Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1925-26 BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1927]

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0228015.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0228015.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0228015-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0228015-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0228015-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0228015-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0228015-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0228015-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0228015-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0228015.ris

Full Text

 THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OF  THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1925-26
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1926.
PROVINCIAL. LIBRARY*
VICTORIA, B. C  To His Honour Eobert Kandolph Bruce,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg herewith respectfully to present the Fifty-fifth Annual Eeport on the
Public Schools of the Province.
j. d. Maclean,
Minister of Education.
November, 1926.  DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
Minister of Education:
D. MacLean, M.D., CM., LL.D.
Superintendent of Education: Assistant Superintendent of Education:
S. J. Willis, B.A., LL.D. J. D. Gillis.
Inspectors of High Schools:
A. Sullivan, B.A., Victoria. J. B. DeLong, B.A., Vancouver.
Inspectors of Elementary Schools :
W. H. M. May, Victoria.
A. E. Miller, Revelstoke.
H. H.  Mackenzie,  B.A.,  Vancouver.
J. M. Patebson, B.A., Nanaimo.
L. J. Bruce, Vancouver.
F. G. Calvert, Vancouver.
E. G. Daniels, B.A,, New Westminster.
H. C. Eraser, M.A., Prince Rupert.
G. H. Gower, M.A., Prince George.
T. R. Hall, B.A'., Kelowna.
V. Z. Manning, B.A., Cranbrook.
A. P. Matthews, M.A., Kamloops.
J. T. Pollock, Vancouver.
P. H. Sheffield, B.A., Nelson.
A. C. Stewart, Victoria.
SPECIAL OFFICIALS.
Director of Elementary Agricultural Education:
J. W. Gibson, M.A., B.Paed.
Organizer of Technical Education:
John Kyle, A.R.C.A.
Registrar:
J. L. Watson, B.A.
Director of Home Economics:
Miss J. L. MacLenaghen, B.Sc
Officer in Charge of Correspondence Courses:
James Hahgreaves.
Officer in Charge of Free Text-books:
J. A. Anderson.
Chief Clerk:
George Cruickshank.
NORMAL SCHOOL STAFFS.
Vancouver:
D. M. Robinson, B.A., Principal.
A. Anstey, B.A.
AV. P. Weston.
H. B. MacLean.
J. A. Macintosh, B.A.
A. E. C. Martin, B.Sc.
A. R. Lord, B.A.
W. G. Black, B.A., M.A.
Miss L. A. Burpee.
Miss E. M. Coney.
Miss N. V. Jones, B.A.
Victoria:
D. L. MacLaurin, B.A., Principal.
V. L. Denton, B.A.
H. Dunnell.
B. S. Freeman, B.A.
C. B. Wood, B.A., M.A.
Miss   G.   G.   RlDDELL.
Miss L. B. Isbister.
Model School:
Miss Kate Scanlan.
Miss I. M. F. Barron. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Part I.
Page.
Superintendent's Report   9
Inspectors' Reports—
High Schools   2S
Elementary Schools   30
Municipal Inspectors' Reports—
New Westminster  43
Vancouver   43
Vancouver, South   47
Victoria  4S
Reports on Normal Schools—
Vancouver  51
Victoria  52
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind  55
Report of the Organizer of Technical Education  57
Report of the Director of Elementary Agricultural Education  65
Report of the Director of the Summer School for Teachers  6s
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Free Text-book Branch ,  75
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust  77
Part II.
Statistical Returns—
High Schools (Cities)       2
High Schools (Rural Municipalities)     12
High Schools (Rural Districts)      IS
Elementary Schools (Cities)  _   20
Elementary Schools (Rural Municipalities)      60
Elementary Schools (Rural Districts)  _     86
Elementary Schools  (Assisted)      94
Elementary Schools (E. & N. Railway Belt)   10S
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts  114
Part III.
High School Examination—
Names of the Winners of Medals and Scholarships  121
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre .'  122
High School Entrance Examination—
Names of Medal-winners   126
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre  126
High School Entrance Examination Papers   135
High School Examination Papers—
Grade IX.   143
Grade X  152
Grade XI.  (Junior Matriculation)    161
Grade XII. (Senior Matriculation)   170 PART I.
GENERAL REPORT.  Report of the Superintendent of Education, 1925-26.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., November, 1926.
To the Honourable J. D. MacLean, M.D., CM., LL.D.,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Fifty-fifth Annual Report of the Public Schools of British
Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1926.
Enrolment.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 97,954 (49,621
boys and 48,333 girls) to 101,688 (51,3S0 boys and 50,308 girls), and the average daily attendance
from 82,721 to 85,293.   The percentage of regular attendance was 83.88.
The number of pupils enrolled and the number of teachers employed in the different classes
of schools are shown hereunder:—
Classes of Schools.
Number op Pupils
enrolled.
Increase
in
Enrolment.
Number of Teachers
employed.
Average
Number
of Pupils
1925-26.
1924-25.
Grade
Teachers.
Special
Instructors.
per Grade
Teacher.
8,077
3,304
398
41,684
28,678
19,547
7,373
2,855
369
41,290
27,178
18,889
704
449
29
394
l.'oOO
658
241
111
21
1,099
836
917
25
3
90
53
33
High schools in rural municipalities 	
High schools in rural districts....
Elementary schools in cities	
Elementary schools in rural mu-
30
19
38
34
Elementary schools in rural dis-
21
Totals	
101,688
97,954
3,734
3,225
171       1
In addition to the numbers given above, there were enrolled in the—■
Correspondence classes      250 pupils.
Night-schools     6,017       „
Normal School, Vancouver      256 students.
Normal School, Victoria      176       „
Victoria College       151        „
University of British Columbia  1,447       „
Total  8,297
The number of children of foreign parentage who attended the public schools of the Province
during the year was as follows:—
0J
UI
OJ
1
0J
_-
a
0-
__
■a
i ca
HS
oi!
w
a
0_
a
fe
.,
O
1-3
"
m a
m
w
ft
o
City schools ..
1,1'85
1,244
12
745
15
49
142
142
Municipal schools	
113
951
7
613
18
88
122
99
282
1
996
41
131
69
176
Totals	
1,397
2,477
20
2,354
74
180
299
440
a
w
a  ■
oi
a
.2
D9
a
d
'G
a
,5.
'w
__
a
o
si
"^ a_
D_
pi's
a. a a
a
Sp
s
0.
3
a
2 a
•3 i: 3
&
-ijC.
^
O
«
~
GJ_
Ofay
115
63
197
149
156
49
■5
373
120
1,202
161
100
13
425
119
61
139
129
11
13"6
351
487
243
Totals	
239
485
334
16
■629
1,714
600
787 R 10 Public Schools Eeport. 1926
Some Recommendations of the School Survey Commission.
(a.) New Appointments.—In accordance with strong recommendations made by the gentlemen who recently made an exhaustive survey of the Provincial system of education a Director
of Home Economics has been appointed in the person of Miss Jessie L. McLenaghen, B.Sc.
(Columbia). She has held important positions in the Province of Saskatchewan and in Alban5',
New York. Her scholarship, experience, and training will enable her to encourage and stimulate
the teachers of domestic science in our elementary and high schools and to direct their work
along the most approved lines. I confidently expect that there will be renewed activity in that
important branch of study. Reference may well be made at this point to the splendid efforts of
the Provincial Parent-Teacher Federation of British Columbia in launching and directing a
campaign to raise the sum of $80,000 for the establishment of a Chair in Home Economics at
the University of British Columbia.    It is hoped that success will crown their efforts.
Two additions have been made to the staff of the Vancouver Normal School: Mr. W. G.
Black, B.A. (U.B.C.), M.A. (Chicago), has been appointed instructor in Educational Psychology,
Mental Tests and Measurements, and History of Education. Miss Norah Vivian Jones, B.A., will
give instruction in Physical Training, Folk-dancing, and School Games for Girls, and in Hygiene.
She is a graduate of our own University as well as of the Margaret Eaton School of Physical
Education, Toronto.
Provision has also been made in the Estimates for the appointment of a Chief Inspector of
Schools, who will inspect our Normal Schools and co-ordinate the work of inspection throughout
the Province.
(6.) Middle School.—A programme for Junior High Schools is now in course of preparation
by this Department with the assistance of a committee of teachers who are not only sympathetic
with the aims and objects of such schools, but are conversant with what is being done in the
'best schools of this class in America. A beginning has already been made in Junior High School
work on a small scale in Point Grey and Penticton.
(c.) Inspection of Schools.—The Provincial Inspectors who have been carrying on regular
inspection in the elementary schools of the Cities of Vancouver, Victoria, and New Westminster
have been relieved almost entirely of their usual duties in those cities, and their time is now
available for the inspection and partial supervision of schools in district municipalities and rural
districts. There is still need of the appointment of several additional Provincial or Municipal
Inspectors if we are to approach the standard recommended in the Commissioners' report, where
it is stated that the aim should be to form inspectorial divisions containing from fifty to one
hundred teachers, depending upon the geographical area over which the schools extend.
Municipal Inspectors should be appointed without delay in Point Grey and Burnaby, and some
other cities and district municipalities should, in the near future, form the whole or a part of
an inspectorial division in charge of a Municipal Inspector.
(d.) School Finance.—The suggestions of the Commissioners relating to school finance are
undoubtedly sound in theory. The principle of a flat grant per teacher, on which Provincial
aid has been largely based for many years, cannot be regarded as scientific, but before a change
is made to another system it would seem to me that some uniform basis should be devised for
assessing the value of real and personal property in cities and district municipalities and that
the percentage of improvements to be taxed should be the same throughout, at least for school
purposes. Any reorganization that might be made at the present time in Provincial aid, if
based upon some unit of assessed value of property, would show many instances of as great
inequality and injustice as exists under the present system of making grants to districts. It will
be necessary, in my opinion, for some authority representing the municipalities or the Government to standardize the assessments in cities and district municipalities before an attempt is
made to create and make a fair apportionment of an equalization fund. It would seem advisable
also that the Legislature should empower Municipal Councils to impose and collect a tax on the
incomes not now taxed of all persons living within their boundaries, and that the sum thus raised
be used to lessen the burden of taxation for school purposes now borne solely by property-owners.
Text-books.
There has been but little change in the prescribed text-books. A book of selections of
Canadian prose and poetry, compiled by one of our Canadian authors, A. M. Stephen, who is a
resident of this Province, has been authorized and is now studied by all children in Grades VII. 17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 11
and VIII. of our elementary schools, and " Familiar Fields," by Peter McArthur, another
Canadian writer, is an optional text in Grade VII. literature.
The course in citizenship has been strengthened by the authorization of McCaig's book
entitled " Studies in Citizenship," adapted for use in our schools by Professor H. Angus, of the
University of British Columbia. This book and Professor Angus's book, " Citizenship in British
Columbia," which was printed by the King's Printer and is a reference-work for teachers, will
provide suitable material on which to base lessons in citizenship.
The English Literature of the High School Course was modified by the adoption of " English
Prose Selections" (MacDonald), containing Short Stories, Essays, and Miscellaneous Pieces for
Grades IX. and X., and " A Selection of English Poetry," Books I. and II., for Grades X. and XI.
The revised course will, I believe, prove satisfactory for several years if some additional Canadian
poems are added to the list.
The cost of prescribed books to pupils at the publishers' prices is as follows: Grade I., nil;
Grade II., nil; Grade III., 20 cents; Grade IV., 25 cents; Grade V., $1.15; Grade VI., if 1.70;
Grade VII., $2.33; Grade VIII., $2.10; or a total for eight years of $7.73. Adding the cost of
a 50-cent dictionary the total will come to $8.23, or an average of $1.04 per year. In the High
School the cost of necessary prescribed texts to pupils taking the general course, with Language
option, according to publishers' list prices, is as follows: Grade IX., $8.11; Grade X., $2.95;
Grade XL, $5.40. The local booksellers' prices will be at least 25 per cent, in excess of the
figures given.    The cost of note-books and necessary school supplies is not included.
Changes in Regulations governing Departmental Examinations.
In June, 1926, for the first time candidates for Junior Matriculation and Normal Entrance
were granted the privilege of writing on the examination in parts and were given standing in
all papers on which they made at least 50 per cent. Heretofore they were required to take the
whole examination at one time and inability to obtain an average of 50 per cent, on the aggregate
resulted in failure in the whole examination. In such cases it was necessary to take up all
subjects again and to rewrite the whole examination the following year. Now good work in
any subject will stand to a candidate's credit, the only condition being that the full requirements
must be met within a period of three years. The principle of promotion by subject has therefore
been recognized and the same system now prevails so far as practicable in Grades IX. and X. also.
Some modifications, too, of the regulations governing admission to high schools have been
made. Under the new regulations Entrance pupils attending a public school of four or more
divisions shall, unless the Board of School Trustees of the district request the Department of
Education to give such pupils a written examination, be issued Entrance Certificates on the
recommendation of a committee composed of the principal of the school, the principal of the high
school of the district, the Municipal Inspector of Schools (If one is employed), and the Provincial
Inspector of Schools. This system of promotion will, I think, work out satisfactorily if all the
principals will use care and good judgment in making recommendations to the promotion committees. Entrance pupils attending public schools of fewer than four divisions, which are, in
many cases, in charge of young teachers with little class-room experience and a limited knowledge
of the requirements for admission to high schools, and also Entrance pupils enrolled at private
schools must, before they are issued certificates, pass an examination in Canadian History or
Drawing, Arithmetic, Grammar and Composition, Geography, Penmanship and Dictation and
Spelling. Under the old regulations 60 per cent, (the most proficient) of the Entrance pupils
in classes of seven or more divisions were promoted on recommendation. The other 40 per cent.,
as well as pupils in attendance at public schools of fewer than seven divisions and at private
schools, were required to sit for the Entrance Examination. At the end of June, 1925, there were
promoted on recommendation 2,130 pupils and by examination 3,568. In June last 4,468 pupils
received certificates on the recommendation of the promotion committees and 1,743 by passing
the examination set by the Department.
Centralization oe Schools.
Public opinion in rural districts is beginning to view with favour the plan of uniting,
wherever possible, adjoining districts and establishing central schools. Within the last few years
several districts have adopted this scheme. Localities which until recently were served by one-
room schools now provide instruction for the children in central graded schools, to and from R 12
Public Schools Report.
1926
which they are conveyed every morning and afternoon. These central schools provide high-
school as well as elementary-school privileges. The larger enrolment makes it possible to put
all pupils into suitable grades and classes. Consolidated schools not only provide improved classroom service, but also may be used as centres for community enterprises. Under such conditions
the pupils and their parents make a larger circle of friends, which tends towards social unity and
civic pride.
The five districts of Merville, Grantham, Sandwick, Headquarters, and Dove Creek, in the
Comox Valley, have lately been united into one district to be known as the Tsolum Consolidated
School District. The three rural districts of Comox, Lazo, and Nob Hill have also been united
into one district under the name of the Comox Consolidated School District. When the central
school buildings are completed the School Boards will have the high-school and upper-grade
pupils conveyed to them, but will keep the old one-room schools in operation for the pupils of
the lower grades, wlio will thus be able to attend schools near their homes and avoid hardships
that might arise from transportation.
Agricultural Instruction.
Two years ago Federal aid towards agricultural instruction was withdrawn. As a result
several School Boards discontinued the teaching of agriculture through the District Supervisor
system, which provided a programme for elementary schools as well as for high schools. Other
Boards, while omitting the elementary-school programme, retained specialists to teach agriculture
and science in their high schools. Five hundred and sixty-six of the students enrolled in the
high schools of the Province took the Two-year Course in Agriculture, which combines field
and laboratory study.
The curtailment of the special grants to teachers and trustees led in some instances to the
discontinuance of school-gardening. However, due to the encouragement in some districts of
such local organizations as Horticultural Societies, Women's Institutes, Parent-Teacher Associations, and Agricultural Societies, much interest was displayed by the children in the cultivation
of home-gardens. Nursery trees, shrubs, and money grants were given by this Department to
those School Boards which carried out a well-planned scheme of school-ground improvement.
Manual Training and Domestic Science.
Classes in manual training were conducted at eighty-three centres by seventy-five instructors,
with an enrolment of 12,250 elementary-school pupils and 2,001 high-school pupils. Home
economics was taught at fifty-five centres to 9,250 elementary-school pupils and 2,205 high-school
pupils. In the past the work of supervising the teaching of home economics was carried out by
the Organizer of Technical Education. In future the course will be in charge of a supervisor
who will devote her whole time to the organization and direction of the work at the various
centres.
Technical Education, Night-schools, and Correspondence Classes.
Technical high schools are in operation in New Westminster, Trail, Vancouver, and Victoria.
In addition to the courses in academic and technical subjects, New Westminster and Vancouver
provide courses in Household Science and Commercial subjects and Victoria in Commercial
subjects. Classes for Commercial students were conducted also in the High Schools of South
Vancouver, Point Grey, Burnaby, North Vancouver, Surrey, Kamloops, Prince Rupert, Revelstoke,
Nelson, and West Vancouver. In all, 870 students took the Technical Course, 212 the Household
Science Course, and 1,562 the Commercial Course.
Night-schools were conducted at thirty-seven centres, with an enrolment of 6,017 students.
Among those who attended were twenty-five students who are preparing for positions as teachers
in commercial high schools and forty-eight others who desire to qualify for positions as
instructors in manual training and technical subjects. Instruction in the elementary-school
subjects was given through correspondence lessons to 250 children who live in districts where
schools have not yet been opened. One hundred and ninety-five other students were given
instruction in coal-mining and mine-surveying. The total amount expended by the Department
of Education towards the maintenance of night-schools, training of teachers for manual training,
correspondence lessons, and for technical education (not including home economics and manual
training) was $102,516.09. But as the Federal Government makes grants to the Provincial
Governments to meet 50 per cent, of the amount expended for such work, the actual cost to this Province was $51,258.04. Excerpts from the latest report of the Dominion Director on Technical
Education show that the Province of British Columbia ranks fifth in Canada for the amount of
Provincial expenditure on technical education; second place for the number of students attending
night-schools; third place for the number taking correspondence courses; and second for the
number taking training as technical teachers.
Summer Schools.
The gain in enrolment from s'ear to year shows that the Summer Schools are rendering a
service which is of increasing interest and profit to the students. The first summer session of
the University of British Columbia was held in 1921 and was attended by 134 students, of whom
only fifty-five sat for the final examinations. The enrolment this year was 441. Of this number,
347 wrote off the final examinations. The increase in enrolment is, no doubt, due to the efforts
of the University to offer courses which will enable the students to improve their academic and
professional standing. Instruction in the Third Year of the Arts Course was given for the first
time by the summer session in July last. Students who have completed the work of the first
and second years and who are now taking up the third year are anxious to proceed to their
degree through private study and attendance at the summer session. The commercial classes
established several years ago are largely attended. Some of the students have completed the
prescribed course and are now employed as teachers of commercial subjects in high schools.
The Provincial Summer School held in Victoria had an attendance of 346 teachers, a staff
of thirty-three instructors, and a demonstration school with eight instructors. A splendid spirit
and an intense interest were maintained throughout the whole session. The demonstration
school comprised five classes with a total enrolment of 169 pupils selected at random from over
300 pupils from Victoria who applied for admission. This school gives the teachers in attendance
an opportunity to observe the most approved methods of class-room procedure. Complete details
regarding the courses offered and the work of the session are given in the report of the Director.
Teachers' Certificates.
The following table shows the number of teachers of each sex employed during 1925-26 and
1924-25, and also the number of certificates of each class held by the teachers:—■
Schools.
Number op Certificates op each Class.
No.   OF
Teachers op
each Sex.
Total.
Academic.
First.
Second.
Third.
•Temp.
Special.
Male.
Female.
362
117
30
39
396
239
252
526
■507
570
53
55
50
11
7
5
6
28
90
53
250
249
183
184
151
940
706
733
401
1,189
889
Rural and assisted elementary ..
917
Totals,  1925-26	
548
535
887
780
1,603
1,597
158
187
29
19
171
176
866
847
2,530
2,447
3 396
Totals, 1924-25	
3,294
: Granted to teachers of commercial and other special subjects. I
R 14
Public Schools Report.
192G
High Schools—Cities.
The enrolment in the city high schools during the year 1925-26 was 8,077. Of this number,
3,702 were boys and 4,375 were girls.
The number of divisions and the enrolment for 1925-26 and for 1924-25 in each city are
shown in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1925-26.
Total
Enrolment,
1924-25.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i1
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
3
7
2
.     6
2
1.
5
3
8
2
3
3
1
8
8
20
2
1
1
6
6
4
4
1
4
84
10
6
34
79
235
64
161
60
>     72
37
142
103
208
37
105
93
52
264
259
665
41
43
13
59
143
151
82
87
12
127
3,149
317
158
1,059
86
Chilliwack	
227
58
132
Duncan	
48
32
Fernie	
Grand Forks	
122
90
182
38
94
74
Merritt	
44
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
190
244
649
42
41
69
145
113
83
12
Trail	
118
2,837
315
13S
1,020
Totals, 1925-26	
37
36
251
234
8,077
7,373
7,373
Totals,  1924-25    	 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 15
High Schools—Rural Municipalities.
The enrolment in the rural municipal high schools during the year was 3,304. Of this
number, 1,424 were boys and 1,880 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the year 1925-26 and the year
1924-25 are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1925-26.
Total
Enrolment,
1924-25.
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
13
3
3
2
3
2
3
7
1
6
25
O
3
5
22
4
494
82
62
36
68
68
60
67
205
16
162
854
88
70
123
855
84
322
Delta	
63
53
Kent	
29
61
52
51
78
Oak Bay .           •  	
195
12
176
Point Grev                	
684
91
65
107
744
72
Totals, 1925-26	
21
21
108
97
3,304
2,855
2,855
Totals,  1924-25 	
High Schools—Rural Districts.
The enrolment in the rural high schools for the year was 398. Of this number, 180 were
boys and 218 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the years 1925-26 and 1924-25
are given in the table below,:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1925-26.
Total
Enrolment,
1924-25.
AbbotS'ford                      	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
44
46
20
26
20
15
16
15
32
25
37
21
41
23
17
83
50
18
24
19
11
24
31
Ocean Falls   	
26
26
Powell River    	
36
18
18
Totals, 1925-26 	
15
14
21
19
398
369
369
Totals,  1924-25     	 R 16
Public Schools Eeport.
1926
Elementary Schools—Cities.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 41,684. The number of boys was 21,285;
of girls, 20,399.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, the total enrolment for the school-year
1925-26, and the total enrolment for the school-year 1924-25 in each city are shown in the table
below:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1925-26.
Total
Enrolment,
1924-25.
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
2
5
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
31
3
1
16
4
13
9
7
20
13
11
3
21
10
3
22
4
14
10
10
28
25
67
7
7
6
9
22
16
11
5
2
25
483
41
19
134
120
496
341
254
715
505
418
91
753
396
101
813
103
607
339
350
1,112
954
2,601
254
247
222
364
811
611
470
181
48
959
19,208
1,527
742
4,971
117
488
Armstrong	
Chilliwack	
' 724
491
403
115
831
382
100
818
108
522
Ladysmith	
377
366
1,180
939
2,563
233
253
223
363
Prince Rupert	
786
621
Rossland	
465
183
47
852
18,838
1,481
793
5,003
Totals,  1925-26	
94
94
1,081
1,069
41,684
41,290
41,290
Totals, 1924-25	 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 17
Elementary Schools—Rural Municipalities.
The enrolment in the rural municipal elementary schools was 28,678. The number of boys
enrolled was 14,788;  of girls, 13,890.
The following table gives the names of the several municipalities, the number of schools in
each, the number of divisions, the enrolment for the school-year 1925-26, and the enrolment for
the school-year 1924-25:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1925-26.
Total
Enrolment,
1924-25.
18
14
2
6
4
12
1
2
16
10
11
9
2
2
1
2
9
1
7
15
7
4
1
20
5
16
4
91
31
3
9
7
19
15
0
30
23
20
19
16
3
18
4
' 107
9
27
60
8
7
8
41
23
212
20
3,544
912
77
259
196
516
454
175
905
754
558
583
614
62
643
126
4,207
79
1,019
1,871
242
203
296
1,212
753
7,760
658
3 187
Chilliwack	
856
82
*>46
199
Delta	
482
Kent 	
165
869
Maple Ridge	
Matsqui	
Mission	
Oak Bav	
701
558
570
578
72
667
Pitt Meadows	
91
3,661
80
School for Deaf and Blind	
975
1,846
256
193
281
1,180
710
7,528
578
Totals   1925-26               	
201
201
835
797
28,678
27,178
27,178
Totals   1924-25             	
Summary oe Enrolment by Grades in Elementary Schools.
Schools.
Grade I.
Grade II.
Grade III.
Grade IV.
Grade V.
5,610
4,218
1,372
1,758
525
4,724
3,568
1,027
1,118
304
5,221
3,640
1,148
1,179
370
5,521
3,824
1,047
1,175
365
5,640
3,691
1,053
928
E   & N. Belt .            	
398
Totals     	
13,483
10,741
11,558
11,932
11,710
Schools.
.Grade VI.
Grade VII.
Grade VIII.
Grades
IX.and X.
Total.
City municipal (	
5,104
3,271
847
766
336
4,590
3,092
793
694
288
5,078
3,345
817
600
319
196
29
236
130
44
41,684
28,678
8,340
8,258
E   & N   Belt            	
2,949
Totals 	
10,324
9,367
10,159
635
89,909 R 18
Public Schools Report.
1926
Special Tests.
During the months of May and June objective tests in Canadian history, British history,
hygiene, and nature-study were given by the Inspectors to over 6,000 Grade VIII. pupils in
various schools throughout the Province. The median scores made by these pupils in the four
subjects were:—
Median.
Canadian history     25
British history  •-   27
Hygiene -    47
Nature-study     29
The following table gives the standing attained by each of the schools tested:—
Cities.
The Median
Scores in
School.
Canadian
History.
British
History.
Hygiene.
Nature-
study.
21
34
31
35
31
25
23
22
26
24
26
27
32
20
18
19
21
13
23
38
28
34
28
20
26
16
26
20
24
29
31
22
29
31
22
21
19
24
24
■26
22
22
24
25
34
33
31
39
25
26
22
30
20
30
27
28
29
24
22
24
14
27
41
34
30
20
20
30
20
25
24
31
30
33
29
34
30
31
25
20
30
28
27
24
27
25
51
45
46
49
48
44
47
44
48
48
48
46
48
45
44
46
47
44
43
47
50
46
46
44
48
44
44
48
48
49
49
46
49
47
48
47
48
50
47
47
46
1         46
1         48
32
Chilliwack    	
26
30
35
32
30
28
31
34
25
29
Nelson :
25
28
New Westminster;
27
28
27
29
27
27
28
Prince Rupert:
29
27
24
25
31
Slocan City	
27
Trail-Tadanac	
25
Vancouver:
32
Bayview	
31
28
Charles Dickens	
30
Franklin	
30
General Gordon	
34
Grandview	
29"
Hastings	
33
Livingstone	
29
Model	
28
Macdonald	
32
Florence Nightingale	
28
Cecil Rhodes	
27
26
Seymour	
28
Lord Tennyson	
33
J 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 19
Cities—Continued.
The Mediai,
Scores in
School.
Canadian
History.
British
History.
Hygiene.
Nature-
study.
North Vancouver:
29
34
30
17
24
20
21
28
20
18
21
24
22
36
31
30
19
34
26
22
32
22
32
36
24
24
48
46
46
44
46
45
46
48
45
45
45
48
47
30
32
Vernon	
30
Victoria :
Boys' Central	
25
Sir James Douglas	
34
Girls' Central               	
24
George Jav             	
27
26
North Ward	
24
31
Quadra	
32
South Park	
25
32
Rural Municipalities.
Burnaby :
Edmonds Street	
26
30
25
13
28
21
12
26
26
16
25
24
23
22
12
19
17
26
12
33
22
36
20
24
20
30
' 27
29
30
31
21
22
40
16
15
31
26
28
21
29
29
14
23
32
20
17
15
28
23
18
26
13
34
18
32
24
37
22
22
28
28
25
33
27
26
30
26
41
11
28
47
47
52
45
46
47
44
46
39
43
40
36
47
46
43
45
42
43
43
47
44
51
42
46
45
50
46
46
48
47
46
45
44
42
39
31
27
32
26
28
28
22
Chilliwack:
27
24
22
32
27
32
28
27
32
22
Coquitlam :
36
29
30
26
30
31
Langley:
38
31
34
32
31
28
28
Maple  Ridge :
31
28
33
28
23 R 20
Public Schools Report.
1926
Rural Municipalities—Continued.
School.
The Median Scores in
Canadian
History.
British
History.
Hygiene.
Nature-
study.
Matsqui :
Aberdeen  	
Bradner...	
Clayburn	
G'lenmore _	
Matsqui	
Mount Lehman	
Peardonville	
Poplar	
Ridgedalc _	
Mission :
Hatzic	
Mission	
Oak Bay :
Monterey Avenue....
Willows	
Penticton : Penticton..
Pitt Meadows 	
Point  Grey :
Edith  CaveII..._.	
Kerrisdale	
Kitchener 	
Lloyd  George	
Magee	
Prince of Wales	
Queen Mary 	
Richmond :
Bridgeport	
Lord Byng.	
Saanich :
Cedar Hill	
Cloverdale 	
Craigflower	
Lake Hill	
MacKenzie   Avenue.
Saanich, West	
Tillicum___	
Tolmie	
Sumas :
Huntingdon 	
Sumas,  Upper	
Summerland : Central
Surrey :
Cloverdale __	
Hall's Prairie	
Johnston  Road	
Kensington Prairie.
Newton	
Port Mann 	
Strawberry Hill	
Westminster, South.
White Rock	
Vancouver, North :
Lynn   Valley 	
North  Star	
Vancouver,  South :
Brock.-.	
Carleton	
Gordon	
Moberly	
MeBride	
Mackenzie 	
14
17
24
25
19
38
9
34
32
10
24
26
32
29
21
32
33
22
28
24
35
24
30
27
30
24
19
26
23
19
32
24
21
29
20
28
19
32
32
13
18
24
20
20
25
26
24
35
20
36
27
13
20
30
31
16
33
32
38
12
23
27
33
30
21
27
33
22
30
29
40
26
29
25
49
28
29
22
16
34
21
7
18
31
23
15
18
26
15
30
27
22
22
32
27
35
30
38
49
41
45
45
43
47
44
44
35
49
45
49
47
46
48
51
48
48
49
49
48
47
48
42
50
49
46
44
48
44
50
39
40
47
46
44
44
48
42
29
44
44
46
48
46
44
47
46
48
48
47
31
23
25
34
36
31
23
33
38
24
29
31
28
28
31
32
28
30
29
36
26
33
30
29
28
31
29
26
35
29
27
20
30
29
28
29
28
20
21
26
32
31
29
28
33
32
34
34
33 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 21
Rural Municipalities—Continued.
The Median
Scores in
School.
Canadian
History.
British
History.
Hygiene.
Nature-
study.
Vancouver, South—Continued.
36
34
30
28
34
20
27
33
34
36
28
37
21
32
49
48
51
51
50
47
49
32
28
Selkirk 	
32
34
34
29
Wolfe	
31
Rural and Assisted.
28
32
19 ■
14 •
21
16
28
31
41
17
12
15
16
16
16
18
24
23
14
36
14
20
10
10
33
32
22
1.6
24
48
31
22
20
24
16
17
21
18
22
20
25
28
26
22
20
18
22
12
27
23
12
21
24
12
27
29
37
17
13 .
11
20
13
15
16
26
22
15
34
5
18
8
9
46
30
19
14
15
38
31
22
19
24
19
18
17
12
19
22
32
31
30
18
20
15
20
14
42
41
43
46
42
42
45
52
53
38
38
36
40
42
40
46
46
41
40
49
44
44
36
45
53
50
46
46
52
53
44
44
43
46
42
39
47
44
48
45
48
45
40
■ 34
46
42
45
34
31
31
29
28
34
Belford	
21
Bend 	
32
29
46
24
31
20
22
19
28
24
30
22
26
38
Elko                -	
23
30
23
26
34
30
26
31
32
42
28
29
28
22
32
29
22
23
30
28
31
30
27
28
22
25
30
24 Rural and Assisted—Continued.
The Median
Scores in
School.
Canadian
History.
British
History.
Hygiene.
Nature-
study.
26
18
14
20
19
9
11
19
14
21
16
27
34
16
22
22
21
25
28
26
19
22
21
16
26
17
18
15
22
14
14
20
25
20
19
11
30
22
15
28
19
11
8
26
15
26
19
33
24
13
30
32
18
22
30
30
14
24
17
16
28
13
19
19
23
14
18
12
21
20
17
12
42
50
46
45
40
46
39
46
44
50
47
45
48
42
46
45
42
46
42
42
44
45
42
42
49
38
46
44
37
45
38
45
49
45
45
47
30
32
27
25
33
27
22
31
27
26
32
30
27
27
31
30
30
28
30
30
26
30
26
32
Skidegafle	
32
26
28
29
18
27
27
25
Winfleld	
28
28
Yahk	
25
Ymir	
24 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 23
Salaries.
The following tables show the sums paid in salaries and the highest and lowest salaries paid
to teachers during the school-year 1925-26:—
Schools.
Amount paid in
Teachers' Salaries.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
High Schools.
Cities	
$   635,037 00
259,427 00
42,050 00
$2,387 36
2,295 81
2,002 38
$4,000 00
4,074 00
3,500 00
$1,200 00
1,200 00
1,400 00
Totals, 1925-26	
$   926,514 00
886,004 00
$2,316 26
2,343 93
$4,074 00
4,074 00
$1,200 00
1,300 00
Totals, 1924-25	
Elementary Schools.
Cities.
$        4,600 00
17,180 00
11,850 00
8,740 00
25,410 00
18,150 00
12,800 00
3,700 00
34,380 00
11,600 00
3,640 00
29,415 00
5,700 00
19,160 00
12,402 50
14,550 00
39,440 00
39,400 00
94,470 00
8,610 00
7,400 00
6,260 00
12,100 00
37,760 00
20,910 00
14,050 00
6,360 00
2,300 00
33,915 00
771,229 00
63,505 00
26,010 00
211,535 00
$1,150 00
1.321 54
1,316 66
1,248 57
1,270 50
1,296 43
1,163 64
1,233 33
1,562 73
1,160 00
1,213 33
1,337 04
1,425 00
1,368 57
1,240 25
1.322 73
1,360 00
1,515 38
1,410 00
1,230 00
1,057 14
1,043 33
1,344 44
1,711  82
1,306 87
1,277 27
1,272 00
1,150 00
1,304 42
1,564 36
1,548 90
1,368 95
1.566 92
$1,350 00
2,500 00
1,900 00
1,800 00
2,500 00
2,200 00
2,000 00
1,700 00
3,100 00
2,000 00
1,500 00
2,400 00
2,000 00
2,700 00
2,000 00
2,700 00   ■
2,500 00
2,900 00
2,700 00
1,800 00
1,400 00
1,600 00
2,000 00
2,480 00
2,300 00
2,100 00
2,100 00
1,300 00
2,600 00
3,510 00
3,000 00
2,100 00
2,775 00
$1,050 00
900 00
1,100 00
1,020 00
1,100 00
1,050 00
1,000 00
900 00
1,200 00
900 00
1,020 00
1,100 00
1,150 00
1,150 00
902 50
1,000 00
1,000 00
1,200 00
920 00
1,110 00
900 00
850 00
1,050 00
1,250 00
1,000 00
900  00
1,050 00
1,000  00
1,080 00
960 00
1,020 00
900 00
900 00
Totals,  1925-26       	
$1,628,531 50
1,595,677 50
$1,483 18
1,477 48
$3,510 00
3,510 00
$   850 00
Totals   1924-25    	
850 00
Rural Municipalities.
$   117,360 00
31,075 00
3,620 00
9,300 00
7,610 00
21,600 00
21,119 00
'5,100 00
28,950 00
23,650 00
18,800 00
20,950 00
26,470 00
3,400 00
$1,275  65
1,002 42
1,206 66
1,033 33
1,087 14
1,136 84
1,324 37
1,020 00
965 00
1,028 26
940 00
1,102 63
1,654 37
1,133 33
$2,750 00
1,400 00
1,320 00
1,150 00
1,600 00
2,100 00
2,800 00
1,300 00
1,250 00
1,600 00
1,300 00
2,140 00
3,250 OO
1,400 00
$   800 00
850 00
1,100 00
900 00
850 00
Delta                      	
1,000 00
1,050 00
Kent                	
900 00
800 00
800 00
800 00
840 00
Oak Bay
1,000 00
1,000 00 Salaries—Continued.
Schools.
Amount paid in
Teachers' Salaries.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Elementary Schools—Continued.
Rural Municipalities—Continued.
$     26,235 00
4,050 00
165,567 00
30,240 00
67,074 00
8,850 00
7,180 00
10,830 00
41,700 00
33,100 00
322,351 00
26,525 00
$1,380 79
1,012 50
1,547 35
1,120 00
1,107 07
1,106 25
1,025  71
1,353 75
1,017 07
1,439 13
1,506 31
1,326 25
$2,750 00
1,300 00
3,360 00
2,700 00
2,085 00
1,350 00
1,200 00
2,100 00
1,400 00
2,800 00
3,360 00
2,400 00
$1,075 00
700 00
950 .00
850 00
800 00
1,000 00
900 00
1,200 00
850 00
960 00
Vancouver,   South	
1,020 00
960 00
Totals,  1925-26	
$1,082,706 00
1,029,246 00
$1,306 04
1,309 47
$3,360 00
3,360 00
$   700 00
Totals, 1924-25	
697 00
Rural, Assisted, and E. & N. Belt.
Rural	
$   348,738 00
540,680 00
110,245 00
$1,206 71
1,051 92
1,046 01
$2,700 00
1,650  00
1,500 00
$   780 00
900 00
E.  & N.  Belt	
900 00
Totals, 1925-26	
$1,008,663 00
956,066 00
$1,090 14
1,063 48
$2,700 00
2,550 00
$   780 00
Totals, 1924-25	
780 00
Manual Training and Domestic Science.
$   139,419 00
71,281 00
130,258 00
69,660 OO
$2,050 28
1,516 70
2,003 97
1,548 00
$3,010 00
2,170 00
3,010 00
2,500 00
$1,400 00
1,250 00
1,000 00
1,050 00
$4,857,114 50
$1,430 25
$4,074 00
$1,250 00
Expenditure for Education, 1925-26.
Education Office:
Salaries   $     19,577 40
Office supplies   10,210 17
Travelling expenses '.  1,168 84
Free Text-book Branch:
Salaries   4,990 25
Office supplies   4,799 95
Text-books, maps, etc  44,092 71
Agricultural Education:
Salaries   4,282 50
Office supplies  259 61
Travelling expenses  :.... 1,563 08
Grants in aid   6,500 83
Industrial Education:
Salaries   7,657 61
Office supplies  .•  1,790 40
Travelling expenses   1,566 27
Grants in aid   39,348 45
Night-schools  29,510 85
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries  -;  51,678 55
Office supplies   3,179 60
Travelling expenses   21,106 99
Carried forward   $ 253,284 06 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 25
Expenditure for Education, 1925-26—Continued.
Brought forward	
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries     $28,927 08
Office supplies      2,507 13
Travelling expenses   74 35
Fuel, light, and water      1,619 12
Maintenance and repairs       3,228 96
Students' mileage          750 65
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal students      1,600 00
Incidentals  4 00
$   253,284 06
Less Normal School fees
$38,711 29
10,440 00
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries     $27,891 18
Office supplies  2,808 83
Travelling expenses   163 41
Fuel, light, and water   2,174 63
Maintenance and repairs   2,891 09
Students'  mileage   4,612 15
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal students  652 50
Incidentals     163 30
Less Normal School fees
$41,357 09
6,965 00
School for Deaf and Blind:
Salaries 	
Office supplies	
Travelling expenses 	
Fuel, light, and water	
Maintenance and repairs	
Furniture, fixtures, etc _	
Provisions	
Incidentals	
High.
Per capita grant to cities  $140,510 00
Per capita grant to municipalities       67,763 33
Per capita grant to rural school districts      11,600 00
Salaries to teachers in assisted schools        1,080 00
Salaries to teachers in E. & N. Railway Belt        	
Elementary.
P 596,145 05
504,842 87
168,933 60
525,154 85
116,985 60
$220,053 33        $1,912,061 97
School buildings, erection and maintenance	
Libraries 	
Examination of teachers and High School Entrance classes
Conveying children to central schools	
Summer School 	
Incidentals  	
University of British Columbia 	
Less fees for certificates	
28,271 29
34,392 09
22,505 37
317 28
26 60
1,928 59
2,137 16
598 09
1,757 95
210 54
736,655 05
572,606 20
180,533 60
526,234 85
116,985 60
132,600 31
2,859 40
32,920 64
36,833 82
28,207 76
6,006 12
516,241 68
!,234,114 05
17,905 00
Carried forward   $3,216,209 05 R 2G
Public Schools Report.
1920
Elxpenditube for Education, 1925-26—Continued.
Brought forward  $3,216,209 05
Amount expended by: High. Elementary.
Cities    $   753,844 88       $2,261,247 27 3,015,092 15
District municipalities        317,830 53         1,282,622 08 1,600,452 61
Rural school districts          29,050 00            313,824 82 342,874 82
Assisted school  districts              320 00            101,100 20 101,420 20
Schools in E. & N. Railway Belt              35,580 04 35,580 04
$1,101,045 41       $3,994,374 41
Grand total cost of education
.,311,628 87
The following table shows the cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil on enrolment
and on average daily attendance during the past ten years:—
Year.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Average Actual
Daily Attendance.
1916 17                      ..           	
$22 47
22 64
24 88
27 20
29 01
29 33
27 92
27 36
27 17
26 09
$27 83
27 93
1917-18 :	
1918 19                        	
31 59
1919-*>0	
36 05
1920-21	
36 3S
1921-22
35 70
1922-23	
34 07
1923 24
33 21
1924-25	
32 17
1925-26	
31 06
The following statement shows the amount  contributed by each  class of district to the
education of each child enrolled:—
Cities   $60 59
District municipalities      50 04
Rural  districts     39 30
Assisted districts      12 25
E. & N. Belt districts  12 06
The average cost to the Government and the districts of providing educational facilities for
each child was $75.86. 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 27
The gradual growth of the schools and also the cost to the Provincial Government of maintaining them are shown in the following exhibit:—
Year.
Number
of School
Districts,
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of
Attendance.
Government
Expenditure for
Education.
1877-78	
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
575
582
636
665
716
744
760
759
746
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
'57,608
67,516
72,006
79,243
85,950
91,919
94,888
96,204
97,954
101,688
1,395.50
1,383.00
3,093.46
7,111.40
11,055.65
16,357.43
23,195.27
43,274.12
54,746.76
56,-692.38
59,791.39
68,497.57
75,528.38
77,752.98
79,262.23
82,726.14
85,292.92
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
81.09
78.73
75.45
79.69
82.16
81.94
82.39
84.45
83.88
$     43,334 01
50,850 63
99,902 04
190,558 33
247,756 37
397,003 46
464,473 78
1,032,038 60
1,520,058 93
1,791,153 47
1882-83	
1887-88	
1892-93	
1897-98	
1902-03	
1907-08	
1912-13	
1917-18	
1918-19 	
1919-20	
2,155,934 61
1920-21	
1921-22	
2,931,572  25*
3,141,737 95*
1922-23	
1923-24    	
3,176,686 28*
3,173,395 26*
1924-25 	
3,223,670 82*
1925-26	
3,216,209 05*
* This amount includes annual grant to Provincial University.
Further information  regarding the work of the schools  is given  in  the  reports  of the
Inspectors and other officials. *
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education. R 28
Public Schools Report.
1926
INSPECTORS' REPORTS.
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
Victoria, B.C., September 9th, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg leave to submit herewith the following report on the high and superior schools
of Inspectorate No. 1 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1926.
The attendance in the high schools of the Province continues to grow from year to year.
There are now 237 teachers in the eleven superior schools and thirty-five high schools of this
inspectorate. In September, 1911, when the first report of the Inspector of High Schools was
submitted to the Department of Education, there were eighty-three teachers doing high-school
work in the whole Province. At the present time there are ninety teachers doing high-school
work on Vancouver Island alone, or seven more than there were in the whole Province fifteen
years ago. The increase in attendance is not confined to the larger urban centres, but is general
throughout the Province. It was gratifying to observe this year the growth, since my former
visit, in the high schools at Anyox, Prince Rupert, Ocean Falls, Smithers, and Prince George.
People, generally, take a pride in their schools. Increased attendance means increased expenditure. The majority of taxpayers, however, believe that the money spent upon education is
devoted to the best purpose for which public money can be expended.
In many high-school districts a certain sum1 is set aside each year for the school library.
One of the greatest aids to the teacher is a number of carefully selected books to which the pupils
may have ready access. In several graded high schools there is a section of hooks in each classroom for the use of the students. In a number of school libraries there are also books on
education for the use of teachers. Where there are no books of this kind, however, teachers
have the privilege of obtaining them from the Public Library Commission, Parliament Buildings,
Victoria. A catalogue containing " A Selected List of Books on Education " has just been prepared, in the foreword of which it is stated that " These books may be borrowed by mail by any
person in the Province. Books are lent for a period of six weeks, with the privilege of renewal
of the loan for a further period of four weeks. The borrower pays return postage only. The
Commission welcomes inquiries for any work of non-fiction. If it is in the library—there are
about 30,000 volumes available—it will be sent at once. If it is not in stock, but is a work that
would be used by a number of persons, it will be ordered." The Secretary of the Commission
finds that six weeks is too long to lend a book which is in popular demand. For instance, there
are many teachers on the waiting-list for books on " Silent Reading," particularly for N. B.
Smith's " One Hundred Ways of Teaching Silent Reading for all Grades." " Principles of
Secondary Education," 1925, by W. L. Ilhl, is also in general demand. It is altogether likely that
the Library Commission will shorten the loan period to two or three weeks, as this length of
time should be sufficient for an interested reader to become acquainted with the main points
of a book.
A school cannot be said to be well organized unless its pupils are properly classified. If
pupils of inferior and superior intelligence are " unequally yoked together," then effective work
cannot be carried on either by teachers or pupils. In tbe Programme of Studies for our secondary
schools it is stated that " Pupils of the first or second year who fail to do well in part of their
examinations should not be required to repeat the year's work in those subjects in which they
have shown a marked degree of efficiency, but should be allowed to proceed to the next year's work
in such subjects." This year Grade XI. and Grade XII. candidates who wrote on the Depart-
mental Examinations were granted standing in each paper on which they made 50 per cent, or
over, thus making.more feasible the principle of promoting pupils in those subjects of Grades
IX. and X. in which they show marked ability.
One of the most striking features in high-school development during the year was the addition of Grade XII, to the ordinary three-year course in the high schools at Chilliwack, Duncan, 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 2!)
Nanaimo, Revelstoke, and Salmon Arm. Senior Matriculation classes were also continued at
Kamloops and Prince Rupert. As Grade XII,, or Senior Matriculation, is practically equivalent
to First-year Arts or Science at the University, fees were charged the students in all but one of
the aforementioned high schools. These fees were paid willingly by the parents, who were glad
to have their sons and daughters at the home-school for another year under the personal supervision of their former teachers. While Grade XII. is not now included in the courses given at
the Victoria High School, yet at Victoria College, which is affiliated with The University of
British Columbia, the first and second years of University instruction are given. In the establishing of this College the Victoria School Board anticipated by several years the movement
which is now gaining favour in the Province of Ontario and in several States of the Union for
the establishment of Junior Colleges iu which may be conducted courses equivalent to the first
two years in a university. Victoria College was founded six years ago with an enrolment of
seventy-five students.   At the present session there is an attendance of 194 students.
The professional standing of our teachers is reaching a higher level each year. There was
a time when our secondary teachers were considered to be in the rear-guard so far as their
interest in professional studies was concerned. To-day they are in the vanguard professionally,
their range of studies extending from the history of education to the latest experiments in the
field of research. Whatever reflection may be cast upon modern movements in education, there
is no doubt that mental testing and measuring have given an impetus to the study of educational
problems greater than-they have received at any time during the past twenty-five years. Many
of our teachers spend the greater part of their holidays in attendance at the summer sessions
of Canadian universities and at universities in the Republic to the south. In a number of
superior schools of this inspectorate there are teachers with first-class certificates who give
instruction to pupils in Grades IX. and X. These teachers wish to study for their degree in
order that they may be qualified to teach in a high school. They attend the very helpful and
inspiring classes at our University Summer School and they would prefer for financial and
sentimental reasons to obtain their degree from The University of British Columbia. The wish
of the teachers in this matter was expressed in the following resolution adopted at the Easter
Convention of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation: "That, while welcoming the introduction of third-year classes in the syllabus of this year's summer session of The University of
British Columbia, we urge the desirability of immediate provision of facilities for the completion
of the fourth-year course and the securing of a degree by extramural and summer-session work
as afforded by other universities." If our teachers can obtain their degrees by attending the
summer sessions of a university at the foot of Lake Ontario, or one on the shores of Lake
Washington, or another just beyond the Golden Gate, it is only natural, and in a sense loyal,
for them to ask that similar privileges be granted them in their own University of British
Columbia, whose outlook from the heights at Point Grey is towards the mountains and the
broad Pacific.
In summarizing this report, it will be observed: (1) That our high-school attendance continues to increase; (2) that libraries are being extended and reading is becoming more general;
(3) that pupils may be classified according to their proficiency in subjects and not necessarily
upon their total marks in all subjects; (4) that Grade XII. has been added to the course in
several schools;   (5) that high-school teachers, generally, are alive professionally.
While many teachers are testing and measuring the ability and achievements of their pupils
and using technical terms which a decade ago were unknown, yet they do not fail to encourage
their students in the wholesome belief that truthfulness, kindness, and an honest day's work are
still virtues of cardinal.importance.
I have, etc.,
Albert Sullivan,
Inspector of High Schools. HIGH  SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
Vancouver, B.C., September 20th, 1926.
iS. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the high and superior schools of my district for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1926:—■
This district now includes thirty-seven high and fifteen superior schools, containing 200 divisions and employing 221 teachers. Port Moody was raised to high-school standing during the
year, while new superior schools were established at Coalmont, Lumby, and Pitt Meadows. I
made 276 inspections during the year, which means that only a few of the teachers were
inspected twice. It is always a matter of regret to me that it is not possible to inspect so many
of my teachers more than once; the inexperienced teachers should receive at least half a dozen
inspections.
The high-school teachers of British Columbia have been recruited from all the Provinces of
Canada and from the British Isles. Of the teachers of my district, sixty-five are graduates of
the University of British Columbia. Ontario has contributed 43; Nova Scotia, 12; Quebec, 10;
Manitoba, 9; New Brunswick, 7; Saskatchewan, 4; and Alberta, 4. Nine hold degrees from
Scotch universities, eight are graduates of Irish universities, while universities of England have
given us five. One teacher received his university training in Australia and New Zealand and two
in the United States. Pupils who sit under such teachers should be broad in their Canadianism
and British in their ideals and sympathies.
It is pleasing to note that the teachers of the schools of the Interior are not changing as
frequently as formerly. This is due partly to the fact that because of the surplus of teachers it
is increasingly difficult to obtain positions at the Coast; another contributory cause is the greater
opportunity afforded by the Interior schools for specialization, as the enrolment and the number
of divisions have increased very materially in the last few years.
The following shows the length of service of the teachers of my district: 20 teachers, 25
years or upwards; 22 teachers, between 20 and 25 years; 19 teachers, between 15 and 20 years;
40 teachers, between 10 and 15 years; 40 teachers, between 5 and 10 years; 10 teachers, 4 years'
experience; 19 teachers, 3 years' experience; 17 teachers, 2 years' experience; 13 teachers,
1 year's experience.
In my opinion the work of the high schools is improving each year. More improvement is
noticeable in the teaching of science than in any other subject. Since the Department has demanded experimental work by the pupils themselves in the subject of physics, the teachers have
endeavoured conscientiously to carry out the requirements and the School Boards have responded
almost without exception to the requests for the necessary apparatus. The Course of Study for
next year is making similar demands for chemistry. Teachers should note carefully the following statements in the Course of Study: " Fifteen of the first twenty experiments in Black's
Laboratory Experiments in Chemistry must be performed by the pupils themselves " (for Grade
X.). "At least twenty-five of the experiments . . . must be performed by the pupils themselves. The pupils are expected to keep a note-book which may be asked for at any time. The
principal will be asked to certify that Junior Matriculation and Normal Entrance candidates
from his school have performed the required number of experiments. For the school-year
1927-28 forty experiments will be required" (for Grade XL).
I have, etc.,
J. B. DeLong,
  Inspector of High Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
Victoria, B.C., September 6th, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public elementary schools in Inspectorial
District No. 1 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1926:—
As in the preceding year, the district comprised the City of Victoria and the islands of
Galiano, Mayne, North Pender, South Pender, Saltspring, and Saturna. 17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 31
Conditions were much the same as formerly in the city. On the islands only three schools
found it necessary to engage new teachers; an assisted school was opened on South Pender
Island, a room in a private house being used for teaching purposes while the residents were
erecting a building; the status of the Ganges School was raised from elementary to superior,
with nineteen pupils in Grades IX. and X. The candidates from this school did very well at
the June Departmental Examinations.
During the year about a thousand standardized Intelligence and -Achievement Tests were
used by the pupils of different grades; in addition, all candidates for entrance to the high school
were tested as to their knowledge of Canadian and British History, nature matters, and health
laws.
The permission granted hy the Department to recommend pupils for high school without
examination was taken full advantage of by the principals affected. Notwithstanding, several
pupils from each school wrote on the examination, and, judging by the results—many pupils
passing—I would say that the principals, in nearly all instances, used considerable discretion in
making their recommendations and did not take advantage of the privilege granted them. The
effect upon efficiency, now that the incentive of examination has been partly withdrawn, only the
future can tell with any degree of certainty.
The following classes were recommended for the Strathcona Trust prizes for physical exercise efficiency:—■
Miss Ethel M. Hill, Galiano School.
Mr. W. H. Muncy, 1st Division, Quadra Street School, Victoria.
Miss A. S. McKinnon, 8th Division, Sir James Douglas School, Victoria.
I cannot close this report without referring to the great loss which the Victoria schools will
sustain through the death of Miss Mills, the supervisor of drawing. Miss Mills had an inspiring
personality, was never out of humour, and could always find something to praise in a child's
production, no matter how badly done the work appeared to the ordinary observer. She will
be greatly missed in the succeeding years.
I have, etc.,
W. H. M. Mat,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
Victoria, B.C., August 31st, 1926.
£. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public elementary schools of Inspectorate
No. 2 for the year ended June 30th, 1926:—
During the school-year under review two new schools were opened—one at Mile 65 on the
Canadian National Railway, about S miles south-east of Cowichan Lake; the other at Mile 83
on the Canadian National Railway, about 10 miles up the lake. The former draws its pupils
from the employees of a logging camp; the latter from the employees of a sawmill and a logging
oamp combined. The resident employees and management interested in the first school provided
not only a good, substantial, comfortable building for the accommodation of the children, but also
a neat little residence for the teacher. The school-house at Mile S3 is also a comfortable building, while the teacher is well looked after at the manager's home. Owing to a falling-off in the
daily attendance one room in the Sylvania School, near Shawnigan Lake, was temporarily closed
until the number of pupils again increases sufficiently to justify its reopening.
For the past few years but one school in this inspectorate passed candidates to high school
on recommendation, but during the year just closed there were passed on recommendation 100
pupils from four of the large schools. Not all who are eligible have yet availed themselves of
this privilege.
The present method of recommendation by a joint committee consisting of the principal of
the elementary school, the principal of the high school, and the Provincial Inspector, I feel
assured, will work out very satisfactorily. R 32
Public Schools Report.
1926
As in former years, during the last week in June, examinations for entrance to high school
were held at seventeen centres in this territory for the convenience of candidates who wished to
write.    At these centres 410 candidates wrote, of whom 214 were successful.
It is very gratifying to be in a position to report that School Boards are becoming increasingly alive to the importance and necessity of providing the schools under their control with
additional reading-matter other than the prescribed text-books. Books for silent reading for
all the grades are now found in a number of schools, together with additional interesting and
instructive books on geography and history. It has been wisely said that the best university is
a good collection of books.
I have, etc.,
A. C. Stewart,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 3.
Nanaimo, B.C., September ISth, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 3 for the school-year which ended June 30th, 1926:—
The boundaries of this inspectorate still remain unchanged, and include seventy-four schools
with 178 divisions and ISO teachers. A new school was established during the year at Gilford
Island and new divisions were opened at Courtenay, Fanny Bay, Headquarters, and Sandwick,
while a division was closed at both Royston and Bevan. A new school will open next year at
Great Central Lake and new divisions will be necessary at Lazo and Qualicum Beach.
My class-room visits, especially during the second term, were mainly occupied in an endeavour
to test and adjust the grading which in many schools I have found to be faulty. This work
enabled me also to bring before the teachers modern methods in school and class diagnosis, and
gave me, besides, definite and most valuable data on over half the children in this inspectorate.
During the fall term Teachers' Institute meetings were held in Cumberland and in Duncan,
the latter taking in the northern portion of Inspectorate No. 2. These meetings were most
successful, considered from the view-points of both attendance and inspiration.
Over a year ago public-spirited citizens in Cumberland and Courtenay inaugurated a most
commendable movement, which was later strongly supported by others all through this inspectorate. This was the organization of a general sports meet open to all the public and high
schools of Inspectorate No. 3. The first meet was held in Cumberland on June 3rd, 1925, and
while it was most excellently managed and attended by most of the schools in the immediate
district, it was held a little too far north to receive the attendance which the arrangements
warranted. However, in June of this year the meet was held at Qualicum Beach and proved a
most gratifying success, attended as it was by several thousands of children and parents. My
deep gratitude is due those citizens and teachers who gave so freely of their time and money in
order to forward such a scheme for the training of good citizens in this locality.
I am pleased to report that there were but few changes in the personnel of the teachers
during the past year, with the natural corollary of increased efficiency. A most gratifying
number of teachers are availing themselves of the opportunities offered during the winter
months in organized night classes and during the summer in summer schools to better their
professional standing.
The Governor-General's medal for this district was won by Gordon Carter, 1st Division,
Nanaimo, with 435 marks.
I have, etc.,
J. M. Paterson,
Inspector of Schools. 17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 33
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 4.
Vancouver, B.C., August 26th, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 4
for the school-year 1925-26:—
During the year under review Inspectorate No. 4 comprised nine assisted schools along the
Coast and three along the Pacific Great Eastern Railway; the graded schools at Howe Sound
and Squamish; the Rural Municipalities of North Vancouver and West Vancouver; the City of
North Vancouver; and the following schools in Vancouver City: Aberdeen, Bayview, Beacons-
field, Block 70, Dawson, Charles Dickens, Simon Fraser, Franklin, Grenfell, Hastings, Kitsilano,
Livingstone, Mount Pleasant, Macdonald, and Strathcona.
In Vancouver City twelve additional class-rooms and a large auditorium at both the Charles
Dickens and Hastings Schools were opened during the fall term. A four-room annex at Lonsdale
was opened at the beginning of the year. Money by-laws have been passed to provide eight
rooms at Ridgeway. In West Vancouver District additional accommodation was provided at
Hollyburn and at Pauline Johnson.
Supervision of the schools of Vancouver City, with the exception of one school, was limited
to arranging for the High School Entrance Examination, and giving the special tests in British
history, Canadian history, hygiene, and nature-study to Grade VIII. pupils in nine of the schools.
All other class-rooms in the inspectorate, with one exception, were visited once, and many the
second time.
In the schools of North Vancouver City and the adjoining municipalities Standardized Tests
and Intelligence Tests were used extensively during the year. The February promotions were,
in many cases, decided by the information gained from these scientific sources, and the number
of pupils who were accelerated a term demonstrated that the money spent for tests was a
profitable investment.
In the visits of inspection made to the schools an attempt was made to measure objectively
the achievements of the pupils, particularly in the " tool subjects."
To measure comprehension in silent reading, the Ayres-Burgess Scale, the Pressey Attainment
Scale, and Sigma 3a (Haggerty) were used. In arithmetic the Woody-McCall Mixed Fundamentals and Otis Reasoning Tests were employed. Lists from the Ayres Spelling Scale were
used to test achievement in spelling. The results of this objective measuring convinced many
teachers, particularly in the ungraded schools, that readjustments were necessary in classification. In almost every assisted school it was found that the number of classes could be reduced
to some extent.
One of the outstanding features of the year's work was the interest displayed by teachers in
the use of standardized tests. A series of lectures dealing with psychology and Standardized
Tests and Measurements which were given by two of the Vancouver principals were much
appreciated by the city staff and many teachers from adjoining municipalities. The teachers of
North Vancouver City, North Vancouver Municipality, and West Vancouver Municipality united'
for the purpose of securing a course on Mental Measurement and Standardized Tests. This
course did much to enable teachers to interpret correctly the results of tests and measurements
that they were then conducting, and others administered later in the term.
It was pleasing to note that the six pupils from assisted schools who wrote for High School
Entrance Examination were all successful. About 50 per cent, of those from the two rural
graded schools gained promotion. From the twenty-two graded schools of four rooms or more,
730 pupils passed into high school on recommendation, while fifty-nine were successful on the
written examination.
When High School Entrance Examination results are reviewed and consideration given to
the large number of pupils who fail to complete satisfactorily Grade VIII., and to probably as
many more who never get beyond Grade VII., one is forcibly reminded of the need of doing
something for such pupils. The Junior High School plan as outlined by the recent Survey
would certainly overcome this weakness in the present system. The City of Vancouver has
already appointed certain officials and made provision in their present building programme for
the expansion of the Junior High School movement.   The municipalities on the North Shore are
c R 34
Public Schools Report.
192(i
interested in the movement. Already tentative plans for starting such a school have been presented to the Board of North Vancouver City for consideration. However, it is not likely that
definite action will be taken for a year or more, as suitable accommodation and extra equipment
will be necessary in almost every district.
I have, etc.,
J. T. Pollock,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 5.
Vancouver, B.C., September 14th, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 5
for the school-year ended June 30th, 1926:—
This inspectorial district comprises a group of rural and assisted schools on the Northern
Coast; rural and assisted schools on Burrard Inlet; the rural school area of Abbotsford; the
rural municipality schools (with rural and assisted schools in adjacent territory) in Maple
Ridge, Mission, Matsqui, and Sumas;   and eight of the schools in the City of Vancouver.
The work of inspection and supervision was confined to the rural schools. The city schools
of Vancouver were visited only in connection with administering tests to the Entrance classes
in the subjects of history, nature-study, and hygiene, and in connection with the organization and
conducting of the High School Entrance Examinations.
In the rural municipalities the school population is increasing steadily, an increase which
has necessitated expansion in school buldings.
Slowly but surely public opinion is growing in favour of consolidation of schools in our
rural districts, and the time is near at hand when at convenient centres a consolidation of the
public-school grades from Grade VI. upward will become general.
Detailed reports upon the organization and administration of the work in each division and
school, as well as special reports on various matters affecting the schools, have been submitted
from time to time. The Entrance pass-lists, the winners of prizes for physical drill, and various
statistical tables are submitted elsewhere in the volume, including these forms of reports, and
mere repetition here is unnecessary.
The most encouraging feature of the year's work has been the evidence displayed of a trend
towards the adoption of what is generally termed the movements of the " New Education." Our
more advanced and progressive teachers are developing a modern technique of class-room
procedure. The recitation is being socialized; school-work is being motivated; teachers are
familiarizing themselves with a technique of silent reading; and everywhere there is a disposition
on the part of teachers to become acquainted with the use of standardized tests and to measure
objectively the achievement of their pupils.
I have, etc.,
H. H. Mackenzie,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 6.
Vancouver, B.C., August 28th, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 6 for the
school-year ended June 30th, 1920 :—
This inspectorate comprises the following schools in Vancouver City: Alexandra, Central,
Fairview, Henry Hudson, Lord Nelson, and Lord Roberts; also those in Burnaby and Point Grey
Rural Municipalities, twelve schools in and near Powell River, ten schools near Lund, five schools
■on Howe Sound, and the Provincial School for the Deaf and the Blind.   During the year an 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 3c
assisted school was established at Porteau, the school at Olsen Lake was reopened, and twelve
new divisions were opened in Point Grey and eight in Burnaby. At the end of June there were
sixty-one schools with 364 teachers and over 13,000 pupils. Of these teachers, 117 belonged to
the Vancouver City staff and their divisions were not inspected by me; each of the other 247
was inspected once at least.
With so many schools and teachers to report upon, there was not time for the giving of as
many formal tests as I would have liked to give. The standard tests supplied by your Department
were not all used. Your Department's own objective tests in Canadian history, British history,
and elementary agriculture and nature-study were given to only half of the 1,600 Grade VIII.
pupils in the public schools, though they were also given to ninety private-schools pupils who
were candidates for Entrance to High School.
The formal and informal tests and the work and lessons seen in the schools show that
generally the teaching continues to improve.
I have, etc.,
Leslie J. Bruce,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 7.
Vancouver, B.C., August 30th, 1926.
J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the elementary schools of Inspectorate No. 7
for the school-year 1925-26:—
This inspectorate comprises the schools in the Rural Municipalities of Delta, Kent, Richmond,
and South Vancouver; also the four rural schools of Concord, Hope, St. Elmo, and Yale. There
are forty-one schools, with a staff of 271 teachers.
Practically all schools received one inspection and a few were visited a second time.
In June 790 pupils in Grade VIII. were promoted to high school. Of these, 715 were granted
Entrance standing without a final written examination. One hundred and ninety-one wrote on
the Departmental Examination, and of these seventyjfive succeeded in obtaining certificates.
The plan adopted by the Department for the promotion of pupils to high school on recommendation was found to work out very satisfactorily. The principals, generally, used great discretion
in making their recommendations.
The following were allotted the three prizes assigned to this inspectorate by the Strathcona
Trust for excellence in physical training:—
Miss G. W. Killip, 4th Division, Gordon School, South Vancouver.
■Mr. S. Taylor, 4th Division, Norquay School, South Vancouver,
Miss J. O. McDiarmid, Inverholme School, Delta.
The objective tests prepared by the Department in Canadian history, British history,
hygiene, and nature-study were given in May and June to S47 Grade VIII. pupils. In the
majority of cases the scores were very commendable, but there were a few schools in which
these subjects were not satisfactorily taught. The scores for the four municipalities were as
follows:—
Median  Scores  in
Municipality.
Canadian
History.
British
History.
Hygiene.
Nature-
study.
22
20
29
30
25
24
22
28
33
27
44
42
47
48
47
26
Kent                           	
31
33
32
29 R 36
Public Schools Report.
The standard of work throughout the inspectorate was generally satisfactory. The teachers
are deeply interested in their work and the majority of them are keen students of modern
methods in teaching.
The urgent need for more class-room accommodation in South Vancouver was met when six
additional rooms were opened at the Norquay School early in the year. The situation was
further relieved when a majority of the ratepayers sanctioned money by-laws permitting the
Trustee Board to erect six-room additions to the Moberly and Van Home School buildings. These
will be ready for use early this coining term. In the Delta a by-law for $40,000 was passed by
the ratepayers, and the Board has at present under construction a building containing ten classrooms, an auditorium, lunch-rooms, offices, etc.   This will be a splendid building when completed.
I have, etc.,
F. G. Calvert,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. S.
New Westminster, B.C., August 19th, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 8 for
the school-year 1925-26:—
No new schools were opened during the year. Lochiel School, in Langley Municipality, was
temporarily closed, transportation to Murrayville graded school being provided for the pupils.
As last year, 206 teachers were employed.
High School Entrance Examinations were conducted at twenty points. Of 613 pupils seeking
admission to high school, 468 were passed; 283 of the latter being promoted by the recommendation committees and 185 by writing and successfully passing the June examinations. This shows
a total pass of 76.3 per cent, of all Grade VIII. pupils. The fact that S9 per cent, of all recommended pupils were promoted shows that the rural teachers and principals are exercising better
judgment than formerly in recommending pupils for promotion.
The departmental objective tests in British history, Canadian history, hygiene, and nature-
study were given to 604 Grade VIII. pupils. A perusal of the results would indicate that, in this
inspectorate, some of the most thorough and effective work in these subjects is being done in
comparatively small rural schools.
At the request of the New Westminster Board of School Trustees, a by-law to provide fuuds
for the erection of a modern twelve-room school with assembly-hall and basements was submitted to the ratepayers and passed by a very satisfactory majority. This building will supplant
the old John Robson School, which has outlived its usefulness. At Sardis, in Chilliwack Municipality, owing to increasing school population, the old one-room building was reopened and proved
quite satisfactory. Two new rooms have been added to the Millside School at Maillardville by
the Board of Coquitlam Municipality. The Pitt Meadows Board has had constructed a very
creditable one-room addition to the Central School. At South Westminster the Surrey Board
found it necessary to build an additional room on the annex, thus providing more suitable
accommodation for a class formerly housed in temporary quarters. The school at Popcum was
enlarged and greatly improved.
Although some attention has been paid to the improvement of school-grounds, much remains
to he done in this connection.
In many of the schools of this inspectorate retardation has been seriously grappled with,
the results in several cases being particularly gratifying. This movement has been facilitated
greatly by the intelligent use of mental and achievement tests. Many teachers are realizing
that the standardized test is not a teaching device, but a means of evaluating methods and
measuring progress.
I am pleased to be able to report the steadily improving attitude of teachers toward their
profession.      The very considerable number from this district who attended  Summer  School 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 37
indicates a realization that modern ideas and outlook must be  adopted if the demands for
efficiency are to be successfully met in this day of ever-increasing competition.
I have, etc.,
E. G. Daniels,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 9.
Kamloops, B.C., September 1st, 1926.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the elementary schools in Inspectorate No. 9
for the school-year ended June 30th, 1926:—
During the year just closed my work of inspection in the schools in this inspectorate was
confined to the period from the opening of the schools in September to the end of the term in
December. During this period seventy class-rooms were visited and inspected, all, with two
exceptions, being rural and assisted schools. Owing to the illness of Mr. D. L. McLaurin,
Principal of the Victoria Normal School, I was transferred to that school on January 1st to
assist the staff there until the end of the term, and Mr. McLaurin took over the work of inspection in this inspectorate. Mr. McLaurin was forced to relinquish his work before the end of
March owing to continued ill-health, but during his period of service in the inspectorate he visited
sixty-eight class-rooms. Hence a total of 138 class-rooms was visited and inspected throughout
the year.
The number of schools in operation throughout the year varied very little from that of the
preceding year. Bridge Lake School was closed early in the first term owing to a decrease of
school population in that district, and two new schools—namely, Darlington and Campbell Ranch
—were established and in operation during the latter part of the year. In all, eighty-eight
assisted and rural schools employing ninety-seven teachers and two city schools with thirty-three
teachers, making a total of ninety schools with 130 teachers, were in operation in this
inspectorate throughout or during a portion of the school-year just closed.
The character of the teaching in the schools in this inspectorate during the year under
review has been, in general, of as high a quality as that maintained in previous years. The
percentage of successful candidates in the High School Entrance Examinations for this inspectorate was higher than for the Province as a whole. These examinations were held at nine
centres throughout the inspectorate. One hundred and eight candidates were successful in the
Departmental Examinations and sixty-two were promoted to high school ou the recommendations
of principals of city schools, making a total of 170 successful candidates for entrance to high
school in this inspectorate. The Governor-General's medal for the district was won by Miss
Marjorie MacLennan, a pupil in Raft River Assisted School.
The teachers throughout this inspectorate are, in general, manifesting a strong interest in
their work, and are keenly alive to all opportunities for increasing their professional efficiency.
A well-attended session of the Thompson Valley Teachers' Association was held at Kamloops at
the beginning of the second term in January. Addresses were given by members of the staffs
of the University and of the two Provincial Normal Schools, and by Inspectors and teachers.
The interest shown by the teachers in the various topics taken up at these meetings, and the
manner in which they entered into the discussions of their school problems, is an indication of
the keen interest that has characterized their attitude toward their work in this district
throughout the year.
It is gratifying to report that, with one or two exceptions, school accommodation is being
gradually improved throughout the inspectorate. Ratepayers are realizing the advantages of
providing pleasant surroundings, hygienic buildings, and adequate equipment for the children
attending their schools. While there still is room for advancement along these lines, especially
in regard to the improvement of grounds and facilities for play, yet it is encouraging to note the
efforts that are being made to add some improvement each year to the school property. More
attention should be paid to the matter of a supervised school lunch, especially in those districts
where a majority of the pupils bring their lunches to school every day.   This can be made a R 38
Public Schools Report.
teaching situation as much as is any subject on the school programme, and it would be well worth
the teacher's while to consider it from that standpoint. It should not be a difficult matter for
teachers to arouse the interest of the parents in this matter, and to influence their School Boards
to supply facilities for the carrying-on of a well-supervised school-lunch period.
I have, etc.,
A. F. Matthews,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 10.
Kelowna, B.C., August 21st, 1926.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 10 for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1926:—
Sixty-two schools, employing in all 158 teachers, were in operation. An assisted school, was
established at Stevenson Creek, near Princeton, and the Copper Mountain School was reopened
after having been closed for a year; the schools at Lumby and Coalmont were each increased by
one division and a superior school was established at the latter place. The Hendon School was
closed because of lack of attendance.
One hundred and ninety-nine visits were paid to schools during the year. My observations
have satisfied me that general educational progress is being made in both urban and rural
schools. In the latter less frequent change of teachers is probably the chief factor in the
improvement noted; in September, 1925, the number of teachers returning to rural schools where
they had taught during the previous term was almost four times as great as it was three years
earlier. Other factors responsible for the improvement are the greater care exercised by School
Boards in making appointments and the increasingly marked desire on the part of teachers to
become familiar with the best in educational practice.
The annual convention of the Okanagan Valley Teachers' Association was held at Kelowna
in October, and proved, as usual, stimulating and helpful to those attending.
While a few centres—notably Penticton—have for some years recognized the value of
instruction in music, it is only recently that more general interest is being taken in this subject.
Much of the credit for the increasing interest is due to the Kelowna Parent-Teacher Assocation,
under whose auspices the first Okanagan Valley musical festival was held in May. The decided
success of this undertaking was most gratifying; equally gratifying is the fact that the interest
engendered has caused a number of Boards to make special provision for the teaching of music
next year.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded to Mr. T. Aldworth, Armstrong and
Spallumcheen Consolidated School; Miss Kathleen Corry, Hedley Superior School; and Mr. H.
Stafford, Peachland Public School. Reference should also be made to the excellent work done
by Miss Marion Williams, of the Kelowna Public School. On the whole this phase of education
does not receive the attention which is its due.
I have, etc.,
T. R. Hall,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 11.
Revelstoke, B.C., August 30th, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 11 for
the school-year 1925-26:—
During the year an assisted school was opened at Anesty Arm, about 16 miles above Sica-
mous, on Shuswap Lake, and another at Greenslide, about 9 miles below Revelstoke,  in the .17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 39
Columbia Valley. The school at Twin Butte was reopened and the assisted schools at Athalmer
and Invermere were consolidated into a two-room rural school, housed in a fine two-room building known as the Athalmer-Invermere School. The school at Seymour Arm remained closed
throughout the year and the Enderby School was reduced from four to three divisions. In all,
there were ninety-one schools in operation in this district, with a total staff of 123 teachers, a
net gain over 1924-25 of one school and one teacher. Of these totals, three were graded city
schools with a staff of twenty-four teachers, seven were rural municipality schools (one graded)
with a staff of eight teachers; five were graded rural schools with a staff of thirteen teachers;
nine were ungraded rural schools; one was a graded assisted school with three teachers; and
the remaining sixty-six were ungraded assisted schools.
The standards of efficiency noted in previous reports are being well maintained. Teachers
and trustees, on the whole, display an increasing interest in the welfare of the children entrusted
to their charge and a commendable spirit of healthy educational activity is noticeahle in almost
every part of the district.
I have, etc.,
A. E. Miller,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—'INSPECTORATE No. 12.
Nelson, B.C., August 23rd, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 12 for the
school-year 1925-26:—
Altogether there were in operation in this district during the past year sixty-nine schools
with a total of 146 class-rooms. New Assisted schools were opened: At Boulder, south of
Nelson; at Beaverdell, on the Kettle Valley Railway; and at Upper Rock Creek. One division
was closed at Grand Forks during the year and at Trail-Tadanac two additional class-rooms
were opened.
The increase over 1924-25 of nine schools and ten class-rooms is largely accounted for by
the reopening of the Community Doukhobor schools. During the summer of 1925 the Doukhobor
Community erected five new schools with residence attached to each, and remodelled two existing
buildings to form a class-room and residence in each. Three other buildings, which were utilized
as schools from May, 1925, continued in use as temporary school-rooms for Community children.
All schools in the district were inspected during the year, and most of the semi-graded and
rural schools received a second, and in some cases a third, inspection. In all, 217 official visits
of inspection were made and duly reported upon. Besides these, many visits were made to assist
young teachers in organizing their work, to advise School Boards, or in connection with examinations, tests, and routine matters of administration.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Large graded schools—Miss Margaret G. Wilkie, 25th Division, Trail.
Small graded schools—Miss Josephine MacDonald, 1st Division, Midway.
Ungraded schools—Mr. John Houston, Passmore.
High School Entrance Examinations were conducted at eleven centres, new centres being
established at Fruitvale and Rock Creek for the convenience of rural candidates in those areas.
From city schools 187 pupils were promoted to high school on the recommendation of the promotion committees, and thirty-eight others were successful in passing the Departmental Examinations. Of 100 candidates from rural areas, fifty-three were successful, this being a distinct
improvement over last year's record. Altogether 27S pupils received High School Entrance
certificates, as compared with 256 last year.
Unquestionably the past year has been one of progress. Due to the surplus of teachers
there have been fewer changes in the teaching staff. The majority of the teachers show an
increasing interest in the modern trends and developments in education. More and more of the
newer professional books and current periodicals are being read and studied with a view to R 40
Public Schools Report.
1926
increasing the teacher's own efficiency and the quality of his service to the community.   The
effects of such study are becoming increasingly evident in the actual class-room procedures.
Among the public at large, too, there appears to he an awakening interest in the general
cause of education. The publication and distribution in the early autumn of the Report of the
School Survey Commission, the resultant comments and articles on educational matters appearing in the public press from time to time, and the widespread discussion of these matters have
all tended to arouse an interest in the schools, their work, their purposes, and their problems.
This cannot fail to be productive of much good.
I have, etc.,
P. H. Sheffield,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 13.
Cranbrook, B.C., August 27th, 1926.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 13 for
the year ended June 30th, 1926:—
The boundaries of this district remained the same as for the preceding four years, the
inspectorate including all the schools of the Fernie and Cranbrook Electoral Districts and the
schools in the eastern part of the Electoral Districts of Creston and Kaslo-Slocan. In all, there
were sixty-six schools in operation during the year, employing 144 teachers.
Owing to an increase in the school population it was necessary to open eight new class-rooms,
three of these being in the new town of Kimberley. At this point the School Board had added a
four-room addition during the holidays, but by January the accommodation was again taxed to
the limit. A high school was opened here for the first time, so that students of high-school
standing were no longer taught in the superior school. The foresight of the Kimberley School
Board in providing additional accommodation from year to year is particularly commendable.
The Curzon School was reopened in September and during the year one additional class-room
was opened in each of the Cranbrook, Kitchener, Lumberton, and Moyie Schools. Owing to loss
in the school population the Florence Mine School and the 2nd Division of the Elko School did
not open in September.
The Department's policy of supplying its staff of Inspectors with intelligence tests and
certain standardized achievement tests has been very helpful in diagnosing the grading and
classification of pupils. The results of the intelligence tests were of the greatest assistance to
the recommendation committee in determining whether certain doubtful pupils should be recommended for high school or not.
The new regulations regarding the promotion of pupils to high school appear to have been
entirely satisfactory in this inspectorate. Entrance Examinations were held at ten centres, and
the results show a marked improvement in the passing of rural-school pupils, those from Erickson, Wycliffe, Creston, Waldo Superior, Camp Lister, and Canyon City Schools doing particularly
well. The results of the Cranbrook City School were again very creditable. A pupil of the
Erickson School, Margaret Fraser, with 439 marks out of 500, has the distinction of winning the
Governor-General's medal for the district and also of leading the Province.
A convention of the Cranbrook and District teachers was held at Cranbrook following the
Easter vacation. The helpful addresses and demonstration lessons were much appreciated,
especially by the visiting teachers.
The following teachers were awarded the prizes for physical training under the provisions
of the Strathcona Trust:—
Large graded schools—Miss Lena Wolfenden, 1st Division, Fernie School.
Small graded schools—Mr. H. F. Reynolds, 1st Division, Procter Superior School.
Ungraded schools—Miss M. A. Griffith, Baynes Lake School.
I have, etc.,
V. Z. Manning,
Inspector of Schools. 17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 41
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 14.
Prince Rupert, B.C., August 30th, 1926.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 14 for the year
ended June 30th, 1926 :—
The number of schools in this inspectorate throughout the year varied little from that of the
preceding year. New schools were opened at Green Bay, near Bella Coola; at Jap Inlet, on
Porcher Island; and at Sheraton, just west of Endako. The school at Glentanna, which had
been without a teacher for a year, was reopened.    The one at Discovery, near Atlin, was closed.
Standard school buildings were erected at New Hazelton and for the Bella Coola School at
Hagensborg, where a second division was opened. At the beginning of the year Kitsumgallum
Superior School was raised to the status of high school.
For the first time in some years it was found possible to have the high schools visited by
their regular Inspector.    This gave additional time for the inspection of the elementary schools.
School attendance has been exceptionally good this year. Speaking generally, the various
School Boards and teachers do all in their power to see that compulsory attendance is not a dead
issue. Throughout this inspectorate real effort is put forth to see that no child between the
ages of 7 and 15 is out of school even for a few days without legitimate reasons. Uniform firmness in this has heen productive of results. Even in our most careless districts there has been
improvement.
■It is gratifying to note the ever-lessening number of changes among the teachers in this
northern inspectorate, and the increasing demand of even the smaller schools for experienced
teachers with higher certificates. It is a sign of the times that School Boards often inquive
whether the teacher is taking advantage of the Summer Schools for Teachers or the summer
sessions of the University. Five years ago there were within this district sixteen uncertificated
teachers; for three years there has been none without Normal training, and this year almost
50 per cent, held either first-class or academic certificates. We are particularly free of those
who have outlived their usefulness in larger schools; the majority are young men and young
women anxious to make good in the educational world, and willing to remain for a second oc
third year in the same school in order to prove themselves. Even my most remote schools are
now able to hold their teachers for a reasonable period. Five years ago there were more changes
at Christmas than there are now at the end of June.
To the better attendance of pupils, the higher training of teachers, and the greater stability
of the teaching staff are due, in large measure, the better results of the examinations. This
year in our small schools there was a total enrolment of 171 in Grade VII I.; of these, 140, or
82 per cent, secured entrance to high school. The winner of the Governor-General's medal for
this district, which includes the inspectorates of Prince Rupert and Prince George, was Helen
Mary Walker, of the Booth Memorial School, Prince Rupert.
There are many districts where, but for the generosity of the School Boards in some cases,
and the unselfishness of the teachers in others, bright girls and boys would never have the opportunity of doing high-school work. Of twenty-three candidates thus writing, fifteen passed, one
of them creditably matriculating; two passed with one and two supplemental respectively; four
got partial standing, and two failed. In no case did the teacher neglect the elementary work
for the more advanced. In three of these schools no better elementary work was done anywhere under my inspection, yet each passed all the Grade IX. pupils.
A successful school fair, under the direction of Mr. Donald Cochrane, was held at Burns
Lake in September. Early in November a Teachers' Convention was held at Burns Lake, practically every teacher between Smithers and Wistaria attending.
In closing this report, I beg once again to make mention of the increasing tendency on the
part of School Boards to look to the officials of the Department for guidance in choosing teachers,
and of the excellent service in this connection rendered by the Department's Teachers' Bureau.
I have, etc.,
H. C. Fraser,
Inspector of Schools. R 42
Public Schools Report.
1926
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 15
Prince George, B.C., August 21st, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 15 for the
school-year ended June 30th, 1926:—
This inspectorate comprises the schools in the Canadian National Railway Belt east of
Endako; those in the Cariboo District as far south as the 100-Mile House; and those in the
Peace River District.
During the year there were ninety-three schools in operation, employing 114 teachers. Of
these, one was a graded city school, nine were rural schools, and eighty-three were assisted
schools. One hundred and sixty-two visits of inspection were made and a large number of
specials were dealt with.
Schools were opened for the first time at Alexis Creek, Beaver River, Bend, North Fraser
Lake, Reid Lake, and Tabor Creek. An additional teacher was appointed to the Quesnel staff
and a school was authorized for the West Quesnel District.
Throughout the district steady progress characterized the work of the last school-year.
Weather conditions were exceptionally favourable for regular attendance in the rural and
assisted districts, with correspondingly good results. Again this year, results as measured by
Departmental Examinations were on the whole very creditable. However, two or three teachers
erred in recommending for examination poorly prepared pupils.
The buildings and equipment, in the rural and assisted schools of this inspectorate are being
improved gradually. In about 85 per cent, of the districts a yearly assessment is voted for
school purposes, and thus money is made available for the betterment of school conditions. It
is pleasing to note that in a number of the districts school libraries are being built up and
supplementary reading material is being purchased.
I have, etc.,
G. H. Gowf.b,
Inspector of Schools. 17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 43
REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
NEW WESTMINSTER CITY SCHOOLS.
New Westminster, B.C., September 1st, 1926.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of New Westminster for the school-
year ended June 30th, 1926:—
The increase in pupil attendance over 1924-25 showed an increase of 74; this increase was
taken care of by the erection of a four-room addition to the Richard MeBride School, one room
of which was opened in September and one in February, and by the rearrangement of classes
in the various schools.
In April a by-law for $60,000 to replace the John Robson School with a modern twelve-room
building was placed before the people of this city and passed by a large'majority. It is expected
the new building will be in use at the beginning of the New Year.
The conditions under which class-room work was carried on throughout the year were never
better; true to its policy, the School Board did everything in its power to make the work of the
pupil and teacher effective; the schools were kept in a high state of repair; necessary supplies
were always on hand; and every sympathy was given toward any movement which had for its
objective the development of stronger citizenship.
We feel that, with very few exceptions, our teachers are giving of their best not only in the
class-room, but in every community activity requiring their assistance. It is a pleasure to note
the ever-increasing number of our teachers who are taking advantage of the summer courses
offered at different institutions and who bring back to the class-rooms an atmosphere of optimism
and helpfulness which augurs well for success.
Standard tests were given in all schools during the past year and, where properly handled,
have been of great benefit in the regrading and classification of pupils.
The usual night-school classes in day-school continuation-work, woodwork, workshop mathematics, machine construction and design,-engines, commercial subjects, dressmaking, millinery,
sheet metal, drawing and design, electricity, mineralogy and assaying, physics, advanced mathematics, china-painting, basketry, literature, lumbering, and first aid were held from October to
March at the T. J. Trapp Technical High School; the enrolment was the largest in the history
of the school and the work done was of the highest order.
The work of medical inspection was energetically carried on by Dr. Clark and Miss A. S.
Stark, R.N.   To them the splendid physical condition of the pupils of our schools is greatly due.
To the different organizations of the city which have shown a great interest in and have
given valuable assistance to our schools we tender our sincere appreciation.
All school activities have shown satisfactory progress; cadet-work, athletics, and physical
development have received due attention.
The past year has been pleasant and helpful; all departments of our school system working
harmoniously and efficiently.
I have, etc.,
R. S. Shields,
 , Municipal Inspector of Schools.
VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
Vancouver, B.C., July 17th, 1926.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Vancouver for the school-
year ended June 30th, 1926 :—
There was an increase of 817 in the maximum enrolment for the school-year over the largest
enrolment in any month of the previous year.    This increase was, for the most part, in the R 44
JUBLIC   teCHOOLS  KEPORT.
1926
elementary schools; but the increase in the high schools was unusually large,
table gives the enrolment for the months of February in each year:—
The following
Month.
Public
Schools.
High
Schools.
Junior High
School.
Total.
February, 1926 	
18,404
17,884
2,918
2,636
159
144
21,481
20,664
520
282
15
817
The increased school enrolment necessitated the changes in the teaching staff set forth in the
following table:—
1925.           1926. 1925. 1926.
Public-school   teachers     472 4S9
Ordinary classes  .....:  450 467
Special classes    22 22
Junior high-school teachers        7 7
High-school teachers     92 96
General  course     59 61
Commercial  Course      13 15
Boys' Technical Course      17 17
Home Economics Course        3 3
Manual-training teachers      21 22
Domestic-science teachers     16 17
Special instructors or supervisors      12 11
Total     620 642
Increase of staff     22
School Accommodation.
Notwithstanding the increase in enrolment for the past year, the school accommodation was
better than it had been at any time for the past ten years, as thirty-six additional permanent
class-rooms and three auditoriums were provided at the beginning of the year. These were
additions of twelve rooms and an auditorium to eight-room units in the Charles Dickens, General
Gordon, and Hastings School Districts, where a large number of children had hitherto been
housed in cheap temporary buildings. The completion of these schools gave first-class school
accommodation to all the children in the three districts and left two vacant rooms in General
Gordon School and six in Charles Dickens School.
Open-air School.
Three temporary frame, one-room schools, serving formerly as an annex to the Charles
Dickens School, have been remodelled and enlarged, by the erection of two large sleeping-
balconies, a dining-room, and a kitchen, to make an open-air school for delicate children—
particularly those predisposed to tuberculosis. Seventy-five pupils have been taught in this
school since February 1st, 1926. They have also received special treatment, prescribed by the •
School Medical Officer, with a view to restoring them to normal health. The special treatment
given and the good resulting therefrom are summed up by the School Medical Officer in his
annual report as follows :—
" The effect of continually open windows, maximum sunshine, organized play, hot, balanced
meal at midday, followed by an hour's rest or sleep on cots in the special balconies and then
breathing exercises, was apparent from the first week. This was shown by remarkable gains in
weight, improvement in colour, vigour, and intellectual capacity. The- children are happy and
enjoy being at the school." 17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 45
School of Decorative _\nd Applied .Arts.
Another forward step was taken in the educational work of the city by the opening of a
School of Decorative and Applied Arts last October. This school has had a very successful year,
far surpassing the expectations of its most optimistic advocates. Before the close of the year
159 students were attending the day classes and 162 the night classes. There were also twenty-
two part-time day students.
Our main difficulty thus far has been to secure a permanent staff of instructors; but we are
confident this will be remedied at an early date. To the B.C. Art League, whose members were
so active in securing the opening of this school and who are still supporting it loyally, thanks
are due.
At present classes meet in rooms in the School Board Office Building. These are well
lighted and heated and can be well ventilated. They are also well equipped, but the time is not
far distant when more commodious quarters will be urgently needed.
Under the careful direction of the head master, Mr. C. H. Scott, Dip. G.S.A., we may
confidently expect the continued success of this school.
Building Programme for 1926.
Very general satisfaction was expressed on every hand with the way in which the School
Board spent the $315,000 voted in December, 1924, for school extension. It was no surprise,
therefore, to find the ratepayers endorsing by-laws in December, 1925, for sums totalling $320,000
to be spent on school buildings in 1926.
The three new buildings planned were the following:—
(1.)  Twelve rooms and auditorium on Franklin site   $110,000
(2.) Twelve rooms and auditorium on new site, corner of Templeton
Drive and East Georgia      105,000
(3.) Twelve rooms and auditorium on new site, corner of Lakewood
Drive and East Third Avenue      105,000
$320,000
Votes cast for the by-law  :  4,207
Votes cast against by-law  1,528
Owing to a marked advance in the cost of building operations some difficulties are being
experienced in carrying out the building programme outlined above, but it is hoped that the
work will be completed approximately as planned.
Junior High School Work.
The work of our present Junior High School continued to be held in high esteem during
the past year. Parents who have had their children educated there speak in highest terms of
the results. The school is undoubtedly supplying a real need in the community, and is recognized by those well qualified to judge as doing so. In January last the Principals' Association,
apparently fearing the discontinuance of the school, requested that it be continued; and it will
be continued—to work along present lines until the establishment of junior high schools throughout the city will obviate the necessity of admitting to it certain pupils from Grade VIII.
We had hoped to open in September next our first junior high school organized on the
generally accepted lines—caring for students in Grades VII., VIII., and IX. The difficulties,
however, in connection with our school building programme, referred to above, make it inadvisable to attempt this new work before September, 1927. It is confidently expected that, by that
date, a well-formulated programme for junior high-school work will have been prepared.
Platoon Schools.
Opportunity has been afforded to study the work of schools operated on platoon lines foe
another year. Tennyson completed its second year as a platoon school; while Hastings undertook platoon organization for the first time in September, 1925. Good work was done in both
schools undoubtedly; but one cannot but wonder, if the same enthusiasm, that is so great an
asset in the starting of work along new lines, were present in the ordinary school, what the
results would be—very likely, little different!   In the platoon school, however, operating under R 46
Public Schools Report.
1926
proper conditions, there are some distinct advantages, particularly for the older pupils—teaching
by specialists in rooms properly furnished and equipped undoubtedly ranking first I
With the advent of the junior high school, the best features of platoon-school work will be
introduced for pupils from 12 to 15 years of age. In view of this and the further fact that
younger pupils—say, 6 and 7 years old or even S—are probably as well or better off when taught
entirely, or almost entirely, by the same teacher, one may be pardoned for not being overzealous
in the organization of elementary schools on platoon lines. It seems clear to me that the difficulties of satisfactorily organizing Grades III. to VI. in an elementary school of a comparatively
small city are such as to warrant caution in regard to such organization.
School Attendance.
I am pleased to report that the Vancouver School Board, after attempting to administer
their schools for a couple of years without even one attendance officer, decided to appoint one
last January. The presence of such an official in a school system, while not materially increasing the percentage of regular attendance, does unquestionably prevent a certain number of pupils
becoming confirmed truants or worse. A reasonable expenditure of money for such work may
therefore be regarded as a good investment.
Health Conditions.
Health conditions throughout the year were, in the main, good. Smallpox, with its inroads
on the regular attendance of both teachers and pupils, disappeared entirely from the schools; but
measles, mumps, and whooping-cough were prevalent. These latter, however, were carefully
watched by the Medical Department and not allowed to interfere unduly with school attendance,
which kept well over 90 per cent, of enrolment for the year.
School-work generally.
The general work in the schools throughout the year was carried on very satisfactorily.
Teachers and officials in the various departments embraced every opportunity to prepare themselves for more effective work. Never before have our supervisors held more meetings for the
benefit of teachers whose work they supervise, and never have such meetings been better
attended in Vancouver than for the school-year just closed.
Only two changes took place in our supervisory staff during the year. In June, 1925, Miss
Elizabeth Berry, who had so faithfully and effectively directed all the home-economics activities
in our schools from their inception in August, 1905, resigned. It was indeed with regret,
tempered by best wishes, that those most familiar with the excellent work Miss Berry had
done in our schools learned of her intention to graduate into that higher sphere for women for
which she had laboured so zealously to prepare many thousands of Vancouver's girls.
At the close of the school-year I feel justified in reporting that we have been fortunate in
securing a very worthy successor to Miss Berry in the person of Mrs. Mildred R. Cunningham.
Mrs. Cunningham is a well-educated and well-trained lady with a wide experience as a teacher
and administrator. Her first year's work in our schools has, consequently, been, as was expected,
highly satisfactory.
The second change in our supervisory staff was the outcome of the opening of the School
of Decorative and Applied Arts. Mr. C. H. Scott, Dip. G.S.A., had rendered excellent service as
supervisor of drawing from August, 1914, to April 1st, 1924, when he was granted fifteen months'
leave to pursue his studies further in Europe. It was, therefore, only natural that, on his
return last August, he should be asked to accept a more important position—head master in
the School of Decorative and Applied Arts. We were also fortunate in having in Mr. Spencer P.
Judge, who had substituted for Mr. Scott during his absence, a man well qualified in every way
to fill permanently the position of supervisor of drawing.
Changes in Staff.
Comparatively few teachers resigned from the ordinary teaching staffs during the year;
even in the night-schools the staff changed but little. Death, however, demanded a heavier toll
than usual, depriving the schools of Mr. S. L. Miller, B.A., Technical School; Miss Janet Sheepy,
Grenfell School; Miss Alice Standen, Block 70 School;  and Miss Florence J.  Close,  Florence 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 47
Nightingale School.    Mr. Miller had served the schools faithfully for twelve years, Miss Sheepy
for fourteen, Miss Standen for three, and Miss Close for fourteen.
The School and the Community.
The year just closed has been marked not only by the harmonious, whole-hearted co-operation of school-workers, but by the most cordial relations between school-workers and all coming
in contact with the schools in any way. The relations between the home and the school have
been such as should be expected from those working primarily in the interest of children, and
the co-operation between the School Board and City Council and other public bodies has been
all that could be desired.
I have, etc.,
J. S. Gordon,
Municipal Inspector of Schools.
VANCOUVER, SOUTH, SCHOOLS.
South Vancouver, B.C., August 31st, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of the Municipal
School District of South Vancouver for the year ended June 30th, 1926:—
Enrolment.
1924-25. 1925-26.
Elementary schools  7,433 7,737
High School  _      744 853
Totals  8,177 8,590
Of the sixteen elementary schools in the municipality, there was insufficient suitable accommodation at the following: Carleton, Gordon, Moberly, and Van Home. The High School
suffered from lack of class-room space also. The building programme for 1926-27 will provide
for sufficient additional class-room space to reduce overcrowding to a minimum and provide for
the normal increase in attendance for another year at least. Twenty class-rooms will be added
to the number available in 1925 on completion of this year's building programme.
The staff for the year ended June, 1926, consisted of the following:—■
Male.
Female.
Total.
15
40
9
1
1
2
7
176
9
1
2
22
Elementary-school teachers	
216
9
Domestic-science  teachers  	
9
1
1
2
1
2
Totals	
68
195
263
No supervisor of music is employed by the Board, but careful attention is paid to the training
of the teachers who are required to teach this subject, and results are on the whole satisfactory
under present conditions and will continue to improve.
The work of the manual-training and domestic-science staff is being effectively handled, but
the accommodation should he increased so that all pupils in Grades six, seven, and eight may
receive instruction in either subject. Two additional domestic-science centres and one manual-
training centre are required to take care of this work to best advantage. R 48
Public Schools Report.
1926
Inter-class and inter-school sports are well organized and conducted throughout the schools.
This aspect of school training calls for a considerate sacrifice of time and convenience on the
part of many teachers, who nevertheless, recognizing the value of the training, give ungrudgingly
of their time and effort both before and after teaching-hours.
Physical training receives the attention the subject deserves and has reached a high standard
in many of the schools. Principals and teachers alike are coming more and more to realize the
necessity and advantages of intelligent, systematic, suitable, timely physical training.
Throughout the year the health situation has been satisfactory; Dr. Lamont and his staff
of two nurses have kept the work well in hand, giving close supervision to all health conditions.
A step forward has been taken by relieving the principals of six of the large schools from
class-teaching for part time in order that they may give close supervision to the work in their
individual schools; this arrangement cannot but be beneficial in raising the standard of work
and preventing possible retardation due to lack of supervision.
The general use of standardized tests this year has added zest to the work of teaching and
has resulted in a more careful study by teachers of the psychology of the class-room and in
much wider reading by teachers of publications helpful in the teacher's work.
All pupils attending the elementary schools in this municipality were tested during the year
to determine their varying degrees of intelligence. The information secured through use of these
tests will be invaluable to the principals and supervisors in their efforts to properly classify or
grade the pupils. Very valuable assistance was given by the Education Department and
Inspector F. G. Calvert in the carrying-out of the testing programme.
The work of the teaching staff has been generally satisfactory throughout the year; weak
teachers have been removed from the staff and effort made to select only the best to fill vacancies.
Teachers in general are working more intelligently than ever before and are giving excellent
service.
I have, etc.,
Alex. Graham,
Municipal Inspector of Schools.
VICTORIA CITY SCHOOLS.
Victoria, B.C., October 30th, 1920.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on Victoria schools for the school-year ended
June 30th, 1926:—
The total expenditures for 1925 amounted to $563,461, distributed as follows: Teachers'
salaries, 62.4 per cent.; interest and sinking fund, 15.S per cent.; operation, 9.S per cent.; maintenance, 4.1 per cent; auxiliary services (medical, dental, etc.), 3.7 per cent.; educational supplies, 2.4 per cent.; administration, 1.8 per cent.
When determining the estimates of expenditure for the New Year the Board is always faced
with the problem of keeping the new estimates within at least a reasonable distance of the
preceding year. As a consequence many items of replacement with respect to furniture and
equipment are eliminated. As a large capital investment is represented in the buildings, etc.,
one of the most important duties of the Board is to determine the nature and extent of repairs,
etc. Economy should he practised whenever possible, hut sometimes too economical a policy
may prove to be the most wasteful. Realizing this, the present Board carried out a well-
considered policy covering repairs, but next year's estimates should provide for considerable
replacements and necessary additional equipment.
The extraordinary estimates of the Board provided for a new annex to the Oaklands School
at a cost of $18,C00. The necessity for such new building was due to the unsatisfactory temporary accommodation in which four divisions were conducted. The City Council, after discussing the matter carefully with the School Board, passed the estimate. This spirit of sympathetic co-operation has characterized the attitude of the City Council throughout the year. 17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 49
The Board received very material aid towards improvements to grounds and equipment from
various Parent-Teachers' Associations. Most of these bodies take a keen Interest in school
affairs and lose no opportunity to promote the welfare of their school.
An up-to-date cafeteria was added to the High School accommodation. This under the
management of a well-trained dietitian is a decided improvement and indications point to its
becoming self-supporting within a short time. The Board is indebted to Miss Kinney, dietitian
at King Edward High School, Vancouver, for suggestions and general assistance.
The total enrolment in the schools and the number of teachers employed were about the
same as for the previous year.
A good year's work was accomplished in the schools generally. Greater attention was given
the problem of classifying the brighter pupils and adapting work to their capabilities. Accelerating these pupils does not mean promoting immature and poorly prepared pupils to higher grades.
It does mean, however, studying individual differences and by intelligence and achievement tests
determining the pupils' respective mental abilities. In the average class will be found generally
a wide range of mental ability, and certainly it is unreasonable to expect all to progress at the
same rate.    The solution lies mainly in careful organization and skilful class management.
No matter how competent individual teachers may be, no large school will achieve a full
measure of success unless it is administered by a thoroughly capable principal, who must be both
a skilful organizer and specialist in supervising instruction. In the business world success is
mainly dependent upon skilful management and the same applies to the business of administering a large school. While the principal should master all the details of organization, he should
delegate responsibility for administering many of these to other members of the staff in order
that he may have sufficient time to supervise instruction, which is the most important duty of a
principal.
The evening technical classes commenced with the largest enrolment of pupils since then'
inauguration in 1914, there being 666 students attending on October 31st, 1925. Two classes
deserve special mention—namely, the Machine-shop Practice class, which has increased its
attendance to twenty-four, and the Machine Construction class, which enrolled eighteen students,
who attended consistently until the end of the season. Another feature was the organization
of the Lumbermen's Educational class by the B.C. Lumbermen's Association. This class enrolled
sixty-two members. The lectures on kiln-drying given by Mr. Jenkins, of the Vancouver Forest
Products Laboratory, were greatly appreciated by the students. Generally speaking, the classes
were very well attended and the increased interest taken by the students was very gratifying.
Included in the evening classes was a special class for female teachers in physical training,
organization of games, folk-dancing, etc. Only teachers with special aptitude for this work were
enrolled. The purpose of the class was to provide a supply of well-trained capable teachers to
organize and supervise girls' physical activities. Similar classes are now being conducted in
physical culture, art, and music.
This year, to enable teachers to raise their academic standing, arrangements have been completed with Victoria College which permit teachers to enrol in that institution as partial students.
At present classes are being conducted in biology, economics, French, and philosophy. The qualifications for registration in these courses are the same as are required from regular undergraduates and each course meets the full requirements of the University of British Columbia.
By allowing credits for each course completed successfully, the University will be providing an
opportunity of advancement to many of our best teachers, who on account of circumstances
beyond their control cannot leave home to attend the University for the full undergraduate period.
In organizing these classes much credit is due Principal Paul and the staff of Victoria College for
their sympathetic support, for providing instruction by members of the College staff, and arranging a time-table convenient for the teacher-students concerned. The approval and support of the
Department of Education were also of great value in initiating the movement. More than thirty
teachers have taken advantage of these classes.
There seems to be increasing dissatisfaction amongst parents with the amount of home study
demanded from the average high-school students. While reasonable home assignments are necessary for satisfactory progress, greater care should be taken regarding the character of the work .
assigned. While it is only reasonable for parents to demand that their children have the opportunity of taking part in the social life of the home, yet they should realize that a certain amount
of conscientious home study is necessary for the student's success.   The principal of a large high
D school in the East stated recently that most pupils failed because they did not and would not
prepare their home-work. This is a responsibility of the parent, not the teacher, provided the
assignment is reasonable. However, there is a growing tendency to shift certain parental responsibilities to the school. The attraction of the motor-car, motion pictures, and public places for
social activities are undoubtedly removing the child from the disciplinary influence formerly
exerted by the home. This is a menace to satisfactory progress, as the school cannot assume
responsibilities which belong inherently to the home.
The vacancy occasioned by the appointment of Principal H. H. Smith to the staff of Victoria
College was filled by promoting Mr. Ira Dilworth to the principalship of Victoria High School.
Mr. Dilworth is a young man with an excellent teaching record and his appointment was received
with general approval.
During the year the schools of Victoria suffered a very severe loss in the deaths of Miss S. J.
Murton, Miss L. M. Mills, and Professor E. Howard Russell. Miss Murton served continuously
on the city staff for thirty-two years. Until her last illness she had hardly missed a day during
that long period. Miss Mills was supervisor of drawing since the creation of that position some
nineteen years ago. The present high standing of that subject in Victoria schools is due largely
to her outstanding ability. Both these women were deservedly popular with both pupils and
staff. In the passing of E. Howard Russell, Victoria College suffered a severe Mow and the city
lost a most useful and worthy citizen. Mr. Russell was first appointed to the city staff in 1892.
He was a man of striking personality and an exceptionally successful teacher, who devoted
himself unsparingly in the cause of education and music.
I have, etc.,
George H. Deane,
Municipal Inspector of Schools. 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 51
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
VANCOUVER PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
Vancouver, B.C., August 10th, 1926.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the report of the Provincial Normal School, Vancouver, for the year
ended June 30th, 1926.
The session opened on September 15th, 1925. The following will show the enrolment for the
preliminary term, September to December :•—
Students
enrolled.
Regular
Students.
Teachers
taking Short
Course.
222
41
221
41
1
Males   	
Totals  	
263
262
1
During the preliminary term five young ladies of the regular students withdrew. The young
lady taking the short course finished in November. At the close of the term in December three
students (two regularly certificated teachers from England and one from Eastern Canada) were
granted diplomas. Eight students whose work was not up to standard were asked to withdraw;
two withdrew on account of illness and one left the Province.
At the opening of the advanced term in January 243 of those attending during the preliminary term returned. These were joined by fifteen students with previous Normal School training. Thus the total enrolment for the advanced term was 25S—215 young ladies and forty-three
young men. During this term one young lady withdrew because of unsatisfactory work and
one young man was expelled. The advanced term closed with an enrolment of 256. At the close
of the session 230 were recommended for interim certificates and twenty-six failed.
The following summary will show clearly the enrolment and results of the entire session,
September to June :—
Females.
Total.
Regular students   	
Teachers taking short course ..
Total enrolment  	
Withdrew,  work unsatisfactory
Discontinued  course   	
Expelled	
Failed          	
Diplomas granted _
232
1
233
7
195
45
45
2
1
3
39
277
1
278
9
8
1
26
234
The instruction in physical training was conducted by Sergeant-Major Wallace and Sergeant
Ward. Excellent work was done in this department. Of the 246 students examined, 235 qualified for Grade B certificate.
During the past session our teachers-in-training had abundant opportunity for practice-
teaching. Following an amendment to the " Public Schools Act" at the last meeting of the
Legislature, we abandoned the Model, Cecil Rhodes, and Lord Tennyson Schools as practice
schools. The principals and members of the staff of each of these schools have been during
many years most helpful in the training of our students, and it was with sincere regret that we R 52
'ublic Schools Ueport.
learned that the hearty co-operation which had been so strongly in evidence for many years must
be terminated. During the advanced session our students secured their training in practice-
teaching in schools in Vancouver and in North Vancouver—the Dawson, Roberts, Aberdeen,
Central, Strathcona, Mount Pleasant, Fairview, Simon Fraser, Alexandra, Kitsilano, in Vancouver, together with the Queen Mary and Ridgeway, in North Vancouver, were used for practice-
teaching purposes. In all these schools we met very hearty co-operation on the part of principals
and teachers. All were most willing to assist in every possible particular. Our students visited
various schools in Point Grey, South Vancouver, West Vancouver, Burnaby, New Westminster,
and other neighbouring municipalities for purposes of observation. We wish to extend our
thanks to all principals and teachers who have during the session rendered assistance to our
teachers-in-training.
We believe that, in addition to the present facilities for practice-teaching and observation by
our students, there should be established a school in which the members of the teaching staff,
carefully selected, should be in the closest co-operation with the Normal School in the matters
of organization, methods, and management. This type of school would prove particularly valuable during .the early months of the session. If in one class-room of such a school an ungraded
school, similar to the average school found in rural districts, could be established with a teacher
thoroughly experienced in such work in charge, our students would be greatly benefited by
observing the organization, teaching, and management of such a school. The majority of our
young teachers serve their first years in rural schools. Their Normal training does not fit them
for this particular type of school because facilities for observing, teaching, and managing an
ungraded school are not available. We asked the Vancouver Board of School Trustees for such
a school some years ago, but the request did not meet with approval. The establishment of a
model school (with one class-room set apart as an ungraded school) for purposes of observation
..by teachers-in-training would make present practice-teaching facilities well-nigh perfect. Until
such a school be established the training of our students in the particulars of practice-teaching
will fall short.
I have, etc.,
D. M. Robinson,
.    . Principal.
VICTORIA PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
Victoria, B.C., August 31st, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the Provincial Normal School at Victoria for
the school-year which ended June 30th, 1926:—
The total enrolment for the year was 176. The details of this enrolment and the final results
are set forth in the following table:—
Women.
Men.
Total.
The number granted interim standing	
The number who discontinued attending during the year	
Died	
129
7
1
6
31
1
1
160
8
The number who failed 	
Totals	
143
33
176
Of the eight who discontinued attending during the year, one, an Arts graduate, transferred
in January, 1926, to the High School Teachers' Training Class in the University of British
Columbia; seven left school.
At the opening of the session in Septem'ber, 1925, the work of instruction was apportioned
as follows:   Principal MacLaurin—Arithmetic, class management, school law, and psychology. ■
17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 53
Mr. V. L. Denton—History and geography. Mr. Hy. Dunnell—Art and writing. Mr. B. S. Freeman—Literature and nature. Mr. C. B. Wood—English grammar, language, and reading. Miss
G. G. Riddell—Music and primary work.    Miss L. B. Isbister—Household science and hygiene.
The physical training was conducted by Sergeant-Major Bain and Sergeant-Major Frost.
One hundred and fifty-nine students were awarded certificates in this course.
Mr. MacLaurin became ill in November and Inspector Allan C. Stewart kindly consented to
assume the instruction in arithmetic and school management. This, was accomplished in his
usual competent and happy manner. Inspector A. F. Matthews carried on the instruction in
arithmetic, school management, and school law after the Christmas recess. His work was characterized by close attention to detail, careful preparation, and a wide and thorough knowledge
of the needs of the student teacher-in-training. The staff of the school wish to express their
appreciation of the cheerful and efficient help which Inspectors Stewart and Matthews accorded
to them during the year.
Mr. C. B. Wood took over the psychology, and by diligent application carried this difficult
course through in a most satisfactory manner. In addition to this, Mr. Wood conducted a comprehensive course in mental measurements, objective testing, and achievement tests.
The plan followed for the practice-teaching of the students during the year may be summarized as follows: Each student received one week of observation and practice-teaching in our
two-roomed Model School. This meant almost continual daily use of these rooms and threw a
large share of the " breaking-in " process upon the shoulders of the principal, Miss Scanlan, and
her assistant, Miss Barron. But the result, from the standpoint of the students-in-training, was
most beneficial. The actual daily class-room procedure was seen and the students gained in
poise, general class control, and in knowledge of sequence of lessons and of subject material.
In addition, the following city schools were used during the fall term for practice-teaching
lessons: North Ward, Oaklands, George Jay, Sir James Douglas, Bank Street, and Spring Ridge.
After the Christmas recess the Boys' Central, Girls' Central, and Margaret Jenkins Schools
were used as well. Lessons were taught in Grades I. to V., inclusive, during the fall, and in
Grades V. to VIII. from January to Easter.
After the Easter recess the following schools were also used: Victoria City—Beacon Hill,
Burnside, Quadra, and South Park; Esquimalt—Lampson Street; Oak Bay—Monterey and Willows ; Saanich—Cedar Hill, Cloverdale, Craigflower, Gordon Plead, Keating, Mackenzie Avenue,
Tillicum, Tolmie, and West Road Schools; rural schools—Colwood and Sidney.
It will he seen that there has heen a marked broadening of the basis for practice-teaching.
This has been brought about mainly through amendment to section 133 of the " Public Schools
Act" and the lengthening of the Normal School term to the third week in June. The students
were divided into groups of two and were assigned for one full week of observation and teaching
to individual practice-teachers throughout the schools enumerated above. After a short interval
a second week's training was given under a different critic-teacher. The actual practice-teaching
concluded on May 21st.
This plan has certain advantages. Throughout the year the number of hours of observation
for each student has been materially increased1; the number of lessons taught by each student
have been more than doubled; the sequence of lessons has received careful attention; and the
elements of control, of seat-work and its correction, the giving of tests, and the practical running
of a school from day to day have been observed and tried out by each student-teacher. The
practical side of the teacher-training course has thus heen emphasized to a marked degree. The
students have heen given every opportunity to secure first-hand knowledge of teaching devices,
the preparation and teaching of lessons, and the general running of a school from day to day.
The plan outlined could be still further improved by increasing the number of divisions at
the Model School to six. For this purpose a building would be necessary. Such building should
contain at least two theatre-rooms, so designed that demonstration lessons to control groups of
grade pupils could be given by the Normal School instructors. In this regard reference should
be made to the primary demonstration-room which has been recently equipped in one of the
spare rooms in the present building. This is a step in advance and the policy should be
continued.
Throughout the latter half of the school-year, staff and students alike regretted the enforced
absence of Mr. MacLaurin.   All were alike delighted to learn that renewed health presaged his early return to his duties as head of the school. The thanks of the school are due to Mr. George
H. Deane, Municipal Inspector of Schools for Victoria, for the hearty co-operation given to us
in our work; to Inspectors A. C. Stewart and W. H. May for help in selection of critic-teachers;
to all those principals and their staffs who so willingly gave of their time and thought in the
practical work of teacher-training.
I have, etc.,
V. L. Denton,
Acting-Principal. 17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 55
SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND.
REPORT OF PRINCIPAL.
Point Grey, B.C., August 14th, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report of the School for the Deaf and the Blind for the
year ended June 30th, 1926:—
Since the school was adopted by the Department of Education six years ago and made Provincial in its operation, it has passed the pioneering period and has developed into an institution
that is now an asset to the State.
During the year just closed seventy-nine pupils were enrolled. Of these, fifty-nine are deaf,
eighteen blind, and two both deaf and blind. A moment's reflection, therefore, will reveal, in
some measure at least, the menace that even this number might Become if left to prey upon
society, to say nothing of the misery that would be theirs if allowed to spend their lives in
ignorance.
The school receives these when their only language is a cry, and endeavours to educate them
and fit them for useful and helpful citizenship. ___nd those unfamiliar with the work have very
little conception of the difficulties to be met and overcome in attaining this end.
The casual visitor might spend considerable time in our class-rooms and notice very little
difference between our work and that in the public school. We follow the same course of study
as the public school, and in our higher classes we use the same prescribed text-hooks as far as
they are obtainable.
In the classes for the blind our books have to be printed in braille, hut the subject-matter
is the same as in the public-school text. When we cannot obtain some particular book in braille
we transcribe from the ordinary type and make our own book.
Interesting as it might be to outline the various steps and the contrivances used in developing speech and teaching language to the deaf child, space will not permit me to do so. I will
merely state that we take the child through all the grades of both public and high school.
Besides giving a literary education, we have classes in manual training, plain sewing, practical dressmaking, millinery, basketry, typing, and music. We stress music quite strongly as it
is one of the few lines open to the blind.
To make further advances along vocational teaching additional room is required. In fact,
we have arrived at the point where a new building equipped for vocational work is an absolute
necessity.
During the first year or two progress was greatly retarded by continual changes in the
teaching staff. For the past four years the staff has continued more constant, and last year
there was only one change. Miss Frost resigned at the close of the year, June, 1925, and her
place was filled by appointing Miss Boyd, a resident of Vancouver, on the staff.
Miss Boyd had had previous experience in the School for the Deaf in Winnipeg and during
her short time with us she has justified her appointment.
It is very gratifying to report that the health of our big family was good throughout the
year. Immediately on reopening school after the summer vacation one boy developed whooping-
cough which he had contracted at home. This was detected before he came in active contact
with the other children and an epidemic was averted. In Novemher a case of scarlet fever
developed, but, as in the case of measles, this was discovered and the patient isolated, and no
other pupils contracted it.
We had a few light cases of influenza, but they made speedy recovery and suffered no bad
after effects.
I therefore feel justified in repeating what I have said in other reports, that our health
record is, in no small measure, due to the unrelenting and watchful care of the matron and her
assistants in planning well-balanced meals and seeing that the children have sufficient outdoor
exercise and practise regular habits of living. Before I close this report I wish to record my appreciation of the help we receive from the
service clubs and other organizations in Vancouver, particularly the Elks. The Elks make it a
point to visit us monthly and furnish entertainment. At Christmas every year they provide a
tree and decorate it with presents for every child, perpetuating in every detail the tradition of
Santa Claus.
I also want to make mention of kindly messages sent by the Honourable the Premier of the
Province from time to time. They cheer us in our work and remind us that even in the midst
of official business he is not unmindful of little children.
And, further, I want to thank the Honourable the Minister of Education and you yourself,
sir, for your patient treatment of my many importunings.
I have, etc.,
S. H. Lawrence,
Principal.   Public Schools Report.
R 57
TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE ORGANIZER.
Victoria, B.C., October, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on manual training and home economics in the
public elementary schools; also technical, home economics, and commercial subjects in high
schools, teacher-training classes, and night-schools; correspondence classes; and technical education generally for the year 1925-26.
Manual Training.
Classes in the above subject are conducted in the following cities: Armstrong, Chilliwack,
Cranbrook, Kelowna, Nanaimo, New Westminster, Nelson, North Vancouver, Prince Rupert, Port
Moody, Rossland, Trail, Vancouver, Vernon, and Victoria. Similar classes are also held in the
following municipalities: Burnaby, Chilliwack, Esquimalt, Maple Ridge, Penticton, Point Grey,
Pitt Meadows, Richmond, Summerland, South Vancouver, Surrey, West Vancouver, and in the
Rural Districts of Rutland, Harewood, and South Wellington.
A summary of manual-training statistics from these places is as follows:—
Manual-training centres         83
Manual-training instructors         75
Elementary-school pupils attending  12,250
High-school pupils attending   2,001
The work of manual training throughout the Province is characterized by great variety
owing to the fact that instructors are encouraged to extend their projects to include useful
articles of every description. It has been recognized and noted by critics that rural schools and
centres in the Upper Country appear to be freer in this respect than those in the larger cities;
but even in the latter places the hoys are permitted to attack projects of increasing dimensions.
It is well, however, to understand in this regard that the names " project " and " model" are
synonymous terms in British Columbia, and that the word " model" might mean a wheelbarrow,
radio-cabinet, table, or book-shelf. It can also be readily understood why the projects in rural
districts are made larger than those of the cities when one realizes that the objects are selected
for their practical use and applicability to the farm.
There is much to be said from an educational standpoint in favour of that training which
comes from concentration on a piece of work until it is thoroughly completed, and therefore
cities have no need to apologize for having projects smaller in size and better finished than is
to be found in rural districts. The productions in the manual centres in Grades VI., VII., and
VIII. should be of a serious nature; the making of automobiles out of apple-boxes, scooters from
roller-skates, and other ingenious playthings may well be left to the boy's own time when he
works in his basement and back yard.
Critics have also drawn attention to the fact that double the number of pupils might take
part in manual training by cutting into half the present lesson-periods of three hours. Such a
time-table would have to be balanced by a similar one for home economics and a number of
experienced teachers of that su'bjeet say the change would he quite reasonable. The shorter
period would undoubtedly tend to encourage a desirable intensive application, but that end could
be and is being accomplished under present conditions by dividing the manual-training lessons
judiciously and taking every day some theory and drafting with the bench-work.
The shorter-period is suggested in order to make time to deal with pupils of the intermediate grades whose hand-training is at present neglected. This could certainly he accomplished
by the means suggested, but there would be a grave danger of reducing the present high standard
of manual instruction in the Province; freedom of choice in making projects would tend to be R 58
jublic Schools Keport.
1926
destroyed; the small models would again predominate, and class uniformity would become established.    A similar effect would also develop in home economics.
Manual instructors are understanding more and more the value of linking up their lessons
with the class-room studies. The subjects of geography, history, nature-study, and general
knowledge all lend themselves admirably to treatment in the woodwork-shops. The teacher must
never forget that " manual training has a place on the school programme for boys not to make
them carpenters or ship-builders or metal-workers, but because it will, more fully than any other
school experience yet discovered by educators, develop in them certain purposes, skills and attitudes necessary for complete living."
Home Economics.
Classes in the above subject were conducted in the following cities: Armstrong, Chilliwack,
Kelowna, Nanaimo, New Westminster, North Vancouver, Port Moody, Prince Rupert, Vancouver,
Vernon, and Victoria. Similar classes are also held in the following municipalities: Burnaby,
Esquimalt, Penticton, Point Grey, South Vancouver, and in the Rural District of Rutland.
A summary of home-economics statistics from these places is as follows:—
Home-economics centres       55
Home-economics instructors       55
Elementary-school pupils attending  '.... 9,250
High-school pupils attending  2,205
The work of home economics takes its simplest form under the heading " Sewing and needlework " as it is taught by the grade teacher in the class-room, while the hoys of the class are
under the instruction of the manual-training teacher. (Such classes are not included in the
above statistics.) Next in importance comes home economics taught by a special teacher with a
simple oil-stove equipment and the pupils working in groups. Next come the classes that meet
in rooms having individual equipment. Needless to say, good work can be done under any of
these conditions, but it takes an excellent teacher to do satisfactory work with simple equipment,
and as she is generally the one who can command a high salary, and the simple equipment is
likely to be owned by a School Board who cannot pay such a salary, the combination of simple
equipment and mediocre teacher is likely to exist.
The work of home economics as a whole is well established in the Province, and a goodly
proportion of the teaching staff apply themselves to further study in an endeavour to keep abreast
of the times; indeed, it is necessary to study continuously to assimilate this living science, for
great quantities of literature on laboratory experiments and teaching methods continue to pour
at regular intervals from the publishing houses. Lessons on foods, food values, and preparation
of foods are for the most part grouped around the laws of health. Sewing and dressmaking are
linked with a study of clothing and with a knowledge of materials. The teachers in charge of
home economics are in the main well aware of the educational aims underlying their work.
They know that the subject is on the school programme not merely to train girls to be housemaids or cooks or seamstresses or laundresses, but that while doing these things it also gives
the girl a sane attitude toward life by requiring her to deal with real projects and solve life
problems.
There is great need for an extension of the work of home economics in the Province, and in
this regard the memorandum from the Educational Committee of the Local Council of Women
at Victoria should be studied by all school trustees, but particularly those in cities of the first
and second class.
" We believe," says the memorandum, " that the home is the natural and rightful domain of
woman, and therefore that home economics, the science of the home, is pre-eminently the proper
and logical study for womankind; we believe that, as women are largely the spenders of money,
national thrift would dictate that they be taught to spend wisely; that as the keepers of the
health of the nation we believe they should be taught the principles of hygiene and dietetics;
we believe that in the different branches of this subject there is ample scope for the varying
abilities of the most brilliant minds of the sex; we believe that much undesirable and unnecessary competition between the sexes will be avoided, and many other social problems solved when
the dignity of home-making is adequately recognized and home economics given its rightful place
in a national and international scheme of education. . . . Finally, let us never forget that
upon the physical stamina, the mental and moral fibre of the mothers-to-be, depends the character
of the life—yea, the very life of to-morrow."   17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 59
Technical Education.
Technical courses in high schools are organized in the Cities of New Westminster, Vancouver,
Victoria, and Trail. In the T. J. Trapp Technical School, New Westminster, may be found the
four divisions—academic, home economics, technical, and commercial—which form what is known
as a composite high school. The work prescribed for study in these schools is given in detail
in the Programme of Studies for High Schools issued by the Department of Education;
Following are the centres at which instruction in technical, household science, and commercial subjects was given :—
Centre.
Technical.
Household
Science.
Commercial.
147
33
545
145
45
167
85
Trail _	
628
221
99
29
Nelson	
28
North Vancouver                                          	
82
116
29
29
154
Surrey _	
40
West Vancouver... _   __	
29
870
212
1 562
The enrolments thus show an attendance of 2,644 students and the expenditure for the year
ended June 30th, 1926, including grants for equipment, amounted to $80,596.58. Of this amount
the Dominion Government paid 50 per cent.
From the above statement it will be seen that we have the high school technical course
operating in Vancouver, New Westminster, Victoria, and Trail; but this must be considered as
the merest beginning in vocational training. The course in Victoria is of two years' duration
only. Up to the present time undue consideration has been given to the small percentage of
students who desire to proceed to Victoria College by the academic route. The real education
of the greater percentage of students who are going to take part in industrial life is still
neglected. Those students' drift away from the various elementary schools and, it is feared,
continue to drift, whereas the most up-to-date way of handling the situation is to keep the
adolescent boy and girl at school until they go to work.
Tbe technical staff in Victoria is excellent, but the educational ambit of the school trustees
should be enlarged to embrace the field mentioned, and for which work the Dominion grant was
made available. The Dominion Director of Technical Education is very dissatisfied with the
apathy in Victoria towards vocational training and does not consider a continuance of the technical grant warranted. This does not apply to the commercial course, which has now been
extended to three years.
The course at Trail is also suffering from being bound too closely to academic ideals. The
Dominion Director informs us that similar experiences have been met with in Ontario, and that
he does not now advise attempting to harmonize the conflicting ideas in communities with a
population of less than 5,000 inhabitants. The workshop course at Trail has developed into one
of a simple manual-training nature. Like the Victoria school, no student is admitted who has
not passed the high school entrance examination, thus the opportunity of giving service to prospective industrial workers is considerably reduced.
Vancouver and New Westminster schools have given splendid service throughout the year,
but experience shows that both schools should give up the idea of serving two masters—namely,
academic and vocational; they should conserve all their energy and direct all their attention to
strictly vocational work.
There is a great field composed of the following: (a) Pupils who are of school-leaving age
and yet who have not passed high school entrance examination; (6) a large group composed of R 60
jublic Schools Keport.
persons who do not intend to go to university and have no interest in the subjects set for
matriculation; (c) matriculants who would prefer technical training to that of a university
character in order that they may be the better fitted to participate in industrial life; and ((_)
still another large group who pass out of high school during or at the close of the first year.
It was mainly to assist this large body of students, (a), (&), (c), and (d), that the money grants
from the Dominion Government were offered. Notwithstanding all this, it is a most difficult
matter to keep the attention of school trustees and the teaching fraternity directed to the proper
goal. This fault is clearly seen in the three years' home economics course held in King Edward
High School, Vancouver. While it would be a grave blunder to disturb the course which leads
at present to the Normal School, yet an extension of service should be undertaken to train girls
who have no desire to attend either normal school or university. A purely vocational course in
home economics would appeal to a great many girls and would fill a need in the community.
The minimum wage decided upon by the Provincial Government has thrown upon the schools
the onus of preparing their graduates to earn that amount of money. The fact that boys and
girls who desire to enter industrial life cannot earn the minimum wage without preparatory
training has made employers of labour hesitate and even cease to employ them. In common
justice, therefore, to the young and to the whole community something ought to be done by the
school trustees to readjust the situation. A type of apprenticeship for both boys and girls to
suit present-day conditions should be revived and made operative. Attention might be directed
to the apprenticeship course for carpenters drawn up by the Building Trades Association. "The
apprenticeship is for a period of not less than four years; wages to he paid as follows: First
half of first year, 15 per cent, of journeyman's wage in the trade; second half of first year, 20
per cent.; first half of second year, 25 per cent.; second half of second year, 30 per cent.; first
half of third year, 35 per cent.; second half of third year, 40 per cent.; first half of fourth year,
45 per cent.; second half of fourth year, 50 per cent. Bonus on completion of apprenticeship, a
minimum of $100 after passing final examination, to be paid from the funds of the Apprenticeship Council, which would no doubt be increased to those who showed special aptitude and
application."
The indenture includes a clause which requires attendance two nights each week at technical
classes in order to learn that which cannot be taught satisfactorily on the job. The Apprenticeship Council of the Building Trades Association has certainly blazed a trail out of disorganization
and chaos into a land of promise. We may expect a considerable extension of the apprenticeship
system in the near future and to the inclusion of other trades, such as plastering, bricklaying,
painting, sheet-metal working, plumbing, etc.
One of the necessities which grow out of these conditions is the erection of a technical or
vocational school for Greater Vancouver. The creation of a metropolitan area and the appointing of a board of control are therefore imperative at this time. According to the School Survey
it is the biggest single problem facing the Board of School Trustees, and there are distinct signs
that the trustees of Greater Vancouver are seriously considering schemes for materializing the
idea. The opinion of the Commissioners who drew up the survey of the school system reads as
follows: " This is a field of work as yet almost untouched in British Columbia and one upou
which much of the future industrial development of the Province depends. Little is being done
to prepare skilled workers for the many industries that ought naturally to be developed in a
country possessing great natural resources consisting of coal, timber, and minerals. At present
much of this natural wealth is being worked up and finished for use in foreign countries.
British Columbia gets a dollar for something that in a finished state is worth five or ten dollars."
The surveyors therefore advocate the selection of a site in the geographical centre of Greater
Vancouver and that the cost of construction should be spread over a number of years. It would
he advisable to begin such a scheme by passing legislation permitting the formation of a metropolitan area consisting of Vancouver, South Vancouver, North Vancouver, West Vancouver,
Burnaby, Point Grey, Richmond, and New Westminster. From this area a technical education
council could be elected who would be responsible for organizing, equipping, staffing, and maintaining a technical school or institute of technology.
The objective of this school should be: (a) To train and prepare people for their life's work
and to work for the development of the raw resources of the Province; (6) to make possible
the rounding-out of an apprentice system and to strengthen the relationship between the school
and industry; and (c) to provide appropriate educational opportunity to those who do not go to
university or even to high school. 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
The technical shops should be constructed in accordance with the best trade conditions
and workshop practice and there is no need at present to emulate the architectural grandeur
which one sees in many public buildings.
Night-schools.
Night-schools were conducted in nineteen rural school districts, seven rural municipalities,
and eleven cities in the Province, with an attendance of 6,017 students.
Rural districts: Blakeburn, 35 students; Boswell, 16; Box Lake, 17; Castlegar, 77; Cawston,
20; Coal Creek, 14; Champion Creek, 10; Errington, 16; Granny Bay, 120; Gibson Creek, 10;
Kimberley, 20; Keremeos, 46; Malcolm Island, 2S; Michel and New Michel, 93; Northfield, 25;
Ocean Falls, 106; Procter, 12; Powell River, 25; Sandon, 24.
Rural municipalities: Burnaby, 411 students; Glenmore, 20; Langley, 29; Penticton, 159;
Saanich, 67; Summerland, 42; South Vancouver, 486.
Cities: Chilliwack, 48 students; Courtenay, 28; Kamloops, 74; Ladysmith, 55; Nanaimo, 95;
Nelson, 43 ; New Westminster, 527; Prince George, 102 ; Port Coquitlam, 31; Victoria, 827 ; Vancouver, 2,259.
The following subjects are included in the night-school courses: English, English for foreigners, subjects for Civil Service examinations, subjects for pharmaceutical examinations, subjects for junior matriculation, citizenship and economics, mathematics, mechanics, physics,
machine construction and drawing, pattern-making, forging, machinists' work, steam engineering,-automotive ignition system, magnetism and electricity, electrical engineering, chemistry,
metallurgy, coal-mining, building construction, carpentry and joinery, architectural design, estimating, navigation, forestry, paper-making, printing, commercial English, typewriting, stenography, accounting (elementary and advanced), Commercial languages—i.e., Spanish, Russian,
Japanese, Chinese, French; salesmanship, drawing and design, modelling, metal repousse, wood-
carving, embroidery, pottery, china-painting, show-card writing, dressmaking, millinery, costume-
designing, laundering, bread-baking, canning, cookery, music (instrumental and choral), elocution, and public speaking.
(a.) Manual Training Elementary Certificates.
Classes for training teachers in manual work are held every Saturday afternoon in the
Technical School, Vancouver. These are open to both craftsmen and public-school teachers and
the total number of training-hours amount to 775. While 275 hours at the bench are required
from school-men, very little is required in practical teaching. This disposition of hours is
reversed, however, with the craftsmen, 200 hours being given to general education and only 75
hours at the bench. On the completion of the course and on being appointed to a position, an
interim certificate is awarded; and after two years' satisfactory service a permanent certificate
is granted. The course of work for teachers-in-training is as follows: Entrance examination in
English and arithmetic, mechanical drawing and solid geometry, drawing and design, blackboard drawing, light forms of hand-work, bench-work in wood, theory of woodwork, theory of
education, three years' course of projects, one year's successful teaching.
These classes have so far provided us with teachers who have a good conception of the
educational value of creative work and they always return to more advanced classes to broaden
and extend their knowledge. A reading course is also encouraged by the circulation of books
on education, psychology, and pedagogy.
(6.)  Manual Training High School Certificates.
When men have graduated as manual instructors for elementary schools they have the opportunity and privilege of proceeding onward and upward to the work of high-school grade. The
programme of studies at the training classes is as follows: (1) Furniture-making; (2) wood-
turning; (3) sheet-metal work; (4) art-metal work; (5) bench-work in the machine-shop;
(6) applied design; (7) educational methods, course of work in 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, use and care
of woodworking machinery, science relating to wood and metal work; thesis on manual training.
A decided step in advance of the elementary school course may be noted. The subjects are well
balanced and demand work which exercises both skill and taste.
From these two classes the ranks of our manual instructors have been for some years
recruited and there does not seem to he any proposition to improve on it except the full-day training college such as the Ontario Department of Education has organized at Hamilton. It is
interesting to note that the students-in-training at that institute are drawn from the ranks of
craftsmen as well as from school-teachers. We have no need to apologize for the men who
qualify from our training classes; they have established the work of manual training in the
schools of the Province. Their work has withstood the wave of economy which passed over the
country, and British Columbia still stands second in the Dominion for the number of manual
instructors and the number of centres which are in the Province.
Training as Instructors in Technical Schools.
Teacher-training for technical-school work is proceeding satisfactorily and the members of
the class are almost entirely practical craftsmen who either are engaged at present as manual
instructors or have passed through the manual-training instructors' class and thus have caught
the educational view-point.
With the growth of technical education positions will be forthcoming for the men who have
taken this training and the success of technical education will he entirely in their hands. Certificates for technical teachers are of two kinds—interim and permanent. After two years' successful teaching experience the interim certificate may be made permanent. The course of study is
more specific than that drawn up for the manual-training teachers' high school certificate.
Part I. consists of a study of trade analysis and a study of teaching methods and principles,
during which they chart out a course of work. Part II. consists of practice-teaching. It is
improbable that craftsmen would give up remunerative work to attend the Ontario Training
College for technical teachers. Salaries are not sufficiently high to warrant a man running into
great expense in order to attend college.
Training Commercial Teachers.
The training of first-class certificated school-teachers as teachers of commercial subjects is
undertaken at summer schools and these are linked up by correspondence lessons during the
winter months. Students are enrolled in shorthand, typewriting, book-keeping, and -teaching
methods. The commercial certificates are of two kinds; interim and permanent. After two
years' successful teaching experience the interim'certificate may be made permanent.
The correspondence courses are arranged under the following headings:—
(a.)  Shorthand (theory and practice), covering first-year high school course.
(B.)  Shorthand (theory aud practice), covering second-year course (SO words per minute).
(c.) Typewriting (theory and practice), covering the work of first- and second-year high
school.
(d.) Accounting  (theory and practice), covering first-year high school course.
(e.)  Accounting (theory and practice), covering second-year high school course.
The remainder of the commercial subjects which are taken at summer school are as follows:
Commercial geography and economics, arithmetic of commerce and finance, history of commerce, commercial law, statute law, office management, business correspondence and filing,
auditing.
The commercial teachers' training classes have made it possible to keep pace with the
growth of this work in high schools. Had it not been for the supply of trained teachers who
were ready to take charge of the students the whole structure would have collapsed.
The number of commercial pupils will continue to increase because office-work, warehousing,
and wholesale merchandising will continue to be an important avenue of activity and the distribution of goods will always be characteristic of the trade on the Pacific Coast.
Undoubtedly the time will came when manufacturing will make rapid strides, but the distribution of goods made in other countries holds the premier place to-day. For this reason commercial training is important—clerical, secretarial, buying, warehousing, selling, and accounting; and great attention must be focused on the industrial situation in other countries, in the
languages of Western peoples, and in their requirements.
The sum spent on teacher-training, both technical and commercial, for the year ended June
30th, 1926, amounted to _S4,136.14, of which the Dominion Government granted 50 per cent. Public Schools Report.
R 63
Correspondence Classes.
Lessons on Elementary School Subjects to Pupils who live beyond the Reach of School.
This work continues to be conducted with great success and lessons are dispatched to more or
less inaccessible places where live the children who have enrolled. In one case the lessons can
only reach the pupil twice each year, and it is gratifying to know how deeply appreciative the
parents are to the Department of Education for this service. The following are a few excerpts
from letters of appreciation:—
" I wish to thank you for the very kind interest you have taken in my work all the while
I was studying your course. I have had every question fully answered and every problem fully
explained.    It helped me a great deal in my studies."
" I hope that my son will progress as well while he is at school as- he did at home under
your correspondence course."
" I think your course is just wonderful, and am so pleased with my son's advancement. He
takes such a delight in it."
" I wish to state that I appreciate the service I got through your Department, as I think
my son advanced faster studying at home than he would at regular school. I would highly
recommend the work of your Department to people with children living in unorganized school
districts."
"Please accept many, many thanks for your kindly interest in my children. I think the
correspondence course is a wonderful system, and I can assure you is much appreciated. Best
wishes to you in your good work."
" Too much cannot be said in praise of your correspondence course, and you may well be
proud of the good work your staff is doing for children in unsettled districts."
There are 250 pupils taking the course. Since the time the course was started seven pupils
who received their instruction through correspondence obtained high school entrance certificates.
Lessons in Coal-mining and Mine Surveying.
The same office that is responsible for disseminating the lessons on elementary-school subjects also sends out the lessons to those engaged in coal-mining operation. If the young worker
desires to continue his education as soon as he leaves school at the age of 15 he will find six
separate sections or units of study which will cost $5 per section. These will give him ample
preparation by the time he is 23 years of age to try the shotlighters' examination. With a continuance of his study his papers as overman will not be difficult to obtain, and following these
two the aspiring coal-miner may reach any height he desires. An ambitious young man may
even try matriculation to university examination in four parts, thus making it possible for one
to develop native gifts and participate in learning of an advanced character at the university.
The above classes embrace the following courses:—
No. 1. Preparatory mining course for boys over 15 years of age who have left school.
No. 2. Course in mathematics.
No. 3. Course for fireboss, shifthoss, or shotlighter's papers  (third class).
No. 4. Course for overman's papers (second class).
No. 5. Course for mine-manager's papers.
No. 6. Course in mine-survey work.
There has been an enrolment of 195 students in the above classes, and the cost of the correspondence classes for the year ended June, 1926, was $3,662.71, half of which was paid by the
Dominion Government.
Expenditure.
The total amount Qf expenditure from July 1st, 1925, to June 30th, 1926, on the subjects
previously referred to, hut exclusive of manual training, home economics, and correspondence-
work with elementary-school children, amounted to .,102,516.09, and of that sum the Dominion
Government paid $51,258.04.
Excerpts from the latest report from the Dominion Director of Technical Education show
that the Province of British Columbia takes fifth place in the amount of Provincial expenditure 'ublic Schools Keport.
1926
on technical education, second place for the number of students attending night-school, third
place for the number taking correspondence courses, and second for the number undertaking
training as technical teachers. The cost of administration for all this work ranks the Province
as fifth, which would seem to be reasonable and satisfactory.
I have, etc.,
John Kyle,
Organizer of Technical Education. 17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 65
ELEMENTARY AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
Victoria, B.C., October 31st, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith a brief report dealing with elementary agricultural education for the year ended October 31st, 1926.
The various departments of work initiated by the Department with the financial assistance
of the Federal Government are now being maintained, but not on quite so generous a scale as
formerly. The withdrawal of Federal aid towards agricultural instruction two years ago necessitated a curtailment in some of the special grants that had been given to teachers as well as to
School Boards. It followed that some of the School Boards, in their attempts at economy through
retrenchment, discontinued the teaching of agriculture through the District Supervisor system,
which included a programme in elementary schools as well as in centrally located high schools.
With more limited Government assistance and a corresponding increase in local costs, most of
the School Boards found it more advantageous, from a financial standpoint, to omit the elementary school programme and to retain a specialist in science and agriculture on the staff of the
high school. As a result we are now going through a transition stage, in which some lines of
work which progressed under the District Supervisor system are dropping out—notably school-
gardening—and some other lines are slowly advancing. In the elementary schools, due in part
to the interest shown by such local organizations as Agricultural Fair Associations, Horticultural Societies, Women's Institutes, and Parent-Teacher Associations, home-gardens for children
and school fairs have been encouraged. It is becoming more evident as the years pass that such
subjects as home economics, agriculture, and manual training—all of which are as yet optional
in British Columbia—must look to such organizations as those mentioned above for encouragement and not infrequently for their very existence. It seems passing strange that, although these
three subjects have more intimate connection with everybody's life than have any of the other
school subjects, many School Boards have to be urged, and even persuaded, seemingly against
their will, to make this highly important field of instruction available to the boys and girls of
their respective districts. This is particularly noticeable in rural districts and in smaller towns
and cities. In matters educational the country has always lagged behind the city, and even in
the teaching of such an essentially rural subject as agriculture the cities may be found to lead.
The Victoria High School during the past twelve months enrolled no less than 200 students in
the regular two-year course in agriculture. Is it contempt for a rural environment all too
familiar to the people of the country that has prevented them from turning such inimitable
resources to educational account, or is it the bondage of an outworn educational tradition, that
tends to make " learning" incompatible with labour, that accounts for this failure? In a recent
memorandum on rural education prepared by H.M. Inspectors in England this important question
of the relation of education to environment is well set forth. Holding that there is an important
relation between rural-school work and the life and pursuits of the country the memorandum
continues: " It has long been widely recognized that environment should be freely drawn upon
in order to lend reality to the te'aching and to arouse interest in country life and pursuits. With
the increase in the normal period spent by children in school and the consequent extension of the
curriculum, an attempt has been made in a number of places not only to provide the better
general education demanded by modern conditions of life in town and country, rait also to
extend the children's knowledge and appreciation of their natural surroundings, and to give them
some acquaintance with the principles underlying natural phenomena and every-day farm and
garden operations. There is also a growing recognition of the fact that one of the aims of
elementary education should be to develop skill in those elementary handicrafts, such as woodwork and metalwork, which are fundamental to all civilized life." R 66
Public Schools Report.
1926
Agricultural Instruction in High  Schools.
Altogether 566 high-school students have enrolled in the two-year course in agriculture during
the past year. The courses have recently been discontinued in three high schools—Langley,
Surrey, and Duncan—and a new centre opened at Courtenay. Some difficulty has been experienced in one or two instances in securing science and agriculture specialists. Agricultural graduates holding professional standing as teachers are not always available, but can usually be found
when sufficient time for investigation is allowed and a reasonable salary offered. It is to be
hoped that those high schools, rurally situated, will be able to resume the work again before
another year comes round.
The various instructors in agriculture are seizing every opportunity to supplement laboratory and class-room instruction in the science of agriculture, with practical applications in home
projects, excursions to experimental farms, private farms, and exhibitions. The various junior
judging competitions held in connection with the larger fairs have also served to give application
to different branches of the science of agriculture. Competitions in the judging of all classes of
live stock, field crops, fruits, and poultry were held at a number of the leading fairs this year
and have done a good deal to arouse the interest of both boys and girls in our agricultural
classes. In most high schools where agriculture is taught the general science course of Grade IX.
is taken preliminary to the study of agriculture. This has been found to work advantageously,
as almost all branches of science find some application in one or more of the numerous branches
of agriculture, and the study of agriculture, on the other hand, is greatly facilitated by the study
of science.
Improvement of School-grounds.
During the year numerous calls have been made by School Boards for assistance in the
improving of school-grounds. Not only has help been sought in the planting and improving of
old grounds, but in some cases the planning of new grounds has received attention. The assistance given hy the Department, both in money grants and in nursery trees and shrubs, has been
greatly appreciated throughout the Province, and it is interesting to note that other Provinces
in the Dominion are coming to adopt similar measures of assistance. The educational influence
on the children of a well-planned, well-planted, and well-kept school-ground is positive and beneficial, and especially so when both teachers and pupils participate in the improvement-work.
There is sufficient work in this branch of school enterprise alone to occupy the time of an expert.
The School Inspectors of the Province are taking a live interest in this work and may be relied
on to give it their full support.
The Outlook for Agricultural Education.
The study of agriculture in British Columbia is carried on from the educational view-point
rather than from the vocational. We regard agriculture as a great composite science the applications of which touch every home in city and country alike. As such it has a place in the
curriculum of all secondary schools and has proved to be applicable to boys and girls alike. The
scientific method, combining field and laboratory study with class-room lectures and demonstrations, is followed, each school having a suitably equipped room which permits of both lecture and
laboratory work. Experimental gardens and testing-plots are operated at each high school where
agriculture is taught and considerable home-project work is conducted, giving direct application
to class-room instruction.
In the various States of the American Union strong financial support for agricultural
instruction is given by Federal and State funds, but the avowed objects is strictly vocational.
There " the character of instruction is immediately related to the field of farming for which the
pupils are being prepared." The announcement further states that " the education shall be of
less than college grade and shall be designed to meet the needs of persons over 14 years of age
who have entered upon, or are preparing to enter upon, the work of the farm or of the farm
home."
Whilst there may he a place for such vocational instruction either in special schools, such
as may be found in Alberta and at one or two points in Ontario, here in British Columbia we
believe that we are pursuing a thoroughly sound policy in making it possible for many boys and
girls in hoth rural and urban schools to obtain up-to-date scientific knowledge pertaining to the
raising of live stock, poultry, field, orchard, and garden crops. Some of our best farmers in this
and every other Canadian Province were born and bred in the city.   To seek to restrict the study 17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 67
of agriculture to. rural schools alone would help to perpetuate a peasant class such as this Province at least does not want. Already we have cases in plenty where bright and ambitious boys
attending city high schools have decided, as a direct result of our wider policy in agricultural
instruction, to adopt rural life and occupation. The country needs city boys to-day possibly
more than the city has need of boys bred in the country. It would be nothing short of a national
calamity if we should perpetuate a system of vocational cleavage between the city and the
country. This the somewhat narrow policy of vocational agricultural instruction referred to
above tends to promote.
The high school agricultural courses as organized in this Province also serve as " finding
courses " or " try-out courses," to borrow a phrase from the junior high school advocates, and in
this sense our high school courses in agriculture may be regarded as prevocational. We are
finding more and more the desirability of linking up high school biological studies—botany and
zoology—with agricultural studies; nor are we alone in this. A recent report on English education contains the following statement: " It is interesting to find that at one large secondary
school for girls in London practical horticulture and botany are taught successfully. The' school
has two laboratories for botany, and a special study is made of the physiology and morphology
of both wild and cultivated plants. In the Botany Garden a wide variety of plant associations
has been set up for the study of plants growing under natural conditions. The work is very
highly developed and worthy of special comment." In summing up the situation generally the
report concludes as follows: " More than one authority is known to be seriously considering the
provision of a definitely rural curriculum in one or more schools in their area. It may be anticipated that there will be a steadily increasing demand for a curriculum which, while affording a
specially valuable training for girls and boys who propose to take up occupations associated in
one way or another with the cultivation of the soil and the production of food, will yet provide
as good a training as the traditional curriculum for pupils who are looking forward to entering
other walks of life."
In the nature-study courses of the elementary school and in the high school science courses
a close connection with agricultural science has been aimed at. The study of agriculture tends
towards a better understanding and a greater appreciation of the whole material environment.
In order to help the teachers of the Province in this study of environment with their pupils, and
also to impress upon all the imperative need of protecting and conserving our forest wealth, we
were able, with the financial and technical assistance of the Forestry Branch of the Department
of Lands, to place in each of our schools a copy of a well-illustrated manual of the Trees,
Shrubs, Poisonous and Food Plants of British Columbia. The main body of the manual was
prepared by James R. Anderson, of Victoria, a lifelong resident of the Province and a naturalist
of repute, while the concluding chapter on " Our Forests and their Protection " was prepared
under the direction of the Chief Forester.
I have, etc.,
J. W. Gibson,
Director of Elementary Agricultural Education. SUMMER SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
Victoria, B.C., October, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.   .
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith a report on the Provincial Summer School for Teachers held
in Victoria from July 5th to August 6th, 1926. The school consisted of a student hody of 346,
a staff of thirty-three instructors, and a Demonstration School of 169 students with eight instructors. The spirit of the school was excellent and interest seemed to be maintained right to the
closing exercises. This was undoubtedly due to the splendid work of the staff and to the intense
interest which they threw into their projects, into school activities and recreations. The courses
offered and the number enrolled in each were as follows:—
Rural'' Science       6
Physical  Training       33
Health      28
Folk-dancing       42
Primary Grade  103
Vocal Music      26
Choral Singing     79
Art Courses (including Applied Art)      95
English Literature and Expressional Work      43
Home Economics, Preliminary and Advanced Needlework      20
History       22
Geography        51
Penmanship       85
Manual Training      11
Demonstration School   169
Of the number in attendance, 322 were women and 24 men. A further classification may be
made as follows :—
From cities in British Columbia      92
From rural municipalities     76
From rural and assisted schools      90
'   Unclassified and without schools      73
From points outside of British Columbia      15
Total  346
The following is a complete list of the instructors and the subjects taught by them
respectively:—
Arthur Anstey, B.A., Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver—History.
W. Gordon Brandreth, Member of the Institute of Hygiene, London, England—Hygiene
and Physical Education.
J. E. Britton, B.S.A.,  Specialist in Science and Agriculture,  Kelowna  High  School—
Rural Science.
Miss Leila A. Burpee, Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver—Primary Grade
Hand-work.
Dr. T.  E.  Clarke,  B.A., B.Paed,  Department of Primary  Education,  Normal   School,
London, Ontario—Practice of Primary Grade Work.
R. M. Connell, Specialist in Nature-study and Geology—Saturday Rambles.
Miss L. K. Cotsworth, Supervisor of Physical Education, Vancouver—Folk-dancing and
Physical Education.
Miss Vera Cussans, Physical Culture Teacher—Folk-dancing and School Games. 17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 69
Ira Dilworth, M.A.—English Literature.
Harry Smith, M.A.—English Literature.
H. P. Eldridge, Instructor in Weaving.
John Fraser, Instructor, Vancouver Technical School—Sheet-metal and Forge Work.
Mrs. Margaret Grute, Graduate, Central School of Arts and Crafts, London—Pottery.
Miss J. Dorothea Hay, B.A., High School, Victoria, B.C.—Librarian.
Arthur E. Hutton, M.A., Normal School, Calgary—Intermediate Grade Hand-work.
F. A. Jones, B.A., D.Paed., Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Ottawa—Geography.
Harry A. Jones, Instructor, Vancouver Technical School—Machine-shop Practice.
Mrs. C. A. Lucas, R.N., Nurse Superintendent,  Saanich Health Centre—Child Health
Programme.
Miss Alice B. Marcellus, Instructor in Home Economics, Vancouver—Preliminary Needlework.
Miss Dorothy Morton, Medallist, Vancouver Musical Festival, 1925—Accompanist.
Will Menelaws, Graduate of Royal Scottish Academy of Art, Edinburgh—Figure Drawing and Design.
H. B. MacLean, Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver—Penmanship.
R. W. MacKenzie, Instructor, Tennyson School, Vancouver—Penmanship.
Mrs. Wilfrid Ord, Victoria School of Expression—Reading and Expressional Work.
Bernard E. Ryall—Accompanist.
Charles H. Scott, Graduate of Glasgow School of Art, Head Master, School of Applied
Art, Vancouver—Sketching from Nature.
Mrs. Sharland, Instructor in Dressmaking and Ladies' Tailoring, Vancouver—Advanced
Needlework.
James G. Sinclair, M.A., Instructor in Draughting, Vancouver Technical School—First-
year. Art Course.
Mrs. Margaret Spouse—Primary Grade Hand-work and Basketry.
Norman M. Simister, Designer and Craftsman, Victoria—Art-metal Work.
Mrs. Ina D. D. Uhthoff, Graduate of Glasgow School of Art—Advanced Art and Applied
Design.
W. P. Weston, Art Instructor, Provincial Normal  School, Vancouver—-First-year Art
Course.
F. C. T. Wickett, A.R.C.O., Choirmaster and Teacher of Music—Vocal Music and Leader
of Community Singing.
Frederick Waddington, Conductor, Esquimalt School Choir—Choral Singing.
Staff of Demonstration School.—Thomas Hall (Head Master), Grade VII.; Miss Charlotte
Mazzoline, Grades V. and VI.; Miss Ann McKinnon, Grades III. and IV.; Miss Beatrice Chadwick, Grades La and II.; Miss A. T. G. Reid, Receiving and Lb ; Miss G. Gordon Riddell,
Instructor in Singing; Miss Vera Cussans, Instructor in Physical Culture; Wm. Steele, Manual
Training Teacher.
Courses of Study, with their Content and Aim.
Rural Science.—The three-year Rural Science Course consisted of studies in horticulture,
including school-gardening and home-project studies on soil, field crops, and farm animals. It
was based upon the authorized course of study and was presented so as to meet the needs of
both urban and rural school teachers. Class excursions and much out-of-door work formed
an important means of studying plant-life. Insect-study was engaged in to familiarize the class
with the commoner orders which are of economic importance.
Public Health and Disease Prevention.—The course in public health and child-welfare work
which was conducted had as its primary object the- creation of interest in the prevention of
disease, so that teachers may assist in educating the public in abolishing disease, especially
infectious diseases. To this end several new branches were introduced into the course, and a
brief study was made of bacteriology, epidemiology, and kindred subjects. The very latest
authorities were studied and only subject-matter that was right up to the minute was presented.
Dr. H. W. Hill, Director of Laboratories and Head of the Department of Nursing and Health
at the University of British Columbia, gave one lecture, and he, together with Dr. Young, Provincial Department of Public Health, gave freely of their time to help the good work along. R 70
'ublic Schools Report.
1926
Physical Training.—A daily programme of physical training, including free standing exercises, wall-bar exercises, remedial work, and competitive and team games, was rigorously performed. Hygiene lectures were given daily. The art of swimming was taught, one class being
reserved for beginners and one for those who desired to participate in practice for life-saving.
Eighteen students obtained the certificate and bronze medal of the Royal Life Saving Society
and one was successful in obtaining the silver medallion and order of merit awarded by the
same society.
Follc-dancing.—An important part of the health programme was the folk-dancing. Here we
could see exercise, co-ordinate muscular action, and recreative mental stimulus at its best.
Nothing is more wholesome, lovely, and conducive to perfect physical well-being than folk-
dancing, and the classes were well attended.
Primary Grade Course.—The Primary Grade Course consisted of Part A (theoretical) and .
Part B (hand-work). One hundred teachers assembled to study the educational methods of
primary-grade work (Part A). The educational bases studied in the morning included the
nature of the child to be educated, the nature of education, the nature and the laws of the
learning process, and the function of the teacher in the process of education. The afternoon sessions were devoted to a study of methods, and in order to correlate theory and practice frequent
visits to the Demonstration School were made, where the teachers were ever ready to modify
their teaching programme to illustrate the theories under discussion.
Part B consisted of hand-work suitable for the youngest school-children and also for those
of intermediate-grade age. The mediums were those dear to little children—plasticene, paper,
cardboard, wool, and the sand-tahle. A very definite aim was consistently held in view when
dealing with the work of Grades III. to V., inclusive. Each student helped in class to plan a
project, select the materials, and make the project from wood, cardboard, clay, etc. Modern
thought of a psychological and educational nature was applied to this branch of educational
effort. Industrial studies following the raw material to the finished product were an integral
part of the course. Paper-making from wood-pulp was traced to the making and binding of a
book. Clay-modelling was carried to its ultimate end in pottery-making and firing. Wool was
woven on simple cardboard looms, small table-looms, and full-sized hand-looms; basket-making
was developed from the raw material. Thus the raw resources of the Provinces were considered, studied, and handled, and a line of activity commenced which leads out of school and
beyond into the real industrial world.
Vocal Music.—This class had for its aim not only the cultivation of a love of good music,
the training of the voice, and the artistic interpretation of song, hut the training of teachers in
the art of sight-singing. Singing from the staff was taught by the application of the tonic
sol-fa system along with the musical knowledge required for staff-work. Ear-training received
considerable attention and instruction was also given in the dramatization of musical themes
and in the performance of rhythmic games and plays. The whole elementary school course was
covered and great attention was paid to teaching methods.
Choral Singing.—About half the time of each session was devoted to a technical study of
the voice, including sources of voice, formation of vowels (based on the five broad Italian
vowels), tone concepts, the mental processes, imagination, release of voice, resonances, breath-
control, diction, The other half of the period was devoted to the study of twenty-five compositions from Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Schubert, Handel, Purcell, Dvorak, and other great musicians. This provided the opportunity to deal with the subject of school choirs and conducting,
and also how to study a song to discover all its meaning and beauty, imagination, atmosphere,
mood, rhythm, tone colour, and many artistic aids to expression. A high standard of ensemble
singing was attained by the students.
Community Singing.—One of the most interesting characteristics of music is the communal
spirit which it engenders, and this was manifest every morning at 8.45, when the students
gathered in the assembly-hall to enjoy a service of song. The attendance was uniformly good
throughout and the singing thoroughly enjoyed by all.
Art Course.—The Preliminary Art Course comprised drawing of objects from nature, such as
leaves, flowers, butterflies, and shells; the conventionalizing of these forms into simple design
motifs and rendering them in pencil monotone, and colour. Special attention was given to blackboard drawing, the board being at times an unfamiliar medium to the average teacher.   The %\s£m  17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 71
lessons in object and nature drawing were therefore recapitulated on a large scale on the blackboard.
The Second-year Course saw the work of the Preliminary Course carried further. Designs,
for instance, were applied to the following: Block-printing, stencilling, wood-staining, pottery,
etc. This applied design links up the drawing and design with the work in the manual training
and home economics department of the school. Originality, individuality, and self-expression
were encouraged continuously.
The Third-year Course was divided into two periods—an out-of-doors painting class meeting
in the mornings and a class in drawing from life and commercial art meeting in the afternoons.
The out-of-doors class began their initial studies in two colours—a warm colour and a cold
one—in order to gain an appreciation of tone values and the treatment of warm and cold
masses. Throughout the course insistence was placed on the significant form of cloud, tree, and
earth, and the placing of these elements within the picture, so that good composition might
result. Following this came painting in full colour, with emphasis on true tone values, and
harmony of colour. Direct painting in broad simple masses and an avoidance of fussiness and
excessive detail characterized the work.
The drawing from life was begun by making action studies with simple lines, after which
both male and female models were engaged. Studies were made in pencil, pen and ink, and
pastel, and the figure drawings were used in poster designing and in making original compositions for book illustrations. A project which was started by this class was a pictorial rendering of incidents from Canadian history in the form of a freize. We hope to continue this
extensive work next year. Anatomy as applied to surface forms of the figure was studied, the
actions and functions of bones and muscles being carefully explained.
A High School Arts Course was conducted and consisted in object drawing in pastel, pencil,
and pen and ink. The objects were mainly those with which the student should be familiar in
the physics and chemistry rooms. The nature drawing was also closely associated to the botany
course, while design motifs were made from the same plants and applied to wood, textiles,
posters, etc. Lettering as applied to such work was well taught and the whole course was
arranged in the order which was deemed most helpful for actual school-work.
Applied Art.—Pottery: The aim of this class was to develop constructional and artistic
skill and at the same time to encourage the building-up of a lucrative commercial enterprise,
using local clays. The students were taught as far as possible to originate designs from Indian
motifs. Pottery was built by hand and also " thrown " on the wheel. The products were then
dried, fired, and glazed; each student had the opportunity to observe and assist at the kiln,
where the pottery in its green stage was packed, fired, and taken out under experienced
supervision.
Weaving and textile design: The session commenced with demonstrations on the table hand-
looms, and the class was shown the different methods of lifting the threads, the simplest form
of threading, the manner of drawing the same into the loom, and winding it on rollers. Thread
interlacement and simple weave combinations were explained and executed on table-looms. After
a good grounding on the table-loom the large foot-power loom was threaded up and the various
tie-ups necessary were explained and demonstrated. Some good pattern-work was accomplished
and the interest was sustained throughout.
Jewellery-making: This was a new subject in the Summer School and we look forward to
an increase in numbers next year. Operations included piercing, soldering, setting stones, making rings, brooches, pendants, chains, etc.
Metal repousse: This craft was also introduced and an opportunity provided to work in an
art-metal worker's shop in order that original designs might be carried out under right conditions.
Art appreciation: Lectures were delivered regularly in the library and the following course
was amply illustrated by lantern-slides and reproductions: The Florentine School of Painting
and Art Craf tmanship; the Venetian School of Painting; the artists of Flanders, Holland, France,
Britain, America., and Canada; the art of pictorial composition; the art of etching; and historic
ornament.
English Literature.—On the conviction that the course should be closely related to the actual
problems of the class-room, selections were chosen from the school readers for the purposes of
discussion.    In the presentation of the work it was the instructor's plan, wherever possible, to R 72
Public Schools Report.
1926
suggest other passages of literature similar in type to the particular selection under review.
An attempt was made to relate the work of the different poets represented in the elementary
school course of study to the main movements of literature, and a cursory review of English
literature was also given. A delightful feature of the whole course was the attendance of the
class in a body to the Demonstration School, where most inspiring lessons were taught by the
principal.
Reading and Expressional Work.—Teachers use the voice for hours daily in their work;
therefore a knowledge of the correct production of the speaking voice is of the first importance
to them. A voice properly produced increases in strength and beauty and does not tire. A voice
wrongly used injures the throat and invariably leads to serious trouble. Consequently daily
exercises were given for breath-control, pure vowel-sounds, and resonance. Daily readings were
also given by members of the class and the plays of Shakespeare were taken as the finest vehicle
for developing expression.
Home Economics.—Preliminary Needlework: The purpose of this course was to teach plain
sewing by hand and machine as suited to the public schools from Grade IV. to Grade VIII. An
attempt was made to link up the work with the hand-work of the lower grades through free-
cutting and pattern-making and to correlate it with drawing by giving design and decoration in
colour.
Advanced Needlework: This course in dressmaking was primarily for teachers of home
economics wishing to qualify for high school or technical school certificates. Some members of
the class were teachers in night-schools where advanced work is demanded. The aim of this
class was to combine the principles of art, commercial methods, knowledge of materials, and
the principles of education in the making of clothing.
History.—History was taught at Summer School as an activity rather than as a mass of
information to be learned. Amid scenes of the past reproduced in model, picture, and descriptive booklet, the children lived the story of historical times, and, living it, they learned it, and
learned to love it too. The Old Fort A^ictoria was modelled as it was eighty years ago. Fort
Vancouver on the Columbia as it was in 1S36 was made to scale, and also a reproduction of a
seigneurial estate in Old Quebec, 1670, showing the row of humble homes in front of the narrow
strip-like farms that border the St. Lawrence. In addition to all this, the children of the
Demonstration School dramatized in a most vivid manner the early days in Fort Victoria and in
a most convincing way proved that history was something more than dates and facts—that it
was the story of the past re-enacted in the present.
Geography.—An interesting course was given in the pedagogy of geography, including lectures on present teaching practice; discussion of methods of presentation to the various grades;
study of community activities; elementary studies of physical, political, and commercial geography ; uses of visual aids, such as pictures, lantern-slides, etc. The psychology of geography
as applicable to children of different ages was carefully considered and the varying methods of
appeal to the mind of the child as it progresses in development through the phases of memory,
imagination, and reason. This was materially assisted by the observation of lessons given by
teachers in every division of the Demonstration School.
Penmanship.—The classes in penmanship received instruction for one hour daily; part of this
period was devoted to practice and part to discussions of teaching methods. Many of the
students qualified for the MacLean Method Teachers' Writing Diploma and others will continue
their lessons through correspondence. The lessons embodied helpful hints for supervisors of
writing, teaching methods in rural schools, writing exhibits, type lessons in the various grades,
with discussion and criticism, use of standard scales and measurements.
Manual Training.—These classes met in the Technical School, Arancouver, and consisted of
elementary school manual-training teachers who desired to qualify for certificates to enable them
to teach in high schools. The subjects of the course included the theory and practice of sheet-
metal draughting, art-metal work, and a study of the latest works on psychology and education.
Library.—This year the need for a library was felt and a library of more than 2,000 books
was collected, comprising the best teaching material on every subject on the school curriculum.
A special shelf was featured dealing with the most modern phases of educational development,
including books on psychology, the platoon school, the Dalton plan, intelligence tests, and new
ideas in examinations.    Another interesting feature  was  the  bulletin-boards,  which  made it   17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 73
possible to display attractively pictures for art appreciation, literature, history, and geography,
as well as delightful primary-grade pictures. The library met with an encouraging response
from the student body.
Demonstration School.—In connection with the Summer School there was conducted a Demonstration School of five classes. The 169 children attending were selected at random from the
city schools and nearly twice as many as could be accommodated applied for admission.
The main purpose of the school was to provide teacher students with an opportunity to
observe some of the newer teaching methods put into actual school-room practice. Demonstration lessons were given by members of the faculty of the Summer School and by the teachers
of the Demonstration classes.
A manual-training centre was operated in which projects correlating the class-room subjects
in history and geography were worked out by the pupils in each division.
Singing, folk-dancing,, and organized school games were taught daily and a rich educational
programme was provided for the receiving class upwards by the principal and staff of the school.
One cannot speak too highly of their enthusiasm and skill.
Concerts, Lectures, Sports, and Pastimes.—Each week during Summer School a lecture or
concert was arranged to which students might bring their friends. A recital of outstanding
merit was given to a crowded auditorium by the well-known pianist, Gertrude Huntley Green.
The Rev. Allworth Eardley, of Ottawa, gave a night with Dickens, in which he featured " A Tale
of Two Cities." Two lectures were given by Mr. Stewart Dick, lecturer from the National
Gallery, London, England—namely, " Giants of the Renaissance " (Michel Angelo, Leonardo da
Vinci, and Raphael) and "Two Masters of English Portraiture" (Reynolds and Romney).
A unique recital was the one given by Frances Nickawa, the Cree elocutionist. Her soft voice
and dramatic interpretation of Indian poems thrilled a capacity house.
Every Saturday saw parties arranged to visit places of interest. Mr. Robert Connell proved
to be a perfect guide to those who loved nature. Waugh Creek was visited, where interesting
forest and creek flora was seen among lofty hills. Albert Head was chosen for glacial river delta,
kettle-holes, etc.; Lost Lake for its remarkable association of flora; and William Head for fine
exposures of lava, basalt, dolerite, and sedimentary volcanic ash.
A visit was made to the Naval Station and dry-dock at Esquimalt. The Senior Naval
Officer, Commander Percy Nelles, very kindly arranged with his officers to show the teachers
around and a delightful time was spent. Visits were made to the Provincial Museum and
Archives at the Parliament Buildings. Trips were taken to Butchart's Gardens, the Observatory, and the Meteorological Station. A number were kindly invited by Mr. and Mrs. E. G.
Beaumont, of Discovery Island, to visit their estate. The party sailed on a beautiful day in a
most commodious and well-equipped launch and returned in high spirits and full of thanks for
the wonderful reception and entertainment.
Every Wednesday night, from 8 to 11, the students met in the gymnasium in a social
capacity. Ozard's orchestra was in attendance and this week-night function proved to be a most
enjoyable feature of the Summer School. The cafeteria organization was a distinct improvement
on anything we have had heretofore. The students recognized this by their patronage at the
lunch-hour.
Lessons in swimming and life-saving were given at the Y.M.C.A. tank and the Crystal
Gardens was a favourite rendezvous of the more skilful and competent aquatic artists.
Closing exercises to a large audience consisted of an exhibition of work done during Summer
School, following which a programme of excellent music was given by students of the two music
classes, comprising folk-songs, together with those of a sacred, classic, and popular character.
The trial scene from the Merchant of Ayenice was given as a reading by the students in expres-
sional work and proved to be a happy feature. In the gymnasium a series of attractive folk-
dances were shown, and the evening closed by a dance to which all were invited to participate.
The Demonstration School had its own enjoyable concert and picnic and for the former the
assembly-hall was crowded. The programme was of a high order and, among other items, songs
and dramatization of local history.
The Very Rev. Dean Quainton, with his usual thoughtfulness, invited the students of the
Summer School to a special morning service at the Cathedral, where he delivered an inspiring
and stimulating sermon appropriate to the occasion. R 74
Public Schools Report.
We were also much indebted to various student committees who worked assiduously for the
success of the school, and to the Board of School Trustees and Municipal Inspector, who took an
active interest in the work and who placed the school building with its commodious quarters at
our disposal. To Mr. Awde, of the Crystal Gardens, who gave the students special concessions,
and to the staff of school janitors, who were always ready and willing to assist in preparing for
the student activities, we owe our sincere thanks.
I have, etc.,
John Kyle,
Director, Provincial Summer School for Teachers. 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 75
FREE TEXT-BOOK BRANCH.
Education Department,
VlCTOBIA, B.C., October, 1926.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
'Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the work of the Free Text-book Branch for the
school-year ended June 30th, 1926:—
The total number of free text-books, etc., issued during 1925-26 to the public schools (elementary, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence Course for children
in isolated districts where there are no schools in operation, was as follows: 11,746 Canadian
Reader, Book I.; 11,161 Canadian Reader, Book II.; 11,537 Canadian Reader, Book III.; 12,292
Canadian Reader, Book IAr.; 12,916 Canadian Reader, Book A^.; 10,655 Narrative English Poems;
12,618 First Arithmetic; 9,986 Second Arithmetic; 9,396 Gammell's History of Canada; 8,972
Lang's Introductory Grammar; 6,417 How to be Healthy; 2,952 Latin Lessons for Beginners;
39,450 Spelling for the Grades; 3,946 Trees and Shrubs, Food, Medicinal, and Poisonous Plants
of British Columbia; MacLean Method Writing Books—9,612 Compendium No. 1; 10,340 Compendium No. 2; 11,125 Compendium No. 3; 14,091 Compendium No. 4; 11,748 Senior Manual;
1,116 Commercial Manual; 1,034 Teachers' Manual; 1,794 Supplementary Readers (Heart of Oak,
Book One; Art-Literature Primer; Art-Literature, Book One; Art-Literature, Book Two; Progressive Road to Reading, Book 3a ; Robin Hood Reader; B.C. Phonic Primer; B.C. First Reader;
B.C. Second Reader; B.C. Third Reader) ; 129 Essentials of Health; 6 Canadian Civics; 471
Syllabus of Physical Exercises; 43 World Relations and the Continents; 40,995 sheets Drawing
Paper, 9 by 12 inches; 943,019 sheets Drawing Paper, 9 by 6 inches; 190 Union Jacks (3-yard
Jack) ; 41 Flora of Southern B.C.; 31 Maps of Dominion of Canada; 30 Maps of the World;
31 Maps of British Columbia ; 30 Maps of North America ; 28 Maps of the British Isles ; 22 Scrap
of Paper; 22 Fathers of Confederation; 282 Teachers' Manual of Drawing and Design.
Four thousand and fifty-four requisitions were filled by this Branch during the past school-
year for free text-books and supplies. In addition to these, 1,238 orders were filled for teachers
and pupils from the outlying districts who wished to purchase text-books, other than the ones
supplied free, which could not be obtained in their vicinity, and for private institutions desirous
of purchasing books supplied free to the public schools. The sum of $5,456.31 was received from
this source and paid into the Treasury for the credit of Vote 8S, " Text-books, Maps, etc."
The supplies distributed free by the Free Text-book Branch during the school-year would
have cost the parents and School Boards $120,671.42 at prevailing retail prices. To purchase and
distribute these among the schools of the Province through the Free Text-book Branch required
an expenditure of $79,912.85, made up as- follows:—
Text-books (laid-down cost)  $67,463 63
Distribution (freight, boxes, etc.)      2,862 33
Salaries of staff      4,350 OO
Temporary assistance  '. :        619 00
Office supplies      4,617 89
Total $79,912 85
The saving on the year's transaction is, therefore, $40,758.57.
During the school-year 1925-26 two new books were issued by the Free Text-book Branch—
" Spelling for the Grades " and " Trees and Shrubs, Food, Medicinal, and Poisonous Plants of
British Columbia." The former book was issued to the pupils of Grades VI. to VIII., inclusive,
in all city and municipal schools and also in the rural schools of four divisions or more. In the
rural schools of one to three divisions it was issued to the pupils of Grades IV. to VIII., inclusive. The book on Trees and Shrubs, Food, Medicinal, and Poisonous Plants of British Columbia
was issued to the various schools for the use of the teacher; one copy being allotted for the
teacher of each division and also for the manual-training instructors. R 76
Public Schools Report.
1926
The number of sales increased materially during the past school-year, thus showing that the
people of the rural districts, where there are no local book-stores, realize the advantage of being
able to purchase from the Department the books which are not supplied free.
Night-schools.
Five of the night-schools in operation during the past school-year were supplied with textbooks of some kind by the Free Text-book Branch on the same conditions as in former years.
Returns for 1925-26.
The teachers' annual reports of free text-books for the school year 1925-26 are all on file,
with one or two exceptions. From these returns it is evident that in some cases the Teachers'
and Principals' Record Books are not being accurately kept. If these books are not properly
kept, it is almost impossible for the teacher to submit an accurate annual report. The items
received from -the Free Text-book Branch should be entered under the " Stock Receipts " column
as soon as the shipment is opened and checked at the school. Each book issued to the pupils
should be entered under the heading of " Disbursements " at the time of issue. Judging by the
number of books reported on hand in several of the reports, it would be well for the teachers and
principals of these schools to make a more careful estimate as to the number of the various
books they will require. If one school has a large surplus of books, another may be short by
just the amount of that surplus.
I have, etc.,
J. A. Anderson,
Officer in Charge. 17 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
R 77
THE STRATHCONA TRUST.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY, LOCAL COMMITTEE, STRATHCONA TRUST, FOR THE
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, FOR THE  SCHOOL-YEAR 1925-26.
\tictoria, B.C., November, 1926.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows on the work of the Local Committee for the
school-year 1925-26 :—
Instruction of Teachebs in Physical Training, 1925-26.
A total of 410 students have qualified for Grade B physical-training certificates since last
report, as under:—
Normal School, Vancouver  246
Normal School, Victoria   164
This is a decrease of 116 as compared with the number issued in 1924-25. This decrease is
due to the reduced number of students attending the Normal Schools during the past year.
iUiout 6,239 teachers and prospective teachers of this Province have now qualified as physical-
training instructors.
Physical Training, 1925-26.
The list of prize-winners of Strathcona Trust prizes for excellence in physical training is as
follows:—
High Schools.
P. C. Tees and E. L. Yeo, King Edward High School, Arancouver; Miss Vivian Jones, Division
3, High School, Summerland; J. C. Brady, Division 1, High School, Prince Rupert; F. J. Patterson,
Division 1, High School, West Arancouver; Norman Murray, Division 1, High School, Nanaimo.
Graded Schools (Five Divisions or more).
Miss Elizabeth M. Crake, Division 11, Prince of Wales School, Point Grey; John M. Burnett,
Division 1, Gilmore Avenue School, Burnaby; Miss Grace W. Killip, Division 4, Gordon School,
South Vancouver; Sydney Taylor, Division 4, John Norquay School, South Vancouver; Ian F.
Douglas, Division 4, Herbert Spencer School, New Westminster; G. P. Young, Division 2, General
Gordon School, Arancouver; S. J. Bryant, Division 2, Cecil Rhodes School, Vancouver; D. H.
Hartness, Division I., Booth Memorial School, Prince Rupert; Miss Eliza Milligan, Division 7,
Central School, Prince George; T. Aldworth, Division 1, Consolidated School, Armstrong; Miss
Lena Wolfenden, Division 2, Central School, Cranbrook; W. H. Muncy, Division 1, Quadra
School, Arictoria; Miss Annie S. McKinnon, Division 8, Sir James Douglas School, Victoria; Miss
Eva Malott, Division 4, Central School, Salmon Arm; H. A. Eckhardt, Division 1, Central School,
Mission; Miss Vivian J. Aspesy, Division 6, Central School, Cumberland; Miss Sadie J. Forrest,
Division 5, Lonsdale School, North Arancouver; Miss Margaret G. Wilkie, Division 25, Trail-
Tadanac School, Trail; Mrs. Alice Wollaston, Division 5, Monterey School, Oak Bay; Miss Annie
Milligan, Division 2, Ocean Falls School.
Small Graded Schools (Two to Four Divisions).
Miss Inez Ratledge, Division 4, Superior School, Quesnel; Miss Kathleen Corry, Division 2,
Superior School, Hedley; H. D. Stafford, Division 1, Peachland School; H. F. Reynolds, Division 1, Superior School, Procter; J. Dilworth, Division 1, Mara School; Miss Isabel Moncrieff,
Division 2, Sandwick School, Miss Josephine MacDonald, Division 1, Midway School; Mrs. Nina
Parberry, Division 1, Keating School, Saanich; Miss Christie L. Irwin, Division 1, Strawberry
Hill School, Surrey; Mrs. J. M. Harding, Division 1, Grenfell School, Arancouver. R 78
Public Schools Report.
1926
Ungraded Schools.
Miss Louise Girling, Grandview Heights School, Surrey; Miss Barbara B. MacBeth, Cortes
Island School; Miss Jean C. McDiarmid, Inverholme School, Delta; Miss Kathleen Ward,
Tchesinkut Lake School; Eric A. S. Tredwell, Hutton School; Miss Marguerite A. Griffith, Baynes
Lake School; Miss Edith M. Hill, Galiano School; Miss Christine Marshall, Hilliers School;
Miss Winnifred Robins, Mount Ida School, Salmon Arm; Miss Yolande E. Pemberton, St. Vincent
Bay School; John Houston, Passmore School; Miss Lorna Creeden, Cobble Hill School.
Three prizes of $10 each awarded to each of the seventeen inspectorates; amount expended
under this head, $480.
Physical Training, 1926-27.
For competition among the various schools during 1926-27 the sum of $30 has been granted
to each of the seventeen inspectorates. This sum is to be divided into three prizes of $10 each.
For purposes of competition and inspection the schools are to be divided into three groups or
classes, namely: Group A, of five divisions or more; Group B, of two to four divisions, inclusive ; Group C, of schools containing only one room or division. In any inspectorate where this
classification is found to be unsatisfactory the matter of dividing the schools into three groups
or classes for the purpose of awarding three prizes of equal value is to be left to the discretion
of the Inspector in charge.
The full amount of the award is to he expended for a picture or some piece of apparatus
(suitably inscribed) for the room in which the prize was won. Only those teachers who are
the holders of physical-training certificates granted under the Stratheona Trust are eligible to
compete.
With a view to stimulating and increasing the interest of the students attending the Normal
Schools at Vancouver and Victoria in the subject of physical training, the Local Committee
decided at its last meeting to award at the close of the session in June, 1927, a gold medal to the
student at each of the above institutions who has been found to hold the highest rank in instructional ability in this subject.
School Cadet Corps, 1926-27.
The following report on the activities of the school cadet corps during 1925-26 was submitted
to the Local Committee by Captain J. M. Cumming, Inspector, Cadet Services:—
" Number of cadets between the ages of 12 and 18 years trained during the
year 1925-26  5,860
Number present at annual inspection  5,375
Number of active school cadet corps under Provincial Department of Education         53
Other cadet corps        14
" The above totals show a decrease of 415 cadets and five cadet corps during the past year.
This decrease is attributable to the fact that authorization could not be combined for new
organizations during the year to make good the customary wastage by disbandments.
" It is regretted that no provision could be made for holding cadet camps at the public
expense. Three small local camps were held by individual cadet units, camp equipment being
loaned by' the Department of National Defence.
" As cadet funds were not available the usual cadet instructors' courses could not be held
during the summer holidays. It is sincerely hoped that these courses may be resumed next
summer.
" Keen interest has been taken in rifle shooting during the year by nearly all cadet corps.
Excellent results have been obtained both on indoor and outdoor ranges. Several cadet units in
the Province have either won or have ranked very high in various national competitions. Much
encouragement has been given by the British Columbia Rifle Association towards the development of service rifle shooting among the senior cadets, many of whom distinguished themselves
during July at the annual rifle meeting held at Heal's Range, Alctoria, B.C.
"The general standard of cadet efficiency and physical training in the Provincial Normal
Schools is highly satisfactory. AArhile cadet numbers have been reduced, no lowering of efficiency
has taken place." ■
17 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. R 79
Hereunder is a list of the various cadet corps in order of merit as at their last annual inspection, June, 1926 :—
(Possible marks, 1,000.)
388, North Ward School, Arictoria  .  920
101, King Edward High, Arancouver   890
101, Technical High, E Co., Vancouver   840
388, Boys' Central, Victoria   830
101, Alexandra School, Vancouver   815
530, Mission CC, Mission   790
101, Kitsilano High, Arancouver   780
93S, Gilmore .Avenue, Burnaby   775
388, Sir James Douglas, Victoria   770
112, Arictoria High, Arictoria   765
101, Britannia High, Vancouver  760
101, General Gordon, Arancouver   755
432, Prince Rupert, Prince Rupert  750
101, Lord Tennyson, Arancouver   735
101, Cecil Rhodes, Arancouver   730
•     530, T. J. Trapp Technical, New Westminster  730
101, Central School, A'ancouver   720
101, Technical High, D Co., Arancouver   710
530, Herbert Spencer, New Westminster   710
388, Oaklands School, A7ictoria   700
388, South Park, Victoria  700
101, Aberdeen School, Arancouver  700
101, Model School, Vancouver  695
101, Laura Secord, Arancouver   680
101, Kitsilano School, Vancouver  680
388, Victoria West, Victoria   680
101, Charles Dickens, Vancouver   670
1235, Nanaimo High, Nanaimo   650
388, Quadra Street, Victoria   640
101, Hastings School, Vancouver   640
101, Beaconsfield, Vancouver  630
101, King George High, Arancouver  620
1169, Sexsmith School, South Vancouver   620
101,  Simon Fraser, Vancouver   620
101, Fairview School, Vancouver  620
1126, Armstrong and Spallumcheen, Armstrong  ,  605
530, Connaught High, New Westminster   600
101, Grandview School, Arancouver   600
388, George Jay, Victoria  590
1244, Quennell School, Nanaimo  590
101, Henry Hudson, Vancouver   590
388, Burnside School, Victoria   580
3S8, Margaret Jenkins, Victoria   5S0
530, Lister Kelvin, New Westminster  510
530, Central School, New Westminster  510
101, Livingstone School, Vancouver   510
101, Macdonald School, Vancouver   510
101, Strathcona School, Vancouver  510
101, Dawson School, A Co., Vancouver   510
101, Dawson School, B Co., Vancouver   510
101, Lord Roberts, C Co., Arancouver   510
101, Lord Roberts, F Co., Vancouver   510
950, Merritt CC, Merritt  510 Twenty-six prizes were awarded in accordance with the schedule adopted at the last meeting
of the Local Committee held November Oth, 1926, one-half to be paid to the corps and one-half
to the instructor provided he is a public-school teacher qualified as a cadet instructor. AVhen
the instructor is not a public-school teacher, one-half of the prize reverts to the general fund of
the Local Committee.
The expenditure under this head for 1925-26 amounted to $331, and was made according to
the following schedule: 1st prize, $25; 2nd prize, $20; 3rd and 4th prizes, $18; 5th and 6th
prizes, $16; 7th and 8th prizes, $14; Oth to 13th prizes, inclusive, $12; 14th to 26th prizes, inclusive, $10 each.
Rifle Shooting.
From the grant for rifle shooting, 1925-26, prizes were provided for forty-five qualified corps
or units specified in returns—namely, $3.75 each; this amount to form cash prizes for the three
best shots in each corps or unit (1st prize, $1.50; 2nd prize, $1.25; 3rd prize, $1).
The expenditure under this head for 1925-26 amounted to $168.75.
Financial Statement for 1925-26.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Committee for 1925-26 amounted to $1,511.43 and
the expenditure for the year $980.87, leaving a balance of $530.56. Of the latter sum, $510 has
already been voted for physical-training prizes for 1926-27.
Receipts.
1925-26. Balance on hand from 1924-25  $ 514 24
Interest to November 30th, 1925   15 88
Interest to May 31st, 1926   7 94
Allowance to Secretary (added to fund)   10 00
Grant for 1925-26   963 37
$1,511 43
Disbursements.
1925-26. Prizes for physical training  $ 4S0 00
Prizes for cadet-training   331 00
Prizes for rifle shooting _ _  168 75 •
Revenue'stamps for cheques   1 12
$   980 87
Balance on hand  $   530 56
I, have, etc.,
J. L. Watson,
Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust,
for British Columbia.

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0228015/manifest

Comment

Related Items