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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. T. D. PATTULLO,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1927

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
OF
THE FOEEST BEANCH
OF  THE
DEPARTMENT OE LANDS
HON. T. D. PATTULLO, Minister
P. Z. Caverhill, Chief Forester
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1925
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Baotielo, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1026.  Victoria, B.C., April 29th, 1926.
To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch
of the Department of Lands for the year 1925.
T. D. PATTULLO,
Minister of Lands. -
The Hon. T. D. Pattullo,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There are submitted herewith statistical tables with a brief comment,
covering the main activities of the Branch during the calendar year 1925.
P. Z. CAVERHILL,
Chief Forester. MOUNT BENSON LOOKOUT.
Near Nanaimo, Vancouver Island.    Elevation, 3,300 feet.  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The year 1925 cannot be reported as one of unqualified success in forest activities, yet it
contained so many elements of success that it was far from a failure. In forest-protection we
encountered a year which, in hazard, was fully up to 1922 and the drought period was prolonged
even into October. The losses were heavy and expenditure for fire-fighting the largest on record.
At the same time the organization functioned so as to be able to control 70.14 per cent, of the
'fires under 10 acres and 79 per cent, with a damage of less than $100. Only 9.6 per cent, of the
fires exceeded $1,000 in damage. Combining these facts with the prolonged period of drought and
extreme hazard conditions, I feel that we can congratulate our field staff on a most excellent
showing.
The cut of forest products, as shown by the scale returns, exceeds all previous records.
Water-borne trade especially showed a substantial increase, more particularly the Atlantic
seaboard, Europe, and Egypt. While the markets absorbed a large volume, the prices were
unsatisfactory and rather lower than during 1924. There can be but little doubt that this
condition was partially due to the great anxiety on the part of operators to book business and
keep plants running to capacity even at prices below cost of production. Had some general
curtailment been possible during the early spring there is no question that the price would have
strengthened and conditions improved. It cannot be too strongly emphasized that low prices are
conducive to waste of low-grade material and tend to retard the introduction of forestry practice.
If we are to grow timber the crop must, in some measure, return the outlay, and this can be
done only by utilizing a larger part of the wood product.
It is gratifying to note that the public is taking a keener interest than ever before in the
public aspect of forestry. A real forestry conscience is being aroused. The calling of the International Forestry Congress at Rome, under the auspices of the International Agriculture
Association, appears as a first step in putting our forest needs on a par with our food-supply—our
forest-crop on a par with our agricultural crops. In the United States the development of a
national forestry policy, aided and subsidized by the Federal Government under the provisions
of the Clai'k-McNary Bill, has given new impetus to forestry thought there. In British Columbia
the creation, during the 1925 session of the Legislature, of the Forest Reserve Fund is a step
of prime importance. In it is recognized that a forest is a crop and, as with other crops, there
is a seed-time and a harvest. This fund provides definitely for the seed-time. Already the
initial steps have been taken and Provincial forests aggregating 4,155,000 acres have been created.
Also, during the year, the first orderly classification and stock-taking of these areas has been
undertaken. The Forest Reserve Fund established by the Legislature provides for " the development and protection of forest reserves and the planting of denuded areas and maintaining the
growth of continuous crops of timber in forest reserves." The fund is formed by the payment
into it each year of 3 per cent, of the revenue derived from timber royalties and stumpage.
This fund wTill not only permit of greater speed in examining reservations and stock-taking
on Provincial forests, but will provide funds for much-needed improvements, such as look-outs,
telephone-lines, trails, etc.; will provide intensified protection and, if necessary, areas denuded
by fire or other causes may be planted up, although at present the fund is not sufficient for
any widespread planting scheme, nor is such an undertaking desirable until better fire-control is
accomplished.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
One new forest only was reserved during the year, the Upper or West Thurlow Island Forest.
This is an island of about 30 square miles which has been largely logged, but still contains
188,000 M.B.M. The island has produced a great quantity of high-quality fir and cedar and
there are some excellent stands of young growth on parts of the older loggings. Examination has
been made of other islands, and also of an extensive area south of Babine 'Lake and tributary
to the Canadian National Railway. This examination is preliminary to reservation and it is
expected that Provincial forests will be created in these regions at an early date. E 6
Department of Lands.
1925 16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 7 FOREST  REGULATION  PRODUCES
ALL.   AGE  CLASSES  UP  TO MATURITY
EQUAL  VOLUME   READY   FOR  CUTTING
EACH   YEAR
M
FROM SEEDLINGS
A"NORMAL"FOREST
TO   MATURE  TIMBER
N <
9. •
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0  »
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81
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IN   o
0 a>
ALIENATED TIMBER
i
UNPRODUCTIVE
Barren or scrub covered
SKIP GROWTH
RECENT LOGGING SLASH
(Upfo20Years)    Seedling reproduction.
BURNT SLASH
Not yet re - stocking-.
FIRE
kiu.cc
TIMBER
MERCHANTABLE    TIMBER-
\A-%
4%
31 °s&
12*1
PRESENT CONDITION OF WEST   THURLOW ISLAND  FOREST
Diagram representing two Provincial forests in comparison with an ideal forest under regulation. 16 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 9
The object of creating Provincial forests is to keep the areas permanently productive. This
can only be done by carefully regulated operations. Not only must we leave the area in a
condition for regeneration, but we must also guard against too rapid cutting, or we will have
not permanent but periodic production with long lapses of time between one crop and the next.
An ideal regulated forest is one in which only the annual increment is utilized each year.
In our areas it is impossible to reach this ideal at once, because we find either a surplus of
old overmature timber which should be cut or a young stand resulting from some past fire and
not yet merchantable. The objective we must work to, however, is clear, and as one of the
first steps it is necessary to ascertain the quantity of timber now available, the age classes of
the reproduction, when this will be available for cutting, and the producing capacity of the
forest. With this object in view stock-taking surveys have been commenced to determine the
quantity of mature timber in each forest, the rate at which the logged or burned areas are
being reforested by nature, and when these young stands will be of merchantable size and what
they will produce.
Such a survey has been completed this year of the Inkaneep and Little White Mountain
Forests. At the same time an examination was made by a soil specialist in order that any areas
of possible value for agricultural development might be withdrawn and made available for that
purpose and the boundaries of the forests finally established. These forests, in addition to
forming the watershed from which the orchards on the east side of the Okanagan Valley draw
their irrigation-water, are of importance as a source of supply for timber for fruit-box making
and local building purposes. Though largely covered with immature stands, they contain some
valuable yellow pine, fir, larch, spruce, and lodgepole pine timber and will become of greater value
in the future for timber production. Little demand is made on them at present because of
cheaiier lumber which can be secured from more accessible sites and from the Coast.
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
The Forest Branch continued its trade-extension work in Eastern Canada.
Educational work in regard to British Columbia grading rules was continued and the grade
exhibit installed at 51 Yonge Street, Toronto, again proved of great value.
Finished specimens of British Columbia woods were freely distributed, along with literature
descriptive of our woods and how to finish them in order to get the best results.
The bungalow exhibit at the Canadian National Exhibition was continued and attracted
thousands of visitors each day.
The exhibit at Wembley, England, was continued until the close of the British Empire
Exhibition in September. This exhibit did valuable work in bringing more fully to the notice
of the British people the quality of British Columbia woods, and undoubtedly led to the introduction of British Columbia woods where a foreign product had formerly been used.
WATER-BORNE TRADE.
The water-borne trade exceeded 577,000,000 feet and sets a new high record, being an increase
of 9 per cent, over the previous year and 205 per cent, in five years. While trade with China
and Japan showed a falling-off, this was overcome by increased buying on the part of Australia,
Egypt, and Europe. The United States remained our best market and absorbed 361,016,000 feet
or 64 per cent, of the total water shipments, an increase of 47,912,000 feet over that of 1924, and,
in addition, took some 200,000,000 feet of rail shipments. Since this market takes more or less
the average mill-run the steady increase in business is highly gratifying. Of particular interest
are the shipments to Egypt. This market was pioneered in 1921 with a trial shipment of ties,
after which the market fell off, but in 1924 renewed activity was shown and 6,883,000 feet was
placed. That the current year sales show an Increase of almost 10O per cent, would indicate
that our woods have proven eminently satisfactory and that we can compete in this market with
the Baltic and mid-European countries. Department op Lands.
1925
Water-boene Lumbee Trade, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, and 1925.
Australia	
New Zealand	
South America	
China	
Japan    	
United Kingdom and Continent
South Africa	
India and Straits Settlements ..
United States 	
Philippine and Hawaiian Islands
West Indies and Cuba	
South Sea Islands   	
Mexico	
Egypt	
Foreign, Unclassified	
Totals	
275,028
663,603
317,825
944,011
447,160
592,562
931,969
429,403
553,543
158,805
20,668
941,422
i/seelioo
188,733,299
Feet B.M.
66,949,129
4,516,862
3,244,776
24,640,268
72,339,531
12,698,383
2,415,500
7,249,487
83,856,504
04,764
30,065
1,841,578
9,953
273,146,800
Feet B.M.
78,003,423
11,262,890
717,600
36,398,234
106.016,915
16,201,290
8,221,032
4,803,236
248,611,600
4,361,139
094,341
3,665,241
677,756
1,705,394
177,041
521,707,132
Feet B.M.
34,848,783
12,169,230
752,906
25,595,993
79,107,984
41,527,008
10,681,208
2,228,150
313,104,821
134,690
544,604
3,454,183
6,883,150
229,608
531,262,318
Feet B.M.
40,228,887
12,619,730
2,168,921
10,783,086
67.671,449
53,845,679
8,875,544
3,359,869
361,016,940
66,863
667,012
2,610,143
12,820,848
835,317
577,560,288
INDUSTRY.
The value of the industry to the Province is estimated at $81,941,000 and exceeds 1924 by
$1,239,000. Reduction is noted in value of sawn lumber due to a lower average price, and also
in several minor items which is offset by the increase in pulp and paper products and particularly
in the production of lath and miscellaneous forest products. This latter increase is due more
to closer returns secured than to any large increase in the volume of business transacted.
Estimated Value of Production.
Product.
Lumber	
Pulp and paper.
Shingles	
Boxes.,
Piles, poles, and mine-props   	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties	
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the wood-using industry
Laths and other miscellaneous products   	
Logs exported	
Pulpwood exported   	
Totals    $64,070,000     §59,477,000
$33,533,000
13,500,000
7,032,0(10
2,000,000
1,479,000
1,180,000
2,314,000
2,034,000
250,000
1,648,000
400,000
590,000
750,000
726,000
959,000
187,000
526,000
000,000
400,000
939,000
$47,600,000
15,018,000
9,869,000
2,072,000
2,200,000
1,600,01(0
1,715,000
2,000,000
500,000
4,200,000
$86,674,000
$41,800,000
13,938,000
10,000,000
2,272,000
2,100,000
1,400,000
2,242,000
2,100,000
560,000
4,300,000
$80,702,000
$41,360,000
14,466,000
10,000,000
2,200,000
2,400,000
1,800,000
1,990,000
2,100,000
1,617,000
3,870,000
148,000
$81,941,000
PULP AND PAPER.
Pulp.
Pulp.
Sulphite	
Sulphate
Ground wood
1919.
Tons.
80,347
9,473
99,769
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
Tons.
92,299
16,380
108,665
Tons.
68,502
6,519
89,725
Tons.
86,894
9,674
100,759
Tons.
99,878
9,932
107,266
Tons.
89,839
14,403
112,001
Tons.
92,514
16,856
121,363
The ground wood-pulp is almost wholly used in the manufacture of newsprint in the Province.    With this is consumed some 38,000 tons of sulphite, which yields papers as follows:—
Paper.
1919.
1920.
Tons.
136,832
9,792
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
Product.
Tons.
123,607
7,202
Tons.
110,176
6,934
Tons.
124,639
7,945
Tons.
142,928
7,709
Tons.
136,281
9,663
Tons.
148,201
9,261 16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 11
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
The reorganization of the Southern Interior by the amalgamation of the Cranbrook, Nelson,
and Vernon Districts into one administrative unit with headquarters at Nelson was carried out
during the year; the object being to strengthen the field staff, allow for a greater decentralization
of work, and, at the same time, have a more mobile organization. The districts had scarcely been
brought together when the fire season was on and from then until October conditions were such
as to try any organization. Yet, in spite of this, the new staff functioned efficiently and gives
every promise of better service and greater efficiency than heretofore.
This change called for a rearrangement of some of the staff and some additions to the staff,
which now numbers 252 on the permanent list. This was increased during the fire season to 525,
including temporary cruisers, patrolmen, etc.
For the improvement of the Ranger staff short Ranger schools were conducted at Comox, on
the Coast, and Aleza Lake, in the Northern Interior. The Rangers in these regions were brought
together and given intensive instruction along the line of field-work. The men were able to
bring up many problems which had been confronting them and receive the advice of their
confreres or supervising officers. The success of these courses and the value derived through
improved work cannot be doubted.
Distribution op Pokcb, 1925.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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53
INVESTIGATIONS.
The accomplishments in the major projects under way are briefly given below:—
(A.)  COAST.
I. Natural Reproduction Studies.
(a.) Reproduction Survey, Hemlock-Cedar Type.—A survey of 171 cut-over areas from
Cracroft Island north to Ocean Palls showed 71 per cent, of all areas to have more than 500
seedlings per acre. Of the cut-over lands not burned in the last four years, 97 per cent, had
over 500 seedlings per acre and 91 per cent, more than 1,000. The chart on page 12, based on the
amount of reproduction found at different periods after logging or burning, indicates that broadcast burning of slash delays the establishment of a forest-cover, but, irrespective of whether the
slash is burned or not, cut-over lands will restock naturally.
The hemlock-cedar type is one of high precipitation and relatively high humidity and the
fire risk is comparatively low. Broadcast burning of slash in this type is not recommended, since
it delays the formation of a forest-cover from five to ten years, except where the slash covers
the ground so completely that reproduction cannot become established. E 12
Department of Lands.
1925
CHART
SHEWING
REPRODUCTION   ON   CUT-OVER    LAND
HEMLOCK   CEDAR    TYPE
6000
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10
(6.) Reproduction Survey, Douglas Fir Type—A summary of 231 areas examined during
1923, 1924, and 1925 shows the following percentages to have over 500 seedlings per acre: 66
per 'cent, of all the areas examined; 79 per cent, of areas logged for four years and slash
not burned; 64 per cent, of areas with the slash burned more than four years previous to
examination.
In the past comparatively few cut-over areas were beyond seeding distance from green
timber and restocking could usually be expected where fires were controlled. However, the
logged-off lands are becoming more extensive and, with, the timber being logged back farther
and farther, provision for a source of seed for natural reproduction is becoming more important.
(c.) Source of Seed Studies.—The method of management of these Coast forests probably
depends on the source of seed from which reproduction may be expected more than on any other
factor.
(1.) Stored Seed.—Examinations of duff in the virgin forests in July have shown fresh seed
which had apparently only recently fallen from the cones. Cones collected on January 25th had
the following amount of viable seed per cone: Douglas fir, 2; cedar, 2 ; spruce, 5 ; and hemlock,
20. On unburned areas the amount of reproduction establishing the first season after logging
is usually greater than the subsequent annual establishment. This increase is probably due
to seed from the timber logged which has been stored in the cones.
(2.) Seed-dissemination Studies.—The finding of new seedlings on areas burned five to ten
years ago and up to 60 chains from green timber indicated that seed was being disseminated
farther than was previously expected.    On one area burned over in 1915 and 60 chains from AREA IN HEMLOCK-CEDAR TY1 6.
Logged by high lead, 1018.    No slash-disposal.    A bum would have destroyed this valuable
advanced reproduction.
I **.'.
WHY PLANTING IS NOT NECESSARY.
This area was logged in 1918 and not burned.    In 120 years it will produce 120 cords of pulp-wood
per acre.  16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 13
seed-trees an average per acre of fifty yearling firs was found in 1924 following the heavy seed
year of 1923. Only a very occasional yearling was found in 1925 following the failure in seed-
crop of 1924.    This indicated that the seedlings found in 1924 came from wind-blown seed.
To determine how far seed was scattered a series of traps was established at intervals up
to 60 chains from seed-trees.
The following table shows the total amount of seed caught of all species up to January 19th,
1924, when the cone studies showed seed still remaining:—
Distance in Chains of Traps from Green Timber.
Seeds caught	
Average per acre.
5.
10.
20.
30.
40.
50.
23
13,915
21
12,705
7
4,236
4
2,420
5
3,025
7
1,412
12
2,420
All traps were 72 square feet, except those at 50 and 00 chains, which were 216 square feet
each. The 1925 seed-crop was moderate to light and these experiments will be supplemented
and carried over at least five years to yield more conclusive results. However, they indicate
that seed is disseminated longer distances and over a greater period than was previously known.
The results will have a direct bearing on the conservation of blocks of timber or individual trees
for seeding purposes.
(d.) Viability Studies.—To further determine whether seedlings establishing at long distances
from seed-trees come from stored seed or some other source, tests will be made to determine how
long seed remains viable. Two hundred samples of fir, hemlock, and cedar of 100 seeds each,
from the 1924 crop, were stored in humus and mineral soil and buried at depths of % foot and
1 foot.    Ten samples can be tested each year for germination for a period of twenty years.
(e.) Seedling Survival.—Five experimental plots were established in 1925 and will be supplemented by further plots in 1920. Last year's studies showed a low mortality in cedar and
37 per cent, mortality in hemlock yearling seedlings from the first of July. One plot gave
80 per cent, mortality in Douglas fir. The studies indicate that herbaceous vegetation, where
not too dense, affords favourable conditions for seedlings, and the lack of cover the first season
after burning may account for the delayed establishment of reproduction on burned-over areas.
(f.) Effect of Various Factors.— (1.) Aspect.—The following summary shows the amount of
reproduction found nine years after a burn under conditions where aspect was the only marked
difference in the areas examined:—
Seedlings per Acre.
Northern Aspect.
Southern Aspect.
Species.
No.
Per Cent.
by
Spec.es.
No.
Per Cent.
by
Species.
1,347
2,553
515
13
4,428
30
58
12
+
501
124
25
77
19
4
100
650
100
This study indicates that areas with southern aspects will require more intensive management to get satisfactory stocking than those that face the north.
(2.) Slash-disposal.—A series of plots was established to determine more definitely the
effect of burning at different seasons on the rate of seeding-in. These will take at least five
years to show results.
General.—The fire hazard is undoubtedly greater on cut-over lauds than in the virgin forest,
and the ultimate means of reducing this hazard will be through the establishment of a forest-
cover on the logged-off areas. Broadcast burning of slash in the fir type, except around spar
trees and where the debris covers the ground too completely for seedlings to establish, delays E 14
Department of Lands.
1925
the formation of a forest-cover three to five years on the average, in addition to the interval
between logging and burning. The tendency is for slash-burning to be concentrated where the
hazard occurs, such as along railways and common routes of travel. The subdivision of cut-over
areas by cleared fire-lines, utilizing the railways, grades, etc., where possible, would assist in
keeping accidental fires within the smallest limits. Logging by compartments, with green timber
as fire-breaks, is commendable, as the green timber would assist in controlling fires and seeding
in adjoining areas. The studies so far indicate that the rate of seeding-in largely depends on
the distance from seed-trees and the abundance of the seed-crops. As little burning should be
done as is consistent with protection, but where burning is carried out it should be as soon after
logging as conditions permit, whether spring or fall, and the hotter the burn the better, so long
as the burned-over areas are within seeding distances of marginal timber. Before burning such
precautions as clearing fire-lines, etc., should be taken to prevent slash fires from extending
beyond the area of new slash into areas where seedlings are already established, or are a long
distance from a possible source of seed.
II. Planting Studies.
A total of 7,500 alder, black Cottonwood, ash, Manitoba maple, and caragana were planted
in April as an experimental fire-break. The object is to determine their possibilities on various
sites, in rapidly forming a forest-cover, which will assist in fire-control. An examination in
January showed the following to have survived:—
Species.
Moist Site.
Wet Site.
Dry Site.
Per Cent.
81
81
90
92
92
Per Cent.
69
Per Cent.
25
43
Ash	
The ash and Manitoba maple showed rapid growth after setting out, but were eaten back
by cattle.    The other species showed little growth, probably due to the exceptionally dry summer.
III. Mensuration Projects.
(a.) Yield Tables—Douglas Fir, Hemlock, and Cedar.—This project, which was started in
1924, was continued in 1925, but considerable difficulty was found in locating suitable areas for
study. However, data were obtained from seventy-one temporary plots varying from % to
5 acres in area.
The following tentative table has been prepared from forty-one plots, showing the yield of
even-aged hemlock on areas with average maximum stocking. The site index based on the
average maximum height of the stand at 100 years is used as a basis for site classificatiou.
Normal Yield Table, Even-aged Hemlock.
(Site Index Based on Average Maximum Height at 100 Years.)
Site Index 60.
Age.
Average D.B.H.
Total Height.
Total No. of
Trees per Acre.
Total Volume
per Acre, Cu. Ft.
Volume of Trees
over 7 In.
D.B.H. to 5 In.
Top, Cu. Ft.
Present Utilized
Volume of Trees
14 In. D.B.H.
and over, B.F.
40	
1.7
2.8
3.5
5.8
7.0
8.0
8.7
23
38
50
60
69
76
80
5,420
3,550
1,406
955
748
640
4,440
5,850
7,170
8,350
9,320
9,890
2,730
4,960
6,340
60	
80	
100	
120	
140	
160	
7,350 .' • <\ ■
">rS^
1
..■
■-^    •                     '■.'     .
^ .^jpflpy^s^1
,\ -                " las
■•■•--   •         2^M
***"
'-.
ir " -
■
j
^
*
;" • ~„
type of seed-catcher used in seed-dissemination studies.
Seven seeds were caught in this (36 by 0 feet)  trap at 5'0 chains from seed-trees.
Seedlings found ten years after a bum on a representative square-rod plot, three-quarters of a
mile from seed-trees. The ages vary from 2 to 8 years; the heights from 0.15 to 5.9 feet. Areas
restock gradually although a long distance from seed-trees.  16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 15
Site Index 80.
Age.
Average D.B.H.
Total Height.
Total No. of
Trees per Acre.
Total Volume
per Acre, Cu. Ft.
Volume of Trees
over 7 In.
D.B.H. to 6 In.
Top, Cu. Ft.
Present Utilized
Volume of Trees
14 In. D.B.H.
and over, B.F.
40	
2.9
4.7
6.9
8.7
9.7
10.5
11.0
34
51
68
80
89
96
100
5,090
2,025
981
638
626
456
419
3,948
6,020
8,240
9,860
11,090
12,070
12,610
2,525
6,760
8,350
8,970
10,500
60	
80	
100	
7,290
120	
18,200
140	
25,300
160	
28,300
Site Index 100.
40	
4.2
7.1
9.6
11.1
12.5
13.5
14.3
47
70
88
100
109
115
120
2,500
930
535
413
333
292
264
5,510
8,490
10,930
12,680
13,880
14,800
15,520
2,573
8,120
10,680
12,450
13,680
14,520
60.	
80	
16,890
100	
29,730
120	
140	
160	
38,360
43,800
60,700
Site Index 120.
40.
60,
80,
100,
120.
140,
160.
6.3
9.7
12.1
11.3
15.7
16.7
17.4
107
12(1
129
136
140
353
264
224
201
7,580
11,100
13,710
15,5-20
16,780
17,830
18,450
12,120
14,480
15,880
16,940
17,450
18,230
36,700
48,400
58,600
65,500
70,600
Site Index 140.
40	
8.6
12.4
15.2
17.4
18.6
19.7
20.5
79
108
126
140
148
155
160
652
338
237
188
168
152
142
9,700
13,700
16,390
18,460
19,600
20,620
21,400
6,040
12,270
15,400
17,470
18,640
19,700
20,480
6,660
60.	
38,240
80.	
100	
120	
57,300
70,100
78,900
140	
160	
84,200
88,900
A comparison of similar sites indicated that the total wood production for hemlock was
10 per cent, greater than for fir, due to the greater number of trees per acre, although the
average diameter and height growth were less. An average basal area of 213 square feet for
fir corresponds to about 270 square feet for hemlock. These studies indicate the great variation
in potential value of our Coast lands for pulp and saw-timber production.
(6.) Volume Tables.—The following volume tables have been prepared to meet the requirements of Rangers in cruising timber-sales where the volume of each tree is tallied, deductions
for defect, etc., being made in the field:—
Douglas Fir Volume Table (Coast).
Based on the measurements of 325 trees felled on average good ground during 1924 logging
operations. D.B.H. measured at 4.5 feet from the ground. Average stump-height, 3.3 feet. Logs
scaled by B.C. rule as cut to utilized top D.I.B., which is the average minimum for the region.
No allowance for defect on breakage below utilized top D.I.B. Length of top is that above
utilized portion.   Trees  for whole  region  classified  according to  merchantable length, which '—
E 16
Department of Lands
1925
corresponds closely with total height classes, as short, medium, and tall, which may also be used
as site classes.   Check against basic data, 0.4 per cent. low.
Hemlock Volume Table (Lower Coast).
Based on the measurements of 280 trees felled on average good ground during 1924 logging
operations. D.B.H. measured at 4.5 feet from the ground. Average stump-height, 3.3 feet. Logs
scaled by B.C. rule as cut to utilized top D.I.B., which is the average minimum for the region.
No allowance for defect on breakage below utilized top D.I.B. Length of top is that above
utilized portion. Trees for whole region classified according to merchantable length, which
corresponds closely with total height classes, as short, medium, and tall, which may also be used
as three site classes.   Check against basic data, 3.8 per cent. low.
Short.
Medium.
Tall.
0J
w
ra'
■O A
5d
5clQ
s
2s
.2 he
3d,
fcO P
E
si &
"So'
Brl
S 3
Jra
P «
Q
coH ©
P J
M O
>a
Sj
J o
>n
SJ
Jo
ora
H.S
10
0.4
38
19
40
38
28
40
38
38
40
6.4
12
0.4
40
26
80
42
38
85
44
50
90
7.2
14
0.5
43
32
136
48
44
150
52
52
165
8.1
16
0.5
47
34
200
56
46
235
65
54
275
8.9
18
0.6
52
38
265
66
47
336
79
54
405
9.7
20
0.6
56
41
340
72
48
440
91
54
550
10.6
22
0.7
59
44
435
78
50
575
97
55
705
11.4
24
0.7
63
46
660
82
52
725
102
57
910
12.2
26
0.7
66
49
690
86
54
900
106
59
1,110
13.1
28
0.8
69
61
850
90
55
1,100
111
60
1,360
14.0
30
0.8
73
52
1,030
94
56
1,340
116
59
1,630
14.8
32
0.8
76
53
1,230
98
57
1,600
120
59
1,940
15.6
34
0.8
80
54
1,480
102
5V
1,890
124
58
2,290
16.5
36
0.9
83
55
1,760
105
57
2,220
127
58
2,700
17.3
38
0.9
86
56
1,990
108
57
2,600
130
58
3,010
18.1
40
0.9
89
57
2,430
111
57
3,030
133
58
3,620
19.0
42
0.9
92
57
2,800
113
68
3,440
135
58
4,120
19.8
44
0.9
94
58
3,180
116
58
3,900
136
58
4,620
20.6
46
0.9
96
59
3,650
117
58
4,300
137
58
5,050
21.5
48
0.9
99
59
3,770
119
58
4,530
13S
68
5,270
22.3 16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 17
Cedar Volume Table (Lower Coast).
Based on the measurement of 250 trees felled on average good ground during 1924 logging
operations. D.B.H. measured at 4.5 feet from the ground. Average stump-height, 3.3 feet. Logs
scaled by B.C. rule as cut to utilized top D.I.B., which is the average minimum for the region.
No allowance for defect on breakage below utilized top D.I.B. Length of top is that above
utilized portion. Trees for whole region classified according to merchantable length, which
corresponds closely with total height classes, as short, medium, and tall, which may also be used
as three site classes.   Check against basic data, 2.9 per cent. high.
Short.
Medium
Tall.
0i
SS 3
•sg"
"S-g
tri
ra
So.
B
%4
&8
■2 s;
Is
§
.S3
a4
P
DJ
Jo
"o^
>ra
D J
a> cm
J o
o .
>ra
±? o
P J
o «-
Jo
o 2
H.S
16
0.5
27
34
130
50
33
180
63
32
225 '
8.9
18
0.6
40
37
155
56
36
220
72
34
280
9.7
20
0.6
42
42
180
61
40
270
78
40
335
10.6
22
0.6
45
45
250
66
44
370
88
42
490
11.4
24
0.6
47
47
335 '
70
47
600
94
46
675
12.2
26
0.6
49
50
425
74
60
650
100
50
880
13.1
28
0.6
60
53
625
77
53
820
105
52
1,110
14.0
30
0.7
52
54
635
81
54
1,000
110
54
1,350
14.8
32
0.7
53
57
760
85
55
1,200
115
55
1,640
15.6
34
0.7
54
59
880
87
58
1,400
119
67
1,910
16.5
36
0.7
65
61
1,010
88
60
1,620
121
60
2,210
17.3
38
0.7
57
62
1,160
90
62
1,850
123
61
2,530
18.1
40
0.7
58
63
1,320
91
63
2,100
125
62
2,860
19.0
42
0.7
59
64
1,510
92
64
2,370
125
63
3,220
19.8
44
0.8
59
65
1,680
93
64
2,650
126
63
3,590
20.6
46
0.8
60
66
1,870
93
65
2,940
127
63
3,980
21.5
48
0.8
61
67
2,090
94
65
3,250
"127
64
4,380
22.3
50
0.9
62
67
2,320
95
65
3,570
128
64
4,820
23.1
62
0.9
63
67
2,580
96
65
3,920
128
64
5,240
24.0
54
1.0
64
*
2,850
97
*
4,300
129
#
5,710
24.8
56
1.0
66
*
3,120
98
*
4,650
130
*
6,160
25.6
58
0.8
69
*
3,440
100
*
5,020
131
*
6,580
26.5
60
0.8
71
*
3,770
102
*
5,400
132
*
7,000
27.3
62
0.7
74
*
4,090
104
*
5,780
134
*
7,430
28.2
64
0.7
77
*
4,420
107
*
6,160
137
*
7,870
29.0
66
0.7
81
*
4,780
110
*
6,550
140
*
8,280
29.9
68
0.7
84
*
5,140
113
*
6,950
142
*
8,730
30.7
70
0.7
87
*
5,520
116
*
7,350
144
*
9,100
31.3
72
0.7
90
*
5,870
119
*
7,750
147
*
9,600
32.4
74
0.7
93
*
6,230
121
*
8,150
149
*
10,000
33.2
76
0.7
97
*
6,640
124
*
8,850
152
*
10,402
34.0
78
0.7
100
*
7,000
127
*
8,960
154
*
10,820
34.8
80
0.7
102
*
7,400
129
*
9,350
156
*
11,290
35.6
82
0.7
104
7,870
131
"
9,750
158
*
11,970
36.4
* Not sufficient data.
(B.)  INTERIOR.
The problems of forest management in the Northern Interior are very different from those of
the Douglas fir region. The stand is composed largely of spruce and balsam. Lodgepole pine
occurs over large areas where fire has destroyed the former stands of spruce.
Spruce is a very valuable tree for timber or pulp, and it is probable that the pulp industry
will be of great importance in this region in the future. The present stand consists of about
85 per cent, spruce and 15 per cent, balsam, but, as a result of logging under present methods,
these proportions will be considerably altered in the future, when balsam, the inferior species,
will form the greater part of the stand.
The problem for forest research is to find a method of logging which will produce a valuable
second growth and at the same time be economically feasible.
In the lodgepole type the problem is also to determine how to cut the stand to produce the
best forest in the future, and also to determine if it will be better to reproduce lodgepole pine
or replace it with another species, probably spruce.
It must be remembered that these forest investigations will not necessarily tend towards the
adoption of measures of artificial reforestation, such as seeding or planting of the logged or
burned areas.    On the contrary, it is hoped that the cheaper method of natural regeneration will
be found possible and adequate.
2 E 18
Department of Lands.
1925
Research-work has been carried on now in the north during two seasons. In 1924 extensive
surveys of the problems were made, and a site selected at Aleza Lake, near Prince George, for
such investigative work and experimental logging as can best be carried on at a central station.
In 1925 a considerable start was made in the development of this experimental forest; certain
necessary improvements for fire-protection and general use have been constructed, including a
road, several miles of trail, and a headquarters cabin. Part of the forest has been carefully
cruised and mapped as a first requisite for the first experimental logging, plans for which have
been completed and will be carried out in the summer of 1926.
FOREST RECONNAISSANCE.
During the year work continued on three main reconnaissance projects, as follows:—
(a.) A continuation of the investigation of timber in the Quesnel Lake basin.
(&.)  A winter party continued the work on the McGregor River.
(c.)  A preliminary reconnaissance was made of part of the Tulameen River drainage
area of One-mile Creek, a tributary to the Similkameen.
Part of this latter reconnaissance was made in conjunction with a photo-topographic survey.
The results of this rapid and accurate method of making a topographic map have been found to
be of very great value in decreasing the cost and increasing the accuracy of forest surveys.
Quesnel Lake.—An area of 44,500 acres of land bearing merchantable timber situated near
the outlet of Quesnel Lake was. cruised. More particularly these areas were: On the north,
surrounding Spanish Lake, 35,000 acres were found to contain 633,000 M. feet B.M., 43 per cent,
spruce, 35 per cent. Douglas fir, 12 per cent, lodgepole pine, 9 per cent, balsam, and 1 per cent,
hemlock. On the south, 9,500 acres of merchantable timber around Polley Lake have a stand
of 139,000 M. feet B.M., 35 per cent, spruce, 48 per cent, fir, 3 per cent, lodgepole pine, and 14
per cent, balsam. A considerable quantity of cedar is also on the area, but, as this showed
considerable defect, it was not included in the cruise.
This timber, together with 1,500,000 M. feet B.M. on the Horsefly River reported last year
and considerable additional bodies of timber on the Quesnel Lake drainage-basin, would be
available for the development of a large pulp-mill at some point on the Quesnel River. Timber
on the Quesnel Lake and Horsefly watersheds together offer an excellent opportunity for securing
a wood-supply for such a pulp-mill.
McGregor River.—An additional 38,000 acres was covered by a cruising party. This contained a stand of 501,000 M. feet B.M., and with the stand on the 27,000 acres reported in 1924
gives a total of 876,000 M. feet B.M., already cruised, 594,000 M. feet of which is spruce and the
balance balsam. There is an additional area drained by Seeback Creek (a tributary of the
McGregor) which was not cruised, but which is roughly estimated to contain over 250,000 M. feet
B.M. of a similar character. Similarly, there is estimated to be over 850,000,000 feet on the
Upper McGregor, chiefly along the South Pork.
The above figures, when added to the 150,000,000 feet cruised in 1921, indicate the existence
of over 2,000,000,000 feet of merchantable Crown timber on the McGregor River watershed.
Bear Creek.—The preliminary reconnaissance made of this tributary of the Tulameen River
indicates over 7,000 acres of merchantable timber with an estimated volume of 136,000 M. feet
B.M., some 6,000,000 lineal feet of mine-props, and 16,000 ties. This timber could probably be
taken out by flume to the Kettle Valley Railway at Otter Lake. Over half of the saw-timber is
spruce, about 28 per cent. Douglas fir, 13 per cent, lodgepole pine, with a small amount of white
pine.
Granite Creek.—Also a tributary of the Tulameen. Preliminary reconnaissance reports an
estimated volume of 105,000 M. feet B.M. considered to be accessible at present. Nearly 70 per
cent, is spruce and 30 per cent, balsam; there are also some 5,000 M. lineal feet suitable for
mine-timbers. On this creek and the Whipsaw there is an additional quantity of about 40,000 M.
feet B.M. not considered accessible under present conditions.
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
Northern Part of Vancouver Island.—A small party spent some three months in making an
examination of 450 lots on the northern end of Vancouver Island, Malcolm Island, and the mainland opposite. The purpose was to ascertain whether these lots were statutory timber lands or
not,  and their  agricultural  possibilities.    The  amount  of  timber found was  comparatively IVI/xf»-
Shewing
-"Timber cruised \n Quesne\-
\ ake and McGre<>or River Basms
Cruised in \9'2.5        HMI
Scale E 20
Department of Lands.
1925
insignificant and the greater part of the areas examined were found to be of little value for
agricultural development. There are extensive muskegs and rocky barrens with sour peaty soil
incapable of producing either timber or farm crops until considerable expenditure is made
for drainage and soil-improvement—an expenditure not warranted at the present stage of
development.
Areas suitable for agricultural settlement were reported, however, on Malcolm Island, south
of Port Hardy, at Cape Scott, and in the valley of Fisherman and San Josef Rivers.
Areas examined fob Miscellaneous Purposes of " Land Act."
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert. .
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Totals...
Applications for
Crown Grants.
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Misce
No.
Acres.
No.
Acres.
No.
Acres.
No.
Acres.
No.
2
318
36
4,386
54
7,839
45
13,664
7
1
160
2
308
72
11,275
21
4,558
11
4
560
2
260
14
2
197
3
425
43
6,410
17
2,951
64
3
491
2
222
42
4,594
49
6,487
39
3
259
45
6,477
36
6,545
620
11
1,425
43
6,341
260
36,155
169
34,365
755
Acres.
7,872
1,753
2,123
7,734
7,133
133,834
160,449
Classification of Areas examined in 1925.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert
Southern Interior
Vancouver	
Totals ..
Acres.
33,979
18,054
2,943
17,717
18,927
146,115
237,735
Agricultural
Land.
Acres.
4,587
11,278
818
6,424
3,584
39,126
65,817
Area
recommended
for Reserve.
Acres.
1,273
1.187
194
1,260
680
13,413
18,007
Estimate of
Timber on
Reserved Area.
M.B.M.
5,172
12,137
1,524
13,482
4,675
186,272
223,262
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY.
Control-work on bark-beetles in the yellow pine south of Merritt, carried on for the past
five years, was continued in the spring of 1925. Five camps were established early in April in
the same general localities as the previous year, and not only were fresh spots of infestation
attacked, but several areas on which control-work had already been conducted were recleaned.
The camps, which employed ail average of ten to fifteen men each, disposed of a total of 7,198
infested trees, at an average cost of $1.63 per tree, and closed down in the latter part of May.
The prediction made in the Annual Report for 1924 that expenditure for control-work in
1925 would likely be materially reduced owing to an abatement of the epidemic has been fulfilled,
and the results indicate control measures have met with considerable success.
A survey of the infested areas, made after the closing-down of the camps in 1925, shows that
unless the beetles increase at an abnormal rate the number of trees to be treated" the following
season should not exceed 2,000. This, of course, applies only to that area to which our control
measures are being restricted and where the heaviest stands of pine are located, lying between
Merritt and Canyon House, east of the Coldwater River.
A sudden drop of temperature in December, 1925, caused the browning and eventual dropping-
off of the needles of large numbers of yellow pine throughout the Interior of the Province. Most
of the affected trees finally recovered, but for the time being they presented much the same
appearance as those infested with beetles.
Kelowna Watershed.—Less satisfactory progress can be reported of the beetle-control work
in the lodgepole pine on the Kelowna watershed, a short history of which was given in the
Annual Report of 1924. Toward the end of that year it was estimated that, allowing for a
normal increase over the winter period, 2,000 trees would probably have to be treated before 16 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 21
the epidemic could be considered under control. The camp established early in May on this
area, employing more than twenty men, disposed of 5,564 trees (including 1,553 green trees
standing so close to the infested trees that they had to be burned at the same time), at an average
cost per tree of 65 cents, before closing down at the end of June.
A survey of the remaining infested trees was started immediately after the closing-down
of the control-work, but unfortunately was not completed because the men were drafted for
fire-fighting. They had, however, up to that time counted 7,000 infested trees, the number of
which will be greatly increased by the spring of 1926, if the beetles multiply as fast as they
did the previous year.
In face of the rapid spread in this section the results of further control in the lodgepole pine
type are somewhat uncertain. It is felt that, owing to the importance of this watershed and
the value of the lodgepole pine stands of the Interior, further effort should be made to gain
control of this infestation and to study the results obtainable. This same beetle (Dendroctonus
monticola) has ravaged large areas of lodgepole pine in Montana and there are already several
infestations in British Columbia. Other attempts at control will be made only when the possibilities of effectively restricting the spread of the beetle are determined by the work on the
Kelowma watershed.
Coast Infestations.—An examination was made during the summer of 1925 of the areas of
Douglas fir on the Lower Coast, reported in the 1924 Annual Report as being infested with the
Douglas fir bark-beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsuga). For some unknown reason the epidemic
has greatly subsided in many localities and there is much less cause for alarm over the situation.
The beetle-infestation among the white pine in the Nimpkish River Valley also seems to have
decreased in intensity.
The damage being done by the flathead borer (Trachykele blondeli) to cedar, particularly
poles, on various areas on the Lower Coast between Seechelt and Toba Inlets has become noticeable in the past few years. The insects attack living trees and the larvae continue to work even
if the trees be cut or die.    Little is yet known about the life-history or habits of this insect.
A very commendable step was taken during the year by the Department of Agriculture at
Ottawa when it opened a sub-office of Forest Entomology in Vancouver and appointed a trained
entomologist there to work on the Coast under the supervision of Mr. Ralph Hopping, Dominion
Forest Entomologist for British Columbia. Detailed investigations on the Douglas fir bark-beetle
and flathead borer are being undertaken through that office. This extension of forest entomological work in the Province cannot fail to produce satisfactory results. The heavy toll taken
from our forests annually by destructive insects is not generally appreciated, and the effective
control of any insect must always be preceded by a thorough knowledge of its life-history.
Spruce Bud-ivorm.—The progress of the spruce bud-worm (Cacaceia fumiferana Clem), which
defoliates the spruce and balsam, was inspected in the Quesnel Lake region during the summer,
and the infestation which was so pronounced in 1924 was found to have almost entirely disappeared. An aphis had, however, appeared in immense numbers, working on the young shoots
of the trees, but the effect was much less serious than that of the spruce bud-worm and no
disastrous results are anticipated.
LOG-SCALING.
The cut for the year, as shown by the scaling returns, is 2,611,266 M. feet, to which must
be added fuel cut for the use of rural population; for this returns are not received and it is
estimated at approximately 500,000 cords, or a grand total of 2,861,266 feet; 78 per cent, of
this is sawlog material and 22 per cent, minor forest products.
Douglas fir represents 40 per cent, of the cut and we are cutting 1.5 per cent, of the estimated
stand each year. Cedar comprises 25 per cent, of the cut and approximately 1 per cent, of the
visible supply, while hemlock is only 11 per cent, of the cut, which represents 0.5 per cent, of the
visible stand; and lodgepole pine represents only 0.2 per cent, of the cut, which is 0.5 per cent,
of the visible supply. These figures show plainly how our more valuable woods are being cut
in excess of inferior species. E 22
Department op Lands.
1925
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Department op Lands.
1925
SPECIES    CUT
1925
DOUGLAS
FIR
SPRUCE
192 1
1922
1923
1.924
1925
192 1
1922
1923
1924
1925
.....J
1921
1922
HEMLOCK 1923
1924
1925
CEDAR
192
I922H
1923
1924
1925
WES
SOFT
PINE
192
ERN 1922
1923
LARCH
ALL
OTHER
SPECIES
1924
1925
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
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Figures indicate Millions of Feet B.M. 16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
TIMBER    SCALED
BV
DISTRICTS
CARI BOO
FORT
GEORGE
1921"
192c
.19221
19241
19251
1921
I92S)1
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192
192
192
19
KAMLOOPS 19
19
192
221
231
241
PRINCE
RUPERT
SOUTHERN
INTERIOR
1921
I92£
VANCOUVERI923
1924
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1925
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U£h^&-02> 16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 27
LOGGING OPEKATTONS.
There were 3,046 logging operations conducted during the year. Of these, 1,262 were on
timber-sales, 1,730 on areas privately held, and 54 on hand-logging licences. The reduction in
hand-logging operations is most marked—220 in 1920, 166 in 1923, and 54 in 1925. In order to
see that departmental regulations were being carried out to prevent trespass and to secure proper
marking of logs, 7,321 logging inspections were made during the year. On these inspections,
113 cases of illegal cutting were encountered—87 cases on Crown land, for which penalty fees
aggregating $14,534.90 were billed. There were 26 cases reported to private owners for settlement
as they saw fit.
• Logging Inspection, 1925.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
19
169
65
336
308
376
42
i2
93
306
114
258
370
589
112
475
169
635
678
977
161
808
450
1,314
1,258
3,330
Totals, 1926	
1,262
54
1,730
3,046
7,321
Totals, 1924   	
1,245
69
1,853
3,167
7,466
Totals, 1923	
1,010
166
2,140
3,316
6,892
Totals, 1922	
914
159
1,579
2,652
4,664
Totals, 1921	
691
186
1,331
2,208
2,796
4,063
Totals, 1920	
605
220
1,961
2,703
Totals, 1919   	
365
200
757
1,322
1,884
TRESPASSES, 1925.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert	
Southern Interior..
Vancouver	
Totals, 1925
Totals, 1924
Totals, 1923
Totals, 1922
Totals, 1921
Totals, 1920
Totals, 1919
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
7
24
4
14
18
20
31
322
17
26
152
97
645
87
68
570
105
1,015
98
1,059
98
73
87
1,938
1,788
2,454
Quantity cut.
7,144
361,677
895,005
268,282
1,954,501
3,486,609
2,182,808
6,712,868
3,002,831
3,222,673
4,904,079
12,708,365
Lineal
Feet.
5,076
22,050
7,470
3,332
41,650
18,879
98,456
54,068
121,202
98,903
209,395
104,048
1,300
189
65
1,598
2,591
212
12,918
126
3,318
246
16,820
7,646
20,082
27,022
21,605
6,716
87,120
i*i.S
Amount.
109 36
2,072 54
390 21
2,837 08
2,404 SO
1
6,720 95
4
$14,534 94
2
8
$ 8,539 86
$27,860 08
16
10
$16,406 30
$15,924 22
10
$17,119 85
$21,730 12 E 28
Department of Lands.
1925
TIMBEK-SALES.
Timbeb-sales awarded by Districts, 1925.
District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
No. of
Posts.
12,877
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(No. of Cords).
No. of
Railway-
ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
14
38
61
135
190
175
613
1,327.50
3,578.50
10,147.80
19.S54.35
29,154.40
29,952.70
94,015.25
146,652
1,299,645
1,464,600
27,971,314
34,530,926
46,270,930
77,485,000
5,000
1,148,048
111,000
1,712,611
2,812,396
840,396
6,629,449
5,480
80
439
7,351
330
26,654
40,334
8,871
8,523
143,916
57,225
344,587
3,020
566,142
$       5,958 40
36,455 35
96,723 60
Southern Interior ....
Prince Rupert	
160,607 80
195,078 75
301,078 30
Totals, 1925...
189,022,314
302,813,267
516,397,438
249,572,808
12,877
$   795,802 20
Totals, 1924...
769
6,336,071
6,234,342
47,040
2,418,633
2,304,161
$1,226,460 87
Totals, 1923...
852
163,464
108,501
91,614
23,150
$1,513,970 84
Totals, 1922...
671
3,304,254
149,300
5,000
41,580
880,307
993,417
$   862,888 49
Totals, 1921...
531
188,971,774
2,479,095
34,291
$   646,487 65
Totals, 1920...
594
121,690
61,809
440,649,755
245,209,300
2,811,095
86,726
6,415,349
957,804
$1,799,039 03
Totals, 1919...
356
227
2,899,000
52,557
$   654,372 09
Totals, 1918...
34,257
159,669,000
378,080
20,000
18,478
43,756
26,666
701,654
$   380,408 33
Totals, 1917...
255
44,914
"  23,318
240,307,057
136,345,000
1,517,450
40,000
381,200
$   483,281 50
Totals, 1916...
133
435,810
92,000
$   259,765 12
Average Sale Peice by Species.
Douglas fir	
Cedar ,
Spruce ....    ,
Hemlock	
Balsam	
White pine	
Western soft pine.,
Tamarack	
Other species	
Totals       *184,122,314
Figures for 1925.
Board-feet.
Price
Per M.
41,960,515
$1 78
38,953,370
2 05
46,374,025
1 91
26,028,240
1 03
12,763,909
1 05
7,193,2S0
3 74
5,909,580
2 07
1,082,850
1 46
3,855,945
1 20
•184,122,314
1 78
Figures for 1924.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
74,708,507
.63,367,585
74,064,508
33,622,807
13,295,185
5,802,697
9,446,869
4,804,072
23,701,137
$1 73
2 28
1 63
1 21
1 10
2 63
1 83
1 63
1 60
$1 74
302,813,267
Figures for 1923.
Board-feet.
Price
75,915,023
$172
61,803,504
2 25
101,703,592
I 58
43,956,950
1 14
17,580,743
1 10
4,184,830
2 86
28,211,030
1 88
5,824,305
1 80
6,402,401
1 34
$1 68
345,082,438
Figures for 1922.
Board-feet.
58,467,465
62,7S8,240
42,207,248
42,987,260
16,757,880
4,304,380
9,704,385
2,998,750
9,357,200
249,572,808
Price
Per M.
$1 43
1 66
1 46
1 01
1 04
1 93
1 47
1 75
78
$1 39
* Note—4,900,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in above list.
TlMBEK CUT FROM TlMBER-SALES  DURING  1925.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
308,598
1,602,197
32,693,384
30,024,793
49,342,861
137,269,565
3,075
660,337
547,546
1,970,723
1,131,889
571,782
912.00
'  ±76!66
4,369.83
502.60
14,847.71
14,160
29,199
265,635
253,710
502,161
12,549
Totals, 1925	
251,141,398
230,148,675
207,473,848
4,885,352
4,541,371
20,808.14
17,294.00
1,077,414
Totals, 1924	
1,543,915
Totals, 1923	
2,753,532
17,666.55
856,628
Totals, 1922	
187,217,151
1,523,744
37,345.91
495,672
Totals, 1921	
179,780,056
168,783,812
2,169,550
10,483.00
831,423
Totals, 1920	
1,638,549
672,699
17,703.00
654,829
Totals, 1919	
107,701,950
12,208.00
15,539.00
14,862.00
573,286
Totals, 1918    	
113,927,610
499,689
545,429
146,807
Totals, 1917	
99,078,832
34,937
Totals, 1916	
63,055,102
225,799
8,425.00 16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 29
Aeeas cetjised fob Timbek-sales, 1925.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(M.B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Posts
(No.)
20
80
45
223
246
206
2,883
17,777
6,368
33,046
23,6)2
35,750
7,387
71,997
15,962
136,237
824
120,818
145,300
1,280,892
2,727,400
4,486,123
473,337
9,113,052
8,465,924
673
3,845
80
6,880
23,190
22,773
133,310
557,121
41,765
499,300
149,608
8,500
14,477
Totals, 1925	
819
119,436
353,225
57,441
41,554
1,389,604
1,873,954
14,477
Totals, 1924	
942
179,609
451,476
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1925.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
6
£
20
27
34
13
74
195
'3
S 5
S 1*3
92
643
612,
595
1,830
7,703
11,475
11,986
11,273
9,683
8,912
10,729
6
■si.3
ed O v
■!>•&
415
14,907
15,322
15,636
16,144
6
'o
^- e
P
KCS
96
118
114
460
961
372
2,121
2,618
d
i
2
6
I43X
5
77
82
15
3
12
7
47
25
120
120
385
Totals for 1925	
363
359
109
9
625
Totals for 1924	
78
103
20
16
1,780
Totals for 1923	
352
107
72
1,493
2,054
2,029
909
745
292
108
15,544
90
8
680
289
79
10,885
78
6
Totals for 1920	
341
109
13,426
37
2
30
Expobt of Logs dubing Yeab 1925.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
F.B.M.
12,611,994
21,564,150
336,604
F.B.M.
41,258,869
52,071,002
3,371,866
F.B.M.
26,336,247
12,207,264
1,769,295
F.B.M.
F.B.M.
80,207,110
Fir.  ..                                          	
85,832,416
5,476,765
28,661,823
4,606,222
5,633,625
38,901,670
55,763,860   -
28,661,823
4,606,222
6,633,625
34,501,748
96,701,737
111,801,016
40,312,806
210,417,961
Totals, 1924	
23,416,816
49,549,135
240,530,827 E 30
Department of Lands.
1925
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-mops, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Quantity exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
Japan.
Kamloops—
Lin. ft., 1,441,250
Lin. ft.,       59,341
Cords,                 44
Lin. ft.,     482,630
Cords,              742
No.             636,385
Lin. ft., 1,938,817
No.             695,745
Lin. ft., 5,649,432
Cords,          11,613
No.             481,782
Cords,               260
Cords,              712
Cords,           9,143
Lin. ft., 6,482,746
Cords,              230
Cords,         14,772
$    176,185
6,909
247
67,568
5,194
392,619
271,334
417,633
725,132
121,518
248,341
1,820
6,407
74,044
907,584
2,300
147,720
1,365,460
469,875
1,228,265
5,186,276
6,957
712
3,135
6,057,017
91
14,772
76,790
59,341
44
12,755
742
636,385
710,552
695,745
464,156
11,613
474,825
260
6,008
Fort George-
Prince Rupert—
Southern Interior—
Cordwood	
Vancouver—
425,729
139
Total value, 1925	
83,672,455
$3,967,535
Total value, 1924	
PRE-EMPTION INSPECTION REPORTS, 1925.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Cariboo   600
Fort George  608
Kamloops   137
Prince Rupert   434
Vancouver  359
Southern Interior  441
Total  2,579
ANALYSIS OF ROUTINE WORK.
Draughting Office, Fobest Branch.
Month.
January	
February.  ..
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September...
October ..
November...
December . .
Total;
Number of Tracings made.
Timber-
Timber-
Examination
Hand-logger
Miscel
Totals.
sales.
marks.
Sketches.
Licences.
laneous.
10
102
32
5
36
181
15
137
33
12
76
281
15
88
31
17
30
181
15
113
34
7 .
47
216
7
134
50
14
47
252
10
63
46
19
18
146
21
110
20
3
41
195
27
74
39
9
13
162
15
51
32
2
32
132
15
72
30
5
11
133
12
64
23
7
21
127
2
68
45
2
21
138
164
1,066
415
102
393
2,144
Blue-prints
from Reference Maps.
65
104
179
70
145
27
45
31
42
18
31
269
TIMBER-MARKING.
During the year a complete revision of the entire mark list took place to simplify the finding
of the mark allotted to any parcel of land. 16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 31
Timber-masks issued foe the Yeabs 1923, 1924, AN
1923.
Old Crown grants      146
Crown grants, 1887-1906     147
Crown grants, 1906-1914     188
Section 53, " Forest Act "      392
Stumpage reservations       64
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land Act "     45
Dominion lands (general)       115
Dominion lands (timber berths) 	
Dominion lands (Indian reserves)  	
Timber-sales      853
Hand-loggers          55
Special marks           2
Rights-of-way	
Totals  2,007
Transfers and changes of marks     267
Number issued
HAND-LOGGERS' LICENCES.
1923
     198
CORRESPONDENCE.
Letters inward, numbered and recorded	
Letters, reports, etc., received, not numbered or recorded
>A, and 1925.
1924.
1925.
133
126
131
138
168
205
310
350
57
36
21
30
85
96
10
4
769
613
30
22
1
1
1
1,705
1,032
258
171
1924.
1925.
93
102
... 38.200
  15,500
Total   53,700
  19,400
  23,500
Outward typed letters 	
Outward circulars, form letters,
etc.
Total  42,900
REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.
The collection of revenue was satisfactory. Ordinary revenue exceeded the previous year
by $9,275.20 and is a new high record. This increase was largely due to the increase in royalty.
Licence fees dropped $50,000 and penalties $32,600, these drops being largely due to the completion of instalments under relief legislation. Administration expenditure was $365,358.85, a
decrease of $11,792, and the ratio of administration to revenue from operations was 14 per cent.,
as compared with 17.3 per cent, for the preceding year.
Forest Revenue.
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers1 licence fees ,	
Timber-lease rentals	
Penalty fees and interest	
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising 	
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)..
Trespass penalties   	
Scalers' examination fees	
Exchange	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous	
Grazing fees	
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands..
Total revenue from forest sources
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
Deo. 31, 1926.
Dec. 31, 1924.
Deo. 31, 1923
Dec. 31, 1922.
Dec. 31, 1921.
Dec. 31, 1920.
$1,130,556 52
$1,180 179 55
$1,283,300 77
$1,390,999 64
$1,193,654 58
$1,654,747 43
3,465 00
4,650 00
3,750 00
1,950 00
3,735 00
4,855 00
28,017 75
64,653 05
100,045 86
83,376 60
50,859 19
232,309 85
2,775 00
2,460 00
5,300 00
6,050 00
9,175 00
6,525 00
92,485 38
99,974 25
102,062 40
94,392 31
81,840 61
81,989 68
283 33
136 92
72 22
247 77
21 85
12 59
17,045 45
19,943 01
28,383 49
26,790 12
12,659 91
17,881 40
512,399 28
537,786 50
431,007 99
358,984 19
317.4S8 77
247,234 71
6,296 67
7,491 04
9,933 97
8,699 50
4,640 39
7,642 80
1,403 43
2,033 96
3,509 00
2,188 63
1,695 08
2,749 93
1,658,043 07
1,521,001 39
1,477,027 24
1,203,884 89
990,326 99
879,003 16
1,044 25
1,564 85
1,160 89
3,138 05
2,015 83
25,476 91
253 24
763 27
667 53
1,061 94
765 98
5,041 71
17,841 58
14,685 27
11,362 99
13,397 91
11,245 86
18,114 34
160 00
430 00
495 00
175 00
455 00
670 00
620 12
1,332 26
3,168 40
357 14
291 03
2,519 43
1,097 95
654 92
1,559 17
454 35
330 80
530 03
4,699 66
9,392 22
6,907 36
3,135 47
1,972 33
3,363 90
$3,478,387 68
$3,469,112 46
$3,468,714 28
$3,199,283 51
$2,683,174 20
$3,190,667 87
14,114 89
14,240 66
13,651 01
8,171 21
11,221 79
15,617 44
398,393 85
298,973 97
308,041 92
319,410 51
$3,526,865 23
261,896 49
302,557 26
$3,890,896 42
$3,782,327 09
$3,790,407 21
$2,956,292 48
$3,508,842 57 E 32
Department of Lands.
1925
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1925.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
Tax.
Trespass
Penalties.
Seizure
Expenses.
Government Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stumpage.
Forest District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver 	
Cariboo .    ...
Cranbrook	
Prince Rupert.
Fort George ...
Kamloops	
Southern Int'r.
$1,213,002 14
1.744 37
30,383 25
239,526 30
15,949 68
2,985 24
84,248 59
16,153 01
150,612 48
$ 5,318 76
109 36
90 35
45,240 83
375 80
34 00
1,753 05
454 37
6,428 05
$ 259 73
12 32
30 00
121 75
425 39
6 50
67 60
$ 913 29
$ 140 17
52 41
4 50
$ 197 08
$ 548 37
$ 741 56
$1,933 72
$ 940 12
"314'68
$ 15,844 63
2,949 76
$106,169 14
10,513 54
$322,310 56
1,242 36
9,848 62
123,950 66
11,780 52
3,014 61
81,437 33
18,893 95
79,007 56
$1,663,985 25
3,096 09
40,334 54
422,578 18
28,227 75
6,033 85
167,864 36
35,507 83
236,110 19
Totals
$1,754,605 06
$1,542,070 96
$59,804 57
$10,860 22
$25,508 75
$1,254 80
$2,179 42
$1,175 22
$18,794 39
$ 14,760 12
$116,682 68
$103,691 71
$108,713 66
$103,774 90
$114,450 43
$ 30,067 00
$651,486 17
$597,071 65
$2,603,738 04
Totals, 1924
$ 708 24
$ 746 59
$2,271,890 69
Totals, 1323
$1,499,355 83
$ 15,743 96
$467,048 15
$2,119,033 72
Totals, 1922
$1,149,745 76
$1,005,261 61
$14,926 63
$1,326 80
$1,940 08
$1,256 70
$ 12,407 50
$11,39611
$   2,272 00
$375,607 42
$396,303 19
$ 60,055 00
$1,661,662 81
Totals, 1921
$14,297 39
$12,891 00
$ 516 85
$ 865 00
$ 769 08
$1,644,251 36
Totals, 1913
$   427,601 00
$   533,751 00
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1924-25.
Headquarters .
Cariboo	
Cranbrook
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver ....
Vernon	
Totals.
Forest District.
Salaries.
$ 84,793 76
6,208 63
10,539 47
7,030 00
10,307 20
11,105 91
21,477 05
48,350 27
8,560 00
$208,372 29
Temporary
Assistance.
5 325 72
2,249 89
548 71
580 66
2,502 67
2,388 25
876 39
1,461 67
679 35
$11,613 21
Lumber-trade extension	
Reconnaissance, etc	
Insect-control	
Contingencies	
British Empire Exhibition	
Grazing: range improvement .
Publicity	
Expenses.
$ 27,616 85
4,973 16
6,500 13
3,395 39
7,750 45
4,707 40
40,683 37
45,288 98
4,557 62
$145,373 35
$112,636 33
13,431 68
17,588 31
11,006 05
20,560 22
18,201 56
63,036 81
95,100 92
13,796 97
$365,358 85
29,489 05
50,879 13
34.915 66
329 40
996 88
9,269 75
1,619 84
Grand total   $492,858 i
The sums estimated as being required for the fiscal year 1925-26 were as follows:—
Salaries     $227,524 00
Travelling expenses, Ranger stations, and wireless telephone       46,000 00
Lumber-trade extension       25,000 00
Reconnaissance, etc       50,000 00
Insect damage:  investigation and control       15,000 00
Grazing:  range improvement        5,000 0O
Total
,524 00
In addition to this total, sums were available from the main Lands Department votes for
temporary assistance, office supplies, maintenance of launches and autos, and miscellaneous
expenses.; publicity, general investigations, and contingencies. The sum of $300,000 was also
voted as the amount of the contribution of the Government to the Forest Protection Fund. 16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 33
SCALING FUND.
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1924   $ 40,935 81     	
Expenditure, fiscal year 1924-25  $153,550 57
Charges, fiscal year 1924-25      118,016 34     	
Balance, March 31st, 1925 '.  5,401 58
$158,952 15 $158,952 15
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1925   $    5,401 58    	
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1925   $108,601" 70
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1925      106,089 90    	
Balance, being excess of charges over expenditure  '.  2,889 78
$111,491 48 $111,491 48
CROWN-GRANT TIMBER LANDS.
Area of Private    V m„ Valup
Timber Lands A""gLrp
(Acres). pel Acre-
1911   '.     824.S14 $ 8 72
1912      874,715 8 60
1913      922,948 9 02
1914      960,464 9 66
1915    913,245 9 55
1916      922,206 9 73
1917      916,726 9 61
1918      896,188 9 60
1919      883,491 9 48
1920     867,921 11 62
1921      845,111 10 33
1922      887,980 11 99
1923      883,344 11 62
1924  '.     654,668 15 22
1925 :     654,016 40 61
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1925.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1924.
Average Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value per
Acre since
1924.
86,243
146,146
89,758
51,838
35,965
4,240
83,745
21,708
1,782
42,019
55,386
3,428
31,758
654,016
+16,362
- 2,994
- 1,729
+ 4,938
+ 7,916
674
+ 1,582
+ 3,964
+       90
- 5,842
- 25,515
+     768
+     482
-652
$58 87
50 90
70 16
9 67
9 22
12 98
45 05
8 62
33 34
15 26
9 44
139 21
37 70
+ 51 09
+    3 10
+    8 97
+ 29 79
+        76
+ 10 10
+    2 86
+    4 34
+107 96
+ 14 67
$10 61
+$25 39 E 34
Department of Lands.
1925
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1925 :—
Balance at April 1st, 1924  $169,040 73
Collections, fiscal year 1924-25   $1S7,598 70
Collections under special levy        11,349 29
Government contribution      301,766 04
 500,714 03
$669,754 76
Expenditure, fiscal year 1924-25  $633,674 23
Less refunds       16,240 90
$617,433 24
Refunds of revenue  78 85
    617,512 09
Balance in hand   $ 52,242 67
Balance in hand at April 1st, 1925   $ 52,242 67
Collections, April-December, 1925 (nine months)   $143,123 63
Collections, special levy, ditto  514 74
Government contribution, ditto      225,106 70
    368,745 07
$420,987 74
Expenditure, April-December, 1925 (nine months)   $953,226 00
Less refunds       12,364 OO
 940,862 00
Deficit  $519,874 26
Forest Protection Expenditure.
FlSCAT
Years.
1918-19.
1919-20.
1920-21.
1921-22.
1922-23.
1923-24.
1924-25.
9 months,
April 1st to
Dec. 31st, 1925.
Patrols and fire prevention 	
Tools and equipment.
Improvements and
maintenance	
$108,860
68,114
50,293
18,969
$135,452
64,563
165,688
26,555
$163,360
121,353
292,890
68,239
$645,842
$C27,738
118,973
106,891
17,779
$471,341
$202,994
91,812
608,992
37,609
$254,792
81,408
76,503
21,667
$344,532
25,418
258,034
5,690
$633,674
$263,664
31,059
647,079
11,524
Totals	
$246,236
$392,258
$841,407
$433,370
$953,226
Of this amount, $30,138 is chargeable to the Department of Indian Affairs, railway companies, etc., and is refundable.
Expenditure by Districts for Nine Months ended December 31st, 1925.
District.
Victoria 	
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George ....
Prince Rupert ....
Southern Interior.
Vancouver 	
Undistributed....
Totals.
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
34,962 93
13,175 29
17,836 68
18,859 59
12,144 14
75,158 35
51,427 55
40,000 00
$263,564 53
Tools and
Equipment.
$ 2,907 36
934 06
2,688 46
1,715 12
812 63
13,577 69
8,423 74
$31,059 06
Fires.
5   16,578 21
44,040 67
39,754 53
12,601 18
376,289 83
157,814 52
$647,078 94
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
74 99
156 99
346 42
24 38
8,391 95
2,529 16
$11,523 :
$ 37,870 29
30,762 55
64,722 80
60,675 66
25,582 33
473,417 82
220,194 97
40,000 00
$953,226 42
Southern Interior includes the districts formerly known as Cranbrook, Nelson, and Vernon.
Of this amount, $30,138 is chargeable to the Department of Indian Affairs, railway companies, etc., and is refundable. 16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 35
For Twelve Months ended April 1st, 1925.
District.
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
Total.
$ 43,764 56
18,712 95
31,368 00
24,317 42
35,779 74
27,227 93
21,854 40
120,680 99
20,826 40
$ 3,193 42
974 50
2,378 01
956 14
5,016 67
2,402 86
2,028 89
7,142 32
1,325 73
$   7,075 35
24,173 82
8,541 39
60,238 86
31,900 62
8,586 19
105,225 46
12,291 97
$258,033 66
$ 665 19
1,514 21
384 03
1,136 31
141 41
652 62
1,024 27
171 60
$ 46,957 98
27,427 99
59.434 04
34,198 98
102,171 58
61,672 82
33,122 10
234,073 04
34,616 70
$344,532 39
$25,418 54
$5,689 64
$633,674 23
FOREST-PROTECTION.
The fire season in British Columbia was of unprecedented severity, the period of hazard
exceeding in duration and intensity that of any year since the inception of organized protection
in the Province.
The season was notable for more than the usual number of accidents in connection with
fire-fighting operations, including several fatalities. Assistant Ranger Oliver G. Clark lost his
life in the Port Neville fire on June 26th under heroic circumstances. Honorary Fire Warden
S. Harlow was killed by a falling snag while fighting fire near Nakusp on August 2nd.
Early in May the season became abnormally hazardous in the Northern Interior. Warm
drying winds followed the melting of the snows and, as soon as the ground bared, all open
spaces, such as railway rights-of-way, old burns, and clearings, became spots of exceptional
hazard. May 3rd to 28th was a rainless period; humidities of 40 per cent, and lower and
temperatures exceeding 70° were common. A break in the weather at the end of May brought
lower temperatures and a well-distributed precipitation, and there was no recurrence of excessive
hazard in the northern part of the Province until July 10th, when conditions again became
dangerous and continued so until the end of August.
The normal spring hazard prevailed over the remainder of the Province in May and June,
but towards the end of the latter month dangerous conditions developed. The hazard became
particularly acute in the Southern Interior District; in this region numerous dry electric
storms occurred in July and August, which were invariably followed by protracted periods of low
humidity. On the Lower Coast the season was marked by strong westerly winds and frequently
occurring periods of low humidities. Precipitation for the period May to September was the
lightest for many years, being 6.12 inches as against 10.22 inches in the same period in 1922,
the year nearest of comparison from the standpoint of seasonal hazard.
A hreak in the weather at the end of August brought welcome relief to most of the Province,
but conditions were not alleviated appreciably in the Southern Interior until nearly a month later.
Hazardous conditions also recurred on the Lower Coast and the eastern slope of Vancouver Island
in October, resulting in many fresh outbreaks.
The outstanding development of the 1925 season was the extraordinary number of lightning-
fires in the Southern Interior; no less than 510 fires or 48 per cent, of the total number in this
territory being attributed to this cause. Some idea of the conditions that prevailed may be
gained from the fact that on August 8th, at which time the protection forces in the Southern
Interior already had 118 fires on their hands, a lightning-storm passing over the Kootenay and
Arrow Lake territory set sixty-two new fires. Lightning-fires constituted the greatest individual
factor in the abnormality of the season.
FIRE WEATHER WARNING SERVICE.
Through the courtesy of the Superintendent of the Meteorological Service, Victoria, and the
Daily Province, Vancouver, a daily weather forecast was broadcasted each evening during the
fire season from Station C.F.Y.C, Vancouver. When bad fire conditions were approaching, this
forecast was specially worded with a view to warning forest-users of the approaching fire-danger.
Warnings were also broadcasted during the danger period from the Forest Service Radio Stations
at Vancouver, Myrtle Point, and Thurston Bay. E 36
Department of Lands.
1925
Every effort was made to advance the application of humidity knowledge in forest-protection
work, not only in regulating intensity of patrols, issuance of burning permits, but also in carrying
out fire-fighting operations.
A number of the Coast logging operators installed humidity instruments at their camps
with a view to regulating operations according to the fire-danger as indicated by these instruments, and at several camps the practice of working an early morning shift and suspending
operations during the middle of the day, when normally humidity is lowest, was followed.
Studies were commenced this year by the Research Division to determine the variation in
relative humidity under different conditions of slope, cover, altitude, and proximity to bodies
of water. These studies carried to completion will provide valuable information bearing on the
probability of fires spreading under various conditions and aid in more intelligent economical
conduct of fire-fighting operations.
FIRE OCCURRENCE.
A total of 2,521 fires occurred during the season—the highest number recorded in any year
with the exception of 1922, when 2,591 fires were reported. This year, however, the situation
was incomparably worse than 1922, no less than 42.1 per cent, of the total number of fires
occurring in the Southern Interior region, where suppression difficulties are greatest. It is
encouraging, therefore, and a creditable reflection upon the organization that the number of
fires extinguished under 10 acres this year is the greatest on record—1,768 fires or 70.14 per cent,
being put out under this dimension. The total area burned is also less than two-thirds of the
area burned in 1922.
Fires, 1925, classified by Size and Damage.
Total Fires.
Under \ Acre.
i Acre to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
CJ    GO
District.
H
HO
H-g
HO
o "S
H-c
S3
o
«•«
°S
O an
°s
o|
o
o
m.
o
o
§ c
S c
£ S
£ C
sc
e a
a a
d
K
213
122
fci£
6
-A
o «
Oi ."
o »
6
O a,
(- v
— '—
cu'C
7.65
5.19
d
o »
QJ .~
a,—.
P. Sh
d
O
Hi o
ai
O
8.44
4.84
49
45
23.0
36.88
4.73
4.34
56
38
26.3
31.15
10S
39
50.7
31.97
14.34
5.18
138
94
45
8
30
20
Prince George	
266
10.16
70
27.3
6.76
76
29.7
10.38
110
43.0
14.62
191
36
29
Prince Rupert	
197
7.82
72
36.5
6.95
62
31.5
8.48
63
32.0
8.36
178
15
4
Southern Interior	
1,061
42.08
535
50.4
51.64
250
23.6
34.16
276
26.0
36.65
850
102
109
672
26.66
100.0
265
39.4
25.58
250
37.20
34.15
157
23.36
20.85
650
2,001
79.37
71
51
Totals 	
2,521
100.0
1,036
41.10
100.0
100.0
732
29.04
100.0
753
29.86
625
28.75
100.0
277
10.99
243-
9.64
Totals, 1924	
2,174
100.0
100.0
767
35.28
782
35.97
100
0
100.0
1,823
83.84
259
11.92
92
4.24
Totals, 1923	
1,530
673
519
•
338
1,396
82
52
100.0
43.99
33.92
22.09
91.24
5.36
3.40
Dominion Railway Belt	
451
93
171
187
363
56
32 16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 37
Number and Causes of Fires, 1925.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Southern Interior	
Vancouver	
Totals	
Per cent	
Dominion Railway Belt
Per cent	
12
46
27
9
510
28
632
25.0
109
24.3
I  «
OH
53
100
124
426
16.9
sa a
C3   O
MB
29
35
8
218
47
337
13.4
110
24.3
21
34
109
105
286
11.3
51
11.4
a
A
&
f,i
'O
1   .
o
0 S   .
2 a
d
£H3 be
a o
O.B
Co «
Sco
=3 ?5
—, so
1.2
13
4
2
10
1
3
49
4
4
35
1
6
26
2
12
69
2
14
110
202
137
8.0
0.6
5.5
41
11
9.2
0.0
2.4
103
4.0
23
5.2
go
3 H
e 2
150
5.9
26
10
43
16
14
125
234
9.3
51
11.4
213
122
256
197
1,061
672
2,521
100.0
451
100.0
8-4
4.8
10.2
7.8
42.1
26.7
Fires, 1925, classified by Place of Origin and Cost of Fire-fighting.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Southern Interior	
Vancouver 	
Totals	
Percent	
Totals, 1924....
Per cent	
Totals, 1923	
Percent	
Dominion Railway Belt
£
Extinguished
WITH-
Cost Money to
g*
4J
out Cost.
extinguish.
O.S
e
P i.
B)
ei
rt
** c
H.H
H S
H.2
H g
M
5-1
O    .
01
^a*
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4ifi
«a<
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4^0.
hi,
a * <s
a »h
S'Saj
Is0
O „
oj.S
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G -
o »
QJ.S
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t. ^
<y .p
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5> §
H
Oh!^
C a,
55
B.E
— -^
55
fe&H
— 'a.
213
149
64
146
68.5
5.79
67
31.5
2.66
122
65
57
68
56.0
2.69
54
44 0
2.14
256
100
156
147
57.0
5.84
109
43.0
4.31
197
49
148
143
72.6
5.67
54
27.4
2.14
1,061
726
335
536
51.0
21.26
625
49.0
20.83
672
179
493
433
64.4
17.19
239
35.6
9.48
2,521
1,268
1,253
1,473
58.44
1,048
41.56
100.0
50.3
49.7
1,394
58.44
41.66
2,174
780
1,315
60.49
859
39.51
100.0
35.88
64.12
989
60.49
39.51
1,530
541
1,086
70.98
444
29.02
100.0
35.36
64.64
70.98
29.02
-—
451
Total Cost of
fighting Fire.
rt       •
O Sfo
H.S =
°il
^«=Ph
tr
g.S a
o^ Z
Q
«- 8 £
& §E
16,569 81
2*. 69
43,243 34
7.01
36,133 70
5.85
11.126 43
1.80
361,592 41
58.62
148,275 40
24.03
616,940 09
100.00
249,382 17
100.00
72,706 16
100.00
88,411 «7
Average
Cost
per Fire.
77 79
354 45
141 14
56 47
340 80
220 64
244 62
114 71
47 53
196 03
FIRE DAMAGE.
The total area hurned over is estimated at 1,023,789 acres, as compared with 1,568,585 acres
in 1922;  38.40 per cent, of the area burned in 1925 is in the Southern Interior District.
Merchantable timber destroyed is estimated at 773,738 M. feet B.M., valued at $1,223,197,
as compared with 728,941 M. feet B.M., valued at .$955,772, in 1922. Valuable reproduction
destroyed amounted to 251,897 acres, as compared with 210,474 acres in 1922.
Damage to property of other forms than timber amounted to $625,518, as against $693,016
in 1922.
The total value of all property destroyed is $2,747,190, as against $2,224,916 in 1922, although
the total area burned over is less than two-thirds. This increase is due in part to the fact that
higher values have been given to reproduction and areas carrying unmerchantable timber than
the scale followed in previous years. E 38
Department of Lands.
1925
■     C-l M Ci ^ -f tC
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7.8
0.8
3.6
0.4
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z 16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
Damage to Pbopeety otheb than Fobests, 1925.
E 39
Forest District.
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
$    175
212
9,090
1,000
39,931
87,902
$     310
900 -
37,900
1,575
11,985
175,701
$        16
616
189
1,120
183,609
$ 1,279
185
525
105
24,299
46,994
$   1,764
1,313
48,031
2,869
77,335
494,206
0.28
0.21
7.67
0.45
12.36
79.03
Totals	
$138,310
$228,371
$185,450
$73,387
$625,518
100.00
Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fibes in the Last Seven Years.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
2,521
1,023,789
1,024,508
350,770
$2,121,672
625,518
$2,747,190
2,174
402,214
207,651
102,832
$665,078
540,291
$1,205,369
1,530
157,601
87,371
37,891
$ 74,238
617,649
2,591
1,568,585
729,941
117,006
$1,531,300
693,016
$2,224,316
1,330
145,838
68,476
39,553
$ 97,332
195,221
$292,553
1,251
389,846
229,253
49,575
$485,963
473,900
1,141
Standing timber destroyed or damaged (M. ft. B.M.)..-.	
Amount salvaUe (M. ft. B.M.) 	
Damage to forests	
Damage to other forms of property..
433,797
287,520
93,559
$393,183
345,787
$691,887
$959,863
$738,970
FIRE-FIGHTING EXPENDITURES.
Fire-fighting expenditures incurred by the Department reached the high figure of $616,940,
as compared with $508,992 in 1922. In addition to departmental expenditures, private concerns
spent $133,861 fighting fires.
The principal factors in running up the costs incurred in 1925 were the abnormal number
of lightning-fires in the Southern Interior, which invariably occurred at high exposed altitudes
where topographic and other conditions retard fire-fighting operations, and also heavy expenditures incidental to fire-suppression undertakings in and adjacent to Coast logging operations,
where, owing to the proximity of large slash areas, once a fire gets started, control is exceedingly
difficult; here, owing to the high values involved, large crews have to be employed.
FIRE CAUSES.
Fires due to preventable causes numbered 1,889, as compared with 2,055 in 1922. This
reduction in man-caused fires, as compared with the year nearest in intensity of hazard, is one
of the gratifying features of the season, particularly when it is realized that the volume of forest
travel in 1925 was the greatest in the history of the Province.
Fires due to industrial operations numbered 137. Cessation of operations by 40 per cent,
of the Coast camps during the danger period was an appreciable factor in keeping down fires
under this head. Had the same volume of industry prevailed on the Coast as in 1922, there is
no doubt that fire losses would have been proportionately greater.
Campers and smokers were responsible for 712 fires this year, as against 690 iii 1924 and
626 in 1922. These figures reflect the growing burdens placed upon all forest-protective agencies
by the ever-increasing popularity of forests for recreational purposes. The motor-camper has in
the past few years multiplied the fire risk to the forest lands of the Province, but many other
factors also contribute. During the last fifteen years the area of cut-over lands of the Province
has been added to by more than 1,000,000 acres. Forest-located industries have increased by more
than 1,000 per cent. E 40
Department of Lands.
1925
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D«rV.PHO0r» 16 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 41
FIRE-PREVENTION.
Public Education.—To meet the ever-increasing human risk to the forests of the Province,
fire-prevention effort in the way of public education must be extended each year.
The publicity programme carried out by the Forest Service in 1925 was, therefore, the most
comprehensive attempted to date. In addition to the usual road-signs and fire-law posters, a
wide variety of printed matter was circulated. Special moving-picture trailer films, embodying
" The care with fire in the woods " lesson, were also shown at moving-picture houses in the
Province during the months of May to September, and the film " Red Enemy " used in connection
with forest-protection lecture-work.
During " Save the Forest Week," April 18th to 24th, a Province-wide drive was made, in
which school-teachers, the clergy, Service Clubs, Boy Scout organizations, and many other
interests co-operated. All the schools in the Province were visited and the pupils addressed
by officers of the Forest Branch. Service Clubs and similar organizations were also addressed
by members of the staff. Talks on forest-protection topics were broadcasted each evening during
the week from the Daily Province Radio Station.
In connection with the educational work in the schools, a " crossword puzzle " competition
embodying the forest-protection idea was held, which met with a very encouraging reception and
greatly stimulated the interest of the younger generation in forest-protection matters. Some
75,000 standard school rulers bearing the forest-protection slogan were also distributed to the
pupils of the junior and intermediate grades.
Forest-protection exhibits were placed at Vancouver, Nelson, Cranbrook, and other annual
fairs. Over 120,000 persons viewed these exhibits. A gold medal was awarded the Department
for the exhibit staged at the Vancouver Fair. This exhibit, which was the joint effort of the
Canadian Forestry Association and the Department, was commented on widely and favourably.
Special forest-protection literature was prepared for these exhibits in the form of a booklet
entitled "The Forest of To-day"; 100,000 copies of this booklet were distributed during the
season.
This year witnessed the organization of a British Columbia Branch of the Canadian Forestry
Association. The efforts of the British Columbia Branch of the Canadian Forestry Association
will in due course have a beneficial reaction on forest-fire occurrence in the Province. It is a
welcome addition to the other publicity efforts.
The tangibility of results obtained through public education in any endeavour to eradicate
such an ingrained habit as the average citizen's propensity for carelessness with fire is difficult
to determine. Little can be obtained from a comparison of fire statistics, but the fact that 1925,
admittedly the year of highest seasonal hazard since the beginning of organized protection in
the Province, witnessed a substantial reduction in man-caused fires, as compared with the year
of nearest seasonal hazard, undoubtedly indicates that more people are retaining the " care with
fire " thought.    It is certainly an encouraging augury for the future.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT.
Following the conclusions arrived at after a survey of fire-law enforcement results in 1924,
three special law-enforcement officers were assigned temporarily to the protection staff in 1925
for the purpose of assisting the fire-prosecution activities of the regular forest officers and
imparting to the field staff some instruction in the technique of securing clues, preparation or
evidence, and Court procedure.
This experiment proved decidedly successful. The number of convictions obtained for
violation of the fire laws was 300 per cent, greater than in 1924. These special officers were not
only largely instrumental in securing this increase, but in some localities the fact that special
men had been assigned for this work had a marked effect on fire-setting. The results obtained
this year certainly justify a continuation of the experiment. Department of Lands.
1925
Prosecutions fob Fike Tbespass, 1925.
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Prince Rupert.
South Interior.
7
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300 00
302 00
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Totals
--1—
8
24
62
$1,960 00
$1,025 00
1
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Totals, 1924.
1
2
28
7
7
24
2
HAZARD REDUCTION.
Dangerous Debris.—The total slash area burned under permit during the close season is
estimated at 38,733 acres, which includes 17,679 acres of new logging-slash. This area of slash,
together with that disposed of during the fire season by accidental fires, and that burned after
the fire season not under permit, exceeds the quantity created during the year.
Fires set out under permit which escaped control numbered 106. When it is considered that
9,331 permits were issued, the results, in view of the extreme hazard of the season, present a
striking tribute to the efficiency of supervision given to burning operations carried out under
permit and to the burning-permit system.
Industrial Operations.—Logging equipment operated during the months of July, August, and
September was only 60 per cent, of normal. This, as pointed out, was in itself an important
factor in restraining fire loss. Field reports also indicate that a large quantity of additional
fire-preventive and fire-fighting equipment was purchased by private concerns, including many
portable fire-pump units, which further aided materially in keeping down fire losses.
The practice of registering spark-arresters used on machines operated within half a mile
of forest lands was continued, but in order to facilitate speedier handling of applications,
arrangements were effected with the Provincial Inspector of Boilers for arresters to be tested
in the field by forest officers of supervisor or higher rank. When a bona-fide operator desires
to have an arrester approved, the test can now be carried out in his own operation under actual
working conditions, and the expense and delay incidental to a factory test is obviated. Arresters
to be offered for sale must, however, be tested by the Boiler Inspection Department and the
Forest Branch.
FIRE-CONTROL.
The past season has confirmed perhaps more conclusively than any other that, while fire-
prevention is of the utmost importance, unfavourable weather conditions and an abnormal
occurrence of unpreventable fires, such as occurred in the Southern Interior this year, can bring
about conditions defying the most intensive control preparation.
In a season such as experienced in 1925 the protection organization, however well organized,
cannot escape an overload that prevents anything like the same degree of supervision being given
to fire-fighting operations as possible in a normal year. The supply of competent fire foremen
and men for key positions on the fire-line becomes exhausted, and the effect in fire-fighting
expenditures and fire loss grows in proportion to the overload.
A programme of lookout construction, which provided for the erection of three standard
lookouts with necessary telephone communications and fire-finding equipment, was undertaken.
Primary units equipped with modern fire-finding equipment were constructed during the year
on Mount Phoenix, near Greenwood; Mount Benson, near Nanaimo; and Mount Baldy, near
Penticton. .
16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 43
Additional secondary lookout stations were established on Mount Record, near Rossland; on
Mount Toad and Mount Reno, near Nelson. During the height of the season observers were kept
on these peaks, communications to Ranger headquarters being established by emergency telephone-
lines of light insulated wire.
COMMUNICATIONS.
The Forest Service radio-telephone system continued to demonstrate its worth. Sending-sets
at the Vancouver and Thurston Bay Stations were replaced by larger units with a much greater
range, and alterations were made to the receiving-sets which materially improved the handling
of business.    A record volume of business was handled during the year.
During the season 20.5 miles of permanent land telephone-line were constructed and all
existing lines maintained and gave uninterrupted service.
Some 157.5 miles of new trail were constructed during 1925 and maintenance-work carried
out on 449.5 miles of existing trails.
MECHANICAL TRANSPORT AND FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT.
The following summary shows transportation costs for launches, cars, and speeders operated
by the Forest Branch for the years 1923-24-25. The aggregate costs are higher, as all units
were required to operate a much greater mileage owing to the abnormal demands of the season.
Launches.
Year.
Number of
Units.
Total Miles
run.
Average Miles
per Unit.
Total Cost.
Average Cost
per Mile.
1925	
1921	
43
43
40
167,478
119,703
106,500
3,894
2,784
2,662
$21,376
16,094
19,493
$0,127
.134
1923	
.183
Motor-cars.
1925	
74
59
52
508,158
327,495
275,000
6,866
5,551
5,288
$24,215
14,105
13,100
$0,047
1924	
1923	
.043
047
Railicay, Speeders.
19-25	
15
16
15
43,300
45,696
38,500
2,287
2,856
2,566
$1,535
1,149
1,614
$0,035
1924	
1923	
.025
Does not include capital cost or depreciation.
The portable fire-pump as a factor in fire-suppression continues to grow in importance.
In 1925 Forest Branch owned units again played a big part, operating a total of 4,331 hours,
as against 4,063 hours for the year previous. Fire-pumps purchased this year were of the lightweight type, replacing the old type heavy units which had passed the limit of their useful life.
Replacement of the remaining heavy units must be made in the near future, as many of them
are approaching a condition, owing to extensive use, where the service which can be expected of
them is out of proportion to maintenance costs. It is intended, as they become expended, to
replace them with lighter units.
EQUIPMENT, IMPROVEMENTS, AND MAINTENANCE.
Cabiboo.
Equipment—
Three Ford cars and boxes  $ 1,934 00
One fire-fighting pump   368 00
Fire-fighting tools, etc  345 00
Two portable telephones   72 CO
Office furniture  '.  186 00
Total  $ 2,905 00 E 44
Department of Lands.
1925
Cabiboo—Continued.
Improvements—
Marguerite Tool Cache '.  $ 76 00
Williams Lake House (sheds, etc.)   102 00
Miscellaneous     7 00
Total   $ 185 00
Maintenance—■
Williams Lake House   $ 379 00
Quesnel Garage   36 00
Quesnel Lake Boat-house  55 00
Miscellaneous    88 00
Total  $ 55S 00
Foet Geobge.
Equipment—
One Star car   $ 887 00
Two outboard motors   347 00
One fire-fighting pump  372 00
Hose for fire-fighting pump   241 00
Fire-fighting tools, etc  814 00
Total    $ 2,661 00
Improvements—
Three tool-caches   $ 34 CO
Speeder-house, Aleza Lake  200 00
Vanderhoof Camp-site   33 00
Fort St. James, R.S  251 00
Total    $ 518 00
Maintenance—
Finlay Forks Ranger Station   $ 77 00
MeBride Speeder-house   21 00
Miscellaneous     24 00
Total    $ 122 00
Kamloops.
Equipment—
One fire-fighting pump   ? 270 00
Hose for fire-fighting  1,105 00
Fire-fighting tools and equipment   1,394 00
Total    $ 2,769 00
Improvements—
Garnet Lake Trail  $ 40 00
Bear Creek Camp-site  89 00
Dunn Lake Camp-site   171 00
Clearwater Camp-site   65 00
Grizzley Mountain Ranger Station  13 00
Horseshoe Ranger Station Cabin  116 00
Total   ■.  S 494 00 16 Geo. 5
.
Forest Branch.
Kamloops—Continued.
Maintenance—
Vavenby-Adams River Trail   $    238 00
Adams Lake-Seymour Arm Trail   126 00
Launch "Aspen"   279 00
Canoe River Trail  :  158 CO
Clearwater-Blue River Trail   56 00
Seymour River Trail  35 00
Adams River Wagon-road   90 CO
Upper Thompson River Trail   100 00
Avola Ranger Station Cabin  56 OO
Main Clearwater Trail  30 OO
Rawhide Trail   26 00
Blucher Hall Lookout Trail   24 00
Miscellaneous     64 00
Total    $ 1,282 00
Pbince Rupert.
Equipment—
Launch " Lillian D."   $21,900 00
Babine Lake Boat  164 OO
Kitsumgallum Lake Boat   102 00
Two outboard motors  :  348 00
Fire-fighting tools   532 OO
Telephone-wire    192 00
Total .".  $23,238 00
Improvements—
Tool-boxes     $      18 00
Maintenance—
Repairs, " Euclataw "   $      70 00
Repairs, "Embree"   351 00
Ootsa Lake Boat-house  19 00
Mud Lake Boat-house  6 00
Total   $    446 00
Southern Intebiob.
Equipment—
Fire-fighting tools   :  $    9,590 00
Six Ford cars   4,106 00
Three Star cars   2,681 00
Four fire-fighting pumps  1,240 CO
Fire-fighting hose   535 00
Three portable telephones   148 00
Four sling psychrometers  48 00
Total    $18,348 00
Improvements—
Cranbrook Garage   $ 1,367 00
Nakusp Boat-house   900 00
Baldy Mountain Lookout   4,045 00
Carried forward  $ 6,312 00 E 46
Department of Lands.
1925
Southebn Intekioe—Continued.
Brought forward   $ 6,312 00
Improvements—Continued.
Phoenix Mountain Lookout  2,266 00
157% miles trails (various)   5,786 00
Flathead Cabin   143 00
Cedar Valley Telephone Line   104 00
Cedar Valley Cabin  .'  226 CO
New Denver Tool-cache  43 00
Total   $14,880 00
Maintenance—
449% miles trails (repaired)   $ 4,060 00
Elk Valley Road  104 00
Cedar Valley Road  116 00
Flathead Road   164 00
Gold Creek Road   60 00
Elk Valley Telephone Line  206 00
Casey Mountain Telephone Line   85 00
Moyie Mountain Lookout Telephone Line  35 OO
Lardeau-Howser Telephone Line   25 OO
North Fork of Kettle River Telephone Line  165 00
Little White Mountain Telephone Line  159 00
B.X. Lookout Telephone Line  30 00
Elk Valley Cabin   24 00
Moyie Lookout Cabin   16 OO
West Fork Cabin   20 00
Swansea Mountain Lookout   15 00
Casey Mountain Lookout   120 00
4-Mile Camp-site   10 00
Loop Camp-site   74 00
Gold Creek Camp-site   40 00
Stanley Park Camp-site   45 00
Morrissey Creek Camp-site   45 00
Fort Steele Camp-site  15 00
Blueberry Creek Camp-site   30 00
Big Sheep Creek Camp-site  32 00
Fernie Garage  62 00
.    B.X. Lookout  28 00
Miscellaneous     116 00
Total  $ 5,901 00
Vancouver.
Equipment—
'Seven Ford cars   $ 4,315 OO
One Star car  887 00
Three Elto outboard motors  515 00
Sixteen hand-pumps   229 00
Two fire-fighting pumps   453 OO
One gear fire-fighting pump  65 00
Launch " Hemlock "  5,625 00
Launch " Oliver Clark "   5,800 00
Dinghies  L 100 00
Carried forward   $17,989 00 16 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 47
Vancouver—Continued.
Brought forward  :  $17,989 CO
Equipment—Continued.
Fire-fighting hose, etc      2,650 00
Fire-fighting equipment and tools        3,049 00
Total    $23,688 00
Improvements—
Mount Benson Lookout  $ 2,029 00
Nanaimo Office Counter   26 00
New house, Thurston Bay   1,000 00
Float and boom, Thurston Bay   270 00
Ways, Thurston Bay  766 00
Mooring, Launch " Elmera "   15 00
Addition to house, Thurston Bay  45 OO
Clerk's house, Myrtle Point  78 00
Gold River Trail   299 00
Camp-sites and camp fireplaces   282 00
Nanaimo Bastion Exhibit   76 OO
Sidney-Anacortes Arch   79 00
Shawnigan Exhibition   9 00
Total   $ 4,974 00
Maintenance—
Myrtle Point Ranger Station   $      63 00
Beaver Creek Ranger Station  136 00
Squamish Ranger Station  28 00
Thurston Bay Ranger Station   18 00
Myrtle Point Telephone Line   21 00
Lake Cowichan Telephone Line   22 OO
Powell River Boat-house   67 00
Total    $    355 00
GRAZING.
General Range Conditions.
The condition of the Crown ranges in general was excellent throughout the year. It was
hoped that the extra-heavy fall of snow which occurred during the winter of 1924-25 would fill,
or at least substantially increase, the water in ponds and lakes which during recent years has
been rapidly decreasing. This shortage of water was most noticeable on the more or less level
plateau lands and was being felt by the range live-stock interests dependent on the use of those
ranges.
These expectations were not fully realized, however, due apparently to the limited drainage-
basins of these ponds and shallow lakes and the dry condition of the soil, which absorbed much
of the run-off. In the westerly portion of the Cariboo Grazing District many old catch-basins
which have been dry for years were fairly well filled up, and as late as the close of September
there was very little difference in the surface levels from those of early June. In general the
feed was of excellent quality and very plentiful.
Condition of Live Stock.
As a general rule all live stock came in from the summer range in good condition. Only in
places where no attempt was made to keep the cattle away from the heavily overgrazed low
ranges during the latter part of the summer months was their condition below normal.    It is E 48
Department of Lands.
1925
fortunate indeed that there is every likelihood of the winter of 1925-26 being an open one, otherwise loss would have occurred in these neglected herds. Stock going into the winter in low
condition this year must he watched carefully to avoid loss during cold wet periods which are
likely to prevail during the early spring of 1926.
Hay-crops.
The hay-crop of 1925 in the range country did not average as heavy as that of 1924, but is
sufficient to more than meet the requirements of the coming winter. It should be possible to
feed well all of the winter season, with the prospect in many quarters of preparing good-condition
beef for the early market. The breeding herds should be well fed all of the time. The prospect
of open winter, which permits rustling-out, should not be taken advantage of to graze the breeding
cows and ewes on short, frosty feed, without an adequate daily ration of good hay. There is
grave danger of loss at calving and lambing time if this practice is followed in an effort to save
hay-supplies.
Beef and Mutton Prices.
The recent increase in prices of both beef and mutton, particularly the former, has given
rise to a generally optimistic feeling throughout live-stock circles and there is every likelihood
of it prevailing for many years. In fact, live-stock farming, with agriculture in general, is on
the up-grade in British Columbia, and there is a general tendency to increase the number of live
stock of all kinds on the ranches and ranges throughout the Province.
The following figures in reference to live stock on ranches in British Columbia are indicative
of live-stock progress in British Columbia :—
1920. 1924.
Horses     44,070 54,815
Beef of all ages   154,772 178,266
Dairy cattle      84,816 95,876
Sheep       46,473 55,151
Swine      44,010 47,619
Goats         4,840 9,364     .
AUTHOBIZATION.
Authority under the provisions of the " Grazing Act " was given to allow 60,000 cattle and
horses and 26,000 sheep and goats to graze upon the Crown ranges during the season of 1925.
It was hoped that the excellent sheep-ranges along the International and Interprovincial
Boundaries would he utilized to some extent by sheep from the United States and Alberta.
Several factors have, however, operated to prevent this. First, the demand for range from
United States sheepmen has decreased owing to the decrease in range sheep in adjoining States,
due to the slump in sheep and wool prices just prior to 1924. The demand is on the increase,
however, and may yet reach the high point of 191S, when 100,000 sheep were annually refused
range on the forests of Oregon and Washington. Second, the fact that the Canada Customs
tariff requires the payment of a 25 per cent, ad valorem duty on all sheep brought into Canada
for grazing without provision for rebate when returning to the United States. Third, the tax
of 25 cents per head, in addition to the regular grazing fee, required by the British Columbia
"Taxation Act." The third factor also applies to sheep brought in from other Provinces for
summer grazing, and is in itself a factor preventing the use of the annual forage-crop on the
large areas along the south-eastern boundary of the Province adjoining Alberta.
Range Improvements.
The range-improvement policy of the Department of Lands is meeting with increased cooperation from the users of the Crown ranges. It is being realized that the systematic nature
of the improvements is turning the Crown ranges of each grazing district into controlled summer
pastures where live stock can be grazed during the open season with the minimum of loss and
where every opportunity is given the stockman to exercise progressive management practices
with advantage to himself. 16 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 49
The following summary covers the work to the close of December, 1925, and from the date
of the annual report for 1924:—
Total cash on hand, including 1925 appropriation  $8,074 89
Expenditures, covering drift-fences, mud-hole improvement, stock-
trails, water-development, corrals, holding-grounds, breeding-
grounds, stock-bridges, wild-horse and grasshopper control     7,445 68
Credit balance   $  629 21
The credit balance, $629.21, will be exhausted by the close of the fiscal year at March 31st,
1926, when the new appropriation will be available, as there are many important projects to be
completed by that date.
Reseeding of Crown Ranges.
The experimental reseeding of cultivated grasses on burns which have accidentally occurred
and on areas which were burned over with a view to determining whether the burning-over of
timbered range will permanently improve such ranges, and to ascertain if cultivated grasses or
clovers will replace the native vegetation, has not developed successfully to date. There is every
evidence that all experiments will fail. All seeding operations must be inexpensive to make it
an economic practice even with successful growth. There can, for this reason, be no cultivation
and some measure of protection must be given the young plants if they are to get a start. In the
first place, it is noted that the cultivated species, while making in most cases a good growth the
first year, have been choked out by the native vegetation. This condition has been aided by the
congregation of cattle on the limited seeded areas to the disadvantage of the growing and more
palatable cultivated species.
In every instance it is also noted that the seeding from the trees on the burned areas was
particularly heavy after, and as a result of, the burn, and that there is every prospect of the
burned areas producing in the near future heavy stands of seedlings which, in themselves, will
interfere with the use of the areas for grazing. On adjoining areas where fires have not occurred,
open, park-like conditions prevail and good succulent forage is available.
Wild Horses.
Active work was undertaken during the winter of 1924-25 to rid the ranges of wild horses.
This work was done principally on the Chilcotin ranges, and in that district alone 1,950 wild
horses were eliminated from the range. The beneficial result was noted in the excellent condition
of all of the spring and fall ranges as well as the winter rustling-grounds. Heretofore these
useless horses came down from the upland winter meadows as soon as the snow left the open
grass ranges. They clipped the grass as quickly as it grew and ranges that should have furnished
heavy and excellent feed were bare when the cattle were turned out.
In all, 2,352 wild horses were removed from the open Crown ranges of British Columbia
during the 1925 season at a cost of $2.07 per head. This work is to be continued during the
1926 season.
Grasshoppeb-oontrol.
The heavy outbreak of grasshoppers in the Nicola District during 1924 made it necessary
to consider measures to combat the menace in 1925. A series of meetings held during the winter
of 1924-25 resulted in a co-operative plan of campaign involving the combined efforts of the
Department of Agriculture, Department of Lands, and the Nicola Stock-breeders' Association.
The results accomplished in poisoning the grasshoppers on the range was most excellent, and in
all likelihood the work planned for 1926 in that district will be as effective in protecting the hay
and grain crops and the forage of the open ranges from destruction as was that of 1925.
Future Outlook.
The numbers of live stock in British Columbia are steadily increasing each year, and this
increase is taking place in the open range districts as well as where distinct farming operations
are carried on.
During the spring of 3925 upwards of 2,000 breeding cows and heifers were brought in from
outside points to increase the range herds of British Columbia. The number of sheep has also
4 E 50
Department of Lands.
1925
materially increased and approximately 7,000 head were purchased and brought in by local
residents. The greater number of these now make up range flocks which will graze upon the
open ranges each year.
Without question there will be much money made in the future from sheep and cattle in
British Columbia. British Columbia has approximately 100,000,000 acres of woodland range
suited to the grazing of live stock, with only about 10,000,000 acres sparsely used at present. The
demand for the superior beef and mutton produced on the British Columbia ranges is steadily
growing and this is influenced by the steady decrease in the production of adjoining Provinces
and States.   The following figures are interesting in this connection:—
Province.
Year.
Beef Cattle.
Sheep.
Canada—
1921
1924
1921
1924
1921
1924
1921
1924
1921
1924
1,430,000
1,188,468
524,000
206,458
241,532
317,542*
818,000
710,282
131,000
94,704
107,108
36,216*
1,142,000
1,060,716
188,000
123,326
71,284
675,000
571,631
103,469
64,674*
2,270,000
1,322,173
947,827*
290,000
253,000
645,000
520,000
37,000
125,000*
* Decrease.
The low prices for beef of the past two to three years has had its good influence in stimulating effort to make ends meet by increasing and saving the calf-crop. The calf-crop has been
at a comparatively low average for many years and it requires the hardship of low prices to
awaken range stockmen to the fact that the superior cattle ranges of British Columbia provide
a range condition that makes for the rapid growth and development of a high-average calf-crop
—an SO-per-cent. at least instead of a 40-per-cent. The serious drain, upon the gross revenue
occasioned by the keep of 60 per cent, of the breeding herd, which annually produces nothing but
worry, is not given the grave thought it should. Furthermore, few range cattlemen understand
that bulls cannot be brought in from outside points where forage conditions are entirely different
with the expectation that they will do well in a totally different environment, the first year at
least, and that adequate service from them will result.
British Columbia ranges are of a highly productive nature and are largely timbered. Under
the timber is growing the juicy, succulent plants peculiar to the Pacific coastal region and which
are absolutely required by the cow giving milk for the young calf. It is upon this type of range
that the cow should be grazing during the breeding season if the calf is to make that rapid growth
noted on British Columbia ranges, aud it is upon this type of range that it is difficult to keep the
foreign bull unless careful attention is given to holding him there. If not watched he is inclined
to drift during the hot, dry months to open areas where grasses predominate. These are usually
the spring and fall ranges and, consequently, he is liable to become poor in condition. A large
percentage of the cows are not bred until the fall, because the bulls are not with them during
the proper season. The result is a low calf-crop. Effort expended to encourage the breeding of
range bulls in British Columbia would stimulate progress in. the range-cattle industry. It is
interesting to note, however, the development of understanding in these matters, and this is
manifested both in the desire to co-operate with the Department in its efforts to have the breeding
herds under better control during the breeding season and in the growing practice of keeping the
beef herds on good feed and distributing the shipments to market over a longer period each year. ,
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Trinted by Charles F.  Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1926. 

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