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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1927

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
OP   THE
COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1925
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE  LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Charles F.  Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1926.  To His Honour Walter- Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Eeport of the Provincial Fisheries Department
for the year ended December 31st, 1925, with Appendices.
WILLIAM SLOAN,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia, December 30th, 1925. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT FOR 1925.
Page.
Value of Fisheries and Standing of Provinces in 1924     5
Species and value of Fish marketed in 1924    5
The Salmon-pack of 1925     6
The Salmon-pack by Districts     7
Food Value of Pink and Chum Salmon '.     7
Condition of the Fraser ,    8
Dr. Gilbert's Resignation     9
Dr. W. A. Clemens to continue the Records  10
Reports from Salmon-spawning Areas, 1925  12
Aerial Patrol of Northern Fisheries  13
Purse-seines  13
Fish-reduction Plants  13
Study of Pacific Salmon Problems  14
Salmon-tagging in British Columbia Waters  16
The Halibut Investigation  16
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-histoey of the Sockeye Salmon.    (No. 11.)    By Drs. W. A. and
L. S. Clemens  18
The Spawning-beds of the Feaser Rivee  40
The Spawning-beds of the Skeena River  44
The Spawning-beds of Rivers Inlet  47
The Spawning-beds of Smith Inlet  50
The Spawning-beds of the Nass Rivee  52
Scientific Work of the International Fisheries Commission.   By W. F. Thompson and
Assistants  54
The Salmon-pack of 1925 in Detail  58
The Salmon-pack of the Peovince, 1910 to 1925, inclusive  61
The Sockeye-salmon Pack of the Feasee Rivee System, 1910 to 1925, inclusive  64
The Sockeye-salmon Pack of the Province, by Districts, 1910 to 1925, inclusive  64 FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT FOR 1925.
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of Provinces.
The value of the fishery products of Canada for the year 1924 totalled 844,534,235, a gain
over 1923 of 81,968,690.
During the year 1924 British Columbia produced fishery products of the value of $21,257,567,
or 47.7 per cent, of Canada's total for that year. The value of the catch in British Columbia in
1924 exceeded that of 1923 by $461,653.
British Columbia again led all the Provinces of Canada in the value of her fishery products
in 1924.    Her output exceeded in value that of Nova Scotia, the second in rank, by $12,480,316,
or 142 per cent., and her output exceeded that of all the other Provinces combined by $6,758,150.
-   The capital  employed in the  fisheries  of Canada  in  1924 totalled $43,857,350,  of which
$14,310,389, or 32.8 per cent., was employed in British Columbia.
The persons engaged in the fisheries of Canada totalled 69,450, of whom 16,180, or 23 per
cent., were engaged in British Columbia. Of those engaged in British Columbia, 9,274 were
employed in catching and handling the catch and 6,906 in packing and fish-curing.
In 1924 British Columbia, with but 23 per cent, of the total persons engaged in the fisheries
of Canada and but 32 per cent, of the capital employed, produced 47.7 per cent, of the total value
of the fishery products of Canada.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of the fishery products
of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1920 to 1924, inclusive:—
Province.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
British Columbia	
Nova Scotia	
New Brunswick 	
Ontario '.	
$22,329,161
-    12,742,659
4,423,745
3,336,412
2,592,382
1,708,723
1,249,607
296,472
529,078
33,100
$13,953,670
9,77S,623
3,690,726
3,065,042
1,815,284
924,529
1,023,187
243,018
408,868
28,988
$18,849,658
10,209,258
4,685,660
2,858,122
2,089,414
1,612,599
908,816
245,337
331,239
10,107
$20,795,914
8,448,385
4,548,535
3,159,427
2,100,412
1,754,980
1,020,595
286,643
438,737
11,917
$21,257,567
8,777,251
5,383,809
3,557,587
2,283,314
Prince Edward Island  	
Manitoba .-_.	
Saskatchewan	
1,201,772
1,232,563
482,492
339,107
18,773
Yukon  	
Totals   	
$49,241,339
$34,931,935
$41,800,210
$42,565,545
$44,534,235
The Species and Value of Fish caught in Beitish Columbia.
The total value of each principal species of fish taken in British Columbia for the year ended
December 31st, 1924, is given in the following statement:—
Salmon   $13,027,251
Halibut    5,427,542
Herring   1,392,580
Cod   288,829
Black cod   130,334
Pilchards   82,845
Flounders, brill, etc  2,177
Soles  31,455
Crabs    40,197
Clams and quahaugs   153,472
Red cod  21,886
Oysters     29,051
Perch    12,793
Shrimps   15,608
Smelts     12,173
Carried  forward     $20,668,193 K 6
Eeport of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
The Species and Value of Fish caught in Bbitish Columbia—Cantinued.
Brought forward   $20,668,193'
Octopus   3,920
Sturgeon    6,899
Skate   3,324
Oolachans   6,550
Fur-seals  '.  24,221
Shad   472
Hake and cusk  60
Whiting   343
Whales     359,714
Fish-oils, grayfish, etc  S8,855
Fish-meals     83,892
Fish-fertilizer  10,411
Trout  595
Miscellaneous   118
Total  $21,257,567
The above statement shows that the salmon-fishery of the Province for 1924 produced
$13,027,251, or 61 per cent, of the total value of the fishery products.
The total amount of halibut landed was marketed for $5,427,542.
The foregoing data are derived from the " Fishery Statistics of Canada," issued by the
Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa.
Pack of British Columbia Salmon, Season 1925.
Fraser
River
District.
Skeena
River
District.
* Rivers
Inlet
District.
Nass
River
District.
Queen
Charlotte
Islands
District.
Vancouver
Island
District.
Outlying
Districts.
Grand
Total.
Sockeyes	
Fancy Red Springs	
35,385
5,695
2,294
25,701
5,107
45
36,717
99,800
66,111
81,146
15,978*
2,227
5,240
192,323
113
331
52
18,945
3,067
298
392
38
2S3
14,757
4,144
1,105
415
4,832
49,924
1,091
2,683
945
736
784
38,112
118,107
229,240
392,518
30,371
8,938
32,745
10,675
1,787
713
39,168
130,079
74,308
245
8,027
35,530
22,504
4,946
8,625
11,510
2,157
2,640
76,016
59,747
51,384
127,520
188,874
446,165
607,209
276,855
348.S59
217,900
89,008
81,134
263,904
441,622
I
1,719,282
* Including pack of sockeye caught in Smith Inlet, which approximated 40,000 cases.
The data used here were furnished by the British Columbia Division, Canned Salmon Section
of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association. We have, however, credited the sockeye salmon
packed at Esquimalt to the Fraser River District, because it consisted of sockeye seeking that
watershed to spawn. Likewise we have credited Rivers Inlet with the sockeye caught there and
packed at Namu. In consequence the figures given differ slightly from the association's statement and those that are given in the highly valued " Year-book " of the Pacific Fisherman
for 1925.
The salmon-pack of the Province in 1925 totalled 1,719,282 cases, as against 1,745,313 cases
in 1924, 1,341,677 cases in 1923, 1,290,336 cases in 1922, and 603,548 cases in 1921.
The pack of 1925 ranks as the second largest recorded, having been exceeded only by the
pack of 1924 by 26,031 cases.
The pack of 1925 consisted of 392,518 cases of sockeye, 72,054 cases of springs, 188,874 cases
of cohoes, 446,165 cases of pinks, and 607,209 cases of chums. The sockeye-pack, due to a record
run to Rivers Inlet, was the largest made in some years. As in 1924, the bulk of the pack was
made from the catch of pink and chum salmon. Their combined pack totalled 1,041,242 cases,
or more than 60 per cent, of the total pack of 1925. 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 7
The 1925 Salmon-pack by Distbicts.
The Fraser River System.—The catch of all species of salmon made in the Fraser River
system within the Province totalled 280,717 cases, consisting of 35,385 cases of.sockeye, 33,690
cases of springs, 36,717 cases of cohoes, 99,800 cases of pinks, and 66,111 cases of chums. The
pink and chum pack was 56 per cent, of the total.
The sockeye-catch in Provincial waters of the Fraser system produced a pack of less than
14 per cent, of the total. The sockeye-pack in the State of Washington waters of the Fraser
system in 1925 totalled 112,023 cases.
The total pack of sockeye in the entire Fraser River system in 1925 was 147,408 cases.
It was 4,785 cases greater than that made in the fourth preceding year.
The Skeena River.—The salmon-pack in the Skeena River District in 1925 totalled 348,859
cases, consisting of 81,146 cases of sockeye, 23,445 cases of springs, 39,168 cases of cohoes, 130,079
cases of pinks, and 74.30S cases of chums. The pack of sockeye was considerably below the pack
of the last three years, but the reports from the spawning-grounds indicate a large escapement.
Rivers and Smith Inlets.—The catch of sockeye in Rivers and Smith Inlets produced a
combined pack of 192,323 cases, approximately 40,000 cases of which may be credited to Smith
Inlet—the exact figures not being obtainable—and making the Rivers Inlet total 152,323 cases,
the greatest yet recorded there. It exceeded the previous high record of 1915, of 146,838 cases,
by 5,485 cases. In the figures used here Rivers Inlet is credited with the 20,813 cases of sockeye
which were packed at Namu and that consisted of Rivers Inlet caught fish, and deducting the
40,000 cases credited to the Smith Inlet catch.
Notwithstanding the great catch of sockeye made at Rivers Inlet, the reports from the
spawning areas of that run indicate that the beds were as well seeded as in any previous year.
As 77 per cent, of the catch consisted of five-year-old fish, it is not anticipated that the run in
1926 will be nearly as great as this year.
The Nass River District.—The total salmon-catch in the Nass River produced a total pack of
89,008 cases, consisting of 18,945 cases of sockeye, 3,757 cases of springs, 8,0(27 cases of cohoes,
35,530 eases of pinks, and 22,504 cases of chums. The sockeye-pack of 1925 dropped back to the
low level of 1923. It was 14,645 cases less than the pack of 1924, which was the record since
1915. Reports from the Meziadin Lake spawning area indicate, however, that the escapement
was greater than in any recent year.
The Appendix of this report contains detailed statements, giving by districts the pack of each
species since 1910.
The salmon-pack of the Province in 1925 was marketed at better prices than for some years.
The demand for our salmon products is steadily increasing, due in part to an increasing appreciation of their food value and to a decrease in the output of Alaska. If the demand continues it
will soon reach a definite point in excess of production. The marked excellence of our pack of
pink and chum salmon and the growing recognition of their high food value has given added
stimulus to export.
Food Value of Pink and Chum Salmon.
The United States Bureau of Fisheries has issued an addition to its series of Economic
Circulars that is of great value—one that those interested in the salmon industry should give
wide circulation. In "Economic Circular No. 48," by Henry O'Malley, Commissioner, United
States Bureau of Fisheries, it is shown that "pinks and chums usually contain less fat but are
equal to the redder varieties in protein—tissue-building material. They are low-priced because
of their abundance and the use of labour-saving machinery in handling and canning them.
Their high protein content and lower cost render them more economical than most animal foods
in common use. To buy the same quantity of proteins, disregarding the fat or oil, in various
foods in common use would cost as follows:—
Cents.
Canned salmon, pink or chum, per 1-lb. can      15
Ham, 1.4 lb. at 45 cents      63
Chicken, average, 1.4 lb. at 35 cents     49
Lamb, leg, 1.3 lb. at 37 cents    48
Sirloin steak, 1.3 lb. at 40 cents      52
Eggs, strictly fresh, 1 dozen at 48 cents     48 K 8 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
" The two kinds of canned salmon, pink and chum, contain more tissue-building material,
weight for weight, than the other foods listed, but they have less fat. They are as digestible as
the best of meats, there is no waste, and nothing has to be thrown away except the can.
" They hate another virtue. Fresh meats spoil quickly in the home; canned salmon will
keep indefinitely if unopened. Moreover, it is ready for immediate use, or it may be cooked in a
variety of ways if desired.
" One pound of fresh salmon will furnish 18 per cent, of the energy a man needs daily, 69 per
cent, of the protein, 10 per cent, of the calcium, 57 per cent, of the phosphorus, and 19 per cent,
of the iron. As the bones are softened in processing and rendered suitable for consumption, the
mineral content of canned salmon should be somewhat higher.
" Goitre is very common in many parts of the United States, affecting, in some instances,
over 50 per cent, of the population. Iodine or foods rich in iodine have been found to be very
efficient in the prevention and treatment of this disease. In fact, goitre seldom occurs in those
sections in which the food and water contain relatively large amounts of iodine. Sea foods are
rich in this essential element, as might be expected when one considers that soluble iodine salts
washed from the land have been accumulating for millions of years in the ocean. Chum and
pink salmon contain more than ten times as much iodine as meat, eggs, cheese, fresh-water fish,
or most of the fruits and vegetables."
The circular contains some thirty-two recipes for preparing canned salmon for the table.
Condition of the Fraser.
Attention is again called to the fact that in recent years the run of sockeye to the Fraser
River system has been maintained almost exclusively by the races of sockeye that spawn in
the Harrison-Lillooet watershed and in such tributaries as Pitt and Cultus Lakes, all of which
enter the Fraser below the canyon at Yale. The run to the upper river, which formerly furnished
the most valuable part of the Fraser pack, is now so reduced as to have little commercial
importance. Apparently the run to the lower river is maintaining itself with little change.
The amount of fishing-gear in use remains more or less constant, and the salmon-supply having
reached a very low ebb, a state of equilibrium seems to have been attained. If no considerable
change is introduced in the amount of gear employed or in the intensity of the fisTiing, present
conditions may possibly be maintained for an indefinite time. In the last twenty years, as
Dr. Gilbert has stated, we have exchanged a river capable of producing over a million cases of
sockeye annually for one yielding less than 10 per cent, of that amount. The Fraser will
remain at its present low ebb of production unless present profits, which are inconsiderable,
are surrendered in order that the former runs of abundance may be restored. It is surprising
that the selfish interests of a small minority have for so long governed in this case. The great
majority of the people of the nations concerned appear to be ignorant of the destruction of this
great food asset. A sufficient interest has not been manifested to secure, by treaty between
Canada and the United States, the measures necessary to restore the Fraser runs of sockeye to
commercial importance.
Notwithstanding that all previous efforts have failed to put through treaties, a new treaty
has been drafted, which is regarded by Government officials and large packers as the most
practicable and feasible plan that has been suggested, and under Which it is believed the fishery
might be restored. The proposed treaty provides for the control of the fishery, within prescribed
boundaries, by an International Commission of six members—three Canadians and three Americans
—the consent of two of the members from each side being necessary to action. As drafted, the
proposed treaty provides that two of the three American members shall be residents and citizens
of the State of Washington, and shall be appointed by the President from nominees recommended
by the Governor of that State. This latter provision is held responsible for delay in action.
The State Department of the United States is said to be willing to guarantee that two members
shall be elected from the State of Washington, but is opposed to the provision being written in
the treaty.
The following extract from an editorial in the Pacific Fisherman, the leading fishery journal
on the Coast, is of value for an understanding of the situation:—
" Prompt action toward the negotiation of this treaty is most urgently needed. There will
never be a more favourable time than the present.    If it is put forward at this time there is no 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 9
doubt of a successful outcome; if not, there is little likelihood that anything further will be
done in the matter, and the Fraser River sockeye will soon be in the same class as the bison.
It is unthinkable that action on a matter of such importance to the people of the United States,
of Canada, and of the State of Washington should be obstructed by such a disagreement as that
mentioned.
" As a salmon-stream the Fraser River is in a class by itself. Of enormous volume, with
spawning-grounds covering a vast and rugged area, it could never be encroached upon by the
advance of civilization. Its salmon run, unlike the mines and forests, if once restored and
properly conserved would be a permanent and inexhaustible resource, producing millions of
dollars annually. And there is ample evidence that the run can be restored by reasonable efforts.
Even now the lower spawning area is fairly well stocked, and last year more spawning sockeyes
sought the upper lakes—home of the great four-year run—than at any time since 1917.
" What can be accomplished here is indicated by experience on the Columbia. For many
years the salmon run was badly depleted; but by closed seasons and large-scale hatchery
operations it was restored, until it is now almost as productive as ever; and this was done
without seriously hampering the industry. If this can be accomplished in the Columbia, in
face of intensive farming and irrigation development throughout its length, and pollution by
cities, factories, and settled communities, what results can be expected on the Fraser?
" There is no question that the sockeye run can be restored, to become an eternal source of
wealth and prosperity to the Americans and Canadians of the adjacent district. A simple and
practical way of accomplishing this is now at hand and the time is ripe for action. Shall' we
do it?"
Dr. Gilbert's Resignation.
Dr. C. H. Gilbert, Ph.D.—whose investigations of the runs of salmon to the principal waters
of this Province have been of such value to the industry, and whose "Contributions to the Life-
history of the Sockeye Salmon " have been so important a feature of the reports of this Department since 1912—severed his connection with its salmon investigations at the end of 1924.
Owing to the demands made upon his time by his salmon investigations in Alaska, Dr. Gilbert
found it necessary to sever his relations with the Province. His resignation was accepted by the
Commissioner with extreme regret and a fitting acknowledgment made of the valuable assistance
he rendered in disclosing the character of the sockeye-salmon runs to our waters.
As a result of Dr. Gilbert's study we have a graphic record disclosing the age, sex, weight,
length, and the period of time spent in fresh and in salt waters, which casts many side-lights
on the sockeye runs to the Fraser, Skeena, and Nass Rivers and Rivers and Smith Inlets from
1912 to 1924, inclusive. It is the only extended and continuous record of the kind that has been
made of the runs of any fish to any waters.
Prior to Dr. Gilbert's development of the method of determining the life-history of the
Pacific salmon by the seasonal grouping of the delicate ring markings on the surface of their
scales, it was generally believed that the sockeye invariably matured in its fourth year. That
theory was based on the well-known fact that very heavy runs of sockeye entered the Fraser
River every fourth year and very much lighter runs in the three intervening years. It had no
other foundation. As a result of his study it was demonstrated that while the sockeye runs to
the Fraser every fourth year consisted overwhelmingly of four-year-old fish, there were also
small numbers of three-year-old and some five-year-old fish in that run, and that the runs in the
three intervening years consisted of three-, four-, and five-year-old fish.
By an examination of the scales of sockeye from all the principal waters of the Province in
1912 and 1913 Dr. Gilbert demonstrated beyond all question that each of them, possessed its own
separate and distinct colony of sockeye which exhibited differences in habit, method of growth,
and in age at maturity. He definitely, and for the first time, showed that the sockeye on reaching
maturity returned to the identical river-basin in which they were hatched. The practical significance of this determination is of great economic importance, since it demonstrates that, in order
to maintain the runs to a given district, it will not suffice to install a hatchery on any convenient
stream into which the entire hatchery output may be liberated, or to make joint and uniform
regulations apply to all streams alike. Each stream must be given separate consideration in
order that each may receive its own quota of fry, as the run to each stream is self-dependent. K 10 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
As early as 1915 Dr. Gilbert definitely, and for the first time, demonstrated that a certain
component of the run of sockeye to the Fraser entered from the north via Johnstone Strait—
that the entire run does not, as had heretofore been held, approach the river through Juan de
Fuca Strait.
In 1917 Dr. Gilbert, after years of patient and continuous study of the scale collections from
the seaward migrant sockeye from the principal lakes in the Fraser basin, and the scales collected
from the adult sockeye that returned to each of those lakes when mature, demonstrated that each
adult returned to the identical tributary of the Fraser in which it was hatched.
Dr. Gilbert's work in the Province gives force to the statement " that no other sockeye-
streams have received such close and discriminating study."
Dr. W. A. Clemens to continue the Recoeds.
The continuation of the series of records which Dr. Gilbert has made are so essential to a
comprehensive understanding of the condition of our salmon-fisheries that the services of
Dr. W. A. Clemens, Ph.D., of the Biological Board of Canada, and Dr. Lucy S. Clemens, Ph.D.,
have been secured to continue the work. There is published herewith their joint analysis of the
sockeye runs to the Fraser, Skeena, and Nass Rivers and Rivers and Smith Inlets in 1925.
The following is a brief digest of their present paper:—
The Fraser River Sockeye Run of 1925.
The sockeye run to the Fraser as usual was characterized by the one-year-in-lake type.
Of the total specimens examined, 93 per cent, were of that group, and of that number 73 per
cent, were in their fourth year and but 27 per cent, in their fifth. The males were slightly
outnumbered by the females, there being 557 males to 591 females. There were but seven
grilse in the collection.
The average of the four-year-old fish was the lowest on record, but almost identical with
those in the 1921 run.
The two-years-in-lake type was sparsely represented, there being but fifty-four individuals
in the 1,229 specimens examined, ten of which were in their fourth year, forty-two in their fifth
year, and two in their sixth year. There were but twenty-seven specimens of the sea-type;
i.e., fish that migrated to sea in the spring of their first year.
The Rivers Inlet Sockeye Run of 1925.
The run was derived from the brood-years 1920 and 1921. Seventy-seven per cent, of the
specimens examined consisted of five-year-old fish and derived from the spawning of 1920. The
pack in 1921 was small and the reports from the spawning-beds indicated a poor feeding.
The run of 1925 further establishes the existence of a five-year cycle in the run to Rivers Inlet.
As the run of 1926 will be derived from the brood-years 1921 and 1922, and as the packs for
those years were 46,300 and 60,700 cases respectively and the spawning reports indicated a poor
seeding in each of those years, it is evidenced that a large run cannot be expected in 1926.
The five-year-old fish show a decided increase in size over those of recent years. They
approached in size those of the 1920 and 1915 runs. It is apparent that the fish comprising this
series of five-year fish are larger than those of other series. The general tendency towards
reduction in size is, however, apparently maintained.
The four-year fish in the 1925 run formed only 23 per cent. The average length and weight
of the four-year class is the smallest yet recorded at Rivers Inlet. The occurrence of sexes
follows the usual distribution for Rivers Inlet—the males greatly outnumbered the females in
the four-year class and the females greatly exceeded the males in the five-year class. The total
number of males of both classes was 429 and that of the females 610, the percentages being 41
and 59. This excess of males also occurred in 1920 and 1915, and appears to be a characteristic
of this five-year series and may account in part for the extraordinary success of this series.
The Skeena River Sockeye Run of 1925.
The Skeena sockeye-pack of 1925 was relatively small. This was anticipated, since in the
brood-years—namely, 1920 and 1921—the packs were 91,000 and 41,000 cases respectively, and
in both those years the spawning-bed reports were unfavourable.    It is difficult to predict the 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 11
run of 1926. The brood-years are 1921 and 1922. Little may be expected from the 1921 brood.
In 1922 the pack was 100,667 cases and the spawning-beds were reported as well seeded. Since
the 1922 run consisted largely of four-year-old fish, there appears' to be warrant for anticipating
a return of their progeny in 1926. If there is a good run in 1926 it must be from the spawning
of 1922.
It will be noted from the tabulation submitted that the average lengths and weights of the
various year-classes have again decreased to apparently the same values as those for some years
prior to 1924, the fish of 1924 being much larger. The proportions of the sexes in the 1925 run
agree with the general characteristics of the Skeena races. Out of a total of 1,961 individuals
there were 975 males and 986 females.
The Nass River Sockeye Run of 1925.
During the last few years the Nass River sockeye runs have been of particular interest
because of notable inconsistent variations which cannot be explained by any obvious reason.
As Dr. Gilbert pointed out, the cycle in the Nass is definitely a five-year one. To illustrate the
inconsistencies, Dr. Clemens cites the following examples: The run of 1921 was exceptionally
poor, although the brood-year, 1916, according to the pack record and reports from spawning
areas, was excellent. Vice versa, in 1922 there occurred one of the largest runs of recent years,
and yet 90 per cent, of the run was hatched from eggs spawned in 1917, which is recorded as a
very mediocre year (22,188 cases). Dr. Gilbert said: "The nature of the exceptional conditions,
favourable or unfavourable, which were responsible for these contradictory results is not known
to us." The last three years have shown a closer correspondence between the packs and their
brood-years. In spite of the fact that these last three years have conformed more nearly to
expectancy according to pack recorded, there is still some discrepancy between actual returns
and predicted returns based on the spawning-ground conditions.
Fear has been expressed that the Nass is declining. The total of this year's pack, together
with the knowledge that the 1926 run will be derived from the smallest run on record, are not
encouraging. On the other hand, this year Inspector Hickman observed at the head of Meziadin
Lake a far greater number of spawning fish than he had seen there in any previous year, and he
also reported enormous numbers below both upper and lower falls. Experience has, however,
demonstrated that predictions on the Nass are not necessarily realized.
The Nass run of sockeye in 1925 included the usual eight year-classes. The eight-year class,
which includes those individuals which spend three years in fresh water and five in the sea,
was represented this year by a single female 29% inches long and a weight of 8.25 lb. Of the
1,622 individuals examined, 75 per cent, belonged to the four-year group of the one-year-in-lake
class.
As in previous years on the Nass, the five-year-old group, which spent two years in the lake
and three summers in the sea, had slightly greater average length than the same age-group which
spent only one year in fresh water and four summers at sea. The same tendency is evidenced
in the average weights, but the difference is less constant. Occasionally, as in 1923 and 1924,
one or both sexes of the one-year-in-lake class equalled, or even exceeded, in weight the two-years-
in-lake group.
As Dr. Gilbert pointed out, definite seasonal changes are characteristic of the Nass, the
sea-type group confining itself to the early part of the run, and, conversely, the six-year classes
were present chiefly in the latter part. In the 1925 run the greatest number of the one-year-in-
lake group occurred during the second and third weeks in July. The five-year-old two-years-in-
lake class dominated the run, but its strength varied from time to time.
As long ago as 1915 Dr. Gilbert called attention to the probability of the Nass run of sockeye
being composed of two distinct races. He based that opinion upon the facts that (1) the run
was characterized by definite early and late periods; (2) the late-running fish were of a conspicuously large size; and (3) there seemed a difference in the rate of growth in the nuclear
areas of the scales.
Meziadin and Bowser Lakes are the only known extensive spawning areas of the Nass, and
their great inaccessibility makes the inspection of the spawning population most difficult. In
dealing with the matter Dr. Gilbert stated: " We are compelled to assume that if Bowser Lake
has any considerable importance as a spawning-ground for sockeye, these must ascend the stream
earlier than the run to the Meziadin and earlier than September, when the samples from which K 12
Eeport of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
our observations have been made were collected. The evidence from all the samples of the
Meziadin and the Bowser spawning-beds sustains that theory of two distinct races in the
Nass runs."
As already stated, Drs. Clemens's paper is printed in full in the Appendix of this report.
Reports from the Salmon-spawning Areas of the Province in 1925.
Following the practice of the last twenty-four years, the Department again inspected the
salmon-spawning areas of the Fraser, Skeena, and Nass Rivers and Rivers and Smith Inlets.
Detailed reports on each section are reproduced in the Appendix of this report, those from the
north being highly satisfactory.
The Fraser River Basin,.—The inspection was made by John P. Babcock, Assistant Commissioner, it being his twenty-third annual inspection.    His report states:—
" In no spawning section in the Fraser River basin this year were sockeye seen in numbers,
with the exception of the Birkenhead River, at the head of the Harrison-Lillooet Lake District.
" The number of sockeye and spring salmon that reached Hell's Gate Canyon this season was
apparently somewhat larger than four years ago, and apparently somewhat larger than in any
year since 1913. . . . All the salmon that reached there this year passed through with little
more delay than usual. Owing to, extreme low stages of water in August and early September
—the lowest since 1902—the fish were delayed for a day or two at times, but eventually all made
the ascent and passed to the waters above. Reports were again current during the run that the
river-channel had not been fully restored since the great rock-slide of 1913, and that, in consequence, the fish were completely blocked at Hell's Gate. Such reports were unfounded.
Conditions in the canyon were under close observation this season, and have been since 1902.
Major Motherwell, Chief Inspector, and Engineers McHugh and Hunt and Fishery Officer Scott,
of the Dominion Fishery Service, made repeated inspections this year, as they have done since
1913. Officer Scott made almost daily inspections this year. In my study of conditions in the
Fraser basin since 1901 especial attention has been paid to conditions there during the run.
The above-mentioned officials and myself conferred repeatedly and are all satisfied that the
river-channel has been fully restored, and that the fish that now reach there are not unduly
delayed and that all eventually pass through. I am convinced that conditions there are as
satisfactory as they were previous to 1913.    .    .    .
" Those interested in the salmon-fisheries of the Fraser, on both sides of the line, may rest
assured that salmon that now reach the canyon have access to the upper reaches of the river,
and that, in consequence of the Indians now being prohibited from fishing there, a greater
proportion of the fish pass through than in former years.    .    .    .
" A summary of observations and reports on spawning conditions in the Fraser River basiu
this season warrants the conclusion that the escapement of sockeye was somewhat greater than
in any year since 1913. However, the number of sockeye that reached and spawned in all sections
was not sufficiently great to produce much, if any, increase in the run four years hence."
The Skeena River Basin.—The sockeye-spawning areas of the Skeena basin were again
inspected by Fishery Overseer Robert Gibson. His report shows most satisfactory conditions
in all the lake tributaries. Notwithstanding that the catch in the river was not up to the
average of the last few years, the escapement appears to have been sufficient to seed the beds.
The hatcheries were filled to capacity and the Indians at the outlet of Babine Lake took their
full quota, and all its tributaries were abundantly seeded.
" Taking into consideration," Mr. Gibson states, " the number of boats fishing in the Skeena
and the cannery pack, it is evident that the forty-eight hours' closed season is the chief factor
in the well-stocked spawning-beds."
Spawning-beds of Rivers Inlet.—Fishery Overseer A. W. Stone made his thirteenth consecutive yearly inspection of the spawning areas of the Rivers Inlet run of sockeye. His report
discloses entirely satisfactory conditions. Notwithstanding that the catch at Rivers Inlet was
the largest made there, the escapement was sufficient to stock all the beds abundantly, some
tributaries being better seeded than in any previous season. Mr. Stone concludes his graphic
report with the statement: "'In summing up the results of the inspection of the spawning-grounds
at Rivers Inlet, I am of the opinion that the fun of sockeye to each of the tributaries of Owikeno
Lake was so large that an unexampled return may be confidently looked for from the ova
deposited there this year." 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 13
Smith Inlet Spawning-beds.—Fishery Officer A. W. Stone again inspected the spawning area
of the sockeye run to Smith Inlet. " Considerable interest was," Mr. Stone states, " attached
to the run to Smith Inlet this year and the escapement, because it would display the full effect
of the elimination of drag-seines from that area in 1920, which resulted in an exceptionally heavy
seeding of the beds in 1920. The catch of sockeye in Smith Inlet resulted in an approximate
pack of 40,000 cases, and the escapement is shown to equal that of previous big years, notwithstanding that the beds were poorly seeded in 1921. The catch consisted largely of five-year old
fish."
In summing up his report, Mr. Stone states : " In summing up the results of the inspection
of the spawning-beds of Smith Inlet, I am of the opinion that the remarkable showing of sockeye
on the beds will be reflected in a big run of fish from the eggs deposited this year. In size the
run of sockeye reached a high standard."
The Nass River Basin.—Inspector of Fisheries C. P. Hickman, who began the inspection of
the Nass basin in 1906, again inspected the spawning-beds of Meziadin Lake, the principal
spawning area of the Nass River run of sockeye. He reports most satisfactory conditions,
concluding his report with the following statement:—
" In making a summary of the salmon-spawning areas of the Meziadin watershed, I am
pleased to state that conditions were exceedingly favourable in all sections where observations
can be made. There were large numbers of salmon below both falls and at the Meziadin fishway.
The basins of the fishway were always full during our nine days' stay. On the spawning-grounds
at the head of the lake I have never before seen as many sockeye congregated there in the past,
and there was a better run of spring salmon. I have no hesitation in stating that the run of
salmon to this watershed this season was most satisfactory. I have the pleasure to record
that conditions were far better than I have been able to report on for many seasons."
Aerial Patrol of Northern Fisheries.
The aerial patrol of northern Provincial fisheries, which include the Alaska boundary,
Skeena and Nass Rivers, Rivers and Smith Inlets, and the Queen Charlotte and Dundas Islands,
which has been maintained for the last two years by the Dominion Fisheries Service, under
Major J. A. Motherwell, cannot be too highly commended. With the assistance of Canadian
Air Service seaplanes, the above-mentioned waters were under constant observation and poaching
by foreign fishermen and violations of regulations by our own fleet reduced to'a minimum.
The entire fleet, whether operating in estuary waters at the mouth of rivers and inlets or in the
outlying section of the west coast of Queen Charlotte Island, where there is no base from which
launches can be used, was under close supervision. It has been demonstrated that an aerial
patrol is far more effective than any other.
Purse-seines.
There has been a marked increase in the number of purse-seines engaged in the salmon-
fisheries of the Province. The number would be larger but for the fact that since 1923 it has
been possible to transfer the nets from one district to another without increased tax. The number
of purse-seines used in 1925 totalled 330. The increased use of purse-nets in our salmon-fishery
is a disquieting feature to those who are looking to the maintenance of the supply. Purse-seines
used in restricted areas of estuary water approaches to the mouths of rivers for the capture of
fall-running salmon commonly make too heavy a drain on the run. Scattered as such waters
commonly are, the danger of an overdraught on the run is increased by the difficulty of maintaining close observation and the prevention of the use of nets in prohibited areas. Much of the
difficulty that is now experienced in patrolling such waters might be obviated by licensing the
use of long nets only—prohibiting possession and use of short nets, for in purse-netting the
entire net has to be cast into the water. If the minimum length of net was set by the regulations
at sufficient length to prohibit their use in restricted areas, the fish would be given greater
protection than can be given by a patrol force that of necessity is limited.
Fish-beduction Plants.
Following the Dominion Order of March, 1924, which authorized the use in this Province of
pilchards in fish-reduction, great activity has been displayed in the construction and operation
of fish-reduction  establishments  on the west coast of Vancouver  Island.    Four plants  were K 14
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
operated in 1925 and the construction and equipment of fifteen others begun, upwards of
$2,000,000 being invested. The plants operated in 1926 will have a combined capacity of 200
tons of pilchards per day, their estimated output of oil being over 2,000,000 gallons. None but
whites and Indians can be employed in fishing or the operation of plants.
The pilchards taken on the west coast are too rich in oil to permit of their use as human
food. Investors claiming to have made exhaustive investigations as to the supply of pilchards
in the open sea off the Vancouver Island coast express the opinion that the supply is virtually
inexhaustible. Their investments express their confidence. The pilchards of the west coast are
pelagic spawners and little of their life-history is known. During the summer months vast
schools enter the inlets and estuaries of the west coast of Vancouver Island, presumably for food,
as they do not spawn there. Fishing operations will be conducted in the inlets and estuaries
and in the open sea.
The Study op Pacific Salmon Peoblems.
At a conference of the fishery executives of Canada, the United States, British Columbia,
Washington, Oregon, California, and Alaska, held in Seattle early in the year, an association
known as the " International Pacific Salmon Investigating Federation " was formed and a cooperating plan for the study of Pacific salmon problems was adopted. The conference is hailed
as the most promising step yet taken for the acquisition of the knowledge required to bring the
work' of conservation to high effectiveness. It is held that it will lead to a far-reaching improvement in the method by which the salmon-fisheries may be made more productive. From the
attitude of those present it was manifest that the object in mind was to keep up and increase
the supply in order to permit of the greatest possible utilization for commercial purposes.
The Federation adopted plans for a survey, including scientific research on questions of
natural and assisted propagation; for tracing migrations, by means of tagging salmon, on the
coast from Monterey to the Alaska Peninsula; and for the recording of uniform statistics in
all sections. The preliminary work of the Federation during the year has been of value and
will be pressed during the coming year. The action of the Federation has already centred the
activities of the scientific branches of the Federal and State fishery service on the commercial
and economic phases of fish questions. »
In dealing with questions that came before the Federation at its second conference in Seattle
in November, Dr. C. H. Gilbert submitted the following statement, explicitly setting forth the
work proposed :—
" A programme for salmon research is made difficult by the unlimited extent of the field
in which investigations may be undertaken with advantage. Essential facts are lacking in
every phase of its life-history, in every division of its anatomical structure and its development.
Our knowledge is incomplete, whether we deal with fertilization of the egg, with nest-building,
the hatching and emergence of the young, or the life in fresh water and in the sea; and we need
at every stage a study of the favourable and unfavourable influences in the environment, the
feeding habits, the diseases, the enemies, the wanderings, and the stated migrations.
" In order to secure progress in a field so vast a selection of topics must be made on which
our energies may be concentrated, and the principle which this organization has properly adopted
in the selection of such topics is that of immediate urgency. The organization consists essentially
of national and State administrators of our salmon-fisheries and of scientific investigators
associated in their work. Confessedly, they are working all too largely in the dark and are
doing the best they can to conserve the salmon-supply under the severe handicap of ignorance.
This organization was effected in the hope that it would accelerate the pace of scientific investigation, and would hasten the bringing together of a body of knowledge on which to base a wise
administration of the salmon-fisheries. Topics for investigation should be chosen, then, on the
basis of the greater immediate need, and should be taken up in the order of their importance for
administrative purposes.
"Activities of salmon administrations fall in one or the other of the following groups:
(1) They are directed toward securing an adequate spawning escapement to preserve the runs;
or (2) they are concerned with improving natural conditions wherever possible throughout the
life of the salmon, so that natural wastes may be lessened and a smaller spawning reserve will
suffice. 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 15
" Under the first head are included all forms of regulations and such restrictions of the
commercial catch as are necessary to maintain the runs. To render them effective we need to
know: (1) What constitutes an adequate escapement; (2) what is the size of the escapement
to the different streams; (3) the wanderings of the different races and the places where they are
subject to capture; (4) the statistics of the runs from year to year; and (5) the length of the
cycle in each stream and the annual composition of the run. These subjects are all directed to
the one end of securing an adequate escapement and of testing the results from year to year to
ensure that it is adequate.
" Under the second heading of improving natural conditions and thus lessening the size of
the spawning reserve, we have: (1) Artificial spawning and rearing of young; (2) improvement
of streams for natural spawning; (3) destruction of enemies; (4) combating depredations of
parasites and disease.
" Under the first head we have, then, all regulatory measures needful to perpetuate the
salmon runs; under the second head, a group of meliorative measures the ultimate aim of which
is to increase the percentages of the runs that may safely be used for commercial purposes.
" All of these are highly important, and with regard to each of them our knowledge is sadly
incomplete. Each of them presents a field of fruitful investigation and endeavour. But I venture
the assertion that the regulatory activities concerned with maintaining the runs are for the
purposes of this assemblage of most immediate urgency. The responsibility for the future lies
heavy on every salmon administration. Skimp your reserve and you lose your run. Expand it
' beyond reason' and you lose public support. Without specifying which is devil and which
deep sea, you assuredly lie between them. Yet we do not know how large a safe spawning
reserve should be, nor do we know the actual present escapement to our streams, nor do we
adequately know the wanderings of the different races at sea, nor their migration routes, and
when it comes to checking results our present statistics are inadequate and not critically studied,
and our knowledge is sketchy and incomplete concerning lengths of cycles and yearly composition
of runs.
" Instinctively, this committee decided last year to devote its energies principally to these
subjects of greatest urgency- Salmon were to be tagged in the sea and the wanderings and points
of commercial attack determined. A more adequate system of statistics was to be devised.
Studies were to be continued in the size of spawning reserves and the extent of the runs derived
therefrom. The latter, in my judgment, constitutes the most important subject for immediate
investigation.
" Until we are in possession of more adequate knowledge on this subject a competent
administration of the salmon-fisheries is impossible. ,
" We called attention last year to the activities of the United States Bureau of Fisheries in
this direction, at Karluk and 'Chignik, and in Olga Bay on Kodiak Island, in Alaska. In each
of these localities weirs are maintained and the spawning escapements for the seasons are
ascertained. My own activities for the past season have been largely directe-d to making such
detailed studies of the runs to the Karluk and Chignik Rivers as are necessary to a complete
understanding of events when the cycles shall have come round and we begin to get returns
from spawnings of known size. This will occur on the Karluk in 1926 and the Chignik in 1927.
And as the weirs have been operated continuously since 1921 at Karluk and 1922 at Chignik,
we can look forward to a series of determinations in successive years which should present
evidence of high value.
" In addition to this work, I have now undertaken a survey of the cycles and the annual
composition of the red-salmon runs to the different streams of Bristol Bay. Progress has already
been made since last year in the examination of all scale collections which had accumulated
unworked from the Bristol Bay District, representing the runs of several different years. Taken
altogether, the scales of some 15,000 red salmon have been read this season and the results
tabulated. It is only by this method that we can ascertain the proportions of different year-
classes in the runs and the brood-year from which each has been derived.
" My studies of spawning reserves as planned are limited to what we may call the end-terms
of the series. I attempt only to determine such correlations as exist between number of spawning
fish and the number of their progeny which return at maturity. This will give us a measure of
the total losses which occur from the egg to the adult, from all causes combined. And this
will be adequate to answer the all-important question as to the size of the spawning reserve K 16
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
needed to produce a run of the desired size. But for other reasons an investigation of percentage
of loss incurred at various stages of the life-history is highly important. If with a known number
of spawners we can ascertain the resulting number of down-stream migrants, and then the
further percentage of loss during the life in the sea, we shall have enriched our knowledge in
a most essential way. I commend this, problem to our investigators as one of the most important.
It can even to advantage be subdivided, with an attempt to discover the proportion of loss incident
in natural fertilization of the egg, that during nest-building, during development from egg to
emergence of the fry, and during life as fry and fingerling up to the time of seaward migration.
This is work for the field naturalist who loves life in the open and is not afraid to handle the
nets and use the shovel. I have confined my attention here to the topics which seem, as has
been stated, to be of most immediate urgency."
Salmon-tagging in Beitish Columbia Watebs.
In accordance with the programme outlined by the Executive Committee of the Salmon
Investigating Federation, the Fisheries Branch and the Biological Board of Canada undertook
the tagging of spring and sockeye salmon along the British Columbia Coast. The following is
a brief review of such operations. Between May 23rd and June 25th 1,125 spring and fifty-one
cohoe salmon were tagged on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Of that number, the following
return was made of the place of recapture in 1925 of fifty-one salmon: West coast of Vancouver
Island, 8; Fraser River, 4; Columbia River, Oregon, 25; Sacramento River, California, 2;
other United States waters, 12.
Between June 20th and July 25th 274 siiring and seventeen cohoe salmon were tagged on
the west coast of Graham Island. Bad weather and poor catches limited operations. The
following return was made of the twenty recaptured: Columbia River, Oregon, 6; other United
States waters, 4;   Skeena River, 2;  Fraser River, 4;  west coast of Vancouver Island, 4.
Between August 3rd and 21st 659 sockeye salmon were taken from traps on Haystack Island,
off the entrance to the Nass River, and tagged, of which the following 134 were reported
recaptured: Nass River and Portland Inlet, S6; Skeena River, 13; channels between Nass and.
Skeena, 8;  Alaska waters, 27.
From the above review of salmon tagged in British Columbia waters it is manifest that:
(1) Columbia and Sacramento river-bred spring salmon are commonly associated with the schools
of British Columbia salmon feeding off the west coast of Vancouver Island in May and June;
(2) that spring salmon from the Columbia River in Oregon and the Skeena and Eraser Rivers
intermingle off the west coast of Queen Charlotte Islands with British Columbia fish; and (3)
that sockeye salmon seeking the Nass and Skeena Rivers in British Columbia and Alaska waters
are associated off the southern entrance to Portland Canal.
Dr. W. A. Clemens, who directed the tagging operations on the British Columbia Coast, also
undertook an interesting experiment to determine whether the severance of the olfactory nerve
of salmon would interfere with their home-stream migration. Of 515 sockeye taken from purse-
seines drawn in Deepwater Bay, Seymour Narrows, and tagged, he severed the olfactory nerve
of 259 of the tagged fish before liberating them. Of the latter, twenty-four were recaptured off
the mouth or in the Fraser River. Of the 256 tagged fish that were not operated on, fifty-nine
were taken in or off the Fraser.   No return was made from other waters.
Dr. Clemens's tagging operations at Departure Bay confirms, as Dr. Gilbert demonstrated
in 1915, that a certain per cent, of the sockeye run to the Fraser enters from the north via
Johnstone Strait—that the entire sockeye run to the Fraser does not come in through Juan de
Fuca Strait.
The Halibut Investigation.
The investigation of the life-history of the Pacific halibut and the condition of that fishery
Off the coast of British Columbia and Alaska which is being conducted by the International
Fisheries Commission, created by the Halibut Treaty between Canada and the United States,
is being vigorously pressed.
The Commission is confronted with an intricate problem. The halibut-fishery is a complex
thing, both biologically and economically. A thorough survey of the fishery must be made and
the facts in the life-history of the fish necessary to their conservation determined. Fish must
be caught and tagged to trace migrations;   " racial characters " determined by measurements 16 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 17
of many thousands of fish taken from many fishing-banks; the seasons and places of spamiing
determined; the drift of the young; and a measure of abundance established—each of which is
a problem in itself.
The treaty provides for a closed season from November 16th to February 15th, inclusive,
to be modified or suspended upon recommendation of the Commission after the expiration of the
third such season. The closed season, as the treaty clearly indicates, is essentially an experiment,
as all attempts to regulate such a complex fishery must be regarded. The treaty directs not
merely the observation of the effects of the present closed season, but preparation for recommendation of future legislation; hence the public and those interested in the industry should
be under no illusions regarding the period of time necessary to conduct the investigation. The
limited knowledge we had of the life of the halibut and the condition of the fishery, at the time
the treaty was ratified and upon which it is based, was that obtained only after four years of
close investigation by the British Columbia Government. The Commission must develop methods
of observation which will show the results of such measures, and the Commission must be fully
informed as to the condition of the fishery in order to recommend measures of conservation that
possibly may be effective. Constant trial and alteration of regulations may be anticipated.
Skilfully framed and skilfully observed experiments must be made before the object of the
treaty is attained.*
* As this report goes to press the Director of Investigations, W. F. Thompson, of the International
Fisheries Commission, and his scientific assistants issued a brief report on the scientific work of the
Commission, which is reproduced in the Appendix herewith issued, page 54. K 18 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS  TO  THE  LIFE-HISTORY  OF  THE   SOCKEYE   SALMON.
(No. 11.)
By Wilbeet A. Clemens,* Ph.D., Dibectob, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo,
and Lucy S. Clemens, Ph.D.
1.   THE FRASER RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1925.
The total pack of the run to the Fraser River this year amounted to 14J,408 cases, of which
35,385 were packed in the Province of British Columbia and 112,023 in the State of Washington.
The run thus was slightly better than that of the year previous and approximately equal to that
b 00,000
CASES
500,000
CASES
400,000
CASE5
-
300,OuO
CASES
200,000
CASES
>
■
100,000
CASES
\
/
\
/
'1ST    *Xb      *17      '18      11      '20     ^21      '2.Z     'Z3-    '2<f     'IS YEARS
Magnitude of sockeye-salmon run, Fraser River, 1915 to 1925.
* We have attempted in this paper to continue the series of studies of the scales of sockeye salmon so
ably carried out by Dr. C. H. Gilbert for many years. We have tried to follow Dr. Gilbert's interpretations
throughout. It would be too much to expect that, in our first year of this study, no errors have been made.
However, we feel that such errors as may have crept in have not affected the general results and conclusions.
We wish to express our appreciation of the assistance given by Dr. Gilbert in the examination of a considerable number of scales. We are also very grateful to J. P. Babcock for the privilege of studying this material
and for many courtesies. 16 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
K 19
of 1921. The increase in the size of the run over that of the past three years is without doubt
due to fish of the upper river, but the increase over the size of the run of 1921 is not very
significant. The total pack 1921-25 was 8,704 cases more than the total pack 1918-21. It would
thus appear, as Dr. Gilbert stated in his report for 1924, that the run to the Fraser River is
simply maintaining itself at a low state of production. The accompanying graph illustrates the
situation.
The material for this year's study consisted of data and scales from 1,229 sockeye selected
at random from May 6th to September 4th, in forty-three samplings.
(1.) The One-yeae-in-lake Type.
This type predominated in the run as usual. Of the total sample of 1,229 specimens, 1,148
or 93 per cent, belonged to this group. Of these, seven were in their third year, 835 or 73 per
cent, in their fourth, and 306 or 27 per cent, in their fifth. The males were slightly outnumbered
by the females, there being 557 of the former and 591 of the latter.
The grilse (three-year males) were few in number, only seven occurring.    (See Table III.)
The following two tables give the lengths and weights of all the four- and five-year specimens
of the one-year-in-lake type in the collection :—
Table I.—Fraser River Sockeyes, One Year in Lake, 1925, from Vancouver Island Traps,
grouped by Age, Sex, and Length.
Number op Individuals.
Length in Inches.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Total.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
18                               	
2
1
1
3
4
3
6
22
32
71
70
74
53
30
11
1
1
2
4
9
4
8
4
13
38
74
116
98
48
23
6
2
1
1
1
3
1
3
2
4
11
15
22
30
41
14
6
7
2
>2
1
1
4
4
5
24
35
31
20
13
3
2
18% .' : :	
1
19                                                   	
4
19% 	
10
20	
7
20%...               	
15
21 .....".	
8
21%	
20
22	
64
22% •.  ...
111
23	
194
23%...                                             	
175
24	
150
24% ■. ..	
122
25	
82
25%	
55
26	
45
26%	
45
27	
16
27%	
6
28	
7
28%	
2
Totals	
387
448
163
143
1,141
23.5
22.9
25.8
24.6 K 20
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
Table II.—Fraser River Sockeyes, One Year in Lake, 1925, from Vancouver Island Traps,
grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Total.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
2'-:,	
3
7
8
18
55
72
107
68
30
9
7
3
2
9
12
21
62
112
108
87
23
8
4
3
3
2
6
10
15
25
23
30
10
23
3
8
1
1
3
2
2
5
11
24
31
30
13
15
6
1
2
3 	
12
sy,	
22
4.                   	
34
4V,	
85
174
197
6   	
228
6%..              	
137
7 	
93
7% 	
49
8 :	
52
8%	
19
0	
24
9%    :..:'.:	
3
10....	
8
10%..	
1
11	
1
387
448
163
143
1,141
5.8
5.2
7.6
6.6
The average lengths of the four-year males and females is the lowest on record, but almost
identical with the lengths of the fish in the 1921 run. The following table (III.) gives the
comparative data over a term of years:—
Table III.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Grilse, 1925, from Vancouver Island Traps,
grouped by Age, Sex, and Length.
Length in Inches.
One Year in Lake,
Three Years Old.
Two I'ears in Lake,
Four 1tears old.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
18                                                                             	
2
2
1
1
1
' 1
2
3
isy.	
19                                                                             	
19 V,                                          	
20                                                              	
21                                                                  	
21 V<                                          	
2
22                                                                     -	
22 y>                                                        	
1
23                                                                           	
1
23%   .                                                             	
7
6
4
(2.)  The Two-yeaes-in-lake Type.
This group was rather sparsely represented in the 1925 run, there being but fifty-four
individuals, distributed as follows: Ten individuals four years of age, forty-two individuals
five years of age, and two individuals six years of age. The information concerning these fish
is given in Tables IV., V., and VI. 16 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
K 21
Table IV.—Average Lengths, Fraser River Sockeyes, Four Years old, One Year in Lake,
for a Term of Years.
Males. Females.
Average lengths for five years prior to 1919   25.0 24.1
Lengths in 1919  24.1 22.8
Lengths in 1920  24.1 23.2
Lengths in 1921  23.7 23.0
Lengths in 1922   24.0 23.0
Lengths in 1923  24.3 23.3
Lengths in 1924 "  23.8 22.8
Lengths in 1925  23.5 22.9
Table V.—Fraser River Sockeye, Two Years in Lake, 1925, from Vancouver Island Traps,
grouped by Age, Sex, and Length.
Length in Inches.
Number of
Individuals.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
19                	
1
1
5
4
2
1
4
1
5
3
4
7
4
19%                                                                       	
20     .	
20%	
21	
21%	
22                    	
22% 	
23	
23% i	
24 ,            	
24%	
25    ...                            	
25% 	
26                                                                                                 	
26%....
*
27                                                                        	
1
Totals-
18
24
9
Average
24.0
22.0
Table VI.—Fraser River Sockeye, Two Years in Lake, 1925, from Vancouver Island Traps,
grouped by Age, Sex, and. Weight.
Weight in Pounds.
Number op
Individuals.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
3       	
1
4
2
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
O
4
9
4
1
1
3%....
4	
AV,.
5                  	
5%	
6                       	
6 %	
1
7	
1
7%	
8                                             	
8% 	
Totals
Average
weights	
18
24
2
6.1
5.3 K 22
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
(3.) The Sea-type.
Individuals of this  type were  relatively few  in  number.    Only  three-year-old  fish  were
recognized, of which there were twenty-seven.    (See Tables VII. and VIII.)
Tattle.VII.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Sea-type, 1925, from, Vancouver Island, Traps,
grouped by Age, Sex, and Length.
Length in
Inches.
Number of
Individuals.
Three Y
ears old.
Males.
Females.
20 .'	
1
2
1
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
20%	
21                     	
1
21%	
4
22	
22%	
1
23	
23%	
24                                                                                             	
24%	
1
25	
25%	
26      	
Totals	
19
8
22.5
21.7
Table VIII.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Sea-type, 1925, from Vancouver Island Traps,
grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of
Individuals.
Three Years old.
Males.
Females.
3%                       :	
1
3
1
4
4
3
2
1
1
4....                      	
2
4%                                    ..                                 	
3
1
5%                                                                           	
6    	
6%....                    	
1
7     -	
Totals
19
8
5.3
4.6
2.   THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1925.
(1.) Genebal Chaeacteeistics.
The 1925 pack for Rivers Inlet amounted to 152,323 cases, which is the highest on record.
The run exceeded all expectations although Dr. Gilbert had stated that the prospects for 1925
were good. The run was derived from the brood-years 1920 and 1921. The former was a very
good year both from the point of view of pack and escapement to spawning-beds. Seventy-seven
per cent, of our sample this year consisted of five-year-old fish, so that the hulk of the run was
derived from the 1920 brood-year.   The pack for 1921 was low and the report from the spawning- 16 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
K 23
beds indicated a poor seeding. The run of 1925 serves to further establish the fact of a five-year
cycle in Rivers Inlet. The following table brings up to date the data set out by Dr. Gilbert in
his report on the 1922 run:—
Table IX.—Packs of Rivers Inlet since 1907 in Even Thousands, arranged in accordance with
the Five-year Cycle.
1907  87,000
1908  64,000
1909  89,000
1910 126,000
1911 :. 88,000
1912 112,000
1913  61,000
1914  89,000
1915 130,000
1916  44,000
1917  61,000
1918  53,000
1919  56,000
1920' 121,000
1921  46,000
1922  60,700
1923 107,000
1924  94,000
1925 159,000
The run of 1926 will be derived from the brood-years 1921 and 1922. The packs for these
years were 46,300 and 60,700 cases respectively. In both these years Overseer Stone reports the
spawning-beds not well seeded. From these facts, and taking into consideration the five-year
cycle, it is evident that a large pack cannot be expected in 1926.
Table X.—Percentages of Four- and Five-year Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, in Runs from 1912 to
1925, with Broods from which they were derived.
Run of the Year.
Percentage,
Four and Five
Years old.
Brood-year from which
derived.
1912  (112,884 cases).
1913   (61,745 cases).
1914   (89,890 cases).
1915   (130,350 cases).
1916  (44,936 cases).
1917 (61,195 cases)
1918 (53,401  cases).
1919 (56,258 cases).
1920   (121,254 cases) .
1921  (46,300 cases).
1922  (60,700 cases).
1923   (107,174 cases).
1924   (94,891 cases).
1925   (159.554 cases).
5 yrs. 79%
4 yrs. 21%
5 yrs. 20%
4 yrs. 80%
5 yrs. 65%
4 yrs. 35%
5 yrs. 87%
4 yrs. 13%
5 yrs. 76%
4 yrs. 24%
5 yrs. 67%
4 yrs. 33%
5 yrs. 43%
4 yrs. 57%
5 yrs. 54%
4 yrs. 46%
5 yrs. 95%
4 yrs.    5%
5 yrs. 51%
4 yrs. 49%
5 yrs. 18%
4 yrs. 82%
5 yrs. 24%
4 yrs. 76%
5 yrs. 56%
4 yrs. 44%
5 yrs. 77%
4 yrs. 23%
1907 (87,874 cases).
1908 (64,652 cases).
1909 (89,027 cases).
1910 (126,921 cases).
1911 (88,763 cases).
1912 (112,884 cases).
1913 (61,743 cases).
1914 (89,890 cases).
1915 (130,350 cases).
(■   1916 (44,936 cases).
.   1917   (61,195 cases).
1918 (53,401  cases).
1919 (56,258 cases).
1920 (121,254 cases).
1921 (46,300 cases). K 24
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
(2.) Age-groups.
The material used in this study was comprised of data and scales from 1,039 sockeyes taken
from June 23rd to August 7th in fourteen samplings. The results of our examination of the
scales show that the fish were all of the one-year-in-lake type. It is possible that we failed to
detect some two-year-in-lake individuals, but the run to Rivers Inlet has always been composed
of the former type to the almost complete exclusion of all others, and so even if we have overlooked a few two-year-in-lake individuals, the general conclusions are not affected to any extent.
Table XI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, One Year in Lake, 1925, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length.
Number of
Individuals.
Length  in  Inches.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Total.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
20                                                  	
1
9
19
25
36
33
14
11
7    -
1
3
1
1
8
15
22
22
9
3
1
1
1
2
3
5
10
20
16
23
23
38
27
45
35
13
5
3
1
1
2
9
26
50
67
82
109
99
50
24
4
3
1    ■
1
20 %....	
10
21                                                      	
28
21%	
42
22                           	
63
22% '.	
69
23                                              	
59
23 %.                                            	
84
24                                                  	
91
24%....                             	
106
25	
136
25%                                           .-	
137
26                        ~  	
78
26%	
69
27                                                  	
40
27%....                                         	
16
28 	
6
28%..	
29..                                                 	
1
Totals                         	
160
83
269
527
1.039
Average lengths	
22.2
22.2
25.5
24.8
Table XII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, One Year in Lake, 1925, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of
Individuals.
Fc»ur Years old.
Five Years old.
Total.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
9
46
57
30
11
2
3
1
1
4
34
31
11
1
2
1
5
4
21
22
36
20
45
40
25
28
4
5
3
i
1
3
23
51
90
115
113
74
40
12
5
1
14
88
115
113
124
6                                                         	
155
145
119
81
37
8% -	
34
4
9%                                                  	
5
10	
3
1
Totals
160
83
269
527
1,039
Average
4.6
4.4
6.9
6.2 16 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
K 25
The five-year-old fish predominate in numbers, comprising a total of 796 or 73 per cent.
They show a decided increase in size over those of recent years but approach in size to those
of the 1920 and 1915 runs. (See Table XIII.) It is apparent that the fish comprising this series
of five-year runs are larger than those of other series. The general tendency toward reduction
in size is, however, apparently maintained.
The four-year-old fish formed only 23 per cent, of the sample. Their average length and
weight is the smallest on record.    (Tables XIII. and XIV.)
Table XIII.—Average Length in Inches of Rivers Inlet Sockeyes for Fourteen Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912                                      .. .                                               	
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.9
22.9
22.5
22.3
22.4
22.9
22.5
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.8
23.0
22.8
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
22.3
22.6
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.2
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.8
26.0
25.2
24.6
24.6
24.9
25.5
24.6
1913	
25.2
1914  	
25.2
1915	
25.1
1916	
25.0
1917 :	
24.4
1918	
24.5
1919	
24.4
1920	
25.0
1921	
24.2
1922 :	
24.2
1923	
24.1
1924                 	
24.3
1925	
24.8
Table XIV.—Average Weight in Pounds of Rivers Inlet Sockeyes for Kleven Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914                       	
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
5.1
4.8
4.9
5.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
7.3
7.3
7.6
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.9
6.8
1915	
6.6
1916                                                                          	
6.7
1917	
6.2
1918	
6.7
1919	
5.9
1921 :	
6.0
1922                    '.	
7 0
1923 	
5.9
1924	
6.1
1925   	
6.2
(3.)  Distribution of the Sexes.
The occurrence of the sexes followed the usual distribution for Rivers Inlet; that is, that
in the four-year-old class the males are greatly in excess, while in the five-year-old class the
females generally exceed the males in numbers. The four-year-old males were double the number
of four-year-old females, while exactly the opposite held for the five-year-old specimens. (See
Table XV.)
The total number of males of both classes was 429 and that of the females 610, the
percentages being 41 and 59. This excess of females over males also occurred in 1920 and 1915,
and would appear to be a characteristic of this five-year series and may account in part for the
extraordinary success of this series. K 26
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
Table XV.—Relative Numbers of Males and Females, Rivers Inlet Sockeyes,
One-year-in-lake Type, 1915 to 1925.
«
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
Average percentages—
Four-year males	
Four-year females	
Five-year males	
Five-year females	
45
55
74
26
40
60
52
48
75
25
42
58
53
47
74
26
49
51
66
34
79
21
45
55
58
42
74
26
48
52
49
51
65
35
38
62
51
49
66
34
38
62
61
39
71
29
33
67
62
38
74
26
31
69
50
50
66
34
34
66
41
Percentage total females	
59
3.  THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1925.
(1.)  General Characteristics and Year-classes.
The Skeena River sockeye-pack of 1925 was relatively small. This was expected, since in
the brood-years—namely, 1920 and 1921—the packs were 91,000 and 41,000 cases respectively,
and in these years the reports from the spawning-beds were not good, especially in 1920. It is
difficult to predict the run for 1926. The brood-years are 1921 and 1922. Little may be expected
from the 1921 brood. However, the pack in 1922 was 100,667 cases and Overseer Gibson reported
the spawning-beds well seeded. Since the run of 1922 consisted largely of four-year-old fish there
would appear to be some expectation of a retnrn of their progeny in 1926. That is, the inclination
would be to expect the offspring of the 1922 spawning, to remain one year in the lake and to
return from the sea in their fourth year. If this occurs there should be a fair run in 1926,
otherwise there will be a very small run. 16 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
K 27
Table XVI.—Percentages of Four- and Five-year Skeena River Sockeyes that spent
One Year in Lake, in Runs of Successive Years.
Run of the Year.
FoPur Cae£daFiVe      Brood-years from which
Years old.
derived.
1912 (92,498 cases)...
1913 (52,927 cases)...
1914 (130,166 cases).
1915 (116,553 cases).
1916 (60,923 cases)...
1917   (65,760 cases).
1918   (123,322 cases).
1919  (184,945 cases).
1920  (90,869 cases).
1021   (41,018 cases)...
1922 (100,667 cases).
1923 (131,731 cases).
1924 (144,747 cases)..
1925 (77,784 cases)...
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
43%
57%
i
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
50%
50%
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
75%
25%
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
64%
36%
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
60%
40%
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
62%
38%
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
59%
41%
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
69%
31%
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
82%
18%
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
24%
76%
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
19%
81%
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
34%
66%
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
75%
25%
5
4
yrs.
yrs.
47%
53%
1907 (108,413 cases).
1908 (139,846 cases).
1909 (87,901 cases).
1910 (187,246 cases).
1911 (131,066 cases).
1912 (92,498 cases).
1913 (52,927 cases).
1914 (130,166 cases).
1915 (116,553 cases).
1916 (60,923 cases).
\   1917 (65,760 cases).
1918 (123,322 cases).
1919 (184,945 cases).
1920 (90,869 cases).
1921 (41,018 cases).
The material collected in 1925 for study was derived from 1,961 individuals taken between
June 23rd and August 12th. The run was composed almost entirely of one-year-in-lake fish,
forming 96 per cent.    Of these, 47 per cent, were five-year-old fish and 53 per cent, four-year-old. K 28
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
Table XVII.—Percentages of the Principal Year-classes, Skeena River Sockeyes,
from 1916 to 1925.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1916                                                  	
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
 1
18
1917                                                  	
5
1918                            	
6
1919	
4
1920                      	
8
1921                        	
3
1922	
2
1923	
7
1924	
1
1925                                              	
1
(2.)  Lengths and Weights.
It will be noted that the average lengths and weights of the various year-classes have again
decreased to approximately the same values as those obtaining for several years prior to 1924.
The fish of the 1924 run were much larger.
Table XVIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1925, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
One-year-in
-lake Type.
Two-years-in-lake Type.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Total.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
20%	
1
2
7
30
66
110
116
120
69
30
9
6
1
1
1
1
16
61
112
132
68
25
7
2
1
2
8
11
26
29
55
75
58
43
38
12
6
2
3
3
19
47
90
118
107
69
46
10
1
2
4
6
9
2
2
5
1
1
5
7
4
10
7
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
21                         	
2
21%	
24
22	
22%	
100
192    .
23	
278
23%
260
24	
24%       	
279
230
25    	
199
25%	
162
26	
116
26%                    	
55
27	
41
27%	
13
28	
6
28%	
3
Totals	
570
426
366
513
31
38
8       |         9
1,961
Ave. lengths
23.6
22.8
25.6
24.7
24.1
23.3
■25.8
24.3 16 Geo. 5
LlFE-HISTORY   OF   SOCKEYE   SALMON.
K 29
Table XIX.—Average Lengths of Skeena River Sockeyes, One Year in Lake, for
Fourteen Successive Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females..
1912                                               	
24.6
23.5
24.2
24.2
23.9
23.6
24.1
24.3
23. S
23.8
23.6
23.7
24.1
23.6
23.5
22.0
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.2
23.1
23.2
23.1
23.3
22.8
26.4
25.5
26.2
25.9
26.2    '
25.5
25.9
25.7
26.2
25.2
25.3
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.2
1913             ..                                                 	
24.7
1914                                            	
25.1
1915    .                                     	
25.0
1916       	
25.0
1917                                        	
24.7
1918                                            :	
25.0
1919....                                             	
24.8
1920	
25.3
1921            	
24.2
1922 	
24.4
1923            	
24.5
1924 '.                    	
25.2
1925      	
24.7
Tattle XX.—Average Lengths of Skeena Sockeyes, Two Years in Lake, for Ten Successive Years.
Year.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Six-year
Males.
Six-year
Females.
1916                        ..	
24.1
23.9
23.9
24.3
24.1
24.2
23.8
23.9
24.7
24.1
23.8
23.8
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.2
23.6
23.3
26.2
25.4
25.2
25.8
26.2
24.9
24.6
25.6
25.8
25.8
24.8
1917 .	
25.0
1918     ..                                        	
24.7
1919                           ....                   	
24.7
1920    .	
25.1
1921	
24.2
1922           -                                    	
24 1
1923                                                 	
24.4
1924                                 	
24 8
1925	
24.8
Table XXI.—Average Lengths of Skeena River Sockeyes, 1925, compared with 1923, 1924,
and with General Averages, 1912 to 1921.
Average
Lengths,
1925.
Average
Lengths,
1024.
Average
Lengths,
1923.
Averages,
1912 to
1921.
One year in lake—
Four-year males....
Four-year females
Five-year males....
Five-year females..
Two years in lake—
Five-year males....
Five-year females..
Six-year males	
Six-year females
23.6
22.8
25.6
24.7
24.1
23.3
25.8
24.3
24.1
23.3
26.2
25\2
24.7
23.6
25.8
24.8
23.7
23.1
25.5
24.5
23.9
23.2
25.6
24.4
24.0
23.3
25.8
24.9
24.1
23.6
25.7
24.8 K 30
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
Table XXII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1925, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight.
Number
of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
One-year-in
-lake Type.
Two-years-in-lake Type.
Four Years old.
Five  Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Total.
Males.
Females.
Males.   1 Females.
1
Males.
Females.
1
Males.   I Females.
2
52
135
150
148
50
23
6
2,
1
1
1
2
68
179
124
39
11
2
2
7
27
44
72
72
63
49
24
4
1
1
1
31
91
108
130
96
48
8
1
3
6
9
7
4
1
5
13
8
9
3
2
1
4
1
2
2
3
.  1
1
1
3%	
4	
4
129
4%	
370
5	
5%	
408
362
6	
6%	
274
198
7	
7%	
119
63
8	
26
8%	
9	
9%	
4
1
1
10	
1
Totals    ..     ..
570
426
366
513
31
38
8
9
1,961
Ave. weights
5.1
4.7
6.5
5.8
5.5
4.9
6.9
5.4
Table XXIII.—Average Weights of Skeena River Sockeyes, One Year in Lake
for Twelve Successive Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914                                                                             	
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.8
6.1
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.1
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.5
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.0
4.7
7.2
6.8
7.1
6.4
6.9
7.0
7.2
6.4
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.3
1915                   	
6.2
1916                                   	
6.3
1917.   .                                                 	
6.0
1918  1    	
6.4
1919                        .                               	
6.2
1920..                                        	
6.4
1921                                                                                  	
5.7
1922                                                                              	
5.7
1923....           ....	
5.7
1924 • 1	
6.3
1925                                                   ....                                	
5.8 16 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
K 31
Table XXIV.—Average Weights of Skeena River Sockeyes, Two Years in Lake,
for Eleven Successive Years.
Tear.
Five-vear
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Six-year
Males.
Six-year
Females.
1915                   	
5.9
5.8
5.5
5.7
6.1
6.3
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.9
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.8
5.1
4.9
6.6
7.1
6.3
6.6
6.9
7.3
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.6
6.9
6.0
1916                           	
5.9
1917 	
5.8
1918                                        	
6.1
1919                                                                      	
6.3
1920                                    	
6.3
1921                                        	
5.6
1922.. .
5.7
1923              	
5.4
1924	
5.8
1925:.     	
5.4
Table XXV.—Average Weights of Skeena River Sockeyes, 1925, compared with 1923, 1924,
and ivith General Averages, 1912 to 1921.
Average
Weights,
1925.
Average
Weights,
1924.
Average
Weights,
1923.
Averages,
1912  to
1921.
One year in lake—
Four-year males....
Four-year females
Five-year males....
Five-year females..
Two years in lake—
Five-year males....
Five-year females..
'Six-year males	
Six-year females...
5.1
4.7
6.5
5.8
5.8
4.9
6.9
5.4
5.6
5.0
7.0
6.3
5.9
5.1
6.6
5.8
5.3
4.9
6.3
5.3
4.8
6.3
5.4
5.7
5.2
6.8
6.2
5.9
5.2
6.7
6.0
(3.)  Peopoetions of the Sexes.
The proportions of the sexes in the 1925 run agree with the general characteristics of the
Skeena race.    The four-year-old males outnumber the four-year-old females, while the five-year-
old (one-year-in-lake) males are less numerous than the five-year-old (one-year-in-lake) females.
Out of a total of 1,961 individuals there were 975 males and 986 females.
Table XXVI.—Percentages of Males and Females in each of the Different Year-groups,
Skeena River Sockeyes, in a Series of Years.
One Yeah
in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
1912	
54
69
60
55
70
65
63
53
41
44
52
60
50
57
46
31
40
45
30
35
37
47
59
56
48
40
50
43
42
47
47
45
•43
48
46
46
37
44
41
37
43
42
58
53
53
55
57
52
54
54
63
56
59
63
57
58
56
65
61
52
43
50
52
56
46
45
44
35
39
48
57
50
48
44
54
55
54
58
56
45
41
43
53
40
46
47
1913	
1914	
1915                                 	
1916 !	
46
1917	
42
1918	
44
1919	
55
1920	
59
1921	
57
1922	
47
1923	
60
1924	
54
1925	
53 K 32 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
4. THE NASS RIVER  SOCKEYE RUN OF 1925.
(1.)  Genebal Chaeactebistics.
During the last few years the Nass River sockeye runs have been of particular interest
because they have shown noticeable inconsistent variations which cannot be explained by any
obvious reason. As has been pointed out by Dr. Gilbert, the cycle in this river is definitely a
five-year one. To illustrate the inconsistencies the following examples are cited: The run of
1921 was exceptionally poor, although the brood-year, 1916, according to the pack record and
conditions on the spawning-grounds, was excellent. Vice versa, in 1922 there occurred one of
the largest runs of recent years, and yet 90 per cent, of the run was hatched from eggs spawned
in 1917, which is recorded as a very mediocre year (22,188 cases). Dr. Gilbert says: "The
nature of the exceptional conditions, favourable or unfavourable, which were responsible for
these contradictory results is not known to us." The last three years have shown a closer
correspondence between the packs and their brood-years :—■
1923 17,821 cases. 1918 21,816 cases.
1924 33,590 cases. 1919 28,259 cases.
1925 19,351 cases. 1920 16,740 cases.
In spite of the fact that these last three years have conformed more nearly to expectancy
according to pack records, there is still some discrepancy between actual returns and predicted
returns based on the spawning-ground conditions. For instance, in 1919 "the spawning-beds
presented a very unfavourable aspect, but one of the greatest runs the Nass has known occurred
in 1924. The pack of 1925 was small, particularly in comparison with those of 1922 and 1924,
but it was expected, not only because of the small pack of the brood-year, 1920, but, in addition,
Inspector Hickman was of the opinion that the run of 1920 was not as large as any other year
on record, with the possible exception of 1919. Only 75 per cent, of the pack was derived from
the 1920 run and an unusually high percentage (23) formed the four-year-old one-year-in-lake
group. This is very difficult to understand, particularly as these individuals were descendants
of. the 1921 run, which is the smallest on record (9,364 cases). It is possible that we have erred
in some of our determinations, overlooking a very small first winter in the lake, and consequently
placing individuals, which really belonged in the five-year-old two-years-in-lake class, in the
four-year-old one-year-in-lake group.
Fear has been expressed that the Nass run is declining. The results of this year's pack,
together with the knowledge that next year's run will be derived from the smallest run on record,
are not encouraging. On the other hand, this year Inspector Hickman observed at the head of
Meziadin Lake a far greater number of spawning fish than he had seen in any previous year,
and he also reported enormous numbers of sockeye massed below both upper and lower falls.
But experience has taught that predictions are not necessarily realize* in this river. Consequently
a few more years must pass before the real condition of the Nass run is definitely known.
(2.) The Age-geoups.
The run of 1925 included the usual eight year-classes, seven of which are listed in Tables
XXVIII. and XXXI. The eighth class, which includes those individuals which spend three full
years in fresh water and four summers in the sea, was represented by a single female, 29%
inches long%nd with a weight of 8.25 lb. Samples totalling 1,622 individuals were taken at
regular intervals of every three or four days from July 6th to August 22nd. As has been stated
above, 75 per cent, of these fish belong to the five-year group and 23 per cent, to the four-year-old
one-year-in-lake class. Table XXVII. shows that, in comparison with the majority of previous
years, the former percentage is low and the latter high. However, the relative proportions of
these two classes in the years 1915 and 1918 were quite similar to these of 1925. But, on the
other hand, as previously noted, the lack of conformity in 1925 may be due to error in age-
determinations. 16 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
K 33
Table XXVII.—Percentages of Principal Age-groups present in the Nass River Sockeye Run
from 1912 to 1925.
Percentage of Individuals that spent
Year.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1912 ...             	
8
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
. 4
23
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2 -
6
3
8
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
2
1913    	
2
1914  	
10
1915	
8
1916  	
8
1917 ....	
4
1918	
9
1919 	
6
1920 .- :  	
6
1921	
8
1922 	
1
1923.-          	
6
1924 ...                              . -
2
1925     	
2
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
Tables XXVIII. and XXXI. present an enumeration of the lengths and weights of the present
run. In studying these tables as well as Nos. XXIX., XXX., XXXII., and XXXIIL, one finds
the usual size characteristics of the Nass sockeye. Attention may be called to the constancy of
the average lengths, those of 1925 being slightly less than those of 1924 and very slightly more
than those of 1923. Tables XXXII. and XXXIIL show the same facts concerning the average
weights. K 34
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
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Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
K 35
Table XXIX.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths of Principal Classes from 1912 to 1925.
One Yeab in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Four Years old.
Five  Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
1912 (inches)	
24.6
24.1
24.6
24.0
24.5
23.4
25.0
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
23.3
23.5
22.7
23.5
23.3
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
26.5
25.6
26.1
25.9
26.4
25.5
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2
25.9
25.1
24.8
25.1
25.2
25.0
24.7
24.7
25.2
25.0  .
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
26.2
26.0
26.3
26.5
26.5
25.3
25.9
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
25.4
25.2
25.5
25.9
25.6
24.7
25.0
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
25.0
27.0
26.0
26.9
26.6
27.9
26.5
27.2
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
25.6
1913        „        	
26.6
1914        „        	
25.6
1915        „	
25.3
1916	
25.7
1917        „        	
25.5
1918
25.2
1919        ,,        ..  .              	
26.7
1920	
25.9
1921
26.2
1922        ,,        	
25.9
1923        „        	
26.5
1924        „                            	
25.4
1925        ,,        	
25.4
Table XXX.—Average Lengths of Principal Classes of Nass River Sockeyes, 1925, compared
with 1924, 1923, and with General Averages of 1912 to 1921.
Average
Lengths,
1925.
Average
Lengths,
1924.
Average
Lengths,
1923.
General
Averages.
1912 to 1921.
One year in lake—
Four-year males	
24.4
23.8
25.9
24.7
25.9
25.0
26.9
-25.4
24.7
23.8
26.2
24.9
26.3
25.4
28.0
25.4
24.3
23.7
25.9
25.3
26.2
25.5
27.2
26.5
24.3
23.5
26.0
24.9
Two years in lake—
26.2
25.5
■27.1
25.8 K 36
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
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a 16 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
K 37
Table XXXII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights of Principal Classes from 1913 to 1925.
One Yeak in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
'
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
1913 (pounds)     	
5
6.2
5.6
6.0
5.3
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.9
5
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.4
!
6.3
1
6.5
el*
1914        „         	
7.4
6.9
7.2
6.8
7.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6,5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
7.2
7.0
7.2
6.3
7.2
6.7
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.5
6.6
6.2
5.8
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
7.9
7.2
8.1
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
6.8
1915        „                  	
6.5
1916        „             	
6.4
1917        „	
6.4
1918       „             	
6.7
1919        ,,             	
6.7
1920        , .'.	
7.0
1921        ,,               	
6.6
1922        „         	
6.6
1923       „         	
6.8
1924        „                	
6.5
1925        „             	
6.3
Table XXXIIL—Average Weights of Principal Classes of Nass River Sockeyes, 1925, compared
with 1924, 1923, and with General Averages of 1914 to 1921.
Average
Weights,
1925.
Average
Weights,
1924.
Average
Weights,
1923.
General
Averages,
1914 to 1921.
One year in lake—
Four-year males....
Four-year females
Five-year males	
Five-year females..
Two years in lake—
Five-year males....
Five-year females..
Sis-year males.	
Six-year females...
5.9
5.4
6.S
6.1
6.7
6.0
7.4
6.3
5.9
5.4
7.2
6.1
6.8
6.1
8.0
6.5
5.8
5.2
6.7
6.1
6.6
6.0
7.2
5.9
5.3
7.0
6.3
7.0
6.3
7.8
6.6
As in previous years, the five-year-old group, which spent two years in the lake and three
summers at sea, had a slightly greater average length than the same age-group which spent
only one year in fresh water and three summers at sea. ■ This seems to be particularly true of
the females. The same tendency is evidenced in the average weights, but here the difference
is less constant. Occasionally, as in 1924 and 1923, one or both sexes of the one-year-in-lake
class equalled or even exceeded in weight the two-years-in-lake group.
(4.)   Season Changes dubing the Run.
Dr. Gilbert has pointed out that definite seasonal changes are characteristic of the Nass run.
He found that the sea-type group confined itself to the early part of the run, and, conversely, the
six-year classes were present chiefly in, the later part. While the two five-year groups and the
four-year one-year-in-lake group were usually found at all times during the run, their proportions
varied. The greatest numbers of the one-year-in-lake groups occurred, as a rule, during the
second and third weeks of July. The five-year-old two-years-in-lake class dominated the run, but
its strength varied from time to time. In these respects the run of 1025 conformed to those of
other years, as is shown in Table XXXIV. K 38
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
Table XXXIV.—Number of Individuals in each Class of Nass River Sockeyes running at
Different Dates in 1925.
Date.
One Yeae in
Lake.
Four
Years
old.
Five
Years
old.
Two Years in
Lake.
Five
Years
old.
Six
Years
old.
Three
Years in
Lake.
Six
Years
old.
Sea-type.
Three
Years
old.
Four
Years
old.
Number of
Individuals
examined.
July 6	
July 10	
July 14	
July  17	
July 21	
July 24	
July 28	
July 31	
Aug. 3	
Aug. 7	
Aug.  11......
Aug.  14	
Aug.  18	
Aug. 22	
Individuals
16
28
31
29
55
52
37
22
24
28
14
35
376
5
11
6
18
16
21
13
9
4
121
81
100
78
75
47
42
71
85
84
80
90
83
102
47
1,065
30
102
143
120
123
125
120
124
121
117
119
116
122
121
48
1,621
(5.)  The Meziadin and Bowser Lake Sockeye Colonies.
As long ago as the 1915 run, Dr. Gilbert called attention to the probability of the Nass run
being composed of two distinct races. He based his opinion upon the facts that (1) the run
was characterized by definite early and late periods; (2) the late-running fish were of a conspicuously larger size; and (3) that there seemed to be a difference in the rates of growth in
the nuclear areas of the scales.
Meziadin and Bowser Lakes were the only two known extensive spawning-beds, and their
great inaccessibility made the actual examination of the spawning populations most difficult.
The first samplings were obtained by Inspector Hickman during the summer of 1922, and each
succeeding summer he has secured a few more. Unfortunately those collected in 1925 were all
from the Bowser Lake colony, taken in the Nass two miles above the Meziadin River. A gill-net
was operated continuously from September 17th to September 24th, which resulted in the capture
of only forty-five sockeyes. Similarly, in 1924 a very few fish were secured at approximately the
same time. This emphasizes Dr. Gilbert's statement, page 37, 1924: " We are compelled to
assume that if Bowser Lake has any considerable importance as spawning-grounds for sockeye
salmon, these must ascend the stream earlier than the run to the Meziadin, and earlier than
September when our observations have been made." The evidence from all the samples of the
Meziadin and Bowser spawning-beds has substantiated Dr. Gilbert's theory of two distinct races.
A difference in the rates of fresh-water growth in the scales of the two-years-in-lake type
of these two colonies seemed probable, but more material is necessary before its value as a
character of separation can be positively judged. In 1923 Dr. Gilbert found the rates of growth
unquestionably different, but the following year they were practically identical. The 1925 Bowser
samplings seemed to confirm Dr. Gilbert's finding of 1924; that is, the average number of nuclear
rings was approximately 6+13, the number which Dr. Gilbert found for both the Meziadin and
the Bowser.
However, two very decided differences between the colonies are illustrated in the three
following tables. Table No. XXXV. shows that the Bowser population seeks the sea earlier
than the Meziadin colonies. Tables No. XXXVI. and No. XXXVII. point out the fact that
the Bowser colonies are made up of individuals distinctly smaller than those of the Meziadin. 16 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
K 39
Table XXXV.—Percentages of Meziadin and Bowser Lake Runs, showing Different Number of
Years in Fresh Water.
Years in Lake.
No. of
One
Year.
Two
l'ears.
Three
Years.
Specimens.
Meziadin, 1922	
13
40
33
18
16
80
84
76
60
64
70
80
20
3
24
3
3
4
10
Meziadin, 1923.           	
63
Meziadin, 1924.                	
160
Bowser,  1922 ..                      .             	
15
Bowser,  1923 	
41
34
45
Table XXXVI.—Average Lengths of the Meziadin and Bowser Lake Sockeyes for the
Years 1924 and 1925.
Year.
Bowser Lake.
Meziadin Lake.
Malts.
Females.
Males.
Females.
1924      !	
25.5
23.8
23.6
23.3
26.8
25.7
1925                                       	
Table XXXVII.—The Lengths of Individuals comprising the Bowser Lake Run in 1925.
Length in Inches.
Ntjmbhb of
Individuals.
Males.
Females.
19%   ,	
1
1
1
3
3
3
1
1
2
1
20                  	
1
201/.                     	
21—.                                     	
1
21%  --   .i 	
22    -                                                    	
2
22%....  	
4
23..                   .                                                                             	
6
24               	
3
24% : 	
5
25                               	
25%   	
1
26
1
26%     	
27..                              :     	
Totals	
17
28
23.8
23.3 THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE FRASER RIVER.
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit the following report of my twenty-third annual inspection
of the salmon-spawning area of the Fraser River basin, made during the season of 1925:—
The catch of all species of salmon in the Provincial waters of the Fraser River system this
year produced a pack of 280,717 cases, as against 212,059 cases in 1924 and 107,650 cases in the
fourth preceding year, 1921.
The pack consisted of 39,222 cases of sockeye, 36,717 cases of cohoes, 90,800 cases of pinks,
33,690 cases of springs, and 66,111 cases of chums. The pack of sockeye was 4,246 cases less
than in the preceding fourth year.
The catch of sockeye salmon in the State of Washington waters of the Fraser River system
in 1925 produced a pack of 112,023 cases, as against a pack of 102,967 cases in 1921, the fourth
preceding year.
The total catch of sockeye in the entire Fraser River system in 1925 produced a pack of
147,408 cases, or 4,810 cases more than in the fourth preceding year. The run of 1925 was almost
wholly the product of the escapement that spawned in 1921.
The inspection of the upper section of the Fraser River basin was made in August, September,
and October. In addition to the information gained by observations, I am greatly indebted to
Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Inspector of Fisheries for the Dominion within the Province, for
full summaries of reports made by his assistants on the Fraser, and also to many white and
Indian residents in the Fraser basin.
No section of the Upper Fraser basin has been sufficiently seeded by sockeye since 1913 to
increase the run. Such information as we have of the escapement of this and recent years has
been gleaned by observations made at rapids in the canyons of the Fraser and the spawning-beds
of its tributaries, and in various other sections where the fish have difficulty in their ascent,
and where in consequence they expose themselves to view.
In no spawning section in the Fraser River basin this year were sockeye seen in numbers,
with the exception of the Birkenhead River, at the head of the Harrison-Lillooet Lake District.
The number of sockeye and spring salmon that reached Hell's Gate Canyon this season was
apparently somewhat larger than four years ago, and apparently somewhat larger than in any
year since 1913. The Dominion fishery authorities having made a reserve of Hell's Gate
Canyon and prohibited the Indians from fishing, all the salmon that reached there this year
passed through with little more delay than usual. Owing to the extreme low stage of water
in August and early September, the fish were delayed for a day or two at times, but eventually
all made the ascent and passed to water above.
Reports were again current during the run that the river-channel had not been fully restored
since the great rock-slide of 1913, and that in consequence the fish were completely blocked at
Hell's Gate. Such reports were unfounded. Conditions in the canyon were under close observation this season, and have been since 1902. Major Motherwell, Chief Inspector, and Engineers
McHugh and Hunt and Fishery Officer Scott, of the Dominion Fishery Service, made repeated
inspections this year as usual. Mr. McHugh directed the work of removing the rocks and
restoring the channel in 1914, and has made a careful study of conditions there every season
since. Fishery Officer Scott, a most efficient officer, who has been constantly on guard since
1914, made almost daily inspections this year. In my study of conditions in the Fraser River
basin since 1901 especial attention has been paid to conditions there during the run each year.
The above-mentioned officials and myself have conferred repeatedly, and are all satisfied that
the river-channel has been fully restored, and that the fish that now reach there are not unduly
delayed and that all eventually pass through. I am convinced that conditions there are as
satisfactory as they were previous to 1913. None of the critics of present conditions in Hell's
Gate Canyon were familiar with the difficulties the fish encountered there previous to 1913, and
none of them are as familiar with present conditions as the Dominion fishery officers named.
Those interested in the salmon-fisheries of the Fraser, on both sides of the line, may rest assured
that salmon which now reach the canyon have access to the upper reaches of the river, and that, 16 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of Fraser River. K 41
in consequence of the Indians now being prohibited from fishing there, a greater proportion of
the fish pass through than in former years.
Notwithstanding that the number of sockeye that passed through Hell's Gate Canyon this
year appears to have been greater than for some years, the number that reached and spawned
in the big lake districts of the upper basin was not so materially increased as to warrant the
belief that there will be an increased run four years hence. The number of sockeye caught by
Indians at their fishing-places along the river was several times greater than in any year since
1913. This in a great measure was due to the extreme low-water conditions. The discharge
measurements of the Fraser taken at Hope show that the water was lower than in any season
since 1912. The discharge at Hope the last of October this year was but 31,900 cubic feet per
second, against an. average flow at that period since 1912 of 59,440 cubic feet per second.
Fishery Officer Scott, of the Dominion service, who throughout the season kept a close watch
on conditions in the Fraser from Hope to the rapids in the canyon above the mouth of Bridge
River, and who repeatedly counted the salmon hanging on the Indian smoke-frames at the latter
fishing-station, reported to Major Motherwell that upwards of 6,500 sockeye were taken there
this year.
I visited the rapids in September and found the Indians fishing there in greater numbers
than in any year since 1917 and their catch also greater. The water was then so low that the
ascending fish proved easy victims to the Indians, with their gaffs and dip-nets. At such low
stages of water as existed there this year the fish encountered as much difficulty as they did at
Hell's Gate. The water was so much lower in October, when I next visited the canyon with
Major Motherwell, that the few dozen sockeye we saw there were unable to get through. They
were blocked for two weeks and during that time most of them that escaped capture by Indians
dropped down-stream some 3 miles and entered Cayoose Creek and thence to Seton Lake, where
they spawned.
The watchman at Seton Lake estimated that over 5,000 sockeye reached the entrance to Seton
Lake in October. All were in an advanced condition and many of them spawned in Lake Creek,
the outlet of the lake. The sockeye I saw there in October were typical specimens of the sockeye
that spawn only in the upper lake sections of the Fraser above Hell's Gate. They differed
materially in outward colouring from those which spawn in the lake tributaries of the Fraser
below Hell's Gate Canyon. The bodies of the up-river fish are characterized by bright red
colouring and their heads and tails a light green. Their colouring is much more brilliant than
that of those which spawn in.:the Harrison-Lillooet Lakes section, from which the eggs taken
for the Birkenhead Hatchery are obtained. In consequence I am convinced that those seen in
Lake Creek came from sockeye which spawned above Hell's Gate, and may not be credited to
the 900,000 sockeye-fry that were taken from the Birkenhead Hatchery and liberated in Seton
and Anderson Lakes four years ago. The fact that few of the sockeye that entered Seton Lake
in October passed on into Anderson Lake appears to confirm that opinion.
Conditions this year at the canyon of the Fraser near the mouth of Bridge River have excited
no little discussion, and it has been suggested that some of the rocks in the channel exposed at
extreme low water should be blasted out. I am not of that opinion. Possibly conditions as they
were in October might be improved by removing certain rocks, but by so doing the earlier runs
—the important and main runs which reach that section in July—might be seriously affected.
There is grave danger that any blasting done there to improve conditions at extreme low water
might create conditions at higher stages of the flow that would increase the difficulties
encountered by the main runs.
As stated above, I have been familiar with conditions since 1901. The discharge measurements of the Fraser at Hope this year show that during the sockeye runs this year the maximum
and minimum flow was lower than in any season of which we have a record. The following
table gives the maximum and minimum flow in cubic feet per second in the Fraser in July,
August, September, and October, 1925 :—                                        ,.    . „,. .
Maximum, Minimum,
Cu. Ft. per Sec. Cu. Ft. per Sec.
July     246,000 129,000
August   137,000 82,000
September   107,000 59,200
October        50,000 31,900 The minimum in October was 48 per cent, less than the average since 1911. Manifestly the
rocks in the bed of the channel cause different eddies and currents at high water than they do
at low stages.
.In no year since 1902 have the sockeye that reached there been materially delayed in July,
August, or early September. During high and average stages of water the fish that reach there
have little difficulty. But in all stages they have to hug the sides of the channel and in doing
so they afford the Indians exceptional opportunity of catching them. It has always been a
favourite fishing-site for tjie numerous Indians living in the vicinity of Lillooet, Bridge River,
and as far east as Clinton. In recent years, however, the runs in the Fraser have been so small
that comparatively few Indians found it worth while to fish there. Owing to low-water conditions this year and the early catch of the Indians, their numbers were increased greatly and
their catch, as Fishery Officer Scott reported, approximated 6,500.
Since the Dominion made a reserve of Hell's Gate Canyon no fish have been taken there.
Many of the fish which pass through that canyon are captured at the Bridge River Canyon.
Conditions there are very similar to those existing at Hell's Gate Canyon and there is as great
a need for protecting the sockeye. The fact that the Indians have a reserve which takes in both
sides of the Fraser at Bridge River complicates the case. If, in consequence, the right to prohibit
them fishing there does not exist, their rights to do so should be purchased and the practice
abandoned.
Reports made to Major Motherwell indicate that the number of sockeye that reached the
tributaries of the Neehako River, including Stuart, Takla, and other lake tributaries, was larger
than for many years, and that the Indians at various fishing-stations caught upwards of 1,800.
The fish reached there as early as July 21st and a few were in evidence as late as October 16th.
In reports on conditions in the Neehako River and its tributaries and in the Fraser above
Prince George, made to Major Motherwell, it is stated that " in comparison with the previous
fourth year the run of sockeye was very light; the sockeye reached the spawning-beds in smaller
numbers than usual."
The number of sockeye that reached the Chilcotin River this season was somewhat larger
than in recent years.
The Indians fishing at Fish Canyon, Hanceville, and Indian Bridge caught less than 600
sockeye. Owing to a demand for farm labour fewer Indians than usual were engaged in fishing.
Reports from the head of the Chilko River and Chilko Lake indicate that the number which
reached there was somewhat greater than usual. Fishery Officer Hill, of the Dominion service,
reported to Major Motherwell that " the run of sockeye was better than in any of the past three
years and about the same as four years ago."
While no sockeye were seen to enter Quesnel Lake this year by any residents at the outlet
of the lake,,and I did not see one there or in the lake, or in Horsefly River, the main spawning
tributary, it was reported that a few had reached the headwaters of that stream. Reports to
Major Motherwell state: " There was no run of sockeye this year; there was a small run four
years ago."
The sockeye run to the Shuswap Lake section is believed to have been larger than for some
years. Fishery Overseer Shotton, in his reports to Major Motherwell, stated that " some 15,000
to 20,000 sockeye have been seen in the vicinity of Little River and Adams Lake." He regards
them as " the result of the planting of eyed eggs in Eagle River four years ago."
The number of sockeye that reached the Birkenhead River, at the head of the Harrison-
Lillooet Lakes section, was up to the average of recent years, though not as large as the record
run of last year. Forty million sockeye-eggs were collected for the enlarged hatchery and the
number of sockeye .that spawned naturally was satisfactory and believed to have averaged as
great as in the last ten years.
A summary of observations and reports on, spawning conditions in the Fraser River basin
this season warrants the conclusion that the escapement of sockeye was somewhat greater than
in any year since 1913. However, the numbers of sockeye that reached and spawned in all
sections was not sufficiently great to produce much, if any, increase in the run four years hence. 16 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of Fraser River. K 43
Statement or Salmon-egg Collections in Hatchekies or Fkaseb Rivee, Season 1925.
Sockeye. Pinks.
Cultus Lake Hatchery  4,000
Pemberton Hatchery   40,418,000 	
Pitt Lake Hatchery     5,337,000 	
Totals   45,755,000 4,000
Respectfully submitted.
John Pease Baucock,
Assistant to the Commissioner. '
K 44 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE SKEENA RIVER,
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sik,—In obedience to your instructions, I beg to submit the following report on the spawning-
beds of the Skeena River for the year 1925:—
I left Prince Rupert on August 25th and visited Lakelse Lake the following day, which was
one week earlier than last year. This lake is approximately 50 miles from the upper fishing
boundary on the Skeena River and is the first important sockeye-spawning area. The lake is
situated 12 miles from Terrace and is about 5 miles in length. There is a good automobile-road
from Terrace and the lake is now becoming a resort for tourists and fishing-parties during the
summer months. There is excellent trout-fishing in the lakes and creeks, with the additional
attraction of well-equipped hot springs at the lower end of the lake.
Arriving at the Dominion Hatchery, I met Mr. Hearne, the Superintendent, and was pleased
to learn that he had then 11,248,000 eggs in the hatchery, which constituted a record. As the
sockeye-fishing on the Skeena River was only considered fair this year, one would not have
expected such results on the spawning-beds. Mr. Hearne informed me that the first sockeye were
seen in the lake on June 12th, being about the usual time for the first arrivals. The hatchery
crew commenced spawning on July 31st and were finished by August 15th. Although the sockeye
were plentiful throughout the run, the big run or peak of the run was during the first week in
August. I was also informed that an unusual feature this year was the preponderance of males,
Mr. Hearne estimating them at about seven to one. The sockeye were of an average size, a large
number being net-scarred.
There are four sockeye-creeks flowing into Lakelse Lake—namely, Williams, Schullabuchan,
Granite, and Hot Spring Creeks—the largest and most important being Williams, which I visited
the following day. The spawning fences, or pens, were erected at the mouth of this creek on
July 18th and removed on August 15th. Many sockeye were to be seen at the mouth of the
creek and on the gravelly patches for a good distance up the creek, and fresh schools could be
plainly seen breaking water in the lake at the entrance to the creek. Williams Creek is about
20 miles in length and is the longest sockeye-creek of the Skeena watershed.
Schullabuchan, Granite, and Hot Spring Creeks were visited that afternoon and all had an
excellent showing of sockeye. These creeks have spawning areas varying from y2 to 5 miles in
length, and although eggs are also collected for the hatchery from them, yet this does not appear
to materially interfere with the natural propagation.
Lakelse River is the outlet of the lake and joins the Skeena River 12 miles distant. No
sockeye spawn in Lakelse River, all passing up and through the lake to the spawning-grounds jn
the creeks. The upper reaches were teeming with humpbacks, which was surprising, to say the
least, considering the poor catch of this variety on the fishing-grounds.
In summing up Lakelse sockeye-spawning area, which will undoubtedly be well seeded this
year, it is again evident that the majority of the sockeye run is the result of the 1920 seeding.
Taking into consideration the number of boats fishing on the Skeena River and the average pack
put up by the canneries, it is plainly evident that the forty-eight hours' " close season " is the
chief factor in the well-stocked spawning-beds.
Leaving Terrace on August 28th and Burns Lake on the 30th, I arrived at Donald's Landing
on Babine Lake on the 31st. I left the landing the next morning and camped that night at the
head of the lake. A 7-mile walk the following morning brought me to Grizzly Creek, which flows
into Beaver River. As Beaver River is more like a slough, the sockeye do not spawn in it but
go right through to Grizzly Creek. This creek has approximately half a mile of spawning-
grounds, there being a deep and narrow canyon with many waterfalls for over a mile beyond that.
The half-mile stretch was simply alive with spawning sockeye, and as many dead and decaying
sockeye were scattered along the bars and sides of the creek. This is the earliest spawning-creek
on Babine and the most distant sockeye-creek of the Skeena watershed. This has always been
a good sockeye-creek, but this year far excelled any of my previous visits. The sockeye were
of a fine average in size, the males being slightly in excess of the females.    Returning to the 16 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of Skeena River. K 45
camp at the head of the lake, I was informed by the Fishery Guardian that several Indian-
families from Stuart Lake had been fishing near the mouth of Beaver Creek and all had been
well satisfied with their catch.
The following day I visited 15-Mile Creek, which, as its name implies, is 15 miles from the
head of the lake. A few more families from Stuart Lake were fishing near the creek, and an
inspection of their smoke-houses and racks showed that they had caught about 3,000 fish per
family. This creek has about half a mile of spawning-grounds and is ideal, there being no rocks
or boulders to mar its appearance. Thousands of sockeye covered the whole half-mile stretch,
and I doubt if there was one single spot 3 feet square that did not have two or more sockeye in it.
The sockeye were of a good size, the males appearing a little in excess of the females. Although
this creek has been noted for its " runts," or " grilse," as they are properly called, there did not
seem to be as many this year. A good few were still to be seen, however, but on the whole the
percentage was very small. A Fishery Guardian is stationed here during the run to prevent
interference with the spawning-beds.
Arriving back at the landing that night, I visited Pierre Creek the following morning.
Having about 2 miles of good spawning-grounds, it is known as a good all-round sockeye-creek.
The sockeye here were not so numerous as at 15-Mile Creek, but still there was a fine showing.
The fish were of an average size, with the males again a little in excess of the females. Although
this is also an early spawning-creek, many sockeye were plainly seen in the lake at the entrance
to the creek.
Leaving Pierre Creek, camp was made that night at Tachek or Fulton River. This river is
3 miles in length, having a waterfall with a sheer drop of 40 feet at its head, the outlet of
Fulton Lake. It is the largest river entering Babine and is next in importance to Hatchery Creek.
As the river was fairly high at the time of my visit it was difficult to estimate with accuracy the
extent of the run. Many sockeye, however, were seen in the shallow places and in the deep
pools, when one could look down from a height. The fish seen were big in size, the males and
females apparently about equal in numbers. Three Babine Indian families were fishing near
the mouth of the creek and all had well-filled smoke-houses. Fulton River is one of the latest
spawning-creeks on Babine and, judging by the number caught by the Indians in nets the previous
night, many fish were still running up the creek. On asking the opinion of the Indians as to the
sockeye run this year, their only answer was, " Good;  good."
Leaving Fulton River at midday, I arrived at Babine Village that night. Babine Village is
situated at the outlet of the lake, being approximately 115 miles from the head of the lake. It is
on the first 10-mile stretch of Babine River that the Indians, about 100 families, do all their
fishing. There are thirty smoke-houses scattered up and down this stretch, with an average of
three families to one smoke-house. Each family is supplied with a new net by the Dominion
Government every two years, these Indians depending solely on fish for food. I went down this
10-mile stretch next morning and looked in at several of the smoke-houses. All the smoke-houses
were filled and the faces of the Indians were wreathed in smiles as the result. Not a single
complaint was received, which I think was evidence in itself as to the good run of sockeye to the
Babine this year. Springs and pinks were also plentiful, several good specimens of the former
being seen on the racks beside the smoke-houses. The pinks were especially thick at the lower
end, dozens breaking water at the same time. The Indians did not begin to fish this year until
August 20th, although the sockeye commenced to run on July 1st. On my return up the river
many sockeye were seen breaking water and, on the long shallow bars, darting away at the
approach of the boat.
Leaving Babine Village on the morning of September 7th, I arrived at Hatchery Creek that
afternoon. Hatchery Creek is on an arm of the lake and is estimated to be 40 miles from Babine
Village. It is tbe most important sockeye-creek on the Babine, the sockeye having an unlimited
spawning area. Hatchery Creek is about 3 miles in length and is the outlet of Morrison Lake,.
12 miles in length. Salmon Creek, about 5 miles in length, flows into the head of Morrison Lake,,
and when the spawning-fences are removed the sockeye,are as plentiful in Salmon Creek as they
are in Hatchery Creek. The Dominion Hatchery is located at the head of Hatchery Creek, tbe
location being ideal in every way. I met Mr. Tingley, the Hatchery Superintendent, who informed
me that spawning operations would commence in a few days and he expected to easily obtain
his quota of 8,000,000 eggs for the hatchery. The pens erected at the head of Hatchery Creek
were swarming with sockeye, and, even though the creek was higher than usual, Mr. Tingley K 46
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
would not have much difficulty in obtaining his quota of eggs. The sockeye were big in size,
tbe males being slightly in excess of the females. This creek has always been noted for its big
sockeye, and this year was no exception, scarcely a " runt" being seen. In the first quarter-mile
stretch at the lower end of the creek there were no sockeye, the creek here having a muddy
bottom resembling a slough. Beyond this stretch, however, many sockeye were seen in the deep
pools and on the gravelly bars, increasing in number the farther I went, the head of the creek
being one teeming mass. As this is the latest spawning-creek on the Babine, and as it would
only be a matter of a few days before the pens and fences were removed, many sockeye would
pass on through Morrison Lake to Salmon Creek. The sockeye were still running to Hatchery
Creek, as many were seen breaking water in the long arm of the lake leading to the creek. This
being the last point of interest on tbe Babine, I returned to Donald's Landing and arrived at
Burns Lake on the night of September 14th.
Summing up the Babine area, !L am pleased to say that all the creeks will be well seeded this
year, being equally as good if not better than any previous good year. Providing the present
regulations remain in force, there will be no need for anxiety as to the future of the Skeena
River sockeye.
Agwillgate Canyon at Hazelton was visited on September 16th and Kispiox River the same
afternoon. Agwillgate Canyon, on the Bulkley River, is a little above the junction of the Skeena
and Bulkley and was in years past a scene of much activity with the Indians during the sockeye
run. The canyon being very narrow and accessible and the water swift, it is an easy matter with
dip-net and spear to catch the sockeye running up. Of late years, however, this practice has
greatly decreased, there being only a few Indians at this point during part of the run. The
Bulkley River had a good run of sockeye, according to all reports, and will be well seeded this
year.
Kispiox River was very high and it was almost impossible to tell, whether there were any
fish in it, but the Indians reported that only a fair run of humpbacks had gone up.
Leaving Hazelton on the morning of the 17th, I arrived in Port Essington that afternoon.
In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation of the kindness of the Hatchery Superintendents and Fishery Guardians.
I have, etc.,
Robert Gibson,
Fisheries Overseer.
Port Essington, B.C., October 26th, 1925. 16 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of Rivers Inlet. K 47
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF RIVERS INLET.
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sik,—I have the honour to submit my report upon the inspection of the spawning-grounds
at Rivers Inlet for the year 1925.
Fine weather again favoured the inspection of tbe spawning-beds at this watershed; consequently every facility was afforded in determining the extent of the run of sockeye. Leaving
the cannery at Rivers Inlet on October 4th, I proceeded direct to the headwaters and examined
the three tributaries at this point. The Indian River, situated on the left of the lake, although
restricted in size, contained the biggest run of fish that has been seen in years. The greater
portion had spawned out, as was evidenced by the thousands of dead bodies distributed along the
bed of the river, and which created a most offensive odour. Innumerable numbers were noted
spawning on the beds right up to the falls, about half a mile distant. The fish were above the
average in size, the males and females being about equally represented. One or two trees had
fallen across the river, but did not interfere with the movement of the salmon up-stream.
Examining the Cheo River next, schools of sockeye were seen spawning on the beds at the
entrance, a most unusual occurrence. Proceeding up the river, sockeye in dense masses covered
the bars until the log-jam 3% miles distant was reached; here a scene of indescribable confusion
was noted. The " freshet " last fall had scoured out this portion of the river to such an extent
that one had to make a long detour in order to reach the spawning-beds above. Thousands lined
the gravel-bars in this portion of the river and it excelled even the great run noted here in 1920.
Other than the log-jam referred to above, no obstructions were seen. In size the sockeye were
again above the average, while the proportion of males and females corresponded closely to the
run at Indian River.
As to conditions on the Washwash River, it was again a scene of chaos; log-jams covered
the bars in all directions, one of them completely blocking the stream flowing down on the
extreme right. This jam has in previous years received attention from the Dominion authorities
and could with advantage be removed again, or in time will completely block the passage-way
to the spawning-beds above. The improvement shown in the run of sockeye to this stream in
the last few years is very satisfactory, and is, I believe, largely due to the measures adopted to
augment the supply of natural spawned fish with young fry from the hatchery. The thousands
of sockeye covering the beds right up to the falls will undoubtedly produce an exceptional brood
to ensure a big return of adult salmon four and five years hence. To illustrate tbe extent of
the spawning this season, pockets of eggs disturbed from the gravel by the movements of other
salmon literally covered the beds, and as all these eggs are wasted in consequence, the value
of restocking the stream with young fry is apparent.
The small creek situated about 5 miles from the head of the lake, known as Sunday Creek,
received its complement of sockeye, the spawning-beds at the entrance showing up to great
advantage. Females outnumbered the males in the proportion of about two to one, and were
all fine specimens of the sockeye race.
Passing through the Narrows, both cohoes and sockeye salmon were observed spawning on
the gravel-bars in exceptional numbers, but I was unable to arrive at the extent of the run, as
the Indians who usually obtain their winter's catch from this source had not yet arrived.
Proceeding to the Sheemahant River, one of the largest tributaries of the lake, it was
satisfactory to note such an improvement in the run of sockeye here. From the entrance for
many miles thousands lined the beds. As the river was at a low stage no difficulty was experienced in arriving at the extent of the run. It is the best showing that I have yet seen. The
males appeared to outnumber the females at least two to one, and in size attained a high average.
At Jeneesee Creek the hatcherymen were busy spawning, but as it was early the fish were
more or less in the " green " stage, and consequently it took time to select those that were ripe.
The creek was, however, full of sockeye, and the thousands that were waiting outside the
entrance presaged a run of unusual extent. This, I am given to understand, did occur. The
creek received the biggest run known in its history. In this connection it is interesting to note
that, besides restocking the stream with young fry from the hatchery in 1920 and 1921, the K 48 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
Department of Dominion Fisheries experimented by planting 250,000 eyed eggs in the latter year.
It would appear that the first fruits of their efforts are being realized, because there was no
reason to anticipate such a wonderful showing of sockeye from the poor return in 1920.
The Macbmell River, similar in size to the Sheemahant, as usual precluded an accurate
estimate of the run, owing to the discoloration of the water, but the Nookins, which flows into
it, on the other hand gave every facility to observe the fish under the most favourable conditions.
In the clear water thousands could be seen schooled up waiting, while every foot of gravel right
up to the falls consisted of a teeming mass of sockeye. The run of fish ranks with the best of
any of the big years. In size they were above the average, the males outnumbering the females
about two to one.
Asklum River, situated about 12 miles from the mouth of the lake, sustained its reputation
as one of the most productive salmon-streams on the lake. This fine river, which reaches into
the mountains a distance of 5 miles, contained a run of sockeye unparalleled in my experience.
At the entrance the water was black with sockeye waiting to go on to the spawning-beds.
Proceeding up the river, I found that there was hardly a foot of gravel that was not covered
with fish, and the question entered my mind, how the vast number outside would find sufficient
room to spawn when it was their turn to come in; millions of eggs lying on the bars testified
to the disturbance of the spawning-beds by the hordes of salmon that had taken possession of
them. As these eggs are of no value, the question arises whether such an enormous run of fish
does not act to the detriment of the spawning-beds. The " freshet" last fall had left its mark
on this river, but no obstructions were seen to impede the movement of the fish up-stream.
In size they were about the average, the males and females being about equally represented.
Quap River, which for a number of years has shown such productive capacity, in no way fell
behind this year in the extent of its run. The hatcherymen were busy collecting eggs and had
made great strides towards filling the hatchery. Owing to the extreme low stage of the river
the sockeye had difficulty in reaching the fence, but later, with the rise of the lake, thousands
upon thousands came in and were quickly spawned out. Mr. Reid, Superintendent of the
Hatchery, informed me that they had completed their collection of 19,000,000 eggs before tbe real
run of sockeye started, a situation which speaks for itself. The " freshet " last fall had completely demolished the old fence and formed bars that entailed an immense amount of labour
to remove. A new fence has been erected and from its substantial appearance should withstand
any strain it is likely to meet with in the future. According to later reports, I am given to
understand that the run of sockeye to Quap this year is the biggest in its history. They were all
fine specimens and above the average in size.    Males and females were about equally divided.
The Dalley River, situated directly opposite Quap, and which also contains .sorue of the
finest spawning-beds on the lake, received a run of sockeye equal in all respects to those seen on
the other rivers. The beds were literally alive with spawning fish, and this was in evidence
all the way up to the falls, a distance of 4% miles. No log-jams or other impediments interfered
with the free movement of the fish up-stream.
The " freshet" did so much damage to the Hatchery Creek last fall that it was necessary
to employ a gang of men for several months to clear away the obstruction. In its mad rush it
broke through under the hatchery and fear was entertained that it might carry it bodily into
the lake, but fortunately it subsided in time, and beyond underpinning a corner of the hatchery
no damage was done. The run of sockeye to this stream is well up to the average of other good
years.
The spawning-beds surrounding the Indian rancheries, at the upper end of- the Owikeno
River, received one of the biggest runs known in its history. The Indians located here experienced no difficulty in catching all the salmon they required for smoking. The fish were
exceptionally large, indicating a run favouring the five-year cycle.
The run of spring salmon to this river was very good, also the run of chum salmon, which
I understand returned in greater numbers than has been known in years.
The Department of Dominion Fisheries has been steadily working on a new system—namely,
transplanting " eyed " eggs from the hatchery to the various tributaries of the lake. A start
was made in 1921, when 250,000 eggs were planted in Jeneesee Creek, and to which I have
already referred. In 1922 no less than 5,687,000 eggs were planted in various streams, and it
will be interesting to see if their efforts bear fruit. It would appear from the remarkable run
to Jeneesee Creek this year that the new system will be a success.    The result of their efforts 16 Geo. 5
Spawning-beds of Rivers Inlet.
K 49
will be shown next year. The record pack of sockeye, amounting to no less than 158,000 cases,
put up at Rivers Inlet this season was materially helped by the measures adopted to restock the
rivers and streams with young fry from the hatchery, I have every reason to believe. It is true
a big run of sockeye returned to the spawning-beds in 1920, and I predicted a big return from the
eggs deposited, but in measuring up the wonderful showing, both in the commercial pack and the
extent of the total run of salmon to the spawning-beds, it is demonstrated that the above methods
are having their effect.
In summing up the results of the inspection of the spawning-grounds at Rivers Inlet, I am
of the opinion that the run of sockeye to each of the tributaries of Owikeno Lake was so large
that an unexampled return may be confidently looked for from tbe ova deposited this season.
The sockeye in general were above the average in size and fine specimens of the sockeye race.
In estimating the comparison of sex, the males were slightly in majority over the females.
In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation to the management of the B.C. Fishing and
Packing Company for courtesies extended, and also to Mr. Reid, Superintendent of the Dominion
Hatchery, and the men at the various spawning camps.
Respectfully submitted.
Abthtjr W. Stone,
Fisheries Overseer.
Rivers Inlet, B.C., December 8th, 1925. Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF SMITH INLET.
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—In pursuance of instructions from the Department, I have the honour to submit my
report upon the inspection of the spawning-grounds at Smith Inlet for the year 1925.
Considerable interest was attached to this inspection, because in 1920 the full effect of the
action taken by the Dominion authorities to eliminate the drag-seines from Qualla Creek, situated
inside the gill-net fishing boundary, was manifested by an exceptional run of sockeye to the
spawning-beds, and it was the belief that, providing climatic conditions had not interfered with
the seed deposited, there was every reason to anticipate a big run, returning this year. In this
we were not disappointed; a record run of fish came back. The two canneries operating at this
point packed no less than 40,000 cases between them, a record for the inlet, while the escapement
to the spawning-bed was fully up to the high standard attained in previous big-year runs.
Conditions on the spawning-grounds in 1921, it will be remembered, were very poor; consequently
the eggs deposited in that year had little relative value in providing a return of four-year fish
of any consequence. The wonderful showing of sockeye this year was undoubtedly due to the
spawning of 1920, and therefore composed mainly of five-year sockeye.
Taking advantage of the fine weather, I decided to inspect this watershed first, so, making
the necessary arrangements, a start was made at Long Lake, the breeding-grounds of the
sockeye salmon. The Docee River (the overflow to the lake) was examined under the most
favourable conditions, but the run of spring salmon for the first time failed to materialize.
A few were discerned in the clear water at the foot of the rapids and also in the river, but none
were visible along the shore-line at the mouth of the lake, where in former years they usually
congregated. It is apparent that the run of this species of salmon is a failure. Proceeding to
Quay Creek, a small stream situated about 7 miles up the lake, it was satisfactory to note that
the run of sockeye was up to the average of former big years. Schools of these fish were playing
about outside, while others spawned on the gravel-bars at the entrance. A considerable number
were observed close up to the log-jam inside the creek, unable to proceed farther. In size they
were fine specimens of the sockeye race and came well up to the average of former runs; the
males and females were equally represented.
The Delebah River, situated about 2 miles from the head of the lake, received one of the
biggest runs in its history. Outside in the lake sockeyes were breaking water in all directions,
while schooled up at the entrance immense numbers congregated. Inside the entrance for a
distance of 200 yards the fish were so dense in numbers that by throwing a rock in to disperse
them the noise resembled a roar of thunder. Proceeding up the river to the falls iy2 miles
distant, thousands of spawning sockeye were observed utilizing every foot of gravel, while
carcasses lay scattered all over the bars. Such a condition warrants the conclusion that a
big run of fish will return as a result of the eggs deposited this season. The abnormal " freshet "
last fall, and which created such havoc at Rivers Inlet, had left its mark here. Huge trees
had been flung across from each side, forming a barrier which should be removed, because a
gravel and sand bar at present piled up against it will with each succeeding " freshet" assume
greater size. It has already shut off a considerable portion of the spawning-beds to the salmon,
a situation which must be taken into account, since thousands of sockeye spawned in this portion
of the river last year. Apart from this obstruction, other portions of the river were intact.
In size the fish were above the average, the males outnumbering the females about two to one.
The Geluch River, situated at the head of the lake, sustained its reputation as the most
productive salmon-stream tributary to the lake; conditions here could not have been more
satisfactory. From the entrance all the way up to the falls, 3% miles distant, immense numbers
lined the beds. For the first mile or so the sockeye were more or less in the " green " stage,
but as we proceeded farther up we found the beds full of spawning salmon and thousands of
dead fish scattered all over the bars. The stench from this source was overpowering. The
" freshet" had continued its work of destruction by blocking up all the small mountain streams
adjacent to the river, with the result that the spawning-beds inside could not be utilized.   No 16 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of Smith Inlet. K 51
log-jams or other obstructions impeded the movement of the salmon up-stream. Outside at the
entrance and along the shore-line at the head of the lake schools of sockeye were noted, while
out in the lake they could be seen breaking water all over. In size the run closely corresponds
to the salmon seen on the Delebah, the males and females being in about equal proportion.
Returning from the head of the lake, salmon were observed breaking water in all directions.
On arriving once more at the mouth I again examined the Docee River, but found that, as far
as the spring salmon were concerned, the run was a failure.
Both chum and pink salmon were taken in considerable numbers by the purse-seines,
indicating that the run of these species of salmon was up to the average.
In summing up the results of the inspection of the spawning-beds at Smith Inlet, I am of
the opinion that the remarkable showing of sockeye on the beds will be reflected in a big run
of fish from the eggs deposited this season. In size the run of the sockeye reached a high
standard.    The preponderance of males over females was very small.
I have, etc.,
A. W. Stone,
Fisheries Overseer.
Rivers Inlet, B.C., December 8th, 1925. Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE NASS RIVER.
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In obedience to instructions received from the Department to again make an inspection
of the salmon-spawning areas in the Meziadin watershed of the Nass River, I beg to submit the
following report:—
Upon my arrival at Stewart I met A. E. Young, who was again appointed by the Dominion
Fisheries Department to study conditions of the spawning-beds in the Upper Nass, and the two
Departments joined forces in this work.
After getting an outfit together and employing two capable assistants for the trip we left
Stewart on September 10th, a very wet day, and reached the American Creek Road-house after
dark. The following morning broke fine and we continued on our journey up the Bear River.
On reaching the foot of the glacier we made camp and examined the crossing over the glacier.
We found that we had to* do considerable work to make the passing safe for horses. After a
full day's work for four men we were able to get the horses through, and then continued on down
the Beaver River, arriving at the head of Meziadin Lake on Sunday, September 13th.
We put the canvas canoe together and gave it a coat of paint. On the 14th we launched the
canoe and made an inspection of the sockeye-spawning grounds at the head of the lake and on
both shore-lines for a distance of 4 miles. This is the principal spawning area for sockeye in
the Meziadin watershed, spawning activities taking place on shallow gravel reaches in favourable
places along the lake-shore. At the time of our inspection all places were well covered with
spawning fish and the number of sockeye to be observed were far greater than for any past season
that I have reported on. From observations taken over a number of years, sockeye, when seen
below the falls on the Meziadin River, are in fine condition and are not in any way advanced
toward the spawning period; in fact, they would be welcomed on any cannery floor. After
negotiating the fishway and falls these fish are not to be seen congregated in large numbers,
with the exception of occasional leaping in the lake, until they attain their brilliant-red spawning-
livery and are actually on the spawning-beds at the head of the lake. They must spend the
intervening time in the deep waters of the lake, which has a great depth on its north-east side.
On the 15th we packed the canoe and proceeded down the lake. We encountered a heavy
wind-storm, which compelled us to make a landing at McLeod Creek. Many salmon were to be
seen where this creek enters it, but they were not making any effort to ascend McLeod Creek.
After the wind subsided we continued on and reached the spring-salmon spawning-ground at the
foot of MeBride Rapids late in the afternoon. These rapids are situate within a short distance
of the outlet of the lake. While it is late in the season to comment on the spring-salmon run to
this spawning-ground, there were still many to be observed in their last stages, also the number
of dead spent fish were more numerous than seen for many past seasons, and I have no hesitation
in stating that the run of spring salmon to this watershed was well above the average.
Upon our arrival at the falls cabin on September 16th we inspected the upper and lower
falls. At both of these places there were large numbers of sockeye congregated. At the upper
fall salmon were massed right across its face and were continually to be seen leaping in their
effort to ascend the fall at its most difficult point. As many as five or ten salmon could be
counted clear of the water at one time, which proves that they were simply massed there. In all
of the resting-places they were lying as thick as possible, and at tbe same time were continually
passing through the fishway, there being several hundred salmon in each of the basins. These
same conditions also prevailed at the lower fall, the salmon being in great numbers across the
whole width of the river below the fall.
At the time of our arrival the salmon at the falls were practically all sockeye, and they
were fine large fish. There were only a few cohoe showing. It would be hard to conceive the
numbers of sockeye that would now be congregated here were there no fishway. Taking into
consideration the numbers already reported upon at the head of the lake and those now lying
below the falls, there surely would have been a great mass of fish if conditions were the same
as prior to the building of the fishway. As my work entailed the taking of specimens on the
Nass River, above the Meziadin River, we were able to study the run at the fishway for a 16 Geo. 5
Spawning-beds of Nass River.
K 53
considerable period, as we did not leave on the return journey until September 25th. It was
noticeable that there was more activity in the forward movement of the salmon during the late
afternoon and at night-time, there being a less number in the basins of the fishway in the early
morning. After we had been here a few days cohoe commenced to arrive in increased numbers,
there being on September 21st 95 per cent, sockeye and 5 per cent, cohoe, and at the time of our
departure would estimate 80 per cent, and 20 per cent, respectively. During the whole time that
we were at the falls there was one continual passage of salmon through the fishway. The
females were more in evidence than the males in the sockeye species, but the cohoe appeared to
be about evenly divided in regard to sex. Some very small cohoe were seen in the fishway,
14 or 16 inches in length.
There were no Indians taking salmon for food below the falls this season.
In our efforts to collect specimens from the Nass River, about 2 miles above the Meziadin
River, we used a net about 100 feet in length and 25-mesh deep. After making corks we hung
the net and made a fine set in the river. The net hung straight out from the river-bank to well
in the centre, as you will see by the photo attached hereto. The river at the point where we
were experimenting was too swift to get out on a raft and place the net, so we had. to make the
set where a heavy back current held it in place against the downstream current. The net was
fished continually from September 17th until September 24th, with the following results:—
Sockeye.        Cohoe.
September 17      2 7
September 18      5 7
September 19   11 3
September 20      6 2
September 21      7 9
September 22  10 2
September 23      4 10
September 24  '.  4
Totals   45 44
The salmon caught were nearly all liberated alive after taking the necessary dimensions, etc.
After having completed our work here we started on the return journey and arrived in
Stewart on September 30th, having had an unbroken spell of fine weather from September 11th.
The fishway at the falls is in splendid condition, there being no obstacles to prevent salmon
from passing to the upper stage of the river with ease. It was owing to the exceptional large
run of sockeye this season that so many fish were to be seen right across the foot of the upper
fall. While a few of them succeed in ascending the fall in the difficult places, the majority
of them eventually drift over to the fishway. It is not unusual to see many salmon in the fishway
that have been battered up in their effort to surmount the fall.
Summary.—In making a summary of the salmon-spawning areas in the Meziadin watershed,
I am pleased to state that conditions were exceedingly favourable in all sections where observations can be made. There were large numbers of salmon below both falls and at the Meziadin
fishway. The basins of the fishway were always full during our nine days' stay. On the
spawning-grounds at the head of the lake I have never before seen as many sockeye congregated
there in the past, and there was a better run of spring salmon. While it was too early to
comment on the cohoe run, these salmon were arriving at the fishway in very encouraging
numbers.
I have no hesitation in stating that the run of salmon to this watershed this season has been
most satisfactory. I have the pleasure to record that conditions were far better than I have
been able to report on for many seasons.
Respectfully submitted.
C. P. Hickman,
Inspector of Fisheries. K 54
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
SCIENTIFIC WORK OF THE INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION.
By the Director, W. F. Thompson, and Scientific Assistants.
The Treaty.—The treaty for the preservation of the halibut-fishery of the North Pacific
Ocean w-as ratified on October 21st, 1924. The members appointed to the Commission created
by this treaty were W. A. Found and John P. Babcock for Canada and Henry O'Malley and
Miller Freeman for the United States. Mr. Babcock was chosen chairman. This body, termed
the International Fisheries Commission by the treaty, met in Seattle and appointed a director
to organize a scientific staff. He assumed his duties in February, 1925. During the remainder
of the fiscal year of 1924-25 the work called for under the treaty was begun, and was continued
during the year 1925-26. The Commission has met quarterly, has appointed a scientific advisory
board, and has kept in close touch with its scientific staff.
The treaty calls for an annual close season of three months, to be modified or suspended upon
recommendation of the International Fisheries Commission after the expiration of the third such
season. It also makes provision for a " thorough investigation into the life-history of the Pacific
halibut" by this Commission, and requires that it make "recommendations as to the regulation
of the halibut-fishery of the North Pacific Ocean." It will be seen that the treaty requires not
merely the observation of the effects of the present close season, but preparation for recommendation of future regulations.
Staff.—The staff has consisted of two scientists, besides the director, one technical assistant,
a typist and a stenographer, in addition to various temporary employees on vessels and in collecting statistics. This staff was enlarged in June, 1926, by the addition of one scientist and one
technical assistant. From June to August, 1925, a vessel, the " Seamaid," was chartered for
tagging fish and for obtaining life-history material. In June of 1926 another vessel, the
" Scandia," was chartered for the same purpose.
The Problem.—In the present condition of fisheries science there is no foreknowledge as to
what the character of the results from any given regulation will be. The present close season
is from this standpoint an experiment, and is so regarded by both the public and the scientific
world. The Commission, charged as it is with the responsibility of observing the effect of this
closure and of recommending changes in it, must develop methods of observation which will give
information as to the results, and must be well enough informed as to the conditions of the
fishery to appreciate the applications of the regulation.
But it is hardly just to rank the preparation for future recommendations as secondary,
because it is not likely that the present close season can adequately remedy the extensive decline
which has occurred. The Commission is undoubtedly faced by a most serious and difficult task,
and must expect constant trial and alteration of regulations before the object of the treaty is
attained. There must therefore be a basis of biological and statistical knowledge of the halibut
life-history and of the fishery, upon which the inevitable future recommendations can be based.
There must be experiments skilfully framed and skilfully observed.
Statistics.—The systems of observation necessary include both statistical records of total
yield and records capable of showing the yield per unit of effort, or, rather, of gear run, as a
measure of abundance on the banks.
The staff has nearly completed the collection of all data of vessel landings since 1916, there
remaining to be done those of minor ports only. These data give the amount landed in pounds,
divided into several trade categories according to size; also the dates of sale, and frequently the
bank the vessel hailed from. Both the records of the dealers and the fares hailed by the captain
in the exchanges have been collected. Supplementing this, the customs-house records have been
examined to give a record of entry and of clearance dates, from which the length of trip can be
calculated. Thorough records of fluctuations in prices are also included. There is shown in the
records the number of vessels in the fleet, their landings, the length of trip, the proportion of
small fish taken, and the shifting of the fishery.
For records of abundance, as shown by the yield per unit of gear run, the staff has collected
a great many vessel logs by personal inquiries. In these logs are frequently given the bank
fished, the amount of gear run, and the catch made, day by day. Some of the logs obtained cover
many years and are splendid records of the course of the fishery. From these logs the following
tentative results are taken, to show the nature of the evidence obtained. 16 Geo. 5 International Fisheries Commission. K 55
The average catch per unit of gear, the skate, was as follows during the spring of 1926:—■
Lb.
West of Cape St. Elias      144
Cape Spencer to Cape St. Elias     79
Forrester Island to Cape Spencer     60
Dixon Entrance to Hecate Strait     45
This increase in abundance to the westward is very apparently in direct correlation with
and caused by the cost of operations. A trip west of Cape St. Elias takes much longer and gives
fewer fishing-days than a trip to Hecate Strait. With progressive depletion of near-by banks
the longer trips become more profitable, and in this is to be found the reason for expansion.
Discovery of new banks plays a very small part in the expansion of the fishery.
The progressive depletion of such a bank as Hecate Strait is shown by the following from
our records, showing the catch per skate of gear during February, March, and April:—
Lb. per Skate. Lb. per Skate.
1907 477 1913 146
1908 331 1914 108
1909 345   	
1911 263 1926  45
1912 126
The figures will show some variation from this according to the season considered, etc., but
the picture is approximately correct and needs no comment.
To obtain the most complete information possible, there has been conducted this spring a
canvass of the vessels for their current records of catches. This has been possible only at
Ketchikan and Prince Rupert. From this the present and future conditions of the banks will
be studied. Supplementing the canvass, log-books have been printed and distributed to those
fishermen willing to keep records for us.
From these log records there will not only be obtainable a record of abundance on the
individual banks, but by considering the vessel landings, as the catch is classified according to
size of fish, the proportion of small fish on each bank may be determined.
Migration Studies—Tagging.—Tagging operations to study the amount of migration have
been carried on by the use of the "Seamaid," a vessel chartered for the purpose. Rewards have
been given for the return of tagged fish recaptured by the fishermen.
A complete analysis of the tagging experiments must await more work and the passing of
more time for the return of tags.
The purpose of the work is primarily to discover the rate of intermixture between banks,
and, secondarily, to discover any definite migration routes which may exist. The proper accomplishment of such a purpose implies tagging a sufficient number over a sufficiently varied
assortment of banks to give a more or less steady mathematical value to the degree of " scatter "
which ensues with time; and it also implies the careful examination of the returns to see whether
there is any definite direction of movement between any two banks.
The seasonal shift in the fisheries from place to place has modified sharply the results
obtained, and the tags returned must be considered in connection with statistics of intensity of
fishing in each locality. These statistics are being gathered, as described above, and until the
degree of correlation between the seasonal shift of the fisheries and the tagging results is
discounted but few exact figures can be given. Both the degree of " scatter " and direction of
movement are dependent upon the time of recurrence of the fishery on the particular bank
considered and upon the surrounding banks.
The tags used were of four types, two of them strap tags of monel metal and two of them
metal disks. They were numbered consecutively and with the initials I.F.C. As the shape and
the bottom habitat of the halibut do not lend themselves to body-tags, the tags were attached
to the opercles. Of these tags the straps have proved themselves best and will be used in the
future.
During the operations of the " Seamaid" 3,336 halibut were tagged. These large and
valuable fish are taken only by hook and line, and but 50 per cent, of those brought abroad were
in good enough condition to offer a fair chance of survival. The balance were examined for rate
of growth, etc., giving a splendid series of records. K 56
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
Of the tagged fish, 7.5 per cent, have been recovered to date after a lapse of ten months,
three of which were included in the closed season. But 6.5 per cent, were recovered in the first
four months. In certain of the localities no recoveries have been made and will not be until the
fishery happens to concentrate on the bank concerned. In others this is not true, as, for instance,
Cape Chacon, in South-eastern Alaska. Here 22.6 per cent, were retaken in four months, the
most efficient type of tag showing over 30 per cent, recovery in that time. This is an extremely
high rate of recovery when the slow growth of the halibut is considered. But few additions
have been made this spring to the recoveries from this locality, and none are expected until
June, when fishing is again feasible there.
There are as yet no directive migrations visible. Halibut seem to move as readily in one
direction as another. The sole apparent law governing the recoveries seems to be that they are
in the direction of whatever adjacent intense seasonal fisheries exist. Several series of tags
have been retaken in the same school during the same days' fishing, which were liberated within
a few minutes of each other in the same locality as they were retaken in. It would seem that the
school concerned had remained a unit in the same locality for the ten months.
Regarding rate of migration, only a superficial analysis can be made here. Two fish have
travelled in the vicinity of 250 miles in as many days. But it is apparent that they are exceptions. Of the total recovered, 81 per cent, travelled less than 10 miles, 93 per cent, less than 50,
96 per cent, less than 100, and nearly 99 per cent, less than 150 miles. There seems to be a
decided negative correlation between the percentage retaken and the "scatter" (that is, the
greater the "scatter" the fewer retaken), undoubtedly due to the fact that when the locality
where the fish were tagged was subsequently not intensely fished but few fish were retaken and
they were only those which had moved. A low " scatter " with high percentage of returns is
shown by the Cape Chacon experiment, where 22.6 per cent, were retaken. There 98 per cent,
of recoveries had moved less than 10 miles and none over 40 miles.
It seems safe to conclude that the halibut does not, as a rule, move much in comparison with
our great coast-line. But manifestly any closer analysis of the rate of migration depends upon
statistics of the distribution of the fishery and its intensity; and our records cannot be termed
complete until the season of intense fishing has passed in the localities where fish were tagged.
It is apparent that with further material it will be possible to deal mathematically with the
rate of " scatter " and to ultimately make some estimate of the rate of interchange of adult fish
between the various areas which may need different regulations.
Age Studies.—The material for age studies has been collected during the tagging operations
and during the collection of racial measurements. Otoliths and scales have been taken from
each individual fish examined, with notes as to the condition of the gonads. The material thus
acquired is the equivalent in value of the work done in tagging, it is our belief. With material
already on hand, a total of 6,858 individual halibut have thus far been examined for age.
These came from the halibut banks near the Goose Islands and Cape Scott; from Hecate
Strait, Dixon Entrance; from the outer coast between Cape St. James and Cape Omaney; and
from Cook Inlet, Albatross and Portlock Banks. It is expected that on the newly chartered
" Scandia " visits will be made to many of the banks as yet omitted, but the extent of the
territory already covered is considerable.
There is included in this the collection made by the Provincial Fisheries Department of
British Columbia in 1014.
The analysis of the material has barely been begun. According to the existing work upon
the halibut, the rates of growth on the various banks are strikingly different. This seems to be
corroborated by the present collections, but must be more carefully worked out. If corroborated
the fact must have an important bearing upon the problem of rate of migration between banks,
which is probably the most essential problem as far as regulation is concerned.
The growth in Hecate Strait seems to be to a length of 36 inches in ten years for the female
and to a length of 33 inches for the male, or cleaned weights of 20 lb. and 16 lb. respectively.
The rate in northern and western waters is much less.
Racial Studies.—The investigation of " racial characters " has as its object the proving of
the existence or non-existence of distinct differences between halibut of the variaus banks.
Proof either negative or positive will be of value in determining what the nature of the halibut
population is. Is it a homogeneous unit or is it such that it may be divided into more or less
independent tribes or races?   The answer will supplement the results of the tagging and growth- 16 Geo. 5 International Fisheries Commission. K 57
rate phases of the investigation. It will throw light upon such problems as migration and the
degree of independence or interdependence of the different banks.
The work to date has been fourfold in its nature: First, it was necessary to devise and
construct a machine adapted to taking accurate body-measurements under the conditions met in
the field. Subsequent use has shown it to be satisfactory. It has also met with the approval
of all scientists who have so far examined it. Second, the collection of the data is well under
way. This has been effected by accompanying the commercial fleet to the various banks.
Cook Inlet, Portlock Bank, Shumagin Islands, as well as Goose Islands ground, have been visited
and the necessary samples obtained therefrom. Third, the compilation and digestion of this data
has been under way since its collection was first started. Fourth, the available literature on
the subject has been surveyed and a bibliography made of the subject.
The characters that are being studied are the various body-proportions, numerical values of
certain anatomical structures, and variations in the time of spawning and the age of maturity.
Due to the fact that the age, size, and sex variability must be distinguished from what may be
place or race variability, it has been necessary to collect data on the former. This data will
also be particularly valuable to the growth-rate and maturity phases of the investigation. This
work on races is contributing information regarding the numerical relation between the sexes and
also regarding the actual sizes included in the commercial catch.
In order to demonstrate the significance of this work one of these " race " characters will
be taken and it will be shown how it varies from place to place.
T       ... Head as Per Cent.
Locality. . of Length.
Cook Inlet—
Inside      23.12
Entrance     24.27
Western areas—
Portlock      24.49
Shumagin     24.25
Southern areas—
Hecate Strait and Goose Islands grounds     22.40
Thus it can be seen that there is a very significant difference between the head-length of the
" Western " fish and the " Southern " fish, and also between the fish within Cook Inlet and the
adjacent offshore bank, Portlock.
This work is being continued and the fact that the Commission will have its own chartered
boat will greatly expedite the collection of the data. It is anticipated that all regions where
there is any commercial fishing will be visited in the course of the season. Thus at the termination of the season it can confidently be assumed that a very adequate sampling will have been
made of the halibut population in the different regions of our North Pacific Coast.
Spawning Habits.—Owing to the failure of financial plans for studying the spawning season
last winter, when spawning was under way, there has been nothing accomplished to add to our
already existing knowledge of spawning habits, and work of this character will be necessary
the winter of 1920-27.
Larval Life-history.—To supplement our knowledge of the rate of movement of the adults
a study of the direction and duration of the early drift of the eggs and larva? will be necessary.
This will needs be begun during the coming spawning season. K 58
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
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c 16 Geo. 5 Statement showing Salmon-pack of the Province.
K 61
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE . SALMON-PACK   OP   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND  SPECIES,  FROM  1910 TO  1925,   INCLUSIVE.
Fraser River.
1925.
1924.
1023.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
35,385
7,989
25,701
66,111
99,800
36„717
5,152
39,743
2,982
4,648
109,495
31,968
21,401
1,822
31,655
3,854
4,279
103,248
63,645
20,173
15
51,832
10,561
6,300
17,895
29,578
23,587
817
39,631
11,360
5,949
11,233
8,178
29,078
1,331
48,399
10,691
4,432
23,884
12,839
22,934
4,522
38,854
14,519
4,296
15,718
39,363
39,253
15,941
19,697
Springs, Red	
15,192
24,853
86,215
18,388
40,111
Bluebacks and Steelheads....
4,395
Totals	
276,855
212,059
226,869
140,570
107,650
136,661
167,944
208,857
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
148,164
10,197
18,916
59,973
134,442
25,895
4,951
32,146
17,673
11,430
30,934
840
31,330
3,129
91,130
23,228
5,392
18,919
138,305
43,514
31
198,183
11,209
15,300
74,826
6,272
43,504
719,796
3,573
49
22,220
20,773
16,018
123,879
15,856
9,826
12,997
574
36,190
58,487
7,028
6,751
47,237
142,101
39,740
150,432
Springs, Red	
1,018
8,925
52,460
128
35,031
- Totals	
402,538
127,472
320,519
349,294
782,429
199,322
301,344
247,994
Skeena River.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
Sockeyes	
81,146
23,445
74,308
130,079
30,168
713
144,747
12,028
25,588
181,313
26,968
214
131,731
12,247
16,527
145,973
31,967
418
96,277
14,176
39,758
301,655
24,699
1,050
41,018
21,766
1,993
124,457
45,033
498
89,364
37,403
3,834
177,679
18,068
1,218
184,945
25,941
31,457
117,303
36,559
2,672
123,322
22,931
22,573
161,727
38,759
Steelhead Trout	
4,994
Totals	
348,859
390,858
338,863
477,915
234,765
332,8S7
398,877
374,306
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
Sockeyes	
65,760
16,285
21,516
148,310
38,456
1,883
60,293
20,933
17,121
73,029
47,409
3,743
I
116,533
15,273
5,769 ]
107,578
32,190
1,798
130,166
11,740
8,329
71,021
16,378
52,927
26,436
92,498
23,833
504
97,588
39,835
131,066
17,942
70
81,956
23,376
187,246
9,785
66,045
18,647
13,473
11,531
Totals	
292,219
223,158
279,161
1
237,634
164,055
254,258
254,410
222,035 K 62
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1910 TO 1925, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Rivers Inlet.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
Sockeyes	
*192,323
496
11,510
8,625
4,946
94,891
545
4,924
15,105
1,980
116,850
599
3,242
10,057
1,526
53,584
323
311
24,292
1,120
82
48,615
364
173
5,303
4,718
97
125,742
1,793
1,226
25,647
2,908
56,258
1,442
7,089
6,538
9,038
53,401
1,409
6,729
29,542
12,074
Steelhead Trout	
Totals	
217,900
117,445
132,274
79,712
59,272
133,248
80,367
103,155
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
61,195
817
16,101
8,065
9,124
44,936
1,422
20,144
3,567
15,314
130,355
1,022
5,387
2,964
7,115
89,890
566
5,023
5,784
7,789
61,745
594
112,884
1,149
3,845
8,809
11,010
88,763
317
288
5,411
6,287
126,921
383
2,097
3,660
19
2,075
Steelhead Trout	
Totals	
95,302
85,383
146,838
109,052
68,096
137,697
101,066
129,398
Nass River.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
18,945
3,757
22,504
35,530
8,027
245
33,590
2,725
26,612
72,496
6,481
1,035
17,821
3.314
25,791
44,165
7,894
595
31,277
2,062
11,277
75,687
3,533
235
9,364
2,088
2,176
29,488
8,236
413
16,740
4,857
12,145
43,151
3,700
560
28,259
3,574
24,041
29,949
10,900
789
21,816
4,152
40,368
59,206
17,061
Steelhead Trout	
1,305
Totals	
89,008
142,939
99,580
124,071
51,765
81,153
97,512
143,908
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
22,188
4,496
24,938
44,568
22,180
1,125
31,411
3,845
11,200
59,593
19,139
1,498
39,349
3,701
11,076
34,879
15,171
113
31,327
3,385
25,569
25,333
9,276
23,574
3,151
2,987
20,539
3,172
36,037
6,936
3,245
12,476
12,468
37,327
3,759
5,189
11,467
7,942
30,810
1,239
351
895
6,285
140
Totals	
119,495
126,686
104,289
94,890
53,423
71,162
65,684
39,720
* Including 40,000 cases caught in Smith Inlet and 20,813 cases packed at Namu. 16 Geo. 5 Statement showing Salmon-pack of the Province.
K 63
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1910 TO 1925, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Vancouver Island Districts.
•
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
10,895
5,664
127,520
51,384
59,747
4,832
15.618
283
165,161
63,102
30,593
2,510
12,006
138
120,520
30,149
21,342
7,097
15,147
886
108,478
36,943
18,575
5,495
6,936
3,230
34,431
10,660
11,120
3,151
6,987
29,211
12,591
14,391
20,555
6,452
36,013
128,013
43,186
53,629
4
Totals      	
260,042
277,267
191,252
185,524
69,528
74,170
267,293
Other Disteicts.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
Sockeyes	
49,962
5,002
305,256
120,747
40,269
1,520
40,926
4,245
195,357
141,878
26,031
497
24,584
2,711
148,727
146,943
29,142
732
47,107
4,988
80,485
113,824
31,331
409
18,350
4,995
21,412
14,818
18,203
2,790
64,473
15,633
30,946
247,149
33,807
3,721
54,677
14,766
165,717
110,300
35,011
702
51,980
8,582
90,464
201,847
42,331
Steelheads and Bluebacks...
1,009
Totals	
522,756
408,934
352,839
278,144
80,568
395,728
381,163
404,793
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
Sockeyes	
32,902
6,056
112,364
112,209
30,201
865
45,373
11,423
160,812
143,615
70,431
712
98,600
9,488
40,849
83,626
48,966
985
87,130
7,108
70,727
111,930
43,254
149,336
7,246
52,758
83,430
28,328
79,464
22,837
37,734
128,296
65,806
67,866
12,659
39,167
64,312
42,457
70,506
7,439
5,551
20,098
19,460
Pinks	
Steelheads and Bluebacks....
294,597
432,366
313,894
320,168
285,898
334,187
226,461
123,054
Total packed by Districts in 1910 to 1925, inclusive.
1925.
1924.
1923..
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
Fraser	
276,855
348,859
217,900
89,008
263,904
522,756
212,059
390,858
117,445
142,939
277,267
604,745
226,869
338,863
132,274
99,580
191,252
352,839
140,570
477,915
79,712
124,071
185,524
278,144
107,650
234,765
59,272
51,765
69,528
80,568
136,661
332,787
157,522
81,153
84,170
395,223
167,944
398,877
80,367
97,512
267,293
381,163
210,851
374,216
103,155
143,908
389,815
404,793
Vancouver Island	
* Other Districts	
Grand totals....
1,719,282
1,745,313
1,341,677
1,285,946
603,548
1,187,616
1,393,156
1,626,738
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
Fraser	
402,538
292,219
95,302
119,495
325,723
294,597
127,472
223,158
85,383
126,686
320,519
279,161
146,838
104,289
349,294
237,634
109,052
94,890
782,429
164,055
68,096
53,423
199,322
254,258
137,697
71,162
301,344
254,410
101,066
65,684
247,994
222,035
129,398
39,720
Rivers Inlet	
Nass River	
Vancouver Island	
432,366
313.894
320 169
285,898
334,187
226,461
123,054
'   i
Grand totals....
1,557,485
995,065
1,164,701 11,111,039
I
1,353,901
996,626
948,965
762,201
* Including Queen Charlotte. K 61
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
STATEMENT SHOWING THE  SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE ENTIRE FRASER
RIVER SYSTEM FROM 1910 TO 1925, INCLUSIVE.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
Fraser River, B.C
State of Washington
35,385
112,023
39,743
69,369
31,655
47,402
.51,832
48,566
39,631
102,967
48,399
62,654
38,854
64,346
19,697
50,723
Totals	
147,408
109,112
79,057
100,398
142,598
111,053
103,200
70,420
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
Fraser River, B.C	
State of Washington
148,164
411,538
32,146
84,637
91,130
64,584
198,183
335,230
719,796
1,673,099
123,879
184,680
58,487
127,701
150,432
248,014
Totals	
559,702
116,783
155,714
_|
533,413
_|
2,392,895
308,559
186,248
398,446
STATEMENT SHOWING THE  SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1910 TO 1925, INCLUSIVE.
1925.
1924.
1923.     I      1922.
1
1921.
1920.            1919.           1918.
35,385
81,146
192,323
18,945
14,757
49,962
39,743
144,747
94,891
33,590
15,618
41.014
1                     1                     1                     1                     1
31.655         51.832         39.631         48.399         38.854         19.697
131,731   |      96,277*|      41,018   |      89,064
116,850         53,584   1      48,615   1    125,742
17,821   j      31,277  |        9,364         16,740
12,006  j      15,147  j        6,936           6,987
24.584          47.107          18.350          64.473
184,945
56,258
28,259
6,452
54,677
123,322
53,401
21,816
Vancouver Islandf...
6,243
51,980
Totals	
392.518
369.603
334,647   1   295,224   1    163,914   1    351,405
1                     1                     1
369,445
276,459
I
I
1917.     1      1916.              1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
148,164
65,760
61,195
22,188
9,639
32,902
1    '---"■•-   ]                                              J                       1
32.146             91.130        198.183        719.796        123.879          58.487        150.432
Skeena River	
Rivers Inlet	
Nass River	
60,923
44,936
31,411
9,223
36,150
116,553
130,350
39,349
130,166   |      52,927
89,890   |      61,745
31,327   |      23,574
. -   1     	
92,498   |    131,066   |    187,246
112,884  |      88,763   |    126,921
36,037         37,327   1      30,810
Other Districts	
98,660
87,130   |    149,336
79,464   |      67,866  |      70,506
Totals	
330,848
214,789
476,042
536,696   !    972,178  j    444,762
383,509
565,915
* 4,390 cases deducted from Skeena for 1922, Alaska sockeye.
t Vancouver Island's pack not previously segregated.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Chables F.  Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
■    1926.

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