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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS FOR THE YEAR ENDED… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1930]

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 PROVINCE OF BEITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
OF
THE FOREST BRANCH
OF  THE
DEPARTMENT OE LANDS
HON. F. P. BURDEN, Minister
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister
P. Z. Caverhill, Chief Forester
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1929
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1930.
  Victoria, B.C., February 25th, 1930.
To His Honour James Alexander Macdonald,
Administrator of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the  Forest Branch of the
Department of Lands for the year 1929.
F. P. BURDEN,
Minister of Lands.
 The Hon. F. P. Burden,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1929.
P. Z. CAVERHIDL,
Chief Forester.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
No material changes were made in the personnel during the year. J. M. Gibson, Assistant
Forester in Operation Division, resigned to accept the Chair of Forestry at the University of
New Brunswick. The continued drain from the higher technical personnel is a serious loss to
the Province ;and is to be regretted. On the other hand, four Junior Foresters were added to
the staff in the Survey and Research Divisions. The rearrangement of our radio system, with
broadcasting from a central station at Campbell River, permitted the closing of two stations and
the dispensing with the operators thereat. The force during the year mustered 550, of which
243 were on the permanent staff, as compared with 560 and 246, respectively, in 1928. The
classification and distribution of the personnel is shown in the table below:—
Distribution of Force, 1929.
Permanent.
Temporary.
Forest Distriut.
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PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
The Sayward Forest, covering 394,500 acres of the Sayward Land District, north of Campbell
River, on Vancouver Island, was reserved during the year. The area was examined and reported
upon last year. The timber in this Forest is being logged at the rate of approximately
250,000,000 F.B.M. yearly and projected operations are expected to increase the annual cut
materially.
Owing to the large proportion of old-growth timber, cutting rights over 89 per cent, of
which have already been alienated, it would not be economically possible to place this Forest as
a unit on a sustained yield basis. The present annual cut is approximately twice what the
estimated sustained yield of large timber would be. However, it is anticipated that a much
shorter period of growth after the first logging will again bring the Forest into production,
since developments in wood-using industries may be expected to create a demand for smaller
material as great as, if not greater than, the present demand for large timber.
It is planned by improved fire-protection and reforestation to preserve the productive
capacity of this Forest and ultimately 'to increase the annual rate of growth.
A small area, 402 acres, was reserved on Coioichan Lake for experimental purposes.
The total area now under reserve in Provincial Forests is 6,907,000 acres in twenty Forests.
 B 6
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Forest Surveys.
The survey of the Yahk Forest, commenced last year, was completed. Including tie limits
logged off by the Canadian Pacific Railway and other adjacent areas suitable for timber production, a total of 632,000 acres was surveyed.
The present condition of the forest is as follows:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.      Acres.
Alienated      81,800
On vacant Crown land    77,400
    159,200
Immature timber—
1-20 years old   214,400
21-40 years old      37,000
41-60 years old      52,200
   303,600
Burns not yet reforested     33,500
Bush or non-commercial cover       2,500
     36,000
Total sites of productive quality    498,800
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.
Rough and poor-quality soils capable of supporting scrub-growth only.. 106,300
Alpine and barren rock  24,900
Water, swamp, and meadow  2,200
Total non-productive sites    133,400
The standing mature timber with a minimum breast-high diameter of 11 inches is estimated
as (follows, in 1,000 board-feet.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
2S8.000
243,000
80,000
147,000
48,000
4,000
21,000
5,000
302,000
163,000
136,000
51,000
36,000
54,000
14,000
10,000
590,000
406,000
216,000
198,000
84,000
58,000
35,000
White pine 	
15,000
Totals	
836,000
766,000
1,602,000
The timber is being logged at the present rate of 54,000,000 F.B.M. per annum, chiefly for
railway maintenance and the Prairie market. The Forest could support indefinitely only about
40 per cent, of this (utilization, so that local industries will in time have to obtain their timber-
supplies elsewhere.
Natural reforestation may be considered fairly satisfactory; more than 300,000 acres are
growing young trees in sufficient quantity for at least a light merchantable crop; of the 36,000
acres on which conifers have not yet re-established themselves, some may yet be seeded naturally,
being but recently burned; much of this latter area, however, will have to be planted to bring
it back into production.
There are large grazing areas in this Forest which are not being utilized to capacity.
 The survey of the Shuswap Forest, commenced last year, was completed. Conditions existing in this Forest were found to be as follows:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timoer—
Mature timber— Acres      Acres.
Alienated     38,800
On vacant Crown land   130,900
    169,700
Immature timber—
1-20 years old    22,500
21^0 years old      94,700
41-60 years old     24,200
61-80 years old      25,000
    166,400
Bush or non-commercial cover       10,000
Total sites of productive quality    346,100
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber— ,
Alpine, barren, and scrub lands     147,000
Water and. swamp       5,000
Total non-productive sites     152,000
A considerable amount of alpine area is unavoidably included in this Forest on the spur of
the Gold Range separating Mabel Lake from the Upper Shuswap River.
Of the 169,700 acres of mature timber, 59,900 acres are estimated to be inaccessible by any
known method of logging, although carrying spruce and alpine fir (balsam) of a satisfactory
quality for pulp production.
A remarkable feature of this Provincial Forest is the extraordinary mixture of species,
some stands including as many as nine together—fir; larch; hemlock; white, yellow, and lodge-
pole pine; cedar; spruce; alpine fir (balsam). Twenty-one thousand acres of the merchantable
timber stands are uneven-aged, suitable for logging by the selection method or periodic logging,
while in even-aged stands at the comparatively early age of 70 years on best sites thinnings can be
■made for ties, etc. Of the stands now mature, 31,000 acres are from 101 to 120 years old and
7,000 acres from 81 to 100 years.
The accessible timber is estimated as follows, in 1,000 board-feet:—
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Douglas fir 	
Western hemlock 	
242,000
71,000
88,000
71,000
53,000
48,000
22,000
12,000
107,000
66,000
46,000
37,000
39,000
33,000
3,000
12,000
349,000
137,000
134,000
108,000
Red cedar	
92,000
81,000
25,000
24,000
Total saw-timber 	
607,000
343,000
950,000
And in addition:—
12,400,000
2,560,000
1,020,000
890,000
6,100,000
790,000
340,000
70,000
18,500,000
Fir ties 	
3,350,000
Larch ties 	
1,360,000
Lodgepole-pine ties 	
960,000
Total, 18,500,000 lineal feet of poles and 5,670,000 ties.
 B 8
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The accompanying Forest form diagram illustrates a typical mature mixed stand in the
Shuswap Forest, 110 years old.
FOREST    FORM    DIAGRAM
fJ9 of trees per acre
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110-YEAR   OLD  MIXED  STAND   m    SHUSWAP  FOREST
This diagram shows the basal area of each species by 2-inch classes drawn to scale. It
shows clearly the relative importance of any particular species in the stand, also how cutting
should be done to obtain any desired result in volume cut and condition of remaining stand.
The general form is irregular and indicates that thinning earlier in the life of the stand
would have improved its form, and final yield, by removing the " wolf " trees now showing at
the top of the figure. This would have prevented the existing recession in trees around 20
inches D.B.H.
These 110-year-old stands cover 31,000 acres in this Forest and are being logged for cedar
poles, leaving a large volume of saw-timber.
Natural reforestation has been unusually successful, as is evidenced by the small proportion of productive land which is not covered with commercial species. The compartments of
the Forest containing young growth are listed in the accompanying table, with the average
number of trees per acre in each. Were the young natural stands of this Forest alone to be
destroyed they could not be replaced in their present condition by planting at a cost of less
than $5,000,000.
Owing to the very irregular mixtures of species in both young and old stands it was
impossible to .estimate the future yield of young stands by species. There are 31,000 acres of
timber of the rotation age 110 years; the percentage of species varies in the different blocks
of this age-class (as in all others) ; however, the total area is sufficiently large and distributed
for it to be assumed that its average yield is a fair sample of what the younger age-classes will
produce at a like age. On this basis, when there has been brought about by regulation an even
distribution of age-classes, the Shuswap Forest will produce an accessible sustained annual yield
of 31,000,000 F.B.M., provided all productive areas are kept stocked up to the average density of
the natural forest to-day.
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 9
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 B 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The present stocking of this Forest would support an annual cut of 24,000,000 F.B.M., all
species and products. The present utilization of the forest is chiefly for cedar poles and railway-
ties, with a total volume which is only a small proportion of the available yield. The cedar
suitable for poles, however, is being heavily cut, the average for the last four years being just
under 1,000,000 lineal feet yearly, two-thirds from alienated timber. There is enough pole cedar
still standing to supply this demand for another nineteen years without increase in the annual
cut; annual growth in the young stands (excluding those without a sufficient proportion of
cedar to make an economic pole operation possible) amounts to the equivalent of 180,000 lineal
feet. This would carry the pole-cutters a few years longer, but it is obvious that this special
product will not be produced in quantity for more than twenty to twenty-five years longer at
the present rate of cutting. After that period, assuming meanwhile the continued absence of
other important utilization, a reserve of saw-timber of other species will remain which will
provide for local labour now employed in the pole industry.
The Okanagan Forest, on the west side of the Okanagan Lake, was surveyed. The most
readily accessible parts of this area have been logged in the past for several small sawmills
now dismantled. There is still a large amount of yellow pine and fir, but a considerable
proportion of the remaining stands are of pulp species, which, with the lower-grade fir, although
accessible, are not of a quality which can find a ready market. The young stands are chiefly
lodgepole pine, in the older classes of which considerable damage has been done in recent years
by bark-beetles. An area of 640,000 acres was covered by the survey and estimates are now
being compiled and the productive value of the Forest ascertained.
A survey Was commenced of the Elk Forest and areas adjacent in the Elk River watershed.
This important tributary of the Kootenay River drains the south-eastern corner of the Province
and is the last to join the Kootenay before the latter enters the State of Montana.
The greater part of this watershed and of those of the adjacent Bull and Flathead Rivers
is believed to be valuable forest land, with limited possibilities for agricultural, development.
The Bull has been logged by the Canadian Pacific Railway and its capabilities for future production will be ascertained. The area is a source of supply for mine-timber for the Crowsnest
coal-mining district. Its timber is also a potential pulp resource, about which inquiries have
already been received. The survey will provide information on these forest resources, a basis
for improving means of protection from fire, and knowledge of the annual growth of merchantable products. A total of 220,000 acres was covered this year. This territory is directly across
the Kootenay River from the Yahk Forest, which was reported above.
A survey was commenced of the watersheds of the Adams River and Seymour River, tributary to the Shuswap Lake. This is a tract of forest land between the Gold Range on the east
and the watershed of the North Thompson River on the west; it joins on the south the
Dominion Niskonlith and Shuswap Forest Reserves. Seven hundred and thirty thousand acres
were examined this year, on sections of which area was found an estimated total of 1,470,000,000
F.B.M. saw or pulp timber, also 17,000,000 lineal feet of cedar pole timber and 250,000 fir and
lodgepole-pine ties. The Adams Valley has been almost completely logged and is being examined
to ascertain its future timber production value as well as its possibilities for agricultural
development.    Several cedar pole logging operations are being carried on in parts of this tract.
A survey was made of 213,000 acres in the Powell Lake vicinity on the Coast. This area
has produced fine stands of old-growth timber and a great deal has been logged. Approximately
27,000 acres of merchantable timber remain. Over 40,000 acres of the recent logged or burned
area is not yet reforested.   Compilation of the results of this survey and mapping are proceeding.
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
In conjunction with the various forest surveys lands were examined for agricultural possibilities, particularly lands bordering the reserved Provincial Forests, so that permanent
boundaries for the Forests may be defined which will not hinder agricultural development.
Adjacent to the Yahk Forest 16,650 acres were examined. Agriculture is handicapped in
this vicinity by summer frosts and a dry climate necessitating irrigation. The areas not already
settled were found to be too rough or stony for tillage or without water for irrigation. There
is no merchantable timber on any of this area, but much of it has reforested after logging or fires.
In connection with the Okanagan Forest survey 76,000 acres of land was examined for
agricultural value.    Of this, 73,000 were found to be suitable for forest-growth only.    In this
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 11
long-settled area all the land which can profitably be farmed has already been alienated, and
in fact much unsuitable land without possibility of irrigation is privately held. The Forest
boundaries might be extended to include 43,000 acres of forest land now outside.
On the Adams River - Seymour River survey 20,800 acres were examined for agricultural
value; 8,500 acres of undeveloped farming-soils were located, 6,400 acres of which are in vacant
Crown lands.   The remainder of the lands were found to be unsuitable for agriculture.
An examination and classification of agricultural areas was made over 29,800 acres in the
neighbourhood of the town of Powell River. Good agricultural soil was found to be scarce,
and the cost of removing the heavy stumps and brush a great obstacle to development; 900 acres
were classified as first-class and 6,300 acres as second-class agricultural land, the remaining
22,600 acres being suitable only for forest.
In connection with the Elk Forest survey 45,000 acres were examined and classified with
regard to agricultural possibilities and for definition of a forest boundary. The area borders
old settlements, and of the total examined only 715 acres of vacant land was found to be of
agricultural value, but undeveloped privately-held land totalling 4,000 acres was found to be
suitable for agriculture.    There is practically no merchantable timber on any of this land.
The amount of agricultural area found on these soil and land-classification surveys does
not indicate in any way the whole amount of farming land in any particular district. The
examinations are imade primarily for the purpose of classifying lands along the boundaries of
Provincial .Forests or to provide a basis for decision between agriculture and forestry as the
best economic use of a tract. They are therefore conducted from the forest outwards, as it
were. Generally speaking, the farming soils are in the valleys and on the benches and there
irrigation and other factors are most favourable. All factors affecting agricultural development
are examined as well as soils, of which samples are taken and, when necessary, analysed.
In doing this work a considerable amount of land suitable for settlement is classified,
especially in the newer regions where farming has not progressed very far. In such cases the
information obtained is of assistance to prospective settlers, who may be saved much time and
expense in the personal examination of unsuitable lands.
Areas examined foe Miscellaneous Pukposes op " Land Act," 1929.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George	
Kamloops .......
Prince Rupert. .
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Totals...
Applications for
Crown Grants.
1,239
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
No.
48
Acres.
9,342
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
18
9
13
Acres.
5,087
3,427
803
2,577
1.439
1,316
14,649
Applications to
Purchase.
No.
37
38
14
64
65
53
Acres.
4,494
9,668
1,720
10.927
6,266
7,906
40,981
Miscellaneous.
28
11
8
68
24
56
Acres.
5,296
1,487
1,610
6,359
1,603
6,07*
22,426
Classification of Abeas examined in 1929.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable.
Timber Land.
Estimate of
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
24,219
14,582
5,372
19,862
9,308
15,293
88,636
Acres.
1.615
4,606
888
5,185
1,666
2,965
16,915
Acres.
22,604
9,'976
4,484
14,677
7,652
12,328
71,721
Acres.
635
536
528
M.B.M.
6,583
6,430
13.158
1,699
25,171
FOREST RESOURCES OF THE PROVINCE.
This work was continued during the year. The forest resources of the Lower -Coast,
Vancouver District, have now been mapped and compilation of the estimates is proceeding. The
estimates of standing timber will be published in two figures—the resources of the district
 B 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
which are accessible for operation under existing conditions and the total amount of timber,
including those stands which cannot profitably be logged for the present.
In addition to those two estimates of standing timber, the forest inventory will include a
classification of the whole land surface with respect to its forest value. The acreages of young
and middle-aged second growth, scrub and non-commercial forest-cover, loggings and burns not
reforested, alpine and barren lands, are being computed. It is expected that this estimate for
the Vancouver District will be completed during the coming year.
In connection with the Provincial inventory and as a preliminary investigation of an area
believed to be suitable for dedication to forestry, an extensive reconnaissance was made of
the upper Skeena River watershed. The total area covered was 3,375,000 acres, including, in
addition to the Skeena itself, the Kispiox, Alankis, Sustut, Bear, and Suskwa watersheds.
There are reported to be 299,000 acres of timber averaging over 10,000 F.B.M. per acre;
104,000 acres of lighter stands under 10,000 F.B.M. per acre; 53,000 acres of young growth;
46,000 acres of recent burns; 160,000 acres of bush or non-commercial cover, chiefly caused by
severe fires in the past which have destroyed the previous stand of commercial species; the
remainder of the area is alpine, barrens and scrub, including 26,000 acres of water and swamp.
Only about 20 per cent, of the total area is reported to be productive quality. The Kispiox is
the best watershed, having over 40 per cent, of its area covered with timber; this valley is
recommended as suitable for a Provincial Forest outside the agricultural lands contained in it.
FOREST RESEARCH.
The outstanding features of research-work during the year have been the establishment of
the Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station and the reservation of the Green Timbers area
near New Westminster as the site for a forest nursery and experimental work in reforestation.
Cowichan L.\ke Experiment Station.
This station has been organized as a centre for research-work in the forests of the
Douglas-fir region. At such a station it is possible to conduct experiments under close supervision and in a uniform manner from year to year without the delays and handicaps which
occur when the same work is scattered over a large region. The station covers 402 acres
bearing a mixture of second growth and mature timber which offers excellent opportunities for
many phases of scientific forest research. It is centrally located in a district containing
numerous areas of logged-off land, some of which bear good stands of natural reproduction, and
there are also several blocks of Virgin timber within easy reach. These surroundings offer
splendid facilities for such experiments as cannot be performed within the boundaries of the
experimental forest.
During 1929 a map of the forest was completed and an office building was erected, necessary
trails were built to make the area readily accessible, and a fire-line was constructed to improve
the protection of the area from outside forest fires.
Experimental Thinnings.—The practice of thinning is generally accepted as essential to the
best forest management. In our Douglas fir region there remain to be determined the effects of
various kinds of thinnings upon the behaviour of the stand, the quality of the final timber-crop,
and the net profits to be earned by the forest.
With this end in view a series of experimental thinning plots have been established in the
Cowichan Lake experimental forest. The plots are located in a thrifty, well-stocked, 19-year-old
stand, established by seed-trees on logged-off, burned-over land of average site quality. While
these experiments are intended to include various degrees and methods of thinning, the work
in 1929 was of necessity confined to three plots, as follows: (a) Heavy thinning from below;
Cb) heavy thinning from above; and (c) an unthinned check-plot. The plots each contain
approximately 1 acre surrounded by a control strip 1 chain wide, which has been given the
same treatment as the plot which it contains, in order to prevent the experimental areas from
being affected by the surrounding trees. Systematic and detailed notes have been made, so that
measurements and full information may be obtained as to volume, quality, rate of growth, etc.,
on each plot. Subsequent examinations and thinnings will be made periodically, at which times
all measurements will be repeated, so that comparative tables and curves will eventually be
built up which it is hoped may indicate the proper method of forest management for second-
growth stands of Douglas fir.
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929. B 13
Studies of Seedling Survival,—The survival of young seedlings of Douglas fir and its associated species has been under study at Cowichan Lake during the past two years and in 1929
the problem was considered from a new angle. Whereas in former years the investigation was
chiefly a practical study of the 'effect of varying intensities of sunlight as modified by artificial
and natural shade, this year the effect of soil-moisture was observed. In addition to the effect
of ordinary climatic conditions, the drying of a soil in nature is influenced by two major factors
— (1) the demands of vegetative cover in drawing on the water in the soil to carry on its life
processes, and (2) the evaporation from the surface of the soil which is prolonged by the
capillary action of soil-particles in drawing water from the lower layers of the soil. In order
to study the effect of vegetative cover, plots were laid out in the more common types which
naturally follow after logging. Bracken, salal, fireweed, and mixed minor weeds are amongst
those considered. As far as possible the plots were treated in the same way as plots formerly
included in this study, each being sown with Douglas fir, hemlock, cedar, and spruce in separate
sections. In order that the evaporation from the surface of the soil might be considered independently, check-plots were laid out, one adjacent to each of the above. These check-plots were
denuded of all vegetation and were trenched around in such a manner that no roots could
penetrate from plants outside the plot.
Each of the plots thus established was examined periodically and a calendar record was
kept of all seedlings germinating and dying. These records were correlated with natural
conditions of soil-moisture by means of 'a series of soil samples taken at intervals of not more
than one week. These samples were immediately weighed and dried in an oven until all
moisture was driven off; they were then reweighed and their original moisture content was
recorded for comparison with the samples from other plots.
In order to make the records of the various plots properly comparable, soil-texture has also
to be considered, since the proportions of fine and coarse particles affect the extent to which
the moisture contained by the soil is available for the growth of seedlings. Analyses are being
made of the soil samples which were tested for moisture, and the data thus secured should provide valuable information as to the soil conditions which are necessary for natural regeneration.
Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Station.
The main research project at Aleza Lake is a study of the cutting methods which are
necessary in order to ensure adequate spruce regeneration after logging. This study was continued during 1929 with the necessary re-examinations and tallies of the existing experimental
plots, which must be kept under observation for several years before final conclusions can be
drawn. Preparations were also made for experimental logging-work where it is proposed to
try out certain cutting methods which the investigations thus far would indicate as desirable.
Three new buildings were added to the equipment of this station. These were a house for
the station foreman, a cook-house, and a barn.
History Maps.
The study of natural reforestation in typical logging operations was extended by the addition
of two important areas at Campbell River to the ten properties which already are under observation. Maps were made of the two new areas and information secured as to the density of the
reproduction. Re-examinations were made of some of the ten areas previously surveyed and in
a few cases the boundaries of the study-areas were extended.
Permanent Experimental Plots.
Twenty-eight permanent plots were re-examined iduring the past field season. These had
been established in previous years in order to study the subjects of: Natural seed-dissemination;
regeneration from seed-trees; restocking under varying conditions of site and cover; mortality
of reproduction;   height-growth of reproduction;   planting and seeding.
A study of natural seeding on logged-off lands from stands of timber adjacent to the
cuttings is being made with the aid of seed-traps designed to catch the wind-blown seed. These
traps are arranged in lines at locations near Ladysmith, Merville, and Lois Lake. Three
thousand square feet of traps have been examined periodically in an effort to determine the
quantity and quality of the tree-seed and the distance to which it is normally distributed by
the wind.
 Closely allied to seed-dissemination is the study of the survival of seed-trees left after
logging and their effect on natural regeneration. Records dealing with this subject are being
obtained from three series of plots on a burned site near Mayo.
Other features which determine the effectiveness of natural regeneration are the rate of
restocking and the mortality of the seedlings from various causes. Studies of these matters
are being made on permanent experimental plots located at Lois Lake, Jordan River, Read Bay,
and Nanton Lake. The information obtained from these plots will be an indication of the
extent to which we can depend on natural regeneration for reforestation purposes on various
types of burned and unburned land, and also will be a guide in the treatment of young stands,
both natural and artificial, to avoid mortality from preventable causes.
The annual growth in height of saplings and seedlings of Douglas fir and allied species was
measured on four plots at Lois Lake; the effect of density of the stands on height-growth of
saplings and seedlings was measured at Union Bay; and the seasonal growth of Douglas fir in
its early stages is being studied on a plot at Cowichan Lake. The examination of these plots
furnishes data which are necessary for a complete understanding of the growth-habits of our
native commercial species.
Experimental plantations—of redwood at Lois Lake, native and exotic broadleaf species at
Oyster River, and of Douglas fir, cedar, and hemlock [from wild stock at Nimpkish Lake—are
under observation to determine the adaptability of these species to local growing conditions.
Plots at Myrtle Point and Union Bay were remeasured in the course of an investigation into
the possibility of direct seeding after fires on cut-over areas. On a plot near Nimpkish Lake the
result of artificial seeding with Sitka spruce Is being observed.
A special attempt is being made to secure satisfactory regeneration on a timber-sale which
has been made in a valuable stand of spruce timber in the Little White Mountain Provincial
Forest. The first logging on this sale was completed during the winter of 192.8-29 and in the
following summer a careful study iwas made of conditions in the logged-off area. The reproduction was tallied and permanent experimental plots were laid out; by means of subsequent
examinations it will be possible to determine if the progress of reforestation is satisfactory.
Forest Mensuration.
No new yield tables were prepared during 1929, but additional growth data were gathered
for Douglas fir, Engelmann spruce, and lodgepole pine in order to improve the accuracy of the
present 'yield tables ifor these species, and an attempt was made to develop a satisfactory
method of applying the tables to actual forest stands which often differ to a considerable extent
from the average or normal conditions represented by the yield tables.
Data were collected for Douglas-fir yield tables on Saltspring Island and along the Canadian
National Railway between Shawigan Lake and Cowichan Lake. The non-agricultural lands of
Saltspring Island seem to be well stocked with almost pure stands of thrifty second-growth fir,
all age-classes up to 150 years being well represented. In these two districts thirty-one temporary sample plots were laid out and ten additional cruise-strips from 10 to 20 chains in
length were run in order to compare growth conditions on small, fully-stocked plots with those
over large areas. We now have growth data covering practically the entire range of Coast
Douglas fir which will give us a basis for the (comparison of the rates, of growth in the various
parts of the region covered by this species.
Work on Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine was carried out on the Yahk Provincial
Forest, consisting mainly of diameter growth studies, and the development of practical methods
of applying yield tables to extensive forests of these species. Some progress has been made in
the preparation of the yield tables for uneven-aged stands of spruce in the Central Interior for
which field data were secured in 1928, but due to changes in the research staff it has not been
possible to bring this work to a conclusion.
Forest Nurseries.
At the experimental nursery near Victoria twenty-three beds of 1-year-old seedlings were
transplanted in the spring of 1929 and seven beds were held over as 2-year-old seedlings.
Twenty-seven new seed-beds were sown. Experiments were made with leaf-mulches and
shading to prevent frost-heaving in seed-beds. By means of thinnings in the 1929 beds, a study
was made of the effect of density on the growth and vigour of 1-year-old seedlings.
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929. B 15
The experimental stock at the nursery now comprises approximately 80,000 2-year-old
transplants, 5,000 2-year-old seedlings, and 70,000 1-year-old seedlings, including the following
species: Douglas fir, Sitka spruce., western red cedar, western hemlock, grand fir, western white
pine, sugar-pine, Monterey pine, Port Orford 'cedar, and eucalyptus.
One hundred and twenty-six sacks of cones were collected to furnish tree-seed for experimental and nursery work in 1930. In this work data were secured concerning the parent trees
of each lot of seed collected, so that the final plantations may be related to the original source
of the seed from which they have been derived.
After a careful survey of the Coast region the " Green Timbers " site was selected as
offering the best conditions of soil, climate, water, transportation, and labour-supply for the
development of a large forest nursery. Through the co-operation of the Dominion Department
of the Interior a block of 620 acres of recently logged-off land was reserved for the Provincial
Forest Branch.
A nursery will (be developed at a central location in this area and the remainder used for
an arboretum and for planting native and exotic species. A contract for clearing 5 acres, the
first unit of the nursery, has been let. The one-year seedlings from Shelbourne Street will be
transferred to transplant beds at this site early in 1930, and a part of the area will be planted
at that time.
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY.
Field examination in the yellow-pine stands of the Merritt (District in the Interior indicates
the necessity for further clearing next spring, in order to prevent the only considerable area of
yellow pine in British Columbia from again becoming infested with the bark-beetle, which
formerly caused widespread damage in this species.
The Entomological Branch of the Dominion Department of Agriculture continued the work
of tree-insect investigation throughout the Province under the direction of Mr. Ralph Hopping
and his assistants.   The major projects are summarized below :—
Of the two serious infestations of the western-hemlock looper (Ellspia somniaria Hulst.) discovered in 1928 on Indian River, North Arm of Burrard Inlet, and on Gold Creek, Alouette Lake,
the former was given detailed study. Severe killing of merchantable timber has taken place,
all species save spruce and white pine being affected. The infestation was lighter this year, but
will probably increase in 1930. An experimental dusting by aeroplane was carried out here
over an area of 45 acres, using 1,200 lb. of calcium arsenate (one part to six of hydrated lime).
The results obtained are considered satisfactory, the conclusion being reached that 80 to 90 per
cent, of the larva? on the dusted area were killed. The cost of this experiment was shared by the
Dominion Department of the Interior, the land-owners, and the Provincial Forest Service. The
emergency nature of the project and the lack of suitable equipment ran the costs much higher
than they would have been with proper organization and equipment.
Scouting-work disclosed other areas as being infested with the hemlock-looper, as follows:
Seymour and Capilano Valleys, Mill Creek and McNab Creek Valleys on Howe Sound, Coquitlam
Lake, Alouette Lake, Chehalis River at Harrison Lake, Popkum area near Chilliwack, and
Stanley Park at Vancouver.
The life-history of the hemlock-looper, its parasites and predators are being studied by the
staff of the Entomological Laboratories.
The black-headed tip-moth (Peronia variana Fern.) was found to be widely distributed
over the southern coastal mainland and parts of Vancouver Island. No serious killings have
been observed as the result of attacks made by this insect, but it is planned to make further
studies of its depredations. Hemlock is the main host. The Britannia Beach infestation mentioned in last year's report has appreciably diminished and practically all trees are showing
signs of recovery.
Three areas of spruce bud-worm (Archips fumiferana) were again examined on Vancouver
Island at Colwood, Maple Bay, and Cedar Districts. It is reported most of the timber in the
three infestations will probably recover if the epidemic receives a sufficient check within a
reasonable time.
Further studies were conducted 'on the western-cedar borer (Trachykele blondeli) and on
bark-beetles.
 B 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
The campaign for larger markets in Eastern Canada was followed as in previous years,
the Lumber Commissioner keeping in touch with architects, engineers, and builders in order to
have British Columbia lumber products specified where they would serve to better purpose or
replace foreign materials. This work is cumulative and the result is indicated by the gradual
increase in the sale of our lumber in the Eastern Canadian market. During the year new and
better offices were secured at 92 King Street West, Toronto, which will be the future headquarters for this work.
Co-operation between the Government and the industry made it possible for a delegation
of four lumbermen to visit Australia in the interests of trade extension. Australia is a large
consumer of softwoods, secured mainly from the United States and the Baltic. The proportion
of this business secured by British Columbia operators has materially declined during the past
decade. The study of the market and its requirements by practical millmen, such as those
constituting the delegation, should go far to turn a much larger share of this business into
Empire channels.
THE FOREST INDUSTRIES.
In spite of the general slump prevailing during the last six months of the year, the value
of forest products and the industrial position of the industry were maintained. Such items as
pulp and paper products, shingles, and boxes show a distinct falling-off. Lumber, minor
products, and the wood-working industries show an increase, which offsets the above decline.
The following table gives the estimated value of production from the best information available
at this time:—
Estimated Value of Production.
Lumber	
Pulp and paper..
Shingles	
Boxes..
Piles, poles, and mine-props   	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties	
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the wood-using
industry	
Laths and other miscellaneous products........
Logs exported    	
Pulp-wood exported	
Totals 3    3180,702,000
800,000
938,000
000,000
272,000
100,000
400,000
242,000
2,100,000
650.000
4,300,000
$41,350,000
14,466,000
10,000,000
2,200,000
2,400,000
1,800,000
1,990,000
2,100,000
1,617,000
3,870,000
148,000
$81,941,000
1926.
142,516,000
16,315,000
10,500,000
3,000,000
2,792,000
1,414,000
1,420,000
2,100,000
1,500,000
3,170,000
75,000
884,802,000
1927.
$40,487,000
18,505,000
6,800,000
1,707,000
4,030,000
1,405,000
1,440,000
2,100,000
2,000,000
4,561,000
52,000
$83,087,000
$48,346,000
16,755,000
10,000,000
2,501,000
4,684,000
1,633,000
1,873,000
2,200,000
2,100,000
3,580,000
115,000
$93,787,000
$50,140,000
14,400,000
8,300,000
2,437,000
5,500,000
1,734,000
2,116,000
2,100,000
2,400,000
4,124,000
50,000
$93,301,000
Water-borne Trade.
The water-borne trade again increased and reached a new record of 800,000 M.B.M., as
shown by the table herewith presented. The most noteworthy change is in the increased demand
for British Columbia lumber from China, Australia, Egypt, the West Indies, South Africa, and
Mexico. The unsegregated markets and miscellaneous sales also show a very material increase
over 1928. On the other hand, purchases by Japan and the United States were less than in the
previous year. The Dominion Government during the year granted a subsidy to a line of
lumber-carriers between British Columbia and Australian ports, and a committee of lumbermen
is now in Australia, studying the market needs there with a view of increasing our sales.
Australia is a large consumer of imported softwoods and it may be expected that British
Columbia lumber in still larger quantities will be marketed there in the future.
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 17
Water-borne Lumber Trade (in F.B.M.).
Destination.
Australia	
New Zealand	
South America	
China	
Japan	
United Kingdom and Continent.
South Africa	
India and Straits Settlements ...
United States and Atlantic Coast
Philippine and Hawaiian Islands.
West Indies and Cuba	
South Sea Islands	
Mexico.  	
Egypt	
Foreign, unclassified	
Totals	
78,003,423
11,2532,890
717,600
36,398,234
105.916,915
16,201,290
8,221,032
4,803,236
248,611,600
4,361,139
994,341
3,665,241
677,756
1,705,394
177,041
1924.
34,848,783
12,169,rt30
752,906
25,595,993
79,107,984
41,527,008
10,681,208
2,228,150
313,104,821
134,690
544,604
3,454,183
6,883,150
229,608
40,228,887
12,619,730
2,168,921
10,783,086
67,671,449
53,845,679
8,875,544
3,359,869
361,016,940
56,863
667,012
2,610,143
12,820,848
835,317
521,707,132 531,262,318 577,560,288 712,743,256 740,230,330 765,556,122
36,809,373
16,201,328
1,160,947
4,615,921
177,193,559
41,575,593
17,651,788
1,653,676
400,347,692
221,378
8,792,765
3,791,670
2,573,529
154,038
53,502,046
10,847,545
2,168,973
9,178.973
191,597,552
36,427,449
18,562,680
3,566,713
392,074,628
1,734,314
16,023,319
1,884,632
2,649,559
12,047
29,843,132
8,531,322
10,304,032
16,902,137
219,361,557
67,075,872
13,625,781
411,577
384,107,908
56,681
8,356,571
5,496,319
333,060
1,149,573
41,493,476
8,559,208
2,449,494
43,323,398
192,411,505
69,903,655
16,889,002
243,807
351,526,590
14,347,317
5,508,978
623,766
4,744,180
50,494,046
801,518,422
Pulp and Paper.
The general pulp and paper situation in Canada is reflected in the production and value of
this product. The production of newsprint in British Columbia declined 10 per cent, and the
value of the products $2,355,000, or 14 per cent. It may be stated, however, that British Columbia mills were able to operate as near capacity as the mills in any other section of Canada.
The situation is only temporary and has not destroyed the confidence in the future of pulp and
paper on the Pacific Coast, as is shown by the development programme of the Powell River
Company and the many inquiries reaching the Department in regard to sites suitable for
development.
In the tables below all the ground wood and 50,000 tons of sulphite went into the manufacture of newsprint within the Province.
Pulp (in Tons).
Pulp.
1920.
92,299
16,380
108,665
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927..
1928.
1929.
Ground wood ....
68,502
6,519
89,725
86,894
9,674
100,759
99,878
9,932
107,266
89,839
14,403
112,001
92,514
16,856
121,363
108,381
15,000
136,123
119,005
13,700
163,548
120,413
15,050
170,005
112,925
15,647
151,066
Paper
(in Tons).
Product.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
Newsprint	
Other papers	
136,832
9,792
110,176
6,934
124,639
7,945
142,928
7,709
136,281
9,653
148,201
9,261
176,924
10,389
214,010
13,745
225,477
15,960
201,009
19,492
TIMBER ADMINISTRATION.
The general work of the Branch in timber administration is shown by the following tables
more clearly than by any general description. It only remains for me to comment on some
of the outstanding points by way of emphasis.
The scale of forest products increased by about 5 per cent. This increase was almost
wholly from Crown-granted lands, thus indicating a still greater concentration of operations.
This condition is due to the fact that these lands contain the better fir stands, to the economic
condition of the times which forces the cutting of the most accessible stands and the most popular
species, and probably to some extent to the fact that taxation places a much heavier carrying
charge on these lands than on timber held under licence. Good forest practice requires the
distribution of the cut over the whole forest area, in accordance with the growing capacity of
the forest. We can only accomplish this objective when market conditions are such that timber
from our remote valleys will pay the cost of extraction, manufacturing, and marketing.
 B 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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B 19
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H     H     H
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 21
Logging Inspection.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
94
293
96
640
435
349
'96
3
41
243
110
331
631
646
135
536
206
1,067
1,068
998
266
Fort George	
1,333
469
2,029
2,425
2,990
Totals, 1929	
1,907
99
2,002
4,008
9,512
Totals, 1928   	
1,623
50
2,023
3,690
9,696
Totals, 1927	
1,584
133
1,873
3,590
8,661
Totals, 1926   	
1,475
84
1,921
3,453
7,921
Totals, 1925    	
1,262
54
69
1,730
3,040
7,321
Totals, 1924   	
1,245
1,010
1,853
3,167
7,466
Totals, 1923	
166
2,140
3,316
6,892
Totals, 1922	
914
159
1,579
2,652
4,654
Totals, 1921	
691
186
1,331
2,208
2,796
4,053
Totals, 1920	
605
220
1,961
2,703
Trespasses.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert	
Southern Interior...
Vancouver	
Totals, 1929
Totals, 1928
Totals, 1927
Totals, 1926
Totals, 1925
Totals, 1924
Totals, 1923
Totals, 1922
Totals, 1921
Totals, 1920
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
2
15
12
14
36
20
99
3
67
133
55
71
51
370
105
878
83
84
399
541
645
87
68
570
105
1,015
98
1,059
98
73
1,938
1,788
191,635
68,147
173,300
245,494
315,733
984,309
5,867,052
2,290,926
1,972,843
3,486,609
2,182,808
6,712,868
3,002,881
3,222,673
4,904,079
Quantity cut.
Lineal
Feet.
1,476
11,415
30,863
8,396
24,858
11,990
88,997
98,279
47,871
144,357
98,456
54,068
121,202
98,903
209,395
104,048
Cords.
4
40
507
"J8
569
4,713
2,862
1,598
2,591
1,117
1,120
1,493
2,176
16,599
9,660
16,820
7,6
27,022
21,605
6,716
te.s
12
9
16
10
10
*  30 63
658 62
1,073 64
908 37
1,429 86
1,329 95
$ 5,431 07
817,787 10
$ 9,097 53
S 9,457 64
$14,534 94
9 8,539 86
$27,860 08
$16,406 30
415,924 22
$17,119 85
The average stumpage price shows a decline. This is due to several large sales on more
difficult logging-sites made in the Fort George District. Of the Coast species fir, cedar, hemlock,
and balsam remain almost stationary. In connection with our timber-sales we must face the
fact that in future we will be dealing with areas more and more 'difficult of access, and this
will tend to offset general rises in stumpage.
 B 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Timber Sales awarded by Districts, 1929.
District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piling
(Lineal Feet).
No. of
Posts.
No. Of Cords.
No. of Ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
42
58
148
235
262
229
4,893.50
17,606.00
55,608.23
49,749.70
48,221.25
40,243.60
3,679,000
14,763,000
326,799,000
53,484,000
133,697,000
159,533,000
3,500
1,879,328
1,277,160
3,012,835
2,610,836
573,178
9,356,837
6,537,002
7,332,939
54,000
309,265
10,800
374,065
880,000
736,100
1,583
30
1,135
10,993
1,153
8,303
96,039
79,783
700,398
185,838
412,043
31,850
$    15,865 57
94,830 50
818,394 76
Southern Interior	
212,774 37
302,956 09
463,279 42
Totals, 1929...
974
216,222.28
194,929.37
691,973,000
525,250,760
23,197
48,728
22,057.
1,505,961
1,996,457
1,380,553
1,044,999
566,142
$1,908,100 70
Totals, 1928...
1,033
$1,344,273 93
Totals, 1927...
821
687
258,097.26
118,816.23
94,015.25
146,652
163,464
1,611,612,079
$2,666,678 32
Totals, 1926...
295,486,743
5,497,707
6,629,449
6,336,071
6,234,342
207,190
12,877
13,455
40,334
$1,038,536 69
Totals, 1925..'.
613
189,022,314
302,813,267
616,397,438
$   795,802 20
Totals, 1924...
769
47,640
23,150
2,418,633
2,304,161
$1,226,460 87
Totals, 1923...
852
$1,513,970 84
Totals, 1922...
671
108,501
249,572,808
188,971,774
440,649,755
245,209,300
159,659,000
3,304,254
149,300
5,000
20,0000
41,580
880,307
993,417
6,415,349
957,804
701,654
381,200
92,000
$  862,888 49
Totals, 1921...
631
91,614
121,690
2,479,095
2,811,095
2,899,000
378,080
1,517,450
34,291
$   646,487 65
Totals, 1920...
594
86,726
$1,799,039 03
Totals, 1919...
356
227
61,809
34,257
52,557
$   654,372 09
Totals, 1918...
18,478
$   380,408 33
Totals, 1917...
255
133
44,914
240,307,057
136,315,000
40,000
43,756
$    483,281 50
Totals, 1916...
23,318
435,810
26,666
$   259,766 12
Average Sale Price by Species.
Douglas fir	
Cedar	
Spruce 	
Hemlock	
Balsam	
White pine	
Western soft pine.
Tamarack	
Other species	
Totals ..
Figures for 1929.
Board-feet.
100,886,000
59,142,000
306,370,000
70,737,000
26,622,000
8,229,000
8,949,000
5,547,000
7,277,000
'593,759,000
Price
Per JI.
$1 65
1 62
1 25
82
80
2 44
1 47
1 01
97
$1 29
Figures for 1928.
Board-feet.
65,958,
48,566,
110,797,
49,423,
26,034,
4,553,
9,316,
6,448,1
9,917.
,321,015,760
Price
per M.
$1 40
Figures for 1927.
,144,446
.839,900
694,173
344,700
931,100
992,940
354,200
617,505
175,116
♦318,094,079
Price
per M.
$1 63
1 68
I 71
96
66
3 15
1 73
1 07
1 12
Figures for 1926,
57,772,863
37,147,149
108,636,017
40,746,817
21,478,293
6,370,450
5,225.470
425,000
10,344,684
§286,146,743
Price
Per M.
$1 67
2 01
1 76
1 01
79
3 98
2 04
1 47
1 47
$1 66
* Note.—98,214,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1929 totals,
t Note.—204,235,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1928 totals,
t Note.—1,293,518,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1927 totals.
§ Note.—9,340,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1926 totals.
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 23
Timber cut from Timber-sai.es during 1929.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Posts.
1,583,445
2,305,643
43,839,963
43,879,175
56,085,332
118,323,384
266,016,942
12,126
1,371,140
343,387
3,703,380
2,102,570
433,620
7,966,223
7,672,294
464.00
97.00
519.00
10,283.41
479.10
12,820.95
24,663.40
59,932
81,209
435,154
329,131
640,684
8,760
48,000
279,133
4,905
Totals, 1929	
1,554,870
1,714,709
332,038
Totals, 1928	
203,208,331
214,209,921
24,389.35
27,508.54
376,253
Totals, 1927	
6,368,269
1,359,902
86,109
Totals, 1926	
242,973,524
251,141,398
230,148,575
207,473,848
187,217,151
179,780,056
4,974,620
16,676.45
20,808.14
1,198,922
1,077,414
83,763
Totals, 1925	
4,885,352
4,541,371
2,753,532
Totals, 1924	
17,294.00
17,666.65
1,543,915
856,628
Totals, 1923	
Totals, 1922	
1,523,744
37,345.91
495,672
Totals, 1921	
2,169,550
10,483.00
831,423
654,829
Totals, 1920	
168,783,812
107,701,950
1,638,549
672,699
17,703.00
12,208.00
15,539.00
14,862,00
Totals, 1919	
573,286
Totals, 1918	
113,927,610
499,589
146,807
34,937
Totals, 1917	
99,078,832
545,429
Totals, 1916	
63,055,102
225,799
8,425.00
Areas cruised for Timber-sales.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(M.B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet),
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Posts
(No.).
43
144
61
281
288
244
4,516
37,794
13,646
48,391
67,969
42,558
214,874
2,297
110,732
17,815
137,137
118,569
113,870
500,420
754,095
974,626
3,500
1,533,877
2,196.280
3,949,652
4,764,645
605,649
1,583
1,665
30
1,473
10,119
2,754
17,629
90,471
449,394
63,568
532,073
158,544
11,060
1,305,110
2,056,604
1,747,441
1,299,826
8,000
10,000
167,740
Totals, 1929	
1,061
13,043,603
9,623,599
7,092,844
185,740
Totals, 1928	
1,111
233,889
43,266
447,630
Totals, 1927	
844
225,191
142,515
21,027
35,600
Totals, 1926	
819
369,717
353,225
4,236,881
9,113.062   '
15,248
57,441
20,200
Totals, 1925	
819
119,436
1,389,604
14,477
Totals, 1924	
942
179,609
451,476
8,465,924
41,554
1,873,954
The number of sawmills operated during the year shows an increase, but the rated capacity
is slightly less than in 1928. For the year three fewer shingle-mills were in operation, and the
rated daily capacity was 400 M.B.M. less than a year ago.
 B 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Saw and Shingle Mills, of the Province.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
d
rA
'o
rt a
dOrt*
a frs
60
713
83
445
1,960
8,635
6
fc
tC
_. is
Q rt x
fi   trbE
CD   3- |3
"85
7,796
7,881
8,280
d
fc
'3
3 ri
S°5f
g >.A
531m.
HO.!
86
85
195
702
250
882
2,200
2,459
2,649
1,676
6
fc
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
Shingles, M.
14
23
6
23
98
191
■i
50
53
56
65
20
4
5
17
15
34
i
2
12
200
270
1,266
Totals, 1929	
354
11,896
11,919
12,176
12,962
11,475
11,986
11,273
9,683
8,912
95
15
1,726
Totals, 1928	
314
120
15
2,710
Totals, 1927	
375
12,042
15,614
15,322
15,636
16,144
15,544
10,885
13,426
110
22
6
2,740
Totals, 1926	
391
87
102
460
Totals, 1925	
363
82
109
2,121
2,618
9
625
Totals, 1924	
359
78
103
20
16
1,780
Totals, 1923	
352
107
72
1,493
2,054
2,029
909
745
Totals, 1922 '	
292
289
108
90
8
680
Totals, 1921	
79
78
6
2
788
Totals, 1920	
341
10,729
109
37
30
Export of Logs.    (In F.B.M.)
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir	
9,076,604
3,916,981
21,561
96,924,452
36,903,052
142,091
29,453,144
30,415,303
134,264
135,454,200
71,235,336
297,916
24,578,195
3,385,352
1,519,000
461,838
24,578,195
8,385,352
1,519,000
461,838
28,000
33,740
28,000
33,710
13,015,146
20,563,249
Totals, 1929	
133,997,595
106,084,161
60,002,711
47,994,423
29,978,126
37,306,398
236,993,577
211,947,231
Totals, 1928	
Totals, 1927   	
36,545,972
32,195,991
34,501,748
23,416,S16
144,942,558
51,584,928
53,113,521
48,510,833
261,584,291
Totals, 1926	
105,322,879
96,701,737
33,845,324
224,477,715
40,312,806
49,549,135
38.901,670
210,417,961
Totals, 1924	
111,801,016
55,763,860
240,530,827
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 25
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Forest District.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
Japan.
Kamloops—
Fort George—
Prince Rupert—
Railway-ties No.
Vancouver—
2,289,780
86,175
32
18,655
921,050
96
1,175
829,815
3,218,262
6,814
867,603
9,953,536
593
4,963
9,092,664
9,247
13,939
582,375
$275,982
11,202
175
13,023
121,710
960
7,050
506,134
450,556
1,158
525,153
1,393,495
2,372
49,625
1,434,204
101,717
118,481
320,306
1,912,555
547,380
2,508,600
9,539,878
593
4,963
7,900,869
3,106
22,410
377,225
86,175
32
18,655
373,670
96
1,175
829,815
709,662
6,814
867,603
1,191,795
9,247
10,833
659,965
413,658
Southern Interior—
Total value, 1929	
$5,333,303
$1,777,803
Total value, 1928	
PRE-EMPTION INSPECTION RECORDS,  1929.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Cariboo  438
Fort George   443
Kamloops    115
Prince Rupert  295
Southern Interior   274
Vancouver  217
Total  1,782
ANALYSIS OF ROUTINE WORK.
Draughting Office, Forest Branch.
Month.
January	
February.  ...
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September....
October 	
November	
December . ..
Totals
Timber.
sales.
58
44
49
42
27
24
18
26
19
43
63
446
Number of Tracings made.
Timber-
marks.
119
95
86
121
91
80
70
64
39
50
49
61
915
Examination
Sketches.
38
20
26
25
25
41
38
41
25
369
Hand-logger
Licences.
1
3
16
8
9
2
Miscellaneous.
12
14
11
14
30
12
4
2
28
12
163
228
176
188
210
182
147
123
118
127
146
164
136
Blue-prints
from Reference Maps.
21
101
4
14
4
6
4
16
4
4
 B 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued for the Years 1927, 1928, and 1929.
1927. 1938.
Old Crown grants    Ill 108
Crown grants, 1887-1906      121 118
Crown grants, 1906-1914      138 177
Section 53a, " Forest Act "     269 302
Stumpage reservations       45 34
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land Act "     18 21
Dominion lands (general)      23 40
Dominion lands (timber berths)      18 22
Dominion lands (Indian reserves)      12 13
Timber-sales      821 1,033
Hand-loggers          8 5
Special marks         1
Rights-of-way        3 3
Pulp licences         3 5
Totals    1,591 1,881
Transfers and changes of marks     202 276
HAND-LOGGERS' LICENCES.
1927. 1928.
Number issued      51 53
1929.
108
120
121
290
35
13
30
9
7
974
9
4
9
1,729
238
1929.
51
CROWN-GRANT TIMBER LANDS.
Area of Private       Average
Timber Lands Value
(Acres). per Acre.
1919    -     883,491 §9.48
1920    ,    867,921 11.62
1921       845,111 10.33
1922        887,980 11.99
1923     883,344 11.62
1924       654,668 15.22
1925        654,016 40.61
1926        688,372 39.77
1927     690,438 39.01
1928       671,131 38.62
1929     644,011 38.41
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1929:
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1928.
Average Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value per
Acre since
1928.
96,960
138,269
78,132
39,646
328
33,584
7,009
80,753
12,069
7,221
16,561
37,201
60,556
4,236
31,496
644,011
+     187
- 7,306
- 4,201
- 2,361
- 174
120
- 1,347
- 571
- 3,119
29
- 5,339
+ 2,516
- 1,810
- 1,868
- 27,120
$56 09
46 72
65 38
9 85
14 98
9 51
10 76
44 08
8 33
18 02
22 37
15 23
10 47
100 38
35 60
$38 41
+$ 1 53
66
-     1 96
+       18
01
+        12
+        21
44
-      1 27
01
+        70
+        35
+    6 64
+        34
- $     21
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 27
FOREST FINANCE.
Details of forest revenue and expenditure are given in the following tables. Revenue shows
a drop of $122,000, due very largely to the litigation in respect to the timber-tax imposed under
section 58 of the " Forest Act." The case is still before the Privy Council and, in the meantime,
moneys collected under this tax are held in escrow and not paid into consolidated revenue.
Timber-licence rentals also declined, but this was more than made up from the increased
stumpage collected in respect to timber-sales. The total billed for active operations shows an
increase of $113,000 and now reaches a total of $2,710,496.50, a new high record.
Administrative expense increased by $8,744. Details of expenditure under Scaling Fund,
Forest Reserve Account, and Forest Protection Fund are shown in their respective tables.
Forest Revenue.
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals	
Penalty fees and interest	
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising   ....
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)	
Scaling expenses (npt Scaling Fund)..
Trespass penalties	
Scalers' examination fees	
Exchange	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous	
Grazing fees	
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands..
Total revenue from forest sources
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1929.
$931,545 72
1,775 00
23,245 73
1,300 00
79,873 89
901 43
30,162 64
634,048 95
12,844 92
1,951 28
1,688,803 67
1,407 92
191 74
9,161 16
320 00
1,711 29
3,152 88
2,754 36
$3,425,152 58
10,918 49
375,923 32
$3,811,994 39
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1928.
$1,015,705 19
4,285 00
33,035 56
1,400 00
79,396 72
520 70
40,649 01
551,102 88
10,943 97
1,646 65
1,774,417 41
1,147 84
103 74
12,058 89
275 00
271 09
589 71
4,444 25
$3,531,993 61
12,541 98
388,860 46
$3,933,396 05
12 Months to
Dec. Slst, 1927.
$892,914 98
2,000 00
27,639 13
1,275 00
95,236 93
88 93
32,494 57
608,765 14
10,936 58
1,681 85
1,825,909 80
1,778 02
156 75
6,481 83
235 00
345 16
703 90
3,767 83
$3,602,411 40
16,529 20
424,023 04
$4,042,963 64
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1926.
81,063,812 90
2,400 00
32,549 14
2,250 00
90,010 89
254 91
20,537 75
572,324 74
7,173 84
1,498 82
1,779,553 60
1,344 75
98 17
11,677 12
350 00
693 04
300 50
3,651 95
$3,590,482 12
12,328 54
410,684 46
$4,013,495 12
12 .Months to
Dec. Slst, 1925.
$1,130,556 52
3,465 00
28,017 75
2,775 00
92,485 38
283 33
17,045 45
512,399 28
6,296 67
1,403 43
1,658,043 07
1,044 25
253 24
17,841 58
160 00
520 12
1,097 95
4,699 66
$3,478,387 68
14,114 89
398,393 85
$3,890,896 42
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1924.
$1,180,179 55
4,650 00
64,653 05
2,160 00
99,974 25
136 92
19,943 01
537,786 50
7,491 04
2,033 96
1,521,001 39
1,564 85
753 27
14,685 27
430 00
1,332 26
654 92
9,392 22
$3,469,112 46
14,240 66
298,973 97
$3,782,327 09
Revenue from Ijogging Operations, J9Z9.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
Tax.
Trespass
Penalties.
Seizure
Expenses.
Government Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stumpage.
Forest District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver ....
Prince Rupert.
Southern Int'r.
F'ort George ...
$1,320,602 63
3,460 08
134,104 79
243,064 78
126,400 85
23,902 49
$ 728 77
21 27
664 83
1,506 52
887 87
382 58
$ 4,191 84
$ 163 90
3 00
251 30
89 42
1,047 94
$1,555 56
$2,103 57
$ 789 47
$1,142 38
$ 913 29
$ 708 24
,   $ 66 78
36 55
5 00
67 60
$ 175 83
$ 156 68
$758 14
405 93
51 15
$1,215 22
$20,989 47
1,137 96
$22,127 43
$112,081 45
6,399 73
$225,007 73
5,638 06
160,948 32
158,905 17
123,067 95
37,646 59
$711,213 82
$1,680,398 87
9,122 41
303,949 41
403,622 04
251,404 61
61,999 16
Totals
$1,851,535 62
$1,794,819 93
$1,767,710 60
$1,774,494 75
$1,754,605 06
$1,542,070 96
$118,481 18
$123,169 81
$114,979 79
$2,710,496 50
Totals, 1928
$20,867 17
$ 7,343 44
$ 1,589 83
$59,804 57
$10,860 22
$1,194 89
$2,032 43
$1,147 41
$1,254 80
$20,277 64
$17,169 14
$17,279 88
$635,292 44
$2,597,882 03
Totals, 1927
$ 163 57
$   98 34
$631,948 72
$2,542,137 16
Totals, 1926
$119,704 75
$116,682 68
$613,365 09
$2,528,822 43
Totals, 1925
$ 197 08
$ 548 37
$18,794 39
$651,486 17
$3)97,071 65
$2,603,738 04
Totals, 1924
$2,179 42
$14,760 12
$103,691 71
$2,271,890 69
 B 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Forest Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1928-29.
Headquarters ....
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Fort George	
Prince Rupert....
Southern Interior.
Vancouver 	
Forest District.
Totals.
Salaries.
$ 88,715 76
9,202 95
7,581 68
17,072 00
22,562 29
44,375 84
63,126 77
$242,637 29
Temporary
Assistance.
1,232 15
41 54
1,497 12
2,183 66
621 33
8,575 ;
Expenses.
$ 21,999 17
4,730 79
2,989 88
7,687 53
21,720 49
26,514 35
49,378 26
$135,020 47
Total.
$114,947 08
13,975 28
10,571 56
26,256 65
44,282 78
73,073 S5
103,126 36
$386,233 56
Lumber-trade extension ,	
Reconnaissance, etc	
Insect-control	
Grazing : range improvement .
14,112 32
35,810 86
2,275 84
4,904 08
Grand total   $443,336 66
SCALING FUND.
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1928	
Expenditure, fiscal year 1928-29	
Charges, fiscal year 1928-29      $142,360.23
Balance, March 31st, 1929         21,584.03
$163,944.26
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1929	
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1929          :.
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1929      $112,103.05
Balance          18,315.63
$16,342.39
147,601.87
$163,944.26
$21,584.03
108,834.65
$130,418.68    $130,418.68
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1928	
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1928	
Expenditure, fiscal year 1928-29       $65,183.90
Balance        27,313.65
$20,222.58
72,274.97
$92,497.55     $92,497.55
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1929  $27,313.65
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1929  71,828.64
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30 (a)          369.99
Expenditure, 9 months to December 31st, 1929      $57,102.58       	
Balance, December 31st, 1929         42,409.70
$99,512.28     $99,512.28
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
' B 29
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1929 :—
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1928      $47,783.30
Expenditure, fiscal year 1928-29      529,603.59
$577,386.89
Collections, fiscal year 1928-29      $165,931.00
Collections under special levy, 1928-29  8,871.10
Government contribution       300,000.00
■       474,802.10
Balance  (deficit)        $102,584.79
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1929 :     $102,584.79
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1929 .-       727,434.31
$830,019.10
Collections, April-December, 1929      $124,287.16
Collections, special levy, April-December, 1929  900.23
Government contribution       225,000.00
 ■     350,187.39
Balance   (deficit)        $479,831.71
There is an amount of approximately $55,000 repayable by Forest Protection Fund to Vote
107 to cover expenses of permanent employees, maintenance of motor-cars and launches, etc.
Forest Protection Fund Expenditure.
Fiscal Years.
1921-22.
1922-23.
1923-24.
1924-25.
1925-26.
1926-27.
1927-28.
1928-29.
Patrols and fire prevention 	
Tools and equipment.
Improvemen ts and
$-27,738
118,933
106,891
17,779
$471,341
$202,994
91,812
508,992
37,609
$841,407
$264,792
81,408
75,503
21,667
$384,632
25,418
258,034
5,690
$633,674
$377,427
33,976
650,138
11,890
$1,073,431
$356,462
30,663
514,845
14,172
$358,835
30,409
84,600
22,482
$196,326
$407,790 94
31,258 82
75,221 43
33,428 67
Totals	
$433,370
$916,142
$547,699 86
For expenditures April 1st to December 31st, 1929, please see statement showing1 standing of Forest Protection Fund.
Expenditure by Districts for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1929.
District.
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
Total.
$ 24,738 27
26,083 43
31,233 02
26,350 13
119,274 08
136.314 03
43,797 98
$ 1,663 36
1,137 23
4,693 31
2,944 64
8,654 99
10,349 48
1,815 82
$31,258 82
$ 2,718 73
6,282 65
11,432 04
13,614 99
13,673 96
28,499 06
$75,221 43
$ 1,080 02
1,870 40
2,403 31
120 42
12,269 49
15,685 OS
$ 30,200 37
34,373 71
49.761 68
43,030 18
153,872 52
190,847 60
45,613 80
8407,790 94
$33,428 67
$647,699 86
 B 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST PROTECTION.
The fire season of 1929 was one of great variations in hazard. Two centres of extreme
hazard developed in Canada, one in the Southern Interior of British Columbia and the other
in Manitoba and Western Ontario. In the latter region aeroplanes were extensively used; yet
the losses and costs of control are reported very high, proving that aeroplanes are only a
valuable but costly adjunct to other fire-control equipment, and that, given extreme hazard
conditions, they fail to eliminate the losses.
To the Southern Interior of British Columbia belong 55 per cent, of all the fires recorded
for the Province, 92% per cent, of the moneys spent on control, and 87 per cent, of the area
burned over. On certain days conditions were so bad that had we been able to recruit all the
labour in the Province and place them on the fire-line they would have been helpless to control
the situation. With a small supervisory force and limited labour on an area difficult of access,
it is a noteworthy achievement that even greater damage was not done in this section.
In this section a limited snowfall during the previous winter, an abnormally dry summer,
high winds, low humidity, and dry lightning-storms made for an almost unprecedented fire
season.   The marked deficiency in rainfall is shown in charts below.
Two lookout-men iwere struck by lightning and severely injured, and one fire-fighter was
killed.
Contrary to conditions in the Southern Interior, the northern portion of the Province was
favoured with frequent and generous rain and therefore little hazard. On the Lower Coast,
while the rainfall was below the ten-year average, during June and July it was well distributed,
reducing the danger, and, on the whole, in this section the year was normal. Conditions in
September were satisfactory and a large area of logging-slash was disposed of.
Fire Occurrence.
The number of fires recorded shows a sharp increase over the last two years, 2,188 occurring
on Provincial lands and 354 within the Railway Belt. ' Of the Forest Branch fires, 41% per
cent, were confined to areas of less than Vi acre and 76 per cent, were extinguished before
exceeding 10 acres. While this record of control is not so good as in the past two years, when
coupled with the conditions existing in the Southern Interior, it is excellent, and great credit
is due our fieldmen in maintaining so high a standard. It is to be remarked that lightning
caused 638 fires, the greatest number ever assigned to this cause in one year. Smokers were
charged with having started 387 fires, which is also a record number from that cause. One
hundred and thirty-nine fires are ascribed to incendiarism, the highest number originating from
this source. A gradual and satisfactory reduction in the number of fires resulting from industrial operations is noted, only sixty-five such fires occurring. Fires charged to the travelling
public, campers, and smokers amounted to 745, or 34 per cent, of the total number. There is
apparently much yet to be done in the way of educating the public in the necessity of care with
fire. Railway-construction in the most hazardous part of the Southern Interior was responsible
for nine fires. This is the first occasion since 1921 that any fires from this cause have been
reported.
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 31
Fires, 1929, classified by Size and Damage.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Fort George.	
Prince Rupert	
Southern Interior	
Vancouver	
Totals	
Per cent	
Totals, 1928...
Per cent	
Totals, 1927 ...
Per cent	
Dominion Railway Belt
Total Fires.
Under \ Acre.
H.S
h|
HO
° 2
°S
^ fi
a*&
g c
§ c
a a
O  £
O   30
O -i
6
•A
01 .333
Za'at
fc.   9i
01.22
2-AA
03  9
ft.E
110
5.03
42
38.18
4.63
125
6.71
81
64.80
8.92
103
4.70
45
43.69
4.95
157
7.17
49
31.20
5.40
1203
54.99
479
38.82
52.75
490
22.40
212
43.26
23.35
2,188
100.0
908
100.0
100.0
41.50
100.0
1,642
100.0
808
100.0
49.20
716
1,284
100.0
100.0
100.0
55.76
354
110
31.07
\ Acre to 10 Acres.
Over
10 Acr
Extent.
H-c
BO
B-g
rt-   Al
-fc5 AA
o.2
*a
^Q
£ a
5 c
22 22
D   B»
O   313
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6
r,
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03.3333
(,   £
43.3333
0,6.
d
fc. v
0>.T
33
30.00
4.38
35
31.82
28
22.40
3.72
16
12.80
38
36.89
5.04
20
19.42
64
34.40
7.17
64
34.40
408
33.91
54.19
316
26.27
192
39.18
26.50
86
17.56
753
100.0
527
34.41
24.09
564
100.0
270
34.35
16.45
408
100.0
160
31.78
12.46
152
42.94
92
25.99
So
°.l
CO
O oo
S£
ft.E
6.64
3.03
3.79
10.25
59.97
16.32
100.0
Damage.
■a
c
-33
8
o
--3.
a
03
■a
22
p
so.
104
5
120
2
92
9
136
17
1,008
95
458
16
1,918
144
87.67
6.58
1,508
102
91.84
6.21
1,184
63
92.22
4.90
305
24
1
3
2
4
100
16
126
5.75
32
1.95
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1929.
ri
fc.
©
C3
fc.
r-%
ed
Forest District.
ti
5   oj
333
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O
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11
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5 00
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12
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46
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32
1
9
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13
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4
13
13
2
2
5
2
6
19
9
7
3
7
110
125
103
5.03
6.71
4.70
3512
18
69
119
92
16
191
45
9
24
193
135
51
37
49
1
5
12
22
1.01
1
11
40
65
2.97
4
65
35
1
47
49
i.
15
157
1,203
490
7.17
54.99
22.40
638
29.16
368
16.36
267
12.20
9
0.42
387
17.69
167
7.63
139
6.36
100
4.57
36
1.64
2,188
100.CO
100.00
Dominion Railway Belt	
127
28
*26
60
29
5
16
45
4
14
354
35.88
7.91
7.85
16.95
8.19
1.41
4.52
12.71
1.13
3.95
100.00
* In addition to the 26 railway fires shown as having occurred in the Dominion Railway Belt, 106 other railway fires
occurred, but were handled entirely by the railway organizations.
 B 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
a
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4,636.92
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 Lightning.
Campers & Travellers.
Railway Operation.
Smokers.
Brush Burning.
COST.
CAUSE.
''«.
Road & Railway
Construction.
— —
Industrial Operation.
Incendiary.
	
Miscellaneous (known).
Unknown.
BRITISH
COLUMBIA,
1929.
FOREST   FIRES
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 33
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1929.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Fort George	
Prince Rupert	
Southern Interior .
Vancouver	
Total	
Per cent	
Dominion Railway Belt
Per cent	
March.
April.
May.
26
June.
July.
August.
3
10
22
36
9
17
1
68
27
3
41
17
17
16
60
49
14
17
8
4
63
88
71
363
477
7
61
31
116
129
692
4
136
281
144
582
0.18
6.17
12.84
6.58
26.60
31.63
11
35
16
146
111
3.11
9.88
4.53
40.96
31.35
September.
14
12
10
19
106
138
299
13.67
33
9.33
41
9
51
233
3
0.S4
110
125
103
157
1,203
490
2,188
100.00
354
100.00
FlRE-CONTROL  COST.
The cost to the Forest Branch this year for fire-fighting was $492,581.68. As before mentioned, 92% per cent, of this cost was incurred in the Southern Interior District. The cost for
the other five forest districts was only $36,815.10, the lowest recorded costs for the same territory
since 1921.
The cost of fire control on Railway Belt lands by the Dominion Forest Branch is given as
$63,789, and the cost incurred by other fire-control agencies is reported to be $140,283.79, making
a total fire-fighting bill of $696,654.00.
Fire Damage.
The acreage reported as having been burned over was 909,620 acres on Provincial lands and
46,825 acres in the Dominion Railway Belt. The area of merchantable timber damaged or
destroyed is stated to be 100,961 acres, on which the net stumpage loss is estimated at $284,571.
There were 229,309 acres of valuable reproduction destroyed.
 B 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
a
a
fe
_» K .
Q   g 3333 3_J
£ ^ P -3.
rtlS»S
w K p o
CO < 22 O
g a a ft
E> fl
ed H
Damage.
Per
Cent.
0.87
0.98
0.65
94.11
2.54
o
o
o
©
o
o
©
©
o
*
8,250
9,306
7,960
6,086
886,220
23,916
941,738
100.0
s°.
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co-2
O
CM ©    1
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0
c3
Per
Cent.
0.97
1.40
0.07
0.12
85.32
12.12
o
s
©
©
©
©
8
M. Feet
n.M.
2,653
3,800
189
327
232,101
32,954
272,024
100.0
24,069
100.0
86,176
100.0
C3J
<
Per
Cent.
1.86
1.15
0.83
6.25
87.19
2.72
©
8
1  °
ll
©
8
Acres.
16,970
10,403
7,594
56,906
793,036
24,711
8C
51
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are
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OMfclfrMr*
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 35
Damage
to Property other than Forests, 1929.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
*       14
1,620
18,247
56,822
$   940
100
3,292
26,010
51,345
$     25
799
25,230
22,175
$2,349
2
562
16,204
1,183
$ 3,289
141
6,273
85,691
131,£25
1.45
0.06
2.76
37.76
57.97
Totals	
$76,703
$81,687
$48,229
$20,300
$226,919
100.00
$30,173
Causes, Cost, .and Damage, 1929.
No.
Cost.
Damage.
Lightning 	
Campers and travellers	
Railways operating	
Smokers 	
Brush-burning, not railway-clearing	
Road, power, telephone, telegraph, and railway construction
Industrial operations, logging, etc	
Incendiary  	
Miscellaneous known causes	
Unknown causes 	
Totals	
638
358
267
387
167
31
65
139
100
36
2,188
$368,316
32,800
6,625
20,902
2,097
18,369
1,211
17,521
24,042
698
$492,'581
$894,323
30,348
8,545
17,386
10,090
6,531
164,995
32,659
. 1,861
1,919
$1,168,657
Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in the Last Ten Years.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
2,188
909,620
272,024
107,049
$941,738
226,919
1,642
106,977
24,069
9,060
$103,001
95,534
1,284
101,944
86,176
44,834
$141,102
74,606
2,147
659,871
398,694
109,385
$   930,373
749,891
2,521
1,023,789
1,024,508
350,770
$2,121,672
625,518
2,174
402,214
207,651
102,832
$    665,078
540,291
1,530
157,601
87,371
37,891
* 74,238
617,649
2,591
1,568,585
729,941
117,006
$1,531,300
693,016
1,330
145,838
68,476
39,553
$ 97,332
195,221
1,251
389,846
229,253
49,575
$485,963
473,900
Area burned (acres)	
Standing timber destroyed or
damaged (M. ft. B.M.)	
Amount salvable (M. ft. B.M.).
Damage to forests	
Damage to other forms of property  	
Total damage	
•51,168,057
$198,535
$215,708
$1,680,264
$2,747,190
$1,205,369
$.691,887
$2,224,316
$292,653
$959,863
 B 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 37
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 B 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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Acres.
4,280
535
3,660
1,707
6,906
17,938
35,026
100.0
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 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 39
Fire Detection.
The lookout system was further extended during the season by the preliminary development
of three new points in the Kamloops District, three in Prince George, two in Prince Rupert,
one in the Southern Interior, and two in Vancouver. This makes a total of forty-three lookout
points used during the season.
An experiment with short-wave wireless telephone for communication between lookout and
ranger headquarters was made in the Vancouver District. A small portable sending set operated
by dry batteries, together with an ordinary receiving set as already in use by the Branch, was
installed at the lookout. A competent receiving set to suit the wave-length utilized at the
lookout was placed at the Forest Branch wireless station at Campbell River. Regular and
satisfactory communication was established and maintained throughout the season. The results
achieved seem to warrant its further use where the location is suitably near the existing wireless
system and where ordinary telephone-construction costs would be high.
Hazard Reduction.
September on the Coast was favourable for slash-burning, and intentional slash fires, supervised by forest officers in most cases, successfully disposed of the slash hazard on 17,873 acres
of logged-over lands. Accidental fires destroyed the slash on a further area of 15,161 acres,
and fires under permit during the close season disposed of the debris existing on 11,225 acres,
making a total of 44,259 acres on which the hazard was materially reduced by broadcast
burning.
Satisfactory co-operation with the Public Works Department and the railways resulted in
disposing of slash on their respective rights-of-way in a satisfactory manner.
Prosecutions for Fire Trespass, 1929.
a
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Forest District.
No.
Amount.
Fort George ...
Prince Rupert.
South. Interior.
i
2
11
3
8 25 00
60 00
275 00
100 00
$460 00
Totals	
17
Totals, 1928.
3
2
25
$625 00
1
EQUIPMENT, IMPROVEMENTS, AND MAINTENANCE.
Caeiboo.
Equipment—
Four Ford cars   $2,896.00
Two fire-fighting pumps   675.00
Fire-fighting hose   495.00
Eight smoke-chasers' outfits   2&9.00
Miscellaneous  24.00
$4,379.00
 B 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Cabiboo—Continued.
Improvements—
Mouse Mountain Lookout Cabin       $434.00
Strathnaver Trail         125.00
Boss Lake Trail         113.00
$672.00
Maintenance—
Quesnel Garage  $65.00
Williams Lake House  227.00
Quesnel Lake Boat-house  51.00
Clinton Garage   73.00
"Williams Lake Garage  75.00
Lac la Hache Camp-site  22.00
Cottonwood Camp-site  20.00
Spectacle Lake Portage  106.00
Miscellaneous  144.00
$783.00
Kamloops.
Equipment—
Clearwater Lake boat   $190.00
Murtle Lake boat   227.00
One rowboat  35.00
Two fire-fighting pumps   736.00
Fire-fighting hose   146.00
Two outboard motors  380.00
One Ford car  744.00
Smoke-chasers' kits  590.00
Four telephone sets   90.00
Tools and equipment   480.00
$3,618
Improvements—■
Lemieux-Coldscaur Lake Trail  $405.00
Adams River Bridge and Road  1,367.00
Little Clearwater Cabin   309.00
Seymour River Bridge   1,049.00
Grizzly Mountain Lookout   128.00
Hell Roar Peak Trail  125.00
Thunder River Trail   978.00
Murtle Lake Cabin  314.00
Green Mountain Lookout  54.00
Clearwater Lake Boat-house  197.00
Bonaparte Lake Cabin :  420.00
Allan Lake-Bonaparte Lake Trail  216.00
Fadear Mountain Lookout Telephone-line  579.00
Coldscaur Lake Cabin  347.00
Coldscaur Lake-Moira Lake Trail  840.00
Coldscaur Lake-Rioux Lake Trail  332.00
Sock Lake-Grizzley Lake Trail   1,251.00
Adams River-Tum Turn Lake Trail  858.00
Valemont Lookout  104.00
Bonaparte Lake-Boundary Trail   3200
$9,805.00
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929.
B 41
Kamloops—Continued.
Maintenance—
Dixon Creek Trail 	
North Barriere Lake-Adams Lake Trail	
Parky Lake-Hoover Lake Trail	
Allan Lake-Parky Lake Trail	
Garnet Mountain Lookout and Trail	
Baldy Mountain Lookout Telephone-line 	
Seymour River West Trail	
Seymour River East Trail 	
Celesta Creek-Cayenne Creek Trail	
Barriere Forks-Brennan Creek Trail	
Clearwater River Trail	
Red Top Trail 	
Murtle River Trail	
Centre Ridge Trail	
Fishtrap Creek Trail 	
Adams River-North Thompson Trail 	
Raft River Peak Trail	
Canoe River Trail	
Upper Thompson River Trail	
Blue River-Murtle Lake Trail	
Miscellaneous 	
$24.00
116.00
20.00
20.00
56.00
182.00
374.00
287.00
136.00
275.00
100.00
44.00
28.00
84.00
64.00
32.00
44.00
32.00
148.00
32.00
188.00
$2,286.00
Fort George.
Equipment—
One outboard motor  $190.00
One fire-fighting pump  375.00
Fire-fighting hose   500.00
Two boats  130.00
Fire-fighting tools, etc  623.00
A $1,818.00
Improvements—
Pope Mountain Lookout   $375.00
Longworth Mountain Lookout  695.00
Fort Fraser Lookout   86.00
Pilot Mountain Lookout  '.  897.00
Chow Sunkut-Lily Lake Trail   425.00
Mud River Trail   195.00
Fort Fraser Garage   524.00
Moxley Tool-house   143.00
$3,340.00
Maintenance—
Beaver River Trail  $533.00
Buckhorn-Willow River Trail   150.00
Stuart Lake Boat-house   42.00
Clearwater Trail   97.00
Tsinkut Mountain Lookout  33.00
Miscellaneous  13.00
$868.00
 B 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Prince Rupert.
Equipment—
Three Ford cars  $2,262.00
Two fire-fighting pumps   586.00
Two boats   258.00
Fire-fighting tools, etc  631.00
Fire-fighting hose, etc  862.00
One outboard motor  230.00
Cooking outfits   237.00
$5,066.00
Improvements—
Black Mountain Lookout   $239.00
Fire-line construction   361.00
Thornhill Mountain Lookout  931.00
Skin Lake Lookout  180.00
Miscellaneous   24.00
$1,735.00
Maintenance—
Miscellaneous   $101.00
Southern Interior.
Equipment—
Three Whippet cars  $2,988.00
Fourteen Ford cars   10,397.00
One launch (" Conifer ")  4,455.00
One rowboat  212.00
Four fire-fighting pumps   1,346.00
One outboard motor  230.00
One " Flato " boat :  75.00
Twenty-three " Wajax " hand-pumps   298.00
Thirty " Wajax " water-bags  232.00
Eighty-three electric and carbide lamps  310.00
Fifty smoke-chasers' kits   1,120.00
Seven ploughs and harness  340.00
Fifty-four 6-10-25-men cooking outfits  1,854.00
Thirty tents and twenty-six flys  1,438.00
Fire-fighting hose   992.00
Fire-fighting tools, etc  12,199.00
$38,486.00
Improvements—
70.17 miles of trail  $5,743.00
Caven Creek Lookout   92.00
Main Yahk Emergency Telephone-line   85.00
Summit Creek Telephone-line   25.00
Duncan River Telephone-line   1,557.00
Beaver Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   672.00
Mount Glory Lookout Telephone-line   971.00
White Rocks Telephone-line   1,961.00
Ward Creek Cabin   619.00
Carried forward   $11,725.00
 Southern Interior—Continued.
Brought forward  $11,725.00
Improvements—Continued.
Gold Creek Cabin  123.00
Fish Lake Lean-to   38.00
Miscellaneous ...:  29.00
$11,915.00
Maintenance—
722 miles of trail  $4,978.00
Swansea Mountain Lookout  37.00
Elise Mountain Lookout   30.00
Goat Mountain Lookout  83.00
B.X. Mountain Lookout  25.00
Little White Mountain Lookout  52.00
Elk Valley Telephone-line  324.00
Cedar Valley Telephone-line   24.00
Wigwam Telephone-line  ,  25.00
Moyie Mountain Telephone-line   64.00
Johnsons Landing-Lardo Telephone-line   26.00
Elise Mountain Telephone-line   109.00
Siwash Mountain Telephone-line   146.00
Wilson Creek Telephone-line   32.00
Little Slocan Telephone-line  97.00
Saddle Mountain Telephone-line  47.00
Kettle Valley Telephone-line   730.00
Baldy Mountain Telephone-line   81.00
Goat Mountain Telephone-line   111.00
Sugar Mountain Telephone-line   86.00
B.X. Mountain Telephone-line   25.00
Snow Mountain Telephone-line   57.00
Little White Mountain Telephone-line   74.00
Aspen Grove Ranger Station Telephone-line   38.00
Bridge Creek Cabin   143.00
Creston Ranger Station   88.00
Salmo Garage   105.00
Nakusp Boat-house   91.00
Mabel Lake Boat-house  100.00
Grand Forks Tool-shed   55.00
Miscellaneous     316.00
$8,199.00
Vancouver.
Equipment—
Six Ford cars   $4,409.00
Six fire-fighting pumps   2,196.00
7 hand-tank pumps   84.00
One outboard motor  167.00
Fire-fighting hose   582.00
One launch ("Birch II."):  4,099.00
Fire-fighting tools, etc ..... 2,204.00
$13,741.00
 Vancouver—Continued.
Improvements—
Campbell Lake Lookout        $585.00
Cowichan Lake Lookout         527.00
Quatsino Tool-shed   100.00
$1,212.00
Maintenance—
South Fork Nanaimo River Trail   $139.00
Big Blackwater Trail   72.00
Mount Benson Lookout  38.00
Mount Shepherd Lookout   29.00
Mount Beecher Lookout   32.00
Squamish Ranger Station   20.00
Douglas Ranger Station   106.00
Pitt River Cabin   30.00
Tool and speeder house   38.00
Powell Lake Boat-house  68.00
Skagit Trail  596.00
Miscellaneous     78.00
$1,246.00
GRAZING.
General Range Conditions.
The past grazing season may be classed as one of the driest experienced since active control
of live-stock grazing on the Crown ranges was assumed by the Government. The rainfall was
far below normal and the growth of forage on the lower or grass ranges was retarded to such
an extent that growth was meagre. This general condition prevailed early in the season, and
in consequence the usual shipments of early beef began at least two weeks later than in normal
years.
Early rains in the Chilcotin District held out hope of an excellent season, but the drought
experienced later was against the development of the best condition in live stock shipped to
market.
As is usual in dry years, the lower ranges were mostly affected and cattle are " forced " to
use the timbered areas to a greater extent than usual. This office is consistently preaching
the advantage that will accrue to range live-stock interests in the seasonal use of timbered
ranges, not only as a measure of range protection and extension, but as the best method to
follow iri !the production of more and better beef. In general, therefore, where an extensive use
was had of the timber feed by cattle this year their condition was much better than in those
allowed to graze entirely, or nearly so, on the lower dried-up grass ranges. For example, the
secretary of the Stock-breeders' Association of Greenwood Riding reported that the only fat
cattle coming off the ranges in that district were fed on the timbered ranges, the feed of which
proved both nutritious and palatable. The advantages following the use of the " pine-grass "
ranges of the Kettle Valley District were particularly stressed at the last annual meeting of
the association attended by the Grazing Commissioner.
The fall rains were generally late this year and unless an exceptional precipitation is
experienced this winter the outlook will not be bright for 1930. Undoubtedly the usual May
and June rains will prevail, but the water-holes and sources of spring-flow are in such a dried-up
condition that more than an average precipitation is needed to restore them.
Condition of Live Stock.
In general, cattle have not gone into the winter in the best of condition, due to the scarcity
of green forage usually made available by early fall rains. The meagre growth was covered by
the heavy snows, which began falling on December 9th of this year, and cattle were forced into
the feed-yards.
 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1929. B 45
The fall condition of all breeding ewes was not bad and with reasonable care no difficulty
should be experienced in bringing them through a severe winter in good lambing condition.
As a rule, sheep do better in severe weather than cattle.
Market Conditions.
Market prices for beef, mutton, and lamb have been good throughout the year. Prices have
been at the point and above at which stockmen have claimed reasonable profits could be made.
Advantage has not generally been taken of the good prices available for British Columbia beef,
mutton, and lamb. The producers must recognize the fact that unless they pay attention to
proper feeding in winter, adopt correct turn-out periods in the spring, see to it that the animals
destined for the block are on the best of feed before marketing, and arrange shipments to market
British Columbia products early to avoid clashing with outside shipments, full advantage of
desirable prices cannot be taken.
This clashing was particularly noticeable in lamb shipments this season. Many producers
held their lambs too long and finally met with a considerable drop in prices when the Prairie
run of lambs was on. There is no reason why the lambs from the Fraser Valley cannot all be
on the market before the end of July or the middle of August. In like manner, the general run
of farm flocks of the Interior can be bred to place the lambs on the market before the end of
August. The range lambs can also be made available for shipment before September 15th, or
before the lambs from the Prairies begin coming in. The latter mature a month to six weeks
later than the lambs from properly managed British Columbia flocks, and British Columbia is
one of the few places in North-western America where fat lambs can be marketed direct from
the range.
The same conditions apply to the cattle industry; the correct use of the excellent feed
available on all the Crown range will enable the producer to market an earlier and better-
quality beef.
There must be more co-operation among the local producers with small herds in order that
car-load lots of even-quality live stock may be made available for buyers.
Live-stock Grazing under Permit.
The total numbers of live stock, the grazing of which was authorized for the season of 1929,
is as follows :—
District.                                             Cattle and Horses. Sheep.
Cariboo    30,000 5,000
Cranbrook        2,500 9,000
Fort George         500 	
Kamloops        4,000 1,500
Nelson       2,000       ' 500
Prince Rupert       300 	
Vancouver       200 	
Vernon   20,000 10,000
60,000 26,000
While the numbers of cattle grazed do not show any marked increase over previous years,
the demand for summer range for sheep has been heavy. For example, during the 1926 grazing
season permits for 1,671 sheep to graze on the Crown ranges of the Southern Interior District
were issued. This number was increased to 7.215 head in 1929 and there is every prospect of
a further increase in 1930. Farm flocks of sheep show a very heavy increase, there being in all
about 200,000 sheep in the Province, as against 50,000 five years ago.
The quality of range live stock in the Province is constantly increasing. The annual bull
sale and sheep-sale held at Kamloops are the means of distributing desirable sires and breeding
stock throughout the range country. The assembling of these high-class animals, together with
the fat-stock exhibits, is an excellent educative medium through which the advantages following
live-stock improvement can be brought home to the ranchers' assembled at the sales.
Demand for Grazing Privileges.
There is an increasing demand for a grazing use of the Crown lands. This is particularly
true in districts where the iflocks of sheep are increasing.    The applications filed indicate that
 stockmen realize how dependent their ranches are on the use of adjacent Crown range, which
can be had for the small payment of 5 cents per head per month for cattle and l1/! cents per
head for ewes, with a sum equal to one-third of the fee paid returned for range improvements.
This means that for every head of cattle carried on the winter ranch 15 acres and more of Crown
range per head of cattle and 3 acres and more per head of sheep are available at a very low
fee per head. Consequently, all range live-stock men realize the value of the grazing privileges
allowed under the " Grazing Act."
In comparison with the low fees charged for a use of Crown ranges in British Columbia,
grazing fees on similar public lands south of the International Line run at 15 to 21 cents per
head of cattle per month and 3% to 514 cents per head of sheep per month, with no return for
range improvements.
In some districts in British Columbia where crowded conditions are developing strict attention must now be given to the qualifications of permittees, and it is apparent that the grazing
regulations must be extended to cope with the problems this condition presents.
Division of Ranges between Different Classes of Stock.
With the increasing demand for sheep-grazing privileges, attention is being given the allotment of suitable ranges for each band or flock. In general, the midsummer range presents no
problem, as flocks of sheep can be driven considerable distances to the higher ranges where the
best midsummer feed is found. A problem is, however, (being met with in furnishing early and
late ranges, heretofore included in general cattle allotments. Early allotments are being cut
off for individual sheep allotments where possible. So far there has been little difficulty, as
most of the men going in for sheep were former cattlemen and their cattle herds are being
replaced by sheep; the old allotment being used by the latter class of stock. Lines are drawn,
however, beyond which the sheep must not be herded.
Outside of these early and late allotments for sheep the lower ranges in general are allotted
as cattle-grazing grounds. The feed is usually not of the type suited to the ewe with the
growing lamb, which matures earlier than the calf and needs the succulent type of forage found
in the high mountains. To render the ranges, both high and low, being more readily used,
considerable stock-trail work has been undertaken.
Live-stock Associations.
Co-operative work in range and live-stock management and protection has been going ahead
in the various grazing districts. The activity has been particularly noticeable throughout the
Vernon, Nelson, and Cranbrook Grazing Districts, where ten very active associations are
operating.
The broader lines of work are dealt with through the British Columbia Stock-breeders' and
the British Columbia Sheep-breeders' Associations, both Provincial-wide organizations. Local
problems come before the local organizations and a great deal of- valuable co-operation is given.
This has of late been manifested particularly in the wild-horse and grasshopper control work
and in the improvement of the ranges.
Losses of Live Stock.
In general losses have not been 'above the average. A few cases of blackleg in cattle were
reported, but nothing of a serious nature developed. Among undesirable breeding ewes sold to
some of our ranchers from outside points considerable loss was experienced, but those going in
for sheep now fully understand that, if they discuss their requirements with their Provincial
association, arrangements can be made to see that they get good ewes.
Very few cases of loss from poisonous plants were reported. It is seldom that any trouble
is experienced from this source because British Columbia ranges are most remarkably free from
poisonous plants. Investigation usually shows that losses from so-called poisonous plants are
really losses due to bloat following sudden changes from dry to succulent forage.
Losses from predatory animals have been at about an average. Bears, both black and
grizzly, were active this year on the high sheep-ranges and did unusual damage among the flocks
for a short period or until they were destroyed. Should their depredations occur again it may
be advisable to recommend the employment of special hunters.
 Range Improvements.
The 1929 range-improvement plan provided for the expenditure of $4,183.23 in the Cariboo,
Kamloops, Vernon, Nelson, and Cranbrook Districts for the following projects:—
Cariboo District.—Thirteen mud-holes, four breeding-pastures, one stock-trail, four drift-
fences, four holding-grounds, and one maintenance project;   cost, $2,508.23.
Southern Interior District, comprising Vernon, Nelson, and Cranbrook.—Two water-development projects, four stock-trails, one reseeding project, one drift-maintenance project, special
maintenance projects, Creston flats, fences, and bridges, and emergency mud-holes;   cost $1,605.
Kamloops District.—One stock-trail and one dangerous prospect-hole;   cost, $70.
The above programme will be about completed by the end of March, 1930.
Emergency projects were authorized during the year, payments for which were made from
emergency mud-hole funds and other surplus funds accumulated, due to keeping expenditures
as much below estimates as possible.
The total of range-improvement projects constructed to facilitate the handling and protection of stock now existent throughout the various districts are:—
Drift-fences built      81
Mud-holes improved  127
Water-holes and springs developed    23
Corrals built     26
Breeding-grounds enclosed      36
Holding-grounds for beef drives      11
Stock-bridges        9
Stock-trails    27
Range-restoration studies      5
Other works of a nature having direct bearing on the protection and capacity of the ranges
have been undertaken, notably wild-horse control, grasshopper-control, and range restoration.
Wild-horse Control.
To date wild and useless horses to the number of 3,700 have been eliminated from the
Crown ranges by direct action and the rounding-up and sale of several thousand of the better
type and of herds accessible to shipping-points has been very strongly influenced. The destruction of wild and vicious stallions and other wild and useless horses is now under way on two
units of the Vernon and on three of the Cariboo Grazing Districts. The maintenance of a
" pound " on the White Lake Stock-range during 1929 was productive of much good. Trespassing horses were at once seized and, if not claimed, were sold or destroyed.
Gkassiiopper-control.
The excellent results following the commencement of poisoning on the ranges in 1925 is
evident in districts where the work was done. The local stockmen who co-operate with the
Government in this work are as a rule put to considerable expense in protecting their crops.
Heretofore, work done by the few has benefited the many. There is, therefore, a movement on
foot to secure legislation requiring that all land-holders in defined districts pay their proportionate share of costs on an acreage basis in much the same way as provided by the " Codling-
moth Act."    This course has been recommended by this office.
Outbreaks of grasshoppers were not serious this year anywhere on the ranges, with the
exception of those of the Empire Valley. Provision is made, however, to cope with any outbreak, so that with intelligent co-operation between Government officials and stockmen no serious
damage in the future should occur.
Experiments have been carried on in various parts of the range districts in order to determine
the economy and value of reseeding burned-over ranges to cultivated grass and other forage-
plants. So far little success has followed, as it is not possible under ordinary conditions on such
ranges that cultivated grasses or other plants can thrive in competition with native vegetation
unless expensive work is undertaken, and which is not warranted under range conditions. An
interesting experiment is, however,'under way on the Richter Pass Range, where large areas
of dense sage-brush are being burned over and sowed down to western rye (Agropyron tenerum).
The burning and seeding of last year showed a certain degree of success and the work was
extended this year.    It is noted, however, that live stock so congregated on the seeded area that
 B 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
serious damage is likely to occur if protective measures are not adopted. These are being
arranged. It brings out the point that unless large areas of range can be seeded down the
congregation of stock, combined with competition from the native plants, soon destroys the
cultivated forage. These things, together with the cost of seed, renders it apparently useless
to consider seeding ranges to cultivated plants. With the proper measure of protection, the
native vegetation will soon restore itself, as has been clearly demonstrated in the range-
restoration experimental areas now under observation on the range.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1930.
1,500-230-9352

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