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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR 1925 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1927

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
TWENTIETH ANNEAL REPORT
OF   THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1925
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C. t
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1926.
PROV.-~'A-_ UBRART*
VICTORIA, B. C.  To His Honour Eobert Eandolph Bruce;
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Eeport
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1925.
E. DODSLEY BABEOW,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., July 30th, 1926.  Winners (seated) in the Sheep-shearing Competition held at Metchosln, Vancouver Island, under
the auspices of the Sheep-breeding Committee on April 26th, 1026. Standing, from right to left :
T. P. MacKenzie. Grazing Commissioner ; A. Morton, Dominion Sheep and Swine Promoter ; Dr.
D.  Warnock, Deputy Minister of Agriculture ;   Dr. A. Knight, Live Stock Commissioner.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture—Dr. D. Warnock   7
Report of Departmental Secretary—Wm, J. Bonavia   9
Report of Departmental Secretary re Fall Pairs—Wm. J. Bonavia   17
Report of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests—W. H. Robertson  19
Report of Chief Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Vancouver—W. H. Lyne  20
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver—J. W. Eastham   30
Report of Assistant Entomologist, Vernon—M. II. Ruhmann   33
Report of Markets Commissioner, Calgary—J. A. Grant   36
Report of Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria—Dr. A. G. Knight   40
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria—Dr. A. G. Knight   44
Report of District Agriculturist, Kamloops—Geo. C. Hay   45
Report of District Agriculturist, East Kootenay—A. L. Hay   49
Report of District Agriculturist, Duncan—E. R. Bewell   51
Report of District Agriculturist, Prince George—R. G. Sutton   52
Report of District Agriculturist, Smithers—D. D. Munro   56
Report of Dairy Commissioner, Victoria—H. Rive  57
Report of Chief Poultry Instructor, Victoria—J. R. Terry   62
Report of Chief Agronomist, Victoria—C. Tice   65
Report of Statistician, Victoria—G. H. Stewart   69
Report of Provincial Apiarist, Victoria—W. J. Sheppard  72
Report of Apiary Inspector, Bower Mainland and Vancouver Island Districts—A. W. Finlay.... 73
Report of Apiary Inspector, Okanagan,  Shuswap,  and Thompson  Valley  Districts—J. F.
Roberts    74
Report of Secretary of Women's Institutes, Victoria—Mrs. V. S. MacBachlan   75
Appendices.
Appendix No.
1. Correspondence received and dispatched, 1924 and 1925  SI
2. Co-operative Activity of Farmers' Institutes with Receipts over $1,000, 1924 and 1925  82
3. Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1925   84
4. Greenhouse Survey, 1923 and 1925   85
5. Pruning-schools, 1925   86
6. Pruning Demonstrations, 1925   86
7. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry in British Columbia
(including those condemned)   87
8. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at all Ports of Entry in British Columbia  88
9. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Vancouver   88
10. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Victoria   89
11. Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver  90
12. Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, etc., inspected at Vancouver   90
13. Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, etc., condemned at Vancouver   91
14. Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, etc., fumigated at Vancouver   92
15. Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which no Certificates were issued  92
16. Fruit and Vegetables inspected for Export .'  94
17. Nursery Stock inspected for Export :  95
18. Dist of Herds tested by Municipalities and Districts  95
19. Testers' Licences issued under" Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act, 1924"   97
20. Creamery or Dairy Licences  issued under " Creameries  and Dairies  Regulation Act,
1924"    ,  99
21. Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia   101
22. Annual Averages of Lactation Periods received from Cow-testing Associations   101
23. Summary of Lactation Periods in 1925  101
24. iSynopsis of Certified Seed-potato Work in British Columbia, 1925   102 Appendix No. Page.
25. Summary of Certified Seed-potato Fields, 1925  102
26. Report on Field Inspections made in Certified Seed-potato Districts, 1925   103
27. Synopsis of Diseases in all Varieties of Potatoes inspected, 1925   104i
28. Report on Tuber Inspections made before Grading in Certified Seed-potato Districts  105
29. Report on Field Inspections of Potatoes made in Districts where Crops had not been
entered for Certification, 1925  105
30. Estimated Honey-crop, 1925  ,  106
31. Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—
(».) Fraser Valley  '.  107
(6.)  Kootenays     108
(o.)  Vancouver Island   108
(d.)  Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys   109
(e.)  Summary     109 REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE.
D. Waknock, O.B.E.
Hon. E. D. Barrow,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of Agriculture for
the year 1925.
General Climatic and Agricultubal Conditions.
The general climatic conditions obtaining in this Province in 1925 were unusual, the temperatures from spring to fall being abnormally high and the precipitation for the entire year being
considerably below the average.
The deficiency between 1925 records and the ten-year average at certain typical points was as
follows :  Victoria, 6.99 inches ; Chilliwack, 11.60 inches ; and Nelson, 4.97 inches.
Taking the year in detail, the early part of January was cold in continuation of the severe
cold snap of December, 1924; this was followed by heavy rains in the Coast districts and heavy
snow in the Interior. February was fine on the whole, a fair amount of work on the land being
achieved in the Lower Fraser Valley and Island p6ints; considerable damage was reported, however, to the previous year's clover seedings. By March spring work was well advanced in most
districts, although in Central British Columbia work was delayed by the heavy snowfall, which,
in the case of stockmen, had caused a serious drain on their feed resources. April was cold and
unsettled but improved towards the end of the month; whilst May turned out to be the hottest
experienced for twenty years, with general farming conditions extremely promising. June continued hot and dry, although cool weather prevailed in the Central Interior. The long-delayed
rains came in the latter part of August, thus minimizing the fire hazard which had been serious
throughout the summer. September and October continued fine and dry with a recurrence of
bush fires, and the best weather conditions prevailed for the harvest. November and December
were mild and rounded out a somewhat unusual year from the point of view of the agriculturist.
From a production view-point, the year, in spite of the conditions noted above, was good;
the total value of all products being $65,153,513, or an increase of over 8 per cent, on 1924. The
chief items contributing to this increase were dairy products, vegetables and fodders, meats and
poultry.
The total value of the fruit-crop was slightly less than the previous year, being valued at
$5,413,S94; the yields of both tree-fruits and small fruits were generally less, with the exception
of the apple-crop, which increased. The prices received during the year were better than those
of 1924 and fruit-growers were encouraged, but the collapse of a large co-operative berry-
marketing organization undoubtedly affected the returns to the small-fruit industry.
Vegetables and field crops showed increased acreage of 14 and 10 per cent, respectively.
Potato-improvement work under the Field Crop Branch has been vigorously carried on, 459 acres
under certified seed being inspected during the growing season. The average yield of potatoes for
the Province was 5.24 tons, as against the five-year average for all Canada of 4.66 tons.
The production of greenhouse tomatoes, especially in the vicinity of Victoria, is steadily
increasing, 920 tons being thus produced and marketed, chiefly at middle-west points.
With regard to grains and fodders, there was a satisfactory increase, wheat yielding 23.60
bushels per acre and oats 47.30 bushels; an unusual proportion of the oat-crop, however, was cut
green or made into hay.
The acreage and production of clover and timothy, alfalfa and fodder com showed increases
also.
Tbe dairy industry continued to make steady progress in spite of the disadvantages of a very
dry summer, the total production of $10,629,350 being the largest on record. Butter was produced
to the amount of 5,527,002 lb. and ice-cream also showed lively progress.
With regard to live stock, the value of all animals in the Province increased to $18,256,229,
or about one and a half millions on the previous year; dairy cattle increased over 23,000 in
number, much interest being taken in this branch of industry throughout the Province, even in
sections hitherto devoted to other lines of work. Sheep showed a satisfactory increase also, with
keen demand for good breeding ewes, and the year saw several new flocks established, stimulated,
no doubt, by the activity of the Sheep-breeding Committee. Poultry and eggs showed an increase with fair returns to producers, although the price of
feedstuff's continued high during the year.
Amongst miscellaneous items comment may be made of increased production in meats, better
prices being received for pork and mutton. Wool and hops increased, also seeds, the latter industry giving signs of vigorous growth which should, if reasonably fostered, develop into one of the
major lines of agricultural effort.
Imposts and Exports.
Statistical records showed that imports of agricultural produce, both from other Provinces in
the Dominion as well as from foreign points, increased during the year; this was a check to the
gradual shrinkage in these items that has been noticeable over a series of years since the Province became more self-supporting in the provision of foodstuffs.
The chief increases in imports from other Provinces were in live stock, $930,944, mostly beef
cattle and calves, and in grains (wheat and malt), $1,668,130. Imports from foreign points
increased in live stock, fruits, and canned vegetables. With regard to the latter, the item of
2,264,570 lb. of canned vegetables imported into this Province would indicate that opportunities
were being overlooked by home producers.
Exports of produce, although small, are showing a healthy increase from year to year; the
total value for 1925 being $6,731,709, as against $6,022,019 for 1924; dairy cattle and swine in
live stock, pork and pork products, mixed fruits and vegetables were the chief items, the two last
accounting for $4,895,188.
AWARDS  WON BY THE PROVINCE.
Fruit-growers in the Province were gratified by the awards captured at the Imperial Fruit-
show held in October in London, England, the Associated Growers of British Columbia, Limited,
Vernon, taking first, second, and third prizes in dessert varieties of apples in the British Empire
section, with second and third prizes in cooking varieties. In the overseas section the .Associated
Growers also took the first and second prizes.
The showing of British Columbia live stock at the Royal Winter Fair, held in Toronto,
November 15th to 21st, was also an event in the history of the Province. Fifty ribbons were
secured, including two reserve championships, one junior championship, six firsts, seven seconds,
and fourteen thirds. The result showed conclusively that British Columbia dairy cattle can
compete favourably with the dairy cattle of the American Continent.
Grasshopper Infest.ation.
The work in districts infested in 1924 was again carried on in conjunction with the Dominion
Entomological Branch. Early in the season serious results were anticipated from the grasshopper outbreak in the Okanagan Valley, large areas in vegetables being menaced. Over
$16,000 for work and materials was needed to cope with this district, but by the use of poison
bait it was estimated that 70 per cent, of the vegetable-crop w7as saved. The grain and hay crops,
although some good work was accomplished, presented more difficulties to attain results owing
to the size of the various fields and the apparent apathy on the part of the hoppers to take the
poison in these crops. Fruit-orchards suffered some loss from hoppers in certain sections, but
they were not in general so serious a menace in orchards as they were in other crops. Young
trees also suffered somewhat from defoliation and small fruits by loss of crop. The crops saved
justified all expense and efforts put forth by the growers and the Department. The most hearty
co-operation was shown by all growers in working with Department officials in properly distributing the bait in accordance with directions, and expressions of appreciation of the Government's
efforts have been heard on all sides.
Ten Years op Progress.
In conclusion, it may not be out of place to look back a decade and compare 1925 with 1915
and note the progress made during these years, as follows:—
1915. 1925.
Total value of agricultural products   $31,127,801 $65,153,513
Wheat production  (bushels)           615,668 1,117,629
Area in all crops (acres)          358,165 586,902
Dairy products   (value)     $ 3,034,340 $10,629,350
Respectfully submitted.                                                                       D WarN00K;
Deputy Minister. 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 9
REPORT OF DEPARTMENTAL SECRETARY.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report for this office for the year
ended December 31st, 1925.
Staff.
The Estimates for the fiscal year 1925-26 provided for a staff of seventy-eight members, forty-
eight of whom were technical men attached to the various branches.
Both appointments and resignations were less than in the previous year, the movement in
and out of the Department being as follows:—
19.,- Permanent Appointments.
May    1.    Bewell, E. R., District Agriculturist.
May    1.    Noble, Miss F. M., Stenographer.
April   1.    Sutton, R. G., District Agriculturist (transfer from outside service to
Civil Service).
April   1.    Munro, D. D., District Agriculturist (transfer from outside service to
Civil Service).
Removals.
Jan.  31.    Walsh, Miss M., stenographer  (resigned).
April   4.    Shotbolt, A. H., General .Assistant (retired).
April30.    Fleming, W. M., District Agriculturist  (resigned).
Temporary Appointments.—A number of seasonal appointments were made again, chiefly
in connection with certified seed-potato inspection-work for the Field Crop Branch.
Legislation affecting the Department.
At the 1925 session of the Legislative Assembly a number of amendments were passed in
connection with Statutes affecting this Department, as follows:—
AH Act to amend the " Animals Act."
An Act to amend the " Grazing Act."
An Act to amend the " Pound District Act."
An Act to amend the " Sheep Protection Act."
An Act to amend the " Societies Act."
An Act to amend the " Trespass Act."   ,
The most important clauses in the amending Acts were as follows:—
(a.) "Animals Act."—Authority was given to any Provincial police officer or any bona-fide
settler or resident to arrest any stallion or bull running at large upon Crown range or unfenced
lands contrary to the provision of the Grazing Act."
A further clause provided that, upon the request of the Minister of Lands or an approved.
Live Stock Association in a grazing district and after due notice, any Government Agent could
issue a licence to any person, authorizing him to shoot horses found running at large on any
Crown range within the grazing district.
(b.) " Grazing Act."—The amendment provided that the Minister of Lands may give notice
in any year to owners of horses in a grazing district, running at large on any Crown range, to
round up or capture all such horses before a set date. No stallion or bull shall be allowed to
run at large on any Crown range or unfenced lands of private owners within a grazing district
unless branded with a registered brand.
(c.) " Pound Distinct Act."—Where the owner was not known, or if notified did not appear
within three days, the amendment made provision for the posting of a notice of sale by the
pound-keeper, and also gave authority to the pound-keeper to sell impounded animals by public
auction on the day of sale named, in the notice.
(d.) " Sheep Protection Act."—The amendment made numerous changes in the original Act,
the most important being: (1.) That it is made lawful for any person to kill any dog in respect
to which no licence is in force under the provisions of the Act. (2.) The payment of compensation for losses in connection with sheep and goats is allowed for under arrangement with
the Minister of Finance, and the creation of a compensation fund authorized.   The general effect P 10
Department of Agriculture.
1925
of the amendment was to make the whole Province a sheep-protection area, thus doing away
with the local sheep-protection districts hitherto constituted.
(e.) "Societies Act."—Regulations were made under this amendment for the reinstatement
of a society where it had been struck off the Register.
(/.) " Trespass Act."—The amendment dealt with the clause in the "Trespass Act" relative
to no action for trespass being maintainable where cattle had strayed on to lands unprotected by
a lawful fence. The amendment made the application of this clause available also in respect of
any Crown ranges within the meaning of the " Grazing Act."
Correspondence.
The total number of letters received (22,S54) during 1925 showed a decrease, but the total
number of letters dispatched has shown steady upward progress during the last few years, as
follows:—
Letters mailed out, year 1923, 20,957; 1924, 21,855; 1925, 22,49S. (See Appendix No. 1 for
full details.)
Circular Letters.—A total of 33,980 circular letters were dispatched, being a slight decrease
as compared with 1924. The following grouping will show the general character of these
letters:—
Agricultural Associations      1,735
Dairy Branch   10,031
Farmers' Institutes     2,575
Field Crop Branch      6,112
Goat-breeders' Association     1,773
Horticultural Branch     2,015
Poultry Branch     2,185
Recorder of Brands         180
Statistics          575
Women's Institutes      4,144
Miscellaneous       2,665
Total "33^90"
Pound Districts.
The past year was not marked to such an extent as the previous one with regard to the
number of petitions received for the creation of pound districts, three only being constituted, as
follows: Dewdney, May 8th; Rossland, July 31st; Cowichan, December 12th.
Investigations were in progress at the close of the year with regard to pounds for the Oliver
and West Nicomen Districts. The total number of effective pound districts in 1925 was forty-
nine ; a better observance of the law was reported by pound-keepers, resulting in a lesser number
of estrays captured.    No convictions were recorded.
Operation of round Districts, Year 1925.
Pound District.
ESTHAYS    CAPTURED.
No. of
Sales of
Estrays.
Amount
realized
from
Sales.
Pees
charged
for
Sustenance.
Total  Fees
paid to
Pound-
Horses.
Cattle.
keeper.
B.X.             	
35
5
1
1
3
2
29
39
1
38
3
7
14
3
2
15
3
12
21
8
5
4
11
8
2
20
$141  25
15 00
$335 00
5 00
$411 40
Balfour      	
10 00
6 50
1  00
3 00
4 50
1 80
9 00
North Bend                                	
7 50
8 75
1 50
122  70
102 00
6 00
3 50
358 50
64 90
163 90
6 35
11 00
102 25
97 55
Totals, 1925           	
154
97
41
$268 75
$939 00
$793 65
Totals, 1924 	
100
185    •
17
$155 00
$289  23
$640 10 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 11
Orders in Council.
Re White-pine Blister-rust.—On June 9th a public notice to nurserymen and horticulturists
was issued, cancelling the regulations made in 1922 establishing a quarantine with regard to the
movement of currants, gooseberries, and five-leaved pines to the east of the Cascade Range. All
restrictions on the movement in the Province of such plants were removed by this notice.
Re " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act," Chapter 58.—On June 2nd an Order in Council
was approved, establishing new regulations under the provisions of the above Act.
Sheep-protection Districts.—During the early part of the year two new sheep-protection districts were constituted by Proclamation, the first, on January 8th, comprising the whole of the
Municipality of Matsqui, and the second, on January 20th, being the eastern portion of the South
Okanagan Electoral District.
Licences.
Agricultural poison licences to the number of twenty-two were issued during the year, while
horticultural licences were issued to thirty-seven nurserymen and importers of fruit-trees, plants,
and nursery stock and seven licences to agents selling for nursery firms.
Every effort is made by inquiry and correspondence to ensure that all nurserymen doing business on a commercial scale are duly licensed, and there has been a steady increase in the number
of licences issued during the past few years.
Fence-viewers.
A beginning wras made during the year in the revision of the list of fence-viewers appointed
under authority of the " Line Fences Act," which provides for three appointees in localities
where such are required.
Many of the appointments date back a number of years, and by checking up lists with various
Government Agents twenty-nine names were removed from the list as " dead" or " left the
Province." Four new appointments were made during the year, three in the Creston Electoral
district and one in Lillooet.    The list at the close of the year contained 237 names.
Crushed Lime Rock for Fertilizing Purposes.
Permits for the special tariff for Farmers' Institutes and similar bodies using crushed lime
rock as fertilizer totalled 56 tons, a considerable decrease from the years 1923 and 1924. Negotiations in conjunction with the Field Crop Branch were carried on throughout the year with, the
Western Canada Lime Company, operating a deposit of lime at Popkum, in the Lower Fraser
Valley, and the Canadian National Railways with regard to the feasibility of landing lime at
various agricultural centres on Vancouver Island at rates which would enable farmers to make
increased use of this necessary commodity.
The Western Canada Lime Company agreed to ship lime f.o.b. Popkum at $3.25 per ton in
car-load lots, unsacked, and the Canadian National Railways published a tariff giving a rate of
15 cents per 100 lb. from Popkum to Duncan, Nanaimo, Courtenay, and Port Alberni. As the
Canadian National Railways do not require a permit from the Department the total movement
of lime from Popkum to Island points is not readily ascertainable, but in view of the favourable
rates granted, farmers on the Island have a better opportunity to obtain this commodity than
has been the case for years past.
Census op Agricultural Co-operative Organizations within the British Empire.
Following communications from the Department of Agriculture at Ottawa, the appended
letter was sent out to secretaries of Co-operative Agricultural Associations, Farmers' Institutes,
etc., in the Province:—
" April 25th, 1925.
" This Department is in receipt of correspondence from the office of the High Commissioner
for Canada, in London, England, and from the Department of Agriculture at Ottawa, relative to
the establishment of a clearing-house of information for the agricultural co-operative organizations of the Empire. This matter was brought forward at the Imperial conference on agricultural co-operation held in July, 1924, at Wembley, being supported by delegates from all parts of
the Empire, and resulted in the adoption of the following resolution:—
" ' That in view of the importance and urgency of reliable information as to the position and
progress of the agricultural co-operative movement in all its branches, there should be estab- P 12
iETMENT   OF   AGRICULTURE.
1925
lished in London a clearing-house of such information for the service of the movement primarily
throughout the English-speaking world.
" ' That the Trustees of the Horace Plunkett Foundation, Abbey House, Westminster, London,
England, be hereby asked to consider steps to give effect to the above resolution.'
" The Foundation is now prepared to undertake the establishment of this clearing-house provided it can obtain the assistance in the first place necessary to ensure that the work will have a
wide and sound basis in the general body of co-operative agricultural and marketing organizations in the Empire.
" For this purpose a census is being taken of all agricultural producing and marketing
co-operative organizations in the Empire, mainly through the respective Dominion and Provincial
Governments.
" This Department has agreed to aid in this work by sending out the census forms to the
various co-operative organizations in this Province and a copy of the form is enclosed herewith.
It would be appreciated if you would give this matter your special attention, filling in the form
to the best of your ability and adding explanatory notes where the questions do not quite fit."
Several hundred letters with questionnaires were sent out during the year to co-operative
organizations, the results being tabulated and copies sent to Ottawa and the High Commissioner
in London, England.
Interesting data on various phases of the co-operative movement in the Province were
gathered, and although it was not found possible to obtain this special information from every
organization, partly owing to lack of legislative authority, the total figures listed herewith represent a creditable attempt to indicate the extent of the co-operative movement in British Columbia.
Description.
No. of Members
(Year 1924).
Paid-up Capital
(Year 1924).
Sales in
Year 1924.
Co-operative fruit-growers, joint shippers, and miscel
laneous associations handling horticultural products
Miscellaneous co-operative associations handling feed
flour, groceries, etc	
Live stock and allied associations 	
Co-operative  creameries  	
7,917
4,559
1,571
4,284
$354,096 00
209,341 61
4,000 00
630,063 80
J4,140,424 65
1,154,359 71
64,280 85
4,198,455 73
Farmers' Institutes.
The past year was one of outstanding progress for the Farmers' Institutes of the Province,
eight new institutes receiving certificates of incorporation, as follows: January 16th, Kersley;
January 29th, Atchelitz; March 3rd, Pemberton Valley; March 24th, Salmon Arm; March 2Sth,
Barnston Island; March 31st, Quick; September 11th, Mount Cartier; November 23rd, Hope and
District.
The total membership at the close of the year was 5,585, being an increase over the previous
year of 509, whilst the total number of institutes in good standing was 140, the same as in 1924,
This is explained by the cancelling of the charters of a number of inactive institutes.
The ten institutes with the largest membership during the year were as follows:—
North Vancouver   211 Neehako     126
Delta     204 Coquitlam   121
Surrey   175 Metchosin   116
Cowichan     158 Nanaimo-Cedar   104
Islands     145 Kootenay Lake      91
Cancellation of Charters of Defunct or Inactive Institutes.
Negotiations were carried on for some months with the Registrar of Companies re the putting
into effect of clause 35 of the " Societies Act," which provides that a society that has failed for
any two years to file the required returns, or a society which is not in operation, may be struck
off the Register of Companies.
The final number struck off the list and advertised as such in the British Columbia Gazette
of October 29th was sixty-seven; many of these institutes having been inactive for years.    In 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 13
November the Registrar reported that thirteen other institutes were on a suspended list, but
were being given further opportunity to file the necessary returns.
Fairs held by Farmers' Institutes.
Eleven fairs organized by Farmers' Institutes were held in the year, the same number as in
1924, as follows :—
Circuit I.—Denman Island, September 11th; Sooke, September 16th.
Circuit II.—Gibson's Landing, August 28th and 29th; Whonnock, September 1st; Fern Ridge,
September 2nd; Pemberton Meadows, September 5th; Squamish, September 7th.
Circuit IV.—Crawford Bay, September 12th ; Boswell, September 16th; Kaslo, October 1st.
Circuit V.—MeBride, September 4th.
Judges were supplied free of all cost by the Department to these fairs and the average grant
in aid of the prize-list was $20.
Co-operative Activities of Farmers' Institutes.
Of the 140 Farmers' Institutes in operation at the close of the year, about 100 are recorded
as purchasing supplies, such as powder, fuse and caps, feed, flour, etc., in greater or less quantities for their members. Of this total, the operations of the twenty-eight most active institutes
have been analysed and compared in the following table. The evidence of progress is marked
not only in these leading bodies, but throughout the organization. (See Appendix No. 2 for
details.)
Farmers' Institutes whose Receipts were over $1,000 in the Years 1923-25.
Year.
No. of
F.I.
i
Receipts.
Expenditures.
Powder, Fuse,
and Caps
bought for
Members.
Seed bought
for Members.
Feed, Flour,
Hay, Fertilizers, etc.,
purchased.
Miscellaneous.
1923 	
24
28
28
$102,315 00
101,866 64
107,753 15
$ 95,454 33
93,424 92
100,551 18
$37,846 15
32,527 92
35,412 88
$1,176 28
469 53
321 33
$44,612 53
35,728 48
54,241  82
$ 7,191  78
1924 	
10,236 76
1925 ....
6,449  31
Gopher-control.
The legislative grant in aid of gopher-extermination competitions was continued for the fiscal
year 1925-26, enabling the Department to offer a grant of $25 (as against $20 the previous year)
to all Farmers' Institutes and other farmer bodies organizing such work in infested districts.
In the departmental notice sent cut the following appeared:—
" It is urged that in those Interior districts where both the brown pocket-gopher and Columbian ground-squirrel are proving such pests and involving considerable loss to the orchards and
mixed-farming industries, strong effort be made to supplement individual action along the lines
of trapping, poisoning, shooting, etc., by interesting the school-children and young people of the
district in entering gopher-killing competitions, which should he organized as soon as possible.
" The assistance by the Department will again take the form of a grant, as in 1924, the sum
to he $25. This sum will be paid to local bodies holding competitions to kill gophers by means of
grants of dollar for dollar, not to exceed a maximum of $25 for any one competition held by a
Farmers' Institute or other farmers' organization. The local institute or farmers' organization
should therefore arrange for such competitions where considered desirable, making proper provision for the prize-money."
The organizations taking advantage of the Department's offer were as follows: Appledale
Progressive Association; Armstrong and Spallumcheen Farmers' Institute; Balfour Farmers'
Institute; Black Pool United Farmers; Brisco Farmers' Institute; Elk Valley and Natal Farmers'
Institute; Forest Lake United Farmers (Louis Creek) ; Moberly to Donald Farmers' Institute;
North Fork United Farmers (Grand Forks) ; Okanagan Centre Farmers' Institute; Rose Hill
Farmers' Institute; Rossland Farmers' Institute; Winfield Farmers' Institute; Winlaw Farmers'.
Institute; Rock Creek Farmers' Institute.
The largest number of gopher-tails turned in was reported from the Rock Creek Farmers'
Institute with a total of 4,056, the Armstrong and Spallumcheen Farmers' Institute being second
with 2,755. P 14
Department of Agriculture.
1925
The Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes Activities in 1925.
The eight districts of the Province held annual conventions, and in addition half-yearly meetings were held in the fall previous to the Legislature sitting and a full Board met in Victoria on
November 10th. Sheep legislation was successfully put through providing for compensation, etc.,
and Agricultural Bills in future, instead of being brought directly before the Legislature, will
come before the Select Standing Committee, a concession of great importance.
Oriental situation: Pressure was brought to bear at Ottawa by the Secretary of the Board,
C. E. Whitney^riffiths, a memorandum being laid before the Premier, Hon. Mackenzie King, and
the subject being discussed fully with Dr. Skelton, the Deputy Minister of Justice.
Delinquent date of taxation extension: The Board was successful in securing this concession
to farmers, the date being set back from June 30th to October 31st.
Pulp-wood resources received considerable attention and Game Board matters were followed
up closely, an increased sum being obtained for bounties. In addition, an amendment to the
" Game Act" was secured which gave relief to those suffering from the ravages of the pheasant.
A full Board of Agriculture for the Province will be sitting at the next session. Invitations
to the four larger specialized branches—the British Columbia Dairymen's Association, British
Columbia Stock-breeders, British Columbia Poultrymen, and British Columbia Fruit-growers—
were sent out, their presidents being invited to sit with the Board.
One hundred and thirty resolutions were attended to in general and sixteen matters were
laid before the Legislature.    A concise Legislative Report was issued covering the work done.
Women's Institutes.
During the year 1925 six new Women's Institutes were incorporated, as follows: February
27th, Cortes Island ; May 6th, Glenmore; May 20th, Qualicum and District; May 20th, Whonnock-
Ruskin; June 10th, MacKenzie (Bella Coola) ; November 4th, Grindrod.
The total number of active institutes at the close of the year was 110, as compared with 109
in 1924.
During the year the Registrar of Companies took steps to cancel the certificates of incorporation of nine institutes for non-compliance with the provisions of the " Societies Act," and after
due notice this was done. The institutes concerned had all dropped active work, in some cases
for several years.
Membership.—The total membership for the year was practically the same as in 1924, being
3,186; the ten institutes with the largest number of members being as follows:—
Qualicum Beach   80 Armstrong     56
Kelowna    65 Peachland   55
Hatzic    60 Victoria   54
Nelson    59 Point Grey   47
Parksville  '.  59 South Saanich   45
Cranbrook   57
Financial,—The total receipts and expenditures for all institutes were $46,267.68 and
$38,438.75 respectively ; the institutes with the largest revenue being: Kelowna, $2,917.51; Victoria, $2,753.12; Cedar, $1,441.68; Salmon Arm, $1,416.2S; Okanagan Falls, $984.87; Esquimalt,
$972.54.
Ten Years of Progress.—The attached table indicates the changed conditions in the period
between 1915 and 1925, the number of institutes having practically doubled and the receipts and
expenditures tripled.
Number of Women's Insitutes incorporated	
Total membership 	
Average membership per institute 	
Institute with largest number of members—
Kelowna   	
Qualicum Beach 	
Total receipts   $13,301.63
Total expenditures      10,454.93
Fear 1915.
56
2,994
53
133
Year 1925.
110
3,186
29
80
,301.63
>,454.93
$46,267.68
38,438.75 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 15
Institute with largest income—                                               Year 1915. Year 1925.
Boundary    $ 1,250.2S      	
Kelowna    $ 2,917.51
Meetings held              792 1,172
Attendance             17,540 15,812
Average attendance per meeting             22.1 13.5
Addresses given              566 420
Flower-shows,   exhibits  of  women's  and  school-children's work, etc                34 70
Fall Fairs, Flower-shows, Exhibits of Women's Work, etc.
Seventy of these events were carried out during the year, as against eighty-seven in 1924, as
follows:—
(a.) Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.—Twenty-four events, including one bulb-show, sixteen flower-shows, two better-baby clinics, three health exhibits, etc.
(&.) Lower Mainland.—Eighteen events, including sixteen flower-shows.
(c.) Okanagan and North Thompson.—Fifteen events, including ten flower-shows, two better-
baby clinics, health exhibits, etc.
(d.) Kootenay.—Thirteen events, including ten flower-shows, one rose-show, one better-baby
clinic, etc.    (See Appendix No. 3 for full details.)
Publications.
The total number of publications, reprints, etc., during the year was 85,700, being slightly less
than in 1924.
The Agricultural Journal was discontinued after the issue of the April number (Vpl. 10).
This publication had been issued monthly without a break since March, 1916; in its earlier years,
when issued free to members of Farmers' Institutes, the monthly circulation reached S,000, but
latterly, under a change of policy, the net circulation had dropped to about 1,700 per month, of
which some 1,200 were paid subscriptions. Its passing did not evoke much comment, although
as a medium for official agricultural information and the issuing of special articles and reports
which would not otherwise have been published it had considerable value.
Bulletins and Circulars distributed, during 1925.—The total number of these publications
issued by mail, etc., was 76,286, being a considerable decrease on the previous year. The details
were as follows :—
Agricultural Department reports   965
Circular bulletins  183
Department circulars   8,811
Dairy circulars   5,235
Field Crop circulars   11,300
Horticultural circulars  16,676
Mixed-farming bulletins   9,826
Miscellaneous    9,345
Miscellaneous circulars   3,120
Poultry bulletins and circulars   9,725
Women's Institute and Farmers' Institute reports   1,100
Total  76,286 P 16
Department of Agriculture.
1925
The following statment shows the total number of bulletins, circulars, etc., printed during
the year:—
Date.
Name.
Description.
No.
1925.
Jan.     5
6
8
„     19
„     27
„     30
Feb.   13
„     13
„     13
„     20
„     24
„     28
Mar.    2
3
„     11
„     16
„      23
„     25
„     30
April 24
„     24
May     1
7
9
„      11
„     16
„     20
June   4
6
9
.. 12
„ 23
„ 30
July 6
Aug.
30
6
„     25
„     27
Sept.    2
Nov.     4
Dec.   16
„     16
„     16
„     30
„     30
„     30
Dairy-farm Sterilizing Equipment 	
Certified Seed-potatoes—Why they will pay	
Agricultural Legislative Report (Advisory Board of F.I.)
Agricultural Journal '.'. ....
Pruning Fruit-trees 	
Agricultural Legislative Report (as above) 	
Spray Calendar, 1925	
Loganberry Culture	
Raspberry Culture 	
Agricultural Journal	
Management of Turkeys	
Clearing Bush Lands (3rd Ed.) 	
Making Lime-sulphur at Home  ,	
Hog-raising in B.C.  (2nd Ed.)  	
Some Facts about B.C	
Agricultural  Journal  '.	
Reprints from Agricultural Journal  (re Western Canada
Dairy Convention)	
Fur-bearing and Market Rabbits  (2nd Ed.)   	
Certified Milk and Butter-fat Records 	
Noxious Weeds  	
Agricultural Journal Index 	
Brand Book	
List of Publications 	
Canning and Preserving Table  „..
Climate of B.C.  (10th Ed.)  	
Agricultural Statistics, Year 1924 	
Judging Domestic Science and Women's Work 	
Noxious Weeds (3rd Ed.)  	
Regulations, " Creameries and Dairies Act " 	
The Okanagan Valley  (2nd Ed.)  	
Canning and Preserving Table (2nd Ed.) 	
9th Report, B.C. Fairs Association   (1019-24)   	
Bee-keeping in B.C.   (3rd Ed.)   	
Stock-breeders' Directory 	
List of Publications 	
How to pack Nursery Stock  (2nd Ed.)   	
Report of Department of Agriculture, Year 1924 	
Feeding for Egg Production (2nd Ed.)  	
Tomato-growing in B.C.   (2nd Ed.)   	
Preservation of Food  (3rd Ed.)   	
Rabbit Recipes 	
The Imported Cabbage-worm  (Rev. Ed.)  	
The Lesser Apple-worm (Rev. Ed.) 	
The Oyster-shell Scale (Rev. Ed.)	
Fire-blight  (Rev. Ed.)   	
The Onion-thrips  (Rev. Ed.)   	
The Currant Gall-mite (Rev. Ed.)  	
Dairy Circ. No. 9 	
Soil and Crop Circ. No.
February   	
Hort. Circ. No. 60 .
Hort. Circ. 54 	
Hort. Circ. 55 	
March 	
Poultry Circ. No. 4
Bulletin 85 	
Hort. Circ. 61 	
Bulletin  60  ....
Agr. Dept. Circ. 44 .
April	
April 	
Bulletin 80 	
Dairy Circ. No. 10 ..
Field Crop Circ. No.
Leaflet 	
Card  	
Bulletin 27 	
Bulletin 96 	
Agr. Dept. Circ. 45 	
Field Crop Circ. No. 4
Leaflet   	
Agr. Dept. Circ. 40 	
Card  	
Bulletin 92  	
Leaflet   	
Leaflet   	
Agr; Dept. Circ. No. 35
19th Annual	
Bulletin No. 93 	
Hort. Circ. 65 	
Bulletin No. 83 	
Poultry Circ. No. 28 ....
Hort. Circ. 37 	
Hort. Circ. 38 	
Hort. Circ. 41 	
Hort. Circ. 66 	
Hort. Circ. 35
,500
-,000
500
,700
,000
250
,000
,000
,000
,900
,000
,000
,000
,000
,000
,000
,500
,500
,000
500
250
500
,000
,000
,500
,500
,500
,000
300
,500
,000
300
,500
500
,000
,000
,000
,500
,000
,500
,000
,000
,000
,000
,000
1,000
Total..
85,700
Respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Secretary.   ■
16 Geo. 5 British Columbia, P 17
REPORT  OF  DEPARTMENTAL  SECRETARY  RE  FALL  FAIRS.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to present herewith the report on fall fairs held in the Province
during the year 1925.
The total number of fairs held in the year was sixty-nine, an increase of five over the previous
year.   These were distributed as follows :—
Circuit I.—Vancouver Island   14
Circuit II.—Lower Mainland  22
Circuit III.—Okanagan and Dry Belt   10
Circuit IV.—Kootenays     13
Circuit V.—Central British Columbia and Peace River   10
Total     69
One of these events was the stock-show at Knutsford held on Dominion Day.
Judges and Reports on Fairs.
The Department of Agriculture, according to custom, supplied judges to practically all events,
very satisfactory service being given as usual.   The details of judges supplied were as follows :—
Department Outside
Officials. Judges.
Horticulture      14 6
Field crops       7 i
Live stock        5 21
Poultry         4 n
Domestic science and women's work       3 13
Honey          1 2
Totals     34 54
This grand total of eighty-eight constitutes a record, the increase being attributable chiefly to
the number of live-stock judges required, there being this year several of the smaller fairs that
provided stock classes for the first time. Judges again reported to the Department chiefly by
using the score-card system initiated in 1924. By the use of these cards the essential features of
a fair are summarized and given a value in points, and where there are several judges attending
a very good average idea is obtained of the manner in which a fair or exhibition is functioning.
Taking the fairs in the Province as a whole, in 1925 the average score was practically the
same as in 1924, as follows:  Year 1925, 64.5 per cent.; 1924, 64.1 per cent.
The attached table gives the averages for the five circuits:—
Average Score as reported by Judges.
Fairs in                                                             1925. 1924.
Per Cent. Per Cent.
Lower Mainland       69.0 67.4
Vancouver Island      67.7 68.7
Okanagan and Dry Belt      65.3 70.9
East and West Kootenay      64.0 64.9
Central British Columbia     56.4 48.5
Average     64.5 64.1
It will be observed that the only circuits to show improvement were the Lower Mainland and
Central British Columbia, and but few individual fairs in each circuit attained to an efficiency
of 75 per cent.
One of the outstanding features of the year, however, was the high standard reached by the
New Westminster Exhibition, which was rated at 90.4 per cent, being a gain of 6 per cent, over
the previous year. P 18
Department of Agriculture.
1925
Exhibits at Fairs and Attendance of the Public
Horticultural, field-crop, and live-stock exhibits were generally reported as being on the
up-grade, although competition was lacking to an unusual extent at many fairs. The judges
specially commented on this, and at many of the smaller fairs the entries in horticultural and
field-crop classes seemed to come largely from a few growers. With the exception of the three
Coast exhibitions, attendances were markedly poor at fairs during the past year, although the
weather throughout the summer and fall was of the best. As one judge remarked, " there seems
to be a waning in the enthusiasm or community spirit regarding the importance of fall fairs.
Committees in charge do not reach the growers who should exhibit and would be benefited."
Grants.
The vote in aid of Agricultural Associations for the fiscal year 1925-26 remained at the
previous year's figure, $35,000; this sum having to take care of grants in aid of prize-lists, judges'
fees and expenses, and a grant of $3,000 paid to the winter poultry-shows through the British
Columbia Poultry Association. Up to the close of 1925 the total amount paid in grants by the
Department was $24,808, the general rate being 20 per cent., based on the previous year's prize-
money certified as paid.
British Columbia Fairs Association.
There was considerable increase in the membership of this association during the past year,
fifty-three bodies holding fairs now being affiliated.
A matter of burning interest throughout the year was the classification and grading of fairs,
involving the rate of grant to be made by the Department. At a meeting held during the New
Westminster Exhibition in September a scheme of classification was discussed and voted on
which provided for fairs in this Province to be graded as:—
A Class: Fairs that paid for prize-money on live stock, general agricultural products, and
women's work, etc., a minimum sum of $10,000.
B Class: Ditto, $2,000.
C Class: Ditto, $700.
Whilst fairs classified as D were not to receive any assistance from the Department other than
in the way of the usual provision of judges. Following the circularizing of all members of the
association, a number of protests were received and a further meeting of the Executive was held
on November 27th, at which resolutions were passed modifying the scheme of classification and
proposing that the three Coast exhibitions be provided for by a separate vote, and that B, C,
and D Class fairs be provided for in the Estimates for the Legislative Assembly so that grants
might be made on a basis of 40, 30, and 20 per cent. It was also recommended that the final
classification and grouping of fairs be left to the judgment of the Department.
Recommendations and Suggestions by Judges.
"Re Small Fairs.—It is not the intention to suggest the cancelling of fairs in the many small
districts unless there can be something substituted to take their place. There must be some way
of reaching the various districts and individuals of these districts annually, because while, at
times, progress may appear to be doubtful, yet these annual gatherings do have a real value. The
question is whether there is a way of bringing the importance of the fall fairs to all or should
some other system be evolved to meet the needs of the weaker fair districts?
" The fall fairs are primarily held for their educational value and, as a consequence, it is
a difficult matter to deal with the fairs as one group and state that one locality or district should
hold a fair and another should not. In the majority of fairs the main feature—education—seems
to have become a secondary consideration.
• " Most fairs have a very good and interested attendance on fair-day, but prior to the show
the percentage of the district working for the annual fair is very small.
" Unless a man exhibits he often fails to ask questions as to the awarding of prizes. Committees in charge of the various exhibits should arrange to have more pe"ople actually working
for the fair, making some one responsible for the various important classes and to see at least
that the main crops of the district are well represented, and to this end work should he started
early in the year. 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 19
" Fairs in Municipalities.—In municipal districts where more than one fair is held, such
districts should be urged to concentrate the efforts of the individual communities and fair executives and put their energies into one large annual fair of a general character, held at different
points within the district from year to year, providing accommodation is adequate. This should
allow of larger grants, better prize-lists, and more competition.
" A conference of judges prior to each next season's fairs might assist in determining more
uniformity in judging, especially in field crops.
" Third prizes in small fairs should be cancelled. They are usually card only and the awarding of these cards entails a lot of extra and unnecessary work on judges who are usually working
against time."
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Secretary.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL HORTICULTURIST AND INSPECTOR OF FRUIT  PESTS.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my annual report as Provincial Horticulturist and
Inspector of Fruit Pests for the year 1925.
There are a number of changes which have occurred in the horticultural industry of the
Province which your official considers of sufficient importance to report on not only for your own
information, but as a matter of record.
The seasonal conditions have been most marked. The middle of December of the past year
(1924) will be remembered for a most outstanding drop in temperature. In some districts this
was very disastrous. As an example, it may be mentioned that in the Creston District the
recorded temperature on December 15th was 43° F., while twenty-four hours later the temperature had dropped to —10° F. This zero weather continued until the 28th, the lowest point being
recorded in that period was —17° F. This period of excessive cold weather covered the whole
of the Province. The result was that as the trees had not fully matured when it occurred there
was considerable damage done. The fruit-buds were severely injured and in many districts trees
were killed or so severely frozen that it will be a number of years before they have entirely
recovered. Not only did it reduce the 1925 tree-fruit crop for the Province, but cut down
materially on the small-fruit production. In the case of small fruits the most serious damage
was done to the strawberry-crop on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island. Because of this
the shipments of strawberries were the lightest recorded for a number of years.
The excessive dry weather which has prevailed during the past season is from a horticultural
standpoint worth noting. The precipitation in Coast sections was particularly light. Victoria
records which show over a period of ten years an average rainfall of 27.65 inches show during .
the year 1925 only 20.66 inches, a shortage of 6.99 inches. This continued drought, coupled with
the winter damage, materially affected the crop production and has also retarded the growth of
canes and vines to such an extent that there is a possibility of the 1926 small-fruit crop being
affected.
It will be seen from the above that the seasonal conditions were such that a large crop of
both tree and small fruits was hardly to be expected. While the production was light, the prices
received were on the whole better than for the previous year.
The vegetable industry is steadily advancing. Larger areas are being planted. This past
season there were 2,805 acres planted to tomatoes and 1,372 acres to onions. There has also been
an increase in the production of cantaloupes. As an indication of the progress made, in 1924
1,200 crates were produced in the Oliver District, while in 1925 the production had reached
approximately twenty-six ear-loads. The vegetable industry on the Coast has also made noticeable progress. More area is being devoted to greenhouse crops in this section, while outdoor
crops are becoming of increasing importance. P 20
Department of Agriculture.
1925
Marketing of all horticultural crops is still one of the outstanding problems. One of the
co-operative berry-growers' associations which had functioned for the past two years became
insolvent. There have been a few withdrawals from the main co-operative tree-fruit organization. Co-operation amongst fruit and vegetable growers, however, is still recognized as the right
marketing principle. This is evidenced by the fact that new organizations are in process of
formation, and also by the fact that there has been formed a growers' brokerage organization
with the idea of handling all fruit and vegetable products in the various Provincial and Prairie
markets.
Greenhouse Survey.
A line of work undertaken by your Horticultural Branch has been the making of a survey
of the area devoted to greenhouse production in the Province. The last survey of this nature
was made in 1923. This was again undertaken in 1925. The increase in area is most marked.
In 1923 there were 1,905,180 square feet of glass, while in 1925 our figures show that there are
2,327,356 square feet, an increase of approximately 22 per cent. In this as in other industries
the increased Oriental ownership should be noted, there being an increase over the two-year
period from 9 per cent, to 13 per cent, in the number of Oriental growers and from 28 per cent,
to 37 per cent, in glass area owned by them.    (For detailed information see Appendix No. 4.)
Orchard Survey.
The orchard survey which was started in the Okanagan and Kootenay Horticultural Districts in the fall of 1924 was, as far as the field-work goes, completed this year. There is considerable compilation-work to be done, but it is hoped that the Information obtained will be ready
for issuing early in 1926.
Pruning Schools and Demonstrations.
Pruning instruction has already been in demand in all districts. As during the past years,
this Branch again endeavoured to meet all demands made for assistance in this work. The
work was carried out by the officials' of this Branch. There were eleven pruning-schools held
with an attendance of 106 pupils and thirty-four pruning demonstrations with an attendance of
439 pupils. There is also an increasing interest being shown in the top-working of unsuitable
varieties of fruit-trees. Three special demonstrations covering this work were held at various
points in the Okanagan during the past year, with an attendance of thirty-four pupils. It is
hoped that it will be possible to again offer these schools and demonstrations to the growers in
1926.    (For detailed information regarding this work see Appendices Nos. 5 and 6.)
Export Fruit and Vegetable Inspections.
As pointed out in the 1924 report of this Branch, all fruit and vegetable exports have to be
covered by certificates of inspection. This work is carried out in co-operation with the Vancouver office, which deals with the export and import of fruit and vegetable products. During the
past season inspections have been made on fruit and vegetables at various points. The shipments
covered by inspection certificates are given below. The figures represent boxes and crates
respectively.
District.
New Zealand.
South
Africa. "
China.
Apples.
Onions.
Apples.
Apples.
Onions.
2,750
14,075
4,475
18,115
3,980
26,060
2,250
2,250
750
2,675
935
350
Kelowna 	
Summerland	
Penticton	
160
Totals	
39,415
30,040
7,925
935         1            510
"
In addition to the above, 750 boxes were exported to Denmark from Penticton.
were issued on all of the above shipments.
Certificates 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 21
Demonstration-work.
Demonstration-work along horticultural lines has been carried, out in the various fruit districts during the past year. Some of it is new from the standpoint of the district in which it
has been undertaken. A great deal, however, is a continuation of work which had been started
previously. This work is an attempt on the part of your Branch to show growers that recommendations which have, been or are being made are practicable and efficient.
Gordon Head Strawberry-plot.—This work has been under the supervision of E. W. White,
District Horticulturist, since it was first started in 1919. A report on this work as given by
Mr. White follows :—
" The six-year lease covering this plot expired on March 27th, 1925. However, arrangements were made with Councillor G. A. Vantreight, on whose farm the plot is located, to keep
control of Lots 5 and 6 for another period of about three years. This was done so that the
strawberry-crop record for second the year on Lot 5 could be secured and also to allow opportunity to erect one more weevil-barrier on Lot 6 and make one more planting of strawberries.
" Opportunity is taken at this time to express appreciation for the earnest way in which
Councillor G. A. Vantreight carried out the work on the plot during the past year. Although
control had been relinquished over Lots 1, 2, 3, and 4, Councillor Vantreight agreed to keep an
accurate record of all work done on those lots, and this information is available to the Department as long as control is maintained over Lots 5 and 6.
" The work in connection with the weevil-barriers was very carefully and efficiently carried
on by Wm. Downes, Assistant Entomologist, Dominion Entomological Branch.
" The following is a summary of the work carried out on the various lots during 1925 and a
summary of crops grown since the inception of the plot in 1919 :—
" Lot 1.—In 1919, clover; 1920, Sir Walter Raleigh potatoes; 1921, planted to strawberries;
1922, first crop; 1923, second crop; 1924, third crop. Strawberry-plants were removed and the
lot seeded to fall wheat. In the spring of 1925 the effects of the severe freeze of December, 1924,
were evident. The lot was harrowed on March 19th and seeded on March 23rd with 6 lb. red
clover, 4% lb. alsike, and 4% lb. perennial rye-grass. On July 7th the wheat was cut for hay;
it was raked up and cocked on July 10th and hauled in on July 18th. The crop was light and
was estimated to be about 1% tons. At the close of the year there appeared to be a fair catch
of clover and grass.
"Lot 2.—In 1919, Sir Walter Raleigh potatoes; 1920, planted to strawberries; 1921, first
crop; 1922, second crop, seeded to fall wheat and clover; 1923, reseeded to clover, wheat cut for
hay; 1924, clover; 1925, clover. The crop was cut on June 13th, raked and cocked on June 15th,
and hauled in on June 29th.    It was a light crop of about 1% tons.
" Lot 3.—In 1919, fall wheat; 1920, oats and vetch; 1921, Sir Walter Raleigh certified seed-
potatoes ; 1922, planted to strawberries; 1923, first crop; 1924, second crop, seeded to fall wheat.
In the spring the east and west sides had killed out and they were reseeded with 60 lb. of oats
on March 17th. The lot was harrowed on March 19th and seeded with 6 lb. red clover, 4% lb.
alsike, and 4% lb. perennial rye-grass on March 21st. On July 7th the wheat and oats were cut
for hay; it was raked up and cocked on July 10th and hauled in on July 18th. The crop was
light and estimated at about 1% tons. There appeared to be a fair catch of clover and grass
at the close of the year.
" Lot It.—In 1919, planted to strawberries ; 1920, first crop; 1921, Sir Walter Raleigh certified
seed-potatoes; 1922, oats seeded to clover, reseeded to clover in fall; 1923, again reseeded to
clover in the spring, volunteer crop of oats, some clover and grass; 1924, clover-hay; 1925,
clover-hay. The crop was cut on June 13th, raked and cocked on June 15th, and hauled in on
June 29th.    It was a light crop of about 1% tons.
" Lot 5.—In 1919, fall oats ; 1920, spring oats seeded to clover ; 1921, clover; 1922, Sir Walter
Raleigh certified seed-potatoes; 1923, planted to strawberries; 1924, first crop; 1925, second crop.
" Owing to the severe freeze of December, 1924, and the drought of 1925 the second crop
on this lot was practically a failure. It might be noted that approximately 3 acres of strong
1-year-old plants on another part of the Vantreight farm were practically wiped out owing to
this freeze.
" The patch received four cultivations and three hoeings in the spring, but no strawing was
done as the patch did not warrant the expense. P 22
Department of Agriculture.
1925
" The following table shows the dates of picking and the quantities of both crate and jam
berries harvested:—
Variety Magoon.
Date of Picking.
Crates.
Hallocks.
Lb. Jam-
berries.
June    1	
1
3
8
6
4
3
9
12
15
14
June  10	
June   18	
June  22	
45
June  26	
81
Totals	
25
50
126
" At the approximate average price received for the Prairie shipments and for jam-berries,
the gross return per acre would be as follows:—
27 Vis crates at average price of $3.10   $83 96
126 lb. jam-berries at 10 cents     12 60
Total  $96 56
" The plants on this lot were dug up on August Sth, piled on August 17th, and burnt on
August 19th. On September 12th 108 lb. of fall wheat was broadcasted and the land was then
spring-tooth harrowed twice and drag-harrowed once. At the close of the year there appeared to
be a good catch of fall wheat.
" Lot 6.—In 1919, fall oats; 1920, English Wonder peas, ploughed down on June 10th and
Sir Walter Raleigh potatoes planted, seeded to fall wheat; 1921, seeded to clover, wheat-hay;
1922, clover; 1923, clover; 1924, Sir Walter Raleigh certified seed-potatoes; 1925, planted to
strawberries.
" On January 24th four loads of manure were hauled and spread on Lot 6 and on January
26th another four loads were applied.    The land was ploughed on February 16th and 17th.
" As already stated, it was decided to erect the last barrier around Lot 6 in the early spring
of 1925 and to plant the lot to strawberries. The barrier was erected on February 24th. The
west side of the lot was already protected, as this was the same as the east side of Lot 5, where
a barrier was erected in 1923. It was only necessary, therefore, to erect a barrier on the east
side and the north and south ends. It was not necessary to purchase any new lumber as there
was enough for one end left over from 1923. For the side and other end it was found possible
to use lumber which comprised a portion of the barrier erected around Lot 3 in 1922 and around
Lot 1 in 1921. This lumber, which received a coating of tar over the portion buried in the soil,
was found to be in excellent condition and gave promise of being good for another three or four
years.
" The cost of the barrier this year was as follows:—
Taking up barrier on Lot 3   $ 1 50
Removing lumber, Lot 3 to Lot 6      2 75
Ploughing furrow for barrier   75
Erecting barrier, 3 men 6 hours, 1 man 3 hours        7 87
Cleaning out troughs, 1 man 2 hours   75
30 gallons crude oil       2 40
Hauling drum of oil       4 00
2 lb. tanglefoot   60
60 tin guards for joints  :      1 60
Total..!  $22 22 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 22
" It will be seen from the above that no charge has been made for the used lumber from
Lots 3 and 1.
" Mr. Downes this year tried out a form of tin guard to protect the joints instead of using a
coating of tanglefoot, and it is hoped that they will give just as good results as the tanglefoot
and they will require a great deal less attention.
" The lot was disked twice on March 26th and harrowed twice on March 27th. On March
30th the lot was floated and two men planted 17 rows in 4% hours each; on March 31st two
men planted another 17 rows in 4% hours each; on April 1st two men planted 9 rows in 2%
hours each, making a total of 43 rows comprising approximately 10,750 plants, which were set
by two men in 11% hours each.
"During the growing season the lot was hoed eight times and cultivated eight times. The
blossoms were cut twice and the runners were cut five times. The plants made very good growth
despite the drought and were in very fair condition at the close of the year."
Cover-crop Demonstrations.—It has been felt for some time in the small-fruit districts of the
Province that there is a tendency on the part of many growers to neglect the fertility as well as
the physical condition of the soil. Particularly is this true where cane-fruits are grown and
where there is a limited quantity of barnyard manure obtainable. With the view of improving
soil conditions generally, work was undertaken in 1924 and again in 1925. This work has been
undertaken in the Lower Mainland District. G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, reports
on this work as follows :—
" During the last couple of years an attempt has been made to establish plots in various
parts of the Fraser Valley for the purpose of demonstrating the value of cover-crops. This work
has not been satisfactory due largely to weather conditions. The soils have been dry at the time
of seeding and germination was slow and subsequent development poor, and in the spring, when
cultivation began in the small-fruit plantings, the stand of fall rye and hairy vetch was scarcely
worth taking into consideration. It was impossible to obtain the same plots as used last year
and consequently new plantings had to be taken.
" On September 18th a tenth of an acre in the loganberry planting of J. McKim on Lulu
Island was seeded at the rate of 30 lb. of fall rye and 40 lb. of hairy vetch per acre.
" On September 20th a tenth of an acre in the raspberry planting of T. H. Northcote in
Mission was seeded at the rate of 30 lb. of fall rye and 40 lb. of hairy vetch per acre.
" The soil in both instances was very dry at time of seeding, and while there was a light
rainfall about this time and the germination was good, there was very little development during
the fall."
Spraying Demonstrations.—This is a form of work which is carried out by your officials in
the various sections of the Province each year in order to ascertain the value of new sprays as
well as the efficacy of old sprays in orchard pest and disease control. A great deal of work has
been done which it is deemed advisable to carry farther before reporting on or which will appear
in detail in bulletin form. A few of the major problems in this work with which your Branch
is at present attempting to deal are herewith submitted.
Blossom-blight Spray.—This work is being carried out in the Vancouver Island and Gulf
Islands Horticultural District.    E. W. White, District Horticulturist, reports as follows:—
" The demonstration spraying in the Olivet-cherry orchards of Councillor G. A. Vantreight
and F. E. Aitken, Esq., Gordon Head, was continued in an effort to control the so-called
'blossom-blight' of Monilia oregonensis (Barss & Posey) of cherries.
" Both orchards received a spray of 4-4-40 Bordeaux on April 20th and 21st. Certain trees
were left as checks. The weather had been very showery just previous to the dates of application
and interfered with an earlier application.   The buds were just in the cluster-bud stage.
" On May 14th a second spray of 4 4 40 Bordeaux was applied on a portion of the Vantreight
orchard and on May 16th the second spray of 4-4-40 was applied on a portion of the Aitken
orchard.    The blossoms had practically all fallen at this date.
" On April 22nd the Vantreight orchard was inspected by J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant
Pathologist. There was very little of the blossom-blight showing at that time in either the
Vantreight or the Aitken orchard. At a later date, however, the infection became quite serious
in the Aitken orchard. It is believed that the infection has been reduced very materially and
it is proposed to continue the work iu 1926. P 24 Department of rtAGRicuLTURE. 1925
" On the recommendation of J. W. Eastham, an S-8-40 Bordeaux or double strength will be
tried in the spring. In California this double-strength Bordeaux appears to be giving results in
controlling a similar disease attacking apricots in that State."
Rose-scale Sprays.—Rose-scale (Aulacaspis rosas) is becoming of extreme importance as a
pest attacking cane-fruits in certain sections of the Lower Mainland small-fruit areas. In order
to ascertain a control, work was undertaken by the District Horticulturist for that section in
conjunction with W. Downes, of the Dominion Entomological staff.
A number of sprays were tried with varying success. The most effective spray to date has
been whale-oil soap applied cold at the rate of 1 lb. to 1 gallon of water. These applications
were made in the fall. Although it is intended to carry out further work, it would appear that
effective control and, in fact, eradication is possible with the use of the above spray.
Apple-scab (Ventaria inequalis) Sprays.—It was intended to again carry out this work in
the Salmon Arm District along the same lines as in previous years. Due, however, to the fact
that the orchard on which the work was to be done had a very light crop it was decided
that satisfactory results could not be obtained. The work was therefore dropped in this section
for this year.    It will, however, be carried out in 1926.
Work along this line was undertaken in the Kootenay section by your District Horticulturist
and the Provincial Plant Pathologist. A full report has been submitted. For the purpose of
verification it is hoped that it will be possible to continue this work in 1926.
Fruit-tree Leaf-roller Control.—The fruit-tree leaf-roller (Cacivcla argyrospila) is one of
the most important orchard pests in the northern section of the Okanagan Valley as well as in
some of the other sections of the Province. The oil sprays used by the growers have helped
materially in keeping this trouble in check. Your Branch, however, has felt that it was advisable
to carry out test sprays not only with the regular commercial oils at present in use, but with
home-made oil mixtures as well. This work has been undertaken during the past two seasons
by your Assistant District Horticulturist at Vernon, and it is hoped that it will be possible to
continue the work in 1926. Future work will be done only with new spray mixtures which may
come on the market, or which are already on the market but have not yet been tried out. A full
report has been submitted covering this work. While too long to include in this report, it is
hoped that it will be possible to bring it out in circular form in the near future.
Other Spraying Demonstrations.—In addition to the work mentioned above, work has also
been done with various new insecticides and fungicides. A great deal of information has been
obtained which should be of assistance to the fruit industry.
Fertilizer Tests.
As in 1924, tests were carried on with various fertilizers for different crops. A great deal
remains to be done with fertilizers for both truck and fruit crops. While reports have been filed
covering work done, it is thought advisable to withhold these from publication until further work
has been carried out.
Pest-control and Inspection Work.
Codling-moth (Cydia, pomonella).—The quarantine-work for the control of the codling-moth
has been carried on along similar lines to that of previous years. At the request of the Corporation of the City of Kamloops spraying-work was undertaken within the city limits. All outbreak
of moth was reported in the Salmon Arm District. The infested area was immediately quarantined. There has been no reduction in the old areas and in some there has been an increased
acreage reported. In view of the fact that the growers were advised at the last meeting of the
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association, it is quite possible that there will be a material
■change in the method of conducting the work in 1926.
San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus).—There are only two sections in the Province where
this insect is known to exist—namely, Spences Bridge and Kaslo. Reporting on the infestation at Spences Bridge, your District Field Inspector for that section makes the following
statement:—
" The situation at Spences Bridge with regard to this pest is unchanged from last year.
The orchards are free from the scale, though it still persists in a small patch of wild growth,
from which, owing to the nature of the ground, it would be a very costly undertaking to eradicate
it.    In this area it is held in check by cutting and burning the brush." 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 25
With regard to the Kaslo situation, the following extract from the report of the District
Horticulturist for the Kootenays records the work that was done and the success obtained:—
" This pest is still present in the quarantine area established at Kaslo in 1924 for its control
and eradication. This area was sprayed on March 23rd to 27th, 1925, with an 8-per-cent. solution of the Ortho Kleenup brand of oil spray put out by the California Spray-Chemical Company.
The cost of this material was 43 cents per gallon delivered at Kaslo. It took 1,700 gallons of
diluted spray to spray the 595 trees in the area under quarantine, and 137 gallons of the Ortho
oil was used in making up this dilution. This was at the rate of 2.86 gallons of diluted spray
per tree. During the spraying operations the weather on the whole was good, slight winds
occurring on two afternoons, which made it difficult to cover some of the tall trees. So far the
scale has not been found outside of the established quarantine area, and it has also been greatly
reduced within the area under quarantine. A thorough inspection was made of the trees sprayed
during the summer by the Provincial Assistant Entomologist, and only on a few trees in isolated
areas could the scale be found."
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorus).—Fire-blight inspection as carried out in previous years
was again undertaken. It can be safely said that the careful inspection and cutting-out of fire-
blight in affected areas has helped materially in reducing the losses due to this trouble. During
the past season 16,328 acres were inspected in the Okanagan Valley, of which 13,584 were passed
as free from blight-infection.
Nursery Inspection.—This work is undertaken in the various nurseries either at the time
of digging or just previous to shipping, and is for the purpose of eliminating any trees or bushes
affected with disease or insect pest. All trees condemned are destroyed. During the past year
83,320 trees were inspected; 5,449, or approximately 6.5 per cent., were condemned and destroyed.
Grasshopper-control.—The Provincial and Dominion officials co-operating again undertook
the carrying-out of a grasshopper-control campaign. Mixing-stations w7ere established at various
points and bait distributed to ranchers who were anxious to protect their crops. A detailed
report has been submitted covering this work.
Lecture-work.
There has been an increasing demand for lectures on various horticultural subjects and your
staff has been kept busy dealing with these requests. Work of this kind is much appreciated by
local agricultural organizations, and it is also an excellent way of bringing before the growers
as a whole new ideas relative to the work in which they are engaged.
Publications.
While no new circulars were issued since the last report was published, a number of old
circulars have been revised and reissued. The Weekly News Letter was again used for advising
all those interested in the fruit conditions in the Province as to the state of that industry during
the summer months. The demand for this publication would justify its being issued during the
coming season.
Seed-wokk.
There is an increasing interest being taken in the production of seed in the Province. As the
growers' organization will in all probability be taken over by your Department, the problem
which will affect the growers will be one of marketing. There are at the present time growers
who are successfully marketing all seed that they produce. There are growers, however, who will
require some assistance, and as this Province seems to be particularly adapted to seed production,
assistance should be given. It will be a number of years before the production of seed will be
an important factor in world production. Once, however, a start is made, progress will be
steady, although perhaps slow.
Horticultural Societies.
As an aid to floriculture a number of Horticultural Societies were started. These were
principally in Interior points. Your officials helped materially in getting these organizations
started, and it is hoped that the present interest will be maintained, as they will go a long way
towards improving the home conditions in both town and country, as well as opening up a
market for home-grown seed. A union of all of these societies under one head such as has been
done in other Provinces may result in the future and would be a move in the right direction. P 26
Department of Agriculture.
1925
Acknowledgment.
Appreciation of the excellent co-operation is acknowledged by your Horticulturist not only
on the part of the members of this staff,  but also on the part of members of the various
Dominion staffs as well as those of the University.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Robertson,
Provincial Horticulturist.
REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF IMPORTED AND EXPORTED HORTICULTURAL AND
FIELD PRODUCTS.
W. H. Lyne.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report herewith the work of the Inspector of Imported and
Exported Horticultural and Field Products and his staff of assistants during the year ended
December 31st, 1925.
Routine procedure was very similar to that of the previous year and an earnest effort was
made to carry out the work as consistently, efficiently, and economically as possible. The object
of such work being that of preventing the importation of any new insect pest or plant-disease
and even keeping out additional pests similar to that already existing within the Province; the
latter, in justice to the effort being made by the other branches of your Department to exterminate or control such pests for the benefit of those engaged in developing the horticultural
resources of the Province.
Plant products such as fruit, vegetables, rice, corn, peas, beans, walnuts, peanuts, etc.,
imported into the Province were inspected at'the several ports of entry where Quarantine Officers
under the direction of your Inspector were stationed. Any such products found to be infested or
infected with insect pests or disease of sufficient importance were condemned and shipped out
of the Province or destroyed. Certificates were issued permitting the distribution and sale of
that which passed inspection and condemnation certificates were issued for that which was
condemned. Inspection fees were collected on the products necessitating the most rigid and
systematic inspection.
Tourist and Passenger Traffic
Besides the inspection of fruit and vegetables in commercial quantities, strict attention was
paid to tourists and passengers entering the Province by boat, train, or wagon-road wmo had
in their possession small quantities of fruit or vegetables for their immediate use. But in that
case no certificates were issued or inspection fees charged.
Observation List.
No certificates were issued or fees collected on certain varieties of fruit and vegetables not
generally associated with destructive pests or disease of sufficient importance to warrant a very
close inspection. Such products, however, come under the observation of the Inspector and might
at any time be placed on the regular inspection-list did conditions arise to warrant that
procedure.
Quarantine Stations.
The following is a list of the Quarantine Stations where officers are appointed to inspect
the various fruit and vegetable products imported : Vancouver, Victoria, Sidney, Nanaimo, Prince
Rupert, White Rock, Douglas, Pacific Highway, Aldergrove, Abbotsford, Huntingdon, Similkameen, Osoyoos, Bridesville, Myncaster, Midway, Carson, Grand Forks, Cascade, Waneta, Rossland,
Rykerts or Port Hill, Kingsgate, Cranbrook, Fernie, Newgate, and Revelstoke.
One Quarantine Officer was stationed at each of the ports mentioned bar Victoria and Vancouver, the former having two men and the latter seven, including the Chief Inspector. With
the exception of Vancouver, all the Quarantine Officers were paid for actual time incurred only.
Those stationed at Vancouver on the regular staff were paid an annual salary monthly. Some of
the officers stationed at ports leading directly into commercial fruit-growing districts were paid
an additional sum of $5 per month during the summer from July 1st to October 31st for paying 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 27
special attention to tourist and passenger traffic. Their special duty was that of preventing the
entrance of small parcels containing fruit infested with codling-moth larvae or other pests of
importance.
The automobile has become one of the most dangerous sources by which destructive pests
can be distributed throughout the North American Continent. Thanks to our neighbours across
the United States boundary, who are also alive to the fact, the danger is being reduced to a great
extent.
Pests via Ocean Traffic
The geographical situation of British Columbia exposes it to many sources of foreign pest
invasion, against which the interior provinces are considerably protected by the strict enforcement of our plant quarantine regulations for the protection of our own Province.
Commercial progress during recent years has brought to our seaports ocean-going ships from
all parts of the world. Each cargo usually includes some product capable of containing serious
foreign insect pest or plant-disease, some of which could result in tremendous loss to our horticultural and agricultural enterprise.
Imported Fruit and Vegetables, etc.
A glance at the tabulated list of fruit and vegetables attached to this report shows a falling-
off of apples imported last year. A decided effort appears to have been made by the Vancouver
wholesale houses to give the British Columbia product preference directly it was available.
There was a considerable increase in the importation of pears owing to cannery demand.
The last few years have proven that British Columbia does not produce nearly enough Bartlett
pears to supply the cannery trade, which prefers that particular variety. Importation of peaches,
apricots, and cherries was also greater than the previous year, the additional peaches and
apricots, or most of them, going to the canneries. All the above-mentioned fruit came from
California, Oregon, and Washington.
Larger importation of tomatoes during 1925 was probably owing to heavy production in the
States south of the boundary, including Mexico.
Citrus fruit, including grapefruit and lemons, show a moderate increase, and California
oranges slightly less than the previous year. Australia contributed a few hundred cases of
oranges and lemons, more by way of a trial shipment than a serious attempt to compete with
the fruit from California. Though the shipment was not everything that could be desired in
quality and condition, it was a marked improvement on some of the previous shipments and
indicates the possibility of future success.
A better grade of fresh pineapples would be appreciated than those we have recently been
receiving from Cuba and the Hawaiian Islands, if they could be sold at a price to suit the
ordinary consumer. About two years ago a shipment arrived from Suva, Fiji Islands, that was
superior in size and quality to anything seen on the Vancouver market for a number of years,
but the public did not get a chance to sample them until after they had been canned. The whole
shipment had been imported by one of the canning companies and was canned in Vancouver.
There has recently been some inquiry from prospective shippers in the Fiji Islands regarding
future trade with fresh pineapples and bananas. The success of such an enterprise depends upon
shipping facilities that will land the fruit in good condition and the quality and price that will
successfully compete with other fruit.
Fruit and Vegetables condemned.
The insect pests and diseases responsible for the rejection of imported fruit and vegetables
recorded on the tabulated sheets attached to this report were as follows:—
Apples and pears from the United States infested with codling-moth larvae and San Jose
scale; peaches, plums, and prunes infested with peach-moth larva. (Anmrsia lineatella) and
infected with brown-rot, also from the United States; cherries from United States infested with
cherry fruit-fly larvae and infected with brown-rot; tomatoes from Mexico infested with tomato-
worm (Heliothus armager) and infected with anthracnose-rot; potatoes from United States
infected with Fusarium rot; oranges and grapefruit from United States infested with scale-
insects; sweet potatoes from China infested with weevil   (Cylas formicarius).
Imported Nursery* Stock.
The tabulated list of imported nursery stock, consisting of fruit-trees, shrubs, vines and
plants, ornamental trees, shrubs, plants, and bulbs, shows a moderate increase in most of the varieties bar apple-trees.    The latter, however, may have been more readily supplied by our
local nurseries.
In compliance with the regulations under the Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest -Act "
and our Provincial " Agricultural Act," all imported nursery stock bar a few of the bulbs and
soft plants were inspected at the Government Fumigation Station, Vancouver. That also
included the inspection of nursery stock entering the Province for other parts of Canada, your
Inspector having the authority to act as a Dominion official in order to avoid duplication of the
work by two sets of officials.
Nursery' Stock condemned.
All stock was carefully inspected. Any trees, shrubs, or plants found infested with insect
pest or infected with disease was immediately discarded and a careful record made, describing
variety of stock condemned and reason for condemnation.
The following pests and diseases were responsible for the stock being condemned and
destroyed or shipped out of the country :—
Scale-insects: Aspidiotus perniciosus and ostrmformis on fruit-trees from United States;
Aspidiotus ostrmformis, hedcra', and forbesi on fruit-trees and ornamental shrubs from Europe
and Japan; Diaspis and Chionaspis on ornamental shrubs from Japan; Aulacaspis rosea on rosebushes and raspberry-canes from United States; Lecanium caprw on ornamental shrubs from
Europe.
Aphis: Eriosoma lanigera on apple-trees from United States; Eriosoma pyri on roots of
pear-trees from United States; Aphis nigre on roots of peach-trees from United States.
Phylloxera on roots of grapes from United States.
Root-borers: Sanninoidea exitiosa in roots of peach, apricot, and plum trees from United
States; narcissus-fly larvae in narcissus bulbs from Holland and United States; Nematode and
bulb-mite in narcissus and gladioli bulbs and corms from Holland.
Anthracnose, sour-sap, root or crown gall infecting fruit-trees from United States.
Our Nurserymen should be encouraged.
We still have to deplore the continued importation of so much nursery stock, all of which
can be grown to perfection in this Province. Our local nurserymen appear to be aware that they
are losing in this respect, but apparently lack nerve or capital, both of which are necessary
to carry them over the early stages of propagation. Some of them are of the opinion that if
the Dominion Dumping .Act was applied to imported nursery stock it would create sufficient
confidence in those who are already trying to propagate to go ahead with the work.
East Kootenay Concession.
During the last few years repeated requests have been made by East Kootenay residents for
a special concession allowing them to import nursery stock from certain nurseries in Manitoba
without its having to be forwarded to Vancouver Inspection Station for inspection and fumigation. Their reason for such concession being granted was that the stock available from nurseries
within the Province was not adaptable to the climatic conditions in the East Kootenay District.
Also that the additional cost and delay in the stock having to come to Vancouver prohibited their
obtaining the kind they desired.
In order to allow the applicants a chance to demonstrate their claim, the following arrangements were made: A special permit form was printed stating the conditions under which the
concession would be granted. This was supplied to any East Kootenay resident when applied for.
A special address-tag giving instructions to the transportation company was also supplied with
the permit in order to ensure the shipment being delivered at the place designated. Last summer
your Inspector carefully inspected all stock that had been imported and planted subject to the
conditions of the permit. For greater convenience during the coming season your Inspector has
arranged for the special shipments to he inspected at Cranbrook before being delivered to the
consignee.
Nursery Stock exported.
A tabulated sheet attached to this report gives a list of the various stock exported and the
names of the countries to which it was shipped. Although the quantity is not great, it indicates
the gradual development of an industry that may rapidly develop to considerable importance. 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 29
All such stock was carefully inspected by officials on your Inspector's staff, assisted by others on
the Horticultural field staff, after which an export inspection certificate was issued provided the
stock was healthy and free from any insect pests or disease.
Fruit and Vegetables exported.
The Dominion " Fruit and Vegetable Grade Act," which came into operation in 1922, relieved
your Inspector and his staff of considerable responsibility in their endeavour to improve and
maintain the commercial standard of fruit and vegetables for home consumption. They have
therefore confined their efforts in that particular work principally to inspecting those products
for export when export certificates were needed to comply with sale contracts or with the quarantine laws of the countries to which the products were exported. In that case each shipment
is carefully inspected to make sure it complies with the certificate as being apparently free from
pest or disease and in good, sound, merchantable condition. The certificate also states where
the products were grown, the name of the Inspector, and the date they were inspected.
The quantity and varieties of the.products exported are recorded on tabulated sheet attached
to this report.
Government Fumigation Station.
The following work was carried out at the Government Fumigation Station:—
Inspection of all imported nursery stock such as trees and shrubs, including the fumigation
of the outdoor deciduous stock. Also the inspection of most of the soft herbaceous plants and
bulbs, some of which were allowed to be inspected at Victoria and others at consignee's premises.
There was also fumigated imported stored products consisting of rice, peas, beans, dried
apples, and other died fruit, all of which are recorded in Appendix No. 14. Reason for fumigation: Rice from China and Japan infested with, meal-worm (Plodia interpimctella), weevil
(Calandra oriea), and Tribolium beetle; beans and peas from Japan infested with weevil
(Bruchus pisorum, and obtectus) ; dried fruits infested with Plodia interpunctella and Tribolium
beetle.
A portion of the Fumigation Station was also used by Dominion Health of Animals Branch
for the fumigation of miscellaneous merchandise packed in hay or straw from countries where
pleuropneumonia or foot-and-mouth disease of cattle was prevalent.
Heating Plant installed.
Owing to a great deal of the fumigation by the Health of Animals Branch having to be
carried out during the winter, it was necessary to maintain a temperature of 70° F. in the
chamber during the process. Under the circumstances the Dominion Department of Agriculture
decided to install a hot-water heating service in place of the primitive portable stoves previously
used.    The installation was completed during the latter part of the "year.
Travelling.
During the year your Inspector visited some of his Quarantine Officers stationed at the ports
along the boundary.    Their work was discussed and advice given.
The nursery stock imported into Cranbrook direct from certain nurseries in Manitoba under
special permit was inspected at Cranbrook by your Inspector during the summer. The stock
was carefully examined on the premises of each consignee where it had been planted. No serious
pest or disease was found and most of it was in fair condition. At the same time many similar
varieties of stock obtained from British Columbia nurseries were noticed doing equally as well
and sometimes better than those obtained from the Manitoba nurseries.
Official visits were made to your Department at Victoria, and on the occasion of the Western
Plan Quarantine Board Annual Conference a visit was made to Boise, Idaho. Another official
conference attended was that of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association annual meeting
in the first month of the year at Kelowna, B.C.
Western Plant Quarantine Board.
A few remarks may be in order regarding the personnel and object of the Western Plant
Quarantine Board. The members are officials representing the State or Provincial Government
Plant  Quarantine Departments  of  the Western  United   States,   Northern   Mexico,   Hawaiian P 30
Department of Agriculture.
1925
Islands, and British Columbia. The object is that of acquiring information regarding quarantine
administration and an endeavour to maintain efficient and consistent rules and regulations controlling importation of plant products in order to prevent the spread of destructive insects and
plant-disease.
" Eggs Marks Act."
The British Columbia " Eggs Marks Act" of 1923 appeared to work automatically throughout
the year. The comparatively small number of eggs imported from foreign countries is a good
indication of its moral effect.
The total number of eggs imported from the United States were 473 cases, practically all of
which were used to fill shortages for ships' stores and various other points mostly outside the
Province.
Importations from other countries were as follows: From China, 2,000 cases fresh eggs, 204
tins frozen whites and yolks, 16 cases salt eggs, 101 cases dried eggs, 1,617 packages duck-eggs
encased in mud.
All the Chinese eggs were consigned or shipped to Eastern Canada or United States, bar
thirty-five tins of the frozen and most of those in mud. The latter are used exclusively by the
Chinese in this and other Provinces of Canada.
There also arrived 381 cases of fresh eggs from Japan bonded through to Montreal.
Office Routine.
With the assistance of two lady clerk-stenographers, all details of work performed by the
several Quarantine Officers on the staff of your Inspector are carefully recorded at his headquarters office in the Court-house at Vancouver.
Other duties include the issuing of Dominion emergency permits to import nursery stock
and filing the regular permits issued from Ottawa. Also recording and issuing of inspection certificates covering imported nursery stock and other plant products, and for similar products
exported.
Inspection reports when requested are issued to consignees, shippers, or transportation companies regarding shipments involving claims for various defects, etc.
The miscellaneous correspondence relating to the numerous details incidental to the work of
your Inspector received prompt and careful attention. Number of letters inwards, 1,807; and
outwards, 2,034.
Considerable correspondence of your Plant Pathologist, J. W. Eastham, who shares your
Inspector's office, is typed by one or other of the stenographers referred to. Similar assistance
is sometimes given Ernest Clarke, District Field Horticulturist, who also shares your Inspector's
office.
The miscellaneous horticultural and agricultural bulletins and circulars are always on hand
for distribution to any one desiring them.    Any one wishing personal interview regarding control
of insect pests, plant-diseases, or horticultural practice received prompt and courteous attention.
Respectfully submitted. __   „   „
W. H. Lyne,
Inspector of Imported and Exported Horticultural
and Field Products.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT .PATHOLOGIST, VANCOUVER.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for 1925.
Winter-injury.
The outstanding pathological feature of the year in many of the fruit-growing districts was
the injury done to vegetation by the abnormal weather conditions which occurred around the
middle of December, 1924. While injury in some degree was more or less general, in the Creston
District it was particularly severe and a special study of it was made, the district being visited in
March, June, July, and September. 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 31
The injury at Creston appears to be the result of a cold snap following very mild weather.
From December 10th to 15th the average maximum temperature was around 48° F. and the
average minimum 34° F. On the morning of December 15th the temperature rose to 43°, but
about 10 a.m. the blizzard began to be felt from Goat River Canyon. The velocity of the wind,
in the absence of any recording instruments, can only be guessed at, but it was high enough to
blow in windows, blow down chimneys, lift roofs, and overturn buildings. It also cut a complete
swath in the standing timber in the mountain-side from Creston to Sirdar. The temperature fell
all day, reaching —10° during the night, a drop of 53° in less than twenty-four hours. The
minimum temperature reached was —17° on the night of the 18th, the minimum temperature
remaining below zero until the 27th. Temperatures lower than these have occurred with little
or no injury in other years, and it is probable that the injury resulted from a sudden large drop
in temperature after a mild spell rather than from any unusual degree of cold. The high wind-
velocity would probably also have an influence in effecting a rapid freezing of the trees.
While fruit-buds and twigs were extensively killed, the most serious injury was to the trunks
of the trees. In most cases the limbs were only slightly affected, the injury showing from the
ground-level to the first branches. The injury showed first as a browning of the cambium of
the trunk, which became noticeable in February and was very marked at the time of my first
visit, March 4th to 8th. In many cases the entire cambium region of the trunk was by this time
a dark-brown colour and the bark beginning to turn red and even to shrivel. In many cases the
injury was much the same all around the tree. In other cases the side exposed to the blizzard
showed most injury, while in yet others the opposite was true. The last cases are probably due
to the higher temperature of the south and south-west sides of the tree. The spring and early
summer were moist and exceptionally favourable for growth, the hot, dry summer weather
coming somewhat later than usual. As a consequence many trees apparently badly injured made
a good recovery. This was particularly true of pears, only an occasional tree being killed outright. In an orchard of 4-year-old pear-trees the Bosc suffered worst, some being killed to the
stock. Winter Nells was almost uninjured, but the tops of Anjou, Bartlett, Cornice, and Clair-
geau were killed back extensively. Among apple-trees, the early varieties, such as Duchess,
showed little injury, even to the fruit-buds. Wealthy, Mcintosh, and Delicious showed little
injury to the cambium, although the last named had nearly all the fruit-buds killed. Jonathan,
Winter Banana, King, and Rome Beauty made excellent recovery, even where the cambium was
deeply discoloured all around the trunk.
The fact that there was little or.no root-injury in this section has been an important factor
in recovery. The trees that are dead, or so crippled as to make it doubtful policy to retain them,
will be largely confined to Wagener, Spy, Ontario, Spitzenberg, and Cox's Orange. In some cases
where orchards have been largely planted to these varieties the total loss will be heavy. There
is a marked correlation throughout the valley between the crop borne by n tree in 1924 and the
extent of injury. Trees which bore heavily have in many cases died, while trees of similar age
and location which bore a light or moderate crop came through safely. The fact that the valley
produced a record crop of apples in 1924 largely explains the severity of the injury.
Sweet cherries appear to have suffered little injury to the tree itself, although the fruit-buds
were extensively killed or injured to such a degree that they did not set fruit.
On the whole, the ultimate loss as indicated by the condition of the trees in September was
much less than seemed likely in the early spring.
rtAt Boswell, on the Kootenay Lake, the injury was much less severe, the storm apparently
having spent itself. Although a considerable number of trees showed a browning of the cambium
of the trunk, one apricot-tree is apparently the only bearing tree to be killed outright.
Elsewhere on the Kootenay Lake there was little injury to either trees or buds.
Spraying Experiments.
In conjunction with E. C. Hunt, a test was made of commercial liquid lime-sulphur and the
two brands of dry lime-sulphur most generally available in British Columbia with respect to
their comparative efficiency in the control of apple-scab. The work was carried out in the
orchard of J. D. McDonnell, Willow Point, near Nelson, scab being a factor every year in apple-
growing in the Kootenay Lake area. A block of trees 15 to 20 years old in good vigour was
chosen. The plots ran across the varietal rows from the outer edge of the orchard, so that each
plot consisted of seven Mcintosh Reds, three Kootenay Gems, and one Jonathan.    It was intended to make estimates of the amount of scab on both Mcintosh and Jonathan, these being varieties
widely planted, but, as will be seen later, the count was finally made on the Mcintosh alone.
Three sprayings were given as previous work had shown that these were sufficient for commercial control of scab in an ordinary season.    The plots and the materials are as follows:—
Plot 1.—Sherwin-Williams D.L.S., 4-40 pink, 3-40 calyx, 3-40 later.
Plot 2— Sherwin-Williams D.L.S., 5-40 pink, 3%-40 calyx, 3%-40 later.
Plot 3.—Liquid L.S. Commercial 32% Beaume, 1-35 pink, 1-40 calyx, 1-40 later.
Plot k— Hemingway's D.L.S., 5-40 pink, 3%-40 calyx, 3%-40 later.
Plot 5.—Hemingway's D.L.S., 4-40 pink, 3-40 calyx, 3-40 later.
Plot 6 (Check).—The end tree of Plot 3, a Mcintosh, was left unsprayed as check.
Dates of Spraying.—The pink spray was put on May 2nd; the calyx, May 25th ; and the third
spray, June 16th. The first spray was applied with a rod; the others with a gun. From 4 to
5 gallons of spray were used per tree.
Results.—The third tree in the row was selected for making counts right across the plots.
In Plots 3 and 4, however, this tree having a somewhat light crop, tree No. 2 was also taken.
The entire yield of the trees selected was counted and examined in making the estimate.
Plot.
Tree.
No. of Apples.
Clean.
Scabby.
Per Cent. Scabby.
1
3
2,910
2,514
396
13.6
2
3
3,105
2,806
299
9.6
3
3
245
221
24
9.8*
3
2
1,643
1,459
175
10.7*
4
3
961
■863
98
10.2f
4
2
2,403
2,089
314
13.0f
5
3
3,107
2,515
592
10.0
6
1
1,218
427
791
65.0
* Average,  10.6
t Average,   12.2.
It will be seen from the above that the season was not favourable to the development of scab.
In most seasons an unsprayed Mcintosh tree will have from 90 to 100 per cent, scabby fruit. In
making the counts every apple having a scabby spot the size of a pin-head was counted scabby,
as also apples from which the scab had disappeared and the spot calloused over. Tbe Jonathans
did not show enough scab to give any basis for comparison, so that the results are based entirely
on the evidence given by the Mcintosh.
The thoroughness of the work of spraying may be fairly well gauged by the fact that the
Mcintosh in the rest of the orchard sprayed three times on or around the same dates with
Bordeaux mixture (with excess lime), lime-sulphur, and Bordeaux mixture (with excess lime)
showed 31.7 per cent, of scab. This estimate was based on 456 apples picked at random from
tree No. 3 in the row adjoining Plot No. 5 and which gave 3S0 clean and 176 scabby.
Cost.—It will be seen from the foregoing figures that the stronger mixture of dry lime-
sulphur used—namely, 5 lb. to 40 gallons in the pink and 3% lb. to 40 gallons in the later
sprays—controlled scab about as well as liquid lime-sulphur at 1-35 and 1-40 under the conditions of the past season. It does not follow, however, that identical results would be obtained
in a wet season. On the basis of this season's work the choice between these materials would
appear to rest mainly on their respective cost.
Liquid lime-sulphur could be purchased at Nelson at 40 cents per gallon in 40-gallon barrels
•and 45 cents in 5-gallon lots. Dry lime-sulphur was quoted at various prices, ranging from 15
cents in 200-lb. lots to 50 cents per pound in 1-lb. tins.
Taking the lowest figure in each case as being most applicable to the commercial purchaser,
we find that the cost of 40 gallons of spray mixture of the strength used in the pink spray would
be 46 and 75 cents respectively and for the later sprays 40 and 56V4 cents, the liquid lime-sulphur
having the advantage in cheapness. In the two last sprays, when the weaker strength of dry
lime-sulphur—namely, 3 lb. to 40 gallons—was used, the cost would be more nearly equal—
namely, 40 cents for the liquid against 45 cents for the dry material for 40 gallons. In this case,
however, the commercial liquid lime-sulphur gave appreciably better control.    On the basis of a*,,^--,^,vi.,t,^ Ji
iSE;*
,.„■■■     ■.-.,-     ^     -<•■
.    ' :' :-;'^-:.:"
«^,flli
MB.
Lower Fraser Valley.    Strawberry-farm at Dewdney.
.     ■
Field-day, Dominion Illustration Station, Salmon Valley  (Central B.C.).  16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 33
this season's work, therefore, dry lime-sulphur would have to be put on the market at a price
still lower than the lowest so far quoted to have much chance of displacing the liquid form in
commercial orchard-work.
Potato-work.
Considerable loss was occasioned, especially in the Victoria District, by the rotting of seed at
planting;time. In a few cases where whole seed had been planted under similar conditions
there was little trouble, even when cut sets were a failure. The weather at planting-time was
unusually warm and the top soil dry. In some cases the stand was good on the lower levels,
but on the knolls or higher ground the seed had rotted completely. In other cases shallow
planting was responsible for much of the loss, the surface soil being very dry. Apparently the
warm conditions prevailing favoured the rapid development of the organisms causing rot, while
development of the plant was retarded by lack of moisture in the soil.
In the certified-seed work the most serious difficulty encountered has been the high percentage
of mosaic which in some instances has developed from fields which passed certification the preceding year. It is evident that in future greater attention will have to he paid to isolation of
the field, early roguing, the roguing-out of plants adjacent to mosaic ones, and the counting-in of
all suspicious plants. The raising of the grower's own seed on a plot isolated even from his
certified-seed field and rogued continuously, everything at all doubtful being eliminated, is also
to be strongly recommended.
I regret to have to record the appearance of the Colorado beetle on several farms in the
immediate vicinity of Creston. Since 1922 there has been a small infestation on one farm at
Camp Lister, which has been gradually reduced until it appeared to be completely eradicated in
1925. There is no evidence to show the origin of these new outbreaks. They are very small
individually and such as might result from the bringing-in of stray insects on vehicles or by the
railway. As both railway and highway pass through the heavily infested area around Wardner,
Elko, etc., this method of spread was to be expected and but little could be done to guard
against it.
Other Diseases.
A disease of tulip bulbs at Salmon Arm, apparently due to a Fusarium, and a rotting of
dahlia-roots in storage are under investigation.
Respectfully submitted. _   _.   _
J. W. Eastham,
Provincial Plant Pathologist.
REPORT OF ASSISTANT ENTOMOLOGIST, VERNON.
M. H. Ruhmann, B.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The following is a report on the entomological activities of this office during the past
year:—
The Entomological staff during the past year consisted of: Max H. Ruhmann, Assistant
Entomologist in Charge; Miss C. M. Bigland, Junior Laboratory Assistant.
The Codling-moth   (Cydia pomonella L.).
During the year 1925 the following additional fruit areas were declared infested by this
office through determination of larvae submitted and the later verification of infestation in the
field. The areas are Osoyoos, Penticton, Salmon Arm, Nelson, and Columbia Gardens. The only
important fruit areas in the Interior at present free from infestation are Naramata, Kaleden (out
of quarantine), Summerland (out of quarantine), Peachland, Westbank (out of .quarantine),
the large areas of the Coldstream and B.X. Divisions of the Vernon District, and the areas of
the Arrow Lakes and Kootenay immediately outside of Nelson.
In the large areas around Kelowna and north to Winfield the infestations are so widespread
that eradication is believed to be impossible even under the most severe quarantine regulations.
The point has now been reached where the Department of Agriculture and the growers must
3 P 34
Department of Agriculture.
1925
decide either to: (1) Discontinue all quarantine measures; and (2) institute spray zones with
compulsory spray measures; or (3) make a further effort to eradicate.
(1.) To discontinue all quarantine measures must inevitably result in the complete infestation of all fruit areas in the very near future.
(2.) To institute spray zones with compulsory spray measures would require careful organization ; the difficulty of obtaining sufficient spray-machines to take care of each district would
have to be overcome, perhaps by partial temporary Government aid. Strict regulations would
have to be enacted and enforced, particularly in regard to the control of serious pests. Such
measures would not prevent the ultimate infestation of all fruit areas.
(3.) To make further efforts to eradicate. In the first place, eradication is now considered
to be impossible. If further efforts are to be made the regulations would have to be so severe
and the work so thorough that the growers in the infested areas would probably think that the
codling-moth would be the lesser evil. Such work could not he entirely handled by Government
officials; the complete co-operation of the growrers would be essential and much of the work would
have to be done by them. The mere voting of a tax to help to defray the cost of the work
is of no value and inadequate.
The Cherry Fruit-fly  (Rhagoletes fausta).
As intimated in our report for the year 1924, an outbreak of this fly was suspected in the
Kootenay. Adults reared from lame collected in the late summer of 1924 verified this finding.
As far as is yet known, this outbreak is confined to a small isolated area at Boswell, near
Kootenay Landing. It would be desirable to prevent, as far as possible, the spread of this fly
as it can become a serious pest in cherry-orchards. The infested area should be carefully
patrolled and all infested fruit destroyed. The cherries from this section should not be allowed
shipment West, but be diverted directly to Prairie points. A thorough survey should be made to
ascertain the extent of infestation and an effort made to eradicate the fly.
Onion-maggot (Hyxemyia antiqua).
The experiments conducted during 1924 on the control of this insect with bichloride of mercury were continued this spring. Due to light infestation on the experimental area no definite
results were obtained and it is hoped to continue this work during 1926.
Woolly Aphis  (Schizoneura lanigera).
Owing to the ever-increasing seriousness of this insect it was decided to attempt to obtain
better means of control than have heretofore been available. A new fumigant in the form of
calcium-cyanide dust was considered to be the most likely means of obtaining better control.
An orchard which in the past had been unusually heavily infested was selected for the experiment. Heavy Infestation, however, failed to materialize in any orchards under our observation, so that it was only possible to treat very light infestations. Thirty treatments were given
on as many separate blocks of trees. Of the calcium-cyanide dust both Grade A and Grade B
were tested. The applications were made during warm, dry weather and in no case was injury
to foliage observed. In all cases treated 100 per cent, control was obtained, the cyanide-dust
adhering closely to the waxy covering of the woolly aphides and enveloping them with hydrocyanic
gas over a sufficient period to destroy the entire colonies. The use of a hand-blower was found
to be quite satisfactory in the early stages of infestation before the aphid colonies are scattered
through the tree-tops. In the event of the cyanide-dust not being applied until after the colonies
are scattered it is doubtful that it can be satisfactorily applied with a hand-blower and a power-
machine would be necessary.
Calcium cyanide promises well for the control of several pests. Grades A and G were tested
for the Columbia ground-squirrel and ants in lawns with very satisfactory results. Both these
grades also proved to be excellent for greenhouse fumigation when used at the rate of % oz.
to 1,000 cubic feet of space, the material being thinly scattered over the walks in the evening
and the house then closed down for the night. The conditions necessary are a dry house, water
being withheld for about twenty-four hours to ensure the foliage being surface-dry, and the house
should be tight; if the house is not tight a larger quantity of calcium cyanide will be required,
but as no definite additional quantity can be recommended for any one house it must be gradually
increased until the correct quantity required has been ascertained. -
tEO.
British Columbia.
P 35
Calcium cyanide must he carefully handled and kept in tightly closed containers; it should
never be used on or near vegetation during wet or damp weather. Under such conditions the
hydrocyanic gas is generated very quickly and would be absorbed by moisture on vegetation, in
which event injury might result. Its action under any circumstances is rapid and when the gas
has been generated there is no poisonous residue left. The gas is, however, very poisonous and
great care must be exercised accordingly.
Calcium cyanide can be purchased at point of manufacture (New York) at approximately
17 to 18 cents per pound in bulk, but owing to high freight and Customs duty cannot be retailed
in British Columbia at much below 50 cents per pound in small quantities. It also has great
possibilities as soil insecticide, but the cost is prohibitive for its use as such.
The Forest Tent-caterpillar (Melacosoma disstria).
The epidemic of this insect reached its peak during the early summer. It was, however,
so severely attacked by parasites as to practically exterminate it, and for some years to come
this caterpillar will hardly be noticed in the areas where it has been troublesome for the past
several years.
The San Jose Scale  (Aspidiotus perniciosus).
The San Jose scale outbreak at Kaslo appears to be well under control. Some more
heading-in of trees in the infested area is necessary to get in effective work.
The Chrysanthemum Leaf-miner or Marguerite Fly (Phytomyza ciirysanthemi Kaw).
This insect is causing considerable trouble under glass, but good control is being obtained
with nicotine solutions.
Locusts.
There appears to be little diminution in the general epidemic of grasshoppers. The Department of Agriculture is giving every possible assistance in this work. During the past year
co-operative work amongst the growers in the control of this pest has been much improved, but
is not all that it should be yet. In the large unorganized districts the work is very difficult
owing to the tremendous area to be covered and the limited amount of help available to
effectively handle the work.
The Elimination of Band Inspection in Codling-moth Areas.
An experiment was carried out with a view to eliminate the high cost of band inspection.
Mosquito wire netting, 12 meshes to the inch, was procured and cut into suitable pieces to cover
burlap bands on trees in a quarantine area. The object was to observe if the larvae of the
codling-moth would pass through the wire netting and enter the bands for pupation, and if on
emergence of the adult that they would be trapped by the netting and thus prevent them from
reaching the tree-tops. Ninety-four trees were treated in this manner at a total cost of 17 cents
per tree for material and labour. It was found, on a thorough examination of these cages in the
fall, that although infestation had been light on the treated trees, apparently all larvffi leaving
fruit on these trees had entered the bands under the cages, had pupated and emerged. All
emerging moths were not accounted for under the bands, as many of them after dying had been
destroyed by spiders, mites, or small beetles, which wrere able to enter through the mesh of the
cages, and nothing but the wings were left of many of the moths. It is thought that there is a
possibility of moths, immediately on emergence and before the wings are fully developed, being
able to work their way through the wire mesh. This will be tested out under laboratory conditions. Should these cages prove successful in trapping the moths, although the initial cost is
high, the great cost of band inspection might be eliminated. Such cages would last for many
years with an occasional inspection and tightening of started nails.
Should these cages come into general use the cost of preparing them could be considerably
reduced, and if used in large numbers the cost of material and application might be easily
reduced to about 12 cents each.
Owing to lack of sufficient help and time some of the projects proposed for the past year
had to be abandoned.
Projects that are expected to receive full attention during 1926 are :—
(1.) Further tests of the calcium cyanides, particularly in relation to the control of the
woolly aphis. P 36
Department of Agriculture.
1925
(2.)  Further experiments on control of imported onion-maggot.
(3.)  Further studies in regard to trapping of adult codling-moths.
(4.)  Regional studies of oviposition by first-brood codling-moth to determine the date of the
first cover-spray.
By special request an exhibit of insect pests and plant-diseases was displayed at the Kelowna
and Grand Forks Fall Fairs.
Growers' meetings in regard to future work in the control of the codling-moth were attended
at Summerland, Naramata, and Kaleden.
Respectfully submitted. Max h   ruhmann,
Assistant Entomologist in Charge.
REPORT OF MARKETS COMMISSIONER, CALGARY.
J. A. Grant.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agrculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report for the year 1925.
More than the usual diversifications in marketing matters entered into the season of 1925.
In addition to the usual shifty outlook created by financial, weather, and supply conditions,
there was a threatened disruption at the start of the year of all the old-established merchandising
agencies. The revelations disclosed in the interim report, following the Dominion Government
investigation, had the effect of creating in the producer's mind a feeling that the selling end was
in a bad way, and their only safety lay in " coming out from amongst them."
The adverse attitude of the jobbers in relation to growers again forming their own brokerage
was also instrumental in bringing about the decision on the part of the Associated Growers to sell
direct to the retail trade. If this move had been carried out it might have resulted in disaster
to the growers' organization, and in addition to this the established jobbers would have experienced serious inconvenience. Better councils, however, prevailed later on, and by the time the
fruit was ready to roll an agreement was reached that placed the marketing situation back iu
a similar position to where it was before the agitation started; the only difference being that
the jobbers were forced to admit another brokerage concern that was owned by the Associated
Growers and known as " The Canadian Fruit Distributors." This new brokerage concern agreed
w^ith the existing jobbers' brokerages that they would refrain from dealing in imported noncompetitive fruits and vegetables that meant much to the. then existing brokerages, who are
owned by two groups of organized jobbers—namely, the Nash and Growers' Sales Agency.
These jobbers knew that there was a shortage of soft fruits in British Columbia in 1925,
which meant the introduction of imported soft fruits to supply their needs. While the British
Columbia berry-growers subscribed to the new brokerage concern, their fruit was not recognized
as being bound by the bargain made between tbe jobbers, the Associated Growers' representatives,
and the independent organizations. The supply of berries, especially strawberries, was short
and good returns were received by growers.
Taking the past season as a whole, very satisfactory results in marketing were obtained by
the fruit-growers. Average prices were the best since 1920. The same cannot be said of the
jobbers' position, as few, if any, of them report a net profit on the season's selling.
All the early fruits that came in L.C.L. on consignment to Alberta and Saskatchewan markets
suffered to a greater or less extent, as stability in prices under a consignment condition is
impossible. Prices obtained on car-lot berries exceeded the L.C.L. by a considerable margin on
the average. This result was brought about by rolling cars to distant points not affected by
the L.C.L. movement, and also by the friendly understanding between rival brokers in routing
these cars.
During the entire marketing season the deal was a divided one. All three brokerages got
some support and the growers' brokerage, or rather The Cauadian Fruit Distributors, found
that the want of the American shippers' account in non-competitive fruits was a great handicap
to them. The Independent organization sold through the jobber-owned brokers and had a distinct
preference until those in charge of The Canadian Fruit Distributors brought pressure to bear for
an even break in selling their produce.    After some dickering an agreement was reached by the 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 37
jobbers that they would handle the British Columbia produce on the basis of 70 per cent.
Associated and 30 per cent. Independent, and this enabled the Board of Control to adjust the
delivery of supplies and arrange for the shipment of any surplus to other than the Prairie
or British Columbia markets.
The Board of Control was the outcome of the agreement made with the jobbers' and 'producers' representatives, and they were chosen, one from the Associated Growers, one from the
Independent organization, and one chosen by the jobbers. This Control Board kept au even
balance between all parties.
Eastern Markets.
The market for British Columbia apples in Eastern Canada and United States points was
less this year on account of the good and clean crop in Ontario and Quebec. Toronto bought
about twenty-five cars and Montreal about eighty, with farther-east points taking about ten cars.
No complaints were heard on the quality of the fruit in these cars. Your Markets Commissioner
found that the fancy trade in all the Eastern cities wanted the high-coloured, clean-skinned
British Columbia apples. In conversation with the trade, they pointed out that their customers
liked the uniform pack and good appearance of the apples, much preferring them to the apples
usually found in barrels, which were uncertain as to size and without the attraction of the
British Columbia product.
The Nova Scotia fruit-growers took considerable notice of the British Columbia apple
invasion to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick territory and urged upon their growers the necessity
of better packing and grading of their apples if they intended to retake the fancy trade. New
York City took less British Columbia apples than in the past few years, mostly Mcintosh Red.
The New England States, Ontario, and Nova Scotia are planting heavily of this variety, and it
is only a question of a few years when British Columbia Mclutoshes will have strong Eastern
competition.
It is claimed that the Independent shippers return their growers more money than does
the Associated Growers; that they get their money quicker and, having no storage facilities,
they force their produce early on the market. It is rather disquieting to growers to find that the
Associated with its large volume cannot do business equally as efficient and economical as the
smaller bodies. If any remedy for this condition is sought it will be along the line of demanding
from both Associated Locals and the Central more efficiency and economy in their methods and
by cutting down their overhead charges.
Meetings attended.
The season's activities began by attending the Jobbers' Convention at Edmonton and the
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association Convention at Penticton. Afterwards meetings were
held at Kelowna, Penticton, Oliver, and Salmon Arm. The Oliver growers were informed of the
possibilities of sweet-potato and cantaloupe growing. They decided on advice to grow thirty
cars of cantaloupes and to leave sweet-potato growing alone.
After these meetings Edmonton was visited and Mr. Dinning, the Liquor Controller, interviewed re the sale of loganberry wine on behalf of the Vancouver and Victoria loganberry wine
companies. Mr. Dinning agreed to place a trial order of this wine on sale on its merits. At tbe
same time the matter of selling certified seed-potatoes in Alberta was taken up with Edmonton
brokers, but owing to the arrival of many cars of clean potatoes (Green Mountain variety) for
commercial use it was thought by brokers that growers would purchase a supply of these potatoes
for seed, and only a small order of British Columbia certified seed was obtained.
In April a visit was made to Kootenay points, including Boswell, Harrop, Nelson, Robson,
Burton, Nakusp, and Grand Forks. At all these meetings the need to supply the market demand
by planting more Bing and Lambert cherries was pointed out.
The shipping season started with the hothouse tomatoes and cucumbers. The Mutual Brokers
handled most of these products. The rhubarb was handled by The Canadian Fruit Distributors
and the Mutual Brokers. The rhubarb was well sold and with it for the first time came British
Columbia head-lettuce and cauliflower. The head-lettuce was soft by comparison with competitive stuff, but the cauliflower was of excellent quality.
The Prairie market absorbed more hothouse tomatoes than ever.before, and it was observed
that imported tomatoes fell off in volume both in hothouse and field-grown stuff.    Over $10O|,(J0O worth of hothouse produce rolled to the Prairies this year from Victoria alone. Prices realized
were satisfactory to growers. Considerable friction existed on the market between the Mainland
and Vancouver Island hothouse produce, caused by the accounts being handled by rival brokers.
Small-fruit Season.
Strawberries were the next commodity offered, and it was at once apparent that they would
be very scarce and that high prices would rule if seasonable weather permitted the berries to
arrive in good condition.
On the whole, strawberries were not up to a high standard of quality, due to dry weather.
Wynndel sent in the best pack, closely followed by Saanich and Gordon Head Districts. Both
these districts shipped in car-lots, leaving the market in Alberta to the L.C.L. and consignment
shipments. In many cases the car-lot stuff netted $1 per crate more than L.C.L., chiefly because
the car-lot stuff met the legitimate competition from the United States, while the L.C.L. met
internal competition from shipments made on consignment. Towards the end of the season, and
due to mould, several cars were sold at extremely low prices. This also happened to the L.C.L.
shipments.
The raspberry-pack was also troubled by some mould towards the end of the season. This
was noticeably apparent in car-lots from Hatzic, where it is claimed that defective precooling
injured the berries. Raspberries sold more readily and in' greater volume than usual, due to
the fact that strawberries were insufficient to go around.
Taking the berry season as a whole, good prices were realized in spite of the fact that at
the beginning of the raspberry season, the Berry Growers' Co-operative Union of British Columbia
went into liquidation and for a time the L.C.L. market was flooded and the distant or car-lot
market experienced a famine.
Loganberries were in better demand and less supply and gooseberries, as usual, were a drug
on the market.
The car-lot berry deal was handled by The Canadian Fruit Distributors and Mutual Brokers
in about equal quantities and good prices prevailed, largely due to the short crop.
At the beginning of every berry season an annual crop of " shoestring" jobbers and
commission-men await the chance to handle a portion of the L.C.L. berry shipments rolling in
from unorganized shippers. Some of them are old hands and succeed in getting supplies through
advertisements placed in British Columbia papers. For the purpose of protecting shippers against
firms that are not financially sound, recommendations have been made to the Canadian Llorticul-
tural Council from both British Columbia shippers and Prairie jobbers for legislation compelling
all jobbers and commission-men to take out a Federal bond, but for some reason not made known
no such legislation has been enacted.
The unwary shippers are completely at the mercy of the " fly-by-night" commission-men.
We know of many losses through using such men in selling produce—more this year than
formerly; and while we send out bulletins weekly cautioning shippers, they continue to fall
into the trap. We do not know of any loss incurred in dealing with legitimate jobbers in ten
years' experience.
Cherries.
Cherries of the Early Richmond and Governor Wood class are still in evidence. We commented on one shipment; " skin and stones " would describe them; they did not bring enough
on sale to pay for the freight and were not as large as a large red currant.
Bings, Lamberts, and Royal Annes sold well. Very few Washington or Oregon cherries
came on the market, as the Southern British Columbia cherries were ready as soon as those from
Washington points. Bings and Lamberts retailed at 40 cents per pound most of the time, and
Royal Anne cherries that carried without bruise-marks sold at 25 cents per pound most of the
time.
Kootenay cherries were in great demand and of the usual quality. Many were sent on
consignment to Calgary and had the effect of lowering the price. There was no warrant for
this, as no other cherries were on the market at that time and the demand was in excess of the
supply.
Just about this time we printed an article on the effect that divided distribution was having
on the market. ■
16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 39
The shortage of British Columbia soft fruit brought into Prairie cities selling agents from
Yakima and Wenatchee and for a time very little fruit from British Columbia was seen on
the market. The general impression on the Prairies was that British Columbia had few, if any,
plums, prunes, peaches, apricots, and pears, and so all these fruits were purchased f.o.b. shipping-
point in Washington and Oregon. The competition, when any was in evidence, was between
Washington and Oregon. The American salesmen did their work so well that when it became
known that British Columbia had twenty cars of prunes there was no place to sell them as all
points were full of American prunes. British Columbia had to sell what they had on the
Prairies, so had to lower the price, and this act lowered prices on the American importations
and the jobbers holding them took a " bump."
Cantaloupes.
The British Columbia cantaloupes, especially from Oliver, created a very favourable
impression on the market from Winnipeg to Vancouver. The wholesale trade were agreeably
surprised at the volume, pack, and quality of these cantaloupes. Without exception the opinion
was given that in their season hereafter no imported cantaloupes will be needed. The British
Columbia cantaloupes were equal in grade and pack to any imported stuff and superior in flavour.
In this connection it should be borne in mind that the summer of 1925 on the Prairies was
mostly cold and wet and not a good season for cantaloupe sales. No doubt in another year many
cars would be consumed, but there is a danger of overproduction.
Prices were satisfactory. At first there was a tendency to hold cantaloupes at retail prices
far above what the wholesale price warranted, but cars of smaller sizes in T. Eaton's stores soon
corrected this mistake.
Tomatoes and Potatoes.
The tomato market was again overdone. The pack in general was a big improvement over
other years, but many coarse shipments lowered the price on better stuff. We noticed some packs
of excellent quality, and while they sold for nearly double the price that rough stuff sold for,
the amount was considerably below the real worth of the pack.
Something should be done to stabilize the tomato-pack and distinguish between domestic
tomatoes for preserving and table-tomatoes. The Control Board did some excellent work at this
stage, and from the tomato season on to the end of the apple season their work had a steadying
effect upon prices.
The potato-crop in the Eastern States and Canada was short of the average. The Prairie
crop promised fair, but early frost cut down the growing tops, and later killing frosts injured
many of the tubers, with the result that many potatoes were kept at home instead of being
exported to American markets, where there was a keen demand for good potatoes. The potato-
crop in British Columbia was again reduced in production by continuous dry weather, and while
prices ruled high, the tonnage yield was generally low.
The Apple Deal.
Early apples sold better than previous years. Early Wealthys were sold on the green side
and this plan has much to recommend it on the Prairie market, but this does not apply to
Wealthys shipped to Great Britain.
The apple deal now centres around the Mcintosh apple. It is the popular variety and others
have to radiate around the price set on the Mcintosh. This season there was some difficulty in
setting the Mcintosh price, and here again the Board of Control did excellent service. The
shipper and jobber as usual were at opposite ends of the proposed price, and finally a compromise
was reached, a sort of middle-of-the-way arrangement.
As has been the case in other years, the B Class apples, or apples not in favour by the trade,
were sold lower than the A Class and had a tendency to unsteady the A Class prices.
A great volume of apples went into consumption early at good prices. Bulk stuff was bought
by jobbers and repacked at point of delivery. There was greater rivalry amongst jobbers on
the apple deal this year than we ever witnessed before and they worked on a very small margin
of profit. Some independent shippers who were also independent of the Independent organization
found it difficult to dispose of their " few cars " at the market price to the retail trade, and some
of them had to consign their cars to commission-men or take a lower than the market price.
This condition was partly the result of the jobbers' agreement, the Control Board's work, and
the rivalry existing amongst the jobbers. P 40
Department of Agriculture.
1925
At time of writing, January, 1926, it looks as if we had not sufficient British Columbia apples
stored to take care of the Prairie market until May, and as usual the balance needed is being
imported from Washington.
Publications.
This year twenty-two weekly Market Bulletins were issued. The bulletin now has a circulation of over 4,000 weekly, and we find that the former season from June to November does not
cover the whole of the season that produce is being shipped in. Hothouse tomatoes, cucumbers,
early vegetables, and rhubarb at the spring season, also storage apples, pears, and vegetables
in the fall, are coming to the market in volume before and after the bulletin is printed. It may
be found in the interest of the industry to extend the bulletin season a month and begin a month
earlier.
The Prairie farmers have harvested a record crop both in point of quantity and price obtained
for it. Their purchasing-power is greatly improved, and but for the unseasonable aand unprecedented rainfall experienced for about six weeks during threshing-time the sale of fruits and
vegetables would have been considerably increased.
The want of storage in a sufficient way results in importations at high prices of produce
when just ahead of a famine there was a congested market, all in an effort to clean up, and this
invariably lowers the price.
There is a demand for the following products that can be successfully grown in the
Province: Peaches (especially Elberta) ; grapes; apricots, but not to the same extent; pears
of a late variety like Anjou and Bosc; Winesap and Newtown apples. This list applies mainly
to Penticton and the South. In the Kootenay, Bing and Lambert cherries, and in favoured
spots all early vegetables, asparagus, cauliflower, cabbage, lettuce, spinach, and new potatoes.
These could be grown in districts where rhubarb is grown, such as Mission, Chilliwack, and
Victoria.
Strawberries at present are underplanted, but in the case of this crop careful estimates
should be made of the acreage planted to prevent overplanting. In fact, each commodity crop
should be planted with a view to supplying our Prairie market to prevent overproduction. We
know the consuming-power of the markets usually supplied from British Columbia and we know
the acreage on the basis of an average crop that would be safe to plant to produce a sufficient
supply for their average needs, but we have no check upon planting until it is done. Some means
should be worked out to prevent overplanting. The law of supply needs regulating to conform
to the demand, and even with storage facilities to extend the season it is quite possible to overdo
storage.
There is a very uncertain outlook for the marketing season of 1926. Marketing conditions
are not improving. The organization that was of a necessity forced upon British Columbia fruit
and produce growers in 1923 is losing ground, chiefly caused by a judgment given in the Supreme
Court whereby growers can by forming small companies get freedom from their five-year contract.
The independent shippers are steadily growing in number and are increasing so fast that
they are a menace to themselves. These independents do not purchase much, if any, of the
produce they handle and take no speculative chances. In our opinion growers dealing with them
should insist in having some say in the disposal of their produce.
Respectfully submitted. j  A   Grant
Markets Commissioner.
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK COMMISSIONER, VICTORIA.
Dr. A. Knight, V.S.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the annual report of the Live Stock Branch for the year ended
December 31st, 1925.
The yield of the various farm crops has been as a whole well up to the average. In a few
districts yields were affected by lack of rain and certain grazing areas were also damaged by
grasshoppers. Alfalfa, the main market hay-crop for the Interior, was well up to the usual
production, the mild fall facilitating the cutting and harvesting of an extra crop.    In some   16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 41
instances greater production would have been  secured if a more adequate water-supply for
irrigation had been to hand, the long dry season curtailing the amount of water available.
A greater acreage of corn for silage purposes was planted in the Lower Fraser Valley.
This was to offset the loss of the clover-crop, which suffered severely during the winter freeze-up
early in December, 1924. Owing to the favourable conditions and good germination of seed these
crops were above the average in quality and tonnage. The fine weather extending late into the
fall gave the farmers an opportunity to harvest their crops in good condition.
Vancouver Island suffered in crop production probably more than other sections of the
Province, this being due to the prolonged dry spell in the late summer and early fall. Through
the lack of rain there was little fall pasture compared with other years, the dairy-farmers being
obliged to use fodder in the fall that would otherwise have been put by for winter feed. This has
made it necessary for a good number of farmers to purchase feed to carry their stock through
the winter.
Dairy Cattle.
The number of dairy cattle shows a steady increase and the supply of milk to our cities
is well up to the demand, but in other dairy products, especially butter and cheese, our home
production is far short of the requirements. As in other commodities remunerative prices
stimulate production, so would higher prices and economic marketing increase the production
of dairy products by inducing our dairymen to increase their herds and encouraging other
farmers to go into the business.
Cow-testing Associations under the auspices of your Dairy Branch have done much to lend
the dairy-farmers advice as to better feeding and care of their cattle, and at the same time have
pointed out to them the advantage of culling out their non-paying animals, with the result that
the average production of cows in these associations has been materially increased and the cost
of milk and butter-fat lowered. If the use of good bulls throughout our dairy sections, together
with cow-testing, could be extended to other dairy centres of the Province, the general quality
of our dairy cattle would be improved and greater progress would be made in building up our
dairy industry. Data compiled from reports sent in by the Veterinary staff covering a number
of years show a large percentage of grade or unregistered bulls kept for service throughout the
Province. The great majority of these animals are of inferior quality. The offspring from such
bulls not only tends to lower the standard of milk and butter-fat production, but is one of the
main factors in retarding the improvement of our dairy cattle.
Prices for dairy cattle have been well maintained throughout the year, the general average
being on a par with 1924, good grade mature cows bringing from $100 to $150, 2-year-olds, $50 to
$80; yearlings, $30 to $35. Inferior animals of the same ages: Cows, $50 to $75; 2-year-olds,
$35 to $45 ; and yearlings, $15 to $25.
A sale of seventy-one pure-bred cattle, made up of the Holstein, Guernsey, and Jersey breeds
and conducted under the auspices of the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association, was held
at Vancouver in June. Fair prices w-ere realized, mature cows ranging in price from $130 to
$325, the price depending on type, quality, and milk and butter-fat production.
The Cowichan Breeders' Association put on a sale of pure-bred stock, comprising thirty-two
head of Jerseys and Guernseys, at Chilliwack.    The highest price obtained at this sale was $200.
Shipments of grade and pure-bred dairy cattle have been made during the past year to the
Orient, Hong Kong and Shanghai being the points of destination. The Hong Kong consignment
was the third repeat order, which would indicate that the merit of British Columbia stock is
appreciated. The shipment to Shanghai was a trial shipment, and from reports received has
given every satisfaction, and indications point to another order being placed very shortly.
Beef Cattle.
There has been no appreciable increase in the number of beef cattle during the past year.
The facilities for winter-feeding would necessarily have to be increased before we could look for
an increase in numbers. There are no ranges available which are capable of carrying more
cattle. As already stated, feed for winter would have to be provided. The grasshopper plague
in some districts has obliged the stockmen to curtail their stock-breeding operations. The quality
of our range stock is also suffering from the use of inferior bulls, although I must say that a
number of our larger breeders are maintaining the quality of their stock by the introduction P 42
Department of Agriculture.
1925
of new and better blood. In my previous report note was made of the lack of pure-bred bulls
being bred within the Province. This is still noticeable and a good number of our breeders are
obliged to go outside the Province for tbe purchase of breeding animals. I believe this offers
a field for some of our better breeders to establish pure-bred herds for the purpose of supplying
our local market with good breeding stock.
Prices of beef during the past year have ranged a shade better than during the year 1924,
the late winter and spring bringing better prices on well-finished stock.
The fat-stock show and bull-sale held in Kamloops on April 11th and 12th was up to the
usual standard in the exhibit of bulls of the Shorthorn, Hereford, and Aberdeen Angus breeds.
Fair prices were realized for breeding animals. A number of pure-bred Shorthorn cows and
heifers were also offered at this sale. As to the prices realized, thirty-six animals sold for $100
to $410 and twenty-four head from $55 to $100.
Judging from the progress made, we should look forward hopefully to the solution of the
beef-production problem, but this solution will only come providing such a policy is followed as
will encourage the cattle-breeding industry.
Horses.
Opinions may differ as to the future of the horse-breeding industry. While there has been
some movement from Alberta of horses weighing from 1,20(0 to 1,500 lb. to the Eastern markets,
the outlet for this class of horse in British Columbia has not been of the best. At the present
rate of breeding the supply of horses of the agricultural and heavy class will not meet the
demand in the near future. There is a steady market for well-finished heavy horses for drayage
purposes in our larger cities. These bring good prices, but such horses must carry considerable
weight, from 1,700 lb. and up, the heavier weights commanding higher prices. The chief factors
in causing a shortage of horses have been the lull in breeding operations and the limited market.
The present demand in our cities is for a heavy horse, which is becoming scarce owing to so few
horses being bred. There is no doubt that this type of horse is the one which the market is
demanding and which it will continue to demand in the future. The breeding of heavy horses
of good quality should prove one of the most profitable branches of the live-stock industry and
too much stress cannot be put on the desirability of selecting stallions possessing size.
Swine.
The market and prices for swine have been encouraging. There has been a steady demand,
with better prices than for some time past, prices running considerably higher per hundredweight
than in 1924.
Boys' and Girls' Pig Clubs were organized in the Cranbrook, Rock Creek, Kamloops, and
Salmon Arm Districts. As a result of the judging in the fall, Rock Creek won first, Cranbrook
second, Kamloops third, and Salmon Arm fourth prize. The pigs were exhibited in the fall at
the local fairs and made an excellent showing in type, finish, and being up to standard weights
for market hogs. The elub-work is proving an educational factor for boys and girls in producing
hogs of suitable type to meet market requirements.
The trend of hog values has been upward throughout the year. The low points for the
season were above the opening prices at the beginning of the season and the net gains amount
to around $2.50 to $3 per hundredweight.
Sheep.
The sheep industry in British Columbia is advancing in a satisfactory manner. Continued
interest is shown and numerous inquiries have been received from outside points seeking information as to the possibilities of sheep-raising in British Columbia. A number are making
inquiries with tbe idea of locating in the Province. The curtailment of grazing land in the
United States grazing area is forcing sheepmen to seek other locations to carry on their business.
Around 5,000 breeding ewes have been brought into the Province this past year by private
parties and distributed in the Interior, the bulk of these ewes being for the purpose of establishing new flocks for range purposes and carrying Merino or Rambouillet blood. Owing to the
nature of the interior of the Province it offers opportunities for a large increase in the sheep
population, and it is here we must look for our greatest increase of lamb, mutton, and wool. ;
16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 43
The sheepmen on the Coast have increased their flocks to some extent and new flocks have
been established, but, except in a few instances, dairying still holds the premier place in our
mixed-farming areas.
The manner in which wool is put up for market leaves much to be desired and educational
work along this line might accomplish much, as well as in the finishing of lamb for the trade.
The average price for wool was around 25 cents; lamb on foot, $10 to $12 per hundredweight.
The price for grade breeding ewes was $12 to $16 each ; pure-bred ewes, $20 to $35; choice purebred ewes commanding a considerably higher price than tbe general average. The demand for
rams for breeding purposes was very active, the supply of good rams being limited. A number
of breeders were forced to use inferior animals owing to the shortage of good rams, which is a
detriment to the industry. -At present the demand for pure-bred breeding rams would justify
our breeders in enlarging their pure-bred flocks, and the prices obtained should induce new flocks
to be established.
A start was made in the formation of local Sheep Clubs on Vancouver Island and other parts
of the Province. The object of these clubs is educational along the lines of marketing and the
improvement of the sheep industry in general.
The ravages of the coyotes are still proving a handicap to the sheep industry, especially on
farms where small flocks are kept. These small flocks are allowed to drift for themselves and
thus prove an easy prey for dogs and coyotes. Larger flocks where herders accompany the
sheep have proportionately less losses.
The Dominion Department of Agriculture supplied an official for the purpose of grading rams.
This was appreciated by our sheepmen as it gave them an opportunity to sell their rams on a
graded basis, the higher grades bringing more remunerative prices, at the same time furnishing
the buyer with a standard from which to make his purchases.
Goats.
The milch goat continues to draw a share of interest in the live-stock industry. There is ah
active demand for goat's milk, for which a premium is paid over milk from the cow. In point
of breeds the Saanens and Toggenburgs appear to be the most popular, hut the Nubian also has
its favourites. The number of milch goats in the Province is now over 10,000, composed of 550
pure-breds and 9,450 grades. Bucks have been imported from different points and breeders are
alive to the matter of maintaining and increasing the milking capacity of their animals.
Pure-bred Animals for Farmers' Institutes.
During the year six bulls and one ram were purchased for members of Farmers' Institutes.
Fairs.
The exhibit of live stock at our fall fairs was very encouraging, the outstanding features
being the large numbers of exhibits of Provincial-bred stock and the excellent manner in which
the animals were brought out.    This was especially noticeable at our larger fairs.
The result of the venture of exhibiting dairy stock at the Royal Winter Fair at Toronto
was gratifying to the breeders of live stock. In all, fifty prizes were secured, besides two championships. This exhibit has brought before the people of North America the type and quality
of British Columbia dairy stock.
A number of officials of the Live Stock Branch acted as judges at a number of the fall fairs.
.Although the gain in value of our live stock is not large, it offers some encouragement to
live-stock producers to continue their operations. The advance in live-stock values suggests
nothing unusual or artificial and the prospect for a continuance of present values is reasonably
good.
Respectfully submitted. A   Knight,
Live Stock Commissioner. P 44
Department
1925
REPORT OF CHIEF VETERINARY INSPECTOR, VICTORIA.
Dr. A. Knight, V.S.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Veterinary Branch for the year
January 1st to December 31st, 1925.
Members of your Veterinary staff have from time to time during the past year visited the
more thickly settled districts of the Province, especially those sections devoted to dairying and
stock-raising, special visits being paid to a few of the more remote districts where certain diseases
had been reported. These cases, on investigation, were found not to be extensive. The health
of all domestic stock on the whole has been good and no losses of a serious nature have occurred.
As in past year, a few cases of plant-poisoning have been reported, more especially in Central
British Columbia and north and west of the Canadian Pacific Railway line, water-hemlock being
the most prevalent, causing fatalities amongst cattle, and a specie of the vetch-plant (Astragalus
campestris) causing trouble with sheep and a number of cattle.
Black-leg.
After several years of no outbreaks of this disease two cases were reported from the Lillooet
District, one from Loon Lake, near Clinton, and the other near Ashcroft. A number of young
cattle had died before the matter was reported. Vaccination as a preventive measure was
recommended and adopted. No further losses were reported. It is difficult to account for the
outbreak this year as no history of previous cases could be traced to this district.
Johnne's Disease.
Two suspected cases of cattle were reported. The symptoms exhibited by the animals prior
to death and the post-mortem lesions of the intestinal tract would indicate the presence of this
disease, although no laboratory examination was made to verify the diagnosis.
Coccidiosis.
This pathological condition amongst cattle, due to internal parasites, exists in certain of our
range areas. Stockmen in the affected areas have done little in the way of control measures,
although the disease lends itself to treatment. Losses from death and depreciation of stock
can be largely avoided by adopting remedial measures.
Sterility'.
Sterility amongst cattle, due to vaginitis, which was so prevalent in various parts of the
Province last year, has not been reported this year, except in a few isolated cases where only
a small number of cows -were affected. The cattle involved last year were treated in the majority
of cases by the owners, with apparent success. Why the disease should be so prevalent during
1924 and of slight occurrence during 1925 is hard to account for. Apparently the disease has
a definite course to run.
Inspection of Dairies.
Inspection of dairies and stables has been carried out by your Inspectors in conjunction with
the tuberculin testing of cattle. A number of extra visits were paid to certain premises where
unsanitary conditions existed, to see that the dairymen complied with the regulations governing
such dairies. We find the dairymen showing a desire to construct more modern dairies and
stables as occasion demands, and during the past year we noticed quite an increase in the
number of new stables and dairies built according to sanitary ideas and modern methods. These
stables are filling the requirements in regard to sanitation. We have to point out, however, in
a few instances your Inspectors have found that an expensive stable is no criterion as to the
quality of the milk sent out from these premises. It is often found that the premises graded
the lowest or in Class C will send out milk and dairy products superior to the premises in the
class graded A. Sanitary stables and dairies are certainly to be recommended, but the main
essential in producing good milk is cleanliness and care, which is the first requisite of a good
dairyman.   The dairy premises have been listed under the various grades : First, A, 116; second, ■
16 Geo. 5
sritish Columbia.
P 45
B, 359; third, C, 1,925. In the inspection of dairies and stables your Inspectors, as far as
possible, work in conjunction with the health authorities of the cities and towns throughout
the Province.
Tuberculosis Testing of Dairy Cattle.
During the year your Inspectors visited 2,400 premises, testing 21,604 cattle, of which 905
reacted to the test, or 4.18 per cent. Testing has been carried out in nine general divisions of
the Province, which are as follows:—
District.
Premises
visited.
Cattle
tested.
No. of
Reactors.
Lower Fraser.	
Coast points	
Columbia Valley and East Kootenay
Interior points on C.P.R. and C.N.R
Kootenay	
Cariboo     	
Okanagan	
Similkameen and Boundary points...
Vancouver Island   	
1,243
156
86
64
45
19
202
10
575
13,172
639
935
498
409
151
1,063
58
4,679
592
19
5
6
43
4
34
1
201
The number of herds found free of tuberculosis and diseased herds are as follows:—
rnu.vi„t                                                                 Clean Diseased
,snict-                                                               Herds. Herds.
Lower Fraser   1,026 217
Okanagan      184 18
Interior points on C.P.R. and C.N.R        62 2
Columbia Valley and East Kootenay        80 6
Kootenay        39 6
Similkameen and Boundary points  ..        9 1
Cariboo        17 2
Coast points     149 7
Vancouver Island     486 89
Totals   2,052 348
Appendix No. 18 gives a detailed list of the districts visited and the number of cattle tested,
number of reactors, percentage of reactors, and the grade of premises in each district.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Chief Veterinary Inspector.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, KAMLOOPS.
George C. Hay, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1925.
Wool-marketing.
As British Columbia's director of the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited, and as
director of the British Columbia Wool-growers' Association, your Agriculturist has continuously
taken an active interest in the marketing of the British Columbia wool-clip.
The total wool handled by the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited, in 1925
approaches 3,500,000 lb., this quantity being an increase of 1,000,000 lb. over the preceding
year. The greatest increase comes from the Province of Alberta, and while all the associations
in that Province show a very healthy increase in the amount of wool forwarded, perhaps the
extreme increase is accounted for from Southern Alberta, where in 1925 the majority of the large
clips of wool were forwarded to the organization, whereas in the previous year some of the large
clips were sold outside of the organization. P 46
Department of Agriculture.
1925
This feature of the general increase in wool handled is encouraging—namely, that the wool
forwarded from each Province throughout Canada shows an increase, and each association within
the Provinces registers an increase in the quantity of wool handled. The total quantity of wool
handled this year also brings the organization back to the largest total handled since 1921.
The markets for the 1925 Canadian wool-clip have been largely confined to Canada and the
United States. During the previous two or three years a very nice business was worked up for
Canadian wools in England, but on account of price this could not be followed up in 1925.
The English market, on account of prices obtainable as compared with the prices in the home
market, has not afforded an opportunity to market our wools there to advantage this past season.
At the beginning of the season, as usual, sample bales were sent to England, and while we have
been in constant touch, yet all offers received from the samples shown have been materially under
prevailing prices here.    As a matter of fact, even the sample bales were difficult to dispose of.
At the beginning of 1925 the market opened at a high level of prices and with a general lack
of confidence in those prices by the trade. Briefly, the result was a long-drawn-out decline lasting
from January until September, during which period prices showed an average decline of 40
per cent, as compared with the high prices at the beginning of the year. The months of October
and November were the only months of the year in which we had a Arm, active trading market.
December had not advanced far before the upward tendency was checked, and from then on until
the present writing we have again experienced, not only in Canada but in the United States, a
dull, listless market resulting in lower values, of from 5 to 10 per cent, as compared with
November levels. There is this, however, that at current levels there is decidedly more confidence
in wool values. It is expected that soon we will see a renewed demand for wool, and often the
hope is expressed that prices will be stabilized at about the present basis.
Sheep Industry'.
During the past year considerable interest has been shown in the promotion of the sheep
industry. The Agricultural Office has been visited on many occasions by sheep enthusiasts and
at all times has encouragement been given to those in a position to hope for success in the
industry. While it is quite recognized there is a big field in British Columbia for developing the
industry, yet at the same time the fact should not be lost sight of that there is not a place for
sheep on every British Columbia farm. Unless one is equipped to run a few or a large number
of sheep and has a personal knowledge and inclination for the business, he had better follow
the line of farming he knows best. The problem as far as promoting the sheep industry is
concerned is to establish the man with a knowledge and a proper place for sheep-farming.
Within the last year two of the good ranches in this district have been purchased by American
sheepmen with a view to permanently establishing themselves in the business in this Province.
They have also brought with them in the neighbourhood of 3,500 breeding ewes.
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association.
In taking on the secretaryship of the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association a great
deal of extra work has steadily accumulated in the office of your Agriculturist. The Kamloops
bull-sale, the dairy-cattle sale, and the Provincial live-stock consignment to the Royal Agricultural
Winter Fair involved a lot of extra detail management.
The Kamloops Bull-sale.
The seventh annual Kamloops bull-sale was held April 15th to 17th, 1925. The average
prices realized were considered very satisfactory and were as follows: 48 head Shorthorns
averaged $115.40;   11 head Aberdeen Angus averaged $178.63;   1 Hereford sold for $145.
The Wynn-Johnson challenge cup—for the best British Columbia born Hereford bull, any age,
entered in the sale; cup to be won three years by the breeder before being owned and to be in
the possession of the winner from one sale until the next—was not competed for.
The Farm & Home challenge cup—for the best British Columbia born Shorthorn bull, any
age, entered in the sale; cup to be won three years by the breeder before being owned and to
be in the possession of the owner from one sale until the next—was won by Stepney Ranch,
Armstrong, B.C., with " Stepney Bluff," No. 167933, which was purchased by the Douglas Lake
Cattle Company, Limited.
The Hudson's Bay challenge cup—for the best British Columbia boru Shorthorn hull or
female born in the calendar year preceding the sale;  for exhibition animals only;  cup to be won British Columbia.
P 47
three years by the breeder before owned and to be in the possession of the winner from one sale
until the next—was won by Jas. Turner, Cadboro Bay, B.C., with " Rosie Queen," No. 207533,
which was purchased by Jos. Bulman, Adelphi, B.C.
To encourage the better wintering and feeding of good cattle for the spring market the
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association inaugurated a fat-stock show and sale, open to
stock-raisers in British Columbia only, which was held in conjunction with the sale. Valuable
prizes were offered and P. Burns & Co. guaranteed to buy all No. 1 fat cattle at 2 cents per
pound above the top market price in Calgary at that time. All stock entered in the fat-stock
show was bona fide for sale and subject to the rules governing the bull-sale.
Royal Show.
The fourth annual Royal Winter Fair was held in Toronto, November 13th to 21st, 1925.
The exhibition generally was regarded as a record-breaker for quality, and to have one's exhibit
classed in the money was indeed great satisfaction to the owners. On the other hand, it was
no particular disgrace to be out of the money, because many really creditable exhibits were so
classed. British Columbia once again did herself proud with her fruit display by claiming the
big proportion of the honours. In the live stock she was represented for the first time with an
attractive showing of dairy cattle, which on final analysis need not be ranked second to any
other Province in the Dominion. It is true that no Province distinguished itself in winnings
over another, nor was any Province noticeably behind in the race for the coveted ribbons. However, to secure fifty ribbons for British Columbia animals, which included two reserve championships, one junior championship, six firsts, seven seconds, and fourteen thirds, was indeed sufficient
to make it well known that British Columbia was exhibiting high-class dairy cattle at the Royal.
The summary of awards was certainly better than anticipated by the British Columbia
exhibitors, which helps considerably in declaring the undertaking a success and well worthy
of the trouble and expense. At the same time the awards received were not without disappointments, because in several cases the British Columbia men drew hard luck. In respect to
Holsteins, the Colony Farm 4-year-old milk cow in close placing was turned to third place
instead of second. Their senior yearling heifer also headed a very strong class of thirteen until
the last moment, when she was changed to second place. In the awarding of the junior championship for Guernsey females the judge pronounced it close enough for a toss, and tossed it against
the British Columbia entry of Banford Bros., Chilliwack. E. A. Wells's senior bull calf unfortunately was very lame when shown, which prevented him from going higher than second in
a strong class of thirteen. This animal was one of the British Columbia hopefuls and would
have very likely been junior champion, as he attained this honour and reserve grand champion
the following week at Ottawa. The British Columbia Jerseys also had their share of disappointments. These are simply cases of hard luck in close placings, but on the whole the judging
was very conscientiously and satisfactorily carried out.
As already stated, the awards attained for British Columbia surpassed the exhibitors'
expectations. Had they been less fortunate they would not have regretted being there, because
the main object of the undertaking was to find out the standing of British Columbia cattle in
comparison with the good cattle of the American Continent. The comparison was a fair one
because the winners of the great Canadian and American shows were there. When one stops to
think that the British Columbia exhibit, with the exception of a very few individuals, was the
home-grown product of British Columbia soil, and when one realizes, further, that these animals
stood right up in the money with and, in the cases mentioned, surpassed what have already
many times been pronounced the best cattle on the American Continent, it is satisfying to know
that British Columbia dairymen are raising such cattle on their farms. It is still further pleasing
to realize that Ontario, Quebec, and Prince Edward Island breeders saw fit to purchase eleven
head of British Columbia animals at prices very satisfactory to the sellers.
The presence of British Columbia live stock at the Royal was distinctly felt by the public.
In this respect the Province was unique. The animals were stalled together, designated by
British Columbia signs, and covered with uniform blankets, on which the words " British
Columbia " appeared. Being able to follow up this advertising by securing a goodly number of
awards made it very clear to the public that British Columbia was represented. When the
2-year-old Jersey heifer of David Spencer, Limited, Vancouver, headed a strong class, and later
when S. H. Shannon, of Cloverdale, was walked to the top of a class of twenty with " Grandview P 48
Department of Agriculture.
1925
Dewdrop," an Ayrshire heifer of their own breeding, and which afterwards was made junior
champion and reserve grand champion, the public was aware of the fact that British Columbia
breeders wyere exhibiting high-class cattle.
At the close of the Royal the Ottawa Winter Fair Board was pressing for the entire British
Columbia exhibit to show at Ottawa the following week. E. A. Wells felt inclined to go with
his Ayrshires, as did also Mr. Moore with the Colony Farm Holsteins. Some of the remaining
owners of cattle not having been consulted, it was deemed advisable for the balance of the
shipment to return home. Mr. Wells's and Mr. Moore's judgment proved good as both herds
did well in a very strong show. Their animals numbered twenty-two in all and won thirty-one
ribbons, including one junior championship, two reserve grand championships, six firsts, ten
seconds, seven thirds, two fourths, two fifths, and one sixth. Both were fortunate enough to
win sufficient prize-money to pay their expenses.
The result of showing in the East determined the fact that British Columbia dairy cattle
can compete favourably with the dairy cattle of the American Continent. It further was clearly
seen that to win prizes there requires animals to be in the best of form and skilfully handled by
experienced showmen. The latter point was perfectly taken care of by the British Columbia men
who accompanied the exhibit and who left nothing undone to make the best showing possible.
To the following men in charge can be given the credit for British Columbia's success: Spence
Stroyan, George Tapscott, Sam and George Shannon, Kenneth Hay, Oliver Wells, Oliver Evans,
Chas. Barton, Murray Davie, Harold Steves, and Ian Hepburn. These men certainly exhibited
the animals in the best form possible, but in some cases it was impossible to get an animal in
the best fit. This was particularly the case with animals which did not withstand well the
hardships of the long journey. Shipping from British Columbia to Toronto is a hard trip on
cattle that have not previously been grain-fed and in good fleshing. The unavoidable lateness in
decision to show at the Royal this year and the consequent lateness in selection of animals
accounts largely for the lack of condition of some of the animals selected. British Columbia
exhibitors learned a lot about such things in this their first year's experience. Careful attention
to certain matters in future years should make a much better showing.
The Province has done well and undoubtedly can do better in future not only with dairy
cattle, but with other live stock as well. It was generally felt by the British Columbia men
present that there were certain animals at home which for good reasons were not included in
the exhibit and which, had they been there, would have headed their classes.
In conclusion, it is the writer's humble judgment that the British Columbia live-stock
breeders, in spite of the handicap of distance, should endeavour not only to play a continued
prominent part in the great national exhibition, " The Royal Agricultural Winter Fair," which
is designed primarily for all the Provinces of Canada, but also to step out into the bigger
Western fairs of this continent. A little co-operation could effectively bring this about, which
would rightly advertise the Province as a breeding-ground of superior live stock and which
would indirectly make the industry more profitable.
Dairy-cattle Sale.
The first annual consignment sale of pure-bred dairy cattle was held in Vancouver on June
24th, 1925, in the interests of the breeders of pure-bred dairy cattle. The animals offered were
all from well-known herds in British Columbia and had been selected by a stock-breeders'
committee in co-operation with the respective breed associations. Farmers, and breeders in the
Province desiring to start in the industry or increasing their herds had an opportunity of setting
the values on a very representative group of British Columbia dairy cattle.
The breeding represented in the offerings included the blood of the most renowned animals.
The consigning breeders realized in offering such stock that they were giving their fellow-breeders
an opportunity of purchasing animals of blood lines which had proved successful on their own
farms, especially from productive standpoints. They felt confident that the dissemination of
these blooded lines to other herds could not be other than a means of proving profitable to the
purchaser and a great improvement to the breed. This initial sale was regarded as very
successful.
The British Columbia Shorthorn and Hereford Breeders' Associations.
The British Columbia Shorthorn and Hereford Breeders' Associations have each endeavoured
to safeguard the interests of their respective breeds as well as  encourage their production. Sheep on range at Cherry Creek, near Kamloops.
Sheep at Cherry Creek, near Kamloops.  16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 49
Diplomas and prizes have been awarded to successful contestants in competitions at different
exhibitions. As secretary of these associations your Agriculturist has dealt with the various
problems of concern to each.
Boy's' and Girls' Club Work.
A very successful Pig Club competition was conducted in this district during the past year,
in which upwards of forty boys and girls contested. The club stood third in the Provincial
scoring and the prize-money received, together with a fairly good market price, made the work
quite profitable to tbe contestants.
Stock-judging demonstrations and competitions were held on different occasions and great
interest was shown on the part of the younger people. District judging teams were taken to
Vancouver and New Westminster Fairs and won as follows: At New Westminster—Grande
Prairie, fourth ; Kamloops, fifth; North Thompson, seventh. At Vancouver—Kamloops, second;
North Thompson, fourth.
Land Settlement Board.
Throughout the year numerous reports and appraisals on farm loans have been made for the
Land Settlement Board. On account of the series of dry years in the district more calls have
been made for loans and also more attention has been necessary to those behind in their
payments.
Grasshoppers.
The infestation of grasshoppers throughout the dry-farming and range areas of the Interior
continues to be serious. Assistance in organization and poisoning was given and the results
were noticeably effective. The free poison given to the farmers by the Department of Agriculture
was greatly appreciated.
Meetings.
Throughout the year various meetings have been arranged and on different occasions
addresses were given on agricultural topics. Farmers' Institute meetings, Wool-growers' meetings, Breed Association meetings, Boys' and Girls' Club meetings, etc., have been arranged for
and assistance given.
Fairs.
Various fairs throughout the Province were attended and in the capacity of judge assistance
was granted whenever possible.
Office.
The above lines of work, together with frequent inquiries for information at the office in
Kamloops, has kept your Agriculturist especially busy during the past year.    An effort has been
made at all times to assist the local farmers in finding the best markets for their produce and
stock.    The various lines of work conducted by the Department of Agriculture in this district
are appreciated by the local farmers and others interested, as noticed by the steady increase of
correspondence as well as the increase iu number of visitors.    The efforts of the Department
to develop the agricultural interests of the district are greatly appreciated by all concerned.
Respectfully submitted.
Geo. C. Hay,
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, CRANBROOK.
Angus L. Hay, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Agriculturist for the year 1925.
General Conditions.
The winter of 1924 and 1925, although not extremely severe in temperature, was exceptionally
long. The heavy snowfall early in November necessitated the feeding of stock much earlier than
usual; this added materially to the cost of wintering stock, which resulted in many stockmen
turning their stock on the ranges in poor condition in the spring.    Fortunately, however, the
4 P 50
Department of Agriculture.
1925
growing season of 1925 was favourable to the production of crops and pasture, and with tbe slight
improvement in market prices, which has been experienced during the last few months, the
live-stock situation has somewhat improved in this district. The keener demand for dairy cattle
is particularly noticeable. Small-fruit growers in this district experienced a poor season, all
tree and bush fruits being almost a complete failure, due to severe weather conditions last
December.
Agricultural Meetings.
During the year agricultural meetings were attended in all parts of the district; these
included meetings of Farmers' Institutes, Women's Institutes, Agricultural Associations, Stockbreeders' Associations, and Service Clubs. At these meetings your Agriculturist delivered
addresses on various phases of agricultural work. Also the meetings of the Cranbrook Agricultural Association, the Cranbrook Stock-breeders' Association, the District Central Institute, the
Cranbrook Boys' and Girls' Club were attended by your Agriculturist, who acted as secretary
for these organizations.
Two visits were made to all the institutes in this district during the season, one in July
prior to the meeting of the District Institute at the Experimental Farm at Invermere and one
in October prior to the District Institute Conference in Cranbrook. Both these conferences
entailed considerable work, but have helped very materially to bring the Farmers' Institutes
of East Kootenay into closer touch with each other and a greater interest is being taken by
the individual farmers in institute affairs.
In February your Agriculturist was elected British Columbia director of the Canadian Swine-
breeders' Association; in connection with this work he attended the annual meeting of the
Canadian Swine-breeders' Association held in Toronto. On returning from Toronto about the
end of February he also attended, in the interest of British Columbia Department of Agriculture, the meetings of the Western Canada Swine Committee held in Saskatoon.
Sheep Industry.
Being again a director of the British Columbia Wool-growers' Association, your Agriculturist
handled the collecting and shipping of the wool for the East and West Kootenay wool-producers,
and is very pleased to state that almost all the wool in the district was marketed co-operatively
in this way, making a car-load of approximately 16,000 lb., which was shipped to Weston, Ontario.
The sheep industry has increased to some little extent in this district during the past year, but
in a few sections some of the producers have had to dispose of their stock, due to the ravages of
the coyote.
Fall Fairs.
The following fall fairs were attended: Vancouver, New Westminster, Invermere, Cranbrook,
Creston, Salmon Arm, Rock Creek, Kamloops Bull-sale and Show, and Vancouver Winter Show.
At these your Agriculturist judged live stock at Invermere, dairy cattle at Salmon Arm, and
hogs at Vancouver AVinter Show.
Potato-work.
Early in June the Colorado potato-beetle again appeared in many parts of the district and
considerable educational work had to be carried on among the potato-growers in connection with
spraying. Arsenate of lead and calcium arsenate were both used, and it has been the experience
of potato-growers in this district that calcium arsenate put on in the form of a dust is the most
effective and most economical method to use in controlling this pest. This poison was supplied
free by the Department of Agriculture and the potato-growers appreciated this assistance to the
very fullest extent.
Live-stock Judging Work.
During the summer months, when time permitted, live-stock judging demonstrations were
called in different parts of the district, with the aim in view of fitting junior live-stock judging
teams to compete at the Coast fairs. This live-stock judging work, which has been carried on
now for three years, is creating more and more interest each year and the value of this work
is greatly appreciated by the farmers of the district. Two stock-judging teams from this district
were entered at the Vancouver Exhibition, standing first and second. The six individuals were
entered in the individual competitions and stood first, second, third, fourth, sixth, and twenty-first
in a class of forty-eight.    One team was entered from this district at the Westminster Exhibition }eo. 5 British Columbia. P 51
and stood first as a team in the judging of poultry, live stock, and crops, and in specials for
individual judging of live stock, first and second was won by Cranbrook members; first and
fourth in crops; first and second in dairy cattle; and first and second in horses. At the Westminster Exhibition in the individual competitions these prizes were won with approximately
forty competing from various parts of the Province.
Boys' and Girls' Live Stock Clubs.
The Cranbrook Boys' and Girls' Swine Club was again organized last spring with about forty
members from various parts of the South-east Kootenay District. Keen interest was taken in
the work and the pigs were brought in to be judged at the time of the Cranbrook Fair in first-class
condition. In the open competition with other districts of the Province for the best district
display of bacon-hogs the club was placed second, being beaten by the Rock Creek Club, whose
members purchased their pigs in the Cranbrook District last spring.
Land Settlement Board Work.
Throughout the year considerable work was carried on in the interests of the Land Settlement Board in the way of appraisal reports on farms and visits to farms on which mortgages
were held by the Land Settlement Board. As these places are scattered fairly well over the entire
district the work entails a great deal of travelling throughout the year.
Office-work.
The demand at the office for general information relative to agricultural work and the
requests for bulletins and pamphlets increases from year to year; also requests for visits to
various districts continually become greater, and your Agriculturist endeavours to spend as
much time as possible during the summer months out through the various parts of the district,
where the local problems of the farmers can be handled with greater efficiency. Assistance is
given throughout the year to stockmen in the way of buying and selling good pure-bred sires
and other live stock.
Respectfully submitted. Angus L. Hay,
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, DUNCAN.
E. R. Bewell, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sih,—I beg to submit for your consideration the following report of my work as District
Agriculturist at Duncan for the year ended December 31st, 1925:—
W. M. Fleming resigned from the position as District Agriculturist at Duncan to take a
position as Assistant Superintendent at Summerland Experiment Station. Resignation took effect
on April 30th, 1925. He was succeeded by the writer, who had been a Field Inspector in the
Field Crop Branch of the Department of Agriculture.
The agricultural work continues to be interesting and embraces a variety of subjects, while
live stock is the main industry. I took on the work of secretary of the Cowichan Stockbreeders' Association, which position was held previously by W. M. Fleming. A sale of pure-bred
stock, Jerseys and Guernseys, was held in Chilliwack on April 22nd, 1925, when forty head were
disposed of at a fair price. This had a good effect on the home market, as the surplus was
removed from the district.
Listings of stock for sale have been kept and advertised in various papers, and assistance
given in tracing pedigrees and in bringing purchasers and sellers together.
The compiling and publishing of R.O.P. records has been continued and interest has kept up.
The local Cow-testing .Association is still carrying on, but only a small per .cent, of the cows not
on R.O.P. are being tested.    We are taking steps to create greater interest in this line.
Flower-seed and bulb growing is increasing and several inspections were made during the
season. This phase of agriculture is becoming well established and a bright future appears to
be in store for those interested in this industry.
Considerable assistance was given the Field Crop Branch. I made the two field inspections
and the first tuber inspection of certified seed-potatoes in the Cowichan, Parksville, Alberni, and P 52
Department of Agriculture.
Comox Districts. Much improvement has been made in some districts and greater interest in
growing potatoes, both seed and commercial, so that we may soon see Arancouver Island growing
a larger share of the potatoes used here.
Assistance was given in identifying grubs, insects, etc., and reports sent to proper authorities
of insects, pests, diseases, etc.
Several talks were given during the year at various Farmers' and Women's Institutes on
potato-growing and other subjects.
I judged field crops at some of the fall fairs—Agassiz, Courtenay, Coombs, and Cobble Hill.
Inspections of soils were made and tested for acidity and advice given to correct same; also
information re drainage, fertilizers, crops, etc.
-A supply of Department bulletins is kept on hand to give to those interested, which is
appreciated by the public.
Several articles on various farm topics were written and published in the local paper.
During the year a number of prospective settlers called at the office and information was
always gladly given, which aided settlers in selecting homes.
Respectfully submitted.
E. R. Bewell,
District Agriculturist.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, PRINCE GEORGE.
R. G. Sutton, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—'I have the honour to report as follows:—
General Conditions.
During the season of 1925 climatic conditions were not all that could be desired. The winter
was unusually long, with a very heavy fall of snow. In the spring the warm weather came so
gradually that the snow melted very slowly. The result was that the snow-water was to a great
extent retained by the soil. This condition retarded spring work, making seeding as late as
May 15th to 18th, but it provided an abundant supply of moisture for the early crops. Thus,
while little rain fell during the spring and early summer months, the meadows came on well and
a very satisfactory yield of hay was cut. It was noted that in some cases stands of timothy
alone suffered to a marked extent from the hot weather in June, hut where the crop was mixed
clover and timothy, or clover alone, the clover formed a protective mat and the damage from
drought was very slight.
The 1924 clover seeding wintered 100 per cent., due to the generous snow blanket, and some
excellent stands of both common red and alsike clover were noted, particularly in the Prince
George District. Several small fields of alfalfa wintered well and gave two average cuttings
during the season.
The average production of hay for the district has been estimated at 2% tons per acre.
It was, almost without exception, put up and brought in in very good condition.
Hay-raising and dairying are the two chief lines of effort in the district adjacent to the
Canadian National Railway. Local production of hay has not yet met local demand owing to
the large market created by the lumbering industry to the east of this point. Last spring, just
before the grass came on, farmers were holding clover-hay, baled, at $40 per ton, and the bulk of
the clover-hay crop sold during the winter at $30, unbaled. Timothy-hay sold for $25 to $30,
baled, throughout the year.
A considerable quantity of timothy was shipped in from the Bulkley Valley and some from
the Lower Fraser Valley and Alberta.    Several cars of alfalfa were shipped from Kamloops.
An increasingly large acreage is being sown to hay each year and the percentage of straight
timothy is giving way to mixed timothy and clover. In a few years at this rate local production
should meet local demand, but until then hay proves a valuable cash crop.
It appears that time should be found to make some sort of survey, so as to form an estimate
of the total area in this and in other crops in order to arrive at some idea of the value of
agricultural produce here and to note, as accurately as possible, any changes from year to year.
To date no figures are available for the district. 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 52
Grain-crops, more than any other, suffered from the dry weather during the summer. There
seemed to be sufficient moisture in the soil to bring the crop to the shot-blade stage and then,
the moisture failing, the plants headed and matured before their time. On the lighter loamy
types of soil this was more marked than on the heavier clay soils.
A small acreage of spring wheat yielded an average of 25 bushels per acre; barley also in
small acreage yielded approximately the same. Oats, the main grain-crop, yielded around 60
bushels per acre.    In each case the straw was short.
Seeding commenced about the end of April and was finished by the middle of May. Harvest,
in the latter part of August, was much retarded by heavy and prolonged rains. A quantity of
cut grain had to remain in the stook for four or five weeks. Potatoes, root-crops, and silage-
crops, retarded by the dry summer, picked up with the August rains and yielded an excellent
crop.   Some growers report a yield of over 10 tons per acre of potatoes.
Spring seeding of grasses and clovers made a very poor showing until the late rains, when
they came on well and went into the winter with a good growth. After a dash of winter weather
in late October the fall has held open remarkably long, so much so that ploughing has been done
as late as December 15th.
The situation with regard to live stock is much the same as last year. Stock came through
the winter in good shape, with the exception of the Vanderhoof District, where a slight shortage
of feed occurred in the later winter. Some slight interest has been shown in sheep-breeding this
year, when two cars of breeding stock were brought into the Quesnel District from Alberta.
Pasture conditions have been good this year and stock have gone into the winter in good
shape. Feed-supplies should be adequate for the winter, particularly as the winter so far has
been very mild and cattle ranged late into December.
Certified Seed-potatoes.
With large areas of excellent potato-soil and a climate well adapted to growing of seed-
potatoes, an effort was made this year to interest a number of farmers in this work. Conditions
here are very similar to those in New Brunswick, where the production of seed-potatoes has
reached such large proportions. The growing season is short, but a large range of varieties, from
the very early to the medium late, have been grown with good success. In this connection it
might be mentioned that in the State of New Jersey certification of some varieties of potatoes
for seed is refused unless the crop has been planted later than July 25th. This is to ensure a
short growing season and have the tops green when frozen down.
Last spring three certified-seed associations made a start—one at MeBride, one at Quesnel,
and one at Woodpecker. These three had a total membership of thirty-seven and a total acreage
of 17 acres in certified seed. There is no reason why the membership and the acreage should
not be doubled this coming year. There will also be more care devoted to the handling of this
crop another year. The results for the season's work do not appear very satisfactory. Out of
the thirty-seven growers only eight have passed the two field inspections and the first tuber
inspection: The reasons for the failure of the others are to be found in poor seed, careless
handling, lack of good cultural conditions, and unfavourable weather conditions. In the case of
the Woodpecker local association the work was not undertaken until it was too late to obtain
seed anywhere in the Province, and in consequence they had to buy seed from Alberta. Certified
seed of the Wee McGregor variety was obtained and the resulting crop in the case of each man
was infested with black-leg in excess of the minimum allowed and the whole nine growers were
turned down after the second field inspection. In each case, however, good yields were obtained
and a good quality of potato. In all probability these men will have their own seed on hand for
the coming year.
Another grower, in the Fort Fraser District, with over 3 acres of certified seed passed each
of the field inspections, but the tuber inspection showed all potatoes to have a brown ring at the
stem-end. The Plant Pathologist reported this as probably due to summer frost and certain soil
conditions. He discusses a similar case in his 1924 report. Six growers were turned down at
MeBride for mosaic, four others for common scab, and one or two for rhizoctonia. These last
two groups could have passed all inspections had they taken the trouble to treat their seed before
planting. Observations lead to the conclusion that treating of seed is practised very rarely and
spraying of the growing crop not at all. No pest has yet appeared to make the latter operation
necessary. P 54
Department of Agriculture.
1925
The greatest advantage resulting from this attempt has been the experience gained by the
growers in certified-seed production and in potato-growing generally. In all probability they
will continue the work next year with far better chances of success. The local demand will
absorb all of the crop which passes the final inspection.
This should in time work up to a fair-sized industry. It is the farthest north that
seed-potatoes are being grown for certification. The crop yields well and gives healthy, vital
seed. Tests made at the Dominion Experimental Station at Summerland between seed-potatoes
from the southern part of the Province and from this Central Interior showed a marked increase
in yield in favour of the northern seed.
Production of certified seed-potatoes was the subject of several addresses given to various
farmers' organizations during the winter and early spring. After the formation of the local
growers' associations constant touch was maintained with the growers in the immediate district,
but time did not permit of much attention being paid to the growers in the MeBride and Quesnel
Districts. In the fall the members of the Woodpecker local asked assistance in preparing an
exhibit for the potato fair at New Westminster. This was done, and while doing it the storage-
places of each farmer was inspected and criticized. A very considerable tonnage of potatoes
are in storage among the farmers here and by visiting them it was possible to point out needed
improvements with regard to storage conditions, particular attention being given to appearance
of diseases and liability for same, as well as hints in regard to marketing. The bulk of this crop
will be held till spring and then absorbed by the local demand.
Upon representations being made in the spring to the Chief Agronomist, he agreed to provide
inspection for a minimum of 14-acre plots of certified seed. This action had the effect of inducing a number of men to make the start who otherwise would not have done so, as at that time
they either had not the necessary y2 acre available or were unable to obtain sufficient seed.
From time to time, as the official Potato Inspector made his visits, assistance was given in
field inspections.
Farmers' Institute Meetings.
These and meetings of other farmers' organizations were attended whenever possible and
addresses given when called for. The following table sums up the activities in this work.
Several meetings scheduled for August in the Quesnel District had to be cancelled on account of
ill-health.
Table of Meetings addressed.
Date.
Place.
Time.
Attendance.
Subject.
Jan.   20	
Prince George	
Afternoon _	
25
15
30
18
60
30
Fall fair prize-list.
Preparing live stock for exhibition.
Neglected phases of farming.
Feb.     8
Feb.   15	
Prince George ,
April 24	
June 29   	
Clover-seed production.
Clover-seed production.
June 30	
Fall Fairs.
Assisted in judging at the following fall fairs; Prince George, Woodpecker-Strathnaver,
Vanderhoof, and Quesnel. Was asked to judge at Houston and Forest Grove, but these last two
were cancelled. Assistance was also given in preparing a district exhibit from this point to
compete at the Prince Rupert Fall Fair. It is worthy of note in passing that this district has
sent an exhibit to Prince Rupert for four years and this year made the third time first place
had been won.    This third success brings a handsome trophy to Prince George permanently.
Clover-seed Production.
This has been the subject of a number of addresses, both in public and private and also in
newspaper articles, with the idea of establishing it as a side-line in the farming system.
With seed production in mind a number of farmers cut their clover-crop a little early in the
expectation of the second cutting coming on for seed. Owing to the very hot, dry weather
following haying the second growth was very light and short; too light for any seed-crop.    How- 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 55
ever, from one or two small patches of first crop which had not been cut- a very fine grade of
plump bright seed was obtained. Samples of this were sent down to the potato and seed fair for
exhibition.    It is hoped that next year will see a considerable area devoted to seed production.
Biological Work.
Close watch is always maintained for the work of insects or fungus-diseases, so that it may
be known should any serious pest appear in the district. So far crops have been remarkably
free from any such trouble. Clover-mildew made its appearance in a very widespread manner,
but apparently effected no damage. In the potato-crop a few diseases appeared, such as blackleg, rhizoctonia, and mosaic, but no trace of late blight and only a limited showing of early
blight and leaf-roll. Considering that very little of the potato-seed is treated and that spraying
of the growing crop is unknown, the district is very fortunate in this regard.
Insects of economic importance noted during the year were American tent-caterpillar and
turnip flea-beetle. The latter made its appearance in the Woodpecker District on several fields
of turnips and practically denuded the plants while still in the seedling stage.
The tent-caterpillar appeared late in May and proceeded to defoliate the whole countryside.
All deciduous trees were attacked and few escaped complete defoliation. For a time the landscape assumed the appearance of midwinter as far as foliage was concerned. Considerable
inconvenience was caused to residents of houses which were more or less surrounded by trees.
Railway-engines carried brooms on the pilots to sweep the rails clean and several cases are
reported where delays to trains were caused by engines being stalled because the rails were
slippery with crushed worms. The caterpillars began to pupate by June 15th, and by July 15th
the trees had refoliated and were normal in appearance. Before the moths began to emerge
a number of cocoons were gathered and examined. This examination showed the following:
Normal cocoons, 20 per cent.; parasitized cocoons, 50 per cent.; diseased cocoons, 30 per cent.
Those which were parasitized contained either the living larvie or the dormant pupse of some
variety of Diptera or Hymenoptera. The diseased ones were very similar in appearance to the
larvae of the honey-bee when attacked by foul-brood.
Further observations showed that a second brood of the caterpillars emerged late in August.
Apparently very few of these matured as no defoliation was apparent. Unfavourable weather
conditions and natural enemies probably accounted for them. It is doubtful if the pest will
occur in any numbers next year.
An increasingly large number of specimens of weeds, grasses, insects, and fungi have been
handed in for identification. A number were forwarded to the Plant Pathologist or the University for positive identification. A start has been made on a classified collection of insects and
also one of native grasses and forage-plants. It is the aim to add to these from time to time till
a practically complete collection is made. These collections will then be available to any one
wishing to use them.
A number of germination tests were made on seeds and a number of weed-seeds identified.
A survey of the district was made in the early spring for all varieties of poison-weeds. A number of these were found and identified. Localities where they occurred were noted and stockmen advised accordingly.
Conclusion.
As far as possible individual farmers are visited and their work discussed on the ground,
but in so large a district this is possible to a very limited extent. Articles for the press dealing
with seasonable subjects and making suggestions for improvements are composed from time to
time.
There has been good progress in the district during the past year. This is chiefly noticeable
in the increased amount of land under cultivation and in the correspondingly increased volume
of local produce. This progress may be illustrated by the following incident: In 1921, in a
certain farming community near Prince George, there were three farmers only who had crop
enough to make use of a threshing-machine. In 1925, in the same community, new farms had
been developed to the extent that there were fourteen men who used a threshing-machine.
The live-stock situation seems to remain almost constant from year to year, but the field-
crop situation is developing very satisfactorily.
Respectfully submitted. r. g. Sutton,
District Agriculturist. P 56
Department of Agriculture.
ANNUAL REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST,  SMITHERS.
Duncan D. Munro.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report for the year 1925.
Conditions generally throughout the district improved materially during the past year and
to-day there exists a much better feeling among the settlers than any previous year since
railway-construction days, when there were only a comparatively few settlers in the district and
prices for farm commodities were extremely high.
The principal reason for this was brought about by the installation of two timothy-seed
cleaning plants by the Department. This is particularly so of the Francois and Ootsa Lake
Districts, which are located at so great a distance from the railway that from an economical
standpoint the settlers are obliged to engage in farm production capable of being condensed
on the farm to a point that will permit of transportation to the railway. While perhaps it was
not the actual tonnage produced in 1925 (the first year timothy-seed has been marketed from the
Lakes District) as the prospect for increased production in following years. Two car-loads of
timothy-seed were shipped from the district in 1925—one from the Lakes District, grown by
fifteen settlers, and one from Barrett, grown by-four settlers.
Early in 1925 it was ascertained that only about 15 per cent, of the wheat consumed was
produced in this district and at the same time that two settlers in the Bulkley Valley had a few
hundred bushels of fairly good Marquis wheat. Through the efforts of this office this wheat was
distributed for seed purposes, as well as oats and barley, to settlers throughout the district, with
the result that the production was: Wheat, 8,130 bushels ; oats, 61,375 bushels; barley, 7.56S
bushels; timothy-seed, 45 tons.
I feel sure that wheat will be shipped through the port of Prince Rupert for export purposes
next season. Returns from several samples of wheat sent from the district show that almost
all graded No. 1 Northern.
Cousiderable success has been met with in finding markets for anything the farmers have
to sell. I estimate that, 60 per cent, of the turkeys, chicken, and fowl raised in the district were
marketed through the efforts of this office; also a large percentage of the beef, with the result
that a much better feeling now exists between the merchants of both Prince Rupert and this
district and the farmers than previously did.
This office has been instrumental in securing good farm-help (principally Danes) for a
number of settlers in the district through the Immigration Branch of the Canadian National
Railway offices at Winnipeg; markets have also been found for a large number of young registered pigs from one settler to another.
During July and August considerable time was spent in making a survey of the district to
ascertain the number of dairy cattle in the district, which has already been reported to you;
assistance was also given to settlers in helping them to find a market for their whole milk and
sweet cream at Prince Rupert.
Considerable time was spent in assisting settlers in preparing exhibits, entering and displaying them at the Smithers Fall Fair.
I do not deem it necessary to go into too many details. Sufficient to say that this office is
more or less of a clearing-house for anything the settlers may have to sell or exchange. We were
instrumental in effecting exchanges of several pure-bred bulls between settlers during the past
season. This work is very advantageous to the settler, as it is quite expensive to bring bulls
in from the outside.    In other words, we render every assistance possible to settlers.
I estimate that from 60 to 65 per cent, of the work carried on by this office is in connection
with Land Settlement Board work; that is including inquiries for information as to the possibilities of the district, which are many.
Besides, the Canadian National Railways Colonization Department send many of the
inquiries they receive to this office for reply.
Another item entailing considerable work is requests from settlers wishing assistance by way
of loans. Nearly all of which come to this office direct and do not reach Victoria unless recommended by this office.
Respectfully submitted. Duncan D.  Munro,
District Agriculturist. rnamm
Prize-winning field of alsike clover on tlie Lockyer Farm at Prince George.
iitf-ii
, •
Wrvp:
fl
WsmmxMSBm
Good stand of mixed timothy and clover at Fort George.  rEO.
sritish Columbia.
P 57
REPORT OF DAIRY COMMISSIONER, VICTORIA.
H. Rive, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as Dairy Commissioner for the year 1925.
The dairy industry in British Columbia continues to make steady progress. In the newer
districts a moderate increase in production is being felt, while in the older ones, excepting
Southern Vancouver Island, increase is more rapid, accelerated by tbe work of recent years in
the improvement of dairy cattle and dairy crops. The total production of the year was lessened
from midsummer on, again by severe drought embracing all areas, unrelieved till the winter
rains, too late to benefit green crops or fall pastures.
Prices of dairy feeds have fluctuated little during the year, remaining at a high level
throughout. The producer of milk for the wholesale market has now experienced for several
years, owing to prohibitive prices, a restricting of available mill-feed staples and must further
depend on more bulky home-grown substitutes, nutritive as possible.
CREAMERIES.
No branch of dairying in the Province proceeds less o'bstrusively than does the business of
manufacturing butter. Due to continual attempts, with varying success, to develop more profitable outlets for butter-fat, supplies for the creamery are apt to be forthcoming or to be withheld
in proportions thereto directly related. The annual increase in output of our creameries fluctuates considerably with every move or development in other branches. The principal factor
in this derangement remains market-milk, but the manufacture of ice-cream, evaporated milk,
and fancy cheese also affects in turn, though in different degree, the total of creamery butter
made at any time. In the past ten years an increase in quantity of butter produced over the
previous one has not failed in any year to be recorded. This increase has varied, however, from
40,000 lb. to 900,000 lb. (approximately), assisted naturally in its inconstancy by seasons good
or poor, but only partially the result of these.
The business of manufacturing butter in many instances in British Columbia must therefore
be viewed as still belonging to the earlier stages of dairy development, regardless of what time
may have elapsed since the institution of a creamery. In new districts under pioneer conditions
a sufficiency of cows will continue to mean that a relatively remunerative butter-factory may be
operated. Elsewhere, particularly adjacent to future centres, the building-up of a factory of
this kind will be strictly subject to the growing demands for milk, cream, and ice-cream of an
increasing population, and to those of the other and secondary outlets mentioned. Except in
sparsely settled country, we may expect the other branches of dairy manufacture to be shortly
the strong competitors of the butter-factory. Thus, while a great growth of the industry in
general in this Province appears definitely assured, the amount of creamery butter that will be
made many years hence, and how soon we shall eliminate from our stores all outside butters,
one can but guess at.
The demand for butter on the part of this Province is such that the per capita consumption,
while not as high as that of the entire Dominion, which is approximately 27.5 lb. per annum, is
still high, being about 24 lb. per annum. With a consuming population of about 500,000, at least
twelve million pounds of butter are required. Of this amount, some five and a half million
pounds approximately are produced in British Columbia, leaving fully six and a half million
pounds to be imported for our needs.
The rate of increase in production of butter for the past decade has been such as to show
a doubling in amount each sixth or seventh year. Accordingly, one might prophesy for 1934 a
total manufactured equal to consumption, but for reasons mentioned, together with the extreme
probability that by then the population of British Columbia will again be greatly on the increase,
such an accomplishment may be deferred.
With but few additions to equipment, several times the amount of butter that now is could
be manufactured in nearly all of our .creameries. The cost of manufacture therefore must
inevitably be regarded as too high, and it is exceedingly likely that the average cost of manufacturing creamery butter is at least 8 cents per pound of butter.
Calls were made on all creameries as frequently as was possible. Special stress was laid
on the advisability of adopting and bringing into operation at once in the purchase of cream the .EPARTMENT   OF   AGRICULTURE.
1925
grade standards that will obtain throughout the Province from January 1st, 1926. In most
instances the utmost willingness is shown on the part of creameries to support this measure for
the improvement of the product, and general and immediate compliance with the new regulations is anticipated.
The factories of the Lower Mainland were visited by F. Overland, Dairy Instructor and
Inspector.    An extract from his report follows:—
" In general, on the Lower Mainland, fairly good crops were harvested. The pastures were
good during the early part of the season, but owing to the drought became poor in the fall.
Stable feeding therefore commenced much earlier than usual in spite of the mild weather. A considerable increase in production was also noted in the early part of the year, falling off with the
drought of the summer.
" Regular calls were made on the creameries of the Lower Mainland and a special visit was
paid to Salmon Arm Creamery. Considerable time has been spent in assisting creameries in
the grading of cream in preparation for the new grading standards that will be in force in 1926.
Regular calls were made on all dairies, also on a considerable number of dairy-farms. Much
improvement can be noted in general conditions on the farms, though room for improvement still
exists. Many new barns and milk-houses have been erected during the year and a number of
these have up-to-date equipment and sanitary facilities. Certified milk produced on Lulu Island
is now on sale in the city.
" Calls were also made on ice-cream and cheese factories of the district and also on the
condenseries, and assistance given in various ways, including the checktug-up of patron's methods
of handling.
" Grading of butter has occasionally been done for wholesalers. Examinations were given to
six applicants for testers' licences."
The factories of Vancouver Island and the Interior of the Province received attention from
F. C. Wasson, Dairy Instructor and Inspector, who states:—
" Winter and early spring were spent visiting creameries, dairies, and dairy-farms on Vancouver and the Gulf Islands. During the summer and fall work was carried on in the Interior
of the Province.
" In this wray the Districts of Saanich, Cowichan, Nanaimo, Comox, and Saltspring Island
were visited and creamery patrons called on. In the Interior, the Okanagan Valley, the Cariboo,
Neehako, and Bulkley Valleys, also the Kootenay and Columbia Valleys were visited.
" In all, 130 calls were made on creameries, giving instruction in cream-grading and general
creamery-work, and 225 calls were made on dairy-farms and advice offered on the care of milk
and cream."
All manufacturing creameries or cheese-factories in Canada are now registered at Ottawa,
and have allotted to them a number under the provisions of the Act regulating the grading of
butter for export. There are in British Columbia thirty-one creameries so registered. Their
distribution is as follows, with the total butter production of each district:—
District.
No. of
Creameries-.
Pounds
Manufactured.
Average per
Creamery.
7
8
10
824,796
1,325,005
992,044
227.RS3
117 828
165,625
99,204
37,972
37,341
3           1           119.024
Average of 34 creameries, 102,403 ib.
Cheese-ma kino.
The amount of cheese manufactured in this Province cannot be regarded as of much economic
importance. The large-sized Cheddar cheese as made in Ontario and Alberta is not to be profitably produced here, nor apparently even the half-sized one known as Twin. It is well established
that a local-made cheese must obtain on the Vancouver wholesale market at least 5 cents per
pound above the price that the Ontario cheese secures, and that this cannot be done with a cheese
of similar size and variety. 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 59
Experiments have therefore been tried in the matter of size of package, and 10-lb. Canadian
Stiltons and 5-lb. bricks, both of Cheddar type, are on the market. A modified Cheddar called
Camosun has been introduced by the Dairy Department of the University, which is well suited
to be manufactured in farm dairy or factory, and particularly adapted where an early-maturing
brick is required. The work carried on at the University has resulted in the appearance in small
quantities of Wensleydale, Derby, Cheshire, and Roquefort, and also of a very pleasant mild-
flavoured cheese known as Kingston. In the Province one farm dairy only produces Derby regularly and no Cheshire is made commercially. The making of Roquefort, it is hoped, will be
adopted by goat-keepers.
The Dominion Experiment Station at Agassiz has most successfully made and marketed
Wensleydale, Stilton, Pont 1'eveque, and Coulominier, but also in small amounts.
One farm dairy also turns out a Gouda. An Edam factory cheese has been made locally with
fair results. A processed cream cheese and' a processed cream Pimento cheese are made in Vancouver, and several farm dairies in different parts put in ordinary soft cream cheese in small
lots for immediate use.
The cheese-making industry in British Columbia must therefore be considered still in somewhat of uncertainty as to exact varieties to manufacture, inclining with the apparent wishes of
the market to small-sized early-maturing cheese of the Cheddar type. Viewing the number of
varieties of different brands from all sources that find a market in this Province, the field should
afford a more profitable outlet to our producers than it does at present. There still is lacking
that definite experimental evidence needed for guidance in manufacturing and marketing.
Some Varieties of Cheese Purchasable in British Columbia..
Canada.—Quebec: (1) Oka; (2) (tinned) Cheddar, Pimento, Roquefort, Camembert, Lim-
burger; (3) Processed, bricks.
Ontario: (1) Cheddar: Full size, Twins; (2) Processed, bricks; (3) Processed cream, jars,
bricks;  (4) Limburger.
Alberta:   (1) Cheddar: Full size, Twins, Can. Stiltons;  (2) Roquefort.
British Columbia: (1) Cheddar: Twins, Can. Stiltons, bricks; (2) Cheshire; (3) Derby;
(4) Kingston; (5) .Stilton; (6) Wensleydale; (7) Gouda; (S) Edam; (9) Roquefort; (10)
Camosun; (11) Processed Cream; (12) Processed Cream Pimento; (13) Wisconsin, brick; (14)
Limburger; (15) Roman; (16) Fresh Cream;  (17) Cottage.
England.—'(1) Stilton; (2) Cheshire;  (3)  (tinned) Lactic; (4)  (tinned) Cheshire, Cheddar.
France.—(1) Roquefort;   (2)  Camembert.
Italy.— (1) Gorgonzola.;  (2) Parmesan.
Holland,-^(l) Edam; (2) Gouda.
Scandinavia.— (1) Primost;  (2)  Gammelost.
Switzerland.— (1)  Gruyere;  (2) Emmenthal;  (3) Neufchatel.
United States.— (1) Wisconsin Swiss ; (2) Camembert; (3) Tinned Elkhorn varieties.
The per capita consumption of cheese in Canada is given as slightly over 3 lb. In British
Columbia we believe it to be rather less than this. The figures for Great Britain and Switzerland
are 11 and 26 lb. respectively.
Ice-cream.
The output of ice-cream in the Province is growing very rapidly. This branch of dairy manufacturing is regarded as of the utmost importance, offering a much more remunerative method of
disposal of butter-fat than by the making of butter. As a means of avoiding a summer surplus
too much attention cannot be paid to its development. At present, although opportunities for
educational work amongst ice-cream makers exist, they must be ignored, this Branch not possessing on its staff an instructor competent and qualified in this work. Competitions have been
instituted and speakers on ice-cream topics brought in, but regular instructional calls on all icecream manufacturers should be made.
Condenseries.
The condenseries at Ladner and Abbotsford, with that of the Borden Company at South
Sumas, remain the only ones in the Province. They operate principally during the period of the
greatest flow of milk and are of importance in disposing of surplus on the Lower Mainland.
Shipments of evaporated milk have been well received abroad, but a large export trade has not
yet been built up. P 60
Department of Agriculture.
1925
Powdereu Milk.
An exceedingly satisfactory milk-powder has been manufactured at the plant of the Fraser
Valley Milk Producers' Association at Sardis. Skim-milk has been chiefly utilized and it is hoped
to develop this branch to a very profitable point.
■ Casein.
A little casein is also made at the plant of the Fraser Aralley Milk Producers' Association at
Sardis.
Cow-testing—Milk Recorhs.
The progress made by the Cow-testing Associations of the Province is most gratifying. There
are now eight associations operating in different parts—six located in the Fraser Valley, one at
Comox, and one in the Okanagan Valley. A new-one was started this year in the district
adjacent to Pitt Meadows and Maple Ridge.
The monthly grant of $50 from this Department to each of the associations has been continued. The certificate system introduced some years since has proved its value and is most
highly thought of.
The report of G. H. Thornbery, Assistant in charge of Cow-testing Work, shows satisfactory
conditions prevailing throughout the districts.    Following is included a portion :—
" It is pleasing to report that there is a continued increase in the interest shown in Cow-
testing Association work by the average dairyman. This is evidenced in the number of inquiries
that are continually being received for cows with authentic records; in fact, the supply does not
begin to equal the demand. Many cases have been noticed where dairymen who have been
regular members of an association have obtained higher prices when disposing of their herds.
" The average production of all records received from the various Cow-testing Associations
during the past year is 7,912 lb. of milk containing 319.5 lb. of butter-fat. When comparing these
figures with the production of the average cow in the Province, which is approximately 4,500 lb.
of milk containing 170 lb. of fat, it is apparent that Cow-testing Associations are producing
results. During the year calls have been made on each of the associations and, where necessary,
assistance has been given in regard to problems dealing with general management. (See
Appendix No. 22.)
" Testing Centres.—No new testing centres have- been started during the year, but those
situated at Cowichan, Mount Lehman, and Bradner continue to be of service to the dairymen in
those sections.
" Official Testing.—The Colony Farm has had a considerable number of cows on official test
(R.O.M.) during the past year, and this Branch has continued to make arrangements for the
supervision of this work.
" Certified Records.—The scheme adopted in 1922 by this Branch whereby certificates were
issued for records of production that complied with certain qualifications is becoming very widely
known throughout the Province. Particulars of 583 records which qualify for certification have
been received during the past year, which shows a very healthy increase. Full information in
regard to these records will be published as Dairy Circular No. 11. There is now a total of
1,647 certified records completed during the past four years.
" Tattooing or Ear-tagging Heifer Calves.—The system of ear-marking heifer calves from
cows that have completed records qualifying for certification has been in operation for the past
three years, and during this time particulars have been received of 260 animals that have been
ear-marked under this scheme."
As a result of the issuing of certificates in respect to cows with worthy performance much
extra labour has resulted. Careful scrutiny and cheeking of all applications and typing of
certificates for the successful entails more than the recipient suspects. Filing accommodation for
applications is also necessary.
Dairy Legislation.
No change in legislation has occurred. In pursuance of the amendment of 1924 to the
" Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act," regulations thereunder were drafted on the subject of
standards for cream-grading and licences for cream-graders. These were approved by Order in
Council No. 610 on June 2nd. 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 61
Testers' Licences.
Twenty-eight applicants were examined by this Branch and 103 licences were issued. (For
the list of testers holding licences during 1925 see Appendix No. 19.)
Dairy and Creamery Licences.
Licences were issued to fifty-two persons, firms, companies, or associations buying milk or
cream on the basis of the butter-fat content. (For the list of creameries and dairies so licensed
see Appendix No. 20.)
Fall Fairs.
Assistance was given as usual in the judging of dairy exhibits at fall fairs. In connection
with this task at the three larger fairs of Victoria, Vancouver, and New Westminster, it is timely
to point out that the size of the classes in butter to be found make it desirable that relief be
afforded by the employment of judges from outside the Province.
The British Columbia Dairymen's Association.
The Western Canada Dairy Convention, in which was merged the annual meeting of this
association, was most successfully carried out at Vancouver from February 10th to 13th, inclusive, and signalized the recognition by other Provinces of British Columbia as a dairy country.
The changes in constitution, permitting representation on the directorate of all branches of
the industry, have already been most beneficial. The directors for 1925, in their annual report,
express themselves as gratified at the opportunity that now exists to sit in consultation with all
principal phases of the industry represented on the Board. The membership has also been
strengthened as a result.
The prizes for cow-testing and R.O.P. records have been continued, but the awarding of cups,
medals, or cash has been discarded in favour of silver spoons and ladles.
Competitions for butter-makers and ice-cream makers have also been introduced.
The lectures delivered at the convention were published in the Agricultural Journal and then
reprinted in pamphlet form according to the section in which delivered. These have been in
demand from the dairy schools of the West for their students.
Cream-grader's Licence Examination Course.
From now on it will be necessary to hold'annually a course for applicants for a cream-
grader's licence. For the first of these permission has most kindly been given by the Fraser
Valley Milk Producers' Association, through the president, W. J. Park, to use space on its
premises, for which this Branch is greatly indebted.
The date of this course will be fixed as early as possible in 1926, but it is hoped to hold
subsequent courses in the month of December.
Butter-grading.
In view of the apparent desirability of instituting, for general educational purposes as well
as to meet commercial requirements, several meetings with the wholesale produce men took place.
The last of these was held at the office of A. P. Slade & Co. in April last, and several members
or agents of British Columbia butter-handling houses were present. Owing to the fact that
supplies received from the creameries by these firms are mainly in prints and to be immediately
distributed a. constant check on quality is maintained. The British Columbia surplus arriving on
the Vancouver market in bulk is inconsiderable in view of our imports. These firms, therefore,
while heartily approving of the proposal to establish a butter-grading station, do not consider
themselves as particularly affected and are in consequence in no haste to call for its institution.
The matter, therefore, may be safely left till bulk supplies from British Columbia creameries
become greater.
Publications.
The publications of the Branch for the year 1925 are Dairy Circular No. 10, giving a list of
certified milk and butter-fat records, and a card poster with instructions as to the care of cream
for the use of creameries. P 62
Department of Agriculture.
1925
Conclusion.
The services of the two dairy instructors and inspectors, of the assistant in charge of cow-
testing (milk record) work, and of the clerk-stenographer of this Branch are most deserving of
commendation.
Respectfully submitted. H   rive
Dairy Commissioner.
REPORT OF CHIEF POULTRY INSTRUCTOR, VICTORIA.
J. R. Terry.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report for the year 1925.
General Conditions.
Throughout the year the price received for eggs averaged as high as that received in previous
years. The price received for poultry-meats, however, particularly in March and April, was
much lower than usual. The writer cannot remember any year previously in which so many
really good laying hens were shipped to market as during the past year. During the early days
of March from one small poultry section over 1,000 layers (White Wyandotte pullets) were being
shipped every few days. In many cases it was reported that breeders had to sacrifice their
layers as no further credit for feed was allowed. It is to be noted that most of the feed firms
have gone into eggs and dressed poultry, dealing exclusively with their patrons.
The prices for day-old chicks ranged from 35 cents each for the higher grades to 12 or 14
cents for late-hatebed and lower-grade chicks. As usual a large number of 2- or 3-months-old
pullets, principally of the light-weight classes, were sold at prices ranging from 75 cents to
$1.50 each.
The price of feedstuffs continued high during the year.
Prices of Eggs.
The following is a comparison of prices (wholesale) from 1905-1925, inclusive:—
1905
1906
1907
190S
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
Cents.
24y2
1916
29%
1917
31
19-18
31%
1919
33%
1920
34y4
1921
34%
1922
41
1923
35
1924
Cents.
 :  34
  41
  50
  60%
1920   57%
  39%
1922   32y2
  28
 ,  32
1925   32
1914   35
1915 .:  32%
During the year, wholesalers, particularly in Vancouver, shipped eggs to the Eastern markets
in about the usual quantities. In addition to car-load shipments, many express parcels were
dispatched. Since the closing-down of the British Columbia Poultrymen's Exchange the smaller
and older egg circles have had to carry on the co-operative work. Of these organizations, the
Cowichan Creamery, which is the oldest in the Province, the Comox Creamery, and the Penticton
and Summerland Egg Circles are the largest and all report progress.
Imports.
From Canadian Provinces the dressed poultry imports for 1924 totalled 766,930 lb., valued
at $213,023, being $38,174 less than the previous year.
The total number of eggs imported from the Eastern Provinces was 125,880 dozen, valued at
$37,709, being a decrease of 137,580 dozen for the year. 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 63
The total imports from foreign points of dressed poultry and eggs were valued at $59,572.
In 1923 the value of the same products was $105,685, being a reduction of $46,113 for the imports
during that period.
Day-old chicks to the number of 39,866 were imported at an average price of 12 cents each.
Exports.
The total value of exports was $329,513. Live poultry to the number of 15,836 was shipped
out, valued at $35,105, being an increase of $28,000 over the previous year. Dressed poultry
shipped out was valued at $45,915, being a gain of nearly $30,000 over the previous year. The
export of eggs during 1925 was not quite three-quarters of a million dozen, valued at over
$248,000.
Weather Conditions.
Throughout the Province conditions were abnormally dry, there being a decided drop in rainfall in all districts. Owing to favourable hatching operations very few complaints were heard
as to incubation results. In several instances the larger breeders got such excellent hatches that
they were left with a surplus of chickens after commercial requirements had been filled.
Breeding Operations.
An increase is again to be noted in the number of breeders trap-nesting and also in the
number of birds being thus recorded. The Provincial Record of Performance Association, as
well as private breeders who are not officially recorded, report increased sales. The Record of
Performance Association, having advertised very heavily both in the United States and Canada,
was able to dispose of a very large number of hatching-eggs, day-old chicks, and adult stock at
very remunerative prices.
Departmental Work.
During 1025 the officials of the Branch again visited all sections of their districts. The
District Instructor at Nelson reports a revival of interest in' poultry-keeping throughout his
district. The continued prosperity of this mining section reflects itself in the increased consumption of poultry products. Many ranchers who had formerly specialized in horticulture only are
now keeping a few hundred hens and finding it profitable.
The District Instructor at New Westminster arranged to be present in the Market Building
at New Westminster every market-day and by this means was able to assist scores of ranchers
who otherwise might not have been reached. In the Fraser Valley during the past few years
there appears to have been a steady increase in the number of breeders and of fowls kept.
The Instructor stationed at Salmon Arm, whose district is the largest in the Province and
contains a greater variety of climates than the other districts, reports increase of poultry in
practically all sections of the district. During his visits through his district, and particularly
in the northern sections, this Instructor gave much practical advice on live-stock raising. At
many of the meetings the attendance of a live-stock lecturer was dispensed with as the Poultry
Instructor was able to handle those subjects in addition to poultry-keeping.
Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs.
The most successful year is to be noticed since the beginning of this work by the Department.
More clubs were organized during 1925 than the total of all the clubs aggregated during the
past ten years. Mission City again heads the list with fourteen clubs comprising six different
breeds. Salmon Arm and Enderby had five clubs each, and Kamloops, Armstrong, and Vernon
four each. The grand total of clubs in the Province for the year was fifty-six, for which 514
sittings, totalling 6,682 eggs, were used. Whilst all of the Instructors worked hard in organizing
clubs in the various districts, a special word of praise is due to the Salmon Arm Instructor,
as no less than half the clubs in the Province were located in the Okanagan District.
It is worthy of note that some of the first contestants in the Mission City clubs of ten years
ago are now operating large commercial poultry-farms of their own.
The clubs at Sidney, on Vancouver Island, deserve mention for the unique manner in which
they were operated. They held a killing and plucking contest early in the fall, followed later
on by a demonstration in washing and fitting fowls for exhibition. Later still an excellent show
of the competitors' birds was staged, followed by a banquet, at which the prizes were awarded. P 64
Department of Agriculture.
1925
The following number of eggs was used in the principal breeds: Barred Plymouth Rocks,
2,080 eggs; White Wyandottes, 1,599 eggs; Rhode Island Reds, 1,417 eggs; White Leghorns,
1,274 eggs.
Provincial Poultry Association.
The Annual Provincial Show and Convention was held at Victoria this year. The last time
the Provincial Show was held on Vancouver Island was in 1913. This year the show was as
successful as any of its predecessors and twenty-five of the twenty-eight local associations sent
delegates to the annual meeting. One of the outstanding features of the show was the wonderful
display of eggs made in the wholesale commercial class. Many thousand dozen of eggs were
exhibited by the leading wholesale firms in the Province. The exhibits were artistically displayed
and cost each firm many dollars to stage. Photographs taken of the egg exhibit are being
utilized by the Dominion Government for transparencies many feet in length, to be shown at
all the leading fairs and at exhibitions abroad.
The poultry exhibits at the show were composed of the usual breeds, together with creditable
exhibits of several of the new British and American breeds. The Branch staff were in attendance
throughout the week and assisted in judging some of the exhibits.
The association again published a Breeders' Directory and gave out the usual premiums to
its members. Bronze medals and silk championship ribbons were presented to all the winners in
the Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs operated by the Department. The association also presented
a grand challenge cup for poultry-judging by high-school agricultural classes at the Provincial
Fair at New Westminster.
During the winter season eight district poultry-shows were held, all of which were assisted
by the departmental grant.
World's Poultry Congress.
In preparation for the World's Poultry Congress which is to be held at Ottawa in 1927 a
Provincial Congress Committee was appointed late in the year and held its first meeting during
the convention of the Provincial Poultry Association. Delegates were selected to attend preliminary meetings and formal organization-work was carried through.
Turkeys.
During the year, owing to the amount of bright sunshine and the arid conditions, the crop of
turkeys was th£ largest ever raised in the Province. In the northern section, owing to favourable
weather and relatively high prices, many ranchers made a good profit in turkeys. In one small
section of the Northern Interior over 500 turkeys were marketed by a Farmers' Institute.
The mortality from coccidiosis was much lower than usual and few other diseases affected
the turkeys. The Branch still feels that the keeping of turkeys at the Coast on small areas is
an unprofitable proceeding for a series of years.
Despite the fact that many turkeys were marketed from other Provinces, the prices received
were well up to the average.
Water-fowl.
An increase is to be noted in the number of ducks, principally of the Pekin and Indian
Runner breeds. The greater proportion of ducks is sold to Orientals, who are willing to pay
good prices for first-class stock. The duck business, however, could easily be overdone and
caution should be exercised by any one thinking of going into the business. Quite a number of
breeders in the Province are now keeping Muscovy ducks and crossing them with Pekins.
A slight increase is to be reported in geese-rearing, although the dry weather made it rather
difficult for breeders to supply the necessary quantity of greenstuff required to make geese-
rearing profitable. The principal breeds of geese kept are White Toulouse and White Embden.
the former being in the majority. There is a limited market at certain seasons of the year for
geese among the Hebrew sections of the population of the Province.
Rabbit-breeding.
Continued progress is to be reported in connection with the activities of this branch of the
work. The bulletin entitled " Fur-bearing and Market Rabbits," together with stencilled
Breeders' Directories of the Vancouver and Victoria Local Rabbit-breeders' Associations, have
met long-felt wants and are in constant demand, many copies being sent out of the Province. A view of the Grading Demonstration tables at the Potato-show, New Westminster, November, 1025,
 __ held under the direction of the Field Crop Branch.  16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 65
The District Instructors at New Westminster and Salmon Arm have lectured at meetings
on the industry and by means of lantern lectures have imparted much valuable knowledge.
The boom in one or two breeds has so far-shown no sign of abating, although the prices alleged
to have been received for pelts of one or two of the more popular breeds have not been received
as frequently as reported.
Three new Rabbit-breeders' Associations have been formed, these being the Grand Forks
Rabbits-breeders' Association, the Greater Vancouver Chinchilla Association, and the Canadian-
Siberian Club, with its headquarters at Victoria. Several commercial rabbitries have been established and report good sales, many being outside of the Province.
Publications.
Several of the poultry bulletins were revised and republished during the year. A new
circular entitled " Rabbit Recipes " was issued and has met with much favour among the housewives. The number of trap-nest forms asked for is the greatest since these forms have been
published. There is a continued demand for rabbit young stock and hutch cards; owing to the
great demand for these from other Provinces it was decided to make a small charge per hundred,
which has been willingly paid.
Disease.
About the average number of dead fowls was sent in for examination. Most of the deaths
were due to ovarian trouble, wTith a fair proportion of the mortality caused by worms. With the
young stock, owing to the favourable spring, there were fewer cases of white diarrhoea reported,
but many more cases of coccidiosis and worm-infestation. These two diseases are causing much
havoc in various sections throughout the Province and many poultry-ranches, including Government stations, have had to move the plant over completely on to fresh clean soil. Poultry-
breeders on the Pacific Coast in a way are handicapped by the mild climate as compared with
Eastern breeders, inasmuch as fowls are out on the ground practically the whole twelve months.
In the Eastern Provinces, where the weather and snow forces the birds off the ground, the soil
should be given a chance to rest.
Office-work.
In the head and branch offices many interviews were given to breeders and those desirous
of entering the poultry business. Many communications were received and sent out, inward mail
for the four offices totalling 2,462 letters and the outward 2,225.
The Branch regrets to report the resignation of the District Instructor at Nelson, who
relinquished his position to take over the management of the largest commercial poultry-farm in
the Province. Upon leaving the Department the Instructor was presented with a small token
of the esteem in which he was held by the other members of the Branch.
The capable and efficient work performed during the year by the three Instructors and the
clerk-stenographer are hereby noted and appreciated.
Respectfully submitted. j  -,   r-EHBY
Chief Poultry Instructor.
REPORT OF CHIEF AGRONOMIST, VICTORIA.
C. Tice, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Field Crop Branch.
General Conditions.
The season of 1925 was not a favourable one for field crops, due to the long period of dry
weather, which extended from May until November. Heavy frosts in many districts during the
winter months caused a great deal of heaving and winter-killing and as a result many hay and
pasture fields had to be ploughed up and sown to spring grains. The acreage planted to potatoes
was considerably greater than the previous year, but due to dry weather the production per acre
was much smaller.   The fall price of potatoes was much larger than it has been for some time.
5 Soil Investigations.
Owing to the change in policy adopted last year, whereby it wras attempted to reduce the
analytical work in soils, there were fewer samples received for analysis. In all, there were
forty-four samples of soil, lime, gypsum, and fertilizer submitted to the Government Analyst and
accompanying each soil sample there was sufficient essential data to permit of sound recommendations being made.
The greater part of the soil-work done this year has been by means of direct investigation
of the problems of the individual farmers. By personal study of local problems immediate
solution of the difficulties has often been possible. The total amount of the essential elements
of fertility in the soil has not been found to be as vital in successful crop production as the
other factors that can be ascertained only through first-hand knowledge of the actual conditions
existing on the farm. In the majority of cases where poor yields were secured it was found
that the lack of moisture in the growing season was the usual cause of scant yields. The conservation of moisture in regions of light summer precipitation is possible, as has been demonstrated on farms in every locality where proper methods have been adopted.
The areas most thoroughly covered this year have been Vancouver Island, the North
Okanagan Valley, and the Shuswap Lake Districts. Also visits have been made to farms in the
Similkameen Valley, Fraser Valley, and Thompson River Valley. In every section the problems
of soil-management and field-crop production have received careful study.
Fertilizers, Lime, Gy'PSum.
Farmers have been encouraged to attempt experiments on their own farms and thereby
ascertain what element or combination of the elements of fertility are best for their particular
soils. The peat and muck lauds have generally responded to applications of superphosphate,
potash, or lime, or to some combination of these. In a number of instances where the soil has
been analysed, and the fertilizer applications recommended were based on the information
secured from the analyses, the results have invariably been satisfactory.
Soil from the Comox Valley that has failed to respond to ordinary farming methods' has
been tested by means of pot experiments. Twelve pots each holding 8 lb. of soil have been treated
with lime, gypsum, potash, phosphoric acid, and nitrogen, as well as combinations of these
materials. The pots were sown on October 4th with Red Rock fall wheat and given identical
treatment as to moisture, temperature, light, etc. On December 31st the four pots that led
were those containing phosphoric acid alone or in combination with other fertilizing ingredients.
The wheat in the pot containing phosphoric acid alone was equal to that in the ones treated
with phosphoric acid and lime; nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash; and nitrogen, phosphoric
acid, potash, and lime, respectively. Based on the results of this test, fertilizer high in phosphoric-
acid content has been recommended for use on the area investigated and its success under field
conditions will be recorded.
On Vancouver Island the bodies of shark, skate, and dogfish, together with the offal from
edible fish, after processing for the removal of oil for industrial purposes, have been dried and
pulverized for use as fertilizer or feed for hogs and poultry. Five samples of different lots of
this product have been analysed by the Government Analyst at the request of this Branch.
The percentage composition varies as follows: Moisture, 7 to 12.6 per cent.; oil, 16 to 25 pel-
cent. ; protein, 43.5 to 54.25 per cent.; and calcic phosphate, 17.5 per cent. This product, being
made from fresh materials, was recommended as a protein feed for hogs and poultry and has
been used in a limited proportion in the concentrates fed to some flocks without apparent flavour
being imparted to the eggs. It has been used as a nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizer as well,
but owing to its comparatively high oil content heavy applications are not advocated. The oil
tends to exclude water and thereby prevents rapid decomposition.
In some of the Island districts where commercial fertilizers were tried on potato-crops the
results this year were not satisfactory owing to the continued dry weather from May to
September. Commercial fertilizers must be applied well in advance of spring planting in order
to produce positive results on the ensuing crop. On certain farms where early application of the
fertilizers was made, and moisture conditions were apparently no better, good yields were
reported. Fertilizers applied at planting-time have not produced good results the year they
were applied. 16 Geo. 5
-Ritish Columbia.
The protection, preservation, and utilizing of farm manures has been studied and farmers
have been given advice on the proper handling of this material. The money lost annually through
exposure of manure-piles to fall and winter rains is enormous. Farmers have been urged to
protect and preserve stable manures.
Gypsum has been under test for two seasons, but has not as yet had a fair trial on Vancouver Island. This Branch recommends that gypsum be used in stables and poultry-houses
rather than as a direct soil amendment applied over the land in Coast districts.
In spite of the perennial controversy over the value of gypsum, the fact remains that it
produces good results under certain conditions. Its presence appears to be advantageous where
rapidly decomposing animal nitrogenous matter has to be nitrified. It tends to prevent the
too rapid formation .of ammonium carbonate by producing ammonium sulphate. Thus the
danger of destroying the nitrifying organisms or stopping nitrification can be averted. Hence
the use of gypsum for the preservation of manure is advocated until farmers have satisfied
themselves as to its practical value.
In the Interior its use in counteracting black alkali must be by way of a direct application
where high alkali concentration exists. The work with gypsum is being continued and careful
farmers are preparing to thoroughly test it out on Island soils.
Lime is now available to farmers in districts that require it at prices within reason.
Pulverized limestone is procurable at If3.25 per ton in car-lots at the works near Chilliwack,
in the Fraser Valley. The railway companies have published special tariffs on agricultural
lime that enable farmers in all farming sections of the Coast to purchase this commodity at
prices within reason. A good grade of agricultural lime manufactured near Victoria is also
available to farmers' organizations of the surrounding district at a price 25 per cent, less than
that of last year. These price reductions should stimulate the use of agricultural lime and
farmers' organizations are encouraged to purchase their requirements collectively.
Forage-crops.
The production of alfalfa on Vancouver Island has expanded noticeably in the past year.
Reduction in lime prices should beneficially affect the growing of this crop. For several years
splendid yields of alfalfa at Westholme, in the Cowichan_District, have been harvested. In this
district broadcast sowing of the seed on wTell-prepared silt soil has given satisfactory results.
This land is well supplied with moisture and yields three good cuttings of alfalfa-hay annually.
In the higher Island soils where stiff clay underlies a loam surface soil it has been found advisable to sow alfalfa in drills 14 to 20 inches apart and maintain a soil-mulch during the first
summer. Spring sowing of inoculated seed has been commonly practised, but a few farmers have
tried autumn seeding.    The results of autumn seeding are not yet ascertained.
A promising variety of the Helianthus tuberosus has been carefully investigated. This is
the Mammoth White French Jerusalem Artichoke which is grown for tubers and forage. The
tubers are useful as human food and for swine and other animals. This year, in the Cedar
District near Nanaimo, 1 acre produced 19 tons of forage and 12% tons of tubers under ordinary
methods of fertilizing and tillage. The forage has been used as a soiling-crop and for ensilage
with good results. It is high in carbohydrates and is palatable. The analysis of the different
parts of the plant follows :—
Leaves.
Stalks.
Tubers.
Per Cent.
3.50
0.66
0.44
13.88
1.67
3.05
Per Cent.
3.10
0.13
7.18
9.15
3.65
1.23
Per Cent.
Fat	
0.48
Starch                                     	
18.65
1.32
1.76
The water content ranges from 72 per cent, in tubers to 76 per cent, in the leaves, according to analyses
made by Professor Landowski, of France. P 68
Department of
1925
Further tests with seeds of Atriplex semibaccata have resulted in a fairly good stand of
plants at Summerland. This is the Australian saltbush that has been advocated as a forage-plant
on lands strongly impregnated with alkali. At Summerland the plants of the saltbush have
spread during the one season to such an extent that each individual plant covers an area of over
a square yard. This Branch hesitates to recommend the general testing-out of the saltbush until
its habits are better known. Though it is a valuable forage-plant for alkali soils, there is a
danger that it might develop into a persistent weed. In the Oliver section of the Okanagan a
plant very closely resembling this saltbush is a troublesome weed in cultivated fields. So far
this Branch has distributed seed only to officials for trial under their supervision.
On account of the interest farmers of the Interior have taken in the growing of broom-corn,
following its successful commercial production at the Sanatorium Farm at Tranquille this year,
the possibilities of the plant have been studied. To further learn what the Interior lands can do
toward economically producing broom-corn, plans have been made to test out both standard and
dwarf varieties on a number of farms.
The silo has been generally adopted in most of the mixed-farming areas of the Province.
A variety of crops is grown for silage. Where corn can be grown the Northwest Dent and Golden
Glow are favoured varieties. The Giant Russian Sunflower has been given fair trial and considerable quantities are grown every year where it has proved suitable. Some of the most
popular silage-crops are the various mixtures of cereals and legumes, either spring or fall sown.
Fall-sown wheat, rye, and common vetch at the Coast and wheat, rye, and hairy vetch in Interior
districts are satisfactory. Along with the spring-sown oats and wheat the Maple peas have
yielded well at the Coast, while Solo peas have been preferred for the Interior.
Seed and Potato Show.
The fourth annual potato-show and educational seed exhibit was held in New Westminster
from November 25th to 28th under the direction of this Branch working in co-operation with the
New Westminster Board of Trade and the British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Growers' Association. Classes were provided for certified seed, commercial potatoes, gardeners' exhibits, boys'
and girls' exhibits, Women's Institute exhibits, Farmers' Institute exhibits, and prepared dishes
of potatoes. The event was a great success and every one went away feeling that they had been
well repaid for the time and money expended in attending the exhibition. Due to the dry season
the number of entries were not quite as numerous as they were the previous year when the show
was held in Vancouver. There were 426 entries altogether (representative of all parts of the
Province) in the competitive classes. In addition, there were a large number of educational
displays of seeds of all kinds. During the week of the show the annual meeting of the British
Columbia Certified Seed-potato Growers' Association took place and many excellent addresses by
leading authorities were given.
Potato-improvement Work.
The seed-potato inspection and certification work was continued throughout the year and
the service was extended to many new districts. It is gratifying to be able to report that the
interest in this work continues to increase and much improvement generally noted throughout the
Province.
Extent and Progress.—Five hundred and fifty fields covering thirty-two districts were
inspected for certification purposes during the year. The total number of acres inspected was
459, of which 304 passed the two field inspections. A number of tables have been prepared giving
detailed figures covering the inspection-work for 1925.    (See Appendices 24r-29.)
Federal Assistance.—The increase in acreage inspected and in the number of districts to
which inspection has been granted is due to the valuable assistance rendered by the Division of
Botany of the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. This Department provided three Inspectors
to assist with the inspection-work throughout the growing season. This co-operative arrangement with the Federal Department has proved entirely satisfactory and the assistance so ably .
rendered is much appreciated.
Test-tvork.—This Branch co-operated with the British Columbia Certified Seed-potato
Growers' Association in sending a number of samples of certified seed-potatoes to various points
in the United States and also to the Interior of the Province for test purposes. As a result of
this work one of the largest potato-growers in the United States who lives at Stockton, California,
visited the Province last fall and purchased several car-loads of our seed-potatoes. .
16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 69
British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Growers' Association.
This Branch has continued to assist the British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Growers'
Association in every way possible during the past year. Your chief official acted as secretary-
treasurer of the association up to the time of the annual meeting, which was held in November.
Canadian Seed-growers' Association.
The annual meeting of the above association was held in Edmonton, Alberta, and was
attended by your Chief Agronomist, who is the director for British Columbia. A brief report on
the seed situation in this Province was presented.
Provincial Seed Board.
Meetings of the Provincial Seed Board were held whenever necessary throughout the year.
Many matters of considerable importance were dealt with. Your official is chairman of this
Board.
Lectures and Fall Fairs.
Officials of this Branch have addressed a large number of meetings during the year, as well
as assisting with the judging at local fairs and exhibitions.
Pacific North-west Potato-show.
The annual Pacific North-west Potato-show was held in Spokane, Washington. Your official
was invited to assist with the judging this year. Out of twenty-four exhibits sent forward from
British Columbia nineteen were prize-winners.
Seed-growing.
Considerable interest is being aroused in seed-growing in the Province. Much assistance has
been rendered, in co-operation w7ith the Dominion Seed Branch, in selecting careful growers to
take up the production of root-seed.
It is gratifying to be able to state that certain areas of the Province are becoming well
established as commercial areas for the production of timothy-seed.
Acknowledgments.
Your Chief Agronomist wishes to take this opportunity of expressing his appreciation of the
valuable assistance rendered by the various officials and clerk-stenographer attached to the
Branch; also for the co-operation received from Provincial, Dominion, and University officials
interested in field-crop problems.
Respectfully submitted.
C. Tice,
Chief Agronomist.
REPORT OF STATISTICIAN, VICTORIA.
Geo. H. Stewart.
Dr. D. Wamock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Statistics Branch for the year ended
December 31st, 1925.
Climatic conditions were most unfavourable throughout the year. In December, 1924, the
Province experienced one of the severest cold snaps on record. The first two weeks of the month
were very mild, but on the 15th a sudden drop in temperature occurred and zero weather was
recorded in most sections of the Province. The orchards suffered considerably as the trees had
not fully matured, and in many districts the trees were killed and the fruit-buds severely injured.
As a.result the fruit-crop was considerably reduced.
The spring of 1925 opened with mild weather in March. During the growing season, however, the weather was very warm and the precipitation much below normal. The continued
drought, following the severe winter, materially affected the production of all crops. Despite
these adverse conditions several branches of the industry show gratifying increases. The total value of agricultural production amounted to $65,153,513, as compared with
$60,029,224 for the year 1924, an increase of $5,124,289, or 8.53 per cent. Marked increases are
shown in the production of meats, poultry products, dairy products, vegetables, and fodders.
Imports of agricultural products from other Provinces in Canada are valued at $16,755,676,
as against $13,617,709 in 1924, while imports from foreign points increased from $2,781,793 to
$2,819,840. The total value of all imports is therefore $19,575,516, an increase for the year of
$3,176,014.
The total value of exports for the year is estimated at $6,731,709, this being an increase of
$709,690, or 11.78 per cent. The exports consisted chiefly of live stock, poultry products, hops,
fruits, and vegtables.
Fruits.
Seasonal conditions were so unsatisfactory that a large crop of tree and small fruit wras
hardly to be expected. With the exception of apples, all tree-fruits showed a big drop in production ; the prices received, however, were on the whole better than for the year 1924.
The total production of all fruits amounted to 136,082,000 lb., as compared with 138,636,000
lb. in 1924, representing a decreased yield of 2,554,000 lb. The total value of the fruit-crop is
placed at $5,413,894, which is $5,344 less than the previous year.
The production of apples alone amounted to 122,878,000 lb., being 7.31 per cent, greater than
in 1924.    Other tree-fruits showed a decrease in production of 7,392,000 lb., or 60.25 per cent.
All small fruits, with the exception of red and black currants and gooseberries, showed
greatly reduced yields. Small fruits produced amounted to 8,328,000 lb., valued at $1,019,885,
as compared with 11,866,000 lb., valued at $1,115,822, in 1924, indicating a decrease of 29.81 per
cent, in quantity and 8.59 per cent, in value.
Vegetables.
Larger areas are being planted to vegetables and the industry is making rapid strides. The
total vegetable-crop amounted to 251,021 tons, which represents an increase of 31,0S8 tons, or
14.13 per cent, over the year 1924.
The acreage of potatoes shows an increase of 10.81 per cent, from the previous year. The
average yield per acre wTas 5.24 tons, as compared with 5.40 tons in 1924.
The production of outdoor tomatoes amounted to 21,831 tons, which is 83.67 per cent, more
than the previous year.
The production of greenhouse tomatoes is steadily increasing, as larger areas are put under
glass. The crop this year amounted to 920 tons, which is an increase of 136 tons, or 17.34 per
cent., over the 1924 production. The export of vegetables increased approximately 50 per cent,
during the year.
Grains.
The area of grain for threshing was 4.37 per cent, greater than in 1924. Owing to unfavourable weather during the growing season a larger percentage than usual was cut green or turned
into hay, thus reducing the quantity of grain for threshing considerably. The loss in oats alone
was estimated at 22 per cent, of the area sown.
The production of all grains amounted to 4,657,319 bushels, valued at $4,251,321, representing an increase in quantity production of 155,729 bushels.
The average yield of all wheat was 23.60 bushels per acre, whilst in 1924 the yield was
23.40; oats yielded 47.30 bushels in 1925, compared with 48.90 bushels in 1924.
Fodders.
The area sown to all fodders in 1925 was 322,496 acres, representing an increase of 35,475
acres, or 12.36 per cent. The production of all fodders amounted to 700,816 tons, valued at
$11,629,132, as against 582,935 tons, valued $10,671,692, produced in 1924.
The increase in the acreage of alfalfa in recent years has been quite pronounced, there being
21,267 acres in 1925. The acreage in fodder corn increased 29.83 per cent, over the previous
year. Clover and timothy averaged 2 tons to the acre, as against 1.83 tons in 1924. The average
price, however, declined from $20.47 in 1924 to $18.90 in 1925.
Dairy Products.
Whilst dairying products in quantity- did not reach the increase anticipated, yet the industry
in  British Columbia  continues  to  make  steady progress.    Pastures were  good  in  the  early .
16 Geo. 5 British Columbia.
part of the season, but in midsummer the severe drought which embraced all areas lessened the
milk-flow and was unrelieved till the winter rains, which came too late to benefit green crops
and fall pastures.
Increases are shown in nearly all branches of the industry, and the value of production,
which amounted to $10,629,350, was the largest on record, representing an increase in value of
$859,801, or 8.S0 per cent., over the year 1924. There was an increase of 285,932 lb. in butter
produced, the 1925 production amounting to 5,527,002 lb. The quantity of cheese manufactured
during the year amounted to 434,257 lb., an increase of 116,418 lb., or 36.62 per cent., over the
previous year.
Ice-cream manufacturing in the Province is growing rapidly, the production amounting to
489,869 gallons in 1925, as compared with 424,487 gallons in 1924. The quantity of fresh milk
consumed increased by 210,000 gallons during the year.
• . Live Stock.
Live-stock statistics place the value of all domestic animals at $18,256,229, representing an
increased value for the year of $1,466,222. Horses increased in number from 54,662 in 1924 to
57,016 in 1925, the increase for the year being 2,354, or 4.30 per cent. Owing to the increased
use of motors in the Province there is very little demand for horses at the present time. Cattle
show an increase in total number of 23,804 over the previous year. Dairy cattle increased in
nearly all sections of the Province, and especially in those districts where dairying had heretofore commanded little attention. Even in the more established dairy sections small herds were
found on an increased number of small farms.
There are now 62,247 sheep in the Province, as against 55,151 in 1924, an increase of 7,096, or
12.86 per cent. The number of flocks in the Province is steadily increasing and good breeding
ewes are much in demand.
Swine show a decrease in number of 4,980. Goats in 1925 increased in number 7.83 per
cent.    The number in the Province is now placed at 10,098.
Poultry and eggs show a very gratifying increase. The numbers of poultry increased 8.70
per cent. There are now in the Province 2,417,848 birds. The egg production amounted to
8,443,869 dozen, which is an increase of 1,092,197 dozen, or 14.85 per cent., over the previous year.
Miscellaneous.
The quantity of all meats marketed aggregated 34,117,300 lb., valued at $1,781,896, as against
26,953,785 lb., valued at $1,310,676, in 1924. Prices strengthened considerably during the year,
especially for pork and mutton.
The honey production amounted to 638,319 lb., valued at $140,430, as compared with 679,289
lb., valued at $149,444, in 1924.
The quantity of wool produced amounted to 345.060 lb., exceeding the production for 1924
by 35,614 lb.
The quantity of hops produced amounted to 848,211 lb., representing an increase of 34,983 lb.
It is estimated that the value of seeds produced amounted to $57,100.
General.
The total number of letters received by this Branch during the year was 2,194, while the
number dispatched was 1,349. A total of 1,515 stencilled letters were also sent out. In addition
to these, over 1,400 monthly crop-report forms were mailed to crop correspondents.
The Agricultural Statistics Bulletin for the year 1924 was issued in May, and of the 1,500
copies printed but few remain for distribution. Numerous reports have also been prepared for
financial institutions and manufacturing concerns in Canada and the United States.
Considerable time was spent by your Statistician in connection with farm accounting, and it
is gratifying to note the keen interest that is being displayed by farmers in all sections of the
Province in the matter of keeping records of the business of the farm.
With the attention given to correspondence, preparing reports, and other routine matters, as
well as the compilation of the June census returns and the monthly reports of crop correspondents, the entire time of your Statistician was fully occupied.
All of which is respectfully submitted. George H. Stewart,
Statistician. P 72
Department of Agriculture.
1925
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL APIARIST, VICTORIA.
W. J. Sheppard.
Dr. D. Warnoclc, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report as Provincial Apiarist, together with the estimated honey-
crop report, the demonstration apiaries reports, and the reports of A. W. Finlay and J. F. Roberts,
Apiary Inspectors, for the past season.
The Honey-crop.
The season 1925, although promising well in May and June for a record yield of honey, did
not come up to the expectations indicated then. Bees came through the winter without many
losses and built up well in the spring. In many districts a considerable quantity of surplus
honey was stored from fruit-bloom and dandelions. As is usually the case, some parts of the
Province had a much better showing than others, but the long-protracted drought and the smoke
from forest fires caused the honey-flow to be shortened considerably.
The average production per hive, spring count, is estimated at 41 lb., as against 46 lb. for
1924, 32 lb. for 1923, and 61 lb. for 1922.    (See Appendix No. 30.)
The total estimated number of bee-keepers shows a small increase over 1924—namely, 2,426
as against 2,408—and the total estimated number of hives an increase of about 900—namely,
15,505 as against 14,604. The total honey-crop is estimated at 638,319 lb., as compared with
679,289 lb. for 1924.    (See Appendix No. 30.)
Demonstration Apiaries.
The demonstration apiaries in the different parts of the Province, which were first started in
1921, continue to serve a very useful purpose as a ready means of imparting information to
bee-keepers, more especially beginners, by showing what equipment to use and the best methods
of management for obtaining good results in honey production. Any one wishing to take advantage of this means of obtaining information and examining the equipment i-ecommended can visit
any of these apiaries at any time for this purpose. (For reports of the demonstration apiaries
see Appendix No. 31.)
Foul-brood Inspection.
Three hundred and seventy-nine colonies in seventy-two apiaries in the Province were found
to be affected with American foul-brood during 1925, namely:—
District.
Colonies
affected.
Apiaries.
Brood-comb:.'
destroyed.
330
22
27
56
8
8
3,220
302
270
Totals	
379
72
3,792
Compensation was given by the Department for 3,792 brood-combs destroyed that were
affected with this disease.. Compensation is not paid for super-combs. These can be melted
down for wax or treated with formalin solution. One hundred and seven colonies were found
to be affected with European foul-brood, as against 267 in 1924.
Large Yield of Honey reported in Central British Columbia.
A report from MeBride, on the Canadian National Railway, close to the 53rd parallel of
latitude, states that a bee-keeper there, who is a beginner, purchased six colonies in the spring
of 1925. These increased to fifteen and his total honey-crop amounted to 1,200 lb., an average
of 200 lb. per colony, spring count.
East Kootenay again shows Good Honey Yield.
Reports from East Kootenay for the past season continue to show that some parts of this
territory are particularly favourable for bee-keeping, and the possibilities for commercial honey The Soharev Apiary in the Slocan Valley.    Spring scene.
The Soharev Apiary in the Slocan Valley.    Winter scene.  16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 73
production on a large scale appear to be of the best. There are thousands of acres of logged-off
lands covered with white Dutch clover, and along the river-bottoms and in other places snow-
berry and wolf-berry grow in abundance, so that the honey-flow continues for a prolonged period.
The average production per hive has been high in East Kootenay for the past two seasons as
compared with other parts of the Province.
All of which is respectfully submitted. „,   T   „
W. J. Sheppard,
Provincial Apiarist.
REPORT OF APIARY INSPECTOR, LOWER MAINLAND.
A. W. Finlay.
W. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report herewith for the season of 1925.
General Conditions.
The season of 1925 was unfavourable for honey production in most parts of the Lower Mainland, being generally too dry previous to and during the blooming-period of the principal nectar-
yielding plants. In addition to lack of sufficient rainfall, hot, drying winds further depleted
the moisture content of the plants and thus lowered the secretion of nectar on high lands. On
low lands and heavy soils a fair crop was secured from fireweed. The honey taken was of
excellent quality and no dark or inferior grades reported. Very good crop reports were received
from districts along the line of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, notably around Pemberton
Meadows.
In spite of adverse weather conditions for honey production during the past three seasons
bee-keeping as an industry is steadily increasing, though not as rapidly as would be expected
under more favourable conditions. Increase in the number of colonies kept, rather than in the
number of bee-keepers, indicates expansion along commercial lines, and therefore a more stable
industry.
Field-work.
General field-work, including apiary inspection for the control of bee-diseases, began as early
in the spring as the weather permitted, and the system of district inspection adopted in 1923 of
examining every colony in a defined area, with the object of entirely cleaning up that area, was
continued.   Alex. Keir and F. E. White again rendered assistance as last year.
The districts previously dealt with in this manner, Delta Lowlands and Lulu Island, were
first checked over and all apiaries examined where previously treated for disease. Only one
recurrence of American foul-brood was found in each district and promptly dealt with. These
two districts may now be considered free from this disease. South Vancouver and Burnaby were
the next districts to be given similar attention. Conditions here were found to be quite as bad
as expected owing to the increased number of possible sources of infection that prevail in thickly
settled suburban and city districts, such as discarded honey-containers, etc., and the fact that
many apiaries of but one or two colonies are situated so close together that disease can spread
very rapidly from one to the other. A great number of colonies in the two districts named
were found to be affected with American foul-brood, and in many cases the disease was traced
to the purchase of hives and equipment from places where the bees had previously died out.
It is very difficult to entirely clean up these areas, as the sale and moving of such equipment
is a common practice where bee-keeping is conducted more as a hobby than for possible profit,
which results in carelessness in many cases.
Special calls for inspection from various parts of the Lower Mainland and also Vancouver
Island were promptly attended to and instruction and assistance given. Four hundred and nine
apiaries were visited and disease found in fifty-six. Approximately 330 colonies were found to
be affected with American foul-brood and 107 with European foul-brood. The latter disease is
rapidly declining through the introduction of Italian queens and better methods of bee-keeping
being practised. Compensation was given for brood-combs destroyed on account of American
foul-brood.    Several commercial apiarists have recently installed sterilization plants for treating 74
Department of Agriculture.
1925
super-combs with the formalin solution. This has given good results when properly handled,
but this treatment has only proved to be economical where a large number of combs have to be
treated and by those experienced with bee-diseases.
Demonstration Apiaries.
Owing to the large amount of work undertaken this season in connection with the district
clean-up system of inspection, brief visits could only be made to some of the demonstration
apiaries as opportunity offered. In some cases, where the'owners lack sufficient experience or
are more interested in other lines of production, insufficient attention was given to apiary-work,
with a consequent reduction in the surplus honey-crop. However, the superiority of standard
equipment, good Italian stock, and modern methods of management were well demonstrated by
the returns obtained in what is considered as a poor season. Demonstration-apiary reports in
the Fraser Valley show an average of 93 lb. per colony, which compares favourably with the
average for the districts in which they are located of 50 lb. per colony. Seven public demonstrations were given and many bee-keepers were met and given instruction at these meetings.
Other demonstrations and talks to bee-keepers were given at the various field meetings held by
the British Columbia Honey-producers' Association.
Provincial Apiarist's Office, New Westminster.
A large and increasing amount of correspondence was attended to at the New Westminster
office during the season. Sixty-four samples of diseased brood-comb, or smears'from such, were
received for microscopic examination; forty-one proved to be American foul-brood and twelve
European foul-brood, eleven showing no disease. Increased advantage is being taken of this
means of diagnosing disease since the installation of the Spencer microscope at the New Westminster office. The new method of sending smears of diseased larvie on small pieces of clean
white paper, instead of pieces cut out of diseased combs, as formerly, facilitates the sending of
suspected disease matter for microscopic diagnosis, as any number of smears can be sent in a
letter envelope, wThich will come as first-class mail and be delivered in shorter time.
Exhibitions.
The splendid displays of honey and apiary products staged by the British Columbia Honey-
producers' Association at Vancouver and New Westminster Exhibitions attracted special attention. Quantity and quality were equal to exhibits of previous years in spite of a lean honey
season, indicating that much more room will be required for these exhibits in future seasons of
better honey-crops. Great improvement was noted in the designs of displays in the honey classes.
Many visiting bee-keepers were met and information given them.
All of which is respectfully submitted. ■   --   --,-,„_
Apiary Inspector.
REPORT  OF  APIARY   INSPECTOR,   OKANAGAN,   SHUSWAP,  AND
THOMPSON V-ALLEY DISTRICTS.
J. F. Roberts.
W. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—1 beg to submit my report as Apiary Inspector for the Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys Districts for the season of 1.925.
In my inspection-work during the season I have endeavoured to concentrate on those districts
found affected with American foul-brood in 1924, and am able to report that in nearly every
case the disease has not shown up again this yeai\ In the localities where it has again appeared
after being treated the previous season it could be definitely traced to equipment having been
used which had not been properly disinfected. In a number of instances it has been difficult to
impress upon the bee-keepers the dire necessity of absolute disinfection of all the equipment that
has been in contact with diseased bees. On the whole, disease is far less prevalent than it was,
and with the co-operation of the bee-keepers I am convinced that American foul-brood will be
controllable in the Dry Belt. 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 75
From the point of view of the honey-crop the season on the whole has been disappointing.
Starting off in the spring with a wonderful honey-flow from the fruit-blossom and dandelions,
bees built up strongly, but owing to the extreme dryness and in some districts lack of water
for irrigation there was practically no nectar for the bees to gather during June and July.
The southern portion of the Okanagan Valley has had a good crop, whilst the north had a
short crop, some apiaries in the latter section not averaging 15 lb. per hive.
The Shuswap Valley District has only had a 50-per-cent. crop owing to the excessive dryness,
and the Thompson Valley is the same, with the exception of Ashcroft and district, where there
is invariably a good yield.
It is apparent that where an ample supply of irrigation-water is assured the Dry Belt is an
ideal district for bee-keeping, as, although it is very rare for huge yields to be taken, a good
crop can be always obtained. During the last three years properly managed apiaries have had
an average of 100 lb. per hive.
Respectfully submitted. x -._ RoBERTgj
Apiary Inspector.
REPORT OF SECRETARY OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES, VICTORIA.
Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report of the Women's Institutes of
British Columbia for the year ended December 31st, 1925.
General.
There have been six new institutes organized during the year 1925—Cortes Island and Qualicum and District in the Vancouver Island District, Glemnore and Grindrod in the Okanagan
District, Whonnock-Ruskin in the Lower Mainland District, and Mackenzie in a locality not
included in any of the four districts. Nine institutes have lapsed, leaving the total number of
active institutes at the close of the year at 110.
The year 1925 has seen fulfilled the object for which we were working in 1924. First, the
idea of a Provincial Institute, which was the object of the central committee idea discussed by
the first Advisory Board in 1911, was held with legal status in June of this year. This Provincial
Convention was held jointly with the Biennial Convention of the Federated Women's Institutes
of Canada. The joint convention was in some respects disappointing, as the idea to have the
National reports followed by the Provincial reports, then the discussion showing the relation of
the Provincial to the National, did not work out as we had hoped.
There were three district conferences held—the Vancouver Island District in Victoria, the
Lower Mainland in New Westminster, and the Kootenay and Boundary at Nelson. These conferences were managed and financed by the institutes and their district boards.
The British Columbia Women's Institutes were a second time represented at the Canadian
National Exhibition in Toronto, through the kindness of Sir Henry Thornton again granting free
transportation for the various exhibits from the different Provinces.
The work for the crippled children of British Columbia has progressed beyond our most
sanguine expectations. On February 27th the Committee for the Crippled Children held its
annual meeting, at which C. Wace, F.R.C.S., and the Hon. H. E. Young, M.D., Provincial Officer
of Health, gave talks on the treatment of crippled children by heliotherapy. The idea was taken
up with avidity and a convener appointed with power to form a committee for the purpose of
establishing a sun-cure home for the prevention and cure of crippled children; this home to be
used for convalescent purposes following surgical operations. At the close of the year 1925
approximately $3,888 had been contributed by sixty-six institutes. The site has been purchased
near Mill Bay, on the Saanich Inlet, with an eastern exposure, and there is every prospect of a
complete building in 1926.
Com mittee- work.
The ten committees are functioning successfully. Many institutes appoint ten conveners for
the year; each convener is asked to be responsible for one monthly programme on her subject.
Very often these conveners apply to the Department for assistance in preparing a programme P 76 Department of Agriculture. 1925
on their particular committee-work. It is the hope of this branch to have prepared a model
monthly programme for each committee. The programme will consist of roll-call, address, and
discussion. The roll-call to be twenty-five pithy paragraphs of outstanding facts on the subject-
matter of the address; the address to deal with the subject as a whole or some phase or branch,
but especially pointing out a working policy which can be applied in the local community with
the assistance obtainable from various Government departments and sister organizations. The
discussion to consist of a set of questions with answers bringing out the salient points of the
address, thus serving a twofold purpose of keeping the discussion to the point and focusing attention to the important features of the address.
Home Economics.
I still have to report that in the Committee of Home Economics there is yet not the progress
which I should like to see. The books given for prizes at flower-shows dealing with home-making
are very much appreciated, and we hope to have added to our list very materially during the
year 1926. A very few institutes have made use of the night-school classes in regard to cookery.
One institute in the Okanagan held an intensive course in millinery ; their instructor was sent
from Victoria. The institute provided the entertainment; the instructor paid her own fare to
and from the district. There were two classes held, one in the afternoon and one in the evening,
extending over a period of ten days and evenings. The members of the class were most enthusiastic, expressing very great satisfaction in the instruction given. There are some inquiries with
regard to dressmaking classes, but the night-school classes, although increasing in number, are
still capable of greater extension and development if they could be properly organized. We should
like to be in a position, when an institute applies for information, to be able to send out an
organizer to that district and organize the class, as it seems difficult to convey sufficient information by letter. Our women are certainly taking a great interest in the different subjects which
can be had under these classes, yet are not fully aware of the conditions under which they can
be organized. The relation of the Education Department to the Board of School Trustees still
needs emphasizing; the fact that the Board of School Trustees is the ouly body to which the
Department of Education can legally pay money is not sufficiently understood. All classes must
be held under the auspices of the School Board and all instructors must be engaged by the School
Board, the Department of Education paying four-fifths of the salary of the instructor, the class
or the institute, or both, making up the remaining one-fifth, together with any expenses of heating, light, or transportation of the instructor. I again urge the reading and discussion, under
the home-economics work, of the report on domestic science by the Organizer of Technical Education, Department of Education, found always in the annual report of the Department of Education. This gives information on the progress of the teaching of household science in our schools
and should be of great interest to all rural mothers.
Public Health and Child-welfare.
The progress of this committee is again the most marked of any committees reporting. The
parents are becoming more and more interested in the physical defects reported through the
examination by the health officer. Where a few years ago the parents seemed mystified when a
school nurse was mentioned in their hearing, these parents are to-day inquiring as to the mode of
organizing and maintaining school nursing in their district. The condition of the children's
teeth is receiving increasing attention. There are many districts in British Columbia to-day that
would establish and maintain a nursing service if a suitable person could be sent to their district to organize the voluntary agencies interested in this work.
Qualicum and District, a recently incorporated institute, assumed for their especial work the
establishment and maintenance of a nursing service in a group of school districts, assisted by the
Provincial Board of Health. The nurse assumed her duties in May, as school nursing is the first
branch of public-health nursing to receive attention.
The Provincial Department of Health sends the annual report of the health conditions of
the Province with the report of the medical inspection of school-children to the secretary of every
institute, with the request that the report found on the first pages, together with the report of the
medical inspection of schools and the figures in relation to the local schools, be made the subject-
matter of the monthly programme on public health and child-welfare. We have tried to supply
a roll-call of pithy paragraphs and the question-box. 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 77
I had the very great privilege of attending the fifth annual conference of the Canadian Child-
welfare Council in Ottawa during the latter part of September. The Council is preparing to hold
its sixth annual conference in Vancouver, when it is expected that Sir Henry Gauvain, of the
Treloar Home for Crippled Children, England, will be among the principal speakers. The conference is also looking forward to witnessing the formal opening of the sun-cure home or Solarium
for the Prevention and Cure of Crippled Children at the Mill Bay site.
There have been ten health-shows and better-baby clinics held by the different institutes.
Literature on health subjects has again been sent to the various country fairs in tbe Province
for distribution, meeting with marked success, the demand far exceeding the supply.
Education and Better Schools.
The members of our institutes are awakening to the importance of the work of this committee. Of the seventy flower-shows held, I think it is safe to say that each included exhibits of
school-children's work. Attention has repeatedly been called to the discrepancy between the
appearance of school buildings which are erected by the Department of Education and the appearance of school-grounds for which the district authorities are responsible. We are gradually
arousing an interest in and a responsibility for the school-grounds and gradually the institutes
are installing playground equipment, and it is the usual thing in the monthly report of June for
the institutes to describe their plan for the annual school picnic for the children.
Hazelmere Women's Institute in the Lower Mainland has the great credit of first inaugurating the annual school picnic for its district, which has grown to tremendous proportions. The
school picnic to-day consists of the schools in the Municipality of Surrey, and, if I remember
rightly, it necessitates a special train of the British Columbia Electric to carry the children from
Cloverdale to Stanley Park.
Langley Prairie Women's Institute has taken the keenest interest and has held, with a
tenacity of purpose worthy of emulation of every institute in the Province, to the improvement
of the sanitary conditions of the three schools in its immediate vicinity.
In Peachland the friendliness and co-operation between the School Board and the Women's
Institute is greatly to be admired and is a condition of affairs which we hope will prevail eventually between every institute and every School Board.
Many institutes report hot lunch or milk for the rural school-children being provided.
I again emphasize the benefit of reading the annual report of the Department of Education,
especially as a programme on education and better schools, the Superintendent's report, and the
Inspector's report on the local district. Again I emphasize the recommendation—the Women's
Institutes to co-operate with the Provincial Inspector of their school district and, if possible,
arrange a conference between their members and this official when he visits the school district.
There are many points on which the School Inspector can assist the institute in bettering the
conditions of the local schools. Aigain, that the members communicate with J. W. Gibson,
Department of Education, for advice on improving and beautifying school-grounds; and communicate with Mr. Kyle, Department of Education, for advice on choosing and arranging pictures
for the school-rooms and books for the school library. Communicate with Mr. H. Killam,
Travelling Library, Parliament Buildings, for advice on the selection of books for a community
library.
Legislation.
The interest in this branch is still maintained. The members are becoming more and more
interested in the legislation passed at each session of the House, and it would be well if we
could have a summary of such legislation prepared by this branch and submitted to every institute in the Province. In some instances the institutes are comparing the laws on our statute-
books in relation to women and children and on education with similar laws of other countries.
Many institutes are reporting the fact that application has been made to their local members
of Parliament for " Votes and Proceedings " during the session.
If the district conveners can be supplied with the summaries of legislation it would be of
great help to the institutes in their districts, as the district conveners can confer with the institutes regarding such information. Immigration and Settlement.
The work is progressing slowly through this committee. There is not yet a realization on
the part of our women of the great need of settlers for the Province. We hear very frequently
the remark: " If those of us in British Columbia to-day find it difficult to make our living, why
bring in additional people to experience the same conditions?" It seems difficult for our members to grasp the idea that with increased population comes new ideas, increased markets, and,
as has been found in the republic to the south of us, an increased prosperity. Many of our
institutes are in direct communication with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Immigration at Ottawa and with the Society for the Overseas Settlement of British Women in London,
and although progress is slow we are looking forward to seeing the institutes as a power in the
building-up through British settlement of not only the Province, but of Canada as a whole.
Publicity and National Events.
There has been one piece of outstanding work accomplished under this head. Kalamalka
Women's Institute at Oyama, in the Okanagan District, co-operating with the Vernon News, had
one issue of this paper devoted entirely to the history and activities of the Women's Institutes.
This number was sent by many people to all parts of the world, conveying an idea of the objects
and working policy of the Women's Institutes in British Columbia.. Nor was publicity the only
feature, as the institute made a good thing of this financially as there was such a demand for
copies.
The " Buy B.C. Products " campaign as carried out through the institutes is still bearing
fruit. During the year the Nelson Daily News published a daily menu for the information of
its readers. The fruit on this menu was almost entirely foreign product. An indignant letter
from a small institute on the Kootenay Lake directed attention to this fact very potently and
received the approval of the readers of the paper. The members of the institutes are taking this
recommendation, to give preference to the British Columbia product of the field and factory
where quality and price are equal, very much to heart and are applying it in their every-day life
very conscientiously.
Industries.
A British statesman has stated: " We desire trade to flourish not for the enrichment of the
manufacturers and business-men, but because a flourishing trade is necessary for the revenue of
the State and the personal welfare of the population." For some time there seemed to be a feeling that the manufacturers' and the business-men's interests were something apart and perhaps
antagonistic to the interests of the country people, but through our campaign of " Buy B.C.
Products " much has been done to bring home to our people that a flourishing trade is necessary
for the prosperity of the Province, and. as I have stated under " Publicity," our members generally are beginning to whole-heartedly back the idea to buy what they can in British Columbia.
Through the Local Council of Women in the cities we are hoping to awaken the same feeling
in the city housewives that they may give preference to the products of British Columbia.
Agriculture.
The Potato Fair at Vancouver last autumn was again part of the work of the Women's
Institutes. Unfortunately all our institutes have not been able to buy our seed-potatoes in time;
we hope, however, as time goes on to overcome this difficulty. The co-operative marketing and
truck-gardening in the Lower Mainland are receiving the attention of the members.
Seventy flower-shows have been held during the year. The interest in the bulb-growing possibilities is increasing; also seed-growing.
Community Betterment.
This is the principal work of the Women's Institutes; it is where the bulk of the money is
expended, and this is as it should be. Any community in which an institute operates should show
in improved appearance the influence of that institute. Community halls, parks, roadsides, cemeteries, and other community projects immediate and vital to the neighbourhood all receive the
support of the Women's Institutes. Again, the outstanding activities, especially among schoolchildren, greatly to be commended are the caterpillar contests and the queen-wasp contests. 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 79
Women's Institute Work and Method.
We started the year with 110 institutes ; total membership was 3,1.86. The institutes received
from different sources, including a balance on hand at beginning of the year, $46,267.68. They
expended $38,438.75. The receipts included the per capita grant from the Department, amounting
to $2,119. The Department also paid out in conference expenses $1,875.25. The institutes showing the largest sums of money handled are: Kelowna, handling $2,917.51; this large amount is
largely due to the institute financing the expenses of the Public Health Nurse in their district.
Kelowna ranks second in membership, having a membership of sixty-five. Victoria Women's
Institute handled $2,753.12, which is largely accounted for by the Tag Day which the institute
held in aid of the Solarium. Victoria is among the ten institutes having the largest membership.    Cedar Women's Institute raised $1,441.68; Salmon Arm, $1,416.28.
Sometimes in visiting institutes I have been asked what recommendation would be made on
the method of increasing the interest in the institute and how to add to the membership. I have
always found that an institute which is carrying on some special work, either for the immediate
community or for the good of the Province, never shows a membership lacking in interest or
attendance. The fear expressed by some members that an institute voluntarily assuming a
responsibility toward a good project may kill the institute movement has never been borne out
by actual experience.
The institutes have contributed to the Crippled Children's Fund and to the Solarium Fund, to
the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada treasury, to the Near East Relief, to Save the
Children Fund, and other worthy objects.
In regard to Women's Institute work and method, the report submitted by the Provincial
Convener of Women's Institute Work and Method at the Provincial Conference is worthy of note,
and excerpts are herein quoted:—
" Individual Institutes.—The organization known as Women's Institutes really means the
individual institutes. They do the work and from them comes every nickel of institute money
that is not paid by the Government. The group that works and pays is the group that has the
right to all authority, subject to the Department; therefore the individual institute has the final
decision in all institute matters not already included in previous legislation. They are self-
governing bodies subject only to the Department.
" The local Board of Directors is elected by the membership to aid them in carrying out the
work decided on by the institute. It is the duty of the local Board of Directors to carry out
the will of the membership, as expressed by the meeting, according to the recognized rules for
orderly procedure and by institute methods. It is their privilege to lay before the membership
any plans or changes they may deem advisable in the interest of good work, which the membership, after due consideration, may accept or reject, as it sees fit. -Any individual member of the
institute has the same privilege.
" Every individual institute, or any member of an institute, may approach the Department
or any other institute directly, needing no go-between, with any plan or suggestion which may be
considered of value in carrying out the policy of the Department and the institutes that co-operate
with it. Any private citizen may do so, and no institute member loses her rights as a citizen by
joining an institute. It would be impolitic on the part of a Board of Directors to assume an
authority which does not belong to them and which they could not enforce. Institutes are not
on the same footing as fraternal organizations, whose officers are vested with an authority
granted to them by the constitutions under which they work. In these cases the funds of the
organizations are usually for the benefit of the membership.
" The District Institute.—The District Institute is. composed of delegates elected by the
individual institutes of the district, to whom they are responsible. Its work is mainly to
co-ordinate the work of the district, which is done chiefly by receiving and summarizing the
reports of the individual institutes. Their recommendations for the work of the coming year
should be based on their knowledge of the work of the institutes as shown by the reports. The
District Institute is actually a committee elected by the institutes to carry out the will of the
majority of institutes in that district. The District Institute, as a body, is entitled to advise
the institutes of their district in,anything whereby institute-work may be made better or more
effective, and in this advice the self-governing individual institute will consider and accept, amend
or reject by a majority vote. P 80
Department of Agriculture.
1925
"The District Board of Directors and the District Conveners are elected to carry out the
will of the District Institute, the body which elects them, by the recognized rules of procedure
and by methods approved by the majority of the District Institutes. It has no authority over the
individual institutes, but their recommendations should always receive respectful consideration,
as their knowledge of the whole district and the work done should be of value.
" It is the privilege of the District Board of Directors to outline plans of district work or
improvement in methods of work, all of which may be laid before the institutes of the district
for their consideration. It is also expected that the District Board is thoroughly conversant with
the ' Agricultural Aet,' ' Societies Act,' rules and regulations, and the ethics of that Department
to which they belong.
" The Provincial Institute.—The Provincial Institute is elected by the individual institutes
to carry out their will and to co-ordinate the work and aims of the institutes of the Province,
which is done by receiving and summarizing the reports of the districts. The Provincial Institute
is expected to advise concerning all institute-work which may be undertaken provincially, and
are guided by their knowledge of the work done by all the institutes of the Province and by
resolutions or suggestions which may have been forwarded to them by institutes, Boards of
Directors, institute members, or other persons or organizations interested in the same lines of
work. The Provincial Board of Directors is also expected to confer with their own Department
on all matters of policy, as an aid in advising the institutes, to confer with the Provincial institutes of other Provinces or with the Dominion Federation.
" Method.—Ten standing committees have been decided on as the best method of carrying on
work for the betterment of rural districts, namely: (1) Agriculture; (2) Public Health; (3)
Education; (4) Home Economics; (5) Industries; (6) Publicity; (7) Women's Institute Work
and Method; (8) Legislation; (9) Immigration; (10) Neighbourhood Needs.
" This was submitted to the Minister of Agriculture, who was pleased to give his endorsatioii
as follows:—
"'Victoria, B.C., June 23rd, 1925.
"'Mrs. J. D. Gordon,
Provincial Convener, Institute Work and Method,
Provincial Women's Institutes of British Columbia,
Victoria, B.C.
" ' Dear Madam,—After careful perusal of your outline of Women's Institute work and method,
I may say that your summary of the relation of the Department of Agriculture to the institutes
is very concise, and clearly defines the policy of the Department as embodied in the " Agricultural Act" and the " Societies Act." It also expresses the ideals upon which the institute movement was based at the time of formation in the year 1911. I have, therefore, much pleasure in
endorsing your outline for application to the institutes of the Province.
" ' Yours very truly,
" ' E. D. Barrow,
Minister.'"
Owing to illness at the close of 1925 I was unable to appear before the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture.   I expect, however, to have that privilege in 1926.
In conclusion, I am proud to be able to say that the Women's Institutes being organized in
Western Australia have stated that they are anxious to follow the noble work being done by the
Women's Institutes of British Columbia.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) V. S. MacLachlan,
Secretary, British Columbia Women's Institutes. 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 81
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX No. 1.
Correspondence received and dispatched by the Department of Agriculture  (at Victoria)
for the Years ended December 31st, 1924 .and 1925.
•
Received.
Dispatched.
1925.
1924.
1925.
1924.
Office of the Deputy Minister—
4,005
2,078
995
604
1,700
1,575
2,074
2,448
1,047
1,582
2,462
2,194
4,887
2,533
912
455
1,924
1,725
1,920
2,114
3,707
1,292
1,6,29
2,107
3,298
961
590
982
3,875
1,760
3,278
2,158
1,071
951
2,225
1,349
3,388
736
Women's Institutes....	
Agricultural Associations.-	
560
359
1,569
2,052
3,033
2,087
Live Stock Branch—
3,433
1,331
1,886
1,221
Totals	
22,854
25,214
22,498
21,855 p
82
Department of Agriculture.
1925
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Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 3.
Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1925.
Date of
Show.
Name of W.I.
Remarks.
March   28
April       3
June      13
27
July
Aug.
Sept.
Nov.
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
14
15
15
15
4
26
26
26
4
4
8
0
11
16
18-19
23
17
10
1
8
21
5
6
13
22
1
2
2
o
7
3
Oct.
May   27 j
June    4 [
19
July       16
Aug.
Sept.
Vancouver Island.
South Saanich	
Metchosin	
Valdes Island	
Parksville	
Shawnigan	
Vimy	
Luxton and Happy Valley
Whaletown	
Colwood ,
Lazo	
Qualicum Beach	
Lake Hill.	
Langford	
Garden City	
South Saltspring	
Valdes Island	
Sayward	
Royal Oak	
Denman Island	
Cobble Hill	
Duncan	
Esquimalt	
Granby	
Royal Oak	
Lower Mainland.
Hazelmere	
Hatzic	
Mount Lehman	
Burquitlam	
Surrey	
Langley Fort	
Mission	
Upper Sumas	
Port Kells	
Agassiz	
North-east Burnaby	
Lynn Valley	
Fern Ridge	
Pitt Meadows	
Squamish Valley	
Otter District	
Clearbrook Road	
Atchelitz	
Okanagan and North
Thompson.
Vernon and District	
Woods Lake	
Tappen	
Okanagan Centre	
Rutland	
Mount Ida	
Salmon Arm	
Summerland	
Valley	
Rutland  	
Peachland	
Keremeos	
Bulb-show.
Flower-show ;  health exhibit.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show.
" Better babies " clinic.
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ;  exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-S'how ; exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-show ;  exhibition of women's work and school-childrea's work.
Flower-show ;  exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show.
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ;  exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
" Better babies " clinic.
Flower-show ;  exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of women's work and health exhibit.
Exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and health exhibit.
Exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Children's caterpillar competition.
Flower-show
Flower-show.
Flower-show
Flower-yhow
Flower-show :
Flower-show :
Flower-show.
Flower-show
Flower-show :
Flower-show.
Flower-show :
Flower-show
Flower-show
Flower-show
Flower-show :
Exhibition of
Flower-show.
Exhibition of
: exhibition of school-children's work.
; exhibition of women's work.
; exhibit of small fruits.
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
;  exhibition of women's work,
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
vegetable exhibit.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
women's work and school-children's work.
school-children's work.
" Better babies " clinic ; exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-feliow ; exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-show ;  exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ;  exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Health exhibit; " better babies,'" clinic.
■Flower-S'how ; exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-show.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work ;
health exhibit.
Flower-show.
Flower-show.
Flower-show ;  exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ;  exhibition of women's work and school-children's work. 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 85
APPENDIX No. 3—Continued.
Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1925—Continued.
Date of
Show.
Name of W.I.
Remarks.
Sept. 22-
24
Nov.       19
Sept. 15-
17
June
July
Aug.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
4
15
30
7
20
20
21
Okanagan and North
Thompson—Continued
Kelowna	
Naramata	
Armstrong	
Kootenay.
Maple	
Creston and District	
Willow Point	
Boswell-Sanca	
Nakusp	
Cranbrook	
Burton	
Kaslo	
Nelson and District	
Arrow Park	
Crawford Bay	
Fruitvale ,	
Rock Creek	
Exhibition of women's work and school children's work ;
hibit; " better babies " clinic.
Exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
health ex-
Exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-show.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-show
Flower-&'how
Rose-show.
Flower-show
Flower-show
Flower-rfiow
clinic.
Flower-show
Flower-show
E'lower-show
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
exhibition of school-children's work ; " better babies "
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Vegetable-show ;  exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
.   APPENDIX No. 4.
British Columbia Greenhouse Survey, 1923.
District.
No. of Growers.  No. of Houses
Area in Sq. Ft.
Lower Mainland (whites)....
Lower Mainland (Chinese)..
Vancouver Island (whites).'.
Vancouver Island   (Chinese)
Okanagan  	
Kootenays	
Totals ,	
White growers	
Oriental growers-	
45
2
51
120
109
11
237
28
218
92
35
16
626
506
120
690,480 ;
163,670 ■
570,930 ',
382,382 i
67,770 '
29,948
1,905,180
1,359,128
546,052
854,150
953,312
British Columbia Greenhouse Survey, 1925.
District.
No. of Growers.  No. of Houses. Area in Sq. Ft
Lower Mainland   (whites)	
Lower Mainland (Orientals)..
Vancouver Island (whites)—.
Vancouver Island (Orientals)
Okanagan 	
Kootenays 	
Totals	
White growers	
Oriental growers,1	
56
15
12
162
284
48
246
158
44
23
803
141
21
597
206
_L
782,154 }
208,794 I
567,357 |
654,664 I
80,650 '
33,737
2,327,356
1,463,898
863,458
990,948
1,222,021
Orientals, 9 per cent, of growers, 28 per cent, of glass area.
Orientals, 13 per cent, of growers, 37 per cent, of glass area.
Total increase in glats area, 1925 and 1923 survey, 22 per cent.; white increase in glass area, 192o and
1923  survey,  8  per  cent.;  Oriental  increase in  glass area, 1925 and 1923 survey, 58 per cent. P 86
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 5.
Pruning-schools, 1925.
District.
Instructor.
Dates.
No. of
Pupils.
Islands.
1. South Saanich 	
2. Royal Oak	
3. Ladysmith	
4. Alberni   	
5. Courtenay .......
6. Sayward    	
7. Sointula   	
Lower Mainland.
1. Bridgeport	
2. Port  Kells  ..:...........	
3. Coqualeetza   	
4. Whaletown	
Okanagan.
1.  Salmon Arm 	
E. W. White..
January 13 to 15 ..
February 2 to 4 ....
February 23 to 25
February 26 to 28 .
March 3 to 6 	
March 22 to 24 	
March 26 to 28 	
G. E. W.  Clarke..
December 22 to 24  (1924).
February 12 to 14 	
February 18 to 20 	
March 24 to 27 	
C. R. Barlow   March 3 to 7
7
10
10
10
15
Total number of schools, 12 ;   total number of pupils, 106.
APPENDIX No. 6.
Pruning Demonstrations, 1925.
District.
Instructor.
Dates.
No. of
Pupils.
Islands.
l.'Sahtlam '..
2. Rocky Point 	
3. Denman  Island  	
Lower Mainland.
1. Bridgeport   	
2. Port Kells  	
3. Coqualeetza   	
4. Burnaby   	
5. Powell River 	
6. Coglan Road 	
7. Sunnyside	
Okanagan.
1. Lytton	
2. Broadview   	
3. South   Canoe	
4. Squam   Bay   	
5. Salmon Arm 	
6. North  Kamloops  	
7. Tappen   	
8. Salmon Arm 	
9. Oyama   	
10. B.X	
11. Okanagan Centre .......
12. Winfleld    :...
13. Okanagan Centre 	
14. B.X	
15. Rutland	
16. Rutland	
17. K.L.O	
E.  W.   White..
G. E. W. Clarke..
C. R. Barlow..
H. H. Evans..
Ben Hoy
January 20 .
January 28 .
March 2 	
January 10 .
February 14
February 20
January 31 .
February 6 .
February 9 .
February 28
February 5 .
February 16
February 26
March 1 	
March 12 ...
March 17 ...
March 25 ...
April 9 	
February 26
March 9 	
March 10 ...
March 11 ...
March 11 ...
March 13 ...
February 24
'February 24
March 4 	
10
21
6
4
14
49
5
11
9
6
32
6
5
5
7
12
5
7
7
50
25
30 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 87
APPENDIX No. 6— Continued.
Pruning Demonstrations, 1925—Continued.
District.
Instructor.
Dates.
No. of
Pupils.
Okanagan—Continued.
18.  Dog Lake	
R. P. Murray	
8
19. Oliver  	
23
20. Naramata 	
J. Tait	
March 3	
7
21. Summerland 	
3
22. Prairie Valley 	
March 10 	
30
23. Trout Creek 	
March 13 	
3
March 23 	
7
Grafting Demonstrations.
Okanagan
1. Sorrento	
2. Winfleld   	
3. Okanagan  Centre
C. R. Barlow
H. H. Evans
T. A. Gray....
April 16
April 1
April 1 .
17
12
Total number of demonstrations,  37 ;   total number of pupils, 473.
APPENDIX No. 7.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all
in British Columbia  (including those condemned).
1925.
Apples  (boxes)  36,193
Apples  (% boxes)  21
Apples   (barrels)    '.  32
Crab-apples (boxes)   2
Pears  (boxes)    81,S26
Pears  (% boxes)  978
Plums   (boxes)    ,  18,963
Prunes (boxes)   44,558
Peaches  (boxes) -  161,983
Apricots   (boxes)    32,719
Cherries   (boxes)     14,080
Yakamines  (boxes)  	
Quince (boxes)   21
Nectarines   (boxes)     43
Tangerines (boxes)    20
California oranges  (boxes)    164,903
Japanese oranges (boxes)    197,685
Japanese oranges (boxes)   (to points east of B.C.)   284,200
Marmalade oranges  (boxes)    7,490
Chinese  oranges   (boxes)     476
Australian oranges   (boxes)     802
■ Florida oranges (boxes)   -
Lemons  (boxes)    36,372
Limes (boxes)   7
Grapefruit  (boxes)    ,. 28,637
"Grapefruit (Oriental)   (boxes)   383
Pineapples   (boxes)     497
Tomatoes (boxes)   36.S44
Peppers (boxes)  _  1,383
Eggplant (boxes)    208
Ports of Entity
1924.
43,266
17
3
35,167
2
14,033
15,999
115.402
18,720
11,129
201
10
50
207,024
166,343
267,000
4,809
33,287
3
24,016
762
611
20,748
1,307
' -457 APPENDIX No. 7—Continued.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry'
in British Columbia—Continued.
1925. 1924.
Persimmons  (boxes)             484 400
Pomegranates   (boxes)              983 1,023
Potatoes   (tons)        3,705 3,558
Sweet potatoes   (tons)             279 299
Yams  (tons)                38 53
Taro  (tons)             102 132
Bice (tons)        16,871 17,488
Corn  (tons)      12.5S5 17,140
Popcorn (tons)  12
Peas  (tons)             274 601
Beans  (tons)           1,040 2,273
Peanuts  (tons)          2,055 3,619
Walnuts (tons)            715 1,129
Strawberries  (crates)    16
Oats (lb.)  -.  5,400
The following were fumigated at Victoria, 1925:   Peas, 500 lb.; rice, 10 tons.    1924:   Peas,
400 tons; rice, 30% tons; almonds, 1,400 lb.
APPENDIX No. 8.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at all Ports
in British Columbia. 192g.
Apples (y2 boxes)   220                   1
Pears  (boxes)    5,142                   2
Pears  (% boxes)    193
Plums   (boxes)     390
Prunes (boxes)   4.347                   1
Peaches (boxes)   597
Cherries (% boxes)  77
California oranges  (boxes)    1
Lemons  (boxes)  	
Grapefruit  (boxes)    204
Tomatoes (% boxes)   328
Tomatoes   (lb.)    15
Potatoes  (lb.)    1,077                   5
Sweet potatoes  (lb.)    200                   3
Jumping beans  (lb.)    3
of Entry
1924.
,019%
,562%
322
190 y2
39
28
%
179
5%
,520
200
APPENDIX No. 9.
Memorandum  of Imported Nursery  Stock  inspected at Vancouver   (including
those condemned) .
Standard fruit-trees— 1925. 1924.
Apple    4,740 6,484
Crab-apple  154 162
Pear   5,328 2,562
Cherry   12,892 6,663
Plum    -  2,483 1,469
Prune  '.. -- 4,725 1,263
Peach   9,067 4.224
Yakamine   55 41
Quince   41 97 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 89
APPENDIX No. 9—Continued.
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Vancouver—Continued.
Standard fruit-trees—Continued.                                                       1925. 1924.
Nectarine                45 67
Apricot           9,559 3,087
Fig                 9 6
Persimmon   2
Nut trees—
Walnut              795 655
Hazelnut            158 154
Butternut    34
Pecan ■.  12
Chestnut               28 18
Almond             10 13
Seedlings, grafts, and scions—
Fruit seedlings      235,523 156,349
Ornamental seedlings       42,164 36,556
Grafts           1,100 3,300
Scions                92 17,279
Small-fruit bushes and plants—
Cranberry-vines          10,012 1,501
Grape-vines          10,672 2,817
Currant-bushes                 26 65
Blueberry-bushes                  8 440
Gooseberry-bushes    ,             12 39
Raspberry-canes          3,392 5,858
Loganberry-canes                86 1,205
Blackberry-canes          1,678 1,418
Strawberry-plants        137,587 61,033
Miscellaneous—
Ornamental trees, etc       42,515 43,620
Ornamental cuttings         3,225 16,950
Rose-bushes         93,735 75,162
Plants   (herbaceous)         39,549 28,188
Roots       290,027 48,470
Bulbs    2,784,473 2,656,847
Totals 3,745,965 3,184,110
APPENDIX No. 10.
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Victoria  (including
those condemned).
1925.
177
5,140
236
98
Roses 	
Plants   	
Cuttings	
Roots 	
Bulbs       140,112
Shrubs :  2
Peach-pits  (sacks)   4
Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Victoria.
1924.
8
575
1,192
1,593
129,079
1925.
...    1
Plants	
Shrubs -    2
Peach-pits (sacks)     4 P 90
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 11.
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver.
Standard fruit-trees—
Apple  	
Crab-apple  	
Pear 	
Quince 	
Cherry 	
Plum	
Prune 	
Peach	
Nectarine :	
Apricot   	
Nut-trees—
Hazelnut 	
Chestnut  	
Seedlings, grafts, and scions—
Fruit seedlings	
Ornamental seedlings	
Grafts   	
Scions   	
Small-fruit bushes and plants-
Grape-vines	
Blueberry-vines   	
Currant-bushes   	
Gooseberry4)ushes   	
Raspberry-canes  	
Blackberry-canes   	
Loganberry-canes	
Miscellaneous—
Ornamental trees, etc	
Ornamental cuttings 	
Rose-bushes	
Plants ....:.....	
Roots	
Bulbs
1925.
1924.
282
282
5
9
236
27S
1
1
146
25
12
14
139
20
52
149
3
225
77
4
20
9
2,604
13,029
3
2
12
479
IS
1
8
65
39
2
25
20
10
402
112
3
9
8
86
3
72
18
5,189
6,843
Totals..
9,837
21,207
APPENDIX No. 12.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc, inspected
at Vancouver (including those condemned).
1925. 1924.
Apples  (boxes)        27,437 33,316
Apples (y2 boxes)               10 3
Apples (barrels)   1 	
Crab-apples  (boxes)  1
Pears  (boxes)   _     77,254 30,261
Pears (% boxes)  978 	
Plums   (boxes)    ,       16,278 11,466
Prunes (boxes)      37,465 10,807
Peaches  (boxes)       132,107 96,271
Cherries (boxes)         7,702 6,304
Apricots   (boxes)    _      26,428 12,121 L6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. P 91
APPENDIX No. 12—Continued.
Memorandum op Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., inspected
at Vancouver—Continued.
1925. 1924.
Nectarines (boxes)  :  15                  	
Quince (boxes)   15                  	
Yakamines (boxes  191
Tangerines  (boxes)    20 50
California oranges  (boxes)    124,288 159,017
Florida oranges  (boxes)  4                  	
Japanese oranges (boxes)   159,685 141,603
Japanese oranges  (boxes)   (to points east of B.C.)  234,000 184,000
Marmalade oranges  (boxes)    7,065 4,759
Chinese oranges (boxes)   265 379
Australian oranges  (boxes)  802                 	
Lemons  (boxes)  29,714 25,800
Grapefruit   (boxes)  25,229 20,169
Grapefruit (boxes)  (Oriental)  .-  237 508
Limes   (boxes)     7 3
Pineapples   (boxes)     403 556
Persimmons  (boxes)    452 393
Pomegranates   (boxes)  848 856
Tomatoes   (boxes)   ._  34,222 19,175
Peppers (boxes)    808 802
Eggplant (boxes)  ...  130 432
Potatoes (tons)  1,615 3,046
Sweet potatoes (lb.)    447,700 598,342
Yams  (lb.)  61,800 105,300
Taro   (lb.)     180,200 263,450
Peanuts  (tons)   :  2,054 3,615
Walnuts (tons)  710 1,127
Rice   (tons) :  15,387 16,289
Corn  (tons)    9,306 13,730
Peas  (tons)  200 561
Beans  (tons)  1,008 2,244
APPENDIX No. 13.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc.
condemned at Vancouver.
Apples  (boxes)  	
Pears  (boxes)  	
Pears (% boxes) 	
Plums   (boxes)   	
Prunes (boxes)	
Peaches (boxes) 	
Cherries   (boxes)   	
California oranges (boxes)  	
Grapefruit   (boxes)   	
Tomatoes   (boxes) :	
Sweet  potatoes   (lb.)  	
Potatoes   (lb.)  ....:	
Potatoes   (tons)	
Jumping beans  (lb.) —.....	
1925.
1924.
210
490
4,631
2,425
193
390
1,449
1,322
580
189
76
38
1
*28
197
176
327
200
3,1C0
1,077
3
3 P 92
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 14.
Memorandum of Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., fumigated at Vancouver.
Rice (tons) 	
Beans  (tons) 	
Peas  (tons)  	
Peanuts (tons) 	
Walnuts   (tons)   	
Almonds   (tons)   	
Coriander-seed (lb.) ..
Coriander-seed   (tons)
Pea-seed (tons) 	
Cocoa-beans (boxes) ..
Sweet potatoes (lb.) ..
Pineapples  (crates)  ....
Prunes (lb.) 	
Raisins   (lb.)   	
1925.
1924.
104
66
2
90
116
257
41
18
62
23
16
1,753
15
Currants (lb.)       39,589
Apples (lb.)  	
Figs   (tons)   	
Barley (lb.) 	
Nutmeg   (cases)   	
Nutmeg  (tons)	
Spice (lb.) 	
Peach-pits (lb.) 	
Mats (empty) 	
Sacks (empty) 	
Straw covering for bottles (crates)  	
Crockery (boxes)	
Furniture   (cases)   	
Settlers' effects (cases) 	
Vermont (cases) 	
Crosse & Blackwell vinegar (cases) 	
Vichi water in bottles  (cases) 	
Beer in straw coverings (cases) 	
Window-glass packed in straw  (cases)
1,263
16
97
3,192
1,200
4,650
31
1
32
8
100
990
60
255
1,512
400
7,965
975
5
500
27,205
5
148
56
15
225
APPENDIX No. 15.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc, for which No Certificates were issued.
1925. 1924.
Crates. Crates.
Asparagus          10,798 4,288
Artichokes              166 149
Almonds    "     159,515 313,732
Avocadoes               9 15
Beets              434 225
Bananas        111,363 58,296
Brazil nuts  ,      68,400 92,086
Brussels sprouts            278 285
Bak Choy            139 42
Beans (green)            146 74
Broom-corn            546 376
Cabbage         8,159 6,221 J 6 Geo. 5
British Colu
mbia.
P
93
APPENDIX No. 15—Continued.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc, for whi
issued—Continued.
Cabbage   (tons)   	
Cauliflower 	
Casabas	
3H No Certi
1925.
Crates.
273
8,097
991
14,750
1S,169
38,752
7,238
1,500
300
7,151
140
11,400
20,074
FICATES   WERE
1924.
Crates.
95
5,149
3,965
Casabas   (bv count)
Chestnuts   	
Caladium   	
Carrots	
Cloves   	
Cucumbers  	
Celery   	
Cocoanuts 	
17,512
26,850
9S6
800
217
4,731
270
612
19,478
50
9
3
131,650
85
200
2,263
Cocoa-beans   	
Cantaloupes  	
Carambolas	
Chicory   	
Chard   	
Coffee   	
Cactus pears 	
Carobs 	
6
6
137,420
25
Cranberries   	
Cinnamon 	
1,920
600
2
900
12
86,400
550,057
10
168
65,153
50,460
25,467
5
7,002
200
1,215
100
34,077
300
61,000
2
101
6,450
1,142
12,239
2
5
600
9,006
23,057
1,981
.
Cress	
Dill-flowers   	
100
27
66,400
1,575
5
53
39,536
58,177
7,042
34
Foo Gwah 	
Filberts  	
Figs   	
Endives 	
Gye Choy 	
Ginger-root 	
Garlic   	
Geet Gwah 	
Gooseberries 	
Garavanzos   	
Horse-radish   	
1,000
Hickory nuts	
Lettuce	
Lychee 	
Lentils 	
21,663
200
23,700
2
300
2,000
1,246
2,207
5
1
550
4,700
23,700
275
25
184
Leeks	
Loquats 	
Lily bulbs   (edible)
Melons 	
Melons (by count)  ....
Mint	
Maize 	
Mangoes   	
Nutmegs   	
Onions  	
Olives   	
Okra
Parsley   *.....
235 P 94
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 15—Continued.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., fob which No Certificates were
issued—Continued.
1925. 1924.
Crates. Crates.
Peas  (split)    22,500
Peas (green)          1,322 2,440
Passion fruit   20
Pine nuts   100
Pecan nuts         1,100 610
Peppercorns    53,300
Potatoes (Canadian)      413,400 1,419,460
Parsnips     573 	
Quassia logs   1,340
Radishes            130 135
Raspberries     4,419
Rhubarb           2,719 4,807
Rutabaga     34 	
Spinach           8,923 6,944
Squash              62 32
Seeds (miscellaneous)      182,271 83,525
Sue Choy              96 46
Sugar-cane        56,950 37,500
Sing Gwah                8 16
Strawberries          13,244 12,750
Turnips         1,339 75
Topeco   1 	
Water-chestnuts         39,500 43,900
Water-lily rhizomes       68,774 79,950
White nuts         4,800 10,050
Water-caltrops :        1,400 2,200
Watermelons  (by count)        51,614 37,948
APPENDIX No. 16.
Fruit and Vegetables inspected for PjXport, 1925.
To.
Apples.
Grapes.
Parsnips.
Onions.
Turnips.
Potatoes.
England 	
New Zealand	
Crates.
128,711
44,700
16,650
100
7
7,686
290
44
Crates.
1
Sacks.
6
Crates.
Sacks.
12
Crates.
' 15
40
590
85
500
Sacks.
16,615
4,598
China	
650
2,010
206
1
30
Totals	
Reported but not inspected...
198,188
2,170
1
6
19,305
11,960
12
1,230
4,805
Note.—All the above by way of Vancouver bar those for South Africa. 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 95
APPENDIX No. 17.
Nursery Stock inspected for Export, 1925.
re
CO
0J
,
O)
0>
a>
QJ
U
a
3
To.
P,
+J
ci
0)
u
u
ad
fl
.fl
W
a
QJ
o
rt-i OJ
ft?J
Jfl
a)
i-S
s a
£ fl
a  •
fl£
^a
5 a
V
p-1
Ph
ft
rk
<j^
O
a! a
J ?
«■?
125
24
Ireland 	
10
New Zealand 	
United States'	
Denmark	
Finland 	
Belgium	
6
Italy	
China	
61
1
4
29
1
2
2
o
23
Japan	
12
Totals	
186
1
4
29
1
2
2
5
34
6
35
co"
"3
"3
re
CO
re
S CO
■o
o
£.fl
CQrti
To.
a;
■§.-
fl  CO
OJ
ja xi
SP .
51
QJ     -
II
■? a
o 3 .
2 a
S"
cd
OB
t; a^_
o£
oz
O
OH
Ot/3
Ms
rtrtpH
wS
fl OlJ
12
2
8
312
360
Ireland	
720
9
22
6
2
4
129
370
104
107
37
111
19,307
545
Denmark 	
4
Finland	
95
Belgium 	
Italy                      	
12
China 	
56
15
6
2
12
116
1,051
185
200
Japan 	
24
24
13
86
Totals	
101
39
19
2
412
226
1,158
37
304
20,046
1,720
APPENDIX No. 18.
List of Herds tested by Municipalities and Districts.
Place.
No. of
Cattle
tested.
No. of
Reactors.
Grade of Premises.
A.
Total
Premises
visited.
Lower Fraser Valley
Abbotsford	
Agassiz	
Barnston Island 	
Burnaby 	
Chilliwack  	
Coquitlam 	
Dewdney 	
Ladner 	
Langley	
Lulu Island	
Maple Ridge	
10
328
8
281
1
326
10
2,721
58
126
91
1
1,411
125
1,655
48
1,817
124
421
7
1
11
1
27
13
5
9
1
2
22
20
48
206
17
11
100
162
164
24
2
26
20
49
244
18
11
115
169
182
27 P 96
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 18—Continued.
List of Herds tested by Municipalities and Districts—Continued.
Place.
No. of
Cattle
tested.
No. of
Reactors.
Grade
of Premises.
Total
Premises
visited.
A.
B.
C.
Lower Fraser Valley—Continued.
Matsqui :	
855
25
181
234
162
448
1,087
44
416
524
9
41
5
7
1
77
34
1
16
27
1
1
1
2
2
1
5
1
1
1
6
3
59
5
23
15
15
18
108
13
15
84
1
65
23
Pitt Meadows	
16
17
21
116
South Vancouver	
13
15
88
Yale      	
1
Totals	
13,173
592
37
74
1,132
1,243
Coast Points.
8
177
7
63
19
133
102
31
99
3
11
5
1
1
1
1
24
1
4
3
36
1
28
15
3
15
22
5
61
1
28
1
20
7
15
22
639
19
3
33
120
156
Okanagan.
380
19
45
325
2
35
27
37
14
40
22
113
3
1
6
1
14
5
	
1
7
4
2
64
8
10
60
1
3
1
9
4
6
2
25
2
1
64
S
10
64
1
3
1
a
4
6
2
27
2
1
Totals	
1,063
34
6
196
202
Cariboo.
20
61
18
52
1
3
1
1
2
4
3
8
2
Kersley	
3
9
Totals	
151
4
2
17
19
Interior Points on C.P.R. and C.N.R.
26
4
200
23
118
16
99
12
5
1
1
7
1
21
2
22
2
7
1
1
22
2
Salmon Arm	
22
9
7
Squilax	
1
Totals	
498
6
I
63
64 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 97
APPENDIX No. 18— Continued.
List oe Herds tested by Municipalities and Districts—Continued.
Place.
No. of
Cattle
tested.
No. of
Reactors.
Grade
of Premises.
Total
Premises
visited.
A.
B.
C.
Columbia Valley and East Kootenay.
451
132
167
34
63
45
43
1
1
9
1
3
1
1
IG
15
11
3
9
12
15
19
Elk Valley	
16
12
9
12
Waldo  	
15
Totals	
935
5
5
81
86
Kootenai).
407
43
1
2
42
1
44
Totals	
409
43
3     i        	
42
45
Similkameen and Boundary Points.
18
2
9
2
14
8
12
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
Blewett Bay	
2
1
2
1
1
Totals..         	
58
1
10
10
Vancouver Island.
142
269
398
35
455
60
IS
222
73
163
20
673
1,468
499
184
24
17
3
3
1
4
4
16
102
26
1
2
5
7
2
1
2
2
24
13
4
9
6
13
15
2
29
3
2
16
1
14
13
76
44
7
7
26
14
1
24
3
1
22
9
12
1
7
86
48
2
13
41
Cobble Hill       	
34
3
60
8
4
40
12
26
1
44
175
96
Wellington	
18
4,679
201
71
241
263
575
APPENDIX No. 19.
Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,"
R.S.B.C. 1924.
Name. Address.
AT)hotts, R. C Vanderhoof.
Asserlind, H. E. E 2136 Union Street, A'ancouver.
Banks, D Cloverdale.
Bell, S. A Northwestern Creamery, Victoria.
Batey, H. S 2504 Chesterfield Avenue, Vancouver.
Bollington, G. A 528 Tenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Boulter, Wm. Ladner.
Boyne, Wm Kamloops.
Calder, Jas 882 Hamilton Street, Vancouver.
Caldwell, John  1855 Georgia Street East, Vancouver.
7 APPENDIX No. 19—Continued.
Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,"
R.S.B.C. 1924— Continued,
Name. Address.
Canavor, L 3917 .Albert Street, Vancouver.
Carradice, F. W 1270 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Carroll, W. J Courtenay.
Canter, Jas. N 1.37 Seventeenth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Chevally, F Abbotsford.
Chevally, P Abbotsford.
Cook, E. W 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Cranswick, P Royal Dairy, Vancouver.
Crawford, Thos .7828 Prince Albert Street, Vancouver.
Crawford, Wm 7828 Prince Albert Street, Vancouver.
Dalzell, Ed Salmon Arm.
Dempster, A. M Kamloops.
Dill, C. A Aimer Hotel, Vancouver.
Drake, A. W Ganges.
Dudman, A 333a Thirteenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Dunn, J. S .553 Fifth Street, Nanaimo.
Dunn, James 553 Fifth Street, Nanaimo.
Enman, V 2056 Forty-ninth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Fowler, R. S Box 214, Kamloops.
Godwin, F Vernon.
Grimes, G. G Langley Prairie.
Hall, F. D. B Box 172, Chilliwack.
Hansen, H. M Jackman Road, Aldergrove.
Harkness, Wm Nelson.
Hansen, A. B Golden.
Henderson, C. A Kamloops.
Holliday, R. J Enderby.
Holmes,  J Penticton.
Hurley, M. H 1111 Fort Street, Victoria.
Isbister, J Langley  Prairie.
James, D. A 1114 Broadway West, Vancouver.
Jenne, H. H Nelson.
Johnson, Alfred  , Quesnel.
Karnagel, R Salmon Arm.
Kell, George 516 St. George Street, New Westminster.
Livingstone, J. M 15 Alexander Street, Vancouver.
Livingstone, J. B 11 Gore Avenue, Vancouver.
Lord, T Vernon.
Magar, J. A Sardis.
Main, T 3917 Albert Street, Vancouver.
Matheson, D. W Port Haney.
Medd, G. H Fort Langley.
Monteith, W. J 1922 Second Avenue West, Vancouver.
McAllister, C. W 707 View Street, Victoria.
McKerricher, W. R 1924 Fortieth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Menzies, T. A Abbotsford.
Metcalfe, F. J 3436 Oak Street, Vancouver.
Moor, J. S.  Penticton.
Morse, A. 0 1750 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Moss, James  Box 634, Kelowna.
Nelson, C. E J. M. Steves Dairy, Vancouver.
Newland, C. G ...Colony Farm, Essondale. 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 99
APPENDIX No. 19—Continued.
Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,"
R.S.B.C. 1924—Continued.
Name. Address.
Norton, F. H. A 1311 Broad Street, Victoria.
Outran., G. H Vanderhoof.
Overland, F 2751 Thirty-sixth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Pallot, C. S Box 121, Haney.
Parkinson, R. F Kelowna.
Patten, W Armstrong.
Patterson, W. L 536 Twenty-first Avenue West, Vancouver.
Perrins, A. C 639 Belton Avenue, Victoria.
Price, T. W 905 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Quaedvlieg, E Keremeos.
Reston, H. C. J 930 North Park Street, Victoria.
Richards, T. E 1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Rive, Elias  c/o Pacific Milk Co., Abbotsford.
Rose, Wm Courtenay.
Scouten, W Box 387, Chilliwack.
Sejrup, V. M Box 491, Duncan.
Sellers, J. H 1257 Eighteenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Sherwood, E. G 1032 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Silver, Mark R 2215 Dundas Street, Vancouver.
Skelton, R. J Salmon Arm.
Smith, R Penticton.
Swanson, G. J Bonnington Falls.
Taylor, Arthur  Pouce Coupe.
Thomas, S. J Kelowna.
Thomson, Darwin Salmon Arm.
Thomson, J. L Armstrong.
Thornbery, G. H : Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
Turnbull, Miss M Kelowna.
Turnbull, H Armstrong.
Valentin, M Prince Rupert.
Wagg, C. H Ganges.
Washington, F. J 1170 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Wasson, F. C Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
Watson, J. B R.R. No. 1, Sardis.
Wells, B Ladner.
Wells, J. R Penticton.
West, C. H 280 Sixth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Westlund, Mrs. A c/o P. Burns & Co., Woodland Drive, Vancouver.
Wood, R. K 930 North Park  Street, Victoria.
Woods, R. H Grand Forks.
White, C. J 1106 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
APPENDIX No. 20.
Creamery or Dairy Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,"
R.S.B.C. 1924.
Name. Address.
Beaconsfield Dairy Co 905 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Borden Co., Ltd., The  Sardis.
Burns, P., & Co., Ltd Woodland Drive, Vancouver. APPENDIX No. 20—Continued,
Creamery' or Dairy Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,"
R.S.B.C. 1924—Continued,
t
Name. Address.
Caldewll's Dairy 1847 Georgia Street, Vancouver.
Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Association Quesnel.
City Dairy & Produce Co., Ltd 414 Pender Street East, Vancouver.
Columbia Valley Co-operative Creamery Assn Golden.
Comox Creamery Association  Courtenay.
Cowichan Creamery Association Duncan.
Crescent Ice Cream, Ltd Burrard and Hastings Streets, Vancouver.
Crystal Dairy, Ltd Cranbrook.
Curlew Creamery Co., Ltd Nelson.
East End Dairy   2459 Oxford Street, Vancouver.
Ferrera Cheese Manufacturing Co Chilliwack.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association 405 Eighth Ave. W.,Vancouver (1170 Hornby St.).
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver (Chilliwack).
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association .405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver (Sardis).
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association .405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver (Abbotsford).
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver (Ladner).
Godwin, F Vernon.
Guernsey Creamery ..■ 914 Robson Street, Vancouver.
Karnagei, R.  (Palace Creamery) Enderby.
Kelowna Creamery Co., Ltd Kelowna.
Kettle Valley Creamery Co Grand Forks.
Lake Windermere Creamery, Ltd Invermere.
Nanaimo Creamery Association  625 Pine Street, Nanaimo.
Nechaco Creamery Association  Vanderhoof.
Northern Okanagan Creamery Association Armstrong.
Northwestern Creamery, Ltd 1311 Broad Street, Victoria.
Palmer & Co., B. A.  (Revelstoke)   Salmon Arm.
Penticton Purity Products, Ltd .....Penticton.
Pouce Coupe District Co-op. Creamery Assn Kilkerran.
Purity Dairy, Ltd 2S0 Sixth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Quaedvlieg, Victor  Keremeos.
Royal City Creamery 309 Sixth Street, New Westminster.
Royal Dairy 1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Royal Dairy, Ltd 707 View Street, Victoria.
Salmon Arm Creamery Association  Salmon Arm.
Salt Spring Island Creamery Association  Ganges.
Sherwood Creameries, Ltd 1166 Hornby Street, Vaucouver.
Spencer, David, Ltd., Creamery  Kamloops.
Spencer, David, Ltd., Creamery  Cordova Street West, Vancouver.
Star Construction Co., Ltd Sooke.
Steves, J. M., Dairy  2024 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Valley Dairy, Ltd 1569 Sixth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Vancouver Creamery Co., Ltd 23 Alexander Street, Vancouver.
Vancouver Ice & Cold Storage Co., Ltd 11 Gore Avenue, Vancouver.
Vancouver Island Milk Producers' Association....930 North Park Street, Victoria.
Vernon Creamery .Vernon.
Victoria City Dairy Co., Ltd 1111 Fort Street, Victoria.
White Lunch, Ltd .124 Hastings Street West, Vancouver. 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 101
APPENDIX No. 21.
Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia.
Name.
Instituted.
Secretary.
Tester.
Departmental
Grant.
March 17, 1913....
April 23, 1914
June 8, 1914
April, 1920	
W. T. Richardson, Atchelitz
R. M. Halliday, Sandwick	
G. G. Grimes....
Wm. Rose 	
J. Isbister 	
T. G. M. Clarke..
C. S. Pallot
G. H. Medd
H. Turnbull
T. A. Menzies....
$600
Comox Valley	
Langley	
Okanagan ,
Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge..
Ricbmond-Ladner	
Surrey	
Upper  Sumas	
600
600
600
November, 1925..
March, 1919
November, 1924..
November, 1923...
J. E. Stewart, Port Hammond...
100
600
600
600
APPENDIX No. 22.
Table showing Annual Averages of all Lactation Pebiods received from the Various
Cow-testing Associations by the Daisy Branch since the Year 1914.
Year.
Lb. Milk.
Average
Per Cent. Fat.
Lb. Pat.
1914	
6,706
6,517
0,465
6,629
6,784
6,636
7,059
6,862
7,073
7,132
7,537
7,912
4.14
4.07
4.06
4.24
4.24
4.22
4.29
4.47
4.47
4.25
4.13
4.04 '
278.0
1915	
265.2
1916	
262.4
1917	
280.2
1918	
287.8
1919                              	
280.9
1920                                           	
303.0
1921             :                	
307.1
1922                              	
316.0
1923	
303.0
1924                              	
311.7
1925                                                	
319.5
■It will he noted that when comparing the average production of the first three years with
that of the last three years there is an increase of 1,000 lb. of milk containing 42 lb. of butter-fat.
APPENDIX No. 23.
Summary of Lactation Periods completed during 1925 received from the Seven Cow-testing
Associations in this Province.
The average production is given of cows representing the various dairy breeds and the percentage of the total number of lactation periods that belong to each breed.
Breed.
Lb. Milk.
Percentage
Fat.
Lb. Fat.
Percentage
all Records.
Ayrshire   .
Guernsey
Holstein   .
Jersey  ....
Shorthorn
7,757
7,216
8,850
6,632
7,171
4.11
4.50
3.56
4.94
4.04
318.8
325.3
315.2
327.8
290.0
4.85
7.58
52.76
32.21
2.60
True average of all lactation periods completed during 1925 :   Milk, 7,912 lb. ; fat, 4.04 per cent.; fat,
319.5 lb. P 102
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 24.
Synopsis of Certified Seed-potato Work in British Columbia, 1925.
District.
fcfert
<&£
fl   s
O O VI
.- o Crt
fcCCM
fl
ft   a
o
0) •"
fl fl OJ
£ o ft
rt ° «
2 S o
lid
cut-.cc
SSrt5
to t-i
grtSri
so
w     o
fl... o
g tn ft
S   rt,0
HSStKO
Alberni	
Armstrong	
Bulkley Valley 	
Burton	
Chilliwack	
Comox	
Cowichan	
Delta	
Fairfield Island	
Grand Forks 	
Kamloops	
Kersley	
Malakwa	
MeBride	
Mount Lehman-Bradner
Nanoose	
Notch Hill	
Okanagan	
Pitt Meadows	
Princeton	
Richmond	
Salmon Arm	
Saltspring Island	
Sayward  	
Surrey	
Shawnigan F.I	
Shawnigan Lake	
Terrace	
Victoria	
Windermere	
Woodpecker	
Individual growers	
Totals	
6
13
8
8
15
11
1
11
18
4
10
14
3
9
11
3
2
9
10
4
7
23
19
9
13
13
9
17
8
13
35
18
11
37
2
15
27
4
10
30
■ 5
15
18
8
4
24
6
7
20
12
10
5
10
60
60
11
26
6.30
9.99
7.72
4.50
29.91
26.02
13.17
17.21
25.56
6.00
13.25
12.38
8.25
4.61
12.57
2.25
8.00
33.75
3.62
1.75
46.05
7.00
4.00
5.52
8.40
5.00
1.10
8.00
70.21
37.52
6.74
12.66
15
4
10
33
10
9
26
2
15
23
4
8
24
5
12
17
7
2
14
6
20
12
5
4
10
38
58
9
23
5.63
9.99
7.40
2.50
■27.41
25.52
8.30
15.46
19.21
6.00
13.25
10.63
■8.25
3.61
9.33
2.25
6.50
29.75
3.62
1.00
30.85
7.00
5.52
8.40
3.00
0.90
8.00
40.83
36.97
5.49
10.61
13
4
27
25
2
13
13
4
2
23
2
11
15
13
3
16
10
4
4
10
31
50
22
4.35
4.43
5.90
2.50
18.41
23.28
4.30
5.71
18.71
6.00
12.25
6.00
8.25
0.50
9.08
1.25
6.00
28.75
3.12
1.00
30.10
4.00
3.61
5.40
2.75
0.90
8.00
38.35
30.97
26
13
7
3
2
22
1
6
11
6
1
12
3
15
9
4
4
9
31
32
4.35
4.43
3.66
1.50
18.41
22.53
4.30
5.38
18.66
6.00
12.25
3.00
4.75
0.50
8.58
0.75
3.50
18.25
3.12
0.50
28.35
4.00
3.36
5.28
2.75
0.90
7.50
38.35
23.25
10.61
4.50
265
100
203
100
232
1,022
115
414
1,105
200
1,250
40
290
10
426
165
198
205
15
3,480
140
137
259
198
55
385
2,381
1,690
216
282
550
459.01
443
373.18
304.48
291
262.60
15,296
APPENDIX No. 25.
Summary of British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Fields, 1925.
No. of fields inspected   550
No. of acres inspected   459.01
No. of fields passed  356
No. of acres passed  304.48
Per cent, fields passed   64.70
Per cent, acres passed   66.30
Average per cent, disease in total fields inspected—
Black-leg    0.17
Leaf-roll   0.16
Mosaic  2.51
Wilts   0.11
Impurities    0.13
Lack of vigour  0.86
Average per cent, disease in total fields passed—
Black-leg    0.04
Leaf-roll   0.13 ■
16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 103
APPENDIX No. 25—Continued.
Summary of British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Fields, 1925—Continued.
Average per cent, disease in total fields passed—Continued.
Mosaic :         0.52
Wilts         0.08
Impurities          0.03
Lack of vigour        0.63
Average per cent, disease in total fields rejected—
Black-leg        0.29
Leaf-roll         0.30
Mosaic         5.54
Wilts         0.20
Impurities           0.84
Lack of vigour          0.90
Of the 550 fields inspected—
120 ifields containing 104.6S acres were rejected owing to mosaic.
9 fields containing 8.91 acres were rejected owing to black-leg.
7 fields containing 4.48 acres were rejected owing to leaf-roll.
I field containing 0.25 acre was rejected owing to wilt.
II fields containing 9.50 acres were rejected owing to impurities.
33 fields containing 14.36 acres were rejected owing to lack of vigour.
13 fields containing 12.35 acres were rejected owing to non-isolation.
APPENDIX No. 26.
-Report on Field Inspections made in Certified Seed-potato Districts, 1925.
District.
Leaf-roll.
Mosaic.
Black-leg.
Wilt. '
Impurities.
Lack of
Vigour.
0.01
0.06
1.80
0.02
0.02
0.06
	
0.11
0.01
0.08
0.05
1.00
0.06
0.85
0.02
0.06
0.33
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.13
0.01
0.02
1.09
1.66
0.22
2.33
4.40
0.84
7.94
3.50
6.70
3.10
1.89
1.07
0.12
2.53
1.56
0.80
1.64
1.57
0.02
2.12
4.36
■0.39
7.32
1.70
8.63
8.50
0.42
0.36
2.79
0.24
0.60
0.16
0.02
0.03
0.04
1.34
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.03
0.01
0.44
0.08
0.02
0.52
0.05
0.12
0.07
0.06
0.43
0.87
0.01
0.32
0.27
0.02
0.12
0.07
0.04
0.07
0.06
1.08
0.02
0.44
0.02
0.15
0.14
0.27
0.08
0.12
0.36
0.36
0.65
0.06
0.18
0.03
0.54
0.50
0.28
0.02
0.13*
0.01
0.04
0.56
0.16
0.30
Bulkley Valley 	
2.30
1.42
0.13
0.46
Delta                      	
0.26
0.54
Grand Forks	
Individuals	
Kamloops	
0.9O
1.51
4.34
0.05
MeBride	
3.58
0.22
Notch Hill      	
0.19
0.49
0.23
Salmon Arm :	
0.42
0.70
0.35
0.94
0.40
0.01
0.21
0.98
1.47
Woodpecker	
3.26 IEPARTMENT   OF   AGRICULTURE.
1925
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B. oi .16 Geo. 5
JRITISH   COLUMBIA.
P 105
APPENDIX No. 28.
Report on Tubes Inspections made before Grading Certified Seed-potatoes, 19125.
District.
Fields
inspected.
Acres.
Wet-rot.
Late
Blight
and
Dry-rot.
Rhizoc-
tonia.
Scab.
Necrosis,
Wilt,
Internal
Dis'col.
6
5
4
13
6
27
8
6
25
2
13
13
4
23
2
1
11
15
6
2
13
3
16
4
4
10
10
31
50
4.35
4.43
2.50
5.91
18.40
23.28
3.80
5.71
18.71
6.00
, 12.25
6.00
8.25
9.45
0.50
0.75
6.00
28.25
2.95
1.00
30.10
4.00
3.61
0.90
2.75
5.40
■8.00
30.98
0.16
0.018
0.17
0.19
0.17
0.018
0.38
0.15
0.005
0.33
1.40
13.00
3.03
0.50
5.58
4.07
5.15
0.77
0.50
3.45
1.00
25.20
5.40
1.16
17.50
8.77
6.00
7.93
4.45
0.50
2.08
0.83
1.30
0.17
0.37
0.02
3.23
0.11
7.27
4.13
0.38
13.33
0.43
0.50
0.10
0.70
0.36
2.31
0.40
9.84
CMlliwack	
1.12
Delta	
0.41
Fairfield Island   	
0.82
2.63
Kerslev ...
0.61
1.25
0.80
Notch Hill	
0.72
Okanagan	
2.40
0.41
1.00
Richmond	
0.86
3.83
Shawnigan Lake	
Shawnigan F.I	
1.60
Terrace	
Victoria	
2.10
0.44
Totals	
333
254.23
0.538
0.723
117.77
35.54
31.25
Average per cent, disease.
0.02
0.03
4.06
1.23
1.08
APPENDIX No. 29.
Report on Field Inspections of Potatoes made in Districts where Crops had not been
entered for Certification, 1925.
District.
Fields
inspected.
Acres.
Average Percentage of
Leaf-roll.
Mosaic.
Black-leg.
Wilt.
Impurities.
3
3
2
1
1
2
7
5
2
5
2
5
1.12
2.60
2.25
0.15
0.60
0.10
2.50
0.20
15.25
2.75
1.00
5.75
0.26
3.16
4.66
0.45
0.50
0.50
0.25
1.00
2.30
0.50
1.50
1.00
0.60
3.66
0.50
3.35
0.23
0.62
0.50
2.25
0.75
8.57
5.05
12.50
1.35
3.60
0.10
1.75
0.07
0.20
0.80
1.50
0.41
0.16
1.35
0.25
0.25
4.10
Willow   Point   	
2.50
0.10
0.60
Totals         	
47
37.69
13.26
42.93
2.92
1.50
9.72
Average percentage of disease for all districts....
0.94
3.06
0.21
0.11
0.69 P 106
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 30.
Estimated Honey-crop, 1925.
District.
Apiaries.
Hives.
Crop.
Average
per  Hive.
Vancouver Islands and Oulf Islands'
65
20
67
36
83
190
565
400
260
100
365
600
Lb.
22,600
10,000
13,700
5,000
10,950
10,800
Lb.
40
25
Gulf Islands	
52
Howe Sound	
50
30
18
Totals	
526
2,290
73,050
32
Greater Vancouver.
S4
30
26
50
22
50
46
27
46
525
150
118
230
80
210
200
89
145
7,855
4,200
4,130
4,600
2,400
3,150
6,000
2,047
2,900
15
28
35
20
30
New Westminster	
15
30
Point Grey	
23
20
Totals	
381
1,747
37,282
21
Lower Fraser Valley.
Delta	
95
-135
160
130
71
60
700
1,500
1,045
1,160
420
440
35,000
60,000
62,700
55,680
25,200
19,800
50
40
Langley	
60
48
60
45
Totals	
651
5,265
258,380
49
Upper Fraser Valley and Chilliwack.
85
26
34
76
70
425
220
148
420
545
21,250
13,200
9,472
27,300
24,525
50
60
Kent              	
64
65
45
Totals	
291
1,758
95,747
54
Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys.
270
60
55
2,000
400
390
60,000
10,000
11,700
30
25
30
Totals	
385
2,790
81,700
29
Kootenays.
37
27
24
22
15
18
19
29
294
82
161
217
389
132
168
206
14,700
4,510
9,660
10,850
'21,395
10,075
8,440
11,330
50
Kootenay Lake and West Arm	
55
60
50
76
50
Creston Valley	
55
Totals	
191
1,649
90,960
Central British Columbia.
1
6
1,200
200 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 107
APPENDIX No. BO—Continued.
Estimated Honey-crop, 1925—Continued.
District.
Apiaries.
Hives.
Crop.
Average
per  Hive.
Summary.
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands	
526
381
651
291
385
191
1
2,290
1,747
5,265
1,758
2,790
1,649
6
Lb.
73,050
37,282
258,380
95,747
81,700
90,960
1,200
Lb.
32
21
Lower Fraser Valley	
Upper Fraser Valley and Chilliwack	
49
54
29
Central British Columbia	
200
Totals	
2,426
15,505
638,319
41
Value of honey-crop at average retail price of 22 cents per pound, $140,430 ; value of beeswax produced
in 1925, estimated at 9,500 lb., at 50 cents per pound, $4,750; capital value of bees, hives, supers, and other
apiary equipment, reckoning 15,505 hives' at, say, $25 each, $387,625.
APPENDIX No. 31.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Reports for Season 1925.
(a.) Fraser Valley.
Situation of
Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Date Queen
introduced.
Surplus
Honey
taken.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
Sullivan	
Port Kells	
Langley Prairie
Bradner	
Huntingdon..	
Agassiz	
Mission	
Ladner....	
Matsqui....<	
W. H. Turnbull	
C. J. P. Phibbs	
Mrs. J. W. Berry	
T, L. Baker	
J. W. Winson	
Dominion Exp. Farm....
Chas. E. Moore	
Mrs. M. B. McCallan....
A. W. Finlay	
Carried forward..
(1) Spring, 1925
(2) Spring, 1925
(3) Spring, 1925
(4) Spring, 1925
(1) 	
(2) 	
(3) 	
(1) May,      1925
(2) May,     1925
(3) Aug.,     1924
(1)       1924
(2)       1924
(3)       1924
(1) July,     1923
(2) May,     1925
(1) June,    1925
(2) June,    1925
(3) June,    1925
(1) April,    1925
(2) April,    1925
(1) May, 1925
(2) May, 1925
(3) May, 1925
(4) May, 1924
Lb.
70
74
81
78
83
70
82
158
120
135
120
169
83
145
135
30
7o
95
120
180
Lb.
303
249
310
375
65
252
310
135
481
25
2,480
Lb.
76
83
103
125
176
103
67
120 ■ P 108
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 31—Continued.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Reports for Season 1925—Continued.
(a.)  Eraser Valley—Continued.
Situation of
Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Date Queen
introduced.
Surplus
Honey
taken.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
Brought forward....
E.  Chipperfield 	
H. Langton Johnson	
Mrs. E. Hall	
25
4
4
2
Lb.       Lb.
2,480
65
60
75
65
■-,—     265
86
84
92
95
      357
90
80
      170
Lb.
66
89
85
6
(1) May,     1925
(2) May,     1925
(3) May,     1925
(4) May,     1925
(1) April,    1923
(2) Aug.,     1924
(3) July,     1923
(4) May,     1924
(1) June,    1924
(2) July,     1924
1
/
Totals
35
3.272    1        93      1       7
'
(6.) Kootenays.
Castlegar.
Vallican..
Grand Forks..
Balfour..
Slocan City..
Creston	
Boswell..
Natal..
Crawford Bay..
Totals..
A. E. Pittaway..
B. Munch
Jno. A. Hutton .
Charles Holt
V. K. Soharev
John Blinco ....
Jaa Coupland
A. H. Smith
W. J. Kidman
(1) June,
(2) June,
(3) June,
(4) June,
(1) May,
(2) May,
(1) July,
(2) July,
(3) July,
(1)
(2)
(3)
1924
1924
1924
1924
1925
1925
1925
1925
1925
.1924
(1)
(2)
1925
1924
(1) June, 1925
(2) June, 1925
(1)
(2)
(3)
1925
1925
1925
(1) Sept., 1924
(2) Sept., 1924
Lb.
56
33
26
36
43
38
48
41
40
125
159
163
50
92
73
76
48
160
135
148
79
72
Lb.
151
81
129
447
50
165
124
443
151
1,741
Lb.
37
40
43
149
50
82
147
75
79
(c.) Vancouver Island.
Keating	
M. Dean
(1)
(2)
81
156
78 16 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
P 109
APPENDIX No. 31—Continued.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Reports for Season 1925—Continued.
(d.)  Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys.
Situation of
Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Date Queen
introduced.
Surplus
Honey
taken.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
John Price 	
- J. F. Roberts 	
4
3
4
(1)       1924
256
250
240
243
— 989
90
98
95
      283
225
229
147
309
 910
217
94
227
(2)       1923
(3) .        ..   1924
(4)             .   1924
(1)       1924
1
Summerland	
Dominion Exp. Station..
(2)       1925
(3)       1925
(1) June,    1924
(2) June,    1924
(3) June,    1925
(4) June,    1925
1
1
2
Totals	
11
2,182
198
(e.)  Summary.
Territory.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Surplus
Honey
taken  during Season.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
Fraser Valley 	
35
22
11
2
Lb.
3,272
1,741
2,182
156'
Lb.
93
79
198
78
7
7
Totals              	
70
7,351
105
19
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1926.
1,225-926-5401     I -
'3
a
o
rii

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