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FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1923-24 BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1924

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Full Text

 FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OF   THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1923-24
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED   BY
AUTHORITY OP THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1924.  To His Honour Walter Cameron .Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg herewith respectfully to present the Fifty-third Annual Report on the
Public Schools of the Province.
j. d. Maclean,
Minister of Education.
November, 192If.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Part I.
Page.
Superintendent's Report   9
Inspectors' Reports—
High Schools  !  33
Elementary Schools  37
Municipal Inspectors' Reports—
New Westminster   60
Vancouver     61
Vancouver, South  64
Victoria  66
Reports on Normal Schools—
Vancouver   69
Victoria   70
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind  71
Report of the Organizer of Technical Education   74
Report of the Director of Elementary Agricultural Education  80
Report of the Director of the Summer School for Teachers  92
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Free Text-book Branch  97
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust   99
Part II.
Statistical Returns—
High Schools  (Cities)    2
High Schools (Rural Municipalities)  10
High Schools (Rural Districts)  '.  14
Elementary Schools (Cities)  IS
Elementary Schools (Rural Municipalities)   58
Elementary Schools  (Rural Districts)  82
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts   108
Part III.
High School Examination—
Names of the Winners of Medals and Scholarships —  115
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre   115
High School Entrance Examination—
Names of Medal-winners   119
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre   120
High School Entrance Examination Papers  128
High School Examination Papers—
Grade IX  133
Grade X  142
Grade XI. (Junior Matriculation)   152
Grade XII. (Senior Matriculation)   167  PART I.
GENERAL REPORT.  REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION.
1923-1924.
Education Office,
! Victoria, B.C., October, 1924.
To the Honourable J. D. MacLean, M.D., CM.,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Fifty-third Annual Report of the Public Schools of British
Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1924.
Enrolment.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 94,888 (48,083
boys and 46,805 girls) to 96,204 (48,712 boys and 47,492 girls), and the average daily attendance
from 77,752 to 79,262. The percentage of regular attendance was S2.39, the highest in the history
of our schools.
The number of pupils enrolled, the number of teachers employed, etc., in city schools, rural
municipal schools, and rural schools is shown hereunder:—
Number of Pupils
Enrolled.
1923-24.
1922-23.
Increase in
Enrolment.
Number of Teachers
Employed.
Grade
Teachers.
Special
Instructors.
Average
Number
of Pupils
per
Grade
Teacher.
High  Schools   (cities)	
High Schools (rural municipalities)	
High Schools  (rural districts)  ....
Elementary schools (cities)  	
Elementary schools (rural municipalities)      	
Elementary schools (rural districts)	
7.0S4
794
2.478
2,188
327
238
41,215
41,174
26,230
25,733
18,870
18,761
290
290
89
41
497
109
96,204 94,8
1,316
224
85
19
1,041
766
899
3,034
18
104
53
17'i
31
29
17
39
34
21
In addition to the enrolment shown above, there were in attendance at the—
Normal School, Vancouver      374 students.
Normal School, Victoria  '.      287     . „
Victoria College       140        „
University of British Columbia     1,308        „
New Schools.
High schools were established at West Vancouver, Oyama, and Robson;  and superior schools
at Port Moody, Cassidy, Oliver, Parksville, and Stewart.
Schools were opened for the first time in the following localities:—
Locality. Electoral District.
Aiyansh Atlin.
Buffalo Creek ;   Tatla Lake Cariboo.
Lindell , Chilliwack.
Edgewater Columbia.
Elk Bay Comox.
Dorr;   Sand Creek, Big Fernie.
Croydon; Dawson Creek, North;   Kelly Lake ;   Sunset
Prairie; Swan Lake, North ; Shelley ; Woodpecker....Fort George. T 10 Public Schools Report. 1924
Locality. Electoral District.
Kerr Creek; Paulson Grand ForksXJreenwood.
Birken Lillooet.
Maple Grove;  Roy Mackenzie.
Madora Creek ;   Sugar Lake North Okanagan.
Perow ;   Prairiedale Omineca.
Twin Butte.... Revelstoke.
Dorreen Skeena.
Pine Yale.
Courses of Study.
During the past year, with the valuable assistance and co-operation of several school
principals, a careful revision was made of the Elementary School Course. In the Programme
of Studies for the present year the requirements in each grade are set forth in considerable
detail and helpful suggestions are made for the teaching of the subjects. Lists of reference
books valuable to pupils and teachers are given. The " Teachers' Manual of Drawing and
Design," prepared by local experts in the teaching of the subject, copyrighted by the Minister
of Education and printed by Thomas Nelson & Sons, Limited, is now being used in our elementary and high schools. Directions are given in it for the guidance of the teacher and the text
is beautifully illustrated. The work for each grade is carefully outlined month by month. The
cost to the Province of the new Manual will be but a small fraction of the amount paid for the
Blair Drawing System which was used in the Province for over twenty years and has now been
discarded.
In the High School Course a new syllabus was drawn up in the subject of French. Greater
latitude is now allowed teachers in the choice of text-books in that subject. A higher standard
of accuracy in written French will be required and oral work will be stressed from the beginning
of the Course. At the end of the syllabus there is given a list of French grammars, readers,
dictionaries, periodicals, and books suitable for a good school library.
The High School Commercial Course was thoroughly revised. In the third year the subjects
of English, Business Correspondence, and Commercial Geography are obligatory for all students.
In addition to those subjects, students must study intensively a course in either Secretarial
Work or Accounting.
Survey of Educational System.
In response to requests made to your Department by many public bodies, a Commission was
appointed to make a thorough survey of the school system of the Province. Dr. J. H. Putman,
Chief Inspector of Schools, Ottawa, and Dr. G. M. Weir, recently appointed Professor of Education, University of British Columbia, are now engaged in the work. They are being assisted by
Dr. Peter Sandiford, of the Faculty of Education, Toronto University. The Commissioners have
been requested to look into questions of school finance, school administration, training of teachers,
courses of study, as well as all other phases of our educational system.
Manual Training and Domestic Science.
There w7ere seventy-nine manual-training and fifty-one domestic-science centres in the
Province, with sixty-nine manual and fifty-four domestic-science instructors. The pupils attending the manual-training centres numbered 14,150 and those attending domestic science 11,193.
Technical Education.
Technical schools were in operation in the Cities of New Westminster, Trail, Vancouver, and
Victoria, with a total enrolment of 1,423 students. In addition, five other cities conducted commercial courses, with an attendance of 230 students.
Night-schools, Correspondence Courses, and Training Classes for Special Instructors.
Night-schools were conducted in thirty-six cities and rural municipalities in the Province,
with a staff of 205 teachers and an enrolment of 5,044 students. These numbers, according
to the latest report of the Dominion Organizer of Technical Education, rank the Province
third in the Dominion. Instruction by correspondence was given to 240 pupils who live in
localities in which schools have not yet been opened, and to 152 coal-mine workers who wish 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 11
to qualify as shotlighters, overmen, mine surveyors, and mine managers. Teacher-training for
technical work proceeded satisfactorily on Saturday mornings. The members of the class were
practical craftsmen who were engaged as manual instructors. The classes were held in the
Technical School, Vancouver, and at the Summer School, Victoria.
In 1923-24 the total amount spent by the Department for night-schools, correspondence-
work, teacher-training, and technical education generally (not including manual training and
domestic science) reached the sum of $108,340.42, and of that sum the Dominion Government
paid $54,170.21. Excerpts from the latest report of the Dominion Organizer of Technical
Education show that the Province of British Columbia takes fourth place for the total amount
of expenditure on technical education; third place for the number taking correspondence classes;
and third for the number of students being trained as technical teachers.
Elementary Agricultural Education.
During the year the usual activities conducted under this 'branch have been maintained—■
namely, instruction in agriculture in high and superior schools, agricultural nature-studies in
elementary schools, extension or short courses in agriculture given as night-school courses during
the winter months, and the planning and improving of school-grounds. The regular courses in
nature-study are being supplemented in some places by the organizing of school-gardens, school-
supervised home-gardens, agricultural home projects, club-work, and school fairs. These extensions of the regular programme as prescribed are due in large measure to the guidance and
assistance given by the District Supervisors of Agricultural Instruction and to the personal
initiative of teachers specially interested in this branch of school-work. Altogether 516 students
in twelve schools were enrolled in the regular Two-year Course in Agriculture during the year.
An increasing number of School Boards have taken advantage of the assistance offered by
the Department towards the establishing of better and more sightly school-grounds. The educational value and beneficial influence generally of a well-ordered school-ground with ample playing-
space for boys and girls of all grades, and with plenty of shade-trees and ornamental planting
such as vines and shrubbery, is being more generally recognized by School Boards and by such
interested organizations as Parent-teacher Associations. More attention is being given to the
choosing of good school-sites and to the proper placing of buildings than ever before.
Teachers' Bureau.
The Teachers' Bureau, organized in connection with the Department of Education in 1920,
continued to give free service to Boards of School Trustees and teachers. Over 600 teachers
were placed in communication with School Boards by means of lists of vacancies distributed
from time to time. Approximately the same number of vacancies were filled by the Bureau at
the request of School Boards as in 1922-23.
With the record of each teacher for the past five years and Normal School records of
prospective teachers on file, the Bureau is now in a position to give School Boards any assistance
they may require in making a.suitable selection from a long list of applicants. During the past
year many School Boards consulted the Bureau before making appointments. Letters of commendation received from School Boards, Inspectors, and teachers bear testimony to the value of
the work being performed by this branch of the Department.
Teachers' Certificates.
Four classes of teachers' certificates are issued by the Department of Education—namely,
Academic, First-class, Second-class, and Special. Special certificates are granted for the most
part to teachers of manual training, domestic science, and commercial subjects.
Seventy Academic, 197 First-class, 562 Second-class, 43 Special, and 24 Temporary Certificates,
a total of 826, were issued during the year, as compared with 85 Academic, 144 First-class, 378
Second-class, 47 Special, and 67 Temporary Certificates, a total of 721, in 1922-23. It will be
noted that there has been a considerable increase in the numbers of First-class and Second-class
Certificates issued. This increase is due in part to the fact that Third-class Certificates are
no longer issued. The decrease in the number of Academic Certificates is probably owing to
the fact that a period of training of thirty weeks' duration is now required to meet the professional requirements for this grade of certificate. T 12
Public Schools Report.
1924
The following statement shows the number of teachers of each sex employed during 1923-24
and 1922-23, and also the number of certificates of each class held by the teachers:—
Number of Certificates of each Class.
NUMBEK   OF
Teachehs OF
each  Sex.
Total.
Academic.
First.
Second.
Third.
Temp.
Special.
Male.
Female.
310
122
38
47
335
189
193
508
457
551
65
78
92
9
11
4
16
20
104
53
220
222
159
178
128
923
660
721
348
1,145
819
899
1
Totals, 1923-24 	
5'Jfi      1   717
1,516
1,416
235
297
40
83
177
163
779
729
2,432
2,389
3,211
Totals, 1922-23 	
521
638
3,118
Teacher-training Courses.
In all, 661 students (104 men and 557 women) were enrolled in the two Normal Schools—
374 in Vancouver and 287 in Victoria. Of the total number enrolled, 19 failed, 40 left before the
end of the session, 88 were granted interim certificates, and 514 were granted permanent certificates. In addition, 55 University graduates took the Teacher-training Course to qualify for
high-school teaching.    Of these, 51 were granted diplomas.
School for the Deaf and the Blind.
The School for the Deaf and the Blind, which is maintained by the Provincial Government
in the building formerly used as the Boys' Industrial School, Point Grey, was attended by
72 pupils, 16 of whom are blind, 54 deaf, and 2 deaf and blind. Of the number, 40 are boys and
32 girls. Forty-seven pupils lived at the institution throughout the school-year and the other
25, who have their homes in Vancouver and its suburbs, attended as day scholars.
The teaching staff consists of nine members. The nature of the work makes it necessary
to have small classes. More individual instruction is of course necessary than in the case of
pupils possessing hearing and sight. Four of the blind pupils did First-year High School work
and five completed part of the Entrance work. The pupils receive training along vocational
lines as well as in ordinary class-room subjects. The girls are given instruction in plain sawing,
dressmaking, and housekeeping duties. The boys are required to work about the garden and
other parts of the grounds. They are also taught manual training. Two of them attended the
Technical School, Vancouver, one day a week, to learn printing.
Summer Schools.
• The fifth summer session of the University of British Columbia was held in Vancouver in
July and August under the direction of Dr. H. T. J. Coleman, Dean of the Faculty of Arts,
University of British Columbia. About 300 teachers and other students were in attendance.
Instruction was given in educational theory and method, in commercial work, and also in the
regular University courses.
A Summer School for teachers was held in Victoria at the same time. Twenty courses
were offered with thirty-three instructors in charge. There were in attendance 334 teachers,
the majority of whom were from rural districts. A demonstration school of five divisions with
an enrolment of 160 pupils was organized. The pupils were selected from four of the city
schools and comprised for the most part those who had been reported by their teachers at the
end of June as scarcely ready for promotion. In so far as possible the teachers in charge gave
special attention to the subjects in which the children were backward. The additional instruction enabled the boys and girls to obtain promotion to a higher grade in September. However,
the purpose of organizing the classes was to provide a means of demonstrating, for the benefit
of the student-teachers, the most approved methods of presenting the various subjects. 15 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
T 13
High Schools—Cities.
The enrolment in the city high schools during the year 1923-24 was 7,084. Of this number,
3,190 were boys and 3,894 were girls.
The number of divisions, the enrolment for the school-year 1923-24, and the enrolment for
the school-year 1922-23 in each city are shown in the following table:—
City.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1923-24.
Total
Enrolment.
1922-23.
Armstrong   	
Chilliwack    	
Courtenay 	
Cranbrook 	
Cumberland   	
Duncan	
Enderby     	
Fernie   	
Grand   Forks   	
Kamloops    	
Kaslo   	
Kelowna   	
Ladysmith    	
Merritt	
Nanaimo	
Nelson    	
New  Westminster
Port   Alberni   	
Port Coquitlam ..
Prince George ....
Prince   Rupert   ....
Revelstoke   	
Rossland   	
Salmon Arm 	
Slocan City 	
Trail   	
Vancouver   	
Vancouver, North
Vernon    	
Victoria 	
Totals ..
19
1
1
2
5
4
4
2
1
4
81
10
5
30
84
200
55
113
46
60
23
120
87
143
43
112
60
34
153
257
621
28
30
54
116
106
92
71
22
98
2,786
319
134
1,017
184
41
125
38
61
29
110
68
156
47
102
61
43
154
224
543
29
27
32
111
102
101
62
16
90
2,749
325
122
976
36
224
7,084
6,794 T 14
Public Schools Report.
1924
High Schools—Rural Municipalities.
?h schools during the year was 2,478.
The enrolment in the rural municipal hi
number, 1,047 were boys and 1,431 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the years 1923-24 and 192:
are shown in the following table:—
Of this
-23
Municipality.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1923-24.
Total
Enrolment,
1922-23.
Burnaby   	
Delta   (Ladner)   	
Esquimau   	
Kent   (Agassiz)     .,
Langley 	
Maple Ridge 	
Matsqui	
Mission    ..	
Oak Bay  	
Peaehland	
Penticton     	
Point Grey  	
Richmond   (Bridgeport)
Summerland   	
Surrey  	
Vancouver,   South	
Vancouver,  West 	
Totals 	
3
6
1
5
19
3
3
3
18
286
48
64
30
47
43
43
77
183
20
147
570
77
67
82
655
39
218
42
44
34
38
52
49
56
156
21
130
496
69
77
80
626
85
2,478
2,188
High Schools—Rural Districts.
The enrolment in the rural high schools during the year was 327. Of this number, 143 were
boys and 184 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions, the enrolment for years 1923-24 and 1922-23,
together with their total, are given in the following table:—
Locality.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1923-24.
Total
Enrolment,
1922-23.
Abbotsford   	
Creston     	
Golden   -	
Granby Bay  	
Howe Sound   	
Keremeos     	
Nakusp     	
New Denver   	
Ocean  Falls    	
Oyama	
Powell  River    	
Princeton -	
Robson     -   —	
Smithers  	
Totals	
Superior and rural schools giving high-school instruction
Grand totals    	
14
53
67
19
53
72
45
47
15
24
17
8
20
26
25
20
23
18
20
19
327
246
27
14
18
16
19
17
25
19
24
18
16
238
223
461 15 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
T 15
Elementary  Schools—Cities.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 41,215. The number of boys was 21,050;
of girls, 20,165.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, the total enrolment for the school-year
1923-24, and the total enrolment for the school-year 1922-23 in each city are shown in the
following table:—
City.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1923-24.
Total
Enrolment
1922-23.
1
4
129
115
1
14
538
521
1
10
380
377
1
6
260
240
3
18
716
688
1
13
488
517
1
11
407
413
1
4
139
162
1
23
874
886
1
11
398
431
1
3
74
79
1
21
815
816
1
4
111
140
1
14
539
535
1
12
429
446
1
10
390
392
4
27
1,184
1,189
2
26
992
1,008
5
67
2,556
2,574
1
7
232
201
2
7
243
250
1
7
220
206
1
8
332
310
1
19
719
601
1
16
616
659
1
11
441
454
1
5
166
173
1
2
50
48
3
20
759
746
30
448
18,586
18,307
3
40
1,411
1,388
1
21
814
851
"
132
5,207
5,361
Alberni  	
Armstrong"	
Chilliwack    	
Courtenay 	
Cranbrook	
Cumberland     	
Duncan    	
Enderby 	
E7ernie   	
Grand   Forks   	
Greenwood    .,
Kamloops   	
Kaslo •.	
Kelowna   	
Ladysmith     	
Merritt 	
Nanaimo    	
Nelson -... 	
New  Westminster	
Port Alberni 	
Tort  Coquitlam  	
Port Moody 	
Prince   George  	
Prince  Rupert  	
Revelstoke    	
Rossland   	
Salmon Arm 	
Slocan    	
Trail   (including  Tadanac)
Vancouver 	
Vancouver,  North  	
Vernon       	
Victoria 	
Totals 	
93
1,041
41,218
41,174 Elementary Schools—Rural Municipalities.
The enrolment in the rural municipal elementary schools was 26,230. The number of boys
enrolled was 13,605; of girls, 12,625.
The following table gives the names of the several municipalities, the number of schools
in each, the number of divisions, the enrolment for the school-year 1923-24, the enrolment for
the school-year 1922-23, together with the totals of these:—
Municipality.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1923-24.
Total
Enrolment,
1922-23.
16
14
o
6
4
12
1
1
2
18
9
11
8
2
2
1
2
8
1
7
16
7
5
1
19
5
15
4
81
30
3
8
6
18
16
1
5
31
20
19
16
16
3
20
3
82
9
25
60
8
7
9
42
20
193
15
2,935
897
82
236
152
523
523
28
157
929
643
524
533
606
91
712
82
3,206
72
924
1,887
232
183
310
1,170
747
7,313
533
2,956
918
77
225
162
Delta   	
511
573
28
171
954
642
508
555
Oak Bay  	
607
100
758
79
2,890
70
772
2,004
229
167
337
1,135
722
7,118
Vancouver, West 	
465
Totals	
199
766
26,230
25,733
Rural and Assisted Elementary Schools.
Schools.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1923-24.
Total
Enrolment,
1922-23.
700
899
18,870
18,761
Age-grade Tables.
One of the tests of the efficiency of the service which a school system is rendering the
community is the number of pupils who succeed in completing the work of the various grades
of the elementary schools by the time they are 14 years of age and that of the high schools while
they are under 18 years of age. To secure statistics on this point age-grade distribution tables
were sent in May to every school in the Province with the request that they be completed and
returned to the Department before the end of June. In the main prompt replies were received.
A few of the returns were, however, so inaccurate that they had to be discarded. Besides, some
teachers included in their returns the standing of pupils who had left their schools or classes
and -were, at the time, attending schools in other districts. The figures, therefore, which were
compiled from the statements submitted, while sufficiently correct for all practical purposes, show 15 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
T 17
a greater enrolment than the number of pupils actually in attendance. As teachers are expected
to classify their pupils semi-annually, the table shows each year divided into two sections called
first term and second term, each of which requires a half-year to complete. Thus, there are in
the elementary schools sixteen grade sections, and to cover these at a normal rate of progress
would take sixteen half-years. In preparing the table, pupils who were from 6 years to 6 years
and 6 months were reckoned as being 6 years of age; those who were from 6 years and 6 months
to 7 years were reckoned as being 6% years of age, etc. A pupil who enters the first grade
at the age of 6 and makes regular progress should complete the Elementary School Course at
14, which is the normal age for admission to high school. Should a pupil enter school at 6 and
succeed in completing the Elementary School Course in less than eight years he would be rated
as under age. A pupil who enters school at 6 and who has to repeat the work of one or more
terms is considered over age for his grade.
The normal age for admission to each grade is:—
Elementary Schools—
Grade 1  (first term)—6 years to 6 years 6 months.
1 (second term)—6 years 6 months to 7 years.
2 (first term)—7 years to 7 years 6 months.
2 (second term)—7 years 6 months to 8 years.
3 (first term)—8 years to 8 years 6 months.
3 (second term)—8 years 6 months to 9 years.
4 (first term)—9 years to 9 years 6 months.
4 (second term)—9 years 6 months to 10 years.
5 (first term)—10 years to 10 years 6 months.
5 (second term)—10 years 6 months to 11 years.
6 (first term)—11 years to 11 years 6 months.
6 (second term)—11 years 6 months to 12 years.
7 (first term)—12 years to 12 years 6 months.
7 (second term)—12 years 6 months to 13 years.
8 (first term)—13 years to 13 years 6 months.
8  (second term)—13 years 6 months to 14 years.
High School-
First year—14 years.
Second year—15 years.
Matriculation—16 years.
The compilations which follow show the number of pupils and the percentage of pupils who
are normal age, under age, and over age for their grades. T 18
Public Schools Report.
1924
High Schools.
Age, Years.
Age
Period,
Years.
Grade IX.
(1st Year).
Grade X.
(2nd Year).
Grade XI.
(3rd Year).
Grade XII.
(4th Year).
Total.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
11-12
12-13
13-14
14-15
15-16
16-17
17-18
18-19
19-20
2
51
353
1
47
409
3
98
762
2
53
394
921
1,245
993
511
196
62
1
49
450
1,051
1,496
1,337
759
280
70
3
12 	
2
39
250
2
41
258
4
80
508
102
13 	
2
25
134
27
1S4
9
52
818
844
14	
646
766
1,412
1,972
15	
675
325
87
23
4
751
443
132
27
3
1,426
768
219
50
7
436
561
997
2,741
16	
890
193
66
17
533
275
72
12
923
468
138
29
272
355
627
fi
6
12
2,330
17	
225
95
35
339
177
52
564
272
8T
6
13
19
1,270
18	
12
6
4
3
16
9
476
19	
132
20	
20-21
6
1
7
7
1
8
11
11
22
2
2
4
26
15
41
21	
over 21
2
1
3
2
2
4
5
11
16
2
2
11
14
25
Total No	
2,174
2,581
4,755
1,402
1,757
3,159
804
1,156
1,960
34
28
62
4,414
5,522
9,936
Number under age....
406
457
863
291
801
592
161
211
372
6
6
12
864
975
1,839
Number normal age...
646
766
1,412
436
561
997
272
355
627
6
13
19
1,360
1,695
3,055
1,122
1,358
2,480
675
895
1,570
371
590
961
22
9
31
2,190
2,852
5,042
Per cent, unde
Per cent, norm
18.51
80.74
B.—Boys.    G.—Girls.    T.—Total. 15 Geo
. 5                                 Public Schools Eeport.                                          T 19
CITY   ELEMENTARY   SCHOOLS.
GRADE.
SECTION.
FIRST GRADE.
SECOND GRADE.
THIRD GRADE.
FOURTH GRADE.
FIFTH GRADE.
SIXTH GRADE.
SEVENTH GRADE!
EIGHTH GRADE.
TOTAL
%
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
Age.
Age
Period.
NORMAL  AGE  LIMITS  FOR  ENTRANCE   INTO  EACH  GRADE.
Under
6 yrs.
6 mos.
6 yrs.
6 mos. to
7 yrs.
7 yrs.
to 7 yrs.
6 mos.
7 yrs.
6 mos. to
8 yrs.
8 yrs.
to 8 yrs.
6 mos.
8 yrs.
6 mos. to
9 yrs.
9 yrs.
to 9 yrs.
6 mos.
9 yrs.
6 mos. to
10 yrs.
10 yrs.
to 10 yrs.
6 mos.
10 yrs.
6 mos. to
11 yrs.
11 .yrs.
to 11 yrs.
6 mos.
11 yrs.
6 mos. to
12 yrs.
12 yrs.
to 12 yrs.
6 mos.
12 yri.
6 mos. to
13 yri
13 yrs.
to 13 yrs.
6 mos.
13 yrs.
6 mos. to
14 yrs.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
6 years	
6£ years...
7 years	
7\ years	
8 years	
8£ years	
9 years	
9i years ...
10 years	
10| years...
11 years	
11| years...
12 years	
12| years...
13 j'ears	
13J years...
14 years	
14£ years...
15 years	
15£- years...
16 years	
16£ years...
17 years	
17£ years...
18 years	
18\ years...
19 years	
19£ years...
20 years	
[Under
6 years 6 months
6 years 6 months
to 7 years	
7 years to
7 years 6 months.
7 years 6 months
to 8 years	
8 years to
8 years 6 months.
8 years 6 months
to 9 years	
9 years to
9 years 6 months
9 years 6 months
to 10 years	
10 years to
10 years 6 months
10 years 6 months
to 11 years	
11 years to
11 years 6 months
11 years 6 months
to 12 years	
12 years to
12 years 6 months
12 years 6 months
to 13 years	
13 years to
13 years 6 months
13 years 6 months
to 14 years 	
•| 66
550 121
228|  262    49(
15
9f
IC
llf
2'
21'
1       £
2f
m
1      t
27
14
5(
45'
2
)       1
43
95
2
2
39
116
4
£
82
211
911
1,000
1,110
1,064
1,210
1,226
1,291
1,196
1,277
1,186
1,154
1,121
1,105
1,081
989
851
712
506
362
215
110
42
29
12
6
1
830
1,098
1,020
1,053
1,163
1,121
1,248
1,233
1,223
1,180
1,116
1,108
997
1,013
922
874
615
498
318
181
108
54
20
6
1
1
1,741
2,098
2,130
2,117
2,373
2,347
2,539
2,429
2,500
2,366
2,270
2,229
2,102
2,094
1,911
1,725
1,327
1,004
680
396
218
96
49
18
7
2
255
130
45
27
6
6
2
4
2
2
1
6
1
3
239
97
35
19
9
7
2
3
1
49<
227
80
46
15
13
4
2
3
1
6
1
3
610   714 133J
348
192
73
52
25
21
16
10
6
6
21
8
15
9
6
2
1
346
155
77
31
22
9
6
3
5
2
1
1
2
1
69^1
347
150
83
47
30
22
13
11
8
22
9
17
10
6
2
1
34f
SOP
654
9
15
90S
7
31
222
16
46
430
247
162
99
46
31
19
11
8
3
9
3
4
2
4
232
143
76
35
12
11
4
7
1
1
1
1
1
47£
305
175
81
43
30
15
15
4
9
4
4
3
5
1
464
48(1
944
5
28
87
3
32
123
8
60
' 2in
17
58
199
1
19
68
215
1
36
126
414
3
8
43
101
2
5
76
133
5
13
119
234
1
1
15
73
106
233
3
5
63
138
236
1
4
20
136
244
469
410
219
155
85
43
14
21
9
17
8
10
7
3
1
4
2
318
178
98
71
35
28
11
6
2
2
1
1
72*
397
253
156
78
42
32
15
19
10
11
7
4
1
4
2
281
328
609
305
196
112
84
38
26
15
17
1
11
4
2
1
3
1
258
154
96
56
40
22
11
4
9
4
1
1
563
350
208
140
78
48
26
21
10
15
5
3
1
3
1
1
3771  367'  744
3
23
60
74
1
e
17
67
87
1
9
40
127
161
347
257
180
99
67
45
37
25
22
15
9
6
1
1
2
1
335
220
126
42
19
14
5
4
5
5
2
1
682
477
306
168
109
64
51
30
26
20
14
8
2
1
2
1
198
229    427
10
89
213
262
7
20
124
241
295
7
30
213
454
557
2
11
29
78
74
1
1
10
38
66
99
1
3
21
67
144
173
166
153
106
72
42
30
25
17
7
16
6
6
1
3
187
145
95
63
31
16
11
6
5
2
3
2
353
298
201
135
73
46
36
23
12
18
9
6
3
3
280
325
605
11
34
111
196
279
2
22
37
138
225
309
2
*33
71
249
421
588
1
3
11
29
37
6
11
23
36
263
186
137
98
68
33
16
13
5
7
6
3
265
181
118
80
41
23
14
7
2
4
2
1
528
367
255
178
109
56
30
20
7
11
8
4
no' 117
227
1
9
22
52
73
1
1
106
72
81
31
26
18
8
13
3
4
1
95
53
48
29
20
19
4
4
4
1
201
125
129
60
46
37
12
17
7
4
2
263
262
525
210
180
125
90
75
41
21
10
5
1
4
193
161
90
67
53
30
11
7
5
2
2
403
341
215
157
128
71
32
17
10
3
6
74
85
159
5
20
60
146
11
27
97
190
16
47
157
336
56
63
47
25
16
5
6
2
1
66
45
41
24
10
9
3
4
1
1
122
108
88
49
26
14
9
4
3
2
284
321
605
222
211
141
107
72
31
22
6
4
1
235
158
124
68
40
27
8
2
"2
457
369
265
175
112
58
30
8
6
1
91
91
182
84
27
45
30
16
12
5
2
1
1
75
53
42
23
13
6
2
159
80
87
53
29
18
5
4
1
1
336
374
710
302
237
210
131
77
32
19
6
3
2
2
241
171
125
67
27
16
6
4
478
381
256
144
59
35
12
7
2
2
35
32
24
17
8
4
1
1
38
37
16
14
3
2
1
73
69
40
31
11
6
1
1
1
305
421
726
14 years to
14 years 6 months
14 years 6 months
to 15 years	
15 years to
15 years 6 months
15 years 6 months
to 16 years	
16 years to
16 years 6 months
16 years 6 months
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
282
261
204
150
71
32
23
7
1
1
308
294
210
142
83
48
15
5
1
1
590
555
414
292
154
80
38
12
2
2
1
1
17 years to
17 years 6 months
17 years 6 months
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
18 years to
18 years 6 months
18 years 6 months
1
1
1
1
19 years to
19 years 6 months
19 years 6 months
1659
1637
262
714
661
16.0
43.6
40 4
3296
490
1333
1473
14.9
40.4
44.7
1101
108
345
648
9.8
31.3
58.9
960
126
309
525
13.1
32.2
54.7
2061
234
654
1173
11.4
31.7
56 9
1745
272
464
1009
15.6
26.6
57 8
1486
255
480
751
17.2
32.3
50 fi
3231
527
944
1760
16.3
29.2
54 5
1238
141
281
816
11.4
22.7
65.9
1143
159
328
656
13.9
28.7
57.4
2381
300
609
1472
12.6
25.6
61.8
1723
232
377
1114
13.5
21.9
64.6
1474
260
367
847
17.6
24.9
57.5
3197
492
744
1961
15.4
23.3
61  3
969
120
198
651
12.4
20.4
H7 9,
953
158
229
566
16.6
24.0
59.4
1922
278
427
1217
14.5
22.2
63 3
1390
274
280
836
19.7
20.1
60,1
1366
303
325
738
22.2
23.8
54,0
27561
5771
605
1574
20.9
22.0
57.1
628
155
110
363
24.7
17.5
57.8
610
216
117
277
35.4
19.2
45.4
1238
371
227
640
30.0
18.3
51.7
1457
429
263
765
29.4
18.1
52.5
1328
445
262
621
33.5
19.7
46.8
2785
874
525
1386
31.3
18.9
49.8:
455
160
74
221
35.2
16.2
48.6,
468
178
85
205
38.0
18.2
43.8
923
338
159
426
36.6
17.2
46.2
1675
574
284
817
34.3
16.9
48.8
1672
687
321
664
41.1
19.2
39.7
3347
1261
605
1481
37.7
18.1
44.2
508
194
91
223
38.2
17.9
43.9
520
215
91
214
41.3
17.5
41.2
1028:
409
182
437
39.8
17.7
42.5
1988
631
336
1021
31.7
16.9
51.4
2073
733|
374
966
35.4J
18.OJ
46.6
4061
1364
710
1987
33.6
17.5
48.9
237
81
34
122
34.2
14.3
51.5
216
76
29
111
35.2
13.4
51.4
4531
157
63
233
34.7
13.9
51.4
1838
2133
3971
19,001
38,768
8,778
9,724
20,266
22.6
25.1
52.3
Tota
1156
962
2118
19,767
Number of
if. Pupils   	
228
619
812
13.7
37.3
48 9
501
305
1032
27.3
16.6
56.1
605
421
1107
28.4
19.7
51.9
1106
726
2139
27.8
18.3
53.9
4,100
4,722
10,945
20.7
23.9
55.4
4,678
5,002
9,321
24.7
26.3
49.0
Number of
Normal-
age Pupils	
661
495
550
412
1211
907
Number of
5 Pupils	
Per cent, of}
jupils
GE ....   	
Per cent, of \
rapils
Age	
57.2
42.8
57.2
42.8
57.2
42.8
Per cent, of j
mpils
E	
i
1                          1         1 15 Geo. 5                                 Public Schools Eeport.                                          T 21
RURAL   MUNICIPAL   ELEMENTARY   SCHOOLS.
•
GRADE.
SECTION.
FIRST GRADE.
SECOND GRADE.
THIRD GRADE.
FOURTH GRADE.
FIFTH GRADE.
SIXTH GRADE.
SEVENTH GRADE.
EIGHTH GRADE.
TOTAL
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Teem.
Age.
Age
Period.
NORMAL  AGE   LIMITS  FOR   ENTRANCE   INTO   EACH  GRADE.
Under
6 yrs.
6 mos.
6 yrs
6 mos.
7 yrs
to
7 yrs.
to 7 yrs.
6 mos.
7 yrs.
6 mos. to
8 yrs.
8 yrs.
to 8 yrs.
6 mos.
8 yrs.
6 mos. to
9 yrs.
9 yrs.
to 9 yrs.
6 mos.
9 yrs.
6 mos. to
10 yrs.
10 yrs.
to 10 3'rs.
6 mos.
10 yrs.
6 mos. to
11 yrs.
11 yrs.
to 11 yrs.
6 mos.
11 yrs.
6 mos. to
12 yrs.
12 yrs.                12 yrs.
to 12 3*rs.           6 mos. to
6 mos.                13 yrs.
13 yrs.
to 13 yrs.
6 mos.
13 yrs.
6 mos. to
14 yrs.
B.     G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.      B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
6 years	
6£ years	
7 years	
7h years....
8 years	
8J years....
9 years	
9£ years	
10 years	
10£ years...
11 years	
11£ years...
12 years	
12J years...
13 years....
13^ years...
14 years...
14£ years...
15 years	
15J years...
16 years	
16J years...
17 years	
17£ years...
18 years	
18J years...
19 years	
19£ years...
20 years...
Under
6 years 6 months.
6 years 6 months
to 7 years 	
7 3rears to
7 years 6 months.
7 years 6 months
to 8 years	
8 years to
8 years 6 months.
8 years 6 months
to 9 years	
9 years to
9 years 6 months.
9 years 6 months
to 10 years.,	
10 years to
10 years 6 months
10 years 6 months
to 11 years	
11 years to
11 years 6 months
11 years 6 months
to 12 years	
471
408
879H 213
217
430
8
78
14
74
22
152
1
10
IfiD
2
16
IKS
3
26
323
693
670
746
696
800
807
859
806
794
741
809
664
730
591
584
514
396
288
189
110
65
24
17
3
2
1
641
592
668
664
773
745
815
728
717
702
730
583
674
549
566
497
388
264
187
98
61
27
13
3
1
1,334
1,262
1,414
1,360
1,573
1,552
1,674
1,534
1,511
1,443
1,539
1,247
1,404
1,140
1,150
1,011
784
552
376
208
126
51
30
6
1
2
1
163
87
30
18
8
18
2
5
1
138
47
27
19
6
5
1
2
2
301
J 419
864
783
134
57
37
14
23
3
5
3
2
219
119
72
40
9
12
5
1
2
203
80
45
21
9
2
9
1
1
422
199
117
61
18
14
14
2
3
257    219
476
17
85
25
83
42
168
5
7
158
11
30
162
16
37
S20
1
1
22
79
1
29
87
1
2
51
166
	
151
115
49
47
9
9
6
1
6
2
151
83
36
31
10
10
2
1
302
198
85
78
19
19
6
3
7
2
303    292
5Q5
216
134
85
36
27
15
15
5
4
216
124
71
34
19
13
9
2
2
432
258
156
70
46
28
24
7
6
18S
199
382
15
30
166
18
52
156
33
82
322
1
57
87
2
9
63
82
2
10
120
169
1
2
26
46
108
5
38
44
128
1
7
64
90
236
185
116
85
38
26
11
11
10
2
2
1
2
1
1
136
82
58
21
23
16
4
2
2
2
1
1
1
321
198
143
59
49
27
15
12
4
4
1
1
1
2
2
1
279
269
548
217
186
109
72
67
17
13
9
12
4
3
3
8
1
1
209
169
70
38
29
15
9
5
2
2
1
426
355
179
' 110
96
32
22
14
14
6
3
4
8
1
1
113
140
253
3
18
51
57
6
16
54
75
9
34
105
132
2
13
48
112
169
5
15
59
142
183
7
28
107
254
352
97
79
64
39
24
13
6
5
3
2
2
1
2
1
94
59
42
28
11
11
4
4
1
1
1
191
138
106
67
35
24
10
9
4
3
3
1
2
1
213
203
416
2
7
17
47
48
9
26
58
56
2
16
43
105
104
10
16
64
98
173
6
20
56
114
195
16
36
120
212
368
6
10
13
17
1
1
5
17
27
1
7
15
30
44
1
16
59
92
136
1
2
7
14
73
129
171
1
2
8
30
132
221
307
191
142
104
70
56
22
21
12
10
4
4
2
3
180
111
76
49
41
17
12
9
6
2
2
2
371
253
180
119
97
39
33
21
16
6
6
4
3
107
92
199
67
72
42
31
18
11
10
6
3
72
55
-39
20
8
9
5
1
2
1
139
127
81
51
26
20
15
7
5
1
145
134
279
138
106
75
49
36
21
14
8
10
125
63
49
36
25
13
4
4
1
1
1
263
169
124
85
61
34
18
12
11
1
2
73     82
155
52
52
18
22
11
6
5
2
2
1
46
36
23
19
4
6
1
1
98
88
41
41
15
12
5
3
1
2
1
159
164
323
12 years to
12 years 6 months
12 j^ears 6 months
to 13 years	
13 years to
13 years 6 months
13 years 6 months
to 14 years	
14 years to
14 years 6 months
14 years 6 months
to 15 years	
1
1
1
1
6
6
159
119
77
72
43
IS
16
6
2
159
64
46
35
12
8
2
2
318
183
118
78
30
24
8
4
63     60
123
51
36
34
24
8
7
6
3
42
40
40
15
9
5
1
2
93
74
39
17
12
7
5
187
192
379
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
3
183
,123
94
53
24
12
9
3
1
170
128
81
43
32
16
9
1
1
353
251
175
96
56
28
•   18
4
2
42
40
82
1
1
1
1
1
25
15
20
14
10
2
3
30
29
24
15
8
3
2
3
1
55
44
44
29
18
5
5
3
1
198
216
414
3
174
163
100
71
39
16
11
3
209
166
121
66
42
24
8
2
1
383
329
221
137
81
40
19
5
1
1
15 years to
15 years 6 months
15 years 6 months
to 16 years	
16 years to
16 years 6 months
16 years 6 months
to 17 years	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
17 years to
17 vears 6 months
17 years 6 months
to 18 years	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
18 years to
18 years 6 months
18 years 6 months
to 19 3rears	
1
1
1
19 years to
19 years 6 months
19 years 6 months
to 20 years	
1
1
Over 20 years	
Tota
1 number	
808
655
1463
1119
213
419
487
19.0
37.5
43.5
956
217
364
375
22.7
38.1
39.2
2075
430
783
862
20.8
37.7
41.5
738
86
257
395
11.6
34.9
53.5
634
88
219
327
13.9
34.5
51.6
1372
174
476
722
12.7
34.7
52.6
1016
171
303
542
16.8
29.8
53.3J
966
181
292
493
18.8
30.2
51.0
1982
352
595
1035
17.8
30.0
52.2
776
102
183
491
13.1
23.6
83.3
656
108
199
349
16.5
30.3
53.2
1432
210
382
840
14.6
26.7
58.7
1171
170
279
722
14.5
23.8
61.7
1021
203
269
549
19.9
26.3
53.8
2192
373
548
1271
17.0
25.0
58.0
554
103
113
338
18.6
20.4
61.0
513
117
140
256
22.8
27.3
49.9
1067
220
253
594
20.6
23.7
55.7
1067
211
213
643
19.8
19.9
60.3
936
226
203
507
24.1
21.7
54.2
2003
437
416
1150
21.8
20.8
57.4
512
145
107
260
28.3
20.9
50.8
461
156
92
213
33.8
20.0
46.2
973
301
199
473
30.9
20.5
48.6
787
183
145
459
23.3
18.4
58.3
671
215
134
322
32.0
20.0
48.0
1458
398
279
781
27.3
19.1
53.6
373
129
73
171
34.6
19.6
45.8
369
151
82
136
40.9
22.2
36.9
742
280
155
307
37.7
20.9
41.4
1016
344
159
513
33.9
15.6
50.5
963
404
164
395
42.0
17.0
41.0
9979
748
323
908
37.8
16.3
45.9
355
121
63
171
34.0
17.7
48.2
363
149
60
154
41.0
16.5
42.4
718
270
123
325
37.6
17.1
45.3
1050
361
187
502
34.4
17.8
47.8
1064
391
192
481
36.8
18.0
45.2
2114
752
379
983
35.6
17.9
46.5
177
46
42
89
26.0
23.7
50.3
206
51
40
115
24.8
19.4
55.8
383
97
82
204
25.3
21.4
53.3
1080
1252
2332
12,599
11,686
3,054
3,074
5,558
26.1
26.3
47.6
24,285
5,743
6,286
12,256
23.65
25.89
50.46
Number of
UNDER-A(
Number of
Normal-
Number of
Over-age
Per cent, of ]
Under A
Per cent, of j
Normal
Per cent, of r.
Over Ag
m Pupils	
304
198
578
28.1
18.3
53.5
397
216
639
31.7
17.3
51.0
701
414
1217
30.1
17.7
52.2
: 2,689
3,212
6,698
21.3
25.5
53.2
*ge Pupils 	
471
337
408
247
879
584
Pupils	
jupils
ge	
mpils
A.GE	
mpils
E	
38.3
11.7
62.3
37.7
30.1
39.9 1
15 Geo. 5                                 Public Schools Beport.
RURAL   AND   ASSISTED   ELEMENTARY   SCHOOLS.
T 23
GRADE.
SECTION.
FIRST GRADE.
SECOND GRADE.
THIRD GRADE.
FOURTH GRADE.
FIFTH GRADE.
SIXTH GRADE.
SEVENTH GRADE.
EIGHTH GRADE.
TOTAL
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.        2nd Term.
1st Term.
2ijrD Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
Age.
Age
Period.
NORMAL AGE  LIMITS  FOR  ENTRANCE   INTO  EACH
GRADE
Under
6 yrs.
6 mos.
6 yrs.
6 mos.
7 yrs.
to
7 yrs.
to 7 yrs.
6 mos.
7 yrs.
6 mos. to
8 yrs.
8 yrs.
to 8 yrs.
6 mos.
8 yrs.
6 mos. to
9 yrs.
9 yrs.
to 9 yrs.
6 mos.
9 yrs.
6 mos. to
10 yrs.
10 yrs.
to 10 yrs.
6 mos.
10 yrs.
6 mos. to
11 yrs.
• 11 3rrs.
to li 3*rs.
6 mos.
11 yrs.
6 mos. to
12 yrs.
12 yrs.
to 12 yrs.
6 mos.
12 yrs.
6 mos. to
13 yrs.
13 yrs.
to 13 yrs.
6 mos.
13 yrs.
6 mos. to
14 yrs.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.     G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
6 years	
6£ years...
7 years	
7J \7ears	
8 years	
8§ years	
9 years	
9^ years ...
10 years	
10| years...
11 years	
11\ years...
12 years	
12^ years...
13 years	
13j years...
14 years	
14| 3'ears...
15 years	
15^ 3^ears...
16 years	
16i years...
17 years	
17£ years...
18 years	
18| years...
19 years	
19J years...
20 years i
Under
•   6 3'ears 6 months.
6 years 6 months
to 7 years	
7 years to
7 years 6 months.
7 years 6 months
to 8 years	
8 years to
8 3'ears 6 months.
8 years 6 months
to 9 years	
9 3'ears to
9 years 6 months
9 years 6 months
to 10 3'ears	
10 years to
10 years 6 months
10 years 6 months
to 11 years	
11 years to
11 years 6 months
11 years 6 months
to 12 years	
12 years to
12 years 6 months
12 years 6 months
to 13 years ,
13 years to
13 years 6 months
13 years 6 months
to 14 years	
14 years to
14 years 6 months
14 3'ears 6 months
to 15 years	
15 years to
15 years 6 months
15 years 6 months
409
370   779
137
136
273
11
40
12
53
23
93
1
18
81
8
15
103
9
33
184
1
14
40
2
20
34
1
2
34
74
!
559
524
540
513
511
562
635
550
564
529
561
507
467
441
422
391
345
232
163
84
69
29
14
7
3
1
1
526
493
513
521
543
529
625
514
545
511
474
460
434
384
420
366
299
203
175
112
65
48
20
9
5
1
2
1,085
152
83
57
39
17
18
7
9
4
6
7
9
3
107
74
48
33
15
13
7
9
1
7
1
2
259
157
105
72
32
31
14
18
5
13
10
2
3
314
316
630
1,017
223
110
82
50
39
25
20
7
16
2
6
3
8
4
3
2
1
183
110
68
38
26
18
11
9
2
3
3
2
1
4
1
406
220
150
88
65
43
31
16
18
2
9
6
.10
5
7
3
1
132
120
9m
7
27
71
10
26
86
17
53
157
3
3
28
2
3
15
31
2
6
18
59
....        1
1        1
5       6
16 i    25
1
2
11
41
164
1,053
89
54
62
35
17
14
8
5
9
3
5
2
1
2
2
1
87
50
45
33
12
17
6
5
1
1
2
3
1
176
104
107
68
29
31
14
10
10
4
7
5
1
2
3
1
1861  212
398
1,034
171
119
87
69
41
34
35
15
13
10
1
6
1
3
2
1
183
128
110
41
37
13
16
13
8
2
4
1
2
4
5
354
247
197
110
78
47
51
28
21
12
5
7
3
7
7
1
84
99
183
1
1
7
15
16
16
1
1
23
31
1
16
21
- 50
3
1
15
42
81
4
1
31
63
131
1,054
64
68
40
41
35
19
10
12
7
6
1
5
4
3
1
1
78
67
45
33
25
19
2
8
5
4
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
142
135
85
74
60
38
12
20
12
10
2
6
6
5
3
3
205
168
373
1,091
198
119
110
92
57
25
42
11
16
10
4
6
1
2
1
2
195
105
90
69
52
22
32
10
7
3
8
1
1
1
1
1
393
224
200
161
109
47
•   74
21
23
13
12
7
1
1
3
2
2
1
78
69
147
87
77
1
5
2
9
1
5
10
1
6
7
19
1
5
19
51
66
4
9
35
70
97
5
14
54
121
163
1,260
46
47
28
37
23
19
9
11
7
5
36
38
34
22
12
21
8
4
2
1
82
85
62
59
35
40
17
15
9
6
181
182
363
1,064
167
108
111
101
61
39
33
24
12
13
6
4
6
144
95
87
68
47
30
23
16
13
4
6
4
1
311
203
198
169
108
69
56
40
25
17
12
4
6
4
1
35
42
77
3
1
2
fi
1
o
2
11
1
4       5
3 8
4 31
6     46
2
14
28
58
74
7
22
59
104
147
1
3
4
3
4
1
1
1
3
8
1
1
4
5
6
12
1,109
32
28
26
9
14
13
14
7
6
3
1
2
2
1
29
10
26
8
8
10
6
6
5
6
2
2
2
61
38
52
17
22
23
20
13
11
9
3
4
4
1
111
131
242
1
5
9
17
49
67
2
4
16
24
53
99
3
9
25
41
102
166
1,040
116
78
76
48
51
31
31
16
2
1
2
1
2
1
90
80
57
47
40
22
12
6
12
7
2
1
206
158
133
95
91
53
43
22
14
8
4
2
2
1
24   . 32
56
1,035
16
15
21
18
6
7
4
4
1
4
19
13
8
12
6
5
3
3
1
2
35
28
29
30
12
12
7
7
2
6
131
131
262
967
95
83
58
52
36
32
10
1
1
3
2
111
73
56
42
23
10
11
7
4
5
206
156
114
94
59
42
21
8
5
8
2
14
23
»
7     73
901
19
20
7
10
5
1
1
2
2
1
10
14
6
6
6
4
1
1
1
2
|
1
1
1
9   119
115
234
825
4 102
3     81
6     77
1 41
5 26
2 19
3 13
3       1
2
1       2
124
88
67
51
29
14
5
5
3
1
226
169
144
92
55
33
IS
6
5
2
1
16
18
34
842
11
8
9
6
2
2
2
1
1
12
15
9
6
5
2
3
2
2
23
23
18
12
7
4
5
2
3
1
133
160
293
757
137
87
95
51
3.3
16
3
2
2
136
99
89
72
43
23
11
6
3
1
1
273
186
184
123
76
39
14
8
5
1
2
644
2
1
1
3
1
435
2
1
1
3
1
338
196
16 years to
16 years 6 months
16 years 6 months
to 17 vears....
1
1
2
134
1
1
1
2
1
77
17 years to
17 years.6 months
17 3'ears 6 months
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
34
16
18 years to
18 years 6 months
18 years 6 months
1
1
8
1
1
2
19 3rears to
19 3?'ears 6 months
19 years 6 months
1
1
1
932
136
316
480
14.5
33.9
51.5
1984
273
630
1081
13.7
31.7
54.5
492
51
132
309
10.3
26.8
52.8
449
65
120
264
14.5
26.7
58.7
941
116
252
573
12.3
26.8
60.9
895
100
186
609
11.2
20.8
RS.n
906
126
212
568
13.9
23.4
69.7
1801
226
398
1177
12.5
22.1
R5 s
456
55
84
317
12.1
18.4
69.5
453
56
99
298
12.3
21.8
65.8
909
111
183
615
12.2
20.1
R7 (\
1007
105
205
697
10.4
20.3
m 9.
888
122
168
598
13.7
18.9
67.3
1895
227
373
1295
11.9
19.6
fi8 R
348
34
78
236
9.7
22.4
R7.Q
301
51
69
181
16.9
22.9
ffll
649
85
147
417
13.1
22.6
64 •?
975
109
181
685
11.2
18.5
70.2
830
110
182
538
13.2
22.0
64.8
1805
219
363
1223
12.1
20.1
67.7
217
24
35
158
11.1
16.1
72 8
194
32
42
120
16.5
21.6
61.8
411
56
77
278
13.6
18.7
67.7
655
88
111
456
13.4
16.9
69.6
649
142
131
376
21.9
20.2
fi7.fl
1304
230
242
832
17.6
18.6
63 8
137
17
24
96
12.4
17.5
70.1
121
16
32
73
13.2
26.4
60.3
258
33
56
169
12.8
21.7
65.5
646
142
131
373
21.9
20.3
57.8
688
215
131
342
31.3
19.0
49.7
1334
357
262
715
26.8
19.6
53.6
93
11
14
68
11.8
15.1
73.1
88
16
23
49
18.2
26.1
55.7
181   646
27   163
37   119
l|l7   364
14.9 25.2
20.4 18.4
6^.6 56.3
678
176
115
387
25.9
17.0
57.1
1324
339
234
751
25.6
17.6
56.7
73
15
16
42
20.5
21.9
57 5
89
14
18
57
15.6
20.2
64.1
162
29
34
99
17.9
21.0
61.1
8,797
1,475
2,188
5,134
16.7
24.9
58.4
Total
number	
824
689
1513
1052
708
148
133
427
20.9
18.8
60 3
842
198
160
484
23.5
19.0
57.5
1550
346
293
911
22.3
18.9
58.8
9,224
18,021
Number of
Under-ag
e Pupils   	
137
314
601
13.0
29.8
57.1
1,199
2,172
5,853
12.9
23.5
63.5
2,674
4,360
Number of
Normals
lGe Pupils	
409
415
370
319
779
734
Number of
Over-age
Pupils	
10,9S7
14.8
Per cent, of p
Under A
upils
SE	
Per cent, of p
Normal j
upils
^GE	
4Q 6
iR 7
51.4
48.5
24.2
Per cent, of p
Over Agj
upils
:	
50.4 46.3
61.0
1
'
'
• 15 Geo
. 5
Public Schools Keport.                                          T 25
SUMMARY FOR ALL ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
GRADE.
FIRST GRADE.
SECOND GRADE.
THIRD GRADE.
FOURTH GRADE.
FIFTH GRADE.
SIXTH GRADE.
SEVENTH GRADI
EIGHTH GRADE.
SECTION.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
Is
t Term.
2nd Term.
1st Te
IM.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
1st Term.
2ND Tjrm.
1st Term.
2nd Term.
Age
Period.
NORMAL AGE  LIMITS  FOR  ENTRANCE   INTO  EACH  GRADE.
TOTAL.
Age.
Under
6 3rrs.
6 mos.
6 yrs
6 mos.
7 yrs
to
7 yrs.
to 7 yrs.
6 mos.
7 yrs.
6 mos. to
8 yrs.
8 yrs.
to 8 yrs.
6 mos.
8 yrs.
6 mos. to
9 yrs.
9 yrs.
to 9 3'rs.
6 mos.
9 yrs.
6 mos. to
10 yrs.
10 yrs.
to 10 3'rs.
6 mos.
10 yrs.
6 mos. to
11 yrs.
11 yrs.
to 11 3rrs.
6 mos.
11 yrs.
6 mos. to
12 yrs.
12 yrs.
to 12 3'rs.
6 mos.
12 yrs.
6 mos. to
13 yrs.
13 yrs.
to 13 yrs.
6 mos.
13 yrs.
6 mos. to
14 yrs.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.     G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.     G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
B.
G.
T.
6 years.	
6| 3'ears	
7 vears	
Undei
6 years 6 months.
6 3'ears 6 months
to 7 years	
7 years to
7 3'ears 6 months.
7 years 6 months
to 8 3'ears	
8 years to
8 years 6 months.
8 years 6 months
to 9 years	
9 .years to
9 3'ears 6 months.
9 years 6 months
to 10 3'ears.,	
10 years to
10 years 6 months
10 3rears 6 months
to 11 years ...
11 years to
11 years 6 months
11 years 6 months
to 12 years	
12 years to
12 years 6 months
12 years 6 months
to 13 3~ears ,
13 3'ears to
13 years 6 months
13 years 6 months
to 14 years	
14 years to
14 years 6 months
14 years 6 months
to 15 years	
15 years to
15 years 6 months
15 years 6 months
to 16 years	
16 3'ears to
16 years 6 months
16 years 6 months
1541
13->8
2869
578
615
1193
31
214
36
243
67
457
10
57
476
16
58
488
26
115
964
3
1
74
220
2
4
84
233
5
5
158
453
2,163
2,194
2,396
2,273
2,521
2,595
2,785
2,552
2,635
2,456
2,524
2,292
2,302
2,113
1,995
1,756
1,453
1,026
714
409
244
95
60
22
9
4
2
1,997
2,183
2,201
2,238
2,479
2,395
2,688
2,475
2,485
2,393
2,320
2,151
2,105
1,946
1,908
1,737
1,302
965
680
391
234
129
53
18
7
2
2
4,160
570
300
132
84
31
42
11
18
7
8
8
16
2
3
4
3
3
2
1
1
484
218
110
71
30
25
10
12
3
10
1
2
1
1
1054
518
242
155
61
67
21
30
10
18
8
17
4
3
4
3
4
2
1
2
1352
1394
2746
4,377
790
421
227
142
73
58
41
IS
24
8
33
11
23
13
10
4
1
1
1
1
732
345
190
90
57
29
26
13
8
2
4
4
6
3
4
1
1
1
1522
766
417
232
130
87
67
31
32
10
37
15
29
16
14
5
2
1
1
1
1
734
1  648
1R89
21
49
437
28
87
470
49
136
907
1
9
53
194
2
7
76
241
3
16
129
435
1
37
104
452
1
2
43
145
448
1
3
80
249
900
...
4,597
7i 3'ears...
8 3'ears	
487
331
210
128
57
42
25
14
18
14
8
6
3
6
2
1
4 70
276
157
99
34
38
10
14
3
1
3
5
1
1
1
957
607
367
227
91
80
35
28
21
15
11
11
4
3
2
953
984
19R7
4
10
107
203
4
14
155
231
8
24
262
434
1
3
17
115
173
391
6
11
116
224
445
1
9
28
231
397
836
4,511
797
472
327
190
111
63
71
29
34
18
12
13
7
4
7
3
717
430
279
146
91
54
36
21
12
4
6
2
3
4
5
1
1514
902
606
336
202
117
107
50
46
22
18
15
10
8
12
4
548
626
1174
5,000
8| years....
9 years	
554
380
237
163
99
56
36
39
10
19
5
7
6
8
2
2
1
472
303
199
110
88
57
17
14
16
10
3
3
2
2
2
3
2
1026
683
436
273
187
113
53
53
26
29
8
10
8
10
4
5
3
861    804 1665
46
113
140
1
12
34
126
172
1
19
80
239
312
3
28
156
376
497
4,990
762
562
399
263
191
87
92
45
50
29
16
15
9
3
5
2
2
739 1501
R89
438
827
16
44
218
453
575
19
72
374
829
1072
4
21
47
127
127
1
1
20
66
126
166
1
5
41
113
253
293
5,473
9£ years	
494
286
176
123
56
55
20
13
10
13
4
1
1
1
1056
685
439
314
143
147
65
63
39
29
19
11
3
6
3
2
1
309
279
198
148
89
62
40
33
17
23
8
9
3
4
1
1
317
242
171
113
54
48
23
14
8
4
4
1
3
1
626
521
369
261
143
110
63
47
25
27
12
10
6
4
2
1
674
710
1384
26
58
206
340
525
9
30
71
222
397
578
2
56
129
438
737
1103
5,027
10 years....
621
436
352
269
185
94
70
49
27
24
16
9
9
2
589
387
281
197
129
70
49
32
21
10
10
3
4
1
1210
823
633
466
314
164
119
81
48
34
26
12
9
4
3
252|  251
503
1
1
12
25
45
58
2
8
17
43
71
1
3
20
42
88
129
1
1
11
45
136
287
472
1
4
22
57
194
372
550
2
5
33
102
330
659
1022
5,120
10| years...
205
172
149
71
58
42
32
26
12
7
2
2
2
1
196
118
113
57
36
38
15
11
11
7
3
3
2
401
290
262
128
94
80
47
37
23
14
5
5
4
1
519
527
1046
4,849
11 years	
464
364
276
187
162
93
66
34
17
2
7
1
3
3
408
304
196
150
118
65
27
17
18
10
5
1
872
668
472
337
280
158
93
51
35
12
12
2
3
3
171    1991  370
4,844
11! 3Tears...
124
130
86
65
33
18
15
6
3
7
1
131   255
574
616
1190
4,443
12 years	
94
72
55
20
20
6
8
3
3
1
224
158
120
53
38
21
14
6
10
1
1
476
413
276
231
151
81
48
13
7
4
3
505
295
247
156
98
49
27
11
8
5
981
708
523
387
249
130
75
24
15
9
3
168
174
342
4,407
12! years...
154
83
86
64
29
20
12
2
3
2
127
107
88
44
28
15
5
1
281
190
174
108
57
35
14
12
3
3
2
642
681
1323
4,059
13 years....
587
441
381
225
127
63
41
10
6
4
2
603
457
319
219
128
57
30
12
8
1
1190
898
700
444
255
120
71
22
14
4
3
92
871  179
3,903
13| years...
71
55
53
37
20
8
6
1
2
80
81
49
35
16
7
5
5
4
151
136
102
72
36
15
11
5
5
2
636
797
1433
3,493
14 years....
14 J 3'ears...
15 years	
15J 3?ears...
16 3'ears	
16! years...
17 years	
17! years...
18 3'ears	
18! years...
19 years	
19! 3rears...
593
511
399
272
143
64
37
12
3
2
1
653
559
420
282
168
95
34
13
5
2
1
1246
1070
819
552
311
159
71
25
8
4
2
2,755
1,991
1,394
800
478
224
17 years to
17 vears 6 months
17 years 6 months
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
113
40
18 years to
18 3'ears 6 months
18 3'ears 6 months
1
1
1
1
1
1
16
1
1
1
1
6
19 3'ears to
19 years 6 months
19 years 6 months
1
1
1
1
4
3525
615
1394
1516
17.4
39.5
43 0
7355
1193
2746
3416
16.2
37.3
46.4
2331
245
734
1352
10.5
31.5
58.0
2043
279
648
1116
13.7
31.7
54.6
4374
524
1382
2468
12.0
31.6
56 4
3656
543
953
2160
14.8
26.1
59 1
3358
562
984
1812
16.7
29.3
54.0
7014
1105
1937
3972
15.8
27.6
56.6 i
2470
298
548
624
12.1
22.2
35.7
2252
323
626
1303
14.3
27.8
57.9
4722
621
1174
2927
13.2
94  Q
3901
507
861
2533
13.0
3383
585
804
1994
17.3
23.8
58.9
7284
1092
1665
4527
15.0
22.9
62.1
1871
257
389
1225
13.7
20.8
65.5
1767
326
438
1003
18.4
24.8
56.8
3638
583
827
2228
16.0
22.7
61.2
3432
594
674
2164
17.3
19.6
iR 1
3132
639
710
1783
20.4
99. 7
6564
1233
1384
3947
1.8.8
91   1
1357
324
252
781
23.9
18.6
57.5
1265
404
251
610
31.9
19.8
48.2
2622
728
503
1391
27.8
19.2
53.0
2899
700
519
1680
24.1
17.9
58 0
2648
802
527
1319
30.3
19.9
49.8
5547
1502
1046
2999
27.1
18.9
54.0
965
306
171
488
31.7
17.7
50.6
958
345
199
414
36.0
20.8
43.2
1923
651
370
902
33.9
19.2
46.9
3337
1060
574
1703
31.8
17.2
51.0
3323
1306
616
1401
39.3
18.5
42.2
6660
2366
1190
3104
35.5
17.9
46.6
956
326
168
462
34.1
17.6
48 R
971
380
174
417
39.1
17.9
42.0
1927
706
342
879
36.6
17.7
45.6
3684
1155
642
1887
31.4
17.4
51.2
3815
1300
681
1834
34.1
17.9
48.0
7499
2455
1323
3721
32.7
17.6
49.6
487
142
92
253
29.1
18.9
52.0
511
141
87
283
27.6
17.0
55 4
998
3626
4227
Total
number	
2788
2306
5094
3830
578
1352
L900
L5.1
Ifi R
7853
41,590
39,484
81,074
Number of
Under-ag
Number of
Normal-.*
Number of
Over-age
Per cent, of p
Under A
Per cent, of p
Normal 1
Per cent, of p
Over Agi
e Pupils	
x
283
179
536
28.4
17.9
5R.7
953
636
2037
26.3
17.5
56 9
1200
797
2230
28.4
18.8
52.8
2153
1433
4267
27.4
18.2
54.3
7,988
10,106
23,496
19.2
24.3
56.5
9,207
10,264
20,013
23.3
26.0
50.7
17,195
ge Pupils	
1541
1247
35.3
1328
978
57.6
42.4
2869
2225
<36.R
20,370
Pupils	
43,509
upils
3E .  	
upils
Ige.
21.2
25.1
upils
s	
44.7
43.749.6
61.964.9
56.9 60.1
53.7 15 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
T 27
From the foregoing tables it may be observed that 53 per cent, of the pupils of the elementary
schools and about 50 per cent, of the high-school pupils were over age for their grades. Retardation is due to many causes other than poor class-room teaching and lack of ability and application
on the part of the pupils. Many children do not enter school until they are over 6 years of age,
and consequently, unless they advance at a faster rate of progress than the normal, they are
rated as over age during their whole school career. Illness, too, extending over several months
or a longer period results in pupils having to repeat the work of one or more terms. Another
common cause for retardation is the frequent moving of families from place to place. The
education of the children suffers as a result of the broken attendance and change from one school
to another. Besides, the children of foreign parents are usually retarded owing to their lack of
familiarity with the English language. There are other causes, too, which lead to retardation,
and while no educational system, however efficient it may be, can remove them all, still much
can yet be done to make it possible for many pupils to increase their rate of progress. Bright
pupils should be allowed to accomplish each term a little more than the work prescribed for the
term. Many pupils, for example, if given an opportunity, can do three terms' work in two terms
or four in three. To do so, however, a system of classification must be adopted which will permit
of their promotion whenever their interests demand it. In some of the large schools promotions
are made only in June of each year. In such schools pupils who fail to earn promotion at that
time have to repeat their work, not for one term but for a year. It is quite obvious that such a
system must delay the progress of pupils. Frequent promotions are necessary if they are to
advance at a steady and normal rate. Care should, however, be taken not to promote young and
ambitious pupils too rapidly, as educational progress must not be obtained at the expense of
health.
Salaeies.
The following tables show the sums paid in salaries, together with the average, the highest,
and the lowest salary paid to teachers during the school-year 1923-24:—
Schools.
Amount paid
in Teachers'
Salaries.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
High Schools
City  high  schools	
Rural municipal high schools
Rural  high schools   	
Elementaey Schools
Cities.
Alberni  	
Armstrong  	
Chilliwack   	
Courtenay	
Cranbrook   	
Cumberland  	
Duncan     	
Enderby	
Fernie    	
Grand Forks 	
Greenwood     	
Kamloops 	
Kaslo	
Kelowna   	
Ladysmith    	
Merritt	
Nanaimo    	
Nelson   	
New   Westminster   	
Port Alberni	
Port Coquitlam	
Port Moody	
$   584,823 00
196,251 00
36,814 00
$    817.88S   00
4,250 00
18,600 00
12,500 00
6,900 00
22,716 00
17,250 00
12,360 00
4,900 00
35,320 00
13,450 00
3,460 00
27,000 00
5,300 00
19,320 00
14,925 00
13,800 00
37,440 00
37,650 00
88,908 00
8,100 00
7,200 00
7,300 OO
$2,416 62
2,255 76
1,937 58
$2,350 75
$1,062 50
1,328 57
1,250 00
1,150 00
1,262 00
1,232 15
1,123 64
1,225 00
1,471 66
1,222 72
1,153 33
1,285 71
1,325 00
1,380 00
1,243 75
1,254 54
1,337 14
1,448 08
1,328 33
1,157 14
1,028 57
1,042 87
$4,000 00
4,074 00
3,500 00
$4,074   00
$1,250 00
2,400 00
2,000 00
1,500 00
2,350 00
2,000 00
1,850 00
1,700 00
2,800 00
2,000 00
1,400 00
2,100 00
1,800 00
2,700 00
2,100 00
2,500 00
2,500 00
2,800 00
2,700 00
1,500 00
1,400 00
1,600 00
$1,380 00
1,300 00
1,300 00
$1,300 00
$1,000 00
1,080 00
1,000 00
960 00
1,080 00
950 00
850 00
1,000 00
1,200 00
1,100 00
1,000 00
1,100 00
1,150 00
1,080 00
900 00
1,000 00
940 00
1,100 00
840 00
1,080 00
900 00
800 00 T 28
Public Schools Eepoet.
1924
Salaries—Continued.
Schools.
Amount paid
in Teachers'
Salaries.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Elementary Schools—Continued.
Cities—Continued.
$     12,050 00
33.372 00
20,720 00
14,700 00
6,130 00
2,300 00
26,590 00
723,991 00
58,950 00
29,430 00
203,735 00
$1,506 25
1,668 60
1,295 00
1,336 36
1,226 00
1,150 00
1,329 50
1,573 89
1,473 75
1,401 43
1,531  84
$2,250 00
2,680 00
2,500 00
2,100 00
2,100 00
1,300 00
2,400 00
3,510 00
2,880 00
2,220 00
2,925 00
$1,250 00
1,100 00
1,050 00
1,000 00
960 00
Slocan   	
Trail                            	
1,000 00
1,080 00
1,000 OO
960 00
1,260 00
875 00
$1,554,507 00
$1,467 90
$3,510 00
$   800 00
$   109,666 00
29,440 00
3,500 00
8,150 00
6,100 00
19,850 00
23,055 00
1,200 00
5,050 00
29,830 00
20,950 00
17,965 00
17,290 00
25,100 00
3,500 00
26,050 00
3,300 00
129,815 00
27,700 00
65,437 00
9,270 00
7,090 00
11,480 00
39,250 00
27,600 00
286,880 00
19,350 00
$1,321  27
981 33
1,166 66
1,018 75
1,016 66
1,102 77
1,356 18
1,200 00
1,010 00
962 26
1,047 50
945 53
1,080 63
1,568 75
1,166 66
1,347  50
1.100   00
1,583   11
1.108 00
1.109 10
1,158 75
1,012 86
1,275 55
981 25
1,380 00
1,463 67
1,290 00
$2,750 00
1,300 00
1,200 00
1,200 00
1,400 00
2,000 00
2,800 00
1,200 00
1,100 00
1,250 00
1,500 00
1,250 00
2,080 00
3,000 00
1,500 00
2,000  00
1,300 00
3,300 00
2,700 00
2,085  00
1,600 00
1,200 00
2,000 00
1,300 00
2,500 00
3,240 00
2,200 00
$   900 00
850 00
1,100 00
900 00
840 00
Delta                                        	
900 00
1,100 00
1,200 00
Kent                   	
950 00
800 00
800 00
800 00
840 00
Oak Bay                 	
1,050 00
1,000 00
1,140  00
1,000 00
1,080 00
850 00
697 00
960 00
Sumas    -	
900 00
1,000 00
800 00
Vancouver, North 	
1,020 00
1,020 00
1,020 00
$   947,768 00
$1,282 59
$3,300 00
$   697 00
Rural and Assisted.
$   987,525 00
$1,092 39
$2,400 00
$   750 00
Manual Training and Domestic Science.
$   133,626 00
77,948 00
$1,936 61
1,528 40
$3,010 00
2,500 00
$   950 00
600 00
i.    ' 15 Geo. 5                                  Public Schools Report. T 29
Expenditure for Education, 1923-24.
Education Office:
Salaries   $     19,027 35
Office supplies   8,63,8 58
Travelling expenses  211 93
Free Text-book Branch:
Salaries   5.707 16
Office supplies  5,542 74
Books, maps, etc -  100,674 49
Agricultural Education:
Salaries     $18,216 52
Less contribution by districts        8,813 99
 '       9,402 53
Office supplies   762 21
Travelling expenses   1,349 45
Grants in aid   16,204 51
Industrial Education:
Salaries   7,327 89
Office supplies ,.  2,526 80
Travelling expenses   1,672 46
Grants in aid   31,727 72
Night-schools    15,172 80
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries   52,676 29
Office supplies   5,557 37
Travelling expenses   19,137 37
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries   26,265 00
Office supplies   2,904 18
Travelling expenses   887 80
Fuel, water, and light  1,936 70
Maintenance and repairs   1,792 42
Students' mileage   1,281 75
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal students   3,750 00
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries   24,753 64
Office  supplies    2,047 58
Travelling expenses   34 35
Fuel, water, and light  -  2,580 85
Maintenance and repairs  2,738 29
Students' mileage  S.774 90
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal students   3,107 90
Incidentals  53 50
School for Deaf and Blind:
Salaries   21,143 42
Office supplies   204 05
Travelling expenses   137 75
Fuel, water, and light   1,910 13
Maintenance and repairs  6,497 81
Furniture, fixtures, etc  723 11
Provisions   4,117 19
Incidentals  346 38
Per capita grant to cities   700,206 30
Per capita grant to municipalities   514,023 05
Per capita grant to rural school districts   169,178 60
Carried fonoard   $1,804,716 30 T 30
Public Schools Report.
1924
Brought forward   $1,804,716 30
Salaries to teachers in assisted schools   524,984 50
Salaries to teachers in Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Belt   111,397 40
School buildings, erection and maintenance   190,405 04
Libraries   2,019 41
Examination of teachers and High School Entrance classes  21,892 78
Conveying children to central schools   30,626 64
Summer schools   24,686 27
Incidentals     4,541 92
Grant to University of British Columbia   458,125 00
$3,173,395 26
Amount expended by—
Cities    $3,053,160 74
District municipalities     1,492,501 32
Rural and assisted school districts        477,639 42
 5,023,301 4S
Grand total cost of education   $8,196,696 74
The following table shows the cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil on enrolment
and on average daily attendance during the past ten years:—
Year.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Average Actual
Daily Attendance.
1914-15                               .       .        ..                 	
$21  78
22 50
22 47
22 64
24 88
27 20
29 01
29 33
27 92
27 36
$26 65
1915-16                                                                      	
28 56
1916-17	
27 83
1917-18                  	
27 93
1918  19                                                                                                       	
31  59
1919-20                                                                                                                	
36 05
1920 21                                                                  	
36 38
1921-22                 	
35  70
1922-23                 	
34 07
1923-24                         	
33 21 15 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
T 31
The gradual growth of the schools, as well as the cost to the Provincial Government of
maintaining the same, is shown by the record of attendance and expenditure given in the
following exhibit:—
Yea r.
Number
of School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of
Attendance.
Government
Expenditure for
Education.
1877-78  	
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
575
582
636
665
716
744
760
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
67,516
72,006
79,243
85,950
91,919
94,888
96,204
1,395.50
1,383.00
3,093.46
7,111.40
11,055.65
16,357.43
23,195.27
43,274.12
54,746.76
56,692.38
59,791.39
68,497.57
75,528.38
77,752.98
79,262.23
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
81.09
78.73
75.45
79.69
82.16
81.94
82.39
$     43,334 01
50,850 63
1882-83	
1887_88                      ■  	
99,902 04
1892-93	
190,558 33
1897-98                           	
247,756 37
1902-03 	
397,003 46
1907-08 	
464,473 78
1912-13	
1,032.038 60
1917-18 	
1,529,058 93
1918-19 	
1,791,153 47
1919-20   :	
2,155,934 61
1920-21  ..                      	
2,931,572 25*
3,141,737 95*
3,176,686 28*
1921-22 .. .      	
1922-23  ,	
1923-24 	
3,173,395 26*
* This amount includes annual grant to Provincial University.
Additional information regarding the work of the schools is given in the reports of the
Inspectors and other officials.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education.  15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 33
INSPECTORS'   REPORTS.
HIGH   SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE  No.   1.
Victobia, B.C., August 31st, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg leave to submit herewith my annual report on the high and superior schools
of Inspectorate No. 1 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1924.
The total number of teachers in the schools of this inspectorate was 188 and the number
of schools forty-two, of which seven were superior schools, three ungraded high schools, one
junior high school, and thirty-one graded high schools. The Golden High School had the smallest
enrolment with fifteen pupils and the Victoria High School the largest with 1,017. In this
inspectorate there are thirty-seven Boards of School Trustees.
Superior schools w7ere opened during the year at Cassidy, Parksville, Stewrart, and Vanderhoof. One was also opened at White Rock, in Surrey Municipality, but at Christmas it was
closed and the pupils were conveyed by van to the high school of the municipality, located
at Cloverdale. A new two-roomed high school was established at West Vancouver. Two
upper rooms of the new eight-roomed school building at Abbotsford were used for high-
school purposes and a new one-story wooden building was opened at the beginning of the year
at Dennison, in Matsqui Municipality. A modern high-school building is in course of construction
in Langley Municipality, adjacent to the newly paved highway between Murrayville and Langley
Prairie. At the beginning of the calendar year the new North Vancouver High School was
opened by the Honourable Dr. MacLean, Minister of Education, in the presence of the School
Board, City Council, and ratepayers of North Vancouver and representatives of the School
Boards of Vancouver City and adjoining municipalities. The building is well equipped. It contains, besides the ordinary class-rooms, a science laboratory and rooms for the teaching of
manual training, home economics, and commercial subjects.
In the construction of school buildings erected in this inspectorate during the year School
Boards have succeeded in obtaining good value for the money expended. Many trustees have
devoted as much time to considering the plans submitted by architects and in visiting the
buildings when under construction as they would have spent in supervising their personal
property. These Boards of Trustees are deserving of unstinted praise for thus giving of their
time freely and ungrudgingly, their chief reward being the consciousness of having provided
for the pupils, whose interests they were appointed to guard, better opportunities and conditions
for study than those which they themselves had in their youth.
It has been my duty to inspect the work of the teachers and pupils in what is known as
the " Vancouver Junior High School." Schools that bear the foregoing name are supposed to
contain only pupils of Grades VII. and VIII. of the public school and Grade IX. of the high
school. According to my observation in several junior high schools outside the Province, this
classification is seldom followed. It is not followed in Vancouver. In this junior high school,
however, there is an earnest attempt being made to give the pupils a training somewhat different
from that which they receive in the elementary or secondary schools. Instruction in class-room
subjects is given for one-half day and Instruction in manual arts is given during the other half.
There are two teachers for academic subjects, two for home economics, and two for wood and
metal work. There is no doubt that the junior high school is helping boys and girls who would
be ill-fitted to make their way in the industrial world without further knowledge of the essential
school subjects and a certain amount of vocational training. In each kind of training there
is opportunity for individual as well as group instruction. The continued success of the junior
high school will depend peculiarly upon the natural gifts and special training of the teachers
who are appointed to this type of school.
In several of the larger high schools mental tests were given this year for the first time.
In a number of them the results were illuminating when compared with the class standing of
the same pupils.   The tests usually correlated high with former written examinations.    In one T 34 Public Schools Report. 1924
or two schools tests were given, scored, and put away in a cupboard, and there the experiment
ended, no attempt having been made *o correlate the results with other measurements.
The Dalton plan was tried in two schools of my inspectorate. One of the teachers who
was specially trained to carry on instruction in this method was eminently successful in its
operation. At the meeting of the Provincial Teachers' Federation last Easter, Dr. John Adams
stated that the Dalton plan was an outgrowth of the Montessori method in which the teacher
" effaced " himself. In the Dalton plan the teacher may efface himself occasionally, but a great
deal of thoughtful planning, individual help, oversight of pupils' work, and the checking of
results are essential to the success of this method of instruction. In an article in " School and
Society " for June 14th, Dr. Adams deals further with the Dalton plan, in which he sees increased
opportunity for the pupils to educate one another. He points out that fewer formal recitations
do not mean less but rather more work for the teacher.
Many of our secondary-school teachers are becoming intimately acquainted with the methods
which have received during the past decade the endorsation of advanced educationists. Courses
at the summer school in Victoria and the University summer sessions in Vancouver and elsewhere have helped towards this end. A large number of teachers are also reading extensively.
Their interest has been stimulated by frequent meetings of their various associations where
addresses have been delivered and educational topics discussed. The bulletins issued from
time to time by the High School Teachers' Association of the Lower Mainland serve to sustain
this interest. Bulletin No. 8, issued under date of May, 1924, will repay careful reading. Among
other topics it deals with " Promotion, Retardation, and Acceleration " ; " Student Government " ;
" Reports to Parents " ; " Home-work " ; " Physical Welfare." A sentence under the last-named
topic is worthy of serious attention: " The aim of school athletics should be not to produce a
few super-athletes, but a whole school of healthy boys and girls." Of late, physical training
has been generally neglected in our schools. I have refrained from mentioning this subject
in recent reports in the hope that teachers might eventually take greater interest in it, but this
has been a " hope deferred." Six prizes for physical training are offered annually by the Local
Committee of the Strathcona Trust to the high schools of the Province. Last year only two
schools in the whole Province received prizes. This year in my inspectorate two prizes were
awarded, as follows:—■
First prize, Mr. P. N. Whitley, B.A., Kamloops High School.
Second prize, Miss C. N. Burridge, B.A.. Oak Bay High School.
No school qualified for third prize. If teachers are genuinely interested in giving their
pupils physical exercises they will find opportunity for doing so even where there is no gymnasium
in the school. Outdoor exercises may be conducted for several months in the year, and when
weather does not permit of this, beneficial exercises may be given in the class-room.
The Programme of Studies issued in June for the " High, Technical, and Normal Schools "
indicates that a new Teachers' Manual in Drawing and Design has been prepared for use in
Grade IX.; that there will be one text in history, " West's World Progress," for the three high-
school grades, specified sections of this text to he covered in each year. The sections for study
assigned to Junior Matriculation and Normal Entrance are the same. Teachers are requested
to emphasize and develop the sections dealing with British Empire History. Wrong's History
of England and of Canada are to be used for Supplementary Reading.
The assignment of Literature for Grade XL shows that " MacBeth" has been substituted
for " Henry V." and that any five of the poets treated in " Poems of the Romantic Revival"
now form the basis of study in this text. A detailed course for the guidance of teachers of
French has been outlined for the three grades on pages 21 to 37 of the Programme of Studies.
To those teachers who do not wish to be confined exclusively to the text this course should prove
suggestive and helpful. It contains: (1) Conversational Forms and Class-room Phrases; (2)
a detailed outline of the Grammar for each grade; (3) a Vocabulary for Grades IX., X., and
XL; (4) forms of expression with which the pupil should be acquainted; (5) a selected list
of text-books and Readers for each grade.
The members of the University and High School staffs appointed to outline this course
spent much time and labour in its preparation. Prior to the Easter holidays the interim report
of the committee was printed and forwarded to the teachers of French for criticism and suggestions. These were received and reviewed by the committee, whose revised report is incorporated in the Programme of Studies for the year 1924-25. 15 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
T 35
Once again the records of attendance show an increase in the number of pupils attending
our secondary schools. The enrolment is now near the ten-thousand mark, the exact figures
for the year being 9,889, not including students of high-school subjects in superior schools and
in isolated public schools. The percentage of public-school pupils who go on to high school is
steadily growing. That it will continue to increase there is no doubt in the minds of those
who base their future estimates upon past figures. Many parents, too, are only now awakening
to the belief that a good secondary education is an important factor in preparing their sons
and daughters for the world's work.
I have, etc.,
A. Sullivan,
Inspector of High Schools.
HIGH   SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE  No.  2.
Vancouver, B.C., August 30th, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit the following report on the high and superior schools of my inspectorate for the school-year ended June 30th, 1924.
The inspectorate contained thirty-six high and eleven superior schools, containing 178
divisions and employing 203 teachers. I was able to make 224 visits of inspection, in the course
of which I travelled approximately 18,000 miles.
Oyama, New Denver, and Robson were raised to the status of high schools early in the
school-year, while Naramata was reduced from superior to public-school status. New7 superior
schools were established at Oliver and Port Moody.
The excellent new buildings at Mission and North Burnaby were formally opened at the
beginning of the school-year—the former on September 18th by the Honourable the Minister
of Education and the latter by the Superintendent of Education on September 7th. Trail is
justly proud of its new fire-proof school, built of concrete and tile at a cost of approximately
$60,000. This building provides accommodation for technical as well as academic work. When
I visited Trail in October, twenty-four had enrolled in the Boys' Technical classes there. The
City of Grand Forks passed a by-law for a new high school, which will probably be ready for
the opening of school in September.
I was exceedingly well pleased with the standing taken by most of the schools of my
inspectorate in the Departmental Examinations. As the majority of the schools sent up candidates for the Junior Matriculation or Normal Entrance Examinations, the information contained
in the following table may be of interest to the teachers and the general public:—
Subject.
No. of
Candidates.
Average
Mark.
No.  of
Failures.
Percentage
of Failures.
English   Composition
English   Literature   .
General   History   	
Algebra	
Geometry    	
Chemistry    	
Physics   	
Botany	
Agriculture    	
Latin Authors  	
Latin Grammar 	
Greek	
French   Translation
French   Grammar   ...
German  Authors  .....
German Grammar ...
Geography    	
British  History  	
1,793
1,804
1,264
1,793
1,798
1,352
670
195
110
933
933
14
1,593
1,599
22
23
531
531
60.05
60.68
57.88
63.37
69,69
56.28
53.95
55.06
65.80
54.88
61.44
61.71
54.42
72.43
59.09
61.95
54.04
63.92
46
56
85
166
105
185
139
22
2.56
3.10
6.72
9.25
5.83
13.68
20.74
11.28
137
14.68
101
10.82
1
7.14
261
16.38
76
4.75
3
13.63
3
13.04
43
8.09
23
4.33 T 36 Public Schools Report. 1924
Of the candidates who presented themselves for the Junior Matriculation or Normal Entrance
Examination, 82.84 per cent, came from public high schools; of the failures on the whole
examination, only 64.06 per cent, were public high-schools pupils.
School Boards continue doing careful, effective work. In my judgment the most important
phase in the work of trustees is the appointment of teachers. Almost all the Boards of my
inspectorate are showing more care in appointments each year and seldom select teachers
without wiring or writing for information regarding them. There are two or three Boards,
however, who seem to accept a teacher's valuation of his own capabilities and appoint men who
have proved failures in former positions.
While the majority of the teachers continue conscientious and efficient in the class-room,
a serious indictment against the teachers of a number of smaller high schools is their failure
to keep a complete record of the work of the pupils. Sometimes when a'new teacher takes
charge he cannot locate even last year's grading-list. Trustees should provide a record-book
and see that it is properly kept.
Important changes which have been made in the High School Courses in History, French,
and Physics are outlined clearly in the Course of Study for 1924-25. The Physics Course for
Grade X. calls for twenty exercises from the Laboratory Manual to be performed by the pupils
themselves. The course gives the list of apparatus needed for these experiments, together with
the approximate cost. The Department pays one-half the cost. Next year it is proposed to ask
Grade XI. pupils to do twenty additional exercises, and it will be necessary for teachers to
send to the office a statement that the candidates for the Grade XL Examination have performed
the forty experiments laid down for the two years. It is thus very important that Grade X.
pupils this year perform the twenty experiments prescribed.
During my visits of inspection standardized achievement tests were made use of to a
limited extent rather with the idea of introducing the tests to the teachers than of judging the
work of the school. As the available achievement tests for secondary schools and the norms
given are almost all made out for United States schools, it is difficult to use them in measuring
the standing of pupils in our high schools, which are organized along different lines and have
a three-year course. There is no doubt that standardized tests have gained a hold in the
educational world, but they are still in the experimental stage and are not a panacea for all
ills as some of their admirers claim. Their advocates consider them valuable as diagnostic
instruments, in that they reveal faults in teaching as well as difficulties in learning, and that
they are also prognostic, since by means of them we may determine the fitness of pupils for
certain types of work. They are also valuable in making a homogeneous grouping of pupils.
Experts agree that it is a serious mistake to make any grouping on the results of a single test.
For this purpose a battery of at least three tests shouid be given on different days. Of these,
all three might be intelligence tests and at least two should be.
In the secondary field experts have not become united on objectives, but the present-day
tendency is to submit tests to a more intelligent criticism by both the psychologist and the
administrator, and to produce tests which will measure (1) separate faculties such as judgment,
adaptability, visual ability, (2) reasoning rather than memory, and (3) the choice and evaluation of situations and materials. Even when the best tests are properly administered the consensus of opinion is that teachers' judgments cannot be overlooked. Many experts claim that
three-fifths of rating should be given to intelligence scores and two-fifths to teachers' judgments,
while some claim the teacher's valuation should be given one-half when we are sure that the
teacher values carefully.
Last year the King Edward High School, A'ancouver, was used as a training-school for the
student-teachers of the Provincial University. There were about fifty-five of these teachers-in-
training. Each one was expected to spend five periods a week in this school either teaching
or observing, and was supposed to teach from sixteen to twenty lessons during the term, which
extended over the months of January, February, and March. Practically all the teachers of
the school assisted in the work and performed the extra duties in a most kindly, thorough, and
conscientious manner. In my opinion the plan interfered somewhat with the progress of the
pupils, but resulted in marked improvement in the methods of several teachers and proved of
great value to the pupil-teachers.
I have, etc.,
J. B. DeLong,
Inspector of High Schools. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Eeport. T 37
ft ' — " ~      " ~~     *"        ~       *
ELEMENTARY  SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No.  1.
Victoria, B.C., September 27th, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit the following report on the public elementary schools in Inspectorate
No. 1 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1924:—
No change was made in the boundaries of the inspectorate for the year, which comprised
the elementary schools of the City of Victoria and those on the islands of Galiano, Mayne,
Pender, Saltspring, and Saturna.
The territory served by the Isabella Point Assisted School was defined in the spring of
1924 and an assessment was authorized for the ensuing year. The school-house had fallen into
a state of disrepair owing to the difficulty of raising sufficient funds by subscription; money
will now be forthcoming and the much-needed repairs to the building will be attended to.
With but few exceptions, two visits of inspection were made to each class-room. Formal
reports of these visits were made at the time. A total of 241 inspections was made during
the year. Two teachers were employed at the Ganges Harbour School throughout the year
and two for the second term of the year at the Pender Island School. The schools at Cranberry
Marsh and Retreat Cove were closed throughout the year.
In my last report I deplored the absence of facilities for the children of the Islands, who
had been given high-school standing, to continue their studies. This deficiency has been corrected, to some extent, by the introduction of Ninth Grade work into the Ganges Harbour
School; the four pupils of the grade went up for examination at the end of the year and were
all successful.
Although physical conditions in and around most of the Island schools show little or no
improvement, the work of the class-rooms shows marked improvement; this is reflected in the
results of the Entrance tests, for while in previous years no greater number than four or five
would pass these tests in any one year, in 1923 seventeen were successful and in June last fifteen
succeeded. What might be termed a normal pass-list has not yet been attained, however, for
the fifteen who succeeded this year make but 41.7 per cent, of the number of pupils recorded
in the Entrance classes for the year, and only 5.8 per cent, of the enrolment of the schools.
It appears, then, that the present pass-list is about 50 per cent, of the normal. Satisfaction
must be expressed for the improvement shown, and hope expressed that the improvement will
be of continuous growth.
The Victoria teaching staff has been greatly strengthened within the past two years by
appointing and retaining only such teachers as show marked aptitude for the work; a greater
degree of efficiency has naturally followed in most of the class-rooms. Very little sickness was
recorded on the part of the pupils, and, taken in all, the year just closed may be considered
as having given satisfactory results. The total enrolment was 5,207, with an average attendance
of 4,476.97, or 85.98 per cent, of the enrolment.
At the examination for entrance to high school, 176 candidates were promoted upon the
recommendations of the principals and 204 took the examination tests. Of this latter number,
178, or 87 per cent., were successful. While the principals had the right to exempt 60 per cent,
of the recommended pupils, or a total of 228, they contented themselves with exempting less
than 50 per cent, of those who attained high-school standing. The following analysis leads to
the conclusion that the principals are very careful in their recommendations:—
Total number of pupils in the schools   5,207
Total number of pupils in Entrance classes      543
Entrance pupils, 10.4 per cent, of enrolment.
(The Entrance classes thus contained a normal number of pupils for an eight-year course.)
Total number of pupils in Entrance classes      543
Total number of pupils attaining high-school standing      354
Pupils granted high-school standing, 65.2 per cent, of Entrance pupils and 6.8
per cent, of school enrolment.
In the matter of promotion the teacher should at all times consider the pupil of greater
importance than the class, and the pupils who show marked intelligence should be given opportunity to prove their worth in a higher grade.    If each class were divided into two sections, T 38 Public Schools Report. 1924
the one containing bright pupils could be carried forward as rapidly as its members could
proceed, and could thus cover more than the prescribed course for the year without affecting
the weaker section. Such a division of the class would act as an incentive to the members
of both sections, for the individuals of the one section would endeavour to maintain the
ascendancy, while the members of the other would work for entrance to the better section.
The  following were  recommended  for prizes  for excellence  in  the teaching  of physical
exercises under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust:—
Miss Hannah Fracy, Divide School, Saltspring Islariii.
Miss Muriel Knott, 9th Division, Sir James Douglas School, Victoria.
Miss Ada Keast, 4th Division, Girls' Central School, Victoria.
I have, etc.,
W. H. M. May,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
Victoria, B.C., August 30th, 1924.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public elementary schools
of this district for the school-year ended June 30th, 1924:—
For the year just closed there has been no change in the extent of territory covered, while
the number of schools and teachers has remained practically the same, with the single exception
of the rural school at Shawnigan Lake, where an additional teacher was installed last May.
During the last week in June an examination of candidates for entrance to high school was
held at sixteen centres throughout the inspectorate for the convenience of parents and pupils.
Twenty-five candidates only were promoted on the recommendation of principals, and these from
one school; 430 wrote for examination at the different centres, and of these 2,82 were successful,
there were, therefore, 307 pupils granted entrance certificates to high school, being a. little over
two-thirds of the total number of candidates.
At the recent examination, James A. Miller, a boy of 12 years of age, from the 2nd Division
of the Willows School, Oak Bay Municipality, won the Governor-General's medal for District
No. 1, which comprises Victoria, Esquimalt, Oak Bay, and Saanich. He obtained 450 marks
out of a possible 500 and had the honour of leading the Province.
Of the number of successful candidates, fifty-one of them come from sixteen rural and
assisted schools in the unorganized portion of the inspectorate; 103 from the Municipality of
Saanich; eighty-two from Oak Bay; twenty-one from Esquimalt; four from North Cowichan;
fifteen from the Duncan Consolidated area; and thirty-one from the City of Ladysmith. In this
analysis and enumeration the most gratifying feature, at least to me, is the increasing numbers
from year to year that come from the rural and assisted schools, but correspondingly depressing
is the regrettable fact of the apparently increasing apathy displayed by some rural school
trustees in making adequate, or even any, provision for the secondary education of the children
of their respective districts. As pointed out in last year's report, the rural school at Sooke is
a notable exception. In that district school trustees, ratepayers, and the parents of the children
all co-operated in the solution of the problem, and as a result a number of pupils has successfully completed two years of high-school training and instruction. Now the district of Sooke
does not even enjoy the financial advantage of being in the E. & N. Railway Belt, which,
probably, accounts for its educational enterprise and outlook.
In comparatively well-populated and adjoining districts where consolidation of the elementary schools is considered too expensive, advantage might well be taken of the provision
made in the " Public Schools Act " to form high-school areas. Acting under this provision, if
a limited number of districts united, the cost of secondary education for Grades IX. and X.
would be comparatively light when spread over a considerable area. Children of high-school
age could well travel from 3 to 5 miles to school without much cost or inconvenience for conveyance, and by so doing develop a keener sense of appreciation of their privileges by the
difficulties overcome and the self-sacrifice and self-denial practised in obtaining their education. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 39
School trustees and ratepayers generally are slow to realize the truth that, as each successive
generation passes and as social acquirements increase, the time devoted to the education of
youth must correspondingly lengthen and increase in order to assimilate the knowledge already
gained by adults. In other words, the children of the present generation have more to learn
and master than their parents had, and as a consequence require more time to do it—hence
the necessity for secondary education for every child capable of profiting by it.
There is still a number of Boards of School Trustees which consider it a usurpation of
their special prerogatives to receive or seek any advice in selecting teachers, and as a consequence men, who have been times without number rejected, and, when they have obtained
a position, dismissed from their schools for incompetency -at the earliest possible opportunity
the law allows, are able to secure positions with comparative ease because the trustees will
not take the trouble, or deem it beneath their dignity to do so, to consult the officials of the
Department of Education. This might be overlooked during times when teachers are scarce,
but at the present time, when the supply exceeds the demand and when a Bureau of Information
conducted by the Department is at the service of School Boards, there is little or no excuse
for the employment of teachers notorious for their incompetency.
In concluding this report, I desire to acknowledge the many kindnesses and courtesies
extended to me during the past year by School Boards and their officials, as also by the great
body of teachers.
I have, etc.,
A. C. Stewart,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 3.
Nanaimo, B.C., September 13th, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 3
for the school-year ended June 30th, 1924:—
This inspectorate, which has remained unchanged for the last three years, comprises five
city schools with fifty-nine teachers and sixty-nine rural and assisted schools with 118 teachers.
Maple Grove School on Lasqueti Island was the only new school opened during the year, while
Hyde Creek remained closed. New divisions were opened at Port Alberni, Alberni, Courtenay,
Northfield, Royston, Cassidy, Parksville, and Nanaimo.
Three hundred and twenty-six pupils presented themselves for the Entrance Examinations
at twelve centres in June. Of these, twenty-one were pupils from private schools, leaving 305
from the public schools of the inspectorate. Of these. 166, or 54 per cent, were successful.
Besides these, sixty-eight were promoted on recommendation, making 234 pupils in the inspectorate ready for high school. The Governor-Generals medal for the district was won by Miss
Nan Rowbottom, of Nanaimo, with 417 marks out of a possible 500.
Conventions were held in November at Cumberland and Nanaimo, which were attended
by practically every teacher in each district. These conventions are found to be of inestimable
value and the thanks of both districts are due to the University staff, Normal Instructors, and
Inspectors, who, by their instructional and inspirational lectures, have done so much toward
making the conventions successful.
Superior schools were opened and in operation for the full year at Cassidy and Parksville
and it is likely that next term one will be opened at Union Bay. These schools are a great
boon to rural communities.
I have, etc.,
J. M. Paterson,
Inspector of Schools. T 40 Public Schools Report. 1924
ELEMENTARY  SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE  No.  4.
Vancouver, B.C., September 16th, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 4 for the school-
year ended June 30th, 1924:—
Inspectorate No. 4 comprises nine assisted schools along the Coast, extending from Roberts
Creek, East, to St. Vincent Bay; Howe Sound graded school at Gibson's Landing; and the
following schools in Vancouver City; Aberdeen, Bayview, Beaconsfield, Block 70 School, Dawson,
Charles Dickens, Simon Fraser, Grenfell, Hastings, Kitsilano, Livingstone, Mount Pleasant,
Macdonald, and Strathcona.   The number of schools and of teachers engaged was:—
Schools. Teachers.
Assisted schools            8 8
Rural           1 3
Vancouver city schools          14 204
Totals    '.        23 215
One visit of inspection was made to each division in the city schools, whilst two visits of
inspection were made to each rural and assisted school, with one exception. In addition to the
regular visits of inspection, several special visits were made in connection with various questions
of organization and school administration.
During the past school-year there has been no advancement in providing suitable accommodation. There was very little increase in the school population of this inspectorate. This
was rather fortunate, as the antagonistic attitude of the ratepayers toward the money by-laws
to provide permanent accommodation left the Vancouver School Board without the means of
carrying out the proposed building programme. However, by continuing to use temporary rooms
in basements, attics, and assembly-halls, and by increasing the number of pupils assigned to
many existing class-rooms, it was possible to give all pupils education without resorting to
part-time instruction. When school reopens in September there will be a considerable increase
in the school population, but by adopting the platoon system in some schools and increasing
the size of classes all the pupils presenting themselves for enrolment will be accommodated.
At the beginning of the school-year under review the plan of classifying pupils into Junior,
Intermediate, and Senior Grades was abolished, and the eight-grade system, which is the one
generally followed in the other Provinces of Canada and in the United States, was adopted in
British Columbia. When the new grading system was authorized by your Department, carefully
considered suggestions were sent out to the teachers regarding promotions. The object of these
instructions was to prevent as far as possible any retardation of pupils or overlapping of instruction in changing from a seven-year course to an eight-year course in the elementary schools.
A strict adherence to these instructions by principals when making promotions, modified in
individual cases by good judgment for the welfare of special pupil cases, should have resulted
in a classification where the amount of retardation during the year of inception would be at
a minimum. It was also a matter of interest to find out if the new grading system would lead
to a reduction in the number of pupils who for various causes were repeating a year, or one
or more terms, during their course of instruction in the elementary schools. This information,
which throws considerable light on existing conditions, and which if followed up will not only
be interesting, but also of great value to principals' and supervisors in grading their schools,
was secured by having age-grade tables compiled for all the schools. The information thus
obtained can hardly be regarded as revealing a satisfactory condition, and the following tabulation presents in a general way information that is deserving of much thought and careful analysis
on the part of our principals:— 15 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
T 41
Tabulation of Schools, Teachers, etc
School.
No. of
Teachers.
Enrolment.
Under Age.
Normal
Age.
Over Age.
11
10
12
3
28
12
15
5
19
13
11
19
29
8
447
398
443
99
968
481
570
69
745
484
430
662
1,015
144
18.90
28.00
20.30
11.11
26.13
25.80
22.10
4.30
25.37
26.70
20.50
15.10
11.00
18.62
21.30
29.00
29.12
39.39
24.17
31.80
22.29
24.60
25.75
27.50
27.50
21.45
21.50
22.IS
59.30
43.00
50.50
Block 70 	
49.49
49.69
42.40
55.60
71.01
48.88
45.80
52.00
63.44
66.80
59.20
A high percentage of over-age group at Grenfell or Children's Home School is natural, as
many of those children did not have an opportunity to attend school until they entered the
institution; while the retardation at Strathcona School is to a considerable degree accounted
for by a large foreign elemeut, less than 12 per cent, of the pupils attending this school being
of Anglo-Saxon extraction.
The results of the High School Entrance Examination held in June cannot be regarded as
satisfactory in this inspectorate. The number of pupils recommended left no ground for complaint, but the small percentage of successful pupils in the lower 40 per cent, of those recommended
by the principals as having attained a degree of efficiency that would justify them to proceed
with high-school work was very disappointing, to say the least. It is true some schools did
well, and the results of the examination reflect creditably on the judgment of the principals.
In some of the schools, however, less than 25 per cent, of the pupils writing were successful;
in at least three cases the results were very poor.
On the whole, the great majority of the teachers render faithful and satisfactory service.
The results in arithmetic, composition, and nature-study are generally unsatisfactory; spelling
and writing are generally taught effectively, and the standing in these subjects may be regarded
highly satisfactory. Measured by standard tests, tabulated results show that in these subjects
our pupils are from 10 to 15 per cent, above standards generally adopted as satisfactory. Silent
reading is receiving considerable attention, but many teachers who are devoting much time and
attention to this phase of school-work have but a hazy conception of the underlying principles
of this feature of class-room procedure. Few are attacking it in such a manner that they can
determine, at the end of the term or at any time during the term, to what degree their efforts
have been productive of efficient results. In only a few rooms did I find teachers who knew
how to measure the ability of their classes in standard terms for rate or comprehension. This
subject requires more organization and supervision on the part of principals. In many schools
I found an earnest effort being made to secure more proficiency in the fundamentals of arithmetic ; tests were conducted daily, and the pupils were interested and striving to become more
expert in both speed and accuracy; but neither teacher nor pupils could tell with any degree
of accuracy how much improvement had been made during the term. In only one large school
did I find a principal who could supply such information. Under the revised course literature
is taught with better results. The children are acquiring an appreciation of good literature
and reading more extensively; but there is a tendency to neglect memorization of the gems
of literature by far too large a number of the pupils in many classes. Since history has been
removed from the list of subjects on which pupils are required to write on the Departmental
Examination some teachers are allowing their pupils to neglect this subject; in other rooms,
under alert and energetic teachers, neither interest nor thoroughness has abated.
In dealing with these newer phases of school-work, principals have a splendid opportunity
to develop projects, with a class composed of every member of their staff. It cannot be expected
that all teachers will be familiar with O'Brien, Wheat, Stone, and Huey in "Silent Reading";
with Stevenson, McMurray, and Branom regarding " The Project Method"; nor with the sug-
o T 42 Public Schools Report. 1924
gestions of Earhart and Whitney relating to " The Socialized Recitation "; but both principal
and teachers might reasonably be expected to study together " Types of Elementary Teaching
and Learning," by Parker (Ginn & Co.), and every principal should be well posted in W. H.
Burton's " Supervision and the Improvement of Teaching." Then and not before will the
evangelizing influences of special courses and the summer schools bear full fruition.
It is pleasing to note the interest displayed by Child Welfare, Parent-Teacher, and other
organizations in matters educational, and the devotion of a great majority of the teachers to
their work.
I have, etc.,
J. T. Pollock.
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY  SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE  No. 5.
Atancouveb, B.C., September 17th, 1924.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—-I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 5
for the school-year ended June 30th, 1924:—
Inspectorate No. 5 comprises the schools in the Rural Municipalities of Maple Ridge, Matsqui,
Mission (with the rural aud assisted districts adjacent), Sumas; Abbotsford Rural School District ; and in Vancouver City the Cecil Rhodes, Florence Nightingale, General Gordon, Grandview,
Laura Secord, Model, Seymour, and Lord Tennyson Schools.
Of the 210 divisions comprising this inspectorate, eighty are in rural schools in the Fraser
Valley.
A visit of inspection was made to each division, and as far as time permitted a second
visit of inspection was made to the rural schools. In addition to regular visits of inspection,
special visits were made frequently to the rural districts in connection with the departmental
administration of these schools generally.
During the past school-year Dewdney District withdrew from consolidation with the Mission
Municipal School District and the original rural school district was restored. A very fine
modern three-room building has been erected at Dewdney, and. beginning with the reopening
of schools in September, the school population of Dewdney will be served by a three-room
superior school in which the first two years' work of the high school will be carried on as well
as the work of the elementary school.
Detailed reports on the work observed in each class-room have been forwarded periodically
to the Superintendent of Education. In regard to general observations on class-room procedure,
particularly in regard to the new7er movements in education and as to how far these newer
ideas are penetrating and influencing education in this inspectorate, I could but repeat what
has already been stated in a previous report. Suffice it to say that among an ever-increasing
number of our more progressive teachers a new attitude is being observed and the " new
education " is being given full recognition.
The Revised Course of Study should prove of very great value to teachers anxious to adopt
the most modern methods of class-room procedure. The various bibliographies of books and
periodicals dealing with method and technique as well as with subject-matter will point teachers
to the best sources for information and guidance in adopting the best and most effective types
of teaching.
As an illustration of the spirit of progress in education that is moving our teachers, and
incidentally as an indication of the spirit in which the new course of Study is being received,
I may state that already a study 'class with over 300 members has been formed in A'ancouver
for the purpose of mastering the technique in teaching silent reading. And, indeed, I cannot
well conceive of any subject requiring greater or more immediate attention from our teachers
than the subject of silent reading. Among the various standard tests given in the schools during
the past year, I always invariably gave tests in speed and comprehension in silent reading from
Grade II. to Grade VIII. While the median scores made by Second and Third Grade classes
was usually above the standard median for these grades respectively, a decided falling-off in
both speed and comprehension was noted from the Fourth Grade on.    The most amazing fact 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 43
observed, however, in Grades IV. to VIII. was the extremely wide range in the scores made
by pupils in the same class. In class after class pupils would range in their rate scores from
70 to over 900 words per minute. The tragedy of the whole matter was that, with exceedingly
few exceptions, nothing was being done in the ordinary routine of class-room teaching to
increase the rate and comprehension in silent reading of these low-score pupils—pupils, say,
in Grades V. to VI. who read less than 100 words per minute. The whole situation is probably
best and most pointedly illustrated by an illustration used by Dr. Buckingham in an article
on " Standards in Education" appearing in a recent issue of the " Journal of Educational
Research" : " A small boy came home from school with a bad report-card. It was evident
that he was at the bottom of his class. The father was much concerned and he undertook to
labour with the boy, trying among other things to inspire him with an ambition to stand at
the head of his class. The futility of the procedure became apparent, however, when the boy
summed up the situation by saying: 'What's the use, dad? They teach the same thing at both
ends of the class.' "
An Educational Survey Commission, comprising several of the most prominent educationists
of the Dominion, is at present engaged in the work of making a survey of the educational
system of this Province. To carry on, therefore, in this present annual report any dissertation
upon any or all of the many educational problems which affect, directly or indirectly, the work
of elementary-school inspection—such questions as the need for more frequent inspection, or
rather supervision, the question of higher standards and more thorough training for teachers,
or the question of " Entrance Examinations to High School "—would seem to be peculiarly out
of place and out of season at this time. In a future report such topics may again become the
theme for some dissertation, provided that the Educational Commission already referred to
may in their judgment see fit to recommend that these ancient and time-honoured annual reports
have a place in a modern educational system.
1 have, etc.,
H. H. Mackenzie,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 6.
Vancouveb, B.C., September 15th, 1924.
.8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C
Sib,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 6 for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1924:—
This inspectorate comprises the following schools in Vancouver City: Alexandra, Central,
Fairview, Franklin, Henry Hudson, Lord Nelson, and Lord Roberts; also those in Point Grey
Rural Municipality, nine schools in and near Powell River, and the Provincial School for the
Deaf and the Blind.
During the school-year Mitchell Bay and Olsen Lake Schools were closed. Nine additional
divisions were opened in Point Grey and there was an increase of one in the number of Vancouver divisions assigned to this inspectorate. At the close of the year there were twenty-four
schools with 230 divisions. Each of these was inspected at least once, and in all 267 inspections
were made.
The growth of the enrolment in Point Grey continues and seems likely to continue for a
long time. The ratepayers and School Board are to be commended for the manner in which
they meet the increasing demand for school accommodation. During the year work was commenced on two public schools of steel and concrete construction. In Vancouver the conditions
contrast strikingly; here the action of the ratepayers in voting down school by-laws has forced
upon the School Board a further use of makeshift class-rooms.
The use of standard tests as an aid to inspection was increased. More than a dozen different
tests were used, covering part of the work in arithmetic, spelling, writing, and silent reading.
These tests proved to be of little help in evaluating the work of the individual teacher; in rural
schools the teachers change so often and in graded schools the pupils change teachers so often
that the standing of the class depends greatly upon the condition it was in when it was received. T 44 Public Schools Report. 1924
But as a basis for advice to teachers who were faced with the regrading of rural schools some
of these tests, used cautiously and merely as an aid to the teachers' judgment, were found to
be very convenient.
The methods of teaching continue to Improve. With a few exceptions, attempts at socialized
recitations, project-work, and the teaching of silent reading were rather crude, but will doubtless
improve as the aim and technique come to be better understood. At the close of the school-
year Point Grey appointed a supervisor of primary work; this appointment will no doubt
greatly raise the standard of teaching in the lower grades. The work at the School for the
Deaf and the Blind continues to be very good.
The following were the winners of the Strathcona Trust prizes for excellence in physical
training:—
Miss Anna L. Bigney, 6th Division, Lord Roberts School, Vancouver.
Miss Edith L. Chapman, 15th Division, Lord Nelson School, Vancouver.
Miss Elizabeth M. Bell, 2nd Division, A'ananda Superior School.
I have, etc.,
Leslie J. Bruce,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 7.
A'ancouver, B.C., September 4th, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit the following report ou the public schools of Inspectorate No. 7 for
the school-year 1923-24 :—
This inspectorate comprises all the elementary schools in the Municipalities of Delta, Kent,
Richmond, and South A'ancouver; and the rural and assisted schools in the vicinity of Hope.
There were forty-two schools in operation during the year, with a staff of 245 teachers; these
were divided as follows:—
Schools.        Teachers.
Delta     12 18
Kent  2 5
Richmond   -  7 25
South A'ancouver           16 191
Rural and assisted schools   5 6
Totals           42 245
During the year all schools received one inspection. Owing to the size of this inspectorate
it was impossible to visit any of the class-rooms a second time.
The High School Entrance Examination was held in June at seventeen different centres
in this inspectorate. Two hundred and sixty-two candidates wrote on the examination. Of
these, 125 were successful in obtaining Entrance standing. In addition, 301 pupils were granted
promotion to high school on the recommendation of the principals. These results are scarcely
equal to those of previous years. Owing to' the fact that there were a number of epidemics
during the year the work was greatly retarded. An epidemic of diphtheria depleted the
attendance in a number of schools in South Vancouver for many weeks and this militated
against efficient work.
According to the provisions of the Strathcona Trust, three prizes were allotted to this
inspectorate.   These were awarded to :—
Miss E. Livingstone, 11th Division, Tecumseh School, South Vancouver.
Miss G. W. Killip, 5th Division, Gordon School, South A'ancouver.
Miss J. C. McDiarmid, inverholine School, Delta.
During the second school term a record of the ages of all pupils as at February 1st in
the various grades was obtained in the different municipalities. The summaries of the age-
grade tables for these municipalities are as follows:— 15 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
T 45
Delta Municipality.
Ge
I.
Gk.
II.
Ge. III.
Ge.
IV.
Gk. V.
Gr. VI.
Ge. VII.
Ge. VIII.
a
tfl $>
thEH
tl
y
in u
re &
a
jj f-i
c5EH
thEH
a
to a>
rtEH
a
to.S
T-icr<
1*3 t.
cnEH
a
t«s
rtEH
a
a
3s
*1
<nEH
"5
o
EH
Total Number of
45
37
5
26
3
41
3
35
7
30
5
21
3
52
11
6
1
55
8
57
26
51
12
48
9
504
Under-age   pupils
93
Normal-age pupils
29
12
8
15
9
2
7
14
2
15
8
13
10
144
Over-age pupils ..
16
20
15
23
19
23
11
27
3
32
23
26
29
267
Under-age pupils, 18 per cent.; normal-age pupils, 29 per cent.; over-age pupils, 53 per cent.
Kent Municipality (Agassiz School).
Total Number of
pupils 	
Under-age pupils
Normal-age pupils
Over-age pupils ..
10
9
11
10
8
8
8
1
7
2
12
2
17
5
21
5
21
8
4
4
1
1
2
4
2
4
3
2
6
5
10
9
8
6
7
1
8
8
13
....
11
Total Number of
pupils 	
Under-age pupils
Normal-age pupils
Over-age pupils ..
101
82
84
87
72
86
26
63
47
8
9
13
5
5
3
6
10
37
17
15
7
11
6
5
6
6
64
57
60
67
56
75
18
51
31
8
31
47
24
46
3
51
10
9
3
17
13
1
5
10
4
2
1
11
7
16
28
17
27
2
27
Total Number of
pupils 	
Under-age pupils
Normal-age pupils
Over-age  pupils
355
476
381
499
502
505
287
491
434
346
320
627
323
537
90
629
104
46
102
64
104
58
174
185
128
163
275
155
183
35
224
232
224
169
179
160
151
83
96
91
60
58
95
48
86
12
102
123
148
166
218
278
250
146
221
158
158
99
257
120
268
43
303 |
1
142
23
27
92
Under-age pupils, 16 per cent. ; normal-age pupils, 19 per cent.; over-age pupils, 65 per cent.
Richmond Municipality (Many Japanese Pupils in this Municipality).
858
111
144
603
Under-age pupils, 13 per cent.; normal-age pupils, 17 per cent. ; over-age pupils, 70 per cent.
South Vancouver Municipality.
6,802
2,000
1,846
Under-age pupils, 30 per cent. ; normal-age pupils, 27 per cent.; over-age pupils, 43 per cent.
It would appear that in a number of schools there is a large percentage of over-age pupils.
The. reduction in the number of these over-age pupils is a question that should receive more
careful attention on the part of principals. There will always be over-age pupils in every school,
but the number of such pupils should be reduced to a minimum.
I have, etc.,
F. G. Calvert,
Inspector of Schools. T 46 Public Schools Report. 1924
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 8.
A'ancouver, B.C., August 14th, 1924.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report in respect of the public schools of Inspectorate No. 8
for the school-year ended June 30th, 1924.
The territory included within the inspectorate remained unchanged from last year, but the
number of teachers employed increased from 205 to 218. The distribution of teachers among
the various types of schools was as followTs :—
Schools.        Teachers.
City municipalities  5 47
Rural municipalities         28 122
Rural  schools          40 49
Totals  :         73 218
During the fall term, in accordance with your instructions, my duties were confined to the
Vancouver Normal School. As a result of the courtesy shown by Principal Robinson and the
members of the staff, together with the fine school spirit which existed among the students,
this work proved to be most pleasant. In addition, it has given valuable experience in problems
confronting those who are responsible for the training of our teachers. Unfortunately, however,
the work of inspection had to be confined to the second term, with the result that ninety-eight
teachers did not receive a visit during the year. That this is considered a real hardship is
evidenced by the number of letters received from those whose schools I was unable to reach.
Age-grade distribution statistics were secured from all municipal schools and from twenty-
two rural schools and recapitulations of these are included in this report. In compiling these
forms it is assumed that children enter school at 6 years of age (which is interpreted to mean
any age under 6 years and 6 months), and that if they fail to be promoted thereafter or if they
enter over 6 years they are " over age." Similarly, if they " skip" one or more promotion
periods they are considered " under age." The particular distribution table used is of a very
definite type, in that it makes provision for the usual semi-annual promotions by being spaced
for the two sections of each grade and for ages by* half-years. The result furnishes an exact
statement of the conditions which exist. Aside from certain relatively minor matters, however,
the value of such a statement lies wholly in its indication of the existence of an evil; it does
not diagnose that evil and it does not prescribe a remedy. To discover a remedy and, it is
scarcely necessary to add, to conduct a school in accordance with scientific methods it is
imperative that a permanent, cumulative record be kept of every child who enters our schools,
and that, in addition, every principal prepare annually for his school an age-progress table
and a promotion table. The former is much more illuminating than an age-grade distribution,
but under existing pupil-record conditions its preparation is impossible in more than an occasional
school.
The tables appended herewith show the age-grade conditions in (1) the city schools, (2)
the district municipality schools, and (3) the rural schools of the inspectorate. The percentage
of over-age pupils for each type of district is, respectively, 49.2 per cent, 51.2 per cent.,7and
61.7 per cent.
\ 15 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
T 47
Table 1.—City ■ Municipality Elementary Schools.
From.
Ge. I.
Ga. II.
Git. III.
Gk. IV.
Ge. V.
Gk. VI.
Ge. VII.
Ge. VIII.
Age.
a
HI
a
21
a
•a E
c °
to <U
thEH
r. OJ
a
rtEH
•at
a
in EH
a
a
•a C
<MCH
a
th tr
a
-a u
c *
g
to «
rHH
a
"3 u
<mEH
3
0
EH
6
6%
7
71/2
8
8%
9
91/2
10
10%
11
11%
12
121/2
13
13%
14
14%
15
15%
16
6 to  6.6—
6.6 to  7—
7 to  7.6—
7.6  to 8—
8 to 8.6—
8.6 to 9—
9 to 9.6—
9.6 to 10..
10 to  10.6
10.6 to  11
11 to 11.6
11.6 to 12
12 to 12.6
12.6 to  13
13 to 13.6
13.6 to 14
14 to  14.6
14.6  to 15
15 to 15.6
15.6 to  16
16 and over
60
21
12
10
2
1
19
40
24
13
7
3
2
1
1
1
5
24
26
15
6
4
1
2
24
46
23
15
6
5
1
3
1
12
35
18
15
6
3
4
3
2
1
1
1
2
10
25
24
15
6
6
1
2
1
1
3
11
9
10
8
4
4
4
1
1
1
3
10
19
16
28
10
1
6
3
2
2
1
1
1
3
11
27
17
21
6
9
6
4
Q
2
4
11
18
25
24
16
10
11
5
5
1
1
8
12
10
6
3
5
1
2
1
1
4
13
25
29
22
15
14
4
3
2
5
4
8
3
2
3
1
1
1
1
3
15
21
20
19
13
11
9
1
2
3
1
2
4
4
2
6
6
1
2
2
15
21
19
30
20
13
8
6
13
80
68
85
109
97
93
92
91
95
105
82
99
90
85
70
63
47
28
12
10
17
Totals   	
106
110
82
126
100
94
56 | 102
114
126
40
132
28
118
30
145
1,518
1
]
(
Jnder   	
formal
3ver   	
60
46
19
40
51
6
24
52
26
46
54
12
35
53
13
25
56
14
9
33
32
16
54
42
17
55
29
25
72
21
10
18
43
29
60
17
3
8
40
20
58
11
2
17
55
30
60
380
391
747
Under age, 25 per cent. ; normal age, 25.8 per cent. ; over age, 49.2 per cent.
Table 2.—District Municipality Elementary Schools.
6
6 to  6.6—
201
68
5
....
274
6%
6.6 to  7—
49
109
34
10
....
202
7
7 to  7.6—
25
69
104
53
9
6
266
7%
7.6  to 8—
6
41
70
93
23
8
1
242
8
8   to  8.6—
4
12
27
G7
82
47
2
8
249
8%
8.6 to 9—
1
10
23
42
75
82
6
17
3
4
263
9
9  to 9.6—
1
4
10
29
71
80
33
52
17
10
2
2
311
9%
9.6  to 10-
2
2
10
20
58
57
61
38
37
2
2
1
290
10
10 to 10.6
1
1
2
1
21
29
31
63
26
55
17
13
1
1
262
10%
10.6 to  11
1
1
3
7
19
19
46
15
51
21
33
9
10
1
236
11
11  to 11.6
2
1
3
22
16
17
22
56
26
53
4
18
1
241
11%
11.6 to 12
1
2
7
10
13
14
20
11
54
7
56
2
12
218
12
12 to 12.6
2
3
2
3
12
5
•  27
17
56
7
77
7
21
239
12%
12.6  to  13
3
3
5
o
16
3
33
5
78
6
29
183
13
13 to 13.6
1
1
2
6
5
3
11
5
17
8
73
4
50
186
13%
13.6 to 14
1
1
2
7
8
2
22
11
38
7
66
165
14
14 to 14.6
2
1
4
3
11
1
35
5
55
117
14%
14.6 to 15
1
....
1
8
5
20
3
44
82
15
15 to 15.6
1
....
3
2
11
1
24
42
15%
15.6 to 16
1
....
1
1
3
16
22
16
16andover
....
1
8
9
Totals   	
289
316
283
310
317
366
193
301
153
310
109
308
60
421
35
328
4,099
Under   	
68
39
63
32
61
9
77
58
106
42
103
20
163
15
65
921
Normal  	
201
109
104
93
82
82
33
61
26
51
26
54
7
78
4
66
1,077
(
88
139
140
154
203
223
151
163
69
153
41
151
33
180
16
197
2,101
r age, 22.5 per cent. ; normal age, 26.3 per cent.; over age, 51.2 per cent.
Under T 48
Public Schools Report.
1924
Table 3.—Rural Elementary Schools.
From.
Ge. I.
Ge. II.
GE. III.
Gk. IV.
Ge. V.
Ge. VI.
Gk. VII.
Gk. VIII.
Age.
a
Hi
a
cm EH
to *
a
t» QJ
rtEH
a
a o>
cnEH
a
to ^
yhEH
a
MEH
a
Hi
a
HI
a
cnEh
a
to*
rtEH
a
■a n
cm Eh
a
c cy
CM EH
•4->
O
H
6
6%
7
7%
8
8%
9
9%
10
10%
11
11%
12
12%
13
13%
14
14%
15
15%
16
6 to 6.6....
6.6 to 7—
7 to  7.6....
7.6 to 8—
8 to 8.6—
8.6 to 9—
9 to 9.6..,.
9.6 to 10-
10 to 10.6
10.6 to  11
11 to 11.6
11.6  to 12
12 to 12.6
12.6 to  13
13 to 13.6
13.6 to 14
14 to 14.6
14.6  to 15
15 to 15.6
15.6 to  16
16 and over
18
11
4
1
3
2
1
1
9
16
13
5
1
2
5
2
1
1
3
6
6
4
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
10
10
10
8
2
2
1
1
3
3
5
7
7
2
1
2
1
2
2
10
15
7
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
14
6
14
7
3
2
3
3
1
1
2
1
3
1
5
4
7
11
8
4
7
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
3
3
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
5
5
9
6
11
5
2
4
2
z
1
2
8
5
12
4
5
2
6
28
31
30
27
27
33
51
23
34
23
23
23
18
25
19
22
21
7
9
4
8
Totals   	
41
55
27
50
31
46
3
59
7
53
16
3
50 |   ....
45
486
1
1
(
Cinder   	
Vormal
18
23
9
16
30
3
6
18
6
10
34
6
5
20
4
10
32
1
2
19
6
34
2
1
4
9
7
37
6
3
7
2
1
11
9
30
11
5
29
88
98
300
Under age, 18.1 per cent.; normal age, 20.2 per cent.; over age, 61.7 per cent.
Condensed figures for each municipality are as follows:—
Pek Cent, who are
Under Age.      Normal Age.      Over  Age
Cities—
North Vancouver
Port  Moody  	
Districts—
Bumaby   	
North Vancouver
West  Vancouver
26.4
16.2
24.0
20.3
17.8
26.5
20.7
26.2
23.4
31.7
47.1
63.1
49.8
56.3
50.5
That the proportion of pupils who are over-age is higher than it should be goes without
saying, though the percentages cited above do not vary materially from the averages for the
Province. This condition is largely due to the fact that about 40 per cent, of the pupils are
over the normal age before they enter school and also to the absence in many schools of a semiannual promotion. Under the annual-promotion plan a child who fails to be promoted must
repeat a full year, and if he fails more than once the situation soon becomes very serious. It
is notable that the " over-age" percentage is usually higher in schools where only an annual
promotion is the practice.
Some attempt was made during the spring term to secure objective measurements of the
ability of pupils in certain subjects. In arithmetic the shortened form of the Woody-McCall
mixed fundamental test and the Stone reasoning test were used fairly generally, the former
being given to approximately 300 pupils of each grade from III. to VIII. and the latter to
about the same number in Grade VII. and in Grade VIII.    The scores obtained from so com- 15 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
T 49
paratively few pupils are of little value as standards, but they are appended to give interested
teachers something with which to compare their own results. Both of these tests have been
standardized in United States schools; the fact that the local scores are higher than standard
in the junior grades and lower in the senior ones is worthy of note.
In reporting results of tests at least two measures are essential to give any clear idea of
the relative standing of a group of pupils. One of these shows the central tendency of the
group and the other indicates the extent to which the individuals vary from the central tendency.
That the latter is of extreme importance is clearly demonstrated by comparing two sets of
scores each with an average of 50, but one ranging from 10 to 90 and the other from 40 to 60;
if the average alone is considered the classes are of equal ability*, whereas they differ widely
in reality. In the following tabulation the measure of central tendency is the " Median," which,
roughly speaking, is the middle score, and the measure of variability is the " Standard Deviation " (or sigma) ; the latter is the range of the middle 67 per cent, of all the scores.
Table lt.—Woody-McCall Test in Mixed Fundamentals of Arithmetic.
(Maximum Score, 34.)
Grade.
Standard
Norm.
Median.
Standard
Deviation.
Range.
HI.                       .    ..                  	
13
18.5
24
28.5
31
33
15.4
20.5
22.9
26.4
28.4
28.7
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.1
4.5
3.8
2-23
IV.       .                                             	
8-31
V.   .                                           	
9-34
VI.                                                       	
16-34
VII.	
16-34
VIII.                                         	
18-34
This table is read : The Standard Norm for Grade III. is 13 questions correct out of a possible 34.
The Median for Grade III. pupils tested is 15.4 ; the Standard Deviation is 3.7—i.e., 67 per cent, of the
pupils secured scores between 11.7 (15.4—3.7) and 19.1 (15.44-3.7) ; the lowest score is 2 and the highest
is 23.
Table 5.—Stone Arithmetic Reasoning Test.
(Maximum  Score, 17.2.)
Grade.
Standard
Norm.
Median.
t
Standard
Deviation.
Range.
VII.                                                 	
7.5
8.75
7.2
11.2
3.8
3.2
3 17 2
VIII                                	
7 2 17 2
This table is read : The Standard Norm for Grale VII. Is 7.5. The Median for the pupils tested is
7.2 ; the Standard Deviation is 3.8—i.e., 67 per cent, of the scores range between 3.4 (7.2—3.8) and 11
(7.2 + 3.8) ;  the  lowest score is 3  and the highest is 17.2.
The combined result of these two tests furnishes a fairly accurate estimate of ability in
arithmetic. In the scores reported there can be no doubt that many Grade VII. pupils possess
Grade VIII. ability, and that, on the other hand, many Grade VIII. pupils have been promoted
before they are fitted for it, in so far, at least, as arithmetic is concerned. .
Original objective tests were employed to some extent in history, geography, English
literature, and hygiene. In each case the " true and false" or the " sentence completion"
type was used and abundant evidence was forthcoming that these tests serve a very real
purpose. They save much time for the pupils and for the examiner, and teachers who use
them properly are enabled to reach a fairly accurate estimate of pupils' standing. Their use
during the past year was primarily to comply with a departmental request that special attention be paid by Inspectors to the methods adopted in the senior grades in respect of the subjects
on which High School Entrance candidates are not required to pass a written examination.
While neither the tests themselves nor the scores obtained are sufficiently valid to warrant
publication, yet the results secured justify the statement that in the main these subjects are
not receiving adequate attention. In a few schools high scores were obtained, but in the
aggregate of all classes tested the median was below 40 per cent.
I have, etc.,
A. R. Loed,
Inspector of Schools. T 50 Public Schools Report. 1924
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 9.
New Westminster, B.C., September 4th, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 9 for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1924:—
This inspectorate includes the City Districts of Chilliwack, New Westminster, and Port
Coquitlam ; the Rural Municipalities of Chilliwhack, Coquitlam, Langley, Pitt Meadows, and
Surrey; the Assisted Districts of Alvin, Barnston Island, Cheam View, Cultus Lake, Lindell,
and Popcum; the Boys' Industrial School near Port Coquitlam. Seventy-four schools were in
operation, w'ith a staff of 206 teachers.    These were divided as follows:—
Schools. Teachers.
Urban municipalities           8 84
Rural municipalities         59 114
Assisted districts           6 6
Special             1 2
Totals          74 206
During the year 231 class-room inspections were made, in addition to special visits to
different parts of the inspectorate on matters connected with departmental administration.
The High School Entrance Examination was held in June at sixteen points. A total of
633 candidates, including a large number of non-recommended pupils, were examined, and 391
of these were successful, a percentage of 61.77. The Governor-General's medal for this district
was won by Shuichi Enomoto, a pupil of Miss B. M. Bournes, Central School, New Westminster.
The Langley Board constructed new one-room buildings at East Langley, Patricia, and
Sperling, while a second room was added at Otter and a third room at Milner and at Fort
Langley to care for the increasing attendance. The new high-school building erected on the
Vale Road near Langley Prairie is a credit to the municipality.
In Surrey the Board provided additional teachers at Port Mann, Tynehead, and Newton.
At Tynehead the old building was raised and a second class-room added, while provision has
been made for the construction of a third room at Newton and at South Westminster. The
two-room school at East Kensington was destroyed by fire in March, but the Board has a new
and more modern building ready for occupancy. The Surrey Central School, one of the oldest
in the municipality, has been enlarged and modernized.
In September, 1923, the School Board of Coquitlam Municipality opened a new two-room
building on the Austin Road and has since constructed a one-room school at East Coquitlam.
In the larger rural municipalities of this inspectorate there is a distinct need for a supervisor who should function as does a principal in our efficient graded schools. The public schools
are preparing pupils for a central high school in the municipality, and unless some such arrangement is made uniformity of standard cannot be expected.
In many of the graded schools the principal functions only as teacher and school policeman,
with the result that there is no checking-up of the weaker units and general matters of policy
are determined by the individual teacher. This accounts for much of the retardation and
increases greatly the cost of education.
Primary teachers are handicapped, in many cases, by a lack of materials. Especially is
this true in the smaller schools where the lower grades receive only a small proportion of the
teacher's time and attention. Lack of profitable and well-planned seat-work frequently results
in loss of interest and a tendency to create a problem in discipline. Too many pupils find no
means for self-expression without proper supplies for manual work.
In some districts much is being done by the teachers to stimulate interest among the parents
and friends of the pupils in the cause of education. Unfortunately, a large number consider
their work finished when they leave the class-room. Where teachers have attended the summer
schools they have returned to their classes with augmented enthusiasm and new inspiration.
The increasing interest and improved general attitude of many teachers is very encouraging.
Many of the new recruits to the profession are of excellent material and the work of the
inexperienced teacher has been found somewhat more effective than in previous years. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 51
There has been a distinct improvement in the teaching of the fundamental subjects of
reading, writing, and arithmetic, but insufficient progress in oral and written composition.
In the case of arithmetic much of the impractical still persists like some old superstition.
The use of standard tests has shown a great variation in effectiveness in the teaching of
primary reading and the four simple rules.
The prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Large graded schools—Miss Vivian HI. Brown, Central School, New Westminster.
Small graded schools—Mrs. Mary A. E. Bilton, County Line School, Langley Municipality.
Ungraded schools—Miss Louise Girling, Anniedale School, Surrey Municipality.
It has never been my pleasure to co-operate with a more keenly interested and businesslike group of School Boards.
I have, etc.,
E. G. Daniels,
  Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 10.
Kamloops, B.C., September 15th, 1924.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools in Inspectorate No. 10 for the
school-year ended June 30th, 1924:—
The number of schools in operation in this inspectorate during the past year was ninety,
with a total of 129 class-rooms. The City Municipalities of Kamloops and Merritt employed
thirty-one and the rural and assisted schools ninety-eight teachers. The variation from the
preceding year in the number of schools and the number of teachers was very slight, there
being a decrease of one in the number of schools and a like increase in the number of teachers
employed. A new assisted school was established and opened during the year at Pine, a
district in the Coldwater Valley near Merritt, and one new division opened in each of the
two city municipalities in the inspectorate. The assisted school at Big Bar was closed throughout the year owing to the lack of the required attendance.
During the year 198 visits of inspection were made to the various schools in the inspectorate.
The majority of the rural schools were visited twice. In several cases a third and, in a few
instances, a fourth visit was made where the character of the teaching and the general welfare
of the school seemed to require it. An attempt was made to give special attention to those
schools which were in charge of young and inexperienced teachers, while but one visit of
inspection was paid to city schools where supervising principals were employed, except in the
case of certain class-rooms, to which a second visit was requested by the principals or members
of School Boards. The work of the Entrance classes in city schools was inspected twice during
the year. In addition to these regular visits of inspection, a number of special visits was made
to various districts, in order to confer with School Boards on improvements to school property,
district boundaries, and the general administration of the schools under their charge.
In general the character of the work performed by the teachers in this inspectorate during
the year just closed was of a higher quality than that performed during the preceding year.
I believe that this can be attributed, mainly, to the fact that Trustee Boards are endeavouring
to retain the services of those teachers who have done efficient work in their schools. There
is, as well, a closer co-operation existing between the Inspector and Trustee Boards in the
matter of the selection of teachers, and this work of selection has been greatly facilitated by
the efficient services performed by the Registrar in charge of the Teachers' Bureau in the
Department of Education.
I believe that, with but few exceptions, the teachers in this inspectorate have made a
sincere effort during the past year to teach to the best of their ability the various subjects
of the school curriculum. That the teachers are intensely interested in their work and keenly
desirous of increasing their professional efficiency is evidenced by their interest in the Local
Teachers' Institutes, in the large attendance' at sessions of the summer schools, and by the
rapid growth in circulation of school magazines and other literature bearing on educational
matters.    In reference to the subjects taught in the elementary schools, I believe that more T 52 Public Schools Report. 1924
emphasis should be placed on the attainment of accurate knowledge, especially in the subject
of geography. This is a subject that can be made of vital interest to the average pupil. I
would suggest to teachers that they make more use of the topography of their local districts
in the teaching of geography, especially in the junior classes, and that, while the map drawn
on the blackboard is an excellent aid in instruction, the value of the wall-maps be not overlooked. In many schools there is still a weakness in the teaching of drawing, especially in the
outlining of models, as the cube, cone, cylinder, etc., and objects based on these. The new textbook in drawing prescribed for the current year presents an excellent plan for the teaching
of this subject throughout all the grades, and I am anticipating an improvement as to the
proficiency attained by pupils in this subject when the new text-book has come into general
use. The teaching of writing is still the source of much worry and discouragement to many
teachers. Where this is the case it is generally due to the fact that the principles taught in
the oral writing lesson are not always applied by the pupil or emphasized by the teacher in
the daily written exercise-work. In too many cases the teacher is content to give a fifteen-
minute period once a day to instruction in muscular writing exercises, and to leave the pupil
to practise his old style of cramped finger-movement, careless habits, and incorrect position at
his desk when engaged in the ordinary routine of his daily written tasks. All written work
done by the pupil should be a lesson in writing. A close inspection of all note-book and other
written work performed by the pupil should be carried out by the teacher, and an attempt
made to inculcate habits of care, neatness, and legibility in all written work. It is a significant
fact that in those schools where the written exercise-work of the pupils is of a high standard,
the same is generally true of the quality of the work performed in the other subjects of the
curriculum.
The High School Entrance Examination was held at eleven centres in this inspectorate
during the last week in June. The total number of pupils writing from the public schools in
this inspectorate was 189. Of these, 125 were successful, or slightly over 66 per cent, of the
number writing. All these students, with the exception of those from Kamloops and Merritt
cities, were from rural and assisted schools. This is a much higher percentage than was made
in the Entrance Examinations for this inspectorate in the preceding year, and is all the more
creditable to the schools sending up candidates when it is considered that the percentage of
successful candidates for the whole Province was 55. The Governor-General's medal for this
district was won by Miss Phyllis Andrew's, a pupil in the 1st Division, Kamloops Public School.
The work performed in this division of Kamloops School throughout the year deserves particular mention, not only for the high percentage in the number of successful candidates who
wrote, but for the uniformly high character of the work throughout the whole division.
Owing to the increase in the number of pupils matriculating into high schools from rural
and assisted school districts during the past few years, the problem of supplying facilities for
secondary education for these is becoming a pressing one.    The expense entailed on parents
in rural districts who are endeavouring to give their children a high-school education is very
heavy, and the complaint has been made that the children who are sent away to city high
schools have a tendency to obtain positions in the city when their high-school education  is
completed, or,  in other words, are being educated away from the farm.    If it were possible
to establish high- or superior-school areas wherever there is a sufficient number of high-school
pupils to warrant it, the problem would be a fairly easy one; but when these pupils are scattered
over a wide territory mainly in assisted school districts, where the amount of assessable property
in the districts affected w7ould entail a very heavy burden on the ratepayers contributing to
the expense of such a school, the establishment of secondary schools in such localities is hardly
possible at the present time.   The problem will, I believe, become easier in time as the country
districts grow in population and become more firmly established.    In the meantime, I believe
that the tuition fee for pupils entering existing high schools from surrounding districts where
there is no opportunity for obtaining secondary education might be kept as small as possible
in consideration of the heavy expense these students are under for board and lodging while
they are attending the city high school.    The argument for this becomes stronger when we
consider that the money paid by the Department towards high-school education comes out of
the revenue of the whole Province.
I have, etc.,
A. P. Matthews,
Inspector of Schools. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 53
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 11.
Kelowna, B.C., August 27th, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sik,—I beg to submit the following report on the work of the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 11 for the year ended June 30th, 1924:—
As a result of a rearrangement of inspectorial districts made in August, 1923, this inspectorate now includes the Okanagan Valley from Armstrong south to the International Boundary
and the Similkameen Valley; the readjustment has resulted in my having a much more compact
territory and has considerably facilitated the work of inspection.
During the year sixty-four schools employing 100 teachers were in operation; the classification of these schools is as follows:—
Schools.        Teachers.
City and rural municipality (consolidated)  1 15
City municipality districts   2 35
Rural municipality districts  5 36
Rural and assisted districts         56 74
Totals         64 160
Schools were in operation for the first time at Sugar Lake and Madora Creek; the schools,
at Copper Mountain and Oliver were each increased by one division, the status of the latter
being raised to that of a superior school. The schools at Jura, Reiswig, and Bear Creek were
closed because of low attendance, while one division was closed in each of the following schools:
Kelowna, Vernon, Penticton, Peaehland, and Naramata.
During the year negotiations were entered into with a view to consolidating the Vernon
City District and the adjoining Rural District of Okanagan Landing, the outcome being that
with the opening of school for the fall term about forty pupils of the latter district will be
conveyed to the central school at Vernon; a step in the same direction was taken by the School
Board of the Rural Municipality of Penticton when they closed the Poplar Grove School and
provided transportation which enabled the pupils to attend the modern and well-equipped Ellis
and Shatford Schools. The principle of consolidation is gradually gaining ground in this
inspectorate. Transportation doubtless offers difficulties, but to one who observes consolidation
in operation there can be no doubt that improved conditions due to the manifest advantages
of the graded school far outweigh the drawbacks referred to.
The work of the schools was greatly handicapped during the year by poor attendance, due
to illness; in consequence of successive epidemics of whooping-cough and measles many of the
schools were closed for a time, while for several weeks the attendance was so broken that satisfactory work was out of the question. As a result the standing of a considerable proportion
of the schools was noticeably affected; in view of the existing handicap, however, the standing
of the schools in general was satisfactory. The attitude of practically all the teachers toward
their work was good, and failure to secure good results was rarely due to lack of effort.
We have heard much in the past of the frequent change of teachers in our rural and
assisted schools, and I am glad to be able to report a decided improvement in this respect.
With the opening of the fall term approximately 45 per cent, of the rural and assisted schools
were in charge of teachers who had been previously employed in their respective schools; this
indicates a large proportion of change, but when we contrast it with the preceding year, when
only 18 per cent, returned to schools in which they had taught previously, the figures are
decidedly encouraging.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Schools of five or more divisions—T. Aldworth, 1st Division, Armstrong Consolidated
School.
Schools of two to four divisions—Miss Ruby Glaser, 1st Division, Naramata Public
School.
Schools of one division—Miss Thelma Hobbs, Kaleden Public School.
While excellent results were in some cases obtained in this branch of school-work, I regret
that it is in a measure neglected by a considerable number of teachers. T 54 Public Schools Report. 1924
In my dealings with the various School Boards of the inspectorate I have found them
almost without exception open to suggestion and anxious to do their best to promote the
educational interests of their districts. Buildings and equipment have been well maintained,
while the important matter of grounds-improvement has received a considerable degree of
attention. Occasionally one encounters a case where conditions are unsatisfactory, but it is
a rare occurrence to find a capable and energetic teacher who does not receive the support of
the School Board.
I have, etc.,
T. R. Hall,
Inspector of Schools,
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 12.
Revelstoke, B.C., September 12th, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 12 for the school-year which ended on June 30th, 1924:—
During the year an assisted school was opened at Edgewater, in the Upper Columbia Valley.
The schools at Gerrard and Twin Butte, which had been closed for two years and one year,
respectively, were placed in operation again and an additional division was opened at Grindrod.
The schools at Bellevue and Galena were closed during the entire year, while Brilliant and
Enderby each suffered a reduction of one division. In all, there were ninety-seven schools in
operation in this district during the year, with a total staff of 133 teachers, a net gain of one
school over 1922-23. Of these totals, three were graded city schools, with a staff of twenty-five
teachers; seven were rural municipality schools (one graded), with a staff of eight teachers;
four were graded rural schools, with a staff of eleven teachers; ten were ungraded rural schools;
three were graded assisted schools, with a staff of nine teachers; and the remaining seventy
were ungraded assisted schools. Owing to slight changes in the boundaries of this inspectorate
the figures as to schools and teachers will not tally exactly with those given last year.
The standard of efficiency noted in previous reports has been fairly well maintained. Of
224 candidates who wrote on the Entrance Examinations at the end of June, 135 were successful, a percentage of 60.27. The following schools passed 100 per cent, of their recommended
pupils:—City: 1st Division, Revelstoke. Rural municipality: Canoe, North Canoe, South Canoe,
and Mount Ida. Assisted: Big Eddy, Fire Valley, Hupel, Lee Creek, McMurdo, Sorrento, Sproat,
and Sunnybrae.
Many Boards of Trustees have made commendable efforts to improve grounds and buildings,
and it is to be hoped that activity in this direction may be continued and extended.
I have, etc.,
A. E. MlLLEB,
Inspector of Schools,
ELEMENTARY  SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 13.
Nelson, B.C., September 8th, 1924.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit the following annual report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 13
for the school-year 1923-24:—
This inspectorate, the boundaries of which were slightly changed at the beginning of the
school-year, comprises: (1) The City of Nelson; (2) the area along the Great Northern Railway
southward to the International Boundary; (3) the valley of the Slocan Lake and River; (4)
the Kootenay River Valley to the west of Nelson; and (5) the Rossland-Trail and Grand Forks-
Greenwood Electoral Districts; but not including the community school districts within the
above-mentioned areas. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 55
At the beginning of the school-year the schools at Summit Lake and Columbia Park, which
had been closed the previous year, remained closed. The schools at Syringa Creek and Blueberry
did not reopen on account of the lack of a sufficient number of pupils to keep up the required
attendance, and for the same reason the school at Eholt was closed at the end of October.
New schools were opened during the year at Kerr Creek and Paulson. Owing to the increase
in the number of high-school pupils at Robson, the superior school there was raised to the
status of a high school.
The building of new schools has in most cases kept pace with the increase in attendance.
In Nelson a fully modern, eight-room brick structure was erected during the winter, and formally
opened by the Hon. Mr. Manson on April 28th. The Nelson School Board, with characteristic
foresight, has also commenced the erection of another eight-room brick structure, to be known
as the Trafalgar School. The new rural school erected by the Department of Education at
Appledale was completed and occupied in the autumn of 1923. A satisfactory building was
erected for the new school at Kerr Creek and an addition was made to the Rock Creek School.
On Friday and Saturday, October 25th and 26th, a two-days' convention was held at Nelson
and was attended by more than 100 teachers. The model lessons taught, the general discussions,
and the excellent papers read by the teachers themselves were interesting and highly profitable
to all who were present. In my opinion a small convention of teachers, held early in the school-
year when the individual teacher's problems have just arisen, is of great practical value.
With the exception of the City of Nelson schools and two rural schools, all schools that
were in continuous operation during the year received two inspections. Some rural schools
were visited a third time.
A statement of the number of years of teaching experience of sixty-four teachers in rural
schools of this inspectorate may be found interesting. In September eighteen teachers began
their work without previous experience; eleven with not more than one year's experience;
ten with not more than two years of experience; nine with three years; two with four years;
and fourteen others with an average of 13.2 years, the maximum number of years' experience
for a teacher of this group being found to be forty years. Generally speaking, the teachers
without previous experience were zealous and enthusiastic in their efforts to form proper and
successful teaching habits.
In many cases in rural schools the new teachers are handicapped by lack of equipment,
by absence of the necessary materials for instruction, and by scarcity of reference books. Some
Boards of Trustees have made commendable beginnings in the purchase of supplies and supplementary and library books. In other districts public organizations like the Women's Institutes
have rendered substantial assistance. In too many, however, little effort has been made to
provide more than bare essentials, or even to take advantage of the assistance which the
Department of Education offers in the establishment of school libraries. Where the rural school
is remote from a town the problem of obtaining writing materials suitable for school use is
often acute. Some Boards of Trustees have adopted the wise course of purchasing in quantity
such materials as the teacher advises and of distributing them to the pupils free or at mere cost.
The prizes for excellence in physical training under the conditions of the Strathcona Trust
were awarded as follows:—
Large graded schools—Mrs. L. Jewel Morrish, 5th Division, Trail Central School.
i Small graded schools—Mrs. Verle Moore, 2nd Division, Silverton School.
Ungraded schools—Miss K. F. Corry, BrideSville.
In the High School Entrance Examination in June the results, while they corresponded
very closely to the general results throughout the Province, were various. In some schools
the results were disappointing, while in others all the candidates were successful in passing
the examination. The following rural schools passed 100 per cent, of their Entrance class
pupils: Amiable, Castlegar, Columbia Gardens, Cascade, Fruitvale, Gilpin, Rhone, and Slocan.
The Nelson City schools made a particularly good record. In a total of sixty-nine candidates
who wrote the examination, sixty-five were successful, while thirty-one others were given their
promotion on the recommendation of the principal, making the high standard of 96 per cent,
successful. The medal for the district was won by Harold Rhys Matthews, of Nelson Central
School.
One of the encouraging features of the year has been the spread among teachers of the
commendable habit of advance planning of lessons.    In those remote days before the training T 56 Public Schools Report. 1924
of teachers was undertaken by the State the idea was generally held that the successful teacher
was one who was " born " to be a teacher. The teacher of that time was " born " rather than
technically trained to the work. In recent years the emphasis has been placed upon teacher-
training. While natural aptitude and intensive professional training are both essential to the
teacher of to-day, I am convinced that one of the chief elements underlying success in the classroom is the willingness on the part of the teacher to expend sufficient time and effort to plan
each day's lessons in advance. A lesson that is planned is a lesson that is twice taught, and
the procedure In the class-room is refined by the " anticipatory teaching" which the teacher
does in fancy as the planning and preparation proceed. In almost every school where the
teacher has taken the time and care to organize the work properly, to plan out generally and
in detail the lessons for each day, satisfactory progress has been made.
The principals and teachers of the inspectorate I have found, with few exceptions, to be
actuated by ideals of service and to be working diligently to realize the aims they have set
for themselves. Almost invariably they have been eager to act upon suggestions and advice.
A large number are familiarizing themselves with standard tests, are buying recent books on
education, are subscribing to professional magazines, and attending summer schools to keep
abreast of the currents of educational thought.
In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation of the excellent service being rendered
by the men and women of the district who are serving as school trustees. Although I met them
for the first time, I was impressed by their spirit of courtesy and co-operation and by their
general desire to realize the purpose of their positions of trust.
I have, etc.,
P. H. Sheffield,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 14.
Ceanbeook, B.C., September 1st, 1924.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
. Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C
Sie,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 14 for
the year ended June 30th, 1924:—
The boundaries of this district remained unchanged, the inspectorate including the schools
of Fernie and Cranbrook Electoral Districts and some of the schools in the new Electoral
Districts of Creston and Kaslo-Slocan. In all, there were sixty-seven schools in operation,
requiring a staff of 140 teachers. With the exception of the Fernie School, all schools received
at least two inspections during the year.
New schools were opened at Big Sand Creek, near Jaffray, and at Dorr, 5 miles south of
Waldo, and the Elk Prairie School was reopened after having been closed for a number of
years. An additional room was also opened in both the Cranbrook and Kimberley Schools.
An eight-roomed brick addition to the Cranbrook School and a four-roomed brick addition to
the Fernie School enabled the trustees of these cities to provide .full-time instruction for all
pupils. A four-roomed frame addition was added to the Kimberley School to accommodate the
increasing school population of this growing town. Plans were prepared for a new twelve-
roomed building at Michel, but the continued coal-miners' strike there has delayed the construction of a much-needed school. A new standard school built by the Department at Balfour
has provided improved accommodation at that point.
The surplus of teachers in this Province has led to fewer changes among the teachers in
the rural districts. Of the ninety-one teachers employed in rural schools in June, 1923, forty
returned to the same schools in September. While fewer changes have been of advantage to
these schools, it is unfortunate that it required a surplus of teachers to bring it about. However,
Rural School Boards are now realizing the advantage of granting yearly increases in salary
in order to retain the services of efficient teachers.
The Entrance Examination was held at seven centres. Of the 212 candidates writing the
examination, 131, or 61.3 per cent., were successful. In the different districts the following
percentages of candidates were  successful:   Kootenay  Lake area,  73.9  per  cent.;  Cranbrook 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 57
area, 73.7 per cent.; Creston area, 54.1 per cent.; and Fernie area, 50.6 per cent. The showing
made by the Cranbrook Public School was particularly good, fifty-nine of the sixty^two candidates qualifying for high school either by recommendation or by passing the departmental
tests.
The following teachers were awarded the prizes for physical training under the provisions
of thetf Strathcona Trust:—
Large graded schools—Miss M. C. Bannerman, 7th Division, Cranbrook School.
Small graded schools—Miss S. G. Timaeus, 1st Division, Corbin School.
Ungraded schools—Miss G. Klein, Balfour School.
This report would be incomplete without a reference to the years of service of Mr. Paul
Murray, who is this year retiring from the profession.    Mr. Murray has completed forty-three
and a half years of active service, forty-two years of which were spent in the schools of British
Columbia.    Beginning at Maple Ridge in 1882, he remained there for twenty-five years, surely
a record for this Province.    For the last seven years he has taught the Elk Bridge School in
the Elk River Valley, which district has been most beneficial to his health.   It is to be hoped
that Mr. Murray's retirement is only temporary, and that he will return again to the class-room
where his gentlemanly spirit will continue to influence and mould the character of the boys
and girls of this Province.
I have, etc.,
V. Z. Manning,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 15.
Pbince Rupert, B.C., September 10th, 1924.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 15 for the
year ended June 30th, 1924 :—
The boundaries of this inspectorate remained unchanged during the year. It is comprised
of the Electoral Districts of Atlin, Prince Rupert, Skeena, Omineca as far east as Endako, and
Mackenzie as far south as Namu. It includes an area of 157,637 square miles. Within this
district seventy-five schools were in operation, employing 117 teachers. These schools were
classified as follows:—■
High schools        4
Superior schools        1 ,
Schools of twenty divisions       1
Schools of five divisions       2
Schools of four divisions        2
Schools of two divisions       3
Schools of one division only      62
It was possible for the first time to inspect the two most northerly schools, Atlin and
Discovery. The only schools not reached were Telegraph Creek, on the Stikine; Aiyansh, on
the Nass; and Surf Inlet, on Princess Royal Island; all three difficult of access. Most of the
schools were twice inspected, the distance travelled for the year totalling 18,872 miles.
Schools were opened for the first time at Perow and Dorreen, on the Canadian National
Railway, while on account of diminished attendance those of Grassy Plains and Porcher Island
were closed.
The schools at Stewart and Burns Lake became rural schools at the beginning of the year;
the former, being raised to the status of superior school, made an excellent showing in the
examinations for Grades IX. and X. In addition to the eight who passed at Stewart, twelve
pupils from the following elementary schools successfully completed the work of Grade IX.
and two that of Grade X. in the June examinations: New Hazelton, 4; Kitsumgallum, 3;
Burns Lake and Pacific, each 2; Glentanua, North Bulkley, and Southbank, each 1. There is
an ever increasing demand for high-school privileges throughout this inspectorate,
D T 58 Public Schools Report. 1924
Once again I was entrusted by your Department with the oversight of the high schools at
Granby Bay, Prince Rupert, Ocean Falls, and Smithers. It is a privilege which I appreciate;
the pleasure more than offsets the amount of work attached to the commission. During the year
a new division was opened in the Ocean Falls High School. Except at Granby Bay, the Matriculation results were not as satisfactory as usual.
Examinations for Entrance to High School were held at twenty centres. Of the 178 candidates, 126, or 71 per cent., were successful, an increase of fourteen candidates over last year
and a 6-per-cent. increase in the proportion of successful candidates. The Governor-General's
medal for the district was won by Miss Rosemary Winslow, of the Borden Street School, Prince
Rupert, with a total of 445 marks.
As usual, there are results not measurable by examinations. Perhaps more than ever before
this inspectorate was fortunate in securing the services of teachers who have taken a deep
interest in their work. More young men have been employed. It is gratifying, too, to find the
majority of these returning to their schools for a second year. There has been a finer tone
than usual in the schools and with few exceptions better work has been accomplished. This
is not altogether due to the young men; young women have given excellent service in isolated
districts. But the north is a man's country. Credit is due the officer iu charge of the Teachers'
Bureau, who by his intelligent acquaintance with conditions in the various districts has lessened
the number of misfits and given us contented men and women as teachers.
A movement for consolidation in the Bella Coola Valley has not yet been successfully issued,
but progress is reported.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Large graded schools—Miss Mary Gladwell, 19th Division, Prince Rupert.
Small graded schools—Mr. H. D. Southam, 2nd Division, Granby Bay.
Schools of one division—Miss Phyllis Creighton, Oona River.
In closing, I should like to express my appreciation of the courtesy shown me by the various
School Boards and the help accorded by others interested in the progress of education. Without
this spirit of co-operation there could be no hope for better conditions educationally in this
pioneer country.
I have, etc.,
H. C. Feasek,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 16.
Prince George, B.C., September 4th, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 16 for the
school-year ended June 30th, 1924:—
No change has been made in the boundaries of this inspectorate since it was organized five
years ago. The inspectorate now, as then, embraces the schools in the Canadian National Railway Belt east of Endako; those in the Cariboo District as far south as the 100-Mile House;
and those in the Peace River District. There are approximately 100 schools in this inspectorate
and all but seven of them are assisted.
During the year the following assisted schools were opened: Buffalo Creek; Croydon;
Dawson Creek, North ; Kelly Lake; Prairiedale; Shelley; Sunset Prairie ; Swan Lake, North;
Tatla Lake; and Woodpecker. Schools were authorized and should soon be in operation at
Charlie Lake; Fort St. John, East; and Salmon Valley. The school at Dunster was reopened
and a second teacher was appointed to the Rolla District. The Beaverly and the Collishaw
Schools remained closed throughout the year.
As in former years, a considerable portion of my time has been occupied with organization
duties peculiar to a pioneer district. Within the last five years the number of schools has
practically doubled, thus causing an increase in special work and consequently more frequent
interruptions to ordinary supervisory work. However, all the schools, except one recently
established in a remote district, received at least one inspection during the year. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 59
The school-year just passed marks the first attempt at consolidation in this inspectorate.
The Nechako School was closed and provision was made for conveying certain of the children
to the Vanderhoof Superior School. The experiment proved an unqualified success and clearly
demonstrated the feasibility of consolidation in rural districts. Although this inspectorate is
sparsely populated and the schools for the most part are widely scattered, there are tw7o or
three other sections in which the consolidation of the schools might be effected with advantage.
As yet little has been done in this inspectorate by way of improving and beautifying school-
grounds. It is not unusual to find a well-furnished, creditable school building in the midst of
timber and stumps. I realize that in a pioneer district consideration must first be given to
providing a comfortable school-house, but it is to be hoped that as the districts become better
established a general effort w7ill be made to improve school-grounds. Teachers in the rural
district can do a great deal in this connection. An energetic teacher intent on improving the
general appearance of the school property will usually find active public support.
The quality of the teaching in the schools of this inspectorate is steadily improving; in fact,
during the past year results generally have been of a more satisfactory nature than during
any previous year since the inspectorate has been established. It is evident that since an
adequate supply of duly qualified, teachers is now available in the Province a more efficient
type of teacher is appearing in the rural schools, with correspondingly better class-room results.
In this connection it is pleasing to record an appreciation of the excellent service that is being
rendered by the Provincial Teachers' Bureau in supplying the rural schools with the best
teachers available.
It is gratifying to note that there is an increasing demand for high-school education in
this northern inspectorate. In at least ten different rural schools high-school work was undertaken during the past year, with very satisfactory results judging by the creditable showing
made by high-school candidates from rural schools who wrote the Departmental Examinations.
While it is not reasonable to suppose that advanced pupils in rural schools receive as careful
a training as those in regular high and superior schools, the undertaking of high-school work
in rural districts appears to be justifiable when one considers that few of the parents in the
rural districts are financially able to send their children away from home to attend school.
The success of high-school teaching in a rural school depends largely on the ability of the
teacher to organize his work in such a way that the progress of the public-school pupils for
whom the school is chiefly intended is not unduly interfered with. Of necessity a high-school
pupil In a rural school must do a good portion of the work for himself under the direction
of the teacher.
Encouraged by aid from the Department of Education, a number of rural districts during
the past year have inaugurated a school-library movement. In several of the smaller schools
the nucleus of a good school library is to be found.
Prizes for excellence in physical training under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust
were awarded to Miss Eliza Milligan, Prince George School; Miss Kathleen Morrow, A-ander-
hoof School; and Miss Inez Ratledge, Bouchie Lake School.
I have, etc.,
G. H. Gower,
Inspector of Schools. T 60
Public Schools Report.
1924
REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
NEW WESTMINSTER CITY SCHOOLS.
New Westminster, B.C., September 15th, 1924.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of New Westminster for the school-
year ended June 30th, 1924:—■
Due to the foresight of the Board of School Trustees of the city, sufficient accommodation
was provided for all pupils.   As was expected, increase is noted:—
School.
Sept., 1922.
Sept., 1923.
Sept., 1924.
Graded   	
Duke of Connaught High School ...
T. J. Trapp Technical High School
2,306
376
147
2,356
405
176
2,406
409
192
All schools and school-grounds have been kept in splendid condition; the policy of the Board
in this respect is most commendable.
School-work throughout the year has been of a very satisfactory nature; teachers in the
great majority of cases did excellent work. The results of the High School, Technical High
School, and High School Entrance Examinations, with one exception, were most gratifying.
George Davidson, of the Duke of Connaught High, and Shuichi Enomoto, of Central School, won
the medals donated by the Governor-General.
Marked improvement was shown this past year in drawing, writing, nature-study, domestic
science, manual training, and music, Lord Lister School Choir winning the silver shield at the
Festival of Music in Vancouver; especially is this improvement noticeable in the class-rooms of
those teachers who have taken advantage of the Summer Courses given.
Retardation of pupils was eliminated to a noticeable degree this past year by careful
reclassification of pupils by the principals and teachers keeping in mind the age of the pupils,
the length of time spent in a certain grade, and the ability of the pupil as shown by the progress
made during the year.
For those pupils who, because of illness, distance from school, or similar handicap, were
unable to keep up with their grades, an Opportunity class was started under the capable leadership of Miss R. Gilley; in this class pupils were given special instruction in their weaker subjects,
and we are pleased to report that at the close of the past school term nine pupils were promoted
to proper grades; the past two weeks have shown them capable of keeping up with the other
pupils in their respective classes.
In order to give more time to the grading, supervision, and general management of the
public schools, the Board of School Trustees has recommended that the principals be relieved
of the responsibility of an Entrance class. This plan has been adopted and without exception
is working splendidly.
It was deemed advisable at the opening of the fall term to place Major F. J. Simpson,
formerly part-time Art Master, on full time; to spend his time between the Duke of Connaught
High School and the Technical High School. A continuance of that high standard of art-work
already reached is expected.
Because of increased attendance it was necessary to add an assistant to the Duke of
Connaught High School.
May I, at this time, sir, report that due to illness it was necessary for Mr. R. A. Little,
Principal of the Duke of Connaught High School, to give up his work; for the past ten years
Mr. Little has given of his best to the City of New Westminster. The esteem in which he is
held was shown by the fitting remembrances presented to him by the teachers and pupils on his
retirement. 15 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
T 61
We are fortunate, indeed, in securing the services of Mr. T. H. Calder, of Revelstoke, to fill
the position of principal.
During the past year we had the services of Miss Lucy Morton, of New Zealand, in exchange
with Miss Urquhart, of Connaught High School; this year Miss Horwood, of England, exchanged
with Miss Mabel Macintosh, of the T. J. Trapp Technical School.
The usual night-school classes were held from October to March in connection with the
Technical High School under the principalship of Mr. L. Lambert. Classes were held in
Day-school Continuation Work, Woodwork, Workshop Mathematics, Machine Construction and
Drawing, Steam for Engineers, Gasolene-engines, Book-keeping, Shorthand, Typewriting, Dressmaking, Millinery, Sheet-metal, Drawing and Design, Electricity, Mineralogy and Assaying,
Physics, Advanced Mathematics, China-painting, Basketry, English Literature, and First Aid.
At these classes we had an attendance of 300 students. An innovation was Mineralogy and
Assay classes, which appeared to fill a big want in the community.
A considerable number of teachers utilized the classes of Art, Physics, and Advanced Mathematics to assist them in raising their certificates.
To carry on this work a staff of seventeen teachers was used.
To Dr. D. A. Clark, School Health Officer, and his assistant, Miss A. S. Stark, R.N., great
credit is due for the very satisfactory health condition of our school-children. During this past
year they have worked conscientiously and consistently for the welfare of our pupils and there
is a satisfaction in seeing their efforts crowned with success.
School-gardening has been carried on satisfactorily by all schools of the city.
Through the efforts of representatives of the Teachers' Federation and the assistance of
members of the City Library Board and the Board of School Trustees, a Teachers' Lending and
Reference Library was opened in connection with the City Library. This has been very beneficial
to our teachers.
A very keen interest has been shown throughout the year in organized school athletics—
girls' baseball, boys' baseball;  grass-hockey;  football;  lacrosse;   and field sports.
Under the leadership of Major Simpson, and with the able assistance of Lieutenant Johnson
and Lieutenant Turnbull, M.C, M.M., the New Westminster schools made a most creditable
showing in cadet-work. The Duke of Connaught High School, the T. J. Trapp Technical High
School, and the Central School entered cadet corps in competition. During the present year we
anticipate entering a corps from McBride, Lister, and Spencer Schools.
I believe, sir, the success of the past year has been due in a large part to the hearty
co-operation of all interested in educational work in this city.
I have, etc.,
R. S. Shields,
Municipal Inspector of Schools.
VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
Vancouver, B.C., September 19th, 1924.
S. J- Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Vancouver for the school-
year ended June 30th, 1924 :—
There was an increase of only 137 in the maximum monthly enrolment for the year over
that of the previous year.    This is set forth in the following table:—
Month.
Public
Schools.
High
Schools.
Junior
High
School.
Total.
February    1924                           	
17,222
17,164
2,551
2,503
104
73
19,877
February,  1923          	
19,740
58
48
31
137 T 62
Public Schools Report.
1924
The changes made in the teaching staffs for the year were as follows:—
Public-school teachers   from 449 to 457
Ordinary classes  from 427 to 435
Special classes  from   22 to   22
Junior high-school teachers   from     3 to      6
High-school teachers   from    90 to    91
General Course     from 57 to 58
Commercial Course   from 13 to 13 ,
Boys' Technical Course   from 17 to 17
Home Economics Course  -  from    3 to    3
Manual-training teachers   from    20 to    20
Domestic-science teachers    from    15 to    16
Special instructors   from    11 to   13
Total   from 588 to 603
School Accommodation.
The only increase made in class-room accommodation during the year was in connection
w7ith the Junior High School, which had been conducted the previous year in basement rooms of
the King Edward High School. Two inexpensive wooden buildings were erected on the King
Edward grounds in July and August. These contained two academic classrooms, an art-room,
a science-room, a sewing-room, a cooking laboratory, a small dining-room, and a principal's office.
A large, w7ell-lighted basement room in the neighbouring high school was equipped as a woodworking room and a smaller one as a household-mechanics room. The forge and sheet-metal
room of the King Edward High School is still used by the Junior High School students part of
the time. With this increased accommodation the school was in a position to do better work
and permit of considerable growth.
The second year of this school's existence has demonstrated beyond a doubt that it is filling
an important place in our school system; and after observing its work for two years I have no
hesitation in recommending it as our best school for a large number of boys and girls. The fact
that it may lead to the ordinary high, to the technical high, or, after this year, to the commercial
high, besides giving two good years' training to those leaving school to go to work, should make
it popular.
Though the increase in school population was slight for the entire city during the year, it
was so great in certain sections that part-time tuition had to be resorted to for four classes
during the winter term. This we have remedied for the autumn term by a change of district
boundaries and a transfer of pupils from crowded schools to others less crowded.
School Money By-laws.
Realizing the importance of providing permanent school accommodation in anticipation of
a marked increase of school attendance in the near future, the trustees had four school money
by-laws submitted to the ratepayers last May. While all were defeated, the vote was an encouraging one. It indicated that the ratepayers were sympathetic, in a measure, with the School Board,
especially in their desire to remedy the bad housing conditions in the elementary schools. The
vote as tabulated below shows that a majority of ratepayers favour a reasonable school-building
programme for the city:—
By-law.
Cost.
Votes for.
Votes
against.
New   School-sites   	
New High  School  	
Addition to General Gordon School
Addition to Hastings  School  	
f 15,000
275,000
130.000
130,000
1,658
1,193
1,889
2,025
1,832
2,260
1,676
1,523 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 63
Exchange Teachers.
During the year three of our teachers—Miss D. G. Chandler, of Dawson School; Miss M. S.
Hardwick, of Strathcona School; and Miss Gertrude Brown, of Macdonald School—taught in
London, England; while Miss N. Ryan, Miss J. E. Chapman, and Miss E. S. King took their places
in Vancouver. All these teachers expressed themselves as well satisfied with their year's
experience. In fact, Miss Hardwick, who spent much time in the continuance of her art studies
in night-classes in the London Polytechnic, has asked and been granted another year's leave to
continue her studies. At the end of that time she should return to fill an important place in
our schools.
While much has been done in Canada to encourage teachers to exchange with overseas
teachers, little or no encouragement has been given for interprovincial exchanges. It seems to
me the latter may prove as advantageous as the former; and I am pleased to report that the
Vancouver School Board, with departmental approval, has arranged for an exchange between
Toronto and Vancouver for the current year.
Physical Training.
A very important advance was made in our schools last year in the securing of a highly
trained physical instructress to devote all her time to remedial physical work. Our Medical
Officers have long urged the necessity of this, and I am satisfied it is of almost inestimable value.
The ordinary teacher, or cadet instructor, especially under proper supervision, can do a great
deal for the physical betterment of normal boys and girls; but they are powerless in dealing
with the physically abnormal or subnormal cases. These need the direction of the expert and
that is what the Vancouver School Board has provided for them.
During the past year our physical-training specialist has dealt with 1,236 of such children.
Naturally she could not devote to each all the time necessary. She consequently sought and
secured the hearty co-operation of parents to ensure her instructions being carefully carried out
by the pupils.    In this way most encouraging results were obtained.
In carrying on this work we believe we are on safe ground, proceeding on the assumption of
the great Teacher—" They that are whole need not a physician but they that are sick." The
school economist may decry the additional expenditure and call the work a frill; but the man
of vision will see in it a wise investment that will pay big dividends in due season.
Apart from this special work, teachers, cadet instructors, and nurses followed carefully
throughout the year their respective programmes for the physical betterment of the children,
and with gratifying results.
Music and Violin Instruction.
Never in the history of the Vancouver schools was a greater or more intelligent interest
taken in school music than last year. This I attribute mainly to the unquestioned ability and
fidelity of the supervisors and the consequent co-operation of teachers with them. At the musical
festival held in the city in May, sixteen elementary-school choirs competed and their performances
were highly creditable.    Singing has also been greatly encouraged in our high schools.
In January steps were taken to organize classes for violin instruction. Six teachers were
engaged. These met approximately 300 pupils in eleven different centres between 3.30 p.m. and
6 p.m. Each pupil was given two half-hour lessons per week, for which 50 cents was paid.
Classes varied in size from ten to twenty or more.
A great deal of interest was manifested in this new venture from its inception—most of it
friendly, a little the reverse. The latter manifested itself in a protest against additional expenditure, but, when it was shown that the classes could be conducted at no expense to any one
save the parents of the children enrolled, all opposition ceased.
After six months' observation I am convinced there are great possibilities for these classes,
although many obstacles have been encountered. The ideal conditions we must strive for are
medium-sized classes (about ten), teachers who can give class as well as individual instruction,
and classes meeting in their own schools immediately after schools close. Where these conditio,ns
were approximated last year good results were obtained.
Domestic Science and Sewing.
Sewing in Grade VI. reached a higher plane last year than for some years past. This was
largely attributable to the untiring, intelligent work of the supervisor, who in a couple of years
had secured the earnest co-operation of the teachers under her supervision. T 64 Public Schools Report. 1924
 *	
Our Domestic Science Supervisor, Miss E. Berry, has also so planned the work for Grade VIII.
that considerable sewing is carried on by the girls in these classes. With this foundational work
better done, we may look, in the near future, for better work in the sewing classes in our high
schools.
Another forward step in this department is deserving of note. For a number of years our
nurses took great interest in our Grade VIII. girls. They organized classes in a number of schools
to give them instruction on home-nursing. These classes were held after school and attendance
was therefore optional. They were consequently limited in their scope despite the splendid efforts
of the nurses.
Now all is changed. This much-needed instruction is being given as part of the Domestic
Science Course and is obligatory for every girl.
i General School Activities.
Throughout the entire year the work in all departments was carried on with the usual
fidelity by the various school-workers, and the relationship between the schools and the community
was never better.
I have, etc.,
J. S. Gordon,
Municipal Inspector of Schools.
VANCOUVER, SOUTH, SCHOOLS.
South Vancouver, B.C., September 13th, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of the Municipal
District of South Vancouver for the year ended June 30th, 1924:—
Enrolment.
1922-23. 1923-24.
Elementary  schools—Pupils enrolled  :.  7,118 7,343
High School—Pupils enrolled       565 655
Totals   7,683 7,998
Part-time tuition has been necessary throughout the year in some of the schools, but the
foresight of the School Board in providing additional class-rooms will obviate the necessity for
part-time classes at least for the first term of the next year.
A technical high school is a necessity in this district. The present high school is taxed to
the limit of its accommodation and a demand by parents who wish their children to receive
technical training as a foundation for their future progress is in evidence. Plans for such a
school were framed by the present Board, but these could not he executed on account of the lack
of funds for the purpose. Meantime pupils who take technical courses, apart from the commercial, have to enter a technical school in Vancouver or New Westminster.
Hand-work in the Grades.
Prior to 1914 training in hand-work was provided for in all the grades, but due to war and
other causes this work was discontinued in some grades, leaving a gap between the training in
hand-work in the primary grades and grades in which manual training and domestic science are
taught.    This gap should be closed.
,  ' Teaching.
In general, satisfactory work in teaching has been done throughout the year, but weak links
have been discovered and some of these have been replaced. Teachers are finding inspiration in
summer courses provided and are attending these in numbers that are increasing annually.
Splendid co-operation and loyalty are characteristics of the teaching staff. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 65
, Special Classes.
A special class for handicapped pupils was organized early in the year, and under instruction
of Miss P. C. Becker this class has made remarkable progress. There is need of another class
of this type at the present time.
Supervisors.
Supervision of the work in the primary grades has been effectively carried on by the
primary supervisor, whose work has been extended this year to include all classes in Grades I.
and II.    Teachers in these grades find in her a wise counsellor and guide.
The supervisors of domestic science and manual training are required to teach their subjects
in the high school. The greater part of their time is spent in this work, yet they are able to
give sufficient time to supervision to co-ordinate the work of the various centres under them and
to raise the standard of work done by the less experienced teachers.
Physical Training.
There is evidence of improvement in the teaching of this subject in all our schools, and
while no more time is being spent on this work, greater enthusiasm is noticeable. Effort is being
made to have this training take place in the open air wherever and whenever possible and results
prove the desirability of this practice.   All the pupils are taught how to play games.
School Sports.
Organized games are employed as a means of developing and strengthening character.
Competitions between representative teams from the various schools are carried on to promote
interest in sports, but tbe most effective work is done in individual schools, where the children
are all taught how to play and where their play is organized and under efficient supervision.
Pupils who play well, work well in the class-room, and many of our teachers have discovered
this fact.
Night-schools.
Night-school classes were successfully conducted throughout the winter months. The following subjects were taught:—
No. of
Pupils.
Singing     3S
Millinery  3S
Dressmaking    ,  104
Book-keeping   -.  16
Stenography   44
Typewriting    - -    44
Public School Continuation   26
Household Science     8
Total   31S
Health Inspection.
During the year the work in this department has been heavy owing to epidemics of contagious
and infectious diseases. A staff of one doctor and two regular nurses was kept very busy
throughout the year. For about ten years the cleaning of basement walls and ceilings had not
been given attention. The class-rooms and halls had not been kalsomined. This state of affairs
was most unfavourable to good school health. It may be that these unfavourable conditions
had a direct effect on the general health situation. Steps have been taken by the School Board
to effect a thorough clean-up before the schools open for the next term.
During the year twelve class-rooms have been built and furnished. This increased accommodation has brought much satisfaction to the parents and the Board of School Trustees, who are
at all times anxious to avoid overcrowding in the schools, so that the children may not suffer
loss of educational opportunity.
I have, etc.,
Alex. Graham,
Municipal Inspector of Schools. T 66
Public Schools Report.
1924
VICTORIA CITY SCHOOLS.
Victoria, B.C., October 1st, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir.—I beg to submit the following report on Victoria schools for the school-year ended
June 30th, 1924:—
Expenditures, Receipts, and Net Per Capita Costs, 1923.
School.
Expenditures,
including Interest
and Sinking Fund.
Receipts  (all
Sources).
Per Capita Cost
based on
Average
Attendance.
Victoria College   	
$ 24.285 24
143,511  16
347.097 43
12.500 75
6.974 24
5.297 38
562 26
$  12,924 39
38,785  73
77,274 92
2,651  88
1.918  71
3.470 98
1,093 94
$ 90 88
112 60
55 37
11  50
7 99
4 14
Totals, 1923      	
¥540.318 46
563,927 37
$138,120 55
127,875 10
$ 67 85
Totals,  1924       	
70 04
The 1923 net cost, therefore, to the taxpayers of Victoria was $33,854.36 lower than in 1922.
This wyas due to larger classes, liquor profit receipts, increased college fees, and placing a fee
on high-school students over 17 years of age.
The total enrolment was slightly lower than the previous year owing to the general economic
conditions prevailing.
The City Council's approval of the extraordinary estimates for the year enabled the Board
to make much-needed improvements to the high school and Victoria West grounds. Also,
assistance from the Margaret Jenkins Parent-Teachers' Association permitted the planned
improvements to the grounds of that school to be completed. A further small expenditure
next year will be necessary to complete the high-school grounds and give the students of that
institution adequate facilities for outdoor activities. In carrying out this work valuable advice
and assistance were received from officials of the Provincial Departments of Education and
Public Works respectively. The area of the Oaklands grounds was increased by the City
Council's action in setting aside for this purpose certain reverted lots.
As a result of the conscientious effort of the teaching staff a good measure of achievement
was accomplished. There is still room for better procedure in dealing with the brighter pupils.
Economical administration must give these pupils the opportunity to progress as rapidly as
possible. Any other organization wastes, more or less, the time and effort of both teacher and
pupil, besides increasing school costs. In too many classes the pace is set for all by the mediocre
pupil. As a result the brighter ones lose interest and form habits of indifference. This defect
can only be overcome by frequent tests, careful grouping, and close supervision.
Probably a greater effort should be made towards the mental development of the pupil.
There is too great a tendency to " spoon-feed " and make lessons mere recitations and memorization exercises. The methods employed should compel mental effort, otherwise there can be
little development. It is the business of the schools to turn out educated pupils and those
who have little reasoning ability cannot be classed as educated. Responsibility for this defect
cannot be placed entirely on the schools. Lax home discipline and acceding to every desire
or caprice of the child do not tend towards healthy mental growth, but develops an attitude
of expecting things without effort.
There seems to be increasing unrest amongst parents regarding the time necessary to prepare home lessons. This applies more particularly to high-school work. The average student
who has given diligent application to his studies at school should not be required to spend
three or four hours, practically up to bed-time, in home study. This makes the day's work too
heavy and eventually is bound to react unfavourably, both as regards the health and progress 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 67
of the student. Besides, time to engage in the social life of the home is both the parents' and
the pupils' right. Too frequently a teacher assigns home-work in a certain subject without
weighing carefully the time necessary to prepare same and also considering assignments in
other subjects. In an endeavour to provide a certain amount of relief, the Board, with the
approval of the Department, has extended high-school hours to 4 p.m. The extra period is to
be devoted to supervising study, supervised field sports, and other extra-curricula activities.
This extension of time is also being tried out in the George Jay Graded School for Grade VIII.
pupils to see if home-work for these pupils can be almost eliminated.
Examination results for the year were satisfactory on the whole. The Entrance passes
in two graded schools were low and there were too many high-school candidates with supple-
mentals against them. This was due mainly to defective classification and indifference of the
pupils rather than to faulty teaching.
With the co-operation of the Industrial Committee of the Chamber of Commerce, visits to
industrial concerns were arranged for the pupils of Grades VII., VIIL, IX., and X. of Victoria,
Esquimalt, Oak Bay, and Saanich schools. The object of these visits was to interest the pupils
in home industries, familiarize them with the manufacturing processes employed, and to impress
upon them the economic value of these industries to the community.
Each plant was first visited by the Technical Supervisor, who, with the assistance of a
responsible official of the firm, made a careful analysis of the processes involved, number of
employees, markets, danger-points, etc. A copy of this analysis was placed in the hands of
each pupil before the visit to assist in systematic and intelligent observation. The visits were
arranged so that there was virtually no interruption in the regular school-work. The teacher
in charge reported on each visit and in every instance the visiting pupils were treated with the
greatest courtesy.   Undoubtedly, all concerned benefited greatly.
The difficulties in connection with the attendance of Chinese pupils apparently have been
adjusted satisfactorily. After remaining away for one year these pupils returned at the commencement of the year. The classes w7ere placed in the hands of competent teachers and when
pupils had sufficient knowledge of English they were permitted to attend the regular district
schools. With due consideration to the general interests of the schools, the Board has endeavoured to treat these pupils fairly and do everything possible to promote their progress.
Victoria College has shown steady and satisfactory progress since its inception in September,
1920, as is shown by the following table:—■
Attendance.                                                                                   Fees.
1920-21 1st year :...63 Per student  $40
2nd year 12 .
1921-22 1st year 81 Per student   50
2nd year 23
1922-23 1st year 102 Per  student   50
2nd year  28
1923-24 1st year 108 Per student   75
2nd year  32
1924-25 1st year 134 Per student   75
2nd year  39
In the session 1920-21 the following subjects were offered: English, French, Latin, Greek,
mathematics, physics, chemistry, European history, and philosophy. Since that time Canadian
history, economics, and mathematics, 4 (astronomy), have been added to the curriculum,
whereby the course has been widened and enriched and students have been given a greater
number of options which enables them to select subjects suitable to their individual tastes and
requirements.
The rapidly increasing attendance has made necessary the following additions to the teaching staff: one part-time Instructor in English; one part-time Instructor in History; one part-
time Assistant in Chemical and Physical Laboratory; one part-time Assistant in Physics and
Mathematics, 4.
The present situation surrounding retiring allowances to teachers is far from satisfactory,
and no doubt this important question will receive the attention of the Commission now conducting a survey of educational work, as the matter is becoming more acute each year.   Satis- T 68
Public Schools Report.
1924
factory systems have been adopted elsewhere, the supporting fund being maintained by contributions from teachers, School Boards, and the Provincial Treasury.
In memory of his deceased daughter, a former student of the high school, the Hon. R. F.
Green, donated a scholarship to be known as the " Cecelia Green Memorial Scholarship." This
scholarship will he awarded to the student of Victoria High School who ranks first in general
proficiency at the Junior Matriculation Examination held in June.
An outstanding event in the school-year was the visit of the Special Service Squadron.
Pupils of the district under class organization visited the fleet and high-school students had
the privilege of an address from Vice-Admiral Sir Frederick L. Field, K.C.B., C.M.G.
The following deaths, which occurred during the year, are deeply regretted: R. W. Perry,
ex-school trustee; Dr. H. J. Mason, school dental officer; L. J. Cranston, ex-high-school teacher;
T. W. Cornett, high-school and college teacher.
I have, etc.,
George H. Deane,
Municipal Inspector of Schools. 15 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
T 69
PROVINCIAL  NORMAL  SCHOOLS.
VANCOUVER  PROVINCIAL NORMAL  SCHOOL.
Vancouver, B.C., June 9th, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C
Sir,—I beg to submit the report of the Provincial Normal School, Vancouver, for the school-
year ended June, 1924.
The following shows the enrolment for the fall term, September to December:—
•
Enrolled.
University
Graduates.
Regular
Students.
Teachers
from
Great
Britain.
335
70
35
16
298
53
2
1
Totals   	
405
51
351
3
During the term four young ladies withdrew on account of illness. The three Old Country
teachers completed their required attendance and were recommended for the usual interim
certificate. At the close of the term four students w7ho had received Normal School training
in Eastern Canada were granted diplomas and two students with previous Normal School training in this Province were recommended for interim certificates. Fifty of the University graduates left to finish their training at the University. One University graduate was allowed to
return and complete his training at the Normal School. Seventeen students whose work during
the term was not satisfactory withdrew at the close of the term in December.
At the opening of the advanced session in January 325 of those attending during the fall
term returned. These were joined by eighteen students with previous Normal School training
and one teacher from Scotland. Thus the total enrolment for the advanced session was 344—
288 young ladies and 56 young men. During the term four withdrew because of unsatisfactory
work and one because of illness. The one Old Country teacher was recommended for an interim
in April.   The session closed with an enrolment of 338.
The following summary will show clearly the enrolment and results of the entire session,
September to May :—
(
Females.
Males.
Total.
Enrolled     	
352
35
314
21
15
4
50
227
72
15
56
1
1
6
50
424
University  graduates    	
50
370
4
Withdrew,  work  unsatisfactory	
Failed    '.	
21
15
5
56
277
The personnel of the staff remained as in 1923. During the extremely heavy enrolment
of the fall term we were very pleased to have the assistance of Inspector Lord. His help was
most acceptable at a time of great need.
The instruction in physical training w7as conducted during the session by Sergeant-Major
Wallace, Sergeant Frost, and Sergeant Knox. Very satisfactory work was done in this department.    Of the 377 students examined, 355 qualified for Grade " B " certificate.
The very large attendance during the entire session has made the work extremely heavy.
This, however, has been offset in large measure by the most hearty co-operation on the part T 70
Public Schools Report.
1924
of the student body.   The students-in-training have done most satisfactory work and a splendid
spirit was strongly in evidence.
I wish to thank the members of the staff for their hearty and loyal support during the year.
Our thanks are extended to the teachers in the Model, Cecil Rhodes, and Lord Tennyson
Schools for the great help they have given to our students-in-training. Our thanks are due
also to the principals and staffs of the Lord Roberts, Dawson, Central, Strathcona, Mount
Pleasant, and Simon Fraser Schools for their courtesy and kindly assistance during periods
of observation.   These sessions of observation have been a source of inspiration to our students.
I have, etc.,
D. M. Robinson,
Pi
VICTORIA PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
Victoria., B.C., September 17th, 1924.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—1 beg to submit the following report on the Provincial Normal School at Victoria for
the school-year which ended June 30th, 1924:—
The total enrolment for the year was 287.    This enrolment and the final results are set
forth in the following table:—
Women.
Men.
Total.
The number granted diplomas 	
The number granted interim standing 	
The number who discontinued attending during the year
The number who took special short courses 	
The number who failed	
Totals   	
201
24
9
36
4
5
1
1
237
28
14
4
4
240
47
The enrolment for 1922-23 was :   Women, 201;   men, 68;   total, 269.
Of the fourteen who discontinued attending during the year, one, an Arts graduate, transferred to the University of British Columbia in January, 1924; three whose homes were in
Vancouver transferred in January, 1924, to the Provincial Normal School at Vancouver; two
transferred to the Victoria Arts College;  and eight left school.
The increased attendance during this year made it necessary once again to extend our
facilities for practical teaching. The classes of the George Jay School were chosen for this
purpose and used one-half day each week.
A course of instruction in first aid to the injured was again given to the men students.
Colonel Lome Drum and Colonel Anderson both gave instruction. With the exception of two,
all members of the class obtained St. John Ambulance First-aid Diplomas.
In August, 1923, Miss A. M. Macfarlane, who has had charge of the Department of Household Economics for three years, resigned. Miss Macfarlane was always an enthusiastic teacher,
an untiring worker, and a most efficient member of the Faculty. Her resignation has occasioned
a real loss to this institution. Miss A. B. Marcellus was appointed to succeed Miss Macfarlane,
but resigned from the position in December. Miss L. B. Isbister, of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan,
took charge of the work in January, 1924.
During the summer of 1923 three members of the Faculty—Mr. Denton, Mr. Freeman, and
the Principal—attended the special courses for Inspectors and Normal School Instructors given
at the University of British Columbia.
To the principals and teachers of the Model, North Ward, Oaklands, and George Jay Schools,
and to Mr. George H. Deane, Municipal Inspector of Schools for Victoria, we are much indebted
for their efficient and cheerful co-operation during the year.
I have, etc.,
D. L. MacLaurin, Principal. 15 Geo. 5 • Public Schools Report. T 71
SCHOOL  FOR  THE   DEAF AND THE   BLIND.
REPORT  OF  THE  PRINCIPAL.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the School for the Deaf and the Blind for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1924:—
During the year there were seventy-two pupils enrolled—sixteen blind and fifty-six deaf.
Among the latter there were tw7o pupils both deaf and blind.
Of this total enrolment, twenty-five pupils came from Vancouver and immediate suburbs
and attended as day pupils. The remaining forty-seven lived at the school throughout the year,
thus necessitating the employment of three supervisors to look after them during the hours
they were out of the class-rooms.
The school is graded into nine classes—two for the blind and seven for the deaf.
It will thus be seen that the classes are quite small in point of numbers, but this is
necessitated by the very nature of the work, which requires far more individual attention than
with children in the public schools.
The majority of schools of this nature in other parts of Canada and throughout the United
States consider eight pupils to a class the maximum. Ours being comparatively a young school,
it has been found necessary to have some classes rather above this limit, while others are below
it.
In the classes for the blind we are able to follow the course of study as authorized for
use in the public schools of the Province.
During the year four blind children did first-year high-school work. Five completed part
of the work required for entrance.   The other seven were occupied in work of the lower grades.
With deaf children the situation is quite different. A great deal of time must be spent
and stores of patience exhausted in developing speech and furnishing each child with a language
sufficient to express thought iu even the simplest sentences. But notwithstanding this the
general knowledge gained will compare favourably with that of hearing children in other schools.
Nothing of a spectacular nature has characterized our efforts, but there has been steady
and commendable progress along all lines.
The teaching staff consists of nine members, including myself. I have found it necessary
to continue to give full time to one class, although the burden of argument is rather against
this plan, especially in a school of this nature.
Greater efficiency and better progress are possible where the principal is free to devote
time to all classes.
I wish to mention also that frequent change of teachers does not promote the best interests
of the school.   This, of course, is to a very large extent unavoidable.
The Rocky Mountains and great prairies separate us from the chief sources of supply. And
in most cases, where teachers turn toward the West Coast, it is generally with the intention
of only making a visit and returning East at the earliest convenient moment.
There is also another factor which has deprived me of two valuable teachers, the lure of
remuneration. There are not a few schools who are waiting to snatch especially well-qualified
teachers and pay them quite handsome salaries. This, of course, creates some unrest and a
desire to be within easy access of such offers.
I am pleased, however, to report that, although I had to fill three vacancies on the staff
at the beginning of the year, I was able to secure very excellent teachers. Two of them still
remain, but one, the teacher of the primary class, was compelled to resign on account of ill-
health. Her place has been filled by Miss Christina Miller, an experienced teacher from the
Doncaster School for the Deaf, Doncaster, England. In the short time Miss Miller has been
with us she has justified the good reports which preceded her.
Without singling out the members of the staff and speaking of each individually, I wish
to convey to you, and through you to the public generally, that each member of the staff is T 72      . Public Schools Report. 1924
instant in season and out of season in doing the very best possible for the children sent here
to be educated.
Human relations are fundamental to all questions, and each teacher feels that it is incumbent on him or her to equip the children to cultivate these relations in accordance with the
New Commandment given by the Great Teacher, " That ye love one another."
In my report for the previous year 1 was able to boast of an almost unparalleled health
record.   I regret I cannot do so on this occasion.
In March, 1924, measles broke out in the school and for two months the place became a
hospital rather than a school. The classes were disorganized and the work greatly interrupted.
There were in all fifteen cases and the disease was of a very severe type. Five children became
affected with ear and throat trouble which necessitated the services of a specialist. In one
case a mastoid operation had to be performed. In two other cases this was averted only by
the most careful nursing and constant attention.
Apart from this epidemic, the general health was excellent. An occasional cold in the
head was all that called for attention.
This, in my opinion, was due to the good sanitary conditions, pure air due to the location
and the watchful motherly care exercised by the Matron, Mrs. Lawrence, and her assistants,
Miss Bruze, Mrs. Tyler, and Miss Grant. They saw to it that the children got well-balanced
meals, plenty of outdoor exercise, and regular hours for sleep.
It being the aim of the school to do more than cultivate intellect and build up healthy
bodies, we endeavour to train the children along vocational lines. Education of this nature
is perhaps more essential among the deaf and the blind than among hearing and sighted children.
Place both on the same plane with equal equipment and the hearing and sighted are chosen
first.    It requires some argument to persuade employers to consider the deaf or the blind.
Our efforts to educate along vocational lines were generously assisted by the Point Grey
School Board. I cannot speak too highly of Mr. Frank Peace, Secretary of the Point Grey
School Board, and those associated with him for their kindly assistance.
The boys were allowed the use of the manual-training room at Queen Mary School and
they were given instruction by Mr. Frank Lawrence, the manual-training teacher at that centre.
A class of girls were instructed in cooking at the same school by Miss McFarlane, who was
employed by the Point Grey School Board. The same Board permitted Mrs. Abel, a teacher
of sewing, to come here and teach dressmaking to our girls.
In addition to the above classes, two boys were allowed, through the good graces of Mr.
J. S. Gordon, Municipal Inspector for Vancouver, to attend the Technical School to learn
printing.
Owing to conditions which are assuming formidable shape in the overcrowding of schools
in Point Grey, it seems that the time is not far distant w7hen w7e must consider giving instruction
in manual training at home. I understand the matter is under advisement now, so I shall
await the outcome.
I cannot close this report, however, without making at least passing reference to the deep
interest that is being taken in the school by the general public.
The Gyro Club of Vancouver showed their interest by installing for us playground equipment to the value of at least $600.
The Harmony Service Club, a ladies' organization, presented us with an Ultradyne radio
set fully equipped with batteries, magna-vox, and ear-phones which are selling in Vancouver
at $500.
St. Mark's Young People's Society not only gave the school footballs, baseballs, bats, etc.,
but came out themselves and helped to put the field in condition to play on.
Columbia Chapter, I.O.D.E., presented the girls with basketball outfit and other chapters
of the same order at various times gave help in other ways.
At Christmas the Elks of Vancouver gave the children a wonderful treat. They furnished
a Christmas tree and loaded it with presents for each child, and came to the number of full
a hundred to enter into the spirit of the occasion with the children. They also presented the
school with a valuable set of traps and drum, from which the blind have derived unmeasurable
pleasure. They pay us periodical visits, on which occasions they provide an enjoyable programme
and also refreshments for all. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 73
The Elks of South Vancouver make monthly visits, when, they also provide programmes
of entertainment as well as refreshments. They have been here so often that they are personally
known by the children, and this has a wonderful effect of making the children throw off any
feeling of home-sickness which might intrude.
Space will hardly permit to mention all the evidence of public interest. Almost every week
in winter some organization helps us in a very pleasing way. In fine weather the children are
taken for auto rides, which only those closely connected with the work can fully appreciate.
I have, etc.,
S. H. Lawrence,
Principal. T 74 Public Schools Report. 1924
TECHNICAL   EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE ORGANIZER.
Victoria, B.C., September, 1924.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the work of manual training, domestic science,
night-schools, correspondence classes, and technical education generally for the year 1923-24:—
Manual Training.
Classes in the above subject are conducted in the following cities : Armstrong, Chilliwack,
Cranbrook, Duncan, Kelowna, Nanaimo, New Westminster, Nelson, North Vancouver, Prince
Rupert, Port Moody, Rossland, Trail, Vancouver, Vernon, and Victoria. Similar classes are
also held in the following municipalities: Burnaby, Chilliwack, North Cowichan, Delta, Esquimalt, Maple Ridge, Penticton, Point Grey, Pitt Meadows, Richmond, Summerland, South Vancouver, Surrey, West Vancouver, and in the Rural District of Rutland.
Manual-training statistics from these places are as follows :■—■
Manual-training centres  79
Manual   instructors     69
Elementary-school pupils attending      12,213
High-school pupils attending        1,937
British Columbia still ranks second in the Dominion in this work, the premier position
being held by Ontario, where the Government pays the whole cost of equipment.
In almost every manual-training centre we find the subject being taught by well-trained
and conscientious instructors, but it is regrettable that a visit to each centre during the year
was not possible. Attention, however, has been given to the new centres and to those instructors
who have recently entered the profession. Advantage was taken of the fact that the Municipalities of Victoria, Vancouver, and South Vancouver have supervisors of manual training, so
they were for the most part not inspected. Judging from the yearly exhibitions, however, the
standard of craftsmanship is, with few exceptions, of a high order. The freedom granted
instructors to select within certain limitations suitable projects has had very favourable results.
This freedom is the breath of life to the subject. Ambitious, energetic, enthusiastic manual
instructors meet every Saturday morning at the Technical School, Vancouver, for additional
knowledge and experience in crafts which are kindred to that of wood-working. Improvement
in the work done in the manual-training centres by these men is very apparent and it is to their
credit that the keenness shows no signs of abating.
Last year attention was drawn to the fact that the time seemed opportune to make the
teaching of manual training compulsory in all cities of the first and second class. The subject
would then be securely placed on the curriculum, as it is in other progressive countries in the
world, and not liable to the whims and fancies of those whose sole object is to effect economy.
The few cities of the second class that have not already adopted manual training have planned
and provided accommodation for it in their newer schools. Thus little expense will be necessary
to introduce the subject.
Systematic courses of instruction are given every Saturday in the Technical School, Vancouver, at which manual instructors in elementary schools have the privilege of attending
and qualifying to teach high-school students; and men holding high-school qualifications have
at the same time an opportunity to graduate as technical-school instructors.
Domestic Science.
Classes in the above subject are conducted in the following cities: Armstrong, Chilliwack,
Duncan, Kelowna, Nanaimo, New Westminster, North Vancouver, Port Moody, Prince Rupert, ? ;•   yy     ty
 -    7  Vancouver, Vernon, and Victoria. Similar classes are also held in the following municipalities:
Burnaby, Delta, Esquimalt, Penticton, Point Grey, South Vancouver, and in the Rural District
of Rutland.
Domestic-science statistics from these places are as fol!ow7s:—
Domestic-science centres  '       51
Domestic-science instructors         54
Elementary-school pupils attending     9,231
High-school pupils attending      1,962
As in manual training, the numbers above rank the Province second in the Dominion of
Canada. It was, unfortunately, possible for me during the past year to visit only rural centres
and especially those operated by newly appointed instructors. Miss Isbister, of the Normal
School staff, however, inspected a number of classes in Vancouver and district near the end of
the school-year.
A marked improvement is noticeable in dealing with home projects in cookery. The system
of dealing with family quantities and at the same time paying due attention to the theoretical
and scientific side of the subject has been successfully followed in many centres. This method
has found favour with both parents and pupils and will do more than any other thing to establish
domestic-science teaching firmly in the schools.
Saturday classes were organized during the year in King Edward High School, Vancouver,
with a view to giving teachers of domestic science in elementary schools an opportunity of
preparing themselves for teaching in high school; training was also offered teachers hi the
conducting of vocational and technical classes for girls. Domestic-science teachers do not
show the same inclination for further study on Saturdays as do the manual-training instructors,
and as a result the classes were small. It should, however, be the policy of the Department
of Education to continue such meetings with those who are engaged in teaching, and to promote
the most approved and best accepted standards of instruction.
That many teachers of home economics have much to learn in design relating to garment-
making, millinery, interior and table decoration, etc., cannot he questioned, and lessons in the
mechanics of the household by a skilful teacher from the technical school should be popular.
Those teachers who attended the course gained practical knowledge and information which
was apparent and unmistakable in the advancement of their pupils during the year.
The time seems to be opportune for making the study of home economics compulsory in
cities of the first and second class. The subject would then be placed upon an equality with
others which have no greater claim to importance.
There is much important work to be done in the Province in regard to fostering and stimulating interest in the teaching of home economics and child-welfare. A special Provincial supervisor would find a great duty awaiting her to broadcast the correct interpretation of the
educational aims which stand behind the subject of home economics.
Technical or Day Vocational Schools.
Technical schools are organized in the Cities of New Westminster, Trail. Vancouver, and
Victoria.    The three-year course of study in these schools embraces the following subjects:—
Technical Course for Boys.—English, citizenship and economics, history, French or Latin,
mathematics, applied mechanics, physics, chemistry, drawing and design, electricity, physical
culture, shop-w7ork in wood and metal.
Household Science Course for Girls.—English, citizenship and economics, history, French
or Latin, mathematics, chemistry, physics, physiology, dietetics and cookery, needlew7ork (dressmaking and millinery), drawing and design, household art, vocal music, physical culture.
Commercial Course.— (a) Secretarial; (b) accounting—English, business correspondence
and filing, arithmetic, book-keeping and accounting, commercial geography, shorthand, typewriting, commercial law.
At the conclusion of these courses examinations are held for the Technical Leaving Certificate, Junior Matriculation Certificate and Commercial Certificate, all of which are issued by
the Department of Education. The following table gives the number of students attending the technical courses:—
New Westminster, 170 students (90 Technical, 47 Commercial, 33 Home Economics).
Trail        24 students (Technical only).
Vancouver   987 students (383 Technical. 403 Commercial, 90 Home Economics, 111 Junior High).
Victoria      242 students (So Technical, 157 Commercial).
Kamloops          23 students (Commercial only).
North Vancouver,      67 students (Commercial only).
Point Grey        42 students (Commercial only).
Revelstoke       18 students (Commercial only).
South Vancouver,      80 students (Commercial only).
Total   1,653 students.
Commercial Courses.
Cranbrook and Ladysmith unfortunatelj- closed their commercial courses owing to the
difficulty of obtaining satisfactory teachers. This weakness has been remedied and an excellent
training class has been operating during the past year at the High School of Commerce, Vancouver, whence commercial teachers may graduate. At the completion of this training course,,
which coincided with the closing of the summer school session, twenty-three students sat for
the Assistant Commercial Teachers' Certificate and.three for the Specialist Commercial Teachers'
Certificate. Training for commercial activities will always form a very important part of
technical education in the Province of British Columbia, owing to the fact that Greater Vancouver is speedily becoming an important distributing centre for the Western Provinces and
the Orient. At the present time it may be noted that wholesale and retail stores, warehouses,
business offices, and selling agencies absorb the greater proportion of the working population.
For this reason it would be advantageous to introduce the subject of salesmanship into the
Commercial Course. This subject, embodying as it does the study of deportment and ethics,
together with consideration of all that makes for good citizenship, would prove of immense
value to those who are preparing for the business world. The Commercial Course has been
greatly improved during the past year and the changes will be sure to appeal to those who
have practical office experience and can thus appreciate the kind of knowledge which is of
greatest practical value. In the third year, for instance, the course is now divided into two
sections—(a) secretarial and (b) accounting—the student thus being able to specialize. The
requirements of statute and commercial law have been reduced to the minimum, it being accepted
that a full discussion of those subjects is suitable only to the maturer ruinds of those who attend
university courses. When a chair for commercial education has been established in the University the legal aspects of business life will be dealt with in an appropriate manner.
As far as can be judged from reports of employers and from results in the Canadian National
Typewriting Competition of 1924, the teaching in the larger centres may well be regarded with
satisfaction. In the open championship competition (professionals and others) a student from
Point Grey High School won sixth place; and in an open competition in Vancouver a student
from the High School of Commerce took first place with a speed of seventy-seven words per
minute for fifteen minutes. Two students won Remington typewriting-machines for absolute
accuracy at over sixty words a minute for fifteen minutes; while numerous bronze and silver
medals were also won by high-school pupils. Gold medals were gained from the Remington
Typewriting Company by students from Point Grey High School and the High School of Commerce, Vancouver.
Technical Courses. ,    -
The High School Technical Course is gaining steady favour in the cities where such is in
operation.
In Vancouver and New Westminster a complete high-school system is in operation, and
the four divisions—academic, home economics, technical, and commercial—may be seen functioning and forming what is termed in Ontario a Composite High School. In New Westminster
the T. J. Trapp Technical School has drawn together a group of students with many diversified
attainments, thus creating a most difficult problem of grading.   With a small staff the following --
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Example of wrought-iron work from New Westminster Technical  School.
Copper repousse work from the Summer School, Victori
. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 77
sections are conducted: Boys' Junior High School; Girls' Junior High School; Three-year
Technical Course—(a) Leaving Certificate, (6) University Matriculation; Three-year Home
Economic Course; Three-year Commercial Course. No other school in the Province has gathered
all these sections under one roof, but the school trustees must be commended for having provided
an excellent technical school for the benefit of the children. They are also to be congratulated
on taking advantage of section 138 (2) of the " Public Schools Act," in obtaining the assistance
of an Advisory Board. The men appointed to this Board are engaged in manufacturing enterprises and are in close touch with, the industrial needs of the community. They can give reliable
advice regarding the subjects which should be emphasized in technical classes both in day and
night schools, and also help in choosing suitable instructors for the practical work of the shops.
The formation of this Board in New Westminster has been an unqualified success, and the
immense amount of w7ork connected with the ordinary school system in Vancouver, South Vancouver, and Victoria makes a similar step in these cities very desirable. It has now7 been proven
beyond a doubt that the students in the Technical Course can at the end of three years successfully attack the examinations for University Matriculation. For those, however, who do not
wish to proceed to University the Technical Leaving Certificate is provided. Some employers
of labour openly state that they are so impressed by the boys in their employment who have
completed the High School Technical Course that they will in future employ no others. It
seems reasonable to expect that a boy who has found by experience of various activities in
school that he is desirous, for instance, of becoming an engineer will find, when he starts work
in an engineering shop, that his previous experience in a school machine-shop is of great value,
and that his attitude towards his work will be better than that of a boy who has drifted into
the trade through the influence of some friend or who has been attracted to it in some haphazard
way. It is expected that the Technical Leaving Certificate will soon be a card requested by
all employers engaged in manufacturing, and that the boys who hold such will always feel
their responsibility to give that faithful intelligent service for which the certificate stands.
Something might well be done to simplify the course of work for the Technical Leaving Certificate, as the course is now somewhat heavier than that leading to University Matriculation.
The Board of School Trustees of Nanaimo has in view the establishment of courses in
technical and home economics subjects. To this end a large shop for w7ood and metal work
is being equipped by the students themselves, and when this is finished they intend to commence
the building for home economics.
In the coming year my attention will be concentrated on developments of an immediately
pressing nature.   These are as follows:—
(a.)  Extended facilities in Vancouver Technical School for studying motor mechanics.
(6.) The establishment of a School of Applied Art and Design in the City of Vancouver
and the appointment of an Advisory Board in Vancouver.
(c.) Extension of the Technical Course iu Victoria to embrace a third year and an increase
of the facilities for motor mechanics.
(d.) The establishment of a School of Applied Art and Design in the City of Victoria and
the appointment of an Advisory Board.
(e.) A Three-year Technical Course in the South Vancouver High School and better facilities
for the Commercial Course.
(f.) Technical courses hi the High Schools of North Vancouver, Burnaby, Point Grey, and
Nanaimo. With these in operation a complete consolidated Technical and Trade School for
Greater Vancouver would be found necessary aud practicable. The Schools of Applied Art
and Design alluded to above are required greatly as centres for educating the taste of the
craftsmen. Most of the failures in the manufacturing of local products may be traced to a
certain crudeness in production and the standard of taste must be improved. In prominent
manufacturing countries this is accomplished through the training obtained in schools of design.
The French milliners and dressmakers have such schools in their midst, at which they may
obtain free instruction at nights. The design schools of the pottery districts in England, France,
and Austria and the design schools in the woollen districts of England and Scotland are all
actively engaged in raising the artistic standard of. the products in their respective districts.
Observation of imported goods in departmental stores in our midst will prove the value of
such training and will emphasize the necessity for similar training for the workers of British
Columbia who ultimately compete with those from other lands. T 78 Public Schools Report. 1924
Teacher-training for technical-school work is proceeding satisfactorily on Saturday mornings
and the members of the class are composed entirely of practical craftsmen who are engaged
as manual instructors. These men, therefore, have had preliminary teaching experience and
are well prepared for advancement when it comes. The training classes referred to are marked
by earnestness and whole-hearted enthusiasm, without which the work would be dull and
uninteresting. These classes provide outlets for the activity and ambition of the men; they
are the means whereby instructors may rise in their profession ; rungs of the ladder by which
they may climb from manual instructor in the elementary school to instructor in the high
school, and from there to the technical school. By persisting in this policy we shall be ready
for any progressive moves taken by School Boards in the Province and success in the work
of technical instruction will be well assured.
Night-schools ok Evening Vocational Schools.
Night-schools are conducted in thirty-six cities and rural municipalities in the Province
and 5,044 students were in regular attendance during the year, with a staff of 205 individual
teachers engaged in the work of instruction. While these numbers may be considered satisfactory
owing to the fact that they rank the Province third in the Dominion, yet they are but a fraction
of the number which should be placed to our credit. The truth of the matter is that many
school trustees, with their secretaries, are usually so busy with day-school work that they
hesitate to enlarge their scope of usefulness by embracing the problems of night-school students.
It is work which undoubtedly calls for self-sacrificing devotion from members of the Board,
but the immense benefit which accrues to the community will be found to repay amply public-
spirited school trustees for their time and labour. Moreover, in larger centres they will be
well advised to seek assistance by appointing a director of night-schools and to invite the aid
of an advisory committee as recommended in the Manual of School Law, section 138  (2).
The following subjects are included in the night-school courses: English, English for
foreigners, subjects for Civil Service examinations, subjects for pharmaceutical examinations,
subjects for junior matriculation, citizenship and economics, mathematics, mechanics, physics,
machine construction and drawing, pattern-making, forging, machinists' work, steam engineering,
automotive ignition system, magnetism and electricity, electrical engineering chemistry, metallurgy, coal-mining, building construction, carpentry and joinery, architectural design, estimating,
sheet-metal .working, plumbing, painting and decorating, cabinetmaking, naval architecture,
navigation, forestry, paper-making, printing, commercial English, typewriting, stenography,
accounting (elementary and advanced), commercial and statute law, commercial languages—
i.e., Spanish, Russian, Japanese, Chinese, French, salesmanship, drawing and design, modelling,
metal repousse, wood-carving, embroidery, pottery, china-painting, show-card writing, dressmaking, millinery, costume-designing, laundering, bread-baking, canning, cookery, music (instrumental and choral), elocution and public speaking.
This extensive range of studies shows w7hat wonderful possibilities there are In the community for ambitious young men and women from every social and financial class. It is
beneficial to the whole country when those who are willing to apply themselves assiduously
to serious study are provided with the means by which they may develop their powers. One
of the most democratic classes in the night-school Course is the one at which preparation may
be made for University Matriculation. By the assistance gained thereat any intelligent young
man or woman may gain admittance to the University of British Columbia.
Attention should be drawn to the way many Boards are being assisted in the work of night-
school organization by the Women's Institutes. It is quite easy to understand the serious
interest which is engendered by the members of these institutes in such subjects as dressmaking,
millinery, cookery, canning, and other studies .closely associated with their home and civic
duties. There is also a commendable earnestness in their desire to help the School Boards
to lay their educational nets so that as great a proportion of the community as possible may
be brought together and receive benefit from the public funds expended. Many classes in which
the members of these institutes are particularly interested are held during the afternoon, but
these meetings are also arranged under the direction of the Board of School Trustees and that
body sponsors the class. The usual night-school grant is paid just as if the classes were held
for mutual improvement at night. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 79
Correspondence Classes.
Courses of study by correspondence were given to the following: (1) Two hundred and
forty-two pupils who live beyond the reach of schools; (2) one hundred and fifty-two coalmine workers who wish to qualify as shotlighters, overmen, mine surveyors, and mine managers.
It is gratifying to find that the work of education is carried right into the home of the
pioneer and that the education of his family is not neglected when he undertakes the arduous
work of opening up the country. There is much evidence of sincere appreciation from both
pupils and parents living in far distant parts, and the office staff receives from time to time
proof of the good work it is accomplishing.
From the same office are sent out the lessons to those engaged in coal-mining operations.
It has been made as easy as possible for a boy working in a coal district to step gradually up
to the highest rung of the ladder. Such a youth can start by correspondence at 15 years of
age and work to the age of 23 on the fundamental subjects of mining. Six separate sections
of study at $5 per section will give him ample preparation by the time he is of age to try the
shotlighter's examination. With a continuance of his study his papers as overman will not
be difficult to obtain, and following on these two the aspiring coal-miner may go to any height
he desires.
Moreover, under the arrangement whereby persons employed in some occupation during
the daytime may try the University Matriculation Examination in four parts, it may easily
be seen that an ambitious and intelligent young man may even emancipate himself entirely
from his coal-mining environment and specialize in the directions which call into activity the
gifts with which nature has endowed him. A combination of night-school tutorial classes in
mining and the correspondence lessons referred to would give students a remarkable opportunity
for advancement.
Expenditure.
The total amount of expenditure during the year of 1923-24 on the subjects referred to
previously, but exclusive of manual training and domestic science and of correspondence-work
With elementary-school children, amounted to $108,340.42, and of that sum the Dominion Government paid $54,170.21.
Excerpts from the latest report from the Dominion Organizer of Technical Education show
that the Province of British Columbia takes fourth place for the total amount of expenditure
on technical education, third place for the number of students attending night-schools, third
for the number taking correspondence classes, and third for the number of students being
trained as technical teachers.
Considering that the cost of administration is one of the lowest in the Dominion, it is to
be hoped that the above will be considered satisfactory.
I have, etc.,
John Kyle,
Orijanizer of Technical Education. ELEMENTARY AGRICULTURAL  EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
Victoria, B.C., September 30th, 1924.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith a brief report dealing with elementary agricultural education for the year ended September 30th, 1924.
The three main lines of work have been maintained during the year with but little change:
(1) Work in nature-study and agriculture in the elementary schools, which includes school and
home gardening, agricultural home projects, and club-work; (2) instruction in agriculture in
high schools; and (3) school-ground improvement. The past season has been one of the driest
on record and many gardens have suffered on that account. Unless water for irrigation purposes
is available—and at many schools it is not available for that purpose—successful gardening is
practically impossible. Because of this and other drawbacks some schools that started large
gardens a few years ago have since abandoned them and have substituted home projects in
gardening and the raising of poultry and other live stock. In spite of the generous assistance
offered to School Boards towards meeting the expenses entailed in connection with this work,
only a comparatively small number have carried it on successfully. This is largely due to
two causes—namely, disinterested and untrained teachers on the one hand and lack of encouragement, amounting at times to stubborn opposition, on the part of school trustees. The one
factor concerned in the work that is constant and that can be relied on is the child himself,
for unless the work in nature and agriculture is very badly managed the children delight in
it. Theirs is an interest which seems to have come down from the very dawn of human history.
We hear much about the necessity of teaching the "fundamentals" in education which are
supposed to be represented by the three " R's," but w7hat could he more fundamental than the
study of one's own environment and of those things that minister to the daily needs of the people.
The three " R's " are far from being fundamentals in education; they are at best but convenient
instruments that may be used to advantage in the acquiring of an education. They are but
a means to an end.
The enrichment of daily experience, the formation of habits of industry and of worthy
conduct, the development of self-dependence and self-control, together with increasing efficiency
and resourcefulness in varying life situations, are some of the great objectives towards which
education should tend. The study of nature at first hand tends towards such a development.
Ownership and responsible management and care of growing plants or of animals can also be
made to do a great deal towards the all-round development of boys and girls. The scientific-
aspects of the study make a stronger appeal as they grow older, whilst the moral values growing
out of such life-studies are paramount during these early years of adolescence. Incidentally
much valuable knowledge relative to scientific agriculture is acquired and a measure of skill
in farm and garden practice developed. Surely such a subject bearing so closely as it does
upon the all-round development of boys and girls is deserving of a prominent place in the curriculum of studies.
During the year a few School Boards have provided for new school-gardens, generally in
response to a request from the teacher. All of the gardens started during the year were in
rural schools. The gardens have been particularly successful in those districts having supervisors, and this is also true of the children's home-gardens.
Club-work and School Fairs.
The organization of Agricultural School Clubs has been practically confined to those districts in which District Supervisors are stationed. These home projects are of outstanding
value when properly organized and regularly supervised. They make a strong appeal to parents,
who are always glad to see their children taking an active interest in home affairs and in
domestic undertakings. Certainly the need for some agency that can stimulate and wisely
direct such a movement amongst growing boys and girls of senior public school and of junior
high school age is everywhere apparent.  Sir* i 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 81
Some very successful school fairs have been organized during the year, chiefly in connection with agricultural exhibitions. The District Supervisors have also led in this movement,
which has now come to be universally approved and valued by the people as well as by most
teachers and School Boards. As an example of worthy enterprise and whole-hearted community
service, nothing has been more conspicuous during the year than the erecting of an exceptionally
well-planned and commodious school-fair buildings on the fair-ground at Surrey Centre, near
Cloverdale. The boys of the manual-training classes of that part of the municipality, under
the energetic leadership of Mr. D. R. Johnston, instructor in manual training, planned and
erected the building with the exception of the roof, which was accomplished by volunteer labour
on the part of the men of the community. It has been decided by the local Agricultural
Association to finish the building in a better way than at first intended. The present intention
is to put in a good floor and to add a good stage and dressing-rooms, so that it will serve as
a concert-hall as well as a building for school-fair purposes. It is also gratifying to note the
prominent place given to municipal school sports at the annual Surrey Fair. Many fine trophies
have been furnished by prominent men of the district and the competitions in school exhibits
as well as in inter-school sports are keen and interesting.
School Competitions at the Provincial Exhibition  held at New Westminster.
The Schools Division of the Provincial Fair prize-list has grown to large proportions and
seems destined to still greater development. Almost every branch of school-work is provided
for, but special prominence is given to agricultural exhibits, including garden produce, flowers,
field crops, poultry and pet stock, rabbits and farm animals. Domestic-science and domestic-art
exhibits are called for in cooking and baking, sewing, knitting, and needlework of all kinds
for girls and a wide range of manual training work for boys. Regular school subjects such
as writing, drawing, composition, geography, manual arts, nature-study, and school collections
are also included.
The junior judging competitions in connection with the judging of live stock and field
crops have come to be a recognized feature of the junior part of the big exhibition. The Royal
Agricultural and Industrial Society, under whose auspices the Provincial Fair is held, have
shown great enterprise in attracting the attention of the schools and school authorities and
have given a great deal of thought, and have also expended a great deal of money towards
the strengthening of the educational features of the exhibition. In connection with the junior
judging competitions just mentioned, they not only arranged to billet boys and girls entering
upon these competitions, but also to pay their transportation from all parts of the Province.
The team contests in the judging of field crops and live sfock this year attracted competitors
from Kamloops, Grande Prairie, Cranbrook, Salmon Arm, Kelowna, Rutland, Summerland,
Langley, Surrey, and New Westminster. Each judging team was composed of three boys or
girls not over 18 years of age and all received some special training in the selecting and judging
of farm crops and farm animals. With the exception of the first three teams mentioned, all
of the boys and girls in the competitions are studying agriculture in high schools under District
Supervisors.    The first three mentioned teams were coached by District Agriculturists.
The winning teams in crop-judging were:—
First—Langley, composed of Christina Harding, Roy Mountain, and Robert McLaren;
coached by J. M. Shales, B.A., B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction.
. Second—Surrey,   composed   of   Mildred   Calkins,   Irene   Christmas,   and   Vera   McIntyre;
coached by F. J. Welland, B.S.A., District Supervisor.
Third—Kelowna, composed of Gordon Meikle, Donald Loane, and Tony Pooley; coached
by J. E. Britton, B.S.A., District Supervisor.
The individuals making the highest score were as follows: First, Robert McLaren, Langley;
second, Roy Mountain, Langley; third, Donald Loane, Kelowna; fourth, Vera McIntyre, Surrey;
fifth, Christina Harding, Langley, and Mac Mitchell, Rutland (equal).
The team contests in stock-judging were keenly contested, ten teams altogether taking part.
The winners were as follows:—
First—Grande Prairie, composed of Alex Bulman, Robert Clemitson, and Ronald Teagle;
coached by George Hay, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops.
Second—New Westminster, composed of R. Nisbitt, C. Robertson, and D. MacKenzie;
coached  by  A.  M.  McDermott,  B.S.A.,  District  Supervisor  of  Agricultural   Instruction. T 82 Public Schools Report. 1924
Third—Kelowna, composed of Donald Loane, Gordon Meikle, and Tony Pooley; coached
by J. E. Britton, B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction.
The winners in the individual stock-judging events open to boys or girls under 21 years
of age were as follows: First, R. Clemitson, Grande Prairie; second, Gordon Meikle, Kelowna ;
third, A. Bulman, Grande Prairie; 4th, Charles Strachan, Kamloops; fifth, Helen White, Summer-
land.
Several prizes were also aw'arded in connection with the highest individual scores made
by members of the stock-judging teams.
For the highest number of points made in the judging of horses: First, $10, and second,
$8, both donated by Mr. A. McD. Paterson, M.L.A., won by Donald Loane, Kelowna, and Robert
McLaren, Langley.
For the highest number of points made in the judging of dairy cattle: Special; $10, donated
by F. M. Clement, Dean of the Provincial College of Agriculture, won by Lawrence Foster,
Cranbrook, and Irene Christmas, Surrey (equal).
For the highest number of points made in the judging of beef cattle: Special, $10, donated
by J. W. Gibson, M.A., Director of Elementary Agricultural Education, won by A. Bulman and
R. Clemitson, Grande Prairie (equal).
The district school-garden exhibits were of very high quality and reflected great credit
upon the pupils and the teachers. The first prize this year, which consisted of the Provincial
school-garden challenge shield and a cash prize of $100. was won by the Chilliwack District
under the Direction of Mr. J. C. Readey, B.S.A., District Supervisor, and the third prize of
$50 was won by New Westminster schools under the direction of Mr. A. M. McDermott, B.S.A.,
District Supervisor.
It is expected that this Province-wide competition in judging will be enlarged next year
to include the judging of poultry, as a great many boys and girls throughout the Province are
deeply interested in the study and raising of poultry.
The fact that the Provincial Fair executive have, in their prize-list, made over 200 classes
for competition open to boys and girls of school age shows how far-reaching is the educational
influence which such an exhibition can exert in the Province. Add to this the stimulus given
to school achievement along similar lines by seventy-five other fairs in the Province and the
only conclusion is that the work accomplished by these fairs in the encouraging of better work
along numerous lines in our schools has not yet been fully realized nor has it been adequately
supported. During the last few years the Agricultural Education Branch of the Department
of Education has done something to assist a number of fair executives to finance those sections
of their prize-lists that have to do with school activities. I would like to recommend that
assistance to school fairs iu the Province generally be given wider and more generous financial
support, and that school-fair organization be accorded official sanction and status in the Department of Education.
High School Agriculture.
During the year the regular High School Agricultural Course was given in eleven high
schools and one superior school to 516 students. This is a slight increase over last year and
the largest number enrolled in any year since the work began nine years ago with eighteen
students in the Chilliwack High School. No new high schools were included in the teaching
of agriculture beyond those in last year's list, for financial reasons. As stated above, only
eleven high schools are offering courses in agriculture, which means only one in every six.
This is too small a proportion and it is hoped that means will be found during the coming year
whereby agricultural instruction in high schools can be greatly extended.
Agricultural Education Policies in Canada.
During the year some investigation was made into the question of agricultural education
as carried on throughout all of the Canadian Provinces in schools of both primary and secondary
grade. As might be expected, there is little or no uniformity amongst the Provinces in the
matter of the administration and management of agricultural education, although there is widespread unanimity as to the main values to be derived from the study of agriculture in the schools.
It is felt generally by those in the various Provinces who take an active part in organization
and administration that the teaching of agriculture in some form should be made compulsory
in the upper grades of the public or elementary schools, following and growing out of the regular 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 83
courses in nature-study assigned in the lower grades of those schools. There is general agreement also that some form of practical work should be required in connection with instruction
in elementary agriculture; in three Provinces school-gardening has so far supplied in greatest
measure that need for practical work as a basis of instruction; in three Provinces supervised
home-gardening has become most popular; and in the remaining three agricultural projects of
a more general character, including the formation of clubs based on the raising of live stock,
has had the preference. It seems evident from extended experience covering the entire field of
instruction in elementary agriculture that practical nature-study based largely upon school-
gardening is most desirable for boys and girls in the lower and intermediate grades, followed
by or supplemented by home-gardening and home projects in agriculture in the upper grades.
Where school-gardens are impracticable or undesirable for any cause, home projects in gardening
or other forms of agricultural achievement should be instituted in the four upper grades of
the public school at least.
From the standpoint of organization there seems to be no doubt as to where the main
responsibility for all organized instruction in agriculture, or in any other subject for that
matter, should rest. The unquestioned function of all Provincial Departments of Education is
to organize, direct, and assume all responsibility for and all control over instruction in each
and every subject set down in the curriculum for elementary and secondary schools. Whilst
this must be admitted everywhere, it is also recognized that there may be and should be widespread co-operation in managing the agricultural programme, especially in relationship to out-
of-school projects—club organization, judging at fairs, etc. In the matter of providing for the
special or extended training of elementary-school teachers for the work in elementary agriculture,
all but one of the Provinces carry on regularly summer courses where instruction in agriculture
and related science of a more advanced character than is ordinarily given in Normal Schools
is provided. Only a small proportion of the teachers up to the present time have availed themselves of these special courses. Where students have chosen the agricultural option when in
high school there is a marked difference in their ability to teach elementary agriculture when
they get into their own schools. Some School Boards have already recognized this and also
the value of special summer-school training in agriculture or rural science as in other subjects,
and when 'making appointments are giving the preference to those teachers who have had this
special training.
It is generally agreed that the great value of elementary agriculture in the public schools
is educational rather than vocational. The idea that children who study and operate gardens or
who take care of poultry and live stock are naturally destined to become gardeners or farmers
is absolutely erroneous. These studies have a great developmental value in child education.
They supply realism to school studies that tend, in spite of everything, to become bookish and
theoretical. They add enormously to life experience, which is the basis of interpretation of
all new knowledge. They also tend to make boys and girls more skilful in doing useful manual
things and more intelligent as to the true significance of common every-day activities, but these
cannot be considered as the main objective in an educational programme.
In three of the Provinces agriculture is a compulsory high-school subject and in seven out
of the nine Provinces it is a subject for matriculation or for entrance to Normal School. In
four of the Provinces agriculture is closely associated with general science, whether following
it or being concurrent with it. In British Columbia provision is made for a very good course
in general science in Grade IX., which course forms an excellent introduction to agriculture in
Grades X. and XL or to the further study of any other science in a more formal and intensive
manner. It is particularly desirable that those young people in our high schools who are later
to become teachers in our elementary schools should choose the science option with one foreign
language rather than to attempt to master two foreign languages. A fair understanding of
even the rudiments of science is of daily value to any one, but most of all to a teacher.
British Columbia is the only Province that has made use of the District Supervisor system
in agricultural instruction. The outstanding value of this system is that it brings all the boys
and girls of a whole district under the direct influence of a leader in rural education and an-
expert in the science of agriculture whilst they are still in the public schools. Furthermore,
on account of the regular and continuous assistance given to the teachers of a district by the
District Supervisor, the work of those teachers is improved and the pupils are receiving added
benefits on that account.    Again, those students that continue their studies in the local high T 84 Public Schools Report.. 1924
school have the opportunity of electing agriculture as one of their subjects and make better
progress in that subject than in some others because of continuity of instruction tinder the
District Supervisor who directed and assisted in their instruction when in the elementary grades.
The beneficial work of the District Supervisor is also seen in his ability to link up children,
teachers, and parents of a large district in support of a worthy common cause. Not until the
District Supervisor came upon the scene was such a thing heard of in British Columbia as a
municipal school picnic or a municipal school fair or a municipal school concert. The children
of the schools of those municipalities having District Supervisors have thus had their outlook
enlarged and their mental and social horizon greatly widened. They have become conscious
citizens of a larger and more unified constituency. Their capacity for larger undertakings and
broader sympathy and tolerance has been increased. Narrow7 sectionalism and petty local
jealousies are swept away in the broader and more liberal view that recognizes the whole
municipality with its twelve or twenty schools as one big neighbourhood. This is the foundation
of a saner and more inclusive citizenship which is the great need of to-day. Why should the
expenditure of a few thousand dollars be allowed to stand in the way of such an important
and much-needed service? From observations extending over a period of ten years in this
Province, I have no hesitation in saying that no other equal expenditure of money for educational purposes has been productive of more real, good to the rising generation of. young men
and women than that expended on the District Supervisor system of agricultural instruction.
Financial Support for Agricultural Education.
A prominent educationist in one of the Prairie Provinces who had become familiar with
the British Columbia system of agricultural education recently made the following statement:
" The District Supervisor system of agricultural instruction," he said, " seems to me to be the
solution of the agricultural education problem, but financial conditions prevent the efficient
development of such a scheme." The statement may be quite true, and yet when we consider
that in British Columbia no less than 230 elementary-school teachers received assistance last
year, and approximately 8,000 children that w7ere in their charge, not to speak of the regular
teaching of almost 500 high-school students who receive regular instruction in agriculture, nor
of the wide community service rendered, the sum actually expended—about $11,000—does not
seem very much. Certainly all will agree that the future development of this Province rests
w7ith the rising generation, and any agency which has for its objective the fostering of a new
and more intelligent interest in rural and agricultural development may rightly look to the
state for generous support.
It is a matter for regret that the Federal Government decided after considerable delay
to discontinue financial support to the Provinces for agricultural education. The Department
of Education had received the sum of $20,000 per year for a series of years out of a total
annual grant of $69,000 coming to the Province under the Dominion " Agricultural Instruction
Act." Strong representations were made to the Dominion Government by the Provinces and by
various organizations urging a renewal of the " Agricultural Instruction Act," but to no avail.
An attempt was also made to have agricultural education included under the " Technical
Education Act" of Canada which ws.s enacted about five years ago, providing financial aid to
the Provinces towards technical education to the extent of $1,000,000 per year for ten years.
This request was made by practically all of the Canadian Provinces, but was not favourably
entertained by the Government at Ottawa, thus the whole responsibility for financing agricultural
education was placed upon the Provinces. It is gratifying to know that the work of agricultural
instruction is being carried on in all of the Provinces at the present time without Federal
assistance. It will be necessary to practise stringent economy under the circumstances, but
there is good ground for hoping that the work will be continued and that it will improve under
immediate and exclusive Provincial auspices.
School-ground Improvement.
The movement towards the improving of school-grounds is steadily gaining ground. Encouraged by the assistance given by the Department, many School Boards have adopted a definite
policy of provision for grounds-improvement. Most of the cities and rural municipalities have
already undertaken an improvement programme and an ever-increasing number of Rural School
Boards are following their examine.   The co-operation of such organizations as Parent-Teacher  ■< 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. • T 85
Associations and Women's Institutes has been most commendable. During the year the Provincial Schools Nursery at Essondale has supplied trees and ornamental shrubs to those School
Boards entering upon an approved scheme of improvement to a value of not less than $4,000.
It has been impossible to supply a sufficient number of the more popular varieties of trees
requested by School Boards, and, although some seeds are started every year and many seedlings
are coming on towards the shipping stage, we are faced with depletion of some of the best
varieties. If this branch of the work of this office continues to develop it will become necessary
to engage the services of an assistant.
It has been our aim and policy to interest the teachers and pupils as well as the School
Boards in the improving of school-grounds and in the study of trees and ornamental plants
generally. In order to make this movement felt in all of the schools of the Province, and also
in order to foster and develop a greater interest in and appreciation of our own great forest
wealth, there is now under preparation a comprehensive illustrated bulletin on the trees and
shrubs of British Columbia. In the publishing of this bulletin, a copy of which will be supplied
to every school in the Province, the Department of Education is receiving generous assistance
and co-operation from the Forestry Branch of the Department of Lands. Trees mean much
to this Province. The annual tree harvest helps in a very important way to provide the funds
that make possible our schoools and other great public utilities. They and the beautiful mountain streams and fine rivers and lakes which they help to maintain have combined to make
British Columbia that extensive wonderland of natural beauty, towards which thousands of
the world's tourists are being attracted in increasing numbers. This great heritage, the
potential home of millions, has been thrust upon a few hundred thousand people who have not
as yet appreciated its bounty or its beauty. It is to help the rising generation in some measure
better to understand and so more fully to appreciate this great heritage that such a bulletin
is being prepared for distribution. It will also be of great assistance to tbe teachers in the
grades who desire a complete and authentic list of the tree species of British Columbia with
accurate descriptions and illustrations.
Reports from District  Supervisors oe Agricultural Instruction.
Following are brief reports from District Supervisors which are based upon their activities
in their respective fields of work:—
Report of V. B. Robinson, B.S.A., District Supervisor for Penticton and Summerland.
My time in the Penticton-Summerland District has been spent in giving instruction in agriculture to high-school classes in the regular two-year course and in giving all possible assistance
to public-school teachers. The prescribed course is supplemented by considerable material
relating to the agricultural pursuits of the district. Instruction was provided for through classroom recitations, laboratory exercises, w7ork and instruction in school-gardens, excursions to
farms of the district, excursions to the Dominion Experimental Station, fruit-judging and stock-
judging competitions, illustrated lectures and special lectures from Dominion and Provincial
Department of Agriculture officials.
Public-school Worlc-—Regular meetings were held with the teachers of the Summerland
Consolidated School for the purpose of constructing a programme of instruction in nature-study
and elementary agriculture. Class needs, available teaching material, and methods of presentation were discussed before constructing lesson plans for the month. Every effort was made
to use nature-study and elementary agriculture as vehicles for teaching some of the other
subjects. Wherever it was possible, the work was arranged in the form of friendly competitions.
This work has resulted in an increased interest on the part of teachers and pupils in nature-
study and elementary agriculture. So far as these districts are concerned, it would appeal-
that this method is more successful than that of direct instruction to the advanced classes.
By working with the teachers every class, the primary as well as the advanced, receives
assistance. The entire programme of studies in nature-study and elementary agriculture may
be shaped by the District Supervisor. The actual teaching is done by the regular teacher. This
is an advantage as the teacher knows the class and its needs better than an occasional teacher.
The teacher must make a certain amount of preparation for the nature-study and elementary
agriculture lessons. Thus her efficiency as a teacher of these subjects is being gradually
increased.    The regular teacher is better fitted to do the  actual  teaching  in these subjects, T 86 . Public Schools Report. 1924
but because of a lack of knowledge of sources of information and of methods of arranging
subject-matter for presentation she is handicapped. Realizing this, many teachers declare
that they are unable to teach these subjects. These teachers' meetings have shown that the
average teacher, with a little assistance and guidance, is quite able to work out an interesting
programme in nature-study and elementary agriculture. It would appear that this valuable
phase of the w7ork of the District Supervisor might well be extended.
Methods in Agricultural Education as seen in the States of the Pacific Coast.—It was my
privilege during the past year to take some graduate studies in agricultural education and to
make some first-hand observations of some of the schools and teachers of agriculture in the
States of Washington, Oregon, and California. The following is a brief summary of some of
the impressions I gained:—
Practically all of the instruction in agriculture in secondary schools is vocational in its
aim. To meet with the requirements of the law it must fit the boy for useful occupation on
the farm.
The work in this Province in comparison would be considered non-vocational.
In actual practice it would appear that their work is no more vocational than the work
being conducted in the Province of British Columbia. This is probably the result of several
factors.
The training the average college graduate receives is non-vocational and it is natural for
him to teach what he has been taught.    The result is a non-vocational course.
Only a few of the students in any high school desire to take strictly vocational courses
in agriculture. In their efforts to secure large classes, teachers of agriculture have had to
enrol students w7ho had no intention of taking up farming.
Strictly vocational teaching would result in small-group instruction. A class of twenty
would probably be divided into five or six groups. The teacher of agriculture has not sufficient
time at his disposal to enable him to follow such a method of instruction.
It would appear that two types of agricultural instruction should be given through the
high school: (1.) Classes in general agriculture aiming to give an intelligent appreciation of
the relation of the community to agriculture. These might be termed citizenship courses and
would be of such a nature as to benefit the majority of high-school students. (2.) Classes in
vocational agriculture. These classes would be limited to those showing a need for vocational
training.
Vocational agriculture programmes across the line call for six months' supervised farm
practice. This is usually met in the form of projects. At present there seems to be little relation
between the projects undertaken and the instruction given in the class-room. This is probably
due to the following:—
Inexperienced and inadequately trained teachers of agriculture are not able to shape their
programmes so as to make use of the projects as mediums for teaching.
The project is strictly vocational, many of the courses of instruction are not vocational;
hence the difficulty in combining the two.
The system of instruction in British Columbia is superior in that the instruction is general
in its character. Instructors undertaking project-work in this Province organize such work so
as to make it supplementary to class-room instruction.
The system is superior in that the instructors are employees of the Department of Education.
It is also superior in that the agricultural instructors may assist with public-school work.
The supervising feature of our Provincial scheme is unique and appears to be a strong
factor in its favour. Expansion along this line with the placement of straight teachers of
agriculture in districts where it is impossible to undertake a supervising programme would
probably strengthen our position.
Report of J. M. Shales, B.A., U.S.A., District Supervisor for Langley Municipality.
Supervision of nature-study and elementary agriculture in the public schools appears to be
accomplishing much-improved results at the present time, due chiefly to the large proportion
of rural-trained and rural-minded teachers in the municipality. Twenty-one of the thirty
teachers are graduates of our own high-school agricultural department and several others hold
rural-science certificates granted on account of other qualifying training. The attitude of teachers
to country life and work has always been a limiting factor in the success of this work, and it is
therefore felt that the way, is now open to splendid progress. !
15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 87
High-school work has been carried on under the severe handicap of cramped temporary
quarters for the past two years, but a new and up-to-date agricultural room has been provided
and is now in use. It is hoped that a much more thorough and practical course can now be
given.    The Grade X. class has sixteen students and the Grade XI. class has eleven.
School fairs, home projects, school-gardens, judging teams, night classes, public addresses,
consultations with farmers, and other related activities have received their usual attention.
The writer had the opportunity of studying the methods of agricultural education in use in
many American States during the past summer while taking a course in rural education at
Cornell University. He was greatly impressed with the enthusiasm with which the whole nation,
from the Federal Government down to the local School Boards, was behind the movement to give
some really suitable educational opportunity to the country boy and girl. The observer is not
left in the slightest doubt as to the country's deep conviction that the future farmers of the
nation should receive something in their education which will confer direct vocational assistance.
One might be inclined to disagree with the extreme emphasis placed on the vocational aspect of
the programme at the expense of the cultural and educational values that should accrue, and also
with the apparent assumption that a boy beginning his high-school agriculture at the age of 14
is able to make a choice as to his future life-work.
A careful comparative study of the systems of agricultural instruction in use on this continent
leads one to the conviction that the plan followed in this Province embodies more of the ideal
features than are found in any other programme. The distinctly rural trend given to public-school
work by the supervised study of nature, elementary agriculture, and related activities must have
a far-reaching effect on the minds of the great body of children who never reach high school.
The course in agriculture offered in the high school would appear to make the utmost of the
opportunity to furnish pure educational value, and still of necessity confer as much vocational
instruction as may prove useful to boys aud girls at that stage of development.
The only serious defect apparent to the writer is the lack of a strong, permanent policy for
continuing and extending the work so well planned and initiated. This lack has proved a sad
impediment to effective work in the field and has had a limiting influence on value which might
be received for money expended in this work. Given the requisite stability, the present system
of agricultural education should be of inestimable benefit to the future rural life of the Province.
Report of F. J. Welland, B.S.A., District Supervisor for Surrey Municipality.
Our Matriculation class this year numbers nineteen, the largest third-year class yet handled
in this subject in this district.
Work has been carried on in ten school-gardens during the past year, and valuable training
secured by the pupils in the management of the hotbed and cold-frame and in the growing of
vegetables, grains, and flowers. Instruction has been given, also, in selecting and preparing these
for exhibition. A start has been made on seed production in these gardens and this work will
be emphasized and expanded in future years.
The home-project work shows healthy growth and bids fair to become the most important
branch of work, apart from instruction given in the high-school classes.
This year 1S4 of the Surrey school-children undertook home-project work in agriculture.
A start has been made looking to the formation of Pig Clubs, three classes for swine having
been provided in the prize-list for the Surrey School Fair.
An additional breed of poultry has been admitted to club-work—Barred Plymouth Rocks—■
and in this its first year we have as many pupils raising chicks of this breed as of the White
Leghorns or White Wyandottes.
A variety test with potatoes has been undertaken in the White Rock and Ocean Park
Districts with satisfactory results.
The pupils have been trained in the judging of field crops and of live stock, and this year
have made a very satisfactory showing at the Provincial Exhibition at New Westminster.
Of special interest is the work of the school-boys of Surrey, under their manual-trainiug
instructor, Mr. D. R. Johnston, in putting up the new building for the School Fair at the Surrey
Centre Fair grounds. This building, 35 by 60 feet, with 14-foot wall, will be used to house all
the exhibits in the Surrey School Fair with the exception of the live-stock.
Barring the roof, the building has been erected in its entirety by the boys, the materials being
purchased with money realized by school concerts, etc., and w7ith assistance from the Education T 88 Public Schools Report. 1924
Department,  the Surrey Farmers' Institute, and a grant toward equipment from the Surrey
School Board.
It is planned to use this building for union school concerts, inter-school basket-ball games,
and for other events of a similar nature.
Report of J. E. Britton, B.S.A., District Supervisor for Kelowna and Rutland.
Agriculture continues to be the leading science option in the high schools of Kelowna and
Rutland. The work of the past year has, on the whole, been very successful. Twenty-five
registered in Grade X. agriculture last year, bringing the total number of students in agriculture
to thirty-eight. This term the registration is somewhat smaller, being sixteen in Grade X, and
seven in Grade XI. Some have moved from the district, others left school, and a few changed
from agriculture to geography.
In addition to the teaching of agriculture, instruction has been given in general science,
botany, and nature-study. Lessons in nature-study and elementary agriculture have also been
taught in the lower grades and assistance given the teachers in this work.
The third annual chicken dinner w7as held in November by the two classes in Agriculture.
Chickens raised by the students were crate-fattened at the school, and as far as possible everything served at the dinner was the product of the students' work. The programme arranged
took the form of a banquet, with community singing, speeches, song, and story. This event seems
to be of particular educative value and a fitting conclusion to the work of the summer.
Early in June a farmers' picnic was held at the Dominion Experimental Station, Summerland.
Farmers were there from all parts of the Okanagan and the agricultural students from the
schools. A splendid programme was arranged by the Superintendent, W. T. Hunter, and his
staff, including stock-judging and other competitions. In stock-judging the Kelowna team w7as
successful and a Kelowna boy won the highest score. The prizes consisted of two pure-bred
Berkshire pigs, representing some of the hest Berkshire blood found anywhere in Canada, awarded
by the Summerland Experimental Station. These pigs have been fed and conditioned for the
show-ring by the boys and are now being shown at the fall fairs.
Excursions to farms of the district have been all too limited owing to the time required being
outside school-hours, but such excursions as were possible have been principally for the training
in stock-judging. Judging teams were selected from the classes and entered in the competitions
at the Provincial Exhibition, where they carried off a number of honours in both crop and stock
judging.
The high-school garden has been used for demonstration plots in legumes, grains, and grasses,
with special attention to orchard cover-crops. Each pupil cared for the part of the border of
flowers opposite his plot. It is planned to carry on more extensive work in plant propagation and
for this purpose frames and hotbeds are being established.
The care of the school-grounds has been supervised and a number of improvements made in
connection with the lawms, trees, and shrubs. The school-grounds improvement work has produced
most gratifying results and the school-grounds have been made very attractive.
The forcing of flowering bulbs to bloom in the class-rooms has been continued and extended
to almost all of the classes taking agriculture or nature-study. It has proved most interesting
and pleasing lesson material.
Report of W. H. Grant, B.S.A., District Supervisor for Salmon Arm City
and Municipality.
Following is a brief survey of the work in elementary agriculture carried on in the Salmon
Arm District during the year:—
In the High Softool.^Two classes in high-school agriculture are in operation. At the present
time there are twenty-five students in the Grade X. Agriculture class and eighteen in Grade XL
This is a substantial increase over other years. In connection with the practical side of the
work, some interesting experiments have been carried out in the experimental grounds which were
established two years ago. A great deal of the practical work, however, is carried on at the
pupils' homes in the form of agricultural credits undertaken for credits.
In the Public Schools.—Five half-days per week have been devoted to the work in the public
schools. The time has been used in giving instruction, in accordance with the Course of Study,
in nature-study and agriculture, giving help to teachers in obtaining material, and in organizing School Fair Building, Surrey Agricultural Grounds.    Planned and erected by the boys of the Manual
Training classes under Instructor D. R. Johnson.
Same building nearing completion. The major part of the work was done by the boys outside of
school-hours. The people of the district have united to complete the building, which will serve
also as a concert-hall and gymnasium. An example of an average school-ground before improvement, showing bad arrangement of out-buildings.
Joe Rich Valley School-grounds under improvement. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 89
Boys' and Girls' Clubs. During the summer vacation visits have been made to the various club
members and to the pupils carrying on home-garden work. The club-work is growing from year
to year and is a most popular and profitable phase of the work. The public-school work is in
my opinion the most important branch of the work carried on.
School-ground Improvement.—The assistance given by the Department for improvement of
school-grounds has been of great value. During the past year improvement-work has been carried
on in four of the schools of the district municipality and in the public and high schools of Salmon
Arm City.    Grading has been done where necessary and levelling and planting carried out.
Miscellaneous.—Besides the regular programme of work carried out in the schools, much
time is given the forwarding of enterprises among the general public. These include the giving
of addresses, advice to farmers when called upon, and executive work for various organizations.
Report of A. M. McDermott, B.S.A., District Supervisor of the District of New Westminster.
The work in this district was distributed over four fields of activity, namely: Class instruction in agriculture, which occupied three hours of each school-day; classes in other subjects
on the High School Curriculum, seven periods per week or an average of one hour per day;
assistance and supervision of the work of teachers in the five public schools in elementary
science, agriculture, and nature-study; and outside work of a varied nature but closely allied
to school-work and enterprise. At the present time seventy students are registered in regular
High School Courses in Agriculture—thirty-three in Grade X. and thirty-seven in Grade XI.
or matriculation.    This shows a slight increase over last year.
For the most part, as might be expected, students choosing this subject as a science option
are not familiar with vocational agriculture and farm management, but they evince an interest
and accomplishment in the various activities that is distinctly noticeable. It creates a sincere
appreciation of the problems and activities of our basal industry which cannot fail to establish
a closer fraternity between urban and rural interests in the future. So far as possible, topics
for class-instruction are chosen so that they are in keeping with seasonal agricultural activity.
The interest is hereby strengthened. Our effort in all departments is to provide opportunity for
observation and contact with skilled practice in the various subjects so far as it enhances educational training. This applies in such examples as incubation and brooding in poultry, Babcock
milk-testing, landscape-gardening, live-stock judging, planning and planting of experimental plots,
which include perennial and annual flowers and shrubs, grasses, cereal and root crops and tree
and bush fruits. In the time allotted to this science subject on the time-tahle, it is regrettable
that so little time was available for organized excursions to local points of interest. It is hoped
that in future more of this can be done. A very low percentage of failures have occurred in
this subject on Matriculation Examination. This is certainly not due to the fact that the
prescribed course involves less work than other subjects, but to the interest so naturally existing
iu agricultural phenomena and to the excellent system of marking a student's work up to the
time of the written examination.
Much time was given during the year to assistance of teachers in the public schools in
nature-study. It is found that few young teaehers have either an appreciation of or the information to use properly nature-study, either for itself or in correlation with other subjects. It is
felt, then, that the best effort can be expended in individual assistance to teachers through
teaching of type lessons, assisting in the outlining of work for each grade, providing books,
pictures, material and specimens, suggesting method and imparting information ou the various
topics for class study. There can no longer be any doubt as to the value of nature-study on
the school programme, hut it would appear that there is all too little attention given to this
fact in the qualifying and training of teachers. From my observations on this point, it seems
distinctly advantageous for students proceeding to a teacher's certificate to take agriculture as
a science option because of its additional value in nature-study teaching. As the Supervisor's
work becomes better understood, it is pleasurahle to note the closer co-operation of teachers
and the gradual increase of use of nature-study in its legitimate field. Requests for assistance
from teachers have rapidly increased and the time available for this phase of work is taxed to
the uttermost.
Gardens are operated in connection with all of the city schools, the plans and methods
adopted by the various teachers showing considerable variation. The quality of the produce of
the school-garden compares favourably with that of any similar agricultural area, but there is
E T 90 Public Schools Report. 1924
much yet to be done in more successfully using the school-garden as a school project—as a
laboratory in close touch with indoor class-work.
When the growing season is completed, for the most part a study of the crop is completed by
comparing and testing fruits, vegetables, etc. However, this year, through the kind co-operation
of the Household Science Department of the Duke of Connaught High School, where both
Agriculture and Household Science classes are held, it is hoped to complete further the study,
with mutual advantage to both classes, by preparing garden products for canning or immediate
table use.
We are singularly fortunate here, in that the Provincial Exhibition is held in our city.
The management have spared no effort to perfect its educational features. Each year it calls
for the best work of the schools in the various departments. When the significance and possibility
of such is fully appreciated, one can scarcely visualize the future breadth and value of this
department to the schools of the entire Province. A beginning was made this year in something
approaching organized tours through various departments of the exhibition by teachers and
students.   It is hoped to broaden this next year.
A trained team as well as individual entries represented this district at the Provincial
Exhibition in junior live-stock judging competition and seed-judging. The former team obtained
second place among eleven competitors; the latter, fourth among eight competitors. A district
exhibit in competition with Surrey, Chilliwack, Langley, last year won first place and this year
third place.
From time to time, through correspondence, telephone, and personal effort, much assistance
was given in matters educational outside of school, in matters agricultural in the city and
district contiguous to it, and, in fact, to any worthy cause or organization where help was
needed.
The spoken word of appreciation, observation of results among students who have gone
forward during five years of work, and conscientious consideration of the higher values of
agriculture educationally, justify beyond all shadow of doubt its great value in leading to more
" complete living."
A general word of thanks and kind appreciation must here be said to the great many who
assisted the District Supervisor in many ways during the year, and mention of whose names
individually would be impossible.
As I look forward many difficult problems present themselves for solution, but the problems
each year serve only to contrast more strongly the more pleasant phases of the work and enhance
the pleasure of working under direction of this department of educational endeavour.
Report of J. C. Readey, B.S.A., District Supervisor for Chilliwack City and Municipality.
The period covered by this report has been the most successful since the inauguration of the
work here nine years ago. In addition to my regular duties, I have been able to participate
in some of the organized agricultural activities of the district. Four hundred and fifty-nme
class periods were spent in the high school and 207 in the public schools.
A more detailed statement of the work in each department follows:—
Work in the High School.—Last June thirteen students wrote on agriculture for matriculation standing. All were successful. The present Grade XI. class consists of two divisions, one
division looking to Normal entrance and the other to University matriculation. The former
class consists of thirty-two students and the latter of twenty-seven. The chemistry option was
introduced into the school this year, so that Grade X. was divided, thirty-two students choosing
agriculture and twenty-seven chemistry. The teaching of general science with Grade IX. was
added to my duties at the beginning of the present school term. This relieved other members
of the high-school staff and permitted the introduction of regular physical training into the
school's activities. I meet the three classes in Agriculture and the General Science class four
time per week each, making a total of sixteen class periods per week in the high school.
Crops in the high-school gardens have been good. A change in the cropping system was
introduced and some important demonstrations carried out. These changes and additions
promise to be improvements and are likely to add to the value of the garden as a teaching device.
Nature-study and Agriculture in the Public Schools.—Most of the teachers have done faithful
and effective w7ork in this subject. Unfortunately a considerable number of the teachers employed
in this district have not had high-school or summer-school training in the subject    So long as 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 91
this condition prevails it is futile to expect the best results. Each year, however, sees our school-
gardens better planted, better tended, and better used. All nature-study topics up to the end
of the first week in October, w7hen the gardens are put into winter condition, will be taken from
the garden material.
With the growth of the high-school .work and the home projects, the latter culminating in
the School Fair, my part in nature-study and agriculture in the public schools is confined entirely
to supervision. During the first years after the introduction of the subject I was able to do
considerable class-room work, but for the reason mentioned my part in the teaching has been
discontinued. My experience is that the work can be helped more through giving assistance to
the teachers than by using up my time in the preparation and presentation of widely separated
lessons.
Home Projects in Agriculture.—This work grows in popularity and volume. Pupils participated in home projects in the following numbers : The raising of calves, 35 ; pigs, 8; lambs, 9;
chickens, 44; rabbits, 11; goats, 2; home-gardens, 81; potatoes, 20 ; the making of photographs,
43; making a total of 253 individuals engaged in home-project work. I would respectfully urge
the strengthening of this hranch of the work. It would be more effective educationally if it
could be more closely supervised and more closely connected with the school-work.
The School Fair.—The School Fair was not held this year. The School Fair has been held
for several years past in connection with the local exhibition, whose association collected the
revenue and paid an annual grant to the School Fair. This year the Exhibition Association felt
unable to pay the usual grant, with the result that the School Fair had to be cancelled. A new
basis for the maintenance of the School Fair will be sought, and it is expected that this important
function w7ill proceed without further suspension.
Professional Training.—Through the kindness of the Department of Education, I was able
to attend the University summer session for six weeks during July and the first part of August.
The course consisted of thirty hours in educational psychology, thirty hours in social psychology,
and sixty hours in botany. In addition to the lectures, the time-table provided opportunity for
reading in the -University library. Altogether the course was most enjoyable and particularly
stimulating.
Provincial Exhibition.—A district school exhibit was made at the Provincial Exhibition, New
Westminster. The exhibit was awarded first place. A new feature of the exhibit was a display
of canned fruit and vegetables prepared by a Girls' Canning Club and put up by means of a
pressure-cooker. The entire exhibit consisted of material representing the produce' of the
school-gardens.
Local Contacts.—I have sought at all times to keep in intimate touch with the agricultural
interests of the district. This sometimes involves work not strictly within the limits of my
prescribed duties. This makes an increased demand upon my time, but I feel that the practical
touch with men interested in and working at the art of agriculture is productive of sympathy
and enthusiasm, and provides as well a source of information all of which are so essential to
successful school-room work.
I must mention again this year the kind support given to our work by the various Breed
Associations, the Poultry Association, Parent-Teachers' Associations, and the Board of Trade.
I have, etc.,
J. W. Gibson,
Director of Elementary Agricultural Education. T 92 Public Schools Report. 1924
SUMMER SCHOOL  FOR TEACHERS.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
i Victoria, B.C., September 30th, 1924.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith a report on the Provincial Summer School for Teachers held
in Victoria from July 7th to August Sth, 1924.
It is now just ten years since the first summer school for teachers was held in British
Columbia, during which period approximately 3,000 teachers have been in attendance. The w7ork
can now be considered as having passed beyond the experimental stage. As might be expected,
new courses have been added from year to year, some courses changed considerably, and others
dropped. The aim throughout has been to include such subjects as the rank and file of the
teachers of the Province are least proficient in and to engage instructors who are specialists
each in his or her own particular line. As attendance at summer school is voluntary, attention
must also be given to the attractiveness of the courses offered as well as to tbe method adopted
in presenting them. Without doubt there is still plenty of room for improvement and already
plans are being made whereby new and improved courses will be offered during the summer
of 1925.
The value of post Normal School Courses for teachers is being recognized everywhere.
No ambitious or progressive teacher nowadays would think for a moment that three years in
high school followed by a year in Normal training gives all the preparation needed for the
great work of teaching. School Boards and School Inspectors are also becoming more and more
convinced of this and are doing a good deal to encourage teachers to increase their proficiency
through summer study. Let us hope that School Boards throughout the entire Province will
be more ready than heretofore to recognize special qualifications on the part of teachers obtained
as a result of continuous study and attendance at summer school. It would also seem in order
for the Department to consider some form of credit, if nothing more than advanced or honour
registration, for those teachers who, year after year at considerable self-sacrifice, spend their
summers in earnest study and in the development of greater skill and efficiency along the lines
of their chosen profession. Through the agency of the summer school many teachers have added
greatly to their teaching ability and to their mastery of the subject-matter of education.
Attendance and Courses of Instruction.
The fact that the attendance this year has almost equalled that of last, when the maximum
for a six-year period was attained, in spite of the fact that transportation allowances were
reduced by 50 per cent., goes to show that a great many teachers in this Province are genuinely
in earnest in the matter of educational achievement. The enrolment of regular full-time students
at this year's summer school was 334. Of these, 2S0 were women and 54 men. They might
further be classified as follows:—
From cities in British Columbia      75
From rural municipalities      61
From rural and assisted schools  109
Unclassified aud without schools     63
From points outside of British Columhia     26
Total   334
One teacher in every fifteen city teachers attended at Victoria, one in every thirteen from
rural municipalities, and one in every eight from rural and assisted schools. When it is
remembered that approximately the same number of our teachers attended the summer session
in the Provincial University, it will be seen that practically one-sixth of our teachers were
engaged in summer study. This is a very good record for Canadian teachers, but still considerably below that of some of the American States, where as many as one-third of the teachers
in recent years have taken summer courses in one season. j-T.
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""3B5SHE iH]     Primary Grade hand-work (stick-laying), Teachers' Summer School Course.
Primary Grade hand-work, Teachers' Course, Summer School. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 93
The courses offered in the last Provincial Summer School and the number enrolled in each
are as follows :—
Rural Science Course  18
Primary Grade Teachers' Course  S2
Art Courses  68
Manual Training Courses   13
Home Economics  24
Vocal Music    23
History  41
Civics and Citizenship   12
Public School Geography   81
High School Geography  9
English Literature and Reading  41
General Science for High School Teachers   11
Physical Training—Strathcona B Certificate    17
Physical Training—Gymnastics, Games, and Folk-dancing   (taken by students enrolled in other courses)  SI
Writing and Penmanship (taken by students enrolled in other courses) ...'... 114
Instructors and Subjects Taught.
The ultimate success of any school depends to a large extent upon the personal ability and
skill of its staff of instructors. We have always aimed to secure instructors of well-earned
reputation in every branch of study and have not hesitated to go outside the Province to find
them. Nothing can be more narrowing and enfeebling to any system of education than educational inbreeding. Moreover, the student-teachers themselves manifest a greater interest in
Summer School Courses when they have an opportunity of meeting specialists of outstanding
ability from points outside as well as inside the Province. We have so far been most fortunate
in having on the staff men and women of earnest purpose and of outstanding ability in their
respective lines of educational work.
The following is a complete list of the instructors and the subjects taught by them
respectively:—
Arthur Anstey, B.A., Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver—History.
George Anstey, Instructor, Victoria Technical School—Metalwork.
Miss Adeline Baxter, Supervisor of Drawing, Winnipeg, Man.—Second-year Art Course.
George Breadner, Instructor, Victoria Technical School—Furniture-making and Wood-
turning.
J. B. Britton, B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction, Kelowna—Horticulture and School-gardening.
Madame Ellis  Browne,  A.R.A.M.,  L.R.A.M.,   Supervisor  of Music,  Provincial  Normal
School, Calgary, Alta.—Vocal Music.
C. F. Connor, M.A.,  Science Master, King Edward High School, Vancouver—Physics,
Chemistry, and General Science.
Miss Doris Cordy, Summerland—Instructor in Pottery.
George A. Cornish, M.A., Professor of Science and Geography, Ontario College of Education—Geography.
Miss  L.  K.   C'otsworth,   Supervisor  of  Physical  Education,   Vancouver—Folk-dancing,
Games, and Gymnastics.
H. A. Dunlop, B.A., Assistant Professor of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver—Animal-life Studies.
E. S. Farr, B.A., LL.B., Instructor, Victoria High School—Civics and Citizenship.
Sergeant W.  Frost,  Department of Cadet Services,  Victoria—Physical Training for
Strathcona B Certificate.
Mrs. M. Grute, Graduate of Central School of Arts and Crafts, London, Eng.—Pottery
and Applied Design.
J. W. Hotson, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of Botany, University of Washington,  Seattle—
Plant-life Studies. T 94 Public Schools Report. 1924
W. J. Karr, B.A., D.Paed., Department of Education, Toronto—Psychology and Methodology of Primary Grade Work.
John Kyle, A.R.C.A., Organizer of Technical Education, Victoria—Applied Design.
Miss Alice B. Marcellus, Instructor in Home Economics, Vancouver—Elementary Sewing.
Will Menelaws, Graduate of Royal Scottish Academy of Art—Figure-drawing and Sketching 'from Nature.
A. M. McDermott, B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction, New Westminster—Soils, Crops, and Farm Animals.
R. W. McKenzie, Instructor in Writing, Lord Tennyson School, Vancouver—Penmanship.
H. B. McLean, Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver—Penmanship.
Miss G. Gordon Riddell, Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Victoria—Primary Grade
Hand-work.
Mrs. Katherine C. Russell, Instructor in Dressmaking and Ladies' Tailoring, Vancouver—
Advanced Needlework.
W. P. Weston, Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver—Elementary Art.
F. T. C. Wickett, A.R.C.A., Victoria—Chorus-singing and Accompanist.
F. G. C. Wood, B.A., M.A., Associate Professor of English, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver—English Literature and Reading.
The Demonstration School.
For the first time a demonstration school of five divisions comprising seven public-school
grades was organized. This school was conducted primarily for the purpose of demonstrating,
for the benefit of the student-teachers, the most approved methods of teaching the various
subjects in the Summer School Curriculum. The children in Grades V., VI., VII., and VIII.
were selected from four of the city public schools and comprised for the most part those who
had been reported by their regular teachers as doubtful cases for promotion. It was considered
that five weeks of additional instruction would materially help these boys and girls and would
expedite their promotion to a higher grade. In so far as it was possible, the teachers in charge
gave special attention to those subjects in which they found the pupils weak, and at the close
of the school each pupil was given a statement or report to be presented to his or her teacher
on the reopening of school in September.
In the organizing of this demonstration school every assistance was given by Mr. George H.
Deane, Municipal Inspector of Schools, and by the principals and staff-members of the George Jay
School, the Boys' Central, Girls' Central, Spring Ridge Primary, and Margaret Jenkins Schools.
The parents whose children attended the school also showed appreciation of the special opportunity offered, and the fact that a considerable number of applicants could not be admitted
would indicate that summer courses for Victoria City children would not fail for lack of
volunteer attendants. In fact, there is every reason to believe that two months of sheer idleness
—for such is the summer holidays for many children in this and every other city—is not
conducive to the welfare of children nor to the comfort and satisfaction of many parents.
There always has been, and probably always will be. a certain proportion of the children
of every city who are not so privileged as to be able to spend their summers in the open country,
at the lake or seaside, or in a well-ordered camp. For all such the juvenile summer school
would be a real blessing, and no doubt the time is approaching when School Boards will make
provision for such schools. These schools, let it be said, would be somewhat different from, and
possibly more efficient in some respects than, the regular day-schools. They would be more
" summery," more recreational, more physically developmental, would give larger place to open-air
instruction, and would develop that keenness of perception and resourcefulness in thought and
action which results from true motivated effort. In such a school the health of the children
would be better at the end than at the beginning, whilst the introduction of new interests and
new experiences daily would make these boys and girls wiser and happier.
The teachers in charge of the children's classes are as follows:—
H. L. Campbell, Principal, Esquimalt Public School—Headmaster and Instructor in
Divisiou I.
Miss C. Mazzoline, Teacher, North Ward School, Victoria—Instructor in Division II.
Miss A. McKinnon, Teacher, Strathcona School, Vancouver—Instructor in Division III. EfrgaSfctji
Applied design  (pottery from B.C. clays),  Summer School Course.
Applied design (pottery from B.C. clays), Summer School Cour  V1
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Technical Course (furniture-making), Teachers' Summer School Course. Summer School picnic, Deep Cove, 1924.
Annual Summer School sports, Deep Cove, 1024. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 95
Miss Beatrice  Chadwick,  Teacher,  Lord  Tennyson  School,  Vancouver—Instructor  in
Division IV.
Miss Jessie E. Fisher, Teacher, Model School, Vancouver—Instructor in Division V.
F. Waddington,  Director,  Esquimalt  School  Choir—Instructor in  Chorus-singing  and
Voice Production.
In view of the fact that the demonstration school was in session for five weeks during the
summer vacation, some doubt was felt as to the regularity of attendance of the boys and girls.
The report of the headmaster goes to show that the percentage attendance for 160 pupils enrolled
was 86.5, and would have been considerably higher but for the fact that some pupils in the
higher grades left quite early in the term. The percentage attendance for the Province during
the regular school period last year was a little less than 82 per cent., so that the summer vacation
attendance of boys and girls attending the demonstration school must be regarded as highly
satisfactory.
New Courses.
The following courses were offered for the first time: (1) First-year Art Course for High-
school Teachers; (2) High-school Teachers' Course in General Science; (3.) a third-year Course
in Art for more advanced students in Figure-drawing and Pictorial Painting; (4) Civics and
Citizenship.
The response' on the part of high-school teachers in connection with the first two of the
above-mentioned courses was very disappointing, as was also the case in connection with the
course offered in Geography for High-school Teachers. Art, general science, and geography are
subjects of rapidly increasing importance in our high schools. Being comparatively new subjects
on the curriculum for high schools, it was expected that there would be a fairly large enrolment
of high-school teachers from all parts of the Province. We find, however, that out of approximately 350 high-school teachers in British Columbia, an aggregate of only six were enrolled in
the three above-mentioned courses. Had it not been for the fact that some ten teachers holding
academic certificates, although teaching in public schools, applied for these three High-school
Teachers' Courses they would have been cancelled.
The number of applications for some of the advanced technical courses proved to be
insufficient, and of these the following were cancelled: Advanced Rural Science; Third-year
Home Economics (teacher-training); Engineering; Building Construction and Machine-shop
Practice. It is obvious that the number of teachers interested in these more technical courses
is not large and it may not be necessary to continue giving instruction in all of them.
There is a tendency on the part of some teachers to try to take some of the work offered in
several courses. This usually works out badly for all parties concerned. Several of the courses
now listed require only two hours per day each, and it is quite possible to carry on two of these
at once when the assigned hours do not conflict. Other courses call for four or five hours per
day each, and, when certificates are to be given, cannot be separated into parts without complications and the sacrificing of some of the real value of the whole course. In order to meet the
wishes of some students, however, some of the larger courses, such as Art and Manual Training,
have been made into parts or subdivisions where credit can be given for certain units completed
in different years.
The classes for Manual Training and Technical Instructors were again held in Victoria after
two summers in Vancouver. It was found, however, that although there were some advantages
to be realized in holding these classes in Victoria in conjunction with all the other Summer School
classes, the attendance was not so large as it was in either of the two previous years when held
in Vancouver. Doubtless the change from the Mainland, where a large number of the manual
teachers live, and the fact that special Saturday classes for these teachers are regularly held
during the year, may account for some falling-off in attendance this year.
The courses for high-school teachers' certificates in commercial subjects have always been
held in the King Edward High School, Vancouver, under the management of the University,
although the examinations are conducted at the close of the summer session by the Department
of Education.
Special Lectures.
In co-operation with the University summer session, we were able to make arrangements for
a series of lectures by Dr. Charles Upson Clark,  noted traveller and educational lecturer. T 9G Public Schools Report. 1924
Dr. Clark, who has made exhaustive first-hand studies of European questions, made a valuable
contribution to our summer's programme. His lectures vividly portrayed the political situation
in Europe and especially in the smaller countries of Southern and Central Europe. The Italian
situation under Mussolini was also clearly analysed, and a final lecture illustrated with exceptionally beautiful slides, described " Rome, Capital of the Caesars," in a masterly fashion. All
who heard these lectures will look forward with keen anticipation to a return engagement should
Dr. Clark again visit the West.
We were also favoured with an interesting and instructive illustrated lecture on the subject
of the " Conservation of Children's Eye-sight " by Miss Berta Gilbert, of Toronto, organizer of
the first sight-saving classes in Canada.
One of the open Friday evening lectures was delivered by Dr. John MacKay, Principal of
Manitoba College, Winnipeg. The subject of Dr. MacKay's address was " The Place of the
Individual in the New Era."
A very interesting and instructive lecture illustrated with splendid views was given by
Mr. A. H. Maynard, veteran photographer of Victoria, on " Early Days in British Columbia "—a
lecture which supplemented in a most admirable way the instruction given in history.
Closing Exhibition and Concert.
On Thursday evening of the closing week a public exhibition of work accomplished by the
students during the session was arranged. During the early part of the evening the classrooms and corridors w7ere thronged with interested visitors, who showed much appreciation of
the excellent work exhibited by the students and their instructors. A short musical programme
was carried out in the assembly-hall under the Chairmanship of the Hon. J. D. MacLean,
Minister of Education, who spoke in high praise of the work of the Provincial Summer School
and of the purposes underlying the establishing of such a school for teachers.
A most interesting feature of the programme was the singing of a number of selections
by the boys and girls of the three higher divisions of the demonstration school. These children
had been under Mr. Waddington's tuition in chorus-singing for one-half hour per day for only
nineteen days, and it certainly was very gratifying to those interested in school-singing to
observe what really excellent results could be obtained in so short a time from average boys
and girls with very little previous training. The remainder of the programme was contributed
by the students in the Music class under the direction of Madame Ellis Browne, instructor in
that subject. The concluding part of the programme was carried out in the gymnasium and
consisted of a series of children's marches and folk-dancing given by the pupils of the demonstration school and some more advanced work of a similar kind by the student-teachers in the
regular Summer School classes. Most of these were done in costume and reflected great credit
upon the instructor, Miss L. K. Cotsworth, whose work has always been of the highest order.
Following the programme an hour spent in dancing brought to a conclusion one of the most
successful summer sessions.
In conclusion, I desire to make mention of the important service rendered by the Victoria
School Board in once more granting the free use of the High School, the Boys' Central School,
technical class-rooms and workshops, and for class-room equipment supplied from other schools
in the city. The excellent accommodation thus afforded has greatly facilitated the holding of
the Provincial Summer School in Victoria. The thoughtful and efficient service rendered by
the superintendent of buildings and by the janitorial staff has been greatly appreciated and to
these men our thanks are also due. The citizens of Victoria have come to take more than a
casual interest in the Provincial Summer School for Teachers, as is evidenced by the fact that
all public summer-school functions are well patronized by them. The merchants also have
extended many courtesies during the session, all of which are much appreciated.
I have, etc.,
J. W. Gibson,
Director, Provincial Summer School for Teachers. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 97
FREE  TEXT-BOOK  BRANCH.
Education Department, ,
Victoria, B.C., September, 1924.
8. J. Willi*, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the work of the Free Text-book Branch for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1924:—
The total number of free text-books, etc., issued during 1923-24 to the public schools (common, graded, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence Course
established for children in isolated districts where there are no schools in operation, was as
follows: 21,03S Canadian Reader, Book I.; 12,115 Canadian Reader, Book II.; 13,327 Canadian
Reader, Book III.; 13,291 Canadian Reader, Book IV.; 15,773 Canadian Reader, Book V.;
4,541 20th Century Reader, Book V.; 12,583 First Arithmetic; 10,957 Second Arithmetic ; MacLean
Method Writing Books—11,265 Compendium No. 1; 11,250 Compendium No. 2; 12,741 Compendium No. 3; 15,082 Compendium No. 4; 15,352 Senior Manual; 921 Commercial Manual;
747 Teachers' Manual; 51,547 Drawing Books, Blair's Canadian Drawing Series; 1,818 Supplementary Readers (Heart of Oak, Book One; Art-Literature Primer; Art-Literature, Book One;
Art-Literature, Book Two; Progressive Road to Reading, Book 3a ; Robin Hood Reader; B.C.
Phonic Primer; B.C. First Reader; B.C. Second Reader; B.C. Third Reader); 39 Essentials
of Health; 11,147 How to be Healthy; 2,890 Latin Lessons for Beginners; 26 Canadian Civics;
465 Syllabus of Physical Exercises; 175 World Relations and the Continent; 11,426 History
of Canada; 688,984 sheets Drawing Paper, 9 by 6 inches; 61,262 sheets Drawing Paper, 9 by 12
inches; 10,789 Public School Grammar; 147 Union Jacks (3-yard Jack) ; 81 Flora of Southern
B.C.; 41 Maps of Dominion of Canada; 45 Maps of World (in Hemispheres); 35 Maps of
British Columbia; 33 Maps of North America; 36 Maps of British Isles; 20 Scrap of Paper;
20 Fathers of Confederation.
At prevailing retail prices the books and other supplies issued would have cost 5137,249.90.
Requisitions to the number of 3,150 were filled by this Branch during the past school-year
for free text-books and supplies. In addition to these, 701 requisitions were filled for those
teachers in outlying districts who wished to purchase for their pupils books other than free
text-books which could not be secured in their vicinity, and also for those private individuals
or institutions desirous of purchasing books supplied free to the public schools. The sum of
•$3,090.30 was received from this source and paid into the Treasury for the credit of Vote 88,
" Text-books, Maps, etc."
As already stated, the Free Text-book Branch distributed during the past school-year textbooks and other supplies which would have cost parents and School Boards $137,249.90. To
purchase and distribute these among the various schools of the Province through the Free Textbook Branch required an expenditure of $90,487.40, made up as follows:—
Text-books  (Iaid-down cost)     .$76,879 00
Distribution  (freight, boxes, etc.)         2,777 13
Salaries of staff *       5,167 66
Temporary  assistance           558 75
Office supplies      5,104 86
Total  $90,487 40
The saving on the year's transactions is, therefore, $46,762.50.
During the school-year 1923-24 the Canadian Reader, Book One, replaced the B.C. Beginner's
Reader as the authorized text-book for the first-year pupils. This accounts for the large number
of copies of this book issued during the year.
The sales of books, not supplied free, to the pupils in the rural districts where there are
no local book-stores were greatly increased during the past school-year, and it is quite evident
that the plan of stocking and selling these books by the Free Text-book Branch is well appreciated
by the people of these districts. T 98 Public Schools Report. 1924
Night-schools.
Of the night-schools in operation during the past school-year, four were supplied with textbooks of some kind by the Free Text-book Branch. Supplies were issued to the pupils attending
these schools on the same conditions as in former years.
Returns for 1923-24.
The teachers' annual reports of free text-books for the school-year 1923-24 are all on file.
It was, however, found necessary to hold the supplies ordered by one or two schools until we
received this report. Neglect on the part of some teachers to send in their reports promptly
necessitated delay in the sending out of text-books and supplies to their schools.
From the annual returns and also from the requisitions received ordering supplies for the
school-year 1924-25, it is evident that many of the teachers are not taking proper care of the
books placed in the school for their use. A great many orders have been received for such
books as the Teachers' Writing Manual, MacLean Method, and the Syllabus of Physical
Exercises. These books were only issued to the schools a matter of two or three years ago and
should still be in good condition. In many cases they are not reported on hand in the school.
This shows that the teacher has made the error of believing that they are the personal property
of the teacher, whereas they are the property of the school in which the teacher is teaching.
I have, etc.,
J. A. Anderson,
Officer in Charge. 15 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. T 99
THE  STRATHCONA TRUST.
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust, for the
Province of British Columbia, for the School-year 1923-24.
• Victoria, B.C., October, 1924.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows on the work of the Local Committee for the
School-year 1923-24 :—
Instruction op Teachers in Physical Training, 1923-24.
A total of 621 students have qualified for Grade B physical-training certificates since last
report, as under:—
Normal School, Vancouver      358
Normal School, Victoria  .'     243
Summer School, Victoria       16
Cadet Services Courses        4
This is an increase of fourteen certificates over the number issued in 1922-23.
About  5,300  teachers   and  prospective  teachers  of  this  Province  have now  qualified  as
physical-training instructors.
Continued effort has been made to secure an increased standard of efficiency among students
at the Normal Schools, with the result that a fairly high percentage of candidates have not
come up to the standard set. It is felt, however, that further improvement in the work generally
must rest largely in the encouragement and supervision of physical training in the schools
themselves.
Physical Training, 1923-24.
The list of prize-winners of Strathcona Trust prizes for excellence in physical training is
as follows:—
High and Superior Schools.
P. N. Whitley, B.A., Division 4. High School, Kamloops; Miss Caroline N. Burridge, B.A.,
Division 5, High School, Oak Bay; P. C. Tees, King Edward High School, Vancouver.
(Note.—Three prizes in this group not awarded.)
Graded Schools (Five Divisions or more).
Miss Anna L. Bigney, Division 0, Lord Roberts School, Vancouver; Miss Edith L. Chapinan,
Division 15, Lord Nelson School, Vancouver; Miss Ethel B. Livingstone, Division 11, Tecumseh
School, South Vancouver; Miss Grace W. Killip, Division 5, Gordon School, South Vancouver;
Miss Vivian E. Brown, Division 10, Central School, New Westminster; Miss Mary Gladwell,
Division 19, Central School, Prince Rupert; H. D. Southam, Division 2, Granby Bay School,
Anyox; T. Aldworth, Division 1, Armstrong and Spallumeheen Consolidated School; Miss Sadie
Forrest. Division 6, Lonsdale School, North Vancouver; Miss Margaret C. Bannerman, Division 7,
Central School, Cranbrook; Miss Tryphena Sampson, Division 10, Central School, Kamloops;
Miss Muriel Knott, Division 9, Sir James Douglas School, Victoria; Miss Ada Keast, Division 4,
Girls' Central School, Victoria; Miss Marion Malott, Division 2, Salmon Arm School; H. B. King,
Division 1, General Gordon School, Vancouver; R. Straight, Division 1, Lord Tennyson School,
Vancouver; H. A. Eckardt, Division 1. Mission School; Miss Christine T. Murray, Division 10,
Dawson School, Vancouver; Miss M. Rosalind Wilson, Division 6, Simon Fraser School, Vancouver ; Mrs. L. Jewel Morrish, Division 5, Central School, Trail; Miss Gwendoline Owens,
Division 9, Consolidated School, Duncan; Miss Eliza Milligan, Division 7, Central School, Prince
George; Miss Leila L. Carroll, Division 3, Central School, Courtenay. y
T 100 Public Schools Report. 1924
Small Graded Schools (Two to Four Divisions).
Miss Elizabeth M. Bell, Division 2, Vananda Superior School; Mrs. Mary A. E. Bilton,
Division 1, County Line School, Langley Municipality; Miss Ruby J. Glaser, Divisiou 1, Naramata
School; J. N. Burnett, Division 1, Capitol Hill School, Burnaby Municipality; Miss Sydney G.
Timaeus, Corbin School; Miss Grace Meredith, Division 3, Fruitlands School; Miss Margaret E.
Beckwith, Division 2, Enderby School; Mrs. Verle Moore, Division 2, Silverton School; Miss
Winnifred McGibbon, Division 3, Sooke Superior School; Miss Kathleen M. Morrow, Division 2,
Vanderhoof School; Miss Annie Bailie, Division 2, Union Bay School.
Ungraded Schools.
Miss Jean C. McDiarmid, Inverholme School, Delta Municipality; Miss Louise Girling.
Anuiedale School, Surrey Municipality; Miss Phyllis Creighton, Oona River School; Miss Thelma
Hobbs, Kaleden School; Mrs. Olive Nye, Roche Point School, North Vancouver Municipality;
Miss Gretha Klein, Balfour School; Miss Florence W. Ardiel, Lytton School; Miss Hannah
Fracy, Divide School, Ganges Harbour; Miss Winnifred G. Lockwood, Gleneden School, Salmon
Arm Municipality; Miss Verna A. Chasteney, St. Vincent Bay School; Miss Kathleen F. Corry,
Bridesville School; Miss Stella Mason, Oyster School; Miss Inez Ratledge, Bouchie Lake School;
Miss Edith Chandler, Nob Hill School.
Three prizes of $10 each awarded to each of the eighteen inspectorates; amount expended
under this head, $510.
Physical Training, 1924-25.
For competition among the various schools during 1924-25 the sum of $30 has been granted
to each of the eighteen inspectorates. This sum is to be divided into three prizes of $10 each.
For purposes of competition and inspection the schools are to be divided into three groups or
classes, namely: Group A, of five divisions or more; Group B, of two to four divisions, inclusive;
Group C, of schools containing only one room or division. In any inspectorate where this
classification is found to be unsatisfactory the matter of dividing the schools into three groups
or classes for the purpose of awarding three prizes of equal value is to be left to the discretion
of the Inspector in charge.
In all cases, however, the teacher and the class are to be considered as the unit in making
comparisons for granting awards. The full amount of the award is to be expended for a picture
or some piece of apparatus (suitably inscribed) for the room in which the prize was won.
Only those teachers who are the holders of physical-training certificates granted under the
Strathcona Trust are eligible to compete.
School Cadet Corps, 1923-24.
The following report on the activities of the school cadet corps during 1923-24 was submitted
to the Local Committee by Captain J. M. Camming, Inspector, Cadet Services:—
" Number of school cadets between the ages of 12 aud 18 years trained
during the year 1923-24     5,407
Number of active school cadet units          53
" The above figures show a slight increase, both in the number of cadets trained and also
in the number of active corps, over the previous year.
" The standard of efficiency throughout the Province shows an improvement, which may be
attributed to the following reasons:—
"(1.) A few instructors whose work in the previous year was not considered to be of a
sufficiently high standard have been replaced.
"(2.) The elimination of certain subjects of purely military value and the withdrawal of
rifles from almost all corps has given opportunity to devote all cadet-training time to securing
physical and disciplinary benefits.
"(3.) The courses held for cadet instructors in 1923 have provided an increased supply of
highly trained instructors.
" It is deeply regretted that, owing to the continued necessity for economy in all public
affairs, cadet camps could not be held this year as a public charge. Camp equipment was placed
at the disposal of any cadet corps to hold camps in their own vicinity and at their own expense.
Successful camps were held in this way at four different points. It is sincerely hoped that
funds for cadet camps may be available in the summer of 1925. " A qualifying course for cadet instructors was held at Victoria from July 14th to August
16th, at which fifteen candidates qualified for certificates.
" A ' refresher' course, designed to meet the requirements of officers of the cadet services
who qualified some years ago, was held at Victoria from July 14th to July 20th, and was attended
by thirteen officers. This type of course proved to be of particular value in brushing up already
qualified instructors and also in correcting faults which had crept into their instruction.
" Hereunder is a list of the various cadet corps in order of merit as at their last annual
inspection, June, 1924 :—
(Possible marks 1,000.)
A Co. 101, King Edward, Vancouver  855
E Co. 101, Technical, Vancouver    850
D Co. 101, Technical, Vancouver  815
A Co. 388, Boys' Central, Victoria   810
D Co. 388, North Ward, Victoria  ,  800
101, Alexandra,  Vancouver    750
101, General Gordon, Vancouver   745
530, Mission    *  745
101, Tennyson,  Vancouver —  730
101, Aberdeen, Vancouver  710
530, T. J. Trapp, Westminster  700
101, Kitsilano,  Vancouver  690
349, Lampsou Street, Esquimalt   690
530, D. of C. High, Westminster  680
101, Henry Hudson, Vancouver  670
101, King George, Vancouver  640
101, Fairview, Vancouver     640
101, Britannia, Vancouver   I 640
388, Sir James Douglas, Victoria  640
101, Simon Fraser, Vancouver  630
101, Central, Vancouver  630
101, Cecil Rhodes, A'ancouver   625
101, Model,   Vancouver    618
101, Franklin,   Vancouver     615
101, Livingstone, Vancouver    615
388, Oaklands, Victoria   615
101, Lord Roberts, Vancouver  610
388, George Jay, Victoria  610
A Co. 101, Dawson, Vancouver  ,  005
112, Victoria, High, Victoria   600
1126, Armstrong, Armstrong   600
101, Lord Nelson, Vancouver  590
388, Victoria West, Victoria   590
101, Grandview, Vancouver   585
530, Central, Westminster  580
101, Strathcona, Vancouver   580
101, Laura Secord, Vancouver   580
101, Macdonald, Vancouver  560
388, Quadra,  Victoria    560
G Co. 530. Cloverdale, Surrey  530
101, Hastings, Vancouver  :  520
D Co. 530, Chilliwack,  510
388, South Park, Victoria  510
388, Margaret Jenkins, Victoria  510
268, Tecumseh, South Vancouver   510
604, Richard McBride, South Vancouver :.  510
938, Gilmore Avenue, Burnaby  510
B Co. 101, Dawson School, Vancouver  510 T 102 Public Schools Report. 1924
950, Merritt     510
952, Enderby     510
897, Vernon      510
432, Prince Rupert     510
101, Charles Dickens, Vancouver  .-..-     510"
Twenty-six prizes were awarded in accordance with the schedule adopted at the last meeting
of the Local Committee held October 27th, 1924, one-half of each prize to be paid to the corps
and one-half to the instructor, provided he is a public-school teacher qualified as a cadet
instructor. When the instructor is not a public-school teacher, one-half of the prize reverts
to the general fund of the Local Committee.
The expenditure under this head for 1923-24 amounted to $325, and was made according
to the following schedule: 1st prize, $25; 2nd prize, $20; 3rd and 4th prizes, $18; 5th and 6th
prizes, $16; 7th and Sth prizes, $14; 9th and 10th prizes, $12; 11th to 26th prizes, inclusive,
$10 each.
Riele Shooting.
From the grant for rifle shooting, 1923-24, prizes were provided for forty-four qualified
corps or units specified in returns—namely, $3.75«each; this amount to form cash prizes for
the three best shots in each corps or unit (1st prize, $1.50; 2nd prize, $1.25; 3rd prize, $1).
The expenditure under this head for 1923-24 amounted to $165.
Financial Statement for 1923-24.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Committee for 1923-24 amounted to $1,566.13 and
the expenditure for the year $1,005.01, leaving a balance of $564.87. Of the latter sum, $540
has already been voted for physical-training prizes for 1924-25.
Receipts.
1923^24. Balance on hand from 1922-23  $ 607 85
Interest to November 30th, 1923  13 49
Interest to May 31st, 1924   9 30
Allowance to Secretary (added to fund)   10 00
Grant for 1923-24   929 24
$1,569 88
Disbursements.
1923-24. Prizes for physical training ,  $ 510 00
Prizes for cadet-training   325 00
Prizes'for rifle shooting   165 00
Prize for rifle shooting omitted in last report   3 75
Revenue stamps for cheques   1 26
»
$1,005 01
Balance on hand  $ 564 87
I have, etc.,
J. L. Watson,
Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust,
for British Columbia.

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