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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. T. D. PATTULLO,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1927

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
OF
THE FOEEST BEANCH
OF  THE
DEPABTMENT OE LANDS
HON". T. D. PATTULLO, Minister
P.  Z.  Caverhill, Chief Forester
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 81ST
1926
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F.  Banfield., Printer to tbe King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1027.  Victoria, B.C., February 12th, 1927.
To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch
of the Department of Lands for the year 1926.
T. D. PATTULLO,
Minister of Lands. The Hon. T. D. Pattullo,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch
during the calendar year 1926.
P. Z. CAVERHILL,
Chief Forester. A 96-vear-old hemlock stand in good site. Average D.B.H.,
13.5 inches; average height, 120 feet; 272 trees per acre.
Note regularity of size and height. Total volume, 14,600 cubic
feet per acre. Volume of trees over 7-inch D.B.H. to a 5 inch
top, 13,600 cubic feet. Volume present utilization of trees
14-inch D.B.H. and over, 43,700 F.B.M.  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The year 1926 was one of quiet progress in forestry-work in British Columbia. In production
and shipments new records were made. New pulp and paper units were opened, which increased
the production 22 per cent. The total scale of forest products Increased 11.7 per cent, and
reached -a new high point at 2,918,119 M. If we add to this, material cut for local use on farms,
for fuel, etc., the total drain on our forest is now approximately 675,000 cubic feet.
The fire situation again beoame acute, especially in the Southern Interior District, where
the dry weather was accentuated by the frequent occurrence of dry lightning-storms, causing
no less than 557 fires. It is encouraging, however, to be able to state that losses were $1,000,000
less than a year ago. Fire-fighting expenses were reduced by $100,000, and 76 per cent, of the
fires were controlled in incipient stages, as against 70 per cent, in 1925.
New forest reserves were created and a considerable programme of development-work was
undertaken, including stock-taking, building of lookout towers, trails, and telephone-lines for
protection.    Forest revenue was maintained and shows a slight increase.
In extra-provincial affairs the World's Conference at Rome marked a new milestone in
forestry progress. One very important step .was accomplished by the creation of an International
Bureau for gathering and disseminating forestry statistics. Forest products are world commodities, and no country or province can be sufficient within itself. Therefore it is most important
that reliable statistics be gathered on wrorld consumption, sources of supply, and the probable
future. To date no such statistics are available and the figures secured by different countries
are not comparable, due to different degrees of utilization and methods of cutting. It will be
the work of the Bureau to co-ordinate statistics and ascertain what the real case is.
Taken as a whole, then, 1926 has marked considerable progress, the one discordant note being
the price received for lumber, which again showed a decline without a corresponding reduction
in cost. This situation is not healthy, and again I would urge that it needs the careful thought
of every person interested in the future of British Columbia's premier industry.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
During the year 1,286,000 acres were added to Provincial forests by the reservation of the
Babine and Sonora Island areas.
The Babine Provincial Forest is situated north of the Canadian National Railways between
Smithers and Fraser Lake, and between Babine Lake on the north-east and the Bulkley settlements on the south-west. It covers a rough, hilly section, unsuited for agricultural development,
but already producing annually considerable quantities of railway-ties, the cutting of which
provides seasonal employment for many of the local settlers and a ready local market for the
produce of their farms. The creation of this reserve is a first step towards regulating the cut
and ensuring a perpetual supply of raw material for this local industry.
The Sonora Provincial Forest covers the island of the same name situated off the Coast,
150 miles north-west of Vancouver. It has an area of 60 square miles. Formerly the scene of
considerable logging, much of the merchantable timber is removed. There still remains, however,
455,000 M. feet of mature timber and many areas of valuable second-growth and reproduction,
which will form the basis for future supplies by the time our mature stands are exhausted.
Stock-taking surveys of Provincial forests were continued. The object of these surveys is
to ascertain the acreage of productive forest land; the quantity of merchantable timber; the
acreage and condition of young stands; topography and other factors affecting protection and
development; existing and possible industries for each forest. The Grizzly Hills, Aberdeen,
Hardwicke Island, Sonora Island, the Thurlow Islands, and part of the Babine Forest were
examined this year.
The Grizzly Hills and Aberdeen Forests lie on the Okanagan watershed east of Vernon, and
it is from these that much of the water for irrigation of the adjacent farming sections is derived.
The Grizzly Hills Forest covers 5S0 square miles, of which 22 per cent, contains stands of commercial size, including yellow pine, Douglas fir, larch, spruce, balsam, and lodgepole pine. Fifty
per cent, is young growth, of which 80 per cent, is pure lodgepole pine and 20 per cent, mixed
young growTth, including spruce, balsam, larch, and fir. The non-productive area is 167 square
miles, or 28 per cent.   Estimates on Aberdeen are now in course of compilation. 	
AA 6
Department of Lands.
1926
The Provincial forests on the four Coast islands, Hardwicke, Sonora, and the Thurlows,
include 97,000 acres, of which 52 per cent, is timbered and estimated to contain 1,000,000,000 feet
of mature timber; 23 per cent., or 22,000 acres, are fully stocked young stands; on 14 per cent,
the stocking is not yet complete;   and 11 per cent, is non-productive, barren, or scrub land.
Of 909 square miles of the Babine Forest examined, 800 were found to be commercially
productive. Merchantable tie or pulp stands cover 320 square miles, though not all of this is
accessible for present utilization; 280 square miles carry thriving young stands; and 200 square
miles, though productive, are not yet satisfactorily restocked after fires, one of which occurred
in 1922. Cruises on the area are not compiled at present, but preliminary estimates place the
stand of ties in excess of 15,000,000 pieces. In addition, there are some 2,000,000 cords of pulp
material, mostly spruce.
Improvement Programme on Forest Reserves.—Six standard lookouts, situated as follows:
Sonora Forest, 1; Yahk Forest, 2 ; Little White Mountain Forest, 1; Inkaneep Forest, 1; and
Aberdeen Forest, 1, wrere constructed during the year. Trails to the extent of 88% miles were
constructed or rebuilt, also 37 miles of telephone-line. The total cost of these improvements was
$17,337.76. Equipment for forest-protection placed on reserves, consisting of one launch, three
power-pumps, hose, tools, and camp equipment, cost $6,103.03.
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
Educational work in relation to British Columbian woods was continued in the Eastern
Canadian market. A special folder, printed in French, was prepared for the benefit of architects
and builders in Quebec Province. Work in the schools was undertaken to give the scholars a
knowledge of our woods and their quality. This work met with instant success, and for a time
the demand for samples and literature was greater than could be supplied.
The Lumber Commissioner was able to render valuable assistance to the British Columbia
Consolidated Shingle Manufacturers' Association in regard to quality tests of its products, which
were carried out in Eastern Canada.
The exhibit at the Canadian National Exhibition was rearranged and brought up to date.
This display again attracted a great deal of attention and was instrumental in introducing
British Columbian woods to thousands of people, each of whom uses, in some form, forest
products.
WATER-BORNE TRADE.
The water-borne trade reached 712,743 M. feet, board measure, a very substantial increase
over 1925 and a new high record in this line. The Atlantic still remains our chief market for
water-borne lumber, but during the year Japan purchased 177,193 M., which was 164 per cent,
over last year and more than any preceding year.
In reviewing the figures on purchases of timber supplied to the various countries in relation
to the total purchases on the Pacific Coast, they appear satisfactory except for Australia. The
demands of the Australian market increased during the year by 13 per cent., but the total
purchased in British Columbia was 10 per cent, less than in the previous year.
Water-borne Lumber Trade, 1921-26.
Destination.
Australia	
New Zealand	
South America	
China	
Japan	
United Kingdom and Continent
South Africa 	
India and Straits Settlements ..
United States    	
Philippine and Hawaiian Islands
West Indies and Cuba	
South Sea Islands	
Mexico	
Egypt	
Foreign, unclassified	
Totals	
Feet B.M.
27,275,928
4,553,603
1,317,825
41,944,011
52,447,160
13,592,562
2,931,909
8,429,403
25,553,543
1,158,805
20,668
941,422
8,566,400
188,733,2
1922.
Feet B.M.
55,949,129
4,516,862
3,244,776
24,640,268
72,339,631
12,698,383
2,415,500
7,249,487
83; 856,504
94,764
30,065
1,841,578
4,269,953
273,146,800
Feet B.M.
78,003,423
11,252,890
717,600
36,398,234
105.916,915
16,201,290
8,221,032
4,803,236
248,611,600
4,361,139
994,341
3,665,241
677,756
1,705,394
177,041
521,707,132
Feet B.M.
34,848,783
12,169,230
752,906
25,595,993
79,107,984
41,527,008
10,681,208
2,228,150
313,104,821
134,690
544,604
3,454,183
6,883,-50
229.60S
531,262,318
Feet B.M.
40,228,887
12,619,730
2,168,921
10,783,086
07,671,449
53,845,679
8,875,544
3,359,869
361,016,940
56,863
667,012
2,610,143
12,820,848
835,317
577,560,288
1926.
Feet B.M.
36,809,373
16,201,328
1,160,947
4,616,921
177,193,659
41,575,593
17,651,788
1,653,675
400,347,692
221,378
8,792,765
3,791,670
2,573,529
154,038
712,743,256 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 7
THE INDUSTRY.
The value of the industry is estimated at $84,802,000.    The increase is largely due to increase
in volume, the price being, if anything, lower than in 1925.
Estimated Value of Production.
Lumber	
Pulp and paper..
Shingles	
Boxes..
Piles, poles, and mine-props   	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties	
Ties, railway    	
Additional value contributed by the wood-using
industry	
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
Logs exported	
Pulpwood exported	
Totals .
133,533,000
13,500,000
7,032,000
2,000,000
1,479,000
1,180,000
2,314,000
2,034,000
250,000
1,648,000
1,970,000
$26,400,000
12,590,000
9,750,000
1,726,000
959,000
1,187,000
1,526,000
2,000,000
400,000
2,939,000
$59,477,000
$47,600,000
15,018,000
9,869,000
2,072,000
2,200,000
1,500,000
1,715,000
2,000,000
500,000
4,200,000
$86,674,000
$41,800,000
13,938,000
10,000,000
2,272,000
2,100,000
1,400,000
2,242,000
2,100,000
550,000
4,300,000
1,702,000
1925.
$41,350,000
14,466,000
10,000,000
2,200,000
2,400,000
1,800,000
1,990,000
2,100,000
1,617,000
3,870,000
148,000
$81,941,000
$84,802,000
PULP AND PAPER.
The year witnessed considerable activity in pulp and paper. A new paper-machine was
opened at Powell River, increasing the capacity there to 450 tons daily. The old Beaver Cove
Pulp and Paper Company was reorganized under " The Canadian Forest Products Company "
and new plans were laid for future development. Many inquiries were received and some
investigations carried out with regard to development of new projects. The production of pulp
and paper is shown below.
Pulp.
Pulp.
Sulphite	
Sulphate
Ground wood
1919.
1920.
1921.
Tons.
80,347
9,473
99,769
Tons.
92,299
16,380
108,665
Tons.
68,502
6,519
89,725
Tons.
86,894
9,674
100,759
99,878
9,932
107,266
89,839
14,403
112,001
Tons.
92,514
16,856
121,363
108,381
15,000
136,123
Paper.
Product.
Newsprint...
Other papers.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
Tons.
142,928
7,709
1924.
1925.
Tons.
123,607
7,202
Tons.
136,832
9,792
Tons.
110,176
6,934
Tons.
124,639
7,945
Tons.
136,281
9,653
Tons.
148,201
9,261
Tons.
176,924
10,389
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
No important changes occurred in organization. The Assistant Grazing Commissioners were
assigned to the two districts, Cariboo and Southern Interior, where the grazing is chiefly centred.
The Ranger staff was increased by four and additional men were placed on the temporary cruising
staff to take care of the heavy volume of cruising-work.
Late in the season one Assistant Forester was employed and assigned to the study of the
wTaste-products problem. In general it may be stated that the work is constantly increasing and
demanding an ever-increasing staff, if .proper inspection of field operations is to be undertaken
and the work done in a businesslike and satisfactory manner. Our staff is very limited in comparison with other Government services administering adjacent areas. AA 8
Department of Lands.
The following table gives a classification of personnel:—
Distribution of Force, 1926.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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INVESTIGATIONS.
(A.)  COAST.
I. Natural Reproduction Studies.
(a.) Reproduction Surveys.—No further work was done during the year, as it was felt that
results already accomplished were sufficient for present needs, and that this work does not tend
to solve basic problems in natural regeneration.
(6.) History Maps.—To secure data on the results of present conditions of the forest, maps
have been prepared on ten representative areas of Coast timber, giving a complete record of
logging, with date of each setting, and a record of subsequent happenings, such as slash-disposal,
fire occurrence, regeneration, etc. By this method we will, in a few years, have definite information on the results of these occurrences in nature and the behaviour of these sites if left to
chance.
(c.) Seed Dissemination.—Work was continued on this project, and the number of seed-traps
increased to 100 portable, 6 by 4 feet, and 25 permanent, 6 by 12 feet or 6 by 36 feet. These are
arranged at distances up to 80 chains from the parent tree, and observation maintained as to
how many fertile seeds are caught in each and what this represents to the acre. During the
current year hemlock was caught at SO chains, cedar at 20, and Douglas fir at 10.
The following table shows the total amount of seed caught of all species up to November 5th,
1926. Owing to the presence of snow on the areas under study it was not possible to make
examinations of these traps during the month of December.
In Green
Timber.
Distance in Chains from Green Timber.
2.
5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.
40.
50.
60.
70.
SO.
485
105
9,292
89
22
1,738
14
4
724
14
7
665
8
1
259
8
3
363
4
1
454
9
4
2
172
1
1
182 Mixed stand
D.B.H., 12.8 i
per acre.
tr and hi
Age, 96 years ; average
111   feet;    305   trees Union Bay.     Reproduction ten years after logging, 2,500 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 9
The preceding table detailed by species :-
Douglas fir:
Seeds caught    ....
Viable seeds caught	
Average viable seeds per acre
Hemlock:
Seeds caught	
Viable seeds caught	
Average viable seeds per acre
Cedar:
Seeds caught	
Viable seeds caught	
Average viable seeds per acre
In Green
Timber.
90
12
1,062
135
9
796
260
84
7,434
Distance
in Chains from Green Timber.
2.
5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.
40.
50.
60.
70.
6
5
1
1
2
181
190
72
4
6
6
6
3
8
3
14
2
3
1
2
1
2
1,106
362
285
259
242
454
172
17
4
3
2
1
1
1
1
8
1
0
1
632
181
190
121
1
1
182
Seed production has undoubtedly a marked influence on the quantity of seed caught or the
reproduction established in any year. For example, after the good seed-year of 1023 fifty Douglas
fir seedlings per acre established in 1924 at CO chains from the parent tree. In 1924 the Douglas
fir seed-crop was a failure, and during 1925 and 1926 Douglas fir and hemlock seed-crops were
very light, so that little or no new regeneration was found to follow these years. This variation
in the seed-crop is to a great extent responsible for the diversity in the number of seeds caught
and seedlings found from time to time.
In co-operation with the three western Forest Experiment Stations of the United States
Forest Service further data will be secured on seed dissemination by releasing known quantities
of seed at a given height and under ascertained wind velocity. The seed will then be collected
at various points to ascertain how far and in what quantities they travel under known conditions.
(d.) Seed Viability.—The viability studies to determine how long seed would remain fertile
when stored in duff were continued, and the first samples of seed were taken up and given a
germination test. The results were negative. To supplement these tests and get further data
on the stored-seed theory, 10 plots, 4 by 12 feet, were screened to keep out any wind-blown seed
immediately after a hum, but still having duff up to 4 inches thick. The resultant germination,
if any, will .be solely due to seed stored in the duff.
(e.) Seed Germination and Seedling Survival in Forest.—In order to determine the effect on
germination and survival of different forest seed-bed conditions, known quantities of Douglas fir,
hemlock, and cedar seed were sown on sites representing the following conditions: Bare mineral
soil; spring burn; light bracken cover—level; light bracken cover—steep north slope; light
bracken cover—steep south slope;   and 25, 50, and 75 per cent, shade.
Germination was low and a high mortality occurred, due to heat leisons, especially in Douglas
fir, but further work must be done before any concrete results can be announced. Surface-soil
temperatures were much higher than air temperature and varied with the seed-bed as follows,
when air temperature was 83° F.;— Deg F_
Level spring burn  145
30 per cent, southern slope, bracken   143
Level hare mineral soil   128
30 per cent, northern slope, bracken   108
Level light bracken     98
The highest soil temperature occurred on spring burns, and on these areas the highest
mortality in seedlings was observed.
Studies in natural regeneration indicate that for satisfactory restocking we must have an
abundant seed-supply and favourable seed-bed conditions. Dry hot years, such as have been
experienced since 1924, are especially detrimental.
II. Artificial Reproduction.
(a.) Nursery Practice.—Ten nursery beds, 4 by 12 feet, were prepared and sown with
Monterey pine, Sitka spruce, Douglas fir, cedar, hemlock, and some Japanese species. This stock
is intended for experimental purposes. The Sitka spruce will be set out in areas which originally
carried Douglas fir to determine the possibility of increasing the amount of spruce available for AA 10
Department op Lands.
1926
use with hemlock in the manufacture of pulp. An additional area has been prepared, and next
year more beds will be sown with Sitka spruce, Port Orford cedar, and redwood. The beds will
be sown sparsely, as it is the intention to transfer the plants directly from the seed-beds to
the field.
(b.) Planting.—The experimental fire-break started in 1925 was completed by planting an
additional 6,000 alder. A small plantation of 500 redwood, secured from the nurseries of the
University of Washington, was made in order to test this species under our climate. This species
showed 87 per cent, survival at the close of the season.
III. Yield.
Twelve permanent sample plots were established in Douglas fir and hemlock during the past
summer. These will be measured from time to time over a series of years to determine the
yield on the various sites with different density of growing stock.
IV. Fiee Studies.
(a.) Humidity.—A project was started in 1925 and continued through 1926 to determine the
variation in relative humidity due to topographic and soil-cover conditions, so that, if possible,
readings made under one set of conditions might be interpreted to apply to another. In 1925
self-recording hygrographs were stationed in the open on cut-over lands as follows: Over a
wharf; 30 yards from shore; one-half mile, 2 miles, and 3% miles inland. This study showed
that, when relative humidity was high at the Coast, there was a marked reduction as we
proceeded inland. As the danger-point was approached, however, this difference was less marked.
These changes are shown approximately in curves below.
Wharij
20 *i
V-
I l'/z 2 Viz 5
Distance inland in Miles.
Viz
In compiling the above charts data were taken only for clays when the humidity approached
the hazard-point at some time during the day, and reached at least 40 per cent, on the instrument
stationed 3% miles from the water.
During the past season hygrographs were stationed to record the effect of aspect and cover,
as follows:—
(a.) Cut-over lands—northern slope.
(6.) Cut-over lands—southern slope,
(o.)  In reproduction 10 feet high. Fir log 2 feet in diameter, quite sound and with pieces of
original bark still in place, straddled by cedar 2C1 years old.
Lot !)17, Gordon Pasha Lakes. >"
•-■■-.
."m^jf-.trnT-n ti-r. ..•.-..,      -    .•>_■•»   ..- ...    -.rt
The poplar in this stand seeded in after a fire which occurred
in the spruce type about seventy years ago. A new crop of
spruce has started under the poplar, and in a few years will
have crowded it out and become completely re-established 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 11
((..)  In reproduction 20 feet high—instrument in crowns 13 feet above ground.
(e.)  Same as above, but instrument 1% feet from ground and under crown canopy.
(/.) Under mature green forest.
Sufficient data were not secured to draw definite conclusions and the experiment will be
continued next season. The information already secured indicates very little difference exists
between northern and southern aspect, where slope is moderate. Where reproduction is established humidity increases and is highest under pole stands, where crown canopy is dense and
relatively low. As the relative humidity approaches the hazard-point, however, these differences
tend to equalize.
(6.) Empirical Studies on the Behaviour and Control of Fires.—Observations were made
on five fires during the past summer, and records were made of the humidity, temperature,
wind-velocity, type of forest fuels, topography, and rate of spread. The studies have not progressed sufficiently to present conclusive results, except that, on the Coast, humidity is the most
important indicator of the behaviour of fires and that wind-velocity is a factor of less importance.
The studies showed no correlation between relative humidity and wind-velocity. Fires appear to
be in good shape so long as the humidity remains high, but when the humidity drops below
30 per cent, these same fires frequently go out of control. Approximately 35 per cent, appears
to be the danger-point.
(c.) Fire Occurrence.—Studies in fire occurrence, due to the dropping of matches, cigarettes,
and other lighted substances, were undertaken. Results to date indicate that dropped matches
are a more prolific cause of Are than cigarette-stubs. Of the latter, the ready-made variety is
the more hazardous. Further laboratory tests, where humidity and other factors can be controlled, are now in hand and should give valuable data on this problem.
(B.)  CENTRAL INTERIOR.
I. Natural Reproduction Studies.
(a.) Reproduction Survey after Fires.—This study wyas undertaken to secure accurate
information of the nature and amount of natural reproduction after forest fires in the spruce
forests, which occupy such large areas in the region east of Prince George. During 1926 a
number of burned areas were examined by test-strips, having an aggregate length of approximately 1,000 chains (12% miles), and 17 sample plots were established. It has not been possible
to compile the statistics in time for the printing of this report, but the investigations of the past
summer indicate that the fires which have swept through extensive areas of the spruce type
occurred principally between 1855 and 1915. While most of the burned areas again bear a
forest-cover, the process of natural reproduction has been slow, and the young stands are inferior
in quality to the original forests which existed in the same localities. In most cases spruce
was originally replaced by poplar (Populus tremuloides and P. trichocarpa), but it is encouraging
that in many places fine stands of young spruce are being established by natural seeding under
these nurse species. Many of the poplar stands are surprisingly heavy, and with better economic
conditions in future years will be valuable as pulp-wood.
(b.) Factors affecting Reproduction in the Spruce-Balsam Type.—Throughout the spruce
forests of the Northern Interior natural reproduction is abundant under the mature timber, but
this young growth is almost entirely balsam (Abies lasiocarpa), a species at present of little value
and so susceptible to attacks of fungus-disease that it is unlikely to become a desired tree in the
future. A study of the factors responsible for these conditions has been undertaken, with the
object of developing a basis for forest management whereby in the future a greater proportion
of spruce regeneration may be obtained.   This study will require several years for completion.
Twelve permanent sample plots were established in 1926, on which all tree-growth was
measured and classified; on each plot portions of the soil were artificially treated, to determine
the effect of root competition and seed-bed conditions upon young seedlings. These plots are
to be under observation through several growing seasons.
(o.) The Reproduction and Growth in Spruce-Balaam Forests after Logging.—The object of
this study is to determine the number of seedlings and small trees which are left after logging
operations, and their rate of growth when they have been released from the suppressing influence
of the parent stand.   The information secured will serve as a basis for the management of AA 12
Department of Lands.
1926
cut-over areas, and will also indicate whether artificial methods of reforestation will be necessary
to keep such forest land productive.
The study wTas started in 1926 and will be continued for several years.    Four permanent
plots were established.    The preliminary figures from these plots are as follows:—
Number of Trees per Acre.
(Seven Years after Logging in a Typical Spruce Forest at Aleza Lake, B.C.)
Trees established per .Icre.
Spruce.
Balsam.
Birch.
130
120
620
780
20
770
Totals	
250
1,400
790
These figures are encouraging; they indicate that after logging there is a healthy reproduction produced naturally. However, further investigations are necessary to determine if this
new stand, composed largely of balsam, will remain healthy, and if the proportion of spruce, the
valuable species, is likely to increase in the future. . The tremendous increase in birch is an
interesting factor for consideration, and, in addition, continued study will have to be made over
a period of years to determine the time required for this young stand to produce a second cut of
saw-timber or pulp-wood.
II. Bbush-disposal in the Spruce-Balsam Type.
Proper disposal of slash after logging in the spruce forests of the Interior is essential in
securing adequate protection against fire, and this study has been undertaken to determine the
relative costs of the various methods of brush-disposal that have been proposed for this region,
together with their effects upon logging costs, fire hazard, and the establishment and development of second growth. This study is being made in a special timber-sale on the experiment
forest at Aleza Lake. In this sale the five following methods of brush-disposal are being carried
out on sample plots :—
(a.)  Piling and burning concurrently at the time of logging.
(&.) Piling at the time of logging and burning later.
(c.)  Leaving the brush in unburned piles.
(d.)  Lopping and scattering.
(e.)  Lopping only.
The cost of each method is being determined on these plots, and the experiment will be
repeated each year, with modifications which may appear advisable, as long as may be desirable.
The various plots will be kept under observation after logging, to note the effect of each method
of disposal upon natural reproduction and the reduction of fire hazard.
III. Mensuration—Tables of Volume and Yield.
During the year the following tables have been prepared:—
(a.)  Volume table, in board-feet, based on total height, for spruce in the Northern
Interior.
(6.)  Volume tables, in cubic feet, for merchantable and total contents, based on total
height, for lodgepole pine throughout the Interior,
(c.) Volume table, in board-feet, based on total height, for balsam in the Northern
Interior.
(d.) Normal yield table for lodgepole pine in the Northern Interior.    (In course of
preparation.) 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 13
Lodgepole Pine—Volume in Merchantable Cubic Feet, Interior of British Columbia.
(Volume Table in Cubic Feet to a Top Diameter inside Bark of 3 Inches
with a Stump 1 Foot high.)
Heigh
in Feet.
D.B.H.
Average
Total
Heit'ht.
D.B.H.
40.
50.
60.
70.
80.
90.
100.
110.
120.
130.
Average
Volume.
Contents in Cubic Feet.
6
3.75
5.19
6.79
8.51
10.37
12.36
4.72
6.55
8.57
10.77
13.13
15.65
18.29
21.09
23-94
26.84
5.70
7.91
10.36
13.03
15.89
18.93
22.13
25.53
28.98
32.48
35.97
39.21
41.76
6.68
9.27
12.12
15.27
18.64
22.21
25.97
29.95
34.01
38.12
42.22
46.04
49.04
51.77
54.18
56.30
7.66
10.62
13.92
17.50
21.37
25.47
29.78
34.37
39.03
43.75
48.46
52.84
56.31
59.46
62.25
64 70
66.90
8.65
11.98
15.68
19.74
24.08
28.72
33.59
38.76
44.03
49.37
54.70
59.66
63 57
67.15
70.31
73.10
75 60
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
53.5
60.0
66.3
72.3
77.3
81.7
85.3
88.3
91.0
93.0
95.0
96.6
98.2
100.0
102.0
104.0
106.0
7
13.35
17.47
21.92
26.75
31.92
37.36
43.14
49.02
54.97
60.93
66.46
70.84
74.84
78 37
81.60
84.30
8
9
10
11
29.42
35 13
41.12
47.50
53.99
60.65
67.13
73.24
78.09
82.50
86 43
90.00
93.00
11.42
15.78
20.63
12
44.88
51.85
58.95
66.41
73.33
80.02
85.32
90.17
94.48
98.40
101.70
13
14
63.88
72.13
79.49
86.77
92.56
97.80
102.50
106.80
110.40
44.53
IS
51.05
16
17
18
19
20
74 84
21
22
89.50 Department of Lands. 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 15
IV. The Growth in Stands of Lodgepole Pine after Selective Cutting for Ties.
The cutting of lodgepole pine railway-ties is the principal forest industry throughout large
areas of the Northern Interior, especially along the Canadian National Railway between Prince
George and Hazelton. In most of the stands where ties are cut only a few of the trees are
large enough to be utilized, and a study has been undertaken to determine the effect of the
removal of the larger trees upon those which are left and to find the time required for these
smaller trees to grow to merchantable size for ties. In this investigation eight sample plots
were established during 1926 in typical tie operations in the vicinity of Prince George. It is
expected that the analysis of the data secured from these plots will yield preliminary figures of
the desired information and future measurements of the plots over a period of years will furnish
more accurate figures.   Additional plots will be established during 1927 and subsequent years.
General—Aleza Lake Demonstration Forest.
The development of this forest has formed an important part of the investigative programme
for the year. The forest was reserved for experimental purposes in 1924; it comprises 6,100
acres of mature spruce-balsam timber and 200 acres of cut-over land, and is situated near Aleza
Lake, on the Canadian National Railway, in the heart of the spruce region.
The forest is used during the summer as a headquarters for research-work throughout the
Central Interior, and also provides field conditions for most of the investigations dealing with
the spruce types. When the information obtained in the various studies is sufficiently complete
to form a basis for experimental silvicultural cutting, these will be' made in the forest itself.
It is planned to operate the demonstration forest on a basis of sustained yield under intensive
forestry practice as a means of demonstrating to owners and operators of forest land the
advantages, economic and communal, which accrue from the application of sound forestry
practice. As far as possible, the annual cuttings in the demonstration forest will be experimental
in nature, thus combining in a single operation the investigative and illustrative phases of the
work.    The first logging is being carried out during the winter of 1926-27.
Certain necessary improvements have been constructed in the forest. During 1926 the
system of trails for fire-protection was extended and certain mapping-work completed. The
Experiment Station road and grounds were improved and a second building erected for the
field staff.
RECONNAISSANCE.
As a result of an application by a prospective pulp company, an examination was made of
Crown areas on the west coast of Vancouver Island between Nootka and Barkley Sounds. Of the
69,000 acres covered in this cruise, only 5,000 acres were found to contain commercial timber,
estimated at 133,440 M. feet, board measure. Some 2,000 acres were found to have soil of
agricultural value, but the cost of clearing and the isolation render settlement impracticable
and, at present, undesirable.
A cruise was made on Graham Island of 60,000 acres, covering the headwaters of Yakoun
River. The area was found to contain 1,168,000 M. feet, board measure, of spruce, hemlock, and
cedar. This area has been offered for sale as a pulp licence and will probably be sold in the
near future.
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
A classification survey was carried out along the south-western boundary of the Babine
Forest to determine what sections were chiefly valuable for forest and what had agricultural
value, special consideration being given to soil characteristics and fertility. Approximately
90,000 acres were covered in the survey, of which one-half was found suitable for agricultural
development and the balance better suited for forest-crops. Five thousand acres carried stands
of commercial timber, 75,000 acres were in process of restocking, and 10,000 acres were recent
burn, where reproduction was not yet established. The forest for the most part is of the lodge-
pole-pine type.
The best agricultural section was situated between Rose and Burns Lakes, where 6,000 acres
were shown to be good farm land. The agricultural value was arrived at through the preparation
of soil-type maps, contour and cover maps. The soil maps will be an aid to prospective settlers
looking for locations in this vicinity and may be supplemented by data on soil-analysis. AA 16
Department of Lands.
1926
A classification survey was made for purposes of laud settlement in the Prince George
District, covering 100,000 acres. Of this area, 40,000 acres were found to carry statutory timber,
containing a total stand of 590,000 M. feet, board measure, and 48,000 acres were found suitable
for agricultural development, but will require considerable clearing.
Miscellaneous areas reported on for purposes of land settlement under the "■ Land Act " are
shown in the following tables :—
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes op " Land Act."
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George.....
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert. .
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Totals...
Applications for
Crown Grants.
No.
2
Acres.
227
726
204
410
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
29
1
2
32
Acres.
4,512
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
No.
62
35
18
18
Acres.
8,860
6,832
1,120
5,273
2,115
1,461
25,661
Applications to
Purchase.
32
9
19
61
40
207
Acres.
6,507
4,810
1,018
4,131
9,688
4,281
Miscellaneous.
38
91
2
68
224
152
Acres.
6.0S0
116,277
45
5,319
74,144
63,500
265,365
Classification of Areas examined in 1920.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimate of
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
26,186
127,999
2,183
15,449
86,463
69,652
Acres.
3,118
65,918
580
4,562
4,460
5,890
84,534
Acres.
23,068
62,081
1,603
10.8S7
82,003
63,756
243,398
Acres.
1,280
40,723
1,827
4,149
2,125
50,104
M.B.M.
13,341
009,031
20,302
35,777
68,822
327,932
737,273
TAXATION VALUATION SURVEY.
The Forest Branch undertook valuation cruises for the Taxation Branch for the first time
during the year 1926, and covered 24,937 acres of Crown-granted land in the Prince George
District and 6,940 acres in the Alberni District. In the Prince George area 12,964 acres were
found to be timber land, and in the Alberni District 1,633 acres were so classified.
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY.
Control-work on bark-beetles in the yellow pine south of Merritt was continued in the spring
of 1926. A total of 3,358 yellow pine and lodgepole pine trees were cut and the bark burned at
an average cost of $2.46 per tree.
The large infested areas of yellow pine in the region to which our control measures are
being restricted, lying between Merritt and Canyon House east of the Coldwater River, have all
been worked over. However, the recleaning of some of these areas, together with the treatment
of small scattered infestations, will probably require the disposal of 3,000 trees next season.
Kelowna Watershed.—Insect-control in the lodgepole pine on this watershed may be considered as more or less of-an experiment. This beetle (Dendroctonus monticola) has destroyed
large areas of lodgepole pine south of the boundary-line in the United States and there are
also several large infestations in this Province. The forest entomologists are still uncertain
of the practicability of attempting to hold it in check in those sections where conditions are
most favourable for its spread. It does, however, appear advisable to investigate the possibilities
of control of this insect, owing to the extent of our lodgepole pine areas and the growing
importance of this species.
It was anticipated last year that a large number of trees would require treatment in 1926,
and nearly 10,000 were disposed of this season at an average cost of 72 cents per tree. While
it is a little too early to draw definite conclusions on the practicability of attempting control-work 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 17
on other areas, indications are that, as far as this particular area is concerned, the control-work
has materially assisted in checking the epidemic, and a much smaller number of trees will require
treatment in 1927.
The fact that this area lies on a watershed of great importance to the fruit industry
warrants a special study of this insect-control problem.
Other Infestations.—Every year more attention is being given by forest authorities to the
part played by insects in the life of our forests, and they are beginning to appreciate the
necessity of watching all incipient infestations and of being prepared to institute control
measures, if practicable, for those which show signs of becoming epidemic. These measures,
to be effective, should be preceded by a thorough study of the life-habits of the insects concerned.
During 1926 several species of destructive insects have been under the special observation
of Mr. Ralph Hopping and his assistants, of the Entomological Bureau of the Dominion Government.
The spruce bud-worm, which was so much in evidence in the Quesnel Lake region in 1924
and almost entirely disappeared in 1925, became again more prominent in 1926. Several small
infestations in the Douglas fir on Vancouver Island were also reported this year £nd examined.
While these Western infestations of spruce bud-worm have not yet become serious, the devastations of this insect in the Eastern Provinces emphasize the necessity of carefully watching the
situation here.
A study has been made of the life-history of the flathead borer (Trachykele blondeli) and
the damage caused by it to the cedar on the Lower Coast between Sechelt and Toba Inlets. The
leport has not yet been published by the Dominion Entomological Branch.
During the past couple of years various rumours have been received of serious damage to
valuable stands of Sitka spruce on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Mr. Hopping made a personal
investigation of the epidemic and identified the insect as an aphis (Myzaphis abietina). While
the appearance of the spruce stands seemed to indicate that large numbers of trees were dying,
a close examination showed that the insect was working mostly on the older needles, and the
younger needles and buds were seldom attacked. Little damage may be expected unless the
epidemic continues for several years and increases in intensity. The few records possessed by
entomologists of other infestations by this insect indicate that the above inference is correct,
and epidemics usually die down before causing serious damage.
LOG SCALING.
The cut for the year, as shown by the scaling returns, increased to 2,918,119 M. feet, board
measure, which does not include fuel nor the material cut for rural use on farms, etc. For this
material returns are not received, but it is estimated at approximately 250,000 M. feet. This
makes a grand total of 3,168,119 M. feet, as the total drain on our forest resources, 82 per cent,
of which is of sawlog quality. Douglas fir represents 42 per cent, of the total cut, and this
species shared to a greater extent in this year's expansion than any other. Cedar showed a
falling-off due to a disrupted market and prevailing low prices. The cut of yellow pine and
larch is also a reduction over last year's, while the reduction in the number of ties cut is
reflected largely in lodgepole pine. AA 18
Department op Lands.
1926
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Forest Branch.
AA 21
LOGGING OPERATIONS.
The number of active operations in the Province increased by 13 per cent, to 3,453. These
lequired the making of 7,921 inspection reports by our field staff in order to ensure that the
Department's interests were protected, the marking properly done, and that cutting was confined
to tbe proper areas. As a result of these inspections 84 cases of trespass were discovered, as
compared with 87 in 1925. The area cut over and the quantity of lumber involved, however,
were considerably less than during the previous year. The amount of penalties billed on account
of illegal cutting totalled $9,457.64.
Logging Inspection, 1926.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
.Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. at
Inspections.
39
191
51
368
455
371
'73
ii
85
261
95
245
607
628
124
452
146
659
1,062
1,010
241
839
471
1,328
1,550
3,492
Totals, 1926	
1,475
84
1,921
3,453
7,921
Totals, 1925	
1,262
54
1,730
3,046
3,167
7,321
1,245
69
1,853
7,466
Totals, 1923	
1,010
914
691
166
2,140
3,316
6,892
Totals, 1922	
159
1,579
1,331
2,652
4,654
Totals, 1921	
186
2,208
4,053
Totals, 1920	
605
220
1,961
2,796
2,703
TRESPASSES, 1926.
Forest District.
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
Quantity
CUT.
o **
H   |
Offl
O  t3L
fc.S
Amount.
Feet B.M.
Lineal
Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
8
11
4
16
19
26
84
55
98
2.
213
57
95
5,916
61,076
74,202
376,096
121,742
1,334,812
1,972,843
1,955
7,150
91,102
11,385
32,765
126
si
19
107
150
655
6,023
1,800
1,555
200
1
"i
%     169 71
564 07
252 55
1,356 45
766 83
6,348 03
Totals, 1926	
641
144,357
433
10,233
6
8 9,457 64
Totals, 1925 ... .•	
87
645
3,486,609
98,456
1,563
16,820
4
$14,534 94
Totals, 1924	
68
670
2,182,808
54,068
767
7,646
2
$ 8,539 86
Totals, 1923	
105
1,015
6,712,868
121,202
1,598
2,591
1,639
20,082
8
$27,860 08
Totals, 1922	
98
1,059
3,002,881
98,903
27,022
16
$16,406 30
Totals, 1921	
98
1,938
3,222,673
209,395
21,605
10
$15,924 22
73
1,788
4,904,079
104,048
1,882
6,716
10
$17,119 85 AA 22
Department op Lands.
1926
TIMBER-SALE TRANSACTIONS.
The timber-sales awarded during the year totalled 6S7, an increase of 74 over 1925, with a
total revenue value estimated at $1,038,536.69, an increase of 25 per cent, over the previous year.
The average stumpage price was slightly less than in 1925. This is due not only to current
depression in lumber values, but to the shifting of the centre of our timber-sale business from
the Coast to the Interior districts. In 1925 66 per cent, of the sawlog material sold was on the
Coast and in 1926 only 50 per cent. In the cut from timber-sales there was a falling-off in
sawlogs and cord material equalling 10,800 M. feet, board measure, but an increase in poles and
ties equivalent to 4,000 M. feet, board measure.
Timbeb-sales awakded by Districts, 1926.
District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
No. ol
Posts.
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(No. of Cords).
No. of
Railway-
ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
31
26
115
154
162
199
3,647
2,527
24,764.10
26,369.78
24,352.70
37,154.65
118,815.23
94,015.25
146,662
163,464
6,359,150
1,376,564
90,314,185
42,541,925
67,708,919
88,186,000
232,818
297,300
2,566,779
1,931,690
469,120
45,700
161,490
3,105
644
4,522
2,084
3,100
175,027
14,912
332,163
143,257
372,900
6,740
$     24,312 03
10,013 25
279,707 28
Southern Interior ....
224,363 35
211,594 05
288,546 73
Totals, 1926...
687
613
769
295,486,743
5,497,707
6,629,449
207,190
12,877
13,465
40,334
1,044,999
566,142
$1,038,536 69
Totals, 1926...
189,022,314
302,813,267
$   795,802 20
Totals, 1924...
6,336,071
47,640
23,150
2,418,633
2,304,161
880,307
993,417
6,415,349
957,804
$1,226,460 87
Totals, 1923...
852
616,397,438
6,234,342
$1,513,970 84
Totals, 1922...
671
108,501
249,572,808
188,971,774
440,649,756
245,209,300
3,304,254
2,479,095
2,811,095
149,300
41,580
$   862,888 49
Totals, 1921...
531
91,614
34,291
$   646,487 65
Totals, 1920...
594
121,690
61,809
86,726
$1,799,039 03
Totals, 1919...
356
227
2,899,000
378,080
5,000
20,000
40,000
52,557
$   654,372 09
Totals, 1918...
34,257
44,914
159,659,000
240,307,067
136,345,000
18,478
701,654
$   380,408 33
Totals, 1917...
255
1,617,450     ,
435,810
43,756
381,200
$   483,281 50
Totals, 1916...
133
23,318
26,666
92,000
$   259,765 12
Average Sale Price by Species.
Saw-timber.
Doug-las fir	
Cedar    	
Spruce 	
Hemlock	
Balsam	
White pine	
Western soft pine.,
Tamarack	
Other species	
Totals
Figures for 1926.
Board-feet.
Price
Per M.
57,772,863
$1 67
37,147,149
2 01
106,636,017
1 76
40,746,817
1 01
21,478,293
79
6,370,450
3 98
5,225,470
2 04
425,000
1 47
' 10,344,684
1 47
•286,146,743
$1 66
Figures for 1925.
Board-feet.
960,515
953,370
374,625
038,240
763,909
193,280
909,580
082,850
855,945
184,122,314
Price
Per M.
$1 78
2 05
1 91
1 03
1 05
3 74
2 07
1 46
1 20
$1 78
Figures for 1924.
Price
74,708,507
$1 73
63,367,585
2 28
74,064,508
1 63
33,622,807
1 21
13,295,185
1 10
5,802,597
2 63
9,446,869
1 83
4,804,072
1 63
23,701,137
1 50
$1 74
302,813,267
Figures for 1923.
75,915,023
61,303,504
101,703,592
43,956,950
17,580,743'
4,184,830
28,211,030
6,824,365
6,402,401
345,082,438
Price
per M.
$1 72
2 25
1 58
1 14
1 10
2 85
1 88
1 80
1 34
$1 68
"Note—9,340,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in above list. —
17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 23
TlMBEE  CUT  FROM  TlMBER-S.U,ES  DUBINQ  1926.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
685,384
1,929,309
48,977,927
24,300,942
48,170,586
118,909,376
242,973,524
251,141,398
230,148,575
207,473,848
187,217,151
179,780,056
168,783,812
5,510
683,524
388,845
2,069,066
1,196,349
631,326
2,460.63
44.00
195.50
5,154.60
1,475.11
7,346.61
34,418
23,783
204,930
449,601
•484,328
1,862
Totals, 1926	
4,974,620
16,676.46
1,198,922
4,885,352
4,541,371
20,808.14
1,077,414
Totals, 1924	
17,294.00
17,666.65
1,543,915
Totals, 1923	
2,753,532
856,628
Totals, 1922,	
1,523,744
37,345.91
495,672
Totals, 1921	
2,169,550
10,483.00
831,423
Totals, 1920	
1,638,549
17,703.00
654,829
Totals, 1919	
107,701,950
113,927,610
99,078,832
672,699
499,589
12,208.00
15,539.00
573,286
Totals, 1918	
146,807
Totals, 1917	
645,429
14,862.00
34,937
Totals, 1916	
63,055,102
225,799
8,425.00
Areas ceuised for Timber-sales, 1926.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(M.B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Posts
(No.)
19
133
28
173
280
186
2,108
30,233
3,943
25,537
44,662
36,032
145,515
4,660
114,848
12,706
82,620
49,479
105,404
254.210
999,758
1,470,666
1,096,878
415,870
3,075
2,130
2,144
5,734
2,165
144,908
810,482
27,672
220,590
89,243
6,931
20,200
Totals, 1926	
819
369,717
353,225
4,236,881
9,113,052
15,248
57,441
1,299,826
1,389,604
20,200
819
119,436
179,609
14,477
942
451,476
8,465,924
41,554
1,873,964 AA 24
Department of Lands.
1926
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1926.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
d
to
*3
Is
S >,',
KflS
169
626
528
685
2,540
8,514
12,962
11,475
11,986
11,273
a
S ri
v a*
"is
195
15,404
d
fr,
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
M.B.M.
d
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
Shingles, M.
36
23
34
26
72
200
1
3
83
87
24
1
14
7
41
15
116
50
256
•430
606
157
1,675
2,121
i
2
1
2
6
120
200
20
120
Totals for 1926	
391
15,614
15,322
15,636
102
460
Totals for 1925	
363
82
109
9
625
Totals for 1924	
359
78
103
2,618
20
16
1,780
352
107
16,144
72
1,493
2,054
2,029
745
Totals for 1922	
292
9,683
108
15,544
90
8
680
289
8,912
10,729
79
109
10,885
13,426
78
6
788
341
37
909
2
30
Export of Logs during Year 192G.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
F.B.M.
16,291,973
15,798,318
105,700
F.B.M.
53,139,751
50,950,863
1,232,765
F.B.M.
36,824,524
15,136,088
1,152,909
F.B.M.
F.B.M.
106,256,248
Fir	
81,884,769
2,491,374
24,426,656
4,602,860
4,731,501
84,307
24,426,656
4,602,860
4,731,501
84,307
32,195,991
53,113,521
Totals, 1926	
105,322,879
33,845,324
38,901,670
55,763,860
224,477,715
Totals, 1925	
34,501,748
96,701,737
111,801,016
40,312,806
210,417,961
Totals, 1924	
23,416,816
49,549,135
240,530,827 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 25
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Quantity exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
Japan.
Kamloops—
Lin. ft., 1,538,795
Lin. ft.,     152,292
Cords,                98
Cords,                12
Lin. ft.,     452,165
No.             415,102
Cords,               946
Lin. ft.,  1,528,282
No.             447,565
Cords,                   9
Lin. ft., 7,276,960
Cords,           5,364
No.             842,066
Cords,                67
Cords,              180
Cords,         10,679
Lin. ft., 6,994,643
Cords,                 27
Cords,           7,519
t    196,330
18,275
490
72
58,780
252,382
5,670
213,693
26,420
117
1,237,083
59,004
473,136
536
1,620
96,111
1,049,196
266
75,188
1,392,945
400,635
885,945
6,634,465
33,239
180
3,588
6,710,318
24
7,519
145,850
152,292
98
12
51,520
415,102
945
642,337
447,565
9
642,495
5,364
808,827
67
7,09i
Fort George-
Prince Rupert—
Southern Interior—
Vancouver—
284,325
3
Total value, 1926	
$3,764,369
S3,572,455
PRE-EMPTION INSPECTION REPORTS, 1926.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Cariboo   523
Fort George   556
Kamloops  123
Prince Rupert   338
Vancouver  359
Southern Interior   242
Total    2,141
ANALYSIS OF ROUTINE WORK.
Draughting Office, Forest Branch.
January	
February....
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September....
October 	
November	
December .  ..
Totals
10
9
20
8
22
10
14
137
Number of Tracings made.
Timber,
marks.
157
101
121
107
103
175
62
42
39
43
1,079
Examination
Sketches.
50
33
34
43
31
28
43
32
25
28
23
12
Hand-logger
Licences.
30
3
7
4
8
4
1
12
Miscellaneous.
18
27
34
61
98
30
47
32
30
20
28
7
Totals.
244
177
229
223
245
246
168
130
103
113
132
105
2,115
Blue-prints
from Reference Maps.
19
14
50
90
73
24
26
78
8
24
21
191
618 AA 26
Department op Lands.
1926
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued for the Years 1924, 1925, and 1926.
1924. 1925. 1926.
Old Crown grants    133 126 130
Crown grants, 1887-1906 ,     131 138 162
Crown grants, 1906-1914     168 205 165
Section 53, " Forest Act "      310 350 270
Stumpage reservations       57 36 45
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land Act "     21 30 14
Dominion lands (general)       85 96 28
Dominion lands (timber berths)       10 20
Dominion lands (Indian reserves)   4 21
Timber-sales      769 613 689
Hand-loggers        30 22 16
Special marks         117
Rights-of-way     1 1
Pulp licences                   3
Totals    1,705 1,632 1,571
Transfers and changes of marks    258 171 178
Number issued
HAND-LOGGERS' LICENCES.
1924. 1925. 1926.
      93               102 85
REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.
The direct revenue of the Forest Branch reached the $3,600,000 mark, which is a new high
record, exceeding 1925 by $110,000. The increase in the past five years is $908,414, and in the
past ten years the annual increase has averaged $176,000. This increase is entirely due to
expansion in operations, as shown through stumpage and royalty. Rentals and licence fees are
both constantly being reduced as the areas covered are logged or dropped. The charges for active
operations during the year were $2,528,822.43, as set out in tables below.
Forest Revenue.
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals	
Penalty fees and interest	
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)..
Trespass penalties	
Scalers' examination fees	
Exchange	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous	
Grazing fees	
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands..
Total revenue from forest sources
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1926.
§1,063,812 90
2,400 00
32,549 14
2,250 00
90,010 89
254 91
20,537 75
572,324 74
7,173 84
1,498 82
1,779,553 60
1,344 75
98 17
11,677 12
850 00
693 04
300 50
3,651 95
$3,590,482 12
12,328 54
410,684 46
84,013,495 12
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1925.
$1,130,556 62
3,465 00
28,017 75
2,775 00
92,485 38
283 33
17,045 45
512,399 28
6,296 67
1,403 43
1,658,043 07
1,044 25
253 24
17,841 58
160 00
520 12
1,097 95
4,699 66
$3,478,387 68
14,114 89
398,393 85
$3,890,896 42
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1924.
$1,180,179 55
4,650 00
64,653 05
2,460 00
99,974 25
186 92
19,943 01
537,786 50
7,491 04
2,033 96
1,521,001 39
1,564 85
753 27
14,685 27
430 00
1,332 26
654 92
9,392 22
$3,469,112 46
14,240 66
298,973 97
$3,782,327 09
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1923
$1,283,300 77
3,750 00
100,045 86
6,300 00
102,002 40
72 22
28,383 49
431,007 99
9,933 97
3,509 00
1,477,027 24
1,160 89
667 53
11,362 99
495 00
3,168 40
1,559 17
5,907 36
$3,468,714 28
13,651 01
308,041 92
$3,790,407 21
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1922.
$1,390,999 64
1,950 00
83,376 60
6,050 00
94,392 31
247 77
26,790 12
358,984 19
8,699 50
2,188 63
1,203,884 89
3,138 05
1,061 94
13,397 91
175 00
357 14
454 36
3,135 47
$3,199,283 51
8,171 21
319,410 51
$3,526,865 23
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1921.
$1,193,654 58
3,735 00
50,859 19
9,175 00
81,840 61
21 85
12,659 91
317,4S8 77
4,640 39
1,695 08
990,326 99
2,015 83
765 98
11,245 86
455 00
291 03
330 80
1,972 33
$2,683,174 20
11,221 79
261,896 49
$2,956,292 48 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 27
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1926.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
Tax.
Trespass
Penalties.
Seizure
Expenses.
Government Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stumpage.
Forest District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver 	
Cariboo .
Prince Rupert.
$1,308,288 82
3,796 49
128,259 43
209,112 51
111,018 02
14,019 48
$    112 71
1,234 57
242 55
$ 140 45
32 50
207 20
759 73
2 50
$1,142 38
$ 913 29
$ 708 24
$   48 50
43 84
6 00
$   98 34
$ 720 39
427 02
$ 16,302 52
977 36
$110,867 25
8,837 50
$241,347 95
3,652 95
127,527 12
115,262 65
106,073 29
19,501 23
$1,677,715 88
7,562 15
267,339 34
324,588 26
Fort George ...
Kamloops	
$ 17,279 88
217,851 04
33,765 76
Totals	
$1,774,494 75
$1,754,605 06
$1,542,070 96
$1,499,355 83
$1,149,745 76
$1,005,261 61
$ 1,589 83
$1,147 41
$1,254 80
$119,704 75
$613,365 09
$2,528,822 43
Totals, 1925
$59,804 57
$10,860 22
$26,508 75
$ 197 08
$ 548 37
$ 741 56
$ 18,794 39
$ 14,760 12
$116,682 68
$103,691 71
$108,713 66
$103,774 90
$114,450 43
$651,486 17
$597,071 65
$467,048 15
$2,603,738 04
Totals, 1924
$2,179 42
$1,175 22
$2,271,890 69
Totals, 1823
$ 746 59
$ 15,743 96
$2,119,033 72
Totals, 1922
$14,926 63
$1,326 80
$1,933 72
$ 769 08
$1,940 08
$1,256 70
$ 12,407 50
$ 11,396 11
$375,607 42
$396,303 19
$1,661,662 81
Totals, 1921
$14,297 39
$ 516 85
$1,544,251 36
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1925-26.
Forest District.
Headquarters ....
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George. ...
Prince Rupert....
Southern Interior.
Vancouver 	
Totals.
Salaries.
133 68
454 09
933 00
303 50
794 86
601 61
447 63
$220,568 37
Temporary
Assistance.
$ 245 S3
2,466 00
665 79
840 00
1,030 00
2,813 62
1,445 09
1,505 83
Expenses.
$ 27,689 90
4,657 22
3,422 82
5,183 91
26,556 27
24,421 63
43,879 59
$135,811 21
Total.
$117,068 91
13,577 31
11,021 61
19,327 41
49,381 13
60,736 76
94,772 31
, 44
Lumber-trade extension   19,065 30
Reconnaissance, etc       40,984 30
Insect-control   14,506 23
Grazing: range improvement        5,412 96
Grand total.
$445,854 23
The sums estimated as being required for the fiscal year 1926-27 were as follows:—
Salaries   :.  $238,569 00
Travelling expenses, Ranger stations, and wireless        46,000 00
Lumber-trade extension      20,000 00
Reconnaissance, etc      45,000 00
Insect damage:  investigation and control   15,000 00
Grazing: range improvement       10,000 00
Total  $374,569 00
In addition to this total, sums were available from the main Lands Department votes for
temporary assistance, office supplies, maintenance of launches and autos, and miscellaneous
expenses; publicity, general investigations, and contingencies. The sum of $300,000 was also
voted as the amount of the contribution of the Government to the Forest Protection Fund. '■-;' v,',
AA 28 Department of Lands. 1926
SCALING FUND.   .
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1925   $    5,401 58     	
Expenditure, fiscal year 1925-26  $146,958 97
Charges, fiscal year 1925-26      139,515 46    	
Balance, March 31st, 1926         2,041 93     	
$146,958 97 $146,958 97
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1926  $   2,041 93
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1926   99,327 00
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1926  $104,894 04    	
Balance, being excess of charges over expenditure   3,525 11
$104,894 04 $104,S94 04
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Reserve Account as of December
31st, 1926 :—
Amount received from the Treasury, being 3 per cent, of receipts
from royalty, tax, and stumpage under subsection (2) of section
2 of the " Forest Act Amendment Act, 1925 "  $69,888 40
Expenditure for 9 months ended December 31st, 1926  50,165 00
Balance  $19,723 40
CROWN-GRANT TIMBER LANDS.
Area of Private
Timber Lands Average Value
(Acres). per Acre.
1911  ;     824,814 $ 8 72
1912      874,715 8 60
1913      922,948 9 02
1914      960,464 9 66
1915      913,245 9 55
1916      922,206 9 73
1917  :     916,726 9 61
191S  ' 896,188 9 60
1919  -.     883,491 9 48
1920  ,.     867,921 11 62
1921     845,111 10 33
1922      887,980 11 99
1923      883,344 11 62
1924      654,668 15 22
1925      654,016 40 61
1926      688,372 39 77 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 29
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1926.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1925.
Average Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value per
Acre since
1925.
96,976
153,278
88,537
48,408
328
31,846
7,129
82,962
31,709
1,164
42,017
58,156
11,295
34,569
688,372
+10,738
+ 7,132
- 1,221
- 3,430
+     328
- 4,119
+ 2,889
783
4-10,001
618
rt.           2
4- 2,769
+ 7,867
-1- 2,811
■4-34,356
$54 49
50 70
69 77
10 10
14 98»
9 23
12 22
44 81
9 89
20 57
15 261
10 12
66 21
35 75
$39 77
- $ 4 38
20
39
+        43
+        01
76
24
+    1 27
-    12 77
+       68
- 73 00
- 1 95
-$   84
K Not previously classified as timber land.
t No change.
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1926 :—
Balance at April 1st, 1925   $     52,242 67
Collections, fiscal year 1925-26  $   176,269 72
Collections under special levy, 1925-26          95,851 35
Government contribution       G0O,249 51
        872,370 58
$  924,613 25
Expenditure, fiscal year 1925-26  $1,073,431 70
Less refunds          21,410 31
$1,052,021 39
Refund of revenue   4 00
 1,052,025 39
Balance (deficit)  $   127,412 14
Balance (deficit) at April 1st, 1926  :  $   127,412 14
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1926   $   787,802 05
Less refunds  13,402 52
 774,399 53
$   901,811 07
Collections, 9 months, April-December, 1920  $   136,708 94
Collections  under   special   levy,   9  months,  April-
December, 1926          70,409 10
Government contribution        225,153 60
       432,271 64
Balance (deficit)   $  469,540 03 AA 30
Department of Lands.
1926
Forest Protection Fund Expenditure.
Fiscai
Years.
1919-20.
1920-21.
1921-22.
1922-23.
1923-24.
1924-25.
1925-26.
9 months,
April 1st to
Dec. 31st, 1926.
Patrols and fire pre-
Tools and equipment.
Improvements and
$135,452
64,563
165,688
26,555
$163,360
121,353
292,890
68,239
$C27,738
118,933
106,891
17,779
$202,994
91,812
508,992
37,609
$254,792
81,408
75,503
21,667
$344,532
25,418
268,034
5,690
$377,427
33,976
650,138
11,890
$245,548
28,692
604,284
9,328
Totals	
$392,258
$645,842
$471,341
$841,407
$433,370
$633,674
$1,073,431
$787,802
Expenditure by Districts for Nine Months ended December 31st, 1926.
District.
Victoria 	
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George ...
Prince Rupert ..
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Undistributed ...
Totals...
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
$ 30,760 87
12,021 51
17,340 98
20,244 79
12,233 84
63,428 56
49,517 17
40,000 00
$245,547 72
Tools and
Equipment.
$17,
.237 85
889 93
350 92
619 59
367 87
234 65
991 63
$28,692 34
Fires.
$ 12,676 08
21,862 70
14,634 76
2,184 36
410,387 08
42,489 48
$504,234 46
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
$  3,001 29
89 80
3,037 82
202 18
1,937 34
1,059 10
$9,327 53
Total.
$ 47,998 72
28,588 81
40,644 40
39,536 96
14,988 25
478,987 53
97,057 38
40,000 00
$787,802 05
Expenditure for Twelve Months ended April 1st, 1926.
District.
Victoria 	
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George
Prince Rupert  ...
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Totals....
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
$ 55,571 68
18,837 03
22,885 17
29,270 84
20,059 45
110,641 22
120,162 23
$377,427 i
Tools and
Equipment.
$ 3,332 76
934 06
2,727 71
1,737 90
873 88
13,856 06
10,513 25
$33,975 62
Fires.
$ 16,721 40
44,040 67
38,247 06
12,634 70
378,881 98
159,612 60
$650,138 41
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
84 99
156 99
403 12
24 38
8,516 93
2,703 64
$11,890 05
$ 58,904 44
36,577 48
69,810 54
69,658 92
33,592 41
511,896 19
292,991 72
51,073,431 70
FOREST-PROTECTION.
The fire season of 1926 might be described as one of variable intensity over the Province
as a whole. The season was normal on the Coast and in the Northern Interior. The Southern
Interior region, however, in common with the northerly portions of Idaho, Montana, and Eastern
Washington, experienced the worst situation in years, more severe in some respects than 1925.
Conditions in the Kamloops District were extremely hazardous during July and early August.
The winter of 1925-26 was exceptional throughout the interior of the Province, because of
its remarkable mildness and lack of snowfall. The light fall of snow disappeared early, and in
the last week in April and early in May, before the green vegetation could start, certain parts
experienced a number of fires. The climatic condition in May and June was such that, although
a considerable number of fires occurred, they were extinguished with comparatively little loss
and at a moderate cost.
In early July there developed a very dangerous situation due to a series of lightning-storms
in the Interior. On the Coast a humidity of 19 per cent, was registered at Vancouver on July
12th; twenty-two fires were reported on this date and the three most disastrous of the season
started and escaped control. Electric storms that covered the Kamloops and the Southern
Interior Districts occurred on July 6th and 12th, setting in all over 150 fires.    This was followed I   II
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by an almost continuous absence of precipitation until August 17th, which, together with strong
winds, high temperatures, and low humidities, resulted in a fire situation unparalleled in intensity
in this portion of the Province since the inception of organized forest-protection.
Copious rains occurred in the Interior during the latter part of August, which practically
ended the fire season.
An influential factor in keeping down Are losses on the Coast can be laid, in part, to the
extraordinary precautions taken by logging operators. Fully 50 per cent, of the Coast operators
suspended work entirely during dangerous periods, and the majority of those who continued to
work did so on the early-shift plan. Many operators installed hygrographs or humidity reading
devices, and watched them for the approach of dangerous conditions. Non-smoking in the woods
was a requirement for employment in many of the Coast camps.
While the number of lightning-fires in 1926 is less than in 1925, the percentage of the total
assigned to this cause still remains approximately the same, at 25.96 per cent. Compared with
12 per cent., the average of the ten years previous to 1925, this shows a remarkable and unex-
plainable increase in this hazard. That this increase is not confined to our own country is shown
by United States Forest Service records and by the records of power companies and others.
FIRE WEATHER WARNING SERVICE.
The Superintendent of the Meteorological Service, Victoria, continued the daily fire weather
forecast by broadcasting from Station CFYC, Daily Province, Vancouver. As many of the Coast
logging camps are equipped with radio receiving sets, this service furnished an excellent way of
giving warning of the approach of bad fire conditions.
Through the courtesy of the United States Meteorological Service at Spokane the District
Forester at Nelson was given a daily weather forecast during the latter part of the season.
FIRE OCCURRENCE.
A total of 2,147 fires occurred during the season, as compared with 2,521 fires during 1925.
This year, however, 53.99 per cent, of the total number occurred in the Southern Interior region,
a larger proportion than ever before. The extreme hazard was not so long this year as in 1925,
but was more intense, 63.05 per cent, of the fires occurring during July and August, and the
majority of these during the period between July 12th and August 17th. An increase is shown
in the percentage of fires extinguished while small, and a new high record of 75.93 per cent, put
out under 10 acres reflects considerable credit on the fire-suppression organization. AA 32
Department of Lands.
1926
FlEES,  1926,   CLASSIFIED  BY   SlZE AND  DAMAGE.
Total Fih.es.
Under \ Acre.
\ Acre to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
Forest District.
H-5
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166
121
175
7.73
5.63
8.15
54
60
50
32.63
49.52
28.50
5.88
6.63
5.44
40
18
79
24.10
14.90
45.20
5.62
2.53
11.11
72
43
46
43.37
35.58
26.30
13.92
8.32
8.90
119
86
153
30
14
14
17
21
Prince George	
8
Prince Rupert	
72
3.35
31
43.00
3.37
29
40.30
4.08
12
16.70
2.32
66
3
3
Southern Interior	
1,159
53.99
496
43.00
53.97
383
33.00
53.87
280
24.0U
54.16
960
100
99
454
21.15
100.0
228
50.22
24.81
162
35.68
22.79
64
14.10
12.38
418
1,802
83.94
15
21
Totals	
2,147
100.0
919
42.81
100.0
711
33.12
100.0
517
24.07
100.0
176
8.19
169
7.87
Totals, 1925	
2,521
100.0
1,036
100.0
732
100.0
753
100.0
2,001
277
243
100.0
41.10
29.04
29.86
79.37
1,823
10.99
9.64
Totals, 1924	
2,174
100.0
767
100.0
782
100.0
625
100.0
259
92
100.0
35.28
35.97
28.75
—-
83.84
11.92
4.24
Dominion Railway Belt	
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1926.
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29
8
166
121
7.73
Kamloops	
5.63
34
45
7
22
30
2
8
9
2
16
175
8.15
Prince Rupert	
9
26
6
4
13
2
5
1
6
72
3.35
395
26
140
86
328
24
130
66
54
36
5
3
10
80
10
2
67
54
20
77
1,159
454
53.99
21.15
Totals	
557
351
376
238
157
14
104
68
126
156
2,147
100.0
25.95
16.35
17.51
11.09
7.31
0.65
4.81
3.16
5.87
7.26
100.0 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 33
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30.51
14.58
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O W ^ a.«_ f> AA 34
Department of Ljlnds.
1926
Fibe Occueeences By Months, 1926.
District.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
September.
Totals.
.2
2
7
6
26
12
127
26
21
14
26
6
80
16
17
9
7
11
155
56
60
54
48
15
623
182
50
36
47
20
156
105
414
11
2
21
8
16
67
125
166
121
175
72
1,159
454
Total	
4
0.18
204
163
7.59
255
982
2,147
9.50
11.88
45.75
19.28
5.82
100 0
FIRE DAMAGE.
The total .area burned over is estimated at 659,871 acres, as compared with 1,023,789 acres
last year, or, roughly, two-thirds. Of the area burned, 58.81 per cent, is in the Southern Interior
and only 9.08 per cent, on the Coast.
Merchantable timber destroyed is estimated at 229,449 M. feet, board measure, valued at
$443,009, as compared with 773,738 M. feet, board measure, valued at $1,223,197, in 1925. Valuable
reproduction destroyed amounted to 198,224 acres, as compared with 251,897 acres in 1925.
Damage to property of other forms than timber amounted to $749,891, as compared with
$625,519 in 1925.
The total value of all forms of property destroyed is $1,6S0,264, as against $2,747,190 in 1925,
or, roughly, 60 per cent. This is also a reflection of the greater care taken by Coast logging
operators to suspend operations during dangerous periods, showing a faUing-ofl! of $441,777 in
total damage done in the Vancouver District over the 1925 figures. 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 35
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8.95
18.70
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0.47
66.31
10.57
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o
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1
83,265
174,042
46,552
4,369
523,852
98,293
930,373
2,121,672
100.0
665,078
100.0
>_
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ci
Per
Cent.
7.43
29.35
7.31
0.28
26.16
29.47
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
M. Feet
B.M.
29,663
117,011
29,158
1,131
104,259
117,472
398,694
	
1,057,702
100.0
207,651
100.0
31
rti
<!
Per
Cent.
9.06
19.69
2.19
1.17
58.81
9.08
o
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o
o
o
o
o
Acres.
59,781
129,957
14,442
7,740
388,020
59,931
CO o
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20,666
15,574
2,851
1,426
104,057
18,509
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41,332
31,148
5,703
2,851
208,115
37,018
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■ssori
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44,317
111,078
36,414
655
190,136
60,409
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23,150
81,607
in CQ
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29,663
107,219
29,158
1,129
104,259
117,406
388,834
97.53
1,024,508
96.86
206,253
99.33
•138JV
Acres.
4,533
21,134
138
27,815
6,246
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AA 36
Department of Lands.
1926
Damage to Pbopeety other than Forests, 1926.
Forest District.
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert 	
$         75
302
2
20.457
96,345
$     660
5,100
1,100
22,255
214,100
*     200
750
4,102
48,360
268,350
$20,117
4,005
6,147
1,663
22,587
13,214
$ 20,777
9,380
8,299
5,767
113,669
592,009
2.77
1.25
1.11
0.77
15.14
78.96
Totals	
1117,181
S243.215
$321,762
$67,733
$749,891
100.00
Comparison op Damage caused by Forest Fires in the Last Ten Years.
1919.
Total number of fires	
Area burned (acres)	
Standing timber destroyed or
damaged (M. ft. B.M.)....
Amount salvable (M. ft. B.M.)
Damage to forests	
Damage to other forms of property  	
Total damage	
2,147
659,871
398,694
109,385
930,373
749,891
$1,680,264
2,621
1,023,789
1,024,508
350,770
$2,121,672
625,518
$2,747,190
2,174
402,214
207,651
102,832
665,078
540,291
1,530
157,601
87,371
37,891
! 74,238
617,649
$1,205,369
$.691,88:
2,591
1,568,585
729,941
117,006
$1,531,300
693,016
1,330
145,838
68,476
39,553
$ 97,332
195,221
1,251
389,846
229,253
49,575
$485,96:-'
473,900
1,141
433,797
287,520
93,559
$393,183
345,78
910
140,085
42,886
22,387
I 25,930
200,335
986
237,289
267,186
48,133
$129,125
162,333
$2,224,316
$292,553
$738,970
i,265
$291,457
FIRE-FIGHTING EXPENDITURES.
Fire-fighting expenses incurred by the Department showed a falling-off from the high figure,
$616,940, of 1925 by over §100,000. The expenditure by the Department was $504,234.46 and by
private concerns $133,254.65, which was nearly the same as last year. The only district to show
an increase over 1925 was the Southern Interior; 81.39 per cent, of the total expenditure was
incurred in that district. This was due to the large number of lightning-fires occurring at one
time over a large territory, making it impossible to get fire-fighting crews organized on some of
them until they had assumed large proportions, with resulting high cost of control.
Of the total number of fires, 60.92 per cent, were extinguished without cost to the Department,
and a further 22.37 per cent, at a cost of less than $100 each. Only 5.44 per cent, cost more than
$1,000 each to extinguish.
FIRE CAUSES.
Lightning, as has been the case for the past five years, holds first place as the most prolific
cause of fires. Human-hazard fires number 1,590, as compared with 1,705, the average for the
past five years, and 1,867 for 1924, a year of comparative intensity so far as number of fires is
concerned. This is very encouraging in view of the increase in tourist-travel and number of
people going into the woods. Last year, for example, there was a real revival in prospecting in
some parts of the Province.
Industrial operations are only charged with 104 fires, as compared with 137 in 1925, reflecting
a greater care in the woods by those in charge of such operations, and particularly, it is believed,
to the plan of working an early shift and closing down during the dry and hazardous afternoons.
Railways were responsible for 376 fires, as compared with 337 during 1925. The greatest
increase was in the Southern Interior, where there were 110 more railway fires this year than last.
Campers and smokers showed a further decrease from the figures of previous years, there
being only 589 fires assigned to this cause, as compared with 712 in 1925 and 690 in 1924. This
undoubtedly shows that efforts toward public education on this subject are having a favourable
result. 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 37
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2,447
478
2,730
4,853
2,566
14,158
27,232
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Acres.
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1
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287
1,200
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Acres.
384
28
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4
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8,876
9,719
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45.64
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2,008
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o -u AA 38 Department op Lands. 1926
FIRE-PREVENTION.
Continuing the policy of using every possible means to bring the necessity for care with
fire before the public, an extensive publicity programme was carried out (luring the season.
The whole of Canada and the United States entered into " Save the Forest Week " in a
concerted drive to arouse the fire conscience of the people.
This year in British Columbia publicity during the " week " was directed largely by local
committees chosen from the outstanding men in the Province who were interested in the general
forest-protection movement and who were willing to divert part of their time and endeavour to
planning and carrying out the campaign.
Addresses were given by His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor and several prominent persons,
as well as by practically every man in the Forest Service. The radio broadcasting stations of
the Daily Province and the Canadian National Railway, Vancouver, were used for a time each
evening of the " week " to spread the forest-protection message.
Large quantities of printed matter were distributed, lectures were given at schools, Churches,
service clubs, Boy 'Scout Associations, and, in fact, wherever a group of persons could be reached.
The school lecture programme was continued throughout the season as opportunity offered
and was stressed by the Canadian Forestry Association in co-operation with the Forest Branch.
The travelling lecture party of the association covered many communities on Vancouver Island
and the Mainland, giving motion-picture illustrations of the forest-fire problem..
The industry in several localities contributed full-page illustrated advertisements bearing on
this subject. The usual newspaper and periodica] advertising of the Branch was carried throughout the Province during the three hazardous months.
Fair prize-lists, time-tables of bus lines, directories, etc., were invaded to carry the message
to every available reader. A special folder, " Our Debt to Wood," was distributed at schools
and exhibitions. A four-panel poster in colours was gotten out for display in hotels, restaurants,
and other inside public places. The booklet " Camping and Hiking " was reprinted, with base
maps showing the main highways of the Province, and was widely distributed. The demand for
copies of this book indicate that it is being used by a large number of people. Several thousand
book-marks, with a short protection message, were issued to the school-children. A miniature
forest scene was built at the Victoria Home Products Fair and the attendants preached forest-
protection and distributed printed appeals for care with fire in the forests, and a more pretentious
display was shown at the Vancouver Exhibition through the collaboration of the Canadian
Forestry Association, the Vancouver Hoo-Hoo Club, and the Forest Branch. This was visited
by many thousands of people and attracted much attention.
Several of the smaller fall fairs were utilized, through the medium of prepared forest scenes,
to draw attention to the part forest products play in the industrial activity of the Province.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT.
Two special law-enforcement officers were detailed by the Provincial Police to give their
entire attention to the investigation of fires of suspicious origin and to the prosecution of
offenders for breaches of the provisions of the fire-prevention part of the " Forest Act." It is
believed that the employment of these men and the policy of stringent law enforcement has
been a decided factor in reducing the number of fires set without permit. This year there were
thirty-two such fires. Figures the last few years are: 1920, 38; 1921, 101; 1922, 144; 1923,
49;  1924, 48;  1925, 59.
There were twenty less prosecutions in 1926 than last year. The general public, through the
more rigid enforcement by specially assigned men last year, would seem to have become imbued
with a more healthy respect for the fire law. 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 39
Prosecutions
TOR
Fire Trespass, 1926.
ol
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£
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Finks.
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Forest District.
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No.
Amount.
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4
4
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1
1
1
25 00
Prince George .
3
i
2
3
125 00
Prince Rupert.
3
1
1
1
2
50 00
1
South. Interior.
14
2
2
/
11
331 00
3
24
2
1
3
1
1
11
1
2
2
22
600 00
2
Totals	
49
97
2
1
3
1
8
20
1
6
5
10
42
$1,191 00
Si,960 00
4
5
11
3
17
1
Totals, 1925.
8
45
2
14
24
62
1
Note.—Southern Interior: Also two convictions for theft of Forest Branch property.
HAZARD REDUCTION.
The slash areas of the Province were reduced this year by burning over a total of 62,041
acres.
Intentional slash fires by logging operators, in most cases supervised by Forest Branch
officers, and set after the close season, disposed of a total of 5,577 acres. During the close season
permits were issued to cover the burning of 27,232 acres of slash, of which 9,719 acres consisted
of new logging-slash, while accidental fires burned over a further area of 29,232 acres of old and
new slash.
A total of 7,532 permits to burn were issued during the close season. Of the fires set under
these permits, only 78 escaped control, or approximately 1 for each 100 fires.
This is the best showing since 1921, when less than one-half of 1 per cent, escaped control.
■ In most parts of the Province, through the favourable attitude of the District Engineers,
road-slash has been to a large extent cleaned up, and wherever possible new road-slash is being
disposed of concurrently with the right-of-way clearing.
Railway right-of-way clearing has been receiving careful attention from the several road-
masters, and in general the condition of the railways is satisfactory throughout the Province.
The exclusive use of oil-fuel by the Canadian National Railway on the line from Prince
Rupert to Alberta has shown immediate results in a decreased number of railway fires in that
territory. FIRE-DETECTION.
The programme of lookout construction, begun some three years ago, has been continued and
new permanent lookouts were constructed at Sonora Island, on the Coast; Mount Baldy, to
serve the Inkaneep and Kettle River Forests;  and Moyie Mountain, in the Yahk Forest.
The old buildings on Little White Mountain, B.X. Mountain, and Casey Mountain were
replaced by standard lookout structures.
A site for a lookout to serve the Nehalliston Forest was chosen, trail and telephone-line built
and used with temporary quarters for part of the past season.
The permanent lookouts now number ten in all, located as follows:—
Vancouver Forest District  -•-    2
Cariboo Forest District     1
Southern Interior District      7
Total   10
In addition to these, several secondary lookouts were established and tried out for the
season, as follows:—
Prince Rupert     1
Cariboo     2
Kamloops       1
Southern Interior     4
Total    8 AA 40
Department op Lands.
1926
MECHANICAL TRANSPORT AND FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT.
Portable fire-pumps were operated, in connection with fire-suppression, a total of 3,857 hours.
The usefulness of these units is increased in direct ratio to their portability and the volume
of water delivered, and for that reason the replacement of the heavier units, as they lose their
efficiency, with more portable units is being continued.
Twenty-three new pumps were purchased during the season.
The total number of portable pumps on hand in the several districts is 108.
In addition, there are twenty launches equipped with pumps fitted to run from the launch
engine.
Launches.
Year.
Number of
Units.
Total Miles
run.
Average Miles
per Unit.
Total Cost.
Average Cost
per Mile.
1926	
42
43
43
40
158,993
167,478
119,703
106,500
3,785
3,894
2,784
2,662
$16,275
21,376
16,094
19,493
$0,102
1925	
.127
1924	
.134
1923	
.183
Motor-oars.
1926
1925
1924
1923
79
74
59
52
593,642
508,158
327,495
275,000
7,512
6,866
5,551
5,288
$29,123
24,215
14,105
13,100
$0,054
.047
.043
.047
Railway Speeders.
1926
1926
1924
1923
17
15
16
15
42,207
43,300
45,096
38,500
2,482
2,287
2,856
2,566
$ 994
1,535
1,149
1,614
$0,023
.035
.025
.041
Does not include capital cost or depreciation.
EQUIPMENT, IMPROVEMENTS, AND MAINTENANCE.
Cariboo.
Equipment—
Two Ford cars   $ 1,288 OO
One Star car  957 OO
Fire-fighting tools, etc  704 00
Launch " Mountain Ash "   2,627 00
Total   $ 5,516 00
Improvements—
Mouse Mountain Lookout   $ 25 00
Maintenance—
Canin Lake Boat-house  $ 15 00
Quesnel Lake Boat-house   374 00
Lac la Hache Camp-site  63 00
Cottonwood Camp-site   57 00
Hanceville Ranger Station  357 00
Kelly Lake Camp-site  16 OO
Pavilion Camp-site  16 00
Horsefly Lake Camp-site  17 00
Mount Begbie Lookout Trail  12 00
Carried forward   $ 927 00 17 Geo. o
Forest Branch.
AA 41
Cariboo—Continued.
Brought forward   $    927 00
Maintenance—Continued.
Alexandria Lookout and Trail   44 00
Goose Lake Trail   20 00
Blackwater Ranger Station  16 00
Bear Lake Ranger Station Cabin   28 00
Horsefly River Trail  12 00
McKinley River Trail  36 00
Archie Creek Forks Trail   12 00
Swamp Cabin-Elbow Lake Trail  28 00
Crooked River Trail   12 00
Big Slide Mountain Trail   26 00
Elbow Lake-Cruiser Lake Trail  28 00
Bear Lake-Canoe Trail   13 00
Miscellaneous   36 00
Total   $ 1,238 00
Kamloops.
Equipment—
One Star car  $    915 00
Three fire-fighting pumps  905 00
One 16-foot boat  31 00
Hose for fire-fighting pumps  134 00
Fire-fighting tools   491 00
Total   $ 2,476 00
Improvements—
Blue River Ranger Station House  ,  $ 2,159 00
Birch Island Telephone Line  132 00
Garnet Mountain Lookout Trail   141 00
Horseshoe Ranger Station Cabin   141 00
Louis Creek Camp-site  158 OO
McLure Cut-off Trail   376 00
Baldy Mountain Lookout Telephone Line  47 00
Baldy Mountain Trail /.  137 00
Larky Lake Ranger Station Cabin   439 00
Clearwater-Mahood Lake Trail  1,016 00
Total   $ 4,746 00
Maintenance—
Barriere-Adams Lake Trail   $      45 00
Vavenby-Adams River Trail  72 OO
Adams Lake-Seymour Arm Trail   22 00
Launch "Aspen"   156 00
Clearwater-Blue River Trail   78 OO
Main Seymour River Trail  37 00
Adams River Wagon-road  351 00
Upper Thompson River Trail   48 OO
Blue River Ranger Station Cabin  76 00
Little Clearwater Ranger Station Cabin  88 00
Grizzly Mountain Lookout Trail  60 00
North Barriere Lake Boat-house  55 00
Carried forward   $ 1,088 00 AA 42 Department of Lands. 1926
Kamloops—Continued.
Brought forward   $ 1,088 OO
Maintenance—Continued.
Clearwater Camp-site  32 CO
Avola Ranger Station Cabin  78 00
Main Clearwater River Trail  :  42 OO
Blucher Hall Lookout Trail   28 OO
Fishtrap Trail  431 OO
Peterson Creek Trail  ,  62 00
Parky Lake-Allan Lake Trail   69 00
Allan Lake-Hoover Lake Trail   53 OO
Miscellaneous    225 00
Total   $ 2,098 00
Prince George.
Equipment—
Twelve hand-pumps   % 147 00
Two fire-fighting pumps   093 00
Fire-fighting hose  481 00
Outboard motor   167 OO
Rowboat   50 00
Fire-fighting tools   650 OO
Total   $ 2,188 00
Improvements—■
Tool-caches     % 26 00
Fort St. James Ranger Station  89 00
Tsinkut Mountain Lookout   84 OO
Launch " Tachi II."   2,890 00
Total   $ 3,0S9 00
Maintenance—•
Willow River Trail  % 138 00
Beaver River Trail   64 00
Miscellaneous    19 00
Total  % 221 00
Prince Rupert.
Equipment—
Launch" " Alpine Fir "   $ 7,500 00
Ford car   609 00
Outboard motor   178 00
Six hand-pumps   73 00
Total .:  ? 8,360 00
Improvements—
Hazelton Garage   $ 175 OO
Brick chimney, Hazelton Office  SO 00
Lake Kathlyn Camp-site  105 OO
Total   $ 360 00 17 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. AA 43
Prince Rupert—Continued.
Maintenance—•
Repairs, Launch " Lillian D."   $    600 00
Repairs, Launch "Einbree"  280 00
Repairs, Launch "Red Cedar"  ,.... 245 00
Lakelse Telephone Line  86 00
Total  $ 1,211 00
Southern Interior.
Equipment—
Fire-fighting tools   $ 9,215 00
Fourteen Ford cars   8,870 00
One Star car   874 00
Ten fire-fighting pumps   3,360 00
Two power-speeders (second-hand)    50 00
Launch "White Pine"   2,626 00
Launch "Alba" (new hull)   2S7 00
Trout Lake Boat and Outboard Motor  257 00
Fire-fighting hose .:  2,246 OO
Total  $27,785 00
Improvements—
102 miles Trail   $ 7,605 00
B.X. Lookout  1,71S 00
Casey Mountain Lookout  1,674 00
Little White Mountain Lookout  1,617 00
Moyie Mountain Lookout  1,680 00
Baldy Mountain Lookout   1,539 OO
Saddle Mountain Lookout   94 00
Reno Mountain Lookout  217 00
Toad Mountain Lookout   231 OO
Gold Creek Telephone Line  1,355 00
Phoenix-Greenwood Telephone Line   250 00
Waldo Pasture Fence   527 00
Flathead Ranger Station Cabin  300 00
Ellis Creek Cabin  196 00
Johnson Creek Camp-site  67 00
Boulder Creek Camp-site  65 00
Sheep Creek Camp-site  89 00
Deep Creek Camp-site  40 OO
South Fork Camp-site  113 00
Total  $19,383 00
Maintenance—
318 miles trail repaired  .$ 2,S75 00
Little White Mountain Telephone Line   160 00
B.X. Telephone Line  22 OO
Casey Mountain Telephone Line   58 OO
Duncan River Telephone Line  131 OO
North Fork of Kettle River Telephone Line  92 00
Little Slocan and West Fork Telephone Line  98 00
Saddle Mountain Telephone Line   275 00
Elk Valley Telephone Line  306 00
Cedar Valley Telephone Line  13 00
Erie-Green City Telephone Line   30 00
Carried forward   $ 4,060 00 AA 44
Department op Lands.
1926
Southern Interior—Continued.
Brought forward   $ 4,060 00
Maintenance—Continued.
Elk Valley Ranger Station Cabin  51 00
Stanley Park Camp-site  41 00
Morrissey Road Camp-site  22 00
Elk Valley Road   31 00
Cedar Valley Road   63 00
Flathead Road  93 OO
Phoenix Lookout   24 00
Cedar Valley Pasture  22 00
Miscellaneous    63 00
Total   $ 4,470 00
Vancouver.
Equipment—
One outboard motor  ? 186 00
One rowboat   125 00
Eight fire-fighting pumps  2,901 00
One gear fire-fighting pump   07 00
Twenty-five hand-pumps  392 00
Two portable telephone sets   100 00
Fire-fighting hose  217 00
Fire-fighting equipment and tools   2,296 00
Total   $ 6,284 00
Improvements—
Sonora Mountain Lookout  $ 1,620 00
Launch " Sonora "   2,388 00
Lake Cowichan Trail   709 00
Lake Cowichan Boat-house  42 00
Septic tank, Myrtle Point   97 00
Myrtle Point Telephone Line  179 00
Nobyrno Experiment  117 OO
Mount Benson Lookout   9 00
Ways and dam, Thurston Bay  196 00
Cribbing, Thurston Bay  61 00
Plant improvements, Thurston Bay   405 00
Painting and repairing houses, Thurston Bay  359 00
Total   $ 6,182 00
Maintenance—
Myrtle Point Ranger Station   $ 23 00
Myrtle Point Telephone Line  18 00
Sonora Mountain Lookout  92 00
Myrtle Point Lookout  24 OO
Mount Benson Lookout  26 00
Miscellaneous   16 00
Total   $ 199 00 17 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. AA 45
GRAZING.
Range and Live-stock Conditions.
The season of 1926 was a " dry one," particularly throughout the Southern Interior District.
Exceptionally dry conditions with high winds prevailed throughout the midsummer period. This,
following the most open winter, with its very light snowfall, experienced for many years, caused
the early maturing and drying-up of secondary vegetation on the lower and heavily-grazed ranges.
This dry condition was largely counterbalanced by the more early maturing of.the feed throughout the timbered areas. Cattle which under normal conditions persist in congregating on the
open ranges were forced, because of the total drying-up of all forage on the open areas, to graze
entirely during midsummer on the timbered ranges. In consequence, their general condition was
much better this year than during recent seasons, proving the contention of the Department that
the timbered ranges furnish the best feed for midsummer use.
Authorization.
The number of live sock authorized to graze on the Crown ranges of the various grazing
districts for the year April 1st, 1926, to March 31st, 1927, is as follows: Cattle and horses,
60,000;  sheep, 20,000.
Beef and Lamb Prices.
Tbe price of beef cattle on the hoof was higher during the 1926 season than during the past
several years. Lamb prices on the hoof have ranged from 10 to 13 cents per pound, depending
on quality and demand.
Prices for well-conditioned beef and mutton will continue to be satisfactory and the range
live-stock industry will be a profitable one if more attention is given to the care of tbe live stock
on both ranch and range.
Hay-crops.
The hay-crops were generally short, especially throughout the Southern Interior. The
Cariboo District, however, north of the 52nd parallel was very fortunate. Although the snowfall
of the winter of 1925-26 was so light that cars were operated all winter, very heavy rains
occurred during December, 1925, filling all water-holes and reservoirs. There was ample water
for irrigation, with fairly good crops resulting, and adequate supplies of hay are available for
all live stock.
If weather conditions are not too severe throughout the Southern Interior this winter the
stockmen will pull through, but supplies will be very short at the opening of the grazing season.
Range Improvement.
At the date of the last Annual Grazing Report, February 1st, 1926, there was on hand a
credit balance of $629.21 in the Range Improvement Fund. On April 1st there was available
for further work during the fiscal year 1926 $5,9S7.18, of which $5,270.56 has been expended in
stock-trails, mud-hole fencing, drift-fences to facilitate handling of herds, etc., leaving a balance
on hand at date of $716.62.
The 105 bad mud holes discovered and now fenced are closely estimated to have each taken
a toll of about ten head of cattle and horses annually. This represents approximately $50,000
annually saved to the live-stock industry of the Provincial ranges.
The use of the controlling-fences on tbe ranges, under which the breeding herds are being
assembled during the early part of each breeding season, is showing value in increased calf-crops.
Heretofore on those ranges great loss in service from expensive bulls was incurred through the
scattered grazing of the herd during the breeding season.
The improvement of drinking-places is also showing results in tbe better distribution of the
cattle on the ranges. All of these improvements, as well as others, would give the fullest value
and be great aids to success in the range live-stock industry if the stockmen would take advantage
of the better opportunity now presented to use the Crown ranges and handle their herds to
protect the lower or early ranges from premature as well as over-grazing, and to use more of
the timbered ranges, which provide the best feed for the cow raising the growing calf as well as
for the growing beef during the midsummer months. AA 46
Department of Lands.
1926
Reseeding Ranges.
The experimental reseedings to cultivated grasses of burned-over areas in the Cariboo and
Southern Interior Districts may be said to be failures.
On the unfenced areas both the heavy grazing by live stock and the crowding-out by native
vegetation has practically destroyed the cultivated species. On the fenced areas completely
protected from grazing the native vegetation has also crowded out the cultivated species.
Some form of soil-cultivation would be necessary if the cultivated species are to survive,
and in order to prevent over-grazing by live stock, attracted by the high palatability of the
cultivated species, large areas would have to be sown. Both would be expensive and are not
warranted. With reasonable care in handling the live stock, over-grazed areas can be'restored,
and, furthermore, it is not necessary to sow cultivated species in an attempt to improve timbered
ranges, as they are now, as a rule, furnishing ten times as much forage as is being consumed.
Grasshopper-control.
The grasshopper-control campaign was continued on the Nicola ranges during the 1926
season by the Douglas Lake Cattle Company, the Guichon Ranch, the Nicola Stock Farms, and
the S.X. Ranch, with poison supplied by the Government. Poisoning extended over the greater
part of the season and inspections at the close of the work indicate that the plague is now
under control on tbe Nicola ranges.
There were outbreaks on the Cariboo ranges at 105-Mile, Lac la Hache, Alexandria, and Riske
Creek. Effective poisoning was carried out at these places. It is not likely further damaging
outbreaks will occur there with present effective methods of control. At Riske Creek Mr. Jas.
Stewart, on the River Ranch, accomplished good results, and, in view of a possible extensive
outbreak on the Riske Creek prairie in 1927, materials for 20 tons of poison bait have been
assembled at Riske Creek and arrangements made with the Riske Creek Stock-breeders' .Association for co-operative poisoning-work.
Wild Horses.
Following the removal of 1,950 head of wild horses from the ranges west of the Fraser River
in 1925, a clean-up campaign was conducted over the same ranges in 1926, when 249 head, mostly
stallions, were destroyed. They were the leaders of bands and had escaped in 1925. The result
of this work is seen to-day in the general improved condition of the spring and fall ranges.
Work was also commenced during 1926 in the Cranbrook District, but, after it was well
started, the representative live-stock association of the district requested a stay in the work
as there was a prospect of a market for the horses developing.
Prospective buyers were in the Province last year and left with promises to return. Large
numbers of horses were under control ready for inspection, but the buyers did not again appear.
Later, buyers from the Russian Government came to the Province during the busy season, but
without advance notice to the Department. This was unfortunate, for about 1,000 good horses
were awaiting inspection.
There is a prospect that they will return in 1927 for more horses. Horsemen are being
notified from this office regarding the type of horse wanted and are being requested to file at
once an estimate of the number they will have available. Ottawa is being furnished this
information and has promised to keep the Department informed of the development of the
overseas market.
A plant has been erected at Regina to prepare horse-meat for overseas shipment. It has a
capacity of 35,000 carcasses and the company- has written for information regarding the number
the Government can furnish for slaughter from British Columbia.
It is expected that further work in removing wild stallions, cripples, and large numbers of
old, worn-out, and useless horses from the ranges in many of the districts will be continued this
winter. The above types of horses are all useless, the stallions being a great menace and the
cripples and old horses generally suffer miserably during the winter months.
Future Outlook.
The range live-stock industry is looking brighter, and as the use of registered bulls and
improvement in methods in caring for cattle on the range increases, the revenue from the herds
will be higher. 17 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
AA 47
The cattlemen of the Province are considering the formation of a selling agency, the ultimate
purpose of which is to increase profits to the stockmen through better marketing methods. Any
such selling agency will depend for success upon :■—
(1.)  Absolute co-operation of individual and collective effort on the ranch and range.
(2.) The use of pure-bred bulls on ranch and range to improve conformation and quality
of beef.
(3.) The careful culling of the breeding herd to eliminate poor-quality cows and non-
breeders :
(4.)  Adequate winter feeding of cattle of all ages, especially the growing beef.
(5.) Close attention to the breeding herd during calving and breeding seasons to save all
calves and secure service from good bulls, thereby increasing the present low calf-crop.
(6.) The grazing of the herd on good feed during the seasonal period each type should be
grazed, and particularly the carrying of the beef on the best possible forage.
(7.) Collective effort to arrange shipments to evenly distribute the annual beef output to
market in an orderly manner.
(8.) Good and efficient management by competent officials thoroughly acquainted with the
business of co-operative marketing.
The labour question on the range is an important one and it constitutes one of the serious
problems of the cattle industry. The Annual Grazing Report has previously called attention to
this, with particular reference to the care of the cattle on the open range. This is one of the
gravest problems the stockman has to contend with, for the success of his business depends upon
i eliable and intelligent help on the range. At present he is not getting this class of help, and in
consequence his calf-crop suffers heavy loss through failure to have the good bulls properly
distributed throughout the herd during the breeding season. Heavy loss in the growth of the
beef is also occasioned through failure to keep the herd on the proper feed during each seasonal
period of the grazing season. This is due to general neglect of the essentials in range-cattle
management and to a lack of knowledge of forage, forage-type grazing capacity, and its seasonal
use periods.
The success of the business depends upon a knowledge of and attention to these things.
A knowledge of the forage, its nutritive value, and how and when it should be grazed is most
important. This all-round knowledge can only be gained through proper training, and it should
be the function of agricultural colleges and universities to turn out the cowmen trained in
veterinary science, as judges of good beef and how to raise and care for it; as experts in range
forage, its values and methods of grazing it, with benefit to cattle and range. This initial training, combined with practical experience, will render available to the cattle industry the reliable,
intelligent, and expert cowmen so badly needed if profitable management is to be expected out
on the range. Expert knowledge is demanded in fencing and improving the ranch. Expert
knowledge is applied to raising, caring for, and harvesting the hay-crop. Expert knowledge
of irrigation is sought in bringing water to the crops. Then why not expert knowledge in
managing the cattle and range, from which the main revenue is derived?
A growing menace to the range-cattle industry is that of the annual " stampede " held in
each hamlet of the range country. They accomplish nothing but confusion by unsettling labour
on the ranch and range during the season when all important operations are going on. " Cowboys " are inclined to devote their energies to practising up for bucking and steer-riding contests
instead of the care of the cattle herds they are hired to attend. If the " stampede " is to be
held anywhere, let it be at large centres, where it will be on so extensive a scale that it will
be truly an attraction rather than a baneful influence.
victoria, B.C. :
Printed by Ciiaeles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1027.
1,825-227-6808 

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