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HON. F. P. BURDEN, Minister of Lands
printed by
authority of the legislative assembly.
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1030.  Victoria, B.C., February 28th, 1930.
To His Honour James Alexander Macdonald,
Administrator of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches
of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1929.
Minister of Lands. Victoria, B.C., February 25th, 1930.
The Honourable F. P. Burden,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches of
the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1929.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART I.
Report of Superintendent of Lands     7
Statement of Revenue     7
Sale'of Town Lots     8
Pre-emption Records, etc     9
Pre-emption Record Inspections   10
Summary _  11
Letters inward and outward  12
Land-sales  12
Coal Licences, Leases, etc  12
Crown Grants issued   12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., January 27th, 1930.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of the administration of lands by this Branch of the Department during the year ended December 31st, 1929.
A general increase in the land business of the Province will be noted as indicated by an
advance in revenue, principally from land sales and leases under the Land and Taxation Acts.
I have, etc.,
Superintendent of Lands.
Revenue under " Land Act."
Sundry lease rentals	
Revenue under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
16,594 24
Sundry Receipts.
687 97
$13,843.72 E 8
Summary op Revenue.
Summary of Cash received.
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
" Better Housing Act "—
Disposal of lots placed on the market at previous auction sales:—
5 lots in Vancouver     $7,735.00
15 lots in Smithers .'         975.00
8 lots in Powell River          911.00
6 lots in Prince George   875.00
37 lots in Stewart  740.00
7 lots in Alice Arm  700.00
4 lots in Terrace         575.00
And some 55 lots in various other townsites, amounting to      2,097.00
A total of 137 lots for  $14,608.00
Sale of town lots by tender or at public auction during the year 1929:—
At Vancouver, 5 blocks, 17 lots  $65,316.00
At Alice Arm, 104 lots  12,894.00
At Summit Lake, 19 lots  2,600.00
At Tulameen, 19 lots  1,380.00
At Prince George, 26 lots  955.00
At Vanderhoof, 6 lots  726.00
. At Dease Lake, 9 lots  475.00
At Telegraph Creek, 9 lots  475.00
In all 214 parcels  $84,821.00
Southern Okanagan Project.—One hundred and nine parcels were sold in 1929, comprising
1,585.31 acres, the purchase price being $70,463.35. Two parcels comprising 23.53 acres were
leased with option to purchase, representing a purchase price of $690.70. One lot in the Lake
Shore Subdivision and one in Oliver Townsite were sold for a total of $1,131.25.
University Hill Subdivision in D.L. 1J/0, N.W.D. (Endowment Lands).—Eight lots leased in
1929, value $21,750.    Seventeen lots sold in 1929, price $49,490. PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC.
E 9
of Improvements.
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Letters inward   18,751
Letters outward  14,839
Surveyed (first class)        679
Surveyed (second class)      8,958
Unsurveyed     7,376
Total  17,013
Coal-prospecting Licences.
Number of licences issued, 160;  area, 102,400 acres.
Coal Leases.
Number of leases issued, 19;  area, 20,479 acres.
Sundry Leases.
Number of leases issued, 196;  area, 15,283 acres.
Pre-emptions   190
Purchase    207
Mineral  507
" Phosphate-mining Act "  46
Town lots  148
Reverted lands (other than town lots)  129
Reverted town lots   144
Reverted mineral  251
" Dyking Assessment Act "   11
" Public Schools Act "  3
Total  1,636
Applications for Crown grants  1,767
Certified copies         14
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions    28,427.85
Mineral claims (other than reverted)  22,229.14
" Phosphate-mining Act "   28,868.00
Reverted mineral claims  9,865.55
Purchase of surveyed Crown land (other than town lots)  10,111.79
Purchase of reverted land   9,949.01
Total  109,451.34 PART II.
General Review of Field-work  15
Details of Field-work  +  16
Pacific Great Eastern Railway Resources Survey  19
Survey Division   20
Geographic Division  21
Table A—Showing Acreages of each Class of Surveys Gazetted since 1900  25
Table B—Summary of Office-work   25
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps  26
Table D—List of Lithographed Maps  28
Reports of Surveyors—
Skeena River, Coast District, Range 5  29
Triangulation, Hazelton North, Cassiar District  30
Miscellaneous Surveys and Topographical Reconnaissance, Coast District, Range 5  32
Triangulation, Upper Fraser River  34
Land Surveys, Peace River District  36
Crooked and Parsnip Rivers, Cariboo District  38
Miscellaneous Land Surveys, Range 3, Coast, Cariboo, and Lillooet Districts  39
Miscellaneous and Triangulation Surveys, Osoyoos and Kootenay Districts  43
Triangulation, Kootenay District  .*... 44
Triangulation, East Kootenay District   47
Triangulation, Osoyoos and Kootenay Districts   50
Triangulation, Lillooet District   51
Coast Triangulation, Range 1, Coast District  53
Coast Triangulation, Range 2, Coast, and Sayward Districts  56
Topographical Reconnaissance, Range 2, Coast District  59
Coast Triangulation, Nootka District   02
Highway Survey, Sooke and Renfrew Districts  64
Photo-topographical Survey, Osoyoos Division of Yale District  65
Photo-topographical Survey, Similkameen Division of Yale District  68
Photo-topographical Survey, Cariboo District   70
Field-work, Chilko Lake  72 REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., January 2nd, 1930.
To the Hon. F. P. Burden,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sik,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the Survey
Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1929.
Twenty-one parties were engaged on survey-work for a more or less protracted period during
the past season, and twelve British Columbia land surveyors were employed in charge of field
parties by the Pacific Great Eastern Resources Survey, thus Government operations during 1929
provided employment for a considerably greater number of surveyors than for some years past.
The season was remarkable in that there was a greater than average rainfall in the central
and northern portions of the Province, and a pronounced lack of rain with numerous forest fires
in the southern portions. These conditions in both instances interfered to some extent with the
progress of surveying operations, but nevertheless a fair amount of work was accomplished and
only in very few cases was it necessary to leave any work unfinished.
The general field-work of the Branch is divided into three main classes—namely, surveys of
Crown lands for settlement, industrial, and residential purposes, control surveys, and topographical surveys, including both topographical reconnaissance and more detailed photo-topography. During the past season a fourth class was undertaken by this Branch—namely, highway
right-of-way surveys, further details concerning which appear later in this report. Work of all
these classes was carried out during the season.
The following is a short review of the work done of the various classes:—
Crown Land Surveys.—As stated in previous reports, the demand for lands for settlement
purposes has been limited during recent years, and as a large acreage of surveyed land is still
available, surveys of lands for settlement have been limited to such areas as are in demand for
immediate settlement.
During the past season 156 parcels were surveyed, covering about 29,724 acres. This
includes about 19,171 acres in the valley of Pine River and 4,663 acres on the Halfway River, in
the Peace River District. About 5,390 acres were surveyed in Cariboo and Coast Districts in
the Chilcotin Plateau, and the remainder consists mostly of smaller isolated tracts in various
sections of the Province.
Control Surveys.—The necessity for control surveys was explained in my report for 1928,
and previous reports. The system of control adopted is one of triangulation following the main
valleys, which lend themselves admirably to this class of work, as the prominent shoulders and
peaks on either side constitute ready-made stations. The nets so established are connected one
with the other where possible, thus constituting a rigid framework to which all existing and
future surveys, whether cadastral, topographical, or minor control, may be connected. On the
Coast this triangulation is carried on at water-level with stations on the sides of the numerous
inlets and channels.
Interior triangulation was, during the past season, extended up the Skeena Valley northerly
from Hazelton, where it was connected with the precise traverse established by the Geodetic
Survey of Canada. A net was also extended from the end of the Geodetic net west of Prince
George up the Fraser River to a point near Loos, from whence it was extended to the eastern
boundary of the Province in the vicinity of the point where the summit of the Rocky Mountains
intersects the 120th meridian, where it was connected with an isolated net established some years
ago by the Geodetic Survey of Canada in connection with the survey of the Alberta-British
Columbia boundary. m
In the Kootenay District a net was extended from last year's work in the Upper Columbia
Valley to connect with the Railway Belt triangulation just south of Golden. Further work was
also done near Upper Arrow Lake, Trout Lake, and the west end of Kootenay Lake. E 16
One party was engaged in the vicinity of Chilko Lake, extending previous triangulation-work
in that vicinity with a view to laying down control for surveys being conducted by engineers
employed by the Water Branch in connection with power investigations.
Another party was engaged in completing a net between Vancouver, where a connection was
made to the Geodetic net to Lillooet, where the chain was again connected with a net previously
established by this Branch.
Coast triangulation was carried on at Rivers Inlet, the entrance to Knight Inlet, Johnstone
Strait, and other passages in that vicinity, Cordero Channel, Nodales Channel, and Discovery
Passage. On the west coast of Vancouver Island one party was employed on Nootka Sound and
Espinosa Arm of Esperanza Inlet.
Unfortunately circumstances did not permit of extending the control in the more northern
portions of the Province. Prospective developments in these areas, more particularly of the
mineral resources, would indicate the advisability of an active programme of control and reconnaissance surveys in the north. However, the Pacific Great Eastern Railway Resources Survey,
during the past summer, carried a main control net northerly from the Geodetic net near Prince
George to the Peace River in connection with their mapping programme, and this, together
with numerous subsidiary triangulations in what is known as the Peace River Aid Block, will
be of material assistance to the Province in the general scheme of control surveys.
Topographical Reconnaissance.—In carrying on triangulation-work the surveyors gather by
various methods information for the correction of and amplification of existing maps. This
information is submitted in the form of rough topographical maps. Maps of this nature are
being prepared for the area extending northerly for about 50 miles from Hazelton, an area
covering the headwaters of Bugaboo Creek in East Kootenay, the vicinity of Chilko Lake, and
an area extending from the north boundary of Garibaldi Park to Seton Lake and Bridge River.
A topographical reconnaissance was also made of an area between the Canadian National
Railway and Francois Lake.
Photo-topographical surveys were carried on by three parties, covering approximately 1,150
square miles. One party operated in the vicinity of Monashee, on the road between Vernon and
Edgewood, including the headwaters of Kettle River and the Lightning Peak area; another
party worked northerly on the main Kettle River from Westbridge and the headwaters of
Boundary Creek. The third party covered approximately 400 square miles to the west of the
Alberta-British Columbia boundary, in the vicinity of Mount Sir Alexander, covering the headwaters of the McGregor and Morkill Rivers, and other streams tributary to the Fraser River.
As mentioned above, a new departure was made during the past season by the inauguration
of highway right-of-way surveys. Highways, which are of course under the jurisdiction of the
Public Works Department, usually pass through the more settled areas where the original
surveys have been made many years ago, and are generally of a less precise order than the
present standard. In preparing the larger-scale departmental maps the errors in these surveys
present difficulties, and it is found that a survey of the highways passing through these areas
affords an efficient means of locating these errors and, furthermore, permits of showing the
highways in their proper location on the maps. Owing to the pressure brought upon the Department of Public Works for highway-construction, funds for right-of-way surveys are frequently
not available, although the necessity for such surveys is fully recognized. In view of these
circumstances an arrangement was entered into by this Department with the Department of
Public Works, whereby this office undertook, to a limited extent, the survey of highways—each
Department to bear half the cost. Such surveys were made of a portion of the West Coast
Highway between Sooke and Jordan River, the Prince Rupert Highway between Terrace and
Usk, and the highway between Nelson and Rossland. The final plans of these surveys have not
yet been completed, but it is hoped that this method of co-operation between the two Departments concerned will be found to work advantageously to both, and that it will result in an
increase in this class of work, which will not only be of value departmentally, but assist in a
large measure in placing land titles on a more substantial basis.
The following is a short resume of the work "done by each of the various parties engaged
during the season :—
Fred Nash, B.C.L.S. During recent years the Geodetic Survey of Canada projected a
precise traverse along the Canadian National Railway from Prince Rupert to Prince George. REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL. E 17
In order to control the existing surveys along the Skeena River, Mr. Nash was instructed to tie
the various monuments established on this traverse with adjacent surveys on both sides of the
river.    This work was extended from the mouth of the river up as far as Cedarvale.
During the latter part of the season Mr. Nash made a right-of-way survey of that portion
of the newly constructed highway between Terrace and Usk.
E. R. Foster, B.C.L.S. Mr. Foster was engaged in carrying a main control triangulation net
northerly from the geodetic precise traverse at Hazelton along the valleys of the Skeena and
Kispiox Rivers and the Telegraph Trail to a point about 50 miles north. This net will form a
link in a proposed chain to again connect with the already established triangulation net in the
vicinity of the Stikine River.
V. Schjelderup, B.C.L.S. Mr. Schjelderup was employed on the survey of islands in Francois,
Ootsa, and Stuart Lakes. These islands are generally of value for home-site purposes and were
surveyed to prevent any confusion in connection with future applications.
A topographical reconnaissance was also made by Mr. Schjelderup of an area hitherto
indifferently mapped, lying between the Canadian National Railway and Francois Lake, bounded
on the east by the Burns Lake-Francois Lake Road and on the west by the Houston-Nadina
River Road. This area is generally rocky, but covered with timber, much of which is suitable
for tie purposes. A few meadows are also reported, but at too high an elevation for agricultural
purposes.    A number of mineral claims have also been staked in this area.
H. E. Whyte, B.C.L.S. In order to establish a control for topographical surveys in the
vicinity of the headwaters of the McGregor River, Mr. Whyte was instructed to carry a triangulation from the geodetic stations west of Prince George easterly to the east boundary of the
Province. This party co-operated with Mr. John Davidson, B.C.L.S., employed by the Pacific
Great Eastern Resources Survey, in extending a triangulation from the same stations on the
geodetic net, northerly to cover the Peace River P.G.E. Aid Block. The easterly portion of the
work was also done in co-operation with Mr. A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., who was in charge of the
topographical party above referred to.
Mr. Whyte also surveyed a school-site at Snowshoe, on the Canadian National Railway, and
made a detailed topographical survey of a quarter-section at Penny with a view to obtaining
information for the design of subdivision at that point, the area being already occupied by a
number of squatters.
A. W. Harvey, B.C.L.S. In 1911 the valley of Pine River above the point where it crosses
the south boundary of the Dominion Government Peace River Block was surveyed as applications to purchase, mostly into parcels of 640 acres. The lots crossed the Pine River, which is a
stream of considerable size, and should have been adopted as a natural boundary. In order to
lay out parcels which would be suitable for pre-emption purposes, Mr. Harvey was instructed to
resurvey this area.
On the completion of this work he surveyed a number of parcels on Graham River, at what
is known as the Federal Ranch.
E. II. Burden, B.C.L.S. As it was expected early in the year that surveys of a topographical
nature would be necessary in the Peace River P.G.E. Aid Block, arrangements were made in
February to instruct Mr. E. H. Burden to make a traverse of the Crooked, Pack, and Parsnip
Rivers, extending northerly from the end of the existing surveys on the Crooked River. About
80 miles of these waterways were traversed on ice, and this work proved later in the year to be
of value in connection with the resources survey.
D. M. Mackay, B.C.L.S. Mr. Mackay was engaged entirely on surveys of lands for settlement in Range 3, Coast District, and parts of Cariboo and Lillooet Districts. The localities in
which he worked were somewhat widely scattered, including the southerly portion of Puntzi
Plateau, Palmer and Gorgenson Creeks, Chilanko Forks, Anahim Lake, and Pelican Lake. The
areas surveyed are mostly meadows suitable for both wild and cultivated hay-growing, and
being in a range country should be in active demand. Some are already being used 'by leal
ranchers and Indians.
O. B. N. Wilkie, B.C.L.S. Mr. Wilkie was employed on miscellaneous surveys in the Southern
Interior and on the triangulation from the vicinity of Arrowhead easterly to connect with the
net at the north end established this year by H. D. Dawson, B.C.L.S. Owing to numerous forest
fires in this district this work was not completed.
H. D. Dawson, B.C.L.S. Mr. Dawson was employed in extending a main triangulation net
northerly from the vicinity of Kaslo with a view to connecting with a proposed net to be
2 .
extended south-easterly from Arrowhead along the valley of Trout Lake and the Lardeau River.
In addition, he made a water-level triangulation of the northerly end of Kootenay Lake, being
the completion of a similar net established by the Geological Survey some years ago, extending
from Kootenay Landing to the vicinity of Kaslo.
AVm. Hallam, Jr., B.C.L.S. Mr. Hallam was engaged in the extension of the triangulation
produced by him during the two previous seasons, from the International Boundary northerly
along the Kootenay and Columbia Valleys. His work this year extended from the vicinity of
Windermere Lake to the vicinity of Golden, where connection was made to the Dominion
Government Railway Belt triangulation base-line.
Mr. Hallam also connected by minor triangles and short bases a number of mineral claims
on the Upper Spillamacheen River, in what are known as the International, Bobbie Burns, and
McMurdo basins. Some of these claims previously reported as outside were found to be within
the boundaries of the Dominion Government Railway Belt.
A. L. Purdy, B.C.L.S. Mr. Purely was engaged in tying in isolated mineral claims and groups
of claims in the district south of Nelson and traversing a number of unmapped roads and trails
in that vicinity. He also made right-of-way survey of the main highway between Nelson and
F. S. Clements, B.C.L.S. Mr. Clements's instructions covered the continuation of the triangulation across the divide between the Shuswap Valley and Arrow Lakes, and to make a more
rigid connection to previous triangulation in the vicinity of Big Sister Mountain, east of Nakusp,
and also to the Railway Belt triangulation. This work was considerably hampered by clouds,
haze, and smoke, so that two more or less important stations could not be occupied before the
season closed.
J. T. Underhill, B.C.L.S. During 1928 Mr. Underhill was engaged in extending a triangulation survey northerly from the Geodetic net at Vancouver along Howe Sound and the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway. During the past season this net was extended northerly by him to
connect with the system along the east side of the Coast Range in the vicinity of Bridge River.
Owing to unfavourable weather conditions a contemplated connection along Lillooet River and
Harrison Lake to the Geodetic net was not effected.
John Elliott, B.C.L.S. Mr. Elliott was engaged on triangulation of the Coast type, covering
the westerly 17 miles of Knight Inlet, portions of Spring, Retreat, Arrow, Spiller, and Phillips
Passages, the easterly end of Queen Charlotte Strait, Eliot and Beware Passages, and Clio
Channel. Ties were, made to existing land surveys en route and connections made to three
stations of the Coast net of the Geodetic Survey.
H. H. Roberts, B.C.L.S. Mr. Roberts made a triangulation of Draney Inlet, an arm of
Rivers Inlet, and connected his work to a geodetic station in the vicinity, also making a triangulation and traverse tie to Boswell Inlet.
A triangulation was made of Cordero Channel and a tie made to Tucker Geodetic Station.
He also triangulated Discovery Passage between Campbell River and Chatham Point and
tied to a geodetic station in the vicinity of Campbell River.
F. Butterfield, B.C.L.S. In order to co-operate with a Water Branch party engaged on a
power examination at Chilko Lake, and with a view to supplying a system of trignometric
control for their surveys, Mr. R. P. Bishop, B.C.L.S., was engaged in charge of a party to carry
on this work. Shortly after taking the field it was decided to recall Mr. Bishop for other service,
and Mr. Butterfield was sent to take charge of the party. The work consisted mainly in breaking
down from the major triangulation already established in this vicinity and the topographic
mapping of areas at both the north and south ends of the lake.
Mr. Butterfield took with him a short-wave raido sending and receiving set, and was able
to both send and receive messages through the equipment operated by the Provincial Police at
Victoria.    This equipment is also useful in receiving time for astronomical observation purposes.
W. J. H. Holmes, B.C.L.S. Mr. Holmes's work consisted of the completion of the triangulation of Nootka Sound and of -Espinosa Arm of Esperanza Inlet. This work forms part of a
chain intended to cover the whole of the west coast of Vancouver Island, the only gap now
remaining being between Ahousat and Nootka Sound. The main industry in this section of the
island is fishing, there being several canneries and reduction plants scattered along the coast.
W. S. Drewry, B.C.L.S. Mr. Drewry was employed on the right-of-way survey of the highway between  Sooke and Jordan  River.    As  stated before,  this  class  of  survey was a new REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL. E 19
departure this year, and Mr. Drewry's description of the methods used in carrying on the work
are given in his report, appended to this report, and is interesting, especially on account of the
fact that he was working in a country covered with large timber, thick underbrush, and in some
cases through logged-off areas, all of which presented considerable difficulty in making connections to existing boundaries, many of which were surveyed fifty or sixty years ago.
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S. Mr. McCaw was engaged during the past season extending his
previous photo-topographical surveys into the upper portion of the main Kettle River watershed,
and including the Lightning Peak area, which extends into the Granby River watershed—an
area of about 350 square miles. Progress was hampered considerably by smoke from forest
fires which were prevalent in the southern portion of the Province.
G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S. Mr. Jackson also was employed on photo-topographical surveys and
worked lower down the main Kettle River, including Christian Valley and extending into the
headwaters of Boundary Creek. An area of about 400 square miles was covered and he experienced similar smoke conditions to Mr. McCaw in his area farther north.
A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S. In order to obtain information concerning a little-known area at
the headwaters of Herrick, McGregor, and Morkill Rivers and near the Alberta-British Columbia
boundary, Mr. Campbell was instructed to make a photo-topographical survey of these areas.
This information was particularly desired in order to obtain more definite data as to the limits
of the timber in the various valleys. Mr. Campbell connected his work with the Interprovincial
Boundary surveys and assisted in the establishment of a main triangulation control by co-operation with Mr. H. E. Whyte, B.C.L.S. Contrary to conditions in the more southern areas of the
Province, he found weather conditions extraordinarily rainy during July and August. He
covered an area of about 400 square miles.
The reports of the various surveyors mentioned above are reproduced as an appendix to
this report.
In addition to the above, the following surveyors have been employed on various miscellaneous surveys:—
Mr. F. D. Rice, B.C.L.S., surveyed a number of home-sites at Galloway Rapids, near Prince
Mr. J. H. Green, B.C.L.S., subdivided an old reserve near Duncan into parcels for agricultural purposes.
Mr. J. A. Walker, B.C.L.S., subdivided an area at Tenth Avenue and Highbury Street, in the
City of Vancouver, which area was disposed of by tender by the Department.
Mr. F. C. Green, B.C.L.S., made a traverse some 20 miles in extent, connecting a number of
mineral claims surveyed by his on Treaty Creek to the main triangulation in the vicinity of
Bowser Lake, in Cassiar District.
Mr. G. C. Tassie, B.C.L.S.. subdivided a parcel of reverted lands near Rutland.
Mr. E. J. Gook, B.C.L.S., made a number of small surveys in the vicinity of Quesnel.
Private Surveys.—In addition to the Government surveys outlined above, the Branch has to
deal with surveys of Crown lands made at the instance of private parties, such as the surveys
of applications to purchase and lease, mineral claims and parcels of reverted lands, where
surveys are. required when disposing of same. There has been a considerable increase of this
class of surveys during the past year, as will be shown by the report on the receipt of field-notes
later in this report.
In the spring of this year an arrangement was entered into by the Government with the
Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railways to make an intensive survey of the Railway
Aid Blocks as defined by the " Pacific Great Eastern Railway Aid Act, 1925."
This work was placed in charge of Mr. C. R. Crysdale, as Chief Engineer, and by arrangement Mr. N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., of the Surveys staff, was attached to Mr. Crysdale's organization as liaison officer, and under his supervision was conducted the rather stupendous undertaking of mapping topographically the whole of what is known as the Peace River Aid Block,
■containing about 10,000 square miles. In this connection arrangements were made with the
Federal Government for the use of two air-planes with the necessary personnel and photographic
equipment to assist in the work. The final reports on this work, which will be made to the
Government and the Railway Companies, are not yet available. E 20
This work is the first attempt to utilize aerial surveying made by the Province, and the
success attained so far as now ascertainable, without doubt, justifies the statement that aerial
methods will play an important part in future topographical surveys in British Columbia.
The office staff is divided into two main sections—namely, the Survey Division and the
Geographic Division.
SURVEY DIVISION.—This Division deals with the general correspondence, supplying survey
information, the preparation of instructions for surveying, examining field returns, and plotting
official plans, compiling departmental reference maps, clearing all applications, and other
incidental work.
During the past year 1,144 field-books were received, containing notes for 1,235 lots, »and
including thirty-eight books containing notes of traverses and triangulation control surveys.
The number of lots plotted and gazetted numbers 822; tracings of the plans of these lots
were prepared and forwarded to the various Land Commissioners. Numerous surveys of
reverted lands were also dealt with by this Division.
Miscellaneous tracings made total 300, while 2,011 tracings were made in duplicate for
leases and Crown grants.
A schedule of the various kinds of surveys examined and gazetted during 1929 follows :—
Purchase surveys  11,917.17
Mineral-claim surveys  20,210.54
Timber surveys     1,990.00
Coal-licence surveys      2,989.50
Lease surveys .♦         2,122.38
Government surveys   10,559.81
Total     49,789.40
A comparison of these figures with those of previous seasons is given in Table A, attached
to this report.
Right-of-way Plans.—Plans of rights-of-way through Crown land for railways, logging-
railways, and power-transmission lines are examined and dealt with by this Division in connection with the applications of the companies for Crown grants or leases as may be required.
Information supplied.—A nominal charge is made for the preparation of copies of field-notes,
blue-prints, etc., required by surveyors, officials of other departments, and the general public.
The revenue derived last year from the copying of notes and for blue-prints was $5,638.71. The
total number of prints made was 27,803.
Correspondence and Accounts.—During the year the Branch received 7,407 letters and sent
out 6,011, not including form letters and interdepartmental memoranda.
The accounts of the field-work and the sale of information have been dealt with in the usual
manner. The Survey Accountant has also, during the past season, dealt with all of the accounts
of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway Resources Survey.
Clearances.—During the year the Surveys Division supplied to the Lands, Forest, and
Water Branches clearances of applications, as follows :—
Pre-emptions       611
Applications to purchase      205
Applications to lease  -     280
Coal licences      161
Water licences       161
Timber-sales    1,657
Hand-loggers' licences  -       59
Crown grants  1,530
Reverted lands   1,157
Cancellations      687
E 21
A graphical record is kept of all clearances on the maps of the Branch. In many instances
it is necessary in the clearing of a single application to connect numerous departmental records
in order to ascertain that no other interests are affected.
An indication of the work involved in dealing with various matters covered by the work of
this Branch is given by the number of plans and field-notes consulted. During the past year
there were received from the vault for reference, and returned for filing, 36,252 documents of
this description.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations
and inquiries, reference maps on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are
maintained by the Branch.
There are now about 161 such maps. The work of keeping these maps up to date by adding
new survey information as it becomes available and revising same when worn out forms a
considerable portion of the work of the Branch. During the past year sixteen new maps
were prepared.
The work of compiling mineral reference maps of the Kootenay District, referred to in last
year's report, was continued this year.
Surveyors' Reports.—In former years it has been the practice to print the general report of
the individual surveyors with the report of the Branch. In 1925 this practice was discontinued
as it was intended to publish all former reports, with current reports, in separate pamphlet form
for each district. It was found impossible to undertake this work until this year, when publications were issued covering the Cariboo, Peace River, Lillooet, Yale, and Vancouver Island
Districts. It is hoped that the remainder of the districts will be dealt with during the coming
year. Commencing with this report, it has been decided to again print the general reports of
surveyors with the report of the Branch.
Aerial Photographs.—The Royal Canadian Air Force has from time to time, in recent years,
taken aerial photographs in various sections of the Province. In order to obtain the information
contained in these photographs, both for departmental and public purposes, arrangements were
made to obtain copies of all such photographs. A room has been set aside in the basement of
the Parliament Buildings for the storage of these, and we now have indexed and available for
reference 13,500 aerial views. This does not include a large number taken for the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway Resources Survey during the past season, which will be available later.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.—The Geographic Division deals with the compilation and drawing of maps for lithographic reproduction, the preparation of standard base maps and the
calculations incidental thereto, triangulation adjustment, the distribution of map stock, and all
photostat and map-mounting work;   geographic data and records of the Province.
The production for the year is outlined in the following schedules:—
No. of
Date of
Map No.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet, South
(in 2 editions)
South-west   B.C.   (back  of   sheet
f   2,008
| 10,287
f   3,040
|   3,500
Tune, 1929)
Dec,   19291 \
May,    1929
June, 1929]
Dec,   1929 f
June,   1929
Sept., 1929
Mar.,   1929
Dec,    1929
5b, South
U, P.G.E.
5b, North
2 in. to 1 m.
5 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
1/1,000,000 or 15.78
m. to 1 in.
2 in. to 1  m.
Map   of  B.C.,   showing   " P.G.E.
Northerly Vancouver Island 	
Central B.C.	
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet, North
255 E 22
In Course of Printing,
No. of
Date of
Map No.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Mineral   Reference   Map   No.   4,
Feb.,    1930
April,   1930
M.R.M. 4
1  m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1  in.
Prince Rupert Pre-emptors'  Map
In Course of Preparation.
No. of
Date of
Map No.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
April,  1930
April,  1930
June,   1930
July,    1930
Aug.,   1930
Dec,    1930
3 m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
1/500,000 or 7.89
m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
1/1,000,000 or 15.78
m. to 1 in.
Highway and Travel Map of B.C.
Penticton    Degree    Sheet,    topo-
Nelson Degree Sheet, topographic
New   Wall   Map   of   B.C.,   in   4
10,000   ■
The new Highway and Travel Map of B.C. extends northward to include the road system of
the Peace River area. This work was undertaken upon the special request of the Public Works
Department, and it is planned to have this map the published record each year of the main
road-building progress in the Province. The map, as now designed, will be printed in five
colours, having a very distinctive appearance in the general publicity of highway-map work,
and showing:—
(1.)  Classification of the highway system of the Province.
(2.)  The new route letter system for the main trunk highways through the Province.
(3.)  The coastal steamship routes and ports of call, as well as railway communications.
(4.)  Auto camps in B.C.;  golf-courses, hospitals, parks, ferry routes, and Customs ports
of entry.
It is planned to compile, on the back of the map, a collection of information of particular
interest to those visiting our Province and travelling our highways.
The Geographic Division has completed the work of compiling a Geographic Gazetteer of
the Province.    This is now in the hands of the printer awaiting publication.
This will be the first official publication of this kind. It will be published in loose-leaf form,
so that additions can be conveniently made for a number of years, obviating the necessity of
short-term reprinting. Our Gazetteer of our Province will contain about 340 pages, with 85
geographical units per page, which gives the grand total of recorded geographical features in
British Columbia as 29,000.
Cost-cabd System.
The number of orders executed for other offices was thirteen, making a charge of $95.12.
Co-operative work orders carried out for other departments were five, with a cost of $171.71.
The following is a synopsis of the work accomplished by the Map-mounting Division for the
E 23
Loose-leaf map-books—mounted maps in rexine covers and unmounted
maps in brown-paper covers   55
Map-racks installed—comprising Provincial and Dominion  Government
maps, also rexine-covered index-cases  4
White, blue, and ozalid prints, joined and mounted, etc  1,020
Maps, joined, mounted, and cut to fold pocket size and mounted, etc  1,125
Photostat prints, fitted, joined, mounted, etc  484
Photos mounted  562
Official maps and charts—repaired, mounted, etc  54
Maps reinforced, with sticks top and bottom to hang;  275
Field-books and miscellaneous books, repaired, bound, etc  45
Work done, Receipts and Credits.
Geographic and Survey Branch  $850.88
Lands Department   575.85
Other departments  813.63
Public   276.05
Total  $2,516.41
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps issued
to Depts.
Tear. and Public.
1924      19,446
1925      21,224
1926      16,526
1927      19,452
1928      21,808
1929      30,972
(1.) Cash receipts for printed maps	
(2.) Credits (Lands Department) for printed maps	
(3.) Credits (Government Agents) for printed maps	
(4.) Value of printed maps issued free to departments and public.
Maps received
Geographic Stock.
Letters received
Tear. and attended to.
1924      1,399
1925     1,961
1926  :.     1,426
1927      1,886
1928      1,796
1929      2,548
Standard Base Map.
Owing to the pressure of Geographic map-work, progress with the Standard Base Map was
considerably curtailed.
New traverse routes were made, necessitating the compilation of 400 miles of ordinary
traverse and 100 miles of railway and power-line right-of-way traverse. E 24
Three new sheets of 30-minute quadrangle, on which the skeleton routes are plotted on the
scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, were completed, and alterations and additions were made to four other
S.B.M. plots on the scale of 20 chains to 1 inch were made of the area covered by photo-
topographical survey of G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S. (season 1929), in the vicinity of Kettle River,
two new 10-minute quadrangle sheets being completed, amendments and additions being made
to one other sheet.
Control nets were supplied as follows:—
Geographic Printed Maps. Departmental Reference Maps, etc.
Stikine River. Surveys Branch Reference Maps Nos. 3, 3d, 12, 13, 21, 22e,
Prince Rupert Pre-emptors'. 54, 75, 81, 82, 83, 18-9s.
Mineral Reference Maps.
Forest Branch—
Adams River Reserve.
Bull River Reserve.
Elk River Reserve.
Okanagan Reserve.
Powell Lake Reserve.
Water Rights General Office.
Field Engineers.
Geological Survey of Canada.
P.G.E. Resources Survey.
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S., Photo-topo. Survey.
Fort George Pre-emptors'.
Nelson Degree Sheet.
Triangulation Computation and Adjustment.
Least Square adjustments of the following triangulation control surveys were made during
the year:—
I-I. D. Dawson, B.C.L.S., season 1927 and 1928, Kaslo-Nakusp Railway Belt.
Wm. Hallam, B.C.L.S., season 1927 and 1928, Columbia Valley.
J. T. Underhill, B.C.L.S., season 1928, Garibaldi Park.
F. S. Clements-, B.C.L.S., season 1927 and 1928, Kettle Valley.
E. R. Foster, B.C.L.S., season 1929, Hazelton, Northerly.
J.   T.   Underhill,   B.C.L.S.,   season   1929,   Preliminary   Calculations   only,   Pemberton
The above necessitated the adjustment of 267 triangles and 346 calculations for latitude,
longitude, distance, azimuth, and reverse azimuth.
The work of registration of details of triangulation stations was continued, and at the
present date 1,428 stations are entered in the alphabetical and quad-index registers.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
E 25
Table A.—Showing Acreages of each Class of Surveys gazetted each Year since 1900.
B.C. Govt.
* 30,019
* Includes 28,548 acres surveyed as phosphate licences.
Table B.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1929 and Comparative Figures for 1928,
Survey Division.
1928. 1929.
Number of field-books received   687 1,144
„          lots surveyed   768 1,235
„         lots gazetted and tracings forwarded to Government Agents 919 822
„         miles of right-of-way plans dealt with   42 50
,,         applications for purchase cleared   264 205
„         applications for pre-emption cleared  518 611
,,         reference maps compiled   10 16
„         Crown-grant applications cleared   1,422 1,530
Total number of letters received by Branch   6,772 7,407
,,         „         Grown-grant and lease tracings made in duplicate   1,593 2,101
blue-prints made   29,748 27,803
Revenue from sale of blue-prints and survey information   $6,017.22 $5,638.71
Revenue from printed maps, photostats, etc  $4,743.26 $4,792.64 E 26
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O IO       CO       ©b-MQOCOaffiOHWNWWMMThrhlO^t-OOaoHNM^WCDt-OOOSOHNM^        IO       «0 I" E 28
Table D.—List of Lithographed Maps.
Year of
Title of Map.
Geographic Series—
British  Columbia.    In  four sheets.    Showing roads and trails,
railway systems, etc
British Columbia.    In one sheet.    Showing Land Recording Divisions
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen.    Showing Mining Divisions
Cariboo and adjacent Districts.    Showing Land Recording Divisions
British Columbia.    In one sheet.   Showing rivers, railways, main
roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc.,
and precipitation	
ditto ditto and Land Recording Divisions.
ditto ditto and Mining Divisions.	
ditto ditto and Assessment Districts	
ditto ditto and Provincial Electoral Divi
ditto ditto and   Land   Registry   Districts
and Counties
South Western Districts of B.C., Commercial and Visitors	
Central Districts of B.C., Commercial and Visitors	
Land Series—
Southerly Vancouver Island	
New Westminster and Yale Districts	
Northerly Vancouver Island	
Powell Lake	
Bella Coola (Preliminary)	
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography (Preliminary)	
Fort George    ,
Stuart Lake	
Bulkley Valley	
Peace River	
Tete Jaune	
North Thompson    	
Prince Rupert 	
Grenville Channel (Preliminary)	
Degree Series—
Rossland Sheet (Contoured)	
Nelson Sheet (Contoured)	
Cranbrook Sheet .
Fernie Sheet   	
Upper Elk River Sheet	
Duncan River Sheet	
Windermere Sheet 	
Arrowhead Sheet	
Vernon Sheet (Contoured)   	
Kettle Valley (Contoured)....    	
East Lillooet, Economic Geography (Contoured)	
Nicola Lake (Contoured)	
Penticton (Contoured)	
Topographical Series—
Omineca and Finlay River Basins, Sketch-map of	
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (Contoured), South sheet (special) .
ii ii ir North sheet (special) ,
Stikine River (Contoured)	
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
Slocan and Ainsworth	
Trout Lake
Lardeau River..
Nelson-Ymir ...
Rossland-Ymir .
Highway map of B.C. (Preliminary)	
B.C. Mining Divisions and Mineral Survey Districts.
Northern Interior.   (A. G. Morice)	
Kootenay District, East, Triangulation Survey of...
Osoyoos District, Portion of	
Kootenay District, West, Portion of	
Miles, etc.
17.75 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m, to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. tol in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56m. to! in.
7.89 m. to" 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m.'to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 in. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
£ m. to 1 in.
\ m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
25 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
10 m. to 1 in.
6,000 ft. to 1 in.
2£ m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
SI. 00
bD CJ   o>
a cj cj
Jc; cj
tin course of compilation. *Out of print.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the " Map Number" of map desired.
Information supplied of maps of British Columbia printed and published at Ottawa, by the Canadian Geological Survey, also
the Dominion Department of the Interior, etc., etc.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address:—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands,
Victoria, B.C.
, By Fred. Nash.
Terrace, B.C., December 20th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following general report on the surveys made in
accordance with your instructions of June 1st and October 10th:—
Survey operations under instructions dated June 1st consisted of ties connecting the Provincial Land Survey system with the Precise Traverse stations previously established by the
Dominion Government Geodetic Survey on both sides of the Skeena River from the mouth of
the river to Hazelton.
Connections were made between thirty-one geodetic stations and district-lot corners,
triangulation and traverse methods being used as required by the character of the country.
The Canadian National Railway was also connected by measurements to the iron pins on the
boundaries of the right-of-way.
Little difficulty was experienced in finding the geodetic stations, although if the elevation
of each station were included in the description it would be an advantage.
These connections to the Geodetic Survey of Canada will materially assist in correcting the
existing maps of the Skeena area, notably in the relative positions of the Khtada and Scotia
Rivers, which are shown several miles too far apart on present maps.
A triangulation was made across the Skeena River from the north side to Lot 24, 5 miles
up-river from Port Essington. Hot springs situated on this lot are much patronized by the
fishermen on the river, and Japanese operate a bath-house for their nationals. The temperature
of the water is about blood-heat and a small amount of sulphur gives the water a medicinal
A traverse tie was also made between the surveys on the Skeena and surveys at the south
end of Work Channel, where a tie was also made to the Coast Triangulation net..
Under your instructions dated October 10th, a survey was made of the right-of-way of the
Terrace-Usk section of the above highway. This road, which will connect the road system of
Central and Northern British Columbia with the Coast, is one of the important road projects
in British Columbia.
At Terrace the highway crosses to the south side of the Skeena River over a modern steel
bridge. The route then follows the south-side of the river to Hazelton. Some 20 miles of the
road has been constructed southerly from the Hazelton end and from Terrace 16 miles have
been built to Usk.
Besides providing an outlet for the Interior, this road will aid the development of agricultural, timber, and mining areas on the south side of the Skeena. A branch road from Terrace
connects with Lakelse Lake, where the hot springs compare favourably with any on the continent. The springs have a temperature of 187° F., the largest spring having a diameter of
almost 100 feet. A new lodge has been built this year on the lake-shore a mile from the springs
and good accommodation is provided.
That the Terrace-Lakelse Road will ultimately be continued to salt water at Kitimat Arm
is a reasonable assumption, as the short route of 30 miles offers no serious obstacles to construction.
As road right-of-way surveys are somewhat a new undertaking in this Province, a few,
remarks may be permitted as to the necessity for surveys of this nature. In the past road
surveys have usually been merely a chained compass or transit traverse of the centre line of
the road, with ties here and there to district-lot corners, but no permanent points demarking the
right-of-way   acquired  were  established  for  future  use.    Gazette  notices   establishing   roads
" according to Plan No. in the' Public Works Department, Victoria," were often erroneous,
as when based upon " location surveys " the changes in alignment made during construction
were not shown.    Neither were these plans readily available to surveyors employed to subdivide E 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1929.
property adjacent to the road; hence they adopted the centre of the constructed road, with the
result that there were tw-o rights-of-way—the gazetted road and the subdivision road—which
did not coincide. Another fault in the old system was the frequent destruction of survey monuments at district-lot corners, involving the property-owners in heavy expense to redefine their
Under the new system galvanized-iron posts set in concrete or stone mounds on each side
of the road at deflections and curves permanently establish the boundaries of the right-of-way.
Similar monuments are placed where district-lot boundaries intersect the road.
The chief industries are as follows :—
Salmon fishing and canning at the mouth of the Skeena River.
Logging at Terrace, where three mills export lumber as far as the Eastern States. Cottonwood logs are also shipped to the veneer plant at New Westminster.
Cutting cedar poles and piling provides employment for many men between Remo and
Hazelton, the poles being exported in large quantities to the south and east.
Prospecting for minerals and the development of mines have been active during the past
year. Ores containing gold, silver, copper, lead, and tungsten occur in the mountain ranges on
both sides of the Skeena from the eastern contact of the Coast Range batholith at Amsbury to
Tree and small fruits, vegetables, clover, and grasses are grown successfully at Terrace,
Remo, and Lakelse. Chicken-farming is also a profitable industry, the eggs finding a ready
Fur-trapping provides a winter occupation, and pelts of fisher, marten, wolf, coyote,
wolverine, and weasel are sought by the fur-buyers.
Coast deer are numerous in the Lower Skeena and Work Channel areas and both Coast and
mule deer are increasing in the inland country. This year moose are coming into the Lakelse
Valley;  the shooting of a cow moose near the lake resulting in a heavy fine to the hunter.
Black bear abound in the whole district, while grizzlies are found in the mountain areas.
The jlatter appear to be increasing and the too frequent visits of three of these beasts to the
Lakelse Lodge continued until one of them had to be shot.
A few caribou still range to the north of Kitsumgallum Lake and mountain-goat may be
found on every mountain range.
Wolves occasionally come close to habitations, while their lesser brother, the coyote, with
more bravado, howls his uncanny cry close in to the towns and settlements.   .
Both willow land blue grouse are to be found in the timber, but the former are not so
plentiful as in past years.
Trout—rainbow, cut-throat, Dolly Varden, and steelhead—may be caught in all the rivers
and lakes, Lakelse Lake being especially noted for this sport.
I have, etc.,
Fred. Nash, B.C.L.S.
By E. R. Foster.
Nanaimo, B.C., October 15th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The work undertaken by me this year was a triangulation and topographical survey
northerly from Hazelton, roughly along the line of the Telegraph Trail. The actual work commenced on June 15th. Two of the triangulation stations occupied by the Geodetic Survey of
Canada along the line of the Canadian National Railway in 1926 were relocated adjacent to
Hazelton and formed a good base for extension northerly, these being approximately. 5 miles
The valley of the Skeena and Kispiox Rivers is fairly uniform for about 20 miles northerly
from Hazelton, where the course of the Kispiox turns from an easterly to a southerly direction,
and up to this point peaks forming well-conditioned triangles were obtained without diificulty.
The triangles composing the net for the next 20 miles were not quite so well shapen on account
of the Kispiox Valley being considerably wider than that already triangulated. This part of
the net might have been improved had it been possible to raft the Skeena River where required;
however, during all periods of the season, wherever this party had access to the Skeena, such a
crossing would have been hazardous.
The triangulation net was carried on to the vicinity of the Second Cabin of the Telegraph
Trail, in all a distance of about 50 miles. In the course of the survey eleven main triangulation
stations and two minor stations were occupied. From seven of these stations tie-lines to
adjacent land corners were surveyed. From the present termination of the net, leaving the
valley of the Kispiox on the west side, the area to the north is very mountainous, though the
ascent of none of the peaks would appear to be difficult, the average being 5,000 to 6,000 feet in
elevation, so that the prospect for further extension of the net is good. Notes were made of
the topographical features with a view to preparing a map of the area; along the Telegraph
Trail, however, there are very few open parts, so that the mountain-tops had to be depended
upon for obtaining a view of the country.
Hazelton is reminiscent of the early Klondike days. At that time, before the advent of
the Canadian National Railway, Hazelton was the head of navigation of the Skeena River, and
the present Telegraph Trail, which begins at that town, formed one means of access to the
Yukon Territory. The spirit of the mining pioneer is still alive in the district; considerable
prospecting is being done and great confidence is expressed locally as to the prospects of some
of the mines—one in particular, the Silver Cup Mine, which is located about 15 miles northeasterly from Hazelton. A new road has been graded to the workings this year and the company
is shipping high-grade silver-lead ore to the Trail smelter regularly. Other mines will no doubt
operate in the district as soon as they have been adequately financed.
Should the mines come up to the expectation of experts, or should other industries commence
in the vicinity, the power possibilities of the Bulkley and Skeena Rivers are very impressive.
Prior to the war there was a Farmers' Institute in the valley with a membership of over
100 ; this body is no longer functioning and a number of pre-emptions have been Vacated. It is
difficult to find a reason for this as the area appears to admirably adapted to stock-raising. One
rancher, living over 10 miles north of Hazelton, mentioned to me that his net profit on cattle
alone averaged over $100 per month. He experimented also with different crops in different
parts of his farm, with the result that summer frosts do not cause him any appreciable loss.
Fowl of all kinds appear to thrive in the valley. Difficulty was experienced this season in drying
the hay-crop, the summer having been by all accounts much wetter than usual. No mechanical
hay-driers appear to be used.
The timber in the valley itself is largely poplar, alder, and birch. Land-clearing here
should be comparatively cheap. The timber on the hills in the vicinity of Hazelton is mainly
hemlock and spruce. In parts there are good stands of small cedar and the pole industry is
profitable. A number of small camps are employed at this occupation during most of the year.
The poles are floated down the rivers and collected by means of a boom near Skeena Crossing,
where they are loaded on the railway-cars. This is the only form of logging taking place at
present in this area. From the First Cabin northerly the timber is 100 per cent, hemlock. Only
one small bush fire was reported in the district this year.
The area is easily accessible from almost any part of the Province. One transcontinental
train passes east and one west daily.    The road easterly to Prince George, thence southerly to E 32
Vancouver, is reported to be in fairly good condition, while the road westerly towards Prince
Rupert is gradually being pushed nearer completion. Surveys were being made this year with
the object of finding the easiest grade. The distance to Prince Rupert, the railway terminus, is
about 175 miles, and at this port there is practically a daily boat service north and south.
The roads in the vicinity of Hazelton itself are adequate and in fair condition. The operated
mines appear to have been liberally dealt with in this respect. The Silver Cup, Silver Standard,
American Boy, and the Rocher Deboule Group, all have reasonable road access.
The main artery north is the Telegraph Trail, which, as its name implies, serves mainly as
a route for bringing in the supplies necessary to maintain telegraphic communication with the
Yukon. The trail follows the wire fairly closely. For nearly 30 miles northerly from Hazelton
this trail is now a comparatively good road; an automobile can travel the first 20 miles in a
little over one hour, and the next ten in about the same period. From here northerly supplies
are carried by pack-train, the average speed of which is only about 7 miles per day. In the
opinion of every one spoken to who is conversant with the topography of the country, the wagon-
road, if it is to be extended northerly, should follow the valley of the Kispiox River (instead of
the Skeena) and take an easy pass to join the present trail about the Sixth Cabin. It is claimed
that this would save about 20 miles and eliminate the two worst passes of the existing trail.
It is probable that the present Telegraph Trail will be the approximate location of the Alaskan
During the summer of this year there was evidently a much greater precipitation than is
usual for this area. No summer frosts were recorded by this party's thermometer till the second
week in September. Snow usually occurs about the middle of October, but the winters are not
particularly severe, it is stated.
Willow and blue grouse are plentiful in all parts. Only one deer was seen by members of
the party; however, residents claim that they are not such a rarity. This year rabbits were
comparatively scarce, Evidences of black bear were fairly numerous. On the mountain-tops
ground-hog were found in abundance; the meat is moderately palatable and the skin is popular
for making sleeping-robes.
During the fall three big-game parties passed up the trail, the hunting-grounds being about
200 miles north of Hazelton. Here grizzly bear, moose, elk, caribou, mountain sheep and goats
are said to be numerous.
Towards the end of September a -number of parties of Indians and some whites were
moving up the trail to trap. Judging by the prosperity of the Indians, this occupation must be
very lucrative; as it is their main source of revenue.
During September the weather was fair and clear, much better than the preceding months,
so that little difficulty was experienced in obtaining the angular measurements required to complete the net as far as extended.
The party returned to Nanaimo on September 28th.
I have, etc.,
Edward R. Foster, B.C.L.S.
By V. Schjelderup.
Burns Lake, B.C., December 9th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In compliance with your instructions dated May 9th, a topographical reconnaissance
survey was made of the area bounded on the east by the Burns Lake-Francois Lake Highway,
on the south by the surveys along the north shore of Francois Lake, on the west by the Nadina MISCELLANEOUS SURVEYS, ETC., COAST DISTRICT, RANGE 5. E 33
River-Houston Wagon-road, and on the north by the surveys to the south of the Canadian
National Railway, comprising some 700 square miles.
Mountains, or rather rocky ridges, rise to an elevation of over 5,000 feet above sea-level.
Most of these ridges are timbered and only a few of them above timber-line, where triangulation
stations could be established and the area mapped. Practically all rock encountered is of
volcanic origin. Some twenty-five lakes were tied in. These are mostly small and lie at the
heads of the various streams draining the area. Nearly all the streams run part of their courses
through deep narrow gorges. Some of these gorges, or canyons, are over 300 feet deep and
inaccessible for long distances.
There is a little agricultural land left unsurveyed on the Buck River and on the stream
running into Maxam Lake from the south. Small meadows are scattered throughout the area.
The largest one is about 30 acres in extent and situated about 7 miles west of Tchesinkut Lake.
At headwaters of the Buck River and Fox Creek extensive mountain meadows exist, but these
are all too high to be of any agricultural value in this latitude. They look fine for a short
period of the year, and more than one trapper and prospector have told me about these wonderful
meadows which should be surveyed and settled. If surveyed, some of this meadow land might
be taken up, but I feel almost sure that an attempt to farm here would not meet with success.
The area is timbered with pine mixed with some spruce and balsam. On the higher
elevations, and especially on slopes to the north, balsam predominates. Some good spruce timber
was seen south of the Buck River and south-west of Day Lake. Pine timber suitable for
railway-ties was encountered in many places. In the Buck River and Samgoosly Lake vicinity
there are some fine stands of tie-timber. On Dungate Creek there are also large areas of good
pine timber. The Hanson Timber Company is operating on tie limits adjacent to Dungate
Creek. On Crow Creek south of Forestdale there also appear to be large quantities of tie-timber.
Especially the central and eastern portions of the area have been swept by forest fires at various
times. The greater portion of this burnt-over area is now covered with second-growth timber
up to 4 inches in diameter. The central portion was burnt practically clean and is as yet
showing very little second growth on approximately 30 square miles.
On Fox Creek, which flows into Maxam Creek below Maxam Lake, placer gold was taken
out in the early days, but recent attempts have not met with success. Bob Creek, emptying into
Buck River some 6 miles south of Houston, also carries fine gold. Good copper, zinc, and silver-
lead ores have been found on Reid Creek, on the west side of Decker Lake. Considerable
development-work has been done on the group of claims located here. Another discovery was
made this fall farther up on this creek and numerous claims staked and recorded. On Boo
Mountain south of Palling a low-grade copper-deposit was discovered and a number of claims
staked. Frank H. Taylor, of Smithers, holds these claims under option to buy and has a small
crew of men doing development-work there. Platinum is said to have been discovered on a
large stream flowing into Francois Lake some 8 miles west of the ferry-landing and twenty
claims located and recorded covering the discovery.
Rainbow trout are very plentiful in some of the lakes. In Maxam Lake char and whitefish
are also found.    Brook-trout were seen in most of the larger streams.
There is an abundance of game, especially moose. Black bear and mule-deer are also
plentiful. An occasional grizzly bear may be seen, but they are very scarce. Caribou were
quite numerous in parts of this area till some ten or fifteen years ago. There may be a few
left,.as what appeared to be fresh caribou-tracks were seen in several places above timber-line.
Willow-grouse and spruce-hens are fairly plentiful throughout the area. Ptarmigan and blue
grouse are also found on the higher elevations. Beaver, muskrat, fisher, marten, mink, and fox
are still being trapped throughout the area, but they are not as numerous as a few years ago.
With the exception of a few trappers' trails, there are no roads or trails in the whole area.
As yet the map covering this reconnaissance survey has not been completed. A more
detailed report will be submitted when this map is finished.
In further compliance with your instructions I have this season surveyed all remaining
unsurveyed islands in Stuart, Ootsa, and Francois Lakes.
The sixteen islands surveyed in Stuart Lake vary in size from less than an acre to 72 acres.
From an agricultural standpoint these islands have no value, but as sites for summer homes
some of them are very desirable. Quite a number of islands in Stuart Lake have been bought
by Americans, who come here with their families to enjoy their vacations on one of British
Columbia's most beautiful lakes, and where rainbow trout up to 20 lb. in weight are caught.
In Francois Lake nine islands were surveyed and in Ootsa Lake seventeen. Quite a number
of these islands are too small and rocky to be of any value, but most of the larger ones are
very suitable for summer-home sites and will no doubt, as these lakes become more known to
the outside public, be taken up and summer cottages built on them. From Ootsa Lake canoe
and boat trips can be made by rivers and lakes in both directions, or with a few portages a circle
trip can be made of about 200 miles. This circle trip takes one into the heart of the Coast
range of mountains and the most magnificent scenery. In most of the lakes, rivers, and streams
along this route rainbow trout abound.
In conclusion, I wish to say a little with regard to the yearly progress in the settled districts
in this vicinity, where I have worked since long before the war and reported upon from year
to year for a long time.
Especially the grain-crops in the Nechako Valley were exceptionally good this year, and it
is claimed that in the Vanderhoof section alone some 200,000 bushels of grain were threshed.
Oats yielded as high as 120 bushels to the acre. More land is being cleared and the farmers
are more optimistic than they have been for many a year. Many inquiries have been made
for land by prospective settlers.
In the Francois-Ootsa Lakes District the crops were also good, but much difficulty experienced in harvesting owing to the wet weather. Many of the farmers here are now going in for
sheep-raising and seem satisfied that the district is well adapted to this industry. Very few new
settlers have come in lately, and this seems a pity as there is still so much good agricultural
land and pasture lying idle in these parts.
The contracts for railway-ties have this winter been cut to about 50 per cent, of what they
have been for many years along the line here. This will, of course, mean less money in circulation in the district, but I doubt it will affect the small contractors and settlers to any great
Commercial fishing in the numerous large lakes in this district is apparently going to meet
with success, although this industry is still in its infancy and no definite figures can be quoted.
Most of the road appropriations were this summer spent on the main highways through the
district and a great improvement has been effected. It is the intention of the Public Works
Department to keep all the main roads open for motor traffic this winter. A new road to Owen
Lake via the Morice River was completed this fall. A road is under construction from Fort
St. James to Manson Creek and about 30 miles of it is already completed. There has been quite
a revival of mining in the Manson Creek section during the last couple of years and this new
road is very much needed.
With regard to mining there is little new to report. So far I have heard nothing but good
news from Owen Lake, where mining development is being carried on on a large scale. The
Topley-Richfield Mining Company has closed down development-work on its property north of
Topley. It is rumoured that this company is taking over Mr. Taylor's option on the prospect on
Boo Mountain. A number of new discoveries were reported at various places in the district
during the summer and innumerable claims staked and recorded, but in so far as I can ascertain
nothing worth while has recently been located.
I have, etc.,
V. Schjelderup, B.C.L.S.
By H. E. Whyte.
Victoria, B.C., November 18th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit hereunder my report on the work carried out by me this season.
Working in conjunction with John Davidson, B.C.L.S., and A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., I established a system of triangles between Dominion Government geodetic stations, situated west of
Prince George, and stations in the vicinity of the Alberta-British Columbia boundary.   This TRIANGULATION, UPPER FRASER RIVER. E 35
system was carried along the Fraser River, stations being established on either side of the
Canadian National Railway, which assisted materially in the matter of transportation.
Ties were made to a number of surveyed lots and elevations were connected to the precise
levels along the railway.
The weather during the first part of the season was exceptionally wet, but due to this fact
I was practically not bothered at all with smoke haze. Except for a few days, the mosquitoes
and flies were not troublesome, and I understand it was a good summer from this point of view.
During the latter part of the season I surveyed a school-site at Snowshoe ; and, with a view
to subdividing, made a topographical survey of a quarter-section at Penny.
That part of the country in the vicinity of Prince George and as far east as Dewey is,
generally speaking, fairly flat, but from Dewey easterly to Goat River it is mountainous, with
the Fraser River traversing a valley 6 to 8 miles wide.
The chief means of travel through this area is by the Canadian National Railway. Prince
George can be reached by motor-car from Vancouver, and as road improvements progress this
drive is becoming more popular. It is possible to use a car as far east as Giscome, and a
considerable amount of work was done this year on the proposed highway to Jasper; rough-
grading having been carried about as far as Longworth.
The chief industry through this part of the country is lumbering; there being about twelve
mills of different sizes adjacent to the Canadian National Railway between Prince George and
Goat River.    Spruce is the chief timber milled, along with cedar in smaller quantities.
Cedar poles and ties are also shipped from this area. The largest tie shipments, however,
are made from west of Prince George.
The soil along the valley of the Fraser River is very productive;   potatoes and many
vegetables of high standard are grown at various points along the railway.
Although there are no very large tracts suitable for farming, there are quite a number of
smaller areas scattered along the valley which could be farmed to advantage.
Grain and hay grow well, but, judging from the weather this year, there might be difficulty
in handling them at maturity.
Timber consists of spruce, cedar, Cottonwood, jack-pine, and balsam. The major portion of
the merchantable timber is spruce, although there are stands of good-sized cedar. Jack-pine,
when of sufficient size, is used for ties.
Clearing of land would vary from $50 to $250 an acre. Tie higher figure would cover the
more heavily timbered areas.
The first snowfall generally arrives in October or November, but usually there is no heavy
fall till December.    Snow as a rule disappears from the lower levels about April.
The snow and rain fall is usually heavier in the vicinity of Longworth and Penny than at
Prince George.
During short periods in the winter at Prince George the thermometer will register 50 below
Moose are plentiful in this part of the country, and there are also caribou, deer, bear (black
and grizzly), goat, coyote, lynx, marten, and fisher.
Trout, principally rainbow and Dolly Varden, are easily caught in many of the streams.
The whole area practically is covered with registered trap-lines, which, as a rule, give a
good return to their owners.
I have, etc.,
By A. W. Harvey.
Victoria, B.C., December, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq., s
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In accordance with your instructions dated May 31st, 1929, I left Victoria on June
1st and proceeded to Pouce Coupe via Edmonton. The present terminus of the Northern Alberta
Railway is at Hythe, which is about 45 miles from Pouce Coupe, with which place it is connected
by a good motor-road. Pouce Coupe is the principal settlement in the south-east portion of the
Dominion Peace River Block and has a population of about 400. It contains several hotels and
stores where good accommodation can be had and an ample supply of provisions can be obtained.
The office of the Government Agent for the district is situated here and also the headquarters
of the Provincial Police. It is connected by motor-road with Dawson Creek and Rolla, the other
principal settlements in this part of the Block, and is also connected by road with Fort St. John.
A considerable amount of work has been done on these roads during the past season and they
are in excellent condition, except after heavy rains, when they become very miry owing to the
heavy clay soil of the district and to the difficulty of obtaining gravel. From Pouce Coupe
we proceed for about 17 miles by motor-truck as far as the Kiskatinaw River, locally known
as the Cutbank, and from there we continued by wagon to the crossing of the Pine River, which
is about 50 miles from Pouce Coupe, where we were met by our pack-train. The south-east
portion of the Block through which this road passes contains a very large quantity of excellent
land, easily cleared, which is rapidly being settled. Many new families have located here
during the past year and an extension of the survey in this district is urgently required.
A settler named Palmer and his family are located at the Pine River Crossing, which is at
the junction of the Pine and Murray Rivers, and there are several more settlers located in
this vicinity on the good bottom lands of these rivers. The. Pine River is considered to be
the main stream, but there appears to be little difference in the volume of water carried by
the Murray. This stream has to be crossed first and the Pine is crossed shortly after. There
is a good ford on both streams at low water, but in June the rivers were high and had to be
crossed by canoe and the horses had to swim. The Pine River lies in a valley about 700 to
800 feet below the level of the plateau. After leaving the crossing the trail climbs out of the
valley and keeps some distance to the north, returning to the river about 25 miles farther and
crossing the southern boundary of the Peace River Block near the east end of the land resur-
veyed by me during the past season, which is locally known as the Burns Block. The country
traversed by this trail is a rolling plateau from 2,200 to 2,700 feet in elevation, which consists
of open poplar lands and heavy spruce and willow swamps. There is a considerable quantity
of good land in this part of the district, but owing to lack of transportation there is no settlement there as yet. The settlers on the Pine River have cut out a road to the crossing, but we
found considerable difficulty takjng a loaded wagon over it owing to the numerous swamps
and lack of grading. The survey from its eastern extremity follows the Pine River Valley for
a distance of about 25 miles. The Pine River is swift and is broken up into sloughs in many
places and is continually washing out its banks and changing its course. It is a large stream
and cannot be forded by horses before the middle of July. Later in the year a man can walk
across it in many places. There is a fairly good wagon-road up the valley connecting the homes
of the various settlers. It cannot, however, be used at high water, as it crosses the river in
several places. The low bottoms along the river consist of alluvial silt and raise excellent
crops of grain, vegetables, and small fruits.
The land in the low benches is almost uniformly good, consisting generally of a heavy
clay loam. There is little open land in the valley, except where it has been burnt or cleared
by the settlers. The growth consists principally of poplar, with dense patches of spruce, willow,
and alder, which are generally swampy. A considerable quantity of heavy cottonwood grows
along the river. There is a small quantity of merchantable timber in places, mostly spruce
and pine. This is to be found on Lot 1115 (G. Milligan's survey), Lots 350. 352, and 356, and
on the foot-hills, west of Hasler Creek, on the south side of the river. Between the eastern end
of the survey and the Peace River the Pine flows in a deep trough, with rolling plateau lands
on each side, but to the west the valley gradually becomes deeper and the plateau more broken. LAND SURVEYS, PEACE RIVER DISTRICT. E 37
At the western extremity of the survey the valley is about 1,500 feet deep, and still farther
west the hills rise higher until they merge into the Rocky Mountains at the Pine River Pass.
The hills bordering the valley on the south are uniformly rough and rocky and covered with a
heavy growth of spruce and pine. On the north side of the valley, however, the hills are
generally open, with a light growth of poplar and a few spruce, which has been burnt off in
many places, leaving a heavy growth of grass and peavine, which affords excellent feed for
stock. Above Lot 1142 the hills to the north become rougher and growth changes to spruce and
pine. I estimate that the portion of the valley surveyed during the season contains about 9,000
acres of land which can be brought under cultivation. The settlers raise excellent crops of
wheat and oats and good vegetables. Strawberries grow well. The valley suffers from lack
of transportation and there is no market for their crops. The settlers bring their supplies in
during the winter, using sleighs on the frozen Pine River from the Pine Crossing. Their chief
source of income is from trapping and good catches of fur are made in the valley. Beaver and
muskrats are abundant and other furs caught include marten, mink, lynx, fox, and wolverine.
The climate in the valley is milder than that of most of the Peace River District. The highest
temperature is about 80° F. and in winter the thermometer falls to ■—40° for short periods.
The snowfall is heavy, but there is seldom more than 2 feet on the ground owing to the frequent
Chinook winds. There is considerable rainfall during the summer and the annual precipitation
is probably in the neighbourhood of 40 inches. The first frost occurred on the night of August
22nd. Game is abundant. Moose, deer, and black bear are numerous in the valley and caribou
and grizzly can be shot in the mountains to the south and west. There is good fishing in the
Pine River after high water. Grayling are the most abundant and there are many Dolly Varden
trout and jackfish.    There are no rainbow trout.
With regard to the geological formation of the district, the cretaceous sandstones of the
Pine River from their contact with the limestone formation in the foot-hills of the Rocky
Mountains are arranged in a series of undulations which gradually subside to the north-east.
Conglomerates and shales occur rarely. From the foot-hills to the Middle Fork the beds are
chiefly sandstone and are flat, or nearly so. Below the Middle Fork the sandstones are
fossiliferous and alternate with shales.
On the completion of my work in the Pine River we moved by j>ack-train to the Graham
River, leaving the valley by the old Moberly Trail from Esswein's ranch on Lot 1138. There is
a considerable quantity of excellent land on this trail in the valley of the Moberly River and
at the west end of Moberly Lake. The distance from the Pine River to Hudson Hope, where
we crossed the Peace, is about 42 miles. From there to the Federal Ranch on Graham River
is about the same distance. Most of the good land to the north of Hudson Hope has been
surveyed, with the exception of some good open hay-meadow land in the valley of Red River,
about 20 miles north of the Peace River. The land surveyed in the vicinity of the Federal
Ranch comprises about 4,700 acres, which is mostly bench land at an elevation of about 100
feet above the Graham River. The low river-bottom land is good, consisting of alluvial silt,
and grows good crops of hay and vegetables. Oats have been raised successfully. The bench
lands are generally dry and stony and the soil is a light clay loam, mixed with gravel. The
country has at one time been covered with a dense growth of small jack-pine, but it has been
swept clean by fires. The land surveyed is mostly open, with a light growth of poplar and
willow. There is very heavy windfall in places. The pine-growth is, however, appearing again
and will cover large areas in a few years. This part of the Peace River District is well adapted
to stock-raising. There is at present, however, no market for cattle, and both at the Federal
Ranch and at the Brady Ranch, 30 miles north on the Halfway River, horse-raising is the
principal industry. There are many wild-hay meadows and feed has to be put up for nearly
six months. The climate is drier than it is farther to the south and the first snowfall generally
occurs shortly after the middle of September. Slight frosts occur during the summer. The
highest temperature is about 80° F. in the summer and the lowest about 50° below in winter.
These extremes last for only short periods.    Growth starts about the end of April.
Fur is abundant and good catches are made of lynx, marten, mink, fox, and wolverine.
Moose, deer, and bears are plentiful in the hills and prairie-chicken are found in the valleys.
Grouse and rabbits are scarce. Fish are very abundant in the Halfway and Graham Rivers
and comprise grayling, rainbow and Dolly Varden trout. The last reach a very large size.
It is curious to note the presence of the rainbow trout, which are not found in the Pine River, E 38 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1929.
and the jackfish, which is abundant in the Peace River and its tributaries from the south, is
not found in the Halfway. There are as yet no roads into this part of the district, the only
means of transportation being by pack-train.
I have, etc.,
A. W. Harvey, B.C.L.S.
By E. H. Burden.
Prince George, B.C., June 1st, 1929.
•/. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report covering surveying operations on the
Crooked and Parsnip Rivers, Cariboo District, during the months of February, March, April,
and May, 1929:—
The work assigned to me consisted of a traverse of the Crooked River from Lot 3022,
21 miles north of Summit Lake; thence northerly around Kerry and McLeod Lakes and down
the Pack River to its junction with the Parsnip and up the Parsnip.
As occasionally happens in this part of the Province, the weather was much milder north
of Summit Lake than it was farther south, with the result that long stretches of the rivers did
not freeze, necessitating a considerable amount of shore traverse; but in spite of this a total
of 80 miles of traverse was completed, not including several miles of tie-lines.
My party left Prince George on February 10th. travelling to Summit Lake, a distance of
32 miles, with horses and sleighs and taking two months' supplies. The last 8 miles of this road
is used very little in the winter, most of the travelling being done with dogs, and we had some
trouble getting the teams through, but in future the Public Works Department intends putting
snow-ploughs over the entire distance at regular intervals.
From Summit Lake we freighted our supplies to our first camp below Red Rock Lake, about
35 miles by trail, two dog-teams of five dogs each being used for this purpose. A road is now
under construction from Summit Lake to Davie Lake and will be completed in 1930, making
access to the north country much easier in future.
A large amount of freight is taken down the Crooked River every summer, all of the supplies
for the Parsnip, Finlay, and Igenika Rivers going in by this route, and for the past three -years
the Dominion Government has been making extensive improvements to the waterways. The
first 20 miles of the Crooked River, however, is very narrow and shallow, and freighters taking
their loads down in low or medium stages of water are compelled to drag their boats in numerous
places and even to make an occasional portage, but with the completion of the above-mentioned
wagon-road all this will be avoided and much larger loads will be possible.
Regarding soil, timber, etc., very complete information covering this area is contained in the
report of T. H. Taylor, B.C.L.S.. dated December 28th. 1910. Also that of J. F. Campbell, dated
November 20th, 1919, covers the entire area in which I was engaged, and as my work was all
done in the winter, with 2 feet of snow on the ground, this information should be more exact
than anything I can give.
At present the Pacific Great Eastern Resources Survey is again covering the same ground,
and as their work, when completed, will be supplemented by aerial photographs, I feel that it
would be useless for me to attempt to make any detailed report.
I have, etc.,
By D. M. MacKay.
Victoria, B.C., December 10th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report in connection with surveys made by
me under your instructions in Range 3, Coast District, and Cariboo and Lillooet Districts, during
the past season :—
My work principally consisted of the survey of certain lands of the Crown into suitable
parcels in that part of Range 3, Coast District, lying between the Chilanko and Chilcotin Rivers
and in the area around Pelican (Stum) Lake, Cariboo District.
In addition to this, two lots were surveyed at Anahim Lake (Dean River area), four at
Loon Lake, one on Tatla Lake Creek, one on the Chilanko River west of Redstone, two south of
Alexis Lake, and one at Springhouse, for local residents desirous of increasing their holdings.
The necessary traverse ties connecting- the new lots to existing surveys were made. This work
was necessarily of a widely scattered nature and entailed considerable travelling.
My point of organization was Williams Lake, now a busy and thriving centre on the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway. This town, established since the advent of the railway, is the outlet
for the vast territory between the Fraser River and the Coast Range, the main artery of which
is the Chilcotin Road, as well as for the surrounding country-easterly to the Clearwater Lakes.
The people of Williams Lake have .great faith and pride in their town; a new school, new
homes, new churches, new places of business, a splendid new hotel, and new water and light
systems are but a few indications of this and of the progressive spirit of its citizens.
Having completed my organization, I moved, on May 22nd, by truck to the Bliss Ranch on
the Chilcotin Road, some 93 miles from AVilliams Lake; my packer with wagon and pack-train
joined me a few days later. From here I moved by wagon over a rough and somewhat circuitous
wagon-trail to the areas applied for by Mr. Bliss, which I found to be situated on the plain
some 5 miles north of the Bliss Ranch and approximately 1,000 feet above it. Here I established
the first camp of the season and laid out the acreage applied for as Lots 7243 and 7244. These
parcels are mainly of value because of their,-wild-hay meadows, which, although small, yield a
good quality of wild hay. The land bordering the meadows as well as that traversed by the tie
connecting these lots to Lot 9140 is for the most part timbered with pine, clumps of poplar, and
scattered fir. In the open spaces there' is a fair growth of wild grasses and weeds, but for the
most part the soil is dry and stony and yields little in the way of feed for stock. Our water-
supply, which was none too good, was obtained from a shallow pond near the south-east corner
of Lot 7243.
On June 2nd I moved to the southerly part of Puntzi Plateau, entering the area by way of
Chilanko Forks, where I obtained additional supplies. The road from Chilanko Forks to Puntzi
Creek and northerly to Palmer Creek and the Chilcotin River is almost entirely of Indian construction, as well as the various branch roads leading from it to the numerous natural meadows
on which the Redstone Indians have established themselves.
From a camp established about 1 mile south-westerly from Lot 1516 I laid out Lots 1520,
1521, 1522, 1523, 1524, and 1525, comprising 800 acres, claimed by the Redstone Indians. These
areas contain some good wild-hay meadows and tracts of land covered with patches of low
willows and grass suitable as pasture or late fall range. A tributary of Puntzi Creek flows
through Lot 1525 and there is a spring of good water in the south-easterly part of Lot 1524.
Small shallow lakes provide the water-supply of the other parcels, with the exception of Lot
1523, which has no surface or running water, but here there are indications that water can be
obtained at a shallow depth in the meadow and tracts bordering thereon.
From Lot 1520 I carried a traverse tie westerly some 3 miles to place Lots 1526, 1527, and
1528, areas containing some good wild-hay meadows and claimed by an Indian named Seymour,
of the Redstone Indian band. A cabin, stack-yards, and 1% miles of fencing comprise the improvements on these holdings.    Much of the land bordering the meadows, now but sparsely E 40 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1929.
covered by low willows and poplar, if cleared would produce good hay, as the soil appears well
suited to this purpose and is of good depth.
These parcels are connected to the lots to the east by a pack-trail which could with little
expense and labour be widened into a Wagon-road. I understand this same trail continues
westerly to Towdestan, but because of its infrequent use is now becoming hard to follow.
While camped here I surveyed a fenced meadow area situated on a fairly wide creek, which
I believe to be a tributary of Puntzi Creek, a little over a mile south of Lot 1527. This area has
been used for some years by F. Hellflre, who has constructed dams to flood, when necessary, the
meadow acreage of this parcel, and whose main holdings are on the Chilanko River, 5 miles
westerly from Chilanko Forks.
On July 3rd I moved to Lot 1513 and camped on the north bank of Puntzi Creek. This
creek has so slight a fall along much of its course that its flow at normal times is almost
imperceptible. From here I laid out Lots 1530, 1531, 1532, and 1537, which cover areas of
meadow and pasture land claimed by the Redstone Indians. Puntzi Creek flows southerly
through Lot 1530, while a strong tributary of this creek flows through Lots 1531 and 1532.
There is a small shallow lake in Lot 1537 which drains south-easterly into the Chilanko River.
The survey of this parcel completed the work on Puntzi Plateau.
A large ipart of this portion of the plateau is rocky and broken and covered with jack-pine
interspersed with clumps of poplar, while in places much fallen timber caused by fires of recent
years encumbers the ground.
To the west of Lot 1520 there is a stretch of country so thickly strewn with boulders as to
be almost impenetrable to cattle, and this condition is aggravated by a tangled mass of windfalls. The area provides an abundance of good grazing land, far more than is sufficient to
supply the needs of the number of cattle at present ranged in this spacious pasture.
My next work necessitated a move to the Chilcotin River, where I laid out Lot 1533, a
parcel of 160 acres adjoining Lot 970 of the group of lots (known to the settlers of the district
as " the Wheatlands " or " Company lands," the latter term being quite misleading, in that it
suggests that these lands have been (alienated from the Crown, and this no doubt is the reason
that applications for them have not been submitted in recent years. There is a large acreage
of flat land with scattered small meadows and tracts of good pasture in five lots of this group.
The soil is mostly fine river-silt with varying percentages of sand and clay on a gravelly subsoil.
I destroyed the posts ;and bearing trees marking the corners of Lots 976 and 977, as these areas
were found to be worthless from an agricultural standpoint, the land being dry and stony
throughout and covered with small pine. The area surveyed as Lot 1533 contains some small
meadow and tracts of good land which could readily be brought under cultivation, as the
clearing consists mostly of willows and low brush. In a small area close to his cabin, Indian
Larcisse Char grows lettuce, carrots, beets, peas, turnips, and onions with a fair measure of
success, but with the necessary care and attention much better results could be obtained, as the
conditions are favourable for the growing of this produce.
On July 16th I moved to Palmer Creek and surveyed Lot 1534, a parcel of 10 acres to cover
some cultivated ground used by the Redstone Indians for the growing of vegetables. The junction of Palmer and Jorgenson Creeks occurs approximately 7 chains east of the east boundary
of this lot. Following this survey, Lots 1535 and 1536 were laid out, the former a parcel of
80 acres situated on a tributary of Palmer Creek 20 chains west of Lot 1506; the latter an area
of 160 acres on Jorgenson Creek, adjoining Lot 1434 on the south. Both these parcels are
mainly of value because of their wild-hay meadow acreage, the crops of which are cut by the
Redstone Indians.
The surveys here comprise four lots on Loon Lake, one at the junction of Tatla Lake and
Loon Lake Creeks, and a traverse tie connecting these parcels with Section 22, Township 122.
Loon Lake is 3 miles long, with an extreme width of three-quarters of a mile. It is a
beautiful sheet of water, mainly fed by spring creeks, the largest of which enters the lake at
the south end.
As the areas applied for lay along the east side of Loon Lake, a traverse of this shore-line
was first made, so that the subdivision of the land could be planned to the best advantage. RANGE 3, COAST, CARIBOO, AND LILLOOET DISTRICTS. E 41
Here the slopes come to the water gradually ; the lower portion is uneven, with small flats and
low hummocks supporting an open poplar and pine forest, throughout which is found a good
growth of wild grasses, peavine, lupine, and yarrow. In the flats and low-lying depressions the
soil is mostly sandy clay of good depth land free from stones; gravelly and stony tracts occur
on the hummocks and lower slopes, while part of the higher hillside is rocky and broken.
Two fine unfailing springs with wholesome water fall within the area surveyed, providing
a good supply for domestic purposes as well as suitable watering-places for stock.
The country on the west side of the lake rises somewhat steeply in a succession of narrow,
broken benches. The forest-cover is mostly pine, wide stretches of which have been so badly
swept by fires within recent years as to give the area a dry and barren appearance.
I paid a hurried visit to this part of Range 3, Coast District, to make two surveys for
Messrs. Hallowes and Dorsey, two young men engaged in cattle-raising on the holdings formerly
owned by Mr. Schilling. These settlers have !had very encouraging results in the short time
that they have been engaged in this industry, and I have no doubt but that much success will
attend their efforts in this direction, because they are going about things in the right way and
with energy and enthusiasm.
I made the journey to these holdings, a distance of 93 miles, by Ford car. The Chilcotin
Road as far as Towdestan is passable for motor traffic, but beyond this is quite unfit in its
present state for this method of travel, being little better than a rough wagon-trail in places;
but this condition can be remedied without great expense, as the grades are good and the country
through which it passes is not difficult for road-construction. However, by careful driving the
trip was made without mishap, the entire credit for this being due to Ray Curtis, who proved
himself as skilful in the handling of a motor-vehicle as he is with horses.
Engineers were engaged this season in making the necessary surveys to determine the best
route, for the extension of the Chilcotin Road from Anahim Lake, where the Hudson's Bay
Company has a trading-post, to Bella Coola. There is therefore every likelihood that within
the next few years this Pacific Coast town will be linked with the interior of the Province by a
good road.
A fairly large meadow lying three-quarters of a mile south of Lot 995 was surveyed as Lot
1543, through the south half of which a fine creek with good water flows in a westerly direction.
This meadow acreage, as well as much of the flat willow-covered area bordering thereon, could
be irrigated without much difficulty from this creek, as the formation of the ground near the
east limit of the parcel lends itself well to this purpose.
The subdivision of the north-west quarter of Lot 414, the south half of which had been
applied for by Mr. Hallowes, closed the work in this area.
An area of 160 acres situated on the Chilcotin Road, 3 miles east of the Redstone Flat
Indian Reserve, was surveyed to cover a pre-emption application made by D. H. Fraser. The
Chilanko River flows easterly through a portion of the north half of the parcel, along the south
bank of which and southerly therefrom are tracts of open grass land and small areas covered
with poplar and willow which can readily be brought under cultivation; the soil is clay loam
on a sand and gravelly subsoil. The south half of the lot is gravelly, supporting a forest-cover
of pine and scattered poplar and fir.
The Chilanko River Valley west of Redstone is used at present almost entirely as a grazing
area. There is an abundance of summer feed, particularly on the lower open slopes of the north
side of the valley, and these, having a southerly aspect, are clear of snow earlier than the lands
on the south side of the river, which rise more steeply and are more densely wooded.
Agricultural land is limited to the flat areas and gentle slopes' bordering the river, of which
there is a fairly large acreage, the soil of which is good and free from stones. Water for the
irrigation of these areas could be obtained from the Chilanko River, but I am afraid the conduit
would have to be so long that its construction would prove a very costly undertaking.
I entered this area by way of the Alexis Creek Settlement, using the road which connects
with the main Chilcotin Road a short distance east of the post-office.   Leaving the main road, a steep and rocky but fairly direct route is followed until the plateau is reached; here the road
runs northerly over a slightly undulating country to the north-west corner of that spacious
acreage of wild-hay land known as the Indian Meadows '(Indian Reserve No. 2), where it turns
and runs in a general north-easterly direction through areas of open poplar and pine until
Anahim Creek is crossed. From here the road continues in the same direction over hilly pine-
covered country to Pelican Lake. This road has been constructed by the Anahim Indians and,
although passable in summer for light cars, is not in good condition, and it is not likely that
anything in the nature of extensive improvements will be made until the road is taken over by
the Department of Public Works.
On the way in to this area a camp was established on the north bank of Anahim Creek,
north-easterly from Duck Lake, from which Lots 7246, 7247, and 7248 were surveyed to cover
areas of meadow and pasture land claimed by the Anahim Indians. I experienced some difficulty in re-establishing Lot 9504, to which these surveys are tied, as neither of the posts of this
parcel could be found. I was fortunate, however, to be able to also connect the work by
triangulation to Triangulation Station Stum, erected by John Davidson.
On September 13th I moved to Pelican (Stum) Lake, camping a little east of its outlet near
some buildings erected by Indian Stum, of the Anahim Indian band. During our stay in this
area twelve lots were surveyed; of these, Lots 7249, 7250, and 7251 have frontage on the east
side of the lake, Lots 10160 to 10165 are east of the lake, and Lots 10166 to 10168 north of the
lake. All these parcels cover meadows and areas of grazing land claimed by the Anahim
Indians, who have constructed wagon-trails connecting these areas with the main Pelican Lake
Road, which really terminates at the Stum buildings above referred to.
Advantage to some extent of the possibilities of the area for cattle-raising is being taken
by these people, their herds running from ten to fifty head, but with the necessary organization
and guidance a great deal more could be accomplished by them in this direction.
The timber is pine and spruce, with the former predominating.
Time did not permit of the exploration of much of the territory beyond the limits of that
surveyed, but sufficient was covered to convince me that this great rolling area, so close to the
main highway of the Chilcotin, is a particularly promising and valuable one from a cattle-raising
Deer were seen occasionally in the valleys of Palmer and Puntzi Creeks and in the Pelican
Lake area. Moose are becoming plentiful throughout the area covered and, although not frequently seen, many signs of their presence were observed, especially in the more heavily
wooded country where marshy areas and ponds abound, and also in the willow-swamps and
meadows which provide good feeding-grounds. A number of coyotes were seen on Puntzi
Plateau and on occasions appeared unusually bold. Rabbits were seen from time to time, but
are not numerous.    Grouse and water-fowl were plentiful.
The areas covered this season are at present mainly suited to cattle-raising; dairying would
not be profitable because of the great distances to the railway; sheep might do well, but I am
of the opinion that conditions generally throughout the area covered are not favourable for the
successful raising and marketing of sheep, so that stock-raising is and will likely continue to be
the main industry.
The question of sufficient wild range is not likely to become a serious matter for some years,
if at all, but the intending settler, as well as those already established on the land, will no
doubt in time be confronted with the necessity of replacing the diminishing wild-hay yield of
the so-called dry meadows by other fodder for winter feed. If the solution of this problem is
found in the systematic cultivation of these areas by scientific methods of farming, a very
important step forward in the development of the interior of British Columbia will follow.
Generally speaking, the work was carried out under favourable weather conditions.
The survey of Lot 5346 in the vicinity of Springhouse, Lillooet District, to cover a preemption application by P. M. Rasmussin, brought the season's operations to a close.
I have, etc.,
By O. B. N. Wilkie.
Victoria, B.C., January 4th, 1930.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on operations covered during the
past season 1929:—
Your instructions, dated May 29th, 1929, included a retracement and subdivision of Lots
1044 (S.) and 1051 (S.) near Osoyoos, also to extend triangulation from north end of Upper
Arrow Lake through Trout Lake Valley to head of Kootenay Lake, there to connect with similar
work carried out by H. D. Dawson, B.C.L.S.
Owing to having an attack of flu I was unable to start from Victoria for the field till June
17th. I stayed over in Vancouver a few days on necessary details. Arriving at Merritt, my
party was organized, and we left by car for Osoyoos and carried out a retracement survey of
Lots 1044 (S.) and 1051 (S.) near Richter Pass. These were old surveys and much trouble
was incurred by reason of some posts being altered from their original positions. The country
in this vicinity is chiefly undulating open pasture, with occasional clumps of trees, principally
poplars and willows.
Cattle-raising is the principal occupation, although general farming is carried on in a small
way.    Irrigation is generally required.
Near the south-east corner of Lot 1044 (S.) will be found Spotted Lake. This lake, well
named, is said to be a deposit of Epsom salts. It forms In pools* which are locally used for
medicinal baths. This lake is situated about 1 mile west from the well-known Okanagan
Valley, 7 miles north from Osoyoos.
On completing our work in this vicinity, camp was moved to Trout Lake, near head of
Arrow Lake, with a view to carry on triangulation across the mountain range to Kootenay Lake.
Unfortunately forest fires were very bad throughout this section and little instrumental work
could be done. Having a fair knowledge of the locality, the party was kept occupied in climbing
the various peaks and setting cairns and signals. Sixteen climbs were made, ranging between
7,000 and 9,000 feet elevation, mostly on the mountains adjacent to the North-east Arm of Upper
Arrow Lake, valley of the Incomappleux River, and north end of Trout Lake between Beaton
and Trout Lake.
In the valleys good agricultural land will be found, with considerable settlement; also a fair
stand of timber, chiefly fir, spruce, cedar, and pine. The mountain-sides are also well forested.
The elevation of timber-line ranges about 7,500 feet elevation, above which heather and grasses
The area covered is well mineralized and considerable mining activity was in progress,
especially in the Camborne area.
Access to this section is -made by Canadian Pacific Railway to Arrowhead; thence by ferry
8 miles to Beaton, from which point automobile-roads serve the district. From Arrowhead good
roads connect all over the Province.
Detail reports on the mineral, timber, and agricultural possibilities can be obtained from
their respective departments, Parliament Buildings, Victoria.
I have, etc.,
By H. D. Dawson.
Kaslo, B.C., December 19th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to present hereunder general report upon my 1929 season's field-work.
My work consisted of extending northerly two existing triangulation nets—first, the Slocan
net on the peaks, and, second, the Kootenay Lake net, both of which had been made by members
of the Canada Geological Survey, the former in 1909, 1910, and 1911, and the latter in 1924.
My bases were the Carlyle-Beaver Stations on the mountains of those names, some 14 miles west
of Kaslo, and the Fletcher-Honeymoon Stations on opposite shores of the Kootenay Lake,
between 4 and 5 miles south of Kaslo. The mountain net was to be extended to stations on
the northerly rim of the Cooper Creek drainage 'area on the west and to the Lavina Mountain
between Hamill and Glacier Creeks on the east, and the lake net to be extended to the north end
of the lake. Suitable connections were to -be made between the two nets and a number of lot
corners on both shores of the lake were to be tied in.
There were to be nine mountain stations and as some had first to be erected it necessitated
fourteen climbs. The lowest station is at an altitude of 6,500; all the others are 7,500 ranging
up to 8,700 feet. Practically all these climbs had to made from lake-level at 1,750 feet above
sea-level, and as the work at the station usually takes around four hours it was rarely possible
to make the whole trip in one day, so that temporary camps were in most cases necessary.
The season at these high altitudes is extremely short; about three months is all that can
be expected; and, to make matters worse, in most years, and in this 'year particularly so, the
smoke from forest fires renders visibility impossible and so shortens considerably even this
short season.
The first climb was made June 25th and we made good progress with no lost time up to
July 28th, when at our Meadow Station we were delayed several hours by smoke. The season
was dry and electric storms without rain frequent, and fires spread quickly, so that smoke
became denser; and after losing a good deal of time, on Wednesday, August 7th, I closed down
operations temporarily until such time as atmospheric conditions would permit of continuing.
For weeks smoke hung in dense palls and the opposite shores 'of the lake, even at its narrowest
parts, would be invisible. The season continued a very dry one without even the usual mid-
August rains, and there occurred a succession 'of strong dry winds which fanned the fires into
infernos quite out of control. With the longer, cooler nights of September conditions were
somewhat relieved and some of the fires had burnt out or died down, though still heavy clouds
of smoke drifted and visibility was very bad. However, I noticed that quite often during calm
nights the smoke would settle 'at the bottom of the valleys and leave the peaks comparatively
clear; this condition obtaining sometimes until nearly noon, when winds and rising air-currents
would stir up the smoke and again hide the peaks from view.
I was now beginning to get anxious to recommence the work, as there were still five peaks
to 'be occupied and the short season was drawing to a close; at almost any time snow might
fall and remain for weeks and make it impossible to complete the work. Therefore I determined
I would take chances on these conditions, and accordingly on September 11th recommenced.
We were quite fortunate; lost only a little time from smoke and a few days from a heavy snow-
flurry, which nicely cleared up the smoke for a while, and so completed the high work on the
last Sunday in September.
I then attended to the lake-shore work and found that each station required a fair amount
of work in clearing out timber, especially those along the west shore. There was still very
little rain; we lost only one day from it, but the succession of strong wind-storms mentioned
before continued, and whilst they did not actually prevent our travelling on the lake they
hindered our speed, hampered our landings on the rocks, and added an element of danger. I
used two different boats and found my Johnson standard twin outboard very efficient. Unfortunately, along with the strong winds we sometimes had very low temperatures for the time of
year, as low as 22° below freezing one morning; and on making one landing, whilst removing
the motor the writer slipped on the ice in the bottom of the. boat and went overboard with the TRIANGULATION, KOOTENAY DISTRICT. E 45
engine. This ruined the Condenser and the coil and some delay was caused until a new
magneto plate could be secured.
We often wished for rain, as even in late October and November heavy smoke would
seriously spoil visibility.
We had no difficulty in finding, flagging, and cutting in a number of lot corners on both
shores of the lake, or in cutting in and connecting with the mountain network, 'and I finished
the net with two stations on prominent knolls about 2 miles north of the end of the lake, and
completed the work on November 21st and closed down my operations for the season.
The area covered extends from about 14 miles west and 5 miles south of Kaslo to about 30
miles north up the Kootenay Lake Valley, and is extremely mountainous with high relief. The
main topographical feature is the Kootenay Lake Valley, with the lake-level at 1,750 feet above
sea-level, into which from east and west flow a large number of small side-streams, mostly
entering the main valley through deep canyons. Kaslo Creek with its South Fork is the largest
of these streams and its valley is wider and not so steep. It affords means of transportation
across to the Slocan Valley by both road and railway.
Kaslo City is the largest settlement within the area, numbering about 600 inhabitants.
There are also a number of small communities—namely, Mirror Lake, 3 miles south, and Shutty
Bench, 4 to 6 miles north, on the same west side of lake, and on the eastern shore Johnson's
Landing, 12 miles north, and Argenta, 18 miles north and near the head of the lake. These four
communities are all ranching settlements and all have their post-offices. There is one other
settlement—namely, Lardeau—on the west shore, 2 miles south from the head of the lake, on the
gravel spit at the mouth of Davis Creek. It is the southern terminus of the Lardeau-Gerrard
branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 33 miles long, connecting Trout Lake with the Kootenay
Lake. The Railway Company has an agent and section crew here; there is a hotel and small
store and post-office and a new one-room school. There is also a small sawmill operated occasionally for a few weeks at a time.    There is no agricultural land here.
On the flats at the head of the lake there are a good many thousand acres of agricultural
land, some of which have been cultivated. At present the flats are mostly -covered by a good
growth of cottonwood and cedar and other timber.
In all the area there is little, if any, unalienated land suitable for occupation. It is practically all privately owned, though there are doubtless a number of parcels which have reverted
back to the Crown for non-payment of taxes.
Kaslo is served by daily Canadian Pacific steamship service to and from Nelson and connecting with the Crow line and points across the line, and by train service three times per week
through the Slocan to' Nakusp and return. On Saturdays the train is taken on the barge by tug
to Lardeau and makes the return trip to Gerrard, and on Tuesday nights the boat continues its
run from Kaslo to all lake points to the north.
There is also an auto-road open for eight months of the year connecting with Nelson, 43
miles, and another open for six months in the year connecting with the Slocan. It is probable
that the former of these roads may, except in very bad winters, be kept open by means of
tractor snow-ploughs. Shutty Bench and Mirror Lake are accessible .to Kaslo the year round
by road.
In addition to the roads mentioned, there is also being constructed the final link in the road
between Rosebery and Nakusp, which, when completed, will give access from Kaslo through the
Slocan to the Arrow Lakes country and thence to the Okanagan. And on the east shore of the
lake there will shortly be linked up numerous stretches of road whereby it will be possible to
drive from Kootenay Bay clear through to Creston, points south of the line and the East
Kootenay Valley, and thence to the Prairies. In this connection a ferry service is projected
from Queens Bay to Kootenay Bay.
The next road to be urged to be constructed is that connecting Shutty Bench with Lardeau
and the Duncan River country, and a side-road up Hamill Creek and down Toby Creek giving
access from Kaslo to the East Kootenay Valley and opening up the Lardeau and Duncan River
countries. DISTANCES.
Kaslo, the chief town within the area, is distant 43 miles from Nelson, and it is 29 miles
to Sandon and the same to New Denver. It is fairly well supplied with modern conveniences
and owns its own water service and electric-light plant. It has its City Hall, Government offices,
post-office, three churches, public and high schools, general stores, hospital, resident doctor,
picture-show, skating-rink, tennis-courts, and golf-course. It is the outlet for much of the
Slocan mining business. The products from the lumbering business are mostly marketed on the
Prairies, though some goes to Nelson, and the ranching products are marketed through the Fruitgrowers' Association, mostly on the Prairies, where Lethbridge and Medicine Hat are twenty-
four hours distant.
Mining is the chief industry and the district owes its first opening-up to the discovery of the
high-grade silver-lead ores of the Slocan. Most of the money circulating in Kaslo is won directly
or indirectly from mining; men whose usual work is lumbering will often be found working in
a mining camp, and the ranchers add to their incomes by taking work for longer or shorter
periods at one or other of the numerous mines in the vicinity. In fact, many a rancher owns a
mining prospect.
None of the Slocan mines are big when compared with some of the really large gold or
copper properties, or even the larger Coeur d'Alene silver-lead mines, and a production that is
stepped up to even 100 tons per day keeps the management busy blocking out reserves. The
Kootenay-Florence, 11 miles south of Kaslo, near Ainsworth; the Cork-Province, 9 miles west;
and the Whitewater, 17 miles west, are the nearest best-known properties. Sandon, distant
about 18 miles due west in a straight line, or 29 by railway and auto-road, is the heart of the
Slocan mining area, and altogether there are about 140 mines which have at some time or other
shipped ore to the smelters.
Very few of the mines have power; most of them are hand-worked and attract a high class
of miner, men who can turn their hand to many phases of mining-work.
Ranching is the next industry of importance and consists chiefly of fruit-growing, cherries,
apples, strawberries, and raspberries, together with a small amount of dairying and cattle-
raising. Most of the ranches have but a few acres cleared; the average would be perhaps 6. or
7 acres cleared. There is no farming on a big scale and no grain-growing. A few have started
raising sheep, but have been at it scarcely long enough to know if it will prove profitable or not.
There is some lumbering, pole, tie, and post making. White-pine logs are shipped to the
match-block factory at Nelson and Cottonwood logs to the veneer-factory, also at Nelson; poles
mostly go across the line to the Eastern States; posts are shipped to the Prairies and ties are
taken up locally by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
The residents in the district, other than those in regular yearly employment, are mostly able
to turn their hand to any part of the work connected with these industries, and so, together with
work obtained on the roads and trails and some forest-fire fighting, are able to make comfortable
livings. In fact, the average standard of living and comfort is probably as high in the
Kootenays as in any other part of the world.      *
The soil differs in the different localities and generally is rocky and sandy loam, though in
places there are strips of clay and sandy clay containing no rocks at all. The soil is not always
of great depth and unless irrigated, especially during the dry months of July and August, is
liable to dry out too much. It is, however, very fertile. There is no lack of water in the
district, and with very little trouble and at small expense can be brought to any part. The soil
and climate are adapted for small ranching, but there is no opening for grain-growing or cattle-
raising on a large scale.
At one time there were excellent stands of timber over the whole area below timber-line at
from 6,500 to 7,000 feet above sea-level, but unfortunately forest fires have destroyed practically
all of it except that on the flats at the head of the lake. The stands consisted of fir, cedar,
hemlock, tamarack, and pine, and on the flats birch and cottonwood additional. Where there
is still some of this standing timber it would cost from $150 to $200 per acre to thoroughly clear TRIANGULATION, EAST KOOTENAY DISTRICT. E 47
and grub the ground, with perhaps another $25 per acre to pick off the rocks. Where the fires
made a clean sweep the stumps would by now be very much rotted and there would be a young
second growth started, and the cost of clearing such ground would be no more than half of the
above figures.
The climate is very desirable. Precipitation on the lake-level amounts to about 30 inches
annually, of which about one-third would be in the form of snow. It is spread over the whole
twelve months, although some months are usually wetter than others. Even July, the driest
month, seldom passes without some heavy rains. At lake-level snow may be expected to lie on
the ground from December to March, inclusive, but as one ascends the foot-hills and mountains
he would find the length of the snow season increase very rapidly. The average hot summer's
day will usually register a little over 80° in the shade, though occasionally the thermometer may
hit 90°. The nights are always cool, hut-there are no summer frosts. The winters are generally
quite mild, with perhaps three short snaps, when the thermometer may drop below zero for a
few days. The minimum low temperature recorded at Kaslo is 14° below zero, which is exceptionally low. For weeks there will not be more than 10° or 15° of frost and midwinter thaws
are quite common.
Game includes deer, white- and black-tail goat, and bear. Some claim there are five species
of bear—namely, black, brown, cinnamon, silver-tip, and grizzly; but ordinarily one classes
them into two only—namely, black, with an occasional one coloured brown, and grizzly. Fur-
bearing animals are fairly plentiful, chiefly marten and ermine or white weasel, and a good
many residents make a fair amount of money by trapping during' the winters. Mallard ducks
on the flats are fairly plentiful and at one time blue and willow grouse were plentiful in the
hills, but of late years these have been very scarce. Cougar, coyote, weasel, and hawks play
havoc with the young grouse and it is generally believed that the two former destroy a large
number of fawns and kids. Undoubtedly also the disastrous forest fires in burning out the cover
have made it more difficult for game to survive, especially in view of the long and wet mountain
winters in so rough a country.
Some of the mountain streams are plentifully stocked with trout and the main lake is fairly
well stocked with Dolly Varden, char, and trout, the former being taken upwards of 25 lb. in
The Kootenays are not likely ever to support any great cities, but they do offer exceptional
chances to any person who is not afraid of work to make a very comfortable living in a healthy
and enjoyable climate amidst magnificent scenic surroundings. Conditions are such that he will
find it possible to quickly break himself in to the various classes of work usually followed, and
the writer confidently recommends the district to any looking for a place to settle.
I have, etc.,
H. D. Dawson, B.C.L.S.
By Wm. Hallam, Jr.
Armstrong, B.C., December 12th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit to you a report on the surveys carried out by me during
the season of 1929, under instructions from the Department of Lands at Victoria.
The party, consisting of two men and myself, left Armstrong on June 3rd. A truck carried
most of the supplies and camp equipment, while the light car wras loaded with office supplies and
the instruments. We travelled via Edgewood to Nelson, ferried to Kuskonook and on to Cranbrook, where I hired a cook. The party proceeded on to Windermere, camping at Stoddard
Creek, about 7 miles north of there. I set the men to recloth the last year's stations that
I would be using, while I made necessary arrangements for supplies, etc. The weather was very unfavourable during the early part of the season, but I managed to
keep going, spending unfavourable days in setting stations.
On July 2nd I moved down the valley to Spillimacheen, where I set the stations for the final
tie to the Dominion triangulation system in the Railway Belt. All these stations were set and
ready for reading early in August, and a few more clear days would have completed this part
of my work, but it became so smoky that it was impossible to do anything. Some days you
could only see a few yards, the smoke was so thick.
On August 14th, there being no prospects of it clearing, I decided to move up the Spillimacheen River to the headwaters of the Middle Fork and tie a number of very old Crown-
granted mineral claims in the International, Bobbie Burns, and Cariboo basins, and some on
McMurdo Creek as well.
By sets of minor triangles and short base-lines I was able to connect up these old claims and
join them to a set of major triangulation stations, and from these to the Dominion stations, and
stations on my own triangulation system in the valley of the Columbia to the east. This part
of the work was rather difficult, as the old surveys were done thirty-five to forty years ago.
The markings on the ground were not easily located, a great number of the old posts having
disappeared. In some places it was dangerous as well, for we had to cross and recross glaciers.
After falling into a crevice and having some difficulty getting out, we went over the most
dangerous places with three men roped together. We had two blizzards in August, one on the
19th and another on the 26th, and about 4 inches of snow with each, which soon melted when
the weather cleared.
I completed this part of the work by September 1st, but the weather was still too smoky
to read my major triangulation system, so I left and moved down the valley to Copper Creek.
We were delayed here a few days in clearing out the trail up Copper Creek. As soon as this
was completed we moved to the head of Copper Creek and made a tie to three very old claims
there. These claims are the only ones that I could not be sure of their position, as none of
the posts found had any markings that were legible, but from old workings and buildings, and
from information received from old-timers, I am reasonably sure the posts we found were on
these old claims. I spent a number of days searching for other posts, but could not find any.
I then moved back to the mouth of Copper Creek and camped there, as it had become so smoky
you could not seen any distance. After waiting two days we had a very heavy rain and snow
storm. All the higher mountains were completely covered with snow. I went up to the head
of the Middle Fork, so that I could read my angles as soon as it cleared. It did not clear for
two days and we were storm-bound in an old mine cabin in the International basin, about 7,700
feet above sea-level. When it cleared it was very cold and the new snow made climbing very
difficult.    I completed reading major triangles and moved back to Copper Creek.
From Copper Creek I moved to Vermont Creek, where I made a tie to five very old claims.
The weather was getting very cold and on October 3rd we had a very bad storm. The last few
days there we were working in new snow from 12 to 14 inches deep. I completed this work on
October 6th and moved out to Spillimacheen, stopping en route to read the Dominion Station D.
On arriving at Spillimacheen I completed the work that I had left earlier in the season and
then broke up camp.
On leaving Spillimacheen I proceeded to Windermere, where I made a tie to an old mineral
claim on Swansea Mountain. The weather was getting very cold and wintry by this time, so-
we started for home via Nelson and Edgewood, arriving here on November 12th, where the party
was disbanded. The part of the road east of Creston was well coated with snow and very icy,
but after we left the Nelson ferry there was very little. There was no snow on the Edgewood
Summit and the road was in excellent condition.
The Columbia Valley being an old-settled district, you wonder why there is not more
advancement there and more settlers. There is good soil in a greater part of the north end of
the valley. All kinds of vegetables, hay, grain, the hardier fruits, and berries of good quality
can be grown. Dairying and stock-raising are carried on in a half-hearted manner. The
greater part of the settlers depend upon outside work for a living. A good deal of the trouble
is due to lack of proper transportation, there being but two trains weekly, and no proper express
service to ensure the produce grown in the valley reaching the consumer quickly and in good
Several fur-farms have been established in this part of the valley in the last few years.
The climate seems to be ideal for the raising of fur-bearing animals. Foxes, beaver, marten,
mink, and muskrat are all successfully raised. It is to be hoped that the fur market holds
good, so that it will help to establish this new enterprise.
There is some timber in this part of the valley—fir, spruce, and tamarack—but it is fast
disappearing or being burned off each year; the remaining timber is very scattered and would
not be profitable to log, except by small portable mills.
There is a large mineral area centring around Spillimacheen and numerous good prospects
held there. It is hoped that with the new interest taken in mining throughout the Province
there will be some good mines developed.
The roads are in very good condition; even under the heavy tourist traffic of this last
summer they have stood up well. They are being widened, relocated, and dangerous curves
gradually eliminated.
The trails up the Spillimacheen have been cleared out during the last summer. Old bridges
and corduroys have been repaired, or replaced by new ones, and the trails are now in excellent
condition. There is a road built as far as Vermont Creek, but it has been very poorly located
and little better than a good pack-trail, although they do haul supplies up to the mine over this
road.    It is quite possible to construct a very good road up the north side of the Middle Fork.
There is very little arable land in the Spillimacheen River Valley; for the most part it has
been burned over and is now covered with a growth of jack-pine and is very gravelly. The
upper stretches of the Middle Fork are covered with numerous slides, some open and some
covered with a thick growth of alder and brush, very little timber remaining in this section of
the river. This branch of the river heads in a large glacier in what is known, locally, as the
International basin.
The game in this part of the country is quite plentiful; deer, goat, bear, both black and
grizzly, and a few moose are found there. We were able to keep the camp supplied with meat
while on this work. Numerous bears were seen and one grizzly shot. It is a much better bear
country for spring hunting than fall, as the bear come out on the open slides in the early spring
and move on as the feed gets better in other localities.
While I was on a fly camp up in the International basin, reading angles, with the packer and
one man, a bear raided the main camp, took nearly all our supply of goat-meat, and just about
scared the old cook to death. They had only one quarter of meat left, so they decided to use
this for bait, tying it to one of the boy's blankets by a long rope, so as to wake him when the
bear touched the meat. It being bright moonlight, it would have been easy to. have shot the
bear while on the bridge. Unfortunately, the cook did not sleep well after his scare and as
soon as he heard the rope tighten he let out an unearthly yell. The bear made off with the
bait, sack, rope, and all. Fortunately, the rope broke or he would have had the blankets as
well. When I returned I asked them why they did not put on a ham and a side of bacon as
well, so that the bear would have a good feed.
It is very rugged and wild country; the scenery from the summits cannot be surpassed
anywhere in British Columbia. If it were a little more accessible it would be a playground for
tourists. The north slopes of the mountains in many cases were almost inaccessible. To get
to Station Vermont, between Vermont and Copper Creeks, from the north side was rather a
problem. We tried two different days to get up on this ridge, but failed. On the third attempt,
by travelling about 1% miles over a badly cracked glacier, then climbing through a chimney
between rocks for about 300 feet, and then by cutting steps over another glacier for 200 yards,
we were able to reach the summit and set the station, thus saving a 60-mile trip around to the
south side of the ridge.
This part of the country has been prospected for years and quite a lot of mining-work
carried on. There is evidence of this in the numerous workings, tunnels, and buildings at
various places throughout this area. In Bobbie Burns basin there is an old mill which was
run by water-power, with the machinery still there. This building will not stand much longer.
In fact, it is a wonder it has stood so long. A number cf the old tunnels that were described
to me by old-timers have been completely covered by slides and no trace of them remains.
Transportation was simplified in the earlier part of the work by the use of a car and a
truck, but when we moved away from the Columbia Valley we had to resort to the good old
pack-horse for our mode of transportation. I was very fortunate in obtaining a good packer,
4 " Gordon Nixon," and his outfit.    Much of the speed with which we carried out this work was
due to his efficiency and willingness to help with any part of the work.
I am indebted to a few of the old-timers and some of the people of Spillimacheen for information and help, especially Bert Low.    The information he gave me I found very reliable.
I have, etc.,
Wm. Hallam, Jr., B.C.L.S.
By F. S. Clements.
Victoria, B.C., December 12th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on triangulation survey, season 1929,
in vicinity of Upper Arrow, Sugar, and Mabel Lakes, Osoyoos and Kootenay Land Recording
Acting under your instructions dated May 30th, 1929, I left Victoria on June 3rd and
travelled by car to Nanaimo, " Princess Elaine" to Vancouver, and thence by car to Vernon,
the poinf of organization, arriving at 2 p.m. on June 6th.
The roads were being repaired along the route and we had to detour at several points, which
made slow travelling with our load of camp equipage.
In brief, your instructions read: " Continue triangulation across divide between Shuswap
Valley and Arrow Lakes. Turn all angles of quadrilateral formed by Triangulation Stations
Upper Saddle, Kuskanax, Hunter, and Big Sister. Tie some surveyed lot between Summit Lake
and Slocan Lake to Triangulation Stations Big Sister and Hunter. Make a tie between Lots
7675 and 7692 and tie both lots to Cape Horn Station. Make a tie between Lots 8035 and 8036
near West Demars."
To carry out the above instructions, angles were turned at thirteen mountain and nine
valley stations, the valley stations being used to tie in the lots referred to in your instructions.
Sixty-four traverse stations were occupied to complete ties to surveyed lots, and Mountain
Stations Mable, St. Leon, and Halcyon were occupied to erect tripods and flags.
Weather Conditions during 169 Days in Field.—Sunshine, 37% days; clouds, haze, smoke,
88% days; rain, 26% days; snow or hail, 16% days; total field-days, 169.
Miles travelled.—In Dodge car, 3,153 ; in boat, 519; with pack-horses, 260 ; with back-packs,
501;  in train, 44;  total mileage, 4,477.
To climb to mountain stations from base camps, aneroid barometer readings gave 29% miles
as the sum of ascents, but did not include the many 1,000-foot drops into ravines and canyons
on the way to and from the stations.
The smoke from forest fires made angle-turning very difficult, and sometimes impossible,
during the greater part of the season. However, I was able to turn all of the angles except
those at St. Leon and Halcyon.
The whole of the area covered is a magnificent panorama of mountains, lakes, and valleys,
about which you have received reports from other surveyors, so that I will only add that the
roads throughout the area are being very much improved, and that if the trails received equal
attention it would reduce the cost of transportation for tourists, hunters, and surveyors.
The party saw one grizzly bear on Park Mountain and three on Saddle Mountain, also signs
on Cranberry, Kuskanax, Hunter, and St. Leon. Two black bear on Porcupine Mountain and
signs on all other mountains climbed. Four caribou on Hunter Mountain and signs on Cranberry
Mountain. Two goat on Hunter and Pinnacle B and signs on Sugarloaf, Big Sister, and Cranberry. Deer, grouse, and fool-hens were seen all over the area and the tracks of a wolverine on
Sugarloaf Mountain.
The area is a paradise for healthy sport. Alpinists may climb mountains varying between
6,000 and 9,000 feet; use their alpenstocks and ropes on glaciers in the vicinity of the Pinnacles, TRIANGULATION, LILLOOET DISTRICT. E 51
Sugarloaf, Cranberry, and Big Sister;   catch fish in the many streams and lakes;   and hunt
for game, both big and small.
The party met only three prospectors in the hills, all of which seemed full of hope. The
St. Paul Mine on Monashee Mountain is still being worked and some mines on Lightning Peak.
Logging operations w7ere being carried on in the vicinity of Lumby, Sugar Lake, Mabel Lake,
Arrow Lake, and along the Nakusp & Slocan Railway, and logging-trucks were in evidence on
all of the roads.
Snow fell on peaks over 7,000 feet on September 20th. Saddle Mountain had a depth of
2 feet on October 28th, Kuskanax 2 inches on November 4th, and snow fell in Nakusp on
November 5th.
The weather became very unsettled on November 12th, so returned to Vernon, and disbanded
the party on November 15th. Left Vernon at 9.25 a.m. on November 16th and arrived at Victoria
at 2 a.m. on November 19th.
I have, etc.,
F. S. Clements, B.C.L.S.
By J. T. Underhill.
November 30th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on my past season's work:—
As you are aware, this consisted of a control triangulation continued northerly from the
vicinity of Green Lake, on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, to a connection with Mr. Davidson's net in the vicinity of Bridge River. A further control net was to have been run from the
above via Lillooet Lake and River, and Harrison Lake, to connect with the Dominion Government control in the neighbourhood of Agassiz, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
This latter work was scarcely commenced.
Before starting on the above work the Station West Lion was occupied in order to obtain
readings that I had been unable to get during the summer of 1928. This necessitated the
re-erection of signals at Little Mountain, Gardener, and Capitol Hill. We were exceptionally
lucky in getting satisfactory readings without any delay on Sunday, June 23rd. In sighting
over the City of Vancouver between the stations mentioned, it is almost essential that the day
be a Sunday, as the various industries creating smoke are then shut down; that the Sunday
selected be almost immediately after rain on account of the dirty atmosphere; and that a
strong westerly wind be blowing to keep the smoke arising from the residential area clear of
the area of the work. I understand that the Geodetic Survey, who were occupying Gardener,
were not so fortunate, being delayed for several weeks.
On completion of the West Lion a start was made early in July on the work straddling the
Pacific Great Eastern Railway. Signals were erected on Ridge and Pern without much trouble,
these being comparatively low stations. Currie was next attempted, but owing to heart-trouble
on the part of one of my party this trip was a failure, and unavoidable delay occurred in having
this man medically examined. The balance of July was much broken by bad weather, causing
many fruitless climbs, the peaks often not clearing for days at a time. One other member of
my party also had to be replaced, he apparently not being able to stand the high altitudes.
Despite these adversities, cairns or signals were erected on Currie, Hatchery, Owl, Flat, Paul
Duffy, and Birken, besides the two stations mentioned earlier, and a post tie set at the southwest corner of Lot 905.    Ridge was also occupied and completed.
August was a most unfortunate month owing to adverse weather conditions. On the 7th
a large fire started close to the mouth of McGillivray Creek, which nearly trapped us in that E 52 REPORT OF THE  MINISTER OF LANDS,  1929.
valley. This fire burnt well on into September in varying intensity, and with large fires in
other parts the smoke nuisance became a distinct handicap. During this month we also had
the worst spell of bad weather during the whole summer. Although there was very little precipitation, and often the weather was clear in the valleys, snow, sleet, and rain on the higher
levels delayed us in one instance for six days on end without being able to do any work whatever. During August cairns were erected on Knowles, White Cap, Elliott, Seton, Nipple, and
Nose Bag; and Seton, Nipple, Nose Bag, Owl, and the post tie to south-west Lot 905 were
occupied and completed with the instrument.
The first two weeks of September were really the only summer weather during the entire
season. The days were warm with scarcely a cloud in the sky, and had it not been for the
smoke would have been ideal for our work. Unfortunately, this fine' spell increased the fire-
hazard and another small fire broke out in the vicinity. This, together with large bush fires
to the south, east, and west, filled the valleys with smoke and lowered the visibility almost to
the vanishing-point. From the 18th to the 25th the weather turned bad again, snow falling
almost continuously on the upper levels and reaching down to about the 5,000-foot altitude.
An attempt was made to climb BIrken during a fine spell in this weather, but had to be
abandoned. The new snow on slide-rock was almost impossible to cross, the party continually
breaking through into cracks and crevices between the rocks. Luckily at this time your
instructions arrived to survey a cemetery-site in the vicinity of Pemberton. This work was at
once undertaken and completed, the weather being ideal at river-level. On September 28th we
moved back to Birken and the following day were successful in reading that station. Although
still troubled by the new snow, we found that during our absence at Pemberton the snow had
receded to about the 6,500-foot level. Similar conditions were experienced in climbing Knowles
on October 1st. On getting back to railway-level on the afternoon of October 2nd it again
commenced raining in the valley, with snow falling on the mountain-sides. This continued
steadily all clay of the 3rd and 4th with scarcely a let-up. Fresh snow was now as low as 5,000
feet again and deeper than before. As I would have to cross a divide of S,000 feet elevation to
reach White Cap and about 7,200 feet elevation to get to Elliott, without considering the climbing
of these peaks themselves, I decided to close down for the season and reached Vancouver on
the evening of the 5th.
During the period September 1st to October 5th, besides surveying the cemetery-site referred
to, the Stations Wedge, Currie, Pern, Hatchery, Flat, Birken, and Knowles were occupied and
completed. Ties were also made to the Indian Reserve corner on Mllooet Lake and to a point
on the Bridge River Power Company's right-of-way.
The area covered in the past season is a high mountainous country broken in a northeasterly and south-westerly direction by the Green, Birkenhead, and Gates Rivers and Anderson
and Seton Lakes. It is intersected in a south-easterly and north-westerly direction by the
Lillooet River and Lillooet Lake. The valleys of the former rivers and lakes are generally
narrow, with steep sides. The Pacific Great Eastern Railway follows this series of valleys in
passing through the Cascade Range to reach the Fraser River at Lillooet.
The Lillooet Valley is comparatively wide, and were it not for troubles with flood conditions,
due to the water backing up from Lillooet Lake, should be more extensively farmed.
At the present time the only easy access to this country is by the Pacific Great Eastern
Railway. This line gives a regular bi-weekly service during the summer months, with special
week-end facilities as far as Lillooet.    During the winter the service is somewhat curtailed.
From Pemberton Station on the railway a good road runs up the Lillooet Valley. This road
allows the settlers to bring their produce to the railway, and thence to the markets of the Lower
Mainland. This summer the road was also used for hauling poles and ties, thus allowing
timber to be taken out that would not otherwise be accessible, and also creating freight for the
railway. Poles and ties were also being taken from several other points along this section of
the railway.
The Lillooet Valley is very fertile and not subject to serious summer frosts. A much larger
area in this valley could be used if protection against flood conditions was provided. The cost
of marketing produce, freight rates, etc., is also a serious consideration when competing with
produce from the Fraser Valley on the open market.
Apart from the Lillooet Valley, the agricultural land in the area covered by me consists
mainly of small parcels scattered along the valley on either side of the Pacific Great Eastern TRIANGULATION, RANGE 1, COAST DISTRICT. E 53
Railway.    Some good fruit, particularly apples and cherries, are grown on the narrow strip of
land lying between Anderson and Seton Lakes.
This country has very interesting possibilities from a mining point of view. About the
vicinity of the Lillooet River the eastern contact with the Coast granite occurs, and quite a bit
of prospecting has been done from here easterly to the Fraser River. A number of claims have
been staked close to the upper end of Lillooet Lake, in the valley of Owl Creek, in the valley of
Duffey Creek, and in the area lying between Bridge River and Anderson and Seton Lakes.
Lime-contacts occur in many places throughout this area.
Some of the properties in the vicinity of Lillooet Lake and Owl Creek were examined by the
Britannia Mining and Smelting Company in 1928. So far very little work, other than assessment-work, has been done on many of these claims, and their possibilities are therefore somewhat of an unknown quantity. In view, however, of the extent of this mineralized belt, it seems
highly probable that some of these properties will ultimately turn out to be mines. If so, it
should be an immense help to the railway in creating freight and other traffic to support the line.
Placer-mining is being actively carried on in the lower reaches of McGillivray Creek, and
gold values have been taken from several of the other creeks flowing into Anderson and Seton
Lakes from the west.
Just outside the scope of my work on the Bridge River slopes, two companies, the Lome and
Pioneer, are actively engaged in developing their properties.
During the past season more game was seen, with the exception of bear, than in 1928.
Probably due to the summer being exceptionally cold in June, July, and the earlier part of
August, there was a very poor crop of berries and bears had to hunt their food in other localities.
From accounts of local residents the valleys of Duffey and McGillivray Creeks are good hunting-
ground for both black and grizzly bear.
Most of the game seen was in that portion lying east and north of the Lillooet River. Goat
are fairly plentiful on the mountains to the south of the railway from Pemberton to Lillooet,
and a few were seen close to the headwaters of McGillivray and Roaring Creeks.
On the higher levels blue grouse were fairly plentiful, particularly in the neighbourhood of
Seton and Bridge River on the north side of the railway. In the bottoms far more willow-
grouse were seen than in 1928 and it would appear that this game bird is increasing in numbers.
The ridge between the valley of the Bridge River an8 Anderson and Seton Lakes is fairly
well stocked with deer. A few were also seen in the vicinity of Birken, on the north side of the
railway, and close to D'Arcy, on the easterly side of Cedar Creek.
Nearly all the streams and lakes of this area are well stocked with trout. They are difficult
to get during the summer months owing to the discoloration of the water due to glacial silt.
The upper valleys of McGillivray and Roaring Creeks deserve special mention. These two
beautiful valleys, with their open meadow lands and gorgeous display of wild flowers, are
similar in many ways to the famous Black Tusk Meadows of Garibaldi Park. If it were not
for the possible confliction with mining interests this would make an ideal park-site.
When the summer resorts along the shore of Anderson Lake become more generally known,
this delightful area will prove an enjoyable mountain trip to their guests, it being easily reached
by a good pack-horse trail. White Cap Mountain, the highest peak in the vicinity, overlooks the
headwaters of Roaring Creek.
I have, etc.,
James T. Underhill, B.C.L.S.
■ By John Elliott.
Vancouver, B.C., November 7th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the surveys made by me for your
Department during the past season:—
My work consisted of a triangulation of the westerly 17 miles of Knight Inlet; portions of
Spring, Retreat, Arrow,  Spiller, and Philips passages;   the easterly end of Queen Charlotte E 54 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1929.
Strait; Weynton Passage; the westerly 16 miles of Johnstone Strait; Eliot and Beware Passages ; and part of Clio Channel; ties being made to practically all existing land surveys along
these waterways and also to three stations of the Dominion Geodetic Survey.
The portion of this inlet covered is really but one of the many channels through the islands
of the Broughton Archipelago through which the inlet proper may be entered, but as it lies in
an almost direct continuation of the lower reaches of the inlet is generally considered as the main
entrance thereto. It lies between Gilford, Midsummer, Owl, and several smaller islands and
rocks on the north and Tumour, Village, Crease, Swanson, and numerous smaller islands on the
south. Except at the mouth, where it is obstructed by many small islands, it is a broad and
deep channel, the only hidden danger noted being Clock Rock, which covers at half-tide and is
located a short distance west of Village Island. The islands on both sides are rough and hilly
and contain no agricultural land. The larger ones, Gilford, Turnour, and Village, have considerable stands of timber mostly held under pulp lease.
This passage, another entrance to Knight Inlet from Queen Charlotte Sound, lies between
Gilford Island on the north and Midsummer Island on the south. It is a wide and deep
channel, but considerably obstructed by islets and rocks. There is no agricultural land on either
side and the timber is sparse and of poor quality.
This passage lies between Gilford Island on the east and Bonwick Island on the west and
extends northerly from Spring Passage for about 6 miles. The navigable channel lies along
the Bonwick shore in the south half of the passage and along the Gilford shore in the north
half. The Gilford shore is heavily indented and for the southerly 2 miles is fringed with a
maze of islets and rocks. Health Bay, about a mile in depth and communicating by a narrow
channel with a lagoon which extends a mile farther inland, and Camp Bay, about a half a
mile deep, are the major indentations. The Bonwick shore is bolder, but towards the north
Grebe Cove, a narrow bight about 300>yards wide, almost bisects the island, and an unnamed bay
a little farther north extends inland for about half a mile. The Fox Islands and a large number
of unnamed islets and rocks cover a considerable area off the north-east corner of Bonwick
IslanA. On Gilford Island, surrounding the bays and lagoon mentioned above, there is a considerable stand of very fair timber held under pulp lease, but on Bonwick Island, though held
under timber licence, the timber would appear to be of poor quality. There is no agricultural
land on either side and no signs of mineral were noticed. An Indian village, " Qua-ya-stnme,"
stands on Gilford Island just north of Health Bay. This is a winter residence of the Kingcome
Inlet Indians, but does not seem to have been much used in recent years.
This passage is a deep and open channel extending for about 4 miles in, a south-westerly
direction from the head of Retreat Passage to Queen Charlotte Strait. It lies between Bonwick
Island on the south and Mars and Hudson Islands on the north. The shores on both sides are
steep and rough. There is no agricultural land and the timber, although held under licence,
appears to be of poor quality.
These passages are narrow channels leading north-west and west from Arrow Passage to
Queen Charlotte Strait, between Mars and Hudson Islands and among the many smaller islands
lying south of Eden Island. None of these islands contain any arable land and but little timber
of any value, nor was any mineral noticed.
Only the east end of this strait was touched this season. It is here about 12 miles wide
from Hanson Island on the south to the mouth of Fife Sound on the north. The eastern shore
is formed by the large mass of islands forming the Broughton Archipelago before mentioned. TRIANGULATION, RANGE 1, COAST DISTRICT. E 55
The strait, being open to the sea and of considerable width, is subject to heavy seas and there
is nearly always considerable swell even on the calmest days. In consequence the islands
bordering it show the effects of surf-action well above high water, and the timber by the force
of the winds is mostly stunted and deformed. The only agricultural land is on Malcolm Island,
which, being one of the few islands of alluvial formation on our Coast, falls in a different
category to the other islands in this vicinity, but as only the extreme easterly point of the island
was seen this summer, a report thereon does not lie within the scope of this report.
This passage leads southward from the east end of Queen Charlotte Strait to Johnstone
Strait, Hanson Island and the Plumper Group lying to the east and the Pearse Islands to the
west, while Stubbs Island lies in mid-channel. It is deep throughout, though somewhat obstructed by the rocks and islets which lie at the west of its entrance to Johnstone Strait. The
islands bordering it are rocky and broken and do not appear to contain any agricultural land
or timber of value.
The portion covered this season lies between Hanson and Cracroft Islands on the north and
Vancouver Island on the south. It is about 2 miles wide and deep and unobstructed throughout.
The Vancouver Island shore consists of a mountain range rising abruptly from the water's edge
to heights of from 3,000 to 5,000 feet, the only break therein being the valley of the river entering
Robson Bight. This valley, though narrow, contains a good stand of pulp-timber and is held
under pulp lease. It also affords, in the opinion of the writer, the easiest grades for any road
leading into the interior of the island in this vicinity, but this advantage is probably offset by
the poor qualities of Robson Bight as a harbour. The timber on the balance of this shore,
though largely held under licence, does not seem to be of any great extent and there is no land
suitable for agriculture. The north shore, though not so high, is still rugged, although in two
places on Cracroft Island an attempt has been made to bring some land under cultivation. On
one of these at the west end of Boat Harbour a great deal of labour seems to have been expended, as borne out by the remains of buildings, an orchard, and quite an area of grass land,
but it is now deserted. The lack of shelter from south-easterly winds would seem a detriment
to this place, where all communication must be by boat. On the other, which lies in a small
indentation to the east of the Sophia Islands, the amount of land cleared or suitable for clearing
is not nearly so large, but it would appear to have been used as a home-site by some one for
many years, but it is also deserted. There does not seem to be any other land along this part of
the strait which could be cultivated. There has been some very good stands of timber on Cracroft Island, but they have nearly all been logged and mostly burned over, with the result that
nearly all small streams have dried up; even several of those which were of sufficient size to be
shown on the charts are now quite dry. The first and only signs of mineral noticed during the
season are on Hanson Island towards the east and where a copper-showing has been worked
to a small extent.
This passage leads southerly from Knight Inlet, past the west end of Village Island to
Beware Passage. It is badly obstructed by rocks and islets. The west end of Village Island
is covered by an Indian reserve on which is the village " Mamalilaculla." This, though really
a winter village, is occupied to some extent during the fishing season. There is one settler on
the south shore of Village Island, just east of the Indian reserve, with considerable improvements.    No other arable lands were seen nor any timber nor mineral.
This passage lies between Tnrnour Island on the north and Harbledown Island on the south.
It is so badly obstructed by rocks and islets near its junction with Clio Channel that it would
seem hardly navigable except by one with accurate local knowledge. Both Tumour and Harbledown Islands contained good stands of timber held under pulp lease, and Tumour Island was
logged some years ago. On Harbledown Island, at west end of Beware Passage, several preemptions were taken up many years ago, and for several years a small store and a post-office
and, I am told, a clam-canning factory were located there, and quite an amount of improvements E 56 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1929.
made. All these are now gone, though I believe that there are two families still resident there.
Tumour Island, if open to location, might afford room for a few home-sites at the head of the
several deep bays which indent its southern shore, but the cost of clearing would be so heavy
that they would only be suitable for fishermen or others who might desire a home with shelter
for their boats during their inactive season. Another Indian village, " Karlukwees," stands on
Tumour Island at the east end of Beware Passage. This is also a winter village and no
inhabitants were seen while working around it.
This channel lies between Tumour Island on the north and Cracroft Island on the south
and extends for about 7 miles from the east end of Beware Passage to a junction with Knight
Inlet between Tumour and Minstrel Islands. It seems a deep and safe channel save for Negro
Rock, which bares at low water and lies in mid-channel about half a mile west of Sambo Point
on Cracroft Island. Both Tumour and Cracroft Islands have had some fair stands of timber
but nearly all of them are now logged. There is no agricultural land and no mineral was
noticed.    There is a salmon-cannery at Bones Bay on Cracroft Island.
Summing up, I would say that of all the lands visited this season none are suitable for
settlement. There is no mineral as yet discovered and most of the timber stands of any magnitude are held under pulp lease. The industries now in action are the logging of timber-sales
by comparatively small operators, and the catching, collecting, and preserving of salmon, this
being now the main industry of the district, so that fish preservation and, if possible, the reforestation of the logged-over lands would seem vital if this district is to be of any value to us
in the future. I would also say that if these hundreds of islands were only a little more gentle
of contour, if the sun shone a little oftener, and if drinking-water were a little more plentiful,
this district would be one of the beauty-spots of the globe, as the miles of narrow and sheltered
waterways, studded with innumerable islets and breaking through unexpected openings, have a
charm for the water tourist which can only be equalled by other portions of our own Coast.
I have, etc.,
John Elliott, B.C.L.S.
By H. H. Roberts.
Vancouver, B.C., December 9th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on surveys which were carried out
by me for your Department during the year 1929:—
About two months of the season were spent on triangulation-work in vicinity of Rivers Inlet,
and the remainder of the time on survey of channels between Campbell River and Shoal Bay,
on the Lower Mainland Coast.
Our work in this vicinity consisted of triangulation of Draney Inlet, which enters Rivers
Inlet on the southerly side about 9 miles from its entrance. At tie was made between this
triangulation and Seymour Geodetic Station, situated on the summit of Seymour Mountain,
4,000 feet elevation, at north-easterly end of Draney Inlet. This work was connected across
country by triangulation and traverse to two stations of the Boswell Inlet triangulation which
was made by J. T. Underhill in 1925.
Rivers Inlet is situated in the section of the Mainland Coast between the northerly end of
Vancouver Island and southerly end of Queen Charlotte Island, and so opens directly into the
Pacific Ocean and is practically unprotected from the full sweep of that ocean. On this account
and because of the high mountains of the Coast Range this inlet has a high rainfall, varying
from 120 to 130 inches per annum ; but the temperature is very even and rather moderate, with
little frost, except at the heads of arms tributary to the inlet, which are occasionally frozen over.
Owing to the moist climate forest fires rarely occur in this district. TRIANGULATION, RANGE 2, COAST, AND SAYWARD DISTRICTS. E 57
Numerous islands are situated at the mouth of Rivers Inlet, of which the largest are
Penrose, Ripon, and Walbran Islands. The first mentioned was surveyed by the writer in
1928. It contains 2,800 acres. Small islands varying in area from 5 to 200 acres lie between
Penrose and Ripon. These island are low-lying, rocky and broken, and covered with a forest-
growth of cedar, hemlock, balsam, and spruce; but the trees in the westernmost islands are
generally stunted and wind-swept from exposure to ocean storms. The area of agricultural
land on these islands is almost negligible.
Two entrances to Rivers Inlet are formed by these islands. The northerly entrance, called
Schooner Passage, is about 1 niile wide at its western end, but contracts to an average width
of a quarter of a mile after passing Penrose Island. Its length is 12 miles. The main entrance
to Rivers Inlet lies to the south of the islands, between the islands and the mainland, and is a
little over 3 miles wide. Rivers Inlet extends in a north-easterly direction about 30 miles and
has an average width of about 1% miles. Wannock River empties into the head of Rivers Inlet,
draining Owikeno Lake, which is about 25 miles long.
Moses Inlet enters Rivers Inlet at the north side, about 8 miles from the head. This inlet,
with its arms, the North and AVest, is 25 miles long and has a \width varying from % to 1 mile.
Draney Inlet, the scene of our survey operations, has a narrow entrance known as
Skookumchuck Rapids. At its narrowest part this entrance is about 400 feet wide. The time
of slack water in these narrows is always later than the turn of the tide in Rivers Inlet, but
the time interval is not constant. It varies from one to two and a half hours. The bigger the
tide the greater the interval. The duration of slack water is about five minutes on the average.
On small tides—that is, tides with less than 13 feet range at Prince Rupert—the passage inward
can be made by a launch, keeping in mid-channel, at any stage of the tide. Outbound the
narrows should be negotiated only at or near time of slack water, as there is a sharp turn in
the stream, forming dangerous eddies and whirlpools; and when there is a swell or wind in
Rivers Inlet tide-rips are formed, increasing the danger. The work in these rapids appeared to
be very interesting to the younger and more venturesome members of the party.
Draney Inlet, with its arms, the North Arm, East Arm, and West Arm, is about 23 miles
long, with an average width of one-third of a mile. A large valley extends northerly from the
upper end of Draney Inlet and possibly connects with the valley occupied by Owikeno Lake.
Boswell Inlet, a branch of Smith Sound about 10 miles long, is separated from the West and
East Arms of Draney Inlet by about 2 miles of low-lying country.
The geological formation in these inlets is the usual granitic rock of the Mainland Coast.
High mountains flank these inlets; though, near the Coast, the hills are comparatively low.
The mountain-sides are rocky, broken, and steep.
These inlets are timbered chiefly with cedar, hemlock, balsam, and spruce. Fir is found
only in Moses Inlet. The timber in Rivers Inlet proper is of rather poor quality. In vicinity
of Owikeno Lake, where climatic conditions are more favourable, the rainfall being only about
60 inches, good stands of fir and cedar are found. Lumber operations on a large scale have not
yet been carried on in this area owing to the distance from the markets of the Lower Mainland
and risk of towing across Queen Charlotte Sound. During the season small logging operators
were working near the head of Rivers Inlet and in Draney Inlet and sending the logs to Ocean
Falls;  and some hand-logging was done in other locations to supply fuel for the canneries.
Salmon-canning is the principal industry in this .district. There are eleven canneries in
Rivers Inlet and four in Smith Sound. An innovation last season in Rivers Inlet was a floating
cannery at Dawson's Landing—alterations having been made and machinery installed in the old
steamer " Princess Beatrice," making her suitable for canning purposes. It is estimated that
the fishing industry in Rivers Inlet gives employment during season to about 2,000 people. The
winter white population of the inlet does not exceed 200.
There is no mining development in the Rivers Inlet District at the present time. Few
indications of mineral were seen during our stay in this area.
Game is plentiful in this portion of the Coast. Deer, goat, and bear were seen in Draney
Inlet.    Numerous trap-lines indicate the presence of fur-bearing animals.
There are several stores, post-offices, and oil-stations in Rivers Inlet and regular steamboat
service is supplied by the Union Steamship Company. E 58 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1929.
Cordero Channel was triangulated from John Point to Dent Island, connecting at the former
with the 1921 triangulation of Nodales Channel by John Davidson and with my triangulation
(1927) of westerly portion of Cordero Channel. Near Dent Island connection was made with
the 1922 triangulation of Mr. Davidson. A tie was required between our work in Cordero
Channel and Tucker Geodetic Station; this station is on Summit of Mount Tucker, elevation
3,000 feet, on Sonora Island. A direct tie was not feasible on account of the timber, so the
triangulation of Cordero Channel was extended along Nodales Channel to include three of Mr.
Davidson's stations, from which observations were made to Tucker Station.
Cordero Channel is 22 miles long, extending from mouth of Loughborough Inlet to Stuart
Island. This channel separates Thurlow and Sonora Islands from the mainland. Rapids .occur
at Green Point, Dent and Stuart Islands. The narrows between the latter islands are called
Euclataw Rapids and are navigable only near time of slack water.
Nodales Channel runs in a south-westerly direction from John Point to Chatham Point,
lying between Lower Thurlow Island and Sonora Island. It is 8 miles long and about a mile
The shore-lines of Cordero and Nodales Channels are rocky, broken, and steep, and well
timbered with fir, cedar, hemlock, and balsam, except where logged or burnt over.
Shoal Bay, on Lower Thurlow Island and on south shore of Cordero Channel, has a store,
post-office, and oil-tanks. The boats of Union Steamship Company make weekly calls here. On
the opposite shore from Shoal Bay, at entrance to Phillips Arm, there is considerable mining
activity at the present time.
Discovery Passage is part of main channel which connects the Strait of Georgia and Queen
Charlotte Sound. It is nearly 20 miles long between Cape Mudge at its southerly end and its
junction with Johnstone Strait at Chatham Point. Its width varies from 1 to 2 miles, excepting
at Seymour Narrows, where the distance across is under half a mile, and through which swift
and dangerous streams run, excepting during a short period of slack water.
North of Seymour Narrows high mountains flank this passage and the formation is chiefly
granitic- The higher elevations are on the Vancouver Island side. Kahnish Bay, Deepwater
Bay, and Plumper Bay on easterly shore and Elk Bay on westerly are the principal indentations.
Plumper Bay is much used for anchorage by boats waiting for slack water in the narrows.
South of Seymour Narrows the hills are of a moderate height and there are large areas of
low and rolling country.
The principal settlements in Discovery Passage are at Campbell River, Menzies Bay,
Quathiaski Cove, Gowlland Harbour, and Kahnish Bay.
A good automobile-road connects Campbell River with the town of Courtenay, which is the
terminus of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway. Campbell River is a port of call of nearly all
coastwise steamers. It has postal, telegraph, and telephone offices, public school, a branch of
the Canadian Bank of Commerce, and a hotel. The Campbell River, from which the settlement
is named, contains the largest water-power capable of development on Vancouver Island.
Quathiaski Cove on Quadra Island, across channel from Campbell River, has a post-office,
telephone facilities, two stores, and a cannery.
Gowlland Harbour, to the north of Quathiaski Cove, is a little over 2 miles in length, with
an average width of a third of a mile, and affords good anchorage. It is much used for logging-
booming grounds. Shipments of copper ore were made some years ago from vicinity of Copper
Cliffs near northern end of this harbour, but at the present time there is no mining being done
in this locality.
Menzies Bay is a deep indentation on west side of Discovery Passage, on south side of
Seymour Narrows, and has a post-office, store, and school at Bloedel. Logging on a large scale
is being conducted here.
Kahnish Bay, on east side of Discovery Passage, has a wide entrance and is over 2 miles
deep. It has a post-office, two stores, and a weekly boat service. In past years it was the scene
of large logging operations.
The rainfall in this district varies from 80 to 100 inches; snowfall is light and there are no
summer frosts. Topographic conditions and heavy clearing of timbered lands make the amount of land
suitable for agriculture limited.
I have, etc.,
H. H. Roberts, B.C.L.S.
By Fred. Butterfield.
Victoria, B.C., December 2nd, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report of my survey activities and work accomplished
while in the field under your instructions, dated August 12th, 1929:—
Briefly, my instructions were to proceed to Chilko Lake and take over the work already
commenced by R. P. Bishop, B.C.L.S., who was at that time employed on topographical and
triangulation surveys in that vicinity. This work included co-operation with the Water Rights
Branch party already on the ground.
Accordingly, I left Victoria on August 14th and arrived at Chilko Lake on the morning of
August 19th, where I found Mr. Farrow, B.C.L.S., of the Water Rights Branch, camped on
the lake-shore at Stickelon Pass.
I had thus far been fortunate in having made good progress. Mr. Farrow, however, I found
wind-bound and awaiting a favourable opportunity to get to the head of the lake to join Mr.
Bishop there. This circumstance was also very fortunate for me, as otherwise I should have
found it extremely difficult to reach Mr. Bishop's camp.
The weather continued extremely windy for some days, and though frequent attempts were
made to start, it was not for almost a week that there was sufficient lull in the wind to permit
travel, even with Mr. Farrow's large engine-equipped boat. We ultimately connected with Mr.
Bishop, and after thorough discussion of the work in hand Mr. Bishop left for Victoria, and I
took over.
Speaking of wind, Chilko Lake is worthy of special mention. Certainly, so far as my
experience has been on various lakes in the Province, Chilko Lake will be remembered as
consistently the roughest of them all.
To undertake any extensive work here, one would be well advised to come especially equipped'
with good sea-boats, or, in the alternative, be prepared to build suitable trails from point to
point. Prior, however, to entering upon a more detailed description of Chilko Lake and the
work in hand, permit me to return to the Pacific Great Eastern Railway and describe briefly the
various routes by which one may approach the country.
Williams Lake, on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, is the natural place to commence.
From here one may take the Chilcotin stage, which ordinarily runs once or twice weekly, depending on distance, or one might take private car and travel some 150 miles south-westerly to
Tatla Lake, passing en route Hanceville, Alexis Creek, and Redstone. This road continues in
fairly good condition past Tatla Lake to the Klinaklini country. Some 8 or 10 miles short of
Tatla Lake, at a point locally known as Tatlayoko Turning, a road forks southerly and continues
to the north end of Tatlayoko Lake. This road has been improved considerably during the
summer and is passable for a car, but still extremely rough.
Some 5 miles from Tatlayoko Lake a trail has, where necessary, been slashed, giving access
to the north end of Chilko Lake. This comes out at a point known as the Fishery Cabin and
lightly loaded wagons can be used over it. This and all other trails connecting with Chilko
Lake are entirely ungraded and extremely rough, with frequently very steep pitches.
From several points on the Tatlayoko Road one might turn in with wagon and arrive at
Chilko Lake without any more than ordinary pioneering difficulties. Two other trails leave the
Chilcotin Road, either of which probably will aggregate a shorter distance between Williams
Lake and Chilko Lake.
The first of these commences at Hanceville and comes out on Chilko Lake at the foot of
Nemaia Valley. It, however, crosses the Taseko or Whitewater River en route, which apparently is a turbulent stream, as I was advised to ford it, but it was impossible in August.    The second trail just mentioned leaves the Chilcotin Road near Redstone and ultimately connects
at Lingfield Creek with the trail from Tatlayoko Lake Road. Mr. Farrow took a car over this
route as far as Lingfield Creek, but it cannot be recommended as a'motor-road to any one driving
for pleasure. Connecting the north end of Chilko Lake with Nemaia Valley, a trail skirts
behind or to the east of Tsuniah Mountain and thus provides an alternative route to Nemaia
Valley when the Whitewater is too high.
This is the total of transportation routes excepting the more modern one—by air. Aeroplanes have been used during the summer as a means of communication to this part of the
country. Landings were made at Tatlayoko Lake. If, in the future, air-travel is to be used in
this district, Chilko Lake, I should think, should be either avoided as much as possible or
approached with great care on account of the winds and seas already mentioned. There are
various other lakes easily accessible that would certainly present a much smoother surface.
Chilko Lake is approximately 45 miles long and is fed by a number of small streams, for
the most part of glacial origin. It lies in the vicinity of the 124th meridian and extends in
latitude from approximately 51° 05' to about 51° 40' north. Like most of the British Columbia
lakes, it is long and narrow, having a greatest width of approximately 5 miles. Fifteen miles
or so from the head of the lake an arm extends to the westerly for about 5 miles. This is
called Franklyn Arm, so named after a certain gentleman of that name who once made a
historical trip with horses along Chilko Lake up Franklyn Arm and through to the Coast. Incidentally, it is said, he arrived there with one animal.
However, Mr. Farrow used horses through a good portion of this country this year and
found pack-horse transportation quite an advantage. The mountainous sides of Chilko Lake
are frequently cut transversely with passes, the result of glacial scars. Possibly the largest of
these is Stiekelon Pass, on the west side of the lake, which in its continuation to the east side
is known as Nemaia Valley, where exists an Indian village and much useful land.
So far as possible transportation for the future is concerned, Chilko Lake might be
approached by roads through any or all of the various valleys that come down to the lake
between Franklyn Arm and the north end of the lake, but to provide immediate and direct road
transportation from the Coast to the south end or head of Chilko Lake would be an entirely
different matter. The south end of Chilko Lake is entirely hemmed in with mountains, and the
pass which we used in going over to Bishop River is glacial covered, about 7,000 feet in altitude,
and presents terrific obstacles in the way of road-construction. This fact may have considerable
bearing on the suitability of the head of the lake for a tunnel portal. From the head of
'Franklyn Arm one could undoubtedly locate a road through to the Coast, but the difficulties of
construction would be great and the cost high.
As already stated, actually pack-horses were used by Mr. Farrow over this divide and part
of the way down the Southgate River in the course of the season.
The nearest telephone, telegraph, post-office, and school services are at Tatla Lake.
The primary object of my work there was to simplify to some extent the w-ork of the Water
Rights Branch by using triangulation methods for the fixation of points useful to them. The
programme was a long one, more especially so on account of the lateness of arrival; but, nevertheless, much topographical information was obtained and; in addition, a large number of points
wrere fixed in altitude and geographically.
Chilko Lake lies at an altitude of some 3,850 feet above sea-level, and while it drains
northerly, yet in both a westerly and southerly direction its water might be carried by means of
engineering-works in a comparatively short distance to a much lower level, thereby offering huge
power possibilities. This circumstance warranted a fairly complete preliminary examination by
the Water Rights Branch. That body no doubt will be preparing an extensive report thereon;
but, nevertheless, in view of the fact that your Department was co-operating with the Water
Rights Branch in this matter, it will be necessary for me to refer to their work from time to
time in the course of this report.
At the head of Chilko Lake and on the westerly side there is a mountain named Mount
Chilko, and lying between this and the next mountain north is a glacier-covered pass. This
one may cross and thus arrive on the Coast slope. One of the suggested power schemes has been
to tunnel through this mountain, thus diverting the water of Chilko Lake to a much lower level
in the vicinity of Southgate River, which in turn empties into Bute Inlet. TOPOGRAPHICAL RECONNAISSANCE, RANGE 2, COAST DISTRICT. E 61
Both the Water Rights and the Survey Branch parties, therefore, crossed this divide. The
former then proceeded with a traverse and line of levels down the Bishop River, a branch of the
Southgate, while the latter set and occupied stations on the higher peaks, forming a triangulation net which would ultimately connect with the major triangulation of the district, and thus
afford a comparatively accurate and simple means of controlling the AVater Rights' work below.
Mr. Farrow, continuing with his party, arrived at the head of Franklyn Arm. There we
ultimately met again and continued the system of co-operation, as the pass at the head of
Franklyn Arm was also deemed worthy of special investigation.
Co-operation between the two parties was more or less carried out according to prearranged
schedule. Thus it happened it was found necessary to delay the occupation of certain triangulation stations at the head of the lake for the time being, Mr. Farrow having arranged for
our transportation to and around Franklyn Arm. AVhile here in September we were unfortunately delayed by heavy smoke, immediately followed by snow. From here both parties moved
down to Stickelon Camp, the place where I had first found Mr. Farrow. Here again we cooperated in the establishment of suitable stations to govern the portals of a possible tunnel at
this point.
Following this, Mr. Farrow moved out, and the snow having to a great extent disappeared,
except on the mountain peaks and north slopes, and the weather appearing favourable, your
party again moved to the head of the lake, only to be again disappointed by an absolute break
in the weather, which occurred almost before our arrival there. Nevertheless, a busy week was
put in in this vicinity. A short base was measured and a series of stations erected and occupied,
with the object that, should it be impossible to occupy the high stations, there would still be
sufficient information to control the work in hand, though, of course, with a lesser degree of
accuracy. It was indeed fortunate that this was done, as the subsequent weather proved
absolutely unsuitable for mountain-top observing.
AVhile at Stickelon various of the major triangulation stations (Bishop and Davidson's)
had been cut in from various stations on the lake-shore. On returning to Stickelon a triangulation based on this work was continued northerly to the foot of the lake and special attention
directed to points where the water of Chilko Lake might be diverted.
In the course of the season some 500 to 600 photographs were taken for topographical
purposes. The work of plotting from these photos is now under way, and considering the size
of the camera and other conditions the results are very pleasing. It is hoped that a major
portion of the watershed of Chilko Lake will be plotted in this manner.
Portable, home-made wireless equipment was carried by myself, consisting of a low-power,
short-wave Hartley circuit transmitter and receiver. This proved of material benefit to both
departments, communication between camp and your office, as well as elsewhere, being maintained with little or no other difficulties than those of weather conditions. A great future
awaits this type of communication. Where a ready means of communication is to be desired,
especially on expeditions similar to ours, short-wave, low-power wireless is most earnestly
AVild instruments were used throughout and gave good satisfaction. As was the case last
year, various astronomic observations were taken in the course of the work, utilizing precise time
obtained by wireless from U.S. Government Station NAA at Arlington, Virginia.
The whole of Chilko Lake lies in the Dry Belt, yet there is quite a difference between the
climate at the head of the lake and that at the foot, while the demarcation of the Coast flora as
it changes from that of the Interior is very pronounced For instance, the hillsides on the north
side of the mouth of Franklyn Arm appear typically Dry Belt, while those on the south convey
a strong Wet Belt impression.
Apart from the Indian reserve in Nemaia Aralley, there is no settlement in the vicinity of
the lake, and, indeed, the Indians only appear about the lake during the trapping, hunting, and
fishing seasons. Big game consists of moose, mule-deer, bear, goat, and numerous fur-bearing
animals, while bird game consists of grouse, prairie-chicken, ptarmigan, ducks, and geese in
Fish in Chilko Lake, I imagine, are quite plentiful, but yet difficult to capture. There are
several different varieties of trout, including rainbow, Dolly Varden, a speckled and a silver
trout. AVithin the lake itself none of these appear to be willing to take spoon, minnow, fly, or
any ordinary baits. Some, however, were caught by first catching suckers, of which there is a
plentiful supply in the lake, and using a night line with these as bait.   The rainbow trout are E 62 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1929.
caught quite easily at the foot of the lake where the Chilko River commences, using spoon or
minnow.    These are indeed beautiful fish, ranging in weight up to 15 lb.
Different kinds of salmon find their way to Chilko Lake and the spawning-grounds at the
mouths of the various streams. Sturgeon are reported as occasionally appearing in the lake
from time to time.
Apart from the district surrounding the very head of Chilko Lake, the country is undoubtedly a grazing one, although not in use as such as yet. Numbers of wild horses are to be
seen from time to time. These probably will prove somewhat of a pest shortly unless systematically destroyed. Certainly, it would appear reasonable that in these days of mechanical
transport the ranges could be better employed raising beef.
On the exceedingly steep slopes of the Southgate and Bishop Rivers the timber is noteworthy as of good size and quality and worthy of examination. Around Chilko Lake, generally
timber is sparse, with little or no underbrush, typical of the Dry Belt. While this vicinity has
been described as pre-eminently range country, garden-truck does very well on the Tatlayoko
Road, where fruits, including strawberries, have been tried and yield good crops.
Various photographs illustrating this report will be submitted later.
I have, etc.,
F. Butterfield, B.C.L.S.
By AAr. J. H. Holmes.
Victoria, B.C., December 1st, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report upon my work and the country
covered by it during the season of 1929 on the west coast of Vancouver Island:—
The work consisted of triangulation surveys of part of Nootka Sound and of Espinosa Arm
of Esperanza Inlet, defining the shore-line and principal natural features, and with ties to all
existing land surveys adjacent.
The survey of Nootka Sound was a continuation of my survey of 1927, the base-line being
that established in 1925 at the mouth of the Gold River, Muchalat Arm, and the survey of
Espinosa Arm was a continuation of my survey of 1928 of Esperanza Inlet.
Almost all of my triangulation stations were permanently marked with the regulation bronze
plug set in cement in a hole drilled in solid rock, and stamped with the letters " B.C." and the
number of the station.
To those with knowledge of the history of this corner of the world Nootka Sound is well
known, for it was here that the first settlement on the North-west Coast of America was established nearly 150 years ago, when the fur-traders made it their headquarters on this Coast. The
sound was discovered by Captain James Cook in 1778, was seized by warships of Spain in 1789
and fortified, and so became the subject of serious dispute between that country and ourselves,
which difference was settled by treaty in the year 1790, and it was here that Captain Vancouver,
on behalf of the Crown, met the Spanish Commander Don Quadra and arranged the carrying-out
of the terms of the treaty, whereby this part of the Coast, and incidentally what is now known
as British Columbia, became indisputably British territory.
Since those days and with the springing-up of settlements in more advantageous localities
the comparative importance of Nootka Sound has dwindled, and though well known to seafaring
men and those engaged on the west coast in fishing, logging, prospecting, etc., it is to most of
them only one of the numerous indentations cutting in all directions into the west coast of
Aranccuver Island, providing many hundreds of miles of protected waterways and innumerable
safe harbours.
There is a great similarity of appearance in all the west coast sounds and inlets and Nootka
and Esperanza are not exceptions. Mountains to an altitude of 5,000 feet and more, precipitous, and many capped with perpetual snow, rising in undulating abruptness direct from
the water's edge, with the lower slopes densely timbered with fir, hemlock, cedar, and spruce.
The shores are almost continuously steep and rocky, with here and there little gravel beaches;
and many islands, singly and in groups and in variety of shapes, some with only a few trees,
giving the appearance of potted plants, all assist in relieving the monotony of view. COAST TRIANGULATION, NOOTKA DISTRICT. E 63
The country thereabouts is too mountainous and the few small stretches of flat lands in the
valleys and at the mouths of streams are usually too stony and with little soil for it ever to
become an agricultural one in the usually accepted sense, but many small patches in size up to
an acre or two exist capable of being cleared and cultivated in fruits and vegetables, the climate
being particularly suitable, especially where lands are protected the sea winds.
Fishing is at present the outstanding industry on this part of the Coast, six pilchard-
reduction plants and canneries being in operation in Nootka Sound and Esperanza Inlet as
Nootka Packing Company, with plant situated on the west side of Nootka Sound, about 2
miles north of Friendly Cove. This is both a reduction plant and a cannery with a capacity of
about 200 tons of pilchard and 2,400 cases of salmon and pilchard per day.
Canadian Packing Corporation, a reduction plant exclusively, situated on the north side
of Hecate Channel, with a capacity of 300 tons of pilchard per twenty-four hours.
Gosse Packing Company, plant situated on the south side of Hecate Channel, is both a
cannery and reduction plant, with a capacity of 300 tons of pilchard and 1,600 cases of salmon
per day.
Hecate Fish Products, Limited, a comparatively small plant with a capacity of about 90
tons of pilchard per day; situated on the south side of Hecate Channel at the head of a bay
and 1% miles east of the Gosse plant.
Island Packing Company, a reduction plant with capacity of about 200 tons of pilchard per
twenty-four hours, and situated in Queens Cove, Esperanza Inlet.
Canadian Fishing Company, Limited. This is a new plant erected last year on the east side
of Espinosa Arm at the south end or the mouth of a branch known as Little Espinosa Arm,
Esperanza Inlet. This is a reduction 'plant only, with a capacity of about 200 tons of pilchard
per day.
On the east side of Esperanza Inlet is also the plant of the Tahsis Fishing Company, a
salmon dry-saltery operated only during the season of the salmon run.
The timber of Nootka Sound and Esperanza Inlet is principally hemlock, cedar, Douglas
and balsam fir, and spruce, and has as yet hardly been touched. Some little hand-logging has
been done in places, but this year operations on a larger scale have been begun by the Estevan
Logging Company, which is cutting on the west side of Bligh Island on Lots 103 and 104 and on
T.L. 1037, several donkey-engines being employed. The logs are loaded into hulks and thus
towed to their destination.
The fox-farms which I have referred to in previous reports—one on Junction Island, Nootka
Sound, owned by Messrs. Harris and Tooley, and the other on Centre Island, Esperanza Inlet,
operated under lease by a Mr. Greaves—are both flourishing and apparently successful.
The climate is mild and rarely falls below 20° in winter at sea-level, while in summer the
mamximum will run from 70° to 90°, according to the immediate locality. AATild life is very
plentiful, the mountains and valleys teem with deer, and in places elk are fairly numerous.
Black bear are everywhere, and of fur-bearing animals otter and mink are to be found. Blue
and willow grouse are obtainable but not plentiful, but during the winter months duck of all
kinds abound, also geese, and a few swan are sometimes seen.
Regarding transportation and accessibility, the west coast of Vancouver Island is served in
respect to passenger, mail, and freight services by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, with
one boat making the round trip three times each month from Victoria throughout the year, with
an extra boat during the summer months making the trip each week as far as Port Alice. These
boats call at all canneries and other plants en route and wherever else business may offer.
Post-offices serving Esperanza Inlet are Ceepeecee and Hecate, both in Hecate Channel, and
Centre Island Post-office. Mail may be sent also to or from Queens Cove and Espinosa Arm in
care of the Island Packing Company and the Canadian Fishing Company respectively. The
post-office on Nootka Sound is located at the plant of the Nootka Packing Company and named
" Nootka."    Telegrams may be sent to or from Ceepeecee or Nootka.
(Supplies may be purchased at Nootka, Ceepeecee, Hecate, Queens Cove, and Espinosa Arm, the
reduction plants each having their own store, primarily for the convenience of their employees.
I have, etc.,
By W. S. Drewry.
A^ictoeia, B.C., December 21st, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Having been instructed to survey right-of-way for the road from Sooke village to
Jordan River, a distance of some 23 miles, I beg to report as follows:—
According to information obtained from some of those engaged in earlier construction, this
road was made as cheaply as possible to serve the needs of settlers and loggers, from house to
house and camp to camp, following lines of least resistance, avoiding large trees and stumps by
going around them, thus in a large measure accounting for its sinuosities.
As horse-drawn vehicles only were used at that time and funds scarce, very sharp turns
and severe grades were used, notably in the vicinity of Tugwell, Skookum, Muir, and Kirby
(Coal) Creeks. Gradual improvement has taken place, much of the old road near the above-
mentioned creeks having been abandoned and a new road constructed with grades of not over
8 per cent, and easy curvature.
Changes of first-class order have also been made from Jordan River southerly some 2 miles
to Sandstone Creek, and a revision from that point to French Creek has been surveyed and
partially constructed.
Widening the balance of the road, with some change of location on Lots 24 and 15, Sooke
District, and a cut on the crown of the hill on Lot 37, Otter District, will make a good road
throughout, which will amply serve settlers, tourists, and growing commercial movements.
The prime reason of survey was to procure a plan complying with Registry Office requirements, so that the portion taken from each lot or section for road purposes should be clearly
shown. In addition, the survey was to be so laid down upon the ground as to permit the
straightening of minor sinuosities and have the finished road on the right-of-way marked out.
This was not always a simple procedure and necessitated careful study of various factors
After trying running traverse-lines along the side of the road it was found more expeditious
and satisfactory to follow the centre of the road as it was to be when widened and improved;
any interference from traffic being more than compensated for by time and labour saved in
cutting line through the dense growth of salal and bracken, interspersed with huge stumps
covering most of the right-of-way, except the travelled portion of the road.
It was also found advantageous to first go over the road, studying conditions and placing
traverse-station hubs well in advance of instrumental work and ehainage, obviating revision of
traverse to suit ever-changing conditions. The hubs were w7ell driven to prevent removal by
traffic, especially tractors and graders used in surfacing the road, and were witnessed by
reference stakes on the side of the road.
The included angles from station to station were read clockwise, thus doing away with
mistakes as to deflections being right or left.
The ehainage was performed with a Lufkin tape 300 feet long, read to tenths of a foot;
all slope measurements being reduced to level.
AAThen this had been done, usually the angle at each station was bisected and galvanized-iron
posts 3 feet long, marked R, driven on either side of the right-of-way so as to give a width of
66 feet, or more as desired, at any point. To save time in calculating the necessary measurements a table was computed for various deflections, so that the required quantity could be
taken out at once by inspection.
If, however, the deflection at any point, or the summation of deflections in the case of
short courses, amounted to 45° or more, the tangent points of circular or compound curves
were marked by posts planted on the limits of the right-of-way so as to permit retaining the
existing road-bed for a foundation as far as possible.
All angles were read twice independently and all courses check-chained to guard against
mistakes other than the small errors incidental to survey. PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, OSOYOOS DIVISION. E 65
The bearings of courses carried forward by account were checked frequently by observations
of the sun, these in turn being occasionally checked by observations of Polaris at elongation.
Close agreement was obtained when the sun could be observed at a proper altitude near the
prime vertical, but results in October were not so good, although serving as a guard against
The traverse and marking of road right-of-way can be carried on quite expeditiously; but
hunting up and connecting corner posts in a country such as that between Sooke and Jordan
River is a major operation of slow development. The lots and sections appear to have been
originally surveyed by compass, different magnetic declinations having been used, and as much
as nearly 5° difference in angles supposed to be 90° was found. Most of the country has been
logged off and a great deal of the evidence of survey utterly destroyed. The character of
logging-refuse, second growth, salal, and bracken make hunting for a post somewhat comparable to " looking for a needle in a haystack."
The method evolved after some experience was to keep computation of the road traverse up
to date, and from this as a base, using a known corner as zero, traverses were run to supposed
positions of corners sought and careful examination of the vicinities made. It was necessary
to run traverses because of large stumps and portions of giant trees lying on the ground generally
precluded running straight lines at any reasonable cost. The method of procedure outlined
gave the best results, although/in some cases it failed because posts, bearing-trees, and all traces
of survey had been wholly obliterated.
The country traversed by the road is rough, with tracts of good land in the valleys and
on benches flanking high rocky hills and fir-clad ridges. Much of the lower levels has been
logged off aiid limited areas cleared for agricultural purposes. Some of the logge.l-off land
might possibly be brought into use as pasture if carefully burned over and seeded. Owing to the
nature of logging-refuse, second growth, underbrush, and large stumps, it does not seem possible
that much of it can be brought under cultivation profitably.
Good camp-sites for tourists could be established without much cost at the mouths of
Tugwell and Muir Creeks.
There are other areas which may be in demand for summer homes, owing to the Splendid
panoramic views of the Strait of Juan be Fuca and the Olympian Mountains obtainable at
many points. The strait is becoming a busy thoroughfare, and passing craft of all descriptions,
from giant ships to tiny fishing-boats, give a touch of life, while drifting clouds and sea-wrack,
with ever-changing colouring, lights and shadows, give very beautiful and sometimes magnificently grand effects.
I have, etc.,
AV. S. Drewery, B.C.L.S.
By R. D. McCaw.
A^ictoria, B.C., December 12th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have .the honour to report upon photo-topographical surveys in the Kettle River
Valley, which you directed me to continue during the past season. Your letter of instructions,
dated May 27th, 1929, requested that the previous season's work be extended southerly over the
watershed of the main Kettle River, and also if possible to extend over the areas at the headwaters of the Granby and Westkettle Rivers, bearing in mind the desire to cover all of the
unmapped portion of the Kettle Aralley Sheet of the Degree Sheet Series.
I commenced the organization of my party at A'ernon on June 6th and moved out to the
summit of the Vernon-Edgewood Road on the 8th. I had taken over the new Ford light motortruck, and this, with a larger truck which I hired, conveyed us and equipment to our destination. I might say that the very soft state of the road on the heavy grade nearing Monashee Pass
.caused great difficulty in getting the heavy truck through. Camp was located on the site of our
last camp of the previous summer.    The packer arrived with the pack-horses the next day.
Many of the previous year's signals were still standing, but it was necessary to put up a
couple of new signals for future stations. In addition, two of the old signals were reconditioned.
For access to the country to the south we decided to use the trail along Strutell Creek, which
connected with the trail down the Kettle River. To use this it was necessary to connect it with
the road at a point about 1 mile easterly from the Kettle River Crossing.
On Wednesday, June 12th, we moved over this trail to the junction of Mclntyre Creek with
the Kettle River, leaving our truck parked off the road where the trail left the same. For the
next week rain delayed us at intervals and several days were lost. AVhen weather permitted,
photographic stations were occupied in the vicinity and work on the trail continued down the
west side of the river. We moved to the mouth of Bisson Creek on the 21st and forthwith continued our system of stations down the river. On the 27th another move was made to the mouth
of Bruer Creek. From here a new trail was opened up westerly which gave access to the
plateau at the head of that creek. This plateau is part of that extensive table-land forming the
headwaters for Mission, Harris, and Ferry Creeks and the Westkettle River. Several stations
were done in the vicinity of Bruer Creek, as well as improvements on the trail south along the
river, prior to our move to the plateau on July 10th.
From July 10th to 21st surveys were done in the plateau country. The only prominences
giving photographic stations that could be of value were the ridges of Jubilee and Moores
Mountains, so photographic work had to be supplemented with considerable traverse in which
the chain or stadia was used at times as a base, with paced traverses from such to fill in detail.
In country of this type and at such an altitude (over 6,000 feet) much time could be spent in
getting detail, but it would curtail the possible work for the season to such an extent that I
decided to locate important features only. I might say in passing that the plateau is a beautiful
semi-alpine park-like country and is a delight to travel through. Much open area occurs and it
is very easy to travel about. The timber consists of balsam, jack-pine, and spruce, and in the
higher parts is found in belts and patches in the open grass land, which is thick with wild
flowers, giving a very beautiful setting.
As time would not permit extending south of Moores Mountain, on July 22nd we moved
back down to our former Bruer Creek Camp and a day or two later moved down the Kettle to
the mouth of Quartz Creek (local name). This was our southernmost camp on the river, but
photographic stations were continued south for a short distance below this point. The difficulty
of getting the river from views made it necessary to run stadia traverse for a very considerable
distance. This was done from the Quartz Creek Camp and from our former camp at Bisson
Creek, to which we returned on July 30th. AATe also occupied a previous station here in order
to observe angles to stations occupied after that one.
We now moved back to the A'ernon-Edgewood Road to the bridge over the Kettle River, in
order to occupy two stations in the vicinity before moving to the Lightning Peak area. Unfortunately, smoke drifted in and delayed matters insomuch that but one was done. On August
5th we moved down Inonoaklin Creek to " The Crossing " at the foot of the projected road to
the Lightning Peak mineral area. A day was spent here in order to reconnoitre the trail and
get more readings from a tie station on Eureka Mountain ridge. The day following we moved
9 miles up the trail to the plateau country north of Lightning Peak, and the next day I occupied
Lightning Peak some 9 miles south. A forest Are had been burning north of the mountain, but,
in charge of the rangers for the district, was almost out. While at work in the Lightning Peak
Station another Are some miles to the south-east, on the Granby River, was noticed and was
reported the next day. Later this Are spread rapidly and gave us no little concern. Smoky
atmosphere now became general and it was necessary to stop photography, so the traverse
required on streams and trails was commenced in order to locate features that our views
would not.
From a camp at the Rampalo Mine, to which we moved on August 13th, the traverse-work
was continued; the atmosphere still continuing smoky, although we partially completed one
camera station. The Granby River Are was now travelling north and on the 13th was moving
at a terriAc rate, threatening our position so that we moved to the open slope of Lightning Peak.
Ten days later a fly camp was taken to the Dictator Mineral Claim, and until the 23rd we were
engaged on traverses and one camera station in that locality.    A heavy shower occurred on the 23rd and we attempted three stations from the main camp the day following, but smoke prevented their completion. Traverse was again started and completed for the locality on the 27th.
Until September 2nd we could do nothing on account of smoke. Light showers cleared the air
to some extent and again occurred on the 4th, so that from the 2nd to the 8th we were able to
complete fourteen photographic stations and reoccupy Lightning Peak.
Our next camp was located near the head of the Granby River, reaching this by the Sand
Creek Trail traversing newly burnt-over country. Almost the whole area had been fire-swept a
few days before and was a very desolate-looking country. Fires were still burning in the green
timber left. * From September 10th to 13th ten stations were done about the headwaters of the
Granby River and in vicinity of Galloping Mountain. Both triangulation stations, established
by Mr. Clements, B.C.L.S., were occupied for transit readings and photographs.
The fire conditions to the south did not warrant trying to continue our work farther in that
direction, as the Granby River fire had spread east and west, south of Lightning Peak, and was
burning strongly in many places, so we moved back to try and complete photographic work
adjacent to our first camp in the area. Dense smoke drifted in and prevented either camera or
transit work. AA7hile this condition was at its worst, stormy weather with snow came and did
not clear until September 25th. As snow was hiding many signals .and the season was getting
late for satisfactory camera-work in high altitudes, further delays were inevitable, so I moved
down to the road and paid off all but one man, whom I kept with me. The snow on south slopes
was disappearing rapidly and we were able with long trips up the trail to complete three
stations near the previous camp. Snow on north slopes caused difficulty in seeing signals, but
a sufficient number were read to fix the stations. One other station was occupied on Eureka
Mountain with the smoke condition beginning again. AVe packed up on October 3rd and moved
in to Arernon. The smoke was dense again and a heavy rain started, which indicated more snow
up abave, so that further photographic surveys were out of the question.
The various equipments were stored in Vernon and 1 left there on October 4th.    .
This summer's work is controlled by triangulation nets in previous years by Mr. Clements,
B.C.L.S., and myself. Atmospheric conditions prevented the occupation of the Porcupine (Yeo-
ward Mountain) Station and a third occupation of Lightning Peak at the end of the season.
Final readings from these stations would have strengthened our positions, but, notwithstanding,
these are very well fixed, as there were five main triangulation stations lying on the boundary of,
or a little outside, the area done, and some of these were usually visible. In addition, the two
Galloping Stations were occupied.
Atmospheric conditions were not good, taking the season as a whole. There was at most
times a certain amount of smoke and in August and September this increased at times to great
density. The summer was exceedingly dry and, except for a few showers, rainfall was practically nil from early July until snow fell in September. The bush was so dry that the least
spark was dangerous, and when once started it was practically impossible to put a fire out,
giving the rangers in the district a most difficult summer.
A motor-stage operated on the Vernon-Edgewood Road all summer and was a great convenience for mail and small supplies. The schedule was arranged so that it left Vernon on
Mondays, AVednesdays, and Fridays, and made the return trip from Edgewood the day following.
A pack-trail leaves the road about 1 mile easterly from the Kettle River Bridge and extends
southerly along Strutell Creek to the Kettle River and on down the Kettle, eventually running
into the road system at the south. The first 20 miles is in very good condition, but beyond that
is quite poor, in many places being in disuse. As mentioned before, we cut a new trail from this
westerly, to the plateau, starting at the Bruer Creek Camp. From " The Crossing " of Inonoak-
lin Creek a road is being constructed towards the Lightning Peak mining area. It was started
this year and about 1%.miles were completed. The clearing for the road continues on to the
Lightning Peak Camp and makes a good pack-trail. The AVaterloo Consolidated Mines, Limited,
is widening the trail and grading it, so that a tractor might operate on it this winter. The
Sand Creek Trail is a good packing route connecting with this latter trail near Lightning Peak
and. extending over Galloping Mountain, falls to the main road at Sand Creek. For the purpose
of getting ore out by rawhide or sleigh, a sleigh-road was built from the lower part of the Sand
Creek Trail westerly to the plateau north of Lightning Peak, and then following easy grades to E 68 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1929.
the mineralized area.    In the vicinity of the claims near Lightning Peak is a network of pack-
trails giving access to the main centres.
About Lightning Peak is a highly mineralized area. The geological structure and information as to the claims, ores, and workings are dealt with fully in reports of the Hon. the Minister
of Mines for many years past, and but casual mention will be made here. The first claims to
be located as far as I can find put were the Rampalo and Silver Lump, staked in 1898 and
Crown-granted later. Messrs. Scaia and Cortiana were the pioneer prospectors in the district.
A. Scaia is still living and working in the area. Since that date numerous other claims have
been staked and quite a few Crown-granted. This summer three groups were being worked
vigorously—namely, the Lightning Peak Group, consisting of the Thunder Hill, First Chance,
AVest Forks, and Jim Hill claims; the Pay Day Group, consisting of some eleven claims ; and
the AAraterloo Group, consisting of some twenty claims. Most of these are not Crown-granted.
A good deal of work has been done on the Kiliarney claim, located in 1918, and also in the
Potosi Group.
The AVaterloo Company is starting development on a larger scale than formerly. A new
camp was being built this fall near the workings of the Waterloo claim, and, as mentioned
before, a tractor-road was being built for transportation of ore 'and supplies this winter. The
mineral in the district is chiefiy silver-lead or silver-lead-zinc with a trace of gold. The
AATaterloo Company considers its prospects good. Much ore of good assay value has been either
rawhided out or packed out by horse to the road and eventually shipped to the smelter at Trail
in previous years. In the AATaterloo claim itself the minerals are galena, sphalerite, argenite,
proustite, pyrargyrite, and pyrite in a gangue of quartz and calcite. In the Pay Day Group
work was being pushed all summer and interesting discoveries were made which will likely lead
to further development. Edgewood, on the Arrow Lakes, is the nearest transportation point to
the Lightning Peak Camp, and by present best means of transportation is about 40 miles from
the workings.
The country surveyed for mapping this year is timbered with jack-pine, balsam, and spruce.
AArcst of the main Kettle River this is fairly thick, there having been little fire in recent years.
East of the Kettle and on the Granby River slope are larger areas of old and new burn. Parts
have been swept almost clean. Above 6,000 feet the timber becomes sub-alpine, and in the
vicinity of Galloping Mountain are large areas of open grass land.
Game is plentiful generally. Deer are very numerous, especially in the high plateau areas.
Black bears are in evidence in the lower altitudes as well as grizzlies. On the high plateaus
these latter are supposed to be quite numerous according to the reports of trappers and miners,
although none were seen by this party. A report was circulated that a moose was seen along
the Vernon-Edgewood Road, but I doubt this very much. There are also reports that an odd
caribou is seen. Of the game birds, the usual grouse seem plentiful. No ptarmigan were
observed. It seems unfortunate that beaver are disappearing so rapidly. Evidence points to
very few existing in the area, while from old dams and houses seen there must have been many
not long back. The Kettle and Granby Rivers have quite a few trout, as well as the higher
streams where high falls are non-existent. The lakes in the westerly plateau usually have fish,
and Bisson Lake, at the head of Bisson Creek, is fished a great deal.
The season's field-work is now being plotted and will be submitted when done. During the
season some seventy-four photographic stations were occupied and about 145 miles of traverse
run.    Several ties were made to floating mineral claims and posts on the Kettle River traverse.
I have, etc.,
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S.
By G. J. Jackson.
AricTORiA, B.C., December 10th, 1929.
J. E. Umlach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the photo-topographical survey
made by me during the past summer:— PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, SIMILKAMEEN DIVISION. E 69
The area covered consists of about 350 square miles of the watershed of the main Kettle
River northward for about 45 miles from the junction with the AVestkettle River at AATestbridge.
It also includes the top 15 miles of Boundary Creek. It is bounded on the south and west by
my surveys of the seasons of 1927-28 and by the Greenwood and Beaverdeil surveys of the
Geological Survey of Canada.
The party was organized at Westbridge on June 5th and the first camp established 17 miles
up the river. The work along the valley for a distance of 40 miles from AATestbridge was
accessible by road, so a car was used for it, but for the remainder of the area pack-horses
were needed.
The season was very dry, no rain falling at Westbridge during the whole summer, although
we had several light showers and snow-storms in the hills. June and July were very favourable
for our work, but from the latter part of July fires began to break out in all parts of the
district, considerable of the area in which we were working being burnt over, with the result
that we were greatly handicapped by smoke and fire for the remainder of the season
From our first camp we occupied stations on both sides of the river northward to the end
of the road. As there are- no bridges (over the river in this district, and as the river was too
high to ford, we used a rubber boat to reach the other side and found it quite satisfactory.
The boat only weighed 14 lb. and occupied ivery little space when deflected; when blown up it
could be carried on top of the car.    It held two men and our instruments.
On July 7th we moved camp up Losthorse Creek to Terraced Peak over a trail we cut ourselves. After completing the work here we cut a trail and moved down Boundary Creek about
6 miles to the end of the trail from Greenwood. From this camp we occupied stations along the
creek and then cut a trail and moved to Sugarloaf Mountain on the range between Boundary
Creek and Pass Creek. After completing the necessary stations along this ridge we moved down
Boundary Creek to its junction with Bear Creek on July 31st. Here the smoke got very dense
and we were unable to complete Boundary Creek, so moved over the Lost Creek Trail to the
Kettle River and then up to the end of the road.
AVe were now held up by smoke till September 1st, but kept busy by traversing and trail-
cutting. About September 1st we moved up Hellroarer Creek to the summit and worked south
along the divide to connect with the work we did from the Terraced Peak Camp. The atmosphere was never clear, but we were able to occupy stations with fair results about half the
time. On September 25th we moved back to Boundary Creek, as the fires there had burnt out,
and completed that area. On October 5th the party was disbanded and the equipment and car
stored at Rock Creek*.
The triangulation system was controlled by stations established by F. S. Clements, B.C.L.S.,
during the seasons of 1926-27. Elevations were continued from my work of previous years and
are based on precise levels run by the Dominion Geodetic Survey along the Kettle Valley
During the season 61 dozen plates were exposed and the following stations occupied :—
Triangulation stations       5
Camera stations  123
Separate camera stations   139
In addition to these, a number of ties were made to land surveys and 60 miles of traverse
The valley of the Kettle River is quite narrow, averaging about half a mile in width. The
elevation at AVestbridge is about 2,100 feet and at the end of the road is 2,650 feet. The hills
rise steeply on both sides and are badly cut up by creeks. The only land suitable for agriculture is in the bottom, and this is all surveyed and taken up. There is a little grazing for
stock on the side-hills.
The valley is sparsely settled and under cultivation for the first 17 miles above AA'estbridge
and then again at Christian Aralley. This valley is about 30 miles up from Westbridge and
extends along the river for about 10 miles. The portion between is very narrow and unfit for
At AArestbridge there is a hotel, store, and post-office, all in one building, and a school.
There is also a school at Christian Valley. The Kettle Aralley Railway passes through AATestbridge and runs a daily passenger service east and west. E 70 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1929.
There is a fair road up the west side of the river for 40 miles above Westbridge. As there
is little settlement on the east side there is only one bridge across the river, and that is at the
end of the road.    There is also a road between 4 and 5 miles in length up to the Mogul Mine..
There are few trails in the country now, the old ones having fallen in so that they are
impassable for horses without a lot of cutting. Two were cut out this year by the Forestry
Department. One starts at AVaddell's ranch and leads up Blythe Creek and down Lost Creek
to the road on Boundary Creek. The other is up Cedar Creek and starts at Aran Gelder's ranch.
There is a road up Boundary Creek for the first 10 miles from Greenwood and a good trail for
7 more miles.
This summer we cleared out the trail up the main river as far as Damfino Creek, about 6
miles above the bridge, also one up the East Fork for about 7 miles. We also cut a trail up
Hellroarer Creek to the forks and up each fork to the divide.
The chief industries of the valley are mixed farming, logging, and trapping.
There is little mining now, but one mine, the Mogul, about 20 miles up the river, started
development-work this summer, constructed a camp, and built about 5 miles of road.
The whole area has been timbered. The timber in the valley and on the lower hills is yellow
pine, fir, tamarack, and black pine, with some spruce and cedar along the' river. The higher
hills are mostly black pine, with spruce and balsam in the creek-valleys. Large portions have
been burnt over and are now either bare or covered with a dense growth of young black pine. A
considerable area was burnt over this year.
Most of the good timber easy of access has been logged, but there are still a lot of logs and
cedar poles taken out each winter and driven down the river to the sawmill at Midway in
the spring.
There did not seem to be much game, but we did see a few mule and white-tail deer, some
black and grizzly bears, and a few goats. Blue, willow, and spruce grouse are fairly plentiful.
There is considerable trapping done, the chief catch being marten, lynx, beaver, coyotes, and
There are said to be plenty of trout in some of the small lakes back in the hills, but the
river itself is badly fished out, although at one time it was a good trout-river.
The work on the maps is now in progress and the usual plans will be prepared.
I have, etc.,
G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
By A. J. Campbell.
Victoria, B.C., December 13th, 1929.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report upon the photo-topographical surveys carried out by me during the
past season. Your instructions of June 19th defined the area to be surveyed as the headwaters
of the McGregor and Herrick Rivers, and to include such portions of the Morkill River, Walker
Creek, and Narraway River as could be conveniently covered. I also was to carry forward the
triangulation along the Interprovincial Boundary to tie with that which H. E. Whyte, B.C.L.S.,
would carry up the Fraser Valley from Prince George and co-operate with Mr. AVhyte in so
Two routes of access into the headwaters of the McGregor were available—one by the long
pack-trail from Mount Robson Station on the Canadian National Railway, and the other by
trail from Ben, on the same railway. It was decided to use the latter as being of more value
to the work, and to cut such trails that might be necessary to reach the different areas required.
Owing to information received from the outfitter from whom we were getting our pack train
that the trail from Bend would very likely be impassable in the early part of the season, due to
high water, and that there was a trail up the Morkill Valley for 20 miles, it was decided to use
that route. Our information was that very little cutting would be required to produce this
trail through to Sheep Creek Pass, and so connect with the used trails to the several heads of PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, CARIBOO DISTRICT. E 71
the McGregor River. It required considerably more cutting than expected, but a good trail of
a little over 50 miles in length, and passable at any stage of water, was cut through to Sheep
Creek Pass. This trail opens a new and shorter route into the attractive mountain area around
Mount Sir Alexander and to the hunting country of that region, and would be worth developing
and improving.
The party was organized at Loos on June 26th and proceeded up the Morkill River to the
end of the trail, which was near the junction of the Myosotis and Morkill Rivers. For 8 miles
the trail was built up the Myosotis River through heavy timber and rough country. Then it
leaves the Myosotis and for 5 miles is climbing the 1,500 feet to the top of a low timbered ridge
lying between that stream and Ewan Creek. This creek rises near the Interprovincial Boundary,
near a station of the boundary survey named Ewan Mountain, hence the name of the creek.
It is shown on existing maps as joining the Morkill River, but is really a branch of Bear Creek
and so to the McGregor River.
On reaching the summit of this timbered ridge a division was made from our main route
of travel and a camp established 7 miles westerly along the top of ridge. From this camp and
fly camps a number of camera stations, including the Triangulation Station Walker, were
occupied. These stations cover the valley of the McGregor River to its junction with Jarvis
Creek and also the headwaters of AAralker Creek. On return to the end of the main trail it was
pushed down into Ewan Creek Valley, a drop of 1,000 feet, and then on up Ewan Creek to its
head, a distance of approximately 7 miles. Several camera stations were occupied along Ewan
Creek, covering, in part, the valleys of Bear Creek, Ewan Creek, and the Myosotis.
From the head of Ewan Creek a route 8 miles in length over high alp-land country was
located that led us into Sheep Creek Pass. This put us in touch with the trails from the south,
and we moved from Sheep Creek Pass, after visiting Intersection Triangulation Station, over to
Kakwa Pass, which lies at the head of one of the branches of the McGregor River. From here
stations were occupied covering the easterly slopes of the Mount Sir Alexander and Mount Ida
Range and supplementing the stations occupied by the British Columbia-Alberta boundary
survey." Also Elliot (Ruth on boundary sheets), a triangulation station of boundary survey, was
visited and cairn rebuilt and British Columbia brass bolt planted. A move, following the trail
made by the parties visiting Mount Sir Alexander, was then made into the meadows near the
foot of the mountain. From a camp on these meadows and from fly camps several stations,
including the Triangulation Station Kitchi, were occupied, covering the area between Mount Sir
Alexander and Ida. AATe then returned to Kakwa Lake and occupied finally the Triangulation
Station Elliot. A light camp was then moved into Jarvis Pass, and several stations, covering
that valley and the area to the north, were occupied.
Work was completed in Jarvis Pass on September 19th. and in that region heavy snowfall
may be expected during the latter part of that month, which has.been known to stay. This
would have rendered it very difficult on the back trail, as there were two passes of 6,500 feet
altitude to go over: incidentally, we did go over one in a near blizzard. There remained the
important Triangulation Stations Intersection and AAralker to occupy, so on September 20th we
started on the back trail. The expected snow-storm arrived, which delayed the occupation of
Intersection for some days, and then it was only reached after several strenuous hours of
climbing through snow. By the time we reached AAralker the snow had practically disappeared,
Walker being a much lower point. The station was successfully occupied, with the exception
of some doubt as to the signal on Mount Rider. This completed the season's field-work and the
party returned to the Fraser River, where it was disbanded on October 5th.
During the season forty-three camera stations and four triangulation stations were occupied.
The triangulation tie with Mr. Whyte's work was successfully carried out. with the exception,
mentioned above, of the doubtful reading on Mount Rider signal. A stronger tie to the geodetic
triangulation net from the Yellowhead Pass could be made by using the Station Curly (Pauline
on British Columbia-Alberta sheets'). This station and the three stations occupied this year,
Rider, Walker, and Intersection, would make a perfect quod.
Compared with previous years, forty-three camera stations appears very small, but
taking into consideration the very poor season for photographic work due to the large amount
of rainfall, and that 35 miles of trail through difficult country had to be cut into the country,
the comparison is not so unfavourable. Also it has been the writer's experience that a larger
area is covered with a fewer number of stations in a country of this character. It is expected
that an area of around 400 square miles will be plotted from this season's work. E 72 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1929.
The country surveyed is all mountainous and cut by the large valley of the McGregor River
and its tributaries to the north and east and by the valley of the Morkill to the south. The
dominating feature is the fine mountain known as Mount Sir Alexander, with an altitude of
10,740 feet above sea-level, which for several years has repelled the attempts to scale its summit.
It is reported that a party from the Explorers' Club of New York were successful in climbing
the mountain during the past season. In this connection it may be interesting to mention the
finding by the survey party of a table built in 1915 by the party which made the first attempt
to climb the mountain. This table was constructed of logs and heavy hewn planks, and ou the
under-side of one of the planks is recorded the names of the party, still quite legible, and the
fact that they made two attempts on the mountain, but were unsuccessful, due to bad weather.
Since then several attempts have been made, but none successful until the present year. Mount
Ida, a few miles north of Mount Sir Alexander, is a fine impressive peak, with a very sharp
summit when viewed from some directions. It reaches an altitude of 10,472 feet and, with its
larger neighbour, dwarfs the surrounding mountains, none of which reaches an altitude of much
over 9,500 feet, though many of them are glacier-hung and some would be quite difficult of ascent.
The valleys of the McGregor and the Morkill are w-ell timbered, practically to their headwaters. Some cedar was noted, but spruce and balsam-fir predominate of commercial value in
the lower parts, but soon giving place at higher altitudes to sub-alpine and alpine types. Comparatively few burnt areas were noted. Two very small patches were all that were seen in the
Morkill and its tributary, the Myosotis. The largest burn in the area lies in the McGregor
Valley above its junction with Bear Creek. This brule stretches up the valley to within a few
miles of the headwaters.
Game is very plentiful throughout the area. Caribou and moose are quite numerous. Mountain-goat were encountered many times on the different climbs, particularly in the vicinity of
Walker Triangulation Station. Bear, black and grizzly, deer and sheep were also noted. Caribou
particularly are very plentiful. It was rarely that a day passed without several being seen, and
on one occasion, while on the move late in September, 130 were counted from the trail. So close
were they that the pack-train was stampeded, and it was only after a chase of a mile or more
that they were brought under control. The party, following on foot, had visions of instruments,
photographic plates, and camp outfit scattered over the country, but luckily not a pack was
spilled. Porcupines are also numerous ; it was not unusual to see five or six at a time on the
wet meadows rooting among the grass. Game birds are not very plentiful, but some grouse
and ptarmigan were seen.
It is evident, from our experience during the past season, that this area is in a wet belt.
Nearly half of the months of July and August were wet, and on other days the clouds were so
low that photographic work was impossible. Fortunately we had spells of a few days of good
weather when we were in position to take advantage of them. The month of September was the
best of the season, but finished with the usual, in that section and the Canadian Rockies
generally, September snow-storm. This storm lasted for four days, from the 21st to the 24th.
The last few days of the month were almost perfect, but too much snow was on the hills for
photographs of much use in plotting. This spell of fine weather held until October 2nd, when
rain—we were at a lower altitude by then—commenced again and the broken weather continued
until we left the country.
The usual maps are being prepared.
I have, etc.,
A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
By R. P. Bishop.
Victoria, B.C., March 8th, 1930.
The Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir.—I have the honour to report on the field-work carried out last season in connection
with the location of a tunnel diversion at Chilko Lake and the establishment of a triangulation
control depending on the stations already set in the vicinity. FIELD-WORK, CHILKO LAKE. E 73
The triangulation and topographic work carried out in 1922 had revealed the fact that an
unexplored valley of the Southgate lay within 9 miles of Chilko Lake and about 2,500 feet
below it; a report that a great volume of power could be developed here was sent in from the
field immediately and further details were published with the Annual Report of the Minister
of Lands.
It seemed important that some estimate should be formed of the amount of power available
and I was able to take some rough measurements of the flow of the Chilko and Taseko Rivers
on my own account in 1924, the idea being that the Taseko could be diverted by way of Nemaia
Aralley into Chilko Lake and that the lake would be large enough to regulate the flow of both
watersheds over a long period. Since then the project has attracted a certain amount of
attention and it has been suggested that the combined flow should be diverted into Tatlayoko
Lake, either directly or by way of Choelquoit Lake; power to be developed in either case by
way of the Homathko.
This year the AArater Rights Branch of the Lands Department surveyed the Taseko Lakes
and the Nemaia Valley diversion and then examined my original suggestions of 1922; Mr.
Farrow's party making the round trip from the south end of Chilko Lake by way of the South-
gate Forks and traversing up-stream to the summit west of Mount Good Hope to obtain data
for an alternative diversion by way of Franklyn Arm. In a previous report I had suggested
the tapping of the main tunnel at the south end of the lake by one or possibly two adits, and
the season's work shows that these are feasible; this means that work need not be limited to
two faces, an important factor in a tunnel over 8 miles long. These adits and the portals of the
tunnel can be controlled by triangulation stations set this year.
The main figure is a tetragon, or four-sided figure, with the cairn on Mount Good Hope as
the central point; this is shown on the Powell Lake Sheet and on the map in the Report of the
Geological Survey of Canada for 1924. Mount Good Hope is over 10,600 feet high and awkward
to reach from timber-line, and as the summit is often in cloud a great deal of time might be
wasted in reading angles there, but the surrounding network is strong, so it is not necessary
to occupy the mountain with an instrument at all.
The stations set this year are based on the triangle Good Hope-Chilko-Goddard; the north
portal and adit of the main tunnel are controlled by a point on the mountain east of the south
end of Chilko Lake, and the south portal subsidiary stations by another point a little farther
east; both of these points form crossed tetragons with the main figure, so that the triangulation
will be capable of rigid adjustment when all the angles are read.
The whole triangulation in the neighbourhood depends on the Nemaia Valley base of 1922,
but as heavy snow late in October had prevented the occupation of Mount Nemaia, and certain
temporary stations have now disappeared, the base expansion angles should be reread; if great
accuracy is required for engineering purposes, the base itself might be remeasured with base-line
apparatus, but this could be done at any time. The main triangulation is a very different
matter, as the surveyor may have to sit for days'or even weeks during the few summer months
and watch the mountain stations screened by cloud or snow or obscured by the smoke of forest
fires; it should consequently be completed in due course and properly balanced in connection
with the other work in the neighbourhood. The triangulation has already been of service in
connection with the work of the Geological Survey for 1924, and it affords the logical basis for
extending control into the unexplored country at the head of the Bridge and Lillooet Rivers.
A certain amount of topography was required for the delimitation of the watersheds and
in greater detail near the tunnel-sites, and as the Royal Geographical Society very kindly offered
to lend me their Wild photo-theodolite I had hoped to make a trial of ground stereoscopic
methods; these have been developed in connection with large-scale work, but it has now been
shown that they are suitable for small scales as well. AArhen the field-work commenced the
only alternatives were plane-table work and photo-topography with a small camera, and with
experience of both methods in this particular part of the country I had no hesitation in rejecting
the plane-table as unsuitable to the wilder parts of the Coast Range.
6 By 1922 I had come to the conclusion that a small camera would give better results than
sketches made under adverse conditions and asked Mr. R. D. McCaw for advice in choosing a
suitable pattern; he advised a 4 by 5 as the post-card size did not give sufficient depth of view.
During the course of that season's operations I found it difficult to carry out the text-book law
of sketching the main physical features on the ground, as it was impossible to see into or
identify the valleys from some of the highest peaks; it was, however, quite possible to work up
a very useful map with the help of the photographs later on when the focal length of the camera
had been found, and Dr. Deville's text-book, borrowed from our late Surveyor-General, enabled
me to construct a perspectometer which was exceedingly useful in mapping the shores of the
I understand that the use of the small camera in reconnaissance-work has been developed
independently by Mr. Downton and Mr. Underhill in connection with your Department. I think
that the idea should be followed up and that every surveyor should understand the rudiments
of photo-topography; it is, however, a mistake to expect too much of small cameras, especially
if they have not been levelled up, and it is necessary to have a clear idea of their limitations.
The ordinary film camera requires a few simple developments; the focus, if not fixed, requires
to be accurately measured, rising fronts should be avoided, and it is necessary to have some
kind of a level; perhaps the greatest need is for a light and simple tripod which can be quickly
levelled up, as the ball and socket joint vibrates badly in a high wind.
Detailed mapping has been carried out here for many years by experts of great experience
with the regular Canadian survey camera wdiich uses plates; I am now referring to the need of
something light and portable as a substitute for the sketch in reconnaissance-work.
To turn to the other extreme, it seems possible that the ground stereoscopic methods might
be extremely useful in this country, and as they have been developed for large-scale work in the
first instance they might be useful in engineering-work as well as in mapping; they have been
used extensively in Switzerland for several years and for the location of railways in the Andes.
The Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society has suggested that they would afford the most
accurate means of determining the increase and decrease of ice-fields and glaciers, and here
they should be exceedingly useful in predicting stream-flow in connection with water-power"
developments. Stereoscopic methods are now being generally adapted to aerial work, but the
extensive work which has already been done from ground stations in other countries should not
be overlooked when the question of cost is being considered.
I should perhaps explain why the high mountain between the Klinaklini and Homathko
Rivers was not mentioned in my report for 1922. It was first sighted and photographed from
the summit of Mount Good Hope and triangulated from " Chilko" and " Centre," but as
these positions took some time to work out, the height of the mountain was not known by the
time the report was in print; it then appeared that the mountain rivalled the highest of the
Canadian Rockies, and this was announced in the Arictoria Daily Colonist for June 10th, 1923.
The subject aroused a good deal of interest later on and certain misstatements were made,
which I corrected in the Alpine Journal for November, 1928, but since then some additional
facts have come to light. I had pointed the mountain ont to Dr. V. Dolmage, of the Geological
Survey, in 1924, from a trail near the south end of Tatlayoko Lake, and on mentioning this
recently to Major Nation, of the Mines Department, I found that he-had taken a rough bearing
from the same spot in 1910 wdien in company with William Fleet Robertson, the late Provincial
Mineralogist;   this is apparently the first of these bearings on record.
While motoring through Chilcotin in July this year we stopped to look at a mountain in line
with Mosley Creek (the West Branch of the Homathko), and the new map of Central British
Columbia made it clear that this must be Mount Waddington or some peak in the immediate
neighbourhood. Mr. Munday's account of the view from the summit, printed in the Canadian
Alpine Journal, 1929, makes it clear that there are no obstructions along the same line of sight
near the top of the mountain, so this can apparently be seen from the Tatla Lake Road; this
is probably the only place where the mountain can be seen from a car, a fact which should be
of general interest.
The name has been the subject of a great deal of discussion, but it can hardly be regarded
as settled, as a mountain had already been named in honour of Waddington near the Yellowhead
Pass, and this name has not been cancelled.    Then, again, there is Howay and Scholefield's FIELD-AVORK, CHILKO LAKE. E 75
description of the original route up the valley of the Homathko (British Columbia, Vol. 2,
page 177): "About 25 miles from the mouth of that river the trail crossed Waddington
Mountain at an elevation of 2,000 feet, the grades being excessively steep. This great elevation
and these heavy grades continued until the plateau was reached." This constitutes priority of
publication which should settle the case for one of the mountains concerned. AVhether the
name has been established three times or only twice depends on the interpretation of the
description I have quoted;   apparently it refers to the climb near AVaddington Canyon.
If another name is required for the high mountain I should like to suggest Mount Albion,
in commemoration of Sir Francis Drake's discovery of the North Pacific Coast. Drake landed
in California in 1579 and took possession of the country, but the name he gave it appeared in
the early maps in the latitude of his northerly anchorage. On his return the Queen asserted
the rights of the English to navigate the Pacific Ocean and to settle in North America, and it is
now evident that Drake's acts, coupled with this assertion, marked the foundation of New
England in America.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert had already suggested a staple " about Sierra Nevada " as a base
for trade with the Indies, and after Drake's return " Sierra Nevada " continued in place of
Nova Albion until Gilbert's death—the use of the words suggests a play upon names. In subsequent maps Nova Albion extended along the 49th parallel almost to the centre of the continent,
and the position is most appropriate, as the whole series of events may be said to mark the
joint foundation of the British Empire overseas and the United States of America.
Perhaps the first printed reference to Nova Albion, apart from maps, is in connection with
Canada—in Hakluyt's Voyages, on the title page of the first edition. Canada was in this way
connected with the Pacific Coast at the very foundation of the Empire, and the 350th anniversary
might be commemorated by the Province concerned in a most appropriate manner.
I have, etc.,
R. P. Bishop, B.C.L.S.
Printed by F. Banfield, Trinter to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.


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