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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. N. S. LOUGHEED,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1931

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
THE EOBEST BRANCH
OF
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. N. S. LOUGHEED, Minister
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister        -        P. Z. Caverhill,  Chief Forester
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1930
PRINTED  BT
AUTHORITY OP THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chaeles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1931.  A'ictoria, B.C., February 25th, 1931.
To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of the
Department of Lands for the year 1930.
N. S. LOUGHEED,
Minister of Lands. The Hon. N. S. Lougheed,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1930.
P. Z. CAVERHILL,
Chief Forester. EH
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u  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
The taking-over of the Dominion lands within the Railway Belt and the Peace River Block,
and the assuming of the responsibility for their administration and protection, have required
several changes and additions to the staff in Kamloops and Pouce Coupe. The curtailment in
logging, on the other hand, allowed the closing-up of some offices, such as those of the Supervisor at Thurston Bay and the Ranger at AValdo.
The death of G. H. Smith, Supervisor, deprived the Service of a valued employee; also, the
resignations of several technical men and one Ranger were recorded during the year. The loss
is regrettable, especially of the technical men, who, after a period of training, become more
valuable to the Department, and much of the advantage of experience is lost through their
resignations.
The backbone of the Forest organization at the present time and for many years to come is
the Forest Ranger. He must be a many-sided person. On him we rely for fire-control, cruising
and evaluating timber for sale, reporting outbreaks of forest insects and such-like enemies of the
forest, and many other jobs incidental to management. To carry on this work satisfactorily he
must have a working knowledge of cruising, surveying, and logging. He is required to organize,
feed, and manage large crews of fire-fighters, and to use judgment as to when a fire should be
attacked energetically and when the expenditure of money is useless. He must be observant of
conditions in and about the forest, with some knowledge of botany, entomology, and pathology.
He must be able to keep accurate accounts, to explain the forest regulations to our numerous
clientele, to write intelligent reports on the work done by him, and, above all, be a diplomat.
Distribution of Force, 1930.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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The examination system of selection of the Ranger staff has done much to better the type
of Ranger entering the Service, but some method of further training is needed to build up the
field force to meet the standard required of them. Four correspondence courses were prepared
during the summer of 1930. These courses cover simple surveying, forest protection, forest
management, and mensuration, and about 90 per cent, of the Ranger staff and a few members
of the office staffs have taken advantage of them.   The courses were prepared and given by AA 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
senior officers of the Service. In Europe, Quebec, and many other countries the Ranger School
has fulfilled this service. Such a school would be welcomed by members of the Forest Service
of British Columbia.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
No new forests were reserved during the year.
The transfer to the Province of Dominion lands in the Railway Belt included fourteen
National Forests reserved for the perpetual production of timber, and one, the Fraser Canyon
Forest, for the protection of scenic values along the Fraser Canyon Highway through the area.
The Fraser Canyon Forest covers approximately 1,427,000 acres.    The others are as follows:—
Name of Forest. f™*'
Yoho    81,500
Glacier  67,900
Larch Hills  ,  27,600
Mount Ida   27,800
Fly Hill   140,400
Martin Mountain   21,600
Monte Hills   116,600
Niskonlith  199,500
Tranquille    177,800
Long Lake   167,900
Nicola    321,300
Arrowstone  161,100
Hat Creek  216,000
Shuswap  208,600
Total  1,935,600
The policy of making forest surveys and stock-taking on areas under reserve or suitable for
reserve as Provincial Forests was continued. Because, in British Columbia, for many years title
to forest lands has been maintained in the Crown for the public benefit, there is a direct
responsibility upon the Forest Service to keep informed as to the forest resources of the Province
and the productive capacity of those lands which will be required to provide timber for forest
industries in the future. To date, the total area dedicated as Provincial Forests is only about
9 per cent, of the area capable of commercial forest growth and unsuitable for tillage.
Forest Surveys.
In the Interior.—Compilation of estimates and mapping of the Okanagan Forest, on the
west side of Okanagan Lake, were completed.    The Forest was found to contain the following:—■
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.      Acres.
Alienated       11,100
On vacant Crown land     209,100
 220,200
Immature timber—
1-20 years old      48,400
21-40 years old  -    41,700
41-60 years old     149,100
61-80 years old      22,100
Part-logged uneven-aged timber      26,300
   287,600
Burns not yet reforested      10,900
Bush or non-commercial cover     13,000
 23,900
Total sites of productive quality     531,700 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930.
AA 7
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber— \cres
Rough and poor-quality soils producing scrub-growth only   67,500
Alpine and barrens  31,200
Grazing range   9,500
Swamp and water   2,700
Total non-productive sites     110,900
The standing mature timber was estimated as follows, in 1,000 board-feet, with a minimum
breast-high diameter for yellow pine of 17 inches; fir, cedar, and larch, 11 inches; lodgepole
pine, 9 inches; spruce and silver fir, 7 inches:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
M.B.M.
410,000
358,700
204,000
117,000
81,900
8,800
100
M.B.M.
700
21,300
200
200
20,700
M.B.M.
410,700
380,000
204,200
117,200
Yellow pine  _
102,600
8,800
100
	
1,180,500
43,100
1,223,600
Of this total it is estimated that 394,700,000 F.B.M. are readily accessible and have a present
market value as saw-timber. There is also accessible tie-timber from which 354,000 fir ties
could be hewn. An additional volume of 133,000,000 F.B.M., though less accessible, is expected
to find a market as saw-timber or hewn ties with normally increasing future demand. The
remainder of the mature timber is inaccessible under present conditions. It is suitable for pulp
but no market for it exists. Among this there is timber suitable for an estimated total of
17,400,000 hewn ties, 90 per cent, lodgepole pine. The future value of much of this upland timber
is doubtful owing to the general infestation of lodgepole pine by bark-beetles in this Forest.
The Forest supplies timber to six small portable mills, cutting intermittently for resaw in
local mills at Kelowna and Summerland, and also a small quantity direct to these mills. Most
of the wood goes into fruit-boxes and low-grade lumber. Small quantities of railway-ties, cedar
poles, and fuel are taken out. The total cut is approximately 2,400,000 F.B.M. per annum,
which is less than the annual growth increment. From accessible areas the Forest could support
a sustained annual yield of 4,800,000 F.B.M. sawlogs, in addition to 13,000 hewn fir ties. Ultimately, when a market is created for all classes of material produced and regulation of the cut
has become effective, the Forest is [capable of providing a sustained annual yield of 6.100,000
F.B.M. of sawlogs, 15,000 hewn fir ties, and 54,000 cords of pulp-wood. These estimates are
based on rates of growth and production under existing conditions in the forest; if all productive areas were fully stocked, the yield would be correspondingly greater.
The survey of the Elk Forest, commenced last year, was completed. A total area of
1,550,000 acres was mapped in this vicinity, the large area being made possible by the adoption,
with field checks in some cases, of previous topographic surveys by the Dominion Government.
The survey itself did not extend above the timber-line. As the Elk River watershed includes
some of the western slopes and spurs of the Rocky Mountains, a large proportion is not productive of commercial timber, but is magnificent park land. It includes the Elk River Game
Reserve. The boundaries of productive forest land in such a territory are very irregular and
administrative boundaries must of necessity follow heights of land or other natural features,
since the cost of extensive land surveys would not be justified.   The area was found to include:—
Capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.      Acres.
Alienated       57,600
On vacant Crown land    102,100
    159,700 AA 8
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Capable of producing Commercial Timber—Continued.
Immature timber— Acres.      Acres.
1-20 years old     116,200
21^0 years old      92,000
41-60 years old      50,200
61-80 years old        8,000
81-100 years old        4,700
 271,100
Burns and logging, not yet reforested     180,400
Bush or non-commercial cover       6,400
Total sites of productive quality   617,600
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine and rough scrub-covered land   923,700
Swamp and water  7,200
Grazing and highland meadow   4,300
Total non-productive sites     935,200
The mature saw-timber, irrespective of accessibility, with a minimum breast-high diameter
of 11 inches is estimated to be, in 1,000 board-feet:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Engelmann spruce
Lodgepole pine 	
Douglas fir 	
Silver fir (balsam)
Western larch 	
Cedar 	
Yellow pine 	
White pine 	
Hemlock 	
Totals ....
M.B.M.
550,100
151,000
148,200
65,600
43,100
32,300
13,000
600
3,400
M.B.M.
395,500
73,800
61,200
32,400
36,100
46,100
11,600
3,400
400
1,016,300
660,500
M.B.M.
954,600
224,800
209,400
98,000
79.200
78,400
24,600
4,000
3.800
1,676,800
At present this timber supplies the local coal-mines and one small mill. A 35,000 F.B.M.
sawmill at Dorr was destroyed by fire during the year. Logging from the Forest produces
7,000,000 F.B.M. saw-timber, 13,000 cords of mine-timbers, and 106,000 lineal feet of cedar poles
per annum. In addition, 100,000 cedar fence-posts and a small quantity of hewn ties are taken
out. Ninety per cent, of the timber is accessible, and the high percentage of spruce should make
it attractive to the pulp industry in the future. The area within the boundaries recommended for
forest reserve includes the Bull River, on which the Canadian Pacific Railway Company recently
completed its logging operations. This valley is quite unsuitable for agriculture, and natural
reproduction is restocking the logged areas, except where subsequent fires have destroyed it.
The whole Forest could support a sustained annual yield of 16,000,000 board-feet of saw-timber,
logging to 11 inches minimum diameter, or, if a market for pulp-wood should develop, it could
supply 40,000 cords annually from areas now satisfactorily stocked, in addition to 1,000,000
F.B.M. of saw-timber from stands of yellow pine, fir, and larch not suitable for pulp. Ultimately, when the cut is fully regulated, this Forest will yield annually 53,000 cords of pulp and
mine-timber and 3,200,000 F.B.M. for the sawmill, from natural increment in stands now existing,
if logged in accordance with a proper forest plan and protected from fire.
The survey commenced last year of the proposed Momich Forest, in the Adams Lake and
Seymour River watersheds, was completed.    There was found to be:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.      Acres.
Alienated      23,800
On vacant Crown land   212,100
 235,900 FOREST BRANCH REPORT,  1930.
AA 9
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—Continued.
Immature timber-— Acres.      Acres.
1-20 years old   82,900
21-10 years old  31,300
41-60 years old   52,900
61-80 years old  15,800
81-100 years old   900
   183,800
Burned or logged, not yet restocking  104,200
Bush or non-commercial cover         3,900
   108,100
Total sites of productive quality     527,800
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine, barren, and scrub sites   456,400
Grass and meadow  1,100
Swamp and water   11,700
Total non-productive sites     469.200
The mature timber was estimated to be :—•
Species.
Seymour
Watershed.
Adams                     T t ,
Watershed.                   J-Otai.
Including
Alienated.
M.B.M.
159.000
270,000
311,000
103,000
77.000
42,000
M.B.M.          [          M.B.M.
591.000        [             750.000
M.B.M.
99,000
Cedar	
Hemlock	
Silver fir (balsam)	
Douglas fir	
White pine	
212,000
167,000
191,000
126,000
42,000
482,000
478,000
294,000
203,000
84,000
147,000
124,000
9,000
35,000
15,000
Totals	
962,000
1,329,000
2,291,000
359,000
Cedar poles (lin. ft.)	
11,900,000
16,200,000
590,000
28,100,000
590,000
4,500,000
38,000
The more accessible timber, amounting to 16 per cent, of the total, including 4,500,000 lineal
feet of pole-timber, is alienated. Of the total timber, 1,498,000,000 F.B.M. lies on the lower
levels of the Seymour River and Upper Adams River Valleys. It is an overmature cedar-hemlock
type and should be logged as soon as possible. Unfortunately, the cost of logging would be high
because of the low quality of the decadent cedar and the large proportion of less desirable
species. The stand averages only about 12,000 F.B.M. per acre of merchantable quality, although,
before decadence commenced, there were probably 25,000 F.B.M. per acre. If not logged, the
cull will increase gradually, until the entire stand becomes valueless. The rest of the timber
lies on the tipper slopes and is a pulp type, which is inaccessible until there is considerable
advance in pulp prices or improvement in logging methods.
The Lower Adams Valley has been logged and is now practically all reproducing satisfactorily. Most of the 104,000 acres in this Forest which are not restocking are in the Seymour
watershed, where there have been comparatively recent large burns.
A sustained yield plan would not be applicable to this Forest for the present. The mature
saw-timber should be cut as soon as possible. In forty years' time the young growth, if protected, will be in condition for the Forest to support a sustained annual yield of 23,000,000 F.B.M.
saw-timber on a rotation of 110 years. At this age it is estimated, from similar types of the
same age in the Shuswap Forest, that 12,000 F.B.M. per acre will be produced. In addition, the
pulp types, when regulated, could support a sustained annual yield of 15,000 cords on a rotation of
130 years.   These areas are at present all mature with an estimated volume of 2,000,000 cords. AA 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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AA 11
Since the completion of logging operations in the Lower Adams Valley six years ago, the
chief utilization of this Forest has been cedar-pole cutting, of which recently about 600,000
lineal feet have been taken out per annum.
The table on page 10 shows the distribution and condition of established young growth
in this Forest. The enormous potential volume of timber (estimated at 2,007,000,000 F.B.M.)
existing in these immature stands justifies the setting apart of the area for forestry.
A forest survey was made of the Flathead River watershed, in the extreme south-east of the
Province. This is a forested valley with little agricultural value owing to its proximity to the
summits of the Rocky Mountains; the valley-floor is from 4,000 to 6,500 feet in elevation. A
total area of 391,000 acres is being mapped and estimates of standing timber and yield are
being computed.
A forest survey was made of the Barriere River and adjacent watersheds. This is one of
the larger tributaries of the North Thompson River, which it joins 40 miles north of Kamloops.
Logging has been carried on for many years and large quantities of cedar poles and fir ties
produced. It is a rough country, with little agricultural possibilities, except in the narrow
river-valley, but with a large proportion of productive forest land. Maps are being made and
estimates of standing timber and capacity for sustained yield computed.
On the Coast.—The examination of forest lands in the Powell River vicinity, commenced
last year, was completed.    The area has been classified as follows:—■
Capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.      Acres.
Alienated     40,400
On vacant Crown land     42,600
     83,000
Immature timber—
1-20 years old      26,300
21-40 years old      22,100
41-60 years old        8,100
61-80 years old  200
     56,700
Logged or burned, not yet restocking     49,900
Bush or non-commercial cover       3,400
     53,300
Total sites of productive quality     193,000
Incapable Of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine, barren, and scrub sites     205,700
Swamp and water     44,900
Total non-productive sites     250,600
The mature timber is estimated, in 1,000 board-feet, to be:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Red cedar 	
Douglas fir 	
Western hemlock 	
Silver fir (balsam)  	
Yellow cedar	
Sitka spruce 	
White pine 	
Totals 	
Additional: Cedar shingle-bolts (cords)
M.B.M.
322,000
256,000
363,000
135,000
53,000
15,000
6,000
1,150,000
143,000
M.B.M.
598,000
475,000
312,000
152,000
26.000
8,000
3,000
1.574,000
22,000
M.B.M.
920,000
731,000
675,000
287,000
79,000
23,000
9,000
2,724,000
165,000 AA 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
AU this timber is considered to be accessible for utilization within a reasonable period.
There is, in addition, 152,000 M.B.M. which is inaccessible.
As usual in our Coast forests, there is a shortage of middle age-classes, 85 per cent, of the
young growth being under forty years old. The Forest could provide a sustained annual yield
of 42,600,000 board-feet from accessible areas, based on a 100-year rotation, at which age if is
estimated that this type can produce 27,000 F.B.M. per acre on an average site. After regulation
of the cut has been effected and all productive areas on which natural reproduction has failed
have been restocked by planting, an ultimate yield of 52,250,000 F.B.M. per annum will be
obtained.
An examination was made of Quadra Island in order to ascertain its forest value. The
total area, exclusive of 9,700 acres in surveyed lots under cultivation or with agricultural possibilities, is 56,600 acres, classed as follows:—
Capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— . Acres.      Acres.
Alienated        4,100
On vacant Crown land        4,300
 8,400
Immature timber—
1-20 years old        9,500
21-40 years old   700
 10,200
Burned or logged, not yet restocking     16,000
Bush or non-commercial cover   600
Total sites of productive quality       35,200
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—■
Alpine, barren, and scrub sites       18,000
Swamp, meadow, and water       3,400
Total non-productive sites       21,400
A map is being made and estimates of standing timber and yield are being computed.
An extensive forest reconnaissance was made of the watersheds of the lower Lillooet River,
Harrison Lake, Upper Stave and Pitt Rivers.    This area was found to contain the following:—
Capable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.      Acres.
Mature timber    151,800
Immature timber—
Under 25 feet high, fully stocked   300
Over 25 feet high, fully stocked        1,900
Over 25 feet high, sparse        7,800
 10,000
Logged, not restocking       11,200
Logged and burned, not restocking         1,400
Burned, not restocking       23,200
 35,800
Total sites of productive capacity    197,600
Incapable of producing Commercial Timbei—
Alpine and barrens  759,500
Rough sites producing scrub only  334,200
Swamp and water  75,500
Total non-productive sites  1,139,200
This is a mountainous region with heavy stands of timber in the valleys. There is little
land suitable for agricultural development, some 6,400 acres only, of which about 500 are now FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930. AA 13
under cultivation.    The uplands are of considerable scenic value and adjoin Garibaldi Park on
the west.    The standing timber is estimated to be, in 1,000 feet, board measure:—
M.B.M.
Douglas fir   1,746,600
Cedar   1,305.400
Hemlock -  507,900
Silver fir (balsam)   339,900
Yellow cedar   40,300
White pine   46,300
Spruce  ,  39;600
Other species   3,800
Total  4,029,800
PROVINCIAL FOREST INVENTORY.
The forest atlas and estimates of the Southern Mainland Coast region were completed.
The tables on pages 14-16 give the classification of land area and timber estimates. This region
covers the Coast from the International Boundary to Cape Caution. With Vancouver Island,
the estimated forest resources of which were published recently, it forms the Vancouver Forest
District. For inventory purposes the Southern Mainland Coast has been divided into fifteen
drainage-basins, subdivided into 107 watersheds.
A forest atlas has been made on a scale of 1 inch to the mile and coloured in accordance
with a standard legend so as to distinguish the fifteen types of cover given in the table. This
classification is shown diagramatically on the frontispiece. The inventory is based on carefully
checked figures taken from timber-cruisers' reports, Government forest surveys and reconnaissance, and maps and estimates made over a period of three years by the Forest Rangers of the
Vancouver Forest District. Acknowledgement is made of the great assistance given by the
owners of timber in this region, their agents, and forest engineers in private practice. Many
hundreds of cruise reports and estimates have been given freely for this inventory, which,
largely on this account, is believed to be as comprehensive and accurate as any published for a
territory of this kind.
With regard to the area of logged or burned land without adequate natural reproduction, it
should be stated that the estimates of the success or failure of natural reproduction after logging
and fires are based on examination strips run by forest engineers over 261,000 acres, 21 per
cent., of the logged and burned areas in this region; for the remaining 959,000 acres estimates
have been based on observation and reconnaissance by Forest Rangers during the course
of their duties and mapped by them during the last three years. The proportion of satisfactorily restocked areas computed from their maps, however, is very similar to that found
on the surveys, and it is believed that the total figures given are reasonably accurate. In noting
that 52 per cent, of these areas have not restocked, it should be remembered that all recent
burns are included among these, and it would be incorrect to assume that none of them will
again produce timber without being replanted, though undoubtedly many of these areas are in
that condition.
The merchantable timber estimates have been divided into three classes of ownership—on
Crown-granted lands, on timber licences and leases, and on vacant Crown land. They have also
been divided -into two classes of accessibility, those stands of which the quality and logging
facilities are considered to be sufficiently good to be of interest to loggers within the next decade
or so without any great increase in values, and the remaining stands which are of inferior
quality or of which the logging would be too expensive for such utilization. This distinction
has been based on examination and reports of forest engineers and Government forest officers.
It may be observed that the total estimate of saw-timber in this region, 35,700,000,000
F.B.M., is a decrease of 39 per cent, from the estimate of 59,700,000,000 F.B.M., published by
the Dominion Commission of Conservation in 1917. an average reduction of 3 per cent, per
annum. The decrease is especially noticeable in Douglas fir, from 18,596,000,000 F.B.M. to
8,720,000,000 F.B.M., a 53-per-cent. reduction in thirteen years. AA 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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AA 17
The total amount of standing timber in the whole Vancouver Forest District, including
Vancouver Island, is estimated to be 130,816,000,000 F.B.M. The volume of each species is
shown in the accompanying diagram.
Lower sections represent timber on Vancouver Island.
Upper sections represent timber on other islands and
mainland.
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FOREST RESOURCES of VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
130,816,000,000  f. b.m.	
The average annual cut of the Vancouver Forest District during the last five years has been
2,359,000,000 F.B.M. The average annual loss by fire during the same period has been 14,506,000
F.B.M. Therefore the total depreciation of the stands by logging and Are has averaged
2,373,506,000 F.B.M. Assuming that the whole of the standing timber will become accessible
as need arises, there is evident a supply sufficient for fifty-five years at the present rate of
cutting. The most important species is Douglas fir, of which the average cut during the last
five years has been 1,383,000,000 F.B.M. per annum. At this rate of cutting, therefore, the old-
growth fir will last for thirty years only, and a further increase in the annual cut is not unlikely.
The present cut is two and one-half times what it was ten years ago, the 1920 cut being
553,400,000 F.B.M. fir in a total cut of 1,119,800,000 F.B.M. of all species in the Vancouver Forest
District. AA 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
From yield studies made in British Columbia fir stands, checked by comparison with the
results of extended research by the United States Forest Service in "Washington and Oregon, it
has been found that on a site of medium quality fully stocked fir stands will produce 35,000
F.B.M. per acre of timber 12 inches diameter and over in 100 years. For large acreages considerable reduction in this estimate must be allowed on account of irregular stocking and gaps
in the forest-cover. It is estimated that a net 28,000 F.B.M. per acre will be produced. From
less intensive examination in the fir-cedar-hemlock type of the Southern Coast, it is estimated
that a very similar volume is produced in these mixed stands. On this basis the Vancouver
District could support a sustained annual yield of 1,524,000,000 F.B.M. from existing mature
and immature stands.
It may be assumed, therefore, that the Vancouver forest industries will gradually become
dependent upon sources of supply outside the district, if the volume utilized does not diminish.
Meanwhile, the importance of reducing to a minimum the amount of waste in woods and mill is
obvious. So also is the ultimate advantage that will be gained by bringing into production the
737,000 acres of logged and burned lands which are not restocking. These would add upwards
of 200,000,000 F.B.M. to the annual cut, and the fact that they were selected by the industry for
logging first proves that they are among the more accessible areas in the district.
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
Lands within and adjacent to Provincial Forests were examined for the purpose of defining
permanent boundaries for the Forests so as to exclude areas suitable for agricultural development.
For the Elk Forest 58,300 acres were examined this year. Of this area, 20,350 acres,
adjacent to the proposed Forest boundaries in the Elk Valley above Elko, were found to be
suitable for farming, 7,900 acres of which are Crown lands. The first-class tillable soil on these
Crown lands averages 58 per cent., a total of 4,570 acres, the remainder being rough bench-land
suitable for pasture, some of which might be cultivated with success except in dry seasons,
irrigation-water not being available. Clearing costs would not be excessive as most of the
tillable land has been burned over in the past and is now covered with young trees, chiefly
deciduous. There are also 12,450 acres, in addition to the 4,000 acres below Elko reported last
year, of undeveloped privately held lands which are suitable for agricultural development.
In connection with the forest survey conducted in the Powell Lake district, land classification for definition of forest boundaries covered 11,900 acres. There is reported to be a total of
6,700 acres suitable for agricultural development, including the areas examined last year; 2,100
acres of this are privately held and 4,600 acres are Crown lands. It was found that other logged-
offc lands totalling 34,200 acres, which appeared to have agricultural possibilities, could not be
recommended for that purpose after examination; included in these areas were 5,300 acres of
soils, previously of agricultural value, of which the physical .characteristics have been changed
by repeated forest fires. These lands require to be considerably built up in humus before farm
crops could succeed.
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of " Land Act," 1930.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert...
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Totals...
Applications for
Crown Grants.
26
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
No.
68
2
1
3
2
Acres.
13,206
320
1,760
277
920
16,483
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
45
50
34
21
15
18
Acres.
6,367
7,540
4,240
3,086
1,756
1,094
24,083
Applications to
Purchase.
30
57
14
39
65
81
Acres.
2,716
8,438
2,064
6,816
12,590
9,588
42,212
Miscellaneous.
No.
17
34
11
70
17
217
Acres.
2,321
5,919
1,042
3,309
2,188
11,709
26,488 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930.
AA 19
Classification of Areas examined in 1930.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable.
Timber Land.
Estimate of
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
24,610
22,217
9,106
13,514
17,454
22,471
Acres.
2.291
9,933
1,592
3,468
3,547
3,036
Acres.
22,319
12,234
7,514
10,046
13,907
19,435
85,455
Acres.
1,775
15
302
399
2,491
M.B.M.
36.311
448
2,630
4.817
109,372
23,917
44,206
FOREST RESEARCH.
More satisfactory progress has been made in research and reforestation during 1930 than
in any previous year. Difficulties and delays encountered in the selection and training of
research officers have been largely overcome, and the Forest Service now has a well-organized
research staff which is devoting attention to the problems underlying the application of scientific
forestry to the timber lands of the Province.
Mr. C. G. Riley, Superintendent of the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station, resigned during
the year to accept a position in Eastern Canada, and the loss of this able technical officer is to
be regretted.
A feature of the work during 1930 was the co-operation of the Dominion Forest Service in
our rate-of-growth studies. Two Dominion parties were placed in the field in British Columbia
as part of the National Forest Inventory which is being conducted in Canada through the joint
efforts of Provincial and Federal authorities. One of these parties operated in the mixed forests
of fir, cedar, and hemlock in the Johnstone Strait region, and the second in the cedar-hemlock
type south-east of Ocean Falls.
Two experiment stations of the Service are now permanently established and in future no
major expenditures will be required for their, development. Satisfactory progress also has been
made in the preparation of the new Green Timbers Forestry Station on the Pacific Highway near
New Westminster; and preliminary field surveys have been made to locate an area suitable for
reforestation experiments among the extensive tracts of logged-off lands in the district between
Comox and the Salmon River.
Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station.
This Station, established in 1929, is proving to be a most satisfactory field centre for
research-work in the Douglas fir region and for demonstrations of intensive forestry practice on
a small scale.
During 1930 a second building was constructed as quarters for the field staff and necessary
improvement-work was carried out to complete the experimental fire-line and to extend the trails
required within the Station forest.
The thinning experiment, undertaken last year, was continued during 1930, three additional
plots being established. The initial field-work on this project has now been completed and a
detailed report is in course of publication. An experiment was conducted in pruning a 20-year-
old stand of Douglas fir to remove the dead branches which frequently exist in large numbers on
the lower parts of the trunks of young trees of this species. Such branches produce the knots
which lower the quality of lumber cut from second-growth timber. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the cost of pruning to various heights, and the effect of such an operation on
tree-growth and the quality of lumber produced. Three plots were established, for. trials of
light, medium, and heavy pruning, in addition to a check-plot.
Minor activities at the Station included re-examinations of plots established in previous
years for studies of seedling survival and reforestation by seeding. Herbarium specimens were
collected for local purposes, and additional work was done on the use of chemicals for destroying
weeds on fire-lines and thus reducing the fire-hazard from inflammable dead vegetation. Sets of
little-used native woods were prepared, both for our own collections and in response to various
requests. AA 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Visitors to the Cowichan Lake Station during 1930 included Mr. A. D. Hopkinson, of the
British Forestry Commission; Mr. E. H. Finlayson, Director of the Dominion Forest Service;
Dr. K. M. Miiller, Bavarian State Forest Research Institute; and a party of twenty-six forestry
students from the University of Washington, under the guidance of Professor J. L. Alexander.
Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Station.
Routine measurements were continued on the main series of plots established in 1926 for
the purpose of determining the conditions necessary for regeneration of spruce in the Central
Interior. These plots now have been under observation for five seasons and a report on the
results obtained up to date is in course of publication. One new plot was established to test the
rate of regeneration on the land cut over in 1929. On a second new plot the mineral soil was
exposed under a typical stand of spruce and balsam, in order to test the effect of this treatment
in securing satisfactory new growth, on a larger scale than the small sample plots employed up
to the present for the same purpose.
A bulletin was issued, in co-operation with Yale University, describing in detail the results
of certain phases of our investigations at Aleza Lake, together with more intensive studies
conducted in the Yale laboratories.
The principal improvement-work at Aleza Lake in 1930 consisted of the final grading and
gravelling of the Station road. The trail system was extended and miscellaneous finishing and
painting work was done on the headquarters buildings.
The depressed condition of the local lumber industry unfortunately made it necessary to
postpone our plans for the annual logging required under the management plan of the Station
forest. The desired annual cut is approximately 1,000,000 board-feet. However, a small sale
was made of 100,000 feet and the necessary cutting was completed.
Reproduction Studies.
History Maps.—This study of natural reforestation in the South Coast types is being
developed gradually, and during the past season work was done on five of the representative
logging operations which are under observation. Five hundred and fifty new plots were staked
and tallied in an extension of the study-areas at Campbell River, and 300 plots were established
on four other operations as part of the work necessary to balance the previous data and to
replace plots burned during the past year. The office-work on this project is well advanced and
an article on the subject has been published.
Permanent Experimental Plots.—The object of permanent plots in our reproduction studies
is to provide data on the fundamental principles of forest regeneration and to check the information obtained in general surveys. During 1930 twenty-seven plots were re-examined and
four new plots were located. Three of these are for the purpose of making a trial of seeding
with Douglas fir on slash burns at Cowichan Lake; the fourth has been established near Union
Bay to find what happens to seed of native conifers after it leaves the trees and is disseminated
by the wind.
Engelmann Spruce Reproduction, Survey.—The results of a study of natural reforestation
following fires in the spruce region of the Upper Fraser River were published in the Forestry
Chronicle in 1929, but this project has not been referred to in previous reports.
The field-studies were made on seventeen plots and thirty-nine transects, located on thirty-
one areas which had been burned from four to seventy-five years previously. Aspen and birch
were found to be always associated with the coniferous species in the second growth, these
broad-leaf trees apparently preparing the seed-bed for the coniferous seedlings, later providing
necessary shade for the young trees, and finally succumbing when overtopped by the spruce and
balsam when the latter are about eighty years old.
Seventy-five per cent, of the burns are considerably understocked, the cause apparently
being lack of germination on the poor seed-beds which result from hot fires. Spruce averaged
less than 800 per acre on all burns.
Forest Mensuration.
Practically all our research-work in mensuration during the past year has been confined to
the forests of the Central Coast.   In this region the main species is hemlock, with Douglas fir
as the usual associate towards the south and Sitka spruce towards the north.   Western red cedar
occurs throughout the type. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930.
AA 21
Two areas in the Johnstone Strait region were examined in 1930 and, being found suitable
for growth studies, were set aside for permanent experimental purposes. Good stands of second
growth are well established on both of these properties. One is on East Thurlow Island, containing approximately 2,000 acres, and the other, of some 300 acres, is situated on Discovery
Passage, near Elk Bay, in the Sayward Provincial Forest. By making stock-taking surveys of
these young forests at regular intervals, and comparing the results with our yield tables, it will
be possible to check the accuracy of these tables and to improve our methods of predicting growth
for large areas of forest.
Fourteen permanent plots and ninety-nine temporary plots have been established on the two
new research forests. In addition, thirty temporary sample plots were measured in second-
growth stands nearing merchantable size; the material from these plots will assist in checking
our yield tables in the meantime.
A large amount of information has now been assembled on second-growth stands of Douglas
fir. Yield tables for this species were published in the Annual Report for 1928, and stand tables
were completed in 1930 and are presented herewith. These tables show the percentage of the
total number of trees of a stand occurring within each diameter class for stands of a given mean
diameter. (The mean diameter is the simple arithmetical mean of all the diameter classes, and
is distinguished from the average diameter, which is the diameter of the tree of average basal
area.) To facilitate the use of the tables two curves are given, one showing the trend of the
mean stand diameter with age, the other indicating the total number of trees in a normal
stand of any given mean diameter.
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Mean diameter of stand in inches, AA 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Mean Diameter of Stand in Inches
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H FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930.
AA 23
Stand Tables for Douglas Fir.
(Based on the mean stand diameter and expressed by diameter classes in per cent,
of the total number of trees.)
Mean
DiAjMeter of the Stand under Consideration.
Actual
Diameters
found in
6".
8".
10".
12".
14".
16".
18".
20".
22".
24".
20".
28".
30".
35".
the Stand.
Proportion
of Trees found in each Actual Diameter C
Stand, in Per Cent.
ass in
the
(Inches.)
1	
2	
1.2
3.8
9.0
15.0
18.0
18.0
12.0
7.5
5.0
3.7
2.5
1.9
1.3
0.7
0.3
0.1
0.5
1.2
2.8
5.5
0.5
13.5
15.0
14.0
11.0
8.0
5.5
4.0
3.0
2.5
1.7
1.1
0.6
0.4
0.2
1.2
5.3
14.5
22.0
21.0
16.5
9.5
5.5
2.7
1.3
0.5
0.0
2.9
7.5
14.0
18.0
18.0
17.0
10.5
5.5
3.3
1.7
0.7
0.3
0.4
1.4
4.2
8.5
13.0
16.5
16.5
14.5
10.5
7.0
4.0
2.1
0.0
0.5
0.2
0.7
2.1
5.5
9.5
12.0
14.0
15.0
13.0
11.0
7.5
4.7
2.8
1.3
0.5
0.2
0.6
1.2
3.2
6.0
9.0
11.5
13.5
13.0
12.0
10.0
8.0
5.5
3.5
1.8
0.8
0.4
0.3
1.2
4.3
9.7
14.5
18.0
18.0
15.0
10.0
5.5
2.5
0.8
0.2
0.2
0.8
2.8
6.7
11.0
15.0
16.5
16.0
13.5
9.5
5.0
2.1
0.7
0.2
0.2
0.6
1.9
4.3
8.5
12.0
14.5
16.0
14.8
11.5
8.2
4.5
2.1
0.7
0.2
0.1
0.5
1.3
3.1
6.3
9.5
12.2
14.0
15.0
13.5
10.8
7.2
4.0
1.8
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.4
1.0
2.5
4.5
7.0
10.0
12.5
13.5
14.0
12.5
9.5
6.5
3.5
2.0
0.5
0.1
0.3
0.8
1.8
3.2
5.5
8.3
11.0
12.5
13.0
12.5
11.0
8.5
5.7
3.5
1.6
0.5
0.2
3	
4...
6	
0.2
8	
9	
0.4
10	
11 :	
12
1.0
13
14	
15	
1.9
16	
17 ..
18	
3.0
19	
20	
21	
4.5
99
24 :
6.5
26	
27	
28
8.5
30	
32	
33	
34	
10.0
11.0
36	
11.0
39	
11.0
42	
45	
48 	
51	
54	
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
57    	
0.8
60	
0.2
Totals
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Compiled by Charlier's Type A equation.
Thus, if it should be desired to determine the composition of a stand of a given mean
diameter at some time in the future, the mean diameter at that time may be estimated by reference to the diameter-age curve. The mean diameter at the present age will not necessarily
agree with the diameter given by the curve owing to differences in site. In such a case the
future diameter is estimated by determining the percentage relationship between the stand
diameter and the curved diameter at present, and assuming that the same relationship will exist
at any time in the future. After having determined the mean diameter at the desired age-limit,
the number of trees per acre in a normal stand may then be determined from the second curve,
which shows the number of trees in a stand of a given diameter, and these trees then can be
segregated into their respective diameter classes by means of the stand tables.   In cases of AA 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
abnormal stands—that is, when the number of trees per acre are greater or less than the
number given by the curve for the same mean diameter—a good deal of personal judgment is
required in estimating the future number of trees. In overstocked stands a conservative
estimate may be obtained by treating the stand as though it were normal, disregarding the
degree of overstocking. Understocked stands tend to approach the normal condition as time
goes on, and if there is a greater number of trees at present (than normally called for when the
stand shall have reached a diameter corresponding to the age for which a prediction is being
made), then it is reasonable to presume that the stand will have become normal at this time,
and the number of trees as given by the curve could be used. Having determined the future
composition of the stand in this way, the expected yield may then be quite easily worked up in
any desired form.
Attention has been given to the results of the 1929 study of growth in the Yahk Provincial
Forest.    The data from this work have been compiled and a paper is in course of publication.
Reforestation.
Seed Collections.—Reports received from the Rangers on seed conditions throughout the
Province indicate that the 1930 crop has been below medium expectation. Douglas fir, though
below the general average, was good in the Lower Fraser Valley and above the average in the
Southern Interior. Cedar was poor on the Coast, fair in the Southern Interior, and good in the
Upper Fraser country. The latter district also had a good crop of hemlock-seed. Production of
Sitka spruce was poor on the Queen Charlotte Islands, which for some years have been the
main source of export shipments of this species. Spruce-seed was more plentiful on the South
Coast. Yellow pine was abundant in the Cariboo, fairly plentiful in the Southern Interior, but
poor in the Kamloops country. There was a moderate production of balsam (Abies grandis) on
the Coast, the first crop of any consequence in years.
For all species, the yield of seed per bushel of cones was poor and many of the cones were
damaged by insects.
Seed collections were made for export, to the Imperial Forestry Commission, in co-operation
with the Dominion Forest Service, and for the requirements of our own nurseries. Some 730
bushels of cones were collected, principally Douglas fir and balsam, with small quantities of
other species.
Forest Nurseries.—At the Shelbourne experimental nursery near Victoria 205 seed-beds were
sown, mainly with Douglas fir and Sitka spruce. Experiments with sand cover, as compared
with ordinary nursery soil, indicated that the latter is better for soils similar to that in
our nursery. Chemical sterilization of the seed-bed surface, on the beds using a cover of
ordinary nursery soil, reduced damping-off to a minimum. The present stock in the nursery
comprises some 800,000 healthy trees, about half of which are Douglas fir. These will be transplanted to the Green Timbers nursery in the spring of 1931.
Green Timbers Forestry Station.—The clearing for the nursery at this station has been
extended, and over 6 acres are now ready for seed-beds and the reception of stock from! the
Victoria nursery. In 1930, 80,000 seedlings were set out in transplant beds and a few trial
seed-beds'were sown. Permanent improvements included fencing, land-drainage, road-construction, and miscellaneous development-work. A site has been prepared for the buildings proposed
for 1931.
Forest plantings during the spring of 1930 covered 65 acres on the Green Timbers area
adjacent to the nursery; two-year-old stock from the Victoria nursery was used and set out at
the rate of 1,000 per acre. Some losses have been suffered, apparently due to drying-out of the
seedlings during the severe weather conditions of last winter, and some of the new plantations
have been injured by rabbits. Growth of the young trees on the Green Timbers area during
the 1930 season shows the site to be well suited to reforestation by Douglas fir and Sitka spruce.
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY.
It was found necessary to again undertake control measures in the yellow- and lodgepole-
pine bark-beetle infested areas south of Merritt. A small crew treated 3,161 trees in April and
May at a cost of $4,878. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930. AA 25
Previous Annual Reports describe the progress of this work in past years and the epidemic
seemed to have been permanently checked. Both species of Dendroctonus beetles involved
attack the yellow pine, but only one (monticolm) attacks the lodgepole pine. Control-work in
the past was concentrated on the yellow pine, being the more valuable tree, and also because
most entomologists claimed that beetles emerging from lodgepole pine did not attack the yellow
pine. Recent experiments conducted by Mr. Hopping and his assistants now prove Dendroctonus
monticolm will, on emerging from one species of pine, enter either of them.
Unfortunately, a fresh epidemic is now under way, the extent of which, combined with the
knowledge that the Dendroctonus monticolm accepts an interchange of host-tree species, indicates
the impracticability of further control-work, especially as infestations in the lodgepole pine are
widespread.
In fact, bark-beetles of the genus Dendroctonus are doing widespread damage to the three
species of pine and to Douglas fir throughout the Southern Interior of the Province. The
tussock-moth has also appeared, confining itself as yet to two or three localities, and chiefiy
affecting the Douglas fir.
The extent of the damage inflicted every year in the Interior by forest insects is viewed
with considerable apprehension. Representatives of the Dominion Entomological Branch are
watching the situation, studying the life-habits of the various insects and giving valuable advice
to the Department wherever control measures appear practicable.
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
Trade-extension work in the Eastern Canadian market was continued, the Lumber Commissioner working with architects, engineers, and builders, placing the merits of British
Columbia woods before them. An exhibit was again prepared for the Canadian National
Exhibition at Toronto, which received very favourable comments. It is encouraging to note
that the results of this work are becoming more noticeable each year. British Columbia
products are gradually being recognized at their true value, and are entering into many phases
of building and manufacturing where previously foreign woods were used.
Co-operation between the Government and the lumber industries made possible the send'ng
of a Lumber Commissioner to Australia. The depressed financial condition and the increase in
Australian tariffs militated against immediate results, but this work is largely educational, such
as the breaking-down of trade prejudices and the building-up of a sentiment for trading within
the Empire. Such work, to be lasting, must be carried on over a term of years and can be done
under present conditions as effectively as in prosperous times.
Four bulletins, on Douglas Fir, Western Red Cedar, Western Hemlock, and Spruce, were
published to set out in concise form the merits of these woods and where they should be used.
The Department is indebted to the British Columbia Lumber and Shingle Manufacturers,
Limited, to the Forest Products Laboratory, and to Major L. R. Andrews for assistance in
preparing the text of these bulletins.
THE  FOREST INDUSTRIES.
The general depressed conditions throughout the world were reflected in the timber industries, and the production in all lines except pulp shows a decline. The value of products
constantly receded during the year and in the last six months was below the cost of production.
Drastic curtailment during the latter part of the year, however, has helped to meet the situation.
Stocks have decreased and prices become firmer. With any revival in building trade, advances
should be recorded.
These slump conditions are reflected in the industrial tables given herewith. The decline
has been more marked than during any period in the history of the Branch, except 1915 and
the post-war slump of 1921-22. The value of the industry reflects both a curtailment of 27 per
cent, in cut of sawn lumber and a decline of $2.50 per thousand in the value of the product. A
similar decline and lower prices prevail in the shingle business. Pulp and paper, on the other
hand, show an increase, accruing through the expansion of the Powell River Company's plant.
Newsprint production was up 24,000 tons, or 12 per cent.
AVater-borne shipments held up well, considering prevailing conditions, and amounted to
712,299 M.B.M., a reduction of 11.1 per cent, against a reduction of 20.7 per cent, in the shipments from the Pacific Coast. AA 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight within the Province.
Product.
Lumber   ....
Pulp and paper	
Shingles	
Boxes	
Piles, poles, and mine-props	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties.
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the
wood-using: industry   	
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
Logs exported	
Pulp-wood exported	
Totals .
841,800,000
13,938,000
10,000,000
2,272,000
2,100,000
1,400,000
2,242,000
2,100,000
550,000
4,300,000
1925.
841,850,000
14,466,000
10,000,000
2,200,000
2,400,000
1,800,000
1,990,000
2,100,000
1,617,000
3,870,000
148,000
$81,941,000
842,516,000
16,315,000
10,500,000
3,000,000
2,792,000
1,414,000
1,420,000
2,100,000
1,500,000
3,170,000
75,000
1927.
$40,487,000
18,505,000
6,800,000
1,707,000
4,030,000
1,405,000
1,440,000
2,100,000
2,000,000
4,661,000
52,000
$83,087,000
$48,346,000
16,765,000
10,000,000
2,501,000
4,684,000
1,633,000
1,873,000
2,200,000
2,100,000
3,680,000
115,000
1929.
1930.
$50,140,000
$32,773,000
14,400,000
16,520,000
8,300,000
4,161,000
2,437,000
2,287,000
5,500,000
4,726,000
1,734,000
1,596,000
2,116,000
1,253,000
2,100,000
2,387,000
2,400,000
1,500,000
4,124,000
2,462,000
50,000
42,000
$93,301,000
$69,737,000
Pulp (in Tons).
Pulp.
1920.
1921.    !     1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
92,514
16,856
121,363
1926.
108,381
15,000
136,123
1927.
119,005
13.700
163,548
1928.
120,413
15,050
170,005
1929.
112,925
16,647
151,066 *
1930.
Ground wood ....
92,299
16,380
108,665
68,602
6,519
89,725
86,894
9,674
100,759
96,878
9,932
107,266
89,839
14,403
112,001
130,462
13,055
172,539
Paper (in Tons).
Product.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
142,928
7,709
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
201,009
19,492
1930.
Newsprint	
Other papers ....
136,832
9,792
110,176
6,934
124,639
7,945
136,281
9,653
148,201
9,261
176,924
10.389
214,010
13,745
225,477
15,960
224,92S
20,446
Water-borne Lumber Trade (in F.B.M.).
Destination.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
34,848,783
12,169,230
752,906
25,595,993
79,107,984
41,527,008
10,681,208
2,228,150
313,104,821
134,690
544,601
3,454,183
6,883,150
229,608
40,228,8S7
12,619.730
2,168,921
10,783,086
67,671,449
53,845,679
8,876,544
3,359,869
361,016,940
56,863
667,012
2,610,143
12,820,848
835,317
36,809,373
16,201,328
1,160,947
4,615,921
177,193,659
41,575,593
17,651,788
1,653,675
400,347,692
221,378
8,792,765
3,791,670
2,573,529
154,038
53,502,046
10,847,645
2,168,973
9,178.973
191,597,552
36,427,449
18,562,680
3,566,713
392,074,528
1,734,314
16.023,319
1,884,632
29,843,132
8,531,322
10,304,032
16,902,137
219,361,557
67,075,872
13,625,781
411,577
384,107,908
56,681
8,356,571
5,496,319
333,660
1,149,573
41,493,476
8.559,208
2,449,494
43,323,398
192,411,505
69,903,655
15,889,002
243,807
351,526,590
14,347,317
6,508,978
623,766
4,744,180
60,494,040
83,076,587
6,416,105
South America	
1,774,697
55,224,104
India and Straits Settlements	
United States and Atlantic Coast	
150,869,880
98,037,621
17,685,896
241,129
269,093,670
122,744
12,781,209
3,230,759
550,018
2,649,559
12,047
73,195,238
531,262,818
577,560,288
712,743,256
740,230,330
765,556,122
801,518,422
712,299,557 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930.
AA 27
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Logging Inspection.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
106
246
98
661
432
389
'97
"3
30
163
108
372
580
609
136
409
206
1,130
1,012
•l,0ul
366
1,013
519
2,085
2,302
2,574
Totals, 1930	
1,932
100
1,862
3,894
8,859
Totals, 1929	
1,907
99
2,002
4,008
9,512
Totals, 1928	
1,623
50
2,023
3,696
9,596
Totals, 1927	
1,584
133
1,873
3,590
8,661
Totals, 1926	
1,476
S4
1,921
3,453
7,921
Totals, 1925	
1,282
1,245
54
89
166
1,730
3,046
7,321
Totals, 1924   	
1,863
3,167
7,406
Totals, 1923	
1,010
2,140
3,316
6,892
Totals, 1922	
914
691
159
1,579
2,652
4,654
Totals, 1921	
186
1,331
2,208
2,796
4,053
Totals, 1920	
606
220
1,981
2,703
Trespasses.
Forest District.
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
Quantity
CUT.
1 »
«J
0 to
5*5.5
Amount.
Feet B.M.
Lineal
Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
4
9
11
10
50
12
8
190
50
109
609
34
S.302
292,795
7,067
521,442
139,745
18,260
45,664
68,207
33,898
100
3
20
292
1,042
1,457
592
2,629
305
4,454
1,632
1
'3
$       96 05
1,324 19
1,184 95
495 51
3,699 02
734 29
Totals, 1930	
96
99
105
1,000
969,351
165,729
9,612
4
8 7,534 01
Totals, 1929	
370
984,309
88,997
569
5,906
9
12
8  5,431 07
Totals, 1928	
878
6,867,052
2,200,926
1,972,843
98,279
4,713
16,599
817,787 10
Totals, 1927	
83
84
399
47,871
2,862
9,660
9
6
$ 9,097 63
Totals, 1926	
541
144,357
433
10,233
8 9,457 64
Totals, 1925	
87
646
3,486,609
98,456
1,563
16,820
4
$14,534 94
Totals, 1924	
68
570
2,182,808
54,068
767
7,646
20,082
2
8
8 8,539 86
Totals, 1923	
105
1,015
6,712,868
3,002,881
121,202
98,903
1,598
2,591
1,639
$27,860 08
Totals, 1922	
98
1,069
27,022
16
SI 6,406 30
Totals, 1921	
98
1,938
3,222,673
209,395
21,605
10
815,924 22
Totals, 1920	
73
1,788
4,904,079
104,048
1,882
6,716
10
817,119 85 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930.
AA 31
Areas cruised for Timber-sales.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
44
141
67
236
265
190
Totals, 1930	
943
Totals, 1928	
1,061
Totals, 1927	
Totals, 1926	
Totals, 1925	
819
Totals, 1924	
942
Acreage.
4,743
34,472
10,734
89,965
69,889
37,262
197,085
214,874
233,889
142,515
119,436
179,609
Saw-timber
(M.B.M.),
3,749
41,010
9,202
86,954
185,421
199,925
526,261
754,095
9 74,626
369,717
353,225
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
43,750
685,110
1,407,630
1,136,532
6,089,620
984,180
10,345,822
13,043,603
9,623,599
7,092,844
4,238,881
9,113.052
1,465,924
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
2,873
455
4,190
2,335
9,813
6,765
17,629
43,266
21,027
15,248
57,441
41,554
Railway-
ties
(No.).
75,862
176,688
91,586
252,666
113,439
21,500
731,640
1,305,110
2,056,604
1,747,441
1,299,826
1,389,604
1,873,954
Car
Stakes &
Posts
(No.).
9,300
24,100
586,700
620,100
185,740
447,630
35,600
20,200
14,477
Pre-emption Inspection Records, 1930.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Cariboo     349
Fort George   424
Kamloops  102
Prince Rupert   213
Southern Interior   355
Vancouver  236
Total  1,679
Timber Sales awarded by Districts, 1930.
District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piling
(Lineal Feet).
No. of
Posts.
No. of Cords.
No. of Ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
47
66
99
248
216
190
866
974
9,332
12,119
•21,956
45,508
34,542
38,591
1,812,000
1,541,000
7,121.000
51,648,000
62,111,000
75,252,000
71,186
2,216,433
794,881
2,709,514
3,070,680
1,100,465
9,963,164
380,160
18,000
398,150
374,065
880,000
1,304
480
1,239
8,057
1,870
7,047
84,383
54,740
110,636
60,891
180,552
3,000
8    12,425 98
55,075 74
43,645 64
199,278 95
1.8,355 02
250,099 96
Kamloops	
Southern Interior ....
Prince Rupert	
Totals, 1930...
162,043
199,485,000
691,973,000
19,997
494,202
8689,481 29
Totals, 1929...
216,222.28
194,929.37
258,097.26
118,816.28
94,015.25
146,652
163,464
9,356,837
23,197
1,505,951
81,908,100 70
Totals, 1928...
1,033
525,250,760
6,537,002
7,332,939
5,497,707
6,629,449
48,728
22,057
1,996,457
1,380,553
81,344,273 93
Totals, 1927...
821
687
1,611,612,079
736,100
82,666,678 32
Totals, 1926...
295,486,743
207,190
13,455
40,334
47,640
1,044,999
566.142
81,038.536 69
Totals, 1925...
613
769
189,022,314
302.813,267
12,877
8   795,802 20
Totals, 1924...
6,336,071
6,234,342
2,418,633
81,226,460 87
Totals, 1923...
852
516,397,438
23,150
2.304,161
81,513,970 84
Totals, 1922...
671
108,501
249,572,808
3,304,254
149,300
41,580
830,307
$   862,888 49
Totals, 1921...
531
91,614
188,971,774
2,479,095
34,291
993,417
S   646,487 65
Totals, 1920...
594
121,690
440,649,765
245,209,300
2,811,095
2,899,000
86,726
6,415,349
81,799,039 03
Totals, 1919...
356
227
255
133
61,809
5,000
20,000
52,557
957,804
8   654,372 09
Totals, 1918. ..
34,257
159,659,000
378,080
1,517,450
18,478
701,654
381,200
*   380,408 33
Totals, 1917...
44,914
23,318
240,307,057
136,315,000
40,000
43,756
26,666
8   483,281 50
Totals, 1916..
435,810
92,000
8   259,765 12 AA 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Average Sale Price by Species.
Saw-timber.
Douglas fir	
Cedar	
Spruce 	
Hemlock	
Balsam	
White pine	
Western soft pine
Tamarack	
Other species	
Totals ..
Figures for 1930.
Board-feet.
55,490,000
21,558,000
35,082,000
37,972,000
17,973,000
4,709,000
7,132.000
5,501,000
5,075,000
190,492,000
Price
Per M.
81 52
1 46
1 48
91
89
2 39
1 74
1 05
68
81 32
Figures for 1929.
Board-feet.
100,886,000
59,142,000
306,370,000
70,737,000
26.622.000
8,229,000
8,949,000
5,547,000
7,277,000
1593,759,000
Price
Per M.
81 65
1 62
1 25
82
80
2 44
1 47
1.01
.97
1.29
Figures for 1928.
Board-feet.
Price
55,958,000
81 61
48,565,266
1 61
110,797,641
1 85
49,423,655
85
26,034,838
83
4,553,000
2 98
9,316,780
1 77
6,448,800
1 23
9,917,880
1 09
$1 40
321,015,760
Figures for 1927.
Price
57,144,445
81 63
30,839,900
1 68
146,694,173
1 71
26,344,700
96
31,931,100
66
4,992,940
3 15
12,354,500
1 73
5,617,505
1 07
2,175,116
1 12
1318,091,079
81 53
* Note.—8,993,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1930 totals.
t Note.—98,214,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1929 totals.
J Note.—204,335,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1928 totals.
§ Notk.—1,293,518,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1927 totals.
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1930.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Posts.
2,233,191
1,095,928
21,462,678
24,503,629
75,354,313
102,369,878
88,476
1,694,498
561,526
5,169,626
3,809,843
636,086
772.00
30.00
527.50
8,644.09
1,204.76
6,997.82
17,176.17
24,663.46
24,389.36
27,508.54
50,893
82,497
289,938
209,967
683,444
24,687
1,341,426
8,204
19,200
342,529
17,781
1,035
Totals, 1930	
227,019,617
11,960,055
388,749
Totals, 1929	
266,016,942
7,966,223
7,672,294
1,554,870
332,038
203,208,331
1,714,709
376,253
Totals,  1927	
214,209,921
6,368,269
1,359,902
86,109
Totals, 1926  	
242,973,624
251,141,398
230,148,575
207,473,848
187,217,151
4,974,620
16,676.45
20,808.14
1,198,922
83,763
Totals, 1925	
4,885,352
4,641,371
1,077,414
Totals, 1924	
17,294.00
17,666.56
' 1,543,915
856,628
Totals, 1923	
2,763,532
Totals, 1922	
1,523,744
37,345.91
495,672
Totals, 1921	
179,780,056
168,783,812
107,701,950
2,169,550
10,483.00
17,703.00
831,423
654,829
1,638,649
Totals, 1919	
672,699
12,208.00
573,286
Totals, 1918	
113,927,610
99,078,832
63,055,102
499,589
15,539.00
14,862.00
8,425.00
146,807
Totals, 1917	
545,429
34,937
Totals, 1916	
225,799 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930.
AA 33
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Peovince.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
d
r%
21
31
7
19
69
164
V, &
"So.
£ >>s.
93
754
72
430
1,311
8,360
11,020
d
tr
>c
-la
oi O £
S (■>■*
"28
7,136
7,161
7,881
8,280
12,042
15,614
d
>,
'3
^* P.
if.
•Jf5
71
65
237
772
950
1,109
3,204
2,200
2,459
2,549
1,875
d
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
Shingles, M.
i
42
17
2
6
24
50
42
1
3
13
17
200
bOO
1,195
301
43
53
141
1,695
Totals, 1929	
354
314
11,896
95
15
1,726
Totals, 1928	
11,919
12,176
12,962
11,475
11,986
11,273
9,683
8,912
56
65
120
15
2,710
Totals, 1927	
375
110
102
22
6
2,740
Totals, 1926	
391
87
460
363
82
15,322
15,636
16,144
15,544
109
2,121
9
625
Totals, 1924	
359
352
78
103
2,618
. 20
16
1,780
107
72
1,493
2,054
2,029
909
745
Totals, 1922	
292
289
108
90
8
680
Totals, 1921	
79
10,885
13,420
78
6
2
788
Totals, 1920 "	
341
10,729
109
37
30
Export of Logs.    (In F.B.M.)
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir	
5,786,196
5,762,876
22,409
66,141,643
19,891,198
346,891
25,102,497
14,570,942
432,162
97,030,336
40,225,016
801,462
23,330,916
8,899,954
1,951,532
514,319
23,330,910
8,899,954
1,951,532
White pine	
514,319
11,571,481
13,015,146
123,258
42,250
165,508
Totals, 1930     	
86,502,990
138,997,695
40,147,841
60,002,711
47,994,423
31,696,715
29,978,125
37,305,398
172,919,027
Totals, 1929	
236,993,577
Totals, 1928   	
20,563,249
36,545,972
32,195,991
34,501,748
23,416,816
■406,084,161
144,942,558
105,322,879
211,947,231
Totals, 1927  	
51,584,928
53,113,521
48,510,833
281,584,291
Totals, 1926	
33,845,324
224,477,715
96,701,737
40,312,806
38,901,670
210,417,961
Totals, 1924	
111,801,016
49,649,135
65,763,860
240,530,827 AA 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-peops, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Forest District.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where .marketed.
United States.
Canada.
Japan.
Kamloops—
1,678,783
18,870
30
54,950
880,740
628
354,602
3,762,762
30,430
702,603
10,061,317
957
5,241
10,809,075
9,800
11,514
346,333
$201,869
2,453
347
33,108
114,496
3,768
219,027
525,386
5,172
438,375
1,307,971
3,830
41,932
1,667,746
93,284
97,889
188,812
1,351,305
325,290
3,537,297
9,613,226
957
5,241
9,137,941
2,448
327,478
18,870
30
54,950
555,450
628
354,602
215,465
30,430
702,603
1,671,134
9,800
9,066       f
346,333
Fort George-
Poles and piling  lineal ft.
Prince Rupert—
Vancouver—
448,092
Southern Interior-
Total value, 1930 	
$4,945,445
$5,333,303
TIMBER-MARKING.
TlMBEE-MAEKS   ISSUED  FOE  THE  YEARS   1928,   1929,   AND  1930.
1928.
Old Grown grants      108
Crown grants, 1887-1906     118
Crown grants, 1906-1914     177
Section 53a, " Forest Act "      302
Stumpage reservations       34
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land Act "      21
Dominion lands  (general)         40
Dominion lands (timber berths)        22
Dominion lands (Indian reserves)        13
Timber-sales  1,033
Hand-loggers           5
Special marks 	
Rights-of-way        3
Pulp licences         5
* ■	
Totals  1,881
Transfers and changes of marks      276
1929.
1930
10S
90
120
84
121
97
290
212
35
90
13
10
30
26
9
13
7
8
974
866
9
11
4
1
9
1
1,729
1,515
238
242
HAND-LOGGERS' LICENCES.
Number issued
1928.
53
1929.
51
1930.
64 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930.
AA 35
ANALYSIS OF ROUTINE WORK.
Draughting Office, Forest Branch.
January	
February.   ...
March	
April	
May	
Jane	
July	
August	
September. . ..
October ..
November ....
December .   ..
Totals
Timber-
sales.
44
34
38
33
25
31
13
26
24
29
12
25
Number of Tracings madk.
Timber-
marks.
83
102
89
66
83
50
64
37
65
54
62
48
783
Examination
Sketches.
51
39
56
45
42
31
36
31
42
51
61
Hand-logger
Licences.
3
12
20
5
3
Miscellaneous.
8
12
39
25
9
10
II
6
Totals
1S'7
186
207
193
180
124
125
107
129
146
160
169
1,913
Blue-prints
from Reference Maps.
5
14
4
6
18
14
28
52
13
12
170
CROWN-GRANT TIMBER LANDS.
■
Area-of-Private Average
Timber Lands Value
(Acres). per Acre.
1919   883,491' $9.48
1920  867,921 11.62
1921  845,111 10.33
1922  887,980 11.99
1923  883,344 11.62
1924 654,668 15.22
1925  654,016 40.01
1926 :  088,372 39.77
1927  690,438 39.01
1928 „  671,131 38.62
1929  644,011 38.41
1930   629,156 44.74
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Alberni..  	
Comox	
Cowichan	
Fort Steele. ..
Galiano Island.
Golden	
Kettle River...
Nanaimo	
Nelson  	
Fort George...
Prince Rupert.
Revelstoke  ...
Slocan 	
Vancouver ...
Victoria	
Assessment District.
Totals.
Acreage,
1930.
92.
130,
72,
37.
13,
21,
37,
60,
2
28
104
,500
693
167
268
4'8
673
549
390
096
140
201
685
508
274
629,156
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1929.
- 4,856
- 7,759
- 5,539
- 2,479
60
176
+ 2,664
+     796
- 3,679
+ 6,475
+ 4,579
+ '    129
- 1.728
- 3,222
Average Value
per Acre.
$67 63
54 44
79 61
10 02
18 34
9 55
7 46
57 25
9 68
19 72
21 77
15 23
10 77
118 72
44 97
944 74
Change in
Value per
Acre since
1929.
+$11 54
+ 7 72
+ 14 23
+ 0 17
+ 3 36
+    0 04
- 3 30
+ 13 17
+ 1 25
+    1 70
- 0 60
+    6'30
+ 18 34
+   9 37
+$ 6 33 AA 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST REVENUE.
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers'licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals	
Penalty fees and interest	
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timher-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising    	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)   ....
Scaling expenses (nut Scaling Fund).,
Trespass penalties  	
Scalers' examination fees.
Exchange	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous	
Grazing fees	
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands..
Total revenue from forest sources
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1930.
$854,660 87
2,180 00
27.861 53
1,575 00
72,117 52
807 44
35,035 94
518,309 48
7,505 12
1,256 69
1,456,330 42
1,204 07
150 01
5,825 68
105 00
591 70
1,406 64
4,137 56
$2,990,820 67
12,251 88
422,274 04
$3,425,346 69
12 Months to    12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1929. iDec. 31st,1928.
$931,545 72
1,775 00
23,245 73
1,300 00
79,873 89
901 43
30,102 64
634,048 95
12,844 92
1,951 28
1,688.803 67
1,407 92
191 74
9,161 16
320 00
1,711 29
3,152 88
2,754 36
$3,425,152 68
10,918 49
375,923 32
$3,811,994 39
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1927.
$1,015,705 19
4,285 00
33,036 56
1,400 00
79,396 72
520 70
40,649 01
551,102 88
10,943 97
1,616 65
1,774,417 41
1,147 84
103 74
12,058 89
275 00
271 09
589 71
4,444 25
S3.531,993 61
12,541 98
388,860 46
$892,914 98
2,000 00
27,639 13
1,275 00
95,236 93
88 93
32,494 67
608,765 11
10,936 58
1,681 85
1,825,909 80
1,778 02
156 75
6,481 S3
235 00
345 16
703 90
3,767 83
!,602,411 40
16,529 20
424,023 04
$4,042,963 64
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1926.
$1,063,812 90
2,400 00
32,549 14
2,250 00
90,010 89
254 91
20,537 75
572,324 74
7,173 84
1,498 82
9,553 60
1,344 75
98 17
11,677 12
350 00
693 04
300 50
3,651 95
$3,590,482 12
12,328 54
410,684 46
1,'
$4,013,495 12
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1925.
$1,130,556 52
3,465 00
28,017 75
2,775 00
92,485 38
283 33
17,045 45
512,399 28
6,296 67
1,403 43
1,658,043 07
1,044 26
253 24
17,841 58
160 00
520 12
1,097 95
4,699 60
$3,478,387 68
14,114 89
398,393 85
$3,890,896 42
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1930.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
* Ta'x.
Trespass
Penalties.
Seizure
Expenses.
Government Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stumpage.
Forest District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver
Cariboo .
Prince Rupert.
Southern Int'r.
Fort George ...
Kamloops ,
$ 993,057 94
3,977 81
159,084 78
201,105 85
67,218 66
35,922 13
$ 897 42
126 17
3,785 44
932 73
889 61
$ 6,799 66
$ 4,191 84
$20,867 17
$ 7,343 44
$ 1,589 83
$59,804 57
$10,860 22
$ 616 60
162 96
98 77
723 43
$ 66 57
14 75
69 25
$ 140 57
$ 175 83
$ 156 68'
$ 163 57
$   98 34
$1,049 66
i3o'87
84 80
$1,265 33
$1,215 22
$1,194 89
$2,032 43
$20,233 93
1,410 53
$21,644 46
$22,127 43
$20,277 64
$17,169 14
$17,279 88
$18,794 39
$14,760 12
$ 96,814 21
9,739 13
$106,553 34
$118,481 18
$123,169 81
$175,173 69
6,203 96
180,705 77
157,8.19 74
74,670 93
43,349 80
$1,287,909 92
10,322 69
351,541 58
362,849 80
143,630 54
80,141 54
Totals	
$1,460,367 16
$1,601 76
$1,655 56
$2,103 57
$ 789 47
$1,142 38
$ 913 29
$638,023 79
$711,213 82
$635,292 44
$2,236,396 07
Totals, 1929
Totals, 1928
$1,851,535 62
$1,794,819 93
$2,710,496 50
$2,597,882 03
Totals, 1927
$1,767,710 60
$1,774,494 75
$1,754,605 06
$1,542,070 96
$114,979 79
$631,948 72
$2,542,137 16
Totals, 1926
$1,147 41
$1,254 80
$2,179 42
$119,704 75
$613,365 09
$2,528,822 43
Totals, 1926
$ 197 08
$ 548 37
$116,682 68
$651,486 17
$2,603,738 04
Totals, 1924
$ 708 24
$103,691 71
$597,071 65
$2,271,890 69
FOREST EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1929-30.
Headquarters ....
Cariboo .   ........
Kamloops	
Fort George	
Prince Itupert....
Southern Interior.
Vancouver 	
Forest District.
Totals.
Salaries.
$ 99,019 71
9,013 09
6,759 58
17,091 22
23,551 20
43,955 34
54,261 52
$253,651 66
Temporary
Assistance.
$ 475 58
190 00
110 00
974 39
2,011 93
492 26
$1,254 16
Expenses.
1 23,929 28
3,570 43
3,081 30
5,988 69
21,408 46
23,316 66
45,948 86
$127,243 '
$123,424 57
12,773 52
9,950 88
24,054 30
44.959 66
69,283 93
100,702 64
S3S5,149 50
Lumber-trade extension (including $2,500 from Vote 127—General Investigation).
Reconnaissance, etc	
Insect-control	
Grazing : range improvement    	
Grazing :  stick account         	
20,988 68
32,968 34
157 41
6,687 18
1,231 19
Grand total    $447,182 30 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930. AA 37
SCALING FUND.
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1929   $21,584.03
Expenditure, fiscal year 1929-30  142,359.06
Charges, fiscal year 1929-30   $138,332.05        	
Balance, March 31st, 1930       25,611.04       	
$163,943.09    $163,943.09
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1930  $25,611.04
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1930  97,636.98
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1930  $101,399.31       	
Balance       21,848.71        	
$123,248 02    $123,248.02
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1929  $27,313.65
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1929   71,828.64
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30 (a)  369.99
Expenditure, fiscal year 1929-30     $62,569.84       	
Balance       36,942.44       	
$99,512.28 $99,512.28
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1930  $36,942.44
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1930  68,030.43
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30 (a)  694.90
Expenditure, 9 months to December 31st, 1930     $65,627.27       	
Balance, December 31st, 1930       40,040.50       	
$105,667.77    $105,667.77
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1930:—
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1929        $102,584.79
Expenditure, fiscal year 1929-30   918,286.82
$1,020,871.61
Collections, fiscal year 1929-30  :  $151,631.79
Collections under special levy      23,194.47
Government contribution      300,000.00
■  474,826.26
Balance   (deficit)           $546,045.35
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1930        $546,045.35
Expenditure, 9 months (April-December, 1930)   710,947.50
$1,256,992.85
Collections, April-December, 1930   $176,473.30
Collections, special levy, April-December, 1930      143,865.39
Government contribution      360,000.00
■  680,338.69
$576,654.16 AA 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
A further sum of $360,000 is payable by the Government, being its proportion of special levy.
There is an amount of approximately $62,000 repayable by Forest Protection Fund to Vote
112 to cover expenses of permanent employees, maintenance of motor-cars and launches, etc.;
also $82,000 to cover proportion of salaries of Rangers, etc., payable by the fund.
Forest Protection Fund Expenditure.
FlSCAI
Years.
1922-23.
1923-24.
1924-25.
1925-26.
1926-27.
1927-28.
1928-29.
1929-30.
Patrols and fire pre-
$202,994
91,812
508,992
37,609
$841,407
$254,792
81,408
75,503
21,667
$433,370
$334,532
25,418
268.034
5,690
$633,674
$377,427
33,976
650,138
11,890
$1,073,431
$356,462
30,063
514,845
14,172
$358,835
30,409
84,600
22,482
$407,790 94
31,258 82
75,221 43
33,428 67
$373,416 71
Tools and equipment.
Impro vein en ts and
maintenance	
45,401 56
494,645 42
22,670 79
Totals	
$916,142
$196,326
$547,699 86
$936,034 48
Expenditure by Districts for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1930.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Fort George	
Prince Rupert  ...
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Victoria 	
Totals
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention
U 20,032 04
25,444 90
28.247 93
26,303 74
115,729 22
119.964 12
37,689 76
$373,416 71
Tools and
Equipment.
$ 2,196 62
2,384 64
3,266 56
3.034 43
22,988 70
9,919 72
1,610 89
$15,401 56
457.
16
781 54
768 28
536 92
959 74
556 79
,042 15
$194,645 42
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
$ 672 92
5,433 S8
4,128 46
1,(111 69
7,729 44
2,994 40
$ 25,683 12
38,031 70
40,179 87
39,914 60
604,001 15
148,920 39
39.300 65
$936,034 48
FOREST PROTECTION.
The 1930 forest-fire season, if not severe, was one of extreme hazard. Unlike 1929, where
the centre of hazard was over the Central Interior, Eastern Washington, and Idaho, this year
the centre of extreme conditions swung farther north, and abnormal weather prevailed throughout the Province. Rainfall records show that for 42 days at Prince George, 78 at Vanderhoof,
and 97 at Telkwa no single rain reached 0.2 inch, and the total rainfall for these periods was
0.25 at Prince George, 0.83 at Vanderhoof, and 1.04 at Telkwa.
There is no doubt that in this northern region the fire-hazard was more severe than for any
year since 1922. Moreover, a scattered population and lack of communication made difficult the
organization, transporting, and maintaining of fire crews adequate to control the situation. It
was in this region that our most extensive fires occurred and the greatest damage was sustained.
Fifty-one per cent, of the area burned over, 77 per cent, of the timber destroyed, and 76 per cent,
of the damage were reported from the eastern section of the Prince Rupert District.
Another feature of the season was the abnormal number of lightning-fires, a total of 892 or
39 per cent, be'ng recorded. This is the greatest number ever experienced in the history of the
Forest Branch, comparing with 632 or 25 per cent, in 1925 and 246 or 10 per cent, in 1922, years
of comparable hazard.
The large number of fires occurring each year, the continuing fire losses, and the drain for
control expeiuVtures, naturally raise the question of the efficiency of fire-control. Are the results
obtained compatible with the moneys expended? The question is difficult for direct reply with
stated facts. We know the losses in spite of our best efforts for control; what they would have
been without that effort is only conjecture.
Fire-hazard increases with industrial activities, the greater use of the forest for recreational
purposes, and the greater proportion of cut-over lands and young stands. These factors have
been, in many countries, definitely estimated through the rates on forest insurance. Thus, the
completion of an automobile-road through forest property increases the base rate from 13 to 40 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930.
AA 39
per cent. If the property is situated near a large centre of population, the rate is increased
13 to 66 per cent.; if a fishing-stream runs through the property, 13 to 26 per cent. The rate
also increases as the stand recedes from maturity and, during the first fifteen years, is as much
as four times that for mature timber.
In spite of the greater industrial activity and the much heavier tourist travel in British
Columbia, man-caused fires show a decided decrease. Comparing years of severe hazard, we
find that in 1922 we had 1,709 fires definitely assigned to human causes ; in 1924, 1,630; in 1925,
1,655 ;  in 1926, 1,434 ;  in 1929, 1,514 ;  and in 1930, 1,354.
The decline in industrial fires is more definitely marked. In 1922 there were 203; in 1923,
170; in 1924, 134; in 1925, 137; in 1926, 104; in 1927, 50 ; in 1928, 80; in 1929, 65; and in
1930, 39.
It is a fact recognized by meteorologists that weather moves in cycles of relatively wet and
dry periods. These cycles have been traced backward through weather records, through fire-
scars and the date of establishment of young stands following fire, and through a study of rates
of growth of trees for several hundred years. The cycles vary from ten to forty years in duration, and from records made at Spokane it would seem that on the Pacific Coast we are now
passing through the driest period of the most severe cycle that has occurred in the past 250 years.
Further proof of this fact is indicated by the drying-up of lake areas and the. scarcity of water
on our interior plateaus, and by the increasing severity of lightning-fires as shown by the following figures : In 1922 there were 246 lightning-fires ; in 1923, 274; in 1925, 632; in 1926, 577; in
1928, 322; in 1929, 638 ; and in 1930, 892. This increasing hazard makes comparison with past
years doubtful, if not unreliable.
The League of Industrial Democracy of New York has recently published a bulletin on " The
Social Management of American Forests." In this bulletin they give the results of forest protection on the Federal reserves vs. private holdings, where protection is only partially organized
or no protection is undertaken. In the United States reserves, where the expenditure has been
3 to 4 cents per acre of gross area, they point out; that the average area burned annually has
been reduced to 0.28 per cent, of the acreage patrolled, while in the areas without protection it
has averaged 8 per cent, of the area, or thirty times as great. In British Columbia we have
spent over the past five years about I cent per gross acre patrolled, and have been able to keep
the losses down to 0.38 per cent, of the gross area, or 0.5 per cent, of the productive timber area.
During the decade 1913-22, 35.9 per cent, of the fires occurring reached major proportions,
i.e., fires over 10 acres. With the increased expenditure and in spite of a greatly increased
number of fires, we have been able to reduce this percentage of major fires to 24 per cent, in
1929 and 25 per cent, in 1930. Had we only maintained the same efficiency as prior to 1922, some
250 additional fires would have reached major proportions, and, on the basis of the average
acreage burned per major fire, an additional 350,000 acres would have been destroyed per year.
No one can review these statistics without coming to the conclusion that the annual loss, without
forest protection, in British Columbia would increase to several million dollars per year, and
that the increased appropriations made available from time to time have been responsible for
saving many times that amount in property.
The season as compared with others may be indicated by a series of index numbers. The
average of the past nine years is used as the index 100. Major factors in the fire season are
shown in relation to this 100, and each year's statistics are then represented as percentages.
Any year may be compared with any other year, the small numbers being readily comprehended.
The first column gives the basis for the subsequent calculations for number of fires, cost of
fire-fighting, gross area burned over, and gross damage done. From this it will readily be seen
' that 1930 was a year of rather high fire-occurrence, high cost, moderate acreage, but considerable
damage. Altogether, it would appear that the season was one verging on the extreme in hazard,
closely resembling 1926.
Base, 100 ;   9-year
Average.
192.2.
1923,'
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
Number of fires, 2,038	
127
147
255
168
75
22
25
52
107
74
65
91
124
187
166
208
107
148
107
127
63
24
17
16
80
22
17
15
107
142
148
88
Ill
Cost of control, $347,380	
134
Area burned over, 614,700 acres...
Damage done, $1,319,740	
98
132 AA 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fire Detection.
A new steel lookout tower 80 feet high, with enclosed observation tower, was erected near
Courtenay, on Vancouver Island. Two temporary lookout points were established in the neai
vicinity, one at Bainbridge Mountain near Alberni and the other at Rosewall Mountain near
Deep Bay. These three points co-ordinate well with each other and with other points previously
established.
Standard lookout buildings were built on Pocohontas Mountain and Upper Campbell Lake
sites in Vancouver District; at McBride Mountain and Tsinkut Mountain in the Prince George
District; and on Mount Glory in the Southern Interior District. Temporary lookouts were
partially developed at Thompson Mountain near Creston in the Southern Interior; Tumtum
Mountain, Hellroar Peak, Mount McLennan, and Raft River Peak in the Kamloops District; and
at Deadman's Peak in the Cariboo District.
Further experiments were made with wireless communication from Campbell River Lookout,
but we are not yet satisfied that an entire success has been achieved. Aeroplane patrol was
again carried out in the Kootenay, Trout and Arrow Lakes section during the hazardous season
from June 15th to September 15th..
Hazard Reduction.
The fall of 1930 was not so favourable for slash-burning as some previous seasons, but
nevertheless intentional slash fires to reduce the hazard were set and a total of 8,159 acres was
satisfactorily burned over. Permits issued during the close season covered a further acreage
of 4,084 and accidental fires accounted for 15,904 acres. The grand total acreage upon which
slash was destroyed thus amounted to 28,147 acres.
Comment must again be made upon the satisfactory co-operation of the Public Works
Department in disposing of slash along highways. Railway right-of-way burning was extensively
carried out in all parts of the Province.
Fire occurrences by Months, 1930.
District.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
September.
October.
Total.
"i
6
1
10
18
30
4
42
5
47
75
33
60
7
17
15
16
60
32
147
6.47
63
84
99
46
304
172
51
20
101
38
386
152
748
32.94
15
13
20
17
87
120
....
2
1
184
Southern Interior	
293
210
903
541
Total	
1
0.4
69
3.04
262
11.54
768
33.82
272
11.98
4
0.17
2,271
100.00
Per cent	
3
0.68
27
6.08
17
3.83
177
39.86
172
38.74
46
10.36
2
0.45
444
100.00
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1930.
Forest District.
ti
be
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at
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107
55
30
529
121
39
7
66
58
88
107
2
6
112
29
17
20
26
114
110
4
3
3
4
12
29
1.27
5
3
31
54
3
92
35
28
50
o
3
4
2
16
41
68
2.99
184
140
293
210
903
541
8.10
6.17
12.90
9.25
39.76
23.82
Totals	
892
39.28
344
15.16
149
6.56
294
12.95
171
7.53
39
1.72
262
11.54
2,271
100.00
100.00
132
29.73
32
7.21
81
18.25
59
13.29
20
4.50
1
0.22
10
2.25
90
20.27
6
1.35
13
2.93
444
100.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930.
AA 41
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fires, 1930, classified by Size and Damage.
Total Fires.
Under \ Acre.
\ Acre to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage
Forest District.
d
fe
Is
h|
o £
S.5
o •>
Ojfc,
6
fe
If
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27.17
59.29
33.11
30.48
42.64
64.34
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324
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4.97
4.97
15.19
9.40
44.75
20.72
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184
140
293
210
903
541
8.10
6.17
12.90
9.25
39.76
23.82
100.0
50
83
97
64
385
294
5.13
8.53
9.97
6.58
39.57
30.22
19.57
25.71
37.54
32.38
35.88
27.73
98
21
86
78
194
97
53.26
15.00
29.35
37.14
21.48
17.93
17.07
S.66
14.98
13.59
33.80
16.90
160
127
249
161
808
509
20
9
33
32
70
22
4
4
11
17
25
10
2,271
100.0
973
42.86
908
41.50
808
49.20
100.0
100.0
724
31.88
100.0
574
25.27
100.0
2,014
88.68
186
8.19
71
3.13
Totals, 1929	
2,188
100.0
100.0
753
34.41
100.0
527
24.09
100.0
1,918
87.67
144
6.58
126
5.75
Totals, 1928	
1,642
100.0
100.0
37.39
100.0
564
34.35
100.0
270
16.45
22.07
100.0
1,508
91.84
102
6.21
32
1.95
444
166
180
40.54
98
349
73
22
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1930.
Forest District.
P'orest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
*    180
6,010
17
6,318
3,088
129,034
$   725
1,256
1,506
10,610
17,592
75,015
*      25
4,600
26,626
49,025
$1,695
20
1,549
1,732
1,286
$ 2,625
7,286
1,523
23,077
49,03S
254,360
0.78
2.15
0.46
6.83
14.51
75.27.
Totals	
$144,647
8106,704
$80,276
$6,282
$337,909
100.00
$105,130
Causes, Cost, and Damage, 1930.
No.
Cost.
Damage.
Lightning	
Campers	
Railways operating	
Smokers	
Brush-burning, not railway-clearing	
Road, power, telephone, and telegraph
Industrial operations, logging, etc	
Incendiary	
Miscellaneous known causes	
Unknown causes	
Totals	
892
$294,173
$1,058,893
344
26,783
161,853
149
5,673
256,738
294
44,09'5
55,557
171
10,818
30,609
29
1,410
693
39
1,061
11,328
262
71,611
160,873
68
3,154
6,777
23
5,678
2,771
2,271
$464,456
$1,746,092 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930.
AA 43
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25,641
107,002
97,324
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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cK
01
m
o\
o\
10
OJ
CO
0
CO
OJ
OJ
CO
w
0s* FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930.
AA 45
COMPARISON  OF DAMAGE CAUSED BY  FOREST FlEES  IN  THE LAST  TEN  YEARS.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
Total number of fires .......
Standing-timber destroyed or
damaged (M. ft. B.M.)	
Amount sal vable(M. ft.B. M.).
2,271
602,676
390,978
25,216
$1,408,183
$   337,909
2,188
909,620
272,024
107,049
$ 941,738
*   226,919
1,642
106,977
24,069
9,060
$103,001
$ 95,534
1,284
101,944
86,176
44,834
$141,102
$ 74,606
2,147
659,871
398,694
109,385
$   930,373
S   749,891
2,521
1,023,789
1,024,508
350,770
$2,121,672
$   625,518
$2,747,190
2,174
402,214
207,651
102,832
$    665,078
$   540,291
1,530
157,601
87,371
37,891
$ 74,238
$617,649
2,591
1,568,585
729,941
117,006
$1,631,300
$   693,016
1,330
145,838
68,476
39,553
$ 97,332
Damage to  other  forms  of
property 	
$195,221
Total damage	
$1,746,092
$1,168,857
$198,535
$215,708
$1,680,264
$1,205,369
$691,887
$2,224,316
$292,653
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for Last Ten Years.
Lightning	
Campers	
Railway operation	
Railways under construction	
Smokers	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing).
Public road-construction	
Industrial operations	
Incendiary	
Miscellaneous known	
Unknown causes	
Totals..
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
892
638
322
512
567
632
307
274
246
344
368
274
182
351
426
3*2
262
626
149
267
9
387
282
186
376
337
328
199
332
294
294
163
238
286
302
180
171
167
149
78
157
202
243
164
365
29
22
13
7
14
14
19
12
22
39
65
80
50
104
137
184
170
203
262
139
103
36
68
103
116
35
69
68
100
84
52
1-26
160
107
71
202
23
36
41
19
156
2,147
234
237
173
636
2,271
2,188
1,842
1,284
2,621
2,174
1,530
2,591
164
308
283
2
136
20
119
40
64
204
1,330
PROSECUTIONS FOR FlEE TRESPASS, 1930.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Fort George	
Prince Rupert
Southern Interior.
Vancouver	
Totals	
Totals, 1929.
<3
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HH
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17
Amount.
$100 00
275
00
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(HI
75
00
100
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$600
00
$460 00
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2 AA 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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AA 47
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
*  ► "
^
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Ss
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6,316
796
4,915
1,977
8,320
10,004
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738
418
1,739
930
1,979
2,857
is
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3,312
66
234
104
1,009
108
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Acres.
77
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Acres.
274
13
51
49
126
3,571
4,084
12.63
11,225
32.06
■panssi s^iiujaj
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2,653
717
4,598
1,712
7,185
6,-280
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OCiCJH-HOlf^ FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930. AA 49
EQUIPMENT, IMPROVEMENTS, AND MAINTENANCE.
Equipment- Cariboo.
One canoe   $194.00
One 20-foot boat   363.00
Two outboard motors   472.00
Four 10-men cooking outfits   131.00
Four hand-tank pumps   53.00
Three Ford cars  2,280.00
One Chevrolet car  842.00
Fire-fighting hose, etc  406.00
Tools and equipment, etc  270.00
$5,011.00
Improvements— 	
Strathnaver Trail   $361.00
Alexis Creek Ranger Station House  3,670.00
$4,031.00
Maintenance
Quesnel Lake Boat-house   $124.00
Lac la Hache Campsite   30.00
Miscellaneous   109.00
$263.00
Equipment- Kamloops.
Two Ford cars  $1,515.00
One power-speeder   327.00
Three canoes   385.00
One outboard motor  282.00
One 20-foot boat  268.00
One " Flato " boat   72.00
Two fire-fighting pumps  620.00
Twelve hand-tank pumps   222.00
Ten 6-men cooking outfits  243.00
Fire-fighting hose  :  308.00
Tools and equipment, etc.   599.00
$4,841.00
Improvements—
Grizzly Mountain-Grizzly Lake Trail  $2,005.00
Grizzly Lake-Moira Lake Trail   40.00
Sock Lake-Grizzly Lake Trail   311.00
Coldscaur Lake-Moira Lake Trail   1,049.00
Tumtum Mountain Lookout Phone-line  489.00
Tumtum Creek-Adams River Trail   1,183.00
Mount McLennan Lookout   1,251.00
Centre Ridge Trail   112.00
Hell Roar Peak Lookout   173.00
Cedar Creek Boat-house   77.00
Blue River Speeder-house and Tool-cache  238.00
Canoe River Boat-house   63.00
Raft River Peak Trail  76.00
Little Clearwater-Centre Ridge Phone-line  835.00
Swift Creek Lookout   14.00
Centre Ridge Lookout   96.00
$8,012.00
4 AA 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Kamloops—Continued.
Maintenance—
Seymour River Bridge	
Fishtrap Creek Trail 	
Poison Hill-McLure Trail 	
Parky Lake-Hoover Lake Trail	
Powder Creek Trail 	
Peterson Creek Trail 	
North Barriere Lake-Adams Lake Trail 	
Hurtle River Trail	
Clearwater Lake-Hobson Lake Trail 	
Blue River-Murtle Lake Trail 	
Adams River-Tumtum Lake Trail	
Canoe River Trail	
Clearwater Lake-Mahood Lake Trail 	
North Thompson-Columbia River Trail 	
North Barriere Lake-Adams Lake Trail 	
Barton Creek Trail 	
Seymour River East Trail 	
Adams River Wagon-road	
Garnet Mountain Lookout Trail 	
Big Bend Phone-line 	
Miscellaneous	
$74.00
91.00
105.00
110.00
152.00
153.00
72.00
487.00
56.00
30.00
76.00
100.00
325.00
93.00
511.00
24.00
108.00
456.00
36.00
40.00
108.00
$3,207.00
>
Foht George.
Equipment—■
One Chevrolet car   $841.00
Two outboard motors  447.00
One fire-fighting pump  368.00
One boat   50.00
Fire-fighting hose   632.00
Twenty 6-10-25-men cooking outfits   675.00
Tools and equipment, etc  1,719.00
$4,732.00
Improvements—■
27"/2 miles of trail   $4,035.00
Fort St. James Boat-house and Ways  698.00
Fort Fraser Lookout Cabin   105.00
Longworth Lookout Cabin   57.00
McBride Lookout Cabin   1,462.00
Pilot Mountain Lookout Cabin   108.00
Tsinkut Mountain Lookout Cabin   1,295.00
Fort Fraser Lookout Phone-line  219.00
Longworth Lookout Phone-line   172.00
McBride Lookout Phone-line   293.00
Tsinkut Mountain Lookout Phone-line   500.00
Longworth Tool-cache   64.00
Pilot Mountain Tool-cache   66.00
Stuart Lake Breakwater   1,364.00
Miscellaneous  40.00
$10,478.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930. AA 51
Fort George—Continued.
Maintenance—
190% miles of trail   $2,093.00
Fort St. James Boat-house   73.00
Fort Fraser Garage and Tool-house   123.00
Fort Fraser Ranger House   391.00
Fort Fraser Ranger Office   29.00
Red Mountain Ranger Station House   93.00
Giscome Speeder-house and Tool-cache  34.00
Goat River Speeder-house and Tool-cache  30.00
Moxley Creek Speeder-house and Tool-cache   24.00
Red Mountain Speeder-house and Tool-cache  51.00
Pilot Mountain Lookout Phone-line  287.00
Miscellaneous  86.00
$3,314.00
Prince Rupert.
Equipment—
Four Ford cars   $2,961.00
One 20-foot boat   268.00
One outboard motor  287.00
Fire-fighting hose   174.00
Fire-fighting tools and equipment   767.00
$4,457.00
Improvements—
Fire-line construction   $827.00
Babine Phone-line   2,222.00
Hose-drying mast   42.00
Francois Lake Ranger Station House  1,500.00
$4,591.00
Maintenance—
Ootsa Lake Boat-house   $161.00
Thornhill Mountain Lookout   132.00
Skin Lake Lookout   42.00
Miscellaneous   237.00
$572.00
Southern Interior.
Equipment—
Eleven Ford cars   $7,554.00
One Chevrolet car  835.00
Five fire-fighting pumps   1,731.00
One outboard motor  197.00
Forty hand-tank pumps  530.00
Seventy-one 6-10-25-men cooking outfits   2,344.00
Fire-fighting hose   2,311.00
Four horses   135.00
Fire-fighting tools and equipment, etc  9.596.00
$25,233.00 AA 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Southern Interior—Continued.
Improvements—
6iy2 miles of trail   $5,822.00
Duncan River Phone-line   1,457.00
Little Slocan Phone-line   365.00
Mount Glory Lookout   1,736.00
Saddle Mountain Phone-line   673.00
Livingstone Mountain Phone-line  801.00
Flathead Phone-line  1,911.00
Thompson Mountain Lookout   91.00
Gold Creek Phone-line  1,292.00
Gold Creek Ranger Station Cabin   17.00
Bridge Creek Cabin   382.00
Ward Creek Cabin   82.00
Caven Creek Lookout Phone-line   469.00
$15,098.00
Maintenance—
837 miles of trail  $5,739.00
Elk Valley Phone-line   309.00
Reno Lookout and Phone-line   83.00
Wigwam Phone-line  366.00
Moyie Mountain Phone-line   594.00
Summit Creek Phone-line  32.00
Duncan River Phone-line  32.00
Johnson's Landing-Lardeau Phone-line   35.00
Beaver Mountain Lookout and Phone-line  155.00
Siwash Mountain Lookout and Phone-line  135.00
Elise Mountain Lookout and Phone-line  146.00
Erie Camp-site  20.00
South Fork Camp-site   57.00
Mount Glory Phone-line   111.00
AVilson Creek Phone-line  79.00
Kettle Valley Phone-line  52.00
Phoenix Phone-line  342.00
Baldy Mountain Lookout and Phone-line  123.00
Goat Mountain Lookout and Phone-line  96.00
White Rocks Lookout Phone-line  61.00
B.X. Lookout Phone-line  32.00
Sugar Mountain Phone-line   99.00
Little White Mountain Phone-line  25.00
Snow Mountain Phone-line  20.00
B.X. Mountain Lookout   25.00
Miscellaneous   184.00
$8,953.00
Vancouver.
Equipment—
Five Ford cars   $3,565.00
Three fire-fighting pumps  1,106.00
Twelve hand-tank pumps   268.00
One Gypsy cruiser and outboard motor   500.00
Fire-fighting tools and equipment   1,129.00
$6,568.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930. AA 53
Vancouver—Continued.
Improvements—
Campbell River Bungalow  $4,569.00
Rosewall Lookout   214.00
Pocohontas Lookout   1,267.00
Campbell Lake Lookout   1,225.00
Bainbridge Lookout   737.00
Comox Lookout   664.00
Harrison-Stave Trail   436.00
Pitt River Phone-line  17.00
Forest Reserve Trails   1,478.00
$10,607.00
Maintenance—
Nitinat-Cowichan Trail  $161.00
Cowichan Lake Look-out   153.00
Cowichan Lake Boat-house   22.00
Miscellaneous   109.00
$445.00
GRAZING.
In co-operation with the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association and the British
Columbia Sheep-breeders' Association, the Chief Forester conducted, during the summer, a series
of open meetings throughout the grazing sections of the Province in order to get a better understanding of the problems facing the stockmen. The minutes of the meetings were reviewed
and a special report prepared, with recommendations. These will, we feel, materially assist in
the development of the stock business and remove the causes of friction which have existed
heretofore. AVe appreciate the co-operation and assistance given by the Beef Cattle Growers'
Association and the Sheep-breeders' Association in this matter.
General Range Conditions.
In general, the grazing ranges of the Interior of the Province were in a little better condition during 1930 than during the previous year. Late spring rains assisted the growth on the
low range. The absence of early and midsummer rains resulted in the early maturing of the
grasses and forced the cattle on to the higher ranges. The latter are usually in better condition
for grazing when dry summer conditions prevail. All live stock, consequently, came off the
ranges in the fall in good wintering condition.
As usual, the live-stock interests pay little attention to the protection of the Government
ranges, and it will be necessary, in order that the overgrazed condition be remedied, for the
Government to require that better management be practised.
Market Conditions.
Market conditions in the live-stock industry of British Columbia were, during 1930, classed
generally as " bad." A rather sudden drop took place in prices in the late spring a-nd those who
were not fortunate enough to prepare for and take advantage of the early good prices had to
sell on a dropping market. Prices now are a little higher than those prevailing prior to the
higher prices of the last few years. Choice cattle selling at $9.50 per 100 lb. a year ago are
now going at $6.50 per 100 lb. Choice lambs brought $11.50 per 100 lb. a year ago. They are
now selling at $7.25 per 100 lb.
Authorization .
The numbers of live stock authorized to graze within the various grazing districts during
1930 are as follows: 70,000 cattle and horses and 37,500 sheep. This number will be considerably increased for the 1931 season because of a heavy increase in sheep-grazing on the higher
ranges and the return of the Railway Belt to the Province. It is anticipated that around 80,000
cattle and horses and 50,000 sheep will use the Provincial ranges under permit in 1931. AA 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Co-operation.
Live Stock Associations gave better co-operation during the past year. Competition between
cattle and sheep interests in the use of the range influenced this to a certain extent. Range-
division problems were all satisfactorily adjusted.
Range Improvements.
The  range-improvement  programme  for  1930  has  been  practically  completed.    The  few
remaining projects will be completed before the close of the fiscal year.
The following list of range-improvement projects was undertaken during the 1930-31 fiscal
year:—
Mud-holes   '.  14
Drift-fences   11
Stock-trails   11
Breeding-pastures   4
Holding-grounds  2
Corrals   2
AVater developments  5
Experimental plots  1
Bridges     3
Total     53
The total amount allotted for this work was $5,552.90.
Predatory Animals.
Considerable damage was done by bears, both grizzly and black, to the sheep flocks using
the high ranges. They were also responsible for losses among young calves. Sheep and Cattle
Associations placed the matter before the Game Commissioner, who arranged for hunters to
destroy these animals where deemed necessary.
AA7ild Horses.
The elimination of wild horses from the Provincial ranges is being continued. Throughout
the Southern Interior and the Cariboo Districts work resulted in the destruction of 721 stallions,
cripples, and otherwise defective wild horses on the ranges. Buyers were interested in purchasing the better horses belonging to whites and Indians and over 2,000 head were shipped out
of the country south of the Railway Belt.    Sales are still becng made.
Arrangements have been made to get rid of a large number of horses from the Cariboo
District this winter.
Grasshoppers.
The passing of the " Grasshopper-control Act " of 1930 enabled the ranchers to co-operate to
advantage in poisoning operations where the grasshopper was menacing crops and forage on
private and Government range. Effective work was done on the ranges in the Nicola District
by the stockmen, and applications have been filed with the Department of Agriculture for the
creation in 1931 of four new grasshopper-control districts, in the Cariboo Grazing District,
embracing large areas of the Provincial grazing lands.
General.
The heavy demand for high range for sheep called for the expenditure of much time in the
opening-up of trails or driveways to reach it. This demand will probably grow with the years
until all of the high ranges suited to both sheep and cattle will be in use.
Cattle, in some instances, are be'ng grazed at elevations of 6,500 feet and up to 8,000 feet.
With a little herding and the proper use of artificial salt they can be broken to use these high
ranges. They thrive excellently and beef comes off these ranges in the best grass condition.
This use is being encouraged by the Department as it relieves the low, overgrazed areas.
While the depression period lasts it is not likely there will be any increase in the present
prices of live stock. On th'e whole, where good lamb and calf crops are obtained and overhead
is not excessive, good profits are being made at present prices. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1930. AA 55
There is room for an enormous development in the range live-stock business in British
Columbia. Climatic and early forage-growth advantages will always keep British Columbia
live-stock interests in an enviable position, and high-quality live stock will therefore be produced
on British Columbia ranches and ranges in steadily increasing numbers as the grain- and hay-
producing lands are developed.
VICTORIA', B.C. :
Printed Oy Charles P. Banfield. Printer to the Kind's Most Excellent Majesty.
1931.
2,325-231-3755 

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