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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA TWENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1931

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
TWENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF  THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1930
FEINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1931.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
APPENDICES.
Appendix No. Page.
1. Organization of the Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C  59
2. Dairy Herds inspected but not T.B. tested   01
3. Premises visited, Cattle tested, and Grades of Stables and Dairies  61
4. Cattle and Hides shipped during 1930   64
5. Combined Milk-testers' and Cream-graders' Licences issued during the Year 1930   67
6. Milk-testers' Licences issued during 1930   68
7. Creamery Licences issued during 1930   70
8. Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia  .'  71
9. B.C. Berry Acreage, 1930   72
10. Okanagan Orchard Survey, 1930   72
11. Kootenay Orchard Survey, 1930   73
12. Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates were issued  74
13. Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates were issued at
Ports other than Vancouver  77
14. Fruit shipped without Certificates from Vancouver via Panama Canal  78
15. Memorandum of Imported Plant Products fumigated at Vancouver   78
16. Fruit and Vegetables inspected for Export from British Columbia for which Certificates
were issued   80
17. Nursery Stock inspected for Export for which Certificates were issued   81
18. Provincial Demonstration Apiaries  81    REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce,
IAeutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
I have the honour to submit herewith the Report of the Department of Agriculture for the
year 1930.
In this report the most important activities of the different branches of the Department are
summarized.
AGRICULTURAL LEGISLATION.
A number of Bills affecting agriculture were presented at the Second Session of the
Seventeenth Legislative Assembly. The chief points of interest in these Acts are here
presented.
The " Apiaries Act," for the prevention of the spread of foul-brood in bees, was amended to
provide that no bees and no hives, frames, combs, appliances, or appurtenances which have been
used shall be moved in points of the Province where restrictions have been imposed, unless the
bees or appurtenances are accompanied by a certificate of a Bee Inspector showing that
inspection has been made within two months of the removal. This amendment was made
necessary to include materials as well as bees, which alone were formerly mentioned in the Act.
The " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act " was amended by the addition of a new-
section (6a), which gives power for the constitution of cream-grading districts and permits of
the appointment by the Minister of an Official Cream-grader for each district created. It also
provides for the expenses of cream-grading districts to be met by the levy of fees fixed on a
basis of the weight of cream or butter-fat handled in the creameries of the district.
The " Eggs Marks Act" was amended by the addition of a subsection to section 3, which
makes provision for placing on the importer of foreign eggs the responsibility not only of marking
each egg, but also of reporting the entry of the eggs into the Province. As the Act now stands
every person within the Province to whom eggs are consigned from a point outside the Dominion
must, in writing to an Inspector, report the delivery of such eggs, stating date and indicating the
place where the eggs were received.
The " Noxious Weeds Act " was amended by increasing the list of noxious weeds from
fourteen varieties to twenty-nine, and powers were given to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council
to specify other weeds.
Threshing-machines were made subject to certain requirements aimed at the prevention of
the spread of noxious weeds through the movement of threshing outfits. Grain screenings were
classified as Grade A (recleaned) and Grade B (elevator-run). The latter may be moved only
on permit and subject to regulations to be prescribed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council.
To prevent the sowing of grain likely to infest a locality with noxious weeds not already
present, seed-grain was made subject to authority under the Act.
The " Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development District Act " was amended by changing
the levies for maintenance charges. Previously there was a flat rate per acre charged over the
whole area in the district.
The " Land Settlement and Development Act " was amended to enlarge the powers of the
Board to purchase and sell live stock, well-drilling machinery, and well-casings. Formerly the
Board had authority only to do such things on their own lands operated as a Board " undertaking." Validating provision was made for the loan by the Department to the Lister Waterworks District of $65,000 for the installation of a water system.
The " Grasshopper-control Act " was the only new Act affecting agriculture. It was made
necessary by the situation arising in the interior of the Province. During the years 1925 to 1929
the Department spent $68,879.66 on grasshopper-control measures by providing poison-bait
ingredients. Co-operative efforts were suggested to the live-stock men concerned and a willingness was expressed for the establishment of control areas under local administration.
The Act provides for petition by owners concerned, notice to be given in the usual way, and
the constitution of a control committee with one member appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor
in Council. The committee is given powers to make necessary expenditures in the employment
of workmen for the setting-out of poison and the funds of the committee are secured by advances G 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
from Consolidated Revenue.    The advances are refunded  to the Treasury by  the collection
through Provincial Assessors of levies assessed against the lands within the district.
The " Produce Marketing Act " was not a Government measure, but was a private Bill
introduced on the recommendation of the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture. The
amendments passed at the last session were designed to make the operation of the Act more
effective. These are only matters of administrative details and do not affect the general
principles of the Act, which place control of markets in the hands of the growers as a body.
The " Dairy Products Sales Adjustment Act " was not a Government measure, but a private
Bill also introduced to the House on the recommendation of the Select Standing Committee on
Agriculture. The amendments to this Act were designed to make the operation of the Act more
practicable. These are only administrative details and tend to make the principles of the Act
more clearly apparent.
DEPARTMENTAL REORGANIZATION.
Early in the year the organization of the Department was altered to provide for five main
divisions, with responsible branches under each, this being later reduced to four divisions when
by Order in Council No. 1443, dated November 28th, 1930, the Colonization and Land Settlement
Division was transferred to the Department of Lands, leaving the present organization of this
Department as here shown:—
Administrative Division—
Accountant's Branch.
Publications Branch.
Statistics Branch.
Agricultural Fairs and Exhibitions Branch.
Farmers' and Women's Institutes.
Animal Industry Division—
Live Stock Branch.
Veterinary Branch.
Dairy Branch.
Poultry Branch.
Brand Records.
District Agriculturists.
Plant Industry Division—
Horticultural Branch.
Plant Quarantine Branch.
Field Crops Branch.
Plant Pathology Branch.
Entomology Branch.
Apiary Branch.
District Agriculturists.
Markets Division.
This reorganization necessitated several transfers within the Department, including the
removal of the Prairie Markets Commissioner from Calgary to Victoria; the transfer of G. L.
Landon from the office of Poultry Instructor at Nelson to that of District Agriculturist at
Grand Forks; the promotion of Paul C. Black, former District Agriculturist at Grand Forks, to
Assistant Field Crops Commissioner at Victoria; and the placing of Walter Sandall, formerly
Field Inspector at Victoria, in the Vancouver Inspection Office for the enforcement of regulations
governing elevator grain screenings.
STAFF APPOINTMENTS AND RESIGNATIONS.
Staff appointments included the following:—
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Assistant Plant Pathologist.
Donald Sutherland, B.S.A., Field Inspector.
J. Dennis Allen, Fruit Quarantine Officer, Prince Rupert.
J. S. Goulding, Fruit Quarantine Officer, Nelson.
Miss L. O. Clarke, Stenographer.
Ernest J. Butler, Junior Clerk and Messenger.
Miss Elsie M. Summers, Stenographer. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 7
Resignations from the staff during the year included :—
Theodore Collart, Fruit Quarantine Officer, Prince Rupert.
Thomas B. Matheson, Fruit Quarantine Officer, Vancouver.
Miss Madeleine Sluggett, Stenographer.
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
The early part of the year was decidedly cold throughout the Province. Due to the lack
of snowfall, considerable damage by frost was experienced and there was a shortage of storage-
water for irrigation purposes in the Interior. The spring came somewhat earlier this year, but
severe frosts injured small fruits and also the early plantings of tomatoes and other tender
crops in several districts. The summer was particularly dry in the Coast sections and there was
very little rain in the Interior to make up for the shortage of irrigation-water. This caused
losses and inclined the farmers of the irrigated districts to be extremely active in looking into
the possibility of increasing their present supply of storage-water. The fall months were mild,
with the exception of an early frost that materially shortened the harvest of the more tender
kinds of crops. Weather conditions were excellent for harvesting the fruit-crops in the southern
sections of the Province.
In many districts clover heaved badly and in some cases there was winter-killing, which
resulted in a considerable reduction in the acreage of clover for seed purposes. In Central
British Columbia and the Peace River District threshing was delayed until quite late in the
season, due to wet weather.
Pasture lands suffered from the dry weather in the southern parts of the Province and from
most unusual weather in the Central Interior. The hay-crop was only fair throughout the
Province. In fact, in the Bulkley Valley the hay-crop was the smallest ever known and many
farmers in that area cut their grain on the green side and cured it for hay.
The first cut of alfalfa-hay was not of high quality, due to unsettled weather conditions at
the time it should have been harvested. The second cut, however, was quite satisfactory.
Ensilage crops, including corn, sunflowers, and fall-sown mixtures of vetches, wheat, rye, etc.,
were generally very good.
Not only were cultivated crops affected by unusual weather conditions, but the extremely
low temperatures recorded in the range areas from early January to late February resulted in
the exhaustion of the reserve hay-supply. However, the spring rains brought on good forage-
growth on the ranges and until the dry period of late July the native pasture was good.
Favourable autumn weather produced growth which put the cattle in good condition for the
winter.
The Peace River District experienced a prolonged cold, wet spring, which retarded growth,
and high winds during the summer reduced the moisture content of the soil. However, in spite
of these difficulties, yields were well up to the average and feed is plentiful.
TRADE EXTENSION.
The growth of our export trade in apples to such important countries as the Argentine and
Egypt may be seen in the following tabulation:—
Shipments of apples—
Argentine:  1928, 2 car-loads ;  1929, 10 car-loads;  1930, 39 car-loads.
Egypt:   1928, nil;  1929, 4 car-loads;   1930, 23 car-loads.
Also apple shipments to Hong Kong have been materially increased during the present year
and an attempt has been made to supply an economical pack, which should prove popular.
Hong Kong is one of the most promising marketing prospects we have in the Orient, and in
addition to apples there have been sent to that point trial consignments of fresh chilled milk and
dairy products.    These have arrived in satisfactory condition.
The shipment to Peiping, China, of a consignment of several hundred British Columbia
grown roses of many varieties, which have been planted out in the British Legation grounds,
was regarded in the Orient as a most friendly gesture and has been referred to on numerous
occasions by British visitors to the capital city of China.
Trade with the West Indies has been encouraged and this year the first exchange of citrus
fruits from Jamaica for British Columbia products was arranged. Several hundred cases of
oranges and grapefruit imported from that country have been very favourably received. G 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Of particular interest has been the successful negotiations concluded for the shipment of
Angora rabbits to Japan.
IMPORTS.
British Columbia continues to import considerable quantities of agricultural products such
as are grown within the Province. However, a great deal of this is brought in from Australia
and other countries during the off-season for local commodities. Reference to the Statistics
Bulletin for 1930 will show the quantities imported and the country of origin.
The British Columbia Resources Exhibit, staged with the assistance of this Department at
the World's Poultry Congress, held in the Crystal Palace, London, England, in July, focused the
attention of visitors on the agricultural possibilities of this Province. A little later in the season
the entries of British Columbia apples at the Imperial Fruit-show in London successfully competed against apples from the rest of the Empire. The prize awards taken by British Columbia
were numerous and valuable and this Province retrieved the Agent-General's trophy, which had
been lost to Nova Scotia.
At the Canadian National Exhibition and Toronto Royal Winter Fair this Department had
representative exhibits of the products of the field, orchard, and range, and in the competitive
classes at the latter event premier awards were taken in legumes and cereals.
At the Chicago International Hay and Grain Show three entries of British Columbia hard
red spring wheat secured three high awards in a total class of 180 entries, while peas, beans,
timothy, and flax entries also secured creditable awards. At the Pacific Northwest Potato-show,
held in Spokane, British Columbia certified seed-potatoes won premier honours and at local
fairs the quality of the agricultural products displayed was exceptionally high.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
During the year 1930, ten new Farmers' Institutes were incorporated, bringing the total
number of institutes now in operation up to 182, with a membership of approximately 7,291.
Through the Farmers' Institutes there were supplied by this Department 43 pure-bred bulls,
29 pure-bred rams, and 6 pure-bred boars, as compared with 33, 14, and 5, respectively, in 1929.
The popularity of ploughing-matches is increasing and requests for assistance in carrying
on this work have been received from ten institutes, all of which were given financial aid. For
the first time in the history of the Peace River District a ploughing-match was held during the
fall and keen interest was taken in the event.
The first Provincial ploughing-match was staged at Ladner, with thirty-nine teams competing from all parts of the Fraser Valley, as well as from Vancouver Island.
Through several institutes seed-cleaning machinery was provided for the use of settlers,
especially in the newer districts, where noxious weeds have not yet taken possession of the farms.
With one machine alone a group of farmers in the Peace River District this year cleaned
approximately 14,000 bushels of seed-grain, while other machines were used to a considerable
extent.
WOMEN'S INSTITUTES.
Returns submitted by the Superintendent show that twenty-one new institutes have been
organized, making a total of 146, with a membership of 4,452 women. Eight conferences were
held in the districts designated this year. They included the Peace River, North Vancouver
Island, South Vancouver Island, North Fraser River, South Fraser River, Okanagan, Salmon
Arm, Kootenay and Arrow Lakes, which latter held a joint conference at Nelson.
In the campaign to promote health, prevent disease, and lengthen life, the Women's Institutes
have functioned as the outstanding agency through which the Department of Health is able to
reach the rural people, and co-operating with that Department the institutes have been the means
of directly or indirectly establishing thirty-two public-health nurses in the Province. School
libraries, playground equipment, and hot lunches in the schools have all received attention.
Women's Institutes are stimulating the children's interest in agriculture by encouraging live
stock and other agricultural clubs, as well as home and school gardens, and they have been
instrumental in making successful seventy flower-shows held during the year.
The question of markets for home crafts has been given attention and a revival in quilt-
making has been achieved. Many quilts and rugs have been made and sold at good prices, and
excellent exhibits of these home products were displayed at Vancouver and Victoria Exhibitions. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930.
G 9
PUBLICATIONS.
The publications issued in 1930 were as follows:—
Name.
Description.
No.
Spray Calendars	
The Story of Feed Unit	
Farmers' Institute Booklet 	
Farmers' Institute By-laws 	
Recording of Brand Regulations 	
List of Publications 	
Central B.C	
Women's Institute Regulations 	
Bee-keepers' Calendar 	
Better Farming Suggestions 	
Fruit Inquiry Report 	
Exhibition Standards of Perfection 	
Some Suggestions for Exhibitors	
Good Seed 	
Tomato-growing in B.C	
Oyster-shell Scale ......	
Field Crop Competitions	
Climate of B.C	
Boys' and Girls' Pig Club Booklets 	
Farmers' Institutes of B.C	
North Kamloops Protection Spraying Zone 	
Kaleden Protection Spraying Zone 	
Rules Governing Cow-testing Associations 	
Care of Milk and Cream	
24th Annual Report, Department of Agriculture 	
Screenings Regulations	
Hints on Egg-hatching 	
Certified Milk and Butter-fat Records	
Agricultural Statistics, 1029 	
Feeding for Egg Production 	
Goat-raising in B.C	
The Goose 	
Preservation of Food 	
Middle Entrance Hive	
Roots and Root-growing	
List of Publications 	
Breeding-stock Hints	
Women's Institute By-laws 	
Production and Preparation of Grain for Exhibition Purposes-
Dairy Circ. 17
Booklet  	
Booklet  	
Leaflet 	
Leaflet  	
Dept. Circ. 51
Leaflet 	
50
Dept.  Circ.
Report 	
Dept. Circ.
Leaflet 	
Leaflet 	
Hort.  Circ. Go 	
Hort. Circ. 41 	
Leaflet 	
Report 	
Booklet  	
Report 	
Leaflet 	
Leaflet 	
Dairy Circ. 17 	
Dairy Circ. 6 	
Report 	
Leaflet	
Poultry Circ. 25 ....
Dairy Circ. IS 	
Report 	
Bulletin 93 	
Bulletin G4 	
Poultry Cire. 31 ..
Bulletin 83 	
Leaflet 	
Bulletin 98 	
Leaflet 	
Poultry Circ. 27 ....
Booklet  	
Field Crop Circ. 9
Total	
1,500
1,500
500
200
500
2,500
2,500
1,000
1,000
2,000
300
2,000
5,000
2,500
2,000
1,000
500
2,000
500
1,500
50
75
1,000
1,500
750
1,000
2,000
1,000
1,200
2,000
4,000
1,000
2,000
2,000
2,500
1,500
1,000
500
2,500
58,075
AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION TRAIN.
This Department participated with the Canadian National Railways in the operation of an
agricultural demonstration train, which made calls at twenty-five points in the Okanagan,
Thompson River, Nechako, and Bulkley Valleys, and was visited by upwards of 5,000 people
during the months of March and April. Films depicting dairy-herd improvement methods were
shown along with others which dealt with the various phases of crop and live-stock production.
These films were well received.
This train was fitted up with displays prepared by five different branches of the Department
and was accompanied throughout the whole of its journey by representatives of the Dairy,
Poultry, Veterinary, Field Crops, and Provincial Extension Service.
SCREENINGS REGULATIONS.
In order that the provisions of the " Noxious Weeds Act" might be properly enforced, suitable regulations were drafted and made effective, and arrangements have been made for the
supervision of the movement of grain screenings under permit through the office of the Inspector
of Imports at Vancouver. Instructions were issued regarding the regulations and the use of
permits. EMPIRE MARKETING BOARD.
Further encouragement has been extended to the live-stock industry by the payment of all
freight transportation charges on pure-bred farm live stock from the British Isles to British
Columbia through the Empire Marketing Board and this Department each paying 50 per cent,
of the cost.
In all there were four shipments of animals brought to this Province during the year. In
addition to forty-one head of Ayrshire cattle brought out through the instrumentality of Captain
J. C. Dunwaters, of Fintry, there was imported a herd of fifteen dual-purpose Shorthorn animals
for C. T. Mynors, of Clayburn, B.C.
A Red Poll bull, " Framlingham Cromwell," No. 8266, consigned to II. E. Waby & Sons, of
Salmon Arm, B.C., arrived with a shipment of twenty-three head of pure-bred sheep secured by
the Vancouver Island Flockmasters' Association for several of its members. These were brought
by the Furness Line steamer " Pacific President," arriving in Vancouver on September 27th,
1930. _ This consignment of pure-bred registered pedigreed farm animals, on which the freight
was paid jointly by the Empire Marketing Board and this Department, was the first importation
to be brought direct from the British Isles to British Columbia through the Panama Canal.
The animals arrived in good condition considering the fact that suitable succulent feed had
not been provided for the journey. They had to subsist on dry feed and chopped grain, and
lacked roots or other succulence which would have greatly improved their condition on the
journey.
Unfortunately one of the rams, a very fine specimen secured from the flock of His Majesty
King George V. at Sandringham, died shortly after its arrival in the Province, due in part to
digestive troubles that developed owing to the dry feed supplied it on the long ocean journey.
Incidentally, the insurance company with which these animals were insured made good the
claim for the loss without delay.
The following are the details of registered, pedigreed live stock imported from the United
Kingdom to British Columbia under the approved assistance passage scheme by which the
Empire Marketing Board and the Province of British Columbia each assumed 50 per cent, of
the transportation costs :—
Name of Importer.
Class of Animal.
Herd-book Designation.
Capt. J. C. Dunwaters, Fintry, Okanagan
Lake, B.C.
45 head Ayrshire (via water and rail)....
34 head Ayrshire (via water arid rail)	
41 head Ayrshire (via water and rail)....
15 head Shorthorn (via water and rail)..
23 pure-bred sheep (via Panama Canal)
1   lied  Poll  bull,   " Framlingham   Cromwell," No. 8266  (via Panama Canal)
Scottish Ayrshire
Book Society.
Scottish Ayrshire
Book Society.
Scottish Ayrshire
Book Society.
Coates Herd Book.
Live-stock Records.
English   Red   Poll
Book, Vol. 48.
Herd
Herd
Capt. J. C. Dunwaters, Fintry, Okanagan
Lake, B.C.
C. T. Mynors, Clavburn, B.C	
Herd
Vancouver Island Flockmasters' Association, Duncan, B.C.
H. E. Waby, Jr., Enderby, B.C	
Herd
ANIMAL INDUSTRY DIVISION.
LIVE STOCK BRANCH.
Following the reorganization of this Department, there has been a very close co-operation
between the several branches comprising this Division. By proper co-ordination a considerable
amount of unnecessary travelling and expense has been eliminated and the Division has been
very materially improved in its efficiency.
The Director of Animal Industry, Dr. W. R. Gunn, reports that every phase of animal
industry has received careful attention and certain branches have made very creditable progress.
Of particular interest is the fact that the first year's record of performance work with milk
goats in British Columbia has showed some splendid yields.    The highest production in the Province was made by a Saanen goat owned in Victoria, which gave 3,111 lb. of 4.6 milk and
145 lb. of butter-fat in 365 days. Others gave over 2,500 lb. each, with butter-fat tests as high
as 6.2 per cent.
HORSES.
To-day the horse seems to have little more than his practical appeal, and so long as he does
his work it matters little whether he is of good type or not. Consequently we find to-day
throughout the country quite a large number of rather inferior horses. Quality heavy draught
horses of course will always bring a good price. The percentage of this kind is always small.
At the present time, with the general- world depression, there is a tendency to return somewhat
to the use of horses in many of the districts where tractors were almost supreme. Good light
horses, especially those suited for riding purposes, are in strong demand. There is an attempt
by the Dominion Government to bonus suitable stallions for use on mares that will give horses
of this type. One of the difficulties encountered is to get sires with sufficient strength and bone
to produce horses for this trade. Unfortunately for the Province, the outstanding thoroughbred
stallion " Pale Hands," owned by Mr. E. S. T. Johnston, formerly located in the Cariboo, was
shipped back to Ireland by his owner. This horse was imported in 1929 and was at service
during one year. He not only had some of the best Old Country blood, but he was an animal of
outstanding scale and conformation.
At the present time there is a particularly good market south of the line for horses of hunter
and saddle type, and it would seem as though this offers an opportunity to those interested in
the light horse. In the early spring of this year interested horsemen gathered together in
Victoria and formed the British Columbia Horse-breeders' Association.
Four car-loads of heavy horses have been shipped from Mainland points to Vancouver.
During the summer several drives of inferior type light-weight horses went through from
Okanagan points to the Coast over the Hope-Princeton Trail for slaughter purposes. During
November quite a number of car-loads of this class of horses were shipped from the Southern
Okanagan to Butte, Montana, for similar purposes.
Statistical reports show 643 stallions in 1930, compared to 668 in 1929; mares, 2 years old
and over, 28,165 in 1930, compared to 28,422 in 1929; geldings, 2 years old and over, 30,068 in
1930, compared to 30,398 in 1929; colts and fillies under 2 years of age in 1930 numbered 6,210,
as compared to 6,695 in 1929. The total horse population in 1930 dropped to 65,083 from 66,183
in 1929.
BEEF CATTLE.
In the spring prospects looked very bright for the beef-cattle men of the Province, but with
the advent of the United States tariff prices began to decline.
For the past several years a very large part of the good cattle from the Prairie Provinces
has been going to the markets across the line, but with this market gone these cattle are coming
to the British Columbia market. Their high quality is forcing some of our plain cattle almost
entirely off the market. For years the Prairie beef-cattle men have been buying the best sires
and using the Federal bull-loaning policy to secure the use of high-class sires, all of which reflects
favourably on their market cattle to-day.
A number of particularly fine beef bulls were placed with the smaller cattlemen of the
Province through the medium of our Farmers' Institute policy.
Mr. G. W. Challenger, Assistant Live Stock Commissioner, in charge of the Kamloops office,
reported that ten car-loads of high-class grass-finished cattle left the Guichon Ranch, Quilchena,
on June 5th, 1930, with several shipments from the Nicola and South Okanagan shortly after.
A large number of grass-finished cattle from that district graded Red or Blue under the new
Dominion Beef Grading Regulations. Mr. G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist located at Williams
Lake, reported that the first beef left the Cariboo in early July.
A limited amount of grain-finishing is being done in the Province, but this side of the
industry needs attention. Some means is necessary to encourage more farmers to take up the
finishing of cattle.
The practice in the Cariboo range country of exchanging bulls annually may be a method of
solving the situation, but it has the drawback, however, of retaining many sires long past their
period of efficiency, resulting in a low^pcreentage calf-crop. Another factor that tends to lower
the calf-crop percentage is the practice of running too small a number of bulls on the range. G 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
There is a tendency on the part of some of the smaller cattlemen to take advantage of the larger
men by turning out inferior bulls, and in some cases none at all. However, with this Department
co-operating with the new Brand Commission and with other departments of the Government,
improvement should soon be seen.
More attention is being given to the conservation and intelligent use of the available range,
which should go a long way in the development of the beef-cattle industry in the range country.
The range cattlemen are most anxious to see farmers in the mixed-farming sections of the
Province producing high-class bulls to supply their needs. They are willing to pay good profitable prices for sires of quality. Again, the range cattlemen are anxious to encourage cattle-
feeding through the farming sections of the Province. They feel that it is their duty to produce
good feeder cattle from sires purchased in the farming districts, and that these feeder cattle
should then return to the smaller farms for finishing before proceeding to the markets.
With Canada looking to the British market, it is interesting to learn that recent experimental shipments to the Glasgow and Manchester markets show the demand mostly for well-bred
cattle weighing less than 1,100 lb. of good dressing type, high quality, and natural fleshing. It
is also interesting to note that the British market is at its best during the early summer. British
Columbia cattlemen should therefore govern themselves accordingly.
The following prices for 1929 and 1930 for steers fair to choice quality is worthy of
consideration:—
1930.
January   $9.00 to $10.50
February   9.50 to 11.00
March     9.25 to 10.75
April  9.25 to 11.25
May  10.00 to 12.00
June   9.00 to 10.50
July  8.00 to 9.50
August   5.00 to 7.50
September   5.00 to 7.00
October    5.00 to 6.50
November    4.50 to 6.00
December    5.50 to 6.50
1929.
January ..
February
March	
April	
1.50 to $11.00
May  11.00 to
June   9.50 to
July    .'. 8.00 to
August   8.00 to
September   8.00 to
October   7.50 to
November    7.50 to
December     7.50 to
12.50
11.00
10.00
10.00
9.50
8.25
8.50
9.00
KAMLOOPS BULL-SALE.
In line with the policy of this Department, our Assistant Live Stock Commissioner, who
acted as manager of the Bull-sale and Fat-stock Show, encouraged the entry of only bulls of
good type and quality, both from British Columbia and Alberta. Similarly, in connection with
the Fat-stock Show, encouragement was given to the feeding and finishing by ranchers, farmers,
and boys and girls throughout the Province of well-bred beef cattle. The following tables give
prices which were received at that sale:—
Breed.
No. of Head.
High.
Low.
Average.
Total.
35
56
22
$575.00
560.00
300.00
. $100.00
55.00
60.00
$295.68
146.00
128.00
$10,355.00
8,180.00
2,280.00
Shorthorns	
Fat-stock classes were well filled, particularly in the steer classes and boys' and girls' baby-
beef competition, which prizes are offered by your Department:—
Class.
No. of Head.
High.
Low.
Total.
85
43
18
Cents.
11%
1S1/,
26
Cents.
10 %
9
uy4
$9,360.87
1,175.00
1,962.00   DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 13
This annual event is becoming more popular every year and the beneficial influence which it
undoubtedly has on the beef-cattle industry of British Columbia is considerable, particularly in
view of the fact that it is an institution in which the beef-cattle men carry the responsibility of,
and in so doing find it to their advantage to lend their support to, such an event.
DAIRY CATTLE.
Farmers are taking an active interest in herd-improvement. The cow-testing work being
done by the Dairy Branch is calling attention to the need for proven sires. It is quite evident
that the older bull that has sired a number of high-producing daughters must be retained for
breeding purposes if uniformly high production is to be maintained in the herd. The practice
of using young, untried sires has been found an uncertain method of herd-improvement. The
dairy industry shows a steady progress and is on a sound footing. There has been about the
usual rate of increase of slightly over 6 per cent, in "the number of dairy cattle.
Prices for dairy cattle here remained fairly stable, the demand being active and the price
good at all times during the year. It is only in the more remote districts where the price of
butter-fat is somewhat low that there is a tendency for the price of dairy cattle to fluctuate.
NUMBERS OF CATTLE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1929-30.
1929. 1930.
Bulls, 1 year old and over       8,104 8,525
Cows kept mainly for milk purposes  113,050 118,649
Cows kept mainly for beef purposes      96,014 90,116
Yearlings being raised mainly for milk purposes     26,064 26,976
Yearlings being raised mainly for beef purposes     58,000 53,667
Calves under 1 year old      68,251 65,599
Other cattle not listed above     46,963 40,757
Total number of cattle   416,446 404,289
BRANDS.
A statement showing shipments of cattle and hides in the various districts of the Province
is included in Appendix No. 4.
The number of brands recorded and renewed during 1930 was as follows:—
Cattle-brands recorded   173
Cattle-brands reissued      54
Cattle-brands transferred     18
       245
Horse-brands recorded  101
Horse-brands reissued     33
Horse-brands transferred       8
      142
Cattle-brand renewals   383
Horse-brand renewals   276
"      659
Total  1,046
(Note.—Total for 1929 was 696.)
Hide licences issued  45
Renewal notices issued  639
Letters inward   1,599
Letters outward   1,762
REVISION OF " BRAND ACT."
Early in the year a circular embodying the present " Brand Act " and all the various sections
from other Brand Acts which it might be desirable to include in the new Act was prepared by
Mr. Geo. Pilmer, Brands Recorder. An all-day meeting to disctiss the same was held with the
directors of the B.C. Beef Cattle Growers' Association at Kamloops on February 28th, and it G 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
was strongly felt that a Board of Brand Commissioners should be appointed as provided for in
the Act in order that they would take over the revision of the Act in the interests of the stockmen. At the annual meeting of the B.C. Cattle Growers' Association on March 19th a resolution
was passed requesting the appointment of Brand Commissioners, and by Order in Council of
May 22nd the following Board was appointed : R. H. Helmer, Nicola ; Ernest Clark, Kamloops;
Henry Koster, Gang Ranch.
Meetings were held by the Brand Commissioners and the stockmen, at which these circulars
were freely distributed and the recommendations were taken up. Meetings took place at Williams
Lake on July 26th, Ashcroft on July 20th, Kamloops on July 22nd, Merritt on July 23rd, Meyers
Flat (Oliver) on July 24th, and Kelowna on July 25th.
From observations made through the two large range areas and the Nicola and Cariboo
country, it is quite evident that the Brand Commissioners have been responsible for bringing
about greater co-operation and a better understanding between the cattlemen of these two districts. It is quite evident that with this better understanding more unified effort will be put
forth in future.
SHEEP.
Wool prices continued low again this year, and during the summer a strong decline in lamb
and mutton prices affected the industry. A temporary lowering of the sheep population followed
as a result of these conditions. At the present time, however, the sheep population is well up to
what it was last year, or perhaps a little higher, due to importation of breeding stock from the
Prairies. The Prairie Provinces are liquidating quite strongly and the States immediately
south are cutting their breeding stock at least one-third.
British Columbia has thousands of acres of cattle and sheep range and it is evident, that the
stockmen are building their industry upon a permanent foundation. The many letters received
by the Live Stock Branch inquiring about sheep-range and opportunities in the Province show
that people are aware of the potentialities of our wonderful range country.
The Kamloops office reports that the lamb-marketing in the Province was never so orderly
as this year. This is attributed to the work done by this Division, working with the Division of
Markets, in an endeavour to regulate the flow of lamb on to'the market.
In the early spring a meeting was called by the British Columbia sheep-breeders, with representatives of the packers, the Division of Markets, and this Division present. Every phase of the
industry was discussed at length in a search for a means of improving the lamb-marketing. Our
Director pointed out that before anything definite could be done to assist the sheep industry in
the way of marketing it was necessary to know when the lamb-crop would be dropped each year.
The suggestion appealed to the meeting and a resolution was passed asking that this Division
put on a survey of the sheep industry. In planning the survey the main idea in mind was to
ascertain when the lambs were being dropped in the different districts of the Province. This
information was secured in most cases by personal interviews made by the District Agriculturists
or Veterinary Inspectors of this Division.
The survey is only a preliminary one and far from complete, but with the information contained it w7as possible to direct the selling of. the present crop of lambs and advise as to when
breeding should begin in the various districts in order to co-operate for an orderly marketing of
the 1931 crop of lambs.
From an examination of the survey it will be noted that the lamb-crop in some districts is
too low and calls for some educational work in that particular part of the country. Further
examination will show that the bulk of the lambs produced in British Columbia have up to the
present been dropped within a short period, which has had a tendency to flood the local markets
and bring down the prices considerably. Again, it was found that British Columbia lambs were
reaching the market at about the same time as lambs from the Prairie Provinces.
This Division has suggested to the men in the Vancouver and Gulf Islands, the Fraser
Valley, and the Lower Mainland that they arrange to have their lambs dropped for the most
part during the first two months of the year, to get away from competing with other parts of
the Province.
A certain amount of shed-lambing was advocated for the range districts, and it was felt that
with this special attention on our excellent ranges the British Columbia product could reach the
market before the Prairie product. SHORTHORN  CATTLE  OK  A   MIXED  FARM  IN  THE OKANAGAN"  AT VERNON.
HEREFORD-SHORTHORN  STEERS.
One hundred and fifty head of two- and three-year-olds shipped June
5th, 1930, from Quilchena ;   wintered on alfalfa-hay and corn silage and
finished   on   grass.     Average   weight   1,200   lb.   dressing—percentage   55.
Many Red and Blue grade carcasses.  DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930.
G 15
This Division, under the Farmers' Institute policy, supplied twenty-nine rams to Farmers'
Institutes throughout the Province this year, as compared with fourteen last year. A great deal
of difficulty was encountered in trying to secure suitable rams in some of the breeds.
SHEEP SURVEY.
District.
No. of Ewes.
No. of Rams.
Yearly
Lamb-crop.
2,973
14,961
914
1,098
2,005
1,302
2,294
3,110
303
329
28
27
41
24
98
207
5,165
16,329
1,237
926
1,687
924
2,948
2,416
Totals	
28,657
1,057
31,632
District.
Lambinc when dropped.
Jan.
Feb.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Nov.
Dec.
Total.
Fraser Valley and Lower Mainland..
281
159
57
149
224
544
89
65
70
709
288
737
4,985
516
12
175
92
1,066
1,207
1,767
6,718
289
671
953
329
680
418
594
3,755
93
170
63
287
41
170
421
73
64
111
450
37
100
31
70
40
69
4,093
10,329
1,217
826
1,313
842
2,751
2,418
Okanagan District	
Cariboo	
Vancouver Island, South	
Totals	
870
1,765
8,790
11,825
5,173
669
487
131
179
SHEEP IMPORTATIONS.
Under the Empire Marketing Board plan, 23 head of pure-bred sheep were imported from
Great Britain, including 8 Kerry Hills (6 ewes and 2 rams), 2 Stiff oiks (1 ram and 1 ewe),
1 Oxford Down ram, 5 head of Cheviots (3 rams and 2 ewes), 6 head of Southdowns (2 rams
and 4 ewes), and 1 Kent or Romney Marsh ewe. The individual animals included in this shipment have been examined by prominent sheepmen in the Province and pronounced especially
good specimens of their respective breeds. The Southdown sheep in this shipment came from
the estate of His Majesty the King at Sandringham. The Kerry Hill sheep included in the
shipment are the first of this breed ever shipped into the country. They are of Welsh Mountain
foundation stock and are used in the Old Land for the production of market-lambs.
During the past year special encouragement was given to the development of sheep fairs in
different parts of the Province. The sheep section at the Duncan and Armstrong Fairs brought
out some particularly good classes of outstanding individuals. The Commercial Sheep classes
at the Williams Lake Fair are worthy of special mention. Some of the classes were equal to
some Class A competitions. Breeding classes at this fair were also very strong. This particular
endeavour has focused the attention of the sheepmen on the advisability of using good rams and
of finishing lambs for market.
SHEEP COMPENSATION.
Compensation under the ". Sheep Protection Act" was paid as follows :—
No. killed. Amount paid.
Sheep  200 $2,549.95
Goats       2 40.00
Poultry—-
Chickens  146 175.15
Turkeys       2 7.50
Geese      10 34.00
Totals  260 $2,806.60 G 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
NUMBERS OF SHEEP AND LAMBS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1929-30.
1929. 1930.
Sheep   110,834 103,431
Lambs       94,698 95,219
Total sheep and lambs   205,532 198,650
GOATS.
In common with other business, the year 1930 was comparatively quiet. Decreased purchasing-power on the Prairies and elsewhere resulted in fewer sales, but there are prospects of
more activity in 1931.
In this Province interest has been well maintained and goats are being more largely kept in
the outlying sections. The Dominion census in 1931 should give more definite information as to
the numbers.
SWINE.
Interest in swine-breeding in the Province is increasing greatly, but, unfortunately for the
industry, in the more densely settled parts of the Province dairying is developed to take care of
the whole-milk trade, which leaves no dairy by-product to support swine-raising. A large part
of the Province where swine-raising is feasible is so sparsely populated that production is small
and the marketing has to be done locally rather than by car-load lots to the big centres. Again,
some of these centres have to compete with Prairie points such as Edmonton and Calgary, which
are closer to the British Columbia Coast cities than they are, which tends to prevent the development of the industry beyond the point of supplying the local market.
The Okanagan Valley is greatly increasing production. Car-load shipments go out regularly
to the Coast markets in profitable competition with the Prairie product. Through the activities
of Mr. Rodney DeLisle, of the Cranbrook office, a car-load of good-quality young bacon-pigs was
brought in for use among the members of the Boys' and Girls' Swine Clubs in that district. This
Division encouraged the retaining in all districts of any good young gilts from the Boys' and
Girls' Clubs, and as a result a large number were retained for breeding purposes.
The new swine policy of this Division is to encourage all swine-breeding under a five-year
programme. It is felt that prices will be low this coming year, due to an expected increase on
the Prairies. Therefore, in order to carry forward with any certainty, a programme such as the
above is the only one that is practical for this Province. Encouragement is being given to the
sparsely settled communities to breed their sows so as to permit car-load shipments to the
outside markets.
In general, swine prices remain more stable than prices of any other live stock. A study of
the comparative swine prices for 1929 and 1930 shown in the table following will give some idea
of the trend of the market:—
1930.
1929.
Month.
Hogs
(Select).
Shop and
Heavies.
Month.
Hogs
(Select).
Shop and
Heavies.
January....
February-
March	
April	
May	
June	
July 	
August	
September
October	
November-
December..
$12.50
14.00
13.50
12.75
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.25
12.25
11.50
9.75
$11.60-$12.00
13.00-13.50
12.50
12.25
11.75
11.75
12.00
11.75
11.75
11.50
10.50
8.75
January....
February...
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September.
October	
November..
December..
$13.50
14.75
14.00
14.25
13.00-14.50
12.00-12.75
11.00-12.00
11.50
11.50
$12.25
.14.00
12.00
13.25
12.00-14.00
10.25-12.00
10.50-11.75
10.40-11.00
10.10-11.25
The bacon-litter competition for 1930 saw six district competitions, with thirty contestants
and 289 pigs completing the competition;  North Okanagan, Bulkley Valley, Salmon Arm, Comox, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 17
Cariboo, and Kamloops being the districts entered.    There were fewer contestants than in 1929,
but the quality was high and the interest keen.
Statistical reports show 8,355 sows in 1930, as compared with 8,147 in 1929. Other swine are
shown as 57,827 in 1930, as compared with 55,909 in 1929.
VETERINARY BRANCH.
A drive was made on all herds where reactors had been found. The policy is to remove all
reactors at once, preferably to an abattoir under Federal inspection. The Federal Health of
Animals Branch Inspectors co-operate to the fullest extent by supplying this Division with full
details of the post-mortem findings. AVhere it is impossible or unprofitable to ship the reactors,
the slaughtering is supervised by a Provincial Inspector, and in almost every case post-mortems
are made to ascertain the extent of the infection. A thorough cleansing and disinfecting is
insisted upon after each group of reactors are removed. Retests are made within the sixty-day
period and in troublesome herds combination tuberculin tests are made, which usually include
the intradermal and ophthalmic tuberculin tests.
As a result of this intensive programme we have noted most satisfactory .results. At the
present time almost every herd that has been giving trouble has been cleaned up, which will
result in a very considerable saving. Despite the fact that the Veterinary staff has been somewhat weakened during the latter part of the year through illness, and although the activities of
the staff have been considerably extended, our Inspectors visited 1,234 premises in 1930, as
compared to 1,179 in 1929, and tested 11,660 head of cattle during the year, as against 10,114 in
1929.    In 1930, 249 reactors were found;  and in 1929, 214 reactors.
A great deal of education work was done by the staff amongst the dairy-farmers supplying
the whole-milk trade.
An endeavour has been made to co-operate with the Provincial Department of Health and
with the different Medical Health Officers throughout the Province, and your Director is pleased
to report a very marked improvement. Weekly or bi-weekly reports from the Medical Health
Officers to this office and similar reports from this office to the Medical Health Officers have
resulted in much more efficient work being done. Careless producers have been carefully and
repeatedly assisted and every effort is being made to ensure a clean, safe milk-supply, which, of
course, means protecting the market for the producer.
No epidemics occurred which were traceable to faulty inspection on the part of the
Veterinary Service of this Division.
To establish a closer co-operation between the Medical Health Officers and our Veterinary
Inspectors, and with the idea also of giving instruction to the staff and ensuring uniformity in
their work, a ten-day short course was put on during October in Vancouver. The entire staff of
Veterinary Inspectors attended, as well as a number of Medical Health Officers, veterinary
practitioners, dairymen, University students, and members of the University Faculty. The
course included post-mortem work at the abattoirs, practical training'in the use of the score-
card, and lectures from authorities on veterinary, dairy, and health matters.
An endeavour was made to still further assist the live-stock industry by carrying on educational work in parasitic diseases. Special displays were presented at a number of exhibitions
throughout the Province, with a veterinary officer continuously in charge. Hearty co-operation
was received from the Dominion Entomological staff, Kamloops, B.C. Parasitic display material
and a veterinary officer accompanied the demonstration train through the northern part of the
Province in the co-operative programme put on by the Canadian National Railways and the
Provincial Department of Agriculture. This work was very much appreciated by the stockmen
and it is hoped that it can be extended.
ANIMAL DISEASES.
There have not been any diseases of a serious contagious nature affecting live stock this
past year. According to the report made by Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector, in
Central British Columbia a number of horses died. The losses were reported and upon investigation the trouble was diagnosed as typhoid influenza. However, this did not cause much loss
among the horses of that neighbourhood. Word came from the Cariboo that two horses had
died; upon investigation it was found both horses belonged to one farmer. These horses had
died a week or so previous to the visit of the Inspector, but from what could be learned from
the farmer the cases were diagnosed as azoturia.
2 G 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ACTINOMYCOSIS.
A few cases of this disease have been noted among the dairy and beef cattle in the Okanagan
and Penticton Valleys and also throughout the Lillooet and Chilcotin areas, but cases are so
rare and far between as to not cause any concern. In advanced cases the owner was advised to
have the animal destroyed. Where the animal was found in the early stages, especially among
cattle, potassium-iodide treatment is recommended and is proving quite effective when treated
in the early stages. The economic loss from this disease is very light. At the same time it is
somewhat difficult to totally eradicate owing to the extent and nature of our ranching country.
HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA.
This disease has not been so prevalent as reported in the past two or three years. It took
a new phase this year, as we find that a number of hogs in the Kamloops area were treated with
a serum for this disease, and also serum was used for treating 120 head of dairy cattle. Usually
we have found small outbreaks of this disease in various parts of the Province, but I am pleased
to note that it is confined to one area. In past years small outbreaks of this disease have
occurred in the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island, but have never assumed large
proportions.
BLACKLEG.
Sixty-seven head of cattle were treated in the Kamloops area and also an outbreak was
reported from Elk River Valley, in the Kootenays. Susceptible stock in these areas were
inoculated with the blackleg agressin as a protective agent. The loss due to this disease in the
Elk River Valley amounted to five head.    No outbreaks were reported elsewhere.
COCCIDIOSIS.
On January 27th our Inspector received word from the Williams Lake area that an outbreak of some disease causing excessive diarrhoea had occurred among the young cattle in the
Chilcotin District. On the same day our Inspector left to investigate the trouble. The trouble
was found on four premises, three of which belonged to stockmen of the Chilcotin area. On one
ranch some sixty head were found infected, ten had died, and the remainder were in various
stages of the disease; four post-mortems were held on this ranch. On another ranch five head
had died; three post-mortems were held. On a third ranch two animals had died and two
showed evidence of the disease. Isolation of the infected animals was almost impossible under
the conditions that exist on the range area. The treatment advised was: Salt, 6 parts; feri
sulph, 6 parts;   sulphur, 2 parts;   linseed-meal, 20 parts.
Although this disease is very difficult to cure, especially when far advanced, the above
prescription may be of some use if the disease can be taken in hand in the early stages, but
where large numbers of young cattle are running together under range conditions it is very
difficult to diagnose in the early stages. It is only when the disease has advanced to a
diarrhoetic stage that the matter is brought to the attention of the stock-owner. When the
disease has reached this stage it is very difficult to treat the animal with success and doubly so
under range conditions.
In the early part of the winter it is the practice of the stockmen to drift young cattle on to
feeding-grounds either in a corral or in the open field. These corrals or fields are often used
year after year. Where animals infected with this disease have died there is left, by the
diarrhoatic discharge, infection which remains on the premises for months. The first lot of
young cattle are drifted in each year and after they have been on these grounds two or three
weeks there is often evidence of this disease.
Ranches where this disease has been found prevalent and others less serious have been
advised to change their feeding-grounds and to clean up the old corrals and fields by applying
lime or some other disinfectant with the object of reducing the infected area to a minimum.
A minor outbreak of this disease occurred in the Kamloops area, but the chief outbreak
took place in the Chilcotin District. Of the animals infected, 90 per cent, were spring calves
and the remainder yearlings.
PARASITES.
Assistance has been given in investigating and advising as to control of internal parasites.
The animals chiefly affected were sheep and swine.   The areas where parasitic troubles appear are .: ~j"
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the Mainland Coast area and "Vancouver and a number of the Gulf Islands. In these areas we find
sheep and swine are confined usually in small fields under fence. Owing to the favourable price
of sheep during the yast few years there has been a tendency on the part of the sheepmen to
overstock their pastures, with the idea of making as much money as possible from sheep while
the price was good. This overgrazing of the pastures has been the cause of a large increase of
parasites among sheep, the sheep being obliged to graze close to the ground, with a consequent
greater danger of infestation. The chief parasites found have been parasites of the small
intestinal tract and the stomach-worm. Treatment has been advised and the copper sulphate
and carbon tetrachlorene have been found effective in controlling these parasites among sheep
and swine, as well as tapeworm, which has been found in a number of cases.
Lung-worms (Fillaria) have been found in sheep and calves where they have been allowed
to pasture on swampy ground or ground that has been flooded. This also may be said of liver-
fluke (Fasciola hepatica). The latter two parasitic conditions are very difficult to treat. Precautionary measures have been advised in those districts where these troubles are prevalent by
taking sheep and calves off swampy ground where animals so affected have previously grazed.
Throughout the fall, along the North Thompson River and parts of the Nicola and Okanagan
Valley, sheep were found badly infested with wood-ticks. Little can be done to control these
outside the regular method of dipping.
Internal parasites infesting sheep and swine were collected throughout the Coast area. By
visiting the slaughter-houses a considerable number of these parasites were found. Samples
were preserved and were made of use for educational purposes, and information was given out
to inquirers as to cause, mode of infestation, and treatment of same.
The bringing-in of animals from outside points has been found to be the chief source of
infestation of our sheep and the consequent infection of the pasture lands. This is a difficult
matter to prevent and also extremely difficult to totally eradicate parasitic infestations of our
domestic animals and pastures. We can hope, however, to alleviate the condition by educational
work in preventive methods by improvement of sanitary conditions and medical treatment.
TUBERCULOSIS.
The testing of dairy cattle, especially those from which the milk-supply for the cities is
drawn, occupied a great part of the time of the Inspectors. During the year 1,234 premises
have been visited, 11,660 head of cattle tested, and 249 reactors found. These reactors have
been destroyed with the exception of nine, which have recently been found and are waiting to
be slaughtered. The herds where reactors were found have been tested repeatedly with the
object in view of cleaning up such herds as rapidly as possible.
The majority of the towns and cities throughout the Province have milk by-laws which
require that the dairyman shall provide clean housing and a clean dairy for his herd before a
licence will be granted him to supply milk in such municipality. A good deal of time has been
spent by our Inspectors on this particular phase of the work, together with the sanitary inspection of stables and dairies, the latter being graded into A, B, or C. Parties obtaining a Grade A
certificate are not required to have the milk pasteurized, whereas parties having a Grade B
certificate are required by the municipality to have the milk pasteurized. Dairies grading C
are given thirty days to improve the sanitary conditions of their stables and dairies. The
object of the inspection-work as it affects the dairymen is to guarantee to the public a supply of
milk from healthy cows and sanitary conditions of stables and dairies where such milk is
handled. In the T.B. Restricted Area 1,081 premises were visited and 20,325 head of cattle
inspected.
PLANT-POISONING.
Throughout Central British Columbia we have small yearly losses due to the water-hemlock.
When animals eat this plant the onset of the poisoning is so rapid that treatment is of little or
no avail. The only safeguard we have is to endeavour to keep animals off such low-lying ground
where this plant is prevalent.
A few losses occurred among sheep on a small area of range due to death-camas. Usually
sheepmen, after such an experience, learn to avoid such localized areas when drifting their
sheep on the ranges and the loss from this particular plant will probably never be heavy.
The Astragalus compestris had caused considerable inconvenience to both sheep and cattle
men throughout our range area, this plant causing a paralytic condition followed by emaciation. G 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
As this plant seldom causes the death of an animal, the monetary loss is caused by the prolonged emaciation and therefore uselessness of the animal for meat purposes. This plant is
quite widespread and is usually found between the altitudes of 2,000 and 4.000 feet, which constitutes the greater portion in which lie our range areas. No feasible method has been found
to control the effects of this plant. It is impossible to fence against it and it is so widespread
that there is no means to control the area. The only other alternative would be for the stockmen either to keep animals under the prescribed areas or drift them up to such altitudes where
we find the plant ceases to grow. This, however, is not practical, so we are not in a position to
advise any effective remedy to offset the effect of this plant at the present time.
DAIEY BRANCH.
Prices for dairy grains are now lower than in recent years, but for by-products, of which
the dairy-farmers most largely purchase, not so low, according to Henry Rive, Dairy Commissioner. The concentrate meals were relatively high. A considerable decrease in prices for dairy
produce occurred during the year. Butter prices are materially lower than for many years past.
Prices paid farmers for cream for manufacturing varied between 25 and 30 cents per pound
butter-fat;  10 cents or 25 per cent, less than during the summer of 1929.
It is easily apparent that the dairy-farmer supplying a butter market solely would do well
to engage in summer dairying only, utilizing pastures and green feeds to the fullest extent. By
avoiding the extra labour necessary to the storing of foods for winter production of milk and
any considerable purchase of concentrates, costs may be greatly reduced. In this way, with the
proper utilization of by-products, this period of depressed prices may be tided over, but winter
production for manufacturing purposes cannot now be accomplished at a profit.
Thirty plants (many quite small) have engaged in the manufactufe of butter during 1930.
Two condenseries, one powdered-milk plant, one casein-producing establishment, and two cheese-
factories have been in operation. In addition there are to be found, mainly in conjunction with
these, ice-cream factories to the number of forty-two. Many of these institutions producing icecream conduct no other dairy business and run in the summer only. In different parts of the
Province there are to be found dairy-farms manufacturing cheese which finds a ready market at
prices above those for factory cheese (wholesale), but the total output of this kind is not great.
CREAMERIES.
A period of low prices for butter-fat such as has now been experienced for many months
works harm to the dairy industry in several ways. The producer, dissatisfied, becomes careless
with his product and resentful of grading and criticism on the part of butter-makers and
creamery managers. The creamery-man, in turn receiving for a superior product a price
altogether inadequate, is apt to slacken somewhat in his efforts to produce specials which under
prevailing market conditions do not afford the premium to which they are entitled.
The Provincial cream-grading regulations, now in effect for four years, are producing good
results, though improvement is gradual. As a result of the cream-graders' licence course, held
annually, more qualified graders are to be found in the Province, and at each creamery there is
manifest a desire to observe the proper grades. According to the trade or market supplied,
however, a slackening or a tightening of grading occurs, and periodical calls on all cream-
purchasing institutions for the purpose of checking the work of licensed graders will continue
to be necessary.
To accomplish this checking with a proper thoroughness, more assistance than is now
available should be furnished this Branch. This is on account, largely, of the distances to be
covered and the brevity of the driving season in the Interior, as well as the need for frequent
calls during the season of the greatest production, which is also the hottest.
INSPECTION OF CREAMERIES.
Regular calls were made on the creameries of the Lower Mainland. The creameries of
Vancouver Island were visited on two occasions and one month was spent with creameries of
the Interior.
Grading of cream was carried out at each call on a creamery. This is with the object of
checking the work at these creameries, so that grading will be accurate and uniform throughout
the Province. A considerable amount of check-testing is also performed on these visits with the
same end in view.    A good improvement has been noted this year over last in the uniformity of the work of the cream-graders. There is also improvement in the quality of the butter
manufactured.
Several of the dairies delivering milk (bottled) direct from the farm have improved conditions and added equipment to furnish milk of high quality. Some such have installed refrigeration for cooling and storage purposes.
There has been less reduction in milk-supply on account of weather conditions in the fall
than often has occurred in other years.
During the month of July an inquiry was made into the condition of milk on arrival in
Vancouver. The time of arrival, of unloading, and the type of carrier were noted, and temperature of milk in the cans and in some cases percentage of acid were ascertained. These were also
noted from supply-tanks after unloading. Information in general was secured on the condition
of the milk-supply during the warm weather.
CHEESE.
Owing to the lowered price of butter-fat, much more cheese has been manufactured during
this season than for several years. This increase, mainly of Cheddar cheese, is finding a local
market at a fair price. No new factories have been established. The situation of heretofore
remains as to the need of investigation and experiment on the subject of suitable varieties to
make and market in British Columbia. It would be altogether fitting for this Department to
undertake experimentally, on behalf of the industry, the manufacture and merchandising of
likely varieties. With the proving of one or two, acceptable to the people of this Province and
safe to recommend to the trade for manufacture, a very great service would be accomplished.
CONDENSERIES.
Two condenseries have, as usual of late, been in operation during the year—one at South
Sumas (Borden Co.) ; the other at Delair, near Abbotsford (F.V.M.P.A.). Considerable milk
has this season been treated at these plants and the output of the condensed product has
increased.
MILK-POWDER, DRIED BUTTERMILK, AND CASEIN.
The manufacture of these products is still confined to the Lower Mainland. The quality
shown has been most satisfactory, but the volume up to now has not been great, though showing
increase in each instance for the past year.
HERD-IMPROVEMENT.
At the end of a year none too prosperous or encouraging for the dairy industry generally,
a measure of satisfaction is felt with the progress of dairy-herd improvement. Through the
work of Cow-testing Associations, current dairy thought is directed more steadily towards
increased and economical production of milk and butter-fat than heretofore. There is also
noticeable a greater realization than existed formerly of the unassailable fact that herds of
cows, truly improved in point of production, are seldom to be secured by purchase or means
other than prescribed in the time-honoured " Breed, feed, weed "; and it therefore devolves on
the individual dairy-farmer to secure through tried foundation dams any stable or lasting
advance.
There are now twelve Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia, with fifteen routes and
fifteen supervisors. The institution of new associations with new routes is, of course, greatly to
be desired, but the obligations of this Branch to those already in existence necessitates an
appreciation of and demand for this service on the part of new districts before it can be granted.
In other words, present commitments require that no high-pressure salesmanship be employed
in starting new associations.
The training of supervisors for this work has in the past been a difficult affair; occasional
openings and occasional applicants rendering anything but hurried preparation hard to obtain.
AVith the increase in number of associations, the attention of young men with dairy-farm experience is being directed to the supervisor's position as a means of securing experience most
interesting and valuable to an intending dairy-farmer. Arrangements are being made for a
three-week course of training for would-be supervisors at the time of the annual cream-graders'
licence course, when facilities for testing, etc., will be available. A class of ten is expected to
assemble. G 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The use of the feed unit in association compilations is proving its great value. At first,
owing to a total lack of collateral support from the agricultural press or agricultural class-rooms
of the country, which were unfamiliar with the workings of the feed unit, indifference was shown
by the average member of an association. To-day, the number of feed units necessary to the
production of 1 lb. of butter-fat or 100 lb. of milk are inquired after most diligently on behalf,
it may be, of individual cows or of a herd as a whole. Much valuable data is becoming available
and it is to be expected that a very few years' operations will yield interesting facts as to milk
and fat production by herds, districts, and by different breeds in different districts.
The twelve Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia are located in the following districts: Comox Valley, Vancouver Island South, Chilliwack (three routes), Sumas-Matsqui,
Dewdney-Deroche, Langley, Surrey, Richmond-Ladner (two routes), Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge,
Okanagan, Salmon Arm and District, and the Bulkley Valley. These associations have a total
membership of approximately 430 dairymen, owning 6,000 cows, which are being tested regularly
each month.
ASSOCIATIONS.
The general condition of associations is good, although a few are experiencing some difficulty
in maintaining a full membership. This applies chiefly to the newer testing districts. The
association started in the East Kootenays during the latter part of 1929 failed to last through
the winter. The number of signed-up members was sufficient for a strong association, but when
testing commenced a few large herds dropped out. This made it necessary for the association
to cease operations for the time being. The report from the Bulkley Valley Cow-testing Association shows a larger number of completed milking-periods for the year and also a higher average
production per cow. More interest is being shown by dairymen in the Chilliwack District than
for the past twelve years. The three routes are in good order, and this association is fortunate in
having an enthusiastic Board of Directors who meet regularly every month. The Comox Valley
Cow-testing Association is in better shape than last year, although it is still in need of one or
two more members. Finances are a problem in this district owing to the smaller number of
cows in the average-sized herd. The Langley, Surrey, Sumas-Matsqui, and Richmond-Ladner
(two routes) Associations are operating efficiently and with good results. The associations at
Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge, Vancouver Island South, Salmon Arm, and the Okanagan are all
short of members.
TESTING  CENTRES.
A trip was made into the Inonoaklin Valley during September as the result of a request
from the Farmers' Institute in that district.    Following a well-attended meeting, a number of-
dairymen were called on with a view to getting their co-operation in forming a testing centre.    A
sufficient number having been obtained, instruction was given to the man delegated to do the
testing, and an outfit was sent in from the Coast.
CERTIFICATES OF PRODUCTION.
The system of certification of records that meet with the requirements is playing a very
important part in advertising the value of C.T.A. work. In comparing results from auction
sales it is very noticeable that members of Cow-testing Associations obtain a much better average
price for their cows with certified records than those selling animals of unknown producing
ability.
More than 2,000 milking-periods have been completed during 1930 which qualify for certification. This is an increase of 32 per cent, over the number reported for 1929, which brings the
total of records certified during the last three years to 5,000.
The monthly allowances to associations have been continued and during the year $10,085
was so disbursed by this Department.
For the first year since 1910 no official testers have been supplied or vouched for by this
Branch. This would indicate that the Dominion semi-official record, or, as it is known, Record
of Performance, is filling the needs of breeders of pure-bred dairy cattle.
To enable breeders and others to secure as early as possible authentic information as to
the performance of the daughters of a dairy sire, there is being instituted by the Dairy Branch
a record of pure-bred sires which it is hoped and believed will prove in a very few years to
be of immense value. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 23
It is proposed in April of each year to compile from R.O.P. and C.T.A. records, for the year
recently elapsed, details of the performance of daughters and of their dams (when with records)
of pure-bred sires used in British Columbia. These details will be assembled and brought to
common bases for comparison and then posted to the credit of the sire in question.
In the late summer or early fall the summarized results will be issued for the information
of breeders.
CREAM-GRADERS' LICENCE COURSE.
The course for 1930 was held at the building formerly occupied by the Arctic Ice Cream
Company at the corner of Gore Avenue and Railway Street, Arancouver. Seventeen attended,
eight for testing-work only. Nine successfully passed the cream-graders' licence examinations
and were duly issued licences. At the time of the cream-graders' course there is held also a
course for intending supervisors of Cow-testing Associations. From these applicants a knowledge
of testing is required and, in addition, familiarity with the calculations and compilations employed in the carrying-out of Cow-testing Association routine. Three attended for this work—■
two successfully.
LICENCES.
Testers.—During the year fifteen applicants were examined. Seventy-two licences were
issued.
Cream-graders.—Forty-six licences to cream-graders were issued. Two were single licences;
forty-four were combined cream-graders' and milk-testers' licences.
Dairy and Creamery.—To forty-eight persons, firms, companies, or associations buying milk
or cream on the basis of the butter-fat content, licences were issued.
POULTRY BRANCH.
Mr. J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner, reports that with average seasonable weather
during the spring months most of the hatching took place during the normal incubating period
of March, April, and May. The business slump, which commenced during the latter part of
1929 owing to excessive stock speculations, did not follow the usual history of such depressions;
instead of there being a rapid drop in the prices of agricultural products and an equal lowering
of feedstuffs, it was found that, contrary to all previous experience, the prices of feedstuff's
remained high, and in some instances went higher for nearly the first half of the year. In the
meantime poultry products—eggs, dressed fowls, breeding stock, chicks, and partly grown
pullets—realized almost cellar prices. Having regard to these circumstances, it is encouraging
to note that the general production of the industry was within 10 per cent, of the previous year,
when prices ranged at a higher level.
Owing to conditions mentioned above, it was noted that the period for marketing adult
fowls was advanced by at least two months. This proceeding undoubtedly assisted in saving
the market prices received from sinking to lower levels than they did.
Towards the fall the prices for feedstuffs became demoralized, but did not drop as quickly
as the prices received by the producers for eggs. The operations of the Canadian Egg Pool
undoubtedly saved the complete demoralization of the market towards the end of the year. The
tariff also assisted in this matter, inasmuch as, without it, many eggs dumped on the market in
the United States would have found their way into the. Province. Perusal of the report for
1929 will show that prognostications there made have proved correct with regard to the enlarged
poultry operations on many farms in the Prairie Provinces. Before the close of the year fowls
located in the grain-growing sections of the North-west were producing large quantities of eggs.
The unusual mild conditions favoured this proceeding.
An increase in the number of heavy-weight fowls kept on the average ranch has to be
recorded. Even on some of the so-called egg-ranches a proportion of about 25 per cent, of the
flock consisted of general-purpose fowls.
EGG PRICES.
Despite the slight decrease in layers of the Province, the export of eggs proved well up to
average. A total of 385 cars was shipped out during the year. A very large proportion of
the exportation-work was carried out by the Provincial Egg Pool. The average price received
for eggs was the lowest in twenty-five years; the nearest approach to this past year's total being
in 1923, when eggs averaged 28 cents.    In 1905 eggs averaged 24% cents.    It should be remem- G 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
bered, however, that prices of feedstuffs were low and that money had more purchasing-power
twenty-five years ago than at present.
In connection with the price of eggs, it is only fair to point out that, with far higher
production from the fowls than obtained twenty-five years ago, many of the eggs produced
nowadays are lower in grade, as far as weight is concerned.    This naturally would help to
deflate prices.
The following is a comparison of prices of eggs (wholesale) from 1905 to 1930, inclusive:—
Cents. Cents.
1905 ; 24%      1918 50
1906 29%      1919 60%
1907 31       1920 57%
1908 31%      1921 39%
1909 33%      1922 32%
1910 34%      1923 28 "
1911  34%      1924 32
1912 41       1925 32 '
1913 35       1926 30
1914 35       1927 29
1915 32%      1928 29
1916 34       1929 30
1917 41 1930 24%
BREEDING OPERATIONS.
Again this year it is to be noted that, coincident with the cold weather experienced in
January and the resultant drop in daily egg yields, the forced sale of breeding stock and pullets
again took place. In many instances these sales were due to lack of capital to purchase feed
on the part of breeders.
As in 1929, results from hatching were perhaps a little above average.
The Provincial Record of Performance Association, which markets it produce co-operatively
and by means of discriminating advertisements, and has worked up a business running to many
thousands annually, again reports an average year. Many sales were made and prices received
were well up to average.
Commercial hatcheries and private breeders report a satisfactory business done. Many of
those supplying chicks and young growing stock for sale are now utilizing what is known as
the battery system of brooding, wherein the chicks are kept indoors in small cages, instead of
being allowed to run outdoors, in many cases over contaminated soil. By this system of brooding many sales were made of chicks from 3 weeks up to 12 weeks of age.
PROVINCIAL POULTRY ASSOCIATION.
The Provincial Poultry Association, again assisted as in the past by the Department grant,
-concluded the year with a total aggregate membership of over 1,800. The Provincial Association
had nearly 200 members scattered throughout the Province. District group shows were again
held throughout the Province and were followed by the Provincial Association Show, which was
held at the same time and place as the Vancouver Fat-stock Show. Shows held during the year
were ten in number. The Provincial Show again had an increased entry, and it is to be noted
that the utility sections were increasingly supported and many new exhibitors were showing.
A special feature of the show this year was the dressed-poultry exhibits; the number of entries
were treble those of last year, and it is pleasing to note that instead of a handful of people
attending the auction sale, as happened in the past, there were several hundred people at the
late show.
In co-operation with the Fair management at Vancouver, poultry-judging competitions were
held by the Provincial Association. Boys and girls of 'teen age, from practically all sections of
the Province, were in competition. The first prize was again awarded to a team from the
Northern Interior; this was a Smithers team. Bronze medals were given out to the three competitors in each team.    Additional cash prizes and a silver cup were awarded them.
At the local shows held throughout the Province, particularly at Vancouver, Grand Forks,
Penticton, and  Salmon Arm, juvenile poultry-judging work was carried  out.    In  the senior VERNON BOYS' AND GIRLS' POULTRY CLUB.
Members getting instructions in  killing and plucking their surplus cockerels.    They
exhibit their flocks at local and Provincial Shows at Vancouver.
GRAPE JERSEY CALF CLUB,   CHILLIWACK,  1930.  DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 25
judging competition the winners came by motor-car a distance of 60 miles. Over 200 children
entered the competitions for fowl-judging and the judging of eggs, the latter contests being under
the supervision of the Dominion Egg Inspector for the district.
An aggregate of 100 clubs, being five below the number organized last year, has to be
recorded. Many clubs were again organized in the Northern Interior. On the whole, the
hatching results showed an improvement over the year previous. In many of the districts the
eggs shipped had to be handled by several transportation companies before reaching the final
destinations. The Okanagan District led with the greatest number of clubs—twenty-nine; of
which number fourteen clubs were located in and around Armstrong. The Northern Interior
and Kootenay Districts closely followed in the total of clubs in their locations.
A total of 9,776 eggs was supplied to 752 members. This is the highest number of eggs
ever distributed in one year through the Boys' and Girls' Poultry Club work. The higher total
is due to the fact that more of the clubs this year had more than the minimum number of
members. A little over one-third of the eggs supplied were from the Barred Rock breed and
about a quarter of the total were Rhode Island Reds; other breeds being White Wyandottes,
White Leghorns, Buff Orpingtons, and Light Sussex.
TURKEYS.
A banner year is to be recorded as far as the rearing of turkeys was concerned. Breeders
were again favoured with a low average rainfall, and with an increase in daily sunshine recorded
during the rearing period mortality was below the average. Practically all parts of the Province recorded increased flocks, with good rearing conditions during the spring months. A few
breeders are now keeping other than stock of the Mammoth Bronze variety. Of the new breeds
taken up the Narragansetts are to be noted. An increase is also to be recorded in the White
Holland variety. Marketing conditions during the Christmas season were not as favourable as
in recent years; the business depression naturally had an effect on the demand for this class
of fowl. The additional birds raised in the Province, and tens of thousands shipped in from
the Prairies, more or less demoralized the market before the Christmas holidays and prices
reached as low an ebb as they did two or three years back, when the invasion of Prairie turkeys
first commenced.
On all occasions possible we have brought to the attention of Provincial turkey-breeders the
necessity of close culling and the importance of producing the highest class of stock if they wish
to make their work profitable. To show that many breeders are recognizing these essentials, a
movement is on foot for what is known as the Record of Merit or Turkey Approval project being
established in the Province here as soon as possible, under Dominion auspices. Turkey-killing
demonstrations were given at five different points in the Cariboo country just previous to the
Christmas holidays by members of the Branch. The weather was all that could be desired and
our meetings averaged over forty farmers in attendance.
The first turkey-show ever held in the Province was organized at Duncan in November by
the Cowichan Turkey-breeders' Association. Breeders from all over the Island and Lower
Mainland sent entries. Nearly 100 specimens of high-class stock, including Bronze, Narragan-
sett, White, and Bourbon Red turkeys, were on exhibit. The association was assisted financially
by the Provincial Turkey-breeders' Association and also the Provincial Poultry Association. It
is likely the event will be an annual one and at succeeding shows it is intended to have classes
especially for dressed turkeys, the same being auctioned off at the close of the show. The
British Columbia Turkey Club has carried on its good work during the year, and with many of
its members in favour of Flock Approval it is evident that an improvement should be manifest.
WATER-FOWL.
During the year the price for water-fowl of all kinds showed a slight recession. At Christmas-time many geese and ducks were marketed, the average price being around 25 cents per
pound for both classes of fowl. The Toulouse geese still proved the most popular variety, with
Embden and African classes still being kept in many centres.
RABBITS.
This class of live stock has held its own fairly well during the present slump; while there
are not so many specimens being sold at high record figures as obtained a few years back, yet
good prices are being realized for quality stock.    During the year and possibly for some time G 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
to come yet there will be a good market for wool rabbits in the Orient. Several hundreds of
animals were exported to Japan during the season at fairly good prices. The class of rabbit
desired is what is known as Angora Woollers. The Provincial and local rabbit societies held
several shows at Coast points during the year and reported success. Each of these associations
received a grant from the Department towards the payment of judges' expenses.
WORLD'S POULTRY CONGRESS.
In connection with the Fourth World's Poultry Congress, which was held at the Crystal
Palace, London, England, the Department, at the request of the Federal authorities, formed a
Provincial Congress Committee, which embraced several phases of the industry. The best of
the commercial and exhibition flocks in the Province were culled and specimens of the highest
quality were finally selected.
Although sent the longest distance of any in the Dominion, the birds from this Province were
the only ones accepted 100 per cent, by the Dominion Selection Committee.. Sixty-three birds
were shipped, and of this total fourteen birds were sold in London to all parts of the world.
In addition to the shipments of live fowls, the Department exhibited a Provincial stall at
the Palace, at which all agricultural products of an exportable nature were shown, including
eggs, fish by-products, clam-shell, flower-seed, all kinds of fruits, and timber.
The Department also assisted financially the Provincial Egg Pool with their exhibit, and the
British Columbia R.O.P. Association were provided free quarters, free transportation of exhibit,
and erection of stalls.
An average of 12,000 persons visited the Congress daily and hundreds of visitors registered
at the British Columbia stall. The major interest seemed to be shown in the specimens of timber
and fruit exhibited. The Congress was voted the best ever held and of inestimable assistance to
the whole world's poultry industry.
POULTRY PROGRESS.
Poultry flocks have increased considerably in a number of districts, especially Armstrong,
Salmon Arm, the Bulkley and Nechako Valleys. Prices for eggs and dressed poultry were fairly
well maintained during the fall and early winter months, and those who had good production at
that time, with properly equipped plants and strong healthy stock, report a favourable season
owing to the lower price of grain, especially where grown locally. There is still evidence of
carelessness in handling methods and outbreaks of disease are often traceable to lack of
knowledge or slipshod methods. There seems to be a tendency to grow more heavy-weights and
also in some sections a better-finished dressed bird is procurable. Numerous breeders expressed
a wish for increased production, but the opportunity was taken to emphasize caution in this
respect, as it is generally conceded that markets at certain seasons of the year are somewhat
limited. We have also emphasized the need of extreme care in marketing dressed poultry, as
such markets are only built up by a supply of well fattened and finished birds. Turkeys have
increased, and here again is seen a marked improvement in the condition of the dressed turkeys
as displayed for sale. Prices were somewhat lower, largely due to financial conditions, but also
to the increase in Prairie turkeys offered for sale. Here also we see a marked improvement in
the quality of the turkeys sent in from outside, making much more serious competition than
heretofore to Provincial-grown stock.
In Central British Columbia there is shown" a marked improvement in the quality of all
breeds of poultry and also in methods of caring for same, although numerous instances came to
our notice of birds that lacked exercise and properly balanced rations, a great many birds
showing a too-fat condition for profitable production.
DISEASES.
Bacillary white diarrhoea was present during the early hatching season and appeared to be
most prevalent amongst large flocks of young chicks. This Division desires to reiterate its
previous observations regarding this disease and so-called new diseases, such as fowl paralysis
and bronchitis. Where disease-resistant stock is kept, sanitary surroundings maintained, stock
well fed and continuously culled, and the young birds reared on clean soil, very little trouble
should arise. Members of this Division have ample opportunity during their visits where the
trouble has broken out to note that in the majority of cases the trouble could have been pre- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 27
vented. Many beginners make the fatal mistake of purchasing so-called breeding stock at
auctions and sales, with the result that in about 80 per cent, of the cases unsuitable birds,
oftentimes diseased, are purchased.
Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs have again increased in numbers, and in a great many
instances have proved their worth by assisting in bringing to the attention of the parents, by
observation (followed up by remarks and information given by the Poultry Instructor acting as
scorer), the advantage of heavy laying stock.
We also find that where dairying, poultry, and hogs have been made a system of mixed
farming, when handled in a businesslike systematic manner, a reasonable amount of profit can
be expected from each particular branch of this system.
An endeavour is being made to give greater assistance to the poultrymen throughout the
Province by linking up the district agricultural staff with the routine work of the Branch.
JUNIOR LIVE STOCK CLUBS.
There were twenty-two Swine Clubs with a membership of 244, and 440 pigs entered. The
Province this year paid $432.62 as their one-third of the prize-money for Boys' and Girls'
Swine Club work.
The results of the judging of the pigs in the Boys' and Girls' Swine Clubs in the Province
for 1930 are as follows :—
1. Armstrong " A." 12. Richmond.
2. Jaffray. 13. Grand Forks.
3. Baynes Lake. 14. Invermere.
4. Agassiz. 15. Chilliwack.
5. Langley. 16. Kersley.
6. Armstrong " B." 17. Bulkley Valley.
7. Fernie. 18. Comox.
8. Terrace. 19. Salmon Arm.
9. Kamloops. 20. Coombs.
10. Cranbrook. 21. Nakusp.
11. Midway. 22. Lumby.
The Sheep and Swine Division of the Dominion Live Stock Branch kindly assisted by
attending to the placing of the clubs. They also assisted with special prize-money. As a result
of the keen interest taken by the Federal Sheep and Swine Promoter for British Columbia, all
Federal prize-money was forwarded to the boys and girls immediately upon the completion of
the contest.
A special endeavour was made to encourage the retaining within the districts for breeding
purposes of all young gilts of quality for breeding purposes. This endeavour met with marked
success, and it is felt that we have perhaps laid the foundation in many communities for some
good swine-breeding.
There were thirty-five Boys' and Girls' Calf Clubs in 1930, as compared with ten clubs in
1929, with a total membership this year of 311. The Provincial Department of Agriculture paid
two-thirds of the prize-money and the local organization the other one-third. The amount of
prize-money paid this year by the Department for Boys' and Girls' Calf Club work was $1,322.52.
At the Canadian Pacific Exhibition, Vancouver, August 15th, a stock-judging competition
was held, with eleven teams competing. First place went to the Armstrong Club " A " team,
made up of Mat Hassen, Jr., James McCallan, and Kingsley Game. Second place went to the
Midway team, made up of Daniel Bolts, Christina Brew, and Walter Madge. Third place went
to the Salmon Arm team, made up of Ross McLeod, Arthur Sladen, and Donald Martin.
Through the courtesy of this Department the Armstrong Club " A " team later competed at
the stock-judging competition held at the Pacific International Live Stock Exposition, Portland,
Oregon. Forty teams from various counties in the States of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Nevada competed. The contestants were required to judge the following classes
of live stock: Holstein cows; Jersey cows; Shorthorn heifers; Hereford heifers; Southdown
ewe lambs; Hampshire ewes; Duroc Jersey gilts; and Poland China gilts. There were four
animals in each class and the contestants were required to place each class and give oral reasons
on one class which corresponded to their club project. The British Columbia team, being
members of the Armstrong Beef Calf Club, gave reasons on the Hereford heifer class. G 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The British Columbia team was placed third with 2,298 points, 7 points behind the second
team from Coos County, Washington, and 37 points behind the winning team from Cassia
County, Idaho.
James McCallan, of Armstrong, B.C., was the high-scoring individual, with 846 points. He
lost only 30 points from a perfect score on placings. All members of the team made perfect
placings in Hereford cattle and Southdown sheep. The O. M. Plummer scholarship of $25 went
to James McCallan as high-scoring individual.
ELIMINATION CONTESTS.
Twelve teams took part in the Canadian Pacific Railway competition and five in the Canadian National Railways competition. The first place in the Canadian Pacific Railway competition went to the Kamloops team, second to the Invermere team, third to the Fernie team, fourth
to the Cranbrook team, and fifth to the Jaffray team. Hilbert de Lleuw and Ernest Houghton
comprised the winning Canadian Pacific Railway team.
The Armstrong team won first place in the Canadian National Railways competition, Telkwa
second, Richmond third, Langley fourth, and Chilliwack fifth. Arthur Nash and AVilliam Perry
made up the Armstrong team. The Telkwa team made a very good showing, especially Ray
Wakefield, who tied for first place, in the Canadian National Railways competition.
A number of commercial organizations took a keen interest in the competition and gave
every assistance to those in charge.
Club-work in the Fraser A'alley took a great deal of the time of the New AA7estminster office.
The District Agriculturist supported eighteen Calf Clubs with a membership of 161 and four
Swine Clubs with a membership of thirty-one. Four of these Calf Clubs were pure-breds and
the remainder were high-class grades. Included in these were two Yearling Heifer Clubs that
had been Calf Clubs the previous year. It is the idea of this Division to carry these yearling
heifers on as two-year-olds and arrange for them to enter in a Cow-testing Association. It is
believed that this should give training to the boys and girls in the work of developing and
handling high-producing dairy cattle.
PLANT INDUSTRY DIVISION.
Many of the tables and compilations which formerly appeared as appendices in the annual
report have been included in the statistical report issued by this Department. Information
dealing with fruit surveys, inspection of horticultural products, etc., will be found with other
data in the Appendix to this report according to returns made by Mr. W. H. Robertson,
Director of Plant Industry.
HORTICULTURAL BRANCH.
TREE-FRUITS.
The Coast districts of A'ancouver Island and the Lower Fraser Valley are not heavy tree-
fruit-producing sections. On the whole, the tree-fruits produced in this area in 1930 were lighter
than the previous year. In the Okanagan Horticultural District the fruit-crop was heavier than
in 1929. Mr. M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist, in his report for 1930, makes the following
statement:—
" Apples were about 20 per cent, heavier than in 1929, but only about 90 per cent, of 1928.
The size of the fruit was fairly good, with the possible exception of some of the drier orchards,
where the fruits ran smaller than usual. Colour was not quite up to the standard, also owing
to the dry season. Much of the earlier fruits were picked too green and immature. Marketing
was fairly good during the early soft-fruit season, but gradually fell off as the general depression
and crop-marketing conditions on the Prairie became serious. Much of the movement in apples
this year has been in bulk cars; a larger percentage of the crop than usual is now in storage in
the valley. Pears, crab-apples, plums, prunes, and peaches gave good yields and the total
production was about the same as last year. Cherries were somewhat lighter, and apricots were
fully two-thirds lighter than last year."
In so far as the Kootenays are concerned, Mr. E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, reports an
excellent crop of sweet cherries, which, while somewhat smaller than last year, was of good
quality. Pears were about the same as in 1929. With regard to apples in this section, the
following is quoted from Mr. Hunt's report:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 29
" Although all figures on production have not been completed, indications are that the total
apple-crop produced in the Kootenay Horticultural District will show about 12 per cent, increase
over the 1929 production. Most of this increase will be from the Creston District, where a very
heavy crop of Mcintosh, Wealthy, and Delicious were produced this year. Grand Forks will
also show a slight increase over their 1929 tonnage, while the rest of the Kootenay will have a
decided decrease from last year. Very few complete returns on prices have been made on
apples, but the general opinion among growers and shippers is that the net returns will be
considerably less than that received in 1929. The movement of the apple-crop from the district
has been fair up to this time. However, there are considerably more cars on hand to move
than at this time last year."
GRAPES.
The growing of grapes in the Okanagan and particularly in the Kelowna District is becoming
of increasing importance. Mr. B. Hoy, District Agriculturist, for Kelowna, makes the following
comments regarding the present and future possibilities of the industry:—
" There are now approximately 100 acres of grapes in the Kelowna District and prospects
look bright for the future. One hundred and fifty tons of grapes were shipped from this district.
The greater part of this production came from the original 25 acres planted about five years ago.
" Although a young industry, unsuitable varieties are already being eliminated. All the
Lindley and Herberts and some of the Agawam will be removed this winter. Of the newer
grapes, Portland gives promise; and of the older varieties, Niagara, Moore's Diamond, Concord,
and Campbell's Early are proving to be heavy yielders and excellent in quality.
" The two previous severe winters and the late spring frosts of 1930 did no material damage
to the grape vineyards. Having withstood these severe tests, grape-growing can be, in the
writer's opinion, considered a safe industry in good locations from a production standpoint."
SMALL FRUITS.
The strawberry-crop on the whole was very short. As an instance it should be pointed out
that Vancouver Island shipped only sixteen car-loads, as against thirty-nine in 1929 and forty-
eight in 1928. The same situation prevailed in other districts, with the result that while prices
were better than the previous year the total returns were smaller. The growers, however, who
had berries in storage under the control of the Berry Processors, Limited, secured returns for
their berries which justified the assistance given them by the Government in the previous year.
The crop of raspberries and blackberries was also light, while, on the other hand, the crop yield
of loganberries was satisfactory.
VEGETABLES.
Hothouse vegetable prices were on the whole not satisfactory, although there is a gradual
expansion of this section of the vegetable industry.    Broccoli-growing on Vancouver Island this
year was practically a failure, due to severe winter conditions.    In all sections of the Province
there is an increase in the production of vegetables, while the contracted acreage for canning
vegetables compares favourably with other years.    The following figures give some idea of the
approximate canning acreage :  Peas, 2,700 acres ;  corn, 1,200 acres ;  beans, 600 acres ;   tomatoes,
4,000 acres.    Amongst other vegetable-crops  that are becoming of increasing importance are
onions, lettuce, celery, asparagus, etc.    A survey made of the asparagus plantings shows the
following acreage:—                                                                                                           Total Producing
Acreage. Acreage.
Vancouver Island     22 20
Fraser Aralley—
Pitt Meadows to Dewdney     12 5
Rosedale to South AVestminster      17 10
Ladner and Lulu Island      15 8
Burnaby, etc     12 6
Okanagan Valley—
Kamloops to Osoyoos    28 28
Kootenay—
Kootenay and Arrow Lakes, Grand Forks, and Creston      5 5
Totals  Ill 82 G 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The above figures are compiled from estimated figures submitted by District Horticulturists.
It would seem as if the production of this particular crop might be increased in view of its
value in making up mixed cars and also from the standpoint of its value for canning purposes.
TOBACCO.
Very little of this crop was grown in the Okanagan Valley.    The largest plantings were in
the Sumas area of the Fraser Valley.    The approximate acreage for the Province was 220 acres.
The major portion of this industry at present is being handled by a couple of firms on a large
scale, and in this way is likely to be more remunerative than if undertaken by small growers.
HOPS.
The plantings of this crop are in the Fraser Aralley. Mr. G. E. AV. Clarke, District Horticulturist, reports as follows:—
" The acreage in hops was reduced to a marked degree this year, nearly 200 acres in the
Sardis District being ploughed out, together with about 100 acres in Agassiz. Present prospects
are that it is unlikely that replanting will take place. The reduction in acreage is due in part
probably to downy mildew, but principally to the cost of production and the present market
situation. Approximately 1,000 acres in this crop are for the most part of recent planting and
are in full bearing. The yields this year were on the whole good, and the downy mildew was
not as heavy an infestation as has been experienced."
SEEDS AND BULBS.
The production of both flower and vegetable seeds is gradually increasing. The larger
growers are showing an interest in the securing of elite seed stocks for the building-up of satisfactory strains, which speaks well for the future of the industry. Every encouragement should
be given to this work, although it should be pointed out to those making inquiry that it takes
time to secure experience and establish sales connections.
Growth of a satisfactory nature is also noted in the development of the bulb industry.
Undoubtedly more attention will be paid in the future to the production of bulbs for sale rather
than from the standpoint of cut flowers. A move which speaks well for the future is an attempt
on the part of the growers to form an organization to represent their interests as a whole.
TREE AND SMALL-FRUIT SURVEYS.
A tree-fruit survey of the Okanagan and Kootenay Horticultural Districts was completed
this year. The figures showing the acreage have not yet been compiled, but will be completed
and ready for distribution early in 1931.
In co-operation with the Statistics Branch a survey of the small-fruit areas was carried out.
This survey is made every two years and the figures compiled this year show a total acreage in
small fruits in the Province of 4,813 acres, as compared with 5,756 acres in 1928, a reduction of
943 acres. For details regarding the acreage devoted to the different small fruits in the different
districts see Statistics Bulletin, 1930.
PRUNING SCHOOLS AND DEMONSTRATIONS.
During the past year pruning schools and demonstrations were held in various sections of
the Province. Reports show five schools with an attendance of forty-six pupils and twenty-nine
demonstrations were held with an attendance of 345. AVhile the totals in both cases are not as
high as in the previous year, it does, I believe, indicate that their value is still appreciated by
the growers.
FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATION PLOTS.
The importance of this work has been realized for a long time, but it was only this year
that it was made a distinct feature of departmental work and placed in charge of one official.
The following is an extract from the report of Mr. P. C. Black, who is in charge of this work:—
" Early in February of this year your Assistant was transferred from the office of District
Agriculturist at Grand Forks to the Field Crops Branch, Victoria, receiving the appointment of
Assistant Field Crops Commissioner.
" The duties of your Assistant are concerned with soils, fertilizers, and fodder-crops, and
involve a general supervision of soil-treatment, experimental work with commercial fertilizers,
and the encouragement of increased production of various fodder-crops for live stock. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 31
" For some years past the Provincial Department of Agriculture has been carrying on a
limited series of field tests with various combinations of commercial fertilizers. This year it
was deemed advisable to continue this experimental work on an extended scale. A considerable
tonnage of triple superphosphate, ammonium phosphate, and a certain quantity of ' complete'
fertilizer for experimental purposes was supplied^ and a programme was inaugurated involving
between sixty and seventy field tests with these fertilizers, the intention being to conduct these
tests over a period of three years. The results obtained over such a period, it was felt, should,
in the aggregate, give fairly definite information regarding the application of these fertilizers.
" These fertilizer tests were conducted on a variety of crops, including tree-fruits, tomatoes,
potatoes, mangels, sugar-beets, onions, cantaloupes, grain, cannery peas, ensilage corn, alfalfa,
and other fodder-crops. These projects involved a variety of soils covering a wide range of
country, including Vancouver Island, the Fraser Valley, North and South Okanagan, the
Koot'enays, and certain portions of Central British Columbia.
" The tests undertaken were on a commercial scale; plots on the various hoed crops being
% acre each, cannery peas 5 acres each, grain 2 acres, and alfalfa 1 acre in each plot.
" With the assistance of the various District Representatives of the Department an effort
was made to select, in each district, farmers who would co-operate with the Department in
carrying on the fertilizer tests in a careful and thorough manner throughout the growing season,
accurately weigh or measure the crop produced, and submit to the Department a detailed report
of the results obtained from the application of the various fertilizers.
" It is gratifying to be able to say that out of the sixty-six projects undertaken, reports have
been received from sixty-three of these. This is a very satisfactory showing in view of the fact
that, owing to the short time available when the experiments were being planned at the beginning
of the season, it was difficult to select experimenters who could be absolutely relied upon to carry
on the work to a definite conclusion in every instance. The lure of ' free fertilizer' is apt to
attract a certain number of farmers who are very enthusiastic when undertaking these experimental tests in the spring, but whose interest declines when it is necessary, during the rush of
ordinary farm-work, to carefully weigh the resultant crop on the various test-plots. Taking this
fact into consideration, the number of experimenters who ' fell down ' in the tests is surprisingly
small."
It is considered advisable before issuing a report dealing with the results of this work that
it be continued for another year or two at least.
FODDER-CROP COMPETITIONS.
These competitions were undertaken for the first time this year. Mr. P. C. Black, who is
in charge of this work, reports as follows:—
" Appreciating the fact that in the various districts on Vancouver Island where live stock is
kept there is not, as a rule, sufficient attention being paid to growing succulent fodder-crops to
supplement the lack of pasturage which usually prevails during the summer and early autumn
months on the Island, a fodder-crop competition among the members of the various Farmers'
Institutes was inaugurated this season. The idea of this competition was more particularly to
encourage the growing of fall-sown fodder-crops like winter oats, wheat, vetches, etc. These
crops do especially well under favourable conditions on Vancouver Island and provide a large
amount of succulent feed at a time when the pastures are beginning to suffer from drought. As
an inducement for the members of Farmers' Institutes to take part in this fodder-crop competition, the Department of Agriculture is offering a grant of $25 to each institute, with the understanding that the institute contributes $5 in addition. This amount of $30 is to be divided into
five prizes, as follows: First prize, $10; second prize, $8; third prize, $6; fourth prize, $4;
fifth prize, $2.
" It has been suggested that instead of cash prizes pieces of silverware or other prizes may
be awarded the contestants.   This, however, is being left at the discretion of each institute.
" In addition to these prizes the Department has supplied 500 lb. of fertilizer per acre to
each one entering the competition. The prizes will be awarded to the contestants growing the
greatest amount of fodder on 1 acre of land.
" An effort was made to secure the co-operation of most, if not all, of the Island Farmers'
Institutes. Two of these institutes, one at Saanichton and the other at Nanaimo, were all that
could be induced to enter this competition this year. It is hoped to secure greater co-operation
next season. G 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Six contestants from each of the Saanichton and Nanaimo Farmers' Institutes are taking
part in this contest, and all of the acre plots seeded this fall were looking well when last visited
by your Assistant, and give promise of good results this coming season. A mixture of wheat
and spring vetches has been sown on practically all of the plots at the following rates of seeding:
60 lb. of wheat and 40 lb. vetches per acre."
ArARIETY TEST-PLOTS.
Strawberries.—As pointed out in the 1929 report, it seemed advisable to try out a few
varieties of strawberries which appeared commercially promising. Last year, therefore, several
varieties, the three most important of which are Aroma, British Sovereign, and No. 122, were
distributed throughout the Province. 1930 was their first cropping-year and reports dealing with
these varieties in detail have been received. Naturally there is a variation in the results
obtained. The value of this work, however, lies in the fact that it is possible to ascertain the
value of certain varieties for different districts. As far as possible, an attempt will be made to
again check up on the varieties during the coming season.
Phenomenal Celery.—This trial plot was under the supervision of Mr. H. H. Evans, District
Agriculturist, Vernon.    He reports as follows:—
" This was grown and tested by O. M. Lane at Armstrong. Three seedings were made—
namely, early, medium, and late crop—and were tested along with Golden Plume and Improved
Paris Golden Self Blanching. Vitality of seed and plants was excellent. Seeded and planted
one week later than Golden Plume in the early crop, the Phenomenal had stepped ahead of the
Plume in the first month of field growth, the difference being quite noticeable. In height this
was maintained. At the banking period the Plume showed heavier stalk-development and more
stockiness. At harvest this was more apparent; the Phenomenal strain was a longer head, but
not as solid or heavy as the Plume strain. We also found at this time that the Phenomenal
wilted much quicker than the Plume if kept out of water. The experience was duplicated in
the medium and late crops against Paris Golden. In summing up the Golden Phenomenal, I
would state it may find a place in the very early crop movement for washed celery on account
of its taller habit, but do not think it will ever displace Golden Plume and Paris Golden for later
crops in the Armstrong District."
Seed-test Work.—Mr. B. Hoy and Mr. H. H. Evans, District Agriculturists at Kelowna and
A^ernon respectively, who carried out this work, make the following reports:—
" English seed of AVhite Spanish and Yellow Globe onions were given out to growers to grow
onions which are to be saved for spring planting. The seed from these bulbs to be sent to
England for testing. We believe no better onion-seed can be produced anywhere than in the
Okanagan. The sale of Okanagan onion-seed is increasing in Eastern Canada, and if we can
produce the varieties required for England at a profitable price there is no reason why this
industry should not expand."
Mr. Evans makes the following report on the work conducted at Arernon:—
" A quantity of imported seed of Improved Yellow Globe and Improved White Spanish was
furnished this office last spring through Mr. AV. H. Robertson, Director of Plant Industry, with a
request that we endeavour to have the seed sown for production of bulbs for seed purposes.
Arrangements were made with a grower in the Vernon District to conduct this work. Owing to
the late date of seeding and extreme water-shortage through the growing season the plots
developed poorly. We harvested and have stored in the Vernon Fruit Union warehouse five
sacks of the Yellow Globe and fifteen sacks of AVhite Spanish. These will be sorted throughout
the winter for rots and culled in the spring for planting stock.
" Samples of improved strains of Red Cored Chantenay carrot, Improved Detroit Dark Red
beet, and Golden Phenomenal celery were supplied us by Mr. A. McMeans, Dominion Seed
Inspector, of Arancouver, B.C., with a request that same be tested if possible in this district. The
beet and carrot seed were tested by J. Mutrie and I-I. H. Evans against common strains of the
same varieties. Following are the observations made: Germination period equal; vitality of
seedling as judged by growth in the first four-week period gave the improved strains preference. There was no difference in date of either variety or strain in fitness for table use. The
Red Cored Chantenay carrot was much superior in interior colour than the common strain; of
100 carrots cut of each strain, the Red Core averaged a smaller core throughout, with only 9
per cent, showing light-coloured cores. The common strain cores were larger and coarser, with
28 per cent, showing very light core colour and only 40 per cent, showing good colour. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 33
" The Improved Detroit beet appeared a little smoother in form than the common strain and
a more uniform deep colour. Fifty beets of each strain were cut for white ringing; the
Improved strain showed only 4 per cent, and common strain 8 per cent. Some of each strain
were canned in glass sealers when beets were 1% to 1% inches in diameter. This test was in
favour of the Improved strain, as when used over a three-month period they have shown a deeper
and more uniform colour. This point is no doubt one result of close selection in the Improved
strain.    Neither the carrots nor beets are yet definitely set as regards uniform inside colour."
DISEASE AND PEST-CONTROL WORK.
Potato-beetle (Lcptinotarsa decemlineata).—The area under control extends from Fernie in
the east to Kuskonook in the west and from the United States boundary between these two points
north to Invermere and Edgewater. The following are extracts from the report of Mr. F. A.
Marsack, who had charge of this work during the past season:—
" No known new infestations have occurred this year to the north beyond Edgewater or to
the east beyond Fernie. To the west, beyond AVynndel, between there and Sirdar, four new
infestations have been found, which were evidently there last year but were unnoticed and
unreported.    These have been looked after this season.
" In the north country between Fairmont and Edgewater, where last year, 1929, there were
nineteen new infestations scattered over a large area of country, this year, 1930, only seven have
been found, the others being entirely wiped out by constant inspection, control methods, and the
co-operation of the growers. There are two Indian reserves in this district. The individual
Indian families all having some acreage of potatoes, they, when the seriousness of the pest is
pointed out to them, are just as keen to get rid of the beetle as the white man.
" In the newly infested area, where beetles have not been before, there is a chance of complete eradication, as has been proved in the last few years, but only if one hears or finds out in
time before the beetles have got a good hold; by the investigator doing the work himself and
having the co-operation of the grower or growers.
" In the older infested areas the only result one can hope for is to effect a control so that a
crop of potatoes can be obtained.
" The pest could be eradicated if the dusting was done thoroughly by every grower and at
the right times. There has been no trouble of any kind with growers; all are anxious to do
their bit in the control or eradication of the pest, but it so often happens that a grower will try
to make one dusting do in order to get a commercial crop of potatoes, in consequence of which
some of the grubs have become full-grown and gone to earth to pupate when dusting is done, and
are not killed, but left to emerge into adult beetles three weeks after going to earth. These
adults will stay around till fall, some few of them laying eggs, but in any case will burrow
deep into the ground for the winter, coming up in the spring to start their propagation-work over
again. The ha5'ing season comes on when the second dusting should be done, and fourteen
days from the time the eggs hatch out till the time the grubs have reached maturity and
dropped to earth is a very short time.
" The control-work in 1930 has been most successful, and although more dust has been used
than formerly, this is accounted for by the extra-heavy foliage of the vines and by the increased
acreage, there being 600 acres in 1929 and 780 acres in 1930.
" AVhen potato-beetles become scarce from constant control, growers, if not visited, are
inclined to pay less attention to them, giving them a chance to again increase in numbers.
" A careful watch will have to be kept on the Nelson District next summer, as one adult
beetle was found this season south of the town."
As this is the only area in the Province where the potato-beetle is found, it would seem
advisable, if at all possible, that the work be continued.
San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus).—San Jose scale is found only at one point in the
Province and that is in the vicinity of Spences Bridge. The plan adopted in 1929 for handling
this infestation was put into effect again this year. Mr. C. R. Barlow, Assistant District Agriculturist, who has carried out the work in this area for a number of years, makes the following
report:—
" The orchards at Spences Bridge in which San Jose scale had occurred remained free from
the pest again this year. Following an application of sodium arsenite last year to the wild
growth on which the scale persisted, only a very few weak shoots remained alive upon the red
3 G 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
willow. On inspection during the summer no scale could be discovered upon these, but nevertheless they were again sprayed with sodium arsenite and are now apparently completely killed.
It may now be presumed that the pest has been eradicated, but it will be advisable to carry out
periodical inspections, both of the orchards and wild growth, in order to guard against the
possible reappearance of the pest."
Codling-moth (Cydia pomonella).—The codling-moth control-work conducted this year was
very similar to that undertaken in previous years. The town areas of Kelowna, Vernon, and
Kamloops were sprayed, as well as a section of North Kamloops. In addition the Okanagan
Landing and part of the B.X. area adjacent to Arernon were given necessary sprays. All of these
areas have been constituted codling-moth control areas and the cost of this work is recoverable
through the Provincial Assessor's office. Certificates and details of cost have been forwarded
to this office for collection. There is only one area—namely, the B.X.-Okanagan Landing area—
which may be considered as commercial. It would seem advisable that these non-commercial
areas be dropped in so far as the departmental spraying is concerned, and that the towns themselves assume the responsibility for the carrying-out of this work. This they are enabled to
do under that section of the "Municipal Act" dealing with codling-moth and other fruit-insects.
If such action were taken it would undoubtedly give a number of your field officials a great deal
more time to be devoted to the problems of actual production.
Club-root of Cabbage (Plasmodiophora brassicw).—This is work which your officials started
in 1929 in co-operation with Dominion officials. The details of this work as undertaken in 1930
are given in the report of Mr. H. H. Evans, District Agriculturist at Vernon, and which
follows:—
" In conjunction with G. E. Woolliams, of the Dominion Pathological Branch at Summerland,
and E. Keevil, of Armstrong, work on the club-root plots commenced in 1929 was continued.
The original limed plot of 1929 was continued without further liming. A second plot was added
this spring, being treated with a German product known as ' Lithosolfabrik,' being a compound
containing lime, sulphur, and cyanide. This was mixed with twice its bulk of soil, broadcast on
the ploughed land, and harrowed in May 16th; cabbages were planted on all plots on June
15th and 16th.
" The results as shown in the table below indicate that the lime increased its efficiency in
controlling club-root this season. The proportion of healthy plants increased from 30 per cent,
in 1929 to 45 per cent, this year.
" The German preparation did not show any improvement in controlling the disease. The
amount of infection can be considered about equal to that of the check-plot rather than higher,
as one corner of the check-plot being on higher ground, drainage was better and no club-root
developed.
" Table No. 1.—Percentage of Infection, Root Examination.
Treatment.
Total
Plants
counted.
Healthy
Plants.
Diseased
Plants.
Per Cent.
Diseased.
Limed	
German preparation...
Check (no treatment)
192
251
250
105
81
98
87
170
152
45.3
67.7
60.8
1 Table No. 2.—Count of Heads fit for Commercial Cutting.
Treatment.
Good
Heads.
Worthless
Heads.
Per Cent.
Worthless.
Limed	
German preparation...
Check (no treatment)
150
90
127
36
160
123
19.36
64.00
49.20
" The Ph. values of soil in the plots were determined as follows: Limed plot, 6.2-6.7;
German preparation, 4.5-5.0; check-plot, 5.5-6.0. As the club-root disease is stimulated in acid
soils and inhibited in neutral or alkaline soils, there is here -found the to be expected correlation DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 35
between the number of diseased plants recorded and the Ph. values. The above Ph. readings
were supplied by G. E. Woolliams, Assistant Dominion Pathologist. A study of the two tables
shows the percentage of worthless heads to be in close proportion to the percentage of diseased
plants, with the German product making a poor showing. The limed plot shows fair improvement over 1929, indicating cumulative beneficial effects from the 1929 treatment."
Apple-scab (Venturia inwqualis).—It is not the intention to report fully on this work, which
was a continuation of the work undertaken last year by Mr. E. C. Hunt and Mr. J. AV. Eastham
in the Kootenay districts. A complete report covering all details is submitted in the report
which has been prepared by Mr. J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, and which will be
issued as part of the Departmental Annual Report for 1930.
Perennial Canker (Glwosporium perennans).—In co-operation with the Dominion Pathological Station at Summerland a tree-to-tree survey of all orchards was started in 1929. The
reason for this survey was to ascertain to what extent this disease was present in our orchards.
All districts have now been completed, and the final analysis indicates that 856,227 trees were
inspected and 52,599 trees, or 6.15 per cent., show the disease. All affected trees were marked
and will be inspected again in order to ascertain the spread of the disease. In addition the
Dominion Pathological Division have issued and distributed to all growers a pamphlet dealing
with the disease and the best methods for controlling it.
INSPECTION-WORK.
Nursery Inspection.—The inspection of fruit-trees and shrubs was carried out in all
nurseries in the Province in 1930 in a similar manner to that in which the work was done in
previous years. In certain nurseries the inspection of ornamentals is also undertaken. On the
whole, the nurseries are very free both from insect pests and plant-diseases. A total of 163,887
trees were inspected, of which 3,289, approximately 2 per cent., were condemned and destroyed.
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorous) Inspection.—The usual fire-blight inspection-work was
undertaken in the various fruit districts where fire-blight is found. A total of 15,064 acres were
inspected. The result of this continuous inspection is that fire-blight is becoming considered
less of a menace. This is particularly true on those places where the grower pays close attention
to the cutting-out of the hold-over cankers during the dormant period.
Car Inspection.—In order to prevent the spread of codling-moth through the medium of
fruit-cars, the Horticultural Branch has for a number of years carried out the inspection of these.
cars at divisional and other points.    Similar work was undertaken during the past year, with
the result that 1,663 cars were inspected, and four of these cars, which showed signs of infestation, were superheated.
Inspection of Protection Spraying Zones.—The inspection of the spraying-work in the various
spraying-zones has been carried out by officials as in previous years. This year saw the
formation of several new zones, so that at the present time there are seven zones in operation
with a total of 370 growers. In addition to these zones, which are formed by Order in Council,
there are several municipal areas where spraying-work is undertaken and where our officials
give advice and inspection as required.
Inspection of Imported and Exported Plant Products.—AArherever necessary Horticultural officials have co-operated with the Plant Quarantine Branch in the carrying-out of any
inspection-work required. As all details are forwarded to the head of that Branch, a complete
record will be found in his annual report.
APPLE-STORAGE TESTS.
At the suggestion of Mr. Sanford Evans, who has been making an investigation of the fruit
industry in the Province, a quantity of apples were placed in storage at the Pacific Coast
Terminals, New Westminster. This work was under the supervision of Mr. R. C. Palmer,
Assistant Superintendent, Dominion Experimental Station, Summerland. The officials of our
Department assisted in securing the fruit and also in the pressure-testing work carried out at
various intervals during the storage period. A complete report on this work is being submitted
by Mr. Palmer and will be kept on our files for future reference.
AGRICULTURAL FAIRS AND FLOAA'ER-SHOWS.
Assistance takes the form of acting as judges, preparing or revising prize-lists, and in some
cases assuming the duties of secretary.   Now that our judging is based upon a uniform standard G 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
there is a noticeable improvement in the judging which is undertaken. Since the establishment
also of a common standard with which the exhibitor can become familiar there has been a
marked advance in the general quality of exhibits.
PLANT QUARANTINE BRANCH.
In his report covering the Plant Quarantine Service, Mr. AA\ H. Lyne, Chief Plant Quarantine Officer, states that, complying with regulations under authority of Part II. of the
" Agricultural Act," R.S.B.C. 1924, chapter 8, plant products entering the Province from other
Canadian Provinces and foreign countries were inspected at the several ports where officers for
that purpose were stationed. The reason for such inspection is that of preventing the importation of serious insect pests and plant-diseases detrimental to the horticultural and agricultural
resources of the Province.
QUARANTINE STATIONS.
Quarantine Stations for the inspection of imported plant products other than nursery stock
are situated at the following places: Cranbrook, Fernie, Grand Forks, Huntingdon, Kingsgate,
Nanaimo, Nelson, Newgate, Prince Rupert, Revelstoke, Vancouver, Victoria, Waneta, and AA'hite
Rock. New AA7estminster was served by officers stationed at Arancouver; Douglas and Pacific
Highway by officer at White Rock.
FUMIGATION STATION.
The Government Fumigation Station, situated on Terminal Avenue, Vancouver, between the
C.N. passenger and freight depots, was built in 1923 by the Provincial and Dominion Departments of Agriculture on equal shares.
The building, 100 by 50 feet, hollow tile and cement, with wooden floors and flat roof, is
divided into four rooms, 40 by 24 feet, with four fumigating-chambers in the centre of the
building. An additional section built on to the east end contains the furnace and boiler of the
hot-water heating system and a dipping-tank. It is also used for storing condemned nursery
stock awaiting cremation, etc. A team-track on the south side and railway spur on the north
side accommodate unloading and loading platforms along the whole length of the building.
Besides being utilized for inspecting and fumigating imported nursery stock, the station is
shared by the Dominion Health of Animals Branch for the fumigation of merchandise from
foreign countries containing packing that has not complied with regulations relating to foot-and-
mouth disease, etc. The large rooms are also used to fumigate large quantities of rice, corn,
peas, beans, or other products infested with moth, beetle, weevil, etc., each room accommodating
100 tons.
FUMIGATION AT VICTORIA.
Fumigation of imported plant products at Victoria is confined to rice, corn, peas, beans, etc.,
infested with insect pests, owing to the chamber, which is situated near the Outer Wharf, not
being equipped for use of hydrocyanic-acid gas, with which nursery stock is fumigated. Also
for the reason that the regulations provide for the fumigation of all imported nursery stock at
the Vancouver Fumigation Station, which is properly equipped for that purpose. The other
products, such as rice, etc., are fumigated with carbon bisulphide, which can be used in the
chamber at Victoria.
Formerly two fumigation-chambers were provided at Victoria, but in November last the
smaller of the two was discontinued and the larger one altered to accommodate the work for
the time being.
COMPLIANCE WITH DOMINION AND PROVINCIAL REGULATIONS.
By mutual arrangement between the two Governments the Provincial Plant Quarantine
staff, while complying with our Provincial regulations, also comply with the regulations pertaining to the Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest Act" as regards plant products and
nursery stock imported into this Province, and by way of this Province into other parts of
Canada. By that method duplication and two sets of officials are avoided. The Dominion
regulations also require all consignees to apply to Ottawa for permits to import nursery stock,
without which and the clear inspection certificates no such stock is allowed to clear Customs.
Copies of all such permits are sent from the Division of Foreign Pest Suppression, Ottawa, to
the Vancouver Plant Quarantine Office, where they are checked against the shipments as
they arrive. CHILLIWACK  PURE-BRED GUERNSEY YEARLING  CLUB.  1930.
GATHERING RANGE CATTLE EOR BRANDING  AT COLDSTREAM. IN  THE OKANAGAN VALLEY.  IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK.
On arrival in the Province, nursery stock consisting of all trees, shrubs, plants, and bulbs
was inspected at the Vancouver Fumigation Station, with the exception of certain stock granted
inspection at other points in the Province, for which special permits were obtained, provided
fumigation was not considered necessary.
CERTIFICATES AND FEES.
Clear certificates were issued and fees collected on imported plant products and nursery
stock that passed inspection, and condemnation certificates were issued for that which was
condemned, but for which no fees were charged. Condemned products were returned to the
shipper at his or the consignee's expense or destroyed.
OBSERVATION-LIST.
Certain varieties of imported plant products involving little or no risk regarding injurious
insect pests or plant-disease received a less rigid inspection, for which no certificates were issued
or fees collected. Any such products, however, that might become involved with serious pest or
disease could be reclassed as products subject to rigid inspection and for which certificates would
be issued and fees charged. The tabulated lists of imported products attached to this report
contain the quantity and variety of products and the class to which they belong.
PLANT AND BULB INSPECTION FEES.
In view of the steady development in the commercial propagation of plants, bulbs, and
corms within the Province during the last few years, necessitating a more careful and systematic
inspection of that class of stock imported, it was only fair to start charging inspection fees on
the same principle as for imported trees and shrubs. The regulations prescribed according to
the Provincial " Agricultural Act" having already provided for that procedure, the following
notice was issued and published:—
" On and after April 1st, 1930, inspection fees will be charged on all bulbs, corms, rhizomes,
and perennial roots or plants imported into British Columbia. In order that the person importing high-priced stock should not incur an excessive inspection "fee compared to one who imports
cheaper stock, the inspection fee will be computed on a valuation not exceeding $15 per thousand
for the larger-sized bulbs and corms, such as lily, hyacinth, narcissus, tulip, gladiolus, and
amaryllis. For the smaller bulbs or corms, such as crocus, snowdrop, etc., and perennial roots
or plants, the fee will be based on a value not exceeding $10 per thousand if the invoice value
exceeds that amount."    Fees for strawberry-plants are based on $2.50 per thousand.
Taking into account the very small parcels of bulbs, etc., for which inspection fees would
have to be charged, the lowest minimum fee provided in the regulations was reduced from
50 cents to 25 cents by Order in Council No. 146, February 11th, 1930, and went into effect
April 1st.
MAIL PARCELS AND INSPECTION FEES.
Whereas inspection fees on nursery stock imported via freight or express are advanced by
the transportation company in order to prevent delaying the shipment being sent forward to
destination after having passed inspection, mail parcels must be held until the fee is remitted
by the consignee.
Unfortunately it has never been convenient for the Customs Postal Department to advance
the Provinical inspection fee when the parcels have been returned to that Department for forwarding to destination, or when delivered to the consignee. The only recourse, therefore, is to
notify the consignee and hold the parcel until the fee is remitted, or trust him to remit it after he
has received the parcel; unless the fee is remitted before the parcel arrives, in order to save
delay. Mail parcels held at the Fumigation Station awaiting inspection fee receive all possible
care.
BULB INSPECTION.
Owing to the nature of pest and disease with which many of the imported bulbs and corms
are infested or infected, a great deal of work is incurred in dealing with some of the shipments
in order to avoid wholesale condemnation when the percentage of pest or disease is comparatively small.   It is no easy task to cull out from among several thousand bulbs those infested G 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
with narcissus-fiy larvse, eel-worm nematode, mite, septoria hard-rot, botrytis fire-disease,
hyacinth yellows, rhyzopus-rot, etc.
Possibly the worst diseases the Inspectors have to contend with are botrytis infecting tulips,
yellows of hyacinth, and rhyzopus infecting the lily bulbs. It is practically impossible to detect
every bulb infected with any one of those diseases, which may be hidden between the leaves or
layers of the bulb.
A recent shipment of lily bulbs, mostly auratum, from Japan appeared to be about 5 per
cent, infected with rhyzopus necans. About fifteen days after carefully culling out all the
diseased bulbs in sight, reinspection at consignee's premises disclosed 10 to 20 per cent, more
infected in some of the cases. Such bulbs are more than useless and a serious menace to the
remainder of a shipment. While we have had to contend with more or less of this disease in
former years, it has never before been so much in evidence as in the recent importation. It
would appear to be much more prevalent in Japan than usual.
NURSERY STOCK.
Condemned.—Insect pests and diseases for which imported nursery stock was condemned
were as follows: San Jose scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus) on Japanese quince-trees from
Ontario; European scale (Aspidiotus ostrosformis) on peach-trees from United States; oyster-
shell scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi) on ornamental trees and shrubs from Holland and rose-bushes
from Ontario; rose-scale (Aulacaspis rosrn) on blackberry-vines from United States; Diaspis
scale on ornamental shrubs from Japan and Hong Kong; Putnam scale (Aspidiotus ancylus)
on salix-tree from Ontario; greedy-scale (Aspidiotus rapax) on dracina-plant from Japan;
Aspidiotus hederce scale on cactus from Ontario; Hemrchionaspis aspidistra scale on fern from
United States; black-scale (Saissettia oleo) on coco-palm from Hong Kong; Lecanhim hesperi-
dum scale on shrubs from Holland; Chionaspis scale on willow from Holland; mealy bug
(Dactylopius destructor) on coco-palm from Hong Kong; Lecanium bitubereulatum scale on
ornamental trees from Holland; woolly aphis (Eriosoma lanigera) on apple-trees and scions
from United States and apple seedlings from Ottawa, Ontario ; Phylloxera vastatrix on grapevines from United States; pear-root aphis (Eriosoma pyri) on pear-trees from United States;
mealy aphis (Hylopterous) on iris from Holland; blister-mite on juniper from Holland;
weevil (willow twig-borer) on willow from Holland; Gian saperda borer in willow from Holland and in wistaria shrub from Japan; filbert bud-mite (Eriophyes avellanos) on filbert-trees
from France; eel-worm (Nematode) in lily bulbs from Holland; flat-headed apple-borer
(Chrysobotheris femorata) in apple-trees from United States; greenhouse leaf-tyer (Phlyctoenia
ferrugatis) on chrysanthemum-plants from United States; nest of brown-tail moth larvse
(Ettproctis chrysorrhwa) on rose-tree from Holland; rice stem-borer (Chilo simplex) in rice-
straw used as packing from Japan.
Diseases.—Root-gall (Pseudomonas tumefaciens) on cherry, plum, and apricot trees from
United States; hard-rot (Septoria) infecting gladiolus corms from Holland and Japan; tulip
fire-disease (Botrytis) on tulip bulbs from Holland ; hyacinth yellows (Bacterium hyacinthi) on
hyacinth bulbs from Holland; basal rot affecting narcissus bulbs from Holland; Phoma rot on
iris bulbs from Holland; dry-rot (Bacillis caratoverus) on iris rhizomes from United States;
sour-sap affecting prune-trees from United States; Rhizopus necans lily-rot, very severe in lily
bulbs from Japan.
Embargo.—Peach-trees from Eastern United States were refused entry owing to embargo
against peach-yellows and Oriental fruit-moth.
CONDITION OF NURSERY STOCK.
Imported shipments of trees, shrubs, plants, and bulbs arrived in very good to very bad
condition, according to method of packing, condition prior to shipping, or bad storage en route.
Occasionally stock was frozen and required very careful handling at the inspection station.
Stock by mail often arrived in a more or less damaged condition owing to having been crushed
or stifled in mail-bags.
OCEAN TRAFFIC.
Besides nursery stock and other plant products that are continually arriving by rail,
freight, express, or mail, and of late years by auto-truck, there are those arriving daily from
all parts of the world by boat. During the year 1930 there arrived at Vancouver 2,574 deep-sea and coastwise boats, at the
rate of forty-five to fifty or more each week. Of those, eighty-eight boats contained nursery
stock chiefly from Europe via Panama Canal, and from the Orient; and 724 contained plant
products other than nursery stock from various parts of the world, including Pacific Coast ports.
No such products were allowed to leave the point of landing until inspected and released by one
of the Plant Quarantine Officers, whose first duty was to carefully examine the boat's manifest
describing her cargo. In the event of there being any passengers on board, their baggage was
inspected by a Customs Officer, who would call the attention of the Plant Quarantine Officer to
any plant products found.
PLANT PRODUCTS OTHER THAN NURSERY STOCK.
Condemned.—The following insect pests and diseases were responsible for the condemnation and rejection of imported fruit and vegetables, quantities of which are given in tabulated
form attached to this report: Codling-moth larvse (Cydia pomonella) in apples and pears from
United States and Australia, apples from New Zealand, and sand-pears from China and Japan;
chestnut-weevil (Balaninus rectus) in sweet chestnuts from Japan; San Jose scale (Aspidiotus
perniciosus) on sand-pears from China; mealy bug (Pseudococcus longispinus) on sand-pears
from China and Japan; red scale (Aspidiotus aurantii) on lemons and grapefruit from United
States and oranges from Australia; scale (Mytilaspis citricola) on lemons and grapefruit from
United States.
Diseases.—Black-rot (Altemaria citri) infecting oranges from Australia; stem-end rot
(Phomipsis citri) infecting grapefruit from Florida, United States; silver scurf (Spondy-
locladium atrovirens) on potatoes from Pennsylvania, United States; brown-rot (Pythiacystis
citrophthora) infecting oranges from California, United States; Phoma rot infecting tomatoes
from Mexico;  anthracnose infecting peppers from United States.
PESTS FOR WHICH PRODUCTS WERE FUMIGATED.
Products and material infested with the following insect pests were fumigated at the
Vancouver Fumigation Station: Plodia moth larva? infesting peanuts from the Orient, walnuts
from Manchuria, almonds from Spain, raisins and currants from Australia, dried apricots and
peaches from United States; mealy bug and scale-insects infesting pineapples from Hawaiian
Islands; bean-weevil (Bruchus fabcc) infesting beans from Japan; pea-weevil (Bruchus
pisorum) infesting peas from England, United States, and Japan; chestnut-weevil (Balaninus
rectus) infesting sweet chestnuts from Japan; Mediterranean flour-moth (Ephestia kuhniella)
infesting wheat, shorts, and corn from local warehouse; codling-moth larva; (Cydia pomonella)
infesting apple and pear boxes from Australia; rice-weevil (Calandra oryza) and Tribolium
beetle infesting empty corn-sacks from Argentine; Chilo simplex larva infesting rice-straw from
Japan.
At Victoria Fumigation Chamber.—Rice-weevil (Calandra oryza) and Tribolium beetle in
empty corn-sacks from Argentine.
INSECTS OTHERWISE TREATED.
Mediterranean flour-moth (Ephestia kuhniella) ; weevil (Calandra oryza) ; flour-beetle
(Tribolium), infesting rice from Japan. Rice was isolated until passed through hulling and
polishing machines.
Similar insects to the above, including Angoumois moth, were in corn from Argentine, South
America. Corn was dumped into hopper outside building and conveyed through cleaner and
crusher.    The empty sacks were then sent to the Fumigation Station.
ORANGES FROM AUSTRALIA.
Australia made the greatest effort yet attempted to compete with oranges on the Canadian
market.
On July 20th, via R.M.S. " Aorangi," 2,490 cases of Navel oranges arrived from Australia
in good condition and colour, but sugar content could have been better.
August 15th, 3,150 cases arrived via R.M.S. "Niagara," mostly Navels, in very good condition and colour, somewhat lacking in sugar content, but sweeter than the first of the season's
Navels that arrive from California the latter part of November and beginning of December. G 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
September 13th, 3,183 cases arrived via R.M.S. " Aorangi," consisting of Navels, Valencias,
and Mediterranean Sweets. Among the Navels and Valencias there was considerable decay
owing to condition in which they were shipped or to method of stowing and poor ventilation.
The colour was good of those that were sound, but flavour somewhat tainted by the blue mould
that had developed in those decayed.    The sugar content was also poor.
October 10th, 2,355 cases of oranges, mostly Valencias, arrived via R.M.S. " Niagara " in
much better condition than the previous shipment; colour good, but sugar content not first class.
The highest percentage of decay found in any of the cases inspected did not exceed 5 per cent,
and averaged much less.
November 7th, 2,105 cases of Valencias arrived via R.M.S. " Aorangi" in good condition and
colour, and a little better in sugar content than previous shipment.
December 5th, 1,011 cases of Valencias arrived via R.M.S. " Niagara " in about the same
condition as the November shipment.
As regards sugar content, there have been smaller shipments of oranges from Australia in
previous years much better in that respect. Furthermore, an Australian grower stated there
were better oranges in Australia that could have been shipped had they been properly selected.
ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT FROM JAMAICA.
Oranges and grapefruit from Jamaica were in evidence on the British Columbia market for
the first time in commercial quantity, arriving by way of the Panama Canal, November 17th and
December 17th. The first shipment consisted of 100 cases of oranges and 100 cases of grapefruit,
landed at Victoria ex M.S. " Delftdyk." The second shipment of 498 cases of oranges and 300
cases of grapefruit was also landed at Alctoria ex S.S. " Loch Goil" and part of them transferred
to Vancouver.
The oranges, an old variety of Spanish seedling, were of a mild flavour with fairly good
sugar content, containing a considerable number of seeds. The grapefruit, also containing a
liberal number of seeds, was excellent in flavour. Unfortunately some of the oranges and
several of the grapefruit were infested with Aspidiotus aurantii and Mytilaspis, red and purple
scale-insects. • Considering the time of year, the slight infestation of scale on the oranges was
tolerated, but the more severely infested grapefruit was ordered to be scraped before going on
the market.
The shippers were advised not to ship scale-infested fruit in future, in order to avoid more
drastic treatment and to give them a better chance of competing with other citrus fruit on
the market.
APPLES AND PEARS FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEAV ZEALAND.
All apples and pears recorded in the tabulated list of imported fruit attached to this report
were from the United States, bar 600 boxes of apples and 200 boxes of pears from Australia,
2,599 boxes of apples from New Zealand, and a few sand-pears from China and Japan.
Urifortunately some codling-moth larvre were found in some of the boxes of apples and pears
from Australia, and also among the apples from New Zealand and in a few of the sand-pears
from China and Japan.
The apples from New Zealand were reshipped to the Prairie Provinces. The Australian
apples and pears were repacked after all worm-infested fruit had been carefully culled out,
wrappers destroyed, and boxes sterilized. All infested sand-pears from China and Japan were
destroyed.
ELEA^ATOR GRAIN SCREENINGS.
Prior to the " Noxious AVeeds Act Amendment Act, 1930," and regulation thereby relating to
elevator grain screenings, very few elevator-run screenings to which the amended Act refers to
as Grade B were distributed to feeders within the Province without being ground or recleaned;
the exception being those fed in commercial feed-yards near to or within the Vancouver and
New AArestminster Districts. Although at that time no dealers' or feeders' permits were in
effect, the use of uncleaned screenings was tolerated in feed-yards mentioned, provided reasonable
precautions were taken to prevent the spread of noxious weeds. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 41
Unfortunately a large quantity of the ground screenings distributed as chicken or stock feed
in some of the farming districts was not sufficiently pulverized to destroy the propagating germ
of the noxious-weed seeds. The reason was attributed to grinding the elevator-run screenings
without first cleaning or rough-cleaning them. That situation was mainly responsible for the
stipulation in the new regulations that uncleaned screenings referred to as Grade B should not
be ground or otherwise manufactured for sale within the Province. Also that the sale of
Grade B screenings for use within the Province should be subject to special permit granted by '
the Minister of Agriculture.
DEALERS' PERMITS.
The first dealer's permit was issued on July 9th, 1930, by which he was allowed to obtain
from an elevator specified a certain quantity of Grade B screenings upon presenting to those in
charge the permit obtained. Up to December 31st fifteen dealers' permits had been issued,
covering a total of 4,550 tons of Grade B screenings, of which part were exported, part recleaned,
and the balance supplied to feeders who had obtained their feeder's permit, bar 200 tons used
for fuel, in addition to the tailings of the recleaned screenings, also used for fuel.
FEEDERS' PERMITS.
Nine feeders' permits were issued between November 9th and December 31st, 1930, covering
a total of 480 tons of Grade B screenings for feeding in commercial feed-yards within the Vancouver and New AVestminster Districts, and 150 tons purchased for fuel by laundries within the
City of Arancouver.
MANAGERS' REPORTS.
In order to simplify and obtain uniform monthly reports regarding the movement of grain
screenings, a printed form was supplied to elevator companies and grain-dealers in sufficient
quantity to accommodate them. Such reports are forwarded in duplicate to the Plant Quarantine
Office, Court-house, Vancouver, after which each original report is transferred to Victoria for
presentation to the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture.
NOTIFICATIONS ISSUED.
One hundred and seventy-eight letters containing a copy of the screenings regulations,
together with the " Noxious AVeeds Act" referring to same, were mailed to grain-elevator companies and grain-dealers throughout the Province. Special investigations were also made
regarding feed-yards before granting a feeder's permit.
QUANTITIES OF SCREENINGS REPORTED.
According to managers' reports received, 2,211 tons 1,690 lb. of Grade B screenings left the
elevators for use within the Province, and 7,179 tons 910 lb. for export, from May 3rd to
December 31st, 1930.
"EGGS MARKS ACT."
The additional number of Eggs Marks Inspectors provided by appointing the Quarantine
Officers, District Poultry Instructors, and Agriculturists to assume that duty may have had
something to do with so few eggs being imported into the Province from foreign countries during
the year 1930; or possibly the marking of each egg, in compliance with the Act, and prevailing
prices may have been the cause.
The total number of eggs from the United States was as follows: Victoria, 280 dozen eggs
for hatching; Huntingdon, 1 dozen eggs; Midway, 12 dozen eggs; Fernie, 72 cases of eggs
which were marked.
CHINESE EGGS IMPORTED.
Victoria, 485 cases of salt eggs for exclusive use of Chinese; Vancouver, 442 cases salt or
mud eggs for exclusive use of Chinese.
There were also imported into Vancouver 127 cases of dried egg-yolk and fifteen cases of
egg-albumen intended for general consumption in connection with confections and ice-cream. G 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Business concerns who intended making use of that particular egg product were immediately
notified they would have to display signs reading " Chinese Eggs Used Here," as prescribed in
the " Eggs Marks Act." Those who objected to comply with the Act in that respect immediately
cancelled their contracts with the brokers and the egg product was shipped out of the Province to
points East, or placed in cold storage for that purpose.
NURSERY STOCK EXPORTED.
A tabulated list attached to this report records the quantity of trees, shrubs, plants, bulbs,
and conifer-seed exported, also the names of the countries to which they were shipped. Certain
varieties of stock exported exceeded the quantity of the previous year; i.e., fruit and nut trees,
grape-vines, dormant roots, and plants. There were, however, not so many ornamental shrubs,
rose-trees, or bulbs. Native conifer-seed, including fir, spruce, pine, hemlock, and cedar, exceeded
the previous year's exports by 7,495 lb. It was shipped to eleven different countries from the
Dominion Forest Seed Extraction Plant at New AArestminster and the Edye-de-Hurst Extraction
Plant at Kamloops.
Previous to being exported all nursery stock, including the conifer-seed, was carefully
inspected, and if passed an inspection certificate was issued to the effect that the stock described
was apparently free from destructive insect pests or disease.
For stock exported to the United States the consignee had to obtain from the U.S. Division
of Plant Quarantine and Pest Control, Washington, D.C, a permit to import, the number of
which was recorded on the Canadian certificate issued. A special certificate of origin was also
demanded.
Great Britain required its own particular form of certificate. Other countries accepted our
Dominion or Provincial form, the Dominion form being used as a rule.
FRUIT AND ArEGETABLES EXPORTED.
Another tabulated list attached to this report records the quantities of fruit and vegetables
exported from the Province during the year 1930 for which inspection certificates were issued.
It also includes the names of the countries to which they were exported.
Countries demanding certificates proclaiming plant products imported as being apparently
free from destructive insect pests and disease now include Germany, France, Italy, New Zealand,
Australia, Japan, Mexico, Brazil, Argentine, Fiji Islands, South Africa, United States, Cuba,
Great Britain, and Canada. The last five named countries and some of the others have not
insisted upon certificates accompanying all kinds of plant products. New varieties of fruit and
vegetables, etc., may, however, be included any time. It is therefore good policy to provide
reliable certificates to cover any plant products exported, even if they are not demanded. Such
certificates help to create confidence and protect the reputation of products exported. For that
reason no certificates are granted unless the condition of the product is exactly as stated in the
certificate issued, so far as the Inspector is able to ascertain by careful inspection.
Besides plant quarantine concerning imported plant products, the question of weed-control
and various methods throughout the United States was given a great deal of attention. The
question of bee-control also came in for a great deal of discussion, especially in relation to
American and European foul-brood, and the regulations of the various States and Provinces
were compared with a view to uniformity.
STRAWBERRY-YELLOWS.
Returning by way of California, a visit was paid to the Berkeley University Experimental
Station in the Santa Clara Valley, near San Jose. At that particular station special study was
being made regarding the strawberry-yellows (Xanthosis), a serious virus disease affecting
certain varieties of strawberry-plants.
By present indications the disease appears to be confined to the Banner and Marshall type
of plant. It is most extensive in the coastal district of Central California, but has also been
found in other parts of the State, and in the Rogue River District of Oregon. As there are
plenty of other sources from which strawberry-plants can be obtained, British Columbia importers will be advised accordingly when making application for permits to import such plants. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 43
Owing to the very small quantity of strawberry-plants ever imported from California or Southern
Oregon, no serious loss or inconvenience will be incurred if they are shut out.
FIELD CROPS BRANCH.
In reviewing the Field Crop activities for 1930, Mr. Cecil Tice, Field Crops Commissioner,
draws attention to the necessity for farmers using the very best seed of standard varieties.
Special stock seed produced under most careful conditions at the University of British Columbia
is purchased by this Branch and then resold to interested farmers.
The farmers who purchase this seed are given inspection of the crops under the rules of the
Canadian Seed-growers' Association. In addition to this, many of the farmers are now taking
considerable interest in showing their seed at exhibitions, both within and outside the Province,
and are capturing some of the highest awards.
In order to bring home the value of this work to the farmers a field-day was organized at
the University on August 1st. The methods employed in producing elite seed were outlined by
Dr. G. G. Moe, Professor of Agronomy at the University of British Columbia. A seed-cleaning
demonstration was also arranged.
SEED PRODUCTION.
Every effort has been made to encourage the production of seed during the year, particularly
those seeds which we are importing. However, it should be borne in mind that the development
of this work must of necessity be slow. This applies particularly to those seeds which have
never yet been produced on a commercial scale in this Province. The first requirement after
locating suitable districts is to find farmers who are prepared to give the necessary care and
attention to the work. Such men are often difficult to locate; and even when they are located
progress is of necessity slow, because the experimental stage must be passed through.
Continued attention is being given to the production of mangel and swede-turnip seed. Stock
seed produced at the University was placed in the hands of several growers for multiplication
purposes. If this Province is to be able to compete with the imported seed a product of the
highest quality must be produced. The stock seed being put out has been given official
recognition by the Canadian Seed-growers' Association and is eligible for sealing in sacks.
British Columbia continues to import alfalfa-seed, but an effort has been made to increase
the production of this seed in the Interior. An Alfalfa-seed Growers' Association has been
formed at Lytton and a request has been received by the Department for assistance in purchasing a power seed-cleaner for the district.
The production of red and alsike clover seed in the Fraser Valley has not been as large this
year as last. Unfortunately recent reports reveal the fact that the clover-seed produced in the
Fraser Valley is not of a hardy strain. For this reason this Department, in co-operation with
the Dominion Seed Branch, obtained small quantities of seed of a two-cut clover from Ontario
and these have been introduced for experimental purposes.
AVEED CHEMICAL TESTS.
AVeeds have become an increasingly important factor in successful farm-management, often
continuing to spread not through any slackness on the part of the farmer, but because they have
become established in places where they cannot be controlled by cultivation. For instance,
small patches of weeds that have come up in the crops or in the orchard, or that grow along
roadsides and fences or on waste or rocky land, all of which places cannot be reached with
ordinary farm equipment. During the last few years the use of certain chemicals and compounds have been found practical for the control of weeds growing under such conditions.
Following a programme of work instituted in 1929, the Provincial Department of Agriculture
in 1930 conducted a series of tests with various weed chemicals to obtain information as to their
respective values for that purpose, and also concerning the many factors connected with their
use. The plan followed was made to conform as closely as possible with the outline drawn up
by the sub-committee on chemical experiments of the associate committee on weed-control under
the National Research Council.
The chemicals used in the tests were those that have been found the most practical for weed-
control, taking into consideration such factors as cost, ease of handling and applying, per cent,
control, and their effect not only on the soil, but also on live stock. G 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
For convenience the chemicals used have been grouped as follows:—
Group 1. Group 2. Group 3.
Sulphuric acid. Sodium chlorate. Zinc sulphate.
Copper sulphate. Calcium chlorate (Atlacide).
Iron sulphate. Sodium chloride.
Mustard-killer. Ammonium sulphate.
Ammonium sulphate. AVeed Ex.
AVeed Cop.
Sulphuric acid.
Altogether some 300 plots were treated and these were located on farms situated on Vancouver Island and the districts of Ladner, Kamloops, and Salmon Arm. Because of many
different kinds of noxious weeds, treatment was limited to those that were of the greatest
importance.
In Growing Grain-crops. Perennial Weeds.
1. AVild radish. 1. Couch-grass.
2. AVild mustard. 2. Canadian thistle.
3. Stinkweed. 3. Perennial sow-thistle.
4. Toad-flax.
5. Field bindweed.
6. Blue lettuce.
Group 1.—Comprised the chemicals used for the control of annual weeds in growing grain-
crops and valued for their selective action that enables certain weeds, notably wild mustard and
wild radish, being killed without any damage being done to the crop. Of these materials the
two outstanding for the purpose were sulphuric acid and copper sulphate. AAThile the acid was
more efficient and permitted spraying under a wider latitude of atmospheric conditions, it had
a serious drawback on account of its corrosive nature. Both materials gave the best results
when applied as a fine misty spray under pressure.
Group 2.—AVas composed of chemicals used for the control of perennial weeds. Of .the
chemicals in this group the final choice rested between the sodium chlorate and Atlacide. While
sodium chlorate was slightly more effective and slightly cheaper, it had two objectionable
features. It was not only coarse and caked in lumps, making it difficult to handle and impossible
to use as a dust, but also constituted a very serious fire-hazard.
Group 3.—Includes chemicals that were intended for bare ground to prevent the germination of weed-seeds. The sole representative of this group is zinc sulphate, which unfortunately
arrived and was applied too late in the year for results to show before the spring.
BETTER SEED AND AVEED CAMPAIGN.
The Canadian Seed-growers' Association and this Branch co-operated in conducting a one-
week better seed and weed campaign in the Fraser A'alley. In this connection assistance was
splendidly rendered by Major Strange, Chairman of the Educational Committee of the Canadian
Seed-growers' Association, and Dr. Moe, Professor of Agronomy, University of British Columbia.
Mr. Sutton, District Agriculturist, also attended and addressed some of the meetings, which
were held at Ladner, Cloverdale, Abbotsford, Chilliwack, Pemberton Meadows, Mission, and
Langley. The attendance at the various meetings was not large, but it was generally considered
that the meetings did a great deal of good. In one district a request for a seed and weed short
course was made.
Major Strange spoke on the cleaning of seed, Dr. Moe on elite seed, and our Commissioner
on noxious weeds and the World's Grain Exhibition.
TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR.
At the Toronto Royal AVinter Fair, in the seed section there were three entries from British
Columbia. First prize in the large field-peas class was captured by AV. G. Gibson, Ladner, who
exhibited the Stirling variety of peas. This same exhibitor captured third prize with field beans.
Altogether there were over 800 entries and samples were sent in from all over Canada. The
strong representation of the Prairie Provinces was very noticeable. < -3
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G 45
CHICAGO INTERNATIONAL HAY AND GRAIN SHOAV.
At the International Hay and Grain Show held in Chicago there were fourteen entries from
British Columbia and nine were successful. The following table gives the names, addresses,
prize won, and kind of grain exhibited:—
Name and Address.
Prize won.
Kind of Grain exhibited.
W. G. Gibson, Ladner	
Win. Rogers, Tappen	
Norman Dow, Pouce Coupe	
F. G. Trenholme, Agassiz	
Mrs. C. Barrett, Barrett Lake
W. G. Gibson, Ladner	
J. W. Abbott, Fort St. John....
Alex. Davie & Sons, Ladner....
Wm. Rogers, Tappen	
8th
19th
34th
loth
3rd
3rd
2nd
20th
10th
Hard  red  spring  wheat.
Hard  red  spring  wheat*
Hard  red  spring  wheat.
Flint  corn.
Timothy-seed.
Field beans.
Small field peas.
Oats.
Oats.
British Columbia was represented with the largest number of exhibits and captured more
prizes than in any former year at the Chicago International.
The three prizes which were won in the Hard Red Spring AVheat class were particularly
gratifying, as there were only three entries from British Columbia and altogether there were
180 entries in the class.
The different States and Provinces represented at this exhibition were as follows: Virginia,
Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, New Mexico, Missouri, New York,
Maryland, Indiana, Illinois, South Dakota, Michigan, Colorado, AATisconsin, Ohio, Minnesota,
North Dakota, Idaho, Nevada, Wyoming, Montana, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Alberta,
and British Columbia.
WORLD'S GRAIN AND SEED EXHIBITION.
Interest in the above exhibition, which takes place in Regina, July 25th to August 6th, 1932,
continues to be shown. Mr. John A. Mooney, General Manager, visited the Province during the
month of April and meetings were addressed by him at Arictoria, Courtenay, Armstrong, Kamloops, Telkwa, and Vanderhoof.    Many personal visits were also made by him.
This Province is not so much interested in the exhibition from the standpoint of the prizes
which are to be won, although we hope many of our exhibitors may be successful, but rather
from the standpoint of creating interest in the use of better seed and in seed-growing.
SEED FAIRS.
A great deal of time is devoted to the seed, field-root, and potato sections of the British
Columbia AVinter Fair, held annually in Arancouver. On account of the pioneering stage that
the seed industry in the Province is passing through, and keeping in mind the AA7orld's Grain
Exhibition of 1932, it is necessary to give more time to this undertaking than might ordinarily
be the case with a well-established industry.
This extra effort, however, would appear to be justified, judging from the increased number
of entries received and improved quality.    This year there were 476 entries altogether.
Three local fairs were held during the year at the following points: Smithers, November 6th
and 7th;   Vanderhoof, November 3rd and 4th;   Pouce Coupe, October 24th.
The object of these fairs is to encourage local interest in seed-work, and they also act as a
feeder for the AVinter Fair.
CROP COMPETITIONS.
A special effort has been made this year to renew interest in crop competitions. Two types
of competitions were carried on : (a) Standing field-crop competitions; (b) combined field-crop
and cleaned-seed competitions. These latter competitions are greatly assisted by grants received
annually from the Dominion Seed Branch, Ottawa. G 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STANDING FIELD-CROP COMPETITIONS.
It is felt that the field-crop competitions are of particular value in encouraging the co-operative spirit among members of Farmers' Institutes, as well as assisting the district to produce
high-quality standard products. Altogether there were 146 competitors, or an average of 9.2
per competition.
COMBINED FIELD-CROP AND CLEANED-SEED COMPETITION.
These competitions are recommended for districts where the production of a certain kind of
seed is being encouraged by the Department. The judging of the standing crop is undertaken
by officials of the Provincial or Dominion Department of Agriculture, whilst the Dominion Seed
Branch officials judge the seed after it has been threshed and cleaned.
The following table gives the names of the districts in which combined field-crop and
cleaned-seed competitions were held this year:—
District.
No. of
Competitions.
Crops entered.
1
1
1
Oats.
The total number of competitors was 23.
SEED-CLEANING MACHINERY.
The policy of giving assistance in purchasing seed-cleaning machinery was continued in
co-operation with the Dominion Seed Branch. Two power-machines were placed in the Peace
River District and several hand-machines in Central British Columbia. Also sets of hand-
screens were supplied to several of the District Agriculturists. AVe believe this policy of assistance to be a sound one. The machines are loaned by the Department and all expenses in
connection with the operation of the machines, storage, etc., is borne by those using the machines.
It is felt that, if seed-growing is to go ahead in this Province and weeds controlled, the use of
proper seed-cleaning machinery is absolutely necessary.
PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH.
Reporting on apple-scab control in the AVest Kootenay, Mr. J. W. Eastham, Plant Pathologist,
states that the object of the project undertaken was to correlate spraying for scab with weather
conditions and actual ascospore-discharge, with a view to reducing, if possible, the number of
sprays. The results last year seemed encouraging, good control of the disease being obtained.
At the same time the lack of adequate weather forecasts and the variable local climatic conditions seemed to indicate that it would not be safe to postpone spraying, even in dry weather,
until a rain period should be predicted.
As the spread of scab is so closely related to atmospheric moisture, it is desirable to keep an
accurate record of the precipitation during the period of primary infection; i.e., infection from
the old leaves lying on the ground.
In the vicinity of Nelson there was this year a nine-day period at the end of June when rain
fell every day and the atmosphere was muggy and saturated, affording ideal opportunities for
the spread of scab. The total rainfall for May was 3.5 inches, or 1.28 inches above the average
for twenty-six years. That for June was 3.56 inches, or 1.05 inches above the average of the
twenty-six-year period. Our work last year showed that ascospores were freely discharged
from mature asci with a rainfall as light as 0.02 inch.
Spore-traps were put out on April 16th to 18th. Three were placed at Willow Point at
various levels. Another was placed at Sunshine Bay, and the slides were collected and examined
every other day.
At AArillow Point the first spores were found on April 25th, when the Gravenstein and
Mcintosh apples were in full pink. The first spray notice appeared in the local press the
following day, and one week later another notice was issued recommending that in the case of
later varieties another spray should be given before blossoms were fully out, so as to carry the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 47
trees over the long-drawn-out period between blossom-opening and petal-fall. Further notices
were published on May 19th and June 9th, while later recommendations were given direct to
growers in particular cases.
The first conidia on the leaves were found on May 19th and the spore-traps were discontinued three days later.
The technique and methods used in studying the development of this disease in the orchards,
also the control measures and spray materials used for its eradication, have been fully reported
for the use of district officials and fruit-growers, so that in future definite knowledge of satisfactory control measures will be available.
From the work carried on this year the following conclusions can be drawn:—
(1.) That great difference in the quantity of ascospores discharged may occur in orchards
not widely separated, reasonably well cared for, and in which scab was fairly well controlled
the preceding season.
(2.) Even with ascospore-discharge in an orchard at a minimum, there is ample opportunity
in such a season as that of 1930 for scab to become epidemic. Rapid multiplication of infections from conidia from a few primary infections is probably sufficient to explain this.
(3.) That the chief value of microscopic observation of ascospore-discharge, under our
conditions, is to determine as nearly as possible when the first spores will emerge and notify
the growers to apply their first scab-spray. After that it is a matter of keeping the trees protected, and in a season such as we have just passed through this will mean spraying at not
longer than fourteen-day intervals. Probably six sprays would have been necessary to fully
protect susceptible varieties like Mcintosh. This is more than growers have been accustomed
to give and more than necessary in most seasons. If seasonal conditions, however, cannot be
predicted (and apparently they cannot), the loss will be less, taking one year with another, from
the application of unnecessary sprays than from the loss in the crop should scab become epidemic
even once in several years.
Next season it is planned to begin work earlier and conduct observations over a wider area
until the time of the first spore-discharge and the application of the first spray. Although it may
be desirable to continue observations throughout the season of primary infection, at one or more
points, for the sake of obtaining more information about the factors involved in the spread of
the disease, it does not appear that these can be turned to immediate practical application by
the grower, who will have to fall back, as in the past, on a regular schedule of spraying.
BROWN-ROT OF CHERRIES.
Two years ago this disease caused considerable loss for the first time to Kootenay cherry-
growers. Last year it did not reappear, but with such wet conditions prevailing throughout
June this year there seemed a possibility of its occurrence. Accordingly, a careful watch was
kept as the fruit matured. A few half-grown green cherries were found affected by a firm
brownish rot, with which a species of Botrytis was found to be associated, but this was not
found on the ripening fruit, nor was Monilia. Probably the fact that there was rain on only
one day (0.15 inch on July 26th) between July 4th and August 8th, inclusive, accounts for the
disease not appearing.
PEA-DISEASES.
Peas for canning are now grown to an important extent in the Fraser Valley, there being
2,700 acres grown this past season. A careful survey' for disease was made in a number of fields.
They were found to be exceptionally healthy, none of the serious pea-diseases being found. A
little downy mildew (Peronospora viciai) was found, but only to the extent of comparatively
small spots on occasional leaves. As some of the most serious pea-diseases are carried on the
seed, it would seem worth while for those concerned in the pea industry to take advantage of
the relative freedom from disease and use this stock for the production of seed to whatever
extent may be needed, instead of bringing in fresh seed. There is no form of seed-treatment
known to be effective against these seed-borne diseases.
IMPORTATION-WORK.
Of outstanding importance and value to British Columbia has been the assistance rendered
by the Plant Pathology Branch to the work of the Quarantine Officers in diagnosing diseases of
imported plants and plant materials.    A few instances of particular diagnoses are here given:— G 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In November a car of cranberries from Massachusetts arrived showing a heavy shrinkage.
It was not easy to say from examination whether the condition was the result of frost-injury or
disease. Cultures were made from a number of berries and the same organism consistently
obtained. This proved to be Fusicoccum, putrefaciens, the organism causing "end-rot" of cranberries. The shrinkage therefore could be put down to disease present in the berries and not
to frost-injury.
In November an experimental shipment of eight cases of oranges was received from
Australia. These were sent in ordinary storage, but packed or handled differently, and a report
was requested. Some of the oranges showed disease, this being of two types, an end-rot and a
hard scar-like rot on the side. Cultures from both types of disease yielded the same organism,
Alternaria citri, the cause of black-rot, a disease well known to citrus-growers and widely
distributed.
A consignment of Iris tingitana brought in for local nurserymen showed lesions on the bulbs.
From the smallest of these spots often no organism could be obtained in culture, but from others
a bacterial organism was isolated and from the largest ones a Penicillium. Badly affected bulbs
were culled out before the shipment was released. The bulbs were used for greenhouse forcing
and a heavy loss occurred, amounting to over 50 per cent, in some cases, the bulb rotting away
before the flowers appeared. A bacterial organism has been isolated from these bulbs which
appears to be the same as that found in the lesions on the bulbs. Investigation of this organism
is being continued.
Shipments of bulbs of Lilium auratum and L. speciosum from Japan have been found to be
heavily affected by two types of rot. One of these occurs as localized spots on the outer scales.
or working back from the tips of the scales. From such lesions a species of Penicillium was
consistently obtained. On inoculating this into the broken surface of a healthy bulb scale it
was found to produce a rather slow rotting. A medium-sized scale would be completely rotted
in about three weeks.
The other type of rot is a softer rot, often involving the whole bulb. In some cases it
appeared to have gone from the root up through the centre of the bulb, which fell to pieces when
examined. Often it could be detected by the adherence of a cake of soil to the outside of the
bulb. Underneath this the scales would be rotted, but whether or not the rot had started before
the bulbs were dry is not known.
AA'ith this type of rot a black mould (rhizopus) was found constantly associated, and was
shown to be capable of producing it. When spores from a pure culture of the fungus were
placed on the injured surface of a sound scale, even large scales were completely rotted within
three days.
A new species of rhizopus (R. necans) was described by Massee in 1897 as causing very
great losses in L. auratum and speciosum bulbs shipped from Japan to England, in one shipment
of 73,000 bulbs only 250 being saleable. No mention has been found of this species in recent
literature and it may be that it is now considered identical with some other species, possibly
the common R. nigricans. AA7hether the organism isolated from these bulbs coming into Arancouver is identical with that described by Massee is indeed not yet certain, although probable.
AA'hatever its taxonomy, it can evidently be the cause of considerable loss in bulb shipments, and
work with it will be continued.
NEW UNDERTAKINGS.
In May, 1930, Mr. W. R. Foster, M.S., of the University of Alberta, was appointed Assistant
Plant Pathologist. He has not only had a thorough training in plant pathology, but has made
a special study of the diseases of cereal and field crops which has already been of direct and
immediate service. Advantage was taken of the courteous offer of the Dominion Department of
Agriculture to provide accommodation in the Laboratory of Plant Pathology of the Division of
Botany, just erected on the Experimental Station at Saanichton.
With the present arrangement, subjects involving continuous laboratory attention can be
carried on at Saanichton, while quarantine and field-work for the Mainland can be taken care
of from the Vancouver office. The location of the Assistant Plant Pathologist at Saanichton is.
moreover, of mutual advantage to the two services concerned, in that it avoids the duplication of
expensive apparatus and books, thus permitting greater efficiency for the funds expended. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 49
The following lines of investigation are now being conducted at Saanichton:—
(1.) A serious disease of loganberries which produces a drying-up of the young fruit and has
caused much loss for several years past. In certain districts near Alctoria 50 per cent, of the
fruit was destroyed during the past season. This disease has been shown to be due to an
undescribed bacillus, and preliminary experiments indicate that insects inoculate the berries
with the pathogen. A brief paper entitled " A New Bacterial Blight of the Loganberry " has
been prepared and accepted for publication by a scientific journal.
(2.) A similar disease of the raspberry, and apparently of a similar nature, although the
causal organism is apparently different.
(3.)  A new celery-disease.
(4.) Soil-borne infection of stinking smut (bunt) in British Columbia. Seed-treatment does
not appear to guarantee freedom from bunt. That winter wheat often becomes heavily infected
in spite of seed-treatment makes it probable that soil-infection is a factor to be considered.
(5.)  Infectious chlerosis or mosaic of the rose.
(6.) An unusual type of stem end-rot of potatoes.
ENTOMOLOGY BRANCH.
Insect-pest control in the fruit-growing sections of the Interior were given first consideration
this year by Max H. Ruhmann, Entomologist.
The major projects of the codling-moth and the oil-spray tests were conducted at Kelowna.
This was due to the lack of codling-moth material at Vernon and the possible interference of
lime-sulphur sprays in the oil-spray tests.
Fruit-tree insects generally, with the exception of green aphis and the tarnished plant-bug,
were much below normal, and an unusually good season was experienced in this respect.
In early April the Tarnished Plant-bug (Lygus pratcnsis L.) was becoming quite abundant
and for a time it was thought that serious injury might again result. Pears seemed to be the
favoured hosts, and although some injury resulted, such was very local and practically confined
to orchards in heavy cover-crops. Growers made some efforts to control this insect. Oil sprays
were tried, but proved ineffective; nicotine sprays made good repellents, but only over a very
short period after application, making such sprays impractical. The most satisfactory repellent
noted was a heavy application of lime-sulphur 1 to 9; this had been applied about April 1st,
and observations made on April 7th showed very little injury, although large numbers of the
plant-bug were constantly present.
Through the practical co-operation of Mr. L. S. Gray, of Vernon, who placed his greenhouses
and his commercial plantings of flowers at our disposal for experimental purposes, various
substances were tried as repellents for the tarnished plant-bug. Nothing satisfactory has yet
materialized, although several substances were effective over short periods, but nothing that
would be of commercial value in orchards has been found.
The control of the Codling-moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in most of our fruit sections has
become a matter of routine which has to be considered when the grower is preparing his budget
for labour and supplies for the coming year. The matter of controlling the codling-moth, however, requires serious consideration and close co-operation with neighbours and with the Department officials. The formation of spray zones in infested areas for mutual protection and
co-ordinated control is essential for satisfactory results. The fact that our infestations are as
yet comparatively light should not tempt us to be careless in our control-work. That we are
obtaining excellent control with comparatively few sprays as compared with other infested
districts should induce a thoroughness of work, so that we may continue to hold down the
number of sprays necessary within the limits of toleration of arsenical residues. As soon as
such limits are passed we will be faced with the washing problem to remove excess residues
from our fruit, thereby adding materially to our cost of production. This Branch is making
observations on the emergence and oviposition periods every spring, and setting the spray dates
for all Interior districts so that effective control may be obtained. All districts are notified
through their local horticultural representative of the optimum date for the applications of the
codling-moth sprays in each district.
During the past season the main observations were made at Kelowna, checked by observations at Penticton and Grand Forks. During 1930, spray dates were set for the first cover-spray
June 7th to 12th, second cover-spray July 1st, and third cover-spray August 7th. Due to the
4 G 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
unusually long blooming period in the spring, the calyx-spray was considerably delayed, and in
some instances this spray was still being applied after the calyx was practically closed. The
delay, in some cases past the period of effectiveness, was due to the fear of poisoning bees.
Considerable bee-poisoning resulted, however, in spite of the growers' efforts to avoid this.
Codling-moth infestation was very light during the past season in the orchards which were
particularly under observation, and were so free of worms as to make comparative counts on
the experimental plots valueless. Although in these orchards the sprays were applied at
optimum dates and under close observation, it is not considered that these conditions were
entirely responsible for the lightness of infestation, and considerable natural control was evident
due to climatic conditions. The first brood was very light and late; the second brood was also
late and considerably, delayed during August, with a sudden final rush of emergence occurring
on August 30th.
On July 23rd a report was received from Needles that cherries had been seriously injured
by the False Chinch-bug (Nysius ericas). Nysius erica; was found to be present over this district,
though not in epidemic form. It was not ascertained if the injury to the cherries was due to
this insect. The section where this injury was reported was rather dry, with very limited
irrigation, and it is possible that due to lack of succulent ground vegetation this insect attacked
the fruit.
Wireworms (various spp.) were more abundant and injurious than usual, particularly at
Kelowna and Grand Forks, potatoes and onions being particularly affected. A loss of 60 per
cent, of one onion-crop was due almost entirely to wireworms, very few onion-maggots being
present. In some sections grain was severely attacked. The two species which appear to be
most prominent are Pheletes canus Lee. and Limomius discoidens Lee.
MISCELLANEOUS INSECT PESTS.
Diamond-backed Moth (Plutella maculipennis) was unusually abundant and cruciferous
plants were extensively injured.
European Red-mite (Paratetranychus pilosus C. & F.) is becoming more widespread and is
a common pest in several of our fruit-growing sections.
Apple-aphis (Eriosoma lanigera Hausm.) was less noticeable than usual, while other aphids
were more abundant than has been recorded for several years.
Oyster-shell Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi L.) has become one of our major apple-orchard pests.
It was considerably checked during the past season, due to unfavourable weather conditions at
hatching-time.
Although not serious generally, Onion-thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind.) was noted to have caused
serious damage in some large fields of onions.
Peach Twig-borer (Anarsia lineatella Zell.), which is usually quite abundant in our peach
sections, was unusually scarce.
Lesser Apple-worm (Laspayresia prunivora AValsh.) was unusually scarce during the past
season.
EXPERIMENTAL SPRAYS.
Since the founding of the AVestern Spray Committee great progress has been made, particularly in the development of oil sprays. This committee, consisting of plant pathologists,
entomologists, plant physiologists, and chemists of the AVestern United States and British
Columbia, meets in Spokane at the end of each year.
The object of this committee is to conduct uniform spraying experiments under the varying
climatic conditions found throughout the AArest. At the end of each season the results of the
experiments are co-ordinated and discussed and recommendations made.
Oil Sprays.—Some years ago an outbreak of the leaf-roller (Archips argyrospila) occurred
in the Interior. It was found necessary at that time to use a dormant oil spray to obtain control
of this insect. It is now under such excellent control through the past use of this oil spray, and
also through the fact that it is now held well in check through natural agencies, that a dormant
oil spray is no longer considered necessary as a general spray in the Interior unless specially
advised for a particular pest.
Summer Oil Sprays.—The last few years have seen a great advance in the manufacture of
summer oils for spraying. This has to a great extent been brought about through the search
for a substitute for arsenate of lead in the control of the codling-moth, and was made necessary   DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930.
G 51
through the creation of an arsenate residue tolerance standard. The large number of arsenical
sprays now necessary in the more heavily infested sections leave an arsenical residue in excess
of the tolerance allowed. Oils have now been refined to the extent that they can be safely used
as a summer spray, but when used for the control of the codling-moth they must be combined
with arsenate of lead or nicotine. Even in such combinations the actual control obtained is no
■ better than can be obtained with arsenate of lead alone. The only advantage obtained is the
elimination of one arsenate of lead spray where the nicotine is used as a substitute. The
tolerance problem and the necessary washing of the fruit still remains.
Through the salesmanship of representatives of oil-spray manufacturing companies, and
through the general desire for improved sprays, a demand for summer oil sprays appears to
have been created in British Columbia. To meet the inquiries regarding the use of summer oil
sprays it was found necessary to test the various oils of this type appearing on the market, and
note their action on the trees and fruit.
APIARY BRANCH.
The total honey-crop of the Province for 1930 has been estimated by Mr. W. J. Sheppard,
Provincial Apiarist, as the largest to date, amounting to 1,121,325 lb., representing a general
average of 55 lb. per hive, as compared with 989,393 lb. for 1929, averaging 50 lb. per hive, which
was the next best year. The w-eather conditions were more favourable than in 1929, this being
one of the most important factors in the production of honey. The quality was exceptionally
good this year. The first prize for the best sample of honey exhibited at the Vancouver Fair was
awarded to honey from the Lake Cowichan District, Vancouver Island.
FOUL-BROOD INSPECTION.
American foul-brood was found in 445 hives in ninety-five apiaries during the season; 5,235
affected combs were burnt and the usual compensation at the rate of 20 cents per comb was paid
by the Department of Agriculture to the bee-keepers for the combs destroyed. The details are
as follows:—■
District.
Apiaries
affected.
Hives
affected.
Combs
destroyed.
37
53
5
147
269
29
2,270
2,675
290
Totals	
95
445
5,235
MICROSCOPICAL EXAMINATION OF COMB AND  SMEARS  FOR DISEASES.
The microscopical examination of portions of combs and smears sent in by bee-keepers for
bacterial diagnosis was made by Mr. A. W. Finlay, Apiary Inspector, at the Court-house, New
Westminster, as follows :—
Two portions of combs and ninety-four smears showed that sixty were affected with
American foul-brood,  twenty-six European foul-brood, and ten were sterile.
At certain stages of the two diseases, American foul-brood and European foul-brood, it is
impossible to tell which is present except by expert examination under a high-powered
microscope.
The bee-keepers were informed of the results of the examinations.
SPRAY-POISONING OF BEES.
A good many complaints were received during the season of the serious loss of bees through
spray-poisoning in the fruit-growing districts. This is unfortunate, as several of the bee-keepers,
to avoid such losses in the future, have expressed their intention to move their bees as far away
from the orchards as possible. In this event the trees will not have the benefit of hive-bees as
pollenizing agents.
The annual problem of poisoning of bees with arsenical sprays does not appear to be any
nearer to a practical solution.    A repellent added to the calyx-spray would be an ideal solution; G 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
such a substance requiring to be a lasting repellent and not injurious to the foliage and fruit.
The method used by the Yakima bee-keepers for some years is at present the only satisfactory
method that can be advised; that is, the removal of the hives from the orchards Before the
calyx-spray is applied. In the meantime the study of this problem is being continued by
entomologists in all fruit sections on the North American Continent as well as in Europe.
REGISTRATION OF APIARIES.
Apiaries continue to be registered in accordance with the amendments to the " Apiaries
Act " passed at the 1929 session of the Provincial Legislature. Up to date, 2,060 certificates
of registration have been issued. As the estimated number of apiaries in the Province is
2,816, there are apparently 756 still unregistered.
MARKETS DIVISION.
In his report covering the marketing situation as it affected agricultural commodities,
Mr. AV. Wallace Duncan, Markets Director, intimates that from advices sent and from personal
observation, as well as the opinion of the trade, it was evident that the economic wave of
depression existing for some time in Europe had early in the year taken hold of the industrial
and farm life in Canada.
AVith uncertainty facing the Prairie merchants, they limited their country credits and gave
instructions to their travellers to sell only to those who were able to pay in full at the end of
every month. This curtailment of credit was estimated at one-third of the total business done
in the fruit and vegetable line.
During the first few months of 1930, and before the British Columbia produce commenced
to roll, this curtailment was estimated to be about correct. The demand for some products
went down, depending on the degree of luxury or necessity value that was attached to them.
There was no improvement at any time during the year; if anything, the purchasing-power
became less as wheat prices declined.
EFFECT OF WHEAT DECLINE.
It was found that rural conditions were slightly worse than those prevailing in industrial
centres, but all were following each other in a downward trend. Signs of the coming depression
were forecast by the Prairie merchants, and a representative of the Markets Division was sent
to the Okanagan Valley to place the outlook before the Committee of Direction and the press,
advising them to prepare for a lean year and to make what might be considered a luxury into
a necessity. It was pointed out that bulk apples would be in demand in volume and that the
demand for fancy boxed stock would be severely reduced. The selling-forces of the big Okanagan
organizations agreed that, with a heavy crop in sight, low prices would rule and little difference
of opinion existed as to the advisability of shipping apples in bulk. Loose apples in a car are
subject to bruising in transit and a more satisfactory method is to ship in boxes direct from
the orchard.
In order to maintain the popularity and cheapness on bulk shipments a tariff between the
loose apples and the packed apples should be considered. However, many differences existed
amongst shippers as to the best way to sell the crop. After much discussion the pooling system
was adopted, but not unanimously, and this is still a live issue amongst fruit-growers and
shippers.
Opinions held by Prairie jobbers favour some kind of unit approach to the Prairie market
to prevent a price-slashing war, but what form this should take has not yet been decided, so
the year ends with this question still unsettled.
TRANSPORTATION.
By invitation a representative of the Markets Division met with the Canadian Pacific
and Canadian National AVestern freight superintendents and delegates named by the British
Columbia Fruit-growers' Association in Vancouver. The subject discussed was the 30,000-lb.
minimum car-load for fruit and vegetables.    The meeting adjourned without a decision, both DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 53
sides refusing to compromise. The shippers' representatives stated that 25,000 lb. was the limit
of safety in loading perishables in a refrigerator freight-car. This matter was taken up later
by the Hon. the Premier when he was visiting Montreal, and a settlement made on a minimum
of 26,000 lb., which met the approval of all concerned.
Negotiations have beeii conducted during the year with officials of the express companies
calculated to make a larger distributing-field possible for fruit and vegetables. The possibility
of shipping forced rhubarb by express has been discussed with a view of getting a similar rate
and condition on rhubarb-cars as obtained on berries. Also the extending of the commodity
rate the year round instead of seasonal as now applied. Some concessions on prevailing rates
were made, but refused by the shippers, who insist on berry rates for forced rhubarb. No satisfactory arrangement has so far been made, so negotiations continue.
MARKET NEWS-LETTER.
This News-letter was started in May and issued twice a week. It was found that this
system conflicted with the weeklies of the fruit-growing sections, and an arrangement was made
to furnish the Okanagan weeklies with a special press dispatch from Calgary arriving the
morning of their going to press. Later three weekly News-letters were issued of a less length.
The daily press favours a short letter, a,nd it was arranged to have press dispatches from
different sections of the Prairies and other competitive points for each issue. The present form
of issuing the News-letter is a big saving in cost over the Markets Bulletin issued and in use
before this year.
FORCED RHUBARB.
This commodity was the first to be shipped from British Columbia. The amount of forced
rhubarb produced on the Lower Mainland is approximately 400 tons. An effort is being made
to limit shipments to the market demand. Practically all shipping organizations on the Mainland have accepted this in principle. By this new system more rigid inspection is possible at
the shipping end, as considerable loss has been taken through shippers cutting too much leaf
with the stock, apparently in an effort to make weight. In transit the leaf-end decays and
many adjustments have had to be made for this reason. Japanese are the principal shippers
of this commodity. Field rhubarb fell off in volume consumed on account of dull weather and
the low buying-power.
PROCESSED BERRIES IN STORAGE.
AVhen it was found that the sharp frost had cut down the yield of strawberries and a likelihood of prices ruling high, canners began to purchase their supplies. The Saanich fruit-growers
held about 1,200 barrels of processed berries. These were sold at a good price and this cleaned
up all the 1929 crop left unsold. All the assistance possible in negotiating for the sale of these
berries was given and quotations were secured from many points in the United States and
Canada.
AVASHINGTON VISIT.
A visit to competitive points in AVashington in early May showed that frost-damage there
had been fully as severe as in British Columbia. The raspberries looked well, but blackberries
and loganberries were almost a failure. All old stock of processed berries in Washington were
sold, and apart from economic conditions the situation looked hopeful for growers.
On being advised that strawberries were coming into Canada from California in illegal
crates, the matter was referred to Ottawa and sudden imports stopped. When Seattle was
visited in May we found these California crates being emptied into the legal-sized crates and
shipped from Seattle to Victoria and Vancouver.
MARKETING SEASON.
Missouri and Eastern competitive points reported an off-season with greatly reduced
production. Their condition left the Prairie markets hungry for British Columbia berries.
When our shipping-time arrived the undersupply expected was fully borne out, and only fifty-
seven cars of strawberries were shipped from British Columbia to Prairie points as against
eighty-five the previous year, and forty-two cars of raspberries as against fifty-five in 1929.
Four cars of blackberries were shipped in 1930. About two cars of loganberries were shipped
and sold at fair prices, or about 50 cents less than raspberries. G 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
From returns received from Edmonton and Calgary it appears that these markets are
supplied with berries by small growers, and these shipped in less than car-lots from Mainland
points. Edmonton received 20,000 crates in this way and only one car-lot of British Columbia
berries. Four cars of imported strawberries came in ahead of the British Columbia season.
If the buying-power of the Prairie people had remained normal the demand for both strawberries and raspberries would have been greater than the supply.
QUICK-FREEZING PROCESS FOR BERRIES.
An active canvass of the trade has been conducted in different parts of the world, but more
particularly on the Prairies, for the purpose of developing sales of frozen berries in car-loads.
The general consensus of opinion is that to stabilize the sale of processed berries a uniform
price should prevail from year to year, at least for a large portion of the output. The balance
of the surplus crop, not contracted for, could be sold at market price. If growers approved of
such an arrangement, dealers would order car-lots well in advance of a season and take delivery
thirty days after berries were processed.
The development of this trade will be slow on account of the necessity of all handlers of
the commodity having to be equipped with freezing facilities, as berries will only keep a few
days after being removed from a low temperature.
Numerous samples of cartons and 15-lb. tins of frozen berries have been sent to representative organizations and trade commissioners in Holland, Italy, China, Japan, Egypt, and the
United States and Eastern Canada, as well as to all the principal centres on the Prairies, more
especially to the soda-fountain and ice-cream trade. Already some trial shipments have been
booked as the result of this appeal.
FAIR MARKET VALUES.
The marketing of the tree-fruits and vegetables was greatly helped at an opportune time
by the setting of a fair market value on imported fruit and vegetables. This took effect on
August 20th.    Potatoes were stabilized by this move, also plums, prunes, peaches, and pears.
On the morning of the announcement consternation prevailed amongst jobbers who had
placed heavy orders in the South. However, with the adjustments that were made on cars
ordered before the advance, the jobbers were satisfied and freely expressed themselves as
pleased with the new arrangement.
British Columbia shippers did not take advantage of the higher protection and this was
favourably received by the consumers. It had the effect of giving Canadian growers the Prairie
market to a much greater extent than formerly, and kept out similar goods that would surely
have entered had not the higher tariff been applied, as prices south of the line were lower than
have been the case for many years past.
COAST-GROAVN PEARS.
This year has been good for pear production at the Coast. Canners who have failed in the
past in securing sufficient pears for their needs were inclined to secure their supplies, as in
former years, by importing from AVashington what they could not secure in the Okanagan.
The attention of the cannerymen has been directed to the heavy crop conditions in British
Columbia. Unfortunately, many pear-orchards at the Coast have been neglected, and in some
cases the quality of the pears had deteriorated on account of lack of attention. Cannerymen
protested against handling this quality of fruit. Upon inspection we found that the canners
had a good ease and attention was called to the need of better cultural conditions in pear-
orchards. Many growers have intimated that they intend giving better attention to pruning,
spraying, and picking of their pears in future.
APPLES.
To market the heavy crop of apples in a year that had possibly the lowest public purchasing-
power (this was especially the case in the Prairie Provinces) required very great sacrifices to be
made so as to stabilize the market by exporting the surplus over domestic requirements. The
result was that at the end of 1930 apples in storage were reduced to a point well within the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 55
consuming-power of the domestic market for the balance of the apple season. Only by quoting
very low prices could this volume have been moved. Apples in bulk were in heavy demand on
the Prairies until the end of the year.
STONE-FRUITS.
The apricot-crop was less than anticipated, due to winter-killing and spring frosts. The
quality was an improvement over the past few years and a satisfactory price was obtained
for No. 1 apricots. No. 2 apricots are not in demand except as pulp for jam-making. Apricots,
plums, prunes, and peaches fared better on the market than in previous years, due largely to the
fair market value tariff coming into effect. Importations of these fruits show a marked decline
over other years.
Cherry prices averaged about 50 cents a crate below 1929, with a slow demand. Bings sold
at Prairie points at $3.50 per crate delivered. Car-lots were rolled as far east as Montreal in
order to stabilize the Prairie market. The cherries were handled on a 50-50 brokerage split,
and all cherries from the Okanagan Valley and Kootenay districts were pooled. The result
of this plan of distribution was very satisfactory to shippers.
A'EGETABLES.
Some very gratifying improvements were noted in the pack of vegetables originating in
British Columbia. Perhaps the most noticeable was the head-lettuce. More than double the
usual quantity of head-lettuce was sold on the Prairies from British Columbia. Jobbers were
well pleased with the pack, especially the Armstrong pack of twelve straight cars in addition
to lettuce included in mixed cars, which was pronounced as being equal to any imported. The
same, practically, was true of the cabbage-pack.
The heavy demand for British Columbia vegetables was the outstanding feature of the
season.    This demand was considerably greater than other years despite the economic conditions.
In 1930 there were 176 cars of early vegetables shipped from Vancouver to the Prairies.
Also five cars from the Chilliwack District.
POTATOES.
Early potatoes from British Columbia met with new competition. Kansas, two freight-days
from Winnipeg, quoted lower than British Columbia, seven freight-days away. The shading by
Kansas was only a few cents and the business went South of the line. Since the tariff has
been changed and the Customs levy is now $15 per ton, against $7 as previously applied, this
advantage should give British Columbia a reasonable place in the Prairie market. In British
Columbia $35 per ton was then quoted on new potatoes and Vancouver was the cheapest market,
at this price, on the North American Continent.
Stability was not secured in potato prices during the 1930 shipping season, as shippers
from Vancouver quoted at will and were nearly always below Committee of Direction prices.
Owing to heavy production at Prairie points the demand for fall potatoes from British Columbia
was light. The British Columbia potato yield was below average, but with the greater acreage
planted the tonnage was about equal to 1929.
ONIONS.
The onion-crop for 1930 was about the average and volume. The quality was excellent.
Market prices were unsatisfactory for a time, but stabilized towards the end of the year.
MARKET DEMANDS.
Looking over the field of production in the various lines of perishable fruit and vegetables,
and having in mind further extension of canning and processing these commodities, it would
appear that many more Vedette, Valiant, and J. H. Hale peaches, D'Anjou and Bartlett pears,
grapes of a black variety similar to Concords, etc., can be safely grown from Penticton south.
These observations relate to the Okanagan Valley.
To further illustrate that the interior of British Columbia is not producing sufficient to
supply the Prairie markets, it may be mentioned that Edmonton imported the following number
of cars: Peaches, 17; prunes, 18; pears, 10; mixed fruit, 37; mixed vegetables, 76; head-
lettuce, 30 ; celery, 28 ; grapes, 30; onions, 21. Edmonton is only one of the Prairie distributing-
points, and other points show a similar condition. G 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Loganberries are planted fully in advance of present needs. This fruit will likely benefit
on the market by the lessening yield of raspberries for a few years to come; only they do not
ship as well. When economic conditions reach a normal state and the wineries begin to export
their wares the demand for this product will increase.
There are only 82 acres of bearing asparagus planted in the whole of British Columbia.
In 1930 season Vancouver imported 15,432 crates and Victoria 1,730 crates, three-quarters of
which came in at a time when local supplies could be grown. Very little of the asparagus
grown in British Columbia finds its way to Prairie cities and the cannery trade is not supplied.
Asparagus and early vegetables are in demand at all Prairie points and would greatly help
rhubarb-growers in supplying a needed mixture of vegetables in their rhubarb-cars, which are
loaded at Mission and Hatzic.
Peas and beans are now planted in heavy acreage for cannery purposes. Ontario is in
the market for green wrinkled peas for cooking and splitting, while Quebec can take hundreds
of tons of good yellow peas that will cook soft. Arrangements have been made for a supply of
yellow-pea seed for field-demonstration purposes.
There was no noticeable change in the volume and quality of field tomatoes and cucumbers.
The low purchasing-power of the Prairie people did not interfere much, if any, with the volume
of vegetables consumed. Seventy cars of tomatoes were grown in British Columbia for an
Edmonton cannery.
Seed-growers have been assisted in finding a market for their blooms and seed. The
Prairie and Eastern demand for British Columbia roses and nursery stock is increasing. One
Winnipeg firm bought a full car-load of British Columbia rose-bushes and report that their
customers are well pleased with the stock.
Inquiries for supplies of narcissus bulbs have been received from Prairie dealers. It will
be some time before spring-flowering bulbs will be grown in sufficient volume to meet the demand.
Gladiola and dahlia bulbs are longer established and are being grown on a larger scale. The
bulb- and seed-growing organization is extending and may become Provincial-wide, as it is
realized'that bulb-growing in British Columbia has a promising future.
HOLLY.
Holly-growing is an industry that is well suited to Vancouver Island, particularly the
southern end, and it offers great possibilities for development. Given good soil and abundant
moisture, beautiful dark-green leaves are produced and clusters of red berries with a richer
sheen than is found at other points.
ORCHID-GROWING.
A visit to Victoria was made by the Canadian Trade Commissioner to Brazil. He took up
the matter of orchid-growing with greenhouse-men. Some.rare specimens are found in Brazil,
which is considered the home of the orchid, and growers here seemed greatly interested in this
new venture.
COURTENAY AND POAVELL RIVER.
The Board of Trade and farmers of Comox District have been endeavouring to establish a
ferry service between Comox and Powell River, where there is a population of over 6,000 people.
In order to supply the Powell River market throughout the year, the Comox farmers must do
so collectively and make arrangements to grow a sufficient supply to feed the market in a
balanced way.
DUNCAN PUBLIC MARKET.
After some preliminary work the Public Market at Duncan has been opened and is now in
full swing. Farmers are pleased over the prospect of getting ready money for their produce
and much new production is being undertaken.
ARGENTINE MARKETS.
The Markets Division initiated the shipping of certified seed-potatoes to the Argentine.
The trial shipment sent in 1929 produced an inquiry for 300 tons of Burbank seed. This order
was cancelled owing to an embargo placed on imports into that country.    With a view of making DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 57
a display at the Empire Fair at Buenos Aires in March and April of this year, arrangements
were made to assemble exhibits of apples, which are now en route to that country. This exhibit
includes apples, certified seed-potatoes, loganberries and loganberry wine, tinned salmon,
pilchards, liquor, paper, cordage, canned clams, and fox-pelts.
The Argentine and Egyptian markets have developed more than others in proportion to
their volume. Heavy shipments of apples were sent to Cairo and have been handled by well-
established distributers there. Samples of processed berries have been forwarded there with
a view to diversification in business offerings for these countries.
APPLES FOR HONG KONG.
An experimental shipment of face-and-fill apples has been forwarded to Hong Kong to test
out this market with a cheaper package of apples. This business gives promise of a great
increase in the near future. During the year shipments of potatoes, butter, and milk have
been made regularly to Hong Kong.
RABBITS TO JAPAN.
Inquiries were received from Japan for a supply of Angora rabbits. These rabbits have
suddenly come into demand for their wool. It was found that some of the best were raised on
Vancouver Island and regular shipments are now going forward to Japan under contract. The
demand is greater than the supply for Vancouver Island bred Angora rabbits.
UNITED KINGDOM MARKETS.
Poor prices have ruled for apples during the year, but they are by no means the worst on
record. The prevention of lower prices is attributed to the excellent work done by Government
representatives in Great Britain. This point will be better illustrated by stating that in 1929
apple shipments from British Columbia were 723,000 boxes, and in 1930 the number increased
to 960,000 boxes.
A studied opinion on how to remedy the overcrowded market at harvest season lies in the
proper use of cold storage within the Province and feeding the market from point of production,
thereby extending the market by time.
Sufficient evidence was obtained in 1929 to warrant a continuous supply of eggs to this
market. Unless supplies are of a permanent kind, the quality and pack advantage (which was
pronounced by experts to be of the highest grade) will be lost.
We would recommend that the British Columbia egg-shippers take this matter into serious
consideration with a view to restoring their connection in the United Kingdom that was
established in 1929.
W. ATKINSON,
Minister of Agriculture. E3P                                                                                *^
G 59
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX No. 1.
ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, VICTORIA, B.C.
April 1st, 1930
MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
1
1
DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
1
DIRECTOR OP PLANT INDUSTRY                                                DIRECTOR OP                      EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT                     COLONIZATION AND                                              DIRECTOR OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY
Chief Plant Quaran
4 District Horticultur
6 District Agricultural
Chief Clerk
Statistician
^"             »■*-»-«- J. UAJlU.Ui.1 J.
♦Dairy Commis
Assistant
Chief Veterinary
Poultry
tine Officer
ists
Offices
Prairie Repre
Director
sioner
Live Stock
Inspector
Commissioner
Assistant Chief Plant
Secretary
Creston
sentative
Secretary
2 Dairy
Commissioner
5 Veterinary
2 Poultry
Quarantine Officer
Clerk
Kelowna
Fruit Display
Accountant
Secretary (Vancouver)
Instructors
Brand Recorder
Inspectors
Instructors
6 Plant Quarantine
2 Stenographers
Penticton
Specialist
Clerk
Clerk-Stenog
Brand Inspector
Stenographer
Inspectors
2 Clerk-Stenographers
1 Assistant
Salmon Arm
Clerk-Stenographer
2 Junior Clerks
2 Clerk-Stenog
3 Stenographers
rapher
Stenographer
Secretary
3 Stenographers
Summerland
raphers
Vernon
3 Stenographers
♦Assistant
Cow-Testing
Associations
Workshop and
Shipping Office
General Asst.
Field Crops
Plant Patholo
Assistant
Apiary
8 District Agricultural
Commissioner
gist
Entomologist
Inspector
Offices
Assistant
Field Crops
Assistant Plant
Pathologist
Laboratory
Assistant
Courtenay
Cranbrook
Farmers'
Women's Institutes
Field Inspector
Institutes
Clerk-Stenographer
Grand Forks
New Westminster
Stenographer
150-Mile House
Pouce Coupe
Prince George
Smithers DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930.
G 61
APPENDIX No. 2.
Dairy Heeds inspected but not T.B. tested.
District.
No. of
Herds.
No. of
Cattle
inspected.
Grade of Premises.
A.
B.
C.
1
27
1
25
623
16
8
1
9
80
6
2
1
57
238
2
55
48
882
10
19
19
15
205
5
4
6
7
141
3
3
1
68
1,526
1
42
25
31
815
2
16
13
8
148
6
1
1
30
388
3
10
17
1
25
1
68
1,566
19
49
140
2,384
17
105
18
94
1,923
26
41
27
160
3,051
2
102
56
3
31
3
8
148
6
1
1
59
1,379
8
30
21
38
1,394
15
23
4
91
1
3
22
362
7
12
3
9
216
9
109
1,760
23
80
6
26
301
21
5
21
219
9
12
3
24
3
6
178
5
1
6
94
3
3
5
106
4
1
1,081
20,325
213
587
Agassiz	
Burnaby	
Burquitlam	
Bella Coola	
Coquitlam	
Chilliwack	
Cranbrook	
Dewdney	
Glen Valley	
Hammond	
Haney	
Harrison Mills	
Ladner	
Langley	
Lulu Island	
Matsqui.	
Newgate	
North Vancouver
Pitt Meadows	
Richmond	
Squamish	
Sea Island	
Sumas	
Surrey	
Vancouver	
Victoria	
Wardner	
Westminster	
Windermere	
Fernie	
Totals...
APPENDIX No. 3.
Premises visited, Cattle tested, and Grades of Stables and Dairies.
District.
No. of
Premises.
No. of
Cattle
T.B.
tested.
Reactors.
Grade op Premises.
A.
B.
C.
Vancouver Island.
7
1
23
7
5
1
10
34
9
42
10
1
9
1
2
9
61
2
229
27
55
2
63
428
45
392
23
20
67
5
45
115
2
1
5
3
2
6
1
1
5
1
6
1
7
2
15
4
4
1
2
22
5
34
7
4
2
1
3
Cobble Hill	
2
3
7
3
Chase River	
3
Extension	
5
1
Hillbank	 G 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 3—Continued.
Premises visited, Cattle tested, and Grades of Stables and Dairies—Continued.
No. of
Premises.
No. of
Cattle
T.B.
tested.
Reactors.
Grade of Premises.
A.
B.
C.
Vancouver Island—Continued.
5
51
1
3
3
263
1
42
1
83
11
2
21
539
23
64
24
3,231
8
333
9
715
135
14
30
146
4
15
28
1
1
76
3
27
6
5
21
1
2
2
172
1
37
1
41
5
2
2
Northfleld                    	
15
2
Victoria...	
15
Totals	
637
6,695
206
172
393
72
Gulf Islands.
31
13
17
190
64
43
2
1
13
7
3
16
5
14
Totals	
61
297
3
23
35
Kootenay.
2
4
4
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
36
44
10
67
12
8
6
20
1
79
1
4
2
4
1
4
1
1
3
Trail	
4
Creston	
1
4
Totals	
29
283
1
4
13
12
East Kootenay.
1
14
6
1
2
2
1
16
15
271
50
8
117
49
4
141
8
2
3
2
3
1
5
5
1
7
6
1
2
1
6
Totals    	
43
655
10
8
19
16
North Okanagan.
65
5
4
1
3
1
35
1
431
96
29
1
19
25
246
20
1-
1
1
38
3
3
2
1
23
1
26
1
Enderby	
1
1
1
11
Totals	
115
867
3
71
41 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930.
G 63
APPENDIX No. 3—Continued.
Premises visited, Cattle tested, and Grades of Stables and Dairies—Continued.
District.
Nicola.
Dot	
Lower Nicola	
Merritt...	
Totals	
South Okanagan.
Kelowna	
Okanagan  Landing	
Okanagan   Mission	
Rutland	
Summerland	
Totals	
Similkameen.
Oliver	
Princeton	
Similkameen	
Greenwood	
Grand Forks	
Midway	
Rock Creek	
Cawston	
Totals	
Kootenay.
Robson	
Blewett	
Edgewood	
Harrop	
Nelson	
Perry   Siding	
Procter	
Slocan  City	
Taghum	
Willow Point	
Rossland	
Totals	
Coast Points.
Gibsons Landing	
Kingcome Inlet	
Pender Harbour	
Quathiaski Cove	
Squamish	
Stewart	
Prince  Rupert	
Totals	
No. of
Premises.
26
4
9
44
36
30
No. of
Cattle
T.B.
tested.
1
25
53
79
213
29
40
18
10
310
1
13
5
57
2
23
2
14
9
77
3
6
1
1
3
3
194
1
3
4
39
24
182
1
4
35
221
2
61
4
24
1
10
1
11
5
33
13
144
Reactors.
Grade of Premises.
A.
732
2
7
2
50
0
12
5
16
3
89
1
22
1
16
212
19
30
20
2
5
2
1
30
13
12
1
15
1
4
1
3
7
10
1
2
1
11
3
1
1
20
12
16
19 G 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 3—Continued.
Premises visited, Cattle tested, and Grades of Stables and Dairies—Continued.
No. of
Premises.
No. of
Cattle
T.B.
tested.
Reactors.
Grade of Premises.
District.
A.
B.
C.
Central British Columbia.
2
3
11
2
5
2
6
16
15
13
2
19
16
66
17
25
14
64
175
127
46
11
1
13
1
5
2
2
1
1
4
1
3
2
9
12
2
1
10
1
1
1
3
9
Telkwa	
6
1
Totals	
77
580
15
5
39
33
Points on C.P.R.
4
1
1
14
2
1
32
2
2
1
1
3
106
6
3
328
21
24
203
13
26
S
6
112
3
1
2
1
1
2
2
4
11
12
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
Lvtton	
18
1
2
1
Totals	
64
856
6
6
30
28
APPENDIX No. 4.
Cattle and Hides shipped during 1930.
District, Cariboo and South.
Williams Lake.
Lac la Hache.
Quesnel.
Clinton.
Lillooet.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
242
71
15
49
8
207
696
686
1,479
771
149
81
70
103
118
142
22
43
27
197
55
16
336
1
7
133
501
283
152
881
1,163
78
8
1
10
3
February	
82
July   	
September 	
110
November
December	
40
Totals...
4,373
81
433
344
16
3,535
22
232
Totals :   Cattle, 8,685 ;   hides, 351. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930.
G 65
APPENDIX No. 4—Continued.
Cattle and Hides shipped during 1930—Continued.
District, Kamloops and Nicola.
Month.
Kamloops.
Nicola.
ASHCROFT.
Salmon Arm.*
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
345
53
147
356
120
471
886
393
406
459
561
326
67
354
114
289
348
89
170
97
102
103
213
144
268
71
799
672
383
1,015
603
154
967
74
12
174
47
176
84
67
62
44
337
50
26
74
270
496
9
70
1
3
11
25
47
3
36
19
40
2
14
11
40
173
26
60
138
June	
July	
28
26
Totals	
4,523
2,090
4,932
740
1,253
264
67
451
Totals :   Cattle, 10,708 ;   hides, 3,054.
* Included in Kamloops.
District, Okanagan.
Month.
Kelowna.
Penticton.
Vernon.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
2
48
8
45
4
16
86
53
88
188
127
63
27
25
73
122
50
17
9
69
19
98
63
102
133
86
28
96
29
1
86
132
60
282
81
139
240
July	
240
68
139
October	
68
151
151
Totals            	
103
562
377
579
432
1,559
Totals :   Cattle, 912 ;   hides, 2,700.
District, Similkameen.
Keremeos.
Oliver.
Princeton.
Coalmont.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
36
25
72
1
71
39
2
2
2
31
9
2
161
25
43
23
51
45
10
60
6
13
48
50
49
159
26
18
76
45
97
58
28
87
48
3
6
July    	
134
93
Totals	
205
87
348
89
350
442
233
Totals :   Cattle, 903 ;   hides, 851. G 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 4—Continued.
Cattle and Hides shipped during 1930—Continued.
District, South-east British Columbia.
Month.
Nelson.
Cattle.      Hides.
Creston.
Cattle.     Hides.
Cranbrook.
Cattle.      Hides
Fernie.
Cattle.     Hides.
January	
February....
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September-
October	
November...
December...
Totals..
90
124
56
19
347
C
36
71
119
226
36
243
99
117
81
279      |
297
Totals :   Cattle, 17 ;   hides, 1,149.
District, South-east British Columbia.
Grand
Forks.
Greenwood.
Revelstoke.
Golden.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
1
14
21
49
67
20
87
56
73
13
3
217
12
125
162
7
3
26
66
9
July            	
25
19
71
Totals	
85
230
86
3
523     |      	
219
Totals:   Cattle, 174;   hides, 972.
District, Central British Columbia.
Month.
Smithers.
Cattle.      Hides,
Telkwa.
Cattle.     Hides.
Hazelton.
Cattle.      Hides
Burns Lake.
Cattle.
Hides.
January	
February....
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September..
October	
November...
December...
Totals..
24
42
2
74
23
50
69
99
7
23
26
69
31
165
225     |      149
6
"30"
9
17
23
19
11
8
26
42
19
Totals;   Cattle, 356;   hides, 300. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930.
G 67
APPENDIX No. 4—Continued.
Cattle and Hides shipped during 1930—Continued.
District, Central British Columbia.
Month.
Vanderhoof.
E'ort George.
McBride.
Bella Coola.
Pouce Coupe.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
38
2
154
92
13
3
44
4
2
8
14
36
41
19
22
63
7
49
24
31
February	
54
19
29
2
7
July	
7
September
59
37
November
December
5
Totals...
194
92
16
108
256
219
Totals :   Cattle, 256 ;   hides, 629.
District Totals.
1928.
1929.
1930.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
7,586
7,140
2,780
636
1,125
3,307
3,540
6,322
3,559
1,570
9,378
8,145
1,667
370
721
931
3,358
5,210
2,302
1,057
8,685
10,708
1,815
191
612
351
3,054
3,551
2,121
929
Grand totals	
19,267
18,298
20,281
12,858
22,011
10,006
APPENDIX No. 5.
Combined Milk-testers' and Cream-graders' Licences issued during 1930.
Name. Address.
Anderson, Z. K 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Akerman, J. E Ganges.
Anderson, A. J Vanderhoof.
Boyne, W. T c/o Spencer Dairies, Vancouver.
Batey, H. S 865 Heywood Avenue, Victoria.
Dunn, J. S 553 Fifth Street, Nanaimo.
Dungate, W Prince Rupert.
Dunn, J. S., Jr 553 Fifth Street, Nanaimo.
Drake, A. W  Ganges.
Ellis, Jack  112 Fifty-ninth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Grahame, F Box 67, Vernon.
Higham, C. J 2342 Frederick Street, Burnaby.
Harkness,  Wm Grand Forks.
Hansen, A. B Box 25, Golden.
Jenne, H. H Nelson.
James, D. A. 1114 Broadway West, Vancouver.
Johnson, Alfred  R.R. No. 1. Salmon Arm.
Kell, Geo 309 Sixth Street, New Westminster.
5 G 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 5—Continued.
Combined Milk-testers' and Cream-graders' Licences issued during 1930—Continued.
Name. Address.
Lamb, Ernest  Vanderhoof.
Lord, T 6131 Nanaimo Street, Vancouver.
Morse, A. 0 2522 Dundas Street, Vancouver.
Moss, J Box 324, Kelowna.
Muraro, W Nelson.
McAllister, C. W 707 View Street, Victoria.
Patten, L. W Vernon.
Patchett, Geo Duncan.
Pyvis, Roy T Box 152, Chilliwack.
Quaedvlieg, E. J Keremeos.
Reid, Sydney E 1542 Twelfth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Rodger, J. M Courtenay.
Rolph, E. N Kamloops.
Ross, Paul B c/o Steves' Dairy, Vancouver.
Rive,  C Box 214, Courtenay.
Skelton, R. J Salmon Arm.
Stilling, C. W." Invermere.
Sellers, J. H 1257 Eighteenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Thomson, F. D Quesnel.
Trueman,  S Quesnel.
Urquhart, J. C 3291 Dunbar Street, Vancouver.
Wagg, C. H Ganges.
Woods, R. H Box 598, Penticton.
Warburton, S  1957 Gait Street, Vancouver.
Wells, R. E Sardis.
White, C. J 240 Sixty-first Avenue West, Vancouver.
Cream-graders' Licences issued during 1930.
Name. Address.
J. H. Moore  Vernon.
John Moore  4543 Hastings Street East, Vancouver.
APPENDIX No. 6.
Milk-testers' Licences issued during 1930.
Name. Address.
Anderson, Alfred H Kamloops.
Andrews, J. J Courtenay.
Atkinson, Geo. W 4320 Keefer Street, Vancouver.
Atkinson, L. A 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Bergman,   S 3437 Templeton Drive, Vancouver.
Blake, C. AV 1475 King Edward Avenue, Vancouver.
Calder, Jas 882 Hamilton Street, Vancouver.
Cameron, W. C. C Enderby.
Caldwell, John  1855 Georgia Street East, Vancouver.
Carroll, W. J Courtenay.
Chevalley, F Sardis.
Chevalley, P R.R. No. 2, Abbotsford.
Clark, H. C Cloverdale.
Clarke, T. G. M Courtenay.
Coxen, W. G 1111 Fort Street, Victoria.
Crawford, Wm. M 217 Twenty-first Avenue East, Vancouver.
Crawford, Thos 305 Fifty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Cranswick, P 1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver. APPENDIX No. 6—Continued.
Milk-testers' Licences issued during 1930—Continued.
Name. Address.
Dixon, A. S Atchelitz.
Dudman, A 333a Thirteenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Grimes, G. G Chilliwack.
Gibbs, J 930 North Park Street, Victoria.
Hall, F. D. B Sardis.
Hawthorne, W. E Pitt Meadows.
Hargreaves, J. A. D 1551 Sixteenth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Heelas, D. S Port Hammond.
Hooson, Wm. E Vernon.
Hoffman, W 2024 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Holmes, J 827 Broadway West, Vancouver.
Howell, A. H. R Chilliwack.
Hurley, M. H 1111 Fort Street, Victoria.
Johnson, Wm. G Nelson.
Jess, Geddes  Mount Tolmie P.O., Victoria.
Kjeldgaard, Otto  ... Penticton.
Lowen, Harry  Vernon.
LeWarne, A. E City Dairy & Produce Co., Vancouver.
Lee, Clarence  Kamloops.
Main, T Agassiz.
Manning, J. E Box 26, Telkwa.
Medd, G. H Fort Langley.
McLaughlin,  G Spencer Dairies, Vancouver.
McLeary,  Sam  , Box 652, Cranbrook.
Melander,  Svend  6290 Commercial Street, Vancouver.
Meikle, Wm 773 Eighteenth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Miller, R. G 2675 Maple Street, Vancouver.
Mingo, G. T R.R. No. 1, Ladner.
Moore, J. S 709 Fourteenth Street, New Westminster.
Morgan, Basil  Box 8, Sardis.
Moore, J. H Enderby.
Moore,  John  4543 Hastings Street East, Vancouver.
Napier, K. R Saanichton.
Nelson, C. E 2024 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Norton, F. H. A 1311 Broad Street, Victoria.
Orr, J. B R.R. No. 1, Sardis.
Price, T. W 905 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Richards, T. E Lynn Creek P.O., North Vancouver.
Robertson, J. H Kamloops.
Ryan, Welby W Vernon.
Redman, W. R 6106 Chester Street, Vancouver.
Rose, Wm Langley Prairie.
Staheli, Henry  Spencer Dairies, Vancouver.
Stobart, Thos. P 1156 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Sherwood, E. G : 1166 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Silver, M. R 2215 Dundas Street, Vancouver.
Turnbull, Miss M Box 616, Kelowna.
Valentin, H. B. M Prince Rupert.
AVashington, F. J 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Watson, J. B R.R. No. 1, Sardis.
Wells,  B Abbotsford.
Wells, J. R Penticton.
AA'ilson, R. A Abbotsford.
Wood, R. K 3329 Oak Street, Victoria. G 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 7.
Creamery Licences issued during 1930.
Name. Address.
Beaconsfield Dairy Co 905 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Bell,  AVm Central Dairy, Nanaimo.
Borden Co., Ltd., The  Sardis.
Burns & Co Creamery Dept, AAToodland Drive, Vancouver.
Palm Dairies, Ltd Kamloops.
Burns & Co Grand Forks.
Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Association  Quesnel.
Central Creameries (B.C.), Ltd 325 Railway Street, Vancouver.
City Dairy & Produce Co., Ltd 414 Pender Street East, Vancouver.
Columbia A'alley Co-operative Creamery Assoc... Golden.
Comox Creamery Association Courtenay.
Cowichan Creamery Association  Duncan.
Crystal Dairy, Ltd 1803 Commercial Drive, Vancouver.
Crystal Dairy, Ltd Cranbrook.
Curlew Creamery Co., Ltd Nelson.
East End Dairy  2469 Oxford Street, Vancouver.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association  405 Eighth Avenue AArest, Vancouver.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association  Sardis.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association  Abbotsford.
Kelowna Creamery Co., Ltd Kelowna.
Nanaimo Creamery Association Nanaimo.
Nechaco Creamery Vanderhoof.
Northwestern Creamery, Ltd 1311 Broad Street, Victoria.
Okanagan Valley Co-op. Creamery Association . Arernon.
Okanagan Valley Co-op. Creamery Association.. Enderby.
Penticton Purity Products, Ltd Penticton.
Port O'Van Ice Cream, Ltd 1170 Hornby Street, Arancouver.
Pouce Coupe District Co-op. Creamery Assoc Kilkerran.
Quaedvlieg,   Victor    Keremeos.
Royal City Creamery  309 Sixth Street, New Westminster.
Royal Dairies, Ltd 1001 Pender Street AVest, Vancouver.
Royal Dairy, Ltd 707 View Street, Victoria.
Salmon Arm Co-op. Creamery Association  Salmon Arm.
Salt Spring Island Creamery Co Ganges.
Sherwood Creameries, Ltd 1166 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Sherwood Milk Products, Ltd 1166 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Spencer Dairies, Ltd 441 Keefer Street, Vancouver.
Steves, J. M., Dairy  2024 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
United Dairy Co., Ltd 1002 Hastings Street West, Vancouver.
Valentin Dairy  Prince Rupert.
Valley Dairy, Ltd , 1569 Sixth Avenue AVest, Arancouver.
Valley Dairy & Creamery  Penticton.
Vancouver Dairies, Ltd 1132 Hastings Street West, Vancouver.
Vancouver Creamery Co., Ltd Nelson and Cambie Streets, Vancouver.
Vancouver Creamery Co., Ltd 1569 Sixth Avenue AVest, Vancouver.
Vimpa Jersey Milk, Ltd 930 North Park Street, Victoria.
Victoria City Dairy Co., Ltd 1111 Fort Street, Victoria.
AAThite Lunch, Ltd 124 Hastings Street AVest, A'ancouver. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930.
G 71
APPENDIX No. S.
Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia.
Name.
Instituted.
Secretary.
Tester.
Departmental
Grant.
October, 1926
March, 1913
November, 1928..
April, 1927
C. J. Killer, Telkwa	
J. B. Manning....
J. J. Andrews....
A. H. Howell
A. S. Dixon	
T. G. M. Clark...
G. G. Grimes	
R. C. Salter
Wm. Rose	
Wm. E. Hooson.
W. E. Hawthorne
G. H. Medd
D. S. Heelas
A. Johnson	
R. A. Wilson
H. C. Clark
$1,020.00
640.00
600.00
R. C. Johnston, R.R. 1, Chilliwack
Ditto	
720.00
April, 1914	
W. E.  Mantle,  Sandwick
D. W.  Strachan, Dewdney	
720.00
October, 1930
October, 1929
June, 1914     ..    .
180.00
275.00
J. C. Berry, Langley Prairie..
G. D. Cameron, Kelowna	
J. E. Stewart, Port Hammond.
R. J. Smith, R.R. 1, Ladner...
R. J. Smith, R.R. 1, Ladner...
G. F. Ibbotson, Salmon Arm..
B.   Stewart,   R.R.  2,  Abbotsford
720.00
April, 1920	
690.00
November, 1925..
March, 1919
March, 1930
July, 1929	
610.00
720.00
580.00
630.00
November, 1923..
November, 1924..
ipril, 1929	
660.00
720.00
F.  G.  Waide,  R.M.D.  1,  Victoria
600.00
Bulkley Valley	
Chilliwack, Route 1	
Chilliwack, Route 2	
Chilliwack, Route 3	
Comox Aralley	
Dewdney-Deroche	
East Kootenay ,
Langley	
Okanagan	
Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge.
Richmond-Ladner, Route 1.
Richmond-Ladner, Route 2.
Salmon Arm District	
Sumas-Matsqui	
Surrey	
Vancouver Island (South). G 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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APPENDIX No. 12.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates
were issued.
1930. 1929
Fruit—                                                                                                              Crates, etc.        Crates, e'tc.
Avocados          155 201
Bananas       95,235 98,748
Black figs   261
Cantaloupes      23,823 21,302
Cantaloupes (by count)       1,811 	
Casabas        9,004 4,949
Casabas (by count)      8,645 9,551
Cactus pears            31 29
Cranberries         3,739 3,168
Dried fruits  (various)       90,193 94.890
Dried loganberries   235
Dried pears             30 55
Dried peaches       2.215 3,050
Dried prunes        6,334 11,861
Dried plums   2
Dried figs        9,813 27,697
Dried black figs          115 	
Dried grapes   601
Dried apples            45 50
Dried apricots       1,060 2,540
Dried raisins      65,376 64,943
Dried currants      17,916 4,340
Dried nectarines   40
Dried persimmons   1 	
Dates      10.142 7.114
Grapes      91,879 85,271
Green figs          242 80
Kumquats   8 	
Chinese melons           319 154
Watermelons (by count)       91,829 53,547
Watermelons (lb.)      22,411 	
Watermelons   (crates)     23
Honeydew melons   ,      2,738 3,547
Persian melons          528 253
Honeydew melons (by count)   2,411
Turkish melons   8 	
Ground cherries   6 	
Olives             158 78
Passion fruit            45 6
Mangoes    3
Papaws (lb.)   500
Vegetables—
Asparagus      16,131 12,332
Artichokes            303 221
Brussels sprouts          453 849
Beans (green)          410 179
Beetroot            572 498
Cabbage  (lb.)    ,  121,569 1,325,220
Cabbage        13,001 5,001
Cabbage (Chinese)           192 99
Cauliflower     25,596 28,279
Carrots      19,792 22,795
Celery    -.     14,265 14,941 1930.
ates, etc.
189
1929.
Crates, etc
71
155
210
0
55
10
204
113
30,826
49,120
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 75
APPENDIX No. 12—Continued.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates
were issued—Continued.
Vegetables—Cont inued.
Corn on cob 	
Cucumbers  	
Dried vegetables	
Endives 	
Garlic	
Lettuce        50,826
Onions (green)   9 	
Onions      21,713 34,781
Onions   (pickling)         S,130 	
Mushrooms            33 61
Dried mushrooms (lb.)   50 	
Potatoes (lb.)  (Prince Edward Island)   175,230 	
Peas (green)       5,141 2,321
Split peas (lb.)   100,000 24,295
Lentils      89,603 86,455
Leeks  -.  16 	
Radish          113 38
Rhubarb   * :           76 1,239
Rutabagas            262 494
Squash          316' 63
Spinach  ;     15,256 17,510
Swiss chard   13 	
Turnips        1,548 459
Watercress              7 5
Miscellaneous products—
Coffee-beans (lb.)   802,264 84,800
Cocoa-beans (lb.)     19,391 20,020
Cocoa-beans  (sacks)    8,945
Chicory  !             1 9
Cloves         4.331 8,000
Chillies (lb.)       2,000 2,005
Chives    1 	
Cinnamon-bark (lb.)     22,066 19,400
Horseradish  (barrels)              22 5
Mint            13 13
Mace      3,200 200
Marjoram leaves "  125
Nutmegs ,(lb.)       10,600 13,538
Parsley           434 315
Pepper (lb.)   237,771 144,690
Pepper  (black)   (lb.)     ■     1,181
Pepper (black)  (sacks)   70
Pepper  (red)   (lb.)    5,618
Pepper  (white)   (lb.)    10,218
Pimentos   (lb.)         2,100 4,020
Mustard-greens   18 	
Mustard-leaves (lb.)   12
Sage  (lb.)     163
Thyme (lb.)   250
Almonds (lb.)    181,070 143,896
Brazil nuts (lb.)      73,061 357,214
Cocoanuts (sacks)          334 265
Filbert nuts (lb.)     47.06S 57,940 G 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 12—Continued.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruits, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates
WERE ISSUED AT PORTS OTHER THAN  VANCOUVER Continued.
1930 1929
Miscellaneous products—Continued.                                                Crates, etc.        Crates, etc.
Pistachia nuts (lb.)          480 448
Pine nuts (lb.)         310 200
Pecan nuts (lb.)     27,828 19,835
Lotos nuts (lb.)           100 300
Black walnuts (lb.)   50
Cashew nuts          200 488
Water-chestnuts (lb.)       38,200 38,806
Chestnuts (lb.)      24,950 17,130
White nuts (lb.)       5,300 3,953
Horn nuts  (lb.)           100 	
Tiger nuts  (lb.)    110 	
Beetroot-pulp (lb.)   1.191,000 647,000
Bean cake-meal (lb.)  1,932,256 1,795,621
Cocoanut-meal (lb.)   6,000
Linseed-meal (lb.)        6,000 	
Assorted seed  (lb.)    210,705 479,208
Bak choy         110 79
Gye choy            78 47
Sue choy  v           48 300
Caladium  (lb.)     38,800 37,000
Caltrops  (lb.)        1,100 1,600
Carobs (lb.)  300
Cassia-bark  (lb.)       77,080 1,520
Dried ginger (lb.)    19,875
Ginger-roots  (lb.)       48,955 29,400
Jamaica ginger (lb.)   1.920
Ginseng (lb.)   25 	
Garbanzos  (lb.)      2,819 800
Lupines (lb.)         350 200
Lotos rhizomes (lb.)      76,540 116.670
Lily-bulbs (edible)   (lb.)        6,400 5,800
Lily-roots (edible)  (lb.)      14,300 	
Momordica   1
Okra             9 3
Foo guah  11 	
Geet guah  :  8 	
Sugar-cane (lb.)      26,070 18,400
Tapioca      53,238 64,583
Lytchis         2,165 2,319
Kafir corn (lb.)   500
Copra-meal (lb.)   1,800
Cotton-seed meal (lb.)     50,000 290,000
Cotton-seed hulls (lb.)       24,150 	
Ground cocoanut (lb.)      21,875 25,000
Dill-weed   (bundles)     16 	
Dried seaweed (lb.)          300 	
Soy-beans (lb.)    100,937
Broom-corn (bales)          805 610
Apple pummice (lb.)      35,350 	
Poppy-heads  (lb.)           300 	
Nux vomica (lb.)          100 	
Shallots   1 	 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 77
APPENDIX No. 12—Continued.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates
were issued—Continued.
1930. 1929.
Miscellaneous products—Continued.                                             Crates, etc. Crates, etc
Juniper berries (lb.)        1,100 	
Wheat-flour (lb.)       40,500 	
Bamboo poles  (bundles)    10
APPENDIX No. 13.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which No Certificates
WERE ISSUED AT PORTS OTHER THAN VANCOUVER.
1930. 1929.
Fruit—                                               .                                                             Crates, etc.        Crates, etc.
Avocados   33 15
Bananas (bunches)    25,890 21,649
Cantaloupes   6,398 7,331
Cantaloupes   (lb.)     5,472                	
Casabas   312
Cranberries  97 164
Cherries (ground)    4                	
Grapes   19,012 17,952
Grapes (cars)   2
Figs     7 30
Watermelons  2,317 4,627
Watermelons (by count)    7,339                	
Watermelons   (lb.)     28,374                	
Olives  126 6
Cactus pears  20               	
Dried prunes   90                	
Passion fruit  1               	
Vegetables—
Asparagus  1,987 2,056
Artichokes    29 16
Brussels sprouts   192 131
Beans (green)   106 32
Beets    378 126
Cabbage  3,665 2,780
Cauliflower  4,415 2,589
Carrots     2,338 2,379
Celery    2,585 2,777
Cucumbers    315 345
Corn on the cob   82                 	
Endives   200 166
Garlic  6 6
Parsley    39 29
Lettuce  9,915 7,851
Onions   5,184 3,627
Green peas   794 562
Rutabagas     35
Mushrooms   31                	
Radish   116 40
Rhubarb   287 157
Squash  5 8
Spinach   3,028 2,869
Tomatoes  25                	
Turnips   466 280 APPENDIX No. 13— Continued.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc, for which No Certificates
were issued at Ports other than Vancouver—Continued.
Nuts, etc.—
Almonds (sacks) 	
Almonds  (lb.)  	
Brazil nuts (sacks) 	
Brazil nuts (lb.)  	
Pecan nuts (lb.) 	
Pecan nuts (sacks) 	
Filbert nuts (lb.) 	
Cocoanuts (sacks) 	
Grass-seed (sacks) 	
Chicory  	
Horseradish 	
Barley  (bushels)  	
Oats  (bushels)  	
Wheat  (bushels)   	
Cotton-seed hulls (bags)  	
1930.
Crates, etc.
21
1929.
Crates, etc
100
5
25
200
2
400
105
30
19
24
4
3,105
1
3
249
205
160
1,245
APPENDIX No. 14.
Fruit shipped without Certificates from Vancouver via Panama Canal.
Apples Pears
Destination.                                                                                      (Boxes). (Boxes).
United Kingdom      89,334 5,250
Hamburg     16,118 	
Copenhagen         2,644 	
Totals  108,096 5,250
APPENDIX No. 15.
Memorandum of Imported Plant Products fumigated at Vancouver.
1930. 1929.
Peanuts (lb.)      31,350 	
Peanuts (tons)    29
Walnuts (lb.)      28,200 8,670
Almonds (lb.)         7,200 	
Almonds  (tons)     22
Raisins  (boxes)            425 	
Raisins  (lb.)    9,600
Currants (boxes)          367 	
Currants (lb.)   31,936
Sultanas (boxes)           813 	
Evaporated apples (lb.)   1,050
Dried apricots (boxes)          747 	
Dried apricots (lb.)   8,000
Dried peaches (boxes)    87 	
Dried nectarines (boxes)   30
Pineapples (boxes)   50 	
Beans   (lb.)        21,137 25,333
Seed-peas (lb.)       9,840 	
Peas (lb.)  :      2,310 4,576 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1930. G 79
APPENDIX No. 15— Continued.
Memorandum of Imported Plant Products fumigated at Vancouver—Continued.
1930. 1929.
Lentils (lb.)  .'     23,276 	
Chestnuts (lb.)   '.     50,967 	
Dried chili peppers (lb.)    824
Mixed nuts (lb.)   5,304
Wheat (lb.)        3,050 	
Mill products (sacks)          298 	
Wheat shorts (sacks)          241 	
Corn (lb.)          392 	
Dried herbs (lb.)       1,507 	
Celery-seed (lb.)        1,279 	
Empty apple-boxes   100 	
Empty pear-boxes   100 "  	
Empty corn-sacks      35,151 	
The following were fumigated at Victoria :—
Empty corn-sacks  (tons)                3 1
Empty corn-sacks (lb.)   500
Barley  (tons)    23 ,
G
80
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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G 81
APPENDIX No. 17.
Nursery Stock inspected for Export for which Certificates were issued, 1930.
Country.
a. co
feS
, rQ
^rJ
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r*l72
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177
787
6
114
18
24
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6
1,288
5
95
35
13,089
145,411
10,149
1,232
1,318
129
24
12
34,263
115,675
2,166
3,715
37
1,708
38
53
100
6,122
122
12
Holland	
318
60
88
5
10
34
67
Italy	
5
37
Totals	
1,126
6,974
135
13,094
155,597
2,715
150,510
14,013
60
Five hundred yellow cedar cone-bearing tip branches to the United States.
APPENDIX No. 18.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Reports for Season 1930.
(a.) Fraser Valley.
Situation of
Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Date Queen
introduced.
Surplus
Honey
taken during Season.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
Langley Prairie    Mrs. J. w. Berry
Murrayville..
Huntingdon..
Sumas Lake..
Kennedy..
Fairfield Island,
Chilliwack
No. 2 Koad, Lulu
Island
Totals..
B.  Chipperfield
A.   W.  Finlay
A.  W.  Finlay
Alex. Keir
H. Langton Johnson
G. H. Saunders
4
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
3
(1)
(2)
(3)
4
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
2
(1)
(2)
4
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
4
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
2
(1)
(2)
23
May, 1930
April, 1930
May, 1930
May, 1930
May, 1930
May, 1930
May, 1930
June, 1930
June, 1930
July, 1930
May, 1929
June, 1929
June, 1930
Aug., 1929
July, 1929
May, 1929
April, 1929
May, 1930
Aug., 1928
Aug., 1929
Aug., 1929
Sept., 1930
May, 1930
Lb. Lb.    Lb.
80
85
60
64
72
76
40
60
55
185
130
130
35
43
54
50
176
180
148
114
80
116
225
212
335
260
182
618
- 196
56
70
84
130
45
154
98 G 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 18—Continued.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Reports for Season 1930—Continued.
(b.) Kootenays.
(d.)  Okanagan.
Situation of
Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Date Queen
introduced.
Surplus
Honey
taken during Season.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
V. K. Soharev 	
1
3
2
6
May,    1929
(1) April,   1930
(2) April,   1930
(3) April,   1930
(1) Aug.,    1929
(2) May,    1929
(1)   	
Lb.    Lb.
35
       35
93
78
102
     273
90
84
     174
70
70
70
70
70
70
     420
Lb.
35
91
87
70
Charles Holt      	
W. J. Kidman 	
1
(2)   	
(3)   	
(4)   	
(5)   	
(6)   	
Totals	
12
902
75
1
(c.)  Vancouver Island.
M. Dean 	
4
(1)   	
(2)   	
(3)   	
(4)    	
50
50
50
50
     200
50
Totals	
4
200
50
(e.)  Summary.
4
5
(1)   	
(2)   	
(3)   	
(4)    	
1929
1929
1929
..1929
70
61
73
81
63
68
77
87
122
285
417
71
83
Dominion   Experimental
Station
(1)   	
..1929
(2)   	
(3) Aug.,
(4) April,
(5) May,
1929
1929
1930
1930
....
Totals    	
9
702
78       1
Territory.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Surplus
Honey
taken during Season.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
Fraser Valley..	
Kootenays	
Vancouver Island	
Okanagan	
Grand totals.
23
12
4
9
~4S~
Lb.
2,028
902
200
702
^,832"
Lb.
88
75
50
78
~7JT
1,075-631-5731
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Mnjes'y.
1931.

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