Pupils.
Islands.
E. W. White	
February  3 to 5	
February 3 to '5	
February  10 to 12	
February 15 to  17	
8
R.  Randall	
E.  W.  White	
8
10
8
E.   C.   Hunt	
February 22  to 24
10
February 25 to 27	
February  3  to  5 	
March 2 to 4	
11
Kootenay.
1. Balfour          ..                           	
11
9
Okanagan.
1.  Westbank	
Ben Hoy	
12
10
Total number of schools, 11 ;   total number of pupils, 102.
APPENDIX No. 8.
Packing-schools, 1926.
District.
Instructor.
Dates.
No. of
Pupils.
No. of
Lessons.
Average
Proficiency.
Kootenay.
1.  Balfour                               	
February 8 to 13
March 2 to 6
13
13
12
15
Per Cent.
75
70
APPENDIX No. 9.
Memoeandum of Impoeted Fbtjit, Potatoes, Coen, etc., inspected at all Poets of Entby
in British Columbia (including those condemned).
1926. 1925.
Apples   (boxes)         48,867 36,193
Apples (i/2 boxes)             649 21
Apples  (barrels)             178 12
Crab-apples (boxes)              16 2
Pears   (boxes)          41,185 81,826
Pears (V2 boxes)             37 978
Plums (boxes)         16,058 18,963
Prunes  (boxes)   -       6,254 44,558
Peacbes   (boxes)    ,     120,080 161,983
Cherries (boxes)        10,538 14,080
Apricots (boxes)       27,479 32,719
Yakamines  (boxes)     87 	
Quince (boxes)              32 21
Nectarines (boxes)  43
Tangerines (boxes)  20 N 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 9—Continued.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry
in British Columbia—Continued.
1926. 1925.
California oranges  (boxes)    227,419 164,903
Japanese oranges (boxes)  •  215,955 197,685
Japanese oranges (boxes)   (to points east of B.C.)    344,600 284,200
Marmalade oranges  (boxes)    10,524 7,490
Chinese oranges (boxes)  445 476
Australian oranges (boxes)    3 802
Florida oranges   (boxes)     4
Lemons (boxes)   40,772 36,372
Limes  (boxes)    3 7
Grapefruit  (boxes)  30,079 28,637
Grapefruit (boxes)  (Oriental)  631 383
Pineapples (boxes)   535 497
Tomatoes (boxes)    30,551 36,844
Peppers  (boxes)     1,742 1,383
Eggplant  (boxes)    666 208
Persimmons   (boxes)     602 484
Pomegranates (boxes)  1,208 983
Potatoes  (tons)    79 3,705
Sweet potatoes (tons)   380 279
Yams (tons)   37 38
Taro (tons)   130 102
Rice (tons)    16,425 16,871
Corn   (tons)  21,981 12,585
Peas (tons)  250 274
Beans   (tons)     1,735 1,040
Peanuts   (tons)     1,643 2,055
Walnuts  (tons)    883 715
APPENDIX No. 10.
Memorandum of Impobted Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at all Poets of Entry
in British Columbia.
1926. 1925.
Apples   (boxes)           1,014 220y2
Apples (% boxes)            173 	
Pears  (boxes)           Ill 5,142
Pears (% boxes)                 5 193
Plums  (boxes)    390
Prunes  (boxes)    4,347
Peaches   (boxes)                52 597
Cherries (boxes)            149 77%
Cherries (lb.)             38 	
Apricots (boxes)             15 	
California oranges (boxes)             650 1
Grapefruit (boxes)              60]/2 204
Tomatoes (boxes)             28y2 328% 151b.
Peppers  (boxes)                10 	
Potatoes   (lb.)              29 1,077
Sweet potatoes  (lb.)             708 200
Jumping beans (lb.)   3 APPENDIX No. 11.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., inspected
at Vancouver (including those condemned).
1926. 1925.
Apples   (boxes)     43,250 27,437
Apples (% boxes)  526 10
Apples  (barrels)    8 1
Pears   (boxes)     37,693 77,254
Pears (% boxes)   37 978
Plums (boxes) :  13,162 16,278
Prunes  (boxes)     4,533 37,465
Peaches   (boxes)     97,861 132,107
Cherries (boxes)  6,367 7,702
Apricots (boxes)    22,535 26,428
Nectarines (boxes)   15
Yakamines (boxes)   54               	
Quince  (boxes)     20 15
Tangerines   (boxes)     10
California oranges  (boxes)     174,268 124,288
Japanese oranges (boxes)  172,142 159,685
Japanese oranges (boxes)   (to points east of B.C.)    88,000 234,000
Florida oranges (boxes)    4
Marmalade oranges  (boxes)     10,524 7,065
Australian oranges (boxes)    3 802
Chinese oranges (boxes)  ,  240 265
Lemons (boxes)   31,762 29,714
Grapefruit (boxes)   25,827 25,229
Grapefruit (boxes)   (Oriental)    415 237
Limes  (boxes)    2 7
Pineapples (boxes)    479 403
Persimmons (boxes)   585 452
Pomegranates (boxes)    1,104 848
Tomatoes (boxes)   28,267 34,222
Peppers (boxes)   1,203 808
Eggplant  (boxes)     387 130
Potatoes (tons)   63 1,615
Sweet potatoes (lb.)    642,933 447,700
Yams   (lb.)  54,424 61,800
Taro  (lb.)    220,230      ,        180,200
Peanuts   (tons)     1,640 2,054
Walnuts  (tons)  877 710
Rice   (tons)     15,132 15,387
Corn   (tons)     18,170 9,306
Beans  (tons)     1,711 1,008
Peas (tons)   240 200
APPENDIX No. 12.
Memorandum  of Imported  Fruit,  Vegetables,  Rice,  Beans,  Peas,  Corn,  etc.,
condemned at vancouver.
1926. 1925.
Apples (boxes)             976 210
Apples (% boxes)             173 	
Pears   (boxes)                87 4,631 N 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 12—Continued.
Memorandum  of Imported  Fruit,  Vegetables,   Rice,  Beans,   Peas,   Corn,  etc.,
condemned at Vancouvee—Continued.
1926. 192S.
Pears (V2 boxes)                5 193
Plums (boxes)  390
Prunes (boxes)   1,449
Peaches  (boxes)    580
Cherries (boxes)             137 76
California oranges  (boxes)             606 1
Grapefruit (boxes)              56% 197
Tomatoes (boxes)    327
Potatoes (lb.)              4 1,077
Sweet potatoes (lb.)            708 200
Jumping beans (lb.)   3
APPENDIX No. 13.
Memorandum of Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., fumigated at Vancouver.
1926. 1925.
Rice (tons)                6 104
Beans   (tons)               2 2
Peas  (lb.)           1,265 	
Peas (tons)   116
Peanuts (tons)  157 	
Walnuts  (tons)               97 18
Almonds  (tons)                 6 23
Cob corn-seed  (lb.)  670 	
Coriander-seed  (lb.)    1,753
Cocoa-beans   (boxes)             . 15
Pineapples   (crates)               305 60
Prunes  (lb.)              448 1,512
Raisins (lb.)      43,904 7,965
Currants   (lb.)        310,037 39,589
Dried apples (lb.)          2,702 1,263
Apple core and pulp (lb.)        66,300 	
Evaporated apple skins and cores (lb.)        30,000 	
Figs (lb.)        13,580 	
Nutmegs (cases)    16
Nutmegs   (lb.)           2,240 	
Chili and spice  (lb.)             710 97
Peppers   (lb.)    525   . 	
Maize  (lb.)          2,145 	
Peach-pits  (lb.)  3,192
Mats   (empty)     1,200
Sacks (empty)       10,000 4,650
Straw covering for bottles  (crates)    31
Crockery   (boxes)  1
Furniture (cases)    32
Settlers' effects (cases)   8
Vermont  (cases)    100
Cars (empty), Nos. F.G.E. 15862 and 14608  2 	
The following were fumigated at Victoria:   Peas, 500 lb.;   rice, 10 tons. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 95
APPENDIX No. 14.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc, for which No Certificates were issued.
1926. 1925.
Crates. Crates.
Asparagus          8,015 10,798
Artichokes            214 166
Almonds   (lb.)        225,730 159,515
Avocadoes                42 9
Beets              63 434
Bananas        95,175 111,363
Brazil nuts (lb.)       489,878 68,400
Brussels sprouts            395 278
Bak choy              23 139
Beans  (green)              549 146
Broom-corn             369 546
Buckwheat  (lb.)     500 	
Black walnuts  (lb.)           1,500 	
Cabbage          6,802 8,159
Cabbage  (tons)               12 273
Cauliflower          7,722 8,097
Casabas              830 991
Casabas  (by count)         18,256 14,750
Chestnuts   (lb.)          13,693 18,169
Chestnuts  (barrels)     52 	
Caladium   (lb.)         33,700 38,752
Carrots          1,603 7,238
Cloves   (lb.)            1,400 1,500
Cucumbers            331 300
Celery           6,157 7,151
Cocoanuts           631 140
Cocoa-beans   (lb.)           7,250 11,400
Cantaloupes          11,907 20,074
Chicory                  2 6
Chard    6
Coffee-beans (lb.)        69,000 137,420
Cactus pears              17 25
Cranberries           2,751 1,920
Cinnamon     600
Cress   2
Caltrops    5 	
Caltrops (lb.)   1,400
Chillies (lb.)   300 	
Cardoons   C  1 	
Dill-flowers    900
Endives                  5 10
Foo gwah              11 12
Filberts  (lb.)       395,840 86,400
Figs        64,344 550,057
Fennel-root    1 	
Gye choy              15 168
Grapes          95,335 65,153
Grapes (lb.)    4 	
Ginger-root (lb.)       79,200 50,460
Garlic (lb.)        83,365 25,467
Geet gwah                7 5
Gooseberries             20 7,002 N 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
o
APPENDIX No. 14i—Continued.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates were
issued—Continued.
1926. 1925.
Crates. Crates.
Garbanzos           200 200
Horse-radish (lb.)         1,000 1,215
•Hickory nuts (lb.)             300 100
Huckleberries              15 	
Lettuce  :      38,058 34,077
Lychee nuts  (lb.)               50 300
Lentils  (lb.)        29,712 61,000
Leeks   	
Loquats     101
Lily bulbs  (edible)   (lb.)         17,400 6,450
Lotus rhizomes  (lb.)       139,210 	
Melons           1,443 1,142
Melons   (by count)         66,419 12,239
Mint                  2 2
Maize-husks  (lb.)             575 	
Maize                  3 5
Mangoes (lb.)            775 600
Nutmeg  (lb.)          19,950 9,006
Mushrooms (lb.)             10 	
Mace   (lb.)           1,900 	
Onions          10,133 23,057
Olives               16 31
Olives  (lb.)              500 1,950
Okra   !             18 	
Parsley  i           115 235
Peas           449 1,322
Pecan nuts         2,502 1,100
Parsnips     573
Prunes  (lb.)               100 	
Pepper (lb.)        25,050 	
Pimento  (lb.)           4,500 	
Peppers                 96 	
Pine-nuts (lb.)    100
Radishes     102
Rhubarb         2,106
Rutabaga        1,422
Raisins   100
Spinach            8,452
Squash   :  50
Seeds (miscellaneous)       382,189
Sue choy   29
Sugar-cane  (lb.)        66,500
Sing gwah 	
Strawberries        5,912
Sechium (lb.)                5 	
Turnips            1,400 1,339
Tumeric rhizomes (lb.)             600 	
Topeco     1
Water-chestnuts   (lb.)         52,650 39,500
Water-lily rhizomes   68,774
White nuts         8,850 4,800
Watermelons  (by count)    51,614
130
2,719
34
8,923
62
182,271
96
56.950
8
13,244 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 97
APPENDIX No. 15.
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock inspected at
those condemned).
Standard fruit-trees—
Apple   	
Crab-apple 	
Pear   	
Cherry	
Plum	
Prune	
Peach    c	
Yakamine   	
Quince   	
Nectarine 	
Apricot 	
Fig 	
Nut-trees—
Walnut 	
Hazelnut   	
Chestnut 	
Almond 	
Seedlings, grafts, and scions—
Fruit seedlings	
Ornamental seedlings 	
Grafts   	
Scions 	
Small-fruit bushes and plants—
Cranberry-vines 	
Grape-vines	
Currant-bushes   	
Blueberry-bushes 	
Gooseberry-bushes 	
Blackberry-canes	
Loganberry-canes   	
Blackerry-canes 	
Strawberry-plants	
Miscellaneous—
Ornamental trees, etc.  	
Ornamental cuttings   	
Rose-bushes	
Plants (herbaceous)  	
Roots   	
Bulbs    3
.t Vancouver
(including
1926.
1925.
24,580
4,740
956
154
3,262
5,328
21,033
12,892
3,479
2,483
3,191
4,725
6,291
9,067
100
55
40
41
104
45
4,441
9,559
21
9
722
795
435
158
111
28
65
10
279,104
235,523
34,126
42,164
810
1,100
2,817
92
140,001
10,012
15,198
10,672
6
26
31
8
26
12
5,690
3,392
2,267
86
880
1,678
103,220
137,587
56,252
42,515
4,328
3.225
151,718
93,735
41,443
39,549
417,504
290,027
3,299,508
2,784,473
Totals 4,623,760 3,745,965
Nursery Stock inspected at Cbanbrook during 1926.
Fruit-trees     81
Small fruits   72
Ornamentals     779
Rose-bushes    71
Greenhouse plants      402
Ornamental seedlings  1,000
Perennials, roots, etc       75
Bulbs          14
7 . N 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 16.
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver.
Standard fruit-trees—
Apple   	
Crab-apple 	
Pear   	
Quince   	
Cherry   	
Plum 	
Prune	
Peach  	
Nectarine 	
Apricot 	
Nut-trees—
Walnut 	
Hazelnut   	
Chestnut   	
Almond 	
Seedlings, grafts, and scions—
Fruit seedlings 	
Ornamental seedlings 	
Scions 	
Small-fruit bushes and plants-
Grape-vines 	
Gooseberry-bushes	
Raspberry-canes   	
Strawberry-plants 	
Blueberry-vines   	
Currant-bushes 	
Miscellaneous—
Ornamental trees, etc	
Ornamental  cuttings  	
Rose-bushes 	
Plants 	
Roots	
Bulbs   	
1926.
1925.
1,461
282
26
5
22
236
1
138
146
38
12
23
139
166
52
29
3
64
225
1
1
4
1
5
1,980
2,604
3
12
3
479
26
3
2
1
1
8
125
402
7
3
7
8
503
3
2
18
81,415
5,189
Totals  C.       86.047 9,837
APPENDIX No. 17.
Memorandum of Impoeted Nueseey  Stock inspected at Victobia   (including
those condemned).
1926. 1925.
Grape-vines   4 	
Raspberry-canes     1 	
Rose-bushes                53 177
Ornamental trees, etc             23 2
Ornamental cuttings                1 236
Plants         3,389 5,140
Roots           316 98
Bulbs          97,820 140,112
Peach-pits  (sacks)   ...  4 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 99
APPENDIX No. 18.
Impoeted Nursery Stock condemned at Victoria.
1926.
Raspberry-canes     1
Rose-bushes   3
Ornamental trees, etc  23
Plants  '.  15
Bulbs     7
Ornamental cuttings   1
Peach-pits   (sacks)   	
■ 1925.
APPENDIX No. 19.
Apples Exported to England and European Ports via Vancouver and Panama Canal
and for which No Certificates were issued, 1926.
England—Apples   (boxes)    135,804
Europe—Apples  (boxes)    19,628
Total 155,432
APPENDIX No. 20.
Products for which Export Inspection Certificates were issued at Vancouver
and Okanagan. 1926.
To.
Apples.
Frozen
Raspberries.
Potatoes.
Onions.
Turnips.
Wheat.
Boxes.
1,034
1 45,825
100
1,523
4,795
Bbls.
411
Sacks.
Crates.
140 '
200
30
300
Cases.
5
Sacks.
50
Crates.
Sacks.
15
Sacks.
42,429
25,416
545
10
4,616
20,365
4
3 SO
1,670
20
20,001
12,600
750
9,000
840
Holland	
Cuba   	
50
4,335
2,650
3,800
'400.
800
1,350
900
Totals	
87,636
411
29,411
670
5
50
44,179
15
44,982 N 100
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 21.
Nursery Stock inspected for Export, for which  Certificates  were issued,  1926.
To.
m
h>
ou
'?
s
'3
g
Tfl
•Ji
S3
u
O
iCfi
EL>
in
o
M
a
oo. 3
OJ   tH
ajfe
OC
s
m
Is
* 2
eD ©■
•x
©
OCo.
TJX
.£
*o
m
'3
fa
CD
fee
COS
in
CJ
coj
oo
~14
146
3
100
495
44
20
682
3
130
3
3
1
720
'2
1,017
100
554
28,813
218
98
350
33
1
115
12
'2,000
60
2,757
53
49
2
1
2
5
1
25
2
1
1
'28
2
4
1
1,283
United States	
490
15
6
300
50
1,970
10
Ireland 	
Honolulu	
New Zealand 	
1
24
1,205
3,702 i
2
66
25
Totals.	
160
642
841
1,740
100
32,567
700
115
2,072
2,757
177
5,949
APPENDIX No. 22.
Results of Seed-treatment Experiment, 1926.
Plot.
Variety.
Seed.
Treatment.
No. of
Hills.
Total
Yield.
Yield
per
Hill.
Weight
of Clean
Tubers.
Per
Cent.
Lb.
132
89.5
155
94.2
112
62.2
12
9.6
117
76.5
140
91.5
9
6.2
114
65.5
9
5.8
129
75.0
3
2.2
106
64.6
113
60.8
113
68.5
103
58.2
79
50.6
156
82.1
146
84.4
191
94.6
154
74.8
45
70.3
Weight
of Rhiz.
Tubers.
Per
Cent.
7
8
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
10
20
21
N.G.
N.G.
G.C.
N.G.
N.G.
G.C.
N.G.
G.C.
N.G.
G.C.
N.G.
G.C.
G.C.
G.C.
G.C.
G.C.
Cut
Cut
Whole
Cut
Cut
Cut
Cut
Whole
Cut
Cut
Cut
Cut
Whole
Cut
Cut
Whole
G.C.
Cut
G.C.
Cut
G.C.
Cut
G.C.
Whole
G.C.
Cut
None ; clean 	
HgCl2 1-1,000, 1J4 hr.;
clean	
None ;  diseased   	
None ;  diseased  	
HgCl2 1-1,000, 1% hr. ;
diseased   	
HgCla 1-1,000, 1% hr. ;
diseased   	
2 oz. Sem. Bel before cutting    	
2 oz. Sem. Bel before cutting  	
3 oz. Sem. Bel after cutting  	
3 oz. Sem. Bel after cutting 	
10 per cent. Sem. Bel after
cutting   	
10 per cent. Sem. Bel after
cutting   	
2 oz. D.D. 12 before cutting  	
3 oz. D.D. 12 after cutting
10 per cent. D.D. 12 after
cutting   	
10 per cent. D.D. 12 before
cutting   	
2 oz. D.D. 37 before cutting
3 oz. D.D. 37 after cutting
10 per cent. D.D. 37 after
cutting	
10 per cent. D.D. 37 after
cutting   	
Untreated; check on rots..
98
99
93
100
87
107
93
110
97
106
97
91
92
95
74
99
93
102
84
44
Lb.
148
164%
180
125
153
153
146
174
154
172
138
164
186
165
177
156
190
173
202
206
64
Lb.
1.5
1.7
1.9
1.4
1.5
1.75
1.4
1.9
1.4
1.8
1.3
1.7
2.0
1.8
2.1
2.0
1.9
2.0
2.5
1.5
Lb.
16
9%
68
113
36%
13
137
60
145
43
135
58
73
52
34
27
52
19
10.5
5.8
37.8
90.4
23.5
8.5
93.8
34.5
94.2
25.0
97.8
35.4
39.2
31.5
41.8
49.3
17.9
15.6
5.4
25.2
29.7 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 101
APPENDIX No. 23.
Cattle and Hides shipped during 1926.
District, Cariboo and South.
Month.
Williams Lake.
Lac la Hache.
Quesnel.
Clinton.
Lillooet.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
January	
172
'890
456
180
2,208
704
176
244
75
279
210
39
25
201
82
43
9
17
164
11
30
64
84
22
60
462
441
493
345
157
16
47
3
March	
April	
4
39
June	
45
August	
15
November	
December	
55
Totals....
4,786
847
308
1     274
2,128
63
161
Totals :   Cattle, 8,(
hides, 408.
District, Okanagan, etc.
Month.
Kelowna.
Penticton.
Vernon.
Keeemeos,
Oliver, etc.
Princeton and
Coalmont.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
January	
146
12
8
2
129
76
38
18
2
131
184
11
168
1
96
30
12
17
30
49
89
16
5
173
19
233
154
184
67
155
21
15
113
2
51
73
12
6
122
17
401
413
	
561
501
312
303
270
190
22
98
197
200
52
97
50
204
11
69
28
6
67
19
3
5
114
73
154
7S
80
35
55
'71
April	
104
128
10
July	
128
August	
91
October	
105
194
December	
16     [        93
"     |      	
40
Totals....
445              710             225
085
432
2,051
716
553             420             926
Totals :   Cattle, 2,238 ;   hides, 6,131.
District, South-east British Columbia.
Month.
Nelson.
Cattle.
Creston.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cranbrook,
Fernie, etc.
Cattle.
Hides.
Grand Forks
and Midway.
Cattle.
Hides.
January	
February....
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September..
October	
November...
December...
Totals  (about).
10
57
131
83
16
26
2io
120
120
6 610 42
427
16
4
252
225
414
122
8
17
191
328
46
183
26
353
97
99
51
55
153
49
23
43
51
89
55
25
'58
497
1,274
716
546
Totals :   Cattle, 1,261;  hides, 2,857. N 102
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 23—Continued.
Cattle and Hides shipped during 1926—Continued.
District, Central British Columbia.
Month.
Smithers,
Telkwa, etc.
Cattle.
Hides.
Burns Lake and
Fort Fraser.
Cattle.
Hides.
Prince George
and McBride.
Cattle.
Pouce Coufe.
Cattle.
Hides.
January	
February....
March	
April	
Ma}'	
June	
July	
August	
September..
October	
November...
December...
103
41
68
5
1
21
226
21
17
55
30
26
95
133
20
O
68
19
36
75
54
51
172
24
33
Totals..
406
93
445
40
39
50
28
29
289
40
Totals :   Cattle, 788 ;  hides, 973.
District, Kamloops, Nicola, etc.
Ashcroft.
Cattle.
Hides.
Merritt and Nicola.
Cattle.
Hides.
Kamloops.
Cattle.
Hides.
January	
February...
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September.
October	
November..
December...
Totals..
420
41
111
44
37
136
336
326
40
189
94
37
20
199
1,041
983
1,056
441
84
194
179
105
117
117
197
234
19
1,472
4,234
789
234
106
101
112
•IS
345
494
295
366
382
431
205
3,086
434
235
255
341
434
326
112
264
417
40
262
289
3,409
Totals :   Cattle, 8,792 ;   hides, 4,743.
District Totals.
District.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cariboo and South	
8,069
2,238
1,261
788
8,792
498
6,131
2,857
973
4.743
21,148
15,202 DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 103
APPENDIX No. 24.
List of Districts covered by Inspectors testing foe Tuberculosis, 1926.
District.
No. of
Cattle
tested.
No. of
Reactors.
EIrade of Premises.
No. of
Herds
tested.
A.
B.
C.
Lower Fraser Valley.
16
138
53
22
38
158
173
35
53
150
4
90
5
4
3
4
19
4
13
23
9
1
9
o
1
16
3
1
8
11
23
6
19
2
10
1
18
3
1
Ladner	
8
11
25
Pitt Meadows	
6
3
20
9
12
Totals -	
930
75
5
2
103
110
Coast Points.
21
24
7
12
36
104
8
72
9
40
4
1
1
1
1
1
9
7
1
4
1
1
1
4
•54
18
3
1
9
1
Alert Bav	
4
2
61
1
9 9
Valdes Island	
1
4
Totals	
333
6
1
18
80
99
Okanagan Valley.
481
218
23
32
269
17
79
29
11
5
	
1
9
81
25
2
3
7
33
4
9 9
9
82
Enderby	
.25
9
3
35
4
Salmon Arm   _.	
99
9
Totals	
1.155
10
3
186
189
West Kootenay.
150
81
27
4
1
79
439
18
119
92
9
	
	
32
19
1
4
1
1
2
45
17
7
1
1
12
46
3
10
5
46
Revelstoke	
17
9
1
1
12
50
3
11
Trail    	
6
Totals	
1.010
60
7
2
147
156
East Kootenay.
11
280
219
84
6
16
2
3
2
14
36
5
9
16
39
Totals	
594
22
5
57
62 N 104
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 24—Continued.
List of Disteicts covered by Inspectors testing foe Tuberculosis, 1926—Continued.
District.
No. of
Cattle
tested.
No. of
Reactors.
Grade of Premises.
No. of
Herds
A.
B.
C.
tested.
Kamloops and Surrounding Districts.
Barnhartvale	
25
14
3
3
121
24
9
164
1
26
1
1
5
1
1
5
8
1
Barriere	
Black  Pines	
Heffley Creek	
Kamloops	
5
Mount Olie         	
Raleigh Mount	
1
1
Tranquille	
Totals	
363
27
1
22
Similkameen.
Princeton	
51
7
Central B.C.—Bulkley Valley.
Smithers	
61
24
15
89
105
19
10
8
6
9
3
8
11
6
Forestdale	
Houston	
Quick	
8
11
Topley               	
°
Totals	
313
18
40
40
Central B.C.—Nechako Valley.
Beaverly	
7
9
112
16
28
5
1
1
1
12
4
6
1
Mud River	
4
Vanderhoof          	
6
Totals	
172
5
1
24
25
Cariboo.
Alexandria 	
14
51
32
77
9
9
1
2
4
5
13
9
_
Kersley	
Quesnel	
5
13
Totals                	
174
4
1
24
Vancouver Island.
Campbell River	
19
46
158
84
17
801
31
4
97
4
46
190
410
36
16
251
1,476
78
43
638
1
1
9
1
11
8
15
«
2
O
145
1
4
17
1
2
1
5
2
1
5
1
13
3
4
12
4
2
41
9
2
9
18
21
4
4
1
18
75
6
8
42
o
2
1
1
2
27
2
2
5
2
•o
6
9
3
15
73
6
4
29
5
Comox	
Courtenay            	
lo
Colwood	
4
Fanny Bav                       	
Hilliers	
Ladysmith	
2
Langford                  	
9
11
Oak Bay	
Parksville	
7
1
161
12
12
Totals	
4,478
221
31
276
191
498
Q}ulf Islands.
Pender Island	
9
6
1
1
1
2
Totals 	
15     1       -
 --     1             2
1
n DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 105
APPENDIX No. 25.
Testees' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,"
R.S.B.C. 1924.
Name. Address.
Abbott, R. C Vanderhoof.
Anderson, Alfred H Armstrong.
Asserlind, H. E. E 2136 Union Street, Vancouver.
Atkinson, L. A Vancouver.
Bell, S. A 478 Eraser Street, Victoria.
Batey, H. S 2504 Chesterfield Avenue, North Vancouver.
Boulter, Wm Ladner.
Boyne, AVm Kamloops.
Calder, .las 882 Hamilton Street, Vancouver.
Caldwell, John 1855 Georgia Street East, Vancouver.
Canavor, L 3917 Albert Street, Vancouver.
Carradice, P. W 1270 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Carroll, AV. J Courtenay.
Carter, Jas. N 137 Seventeenth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Chevalley, F Abbotsford.
Chevalley, P Abbotsford.
Clarke, T. G. M Vernon.
Coxen, W. G Victoria.
Cook, E. W 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Crabtree, G. H Abbotsford.
Cranswick, P Royal Dairies, Vancouver.
Crawford, Wm 7828 Prince Albert Street, Vancouver.
Dempster, A. M Kamloops.
Dill, C. A Kamloops.
Drake, A. W Ganges.
Duclman, A 333a Thirteenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Dunn, J.  S 553 Fifth Street, Nanaimo.
Dunn, James 553 Fifth Street, Nanaimo.
Enman,  V 2056 Forty-ninth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Godwin, F Vernon.
Grant, Everett Abbotsford.
Grimes, G. G Langley Prairie.
Hall, F. D. B  Box 172, Chilliwack.
Harkness, Wm Nelson.
Hansen, A. B Golden.
Henderson, C. A Kamloops.
Holmes, J Vancouver.
Hurley, M. H 1111 Fort Street, Victoria.
Isbister, J Langley Prairie.
James, D. A 1114 Broarlway West, Vancouver.
Jenne, H. H Nelson.
Johnson, Alfred  Quesnel.
Karnagel, R Salmon Arm.
Kell, George 516 St. George Street, New AVestminster.
Lawrence, G. H Mission City.
Livingstone, J. M 15 Atexander Street, A'ancouver.
Lord, W. C Sardis.
Magar, J. A Sardis.
Main, T 3917 Albert Street, A'ancouver.
Matheson, D. AV Port Haney.
MeEld,  G.  H Fort Langley.
Monteith, AV. J 1922 Second Avenue AVest, A'ancouver.
McAllister, C. AV 707 View Street, Victoria. N 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 25—Continued.
Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,"
R.S.B.C. 1924—Continued.
Name. Address.
McCoshan, AV. H Cranbrook.
McKerricher, AV. R 1924 Fortieth Avenue East, A'ancouver.
Menzies,  T. A Abbotsford.
Metcalfe, F. J 3436 Oak Street, Vancouver.
Moor, J. S Penticton.
Morse, A. O 1750 Eighth Avenue AArest, A'ancouver.
Moss, James  Box 634, Kelowna.
Nelson, C. E J. M. Steves' Dairy, A'ancouver.
Neill, A New AA'estminster.
Newland, C. G Colony Farm, Essondale.
Northcott, C. W Vancouver.
Norton, F. H. A 1311 Broad Street, A'ictoria.
Orr. J. B Sardis.
Overland,  F 2571 Thirty-sixth Avenue AA'est, A'ancouver.
Pallot, C. S  .Box 121, Haney.
Pyvis, W. J   Chilliwack.
Patten, AV Armstrong.
Patterson, W. L 536 Twenty-first Avenue AA'est, A'ancouver.
Perrins, A. C 639 Belton Avenue, A'ictoria.
Price, T. AA' 905 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, A'ancouver.
Quaedvlieg, E Keremeos.
Reston, H. C. F 684 Burnside Road, Victoria.
Richards, T. E 1001 Pender Street West, A'ancouver.
Rive, Elias  405 Eighth Avenue West, A'ancouver.
Rose, Wm Courtenay.
Rus Krister  A'ancouver.
Sejrup, A'. M Duncan.
Sellers, J. H 1257 Eighteenth Avenue East, A'ancouver.
Sherwood, E. G 1032 Hornby  Street, Vancouver.
Silver, M. R 2215 Dundas Street, A'ancouver.
Skelton, R. J Salmon Arm.
Smith, R Penticton.
Stanton, Lloyd   A'ancouver.
Stock, C Vancouver.
Swanson, C. J Vancouver.
Taylor, Arthur  Pouce Coupe.
Thomas, S. J Kelowna.
Thomson,  Darwin   Salmon Arm.
Thomson, J. L Armstrong.
Thomson, James  A'ernon.
Thomson, F. D A'ancouver.
Thornbery, G. H Department of Agriculture, A'ictoria.
Turnbull, Miss M Kelowna.
Turnbull,  H Cloverdale.
Valentin, M Prince Rupert.
AVagg, C. H c Ganges.
Washington, F. J 405 Eighth Avenue AVest, A'ancouver.
Wasson, F. C Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
AVatson, J. B. R.R. No. 1, Sardis.
Wells, B Ladner.
AA'ells, J. R Penticton.
AVest, C. H 280 Sixth Avenue East, Vancouver.
AVestlund, Mrs. A c/o P. Burns & Co., Vancouver. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926. N 107
APPENDIX No. 25—Continued.
Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,'
R.S.B.C. 1924—Continued.
Name. Address.
AVood, R. K 707 A'iew Street, A'ictoria.
AVoods, R. H o Grand Forks.
AVhite, C. J 1166 Hornby Street, A'ancouver.
APPENDIX No. 26.
Ceeam-graders' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,'
R.S.B.C. 1924, as amended 1925.
Name. Address.
Anderson, Z. K 82 Seventeenth Avenue AA'est, A'ancouver.
Batey, H. S 2504 Chesterfield Avenue, A'ancouver.
Burger, 1 2033 Trafalgar Street, A'ancouver.
Clarke, T. E Armstrong.
Christensen, A. H Invermere.
Cook, E. W 2416 Burns Street, A'ancouver.
Drake, A. AV Ganges.
Dunn, J. S Nanaimo.
Hansen, A. B Golden.
Jackson, G. T 1115 Nelson Street, A'ancouver.
James, D. A 1114 Broadway, Vancouver.
Jenne, H. H Nelson.
Johnson, A Quesnel.
Karnagel, R Enderby.
Lawrance, G. H Mission City.
Livingstone, J. M 15 Alexander Street, A'ancouver.
Lord, T Athalmer.
Lynds, F. G Penticton.
Mackerricker, W. R Kamloops.
McAlister, A. AA' Royal Dairy, A'ictoria.
Middlemas, J. D 1125 Eleventh Avenue AVest, A'ancouver.
Morse, A. 0 1750 Eighth Avenue AVest, A'ancouver.
Perrins, A. C. Victoria.
Reston, H. C 930 North Park Street, A'ictoria.
Rive, E 2226 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Rive, C 2226 Twelfth Avenue AVest, Vancouver.
Rodger, J. M Courtenay.
Sejrup, A'. M Duncan.
Sellers, J. H 414 Pender Street East, A'ancouver.
Skelton, R. J Salmon Arm.
Smith, J. K Grand Forks.
Smith, R Penticton.
Smith, AV. S 37 Seventeenth Avenue AA'est, A'ancouver.
Thomas, S. J Kelowna.
White, C. J 644 Sixty-sixth Avenue AA'est, Vancouver.
APPENDIX No. 27.
Creamery or Dairy Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,"
R.S.B.C. 1924.
Name. Address.
Arrow Lakes Cheese Factory  Edgewood.
Beaconsfield Dairy Co 905 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Borland Ice Cream Co 1520 Sixth Avenue AA'est, A'ancouver. N 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 27— Continued.
Creamery or Dairy Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,"
R.S.B.C. 1924—Continued.
Name. Address.
Borden Co., Ltd., The  Sardis.
Burns, P., & Co., Ltd Woodland Drive, Vancouver.
Burns, P., & Co., Ltd Vernon.
Caldwell's  Dairy   1847 Georgia Street, Vancouver.
Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Association Quesnel.
City Dairy & Produce Co., Ltd 414 Pender Street East, A'ancouver.
Columbia Valley Co-operative Creamery Assn Golden.
Comox Creamery Association  Courtenay.
Cowiehan Creamery Association  Duncan.
Crescent Ice Cream, Ltd Burrard and Hastings Streets, A'ancouver.
Crystal Dairy, Ltd Cranbrook.
Curlew Creamery Co., Ltd Nelson.
East End Dairy  2459 Oxford Street, Vancouver. .
Ferrera Cheese Manufacturing Co Chilliwack.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association 405 Eighth Avenue AVest, Vancouver.
Fraser A'alley Milk Producers' Association 405 Eighth Ave. W., Vancouver (1170 Hornby St.).
Fraser A'alley Milk Producers' Association 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver (Sardis).
Fraser A'alley Milk Producers' Association 405 EighthAvenueWest,Vancouver(Abbotsford).
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association 405 Eighth Avenue AVest, Vancouver (Ladner).
Godwin, F A'ernon.
Guernsey Creamery  914 Robson Street, Vancouver.
Holland Dairies, Ltd 2626 Granville Street, Vancouver.
Karnagel, R.  (Palace Creamery)    Enderby.
Karnagel, R.  (Palace Creamery)    Lumby.
Kelowna Creamery Co., Ltd Kelowna.
Kettle Valley Creamery Co Grand Forks.
Lake AVindermere Creamery, Ltd Invermere.
Nanaimo Creamery Association  Nanaimo.
Nechaco   Creamery    A'anderhoof.
Okanagan Valley Co-operative Creamery Assn Armstrong.
Northwestern Creamery, Ltd 1311 Broad Street, Victoria.
Penticton Purity Products, Ltd Penticton.
Port O'A'an Ice Cream, Ltd 602 Hastings Street AVest, Vancouver.
Pouce Coupe District Co-op. Creamery Assn Kilkerran.
Purity Dairy, Ltd 280 Sixth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Quaeilvlieg, A'ictor  Keremeos.
Royal City Creamery  New AA'estminster.
Royal Dairies  1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Royal Dairy, Ltd 707 View Street, Victoria.
Salmon Arm Creamery Association Salmon Arm.
Saltspring Island Creamery Association  Ganges.
Sherwood Creameries, Ltd 1166 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Sherwood Creameries, Ltd 1166 Hornby Street, Vancouver  (Chilliwack).
Spencer, David, Ltd., Creamery  Kamloops.
Spencer, David, Ltd., Creamery  Cordova Street AA'est, Vancouver.
Steves, J. M., Dairy  2024 Twelfth Avenue AVest, Vancouver.
Union Dairy Penticton.
Valley Dairy, Ltd 1569 Sixth Avenue AVest, Vancouver.
A'ancouver Creamery Co., Ltd , 23 Alexander Street, Vancouver.
A'ancouver Dairies, Ltd 1132 Hastings Street East, Vancouver.
A'ancouver Ice & Cold Storage Co., Ltd 11 Gore Avenue, Vancouver.
A'ancouver Island Milk Producers' Association.—930 North Park Street, A'ictoria.
A'ictoria City Dairy Co., Ltd 1111 Fort Street, Victoria.
AA'hite Lunch, Ltd 124 Hastings Street West, Vancouver. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 109
APPENDIX No. 28
Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia.
Name.
Instituted.
Secretary.
Tester.
Departmental
Grant.
October, 19'e
March 1'7, 1913...
April 23, 1914
JuneS, 1914
April, 1920	
November, 1925..
March, 1919	
November, 1924..
November, 1923..
C. J. Killer, Telkwa	
AV. T. Richardson, Atchelitz
R. M. Halliday, Sandwick	
A. Hope, Fort Langley	
W. G. Benson, Kelowna	
J. E. Stewart, Port Hammond...
A. Neill.	
G. G. Grimes	
Wm. Rose	
$225
600
600
Chilliwack	
J. Isbister	
T. G. M. Clarke...
C. S. Fallot	
G. H. Medd	
H. C. Clark	
G. H. Crabtree
600
Okanagan	
Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge-
600
600
600
Surrey	
P. J. Kellaway, Cloverdale	
Harry Day, Abbotsford 	
600
Sumas-Matsqui	
600
APPENDIX No. 29.
Summary of all Milking Periods completed during 1926 received from the Eight
Cow-testing Associations in this Province.
The average production is given of cows representing the various dairy breeds antl the percentage of the total number of milking periods that belong to each breed.
It should be remembered that the maximum length of a milking period tluring 1926 was
305 days, except those of 2-year-old animals, which are allowed 365 days.
Breed.
Lb. Milk.
Per Cent.
Fat.
Lb. Fat.
Percentage
of all
Records.
Ayrshire
Guernsey
Holstein
Jersey   ....
Shorthorn
6,822
8,763
6,768
7,630
3.84
4.59
3.56
4.83
3.84
318.3
312.9
311.7
327.0
293.2
6.3
9.4
46.9
34.9
2.5
•t        The true average of all milking periods completed during 1926 :
fat, 317.1 lb.
Milk, 7,826 lb.;   fat, 4.05 per cent.
Average Production of all Milking Periods from each of the Associations
feir the Years 1925 and 1926.
Association.
Year.
Per Cent.
Fat.
Lb. Fat.
Chilliwack   	
Comox  A'alley	
Langley	
Okanagan   	
Pitt Meadows and Maple Ridge
Richmond-Ladner   	
Sumas-Matsqui 	
Surrey	
1925
1926
1925
1926
1925
1926
1925
1926
1926
1925
1926
1925
1926
1926
6,900
7,202
6,457
6,571
7,675
7,788
8,469
8,244
6,662
8,596
9,175
8,241
8,366
8,365
4.30
4.00
5.04
5.00
3.80
3.77
4.20
4.24
4.23
3.70
3.75
3.80
3.83
4.25
296.9
287.3
325.9
328.3
295.1
295.0
353.2
349.5
279.9
318.6
344.3
312.8
320.8
355.5 N 110
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 30.
Field Crop Branch—Soil Analyses.
Locality.
Nature of Soil.
Nitrogen.
Potash.
Phosphoric
Acid.
Lime.
Iron and
Alumina.
Insoluble
in Acids.
Victoria greenhouse soil.
Saanich..
Sooke...	
Bamfleld....
Shawnigan
Cowiehan Lake..
Parksville..
Comox..
A'ananda...
Saltspring.
Ahousat....
Mission	
Clayburn...
Langley	
Chilliwack
Neutral.
Acid	
Alkali....
Neutral.
S. alkali
S. acid...
S. alkali
Acid	
S. acid...
S. acid...
S. acid...
S. acid...
Acid	
Acid	
Acid	
Acid	
Acid	
Acid	
Neutral.
Acid	
S. acid...
S. acid...
S. acid...
Acid	
Acid	
oVcid	
Acid	
Acid	
Acid	
SI. acid..
Acid	
Neutral.
Neutral.
Neutral-
Neutral.
SI. acid-
Si. acid..
Neutral.
Neutral.
S. acid...
S. acid...
S. acid...
Neutral.
Acid	
Acid	
Acid	
Acid	
Acid	
Acid	
Acid	
SI. acid..
SI. acid..
SI. acid-
Neutral.
Acid.......
Acid	
Neutral-
Neutral.
Neutral.
Neutral.
Acid	
Acid	
15
70
72
21
10
12
28
47
20
35
18
12
17
19
16
36
39
01
05
04
03
08
94
65
50
75
25
53
70
38
66
13
56
08
12
14
13
08
21
0.30
0.21
0.21
0.26
0.48
0.18
0.09
0.13
0.47
0.20
0.16
0.06
,0.16
0.05
0.13
Trace
0.07
Trace
Trace
Trace
0.10
0.04
Trace
Nil
Trace
Trace
Trace
0.14
0.12
0.15
0.20
0.15
0.11
0.12
Trace
0.05
0.32
0.32
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Nil
Nil
Trace
0.12
0,03
0.09
0.01
0.05
Trace
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.08
0.15
0.15
0.13
Trace
Trace
0.14
0.68
0.18
0.25
1.04
0.32
0.30
0.12i
0.88
0.38
0.25
0.30
0.32
Trace
0.25
Trace
0.20
0.01
Trace
0.32
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.26
0.64
0.10
0.10
0.90
0.90
0.36
0.15
0.16
0.18
0.90
0.10
Trace
0.22
0.25
Trace
Trace
Trace
0.15
0.14
0.02
0.01
Trace
Nil
0.09
0.12
0.22
0.13
0.13
0.10
0.06
0.04
Trace
0.50
0.25
0.32
0.54
0.06
0.10
1.10
0.70
1.20
1.00
2.50
0.00
0.70
0.50
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.90
0.60
0.60
O.80
0.60
0.40
0.50
0.80
1.20
2.60
0.40
1.40
0.10
0.80
0.50
0.50
1.00
1.30
1.70
1.00
1.70
1.20
1.30
1.00
1.20
2.10
2.10
1.40
1.00
1.50
1.80
1.60
Trace
Trace
1.00
0.30
0.88
0.60
O.70
0.70
1.10
4.50
2.90
0.80
1.10
1.10
1.30
1.20
0.6O
0.30
0.50
9.90
10.10
9.20
8.60
9.60
9.50
5.00
4.50
10.90
12.80
12.50
10.00
14.10
9.30
10.50
8.00
8.80
11.90
9.20
8.80
15.70
10.1
8.30
5.60
14.00
10.10
10.30
10.30
12.10
14.00
15.00
15.80
15.70
15.90
12.50
13.60
15.10
15.00
10.30
10.90
10.20
13.80
10.70
Trace
Trace
2.00
1.60
17.50
17.00
14.30
11.50
3.50
1.-80
5.90
2.00
3.60
11.80
12.30
12.60
14.50
11.80
12.50
76.5
76.4
77.1
78.6
69.3
76.3
78.7
81.7
65.1
68.6
74.1
74.6
69.4
75.0
81.5
79.3
75.3
77.7
84.2
73.0
67.4
78.6
41.1
45.2
71.0
80.4
76.4
72.3
64.5
74.5
67.6
72.0
71.4
71.0
72.6
76.0
68.1
65.7
80.7
84.0
83.0
79.0
79.6
11.5
6.6
18.1
34.0
62.3
60.5
62.0
64.5
62.7
15.5
16.5
52.0
68.3
71.2
74.3
73.2
71.4
73.1
71.3 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 111
APPENDIX No. 30— Continued.
Field Crop Branch—Soil Analyses—Continued.
Locality.
Nature of Soil.
Nitrogen.
Potash.
Phosphoric
Acid.
Lime.
Iron and
Alumina.
Insoluble
in Acids.
Pitt Meadows..
Eburne	
Aldergrove	
Sumas	
Pemberton Meadows..
Bella  Coola	
Kildalla Valley	
Toba River	
Powell  River..
Grand Forks..
Shuswap  Lake..
Revelstoke..
Nakusp..
Castlegar...
Edgewood..
Kamloops..
SI. acid....
Acid	
Acid	
Neutral....
Neutral-
Neutral—
Neutral-
Neutral—.
S. alkali.:.
S. alkali...
S. alkali...
S. alkali...
S. alkali...
S. alkali...
S. acid	
S. acid	
Si. alkali..
S. acid	
Neutral-
Neutral...
Neutral...
Neutral-
Acid	
Acid	
Neutral-
Neutral..
Acid	
S. alkali..
Neutral-
Neutral...
Neutral...
Neutral-
Neutral-
Neutral-
Neutral..
Neutral-
Neutral—
S. alkali..
S. alkali..
S. alkali..
S. acid....
S. acid....
Acid	
Alkali	
Alkali	
Alkali	
S. add.....
S. acid	
S. acid	
Neutral-
Alkali	
Alkali	
Alkali	
Alkali	
Alkali	
Alkali	
Alkali	
Alkali	
Alkali	
Alkali	
0.14
0.62
0.11
0.04
0.06
0.04
0.07
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.32
0.68
0.31
0.09
0.32
0.26
Trace
Trace
0.08
Trace
0.10
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.10
0.05
0.04
0.08
0.03
0.05
0.10
0.10
0.05
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.08
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.06
0.05
0.08
0.06
0.13
0.04
0.16
0.04
0.15
0.10
0.08
0.15
0.11
0.12
0.02
0.40
0.06
0.19
0.15
0.15
0.12
0.15
1.16
0.15
0.07
0.13
0.06
0.11
0.21
0.15
0.28
0.05
0.28
0.56
0.30
0.06
Trace
Trace
0.28
Trace
0.19
Trace
Trace
0.07
0.30
Trace
Trace
0.20
0.10
0.28
0.30
0.38
0.28
Trace
0.20
0.26
0.20
0.38
0.26
0.35
0.33
0.32
0.12
0.08
0.08
0.18
0.50
0.34
0.08
0.06
0.62
0.60
0.89
0.62
0.43
0.43
0.09
0.04
0.08
0.25
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.18
0.19
0.19
0.15
0.16
0.25
0.24
0.38
0.16
Trace
0.37
Trace
0.31
0.40
0.25
0.20
0.16
0.12
0.12
0.28
0.05
0.35
0.35
0.16
0.22
0.42
0.30
0.32
0.25
0.35
0.21
0.25
0.25
0.16
Trace
Trace
Trace
0.12
0.19
0.19
0.38
1.28
0.16
0.25
0.10
0.10
0.18
0.19
0.19
0.25
0.24
0.13
0.40
0.30
0.50
0.90
1.30
1.00
1.10
1.00
0.90
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.10.
1.20
0.30
O.80
3.10
1.00
1.10
0.90
0.70
0.20
0.50
0.30
0.50
0.10
0.80
0.60
0.60
0.90
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.40
0.40
0.60
0.70
0:80
1.10
1.30
0.60
1.00
0.40
0.70
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.20
Trace
Trace
Trace
0.50
1.70
3.00
3.80
2.90
0.80
0.'90
1.20
1.10
1.10
0.70
9.20
8.10
11.80
11.70
11.60
10.30
10.50
10.20
13.50
10.50
9.50
11.80
10.70
7.00
18.75
9.80
8.00
10.40
6.60
6.60
8.50
5.30
6.50
7.50
10.20
6.10
6.80
5.50
4.50
6.10
6.50
8.40
8.80
5.20
6.20
9.00
6.80
9.40
7.30
8.80
7.40
9.00
6.50
12.2
12.20
8.00
8.10
11.80
4.70
8.20
3.50
8.30
18.70
11.30
7.60
10.70
7.00
6.20
11.00
11.00
10.90
9.80
78.2
62.0
74.0
81.2
82.4
85.0
83.3
85.3
80.3
81.8
86.0
82.0
79.0
79.7
65.3
64.2
75.8
77.2
51.1
79.2
87.5
90.8
85.3
83.8
73.9
89.5
85.7
89.7
88.6
84.4
86.7
82.5
82.2
88.6
87.5
82.4
88.3
82.6
84.1
78.2
85.7
82.1
86.9
76.8
72.7
85.8
79.8
76.4
80.0
83.0
89.6
81.7
66.5
65.9
54.2
78.0
78.3
78.6
72.3
76.5
78.6
82.4 N 112
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. SO—Continued.
Field Crop Branch—Soil Analyses—Continued.
Locality.
Nature of Soil.
Nitrogen.
Potash.
Phosphoric
Acid.
Lime.
Iron and
Alumina.
Insoluble
in Acids.
Kamloops	
Alkali	
Alkali	
0.13
0.16
0.19
0.18
0.29
0.12
0.06
0.19
0.24
0.01
0.06
0.08
2.76
0.11
0.20
0.10
0.11
0.09
0.04
0.08
0.45
0.05
0.07
0.03
0.05
0.32
0.51
0.34
0.42
0.27
0.10
0.10
0.20
0.31
0.04
Trace
0.39
Trace
0.11
0.23
0.17
0.30
0.17
0.32
0.11
0.25
0.40
0.30
0.65
0.26
0.15
0.16
0.12
0.18
0.03
0.25
0.19
0.20
0.25
0.44
0.18
0.52
0.00
0.18
0.15
0.25
0.10
0.00
0.19
0.09
0.25
0.25
0.16
0.19
0.19
2.40
0.90
0.70
1.00
1.10
2.40
1.50
1.70
2.00
0.20
1.00
0.70
0.50
1.00
0.90
1.20
2.00
0.09
1.20
0.60
12.20
2.00
1.30
1.50
0.80
11.60
13.50
9.20
9.40
8.70
10.50
9.20
12.70
8,80
12.60
9.50
13.30
2.00
9.80
9.80
9.80
12.20
7.30
9.00
6.00
10.00
14.00
12.00
12.50
6.00
77.7
76.1
Alkali	
81.4
A-lkali	
Alkali      	
83.0
76 0
Alkali 	
66.7
Alkali      	
66.0
Alkali -
68.0
Canim Lake	
Neutral	
77.7
80.0
8°.5
A'anderhoof	
Neutral	
78.0
2.6
S. alkali	
74.0
New Denver	
Neutral	
Neutral	
Alkali	
32.5
83 4
77.1
SI. acid	
Alkali	
81.4
8°.8
S5.1
Alkali      	
56.2
Alkali	
75.0
S. alkali	
Alkali	
84.6
76.6
89.1
It will be noted from the foregoing tables that the greenhouse soils in the vicinity of Victoria
are uniformly high in all the essential elements of fertility, while the ordinary soils taken from
fields under general crops show a marked deficiency of phosphoric acid and potash. In the
Shawnigan District the soils are mainly deficient in potash and in Parksville both mineral
elements are lacking. In the Cowiehan District all soil samples analysed were fairly uniform
and practically normal in their fertility contents.
The first four samples from the Comox District are of a peaty nature, while the rest are
representative of average clay loam.
All the samples from the Sumas area, with the exception of the last two, were taken from
the recently reclaimed lake-bottom and show a marked uniformity throughout. They are rather
high in insolubles on account of a fairly large proportion of sand. They are normal in the
mineral elements and lime, but are deficient in nitrogen, which is a usual condition in newly
drained lake areas.
The Kamloops area, represented by numerous samples, is high in potash, phosphoric acid,
and lime, is neutral, and contains a fair amount of nitrogen where the humus-supply is adequate.
In the Shuswap Lake area the chemical content of the soil is good, with the exception of
an area south of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Notch Hill. On this area there was a smaller
percentage of potash than in the soils to the north of the railway and adjoining Shuswap Lake.
The soils from Powell River District vary considerably, but with the exception of one
sample they were all deficient in one or more of the essential elements.
The other districts of the Province from which samples were taken for analysis are represented by so few samples that no conclusions can be reached as to the general chemical composition in those areas. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 113
APPENDIX No. 31.
Synopsis of Certified Seed-potato AA'obk in British Columbia, 1926.
District.
xn
EJ3
is
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ou
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aS'Z
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SE.2
UI
I|g
cj 3 a
cc     cu
* oo a
Estimated No.
of Sacks of
Certified Seed.
5
7
19
15
23
a
3
8
■6
13
7
18
4
6
14
2
3
9
1
2
3
5
6
7
8
7
4
8
20
0
18
6
7
24
21
36
10
6
19
9
15
12
30
5
6
24
2
4
12
1
11
3
6
6
14
14
12
6
17
36
12
44
7.00
3.50
18.50
14.00
40.75
10.00
16.00
20.50
19.50
27.75
3.75
23.25
10.50
2.75
16.00
0.50
4.50
27.75
1.50
7.42
2.00
11.00
4.00
5.75
7.50
13.00
5.00
19.00
37.75
7.00
124.33
6
7
19
19
31
6
1
12
8
13
11
26
5
4
23
2
3
8
1
9
3
4
4
14
10
0
5
16
31
12
38
7.00
3.50
12.75
12.75
37.00
8.00
1.50
14.50
17.25
26.75
3.50
22.00
10.50
2.25
15.75
0.50
4.00
19.75
1.50
6.92
2.00
7.00
2.50
5.75
6.00
11.50
4.00
18.00
36.00
7.00
117.58
3
7
19
16
25
6
12
6
11
-   4
23
5
23
2
6
1
9
3
2
2
13
10
9
16
31
7
36
3.25
3.50
12.75
10.50
32.50
8.00
14.50
14.00
25.25
1.25
20.00
10.50
2.00
15.75
0.50
4.00
17.25
1.50
6.92
2.00
3.00
1.50
4.75
6.00
11.50
4.00
18.00
36.00
4.00
113.58
3
7
19
16
23
5
12
6
10
4
20
5
3
23
2
3
6
1
'9
3
2
2
13
9
9
3
16
30
6
33
3.25
3.50
12.75
10.50
31.50
5.00
14.50
14.00
20.25
1.25
18.75
10.50
2.00
15.75
0.50
4.00
17.25
1.50
6,92
2.00
3.00
1.50
4.75
5.50
11.50
1.50
18.00
35.75
3.75
111.08
10
510
215
1,879
405
Delta            	
Fairfield Island	
665
20
Kersley	
318
124
Mount Lehman-Bradner....
508
28
Notch Hill
130
Okanagan...,	
Pemberton.  Meadows	
Titt Meadows	
575
930
Salmon Arm	
Saltspring Island	
50
70
Say ward	
99
295
710
Terrace	
10
790
Windermere	
502
87
(Individual growers)	
8,610
266
430
511.75
360
445.50
318
408.25
303
392.00
18,080
APPENDIX No. 32.
Summary of British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Inspection-work,  1926.
No. of fields inspected  430
No. of acres inspeoteil  511.75
No. of fields passed  318
No. of acres passed  408.25
Per cent, fields passeEl  74.00
Per cent, acres passed   79.77
Average per cent, disease in total fielsls inspecteEl—
Blackleg   0.28
Leaf-roll  0.26
Mosaic  1.35
Wilts   0.08
Impurities    0.11
Average per cent, disease in total fields passeEl—
Blackleg  0.05
Leaf-roll    0.26
Mosaic  0.61
AVilts  0.08
Impurities  0.08 N 114
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 32—Continued.
Summaey of Bbitish Columbia Cebtified Seed-potato Inspection-work, 192(3—Continued.
Average per cent, disease in total fields rejecteEl—
Blackleg         0.92
Leaf-roll          0.26
Mosaic           3.40
Wilts        0.08
Impurities           0.21
Of the 430 fields inspected—
46 fields containing 40.75 acres were rejected owing to mosaic.
8 fields containing 11.25 acres were rejected owing to blackleg.
2 fields containing 1.50 acres were rejected owing to leaf-roll.
I field containing 2.75 acres was rejected owing to wilt.
5 fields containing 2.75 acres were rejected owing to impurities.
39 fields containing 36.00 acres were rejecteEl owing to lack of vigour ansl
other causes.
II fields containing 8.50 acres were rejected owing to non-isolation.
APPENDIX No. 33.
Report on Field Inspections made in Certified Seed-potato Districts, 1926.
District.
Leaf-roll.
Mosaic.
Blackleg.
Wilt.
Impurities.
0,80
2.19
0.02
0.10
0.55
0.10
0.41
0.26
0.50
0.08
0.11
0.12
0.25
0.50
0.02
0.50
0.55
0.07
0.12
0.33
0.24
0.05
0.01
0.33
1.12
0.25
0.15
1.32
1.20
0.60
13.2>9
3.15
1.22
1.93
0.85
3.66
1.33
0.30
1.04
1.17
0.37
2.50
2.52
0.43
2.00
1.75
0.40
3.80
0.53
0.90
0.38
0.34
0.16
0.12
3.52
0.14
0.01
0.28
0.03
0.22
0.06
0.20
0.50
1.54
0.05
0.10
0.04
0.05
0.77
1.08
0.14
O.Oo
0.01
0.07
0.16
0.55
0.22
0.37
0.14
0.04
0.03
0.14
0.13
	
0.05
0.07
0.18
0.02
Delta         ...             	
0.12
0.10
0.36
0.28
0.04
0.07
Notch Hill 	
0.02
0.04
0.23
0.04
0.08
'    0.09
0.08
0.35
N.B.—This table refers only to fields entered for certification, 1926. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 115
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W N 116
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 35.
Report on Inspection of Tubeks m.\de before grading Certified Seed-potatoes, 1926.
District.
Fields
inspected.
Wet-rot.
Late
Blight and
Dry-rot.
Ehizoc-
tonia.
Scab.
Necrosis,
Wilt,
Internal
Discol.
Alberni	
Birch Island	
Bulkley Valley	
Burton	
Comox	
Cowiehan	
Fairfield Island 	
Grand  Forks	
Individuals.	
Kamloops	
Keremeos	
Kcrsley	
Malakwa	
McBride.	
Mount Lehman-Bradner	
Nanoose 	
Notch  Hill	
Okanagan	
Pemberton  Meadows	
Pitt   Meadows 	
Princeton	
Salmon   Arm	
Say ward 	
Saltspring  Island...	
Shawnigan Lake	
Surrey	
Terrace	
Victoria	
Windermere	
Woodpecker	
Totals o	
Average per cent, disease
Title
25
6
12
6
SB
11
4
23
10
9
16
31
318
3.25
3.50
12.75
10.50
32.50
8.00
14.50
14.00
113.58
25.25
1.25
20.00
10.50 .
2.00
15.75
0.50
4.00
17.25
1.50
■6.92
2.00
3.00
4.75
1.50
6.00
11.50
4.00
18.00
36.00
4.00
408.25
I
0.04
0.01
0.04
0.25
0.11
Trace
Trace
1.66
0.43
7.81
0.20
2.50
35.00
0.59
3.27
0.82
2.16
0.01
2.50
2.16
27.00
0.50
73.33
40.00
3.31
6.00
1.00
0.00
0.87
16.10
0.71
4.97
0.57
0.42
1.70
14.16
0.12
0.06
0.46
0.38
2.00
0.90
0.42
1.00
1.54
6.00
0.16
0.25
1.56
3.16
11.57
1.49
66.66
84.00
0.44
40.40
55.83
0.12
2.50
0.76
4.08
2'8.25
20.48
0.14
11.66
0.01
1.50
39.33
3.00
1.33
1.50
9.70
8.00
1.22
32.60
43.00
1.20
4.29
17.58
Trace :   Below 0.01 per cent.
APPENDIX No. 36.
Estimated Honey-crop, 1926.
•
District.
Apiaries.
Hives.
Crop.
Average
per Hive.
Vancouver Island,
Gulf Islands, and Howe Sound.
61
87
101
107
38
50
566
414
392
498
92
230     ■
LI).
25.470
16,560
13,720
12,450
4,600
21,250
LI).
45
40
05
Gulf Islands	
Howe  Sound	
50
85
Totals 	
534
2,212
94,050
42 DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 117
APPENDIX No. 36—Continued.
Estimated Honey-crop.  1926—Continued.
District.
Apiaries.
Hives.
Crop.
Average
per Hive.
Greater Vancouver.
80
25
24
46
22
45
42
24
45
500
120
110
184
85
200
195
80
135
Lb.
20,000
4,800
4.950
8,832
3,400
6,000
8,775
2,800
4,050
1
1        Lb.
40
40
45
48
40
30
43
35
30
Totals	
353
1,609
63,607
39
Lower Fraser Valley.
Delta            	
90
138
164
128
'75
60
750
1,680
1,312
1,168
430
450
48,750
84,000
78,720
58,400
25,800
20,250
65
50
60
50
Maple Eidge	
60
45
Totals	
655
5,790
315,920
54
Upper Fraser Valley and Chilliwack.
Chilliwack	
88
28
37
79
70
445
220
152
510
530
35,600
13.200
11,400
33,130
30,250
80
Dewdney	
60
65
Totals	
302
1,877
123,600
66
Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys.
Okanagan	
300
62
61
2,900
400
390
174,000
16,000
23,400
60
Shuswap	
40
60
Totals	
423
3,690
213,400
58
Kootenays.
Slocan Valley  	
Kootenay Lake and West Arm	
38
29
30
22
8
17
20
30
330
93
168
'258
382
242
104
222
16,500
4,650
9,240
11.610
17,190
12,100
3,200
9,990
50
50
Nelson....o	
55
40
Castlegar  	
43
50
Boundary	
50
Creston Valley	
45
Totals            	
203
1,799
86,480
48
Central British Columbia.
McBride   	
1
11
1,200
109
Summary.
Vancouver Island, Gulf Islands, and Howe Sound...
Greater Vancouver	
534
353
655
302
423
203
1
2.212
1,609
5,790
1,877
3,690
1,799
11
04,050
63,607
315,920
123.600
213,400
86,480
1.200
42
39
Lower Fraser Valley	
Upper Fraser Valley and Chilliwack 	
54
66
Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys    ..
Kootenays	
58
48
Central British Columbia	
109
Totals              	
2,471
16,988
808,257
52
Estimated value of honey-crop produced in 1920, $197,616 ; estimated value of beeswax produced in
1926, .$5,000 ; capital value of bees, hives, supers, and other apiary equipment, reckoning 16,988 hives at,
say,  $25  each,  $424,700. N 118
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 37.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Reports for Season of  1926.
(ee.)  Fraser Valley.
Situation of
Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Date Queen
introduced.
Surplus
Honey
taken during Season.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
Sullivan..
Port Kells..
l.angiey Prairie...
Bradner.
Agassiz..
Mission..
Ladner.
Matsqui..
Murrayville..
Chilliwack..
Lulu Island..
Harmsworth..
Totals..
W. H. Turnbull
C. J. P. Phibbs
Mrs. .T. W. Berry
T. L. Baker
Dominion Exp. Farm ..
Charles Moore
Mrs. M. B. McCallan..
A. W. Finlay
E.  Chipperfield
H. Langton Johnson
Mrs. E. Hall
D. W. Welsh
May,
May,
May,
May,
1020
1026
1926
1926
May.
May.
May,
Aug.,
Aug.,
Aug.,
Aug.,
April,
April,
April,
April.
April.
April,
May,
May,
June,
May,
May,
May.
May,
April,
Aug.,
Aug.,
Aug.,
May,
April,
1926
1926
1926
.1925
..1925
..1925
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1926
1025
1926
1926
1926
1926
1925
1925
1925
1926
1026
Lb.
125
150
120
135
100
120
60
161
25*
12*
110
60
75
149
93
2O0
163
60
.55
30
100
200
100
140
00
160
180
98
105
110
193
206
196
178
134
155
125
105
Lb.
330
280
245
605
145
400
570
313
289
230
4,578
Lb.
66
82
151
48
133
142
104
193
HE
120
Castlegar.
(b.)  Kootenays.
A. E. Pittaway
Carried forward..
(1) Aug.,
(2) Aug.,
(3) Aug.,
(4) Aug..
1925
1925
1925
1925
64
36
48
34
182
1
I       1
* Superseded queen. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1926.
N 119
APPENDIX No. 37—Continued.
Provincial  Demonstration  Apiaries—Reports  for   Season  of  1926—Continued.
(b.)  Kootenays—Continued.
Situation of
Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Date Queen
introduced.
Surplus
Honey
taken during Season.
Average
pei-
Hive.
Increase
made.
Brought forward....
B. Munch 	
4
2
3
1
2
2
Lb.     Lb.
182
34
36
         70
55
48
41
      144
49
47
43
      130
70
        70
47
52
        99
'79
62
      141
56
43
        90
Lb.
35
48
46
70
49
70
49
(1) May,     1926
(2) May,     1926
(1) June,     1926-
(2) June,     1926
(3) June,     1926
(1) May,     1926
(2) May,     1926
(3) May,     1926
May,     1926
(1) May,      1925
(2) May,     1925
(1) June,     1926
(2) June,    1926
(1) 1925
(2)  1925
•>
1
1
Charles Holt 	
1
James Coupland 	
Crawford Bay	
1
Totals	
19
944
49
9
(d.)  Vancouver Island.
(c.)  Okanagan, Shusivap,  and  Thompson V
alleys.
4
4
2
4
(1) May,     1925
(2) May,     1925
(3) May,     1925
(4) May,     1025
(1)  1925
(•')  1925
(3)  1925
(4)  1925
(1)  1925
(2)  1925
(1) June,     1924
(2) July,      1925
(3) July,     1924
(4) June,    1924
115
85
75
80
102
83
81
72
100
110
173
189
'268
2'29
355
338
210
859
89
84
105
214
Rutland	
J. F. Roberts
1
1
1
1
Dominion Exp. Station..
14
1,762
125
4
Fred Swan 	
M. Dean 	
2
4
(1) May,
(2) May,
Ell
1926
1926
85
75
70
63
84
87
160
304
80
76
(2) 	
(3)
(4) 	
Totals	
6
464 N 120
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 37— Continued.
Provincial  Demonstration  Apiaries—Reports  for   Season  of  1926—Continued.
(e.)  Summary.
Territory.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Surplus
Honey
taken during Season.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
38
19
14
6
Lb.
4,578
944
1,762
464
Lb.
120
49
125
77
10
Kootenays	
9
4
Totals	
'77
7,748
100
2g
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield. Ti-inter to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1027.
1,225-1027:9740

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