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FIFTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1929-30 BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1931

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Full Text

 FIFTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OP  THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1929-30
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED  BT
AUTHORITY OP THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1930. To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg respectfully to present tlie Fifty-ninth Annual Report of the Public Schools of the
Province.
JOSHUA HINCHLIFFE,
Minister of Education.
November, 1930. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
Minister of Education:
Hon. JOSHUA HINCHLIFFE, B.A.
Superintendent of Education: Assistant Superintendent of Education:
S. J. Willis, B.A., LL.D. J. D. Gillis.
Inspectors of High Schools:
A. Sullivan, B.A., Victoria.
J. B. DeLong, B.A., Vancouver.
Inspectors of Elementary Schools:
L. J. Bruce, Vancouver.
F. G. Calvert, Vancouver.
H. L. Campbell, B.A., Kamloops.
T. G. Carter, Penticton.
*H. C. Eraser, M.A., Prince Rupert.
*W. G. Gamble, B.A., Prince George.
G. H. Gower, M.A., Courtenay.
T. W. Hall, Kamloops.
A. R. Lord, B.A., Kelowna.
V. Z. Manning, B.A., Cranbrook.
W. H. M. May, Victoria.
A. E. Miller, Revelstoke.
H. H. Mackenzie, B.A., Vancouver.
J. T. Pollock, Vancouver.
P. H. Sheffield, B.A., Nelson.
A. C. Stewart, Victoria.
* These men also inspect the High Schools in their districts.
SPECIAL OFFICIALS.
Organiser of Technical Education:
John Kyle, A.R.C.A.
Director of Home Economics:
Miss J. L. McLenaghen, "B.Sc.
Welfare Officer of Rural Teachers (Women) :
Miss Lottie Bowron.
Director in Charge of High-school Correspondence Courses:
J. W. Gibson, M.A., B.Paed.
Officer in Charge of Elementary-school Correspondence Courses:
James Hargreaves.
Registrar:
J. L. Watson, B.A.
Officer in Charge of Free Text-books:
J. A. Anderson.
Chief Clerk:
George Cruickshank.
NORMAL SCHOOL STAFFS.
Vancouver:
D. M. Robinson, B.A., Principal.
A. Anstey, B.A.
W. P. Weston.
H. B. MacLean.
J. A. Macintosh, B.Sc.
A. E. C. Martin, B.Sc.
T. R. Hall, B.A.
Miss L. G. Bollert, B.A.
Miss E. M. Coney.
Miss N. V. Jones, B.A.
Victoria:
D. L. MacLaurin, B.A., Principal.
V. L. Denton, B.A.
H. Dunnell.
B. S. Freeman, B.A.
A. F. Matthews, M.A.
Miss G. G. Riddell.
Miss L. B. Isbister.
Miss Isabel Coursier.
Model School:
Miss Kate Scanlan.
Miss I. M. F. Barron.
Municipal Inspectors of Schools:
R. S. Shields, B.A., New Westminster. E. G. Daniels, B.A., Burnaby.
George H. Deane, Victoria. J. M. Paterson, B.A., Saanich. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PART I.
Page.
Superintendent's Report  7
Report on Normal Schools—
Vancouver ;.  19
Victoria   20
Report of the Director of the Summer School for Teachers  21
Report of the Organizer of Technical Education  27
Report of the Director of Home Economics  31
Report of the Rural Female Teachers' AVelfare Officer  32
Report of Superintendent of Schools, Vancouver  33
Reports of Municipal Inspectors—
New Westminster  35
Victoria   35
Burnaby  '. ;  36
Saanich   37
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind  38
Report of Director of High School Correspondence Courses  40
Report of Director of Elementary School Correspondence Courses  44
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Free Text-book Branch  45
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust  47
PART II.
Statistical Returns—■
High Schools (Cities)   2
High Schools (Rural Municipalities)  9
High Schools (Rural Districts)   11
Superior Schools  12
Junior High Schools  ,  13
Elementary Schools (Cities)   16
Elementary Schools  (Rural Municipalities)    53
Elementary Schools (Rural Districts)  71
Elementary Schools (Assisted)    78
Summary of Attendance in Rural Schools—Elementary  91
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each City _  91
Summary of-Enrolment in the Schools of each Rural Municipality  94
Enrolment (Recapitulation)   97
Subjects of Study pursued in High Schools in Cities  98
Subjects of Study pursued in High Schools in Rural Municipalities  102
Subjects of Study pursued in High Schools in Rural Districts  106
Subjects of Study pursued in Superior Schools  108
Subjects of Study pursued in Junior High Schools  114
Summary showing Number of Students pursuing each Subject of Study in High and Superior
Schools -  116
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts  118
PART III.
High School Entrance Examination—Names of Medal-winners  125
High School Examination—Names of tlie Winners of Medals and Scholarships  125
High School Entrance Examination Papers  127
High School Examination Papers-
Grade IX  141
Grade X  156
Grade XI. (Junior Matriculation and Normal Entrance)  170
Grade XII. (Senior Matriculation)   190
Home Economies  209
Third-year Course, Commercial  218 PART I.
GENERAL REPORT.  REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF
EDUCATION, 1929-30.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., November, 1930.
To the Honourable Joshua Hinchliffe, B.A.,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Fifty-ninth Annual Report of the Public Schools of
British Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1930.
ENROLMENT.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 109,558 to
111,017 and the average daily attendance from 94,410 to 96,196. The percentage of regular
attendance was 86.65.
The number of pupils enrolled in the various classes of schools is shown hereunder:—
Schools.
Cities.
Rural
Municipalities.
Rural
Districts.
Total.
11,855
2,076
51
229
18,633
744
597
14,675
648
4,957
51,895
5,186
19,980
217821
90,508
Total for 1929-30	
68,707
20,989
111,017
In addition to the numbers given above, there were enrolled in the— students
High School Correspondence classes  597
Elementary School Correspondence classes  593
Night-schools   6,671
Normal School, Vancouver  225
Normal School, Victoria  140
Victoria College  245
University of British Columbia   1,904
Total  10,375
The pupils in attendance were distributed by sex and grade as follows:-
Grades.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
Grade I	
7,463
6,514
6,800
6,448
5,597
5,466
5,357
5,025
3,534
2,304
1,297
320
6,474
5,602
6,301
6,017
5,495
5,234
5,388
5,666
3,935
2,906
1,624
250
13,937
Grade II	
12,116
Grade III	
13,101
Grade IV	
12,465
Grade V	
11,092
Grade VI..                 	
10,700
Grade VII	
10,745
Grade VIII.                                          	
10,691
Grade IX	
7,469
Grade X	
5,210
Grade XI               	
2,921
Grade XII	
570
Total	
56,125
54,892
111,017 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
The number of teachers employed in the different classes of schools and the average number
of pupils per teacher were:—
Schools.
No. of
Grade
Teachers.
No. of
Special
Instructors.
Average
Enrolment
per Grade
Teacher.
Average Daily
Attendance
per Grade
Teachejr.
High schools (cities)	
407
80
37
141
31
1,416
557
970
29
1
40
119
23
3
29
26
20
37
21
37
33
21
25.20
High schools (rural municipalities)	
22.49
High schools (rural districts)	
17.35
31.59
18.09
32.44
28.93
17.42
3,639
215
31
26.43
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES.
The following table shows the number of teachers of each sex employed and also the number
of certificates of each class held by the teachers:—
Schools.
•a
o
Hi
E
•6
a
o
u
QJ
w
•a
u
.3
a
a
OJ
e
'G
Q)
Pi
CO
0J
§
CJ
M
H
"a
a
OJ
fa
0
High schools (cities)	
380
77
36
10
69
106
14
15
23
11
1
1
21
70
561
214
140
225
686
311
155
382
49
15
5
14
16
o
2
2
2
3
8
29
1
40
119
23
3
12
1
261
43
19
24
85
350
125
87
122
175
38
18
7
96
1,185
455
234
530
27738"
27727~
436
High schools (rural munic.)	
81
High schools (rural districts)	
37
31
181
Elementary schools (cities)	
1,535
Elementary schools (rural munic.)
Regularly organized rural schools..
580
321
652
Total, 1929-30	
730
695
1,244
1,534
83
35
215
13
1,116
3,854
Total, 1928-29	
1,227
1,545
92
27
198
1,057
3,784
NEW SCHOOLS.
High schools were opened at Comox and North Saanich; and superior schools at Hazelton,
North Bend, Rolla, Squamish, Williams Lake, and Woodfibre. Thirty-seven additional classrooms were opened in graded schools throughout the Province.
Schools were opened for the first time in the following localities:—
Name of School District. Electoral District.
Sproat Lake; Underwood Alberni.
Menzinger Creek ;  Strathnaver Cariboo.
Beavermouth;  Canal Flat Columbia.
Elk Bay; Maurelle Island ..Comox.
Kapoor; Malahat Station Esquimalt.
Galloway ~ Fernie.
Isle Pierre; Montney ; Mountain View ; Penny ; Progress ;
Rolla, North; Rose Prairie;  Spring Hill _ Fort George.
Red Lake Kamloops.
Forest Glen;  Lardeau ; Retallack;  Vallican, Kaslo-Slocan.
Bonaparte, North ;   Bridge Lake, North ;   High Bar; Pavilion;  Pemberton ; Lillooet.
Palmer's Camp;  Simoom Sound Mackenzie.
Haysport _ Prince Rupert.
St. George's Yale. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
Q 9
The following statement shows what percentage of the pupils was enrolled in the different
classes of schools :—■
Schools.
No. of Pupils
enrolled.
Percentage of
Total
Enrolment.
High schools (cities)	
Elementary schools (cities)	
High schools (rural municipalities)	
Elementary schools (rural municipalities)
High schools  (rural districts) -..
Elementary schools (rural districts) _.
Superior schools	
Junior high schools	
Total	
11,855
51,895
2,076
18,633
744
19,980
648
5,186
111,017
10.68
46.75
1.87
16.78
0.67
18.00
0.58
4.67
^.00.00
The following table shows steady growth in the enrolment:-
Year.
Enrolment at
High Schools.
Enrolment at
other Public
Schools.
Total
Enrolment.
Percentage at
High Schools
of the Total
Enrolment.
1918-19	
5,806
6,636
7,259
8,634
9,220
9,889
10,597
11,779
12,906
13,516
14,545
14,675
66,200
72,607
78,691
83,285
85,668
86,315
87,357
89,909
92,102
94,663
95,013
96,342
72,006
79,243
85,950
91,919
94,888
96,204
97,954
101,688
105,008
108,179
109,558
111,017
8.06
1919-20	
8.37
1920-21	
8.44
1921-22 _ _	
1922-23	
9.39
9.71
1923-24 _	
1924-25	
10.27
10.81
1925-26	
11.58
1926-27	
12.29
1927-28	
12.49
1928-29	
13.27
1929-30	
13.22
The number of children of foreign parentage who attended the public schools of the Province
during the year was as follows:—
xn
CJ
B
a
0J
Hi
OJ
a
od
§•
1-5
Hi
3
.3
B
,   Hi
b|
ta >
zj cd
m a
05
Hi
Hi
CJ
"B
Hi
Germans.
a
o
C
OJ
rt
fe
167
972
86
113
410
1,722
1,435
447
7
61
8
21
170
735
306
551
7
14
20
26
53
116
28
57
35
305
127
196
25
86
41
71
Total	
1,338
4,014
97
1,762
67
254
663
223
Hi
G    '
Od^T
■tH
332
S
■S
rt*
rtJ
Hi
s
<!
C
a
E
Hi
a
Hi
2
«
Hi
C
.2
DO
rt
©
Si
O
M
O
o
P
c
.rt
a
cd
rt
P
Hi
Irt
QJ
OJ CJ
as
High schools ,	
78
223
62
95
10
73
26
82
56
85
80
178
62
330
108
99
114
674
132
332
5
41
5
668
23
173
70
135
71
City elementary schools	
585
Elementary schools in rural municipalities	
275
Rural elementary schools	
414
Total	
458
191
399
599
1,252
719
401
1,345 Q 10
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
" EDUCATION OF SOLDIERS' DEPENDENT CHILDREN ACT."
The sum of $12,000 was voted by the Legislature in March, 1930, to assist in providing high-
school education for children of men who joined in this Province for service in the Great War
and who were engaged in active service in connection with the war either at home or abroad.
Under the terms of the Act, students applying for assistance must at the time of their applications be under 16 years of age and have reached at least the standard of education required for
entrance to high school. They must also produce evidence to show that their parents or
guardians are without income sufficient to provide for their education. Assistance may not be
granted for a longer period than four years and must be discontinued when the students have
completed the requirements for admission to the University or to the Normal Schools. Every
child in receipt of assistance is required to attend school regularly and to apply himself earnestly
to his studies. The principal of the school which he attends is required to send from time to
time to the Commission administering the Act reports regarding his attendance, educational
progress, and conduct. The reports are taken into consideration by the Commission in deciding
whether the assistance shall be continued or withheld.
Eighty-six students are now receiving assistance. Sixty-eight of them receive $150 each,
ten $100 each, and eight $75 each. The amount of the grant varies according to the financial
circumstances of the parents or guardians. Some applicants had to be refused assistance on
the ground that they were over age, or that their fathers had not enlisted in this Province, or
that they did not possess the scholarship necessary to take up high-school studies, or that their
parents were in a position to meet the expenses required to provide high-school education for
them. Of the whole amount that was voted, less than $125 has been spent on administration.
The members of the Commission do not receive remuneration for their services in administering
the Act.
The following statement shows the places of residence of the students receiving assistance
for the school-year beginning in September, 1930:—
Armstrong  2
Black Pool   1
Burnaby    2
Cloverdale  1
Cobble Hill  1
Fernie    2
Fort Langley   1
Hatzic    1
Hopington  1
Kamloops     2
Kelowna    1
Keremeos    1
Ganges   2
Merritt  1
Mount Tolmie   2
Nakusp    1
New Westminster  1
Peachland  1
Qualicum Beach   1
Robson  1
Saanich   1
Slocan City   1
Taghum   2
Vancouver  30
Vancouver, North   1
Vancouver, West  4
Victoria   19
Westwold    1
White Rock   1 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
Q 11
HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city high schools during the year was 11,855. Of this number, 5,574
were boys and 6,281 were girls.
The number of divisions and the enrolment for 1929-30 and for 1928-29 in each city are
shown in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
1
1
1 '
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
1
1
1
4
9
4
7
3
4
2
5
3
10
2
6
4
1
9
8
24
3
2
1
3
8
6
3
4
1
6
176
12
7
37
110
298
87
190
59
107
24
115
76
262
27
191
70
49
252
220
871
76
32
17
65
213
137
71
86
9
180
6,163
3T7
181
1,240
86
276
85
178
60
108
30
134
72
267
34
156
67
Merritt	
48
248
266
852
69
29
20
62
201
153
84
95
12
Trail 	
165
6,191
417
153
1,367
Total	
41
374
11,855
11,985
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the rural municipal high schools during the year was 2,076. Of this
number, 878 were boys and 1,198 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the year 1929-30 and the year
1928-29 are shown in the following table:—-
Municipality.
Burnaby	
Delta	
Esquimalt	
Kent	
Langley	
Maple Ridge	
Matsqui	
Mission _
Oak Bay	
Peachland	
Penticton	
Richmond	
Saanich	
Summerland	
Surrey	
Vancouver, West..
Total	
Number
of
Schools.
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
18
Number
of
Divisions.
16
4
3
2
3
6
4
3
1
4
5
5
3
4
5
77
Enrolment,
1929-30.
486
91
73
30
94
155
102
69
258
7
112
141
143
74
109
132
2,676
Enrolment,
1928-29.
509
90
94
27
95
155
76
74
238
14
107
125
107
120 Q 12
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural high schools for the year was 744. Of this number, 315 were
boys and 429 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the years 1929-30 and 1928-29
are given in the table below:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
Britannia Mines „	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
3
1
3
1
2
1
2
2
2
18
30
50
18
23
26
21
20
24
13
67
31
24
21
33
19
76
42
22
18
39
76
33
24
Comox _	
15
Creston	
58
16
Golden	
23
34
26
22
18
17
56
25
31
12
34
18
58
39
30
35
70
Total	
23
37
744
661
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the superior schools was 648.    The number of boys was 291;   of girls, 357.
The following table gives the names of the schools and the enrolment for the school-year
1929-30 and for 1928-29:—
School.
Enrolment,
; 1929-30.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
School.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
24
17
14
21
20
17
17
20
27
9
14
17
20
51
20
21
13
21
22
17
23
23
24
12
18
17
35
Oliver _ _
24
31
27
19
26
16
37
19
34
29
25
14
25
14
21
21
30
Rolla	
20
Rutland	
27
18
35
19
University Hill	
19
22
26
Westbank	
14
Michel-Natal
Woodflbre	
Total
648 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
Q 13
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the junior high schools was 5,186. The number of boys enrolled was
2,551;   of girls, 2,635.
The following table gives the number of divisions and the enrolment in each school for the
years 1929-30 and 1928-29 :—
District.
School.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
6
9
6
4
43
35
35
215
328.
229
198
1,590
1,283
1,343
263
205
197
1,344
797
1,361
Total, 1929-30	
138
5,186
* Five hundred and forty pupils enrolled in the Central,  Lister-Kelvin,  and  Richard McBride  Schools
were taught the Course of Studies prescribed for Grades VII. and VIII. of the Junior High Schools.
The following is a summary of the enrolment in high, superior, and junior high schools:—
Number
of
Pupils
enrolled.
Boys.
Girls.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Number of Pupils in Grades.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
High schools:
11,855
2,076
744
648
5,186
5,574
878
315
291
2,551
6,281
1,198
429
357
2,635
10,257.37
1,799.08
642.16
560.93
4,453.68
1.969
287
2.270
4,920
955
322
195
947
4,072
685
255
141
2,330
401
165
25
2>2r
533
Rural municipalities...
35
2
Total	
20,509
9,609
10,900
17,713.22
1.969 1 2.557
7,339
5,153
570
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 51,895. The number of boys was 26,702;
of girls, 25,193.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, and the enrolment in each city are shown
in the table below:—<
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
2
5
1
2
4
13
12
8
19
13
12
3
18
8
3
16
3
21
9
8
27
20
74
12
7
129
490
434
283
631
449
436
100
698
292
55
606
74
772
289
289
1,026
715
2,801
399
249
130
504
405
278
649
458
435
98
689
290
48
819
93
800
292
285
1,030
720
2,736
376
237 Q 14
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—CITIES—Continued.
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
3
56
1
3
1
16
6
11
24
16
11
5
2
35
772
10
40
21
132
17395
201
407
877
593
460
192
52
1,228
29,369
86
1,456
843
4,914
51,895
198
388
870
603
424
187
Slocan „ _
58
1,198
29,613
School for Deaf and Blind	
1,484
837
4,938
Total	
123
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—RURAL MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the rural municipal elementary schools was 18,633. The number of boys
enrolled was 9,595; of girls, 9,038.
The following table gives the enrolment and the number of schools in operation in each
municipality during the school-years 1929-30 and 1928-29:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Enrolment,
1929-30.
Enrolment,
1928-29.
19
15
2
6
3
10
1
2
16
9
10
8
2
1
1
1
6
15
7
4
1
21
5
4
116
34
3
11
7
19
14
6
30
28
18
19
17
2
13
3
34
57
9
8
9
47
25
23
4,234
1,064
115
316
200
567
511
199
927
885
546
637
626
54
562
135
1,340
1,894
260
278
334
1,408
770
771
4,145
1,042
113
278
203
Delta      	
548
484
Kent    	
197
969
1307
525
600
Oak Bay	
622
56
557
125
1,254
1,916
258
238 '
Summerland „ _	
317
1,438
794
801
Total, 1929-30 	
169
552
18,633
18,387
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The number of pupils that were enrolled and the number of teachers employed in the
elementary schools of the rural districts were as follows:—■
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Pupils.
Boys.
Girls.
Number of
Teachers
employed.
174
551
8,884
11,096
4,521
5,698
4,363
5,398
321
Assisted	
652
Total	
725
19,980
10,219
9,761
973 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
Q 15
SALARIES.
The following table shows the highest, lowest, and average salary paid to teachers during
the school-year 1929-30:—
High Schools.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Cities.
$2,500
2,850
1,800
2,850
2,600
2,230
1,700
3,600
2,400
$1,500
2,500
1,950
2,000
2,600
2,500
2,150
1,700
1,680
2,000
1,550
2,600
1,400
2,700
2,000
2,750
1,660
2,700
3,000
2,000
1,400
1,800
2,200
2,605
2,600
2,100
2,200
1,300
2,700
3,460
3,000
2,700
2,825
$1,000
900
900
1,050
1,050
900
950
1,050
1,050
1,050
1,070
1,100
1,100
1,100
900
1,050
1,080
1,150
920
1,080
900
1,050
1,100
1,210
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,100
1,050
950
1,185
900
1,025
$1,175
$1,600
1,500
1,700
1,600
1,350
1,450
1,500
1,740
1,500
$1,900
1,983
1,755
1,850
1,983
1,870
1,600
2,135
1,900
2,071
1,700
1,807
1,613
1,800
1,910
2,322
2,554
1,817
1,800
2,150
2,017
2,183
2,029
2,200
2,200
1,600
2,300
2,684
2,429
1,943
2,468
1,269
1,253
1,319
1,277
1,350
1,146
1,300
1,399
1,231
1,240
3,000
1,950
2,400
2,250
1,800
3,000
3,700
3,700
2,150
2,400
2,150
2,500
3,300
3,000
2,600
2,800
1,600
3,400
4,180
3,540
2,650
3,800
1,400
1,450
1,550
1,400
1,800
1,500
1,700
1,800
1,500
1,200
2,150
1,750
1,700
1,800
1,900
1,800
1,600
1,800
1,500
1,700
1,600
1,715
1,428
1,233
1,356
1,296
1,344
1,397
1,443
1,350
1,222
1,064
1,308
1,345
1,655
1,347
1,259
1,360
1,200
Trail	
1,326
1,743
1,631
1,337
1,587
$4,180
$1,200
$2,425
$3,460
$900
$1,536
Rural Municipalities.
$3,200
$1,800
$2,171
$2,850
1,800
1,350
1,350
1,900
2,400
2,800
1,350
1,300
1,700
1,200
2,200
3,250
1,300
1,900
1,600
2,500
2,183
1,350
1,200
2,300
$800
850
1,100
900
1,050
900
995
900
800
800
850
840
1,150
1,100
900
960
850
800
1,000
960
1,050
$1,304
1,044
1,217
1,041
1,213
Delta	
3,000
2,600
1,700
2,500
2,400
1,900
1,800
3,400
1,400
3,000
1,700
2,110
1,250
1,400
1,550
1,200
1,800
1,600
1,400
1,680
2,175
2,273
1,475
1,800
1,875
1,513
1,800
2,628
1,400
2,088
1,164
1,471
Kent	
1,058
1,003
1,032
987
1,107
Oak Bay	
1,882
1,200
1,316
1,153
2,170
2,600
1,470
1,950
1,786
2,140
1,184
1,296
1,117
1,043
Summerland	
2,100
1,500
1,767
1,328 Q 16
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
SALARIES—Continued.
High Schools.
Elbmentaet Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Rural Municipalities—Continued.
$2,100   .
$1,500
$1,740
$1,500
2,800
2,600
$800
1,080
1,020
$1,003
1,538
3,000
1,600
2,160
1,418
For all rural municipalities...
$3,400
$1,200
$2,050
$3,250
$800
$1,226
Rural Districts.
$2,700
2,200
$1,200
1,300
$1,866
1,656
$2,800
2,000
$800
900
$1,211
1,083
Assisted	
$2,700
$1,200
$1,799
$2,800
$800
$1,127
The average salary paid teachers employed in the public schools (elementary and high) of
the Province was $1,528; to teachers employed in elementary schools, $1,393; and to teachers
employed in high schools, $2,328.
EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL-YEAR 1929-30.
Minister's Office:
Salaries           $10,820.35
Office supplies  534.59
Travelling expenses  1,323.05
General Office:
Salaries  23,343.41
Office supplies  „  8,998.51
Travelling expenses ,  185.80
Free Text-book Branch:
Salaries  9,106.35
Office supplies _  6,556.97
Text-books, maps, etc         120,901.76
Correspondence Courses:
Salaries _  19,566.46
Office supplies   10,642.61
Travelling expenses  172.60
Science equipment   6.15
Industrial Education:
Salaries     $8,696.65
Office supplies      2,366.00
Travelling expenses      2,673.27
Grants in aid  ,    73,269.25
Night-schools     37,483.53
Less Dominion of Canada subvention
$124,488.70
..    66,063.73
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries  $72,962.97
Office supplies      5,331.23
Travelling expenses     31,038.13
Less amount paid by School Boards
$109,332.33
..      8,581.80
58,424.97
100,750.53 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 17
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries  $37,905.78
Office supplies  2,609.53
Travelling expenses  629.70
Fuel, light, and water   2,387.62
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)   2,980.86
Students' mileages  1,463.85
Incidentals  1,114.95
$49,092.29
Less Normal School fees      8,625.00
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries  $35,897.97
Office supplies  2,581.84
Travelling expenses  260.00
Fuel, light, and water  3,060.12
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)   4,755.35
Students' mileages  4,257.45
Incidentals   15.00
$50,827.73
Less Normal School fees      5,330.00
School for the Deaf and the Blind:
Salaries  $24,619.99
Office supplies  882.91
Fuel, light, and water  2,433.41
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)   564.26
Furniture, fixtures, etc  944.51
Provisions  3,047.88
Incidentals   322.40
$32,815.36
Less amount received for board and tuition of pupils from
Alberta and Saskatchewan       3,868.00
High.
Junior High, ,_,,
Superior. Elementary.
$40,467.29
45,497.73
28,947.36
Per capita grants to cities   $293,107.50 $743,107.08 1,036,214.58
Per capita grants to rural municipalities   55,100.00 333,303.50 388,403.50
Per capita grants to rural school districts   26,534.10 177,103.30 203,637.40
Salaries of teachers in assisted schools   28,049.35 685,150.45 713,199.80
$402,790.95      $1,938,664.33
School buildings, erection and maintenance   201,120.57
Rural Female Teachers' Welfare Officer, salary and expenses   2,908.00
Education of soldiers' dependent children and expenses   11.00
Grants to libraries  :  2,438.62
Examination of High School and Entrance classes   $36,065.26
Less fees for examination and certificates      26,575.61
  9,489.65
Conveying children to central schools   63,337.05
Summer Schools  23,431.27
B.C. Musical Festival   750.00
Incidentals and contingencies  5,304.12
University of British Columbia   606,825.03
Total cost to Government      $3,743,317.08 Q IS
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
Amount expended by districts :
High,
Junior nigh,
Superior.
Cities   $1,561,688.41
Rural municipalities        303,042.85
Rural school districts          54,154.00
Assisted school districts   5,610.65
Elementary.
$2,987,378.17
817,674.97
364,517.36
170,872.17
$4,549,066.58
1,120,717.82
418,671.36
176,482.82
$1,924,495.91       $4,340,442.67
Grand total cost of education   $10,008,255.66
The following table shows the cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil on enrolment
and on average daily attendance during the past twelve years:—
Year.
Cost per
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Average
Daily Attendance.
1918-19	
24.88
27.20
29.01
29.33
27.92
27.36
27.17
26.09
26.40
26.92
28.32
28.07
31.59
1919-20	
36 05
1920-21	
36.38
1921-22                	
35 70
1922-23	
34.07
1923-24	
33.21
1924-25                                           	
32.17
1925-26....                                                   	
31.06
1926-27	
31.41
1927-28	
31.74
1928-29                                                       	
33.03
1929-30                                                       	
32.79
The gradual growth of the schools and also the cost to the Provincial Government of maintaining them are shown in the following exhibit:—
No. of
Year.                  Teachers
Employed.
Number
of School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of
Attendance.
Government
Expenditure for
Education.
1877-78	
56
69
128
267
429
607
816
1,597
2,246
3,118
3,668
3,784
3,854
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
575
744
788
792
803
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
67,516
94,888
108,179
109,588
111,017
1,395.50
1,383.00
3,093.46
7,111.40
11,055.65
16,357.43
23,195.27
43,274.12
54,746.76
77,752.98
91,760.56
94,410.00
96,196.00
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
81.09
81.94
84.82
86.17
86.65
$43,334.01
1882-83	
1887-88	
50,850.63
99,902.04
1892-93	
1897-98	
190,558.33
247,756.37
1902-03	
1907-08	
1912-13	
1917-18	
397,003.46
464,473.78
1,032,038.60
1,529,058.93
1922-23	
3,176,686.28*
1927-28	
1928-29	
3,532,518.95*
3,765,920.69*
i9-->9-30 :	
3,743,317.08*
* This amount includes the annual grant to the Provincial University.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education, PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
Q 19
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF D. M. ROBINSON, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The session of 1929-30 opened on September 11th. During the term, September to December,
219 students—185 young women and 34 young men—were in attendance. At the close of the
term in December seven students with previous Normal School training and two with teaching
experience in Eastern Canada were granted diplomas.    Three students discontinued the course.
At the opening of the new term in January, 207 of those who had attended during the
autumn term returned. These were joined by five students with previous training. In February a graduate of the University of Glasgow enrolled and was in attendance for two months.
Thus the total enrolment for the advanced term was 213. Five of these discontinued the course
because of illness or unsatisfactory work.    The session closed with an attendance of 207.
The following will show the enrolment and results of the session:—
Young
Women.
Young                  Tntnl
Men.       1       10tal-
1
189
1
35
35
26
9
224
1
Total enrolment	
Withdrew, illness, unsatisfactory work, etc	
Recommended for interim certificate	
Failed	
190
8
163
18
225
8
189
27
Several changes in the personnel of the staff occurred at the opening of the session in
September. Mr. J. M. Ewing took over the work in psychology, history of education, and statistics. Inspector T. R. Hall exchanged for the session with Mr. A. R. Lord. Both Mr. Ewing
and Mr. Hall brought to the Normal School a rich experience in elementary-school management.
Their work during the session was most acceptable. In September a Home Economics Department was instituted. Miss Margaret Maynard was placed in charge. Full knowledge of her
subject, supplemented by sterling qualities of character, has made her instruction to the young
women of the Normal School most beneficial. I regret to report that Mr. J. A. Macintosh was
compelled to leave his work in February because of ill-health.
The instruction in physical education was conducted by Sergeant-Major Wallace, Sergeant
Frost, and Sergeant-Instructor Pink. Of the 204 students examined, 202 qualified for Grade B
certificate.
During the session eight weeks were devoted to observation and practice-teaching by the
students. During the autumn term the following schools were used for practice-teaching:
General Gordon, Kitsilano, Edith Cavell, Florence Nightingale, Grandview, Alexandra, and
Livingstone. During the winter term: Templeton Junior High, General Wolfe, Carleton, Lord
Selkirk, Tecumseh, and McBride. At all these schools we met with the most hearty co-operation;
principals and teachers were anxious to help in every possible way. In addition to this observation and practice-teaching in graded municipal schools, each student spent a week in some small
school in an adjoining municipality. Small one- and two-roomed schools in Richmond, Burnaby,
Delta, Surrey, Matsqui, Coquitlam, Maple Ridge, Chilliwack, and small rural schools along the
coast and on Vancouver Island were visited. Through these visits our students-in-training
acquired considerable experience in teaching and managing small ungraded schools. We wish
to thank the teachers of these small schools for their very hearty co-operation in this important
branch of teacher-training.
During the closing days of the session the students visited the following points of interest:
The news plants of the Daily Province and Daily Sun, the sawmills of Robertson & Hackett, the
Alberta and False Creek Lumber Companies, Leckie's Shoe Factory, and the Fraser Valley Dairy.
These visits proved both interesting and instructive to the students. We wish to thank the
managers of these industrial plants for their courtesy and kindness during these tours. Q 20
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VICTORIA.
REPORT OF D. L. MacLAURIN, M.A., PRINCIPAL.
The session extended from September 11th, 1929, to June 13th, 1930. The total number of
students in attendance during the year was 140. This was 17 less than the total enrolment for
the year 1928-29. The 1929-30 total enrolment was 89.17 per cent, of the enrolment for the
previous year. Of the 140 students in attendance, 72 or slightly over 51 per cent, had taken
either first-year University work or Senior Matriculation. Nine had taken two or more years of
University work. This is positive evidence that the academic qualifications of those seeking
admission are steadily reaching a higher standard. It is interesting to note also that these
140 students were assembled from forty-five distinct districts distributed over every section of
the Province.
The following table presents a more detailed analysis of the year's enrolment:—
Women.
Men.
Totals.
104
6
o
1
2
23
o
127
Failed	
8
2
1
2
Totals	
115
25
140
Ten of those awarded diplomas completed their work in December, 1929, and 117 completed
in June, 1930. Nine of the 117 who completed in June were awarded honour standing. All
except two were granted Grade B physical-training certificates. Six of these certificates were
marked " distinguished." Mr. Charles Greenland, of East Arrow Park, received the gold medal
for greatest proficiency in physical training.
One member of the Faculty, Mr. C. B. Wood, was granted leave of absence during the year
in order to continue postgraduate study in Columbia University, New York, and in Great Britain
and Europe. His place was filled during the year by Mr. A. F. Matthews, Provincial Inspector
of Schools at Kamloops. I wish to express my appreciation of the efficient work done by Mr.
Matthews during the year and of his highly co-operative attitude. Mr. Matthews has proven his
efficiency as an instructor of teachers-in-training. This affords me the opportunity to repeat a
suggestion that I have made several times already. I am convinced that were it possible to
arrange one exchange annually between the members of the Normal School staff and the members
of the Inspectorial staff, so that in time all members of both staffs would have experience in both
fields, the beneficial reaction would be almost invaluable.
The apportionment of instruction for the year was as follows : The Principal—Educational
psychology, measurements and statistics, school administration, and school law. Mr. V. L.
Denton—Geography, history, and history of education. Mr. H. Dunnell—Penmanship, drawing,
art, and woodwork. Mr. B. S. Freeman—Literature, nature, and language. Mr. A. F. Matthews
•—Reading, English grammar, and arithmetic. Miss G. G. Riddell—Vocal music, primary work,
and manual arts. Miss L. Isbister—Home economics and nutrition. Miss I. Coursier—Health
education.    Sergeant-Major Bain—Physical training.    Sergeant-Major Frost—Physical training.
I wish to express to Mr. AV. H. May, Provincial Inspector of Schools; Mr. A. C. Stewart,
Provincial Inspector of Schools ; Mr. Geo. H. Deane, Municipal Inspector of Schools for the City of
Victoria ; Mr. J. M. Paterson, Municipal Inspector of Schools for the District of Saanich ; and to
the principals and teachers of all schools used ,my sincere appreciation of their whole-hearted
co-operation with us in our work. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 21
SUMMER SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., DIRECTOR.
The Summer School for 1930, which commenced on July 7th and finished on August 8th,
proved to be very successful. The attendance numbered 446 individuals—369 women and 77
men—which was an increase of 25 over the enrolment last year. The teaching staff numbered
41 members. In addition, there was a Demonstration School of 302 children with a staff of
14 instructors.
The courses and the number of teacher-students taking each course were as follows:—
Health Education      43
Physical Education     32
Refresher Normal Course     82
Teaching English to New Canadians     24
Speech Training—The Art of Expression      15
Primary Grade Course  103
Manual Arts—Intermediate Grade      21
Penmanship       67
Vocal Music—Elementary School      31
Music Specialists' Course      26
Choral Singing      45
Teaching Piano by the Class Method     10
Art Courses (First and Second Year)   103
Manual Training—Elementary School      13
Industrial Arts—Junior High and High School     21
Commercial Specialists' Courses—Junior High and High School      50
Typewriting  (for Teachers only)       27
Folk-dancing  118
A further classification of the teacher-students may be made as follows:—
From cities in British Columbia   150
From rural municipalities      64
From rural and assisted schools   126
Unclassified and without schools      82
From points outside of British Columbia      24
Total individual students   446
COURSES OF STUDY, THEIR CONTENT AND AIM.
Health Education.—The Courses in Health and Physical Education were probably the most
important courses at Summer School. The reaction of the mental studies and bodily exercises
on the students who attended was plainly evident; their robust and fit condition at the end of
five weeks proved that the courses were most beneficial and valuable from a health and holiday
standpoint.
Modern health education aims to instruct children and youth how to conserve and improve
their health, to establish in them habits and principles of right living which will ensure an
abundance of vigour and vitality, and, to this end, considerable attention was given to the best
means of teaching the health programme outlined by the Department of Education in the
Programme of Studies.
Home-nursing was a subject included in health education and the students prepared themselves for the examination held under the Canadian Red Cross Association. Sixteen students
successfully passed the examination and obtained certificates.
First aid to the injured: This subject might well be termed common to both the Health
Education Course and that in Physical Education. The subject is included because teachers are
often called upon to render assistance in case of accidents and illness. The ability to meet a
serious emergency effectively and do the right thing at the right time depends upon training.
Twenty-five students successfully passed the tests for the certificate of the St. John Ambulance
Association.
Physical Education.—The scope of physical education is so wide that its separation from
the Course of Health Education was entirely warranted, notwithstanding the fact that subjects Q 22 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
like first aid to the injured, aquatics, folk-dancing, and social hygiene are common to both
courses.
Physical education should not be confused with " drills." It is something broader in conception and is based upon play activity. Problems of field-day sports should also be considered
from this angle in order that all pupils may take part in the games and competitions instead of
a school team only. Games for all grades suitable for class-rooms, halls, and playgrounds should
occupy an important part of the course. Individual weaknesses should also be discussed;
postural defects and abnormal developments should be thoroughly studied with a view to giving
remedial exercises.
Folk-dancing: As has been said previously, folk-dancing may be termed common to both the
Health Education and Physical Education Courses. It is always a popular class because it
provides an opportunity for rhythmic exercises and friendly enjoyment. The ladies far outnumbered the men, as usual, although dancing is of equal importance to men and women.
The dances were divided into two groups; i.e., folk-dances and interpretive dances. The
folk-dances were drawn from the following countries: Britain, America, Sweden, Finland,
France, Poland, and a grand ensemble dance was included called " The Dance of the League of
Nations."
Aquatics is also common to both the Health and Physical Education Courses. Two classes
were formed, one for beginners and one for work of a more advanced nature. The class in
swimming, diving, and life-saving met regularly at the Crystal Gardens and instruction was
given in the various strokes, such as the crawl, back-stroke, overarm, trudgeon, and crawl-
trudgeon. Twenty-one students passed the tests for the bronze medallion and certificate of the
Royal Life Saving Society of London, England.
Social hygiene: Three lectures illustrated by lantern-slides were given by Dr. M. G. Thomson, M.B., on the following: (a) The biological approach to social hygiene; (b) disease-prevention;   (o) health habits, their control and development.
Vocal Music.—The subject chosen at the beginning of this report was health and physical
education because of the universality of its importance. Music may safely be claimed to be next
in order of universality.    It enters into the lives of people at all times and under all conditions.
The aim in the Vocal Music Course was to give each student a good, sound, fundamental
knowlede of singing according to the requirements as indicated in the Course of Studies for
Elementary Schools, together with a serious study of teaching methods in imparting this
knowledge to children attending the various grades. The course included voice-training, ear-
training, practice with the sol-fa modulator and the staff notation, sight-singing, artistic interpretation of songs, musical theory, rhythmic work (including the dramatization of melodies),
music appreciation, and history of music; simple composition to enable teachers to make the
modulator work melodious and interesting;  practice in class-teaching and choral leadership.
Music Course for Specialists in Public School Music, and for those Teachers who are looking
towards Specialization in Public Schools.—The course for music specialists was designed to
present a layout of the field to be covered in vocal music up to and including junior high and
high schools, and to illustrate every step of the progress of this work from grade to grade by
practical and clearly-defined methods in teaching.
The main features of this course were voice-culture, sight-singing, song interpretation, and
appreciation of artistic values in music. The procedure employed in developing power in sight-
singing should be studied with great care, inasmuch as the teacher will find her largest task
centred in this department of the work.
Choral Singing.—The Choral class represented the inspirational side. The element of
beauty is the soul-nourishing and abiding element in a child's musical experience. The tone of
man's spiritual life is decided by the cultural imprints made during the impressionable years of
childhood; therefore it is important to give children songs of fine musical worth to sing. The
songs selected were mostly arranged in two or three parts. They were first of all chosen because
of their musical merit. There was a happy agreement between words and music, and the words
dissociated from the music were beautiful, judged from poetic standards.
The repertoire of the class consisted of twenty fine examples of part-songs for upper grades,
most of which were memorized.
Last year our Music Course included a class in the Art of Singing. This was conducted for
individual teachers who were gifted and desired to take advanced vocal work.   There was no PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 23
such class this year, but it would be advisable to continue the advanced work next year in order
that teachers may themselves reach as high a standard as possible.
We also introduced last year the rhythmic band or toy symphony orchestra as recommended
by the highest musical authorities, and an afternoon concert was given to demonstrate how
young children may cultivate the musical sense of rhythm and time by natural and interesting
means. A decided advance, however, was made this year by the organization of a Juvenile
Symphony Orchestra.
Orchestral Music.—This orchestra consisted of thirty-five players who met each morning for
instruction and practice. The regular attendance which continued throughout proved that the
enthusiasm of the leader had reached the students. The orchestra was composed of pupils from
the age of 8 to 16 years as well as school-teachers, and the adult members of the class were
amazed at the ability of the juniors, whose organization will continue as the Victoria Juvenile
Symphony Orchestra. At the closing exercises of the Summer School the orchestra proved to be
a great attraction; a wonderful variety of string and wind instruments were included in the
band, and it would certainly be advisable to continue and encourage orchestral work next
summer. Not only should the orchestra be continued next year, but the subject of how to train
an orchestra would be a fitting one for music-teachers.
Teaching Piano by the Class Method.—The system of teaching the piano to young pupils by
the class method is now conceded to be successful, and an opportunity was thus given teachers
at Summer School to become familiar with the methods of conducting such classes.
The piano is not only the basic home instrument, but having fixed tones a pupil makes more
rapid progress on it than on any other instrument. One great advantage of the class method
over the individual method is the group enthusiasm and friendly competition which it engenders.
Theory loses much of its drudgery when taught in classes and it is easier to arouse interest and
sustain it. Moreover, musical talent displays itself more readily and distinguishes those pupils
who have the necessary ability for orchestral work.
This special group of teaching is endorsed by the Board of School Trustees, Toronto, the
Principal of the Toronto Conservatory of Music, and the Canadian Bureau for the Advancement
of Music.
Music Appreciation.—While every music class included music appreciation on its programme,
yet the importance of the subject warrants special lectures and systematic lessons. The subject-
matter should be considered in relation to children of every grade from primary to high school.
Lesson plans should be compiled and teaching devices should be studied which will encourage
intelligent listening with a view to developing an understanding and a taste for good music.
This might well be considered next year.
ART COURSES.
First-year Art Course.—This course was treated primarily as a refresher course. With this
in view the work was planned along the lines of the Public School Curriculum and exercises were
given in the following branches of the work: (a) Representative drawing from common objects
and nature specimens in various mediums, such as pencil, pen, crayon, and water-colour; (6)
constructive drawing; (c) design, the planning of panels and borders, conventionalizing of
nature forms, and the appropriate use of colour; (d) general principles of good lettering; (e)
designing of posters and illustrations for use in teaching such subjects as history, geography,
health, and nature-study;   (/) blackboard drawing.
The teaching of drawing in schools is not alone to develop the power of observation, but
also to encourage the use of the creative faculties of the pupils. This is why des:gn and colour
play such a prominent part in 'the course. For the same reason, drawing as a general means of
expression was encouraged in the poster and illustrative work.
One of the most important features of this course was the attempt 'to stimulate the teacher-
students by bringing them in contact with as wide a range of graphic expression as possible.
Second-year Art Course.—The aim of this course was to show how to apply art to every-day
uses, to link up the designs usually drawn on paper with that work of the manual training and
home economics departments.
The work consisted of the general theory and practice of design, colour, and rhythm in art.
Nature forms were studied to inspire the making of conventional abstract and geometric patterns.   Creative designs were encouraged to develop originality and freedom of expression. Q 24 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
Designs were undertaken for book-making, lettering and illumination, wood-block and
linoleum-block printing, stained woodwork, stencilling, gesso-work, embroidery, weaving, pottery,
and basketry.
High School Art Course.—This course was specially for high-school teachers and the work
embraced drawing and painting from objects with crayons and water-colours. Scientific apparatus and botanical and natural history specimens were used principally as models in order to
obtain a measure of correlation. Creative designs were applied to materials. Lettering and
poster designs formed an important phase of the course, followed by the lettering of poems and
illuminated pages. Decorated woodwork with water-colours, coloured inks, and stains was commendable, because much of the wood was a product of British Columbia. Colour was studied
as complementary harmonies, monochromatic and analogous schemes.
Applied Art.—The following crafts were taught: Raffia-work, weaving, basketry, leather-
work, needlework, glove-making, batik-dyeing.
Mats and bags and other articles of a similar nature were woven with raffia. This inexpensive fibre has considerable strength, although it is less durable than cotton or silk. When
dyed, the bright colours attract children, 'Who can make many useful articles with it, thereby
applying the process of weaving which they have previously learned by using paper.
Following uji the weaving in raffia, work of the same kind was also done in wool on small
tapestry-looms. Rugs on a small scale were made by each member of the class, followed by
some weaving on a larger hand-loom. This phase of the course is particularly helpful to teachers
of home economics.
A basketry course was very interesting and popular. It included the making of trays,
baskets of different shapes and sizes, and a great variety of articles of a similar type.
The leather-work course was also found most fascinating from the designing of the project
to retouching the finished article with dye. In working on calf-skin, many beautiful patterns
were obtainable by lining, matting, and painting. Suedes and moroccos and other kinds of
leather were used to make bags, purses, letter-cases, needle-cases, etc.
Needle-weaving and many embroidery stitches, chiefly made up of variations of simple
stitches such as chain and blanket stitches, were taught, and their application in the decoration
of garments, cushion-tops, table-mats, etc., was demonstrated.
The crafts of glove-making and batik-dyeing were also taught.
Primary Grade Course.—The Primary Grade Course was planned for those interested in
Receiving-class work. About one hundred students regularly attended the lectures on primary-
grade methods and keen interest was displayed in the lessons on speech-training, including
phonics, rhythmics, dramatization of stories, and puppet shows.
The students did excellent work in the planning and preparation of seat-work activities,
singing games, and playground activities. The whole course was planned from the view-point
of the child's needs and interests, realizing that in the presentation the child be given an opportunity to progress <at his own rate, that his powers of observation and selection should be
strengthened, that he form correct habits of concentration and work, and that his thought experience be continually enlarged.
The hand-work activities consisted of lettering, illustrations in pastels and crayons, paper
folding, cutting, and construction, plasticene and clay modelling, sewing and weaving. The
projects were based on the lessons in treading, language, and number-work. Among the many
things made were action-word booklets, project booklets, story and poetry booklets, sand-table
illustration of nursery rhymes and stories, a circus, a toy-shop, a doll's house, and pottery-shop.
Local material easily obtainable and inexpensive was encouraged for this illustrative work—
twigs, bark, stones, and clay for building ihouses, furniture, and dishes, grass for weaving, and
pieces of cloth and wool from home for sewing and wool-work.
Intermediate Grade Hand-work.—Activities in this section were selected from those of a
primal nature which have been closely associated with the development of the race and which
leads to genuine crafts; for instance, basketry, pottery, weaving, ineedlecraft, book-making, including pen, paper, and cardboard-work leading to bookbinding, lettering, illumination and illustration, woodwork, leather-work. These all have a tradition behind them and brings one into
close touch with the gradual control of man over his environment.
Thus there is bound up an every true craft a vital piece of human experience and human
culture.   An earnest endeavour was made to associate closely the handicraft-work with its true ally—art. Design was considered when teaching each craft; obedience to principles of construction and utility were observed, emphasized, and made to control all surface decoration.
This Intermediate Grade hand-work provides a desirable link between the primary-grade activities and those of the manual-training room.
Manual Training Course.—This course was arranged for men who were desirous of becoming
instructors of woodwork in elementary schools. The complete course of training extends over
several years and includes pedagogics of hand-work, geometry, mechanical drawing, and the
theory and practice of woodwork. This Summer School Course will be continued at Saturday
classes held in the Vancouver Technical School. A class of boys met daily for bench-work and
thus provided an opportunity for practice-teaching.
Industrial Arts Courses.—These classes were organized in the Technical School, Vancouver,
in order that Manual Instructors might prepare themselves adequately to teach in junior high
schools and high schools. The special subjects undertaken were as follows: Sheet-metal handwork (theory and practice), art-metal work, elementary machine-shop practice at the bench,
electricity, design for industrial arts, and furniture-construction.
Technical Teacher's Certificate.—Classes were also operated at which men could qualify to
teach in a Technical School.
Six Weeks' Course in Commercial Subjects.—This course was also held at Vancouver to
qualify teachers holding Academic or First-class Certificates for the following: (a) High School
Assistant Commercial Teacher's Certificate (Interim) ; (6) Commercial Specialist's Certificate
(Permanent). This course was designed to cover two summer sessions and the following is a
synopsis of the subjects covered, 1930: Advanced arithmetic, accounting (elementary), accounting (advanced), general and statute law, shorthand (elementary), shorthand (intermediate),
shorthand (advanced), secretarial practice, typewriting (elementary), typewriting  (advanced).
Special Course in Typewriting for School-teachers.—The lessons were designed with a view
to developing the course step by step, and after five weeks' work, three hours per day, students
who came to the class at the beginning of the session were able to type their lecture outlines and
notes in good style.
Refresher Normal Course.—This course was organized to take the place of the courses given
in previous years, whereby it was only possible to study one or two subjects during the Summer
School session. Under the new conditions one week was given to intensive study on each subject, thus covering at the end of five weeks the following: English literature, history, geography,
nature-study, psychology, drawing, and music. While this course attracted a large enrolment,
it might be well next year to give teachers an opportunity to choose between (a) the Refresher
Normal Course, which consists in studying seven subjects during the five weeks, and (b) courses
of five weeks in each subject.
Teaching English to New Canadians.—The aim of this course was to outline the methods
and procedures that have proved most effective in teaching English to Japanese, Chinese,
Doukhobor, and Indian children in the elementary schools, to suggest suitable materials of instruction, and to acquaint those taking the course with the literature on the subject. Special
attention was paid to the problem of teaching English to foreign adults in night classes. The
motive behind the organization was to secure suitable teachers for schools having a large proportion of non-English pupils.
Penmanship.—It is essential that every teacher of penmanship should write legibly, rapidly,
and beautifully; therefore daily practice was given in handwriting and a comprehensive course
in the pedagogy of the subject was given. A few of the phases of penmanship-teaching were
explained, such as primary-grade writing, rhythm in writing, methods of developing and maintaining interest and enthusiasm among pupils, socialization of the writing lesson, the use of
standard scales and measurements were fully discussed.
Demonstration School for Observation Purposes.—This school was operated on the platoon
system, so that Summer School students could observe a lesson on any subject at any period
during the day and instructors could use the classes of children for demonstrating the theories
expounded. The Platoon School also gave teachers an opportunity to study the method of organizing a school in which no subject of the curriculum in any grade was neglected or omitted! It
is always an easy matter to obtain pupils for such a Demonstration School. Applicants far outnumbered those that were required and the children seemed to be sorry when the school was over. Q 26 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
At the close of the session a field-day was organized by the teacher of physical education and
a splendid programme of sports and games was much enjoyed.
Library.—Books dealing with each course at Summer School were to be found in the library
and they were used extensively; in fact, it has been observed that each year sees an increasing
number of students frequenting the library. We are indebted to the librarians of the Public
Library, the Provincial Library, and that of the Provincial Normal School for their assistance
in sending selections from their shelves. Collections from certain publishers, together with
appropriate school pictures, were also in charge of the librarian.
Concerts, Lectures, Sports, and Pastimes.—The opening concert was a music recital by four
well-known musicians—Mr. Harold Taylor, 'cellist; Mr. Hampton-Jones, flautist; Mr. Ira Dil-
worth, pianist; and Mr. Frank Tupman, tenor soloist. Mr. Harold Taylor was chiefly instrumental in arranging the concert and the full proceeds were given to the Victoria Juvenile
Orchestra fund.
A lecture on the beauties of China by Mr. Herbert C. White was much appreciated. In
addition to the coloured slides, Mr. White hung an exhibition of pictures in the corridors of the
school dealing with his subject.
Mr. John R. Scoby, manager of the Dominion Bank, gave an interesting address on the
" Origin and History of Banking." The appreciative audience was mainly composed of the students of the Refresher Normal Course who were studying mathematics.
Mr. Geo. E. Wilkinson, head of (the English and Speech Department of the City of Leeds
Training College, England, devoted one week to lectures in the school. Some of his subjects were
as follows: "Why Read Poetry?" "Some Humorous Books," "Elizabethan Adventurers," and
a public lecture on " Buccanneers and Pirates." Mr. Wilkinson proved to be a most inspiring
and stimulating lecturer and the students were sorry his course was so short.
The school was fortunate in obtaining, for one week, the services of Mr. Robert Jarman,
Director of Physical Education in the City of Winnipeg. He gave demonstration lessons in folk-
dancing and physical education.
Other lectures open to the public were given by Robert Straight, B.A., on " Educational
Measurements "; Robert Ewing, B.A., on " Psychology"; Dr. M. G. Thomson, on " Social
Hygiene."
The closing concert by the students proved a great success. The students of the classes in
Vocal and Choral Music, the School Orchestra, and Speech-training were all represented. These
exercises attracted a large and appreciative audience. In the various rooms a fine display off
work was on view; examples of posters, leather-work, pottery, weaving, linoleum-cuts, booklet-
making, etc., were seen in the Art Department. Examples of manual arts, including drawing
and penmanship for intermediate and primary grades, were of a high order. The programme
closed with a demonstration of folk-dancing in the gymnasium.
A large group of students participated in a tennis tournament which lasted for some weeks.
The games were keenly contested and the winners were rewarded with well-selected and artistic
prizes.
Mr. Hope, Principal of Brentwood College, kindly invited the Summer School students to
hold their annual picnic at the beautiful grounds surrounding the school, and in addition he
placed the dining-hall at their disposal for the midday meal. The day began with races and
sports generally and the whole company was soon engaged in swimming, boating, tennis, or
hiking. Special school songs were sung with great gusto and the party returned to Victoria
much invigorated by the social event.
The Students' Committee carried out well their unselfish duties to make all social functions
enjoyable. Mr. A. H. Cowlishaw, manager of the Crystal Gardens, granted the students special
terms of admission to the well-known salt-water swimming-tank, and an evening's swimming and
dancing followed by a supper was an innovation this year.
A students' dance was held every Wednesday in the gymnasium of the High School and a
fancy-dress dance proved to be a spectacular event.
The Uplands Golf Club, Macaulay Point Golf Club, Colwood Golf and Country Club, and the
Victoria Golf Club all extended their services to the students. We are also indebted to the
Press representatives for their fair and just reports and for the publicity which they gave to
the school. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 27
TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., ORGANIZER.
MANUAL TRAINING.
There has been considerable development in the work of manual training since the advent
of junior high schools. Woodwork-shops alone used to characterize manual-training centres, but
other shops are now added in which metalwork and electricity may be taught. That these subjects have a cultural as well as a practical value is now fully established and their appeal to
the young as a vehicle of education cannot be questioned. While the work in each shop is well
organized and instructors have specific courses in the theory and practice of the various crafts,
yet at the same time freedom is permitted in order to encourage creative effort. Drafting and
design are taught as the practical work proceeds.
While we might continue as'in the past to call woodwork alone by the name of manual
training, the richer experiences of the junior high school should be designated industrial arts.
There would thus be three distinct groups of hand-work—manual training, industrial arts, and
technical.
The following districts have manual-training centres in operation: Armstrong, Burnaby,
Chilliwack City, Chilliwack Municipality, Cranbrook, Courtenay, Cumberland, Cassidy, Esquimalt, Fernie, Harewood, Kelowna, Kamloops, Ladysmith, Maple Ridge, Nanaimo, Nelson, New
Westminster, Ocean Falls, Penticton, Pitt Meadows, Port Moody, loco, Prince Rupert, Richmond,
Summerland, Surrey, Trail, Vancouver, North Vancouver City, North Vancouver Municipality,
West Vancouver, Vernon, and Victoria.
The total number of centres in the Province, together with the number of pupils attending,
are given hereunder:—
Manual-training and junior high-school workshops     114
Manual-training and junior high-school instructors       91
Elementary-school pupils attending   9,477
Junior high-school pupils attending   2,934
H'gh-school pupils attending   2,768
DAY-SCHOOLS.
The outstanding school in the Province of British Columbia for industrial training is undoubtedly the Vancouver Technical School. The workshops provided are for the trades of sheet-
metal workers, mechanical engineers, auto-mechanics, electrical engineers, cabinetmakers,
carpenters, and printers. The shops are equipped with all the necessary machinery to facilitate
thorough vocational training and the number of students attending increases each year. At
present there is an enrolment of 1,100 students. It is also encouraging to find the Technical
School staff working with the Apprenticeship Council of Vancouver and the Provincial Department of Labour to extend the system of apprentice-training which is at present adopted by the
Building Trades Association. A vocational guidance officer has also been appointed in Vancouver
City, which completes an excellent organization of junior high schools, high schools with Industrial Arts Courses, and technical schools.
Most of the high schools in Vancouver have how introduced a course in industrial arts,
which gives the students an opportunity to elect the industrial arts option for matriculation to
University. This being so, the Vancouver Technical School should reserve itself mainly, though
not exclusively, for specific trade training. The well-equipped workshops and skilled instructors
having 100 per cent, industrial efficiency should not be used for try-out courses or for industrial
arts, but mainly for pure applied technical and vocational education. The Technical School
should be the goal of all students who have decided what industrial activity they have selected
for their life's work. Consideration for such students should be of first importance. It would
be manifestly unfair, however, not to have some courses in the Technical School by which
students could prepare for the engineering and electrical departments of the University ; the few,
however, who desire to go to the University must not be the means of influencing the courses of
the main stream of students who desire to enter the various industries.
There is a great field of educational work of a technical nature which is as yet untouched;
the school should be, for instance, the headquarters for all training required by adults to qualify
for Provincial and Dominion papers as engineers of the first, second, third, and fourth classes. Q 28
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
The necessary preparation for tests demanded by the Provincial Government in plumbing,
moving-picture operating, and mining should be provided at the Technical School. A school of
navigation should be included, at which preparation could be obtained for the seafaring papers
required by masters and mates; in fact, all education for certificates made compulsory by the
statutes of the Provincial and Dominion Governments should be obtained at the Technical
School. A department of aeronautics should be opened with as little delay as possible. Last
year a beginning was made in this direction, but the growth of automotive work has crowded it
out. The classes in automotive and gasoline-engine work are well attended by young men from
the automobile-shops, thus fully justifying the claims made last year that the time has come to
build or rent more technical shops. In any case junior high and high-school pupils should not
be allowed to prevent the expansion of education for apprentices and adults engaged in trades.
The Dominion grants paid for the Technical School were given to encourage vocational work of
Dominion-wide importance. The effects of technical education goes far beyond the confines of
Vancouver City and for this reason generous Provincial grants were made.
Next in order of importance to the Vancouver Technical School comes the T. J. Trapp Technical School, New Westminster. Although this school is smaller, yet the quality of work in the wood
and metal shops is, up to the high-school standard, equally as good as in the Vancouver Technical
School. There is little facility for trade-training in the New Westminster School; therefore it
is more of a technical high school than a technical school. The commercial classes are good and
the course in aeronautics is first-class.
Other courses of industrial arts worthy of mention may be found at Magee High School,
John Oliver High School, Kitsilano, King Edward, and Britannia High Schools, all of Vancouver,
and at Penticton and Kelowna.
The City of Victoria has a two-year Industrial Arts High School Course, but while the work
is excellent in quality the students cannot continue a third year and try the industrial arts
option for matriculation. A commercial course is also provided in Victoria High School, but no
course in home economics has been established.    Perhaps this may soon be remedied.
SCHOOL OP DECORATIVE AND APPLIED ARTS.
The School of Decorative and Applied Arts represents the refinement of technical education,
inasmuch as mechanical skill alone is incomplete. Maximum success can only be gained by a
combination of art and mechanical skill, and it is only by a realization of this situation that the
greatest value can be added to the natural resources of the Province.
Bay and night courses are provided in the following subjects: Drawing and design, applied
design, modelling, lettering and illumination, figure drawing and composition, architecture,
pottery.
A full list of cities participating in the work of technical education is appended and this
shows an enrolment of 4,887 students.
City or Municipality.
Course.
No. of
Students.
Average
Attendance.
Burnaby	
Delta	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
New Westminster-
New Westminster..
New Westminster..
North Vancouver .
Oak Bay	
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke	
Surrey	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Victoria	
Victoria	
West Vancouver....
Totals-
Commercial	
Commercial	
Commercial	
Commercial	
Commercial	
Technical	
Home Economics-
Commercial	
Commercial	
Commercial	
Commercial	
Technical	
Commercial	
Technical	
Home Economics-
Art	
Commercial	
Technical	
Commercial	
164
158.00
16
16.00
50
48.00
34
32.50
131
122.00
233
219.43
79
69.51
91
87.36
37
35.00
49
47.04
31
30.00
28
27.50
1,431
1,392.05
1,186
1,147.34
333
324.67
425
417.00
357
344.80
182
181.54
30
29.45
4,887
4,729.19
Teacher-training Courses :   Enrolment, 123 :   staff, 11.     Correspondence Department:   Enrolment,  220 ;
staff, 9. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 29
It will thus be seen that education along the lines of technical, commercial, agriculture, and
home economics is fully recognized in the school system of the Province and a steady increase
of students may be noted.
The amount paid by the Department of Education as grants in aid of teachers' salaries for
the work mentioned during the year July 1st, 1929, to June 30th, 1930, amounted to $72,360, and
the grants in aid of buildings and equipment amounted to $116,363.73.
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
Night-schools, with a total enrolment of 6,671 students, were conducted in the following
cities, municipalities, and rural districts in the Province: Anyox and Granby Bay, Blakeburn,
Britannia Mines, Burnaby, Cawston, Chilliwack Municipality, Copper Mountain, Courtenay,
Duthie Mines, Esquimalt, Fernie, Grindrod, Kaslo, Kelowna, East Kelowna, Keremeos, Kimberley, Ladysmith, Langford, Maple Ridge, Mission, Nelson, New Westminster, North Vancouver,
Ocean Falls, Okanagan Falls, Okanagan Centre, Oyama, Port Alberni, Port Coquitlam, Powell
River, Richmond, Saanich, Sahtlam, South Wellington, Sumas, Summerland, Surrey, Trail,
Tsolum, Vancouver, Vernon, Victoria, Westbank, and AVest Vancouver.
The undermentioned subjects were included in the night-school courses : English, English for
New Canadians, subjects for Civil Service examinations, subjects for pharmaceutical examinations, subjects for junior matriculation, citizenship and economics, mathematics, mechanics,
physics, machine construction and drawing, pattern-making, forging, machinists' work, steam
engineering, automotive ignition system, magnetism and electricity, electrical engineering, aeroplane construction, automobile mechanics, wireless telegraphy, radio, Diesel engineering, chemistry, metallurgy, coal-mining, building construction, carpentry and joinery, architectural design,
estimating, navigation, forestry, paper-making, printing, plumbing, commercial English, typewriting, stenography, accounting (elementary and advanced), commercial languages (Spanish,
Russian, Japanese, Chinese, French), salesmanship, commercial art, drawing and design,
modelling, metal repousse, wood-carving, embroidery, pottery, china-painting, show-card writing,
dressmaking, millinery, leather-work, glove-making, costume-designing, laundering, bread-making,
canning, cookery, fruit crystallization, music (instrumental and choral), elocution and public
speaking.
The total amount expended in grants towards the salaries of night-school teachers from
July 1st, 1929, to June 30th, 1930, amounted to $34,743.85.
TEACHER-TRAINING CLASSES.
(a.) Technical Teachers.—Technical teachers are being trained in a systematic way for both
high schools and technical schools. For technical schools, teachers must be 100 per cent, efficient
at their trade and have served an apprenticeship. The same industrial efficiency is not demanded
for teaching high-school courses, but greater scholarship in academic subjects is a prerequisite.
(6.) Commercial Teachers.—Training is given for two classes of certificates—the Assistant
Commercial Teacher's Certificate and the Commercial Specialist's Certificate. All candidates
must at least hold first-class teaching certificates of the Province.
There are fifty students enrolled in the teacher-training class for commercial subjects and
thirty enrolled in the teacher-training course in technical subjects. The total amount expended
by the Department in training commercial teachers from July 1st, 1929, to June 30th, 1930,
amounted to $4,505.51. •   •
CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION.
Correspondence Lessons in Coal-mining and Surveying.
This work is conducted to prepare men for the examinations demanded by the Department
of Mines in the interest of public safety.    The course embraces the following:—
No. 1. Preparatory mining course for boys over 15 years of age who have left school.
No. 2. Course in arithmetic and mathematics.
No. 3. Course for fireboss, shiftboss, or shotlighter's papers (third class).
No. 4. Course for overman's papers (second class).
No. 5. Course for mine-manager's papers (first class).
No. 6. Course in mine-survey work.
While a splendid organization has been completed during the year to teach high school,
academic, and commercial courses by correspondence, yet the natural expansion of this work will Q 30 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
surely be the inclusion of high-school industrial arts courses. For this step material is being
prepared in machine-shop work, carpentry and joinery, cabinetmaking, sheet-metal work, industrial design, electricity, and automobile mechanics.
There are 135 students enrolled who are taking technical instruction by correspondence, and
the total amount expended from July 1st, 1929, to June 30th, 1930, amounted to $3,564.
ADMINISTRATION.
The total amount spent on technical work from July 1st, 1929, to June 30th, 1930, amounted
to $240,897.09, which was distributed as follows :—
Day-schools     $72,360.00
Night-schools       34,743.85
Teacher-training       4,505.51
Teaching by correspondence      3,564.00
Technical equipment   116,363.73
Administration         9,360.00
Total $240,837.00
According to the tenth annual report on technical education issued by the Dominion Government, the Province of British Columbia stands third in order of merit for the amount of work
undertaken and accomplished, and fifth in order for the amount spent in administration. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 31
TECHNICAL EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS.
REPORT OF MISS JESSIE McLENAGHEN, B.Sc, DIRECTOR.
New centres continued to open up during the year 1929-30, so that we feel that the interest
in home economics continues to grow. Oak Bay, Powell River, and Richmond have plans complete to offer their students the opportunities of the course in September. In addition, Nanaimo
has engaged the services of a second full-time teacher, while North Vancouver has increased its
staff of home-economics teachers to three. North Vancouver has a fully equipped foods laboratory now, so that it is possible for all the students to (have all phases of the work. Vancouver
has opened an additional laboratory at Kitsilano High School, and while Armstrong Board closed
down its department two years ago, it was reopened in January of this year. Owing to a readjustment as a result of amalgamation, Vancouver has reduced its staff of supervisors from
three to one.
It may prove irather interesting to make a broad survey of the work during the last four
years. In that time, outside of the growth in the Vancouver City schools, twenty-one new centres
have been opened up throughout the Province of British Columbia. These have been at Cumberland, Courtenay, the Deaf and Blind Institute, Vancouver, Fernie, Harewood, loco, Kamloops,
Nelson, Oak Bay, Ocean Falls, Powell River, Richmond, Trail, West Vancouver, and the Provincial Normal School, Vancouver. In addition, Burnaby has added three new centres, Prince
Rupert one, Nanaimo one, and North Vancouver one.
The  total number  of home-economics  centres  that  were  in  operation
during the year was        83
The total number of home-economics teachers was         75
The number of Normal students taking home economics was      365
The number of high-school students taking home economics was  2,122
The number of junior high-school pupils was   3,045
The number of elementary-school pupils was   6,721
The four-year high-school course organized during 1929-30 has again given home economics
additional credit. Three courses, Home Economics (A), (B), and (C), are offered and each is
given credit toward matriculation, the amount of such credit being determined by the number of
periods devoted to the work. The attitude of the average high-school student will be considerably improved as a result of this credit. Either or both of the three-year courses, Home
Economics (A) and (B), which may be taken in place of physics or a second language, are being
offered this coming year in most of the Vancouver high schools, in New Westminster, Prince
Rupert, Nanaimo, Oak Bay, and North Vancouver.
Through greater co-operation between the home-economics department in the school and the
health department, our elementary course is being broadened. Up until the present, Vancouver
City schools alone have offered the course in Child Care. This year such a course was offered
in Fernie, Esquimalt, and Nanaimo.
Home economics for boys during the past year has proved very popular, with two classes in
Point Grey Junior High School. The fact that boys play a large part in our home-making is
gradually being appreciated, and it is probable that the number of classes for boys will be
increased.
The departmental examination in foods and nutrition for Grade VIII. classes was repeated
in February with gratifying results. We feel that the formerly accepted opinion that home
economics was an " unprepared subject " is gradually being disproved.
The Recipe Book which was prepared by this Department in 1927 was revised and enlarged
this year. The name has been changed to " Foods, Nutrition, and Home Management Manual."
This book has proved a great advantage in the class-room. RURAL TEACHERS' WELFARE OFFICER (WOMEN'S).
REPORT OF MISS LOTTIE BOWRON.
During the past year I have visited in the neighbourhood of 250 teachers, dividing my time
amongst the different inspectorates. This, coupled with the special calls I have been asked to
make, has entailed a great deal of travelling, and in a Province the size of British Columbia,
with its numerous outlying points where transportation is difficult, the planning of satisfactory
itineraries is often quite a problem.
Towards the end of the Normal School Course I addressed the students in both Vancouver
and Victoria. This, I believe, will prove of much benefit, for not only does it serve as an introduction, but it also allows the Welfare Officer a splendid opportunity of placing before the
students some of the problems likely to arise in the social and living conditions which they may
encounter, and, as well, an excellent chance to give some practical advice which may prove of
service later on.
It is my practice when in the different localities to call upon one or more of the trustees if
at all possible. This I am sure tends for a better understanding all round, and I have found in
most cases, where it has been necessary to recommend some change, the trustees have been very
willing to co-operate.
I have in the past year recommended to the Department that for the present, at least in
certain districts, only men should be sent, and in other cases that older or married women be
allowed to teach.
It is seldom indeed that I leave a teacher without an expression of appreciation for the visit,
and again and again I am told that the knowledge of such an appointment gives them a sense
of security. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 33
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF J. S. GORDON, B.A., SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS.
SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION, 1929-30.
The school accommodation of the city has been greatly improved during the past school-year.
In May, 1929, the ratepayers voted $800,000 for the erection and equipment of new schools and
for additions to existing ones. Steps were then taken to provide additional accommodation at
once where it was most urgently needed. A four-room frame school, costing $24,756, was erected
at the corner of Sixth Avenue and Quebec Street to accommodate the younger children in the
northern portions of Simon Fraser, Model, and Mount Pleasant Districts. The opening of this
school in September, as an annex of Simon Fraser School, placed the best of accommodation
within easy reach of over 130 little children who would otherwise have had to walk a long distance across dangerous thoroughfares to overcrowded schools.
Congestion was also relieved at two points in the Point Grey area. Eight class-rooms were
added to Langara School, Fourteenth Avenue and Crown Street, at a cost of $41,193.30; while
the auditorium of Kitchener School, Twenty-fourth Avenue and Blenheim Street, was completed
and eight class-rooms added to the school, at a cost of $82,359.20. All this work was finished
before schools reopened in September.
Later in the year contracts were let for the erection of the auditorium and the first eight
class-rooms of a sixteen-room school at the corner of Kitchener and Lillooet Streets; for the
addition of eight class-rooms and an auditorium to complete Bayview School, Sixth Avenue and
Collingwood Street; and for the addition of eight class-rooms and an auditorium to Macdonald
School, Hastings Street East and Victoria Drive. These, costing $98,269, $102,331, and $97,291
respectively, were completed and opened after the Easter holidays. At each of these points the
school accommodation is now first-class.
In addition to the foregoing, two other major school-building projects are now nearing completion. To take the place of temporary wooden school buildings and attic and office class-rooms
at Strathcona School, Jackson Avenue and Pender Street, ten permanent class-rooms, play-sheds,
a lunch-room, and an auditorium, costing $129,344, are being added and will be ready when
schools reopen in September. A complete modern reinforced-concrete school of eighteen classrooms and an auditorium, costing about $180,000, is also to be opened in September,
on a large, recently purchased site, Thirty-ninth Avenue and Windsor Street, to accommodate the children of the Mackenzie School District. With this modern accommodation
available, the former Mackenzie School buildings at the corner of Forty-fourth Avenue and
Fraser Street will no longer be required for elementary-school use. These buildings, while comparatively inexpensive and poorly situated for the district they have hitherto served, are too
valuable to be abandoned. They are, moreover, conveniently situated to serve as an annex to
the John Oliver High School. The Board has consequently decided to have them remodelled, at
a cost of about $25,000, to afford more and better accommodation for the students of this high
school, which is about two blocks distant. AVith the completion of these alterations at an early
date, the Board's school-building programme for the school-year will be completed.
Early in the present calendar year the Board carefully considered the advisability of appealing to the ratepayers for money to erect an art school and another junior high school. It was
decided, however, that the time was inopportune for submitting money by-laws. No new school
buildings, therefore, are likely to be erected in the near future.
SCHOOL-SITES.
The school-year has been marked not only by the completion of an extensive school-building
programme, but also by extensive improvements to a number of school-grounds. This was made
possible by popular vote in May, 1929, when the ratepayers approved of a by-law of $50,000 for
improvement of school-grounds. By the expenditure of this sum the grounds of several schools
have been beautified. Among those receiving special attention may he mentioned Charles
Dickens, Franklin, Hastings, Norquay, Queen Mary, Renfrew, Tennyson, Kitsilano Junior High
and High, Point Grey Junior High, and Templeton Junior High.
Many valuable school-sites were purchased during the year, this being made possible by a
vote of $50,000 in May, 1929.
C Q 34
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
SCHOOL ORGANIZATION.
Little change in school organization has been rendered necessary during the year, as may
be seen by the following table, making comparison between the enrolment by grades in September,
1928, and September, 1929:-                                                                      Enrolment, Enrolment,
Sept., 1928. Sept., 1929.
Grade 1    4,684 4,532
Grade II    4,236 4,107
Grade III.          3,812 4,271
Grade IV. .#.     3,529 3,750
Grade V     3,325 3,353
Grade VI     3,372 3,308
Grade VII     3,456 3,284
Grade VIII     3,334 3,617
Grade IX     3,216 3,063
Grade X     2,113 2,022
Grade XI     1,258 1,281
Grade XII        144 292
Special classes        330 342
Totals     36,809 37,222
The grouping of pupils in classes in the different types of schools for the past year indicates
a tendency toward smaller classes and fewer pupils per teacher in junior high and high schools.
The organization in this respect may be set forth as follows for the past two years :—
Tear.
Pupils.
Teachers.
'lis«es    Pupils per
Teacher.
Pupils per
Class.
In elementary schools (regular classes)
In elementary schools  (special classes)
In junior high schools	
In high schools	
Art School 	
1928
1929
1928
1929
1928
1929
1928
1929
1928
1929
27,264
27,131
287
. 391
3,611
4,363
6,030
6,012
94
90
759
755
21
24
119.5
150.5
201.0
217.5
734
726
21
24
96
117
168
175
5
35.92
35.93
13.66
16.29
30.22
28.99
30.00
27.64
18.80
22.S0
37.14
37.37
13.66
16.29
37.61
37.29
35.89
34.25
18.80
15.00
COST OF EDUCATION.
We naturally turn from organization to cost of education, for the one has a very definite
bearing on the other. The increasing cost of education is a topic much discussed by thoughtful
ratepayers, and it is one which school workers cannot afford to ignore. As long as increased
cost of education can be shown to be mainly increased payment for increased or better school
service, demanded by those who pay the bills, it is justifiable. Care, however, should be exercised in guarding against any movement in schools that tends to increase costs without a corresponding increase in efficiency. Decreasing the size of classes or the number of pupils per
teacher is one of these. From long observation and my present observations of many schools,
I strongly incline to the opinion that class-room efficiency does not necessarily increase as the
size of classes decreases. In Vancouver we may well regard classes in some schools as already
at, if not below, a justifiable minimum.
NEW WORK BEGUN IN 1929-30.
During the past year, classes were organized for the first time in auto-mechanics in our
Technical School. The necessity for such classes had been apparent for years, and the demand
for them became more insistent with the ever-increasing demand for well-trained mechanics to
keep in proper repair the thousands of automobiles in use. Not till the past year, however, were
suitable quarters available in which to carry on this work. We now have, in the new Technical
School, a splendid auto-mechanics shop, well equipped, and in charge of two well-qualified
instructors. In making provision for this new department the Board has gone a long way to
prepare young men for work in an ever-expanding industry. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 35
REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF NEW AVESTMINSTER.
REPORT OF R. S. SHIELDS, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The student enrolment in the schools of New AVestminster, 4,353, shows a steady increase
over the enrolment of other years; as yet there is ample accommodation, due to the foresight
and business ability of our Board of School Trustees. It may soon be necessary, however, to
build a new school in the west end of the city, and in preparation for that time, plans are being
discussed now in order that there may be no delay should conditions warrant building.
It is a pleasure to report the ever-increasing number of pupils remaining in our schools until
the end of June; it may be a result of industrial conditions, but we feel it is particularly due to
the broader insight of future requirements of life, inculcated by earnest, conscientious teachers
who are truly shouldering their responsibilities.
This past year over 75 per cent, of our teaching staff attended Summer School. This, we
believe, is one of the reasons of our continued success.
In September the four-year High School Course was introduced into our high schools, and
will, we feel certain, accomplish its purpose—namely, that of preparing our students to meet the
changing social and economic conditions of our Province.
We feel that we have already taken a step in this direction by the introduction of junior
high schools; although carried on in Grades VII. and VIII. only, a beginning has been made and
the success of the modernized curriculum has been established.
On October 4th the new Richard McBride School was formally opened by the Honourable
Joshua Hinchliffe, B.A., Minister of Education. It was a privilege to the large audience
assembled to hear the Minister discuss a few of the modern educational problems directly
affecting the taxpayer.
Exchange teachers from this city this year are Miss E. Milledge, exchanging with Miss
Cameron, of Glasgow-, and Miss M. Mercer, exchanging with Miss Shuttleworth, of Manchester.
AVe regret to report the sudden death of one of our most promising young teachers, Miss
Barbara Holt, of Herbert Spencer School; a teacher who daily gave of her best and who received
in return the hearty co-operation of her fellow-teachers and the love of children.
Once again it is our pleasure to report the success of our schools in the musical festival held
in A'aneouver; the Duke of Connaught High School winning*the High School trophy and Lister-
Kelvin the AATomen's Musical Club shields, Grade VI.
All phases of child-development received due attention and our opportunities were made the
greater, due to the hearty co-operation of our Parent-Teacher Associations, the ever-ready assistance of the Department of Education, and to the efficient guidance and hearty support of the
Board of School Trustees.    To all we tender our sincere appreciation.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VICTORIA.
REPORT OF G. H. DEANE, MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The total enrolment of pupils and the number of teachers on the staff were approximately
the same as the preceding year. The slight decrease in the attendance at the high school was
due to the withdrawal of first-year Saanich pupils, who are attending their own high school.
Victoria College had the highest enrolment in its history.
The School Board continued its policy of improving conditions within the finances at its
command. Additional accommodation was provided at the Sir James Douglas School by the
erection of an assembly-hall, the lack of which greatly handicapped the work of this school.
This building was made possible by the co-operation of the City Council, which approved the
necessary extraordinary expenditure. Better lighting facilities in several schools were provided
by installing up-to-date systems to replace the obsolete drop-light with its objectionable glare.
It will be sound policy to. continue this effort until all class-rooms are lighted according to Q 36 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
modern standards. The grounds at certain schools were surfaced so as to make them more
serviceable as playing-fields.
The general progress of the pupils in the elementary schools and the high school during the
year was satisfactory. In many class-rooms a high standard of achievement was observed and
the morale and tone of the schools generally were deserving of commendation. These conditions
were due not only to efficient' teaching, but to a large extent to the readiness of many teachers
to supervise extra-curricular activities and to enter into the life of the school outside the
class-room. According to modern standards the successful teacher must have, in addition to
teaching skill, a pleasing personality, ability to inspire and lead, a willingness to undertake
responsibilities, and an enthusiasm which is not measured by the clock.
The recently prescribed programme of studies for the Provincial high schools, which provides four-year courses, received careful consideration, and the School Board recognized the
value of widening opportunities so that a pupil might select a course suited to his aptitudes and
future. However, it was realized that additional optional subjects tended to reduce the average
enrolment of class units, and it was obvious that pupils could not be retained at the high school
for an additional year without increasing the staff of teachers. To meet such requirements it
was estimated that the yearly costs would be increased by a large amount and that within three
years additional high-school accommodation would have to be provided for an estimated increased enrolment of 300 or 400 pupils. In deciding upon a policy the Board was influenced by
that fact that data covering examination results revealed the fact that a large majority of the
students had successfully completed the matriculation courses in three years. Therefore, to
keep yearly costs down to as low a figure as possible without impairing efficiency, and to relieve
parents of the burden of the additional year, the Board directed that the Victoria High School
be organized so that all Matriculation and Normal Entrance students who had the necessary
ability and application could complete their courses in three years. Other students were to be
enrolled in the four-year courses.
The Victoria College completed another successful year. The progress of its graduates in
the universities to which they have gone is evidence of the high standard of instruction at this
institution. To provide further opportunities and to remove a handicap covering a particular
class of student, the Board authorized the extension of courses to include Chemistry 2. The
College has established its value not only as an asset to the city but to the whole of Vancouver
Island.
Early in 1930, representatives from the teaching staff placed before the Board a request for
a revision of the salary schedule. Subsequently, the Board decided to raise slightly the
maximum salary of certain respective classes so that Victoria teachers would command salaries
comparable with those paid in other British Columbia cities.
The year was marked by the coming into operation of the " Teachers' Pensions Act," and at
the close of the school-year the following teachers retired on pension: Miss A. Russell, Dr. E. B.
Paul, Captain Ian St. Clair, and Messrs. J. M. Campbell, E. Campbell, and J. F. Sallaway. All of
these have given many years of faithful and efficient service and they carry with them the best
wishes of their associates and hundreds of their former pupils.
SCHOOLS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF BURNABY.
REPORT OF E. G. DANIELS, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
Growth in attendance in the schools of Burnaby Municipality during the school-year 1929-30
showed a slight increase over the figures for 1928-29. In the last-named year 4,781 pupils were
provided with tuition by the Board, as compared to 4,875 pupils in the year just closed. Of these
latter, 4,234 were in elementary schools, 486 in high schools, and 155 in technical schools. The
relation of attendance to enrolment, it should be noted, indicated an improvement of 2 per cent,
over the previous year, having reached the highly satisfactory figure of 88.6 per cent.
In the Junior Matriculation, Normal Entrance, and Third-year Commercial Examinations
held in June the pupils of North Burnaby and South Burnaby High Schools wrote 587 papers.
The departmental returns indicate that 539, or 91.8 per cent., of these papers were awarded a
pass-mark, at least, by the examining Board. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 37
In addition to the 101 pupils who wrote the Entrance Examination, 269 more were recommended for promotion by the committees. Of this total of 370 pupils, 86% per cent., or 320,
received High School Entrance certificates from your Department.
The Board did not undertake any large building programme during the past year, but a
modern two-room school was erected on Stride Avenue to care for the pupils in Grades I. to III.
living to the west of Kingsway who formerly found it necessary to cross this busy traffic artery
to reach Edmonds Street School. An excellent Manual Training and Home Economics building
was erected on the grounds of Capitol Hill School to relieve conditions at the Gilmore Avenue
centre.
The very satisfactor}' record of achievement of Kingsway AVest School (Mr. AV. D. Blair,
principal) in Musical Festival Competition was well maintained during the past year. Miss
Doris Scott won the G. B. McClellan shield, while Miss Edith Kay captured the new Brown
Brothers' shield in the Girls' Choirs class.
In retrospect, the past year seems to have been one of sound growth and satisfactory
progress. The staff as a whole has co-operated loyally, the Board has spared no pains to give
to each school a maximum of physical comfort so far as finances would allow, and during the
coming year no efforts will be spared to maintain the position of Burnaby schools among the
best in the Province.
SCHOOLS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF SAANICH.
REPORT OF J. M. PATERSON, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The elementary schools began the year with a staff of fifty-four teachers, which number was
later increased to fifty-five, and the high school with a staff of five teachers.
A high school in Saanich was a new departure for the municipality, but was necessitated by
an intimation from the Victoria School Board that they were unable, longer, to accommodate
Saanich students. As they expressed their willingness to carry the Saanich pupils already enrolled through to matriculation, the Saanich Board "had to provide for Grade IX. only. This
was done in Tolmie School building by accommodating five divisions of Tolmie Elementary
School pupils in other buildings.
A by-law to provide for the necessary accommodation submitted to the ratepayers in January was defeated, imposing on the Board the difficult task of providing still further accommodation next year, as both Grades IX. and X. would have to be provided for.
To further music in the schools of the municipality, a competition for Saanich schools only
was held in April, and proved very successful, especially as it stimulated music in schools which
had not hitherto taken part in musical festivals. Eleven choirs from nine schools entered the
competition and all acquitted themselves most creditably. Later, Gordon Head and West
Saanich Schools entered the Victoria Musical Festival to compete for the two-room rural school
trophy, the former school winning.
In June 146 pupils were promoted to high school on recommendation from the schools of the
municipality and ten from the Provincial Model School. Sixty-one who were not promoted
wrote the Provincial Examinations.    Of these twenty-two were successful.
Through the co-operation of the Board and staff, library facilities have been much improved
and a travelling library brings to each school a broad range of books.
The co-operation and business ability of the Board of School Trustees noted in my last
report have very noticeably persisted this year, while the teachers have proved themselves to be
of a high standard of efficiency, motivated by the highest ideals, and are giving and encouraging
the pupils to give most loyal co-operation. A high percentage arel availing themselves of the
opportunities offered by your Department and are improving their academic or professional
standing. Q 38 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND.
REPORT OF S. H. LAWRENCE, PRINCIPAL.
During the year that ended June 30th, 1930, the enrolment was eighty-six. Of this number,
sixty-seven were taught in the department for the deaf and nineteen in the department for
the blind.
As the school has just passed the first decade of its existence, this seems a fitting occasion
to review briefly the work and note the progress since the commencement. The position that the
school occupies to-day, as compared with that of ten years ago, affords a good illustration of what
may be accomplished in a comparatively short period by patient, steady, yet unostentatious effort.
Starting as it did with a meagre equipment and only a partial staff of trained teachers, it
has emulated " The chambered Nautilus," so to speak, and emerged from cramped and unsuitable quarters at Oak Street and Twenty-fifth Avenue to this mora spacious abode, which for
beauty of location is not surpassed by any similar institution in Canada. It has also attained
to a position of usefulness that few, if any, -of its friends at that time anticipated, and it is
filling a want in the community which bespeaks for it permanency among the other institutions
of the Province.
Since starting, between forty and fifty handicapped children have passed out from it into
the busy industrial world, sound in body, and minds sufficiently developed to give them a hopeful outlook on life and a readiness to do their part as citizens. In short, they can be looked upon
as an asset to the State instead of a menace to society.
Our task is one that demands more than the wisdom of the serpent and the harmlessness of
the dove. The children who come to us, the deaf particularly, have no intelligible mode of
expression. Their only assets are a range of ideas obtained through the exercise of the senses,
but they have no means, apart from simple gestures, of representing them. The development of
a language is therefore our first and main objective.
As speech is the most effective medium of communication and the best means of building
accurate English, every child is afforded fair and reasonable opportunities of acquiring it. But
if it is found, after much effort, that any child cannot profit by this method, recourse is had to
manual spelling, or the alphabetic representation of language. Our aim is to do the most good
to the greatest number and we endeavour to merit some of ithe eulogy earned by " The Village
Blacksmith " :—
" Toiling, sorrowing, rejoicing,
Onward through life he goes.
Each morning sees some task begun;
Each evening sees its close.
Something attempted, something done,
Has earned a night's repose."
The past year was a banner one as respecting the health of the pupils. We did not have a
single case of infectious or contagious disease. No small share of credit for this is due to the
vigilance of the matron and her assistants. They were constantly on the alert, and if any
symptoms appeared which were at all suspicious the child was at once isolated for observation.
During the year the regular class-room work was carried on along lines very similar to those
of former years, and satisfactory progress resulted. The teachers, both the regular full-time
ones and the part-time ones, were faithful, conscientious, and self-sacrificing in the interests and
welfare of their pupils.
The subject of vocational training has occupied a good deal of my thought during the year.
In a small school like this one hardly feels warranted in recommending equipment and full-time
employment of teachers for trade-teaching such as the older and larger schools of this nature
have.    It would likely prove a costly venture and would serve but a small number of pupils.
I tried an experiment last year which gives favourable promise. I got a shoemaker to take
one boy after school-hours and give what instruction he could without interfering too much with
his own work. It worked well, and I would suggest that a class be formed for the purpose of
learning shoemaking and that an instructor be employed as a part-time teacher. The cost would
be about $25 a month. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 39
I also got a cleaner and presser to take a boy in his shop and let him serve as an apprentice
an hour or two a day without pay. The boy who went with this man has got on quite well and
at the close of the ensuing year ought to have a fair knowledge of the work. Instruction could
not be given to a class in this work, but individuals might be placed each year.
Respecting the blind, I co-operate with Mr. Robinson, who is Superintendent of the Western
Division of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, and we have succeeded in placing
several, who have finished school, in earning positions.
AVe are equipped to give quite advanced pianoforte music to all who show ability along that
line. Last year the school was presented with a new Mason & Risch piano by the musical pupils
of the Vancouver school, in commemoration of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Louis
Braille, the man who invented the alphabet, by the use of iwhich the blind have access to practically the whole storehouse of literature.
Before closing this report I would like to acknowledge the many kindnesses shown us by
the service clubs and other organizations of Arancouver. The Elks, the Lions, the Kiwanians, the
Gyros, the Rotarians, as well as musical societies, have manifested a deep interest in the school
and have come to us frequently with high-class entertainment.
I want to thank you, sir, and the Honourable the Minister of Education for the privilege
afforded me, just before school closed, of attending the conference of workers among the blind,
which met at Vancouver, AVashington.
I met workers in this branch of education from nearly every State in the American Union,
and also Mr. AV. B. Race, Superintendent of the School for the Blind in Brantford, Ontario. The
papers and discussions shed new light on many of our problems, and in taking my leave I could
say with AA'ordsworth:  " Joy have I had, and, going hence, I bear with me my recompense." Q 40 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
HIGH SCHOOL CORRESPONDENCE COURSES.
REPORT OF ,T. W. GIBSON, M.A., B.Paed., DIRECTOR.
PREPARATION OF COURSES.
The preparation of High School Correspondence Courses began in the spring of 1929 and in
September the first students were enrolled. This preparatory work involved not only the preparations necessary to the administration of the work, but also the rather difficult task of building
up in careful pedagogic form the subject-matter of the various courses to be offered. It was
decided to offer, from the beginning, all three grades of high-school work leading to Junior
Matriculation, Normal Entrance, and High School Commercial. It was felt that much of the
success of the undertaking would depend upon the intrinsic merit of the instruction given
through the medium of these mimeographed courses of instruction, and we were most fortunate
in securing the services of a number of the leading high-school teachers of the Province in the
building-up of these courses. The magnitude of the undertaking will more readily be understood
when we know that the work of a grade in each subject was set out in twenty papers, each paper
including the work usually covered in the subject in two weeks in a high school. This involved
the preparation of instruction papers in thirty-five grade subjects or 700 instruction papers
altogether, and this required the making of over 5,000 stencils.
ORGANIZATION OF THE AVORK.
Whilst commercial correspondence courses are now common enough, the idea of operating
complete high-school courses for the benefit of boys and girls living in sparsely settled districts
and out of reach of high schools is new to Canada. An advertising campaign was undertaken
during the months of May and June. A special letter from the Honourable the Minister of
Education and a general circular from the Superintendent were widely distributed. Application
forms and explanatory circulars were sent out in response to the numerous inquiries received.
Preparations and accommodation which we had considered adequate proved quite inadequate,
and for a time we found it impossible to keep up with the great number of applications and
requests for advice and information.
A year's experience in this new work has disclosed many interesting things, but probably
the most impressive of all has been the great interest manifested by the women, and especially
by the mothers of the boys and girls who sought admission to the correspondence courses.
Parents, realizing that their sons and daughters might now avail themselves of the opportunity
of carrying on a complete high-school course at very small cost, were not slow to express their
appreciation. Many could not hope to send their young folk away to a high school, so here was
their opportunity. CONDITIONS OF ADMISSION.
Two main conditions of admission were established—(1) having reference to educational
status or achievement, and (2) to residence. The minimum academic standard required was
given as Entrance to High School -or an accredited equivalent. As to residence requirements,
the conditions were made to conform with those already jn force in the case of candidates for
the elementary correspondence courses. Those living more than 3 miles, by the most direct
route, from a high school and who were otherwise eligible were accepted without reservation.
When it was shown that on account of physical disability, or inability to attend a local high
school for good and sufficient reasons, students were admitted to registration although living less
than 3 miles from a high school. In all such cases the application of the student had to be supported by a written recommendation from a local school authority. In this way many worthy
young men and women who would otherwise have been denied high-school education were given
a chance to carry on a profitable course of study. A number of students, including schoolteachers, who wished to study commercial subjects and were unable to obtain the desired
instruction locally were registered for those courses.
During this year no instruction fee was charged. The majority of the students purchased
their text-books and supplies necessary for the carrying-on of the correspondence courses through
the Text-book Branch. In the matter of science equipment the Department paid half the cost,
which is in accordance with the present usage with respect to high schools. All postage and
express charges are met by the Department on all lessons and packages going to the students
and by the students on everything sent in to the Department. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
Q 41
STUDENT ENROLMENT.
The total number of students enrolled during the year was 597, which number was made up
as follows:—
(1.)  Students registered.
Men  (over 18 yrs.)     98 Boys (under 18 yrs.)  167 Total, 265
AVomen  (over 18 yrs.)    99 Girls  (under 18 yrs.)  233 Total, 332
Total number over 18 yrs. 197
(2.)  Students withdrawn.
Men  (over 18 yrs.)     15
Women  (over 18 yrs.)      8
Total number under 18 yrs. 400 Total, 597
Boys (under 18 yrs.)     19 Total,    34
Girls  (under 18 yrs.)     33 Total,    41
Total number over 18 yrs.   23
(3.)  Students on Roll, June 30th, 1030.
Men (over 18 yrs.)     83
Women  (over 18 yrs.)     91
Total number under 18 yrs.    52 Total,    75
Boys (under 18 yrs.)  148 Total, 231
Girls  (under 18 yrs.)  200 Total, 291
Total number over 18 yrs. 174 Total number under 18 yrs. 348 Total, 522
(4.) Reasons for withdrawing from Courses.—Of the 75 students who withdrew during the
year, approximately 30 left to attend high school; 15 reported having too much other work to
do; 5 obtained new positions which necessitated dropping their studies, at least temporarily;
5 dropped out on account of ill-health; 2 students left the country; and 20 did not assign any
reason. It is probable that some of the latter found the work more difficult than they had
anticipated, and no doubt a few were urged into taking the course by their parents and had no
personal ambition to support them as the work increased in difficulty. At any rate, a shrinkage
of 12 per cent, in an enrolment of almost 600 is by no means excessive when all the circumstances are known. I fully expect that this shrinkage will gradually increase until it reaches
20 per cent., or possibly 25 per cent., and I would point out that " leaving to attend high school"
might properly be interpreted as " graduation " rather than failing in the course. To complete
a high-school course under such conditions of isolation as most of our students experience is
bound to tax the courage and the endurance of the most capable; but it can be done, and those
who succeed will not be the ones who complain of hard work.
(5.) Distance from a High School.—Approximately 10 per cent, of the students enrolled live
within 3 miles of a high school, having been accepted for special reasons as referred to above.
The main body of students are domiciled as follows :— Fer Cent
Students living over 3 miles and under 10 miles from the nearest high school 15
Students living more than 10 miles from a high school  75
Students living more than 20 miles from a high school  48
Students living over 50 miles from a high school  16
The average distance from high school (excluding those within the 3-mile limit) is almost
29 miles.
In addition to the above information, I may say that 16 students were reported as living over
100 miles from the nearest high school and 2 students 300 miles. One of our students is a wireless operator working within the Arctic Circle.
(6.) Registration by Courses.—Following is the enrolment according to age and grade:—
Grade.
Matriculation.
Normal Entrance.
Commercial.
GO
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24
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396
X	
14
34
8
28
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109
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Totals	
24
15
16
16
9
3
5
4
92
61
132   |     44
118
16
16
11
55
24
33
41
46
597
Total Matriculation, 355 ;   total Normal Entrance, 98 ;   total Commercial, 144. Q 42 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
The following information may also be of interest:—
Number of students taking a full course (7 to 9 subjects)  384
Number of students taking half a course (4 or 5 subjects)     85
Number of students taking 3 subjects     50
Number of students taking 2 subjects     30
Number of students taking 1 subject only     30
Following is a list of the students registered for the different optional subjects :—
French   340 Botany        71
Chemistry      94 General Science   137
Latin    238 Agriculture        47
It has been decided to add Physics and Home Economics next year.
(7.) Occupations of fathers of boys and girls and of men who are registered as students
(percentage reckoned to nearest whole number) :—      . p    r   t
Farmers and ranchers   44
Skilled labour—mechanics, etc  14
Mercantile—shopkeeping, etc     7
Teachers  (partial courses)   .„     6
Lumbering occupations      5
Railroading, shipping, etc     5
Unskilled labour      5
Miners      2
Civil servants      2
Miscellaneous occupations      6
Parents deceased      4
COST OF THE WORK.
The initial expense in connection with a new undertaking of this kind is always greater than
what might be considered as its normal cost. Courses of instruction in all subjects must be
prepared and equipment purchased. In subsequent years new courses may be added and old
courses revised or extended, but many of the expenditures of the first year will not have to be
repeated the second year. On the other hand, this saving might easily be more than offset by
increasing numbers of students.
Expenditures for the year covered by this report were as follows:—
(1.)   Salaries—
(a.)  Permanent     $4,485.33
(6.)  Temporary  (office-help)        1,170.00
(c.)  Temporary   (instructors)        8,518.22
Total paid in salaries   $14,173.55
(2.)  Preparation of instruction papers        3,049.75
(3.)  King's Printer, for paper, ink, stencils, and labour in printing and
mimeographing         7,890.71
(4.)  For students' science sets (50 per cent, of cost)       2,406.34
(5.)  Miscellaneous office supplies and equipment          620.09
Total     $28,140.44
Note.—Items (2) and (3) represent expenditures for fifteen months.
This expenditure represents approximately $47 per student enrolled, but it should be noted
that some of these sent in very little work. If all students had sent in a normal amount of work
during the ten months the cost of examining and instructing would have brought the cost per
student up to at least $50. It is probable that with reduced printing costs now under consideration we may be able to reduce the cost per student during the coming year.
THE INSTRUCTORS.
As already stated, our first great concern was the preparation of the best possible courses of
instruction. In the second place, we wished to make the best use of these courses, and this
meant the securing of a strong corps of correspondence instructors.    Mere " examiners " could PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 43
not meet the situation, as much of the value of the instruction depends on what is done with the
students' written work as sent in week by week. Every effort made by the student must be
recognized and every word read. The instructor must enter into the whole situation with his
students, must live with them and come to understand them personally. Only in this way will
he be able to help them to clarify their thinking and to improve their method of working. Learning how to study and how to carry out a good programme of work independently under the
guidance and direction of an absentee instructor is no easy task. AVith certain students this is
almost an impossibility, and in all cases great demands are constantly made on the tact and
resourcefulness of the correspondence instructor. A thorough knowledge of the subject-matter
of the courses, whilst of great importance, is by no means the only or perhaps the chief qualification required in a correspondence instructor. He must have a broad sympathy towards his
students as well as a keen pedagogical sense and a working knowledge of the basic principles of
education.
THE METHOD OF INSTRUCTION.
It would be unreasonable to claim that correspondence instruction possesses any advantages
over class-room instruction. The work is too new to warrant the making of conclusive comparisons, but we can say with all assurance that there is no ground whatever for the prejudiced
judgments that are sometimes expressed against instruction by correspondence. It has no inherent disability as a method of teaching. Its chief disadvantage is its lack of personal contact
or, in other words, its social deficiency. It takes the individual student where it finds him and
there is no administrative problem involving terms or grades or options. It permits him to start
to work at any time and to progress as rapidly as he can regardless of what others are doing.
It is in this respect in full accord with approved educational principles. Correspondence instruction can therefore be readily adapted to individual needs as well as to individual attainments.
It lends itself to vocational guidance as well as to environmental limitations. In class-room
instruction a student often comes to rely too much upon his classmates and his teacher. In
correspondence instruction he must rely chiefly upon himself, and whilst the instruction papers
are built up in such a way as to supply explicit guidance, yet, as some one has said, " instruction
is good only to the degree that it helps to make study successful." We aim, therefore, to establish a teacher-pupil relation that permits of a genuine personal contact second only to that
which the class-room affords. This helps to offset the tendency of the isolated student to become
discontented and discouraged.
Where the student lives within easy reach of an elementary school and can devote the usual
school-hours to study, we recommend that he have his desk in the local school where he has the
advantage of regular hours of work and also the helpful supervision of an experienced student
in the person of the teacher. Under these circumstances, however, the teacher is not expected
to give regular instruction to the student, but rather to supply that supervision and encouragement so necessary when the student finds himself in difficulty. On the other hand, some students
have preferred the quiet of their home environment to that of the school with its inevitable distractions. Many of our students are able to devote only an hour or two per day to study and
in all such cases we recommend that only a few subjects be carried. Time-sheets are supplied
and the student is required to keep a record of the number of hours spent on each paper. The
student is encouraged to ask questions bearing on the topic in hand, and the instructor either
answers his questions direct or refers him to suitable sources of information. CORRESPONDENCE COURSES IN ELEMENTARY-SCHOOL
SUBJECTS AND COAL-MINING.
REPORT OF JAMES HARGREAVES, OFFICER IN CHARGE.
The number of pupils enrolled was as follows:—
Grade 1  102 Grade VI    44
Grade II     87 Grade VII     45
Grade III     87 Grade VIII     93
Grade IV     79 	
Grade V     56 Total    593
Eight of our students were successful in entering high school last term. The total number
of lessons corrected was 9,290.
Extracts from letters of parents expressing appreciation are given below:—
" I find the correspondence course is so plainly put that it is such a great help to the
children and they grasp it quickly."
" My son's training in initiative and self-reliance is very valuable, and I am grateful to the
Correspondence School for making it possible for him to obtain an education."
" I would like to express our thanks and great satisfaction of the wonderful progress my
daughter has made while under tuition of your staff, and should the school here be closed for any
unforeseen reason, we will be pleased to have her resume under your control."
" I beg to extend to yourself and staff my sincere thanks for the painstaking manner in
which you have conducted Annie's education during the past two years. Due to the carefully
selected studies and the patient manner in which her faults were detected and corrected, I am
firmly convinced that she got far more educational value from this course than she would have
received in school. The Correspondence School under your management, assisted by your very
capable staff, is a boon to those situated like myself that cannot be too highly estimated. Annie
says she had no dfficulty in passing her entrance exams, and ranked well up in her class, and
she joins with me in thanking you and her teachers and wishing you every success."
CORRESPONDENCE LESSONS IN COAL-MINING AND MINE SURVEYING.
This work is conducted to prepare men for the examinations demanded by the Department
of Mines in the interest of public safety.    The course embraces the following:—
No. 1. Preparatory mining course for boys over 15 years of age who have left school.
No. 2. Course in arithmetic and mathematics.
No. 3. Course for fireboss, shiftboss, or shotlighter's papers (third class).
No. 4. Course for overman's papers (second class).
No. 5. Course for mine-manager's papers.
No. 6. Course in mine-survey work.
The enrolment in the mining courses numbers 20, and the lessons are so arranged that a boy
on leaving school can continue his studies until he reaches the age of 23, at which age he is permitted to compete for his Provincial mining papers. Course No. 1 is divided into six separate
sections of carefully graded work, and regular application will fit a young man thoroughly for
the examinations held for shotlighters. With a continuance of his studies his papers as overman
will not be difficult to obtain, and following these two the aspiring coal-miner may rise to the
. highest position in his calling. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 45
FREE TEXT-BOOK BRANCH.
REPORT OF J. A. ANDERSON, OFFICER IN CHARGE.
The total number of free text-books, etc., issued during 1929-30 to the public schools
(elementary, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence Courses
for High School and Elementary School pupils, was as follows: 11,488 Canadian Reader, Book
I.; 11,394 Canadian Reader, Book II.; 11,972 Canadian Reader, Book III.; 11,700 Canadian
Reader, Book IV.; 12,400 Canadian Reader, Book V.; 7,106 Narrative English Poems; 10,700
Smith and Roberts' Arithmetic, Book I.; 330 Smith and Roberts' Arithmetic, Book II.; 14,510
Thorndike's Junior High School Mathematics, Book I.; 1,636 Thorndike's Junior High School
Mathematics, Book II.; 6,861 Lang's Introductory Grammar; 2,853 Physiology and Hygiene;
12,120 Spelling for the Grades; 4,484 Latin for Young Canadians, Junior Lessons; 927 Ryerson
Book of Prose and Verse, Book I.; 989 Ryerson Book of Prose and Verse, Book II.: 13,510
History of Great Britain and Canada; 252 History of Canada, Gammell; MacLean Method of
Writing Books—9,085 Compendium No. 1; 10,259 Compendium No. 2; 11,321 Compendium No. 3 ;
11,704 Compendium No. 4; 9,800 Senior Manual; 1,360 Commercial Manual; 6,301 Teachers'
Manual; 1,197 Supplementary Readers (Progressive Road to Reading, Book I.; Progressive
Road to Reading, Book II.; Silent Study Reader, Book III.; Silent Study Reader, Book IV.;
B.C. Third Reader; and Robin Hood Reader) ; 82 Citizenship in British Columbia; 90 Trees
and Shrubs, Food, Medicinal, and Poisonous Plants of British Columbia; 457 Syllabus of
Physical Exercises; 367 Teachers' Manual of Drawing and Design; 54 Flora of Southern B.C.;
980,177 sheets of Drawing Paper, 6 by 9 inches : 237,413 sheets of Drawing Pa,per, 9 by 12 inches ;
46 Maps of the World; 46 Maps of North America ; 44 Maps of Canada; 53 Maps of British
Columbia;  40 Maps of British Isles;  3,950 Home Economics Recipe Book.
Five thousand and sixty-nine requisitions were filled by this Branch during the past school-
year for free text-books and free supplies. In addition to these, 2,623 orders were filled for
teachers and pupils from the outlying districts who wished to secure text-books, other than those
supplied free, which could not be purchased in their vicinity, and for private institutions desirous
of purchasing books supplied free to the public schools. The sum of $13,922.78 was received
from these sales and deposited in the Treasury to the credit of the Free Text-book Arote.
To purchase the free books and to distribute them and the books sold required an expenditure of:—
Text-books (publishers' price)   $73,757.91
Freight and distribution costs        6,401.75
Salaries of staff      5,568.96
Temporary assistance        3,792.10
Office supplies        5,268.92
Total     $94,789.64
The increase in the amount expended on office supplies during the last school-year is
accounted for by the purchase of Kardex stock record and ledger equipment and also the purchase of a Burroughs adding-machine.
The increase in the salary and temporary assistance amounts was due to the larger number
of free and sales orders filled by the Free Text-book Branch during the school-year 1929-30.
The free orders filled show an increase of 1,345 over those filled during the preceding school-year
and the number of sales increased by 1,392.
In September, 1929, a new policy regarding free text-books was put into practice. This was
the plan of paying pupils who secured second-hand free text-books which they needed in the
grades they were attending. These books were secured by the pupils on their own initiative from
other students who had finished with them; and the amount paid to the pupil using such books
was approximately one-half of the cost of supplying these students with new free books.
The teachers or principals submitted certified claims to the Free Text-book Branch to cover
the payment of these amounts to the pupils of their various schools. Under this policy 233
claims were received and the amount of $891.65 was distributed to the schools for payment to
those children entitled to receive this money. Q 46 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
Library books for several schools were purchased at the request of the teacher or School
Board and these books were supplied at cost.
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
Several night-schools in operation during the past school-year were supplied with free textbooks by the Free Text-book Branch under the same conditions as in former years.
RETURNS FOR 1929-30.
The annual reports of free text-books for the school-year 1929-30 are now on file. In connection with these reports, I may say that we are still receiving too many requests from
teachers during May and June for a statement of the books supplied to their schools during the
year. If the principal or teacher made the necessary entry in the " stock received " part of his
school stock-book when he receives supplies from this Branch, these requests would not be
necessary. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30. Q 47
THE STRATHCONA TRUST.
REPORT OF J. L. AVATSON, B.A., SECRETARY, LOCAL COMMITTEE.
INSTRUCTION OF TEACHERS IN PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1929-30.
During the past year 327 teachers and prospective teachers were added to the list of holders
of the Grade B Strathcona Trust certificate. Approximately 7,500 teachers and prospective
teachers have now qualified as physical-training instructors.
The gold medals for first ranlk in instructional ability, awarded by the Local Committee for
competition at the close of the Normal School session, were won by Eileen A. Montgomery, Vancouver, and Charles Greenland, Victoria. Arrangements have been made for similar awards at
the close of the session, 1931.
PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1929-30.
At the annual meeting held November 7th. 1929, eighty prizes of $7 each for competition
among the various schools durintg 1929-30 were granted. A total of seventy-four recommendations were received from Government and Municipal Inspectors and the sum of $518 distributed
as prizes.
PHYSICAL TRAINING, 1930-31.
For competition among the various schools during 1930-31 eighty-three prizes of $7 each
have been granted. These prizes are to be allocated as follows: Three prizes to each of the
eighteen inspectorates; eighteen to Greater Vancouver; four to Victoria; three to the Municipality of Burnaby; and two each to New AVestminster and the Municipality of Saanich. For
purposes of competition and inspection the schools in each of the eighteen inspectorates are to
be divided, where possible, into three groups, namely: Group A, of five divisions or more;
Group B, of two to four divisions, inclusive; Group C, of schools containing only one room or
division. In) any inspectorate or municipality where this classification is not applicable, the
matter of deciding what schools or divisions of schools are entitled to receive awards is to be
left to the discretion of the Inspector in charge.
The full amount of the award is to be expended for a picture or some piece of apparatus
(suitably inscribed) for the room or school in which the prize was won. Only those teachers
who are the holders of physical-training certificates granted under the Strathcona Trust are
eligible to compete.
SCHOOL CADET CORPS, 1929-30.
During the past year 6,263 cadets between the ages of 12 and 18 received training; 5,872
were present at the annual inspection. AVhile there were seventy-eight active corps, an increase
of five, there was a decrease in strength of 202. The annual inspections were made during the
months of April, May, and June. Kimg Edward High School Cadet Corps, in charge of Captain
P. C. Tees, M.M., gained the highest number of marks for general efficiency and thus became the
holder of the I.O.D.E. cup for the next year. Kitsilano High School Cadet Corps and Cecil Rhodes
Elementary Cadet Corps, in charge of Major H. B. King and Captain S. J. Bryant, respectively,
tied for second place.
A total of $329, divided inito twenty-three prizes, was distributed in accordance with the
schedule adopted at the last annual meeting, October 21st, 1930. The following schedule was
adopted : 1st prize, $25 ; two prizes, $20 each ; two prizes. $18 each ; two prizes, $16 each : two
prizes, $14 each; 14 prizes, $12 each. The full amount of the award is to be paid into the funds
of the corps.
It is worthy of note that an increased interest in first-aid training has been displayed by the
various cadet corps during the past year. Nearly every corps is now receiving instruction in
first aid. In one school alone 820 were trained, and 276 from this school received the Junior and
Senior certificates of the St. John Ambulance Association. Two teams from High School Cadet
Corps entered for the AVallace Rankine Nesbitt Shield Competition for First Aid. The two
teams were gives a preliminary examination by the District Medical Officer, M.D. No. 11, and the
winning team then became eligible for the Dominion competition. The selected team was
examined by the Director-General, St. John Ambulance Association   (Canadian Branch), and Q 48 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1929-30.
was successful in winning the Dominion championship. The successful team was drawn from
the Britannia High School Cadet Corps. In addition to winning the Dominion shield, this team
also won the district trophy.
Competitors for the AVallace Nesbitt Junior Competition, open to teams drawn from Cadets,
Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, etc., were also examined by the Director-General, St. John Ambulance
Association. In this competition fifth place in the Dominion was won by the team drawn from
the Victoria AArest School Cadet Corps.
RIFLE SHOOTING.
Prom the grant for rifle shooting, 1929-30, the following prizes were provided: 50 1st prizes
of $1.50 each; 51 prizes of $1.25 each; 50 prizes of $1 each. The amount expended under this
head was $188.75.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT, 1929-30.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Committee for the year 1929-30 amounted to $1,668.84
and the expenditure for the year $1,068.75, leaving a balance of $600.09. Of this amount, $581
has been voted for physical-training prizes for 1930-31.
Receipts.
1929-30. Balance on hand from 1928-29  $616.64
Interest to November 30th, 1929  21.47
Interest to May 31st, 1930  9.55
Allowance to Secretary added to fund  10.00
Grant for 1929-30  1,011.18
$1,668.84
EXPENOITUEES.
1929-30. Prizes for physical training  $518.00
Prizes for cadet-training  329.00
Prizes for rifle shooting  188.75
Gold medals for Normal Schools  33.00
$1,068.75
Balance on hand      $600.09

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