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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. T. D. PATTULLO,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1928

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
THE FOEEST BEANCH
OF   THE
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. T. D. PATTULLO, Minister
P. Z. Caverhill, Chief Forester
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
192Y
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
102S.  Victoria, B.C., February 15th, 1928.
To His Honour Robert Randolph Bruce,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the  Forest Branch  of the
Bepartment of Lands for the year 1927.
T. D. PATTULLO,
Minister of Lands. The Hon. T. D. Pattullo,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1927.
P.  Z.   CAVERHILL, #
Chief Forester. o
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CD  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
While the volume of lumber cut for the year 1927 was almost as great as for the record
year 1926, and while the cut of the Douglas-fir mills and the water-borne business exceeded
that of the previous year, the slump in lumber values made for anything but satisfactory business conditions, and it is with no feeling of regret that the operators in general welcome the
opportunities of a new year. More optimism is apparent than has been noticed for some time
and in many respects seems justified. Building prospects are good and, it is expected, will, in
volume, reach or exceed that of 1927. The rail trade promises a larger volume. Retail and
yard stocks are low and must be replenished, while the snow and the winter shut-down have
had a stimulating effect on prices.
The year showed a still further concentration of cut in the Douglas-fir belt of the Lower
Coast, the scale for this species being 1,337,240 M.B.M. Economic conditions are such that, for
the time being, concentration appears necessary in order to compete with other Pacific Coast
regions, but it should be pointed out that, if British Columbia is to make the most of her opportunity as a timber-producer, the industry should be spread so as to use the annual growth of
each section of the Province.
The forest-fire record, reviewed in detail elsewhere in this Report, was the most satisfactory
within the decade. Undoubtedly weather conditions were a great aid in securing the results
obtained, but much credit is due to the untiring efforts of the field staff and to a growing
section of the public, who each year are taking greater precautions for the preservation of our
forest heritage.
The other activities of the Forest Branch, as reviewed hereafter, show a normal volume of
business, with increased revenue collections and increased timber-sale business at slightly
reduced stumpage prices. The revenues from forests amounted to $4,042,963.64 and were greater
than for any preceding year. The increase was entirely due to operations, as the receipts from
rentals and licence fees are gradually declining. More cruising and investigative work was
carried on during the year to meet the increasing demands for knowledge in regard to our timber
resources and their ultimate development.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
The area permanently dedicated to timber production was added to during the year by the
reservation of the Shuswap and East Thurlow Island Forests, totalling 437,900 acres. The total
area under reserve in all Provincial forests is now 5,860,000 acres.
The Shuswap Provincial Forest (416,000 acres) is situated north-east of Vernon and covers
the greater part of the Shuswap River drainage-basin (exclusive of the Dominion Railway Belt),
including Sugar Lake and the south half of Mabel Lake. A preliminary reconnaissance indicates the existence of 260,000 acres of land carrying either mature timber or young growth which
will develop into timber of commercial value. A survey will shortly be made to ascertain the
productive capacity of this forest.
The East Thurlorv Island Forest is situated on the island of that name lying off the Mainland Coast about 150 miles from Vancouver. The island has an area of 25,780 acres, of which
lakes cover 1,308 acres. A large quantity of excellent timber has been taken off this island, but
there is still remaining about 195,000 M.B.M. on 11,200 acres, of which 50 per cent, is fir. Areas
totalling 2,500 acres have agricultural possibilities and have not been included in the reserve.
Although these lands have been surveyed for settlement purposes, at present they contain fine
young stands coming up after early logging and may produce another timber-crop before being
in demand for farming. In the forest itself there are 4,900 acres of logged-off lands fully
stocked with young growth. k
Forest Surveys.
The remaining 700,000 acres of the Babine Forest were surveyed this year and this project
completed. The estimates of merchantable timber are now being compiled and the productive
capacity of the forest ascertained, so that a preliminary plan of management may be drawn up.
This will be designed to provide for the best economic use of the forest's products and, at the
same time, keep the growing stock in condition to produce an annual supply of merchantable B 6
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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■y FOREST BRANCH REPORT. 1927. B 7
timber in perpetuity. The total area of the forest is 1,291,000 acres, which have been found
to include 251,000 acres of mature timber, 506,000 acres of young growth, 187,000 acres of burnt
timber which is not yet restocking satisfactorily, 186,000 acres with cover of no commercial
importance, and 161,000 acres of mountain, lake, and swamp (see coloured diagram). Lodgepole-
pine stands, as young as 65 years on the better sites of this forest, can be thinned for hewn
railway-ties, and a regulated supply of timber for this product will be an important object of
this forest.
A survey was commenced of the Nehalliston Forest, which was created in 1924. This forest
covers the west side of the North Thompson River watershed, extending from the Railway Belt
in the south to Mahood Lake in the north. South from Mahood Lake 370,000 acres were
examined this year, including 98,000 acres of merchantable timber. Compilation of the data
on cruise-strips is proceeding, and it is apparent that there will prove to be a total of over
1,000,000 M.B.M. of merchantable timber on the area covered, 60 per cent, of the stand being
spruce. This timber averages about 11,000 F.B.M. per acre and is of good pulp quality.
Prospective purchasers are already interested in this area as a supply of pulp-wood. Lands
adjacent to the east boundary of this forest were examined for agricultural value, and the
boundary will be revised So as to exclude any area which is capable of development as farm
land and to include lands more suitable for timber production.
The Redonda Islands, about 100 miles up the coast from Vancouver, were examined as
timber-producing units. It was found that of the 42,000 acres of the West Island 12,000 still
carry merchantable timber estimated at over 185,000 M.B.M. On 3,500 acres young growth is
satisfactorily re-established and 4,300 acres of logged lands are not yet restocking. The island
is rugged and has 20,000 acres of non-productive mountain area, but the absence of agricultural
possibilities and the timber-productive value of a large part makes this island suitable for
reserve as a Provincial forest.
East Redonda Island is still more rough and mountainous, almost two-thirds of its 25,700
acres being incapable of producing timber of commercial quality. There are 2,200 acres of
mature timber with an estimated volume of 22,000 M.B.M., but this is largely inaccessible to
present logging methods, and the production of this island is likely to be confined to small
chances for hand-loggers and beach donkey-engines. It is not considered suitable for reserve
at the present time.
Estimates of the Aberdeen Forest, examined last year, were completed. This forest of
75,800 acres north-east of Vernon includes 18,700 acres of merchantable timber, estimated at a
total of 210,000 M.B.M.; 48,000 acres of young stands; and 9,000 acres of inaccessible or noncommercial growth. The timber is 32 per cent, spruce, 29 per cent, balsam, 18 per cent, fir, 14
per cent, larch, with a little cedar and pine. Attention of the local lumber industry has so far
been chiefly centred on yellow pine, but with the depletion of this species it is expected that the
merchantable stand of this forest will be in demand in the near future.
Improvements on Provincial Forests.
One standard lookout, situated on the Nehalliston Forest, and secondary lookouts, situated
on the Rossland Forest, Okanagan Forest, Shuswap Forest, and Kettle River Forest, were constructed during the year. Trails 85 miles in length were constructed or rebuilt and 43J/2 miles
of telephone-line were constructed to provide better communication on forest reserves. The
total cost of these improvements was $11,223.35.
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
Educational work among architects, contractors, builders, etc., in Eastern Canada, relative
to the use of British Columbia woods, was continued. Schools were supplied with literature
and samples of our woods, so that the pupils might become familiar with their quality and
uses.    This work met with the approval of both teacher and scholar.
The lumber exhibit at the Canadian National Exhibition was again rearranged and again
attracted a great deal of attention and favourable comment. That this work is effective is
shown by the increasing trade in this region. Water-borne cargoes destined for Eastern
Canada, shown separately this year for the first time, amounted to 51,717 M.B.M., and the
Eastern White Pine Association undertook similar market-extension work to recover part of
their market lost to British Columbia woods. B S
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Closely related to our market-extension work is that carried on for extending the use of
waste products. Through our efforts in this direction final arrangements are under consideration by one manufacturer for the establishing in British Columbia of a plant for the manufacture of screen doors and windows, the lumber requirements to be supplied from short lengths
for which no ready market now exists. The use and production of hog-fuel have been greatly
increased during 1927, and new markets have been found for sawdust as fuel in private residences and industrial plants. Samples of shingle-tow have been distributed to be used as a
substitute product for packing, and favourable comments are being received as to its use. An
order was secured during the year for fire-killed cedar poles to test their value under service
conditions. This follows up work done a year ago by the Forest Products Laboratory of the
Dominion Government in working out thorough strength tests for this product. It is hoped
that the market prejudice against fire-killed poles will soon be removed.
Extensive studies were started during the season with regard to log-bucking and grading,
and considerable data were gathered, final analysis of which will be compiled later in the year.
WATER-BORNE TRADE.
The water-borne trade shows considerable variation in markets.' Japan increased her buying from 177,193 M.B.M. to 191,598 M.B.M. Substantial increases were also recorded in the
requirements of Australia, South America, China, India, South Africa, and especially in the
West Indian trade, which nearly doubled. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the
trade with New Zealand, Europe, the Atlantic Seaboard, and the South Sea Islands. The total
water-borne trade was 4 per cent, greater than in 1926, and is a new high record. Details are
given in the table herewith.
Water-borne Lumber Trade.
Destination.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
Feet B.M.
55,949,129
4,516,862
3,244,776
24,640,268
72,339,531
12,698,383
2,415,500
7,249,487
83,856,504
94,764
30,065
1,841,578
4,269,963
Feet B.M.
78,003,423
11,252,890
717,600
36,398,234
105.916,915
16,201,290
8,221,032
4,803,236
248,611,600
4,361,139
994,341
3,665,241
677,756
1,705,394
177,041
Feet B.M.
34,848,783
12,169,230
752,906
25,695,993
79,107,984
41,627,008
10,681,208
2,228,150
313,104,821
134,690
544,604
3,454,183
6,883,150
229,608
Feet B.M.
40,228,887
12,619.730
2,168,921
10,783,086
67,671,449
53,845,679
8,875,544
3,369,869
361,016,940
56,863
667,012
2,610,143
12,820,848
835,317
Feet B.M.
36,809,373
16,201,328
1,160,947
4,615,921
177,193,659
41,575,593
17,651,788
1,663,675
400,347,692
221,378
8,792,765
3,791,670
2,573,529
154,038
Feet B.M.
53,502,046
10,847,545
South America    	
2,168,973
9,178.973
United Kingdom and Continent.
191,697,552
36,427,449
18,562,680
India and Straits Settlements ...
United States and Atlantic Coast
Philippine and Hawaiian Islands.
3,666,713
392,074,528
1,734,314
16,023,319
1,884,632
Egypt	
2,649,559
12,047
Totals	
273,146,800
521,707,132
531,262,318
577,560,288
712,743,256
740,230,330
VALUE OF LUMBER PRODUCTS.
The value of forest products shows a decline for the year.    This is due to the lower price
received for lumber and the curtailment in shingle production.    Box production also shows a
sharp decline.    Pulp and paper and many of the minor forest products,  on the other hand,
show a substantial increase.    The details are  shown in the table herewith.
Estimated Value of Production.
Product.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
$26,400,000
12,590,000
9,750,000
1,726,000
969,000
1,187,000
1,526,000
2,000,000
400,000
2,939,000
$47,600,000
15,018,000
9,869,000
2,072,000
2,200,000
1,500,OHO
1,715,000
2,000,000
500,000
4,200,000
$41,S0O,00O
13,938,000
10,000,000
2,272,000
2,100,000
1,400,000
2,242,000
2,100,000
550,000
4,300,000
$41,350,000
14,466,000
10,000,000
2,200,000
2,400,000
1,800,000
1,990,000
2,100,000
1,617,000
3,870,000
148,000
$42,516,000
16,315,000
10,500,000
3,000,000
2,792,000
1,414,000
1,420,000
2,100,000
1,500,000
3,170,000
75,000
$84,802,000
$40,487,000
18,505,000
6,800,000
1,707,000
4,030,000
Cordwood. fence-posts, and mine-ties	
Additional value contributed by  the wood-using
1,405,000
1,440,000
2,100,000
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
2,000,000
4,561,000
52,000
Totals	
$59,477,000
$86,674,000
$80,702,000
$81,941,000
$83,087,000 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927.
B 9
PULP AND PAPER.
Since the opening of new units at Powell River a considerable increase is noted in newsprint
production. Many inquiries have been received during the year, and active investigations were
carried on by the Canadian Forest Products Company and the Canadian Crown Willamette
Company into power possibilities intended for future pulp-development. It would seem that the
near future promises considerable further expansion of this phase of industry.
Pulp.
Pulp.
1919.
1920.
1921.
Tons.
68,502
6,519
89,725
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
Ground wood	
Tons.
80,347
9,473
99,769
Tons.
92,299
16,380
108,665
Tons.
86,894
9,674
100,759
Tons.
99,878
9,932
107,266
Tons.
89,839
14,403
112,001
Tons.
92,514
16,856
121,363
Tons.
108,381
15,000
136,123
Tons.
119,005
13,700
163,548
Paper.
Product.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
Newsprint	
Other papers	
Tons.
123,607
7,202
Tons.
136,832
9,792
Tons.
110,176
6,934
Tons.
124,639
7,945
Tons.
142,928
7,709
Tons.
136,281
9,653
Tons.
148,201
9,261
Tons.
176,924
10,389
Tons.
214,010
13,745
The ground-wood pulp is almost wholly used in the manufacture of newsprint at our own
mills, and 50,000 tons of the sulphite pulp also goes into this production.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONAL.
The following table gives a classification of personnel:—
Distribution of Force, 1927.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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FOREST RESEARCH.
The research activities of the Forest Branch were continued during the year in order to
build up a foundation of accurate data on which to base administration decisions. Owing to
the resignation of J. L. Alexander, who had charge of Coast work, a reorganization had to be
undertaken, all the research projects throughout the Province being brought together in one
division of the Branch. B 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Silviculture.
Silvicnltural investigation has for its object the securing of information dealing with
reforestation and the subsequent tending and maturing of the forest-crop.
Regeneration Survey.—During the year a general survey was made, covering areas cut over
on the Northern Coast for aeroplane spruce during the Great War (1917-18), to determine the
extent to which these areas were restocking by natural regeneration and what amount of spruce
was being secured in the new crop. Careful tallies were made on sixty representative logged-off
areas on the Queen Charlotte Islands and in the Ocean Falls District, and an approximately
equal number of areas was checked over less intensively. The field-notes of this study include
tallies of about 800 separate sample plots, and these may be considered in the aggregate as being-
representative of the cut-over lands as a whole. These plots show that 68 per cent, of the area
has over 1,000 seedlings per acre; 12 per cent, has over 500, but under 1,000; 9 per cent, has
over 250, but under 500; and II per cent, has under 250 seedlings. The significant feature of
these findings is that 80 per cent, of the areas examined contain more than 500 young trees per
acre.    For the whole region the new growth was found to exist in the following proportions :—
Per Cent.
Spruce —.    "A
Hemlock         3S
Cedar       31
Total  .'.  :  100
The forests of this region are at present chiefly used for pulp-wood; and spruce and hemlock, the two pulp species, represent in the. reproduction 69 per cent, of the whole. While
hemlock exists now in larger proportions, it is likely, as the stands become older, that the
superior vigour of'the spruce will enable it to crowd out some of the slower-growing hemlock
and cedar in natural thinning, and that the proportion of spruce in the mature second crop
should be appreciably larger than in the present stands of very young trees. The areas studied
have been almost wholly free from fire and the effect of burning in these stands cannot yet be
predicted. The fire-hazard here is low, however, and in the past fire has played only a small
part in forest maintenance.
Seed Dissemination.—The experiments by means of seed-traps used in former years were
continued without addition to the number of traps.. The following table shows the total amount
of fertile seed of each species caught, at various distances from green timber during the period
from November 5th, 1926, to January 1st, 1928:—
Species.
Number
of Fertile Seed falling per Acre in Green Timber and at Varying
Distances (in Chains) from it.
In Green
Timber.
2.
5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.
40.
50.
60. ! 70.
259    ..
259    ..
518 i   .
80.
3,180
2,722
3,141
9,043
181
650
831
113
822
794
1,729
96
2S6
573
145
140
279
478
764
1,242
82'
82
—
242
121
363
955
464
It will be seen that this table covers the latter distributions from the seed-crop of 1926, as
well as such seed of the 1927 crop as was taken up to January. 1st, 1928. As there is a very
marked similarity between the seed-crops of these two seasons there is no confusion of issue by
joint consideration of the figures.
The seeds from cedar and hemlock, being much lighter than those of Douglas fir, are carried
long distances. Although these long-distance distributions of cedar and hemlock, taken over a
period of years, will help to build up the restocking of partially denuded areas, yet only 15 per
cent, of the total hemlock and 10 per cent, of the cedar seeds caught were found beyond 25
chains from green timber. This fact indicates that these long-distance distributions should not.
be relied upon where the leaving of seed-trees is contemplated. In submitting these figures
it should be stated that the studies from which they are derived were made during poor seed- FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927.
B 11
years. The poor quality of-the crops during these years is shown by the fertility percentages,
which for the species concerned were: Douglas fir, 12 per cent.; hemlock, 20 per cent.; and
cedar, 33 per cent. A good seed-year will probably show a greatly improved condition in relation to seedlings established.
Further study was carried out in January, 1927, at Malpas, Oregon, in which the British
Columbia Forest Service co-operated with the Pacific Coast Experiment Station. Seeds of
various forest trees were released from a kite at elevations approximating the average height
of dominant mature trees of the species under study, and the seeds fell on snow-covered plough-
land. After distribution the seeds were immediately counted and recorded according to the
distance of spread from point of release.    The results obtained were as follows:—
Species.
Douglas fir	
Douglas fir.  	
Hemlock	
Western red cedar
White pine	
Yellow pine	
Distance attained in Chains bv Per Cent, of Total Seed distributed.
Elevation
at Release
in Feet.
200
200
200
200
200
150
Wind-velocity
in Miles per
Hour.
6.5
23
12
9
14
13
Distance in Chains.
0-9.
9-18.
18-27.
27-36.
27
07
6
7
16
31
26
6
17
20
39
17
72
11
34
9
37
19
25
68
7
This table shows that wind-velocity has a marked effect on seed-distribution, and at first
sight it indicates a wider range of distribution than that suggested by our seed-trap studies.
There are, however, several points to consider. First, it must be remembered that the seeds,
after being released from the cones, encounter a certain amount of resistance in their flight
through the branches which they did not meet with in the flight from the kite. Second, the
wind-velocity in the lee of the seed-tree is reduced. And, third, all cones are not borne at the
elevation of the tree-tops.
Seed Germination and Seedling Survival in the Forest.—A study of the survival, during
the first growing season, of seedlings of Douglas fir and its associated species, and the cause of
mortality, was carried out by means of observations on a series of twenty-four plots laid out
on selected areas of cut-over land at Cowichan Lake, on Vancouver Island. This study was a
continuation of similar work carried out in the Gordon Pasha Lakes region during 1926. The
purpose of this work is to determine what conditions are necessary for the survival of young
seedlings which become established in the Douglas-fir type by natural seeding of forest lands',
particularly those which have been burned over. As the causes and intensities of mortality are
found to vary with weather and with site, it is desirable to carry out further work along these
lines before conclusions of any practical use can be given.
Miscellaneous Studies.—Eleven permanent plots which had been established during previous
years were re-examined during 1927. These are under observation for various purposes as
follows :—
Studies of natural reproduction     '
Seasonal growth     i
Density of young stands     1
Seedling mortality     l
Nursery Practice.—A small forest nursery was established near Victoria for the production
of tree seedlings for experimental plantings. Fifteen nursery beds have been laid out for the
first year's sowing and ground prepared for extension of the work in the spring of 1928.
An examination of the experimental planting of alder as a fire-break, started in 1925, shows
that where conditions are favourable it has already reached the height of 8 feet, but on the
unfavourable, drier sites mortality was high and growth is slow.
An examination of the plantings of the redwood, ash, and Manitoba maple shows that,
although the survival is high, growth is slow. It is probable that some of these species may
show greater growth after becoming fully established. , B 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Regeneration in the Spruce-Balsam Region.—The Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Station
was established in 1924 as a centre for experimental work in the extensive forests of the Central
Interior. A forest experiment station bears the same relation to forestry and the forest industries as does an experimental farm to agriculture. The continued prosperity of a considerable
portion of Central British Columbia, particularly the valley of the Upper Fraser, depends upon
the perpetuation of its forest resources, and the main object of the Station at Aleza Lake is
to secure the data necessary to maintain or increase the producing capacity of this region. The
Station forest of 6,400 acres is being handled as an experimental model for the forests of the
district. In it the cut of timber each year does not exceed the annual growth, and various
cutting methods are being applied experimentally in an effort to develop the ideal system of
silviculture and protection.
During 1927 the most important phase of the work at the Experiment Station was the
continuation of the study of the factors controlling the natural reproduction of spruce. This
was undertaken in 1925 and is a basic investigation of the factors of seed-supply, soil types,
competition of other vegetation, succession, and soil-moisture. It is to be continued through
several successive growing seasons. Most of the work is done on sample plots in which the
various factors are kept under control. The 1927 investigations were mainly concerned with
the relations of soil-moisture and seedling survival.    The field data are now being compiled.
During the winter of 1926-27 an investigation was started of the costs and relative advantages of various methods of brush-disposal in the spruce type. This was carried out in an
experimental logging operation in the Experiment Station forest. The experiments are being
continued during the winter of 1927-28, and it is expected that a method of disposal will be
developed that will be applicable to the forests of the region. Complete disposal of slash by
piling and burning will remove much of the fire-hazard that ordinarily exists in cut-over lands
■of this type, but the indicated cost will be a heavy burden on operations, which under present
conditions are not remunerative.
Improvements at the Experiment Station during the year included the erection of a building
to serve as quarters for the field staff and the preparation of a piece of ground for an experimental forest nursery. An observation-tower and several miles of new trail were constructed
to improve the system of fire detection. The Station road was considerably improved and a
short piece of new road constructed for logging-work.
Mensuration Studies.
Three new volume tables were completed during the year, two for balsam in the Interior,
in cubic feet and board-feet, and one for spruce in the Interior in cubic feet. Copies of these
tables are presented in this report.
The yield table for lodgepole pine, for which data were secured in 1926 and 1927, is presented here. It is of a preliminary nature and will be corrected from time to time as new
and more complete data of growth become available by the remeasurement of growth-plots.
A similar table for Engelmann spruce is in course of construction.
A preliminary yield table for Douglas fir was published in the Annual Report for 1924.
Since then a series of permanent sample plots has been established to furnish more accurate
information, and this work was continued in 1927 with the measurement and reservation of six
additional plots.
Eight permanent plots, established in the yellow-pine forests of the Southern Interior in
1922, were remeasured in 1927, as the first of a series of remeasurements at intervals of five
years.
Lodgepole Pine Yield Table, 1928.
These tables are based on eighty-nine sample plots taken in fully stocked stands of lodgepole pine in the Babine and Nehalliston Forest Reserves. Site classification is based on the
average height attained by the dominant and co-dominant trees of the stand at 80 years of age.
All values are for the partial stand comprising all trees 6 inches and over at breast-height. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927.
B 13
Site Index 40—Partial Stand 6 Inches and Over.
Total Age.
No. of Trees
D.B.H. of
Height of
Basal Area
Merch. Vol.
No. of Ties
per Acre.
Average Tree.
Average Tree.
per Acre.
per Acre.
per Acre.
20
30
Inches.
Feet.
Sq. Ft.
Cu. Ft.
40
28
6.0
25
5
76
50
114
6.4
30
25
400
GO
180
6.9
34
47
835
70
235
7.1
37
64
1,250
SO
288
7.3
40
85
1,710
90
330
7.5
42
100
2,100
100
350
7.7
44
110
2,610
110
352
7.8
45
118
2,700
120
366
7.9
46
124
2,840
130
366
S.O
46
130
3,120
90
140
367
S.2
47
134
3,320
110
ISO
367
8.3
47
137
3,440
120
Site Index 60—Partial Stand 6. Inches and Over.
Total Age."
No. of Trees
D.B.H. of
Height of
Basal Area
Merch. Vol.
No. of Ties
per Acre.
Average Tree.
Average Tree.
per Acre.
per Acre.
per Acre.
20
Inches.
Feet.
Sq. Ft.
Cu. Ft.
30
40
96
6.4
37
22
410
50
200
6.8
45
52
1,150
60
285
7.2
51
83
2,000
70
337
7.6
56
105
2,700
SO
370
7.9
60
123
3,400
90
387
8.2
63
138
4,060
80
100
394
8.3
65
150
4.600
135
110
396
8.6
67
158
5,130
180
120
398
8.7
68
165
5,470
225
130
395
8.9
69
168
5,670
250
140
390
9.0
70
171
5,900
285
150
380
9.1
71
174
6,070
320
Site Index 80—Partial Stand 6 Inches and Over.
Total Age.
No. of Trees
D.B.H. of
Height of
Basal Area
Merch. Vol.
No. of Ties
per Acre.
Average Tree.
Average Tree.
per Acre.
per Acre.
per Acre.
Inches.
Feet.
Sq. Ft.
Cu. Ft.
. 20
30
100
6.5
37
23
425
40
226
7.1
49
66
1,560
50
340
7.7
60
105
2,830
60
365
8.2
68
135
4,200
120
70
374
8.8
75
157
5,300
240
80
370
9.2
SO
171
6.200
335
00
360
9.6
84
179
6,920
420
100
346
9.9
87
187
7,550
520
110
334
10.2
89
191
8,060
605
120
324
10.5
91
196
» 8,550
630
130
312
10.7
93
200
8,850
680
140
306
11.0
94
202
9,000
710
150
297
11.2
95
203
9,100
720 B 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Engelmann Spruce—Interior of British Columbia.
Total Height in Feet.
40.       50.       60
80. 90.       100.       110.       120.       130.       140.       150.       160.       170.
Merchantable Volume in Cubic Feet.
Average.
6
3
3    4
5
1.0
3.6
8
6
7    8
10
11
13
1.2
8.5
10
9
1    14
16
18
21
23
1.4
16.4
12
12
6   19
23
26
29
33
36
40
1.5
27.2
14
1   25
30
34
39
43
48
52
57
1.7
40.3
16
6   31
37
43
48
54
60
66
71
77
1.9
55.0
18
1    3S
45
52
59
66
73
80
87
94
2.0
70.1
20
45
53
61
70
78
86
94
102
111
119
2.2
86.0
22
52
61
71
81
91
101
110
120
130
140
2.4
104.0
24
71
82
94
106
117
128
140
151
162
174  ...
2.5
127.0
26
82
95
108
122
135
148
161
174
187
201
2.7
166.0
28
108
123
138
154
169
184
199
214
229
2.9
192.0
30
123
141
158
175
193
210
227
245
262  ...
3.0
225.0
32
159
17S
198
218
237
257
277
296   316   3.2
261.0
34
178
200
222
245
267
289
311
333   366   3.4
298.0
36
224
249
274
299
323
348
373   398   3.5
330.0
38
248
276
303
331
359
387
414   442   3.7
364.0
40
273
304
335
.365
396
427
458   488   3.9
400.0
Based on measurements of 1,532 trees. Top D.I.B., 5 inches. Converted from total cubic foot volume
table by deducting tbe volume contained in stump and top. Original table compiled by form factor method.
Abbreviated from Barnes,  1926.
Balsam—Volume Table in Board-feet, Interior of British Columbia.
D.B.H.
Total Height in Feet.
110. 120.
Volume in Board-feet.
Average
Volume.
8
10
20
30
40
40
30
10
30
40
50
60
70
90
60
12
60
70
80
100
120
140
150
160
180
110
14
100
110
140
160
190
210
240
270
280
290
170
16
130
140
170
200
240
280
320
360
390
410
240
18
170
200
240
290
350
400
470
510
540
310
20
230
270
340
420
490
590
660
730
400
22
300
380
600
600
730
830
940
500
24
340
430
670
720
880
1,040
1,220
620
26
480
600
870
1,080
1,310
1,650
790
28
530
770
1,050
1,300
1,640
1,970
990
30
600
880
1,310
1,600
2,050
2,530
1,300
Based on measurements of 303 trees. Stump-height. 1 foot. Top D.I.B., 6 inches at S inches D.B.H.
to 8 inches at 30 inches D.B.H. Compiled hy curving average volumes by 1-inch D.B.H. and 10-foot height
classes, on D.B.H. and total height. (Contents rounded off to nearest 10 feet for cruising purposes.) Barnes,
1926.
Balsam Fir—Volume in Merchantable Cubic Feet, Interior of British Columbia.
Total Height in Feet.
Average.
40.
50.
60.
70.
80.
90.
160.
110.
120.
130.
140.
Height.
Vol.
V
)lume in
Cubic Fe
et.
6
4
)    6
7
46
4.5
8
7
i   10
12
14
56
10.3
10
10
1
1   15
18
20
23
66
17.7
12
14
1
21
25
28
32
35
40
43
74
27.0
14
27
32
36
41
46
51
55
60
81
37.2
16
34
39
45
51
57
63
69
76
87
60.4
18
40
48
55
62
69
76
83
90
97
92
66.0
20
56
65
73
81
90
98
106
115
96
82.6
22
75
85
95
105
114
124
133
99
100.0
24
86
98
109
120
131
142
164
101
119.0
26
98
111
123
136
149
162
175
104
137.0
28
124
139
163
167
182
196
107
156.0
30
137
154
170
186
202
218
109
175.0
Based on measurements of 277 trees in the Northern Interior. Stump-height, 1 foot. Top D.I.B..
3 inches. Converted from total cubic foot volume table hy deducting the volume contained in stump and
top.     Original table compiled by form factor  method     Barnes,  1926. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927. B 15
FOREST-FIRE RESEARCH.
In the Vancouver Forest District a study was made of the operation and efficiency of the
various types of spark-arresters in use on logging machinery. Field tests were carried out on
donkey-engines in operation in a number of representative logging camps, and the data secured
will be used by the field staff of the Branch in inspecting and securing the more efficient use of
this fire-prevention equipment. The studies have shown that any make of spark-arrester will
emit sparks which, under favourable conditions, will start fires. The study points to the necessity of operators keeping the area immediately surrounding the spark-arrester wet down when
operating in dry weather, and especially during periods of low relative humidity; also to the
necessity for inspectors, engineers, and camp foremen keeping close watch on the physical condition of the arrester and maintaining it in a most effective manner.
The investigation of fire-behaviour undertaken in 1926 was continued during 1927. A number
of fires in slash areas in the Douglas-fir region were studied in an effort to determine the
factors controlling their intensity and rate of spread. The purpose of this work is to furnish
information which will assist the field staff of the Branch in measuring the fire-hazard of forest
areas, so that the more intensive protection may be given where the danger of fire occurrence
is greatest, or where fires burn with the greatest intensity once they have started. More field-
work is necessary before definite conclusions can be drawn.
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY.
The 1927 control-work on bark-beetles in the yellow pine south of Merritt, as forecasted
in last year's report, was confined to the recleaning of areas previously worked over, in addition
to treatment of scattered infestations. A total of 3,188 yellow-pine and lodgepole-pine trees was
cut and the bark burned at an average cost of $1.95 per tree.
The yellow-pine infestation has now been cleaned up to such an extent that no control-work
in 1928 is contemplated. A small amount of work may be necessary in subsequent seasons to
take care of any reappearance of the infestation. Since cessation of logging operations in
yellow pine no more epidemics seem to be starting.
Insect-control in the lodgepole-pine stands of the Kelowna watershed was continued in 1927
with a view to determining the possibilities of control of the depredations caused by the beetle
Dendroctonus monticola. The season's work entailed the destruction of 6,448 trees at an average
cost of 74.9 cents. The infestation is on the decline and it is anticipated that the number of
trees requiring treatment in the spring of 1928 will be greatly reduced. Control-work in this
particular area tends to maintain a barrier between a large infested area of lodgepole pine east
of Penticton, extending southward to the International Boundary, and the extensive stands of
the same species to the north-east and over the divide on the Kettle River watershed.
This species of beetle is making depredations in the lodgepole-pine stands in several parts
of the Province. In addition to the area east of Penticton referred to above, the extent of which
was revealed by observations made during an aeroplane flight, heavy damage is being caused
over an area of 16,000 acres in the Fishtrap country west of the North Thompson. It does not
at present appear practicable to institute control measures in infestations of this size.
Mr. Ralph Hopping and his assistants of the Entomological Branch of the Dominion
Department of Agriculture were actively engaged in investigation of destructive tree-insects
throughout all pa?ts of the Province. The results of these investigations may be summarized as
follows :—
The spruce-aphis (Myxaphis abietina), previously reported in the Queen Charlotte Islands,
was again investigated and it was found that the area infested was somewhat larger than that
of the previous year. However, the opinion is expressed that the peak of the epidemic is past
and that in ensuing years a comparatively small amount of new timber will be attacked by
this insect.
The infestation in Douglas fir on the Coast by the Douglas-fir bark-beetle (Dendroctonus
pseudotsugce), reported as epidemic over certain restricted localities in the year 1924 and subsequently subsiding in 1925, was again reported as active in the vicinity of Topaz Harbour. This
is said to be due to the absence of a continuous progression of slash areas that would tend to
absorb the emergence of adult beetles. Plans have been made by the logging company interested
to log immediately the infested stand, thus effecting a complete salvage of the infested timber. B 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Systematic disposal of slash by burning before the emergency of adult beetles, and continuous
progression of fresh slash areas in the direction opposite to the source of prevailing winds, are
indicated as remedial measures.
Further studies of the life-history of the flathead borer (Trachykele blondeli) and the
damage caused by it to the cedar on the Lower Coast result in the following general conclusions :—
(1.) The cedar-borer infestation has a definite altitudinal limit, around 800 feet above sea-
level, above which it does not occur.
(2.) The results of strength tests on infested poles compare favourably with those obtained
using sound cedar pole timber.
(3.)  Immersion in water immediately after logging has little effect in destroying the larvte.
(4.)   Seasoning of cut poles kills many of the larvae.
A detailed report on this study of the flathead borer will be published by the Entomological
Branch of the Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, in the form of a bulletin.
A detailed study of the spruce bud-worm was commenced, in which particular attention is
being given to its life-history and parasites. The outbreaks in various parts of the Province
will also be watched from year to year. An inspection during the summer of those infestations
mentioned in last year's Annual Report shows that four out of the five small infestations on
Vancouver Island are on the decline, and that the outbreak in the Quesnel Lake region has again
almost entirely subsided.
Four minor areas of insect-infestation other than bark-beetles of the genus Dendroctonus
were investigated in East Kootenay. To date all infestations in this section have been of a
sporadic nature, seldom lasting more than one season. Consequently, preventive measures are
not advisable.
An infestation in spruce on Babine Lake near Morrison River was examined and found to
consist of a bark-beetle attack (Dendroctonus borealis) which, during the past five years, has
killed the spruce over an area of 11,000 acres. Artificial control measures are not advised,
particularly as indications point to the fact that this infestation will be on the decline after 1927.
PATHOLOGICAL  STUDY  OF  FUNGUS  AFFECTING  BALSAM FIR.
This investigation was undertaken to ascertain the cause and extent of decay in balsam fir
(Abies lasiocarpa), with a view to providing a more ready means of recognizing defective trees,
thus avoiding loss in effort of cutting such for logs and loss in stumpage through the leaving of
sound trees, which the logger presumed were defective, and also, if possible, means for the ultimate eradication of the fungus.
The study was conducted at the Forest Experiment Station, Aleza Lake, where the stand
consists almost entirely of Engelmann spruce and balsam fir. Plots were laid out to represent
the various aspects found in the forest. Notes were taken on individual trees covering the
general appearance; the character of the bark and the presence and nature of injuries; the
D.B.H. (diameter at breast-height) ; stump-height; total height; length, width, and condition
of crown; age at stump; the average width of sap-rings; and the D.I.B. (diameter inside
bark). The tree was then felled, cut up into 10-foot sections, and the diameter of typical
and incipient rot at the end of each section was recorded. In order to ascertain the upper and
lower limits of the rot the logs containing these were further dissected or split*where necessary.
Of the 502 trees examined, 290, or 57.7 per cent., were unsound, the decay representing 17.4
per cent, of the total volume. In practically all cases the whole of this decay was due to the
Indian-paint fungus (Echinodontium tinctorium E. & E.), infection taking place through branch
stubs or wounds.
As a means of recognizing diseased individuals in the stand the presence of sporophores
(conks) was found to be the only safe criterion. These, however, were frequently absent on
badly decayed specimens, so that their absence cannot be taken to signify freedom from rot.
The presence of a rusty-red colour in the branch stubs, when they are opened with an axe, and
the presence of wounds or ragged branch stubs on the trunk also indicate the presence of fungus.
The balsam fir throughout this stand showed evidences of severe suppression and this, without doubt, intensifies the infection. Volunteer growth is largely balsam fir, so that, as far as
the future forest is concerned, one may expect this species to play an important part. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927.
B 17
The probable average age of first infection in the stand was found to be approximately 120
years. Above this age there was a steady increase, both in the number of unsound trees and
in the percentage volume of rot. If, then, the present diseased trees could be removed during
logging and suitable cultural methods followed, together with a fairly short rotation, a stand
of balsam well suited for pulp-wood could be obtained.
FOREST RESOURCES OF THE PROVINCE.
In conjunction with the extensive surveys being made of the Provincial Forests, reconnaissances, cruises for timber-sales and land classification which have been carried on since the
Forest Branch was created, an estimate is now being prepared of the forest resources of the
entire Province. Towards the attainment of this object the assistance of private timber-owners
is being sought and freely given. It is expected that preliminary estimates of the greater part
of the known forest areas of the Province will be made available from time to time. Meanwhile
the resources of part of Vancouver Island have already been estimated. For example, on the
3,296 square miles of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Land Grant it is estimated that there
are 21,000,000 M.B.M. of merchantable timber still standing, 70 per cent, of which is fir. In
addition to the mature forests above mentioned are considerable areas logged or burned a decade
or more ago, which have restocked with second growth, some of which is now over 25 feet high.
RECONNAISSANCE.
A cruise was made of timber tributary to Kildala Arm, at the head of Douglas Channel, in
the Prince Rupert District. Twenty thousand acres were covered, of which 15,000 were found
to contain merchantable timber totalling 317,800 M.B.M., 50 per cent, hemlock, 30 per cent,
balsam, 10 per cent, spruce, and 10 per cent, cedar.
An extensive reconnaissance was made of the Morice River watershed, in the Prince Rupert
District. The Morice is the largest tributary of the Bulkley River and drains the east slopes
of the Coast Range. The area explored contained 1,650 square miles. The upper part of the
watershed, including two large lakes, Morice (2,600 feet elevation) and Nanika (3,100 feet),
does not contain any important bodies of timber. It covers high mountain ranges and glaciers.
The lower valleys contain an interior type of forest, estimated to include 52,000 acres of merchantable timber, with approximately 2,000,000 lodgepole-pine ties, 40,000 M.B.M. spruce, and
15,000 M.B.M. balsam. This timber could be taken out by flume and driving the Morice River
to the Canadian National Railway, although some stream improvements would be necessary
before undertaking driving. The reservation of this river-valley as a Provincial Forest is under
consideration.
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
The classification of lands surveyed for settlement in the Prince George District was continued. One hundred and four thousand acres in the vicinity of Prince George, along the
Cariboo Highway and adjacent to the Pacific Great Eastern line, were examined. Lots totalling
51,700 acres were found to be suitable for agricultural development, with for the most part a
heavy clay type of soil, and all requiring clearing. Of this agricultural land, 3,5S0 acres carry
statutory timber, estimated at 31,500 M.B.M. and 211,000 hewn ties. On 12,600 acres not suitable
for agricultural development an estimated stand of 70,200 M.B.M. and 297,000 ties was found.
The total estimate on the wmole 104,000 acres examined was 117,800 M.B.M. and 9S4,000 ties.
Aeeas examined foe Miscellaneous Purposes of " Land Act."
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George....
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert. .
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Totals...
Applications for
Crown Grants.
Acres.
159
160
319
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
No.
17
17
Acres.
3,946
3,946
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
No.
65
39
23
24
12
22
Acres.
10,240
6,063
3,087
3,567
1,834
2,532
27,323
Applications to
Purchase.
No.
30
66
6
28
94
267
Acres.
3,614
12,035
980
6,126
19,254
3,896
' 45.S05
Miscellaneous.
455
27
60
1,217
Acres.
4,500
104,820
185
89,8«7
3,726
6,195
208,293 B 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Gassification of Areas examined in 1927.
TIMBER TAXATION CRUISING.
In the Prince George District 1,553 acres were examined for the Taxation Branch; 1,174
acres of these Crown-granted lots were found to contain statutory timber amounting to 11,940
M.B.M.;  379 acres, containing 730 M.B.M., were found not to be statutory timber land. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927.
B 19
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DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
LOGGING OPERATIONS.
The number of logging operations reported during the year was 3,590 and the total number
of logging inspections made was 8,661. Both these figures are high records for the Branch.
Many of the operations were small, but required field supervision to see that the material was
properly marked, that no trespass occurred, and that the revenue of the Branch was safeguarded. As a result of the inspections eighty-three cases of trespass were discovered and
penalties imposed amounting to $9,097.53. In addition twenty-six cases of trespass on private
lands were discovered and reported to the owners for action. The details of logging inspections
and trespasses are shown on the following tables :—
Logging Inspection, 1927.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
71
272
50
534
860
297
127
"6
61
242
77
247
624
632
122
514
127
908
984
935
190
1,079
Prince Rupert	
418
1,563
2,167
3,254
Totals, 1927	
1,584
183
1,873
3,590
8,661
Totals, 1926	
1,475
84
1,921
3,453
7,921
Totals, 1926	
1,262
54
09
166
1,730
3,046
7,321
Totals, 1924   	
1,245
1,853
3,167
7,466
Totals, 1923	
1,010
914
691
2,140
3,316
6,892
Totals, 1922	
159
1,579
2,652
4,654
Totals, 1921	
186
1,331
2,208
2,796
4,053
Totals, 1920	
605
220
1,961
2,703
TRESPASSES, 1927.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert	
Southern Interior..
Vancouver	
Totals, 1927
Totals, 1926
Totals, 1925
Totals, 1924
Totals, 1923
Totals, 1922
Totals, 1921
Totals. 1920
No. o(
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
7
11
3
14
32
16
83
84
64
32
10
54
169
90
399
541
645
87
68
570
105
1,015
98
1,059
98
1,938
73
1,788
Quantity cut.
109,287
32,229
22,065
405,645
1,095,630
626,070
2,200,926
1,972,843
3,486,609
2,182,808
6,712,868
3,002,881
3,222,673
4,904,079
Lineal
Feet.
11,500
12,106
6,461
8,655
9,149
47,871
144,357
98,456 '
54,068
121,202
98,903
209,395
104,048
324
99
2,376
1,563
767
1,598
2,591
1,639
1,882
861
1,915
38
4,576
2,270
16,820
7,646
20,082
27,022
21,605
6,716
6 to
is .2
S     272 45
569 27
108 77
1,512 69
3,402 08
3,232 27
9
8 9,097 53
6
$ 9,457 64
4
814,534 94
2
8
* 8,539 86
827,860 08
16
816,406 30
10
$16,924 22
817,119 85 ..
FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927.
B 23
TIMBER-SALES.
The number of timber-sales awarded during the year was 821, only exceeded in the year
1923, when 852 sales were disposed of. These aggregate 258,097 acres and the quantity of saw
and pulp timber contained thereon was 1,611,612 M.B.M., a record for timber-sale business in any
one year. The above includes the sale to the Powell River Company of one pulp area containing
1,100,000 M.B.M. The average price received for sawlog stumpage shows a drop of 13 cents per
thousand to $1.53 in addition to royalty. This drop follows the general decline in lumber prices.
Details of timber-sale business are shown below in tables on the number of sales awarded, the
average price by species, and the material cut on existing sales.
Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1927.
District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piling
(Lineal Feet).
No. of
Posts.
40,5UO
695,600
736,100
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(No. of Cords).
No. of
Railway-
ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
28
34
160
229
197
173
3,389.00
11,357.00
43,835.06
42,946.17
95,239.96
61,330.08
258,097.26
118,816.23
94,015.26
146,652
1,531,473 ■
5,584,400
150,696,600
46,359,246
1,324,778,360
82,762,000
1,611,612,079
295,486,743
189,022,314
302,813,267
13,500
1,475,100
274,691
2,490,148
2 374,237
705,263
78
455
7,426
639
13,459
22,057
56,647
98,982
518,734
145,473
649,095
11,622
8       7,643 10
61,141 88
467,413 15
Southern Interior ....
Prince Rupert	
217,119 26
1,622,537 45
290,823 48
Totals, 1927...
821
687
613
7,332,939
1,380,553
1,044,999
566,142
§2,666,678 32
Totals, 1926...
5,497,707
6,629,449
207,190
13,455
40,334
81,038,536 69
Totals, 1925...
12,877
S   795,802 20
Totals, 1924...
769
6,336,071
47,640
23,150
2,418,633
$1,226,460 87
Totals, 1923...
852
163,464
516,397,438
249,572,808
188,971,774
440,649,755
246,209,300
159,659,000
240,307,057
136,345,000
6,234,342
2,304,161
81,613,970 84
Totals, 1922...
671
531
108,501
3,304,254
149,300
41,580
880,307
993,417
6,415,349
$   862,888 49
Totals, 1921...
91,614
■ 121,690
61,809
2,479,095
34,291
$   646,487 65
Totals, 1920...
594
2,811,095    .
86,726
52,557
81,799,039 03
Totals, 1919...
366
227
2,899,000
5,000
20,000
957,804
701,654
$   654,372 09
Totals, 1918...
34,257
44,914
378,080
18,478
8   380,408 33
Totals, 1917..,
255
1,517,450
40,000
43,756
26,666
381,200
8   483,281 50
Totals, 1916...
133
23,318
435,810
92,000
8   259,765 12
Average Sale Phice by Species.
Saw-timber.
Douglas fir	
Cedar .%...,
Spruce	
Hemlock	
Balsam	
White pine	
Western soft pine.
Tamarack	
Other species	
Totals .,
Figures for 1927.
Price
57,144,445
$1 63
30,839,900
1 68
146,694,173
I 71
26,344,700
96
31,931,100
66
4,992,940
3 15
12,364,200
1 73
5,617,505
1 07
2,175,116
1 12
81 53
318,094,079
Figures for 1926.
Board-feet.
Price
Per M.
57,772,863
81 67
87,147,149
2 01
106,636,017
1 76
40,746,817
1 01
21,478,293
79
6,370,450
3 98
5,225,470
■2 04
425,000
1 47
10,344,684
1 47
286,146,743
81 66
Figures for 1925.
41,960,515
38,953,370
46,374,625
26,028,240
12,763,909
7,193,280
5,909,680
1,082,850
3,855,945
184,122,314
Price
Per 11.
81 78
2 05
1 91
1 03
1 05
3 74
2 07
1 46
1 20
81 7S
Figures for 1924.
74,708,507
63,367,585
74,064,608
33,622,807
13,295,185
5,802,597
9,446,869
4,804,072
23,701,137
302,813,267
Price
per M.
81 73
2 28
1 63
1 21
1 10
2 63
1 83
I 63
1 50
81 74
* Notf.—1,293,518,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in above total. B 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1927.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Posts.
1,965,527
1,549,047
34,939,027
29,846,579
56,366,002
89,543,739
13,370
464,802
616,605
2,711,343
1,939,737
622,412
265.00
162.25
275.38
5,839.06
3,363.70
17,603.15
,72,529
19,624
291,448
337,311
634,558
4,432
250
7,828
77,518
461
62
Totals, 1927	
214,209,921
6,368,269
27,508,54
1,359,902
86,109
Totals, 1926	
242,973,624
4,974,620
16,676.45
20,808.14
1,198,922
1,077,414
83,708
251,141,398
230,148,575
4,885,352
4,541,371
2,753,532
Totals, 1924	
17,294.00
1,543,916
Totals, 1923	
207,473,848
17,666.55
856,628
Totals, 1922	
187,217,151
179,'780,056
1,523,744
37,345.91
10,483.00
17,703.00
12,208.00
15,539.00
14,862.00
8,425.00
495,672
Totals, 1921	
. 2,169,550
831,423
654,829
Totals, 1920	
168,783,812
1,638,549
672,699
499,589
545,429
Totals, 1919	
107,701,960
573,286
Totals, 1918	
113,927,610
146,807
Totals, 1917	
99,078,832
34,937
Totals, 1916	
63,055,102
225,799
Areas cruised for Timber-sales, 1927.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(M.B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Posts
(No.)
44
152
33
238
227
150
4,076
60,117
11,132
69,546
53,182
27,139
6,210
579,757
21,920
173,569
120,815
72,355
974,626
168,766
1,559,898
2,990,853
1,724,362
648,965
7,092,844
1,158
625
715
13,635
4,894
80,386
426,996
139,154
844,875
223,878
32,152
34,100
Kamloops	
1,500
Vancouver 	
Totals, 1927	
844
225,191
21,027
1,747,441
35,600
819
142,515
119,436
369,717
353,225
4,236,881
9,113.052
8,465,924
15,248
' 57,441
1,299,826
20,200
Totals, 1925	
819
1,389,604
14,477
Totals, 1924	
942
179,609
451,476
41,554
1,873,954 FOKEST BRANCH EEPORT, 1927.
B 25
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1927.
Oper
\TING.
Shut Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
6
'S
V, o.
1°a
£ >A.
KflS
100
586
415
585
1,843
8,647
12,176
12,962
11,475
11,986
11,273
9,683
8,912
6
If if
s ^.^
« :a q
15
85
11,942
d
S3
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
M.B.M.
d
Iks
20
17
36
26
87
189
i
3
61
65
13
5
14
7
18
53
65
95
403
430
872
1,184
2,549
1,675
2,121
2
1
19
200
200
2,340
375
12,042
110
22
6
2,740
391
87
82
15,614
102
460
363
15,322
15,636
109
9
625
859
78
103
2,618
20
16
1,780
352
107
16,144
72
1,493
745
292
108
15,544
90
2,054
2,029
909
8
680
289
79
10,885
13,426
78
6
788
341
10,729
109
37
2
30
Export of Logs during Year 1927.
Species.
Grade No.l.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
F.B.M.
14,439,961
21,735,266
370,745
F.B.M.
48,178,621
93,311,101
3,251,986
F.B.M.
27,457,436
22,774,291
1,347,047
F.B.M.
F.B.M.
90,076,018
Fir.  ..                                                                       	
137,820,658
4,969,778
36,182,631
5,748,298
1,261,358
4,570,620
36,132,631
5,748,298
1,261,358
4,570,620
200,850
6,154
207,004
797,926
797,926
Totals, 1927  	
36,545,972
32,195,991
34,501,748
144,942,558
105,322,879
96,701,737
111,801,016
51,584,928
53,113,521
48,510,833
281,584,291
Totals, 1926	
33,845,324
38.901,670
224,477,715
Totals, 1925	
40,312,800
210,417,961
Totals, 1924	
23,416,816
49,549,135
55,763,860
240,530,827 Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
Japan.
Kamloops—
1,655,740
81,570
103
827,665
966
483,144
2,444,151
637,645
8
7,984,696
8,701
12,392
160
556,033
7,276,903
17
5,137
8199,272
9,815
571
107,596
5,796
273,324
342,180
366,996
55
1,302,147
92,195
100,004
1,920
303,713
1,091,535
85
51,378
1,546,470
787,690
2,005,540
7,280,302
3,936
160
29,972
6,868,502
17
5,137
109,270
81,670
103
39,975
966
483,144
438,611
637,645
8
698,394
8,701
8,456
526,06i
.
Mine-props	
Fort George-
 lineal ft.
Prince Rupert—
 No.
Railway-ties	
Southern Interior—
So   .g
Fence-posts	
Vancouver—
 cords
 No.
408,401
Total value, 1927
Total value, 1926
$4,248,582
83,764,369
PRE-EMPTION INSPECTION REPORTS, 1927.
Pre-einptioii records examined by districts are:—
Cariboo  511
Fort George   291
Kamloops    137
Prince Rupert  228
Southern Interior  :. 332
Vancouver .'  305
Total 1,804
ANALYSIS OF ROUTINE WORK.
Draughting Office, Forest Branch.
January	
February.  ...
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September	
October 	
November....
December .  ..
Totals
Timber-
sales.
31
21
16
11
19
22
8
19
18
10
16
9
Number of Tracings made.
Timber-
marks.
103
124
91
US
63
35
27
64
81
Examination
Sketches.
41
33
30
30
28
30
26
49
23
23
28
Hand-logger
Licences.
4
4
8
3
12
10
Miscellaneous.
3
31
31
24
32
23
14
9
21
23
17
235
190
221
178
186
162
132
145
122
113
86
130
140
Blue-prints
from Reference Maps.
Ill
114
52
49
12
3
20
216
74 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927.
B 27
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued for the Years 1925, 1926, and 1927.
1925.              1920. 1927.
Old Crown grants     126             130 111
Crown grants, 1887-1906      138             162 121
Crown grants, 1906-1914      205             165 138
Section 53, " Forest Act "      350             270 269
Stumpage reservations        36               45 45
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land Act "     30               14 18
Dominion lands (general)  :       96               28 23
Dominion lands (timber berths)         10               20 18
Dominion lands (Indian reserves)          4               21 12
Timber-sales     613             689 821
Hand-loggers      22               16 8
Special marks          17 1
Rights-of-way            113
Pulp licences                   3 3
Totals 1,632          1,571 1,591
Transfers and changes of marks     171             178 202
Number issued
HAND-LOGGERS' LICENCES.
1925. 1926. 1027.
     102               85 51
REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.
Direct revenue to the Forest Branch showed a satisfactory condition, increasing by $12,000
over 1926. It is noted that a drop of $80,000 occurred in timber-licence rentals. This drop, in
the face of an increase in the total receipts, emphasizes the important place active logging
operations now hold in relation to our forest revenue. The total amount charged on operations
was $2,542,137.16, as against $2,528,822.43 in 1926. The details for the above are shown in the
two accompanying tables.
Forest Revenue.
Timber-licence rentals.	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals	
Penalty fees and interest	
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)..
Trespass penalties	
Scalers' examination fees..   	
Exchange	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous	
Grazing fees	
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands..
Total revenue from forest sources
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1927.
8982,914 98
2,000 00
27,639 13
1,275 00
95,230 93
88 93
32,494 57
608,765 14
10,936 5S
1,681 85
1,825,909 80
1,778 02
156 75
6,481 83
235 00
345 16
703 90
3,767 83
83,602,411 40
16,529 20
424,023 04
84,042,963 64
12 Months to
Dee. Slst, 1926.
81,063,812 90
2,400 00
32,549 14
2,260 00
90,010 89
254 91
20,537 75
572,324 74
7,173 84
1,498 82
1,779,553 60
1,344 75
98 17
11,677 12
850 00
693 04
300 50
3,651 95
83,590,482 12
12,328 54
410,684 46
84,013,495 12
12 Months to
Dec. Slst, 1925.
81,130,556 52
3,465 00
28,017 75
2,776 00
92,486 38
283 33
17,045 45
512,399 28
6,296 67
1,403 43
1,658,043 07
1,044 25
253 24
17,841 58
160 00
620 12
1,097 95
4,699 66
83,478,387 68
14,114 89
398,893 85
83,890,896 42
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1924.
81,180,179 65
4,650 00
64,653 05
2,450 00
99,974 25
136 92
19,943 01
537,786 60
7,491 04
2,033 96
1,521,001 39
1,564 85
753 27
14,685 27
430 00
1,332 26
654 92
9,392 22
83,469,112 46
14,240 66
298,973 97
83,782,327 09
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1923.
81,283,300 77
3,750 00
100,045 86
5,800 00
102,062 40
72 22
28,383 49
431,007 99
9,933 97
8,509 00
1,477,027 24
1,160 89
667 53
11,362 99
495 00
3,168 40
1,559 17
5,907 36
83,468,714 28
13,651 01
308,041 92
83,790,407 21
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1922.
81,390,999 64
1,950 00
83,876 60
6,050 00
94,392 31
247 77
26,790 12
358,984 19
8,699 50
2,188 63
1,203,884 89
3,138 05
1,061 94
13,397 91
175 00
357 14
454 35
3,185 47
83,199,283 51
8,171 21
319,410 51
83,526,865 23 B 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1927.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
Tax.
Trespass
Penalties.
Seizure
Expenses.
Government Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stumpage.
Poorest District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert.
Southern Int'r.
Fort George ...
81,305,5S5 31
4,594 40
139,262 55
211,647 77
91,987 84
15,133 23
$2,786 64
277 85
1,766 07
1,814 43
589 68
108 77
$ 443 40
75 50
115 70
127 02
27 85
8 789 47
8 111 32
52 25
$ 163 57
8   98 34
$1,588 14
' 428 59
15 70
82,032 43
$ 15,687 05
1,482 09
$17,169 14
$ 17,279 88
$107,305 32
7,674 47
$218,000 79
6,457 46
166,117 69
131,924 92
94,708 68
14,739 18
8631,948 72
81,651,007'97
11,329 71
316,869 21
345,618 52
187,412 72
30,009 03
Totals
81,767,710 60
8 7,343 44
$114,979 79
$2,542,137 16
Totals, 1926
81,774,494 75
81,754,605 06
81,542,070 96
81,499,855 83
81,149,745 76
$ 1,589 83
81,142 38
$1,147 41
81,254 80
82,179 42
81,175 22
8119,704 75
$116,682 68
8613,365 09
82,528,822 43
Totals, 1925
859,804 57
810,860 22
$25,508 75
$14,926 63
$ 913 29
$ 197 08
8 548 37
8 741 56
81,933 72
$ 18,794 39
$ 14,760 12
$ 15,743 96
8651,486 17
$2,603,738 04
Totals, 1924
Totals, 1923
8 708 24
$ 746 59
$103,691 71
$108,713 66
$103,774 90
$597,071 66
8467,048 15
$2,271,890 69
$2,119,033 72
Totals, 1922
81,326 80
81,940 08
$ 12,407 50
8375,607 42
$1,661,662 81
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1926-27.
Headquarters ....
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George. ...
Prince Rupert....
Southern Interior.
Vancouver 	
Totals.
Forest District.
Salaries.
8 88,290 69
6,395 48
6,976 27
14,911 61
21,168 85
38,477 93
47,829 51
$224,050 34
Temporary
Assistance.
8 973 50
1,775 00
856 42
556 45
2,436 25
1,236 83
$7,834 45
Expenses.
8 26,775 87
5,198 01
4,116 01
4,990 71
28,339 41
29,338 91
40,500 59
$139,259 51
Total.
$116,040 06
13,368 49
11,092 28
20,768 74
50,064 71
70,253 09
89,566 93
71,144 30
Lumber-trade extension	
Reconnaissance, etc	
Insect-control	
Grazing: range improvement .
  12,524 87
  36,261 60
  14,957 83
  6,149 89
Grand total  $441,037 49
SCALING FUND.
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1926	
Expenditure, fiscal year 1926-27	
$2,041.93
140,289.37
Charges, fiscal year 1926-27     $131,666.19
Balance, March 31st, 1927        10,665.11
$142,331.30    $142,331.30
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1927	
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1927	
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1927     $105,377.18
Balance,  being  excess   of  expenditure   over
charges    9,267.93
$10,665.11
103,980.00
$114,645.11 $114,645.11 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1926, under
subsection (2) of section 2 of the " Forest Act
Amendment Act,  1925 "	
Expenditure, fiscal year 1926-27       $52,966.15
Balance, March 31st, 1927        16,722.25
$69,688.40
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1927	
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1927	
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1927      $62,967.78
Balance, December Slst, 1927        23,444.47
$69,688.40
$69,688.40
$16,722.25
69,690.00
$86,412.25      $86,412.25
CROWN-GRANT TIMBER LANDS.
Area of Private Average
Timber Lands Value
(Acres). per Acre.
1911  824,814 $8.72
1912  874,715 8.60
1913  922,948 9.02
1914  960.464 9.66
1915  913,245 9.55
1916  922,206 9.73
1917  916,726 9.61
1918  896,188 9.60
1919  883,491 9.48
1920  867,921 11.62
1921  845,111 10.33
1922  887,980 11.99
1923  883,344 11.62
1924  654,668 15.22
1925  654,016 40.61
1928  688,372 39.77
1927   690,438 39.01
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1927.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1926.
Average Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value per
Acre since
1926.
99,062
149,246
88,851
46,128
328
31,536
7,129
83,259
14,409
9,434
17,817
42,900
160
58,155
7,343
34,681
+ 2,087
- 4,032
+     314
- 2,280
310
+     297
- 17,300
+ 9,434*
+16,653
+     883
+     160*
- 3,952
+     112
+ 2,066
853 17
48 66
66 92
9 75
14 98
9 23
12 22
44 01
9 19
21 49
27 39
15 01
9 00
10 12
84 21
35 78
- $ 1 32
-     2 04
-     2 85
35
80
70
+ 21 49
+    6 82
25
+    9 00
+ 18 00
+        03
690,438
$39 01
- $    76
*Not previously classified as timber land. B 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1927 :—
Balance (deficit) at April 1st, 1926     $127,412.14
Expenditure, fiscal year 1926-27     $916,142.39
Less refunds         28,614.15
Refund of revenue..
37,528.24
189.81
887,718.05
$1,015,130.19
Collections, fiscal year 1926-27     $169,613.95
Collections under special levy, 1926-27        89,057.13
Government contribution        575,153.60
833,824.68
Balance  (deficit)       $181,305.51
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1927     $181,305.51
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1927     $372,702.00
Less refunds        22,561.00
 350,141.00
Collections, 9 months, April-December, 1927  $136,113.72
Collections   under   special   levy,   9   months,   April-
December, 1927   129,531.69
Government contribution  225,000.00
$531,446.51
490.645.41
Balance  (deficit)  ..:      $40,801.10
Forest Protection Fund Expenditure.
Fiscal Years.
1920-21.
1921-22.
1922-23.
1923-24.
1924-25.
1925-26.
1926-27.
9 Months,
April 1st to
Dec. Slst, 1927.
Patrols and fire prevention 	
Tools and equipment.
Im p r o ve m e n t s and
maintenance	
$163,360
121,353
292,890
68,239
$227,738
118,933
106,891
17,779
$202,991
91,812
508,992
37,609
$264,792
81,408
75,503
21,667
8433,370
8344,582
25,418
258,034
5,690
$377,427
33,976
650,138
11,890
$1,073,431
$356,462
30,663
514,845
14,172
$246,451
27,195
81,662
17,394
Totals	
8645,842
$471,341
$841,407
8633,674
$916,142
$372,702 Ill I
rH
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I I' '
FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927.
B 31
Expenditure by Districts for Nine Months ended December 31st, 1927.
Victoria.........
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George ..
Prince Rupert ..
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Undistributed ..
Totals...
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
$  34,671 44
14,900 72
18,632 70
18,201 77
12,263 72
55,666 35
52,215 58
40,000 00
$246,451 28
Tools and
Equipment.
$18
144 89
291 37
440 04
887 24
212 90
661 60
556 91
$27,194 85
$ 4,244 60
1,545 86
30,906 18
6,666 48
24,405 35
13,994 26
881,662 73
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
$ 375 13
1,810 87
1,885 87
505 53
8,747 21
4,069 22
817,393 :
Total.
$ 52,816 33
19,811 82
22,329 47
51,881 06
19,548 63
93,479 41
72,835 97
40,000 00
$372,702 69
Expenditure by Districts for Twelve Months ended March Slst, 1927.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George .. .
Prince Rupert ..
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Victoria 	
Totals...
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
$356,462 29
Tools and
Equipment.
t 934 68
1,377 86
1,675 79
373 02
3,921 33
4,578 45
17,802 74
$30,663 37
$  12,846 58
21,886 90
14,634 76
2,184 36
419,746 OS
43,545 88
$514,844 56
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
$ 3,385 36
1,825 47
4,013 08
375 65
2,868 09
1,704 52
$14,172 17
$ 35,153 41
47,340 51
46,980 59
23,795 21
531,578 45
167,433 79
63,860 43
$916,142 39
FOREST-PROTECTION.
During the late part of 1926 and early in 1927 predictions were made from several weather-
forecasting sources that 1927 would be a wet season. These expectations were, to a large extent,
realized. During the winter of 1926-27 there was a particularly heavy snowfall throughout
the Province. On account of the backward spring, the snow remained on the mountains later
than usual and on the higher ridges presisted until late summer. The rainfall was up to or
greater than normal, and the relative humidity seldom reached the low points recorded in 1925
and 1926. A representative point on the Southern Coast received, during the months from
April to September, inclusive, 15.91 inches of rain, as compared with the ten-year average of
15.93 inches. A similar point in the Southern Interior showed a precipitation of 13.41 inches,
where the ten-year average is 11.64. On the other hand, a station in the Northern Interior
recorded only 7.96 inches of rainfall, or 91% per cent, of the average for the past decade. In
addition to the normal amount, the rainfall was fairly well distributed over the entire fire
season and the periods of drought, which have been so common in recent years, did not occur
this year.
Although conditions favourable to the control of fires were thus generally good, an exception
arose in the valleys of the Upper Fraser and the Nechako Rivers. During the months of July
and August the weather was dry and high and variable winds prevailed, driving fires out of
control and, in some instances, over considerable areas in a very short time. Fortunately these
areas contained little merchantable timber, the greatest damage being in young growth and in
impairment to potential forest land.
The season was marked by a percentage of lightning-fires the highest on record, the actual
number of such fires recorded being 512, almost as high as during 1925 and 1926. While credit
must undoubtedly be given to the weather conditions, it may fairly be claimed that improved
methods of detection, as represented by lookouts, aeroplane patrol, and special lightning patrol,
were largely responsible for the low cost and moderate damage incurred.
FIRE OCCURRENCE.
In all, there were 1,284 fires recorded during the season, this being the lowest number since
1920, when 1,251 fires were reported. It is to be especially noted that 1,124 fires, or 87% per
cent., were extinguished before they had reached the size of 10 acres.    This is a high record B 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
for the period over which organized forest-protection has been carried and statistics kept, and
one which reflects great credit on our Rangers, Assistant Rangers, and other fieldmen.
Although the weather broke definitely for the season about August 13th, it is a remarkable
fact that 53 per cent, of all fires for the season occurred during these thirteen days, 25 per cent,
of all fires occurred during July. No fires occurred before the first of April and only 2% per
cent, of the total occurred during September.
Fires, 1927, classified by Size and Damage.
1
Total Fires.
Under J Acre.
\ Acre to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
Forest District.
o |
H-g
S3
h|
S3
H-E
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O
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o <o
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9,fe
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7.35
2.45
13.48
K
'— —
fch
&
n»
O
73
70
126
5.68.
5.45
9.82
24
57
29
32.90
81.50
23.02
3.35
7.95
4.05
30
10
55
41.10
14.20
43.65
19
3
42
26.00
4.30
33.33
11.88
1.87
26.25
£9
69
102
11
1
10
3
14
Prince Rupert	
101
7.86
41
40.60
5.72
43
42.60
10.51
17
16.80
10.63
93
7
1
591
323
46.03
25.16
100.0
384
181
65.00
56.66
53.65
25.28
169
101
29.00
30.65
41.43
24.76
38
41
6.00
12.69
23.74
25.63
570
291
18
16
3
10
1,284
100.0
2,147
100.0
71H
55.76
100.0
408
31.78
100.0
160
12.46
100.0
1,184
92.22
63
4.90
37
2.88
Totals, 1926	
100.0
919
42.81
100.0
711
33.12
100.0
517
24.07
100.0
1,802
83.94
176
8.19
169
7.87
2,521
100.0
1,036
100.0
732
100.0
753
100.0
2,001
277
243
100.0
41.10
29.04
29.86
13.76
— '—
79.37
10.99
9.64
Dominion Railway Belt	
189
100.0
86
45.50
77
40.74
26
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1927.
B
<k
O)
0
•o
■5 a
£ 0
a ,
"3 '2
■i
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a 2
S §
go
O
Forest District.
b)0
a
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to
££ bl
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a
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p
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II
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Mil
31
44
14
3
'8
7
4
2
2
9
7
1
5
73
70
5.68
5.45
31
34
23
19
2
12
2
3
126
9.82
6
42
4
22
18
2
0
1
1
3
101
7.86
329
71
81
58
135
38
185
48
59
14
21
3
7
3
41
3
4
25
23
3
5
591
323
46 03
25.16
Totals	
512
182
163
78
50
36
52
19
1,284
100.0
39. SS
14.18
14.41
12.69
26
0.0s
12
0.54
3.89
2.80
4.05
1.48
100.0
Dominion Railway Belt	
97
15
26
6
2
2
3
189
8.0
14.0
14.0
6.0
3.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
100.0 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927.
P, 33
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244
59
03 £^
6 o
■aOUJAOJjf Uf S8JItr{
m<>£ jo -iuao aad
5.20
1.89
37.85
8.04
29.88
17.14
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1.87
1.71
5.92
3.74
24 61
12.85
50.70
39.08
CO
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3.81
3.74
3.90
4.12
21.42
12.31
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12
0 <u
■a ? B 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1927.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Southern Interior	
Vancouver	
Total	
Per cent	
Dominion Railway Belt
Per cent	
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
7
8
9
41
1
7
9
10
43
20
16
28
58
3
9
15
20
48
16
25
36
161
346
11
58
95
153
689
20
79
142
323
1.56
6.15
11.06
25.10
53.66
3
10
22
54
100
2.0
5.0
12.0
28.0
53.0
September.
31
2.41
Totals.
73
70
126
101
591
323
1,284
100.0
189
100.0
FIRE WEATHER WARNING SERVICE.
The fire weather warning service was continued this year through the courtesy of the
Superintendent of the Meteorological Service at Victoria, and daily forecasts were specially
prepared and sent by telegraph to Radio Stations OJOR, Vancouver, and CFCT, Victoria.
These stations broadcasted the information thus obtained along with the ordinary weather
forecast. It is believed that these forecasts reached many outlying points, such as logging-camps
and isolated settlements within the forest area, and were of real assistance to them in planning
their operations.
The arrangements made by the District Forester at Nelson during 1926 were continued
throughout 1927, and the Spokane Weather Bureau forwarded by telegraph special forecasts
when dangerous weather was expected. These forecasts covered a period between July 9th and
August 27th, and were reasonably accurate with respect to the whole region. The necessity for
specific weather forecasts rather thau general ones is apparent, and it is hoped that the cooperation between the Meteorological Services and the several Forest Services may lead in the
future to more detailed forecasts with respect to definite areas.
FIRE DAMAGE.
The total area burned over by forest fires is estimated at 101,944 acres. This is comparable
with 659,871 acres in 1926 and 1,023,789 in 1925. This is the smallest acreage during the last
ten-year period.
Of the total area burned over, it is noted that over 60 per cent, was within the Prince
George Forest District and within the valleys of the Fraser and Nechako Rivers. Of the area
burned, 11,925 acres contained merchantable timber estimated at 86,176,000 feet, board measure,
but of this quantity 44,834,000 feet is considered salvable and will be cut in normal operations.
The only years in the last decade which showed smaller losses in timber were 1918 and 1921.
In addition to the merchantable timber, 19,532 acres of valuable reproduction were destroyed,
causing an estimated damage of $34,134.
Forest products in the process of manufacture to the value of $20,756; buildings valued at
$6,710 ; railway and logging equipment worth $38,893 ; and miscellaneous property to the extent
of $8,247 were destroyed by forest fires. The total damage to all forms of property is placed
at $215,708.    This figure constitutes a low record for damage from fire for the last ten years. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927.
B 35
•"I
A
Damage.
Per
Cent.
3.25
0.58
71.60
3.03
2.03
19.61
o
o
o
©
©
©
©
©'
©
4,574
821
101,054
4,272
2,850
27,531
141,102
100.0
930,373
100.0
2,121,672
100.0
6,779
a
cs
&
Per
Cent.
1.81
2.12
37.42
0.24
0.67
57.74
o
o
o
©'
©
©
©
o
M. Feet
B.M.
1,565
1,826
32,246
207
581
49,751
86,176
100.0
398,694
100.0
1,057.702
100.0
©
00
go"
<
Per
Cent.
4.99
0.85
61.47
8.29
4.25
20.65
o
o
o
©
©
©
©
©
©
Acres.
5,091
362
62,659
8,454
4,332
21,046
■« c
CJ c
-5
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00 C
a
05 O
00
1- C
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B S 5 S
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^■§SS|8
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ca « t, ,_ 0 n
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N°
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tJH  OJ
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N«
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2,294
107
16,767
8,993
637
5,556
in 00
CO     -
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Acres.
4,588
215
33,534
7,986
1,274
11,113
rH ©
CO CO
n
m   ■
cr
cr
oc
■a^BlU134j
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384
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26,163
68
1,487
5,992
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1,324
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rf<*
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^
< B 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1927.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Hallway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
$ 1,424
1.767
17,565
SI ,050
1,175
4,485
*        6
20
8,000
30,867
$    15
60
206
1,495
6,471
8      IS
6
2,534
226
12,437
59,388
0.020
Kamloops	
0.008
3.397
0.303
16.670
79.602
Totals	
420,756
$0,710
838,893
§8,247
$74,606
100.000
Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in the Last Ten Years.
1927.
1926. •
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1,284
101,944
86,176
44,834
$141,102
74,606
2,147
659,871
398,694
109,385
$   930,373
749,891
2,621
1,023,789
1,024,508
350,770
$2,121,672
625,518
2,174
402,214
207,651
102,832
S    665,078
540,291
1,530
157,601
87,371
37,891
$ 74,238
617,649
2,591
1,568,685
729,941
117,006
$1,531,300
693,016
1,330
146,838
68,476
39,563
$ 97,332
195,221
1,251
389,846
229,253
49,575
$485,968
473,900
$959,863
1,141
433,797
287,520
93,569
$393,183
345,787
910
Area burned (acres)	
Standing   timber   destroyed   or
damaged (M. ft. B.M.).	
Amount salvable (M. ft. B.M.)...
Damage to forests	
Damage to other forms of prop-
140,085
42,886
22,387
$ 25,930
200,335
$215,708
$1,680,264
$2,747,190
$1,205,369
$.691,887
$2,224,316
$292,653
$738,970
$226,265
FIRE-FIGHTING EXPENDITURE.
The total cost of fire-fighting incurred by the Forest Branch amounts to $81,662. About 38
per cent, of this cost was incurred in the Prince George District and is directly attributable to
the unusual weather conditions existing about August 1st. Private fire-fighting costs amounted
to $45,380. The average cost of fighting all fires was $63.60 per fire. This figure is to be compared with $234.85 for 1926, $244.62 for 1925, and $185.17 for 1922.
It is to be noted that 633 fires, or 49.3 per cent., were extinguished by the ordinary patrol
without other cost. This figure is not readily comparable with previous records. Heretofore
all fires that did not result in direct cost to the Forest Protection Fund were reported as "■ non-
cost " fires. This year all fires not controlled by the ordinary patrols were reported as " cost"
fires, no matter who bore the cost of control. Considering the " cost" fires, 80 per cent, were
extinguished at a cost of less than $100 each; about 15 per cent, cost between $100 and $1,000;
4% per cent, cost from $1,000 to $5,000;   and % of 1 per cent, exceeded $5,000. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927.
B 37
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HOh     HEM FIRE-PREVENTION.
As in previous years, an extensive publicity programme was carried out. In addition to the
usual " Fire Law" and " Regulation" posters, several new posters and folders, including
" Campers and Picnickers," " Shadow of Crime," " Logging," " Camping and Hiking " (reprint),
and " Knots and Nots," were designed by officers of the Branch and published by the King's
Printer. The British Flag folder was also procured and distributed to the schools. The usual
newspaper advertising campaign was carried out during the entire danger season.
Fair prize-lists, travelogues, time-tables, directories, etc., were used again to reach as great
a number of people as possible with the forest-protection message. In the Southern Interior
special attention was given to fall fairs and an exhibit was shown at four of the principal
centres there. These attracted considerable attention and offered an opportunity for the
handing-out of forest-protection literature. Floats were prepared at Nelson and Penticton for
the Confederation Day parades and were given favourable comment.
During " Save the Forest AVeek " the whole staff devoted their time to lectures at schools,
service clubs, and other public bodies. Addresses from' the radio broadcasting stations in
Vancouver and Victoria were given by His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor, the Honourable the
late Premier Oliver, the Honourable the Minister of Lands, His Worship the Mayor of Vancouver, His Worship the Mayor of Victoria, and other prominent men. The Branch feels deeply
indebted to these gentlemen, as well as to the various members of local committees, who gave
unsparingly of their time to make this wTeek's programme a success.
The Canadian Forestry Association, in co-operation with the Forest Branch, again routed
its travelling lecture party through Vancouver Island and the Southern Interior District. This
lecture party showed motion-pictures of the forest-fire problem and gave lectures relative to
forestry in all the outlying districts. That these lectures were popular is attested by the large
attendance at every point where a lecture was given and the requests coining in from time to
time for return engagements.
Possibly the outstanding feature of the season was the spectacular exhibit prepared by the
Canadian Forestry Association at the Vancouver Exhibition. It was a facsimile of Vancouver
Island, which was carefully prepared and attracted great attention from large numbers of
people. The exhibit was favourably commended by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales
and his brother, Prince George. It was awTarded the gold medal certificate of special merit.
Forest-protection literature was distributed here in large quantities. The work of the Canadian
Forestry Association is being done in close co-operation with the Forest Service and is unquestionably having excellent results in arousing public opinion in favour of using greater care with
fire when in the forest.
For the first time camp-fire permits were required of all persons setting out fires for cooking
or bodily warmth within any forest or woodland. These permits received the hearty co-operation
of the public and it is believed that the introduction of the system has been instrumental in
reducing the hazard from campers and travellers. It certainly put into the hands of a large
number of people the regulations and precautions to be observed in setting out camp-fires. For
the purpose of issuing the permits, 1,129 persons, in addition to all Provincial Police and forest
officers, were given appointments under the " Forest Act." These men served without remuneration. It was their co-operation that made the camp-fire permit a success, and I feel that they
have done a very real service in protecting our forest heritage from the ravages of fire.
LAW ENFORCEMENT.
The Provincial Police Department again assigned a special law-enforcement officer to the
Southern Interior and one to the Vancouver District for the purpose of investigating and
prosecuting cases of fire trespass. Information was laid in twenty-seven cases. Twenty-three
of the offenders were convicted and fines aggregating $600 imposed. In two cases sentence was
suspended and two cases were dismissed.
The value of these law-enforcement officers to the Forest Branch organization is recognized
by the District Foresters, who are again requesting their assistance for the coming year.
Requests have also come from other districts for the assignment of similar officers to act in
their territory. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927.
B 39
Prosecutions fob Fiee Trespass, 1927.
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HAZARD REDUCTION.
On account of favourable weather conditions throughout a large part of the Province, large
areas of slash were disposed of during the close season. Intentional slash fires set by logging
operators under the supervision of forest officers reduced the hazard on 14,075 acres of logged-
over land.    Accidental fires added another 9,493 acres, making a total reduction of 23,568 acres.
Throughout the Province a total of 9,346 permits to burn were issued. These covered the
clearing of 34,857 acres. Forty-four, or one-half of 1 per cent., of the fires set under permit
escaped control, a figure closely comparable to the high record set in 1921. Twenty-four fires
set without permit were reported to the Forest Branch.    In ten instances prosecutions resulted.
Right-of-way clearing by the railway companies has been consistently carried on.
The Locomotive Inspector working with the Forest Branch made a careful investigation
into the report that oil-burning locomotives on Vancouver Island were responsible for at least
some of the fires originating near the railway. Through his efforts extra screens were placed
in the front ends of some of the passenger-locomotives and appreciable quantities of slag and
cinders were entrapped, which, presumably, otherwise would have been thrown out to the
right-of-way through the smoke-stack. Many of these pieces were of considerable size and
would, undoubtedly, if in a glowing condition, have retained their heat for sufficient time to
have, under favourable conditions, started fires.
FIRE-DETECTION.
The construction of lookout points, especially in the Southern Interior, was extended this
year. Every point proposed for a lookout-site was carefully investigated. Temporary living
accommodations were installed at several of the points pending a decision as to the value of the
lookout point with respect to hazard and area covered. Temporary telephone-lines were put in.
It is only where a lookout point has been amply proved that permanent buildings and telephone-
lines are constructed. The permanent lookouts now number 15 : temporary ones under trial, 13.
These are shown on the map herewith. B 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927. B 41
EQUIPMENT, IMPROVEMENTS, AND MAINTENANCE.
Caeiboo.
Equipment—
Three Ford cars   !     $1,980.00
Fire-fighting pump          305.00
Total  $2,285.00
Improvements—
Mouse Mountain Lookout   $719.00
Lillooet Tool-cache   142.00
Swan Creek Tool-cache  82.00
Deadman Mountain Lookout :  42.00
Cottonwood Tool-cache  77.00
Miscellaneous     16.00
Total  $1,078.00
Maintenance—
AVilliams Lake Garage   $56.00
Headquarters House   113.00
Canim Lake Boat-house   38.00
Horsefly River Trail   36.00
Hanceville Ranger Station   138.00
Lac la Hache Camp-site  59.00
Cottonwood Camp-site   61.00
Miscellaneous     111.00
Total  $612.00
Kamloops.
Equipment—
One Ford car  .'  $659.00
Two fire-fighting pumps  :  736.00
Fire-fighting hose   50.00
Fire-fighting tools    95.00
Total $1,580.00
Improvements—
Clearwater Lake Boat-house  $38.00
Clearwater-Blue River Trail   774.00
Little Clearwater Ranger Station   10.00
Grizzly Mountain Lookout  66.00
Horseshoe Ranger Station  215.00
Baldy Mountain Lookout and Trail   1,928.00
Garnet-Cayenne Trail    512.00
Total  $3,543.00
Maintenance—
Big Bend Telephone-line   $1,326.00
Barriere-Adams Lake Trail  54.00
Adams River-North Thompson Trail   138.00
Adams Lake-Seymour Arm Trail   85.00
Launch " Aspen "   116.00
Carried forward .'  $1,719.00 B 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Kamloops—Continued.
Brought forward  $1,719.00
Maintenance—Continued.
Canoe River Trail   22.00
Seymour River Trail  49.00
Adams River Wagon-road   217.00
Upper Thompson River Trail   60.00
Blue River Ranger Station   194.00
Fishtrap Trail  92.00
Dixon Creek Trail   128.00
Barriere Forks-Brennan Creek Trail   58.00
Main Clearwater Trail   218.00
Horseshoe Ranger Station   28.00
Louis Creek Camp-site   60.00
Peterson Creek Trail  38.00
Clearwater Slope Trail   74.00
McClure Cut-off Trail   36.00
Allan Lake-Poison Butte Trail   97.00
Bear Mountain Lookout Trail   20.00
Parky Lake Cabin   36.00
Miscellaneous     233.00
Total  $3,399.00
Pbince George.
Equipment—
Four Chevrolet cars  $3,487.00
One  gasoline-speeder    385.00
Two fire-fighting pumps   736.00
Two hand-speeders  182.00
Two outboard motors   325.00
Three rowboats  210.00
Fire-fighting tools   500.00
Total.  $5,825.00
Improvements—
Tool-caches and speeder-house   $140.00
Isle Pierre Lookout  83.00
Tsinkut Mountain Lookout   506.00
Nass Lake Trail  .'.  94.00
Clearwater Trail   337.00
Fort Fraser Lookout   217.00
Miscellaneous  450.00
Total  $1,827.00
Maintenance—
Beaver River Trail   $320.00
Fort St. James Ranger Station   72.00
McBride Speeder-house  24.00
Miscellaneous     42.00
Total   $458.00 Prince Rupert.
Equipment—
Two Ford cars   $1,324.00
One fire-fighting pump   305.00
Total  $1,629.00
Improvements—
Ranger Station, Queen Charlotte City   $750.00
Tool-caches   26.00
Lake Kathlyn Camp-site   24.00
Total  $800.00
Maintenance—
Reconstruction, Launch " Alpine Fir "   $2,384.00
Repairs, Launch "Lillian D."   215.00
Total  $2,599.00
Southern Interior.
Equipment—
Two Chevrolet cars   $1,667.00
Two Star cars   1,855.00
Fourteen Ford cars  9,886.00
Two outboard motors  340.00
Two rowboats  211.00
Four hand fire-fighting pumps    49.00
Eight gasoline. fire-fighting pumps    2,8S1.00
One portable grindstone    124.00
Fire-fighting hose   1,028.00
First-aid kits  174.00
" Nobyno " fire-extinguisher  153.00
Cooking outfits  2,719.00
Fire-fighting tools :  3,849.00
Pack-horses  310.00
Total   $25,246.00
Improvements—
112 miles trail  $9,047.00
Wigwam-Waldo Telephone-line   795.00
Meteor Lookout   273.00
AArilson Creek Lookout  317.00
Beaver Mountain -Lookout   680.00
Siwash Mountain Lookout   840.00
Lone Tree Bute Lookout '.  230.00
Old Glory Lookout  1,199.00
Snow Mountain Lookout  928.00
Sugar Mountain Lookout   666.00
Goat Mountain Lookout   451.00
AATiite Rock Lookout  ,  266.00
Cambie River Ranger Station Cabin  82.00
Meadow Creek Bridge   61.00
Total    $15,835.00 Southern Interior—Continued.
Maintenance—
741 miles of trail   $3,735.00
Casey Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   75.00
Gold Creek Telephone-line  20.00
Little Slocan Telephone-line   54.00
Elk Valley Telephone-line   777.00
Kettle Aralley Telephone-line   112.00
Moyie Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   74.00
Little AVhite Mountain Lookout Telephone-line  120.00
Duncan River Telephone-line   236.00
Howser-Lardeau Telephone-line   20.00
Baldy Mountain Telephone-line   129.00
McGuire Creek Camp-site   33.00
Morrissey Creek Camp-site   59.00
Stanley Park Camp-site   24.00
Myra Cabin   35.00
Ellis Creek Cabin  60.00
West Fork Cabin  '.  32.00
Saddle Mountain Lookout   129.00
Little White Mountain Lookout   260.00
B.X. Mountain Lookout   25.00
Reno Lookout   57.00
Fernie Garage   149.00
Miscellaneous     91.00
Total     6,306.00
Vancouver.
Equipment—
Two Ford cars   $1,294.00
One rowboat  65.00
Ten fire-fighting pumps   3,554.00
Twenty-six hand-tank pumps   450.00
Fire-fighting hose   2,436.00
Fire-fighting tools, etc  1,435.00
Launch " Yusella "   3,200.00
Launch " Cypress " :  881.00
Eight Chevrolet cars   6,858.00
One Dodge car  1,503.00
Total  $21,676.00
Improvements—
Pocohontas Lookout   $785.00
Grey Creek Trail  500.00
Great Central Lake Boat-house   50.00
Squamish Speeder-house  180.00
Pitt River Cable Crossing   270.00
Harrison Lake Boat-house  623.00
Nobyno fire-extinguisher  l  230.00
Campbell River Ranger Station  115.00
Florence Lake Dam   1,200.00
Nanaimo Garage and Office  4,280.00
Total      8,233.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927. B 45
Vancouver—Continued.
Maintenance—
Florence Lake Trail         $280.00
Myrtle Point Telephone-line   46.00
Mount Benson Lookout  27.00
Nitinat-Cowichan Lake Trail   240.00
Skagit Trail   240.00
Pitt River Trail  195.00
Mons Tool-cache  42.00
Alice Lake Trail   50.00
Myrtle Point Lookout '.  100.00
Big Blackwater Trail   45.00
Theodosia Arm-Olsen Lake Trail   145.00
Pemberton Tool-cache  80.00
Miscellaneous     30.00
Total :    $1,520.00
GRAZING.
Authorization.
The numbers of live stock for which authority to graze on the Provincial ranges of the
various grazing districts of the Province was granted are as follows:—
Cattle and Horses. Sheep.
Cariboo       30,000 5,000
Cranbrook        2,500 9,000
Fort George   500 	
Kamloops         4,000 1,500
Nelson   '.       2,000 500
Prince Rupert          300 	
Arancouver         200 	
Vernon     20,500 10,000
Totals ,     60,000 26,000
Range and Live-stock Conditions.
Climatic conditions in the range country throughout the 1927 grazing season were a complete
reversal of those experienced during 1926. AAThile the latter was a " dry " season, that of 1927
was a " wet " one and will no doubt be recorded as the first of a series that will be of exceedingly
great benefit to the ranges and live-stock industry.
A late spring was followed by frequent and fairly regular rains, with comparatively high
temperatures, which made for a rapid and very luxuriant growth of grasses and herbaceous
plants throughout the whole of the range country.
The growth of bunch-grass on areas of early and late ranges which were not overcrowded
was very good and a certain measure of recovery in the primary grasses wTill take place there.
On other similar ranges, where the area is limited and the numbers of stock great, the grazing
of the growing plants was so heavy and was carried on for a comparatively longer period this
season that the primary grasses will not greatly benefit. A cycle of " wet" years will, however,
have a very beneficial effect on all ranges, and conditions would indicate these wet years are due.
All live stock were in excellent condition throughout the season. As a rule shrinkage was
heavier than usual in live-stock shipments, due to the luxuriant and moist condition of the feed.
This can be offset by attention to better methods of handling stock on the range, which will
provide protection for vegetative growth on areas where grasses predominate. The Department's range-improvement projects known as " breeding pastures " are a big step in this direction.
As the tracts of range covered by these projects embrace grass areas and are only used as yet
during the breeding season, they will, as their capacity increases under protection, provide
finishing pasture for the annual beef shipment. B 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
At the close of the summer all live stock went into the winter in good condition. Owing
to the winter season setting in heavily early in November, with every likelihood of it continuing
as a long feeding winter, there is liable to be a shortage of hay in many sections before the
break-up in spring.
Usually very little heavy feeding is done before the middle of December, and many of the
live stock get by until well into the winter, rustling out in the meadows. Snows are certain to
be deep this winter, which will necessitate straight feeding.
Cattlemen should reserve stocks of good hay for the breeding cows to be fed towards the
close of winter. A long feeding period with scant and, as may he the case this winter, musty
hay is not conducive to good condition in the cows at calving-time. Every effort should be made
this winter to feed the hay-crop to the best advantage possible, otherwise there will be heavy
losses in the 1928 calf and lamb crops.
Range-cattle Industry.
The range-cattle business has enjoyed a return to prosperity during the past year which
has not been equalled for many years. Prices paid for beef on the hoof have been such that
good profits were made even with low calf-crops and the consequent heavy overhead which the
beef cheque had to bear. Prices will continue good for several years or until the shortage in the
United States and Canada is made up again. Both countries are now fairly down to a cow-
and-calf basis with very little mature supplies available.
Since good prices will prevail for some time cattlemen should prepare to take advantage of
them. This can be done by increased attention to the cattle on the range. Good bulls must be
obtained; they must give good service; the largest possible calf-crops raised and the calves
kept growing. Of paramount importance is the hay-crop. Good supplies should always be on
hand, for winters are going to be long feeding ones, and low conditioned cows at calving-time
means heavy calf losses and a consequent low beef turnover. Good beef prices will do little
good if neglect on the range and heavy winters cut into the calf-crop.
Sheep Industry.
While satisfactory expansion in the sheep industry has taken place throughout Canada in
the last three years, British Columbia has outdistanced all other Provinces in this respect. The
number of sheep in British Columbia increased 66 per cent, in 1926 and a further 27 per cent,
in 1927.
A large part of the increase is represented in numerous small farm flocks. Several range
bands or flocks have been purchased and there is in general a keen interest being taken in the
development of the industry in this Province.
Much effort has been expended in educative work by the Government in order to combat the
often very prevalent failing of purchasers of live stock; that is to say, the failure to acquire
and realize the value of a knowledge of the requirements of the class of stock purchased and
methods of handling it. Every effort possible has been made to assist the novice in the sheep
business, so that he might get away to a good start in his new venture. This educative work
will be extended this year and it is hoped that all engaging in the sheep business in British
Columbia will be successful. The ranches and ranges of British Columbia cannot be surpassed
for sheep-raising and the blame for failure must be carried by the man and not the land.
There is a very keen and growing inquiry and demand relative to the use of Crown ranges
for grazing large flocks of sheep. A'ery little early range is now available, but large areas of
summer range in various parts of the Province are available for a three to five months' use.
The demand for sheep-range is beginning to affect the cattle interests to such an extent in
many sections of the Province that the promiscuous wandering of cattle must be controlled and
their grazing confined to an area sufficient to provide them with adequate summer grazing.
Ranges that become available in this way are allotted to sheep owned by resident ranch-owners.
In this adjustment sheep are allotted definite areas within which they must be confined by
herding.
As the ranch and range sheep business grows in this Province the use of the Crown range
will eventually necessitate a complete adjustment of range use between both classes of stock;
the one, cattle and horses, and the other, sheep and goats. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1927. B 47
Expansion in sheep is being somewhat curtailed by the better position of the range-cattle
industry regarding beef prices. This is a cause for congratulation and relief, as many cattlemen who were quite insistent about changing from cattle to sheep would have regretted the move.
The supply and demand for lamb being nearly balanced in the United States with little
hope of relief through exportation, together with a Presidential election in 1928, a downward
trend in sheep values will result.
This condition may, however, be considered merely as an adjustment from abnormal to
normal values, and the man who purchased at comparatively higher prices need not feel alarmed
at a drop in values as, with care, his venture will still be very profitable. AVool prices are
likely to remain firm.
AVild Horses.
The control of the useless wild horses again engaged the attention of this office and in the
Lillooet District 740 head were eliminated. The wild stallions in the Cranbrook District were
so numerous that some action was deemed advisable there and 132 were destroyed. The ranges
have been freed of wild horses to the total of 3,508 head in the past three years. The beneficial
effects of this work is seen in the wonderful recovery of the lower or grass ranges.
The visit of the Russian Horse Purchasing Commission was the result of efforts to interest
them in the purchase of British Columbia horses. It was hoped that by this means a good
number of light horses would find a market, but the system of purchasing adopted did not meet
with general approval. The situation was complicated by the fact that the first contract was
signed on May 13th, the day the raid on the Soviet headquarters took place in London. This contract necessarily fell through and it was June 6th before the second one was signed, and it was
not until June 28th that the buyers arrived at Kamloops. As the boat chartered to transport
the horses to Russia was due to sail on July 15th, fast work was necessary to secure the 1,400
horses required for that shipment. Injuries received in handling the horses necessitated reorganization of buying crews, and, taking it all through, that means of marketing a large number
of surplus horses was practically a failure for 1927. It is understood the Russians will return
in 1928.
The coming winter, which will undoubtedly be a severe one with much deep and crusted
snows, will destroy a large number of range horses.
Range Improvements and Live-stock Management.
The policy of improving the Crown ranges to facilitate the handling of live stock permitted
to graze thereon through the construction of controlling-fences, improvement of dangerous
bog-holes, etc., was continued throughout the year. A total of $0,863.32 was expended on
general range improvements, of which $3,028.58 was expended on the control of wild horses.
One of the greatest factors in the prevention of losses on the range has been the fencing of
115 very dangerous bog-holes that were each taking an annual toll of from five to ten head of
stock. The ninety-four fences of various lengths constructed at strategic points on the range
constitute one of the most economic means of controlling the grazing of the herds, particularly
the breeding herds during that period. The results are now evident in increasing calf-crops.
The '.' holding-grounds " arranged at shipping-points to facilitate the shipment of live stock are
assisting the stockmen in this respect. For example, 4,296 cattle, three cars of sheep, and one
car of horses passed through the holding-ground at Williams Lake. There Is no charge for
this service.
Co-operation on the part of all communities of stockmen arranging their management plans
to fit in with these improvements will make for more and better marketable beef and mutton.
The importance of not turning out too early with the breeding herd in low condition has been
stressed many times. Too early grazing seriously damages the range and increases losses at
calving-time. Careful attention to the breeding herd at calving-time should be increased. Now
that better bulls are being purchased, additional control on the range is essential if good service
is to be obtained from them. Bulls raised in barns and paddocks or pastures in other parts of
the continent find a forage ration foreign to them on British Columbia ranges. They do not take
kindly to it the first year and the best service can be had from them only by much attention
to their distribution on the range. Many men have taken the advice " dehorn your commercial
cattle " to mean dehorn everything.    In a range country where predatory animals are prevalent B 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
it is well that the breeding cow be not dehorned. Many things such as the above, if given
increased attention, will enable the stockmen to benefit from increased prices that will prevail
for some time.
Grasshopper-control.
As suggested in last year's report, it was not likely that any further damaging outbreaks
of grasshoppers would occur. Comparatively few appeared in the sections formerly badly infested and where heavy poisoning operations were carried on. It is hoped that this condition
will continue and that the range will for some time at least be free from damage by grasshoppers.
Future Outlook.
The future of the live-stock industry of British Columbia is a very bright one for gXl if the
stockmen will only take advantage of the better markets now prevailing and which are likely
to continue for some time. Quality beef and mutton will count on this market, and, if provided
through the purchase of better bulls and rams and better attention to winter feeding and
management on the range, an insistent demand for their products will continue even; during
periods of depression that will from time to time strike the industry. The settling-up of the
land will develop many trying problems for the range stockman. They will be solved, but their
solution will mean the elimination of old-time methods in live-stock and range management, with
the industry resting on a firmer and more profitable basis than ever before in a Province the
ranches and ranges of which cannot be excelled in productivity.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Chables F. Baniield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
192S.
1,825-228-584

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