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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR 1921 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1921

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
of the
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1921
PRINTED   BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by William H. Cullix, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1022. To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Keport
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1921.
■ E. D. BAEEOW,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., March 31st, 1922, TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture—Dr. D. Warnock   1
Report of Departmental Secretary—W. J. Bonavia—
.   Staff Movements    2
Correspondence   .,  2
Bee   Registration      3
Pound Districts  3
Agricultural Poisons  3
Farmers' Institutes  4
Women's  Institutes     0
Publications     6
British Columbia  Students    8
Report of Departmental Secretary re Fall Fairs—W. J. Bonavia—
Fall Fairs held in 1921   9
Recommendations and Suggestions    10
Report of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests—W. H. Robertson—
Horticultural Conditions   12
Demonstration-work    ,  13
Pest-control   13
Pruning and Packing Schools  14
Report of District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, Vancouver Island and Gulf
Islands—E. W. White-
Horticultural Conditions and Development   16
Gordon Head Demonstration Strawberry-plot   17
Strawberry-packing Demonstrations  21
Experimental Spraying  22
Report of District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, Lower  Mainland—F.  L.
Goodman—
Horticultural Conditions   24
Bella Coola Survey  25
Insect Pests and Diseases  25
Report of District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,  Okanagan Valley—W. T.
Hunter—
Fruit- and Vegetable-crop Conditions   26
Orchard-soil Problems    26
Codling-moth Control and Inspection    27
Miscellaneous Pests and Diseases  28
Report of Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon—H. H. Evans—
Experimental Scab-control   31
Report of Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon—H. H. Evam:—
Codling-moth   Control  Work  at  Vernon,   Kelowna,  Westbank,   Walhachin,   Kamloops,
Revelstoke, and Keremeos    32
Report of District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm and Canadian Pacific Railway Main Line
Districts—C. R. Barlow—
Pest-control  40
Apple-scab Spray Control   41
•Cover-crop Demonstrations     42
Small-fruit Competitions     42
Report of District Field Inspector, Kelowna—T. M. Anderson—
Pest-control  43
Fruit and Vegetable Production  44
Report of District Field Inspector, Summerland—J. Tait—
Pest and Disease Control  45
Spraying Experiments  45 iv. Contents.
Page.
Report of District Field Inspector, Southern Okanagan and Similkameen Districts—R. P.
Murray-
Insect Pests and Diseases  46
Cover-crop Demonstration Work    47
Report of District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, Boundary and East and West
Kootenay Districts—E. C. Hunt—
Crop  Conditions     49
Diseases and Insect Pests   49
Colorado potato-beetle  50
Report of District Field Inspector, Grand Forks—Paul C. Black—
Diseases and Insect Pests   52
Crop Report    53
Report of District Field Inspector, East Kootenay—C. B. Twigg—
Orchard-survey     54
Field Inspection     54
Report of Agricultural Representative, Kelowna District—J. E. Britton—
Orchard-soil Improvement Work  56
Blossoming Dates  58
Apple-thinning  Demonstrations    '.  58
Report of Agricultural Representative, Vernon District—V. B. Robinson—
Orchard-soil Fertility Work—Demonstration Plots  59
Report of Agricultural Representative, Courtenay District—S. H. Hopkins   63
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver—J. W. Eastham—
New Diseases in 1921    64
White-pine Blister-rust    65
Potato-work     67
Fire-blight   67
Experimental Work    68
Report of Assistant Entomologist, Vernon—Max H. Ruhmann—
Entomological and Pathological Collections  69
Insect Pests of the Year  70
The Imported Onion-maggot    72
The Control of Cabbage White Butterfly  73
Report of Chief Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Vancouver—W. H. Lyne—
Imported Nursery Stock  74
Exported Nursery Stock   75
Potatoes for Export  76
Potatoes for Home Consumption   76
Report of Assistant Potato Inspector, Vancouver—H. Gutteridge   78
Report of Assistant Potato Inspector, Vancouver—A. Irving—
" Eggs Marks Act" Inspection    79
Report of Prairie Markets Commissioner, Calgary—J. A. Grant—
Market Review of 1921   SO
Berry Shipments   80
Potatoes   ;  83
Advertising     85
Report of Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria—W. T. McDonald—
Horses     87
Cattle     87
Sheep     88
Swine     88
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association  90
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria—Dr. A. Knight—
•Internal Parasites among Sheep and Cattle  90
Plant-poisoning   90
Sanitation of Stables and Dairies   91
Tuberculosis     91 Contents.
Page.
Report of Chief Soil and Crop Instructor, Victoria—W. Newton—
Soil Investigations  92
Drainage     93
Seed-improvement  93
Silo-demonstration Work    93
Report of Soil and Crop Instructor, Victoria—C. Tice—
Seed-potato Certification Work   94
Report of District Agriculturist, Kamloops—Geo. C. Hay—
The Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited   96
The British Columbia Wool-growers' Association   97
The Kamloops Bull-sale   97
Report of Chief Poultry Instructor, Victoria—J. R. Terry—
General Conditions   99
Breeding Operations     100
The British. Columbia Poultry Association   101
Egg-laying Contest   101
Boys' and Girls' Clubs  102
Poultry-diseases    102
Report of Dairy Commissioner, Victoria—H. Rive—
Creameries     103
Cheese-making     104
Cow-testing—Milk-record Work  105
British Columbia Dairymen's Association   106
Dairy Manufacturers   106
Report of Statistician, Victoria—Geo. H. Stewart—
Crop Correspondents  107
Postal Census, 1921   *  108
Oriental Survey   108
Farm Accounting  109
Report of Chief Inspector of Apiaries, Nelson—W. J. Sheppard—
General Conditions   109
Demonstration Apiaries in Fraser Valley  110
The Lewis Treatment for European Foul-brood  110
Pound Packages of Bees   Ill
Report of Assistant Inspector of Apiaries, Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands—F. D. Todd.. 112
Report of Assistant Inspector of Apiaries, Lower Fraser District—W. H. Turnbull  113
Report of  Assistant  Inspectors  of Apiaries,  Fraser Valley—A.  W.   Finlay  and  W.   H„
Turnbull—
General Conditions   113
Report of Secretary of Women's Institutes, Victoria—Mrs. V. S. MacLacblan  115
Appendices.
Appendix No.—
1. Total Correspondence received and dispatched by the Department of Agriculture (at
Victoria) for the Years ending December 31st, 1920 and 1921  121
2. Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1921    121
3. Agricultural Fairs, etc—Grants in Aid of Prize-lists    122
4. Pruning-schools, 1921     124
5. Packing-schools, 1921    125
6. Dates of Bloom, Kelowna District   125
7. Apple-thinning Demonstration, Kelowna  126
8. Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry
in British Columbia, including those condemned  126
9. Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at all Ports of Entry in
British Columbia.  127
10. Memorandum of Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., inspected at Vancouver.... 128
11. Memorandum of Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., condemned at Vancouver.. 129 12.
13.
14.
15.
10.
17.
IS.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
Page.
Memorandum of Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, etc., inspected at Victoria  129
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., inspected at Vancouver, including
those condemned   129
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at Vancouver  130
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Vancouver  130
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver   131
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which no Certificates were issued 132
Districts in which Herds were tested for Tuberculosis, 1921     134
Seed-potato Certification Work     137
Kamloops Bull-sale, March 22nd and 2.3rd, 1921  :   140
Tenth International Egg-laying Contest—Eleventh and Final Report, ending September 21st, 1921   141
Tenth International Egg-laying Contest—Individual Laying Records    142
Tenth International Egg-laying Contest—Summary of Results  143
List of Creameries, Condenseries, and Cheese-factories in British Columbia   143
Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia, 1921    144
Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act " for Year
1921    144
Creamery or Dairy Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act"
for Year 1921    146
Land owned and leased by Japanese and Chinese in the Province of British Columbia 147
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Rules    147
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries   14S
Summary of Reports from Demonstration Apiaries    149
Estimated Honey Crop, 1921, Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands, etc  149 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
BRANCHES AND CHIEF STAFF MEMBERS, YEAR 1921.
Minister of Agriculture: *-
Hon. E. D. Babrow, M.P.P.
Deputy Minister:
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.
Departmental Secretary:
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Statistician:
G. H. Stewart.
Horticultural Branch:
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests (Victoria).
W. T. Hunter, B.S.A., District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests (Vernon).
BJ. W. White, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests (Victoria).
E. C. Hunt, B.Sc, Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests (Nelson).
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector (Vernon).
C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector (Salmon Arm).
T. M. Anderson, District Field Inspector (Kelowna).
J. Tait, District Field Inspector (Summerland).
R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector (Penticton).
R. A. Newman, District Field Inspector (Vernon).
Paul C. Black, District Agriculturist and Field Inspector (Grand Forks).
C. B. Twigg, B.S.A., District Agriculturist and Field Inspector (Creston).
G. L. Foulkes, Secretary.
Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock Inspection Branch:
W. H. Lyne, Chief Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Rice, etc.  (Vancouver).
D. Gavet, Assistant Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Rice, etc. (Vancouver).
W. J. Graham, Assistant Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Rice, etc. (Vancr.).
H. F. Olds, Assistant Inspector of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, etc. (Vancouver).
M. L. Bird, Assistant Inspector of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, etc. (Vancouver).
Plant Pathology and Entomology Branch:
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist (Vancouver).
M. H. Ruhmann, Assistant Entomologist (Vernon).
E. R. Buckell, Field Assistant (Vernon).
Markets Branch:
J. A. Grant, Prairie Fruit Markets Commissioner (Calgary).
H. Gutteridge, Assistant Potato Inspector (Vancouver).
A. Irving, Assistant Potato Inspector (Vancouver).
Live Stock Branch:
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A., Live Stock Commissioner (Victoria).
J. R. Terry, Chief Instructor in Poultry-raising (Victoria).
Chas. Good, District Poultry Instructor (New Westminster). Vlll.
Branches and Chief Staff Members.
Live Stock Branch—Continued.
Chas. W. Traves, District Poultry Instructor (Grand Forks).
W. Newton, B.S.A., M.S., Chief Soil and Crop Instructor (Victoria).
C. Tice, B.S.A., Soil and Crop Instructor (Victoria).
G. C. Hay, B.S.A., District Agriculturist (Kamloops).
Angus L. Hay, District Agriculturist (Cranbrook).
Dr. A. Knight, Ar.S., Chief Veterinary Inspector (Victoria).
Dr. S. A. K. White, B.S., Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. W. W. Alton, V.S., Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. B. R. Ilsley, V.S., Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. W. T. Brookes, Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. M. Sparrow, Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. J. D. McDonald, Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
*R. J. Ferris, Silo Demonstrator.
W. H. Stroyan, Poultry Caretaker.
Geo. Pilmer, Brand Recorder.
R. Cahilty, Brand Inspector.
*C. Phelps, Foreman, Quilchena Experimental Station.
Dairy Branch:
H. Rive, B..S.A., Commissioner.
F. Overland, Dairy Instructor and Inspector.
G. H. Thornberry, Cow-tester.
Foul-brood Inspectors:
W. J. Sheppard, Chief Inspector (Nelson).
F. D. Todd (Victoria).
W. H. Turnbull (Lower Mainland).
A. W. Finlay (Lower Mainland).
*R. J. Ferris, Editor.
Publications Branch:
General:
A. H. Shotbolt, General Assistant.
D. E. Mackereth, Carpenter.
Accountant's Branch:
W. T. Andrews, Chief Accountant.
W. H. Thornborrow, Assistant Accountant.
C. P. L. Pearson, Assistant Accountant.
R. E. Mitchell.
F. H. Davey.
A.  J.  HOURSTON.
V. Tonks.
J. A. Smith.
E. Clarke.
Clerical:
A. E. Hill.
F. L. Brooks.
G. Lindsay.
V. M. Brakes.
M. Lauder.
A. P. Woodward.
K. McRae.    .
M. Walsh.
L. Lees.
G. Hawes.
M. Hicks.
E. Drummond.
Women's Institutes:
Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan, Secretary.
* Resigned during the year. \ 11. **3W
;..-■    iit,-m? .--%  REPORT OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE.
D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.
Hon. E. D. Barrow,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of Agriculture for
the year 1921.
The estimated value of agricultural production for the year 1921 is $59,742,994, as compared
with $68,926,090 for the year 1920, being a decrease of $9,183,096, or 13.32 per cent. In nearly
all lines of agriculture marked increases are to be noted in the quantities produced; owing to
the prevailing low prices, however, it was only to be expected that the actual value of production
would show a considerable decrease. Imports of agricultural products from other Provinces in
Canada are valued at $15,329,47S, as against $18,902,981 in 1920, while imports from foreign
points decreased from $7,913,488 to $5,640,943. The total decrease in the value of all imports
would therefore be $5,846,048, or 21.80 per cent.
Live-stock statistics place the value of all domestic animals at $14,152,749, representing an
increased value of $13T,S76. Beef cattle increased in numbers 5,082 ; dairy cattle, 6,702; sheep,
4,9S4; and goats, 1,160; while the numbers of swine decreased 2,48S. The production of all
meats amounted to 23,235,794 lb. valued at $2,812,29S, as against 23,302,000 lb. valued at
$4,217,212 in 1920. The dressed cost of beef decreased in value from 17.6 cents in 1920 to
11.28 cents in 1921; pork and pork products from 20.9 to 1S.54 cents; and mutton from 21.5
to 16.05 cents. The total value of all poultry products is placed at $3,621,107, representing a
decreased value of $536,587. Poultry shows an increase during the year of 880,337 lb. The
average price for the year dropped from 35 to 32 cents per pound. Egg production increased
by 290,677 dozen. The average price per dozen was placed at 41 cents, as compared with 60 cents
in 1920. The value of all dairy products was $6,506,20S, as against $7,184,060 in 1920. There
was an increase of 846,558 lb. in butter produced, the total production being 3,521,002 lb. The
average price of creamery butter in 1921 was 45.3 cents per pound, while the price in 1920 was
64.7 cents. The total quantity of cheese manufactured was 421,314 lb., an increase of 67,261 lb.
during the year. Due to the prevailing low prices there was a falling-off in the total value
of $22,793. The quantity of fresh milk consumed was 9,059,450 gallons, being 151,140 gallons
more than the previous year. The average price per gallon in 1921 was 42 cents, whilst the
average for 1920 was 46 cents.    Ice-cream manufactured was 13,233 gallons less than in 1920.
The records of the Provincial Statistician show with regard to fruit production that the
total value of the 1921 crop was $6,504,850, or 15 per cent, greater than in 1920. The fruit-crop
was the largest on record, apple production alone being estimated at 4,279 cars, or nearly double
that of 1920. The small-fruit crop was approximately 90 per cent, greater than the preceding
year.
The total vegetable-crop amounted to 196,022 tons, or 17,407 less than in 1920. The value
of all vegetables produced was $6,484,383, as compared with $8,898,919 in 1920. Fodder-crops
aggregating a total of 643,488 tons valued at $13,329,420 were produced. This represents an
increase of 77,951 tons, but with the low price prevailing the total value was $4,081,432 less than
in 1920. Clover and timothy averaged $23.68 per ton, as against $35 in 1920. The total production of grain-crops is placed at 4,688,805 bushels valued at $3,785,332, representing an increased
production of 1,322,130 bushels, or 39 per cent. There was a decline in the prices of all grains
of over 50 per cent. Of the miscellaneous crops, honey showed an increase of 83,404 lb.; the
total value of the crop was $89,631. The quantity of goats' milk produced was 32,883 gallons
greater than in 1920.
Appended hereto are the reports of branches and staff officials outlining in detail their
respective activities.
Respectfully submitted.
D. Warnock,
Deputy Minister.
2 U 2
Departm
ent of Agriculture.
1922
REPORT OF DEPARTMENTAL SECRETARY.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
'Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report as Secretary of the Department
for the year 1921.
Staff.
The Estimates for the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1922, provided for seventy-five appointments, forty-eight technical and twenty-seven clerical.
New appointments were made to the Horticultural, Dairy, and Live Stock Branches, the
attached table giving full details:—
Staff Appointments, 1921,
Date.
Name.
Appointment.
Remarks.
1921.
April     1
July      4
Sept.   21
Feb.       1
1
May    20
April    5
May      1
1
Nov.    17
General Office.
Miss M.   Moffat   	
Dairy Branch,
Accountant.
Stenographer.
Dairy Instructor.
District Field  Inspector.
District Horticulturist.
Stenographer.
District Poultry Instructor.
District Poultry Instructor.
District  Agriculturist.
Transferred    from    " Agricultural Instruction Act."
Horticultural Branch.
R. P. Murray   	
Live Stock Branch.
Resignations.
Date.
Name.
Appointment.
Remarks.
Feb.    28
Sept.   24
Clerk, Dive Stock Branch	
Private business.
Temporary Appointments to Staff.
Stenographers, 6;   Assistant to Plant Pathologist, 1;   Horticultural Branch Inspectors re
Fire-blight, 2;  Horticultural Branch Inspectors re Codling-moth, 22.
" Agricultural Instruction Act."—A number of seasonal appointments were again made under
the sections of this Act, as follows:   Apiary Inspectors, 4;  Poultryman, 1;   Assistant Entomologists, 3;  Foreman, Dry Farm, 1;  Messenger, 1.    Also Supervisors and Testers for several Cow-
testing Associations.
Correspondence.
The total figures of letters received and dispatched were practically similar to those for the
previous year, the inward letters being 27,959 and outward 28,220.
In this office there was a noticeable increase of 90 per cent, in the Farmers' Institute section,
whilst the outward letters totalled 9,932, as against 8,318 the previous year. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. U
Live Stock, Poultry, and Soil and Crop correspondence all show substantial increases.
(Appendix No. 1 gives full details).
Circular Letters.—Stencilled circular letters, which form an important means of official
notification, totalled 37,676, grouped as follows:—
Agricultural Associations   280
Farmers' Institutes  4,045
Dairy Branch  3,631
Horticultural Branch    5,890
Live Stock Branch—
Brand Recorder  1,000
British Columbia Goat-breeders' Association   1,890
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association   550
Soil and Crop Division   1.530
Poultry Division    7,870
Miscellaneous ;  3,250
Statistics    2,280
Women's Institutes    5,460
Total  37,676
Bee Registration.
A voluminous correspondence occurred during the year with bee-keepers, requesting inspection
or protesting against compulsory registration under the " Apiaries Act Amendment Act" of 1920.
Official records showed 1,065 registrations for 1921, as against 1,121 and 1,193 for the years
1920 and 1921 respectively.
By a further amendment to the " Apiaries Act" at the second session this year the objectionable registration clause was deleted.
Pound Districts, Grazing Districts, and Sheep-protection Districts.
Pound Districts.—During the past year applications for six pound districts were received
in the Department; Gray Creek District being constituted on June 23rd and Castlegar District
on October 22nd.
A pound district at Rolla, in the Peace River Block, covering a wide area was refused after
investigation, and applications for Okanagan Landing, the Commonage near Vernon, and Trail
East were still under consideration at the close of the year.
The total number of pound districts organized is now thirty-three.
Grazing Districts.—The 1920 amendment to the " Animals Act," making provision for the
deflning of areas where bulls of a good beef type over 1 year old might be allowed to run at
large during certain periods of the year, was taken advantage of by several Stock-breeders'
Associations, and after consultation with the Grazing Commissioner the following districts were
proclaimed:—
January 7th, North Fork of Kettle River, June 20th in each year to March 1st in next,
succeeding year; April 28th, Asheroft, May 1st to December 31st in' each year; April 28th,
Carihoo-Kamloops-Nicola, July 1st to December 31st in each year; April 2Sth, Okanagan-
Keremeos, June 15th to December 31st in each year.
Sheep-protection Districts.—Following dissensions amongst the settlers, the Hon. the Minister
of Agriculture recommended that the Howe Sound Sheep-protection District be cancelled.
The boundaries of the Langley Sheep-protection District were redefined and a Proclamation
issued on April 29th.
Sale op Agricultural and Horticultural Poisons.
The regulations made under the provisions of the " Poisons Act, 1909," and the " Pharmacy
Act, 1911," had not been enforced hitherto to any extent, but following representations made by
the Pharmaceutical Association of British Columbia with regard to the unlicensed sale by hardware merchants, feed-houses, etc., of agricultural poisons, the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture
reissued regulations dealing with such licences on Jul}7 26th.
Briefly put, a licence of $5 per annum and a record of purchaser and sales is required for
the sale in open shops of poisonous substances used exclusively in agriculture or horticulture U 4
Department of Agriculture.
1922
for the destruction of insects, fungi, or bacteria, or sheep-dips or weed-killers—namely, arsenate
of lead, Paris green, London purple, hellebore, tobacco extract, sulphate of copper and iron.
A mailing-list of some 700 names was prepared through the co-operation of Department
officials and Government Agents, etc. The Superintendent of Provincial Police was also furnished
with instructions and a supply of notices.
By the close of the year considerable correspondence had taken place and a number of
licences were applied for.
Farmers' Institutes.
The past year has witnessed quite a revival amongst Farmers' Institutes; not only have
the older-established ones taken on a new lease of life, but several that were in a dormant
condition since the war have renewed activity with increasing membership, and twelve entirely
new institutes have organized during the year, with an average membership of thirty-one each,
as follows:—
Date.
Name.
Membership.
April
May
June
July
Dec.
31
2.1
27
2»
Winfleld  	
Salmon River	
Avola	
Hornby  Island	
Osland   	
Fern Ridge   	
Stuart River 	
Qualicum District   . .
Coghlan District  ...
East Sooke  	
Trout Creek  	
North-east  Burnaby
45
IS
28
13
43
25
35
47
19
35
44
The total number of Farmers' Institutes in good standing at the close of the year was 135,
with a membership of 5,261.    Eleven institutes had over IOO members recorded, as follows:—
Delta     169
Mission City  160
Arrow Park    145
Victoria     141
Coquitlam    126
Islands   125
Central Park    124
Comox     119
Nechako   113
Bella Coola  109
Nanaimo     109
Kootenay Lake    103
Fairs held by Farmers' Institutes.—A steadily increasing number of institutes are holding
fall fairs each year in districts where no special Agricultural Association is located. The
Department was able to supply judges for the majority of the following events:—
September 2nd, Gibson's Landing; September Sth, Squamish; September 9th, Whonnock;
September 10th, Sayward ; September 16th, Mapes; September 20th, Boswell; September 23rd,
Denman Island; September 23rd, McBride; September 30th, Forest Grove; October 1st, Arrow
Park;  October 6th, Peaehland;  October 7th, Kaslo;  October 7th, Rock Creek.
Lectures and Demonstrations.—With the renewal of institute activity has come an increased
call upon the Department for lectures and demonstrations in small fruits and vegetables, potato-
improvement, poultry and live stock.
Amongst the institutes visited by officials from headquarters were: Abbotsford, Comox,
Coombs, Cowichan, Howe Sound, Islands, Ladysmith, Langley, Metchosin, Nanaimo-Cedar,
Qualicum District, Shawnigan, Sooke, Texada Island, Victoria, Whaletown, and Whonnock.
A highly successful lecture tour was also arranged in November and December for Geo. C.
Hay (Kamloops) and C. W. Traves (Grand Forks), with the co-operation of A. Morton (Dominion
Live Stock Branch), which included sixteen Farmers' Institutes in the North Thompson Valley
and Canadian Pacific Railway Main Line District between Kamloops and Golden. Poultry, sheep-
raising, and mixed farming were the subjects;   attendances and interest shown were extremely
satisfactory.
Stumping-powder for Land-clearing.—By an amendment (chapter 2) to the "Agricultural
Act" of 1915, at the first session of 1921, the supply of stumping-powder for land-clearing by the
Department at wholesale rates to members of Farmers' Institutes was extended to any association 12 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
TJ
or society incorporated under any Act of the Legislature carrying on work of substantially the
same character.
A further special means of aiding farmers in clearing stump lands was provided by the
Hon. the Minister of Agriculture when he was successful in obtaining legislative authority for a
grant of $30,000 for the payment of rebates on powder used after April 1st. The regulations
issued were as follows:—
(a.) Applicants shall be bona-fide owners or lessees of lands in respect to which applications
are made and clearing operations shall have been carried on for agricultural purposes only.
(b.) Grants will be paid on a basis of not more than ten cases of powder to each applicant
and not more than five cases for each acre prepared for production thereby.
(c.) Applicants shall sign declarations, upon forms supplied by the Department of Agriculture, setting forth the legal description of the land upon which the powder has been used, the
number of cases of explosives actually used iu the clearing operations, and the number of acres
of land upon which the work has been carried on.
(d.) Applications shall be signed in the presence of and witnessed by one of the following
persons: Secretary of Farmers' Institute; Secretary of any association or society, incorporated
under any Act of the Legislature, carrying on work of substantially the same character as that
carried on by Farmers' Institutes;  any official of the Provincial Government of British Columbia.
(e.) Upon receipt at the Department of Agriculture of such declaration and application form,
with invoice of powder purchased, rebate will be made upon a basis of $2.50 per case to the
extent set out in clause (6) of these regulations.
The prices of stumping-powder have ranged downwards during the year from $15.35 per
100 lb. to $13.50 at the close of the year.
Year.
Supplied by C.X.L.
to Farmers' Institutes.
JSupplied'by Giant
Powder Co. toiF.I.
Total.
Cases.
5,314
■7,087
Cases.
6,193
7,489
11,507
14,5761
Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes.—The year was marked by the death of A. D. Clyde,
of Robson, member for District H, and the retirement of A. B. Smith, Cranbrook (District I).
The vacancies have been filled by O. B. Appleton, Procter, and A. Taylor, Wilmer.
Districts F and H also were amalgamated, there being now eight members on the Board.
Co-operative Activities of Farmers' Institutes.—Owing to inevitable delays in checking up
1920 returns the figures for that year have not hitherto been available or published. Of the
130 institutes in existence at the close of 1920, twenty-five were actively engaged in buying
various commodities for their members, such as stumping-powder, fuse and caps, seed, feed, flour,
hay, oil, sugar, etc.;   whilst transactions on a smaller scale were made by some fifty others.
The following table gives an idea of the business done by the twelve institutes with the
biggest turnover:—
Name.
Receipts.
Expenditures.
Mainly for
$13,1817  14
■8,9,99 39
8,748 26
'7,141  36
'5,776 ©5
4,663 61
3,874 15
2,311 24
2,292  31
2,122 08
2,033 30
1,.83'5 24
$13,617 88
7,868 72
8,314 53
7,059 35
5,017 21
4,605  14
3.420 38
2,149 93
2,095 06
'2,032 43
1,919 28
1,697 51
Feed, flour, and general supplies.
»                           >,
Powder, fuse and caps, and pure-bred stock.
Stumping-powder, fuse and caps, and cement.
Feed, flour, building feed-house, and shipping
Kent  	
apples.
White  Creek Valley   	
Feed and supplies and powder.
Feed and miscellaneous supplies.
cultural Fair. IT 6
Department of Agriculture.
1922
Other interesting lines of co-operative work included: 5,000 apple-boxes bought by the Arrow
Lakes Farmers' Institute; $1,161.40 spent for fertilizer by the Grand Forks Farmers' Institute;
$349.54 refunded by the Malcolm Island Farmers' Institute for pure-bred stock.
These are only a few of many instances of the valuable work being carried on by these
organizations.
Women's Institutes.
Great activity has been shown in this branch of departmental work; the record number of
twenty new institutes having received certificates of incorporation during the year, as follows:—
Date.
Name.
Membership.
Jan.
22
Feb.
5
>,
7'
"
7
15
„
18
,,
24
,,
25
March  8
,,
9
24
,,
29
April
26
June
8
t
8
„
22,
Aug.
20
Dec.
13
J;
13
"
13
Cawston   	
Langley Prairie   	
Okanagan Falls  	
Pitt  Meadows   	
Fruitvate  	
Hornby Island   	
Valdes Island  	
Barnston  leland   	
Woods. Lake  	
Lazo   ....,	
Lumby and District  	
Granby    	
Esquimalt   	
Lynn Valley   , ... .
Merville    	
Victoria    	
Otter District  	
Coghlan and County  Line
Royal  Oak   	
South  Hill  and North  Arm
40
43
191
42
30
19
28
16
39
22'
29
32
52
52
18
36
20
The total number of institutes in existence are now 93, with a membership of 3,454.
Flower-shows, Exhibits of Women's Work, etc.—Fifty-four of the above events were organized, this also constituting a record, being an increase of eight over the previous year.
Roughly classified, forty-six institutes held flower-shows, with exhibits of women's and
school-children's work, one held a bulb-show on Vancouver Island, and seven held baby clinics
and health exhibits.
Many of these flower-shows included numerous exhibits of small fruits and vegetables and
the Horticultural Branch was able to provide a judge in six instances where the importance
warranted same.    (See Appendix No. 2 for details.)
Publications.
Following the resignation of R. J. Ferris on March 17th, the supervision of the work of the
Publications Branch reverted to the writer, with the exception of the preparation and editing of
the monthly Agricultural Journal.
The past year has not seen so many new issues as in 1920, but many of the standard
bulletins have been revised and reissued.
A new edition of 15,000 copies of Bulletin S on " Agriculture in B.C." was published in April,
there being a constant heavy demand for same; the first bulletin on " Fertilizers " to be issued
in this Province was prepared by W. Newton; . whilst two interesting circulars compiled by
University officials were published by this Department as No. 36, " A Preliminary Report on
45 Dairy Farms in the Chilliwack, Courtenay, and Ladner Districts," and No. 38, " The Cost of
producing Apples in the Okanagan."
Following a decision of the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture, it was decided to discontinue
the free issue to farmers of the Agricultural Journal after the June number. This step was taken
after consultation with the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes and with the feeling that the
time had come when the farming community of the Province should bear a proportion of the cost
of the Journal if it had been found worthy of support. 12 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
TJ 7
All members of Farmers' and Women's Institutes, Fruit-growers' Associations, etc., are now
entitled to receive the Journal for 50 cents per annum, whilst the public rate remains at $1.
The effect of the new policy was at once reflected in the circulation, which averaged 8,4S3
per month for the first half of the year and 2,350 per month for (the latter half. There are
evidences, however, that the paid circulation is increasing at the close of the year.
The following statement shows the total number of bulletins, circulars, etc., printed by the
Department during 1921:—
Date.
Name.
Description.
No.
io:
1.
Jan.
. ;7
29
April
2
,,
2
,,
13
18
Aug.
1
Mar.
4
})
30
April
14
14
,,
14
()
14
14
.
14
„
14
14
14
14
14
,,
18
May
6
Aug.
11
Dec.
e
6
„
6
"
29
April
1-3
"
18
Jan.
4
27
Mar.
31
April
'7
,,
13
June
14
2.9
July
29
Feb.
2^8
28
28
28
July
4
Nov.
1
Bulletins.
Sheep-raising in B.C.   (2nd Ed.)   	
Goat-raising in B.C.  (3rd Ed.)   	
Fertilizers   	
Agriculture in  B.C.   (2nd Ed.)   	
Climate of B.C.   (6th Ed.)   	
Agricultural  Statistics,   1920   	
Natural and Artificial Incubation and Brooding (4th Ed. j
Horticultural Circulars.
Planting Plans and Distances  	
Currant and Gooseberry Culture  (2nd Ed.)	
Peach-twig Borer   (3rd  Ed.)    	
Strawberry-root Weevil  (3rd Ed.)   	
Woolly Aphid of the Apple  (2nd Ed.)   	
Currant Gall-mite  (2nd Ed.)   	
Onion-thrips   (3rd Ed.)   	
Imported Cabbage-worm (2nd Ed.)   	
The Lesser Apple-worm   (2nd Ed.)   	
Apple Aphides   (2nd Ed.)   	
Soap Solutions for Spraying (2nd Ed.)   	
Oyster-shell Scale  (2nd Ed.)   	
Diseases of Stone-fruits   (2nd Ed.)   	
Locust-control   	
Gardening on a City Lot   (Revised Ed.)   	
Selection of Orchard Sites and Soils   (3rd Ed.)   	
Methods of Fruit Picking and Handling  (Revised)   ...
Planting Plans and Distances   (Revised)   	
Blackberry Culture   	
Strawberry   Culture   	
Circular Bulletins.
Poultry Rations, etc.   (Revised)   	
T.B.  in  Poultry   (2nd  Ed.)    	
Agricultural Department Circulars.
Potato Certification in B.C	
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands   	
Agriculture  in  West Kootenay	
How to pack Nursery Stock, etc	
Preliminary Report on 45 Dairy Farms, etc	
Hints to Exhibitors at Fall Fairs (2nd Bd.)   	
Some Good Egg Recipes	
The Cost of producing Apples in the Okanagan  	
Dairy Circulars, etc.
Starters for Farm Cheese-making  	
Farm Cheese  	
Cottage Cheese   	
Clotted Cream  	
Re " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act"   	
Varying Butter-fat Tests   	
Bulletin  No.   11 .
64 .
87 .
•8 ■
27 .
.      88 . .
30 .
Hort. Circ. No.  62
31
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
52
63
43
53
27
62
5'7
„ '58
Circ.   Bull.  No.   19
2
Agri. Dept. Circ. No. 32
33
34
35
36
29
37
38
Dairy Circ. No. 1
2
,', 3
4
Leaflet    	
Dairy Circ. No. 5
5,060'
5,000
5,0*0
15,000'
4,000
1,200
5,000
40,200'
000
,000
000
OOO
,000
000
500
,500
,000
,000
,000
,000
,000
,000
000
000
,000
,000
,000
,000
59,000
5,000
5,000
10,000
1,000
2,500
2,500
1,000
4,000
1,000
5,000
4,000
21,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
500
5,000
21,500 •
IT 8
Date.
May
10
.j
23
fl
23
June
11
.
11
July
25
Aug.
4
,,
IS
Sept.
7
"
20
May
11
June
20
iM
f0.
Dec.
29
Jan.
28
Feb.
28
April
1
1921.
April
26
May
19
June
2S
Aug.
1
Sept.
25
Oct.
1
,,
31
Nov.
25
Department of Agriculture.
Publications—Continued,
Name.
Miscellaneous.
Some Questions and Answers re B.C.   (Revised)
Regulations for Farmers' Institutes  (Revised)   .
By-laws for Farmers' Institutes  	
Be Standard Varieties of Potatoes  	
Be Potato-diseases  	
Bee-keepers'  Calendar   	
" Sheep Protection Act "  	
Farm Account Book  (2nd Ed.)   	
Be Colorado Beetle   -	
The Grasshopper and tbe Range  	
Reports.
15th Annual Report of Department of Agriculture
Entomological Society of B.C	
Agricultural Journal.
Agricultural  Journal   	
Grand total
Description.
Leaflet
Charts
Posters
Leaflet
Year   1920     ,
Proceedings Nos. 13 and 15.
Month of January    .
,,        February   .
,,        March   .. .
,, April
,,        May   	
June
July   	
August    . .
iSeptember
,,        October   ..
November
December
1922
No.
2,500
3,000
2,000
2O0
200
1,000
250
1,000
100
100
10,350
1,000
500
1,500
9,600
9,300
8,200
7,800
8,000
-8,000
2,500
2,500
2,800
2,500
2,300
2,300
©5,300
238,850
Bulletins and Circulars mailed or otherwise distributed during 1921.—A grand total of
166,796 were sent out in the year, this being almost 25,000 more than in 1920 and constituting
a record.
British Columbia Students.
Only five British Columbia students were paid grants at Eastern colleges; these cases all
being those of students who were taking their final year in Home Economics or Agriculture,
as follows:—
Ontario Agricultural College.—Miss C. E. Maxwell, New Westminster (Home Economics) ;
Miss M. Grant, Vancouver (Home Economics) ; A. Fulton, Lumby (Agriculture).
Manitoba College.—Miss G. Hallwright, Victoria (Home Economics).
University of Toronto.—Miss L. E. King, Prince Rupert (Home Economics).
Respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Secretary. A typical scene in one of the 'Land Settlement Hoard's areas in the Cariboo District.
(Slash piled ready for burning.)
1
1 > . ,1 :
•
it«;,&kt-:
itfUL
I'
:;1L
,
Slashing, piling, clearing, and breaking.     There wove 1(1 acres cleared and. broken by two men and
three-horse team in three months.    Cariboo District.    Land Settlement Board.  12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. U 9
REPORT  OF DEPARTMENTAL  SECRETARY RE FALL FAIRS.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Department of Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to report as follows with regard to the fall fairs held in the Province
by Agricultural Associations during 1921:—
It may be stated that in general the fall fairs showed a great deal of improvement, due no
doubt to a revival of interest following the return to more normal times.
The three big Coast exhibitions at Vancouver, Victoria, and New Westminster each had
many strong features of interest and fully maintained their standards; probably the increase
in live-stock exhibits with many British Columbia bred animals of outstanding merit was one
of the most noticeable features.
Fruit sections in the Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland district fairs were not up to
normal owing to the poor fruit-year experienced.
In the Upper Country the success of the Salmon Arm and Creston Fairs was notable.
During the year two new Agricultural Associations were incorporated—the Terrace District
Fall Fair Association in February and the Lumby District Agricultural Society in October.
In February a meeting of the British Columbia Fairs Association was called at Vancouver
after a lapse of several years, and the delegates assembled decided to incorporate under the
" Societies Act," a charter being granted on April 21st. About three-fourths of the existing Fair
Associations applied for membership during the year, and it is trusted that, in addition to
handling the many matters affecting the welfare of these bodies, the dates of fall fairs in the
various circuits will be more effectively arranged by mutual agreement so as to avoid overlapping.
The total number of incorporated Fair Associations is now sixty-three; of these, fifty-one
held fall fairs, whilst one summer live-stock show was held (Knutsford) and one winter fat-
stock show (Windermere District).
There were in addition thirteen fall shows held under the auspices of Farmers' and Women's
Institutes in districts where no regular Fair Association was in existence. The Department
supplied judges for these events also in the majority of cases.
Judges.—A total of seventy-three judges were provided free by the Department, there being
only some two or three fairs that were not thus accommodated. The attached table shows the
personnel:— Staff. Outside.
Horticulture        12 3
Field crops         2 2
Live stock        4 18
Poultry        3 12
Dairy products         2 2
Honey products        2 1
Domestic science   10
Totals      25 48
Due recognition is hereby accorded to the valuable services rendered by several Field
Supervisors of the Soldier Settlement Board who judged the live-stock exhibits at a number
of fairs, also to Professors Stillwell and Hare, of the University of British Columbia; to R. G.
Newton, Superintendent of the Dominion Experimental Farm at Invermere; and to S. G.
Freeborn, of the Dominion Live Stock Branch, Ottawa, who judged goats at the three Coast
exhibitions.
There was an unusual demand for the services of lady judges for domestic-science exhibits,
ten ladies being furnished by the Department, as against four in 1920. The women's work
section is now an integral part of the exhibits at many fairs and will increase in importance.
Junior Live-stock Judging Competitions.—Amongst the most interesting features of the three
Coast exhibitions were the stock-judging competitions for teams of boys and girls under IS years
of age. The Department of Elementary Agricultural Education and the Department of Animal
Husbandry of the University were responsible for the organization and direction of these events.
At New Westminster, where the final contests took place, eleven teams competed, the winners
being from Kamloops, Armstrong, Chilliwack, and Victoria in the order named;   the first prize IT 10
Department of Agriculture.
1922
being a silver cup donated by the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association, with a silver
medal to each member of the team, and second prize a bronze medal to each.
Return railway or steamboat fares were provided by the Exhibition Associations.
An abstract of the regulations is as follows:—
" 1. Districts: Any recognized district in the Province is eligible to enter a team in the
competition; the teams preferably to be under the supervision of a local breeder, farmer, or
representative of any branch of the Government service, and to have received some instruction
in live-stock judging in the preparation for the contest.
" 2. Each competing team shall consist of three boys or girls under 18 years of age.
" 3. They will be called upon to judge three classes of live stock—namely, heavy horses,
beef cattle, and dairy cattle. An effort will be made to have the classes made up of animals
that are mature or as nearly so as are available. -
" 4. Each class will consist of four animals and 1.00 points will be allowed for the judging
of each class, as follows:   (1) Placing of animals, 50 points;   (2)  reasons  (written), 50 points.
"5. The maximum time allowed in judging a class will be as follows: (1) Placing of
animals, 15 minutes; (2) writing of reasons, 15 minutes.
'• 6. Each class of live stock will be judged and the reason-cards rated by a committee of
three qualified judges which will be appointed by the executive of the association.
" 7. Prizes will !be awarded on total points made by the members of each team judging in
the three classes."
Boys' and Girls' Pig Clubs organized under the Dominion Live Stock Branch showed their
results and were judged at Armstrong, Chilliwack, Courtenay, Victoria, and Duncan Fairs, the
prize-winners being in the order named; the Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture and the local Fair Associations each providing one-third of the prize-money.
Grants.—The vote in aid of Agricultural Associations for the fiscal year ending March 31st,
1922, amounted to $41,000, and the total expenditure at the close of 1921 was as follows:—
Grants re prize-lists  $31,062 90
Judging and miscellaneous expenses         5,302 88
Windermere District Fat-stock Show    250 00
Grants to nine district poultry-shows        4,000 00
Total    $40,615 78
(See Appendix No. 3 for details of grants.)
Recommenbations and Suggestions by Judges be Fall Fairs held in 1921.
Collections and Displays of Vegetables.—In collections or displays of vegetables, if variety
names could be placed on the different vegetables shown it would materially add to the educational yvalue. At Coquitlam one of the collection exhibitors had the name of each variety typewritten on a small card and pinned to the vegetable, and it attracted more than passing interest.
In A.O.V. fruit classes some shows call for varieties to be named and some don't. Generally
most entries are not named and what are named are often incorrectly named. It would probably,
in small shows, be better not to call for varieties to be named. The judge, if. he knew them and
had time, could then note the varieties on the entry ticket. Many growers exhibit in this class
to find out the names of their varieties. Many exhibitors do not seem to understand that A.O.V.
classes are intended only for those varieties which have no class of their own.
Oversized Exhibits of Fruit and Vegetables.—Exhibitors still show a tendency to show large
produce instead of choosing uniform specimens, with possibly less bulk and better quality.
Potato Classes.—Too many prize-lists are still found calling for " Long Reds," " Short Reds,"
" Long Whites," and " Short Whites." This is a mistake. Districts should specialize in one or
two standard varieties, double up the prize-money, and have classes for only those vareties they
wish to specialize in. This has been tried in the Courtenay District this year and brought forth
an exhibit of potatoes equal to any in the Province.
Prize-money (Live-stock Entries).—The average prize-list attempts to cover too many breeds
and too many classes. In many cases there are no entries at all for some of the classes on the
prize-list. The attempt to stretch the prize-money over such a wide number of classes results
in so small a sum in each class that the exhibitor is discouraged from showing. The prize is not
worth the trouble. 12 Geo. o British Columbia. U 11
Management of the Judging-ring, etc.—The following suggestions were drawn up by a judge
after visiting several of the smaller fairs where a proper routine had not been established, or
where live-stock entries had not previously been so important:—
(a.) One man should be allotted to calling the classes that these may appear promptly
before the judge.
(6.) The prize-book should contain the individual entry number; the clerk and the judges
would then be sure wheu all exhibits were in place for judging.
(c.) There should be definite rules in connection with the time stock should arrive on the
ground;  this is especially necessary in a two- or three-day fair.
(d.) Horse classes: In Interior districts heavy draught horses appear somewhat light, as
they are judged from a standpoint of 1,600 lb. It is suggested that in such districts the prize-
list be altered so as to limit the agricultural class from 1,300 to 1,500 lb. instead of 1,600 lb.;
to make the general-purpose class from 1,100 to 1,300 lb. and confine it to one class mare or
gelding 4 years and up, to be ridden as well as driven. This is a useful third horse for a farmer
and would necessitate good shoulders and define the general-purpose type. A judge considers
the money given for brood classes for general purpose frequently wasted and it might well be
concentrated on the one class.
(e.) Championships (horses) : A championship given for any breed stallion does not help
the live-stock industry. It would be better fostered if ribbons were offered for championships
under the various breeds and no money unless there was competition between breeds.
Hogs and Sheep.—It is a most difficult thing to judge breed against breed for championships.
In the case of hogs it is bacon type against lard type, and in the case of sheep, sometimes,
mutton against wool.
Special Prizes.—Special prizes could be best handled by the Directorate as follows: It is
sometimes possible for an inferior animal, for lack of competition, to clean up not only the society
money, but a number of specials in various classes as well. This could be overcome very satisfactorily if the Directorate were to ask the donor's permission to name the class, for which the
prize might be given and obtaiii his consent after the class is named. Also, the Directorate might
draw up a number of classes which they consider worthy of specials and submit them to the
public, asking for specials to be given to any of the following classes. Where duplication
occurred, in most cases one of the donors would be willing to transfer his prize to another class.
Women's Work.
Arrangement and Grouping of Women's Work,—At some of the fairs the Directors seem
to fully realize the great educational value of the work sent in by exhibitors in giving it the
position it is due in the general display by proper arrangement and grouping. This will stimulate casual observers to become exhibitors at a future date. But it is regrettable that at other
fairs this is not the case, for it is of foremost importance. In selecting articles for display
exhibitors are often haphazard.
Baking.—Generally speaking, the bread and small bread—e.g., buns, biscuits—were only
good. When exhibiting, loaves should be of a standard weight. Brown bread was distinctly
poor everywhere in blending, mixing, baking, and flavour.
Oatcakes and oatmeal cookies are constantly confused and the recipes used are very poor.
The value of the former in the diet cannot possibly be overestimated for children and adults.
Housewives should realize this, learn to make them properly, and use them unsparingly at meals,
and no baking section should be complete without a place for them.
Pastry-making, with a few exceptions, was poor. The women need particular instruction in
this in a country where pies enter so largely in the menu.
Canning and Preserving.—It is extravagance of food, labour, and time to attempt canning
unless the essentials are understood, the process properly gone through, and the sealing effectual.
There have been faults of this kind (some few, some many) at every fair visited this year.
Again, the principles of jam-making, jelly-making, and marmalade-making are not generally
understood.   One does not deny that some exhibitors sent in excellent specimens.
Dairy Produce.—It does not seem to be generally understood that marketable food, such as
eggs and honey (in section), should be put on the market scrupulously clean; and even the way
the wrapping-paper is put on butter is noted by the discriminating purchaser. U 12
Department of Agriculture.
1922
Needlework.—Some of the needlework was extremely well done, but one would like to see
a more up-to-date standard of needlework and more " quickly-made " garments. Those in country communities should become acquainted with the many simple patterns and garments to be
used at the present time and the effective embroideries to be applied. They would find labour
lessened and refreshment given.
Children's Section.—This section would be of greater educational value if, as at some fairs,
such simple articles as handkerchiefs, doilies, aprons, iron-holders, and tea-cloths with a loop
attached were asked for.
Correct interpretation of the classes should be made when exhibits are entered ; e.g., a " set"
is a " set" and not an assortment;  filet lace and filet crochet should not be confused.
At some fairs a few of the exhibitors resented the opening of sealed jars by the judge for
final tests in judging. Without opening these jars it would be impossible to give the awards
where they belong.
Respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Secretary.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL HORTICULTURIST AND INSPECTOR OF FRUIT PESTS.
W. H. Robebtson, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I herewith beg to submit my report for 1921 as District Horticulturist for the Lower
Mainland from January 1st to March 31st and as Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of
Fruit Pests from April 1st to December 31st.
Changes in Staff.
On April 1st* your District Horticulturist for the Lower Mainland was appointed to the
position of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, a position which had been
vacant since 1918. The position left vacant in the Lower Mainland District was filled by F. L.
Goodman, who previous to the war had been connected with the Horticultural staff at Nelson.
HOKTICTJLTUKAL   CONDITIONS   IN   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
From a horticultural standpoint the conditions in British Columbia during the past year
have been discouraging. A very mild winter permitted both tree and small fruits to come
through satisfactorily. A late spring, however, in the small-fruit sections, followed by heavy
rains during the picking season, seriously interfered with shipments, particularly strawberries.
The crop of small fruits on the whole was from the standpoint of production satisfactory,
and as the acreage devoted to these fruits was considerably in excess of previous years the
production was the heaviest on record.
Conditions in the large-fruit districts of the Okanagan and the Kootenays were most
satisfactory. There was a small loss due to a heavy frost during the blossom period and
certain sections also suffered from a hail-storm during the summer. In the Okanagan also
there was a heavy loss during the picking season from a wind-storm. Even with these losses,
however, the output was the heaviest on record. Although the output in both small and tree
fruits was larger than in any year in the history of the Province, the prices when compared
with the abnormal prices received during the two previous years were very low. This no doubt
has had a discouraging effect on fruit-growers, and particularly on men who were engaged but
a short time in the growing of small fruits. The drop in prices, while probably not anticipated,
was a natural consequence of the general tendency in the drop of all commodities which has
been prevailing during the last eighteen months.
Lectures and Short Courses.
During the early part of the year a series of short courses were held throughout the
Okanagan Valley. While these were inaugurated by the Horticultural Branch, the staff of this
Branch were assisted by Dominion and University officials, as wTell as by officials from other 12 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
U 13
branches of this Department. Meetings were held at twelve points with a total attendance of
3,316. Other meetings were held at various points throughout the Province. These were usually
under the auspices of a farmers' organization, such as the United Farmers, the Farmers' Institute, or the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association. Meetings of this kind are greatly
appreciated by the growers and their interest is evidenced by the excellent attendance.
Demonstration-work.  .
Gordon Head Strawberry-plot.—This plot, which consists of 6 acres, located at Gordon Head,
Vancouver Island, was started in 1919 for the purpose of demonstrating the most suitable
methods of combating the strawberry-root weevil (Otiorhynchus ovatus Linn.). Work has
been carried on by E. W. White, District Horticulturist, and W. Downes, Assistant Dominion
Entomologist. Results have been very satisfactory and it is intended to carry on this work
for a further period. A detailed account of this plot may be found in Mr. White's report, which
is attached.
Strawberry-packing Demonstrations.
Strawberry-packing demonstrations were held for the first time in 1921. As the acreage set
out was larger than at any other time in the history of the Province, and as there were a large
number of growers who were inexperienced in the shipping of strawberries, it was thought advisable to give instruction in the preparation and packing of shipping stock. This was done at
various points on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island, instruction being given in the field
during the picking of the berries.
The results were most satisfactory, a total of 383 people attending. Your officials were
assisted in this work by University and Dominion officials.
Spraying Demonstrations.
Spraying-work along various lines has been carried out during the past year. From the
demonstration standpoint the most important was the work done on Vancouver Island for the
control of apple-tree anthracnose and in the Interior fruit sections for the control of apple-
scab and blister-mite. Very satisfactory results have been obtained, and it is intended to
continue some of this work during the coming season, as well as along other lines which are
beginning to demand attention.
Soil-demonstration Work.
With the increasing demand made upon our orchard soils by trees which are just coming
into bearing or have been bearing for a number of years, it has become apparent to the fruitgrowers that the plant-food constituents in the soil must be replenished and the physical condition
of the soil maintained. With these facts in mind, the Horticultural Branch has established plots
at various points in the Okanagan and Kootenays where various cover-crops are being used as
well as chemical fertilizers. The operations on these plots are being closely followed by the
growers and many of them have already adopted certain cover-crops and fertilizing methods
which have been shown to be satisfactory. It is the intention of your Branch to carry out
further work along this line, and it is expected that results will be obtained which will be of
value to the fruit-growing industry of the Province.
Thinning Demonstration.
Because of the heavy setting of apples in the Okanagan during the past season it was
thought advisable by your staff to carry out work along the line of thinning. Thinning demonstrations were held at various points throughout the Okanagan for the purpose of showing the
growers the system of thinning that should be followed in order to increase the size and quality
of their fruit. Plots were also established at various points where work was carried on to
demonstrate the advantage of thinning, as well as to secure data on the time most suitable for
this work and distance of thinning.   This work will again be carried on next year.
Pest-control and Inspection Work.
Codling-moth.—During the past year work has been carried out at various points in the
control of codling-moth. At two points—namely, Westbank and Vernon Town Areas—the moth
has been eradicated and these places will be released from quarantine. Other areas will still,
however, be kept under quarantine, as well as an additional area/ in the Kelowna section.   It is U 14
Department of Agriculture.
1922
estimated that approximately 900 acres will be subject to control measures during the coming
year, when the measures of quarantine and spraying as followed during the previous years will
be carried out. Inspection of refrigerator-cars will also be continued, and it is intended to
institute a system of superheating all refrigerator-cars entering the Okanagan Valley. This will
be done at the divisional points of Kamloops and Revelstoke.
Fire-blight.—The attacks of fire-blight have during the past year been the most serious on
record. In order to arouse the growers to the necessity for action a series of meetings dealing
with both codling-moth and fire-blight were held in the Okanagan in the fall.
The growers were advised at these meetings as to the best methods of cutting out the blight
and the most satisfactory disinfectants to use. They were also told that as soon as they had
gone over their orchards and removed all blight-infections their orchards would be inspected by
a Government official, and if no blight could be found they would be given a card stating that
inspection had been completed and that their orchard was, as far as could be ascertained, free
from blight.    This work was started in the fall and will be continued during the coming year.
Fire-blight was also found at one or two points in the Kootenays. The areas, however, are
small and little or no trouble is expected in controlling it.
Blister-mite.—This insect pest has been more noticeable during the past season than at any
previous time, and as it attacks both apple and pear it is becoming of increasing importance.
Control-work is being carried out and it is hoped that this Branch will be able to cany on work
next year with a view to its control.
Powdery Mildew.—Up to the present its effect on the grade of apples produced has not been
important. However, the work of this disease is becoming so serious in the larger fruit-growing
sections to the south, and as it has already made its appearance in several of our fruit sections,
it is the intention of your Branch to carry on experimental control measures in the future. In
this work we will co-operate with the Dominion Experimental Farm at Summerland.
Nursery Inspection,—In order to protect the grower and to ensure his procuring nursery
stock that is as far as possible free from disease and insect pests, it has been the policy of your
Horticultural Branch to inspect as far as possible all nurseries. This work has been carried
on during the past year in various parts of the Province by the men on the Horticultural staff
stationed in the various districts. Inspection is made of each individual tree and those found
affected in any way are destroyed at once, thus eliminating the possibility of these being included
with healthy stock. Reports handed in by the Inspectors show that the nurseries of British
Columbia are very clean and that our growers are securing home-grown stock that is quite equal,
if not superior, to that grown in the United States or in any other part of Canada.
Pruning-schools.
Following the policy of previous years, pruning-schools were again held in the various fruitgrowing sections of the Province. These schools have been very popular throughout the Province
and are no doubt proving of great benefit to fruit-growers.
The total number of schools held during 1921 was forty, with a total attendance of 441 pupils.
(See Appendix No. .4.)
Packing-schools.
The demand for packing-schools has come largely from the smaller centres. While the
number has not been as large as in the case of pruning-schools, they have nevertheless proven
their value as a training-ground for packers who intend to take up this phase of horticulture
either in a commercial way or to pack the fruit grown on their own place. It .is hoped that a
continuance of this work will be possible during the coming year. This year a total of eight
schools were held, with a total attendance of ninety-nine.    (See Appendix No. 5.)
Agricultural Exhibitions.
At the various agricultural exhibitions which are held throughout the Province during the
year your Horticultural staff are asked in practically all eases to act as judges of the horticultural, exhibits. This entails a large amount of work, particularly during the months of September
and October, when most of the fall fairs are being held. The value of the work, however, lies
in the fact that all judges engaged in this work have a common standard which makes for a
uniformity of judging throughout the Province; and as that standard is high it is hoped that
there will be a marked improvement in the quality of horticultural exhibits at the various fairs. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. U 15
Furthermore, your staff has at all times been ready and willing to assist any Fair
Associations in drawing up their prize-lists in such a way as to secure the best results not only
from a commercial but also from an educational standpoint.
Departmental Exhibits.
Horticultural exhibits had previous to this year been made at several of the large exhibitions.
This year an educational exhibit along horticultural lines was made at several of the fairs in
the Okanagan Valley. The exhibit, I may say, was most successful not only in creating an
interest amongst the growers, but also in permitting them to discuss matters along the lines
of horticulture with the members of your staff who were in charge.
Orchard-survey.
The orchard-survey which had been started in 1920 in the Kootenays was completed this
year. The complete survey of this district, together with the orchard-survey of the Okanagan
and Boundary country, which were completed in 1920, gives accurate data regarding the area
devoted to the growing of tree-fruits in the principal tree-fruit districts of the Province.
Publications.
During the past year a circular ou Blackberry Culture, No. 57, has been prepared by F. L.
Goodman, District Horticulturist for the Lower Mainland. Another circular entitled " Strawberry Culture," No. 58, has been prepared by E. W. White, District Horticulturist for the Islands
District, and is at present in the printer's hands. Both of these circulars will fill a long-felt
want and will make a valuable addition to the list of circulars already issued by your Branch.
As in the previous year, the Weekly News Letter and the Horticultural District Bulletin
were again published. Both of these were issued weekly from the Vernon office, the correspondents in the various sections of the Province contributing to their columns. The popularity
of the Weekly News Letter is shown in the increased mailing-list, as well as in the frequency
in which it is quoted in the daily and weekly Provincial papers. The Horticultural District
Bulletin, while distributed onjy amongst your own staff, has served the purpose of keeping the
members in touch with the various lines of horticultural work that each is carrying on in his
individual district.
Appreciation.
In conclusion, may I take this opportunity of expressing my appreciation of the excellent
co-operation and assistance which has been received by your Horticulturist from the staff
situated in various parts of the Province. Thanks are also due to the members of tbe various
Dominion branches, as well as to the members of the Horticultural staff of the University of
British Columbia, for their assistance in short courses and other lines of work undertaken.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
W. H. Robertson,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
REPORT OF DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST AND  INSPECTOR OF  FRUIT PESTS,
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND GULF ISLANDS.
E. W. White, B.S.A.
W. H. Robertson, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Horticulturist and Inspector
of Fruit Pests for Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands for the year 1921.
Staff.
The announcement of your appointment as Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit
Pests on April 1st, 1921, was received with a great deal of satisfaction by the writer, and I beg
to report to you for the entire year of 1921. IT 16 Department of Agriculture. 1922
The work on A'ancouver Island and the Gulf Islands has been carried on entirely by your
District Horticulturist, with the exception of the services of K. W. Munson, of Chilliwack, for
three weeks in February on pruning-school work.
Horticultural Conditions.
The year of 1921 was one in which the fruit-growers experienced a great many difficulties
and set-backs due to climatic and marketing conditions.
The early and excessive rainfall during the fall of 1920 made it practically impossible for
the strawberry-growers to keep up late cultivation and thus control the growth of weeds.
Growth was almost continuous during the winter months, no excessive frosts being experienced.
Fortunately enough, fine weather came early in the spring to make the cleaning-up of the patches
possible before growth got well started.
Severe frosts during the blooming period of tree-fruits resulted in practically a failure of
the pear-crop. Cherries, plums, and prunes were also seriously affected, with the exception of
Olivet cherries, which were a fair crop. Apples gave promise of a fair to good crop early in the
season. Unfortunately the wet wreather experienced during June and July caused a serious late
infection of apple-scab; this was coupled with a severe infestation of green aphis, causing a
marked decline in the grade and quality of apples. The net result of these conditions was the
marketing of the majority of the apple-crop in slatted crates, very few attempts being made to
pack out a No. 1 grade.
The wet weather of June and July also seriously affected the harvesting of the strawberry-
crop, which, although no final figures are yet available, was undoubtedly the largest on record.
Early in the season loganberry-growers had prospects of a bumper crop and were dubious
about the possibility of selling the fruit at all. However, the drought of August materially
reduced the tonnage and the crop moved out fairly satisfactorily.
It was evident early in the season that the general depression in business and financial
conditions was going to result in a decided slump in small-fruit prices for the season of 1921.
The canneries and jam-factories, who suffered a severe loss following the decline in the price
of their products, after they had paid a price of 20 cents a pound for jam-berries in 1920, were
not in the market to buy fruit, except in limited quantities at a low price and on long terms.
The British Columbia Berry-growers' Association became an active marketing organization
early in the year and its influence was felt on Vancouver Island, due to the fact that the Gordon
Head Fruit-growers' Association became an active member.
The Saanich Fruit-growers' Association, although invited, did not see their way clear to
join the British Columbia Berry-growers' Association and shipped their car-load lots to the
Prairies through a private brokerage firm.
In former years the Gordon Head Fruit-growers' Association and the Saanich Fruit-growers'
Association had shipped jointly in car-load shipments to the Prairies. In 1921 the two organizations shipped entirely independently as far as the strawberry-crop was concerned; the former
association shipping twenty-six car-loads and the latter twenty-four car-loads, a total of fifty
car-loads of strawberries.
All this fruit was shipped to the Prairie market on consignment and the prices received
were not satisfactory to the shipping organizations.
It is expected that with the arrival of more normal conditions in business circles, prices
for small fruits will be more satisfactory in 1922.
Greenhouse and market-garden vegetable-crops were on the whole good.
During November there were excessive rains, causing serious flood conditions. In December
there was a very severe and continued frost spell.
Horticultural Development.
There has been considerable extension in the planting of small fruits in several districts.
In the Gordon Head and Keating Districts plantings have been well maintained, while in the
North Saanich District advancement has been made and growers in that district are looking
toward the formation of a marketing organization for 1922.
In the Metchosin and Sooke Districts the planting of small fruits has been extended.
In the Cowichan District, from Cobble Hill to Chemainus, the plantings have increased to
such an extent that it was found necessary to organize the Cowichan Co-operative Fruit-growers'
Association early in the spring of 1921.    This association handled the marketing of practically 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 17.
the total crop in the Cowichan District, and although the association was a member of the
British Columbia Berry-growers' Association, arrangements were made to market the entire
crop on Vancouver Island, principally at centres north of Duncan. This association is well
prepared to handle the increase in production which will take place in 1922.
In the Ladysmith and Nanaimo Districts there has also been development and also at
Parksville and Errington.
The Errington Co-operative Produce Association again operated their small jam plant at
that place.
In the Comox Valley small-fruit growing is decidedly on the increase. The soldier settlers
at Merville planted out approximately 60,000 strawberries and 15,000 raspberries in the spring
of 1921. Individuals in other parts of the valley have also made plantings. Development has
reached such a stage in this district that late in the year a public meeting was called for the
purpose of discussing the necessity for organizing as the Comox Valley Fruit-growers' Association. The Comox Creamery has made the offer to act as buying and selling agents for such an
association.
On Saltspring Island there has also been advancement. The Saltspring Island Co-operative
jam-factory was established early in the year. A lot was purchased at Ganges, a building was
erected, and equipment installed. A very successful operating season was experienced and a
market outlet was given to small-fruit growers on the island.
In the vicinity of Victoria there has been a considerable increase in greenhouse-construction.
Some firms have increased their capacity and new firms have come into existence.
Demonstration Strawberry-plot, Gordon Head.
This 6-acre plot, which was established in March, 1919, and reported on in 1919 and 1020,
was again operated during 1921. This work required a great deal of attention during the year
by your District Horticulturist.
The opportunity is taken at this time to express appreciation of the conscientious and earnest
way in which G. A. Vantreight, on whose farm the plot is situated, eo-operated in the work of
the plot.
A brief description will here he given of the operations carried on on the various lots
during 1921.
Lot 1.—This lot was in clover in 1919 and potatoes in 1920. Following out the rotation
adopted, this was the acre to be planted to strawberries in 1921. On March 10th, 1921, the lot
was harrowed once, just to break up the surface soil and conserve the moisture.
On March 22nd and 23rd the new weevil-barrier was erected. Owing to the fact that a
weevil-barrier was erected around Lot 2 in 1920, it was only necessary to erect the new barrier
on the north and south ends and the west side, the barrier on the west side of Lot 2 serving for
the barrier on the east side of Lot 1.
The barrier erected on Lot 1 varied considerably from that erected on Lot 4 in 1919 and
Lot 2 iu 1920, because it was in fact an oil barrier, whereas the two previous barriers were
tanglefoot barriers.
The lumber for the West side consisted of 2- by 10-inch planks, 16 feet long, with a V-shaped
groove on the top edge to hold the oil. The planks were erected on edge and fastened every
16 feet to 2- by 6-inch by 2-foot posts. Each plank was set on the level by the use of a spirit-
level, and to take care of the natural fall in the ground it was necessary to " step " each plank
a little lower than the previous one.
The north and south ends were constructed of 1- by 12-inch lumber approximately 16 feet
long, which had been used in the construction of the barrier on Lot 4 in 1919, and which barrier
had been taken up in February, 1921, as being considered of no further value in protecting Lot 4.
To this barrier, on the north and south ends, was nailed on the outside a 2- by 4-ineh
V-shaped grooved strip to hold tbe oil. The same material was also used on the barrier on
the west side of Lot 2, which formed an oil barrier on the east side of Lot 1. Thus there was
a complete oil barrier around Lot 1. The total cost of materials for this barrier and labour
in erecting the same was $114.59.
On March 30th Lot 1 was double-disked, double-harrowed, and floated in preparation for
planting. On April 7th planting commenced and seventeen rows were planted in four hours
by two men. On April Sth twenty-four row's were planted in 5% hours by two men. On April
3 IT 18
Department of Agriculture.
1922
9th the remaining three rows were planted in three-quarters of an hour by two men, making
a total of forty-four rows or approximately 11,000 plants set in lO1/^ hours by two men. Nothing
but Magoon plants were used which were grown on the farm of G. A. Vantreight, but not on the
demonstration plot. The work on this lot for the remainder of the season consisted of hoeing,
cultivating, cutting blossoms, and cutting runners. The plants made very good growth during
the season.
Lot 2.—This lot was in potatoes in 1919 and was the lot used to plant strawberries in 1920,
so that in 1921 it was producing its first crop of berries.
In reporting on this lot in 1920, omission was made to mention the fact that owing to the
severe freeze of December, 1919, and the subsequent scarcity of plants in the spring of 1920,
it was necessary to use part Magoons and part Paxtons. Accordingly, the first twelve ithvs
on the west side were set to Magoons, consisting of 2,730 plants; the next eleven rows were
set to Paxtons, consisting of 2,775 plants; and the last twenty-one rows were set to Magoons,
consisting of 5,250 plants; a total of 10,755 plants. It may be mentioned that the majority of
the plants used in the last twenty-one rows were a poor second grade and some were a poor
third grade.
An excellent photograph of the eleven row-s of Paxtons on Lot 2 in full bloom in 1921 may be
seen in Fig. 5, page 13, of Circular No. 58 (New Horticultural Series), entitled "Strawberry
Culture," published by the Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
The most valuable information to report on this lot in 1921 is of course the crop. The
following table will show the dates of picking and the quantities of both Magoons and Paxtons
harvested:—
Date.
Magoons (33 Rows).
Paxtons (11 Rows).
Crates.
Hallocks.
Lb. Jam-berries.
Crates.
Hallocks.
Lb. Jam-berries.
37
26
35
59
42
51
25
6
22
20
12
40
200
30
3
18
36
3-9
13
14
„    17   	
„    21   	
„    22   	
„    25   	
„    27   	
July     1   	
2   	
600
„       8   	
350
„     12   	
„    14   	
35
„    18  	
Totals    	
281
54
270
109
14
1,135
Recapitulation—
Magoons     283 crates   6 hallocks    270 lb. jam-berries.
Paxtons   109      „     14       „       1,135  „
Totals      392      „     20       „       1,405   „
At the approximate average prices prevailing in 1921 this yield wTould give the following
return per acre:—■
393 crates @ $1.50  $589 50
1,405 lb. jam-berries @ 8 cents     112 40
Total   ,  $701 90
It should be noted that there was a severe infestation of June-bug in the north-east corner
of this lot in 1921, which reduced the number of Magoon plants by approximately 1,500 and
materially reduced the yield, especially on the last twenty-one rows of Magoons. The approximate average yield per plant on the Paxtons was 1.04 lb. and on the Magoons 0.74 lb. 12 Geo: 5 British Columbia. IT 19
Of course, it is well known to all strawberry-growers that returns received in 1921 were
disastrous; this year being, perhaps, one of the most unsatisfactory on record, as far as marketing conditions and prices received were concerned.
Following up the policy adopted in 1920, 100 Leghorn cockerels about 8 weeks old were
purchased at 30 cents, or a total of $30, and placed on the lot on July 13th. From observations
made in 1920 it was thought that these cockerels did a great amount of good in picking up
migrating adult weevils.
The feed purchased and consumed during the season of 1921 was as follows: 1 sack wheat,
$3.30; 1 sack cracked corn, $2.70; 1 sack poultry-mash, $2; 1 sack scratch-food, $2.70; and
2 sacks scratch-food, $5;  a total cost of $15.70.
On September 6th the first lot of cockerels were sold at public auction in Victoria, 36 bringing
45 cents each, a total of $16.20, less $1.60 commission, or $14.60 net. On September 27th 16
cockerels sold for 55 cents and 19 sold for 50 cents, a total of $18.30, less $1.85 commission, or
$16.45 net. On September 30th 15 cockerels sold at 30 cents and 10 at 40 cents, a total of $8.50,
less 85 cents commission, or $7.65 net.
The total outlay for cockerels and feed Was $45.70 and the net receipts from the sale of
96 was $38.70, a deficit of $7, no allowance being made for the time necessary to feed and water
the birds for the 80 days they were on the plot. There were only 4 cockerels lost during the
season out of the 100 purchased. '
Lot 3.—This lot was in fall wheat in 1919 and oats and vetch in 1920. In 1921 this was
the regular potato lot. Early in the spring decision was made to grow this acre of potatoes
under the certified-seed plan of the Soil and Crop Division of the Department of Agriculture.
As reported in 1920, the hill-selected seed from Lot 1 that year amounted to 4,760 lb. Of this
amount, 790 lb. was the selected seed from six rows which were planted in the spring of 1920
with so-called diseased seed; that is, seed which showed a brown discoloration when the stem-end
was cut. This 790 lb. of seed was not used on the demonstration plot in 1921, but was planted
on another part of the farm, and it may be reported here that the resulting crop was poorer and
had more disease than any other potato-patch on the farm. This emphasizes the fact very
clearly that it is absolutely essential to cut the stem-end of all seed-potatoes and discard any
showing a brown discoloration.
Deducting 790 lb. from 4,760 lb. leaves a balance of 3,950 lb. which was available for
selecting seed for Lot 3 in 1921.
It was decided to dip all the selected seed in a solution of corrosive sublimate, and for this
purpose a dipping-tank was specially constructed. While the dipping operation was in progress
a special selection of seed was made for Lot 3 and a total of approximately 1,800 lb. was secured.
Actually 1.7S8 lb. of seed was used for planting Lot 3. In cutting this amount of seed there was
it waste of 168 lb., leaving the net weight of potatoes planted in the forty-nine rows as 1,620 lb.
This may seem like a large quantity of seed to plant per acre, but it is well to point out
that this was all cut seed from 6- to 12-oz. potatoes. The Sir Walter Raleigh potato is also one
in which the eyes are not numerous, and to secure two good eyes to each set it is often necessary
to have the set weighing considerably over 2 oz.
In the preparation of Lot 3 for planting it may be said that the lot was harrowed on March
10th, disked twice on April 4th, and the potatoes were ploughed in on May 19th with one horse
in eight hours. Three men worked the same length of time dropping the sets. Cultivation and
hoeing was kept up during the balance of the season.
During 1920 it was evident that there was a slight percentage of another variety than
Sir Walter Raleigh mixed in with the Raleigh seed. This potato is very similar in the tuber,
but very different in the type of top growth, especially early in the season. The variety is,
however, an excellent yielder and strong grower. It was decided, therefore, to carefully mark
every plant of this variety by staking.   This was done on July 19th and 274 plants were marked.
Digging commenced on September 26th. On that date and on September 28th and 29th
all the diseased and weak hills were dug up. A total of 2.2S9 hills were dug, which yielded 740 lb.
of commercial potatoes and 305 lb. of culls.   These potatoes were immediately sold off the farm.
On October 20th the unknown variety was dug up, and 190 hills yielded 433 lb. of selected
seed and a balance of 151 lb. The difference between 274 hills, the number originally marked,
and 1C0. the number finally dug, w^as due to the fact that eighty-four hills were dug up as either
diseased or weak hills. -
U 20 Department of Agriculture. 1922
On November 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and Sth the main crop of Sir Walter Raleighs wras dug.
Thirty-eight rows yielded 8,994 lb. which were eligible for bin inspection as certified seed and
70O lb. of culls. Eleven rows were especially hill-selected for seed to be used on Lot 5 in 1922
and yielded 1,683 lb. of hill-selected seed, 600 lb. of commercial potatoes which were sold for
table purposes, and 144 lb. of culls. The total yield for Lot 3 was 13,750 lb., or just 250 lb. less
than 7 tons per acre. This yield was considered satisfactory as 1921 was a poor potato-year and
not nearly as favourable as 1920.
Lot It.—This lot was planted to strawberries in 1919 and yielded its first crop in 1920. The
yield was satisfactory in that year and peak prices were received.
Towards the fall of 1920 it was evident that the plants were not as thrifty as they should
be and a considerable number of weevil were present. It was a well-known fact that overwintering adult weevils had gained entrance to this lot soon after the plants were set in 1919
and before the weevil-barrier was erected. In 1920 and 1921 great care was taken to have the
barriers completely erected before planting took place. It was always questionable as to whether
Lot 4 would survive to produce a second crop.
On February 23rd and 24th the weevil-barrier was taken up because it was apparent that,
even though the plants produced a second crop, the barrier was of little benefit, and it had been
decided to use a portion of the lumber in the erection of the barrier on Lot 1.
On March 29th the 13% rows of Marshalls, which had never been satisfactory, were dug
out and burned. Even then it was decided to leave in the remaining 30% rows of Magoons.
However, by May 1st it was apparent from the severity of the weevil-infestation that it would
be advisable to remove the Magoons. This was done on May 3rd and they were piled and burnt
on May 9th. The taking-up of these plants broke up the.rotation on this lot and it was decided
to put the lot into potatoes.
It was thought that perhaps an earlier potato than Sir Walter Raleigh might be found
suitable to Gordon Head conditions, and for this reason 100 Ib. of Gold Coin seed was secured
from P. W1. Anketell-Jones, Chemainus, B.C. This seed was planted on May 3rd on Lot 4 and
occupied the first three rows.
After preparation of the land the balance of the lot was planted to Sir Walter Raleighs on
May 23rd. A total of 1,757 lb. of seed w-as used. The waste in cutting was 172 lb., leaving the
net weight of seed used as 1,585 lb. for the forty-six rows. This seed was all dipped in corrosive
sublimate and was the balance of the selected seed from- Lot 1 in 1920. This lot was fertilized
with 600 lb. of Imperial fertilizer applied in the furrow.
The same procedure was adopted with this lot as was done with Lot 3. On July 19th all
the plants of the unknown variety were staked, there being a total of 404. On September 29th
and 30th and October 1st the diseased and small hills were dug up. A total of 3,541 hills yielded
6S0 lb. of commercial potatoes and 495 lb. of culls. These were immediately sold. On October
18th the three rows of Gold Coins were dug and yielded 263 lb. of selected seed and the balance
amounted to 414 lb. On October 20th the unknown variety was dug and 265 hills yielded 405 lb.
of selected seed and a balance of 248 lb. There were 404 hills originally marked and 265 dug;
the difference, 139, were dug as diseased or small hills. On November 1st, 2nd, and 3rd the
main crop of Sir Walter Raleighs was dug. The forty-six rows yielded 7,786 lb. which were
eligible for bin inspection as certified seed and 920 lb. of culls.    The total yield was 11,199 lb.
Both Lot 3 and Lot 4 passed the two field inspections for certified seed, and it is hoped that
in the spring of 1922 there will be a certain amount of Sir Walter Raleighs available as certified
seed from the demonstration plot.
Lot 5.—This lot was in fall oats in 1919. In 1920 spring oats were planted and it was
seeded to clover. In 1921 there was a good stand of clover which was cut on July Sth and yielded
approximately 3% tons, valued at $20 per ton. This lot was manured during the fall months
with eight 5-yard loads of horse-manure in preparation for a crop of potatoes in 1922.
Lot 6.—This lot was also in fall oats in 1919. On March 27th, 1920, it was seeded to English
Wonder peas for seed. The peas were in full bloom on June 7th, but the lamb's-quarter threatened to ruin the crop. For this reason the peas were ploughed down on June 10th and potatoes
planted. After the potatoes were harvested the land was prepared and seeded to fall wheat
and hairy vetch. On March 7th, 1921, this lot was seeded with 22 lb. of clover-seed. On July
16th the fall wheat was cut for hay and yielded approximately 2 tons, valued at $20 per ton.
This lot will be the clover lot for 1922. 12 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
IT 21
Pruning-schools.
As a result of the notices which were sent out in the fall of 1920 offering five-day pruning-
schools, a number of applications were received. Eight schools were held at various points on
Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands. Your District Horticulturist personally conducted five
of these schools, and the services of K. W. Munson, of Chilliwack, B.C., were secured to conduct
the other three schools.
The following table will show briefly the details of these various schools:—
Place held.
Instructor.
Dates.
Pupils.
Qualicum Beach .
Denman Island ..
Gordon  Head   . ..
Duncan    	
Ladysmith    ......
Saltspring Island
Nanaimo    	
Pender Island  ...
Total
K.   W.   Munson
E.  W.  White
K.   W.   Munson
E.   W.   White
January   31   to  February 4
February   7   to   11   	
„ 7   to   11   	
14   to   18   	
14   to   IS   	
„ 21   to   25   	
28 to March 4   . .
March  7  to  11   	
17
14
■19
10
11
96
A date was set for a pruning-school at Sahtlam, under the auspices of the United Farmers
of British Columbia Local, from March 14th to 18th, but the school was cancelled by the Secretary
owing to the lateness of the season. However, three days were spent in the district giving
individual instruction to intending pupils.
Applications were also received from the United Farmers of British Columbia Local at South
Gabriola Island; the Bayview Local of United Farmers of British Columbia, Ladysmith; and
the Whaletown Farmers' Institute. It was impossible to set dates for these three applications
owing to the lateness of the season at which they were received.
From August 1st to Sth a visit was paid to Cortes Island, the district covered by the Whale-
town Farmers' Institute. This visit was made partly in lieu of the fact that it had been
impossible to conduct a pruning-school in the spring.
It may be said that these pruning-schools were much appreciated by the pupils, and it is
thought that the information given out will help considerably to place the practice of pruning
on a more uniform basis.
Oriental Survey.
During the months of April and May it was necessary to spend a good deal of time in making
a survey of all lands owned or leased by Orientals on Vancouver Island from Nanaimo south.
A complete tabulated report on this matter has already been submitted to you.
Strawberry-packing Demonstrations.
At your request a number of strawberry-packing demonstrations were arranged through the
various Fruit-growers' Associations at the start of the strawberry season. Tbe object of these
demonstrations was to give growers and pickers a clearer explanation of the " Fruit Marks Act"
and to instruct them regarding the requirements of a No. 1 shipping-berry, berries fit for the
local market, and jam-berries.
The Gordon Head Fruit-growers' Association decided not to set definite dates or time for
demonstrations in the Gordon Head District. However, on the afternoon of June 16th, in
company with T. H. Bain, Dominion Fruit Inspector, and B. T. Boies, Inspector for the Gordon
Head Fruit-growers' Association, instruction was given to growers and pickers on six individual
farms at Gordon Head.
On June 15th and 17th, in company with T. H. Bain and Wm. Buchanan, Assistant Dominion
Fruit Inspector, visits were paid to twelve farms in the Keating District and individual instruction given to growers and pickers.
On June 22nd and 23rd six demonstrations were given in the Keating District at places and
at times set by the Saanich Fruit-growers' Association. The total attendance at these six meetings was sixty-five.    T. H. Bain and Wm. Buchanan attended all meetings. I
IT 22
Department of Agriculture.
1922
The Cowichan Co-operative Fruit-growers' Association arranged fof three demonstrations
on June 20th, which owing to the wet weather were not largely attended, but were greatly
appreciated by those who did attend.
This work was appreciated in all the districts and growers and pickers gained a clearer idea
of what was really required.
Experimental Spraying.
Stewart Bros.' Orchard, Keating.—The work as reported in 1919 and 1920 was continued m
1921 on this plot for the control of anthracnose. The spraying in the fall of 1921 completed three
years' work, but a complete report on the work is impossible until the counts of infection are
made next May.    The applications were again varied slightly in 1921.
On August 30th Lots 1, 2, 3, and 4 were sprayed with 1-lVa^lO Burgundy mixture. On
November Sth Lot 3 was sprayed with 3-4-40 Bordeaux mixture, Lot 4 with 6-6-40 Bordeaux,
and Lot 5 with 1-9 lime-sulphur solution.
The results of the counts on infection made on June 1st, 1921, following the 1920 sprayings
will be found in the report of the Provincial Plant Pathologist.
Horticultural Competitions.
On May 31st your District Horticulturist assisted Professor L. Stevenson, of the Dominion
Experimental Station, to judge a strawberry competition held under the auspices of the South
Saanich Farmers' Institute.    There were twelve entries and the competition was very keen.
On July 11th a loganberry competition, also held under the auspices of the South Saanich
Farmers' Institute, was judged by your District Horticulturist.    There were eight competitors.
Flower-shows and Fall Fairs.
The following flower-shows and cottage gardeners' exhibitions were attended in the capacity
of judge:   Sluggett's, July 6th; Sooke, July 7th; Colwood-Luxton, August 10th; Sidney, August
•20th;   Ward IL, Saanich, August 27th;   Garden City, Ward IV., Saanich, August 31st.
The following fall fairs were also attended in the capacity of judge of fruit and vegetables:
North Vancouver, September 2nd and 3rd, assisted by Professor A. F. Barss; Langley (Milner),
September 7tb, assisted by Geo. Boving; Surrey Centre, September Stb; Whonnock, September
9th, assisted by F. B. Cotsw-orth; Provincial Exhibition, New Westminster, September 12th to
17th (your District Horticulturist assisted with the judging at this fair) ; Duncan, September
15th to 17th, assisted by H. P. Allberry; Matsqui (Gifford), September 20th and 21st; Mission,
September 2Sth to 30th, assisted by L. A. La Pierre; Ladner, September 30th and October 1st;
and North and South Saanich, October 4th and 5th, assisted F. L. Goodman. A detailed report
has been submitted on this work.
Inspection of Nurseries.
This work was carried out according to the regulations in so far as it was possible.
Inspections were made in the spring at shipping-time, during the summer, and again in the
fall at digging. Owing to the lateness in the season at which the pruning-school work wTas
concluded it was not possible to make an inspection of each individual tree.
The supply of nursery stock is gradually increasing, but the price still remains high for
fruit-tree stocks.
Insect Pests and Diseases.
Systematic orchard-inspection work has not been possible during the past year, due to lack
of time. However, a great many inspections have been made, dealing with specific requests for
information on insects and diseases.
Owing to the extremely wet weather during June and July late infections of apple-scab were
numerous and most orchards were badly attacked. The wet weather also provided conditions
favourable for a severe attack of aphis, and these two troubles materially decreased the supply
of No. 1 apples.
The strawberry-root weevil was bad in some instances, but generally over the whole district
this pest appears to be giving less trouble. It may be somewhat hard to account for this fact,
but in the opinion of the writer the work which has been done by the Horticultural Branch and
Dominion Entomological Branch is beginning to bear fruit.    Strawberry-growers are adopting 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT
better cultural methods for the control of the weevil and some system of permanent crop-rotation
is being followed in many cases. In fact, the strawberry-growers to-day are not causing the
rapid spread of the weevil as they undoubtedly did a few years ago.
No serious outbreak has occurred during the year, and where the proper control measures
have been adopted growers have been successful in combating the various troubles.
Conventions and Meetings.
On January 19tb, 20th, and 21st the annual convention of the British Columbia Fruit-growers'
Association was attended at Nelson, B.C.
The Western Plant Quarantine Board met at the Parliament Buildings from June 7th to
10th, inclusive. A number of the sessions were attended and assistance was given in showing
the delegates around the district.
From July 20th to 29th, inclusive, your District Horticulturist was privileged in being able
to attend the fourth annual meeting of North-western Horticulturists, Entomologists, and Plant
Pathologists at Hood River, Oregon. On that occasion the writer had the honour of presenting
a paper on " Apple-tree Anthracnose or Black-spot Canker Control."
Great benefit was derived from being able to attend all of the above conventions.
During tbe year a large number of meetings under the auspices of various farmers' organizations were attended and talks given on different horticultural subjects.
Demonstrations and General Work.
Demonstrations in various branches of horticultural work and personal visits to growers
occupied a great deal of time during the year; although this type of work is extremely popular,
there is very little to show for the same at the end of each year.
Two trips of inspection were made during the past year to the soldier settlement area at
Merville and as much assistance as possible given to those interested in the culture of small
fruits. A trip was made in August to Mary Island and Cortes Island, and in October a trip was
made to Texada Island. It is impossible to visit the outlying portions of the district as often
as they deserve.
It might be interesting to note that during the past year, in the performance of his duties,
your District Horticulturist has travelled the following distance: By automobile, 9,816 miles; by
boat, 1,858 miles;  by train, 1,960 miles;  making a total of 13,634 miles for the year.
Fruit- and Vegetable-crop Statistics.
During the fall of the year a great deal of time is occupied in collecting fruit- and vegetable-
crop production figures for the Statistics Branch. These figures are used in determining the
total yearly agricultural production for the Province.
Publications, Correspondence, and Office-wtork.
Towards the end of the year your District Horticulturist prepared Circular No. 58 (New
Horticultural Series), entitled " Strawberry Culture." It is hoped that this circular will fill the
demand for information on this subject.
Owing to the position of Provincial Horticulturist being filled by your appointment the writer
has been relieved of a great deal of correspondence-work.
A great many visitors have called at the office seeking information and all the assistance
possible has been given.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
E. W. White,
i District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests. .
-
IT 24 Department of Agriculture. 1922
REPORT OF DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST AND  INSPECTOR OF  FRUIT PESTS,
LOWER MAINLAND.
F. L. Goodman.
W. H. Robertson, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Horticulturist and Inspector of
Fruit Pests for the Lower Mainland District for the year 1921.
Horticultural Conditions. '
From the production standpoint the small-fruit grower of the Lower Mainland has had a
very successful year. The winter was mild and there was an absence of winter-injury and frost-
heaving. The spring rains, unfortunately, continued into the strawberry season and interfered
considerably with the harvesting of the crop. As a result of the excessive moisture the berries
were very soft and there was a tendency for them to break down before full colour was attained.
Due to this many shipping-berries were picked too green and suffered materially on the market.
The growers incurred a vast amount of additional work owing to the necessity of dusting or
otherwise cleaning the mud-splashed berries. There was almost a complete omission of the
practice of " strawing " by the growers in a season when strawing was particularly necessary.
The raspberry-crop was abundant and the season favoured by good weather. The young
growth in most cases is stout and healthy and gives good promise for next year.
Loganberries and blackberries cropped very heavily and well warranted the care given them.
Particularly fine was the crop taken on the slightly heavier soil of the Chilliwack Valley.
Tree-fruits in most cases cropped very lightly. Apples did best and in some localities
exceeded last year's crop. Pears, due to poor weather conditions at the time of blossoming,
were almost a total failure. Plums and prunes also were very poor, largely on account of the
heavy infestation of brown-rot.   The cherry-crop, generally speaking, was good.
Practically all vegetable-crops were highly satisfactory.
Flower-shows and Fall Fairs.
On Juue 25th your assistant attended and judged at the Clayburn Rose and Flower Show,
organized by the Matsqui Women's Institute, and on August 3rd at the flower-show of the Fort
Langley Women's Institute, held at Fort Langley.
The following fall fairs Were attended in the capacity of judge: Port Haney, September 7th
and Sth; Agassiz, September 21st; Port Coquitlam, September 22nd; Aldergrove, September
23rd; Courtenay, September 27th and 2Sth; Ladysmith, September 2Sth and 29th; Saanichtou,
October 4th and Sth. The Provincial Exhibition at New Westminster, September 12th to 17th,
was also attended and the writer assisted in the judging of fruit and vegetables.
A separate report on fall fairs was submitted at their termination to the Secretary of the
Department of Agriculture.
Inspection of Nurseries.
Your Inspector was present at the different nurseries on the Lower Mainland during the
digging of nursery stock for shipment. All stock was carefully examined and any found in a
diseased or infected condition was either destroyed or, where practicable, treated. With the
exception of crown-gall and woolly aphis in the apple stock and some minor conditions in other
plants, the nursery products of the Fraser Valley were found to be well-grown, vigorous, and iu
excellent condition.
Conventions and Meetings.
On June 7th to 10th the meetings were attended at Victoria of the Western Plant Quarantine
Board. On November Sth the meeting of the Fort Langley Local of the United Farmers of
British Columbia was attended and an address given on some phases of small-fruit culture.
Fbuit- and Vegetable-crop Statistics.
A considerable amount of time was taken up during the closing weeks of the year in collecting
figures bearing on the year's crop production.    This work necessitates the canvassing of many of 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 25
the growers, the visiting of co-operative associations, and jam and cannery concerns, as well as
much offic'e-work in compiling and tabulating results.
Bella Coola District.
In accordance with instructions, your assistant visited Bella Coola in August and made an
extensive survey of the agricultural district. No meetings were held, as it was felt that at that
season and in rather scattered communities the farmers had not the time to spare. As many
as possible of the farmers were visited, however, and their problems taken up with them at
home. Appreciation was expressed that the Department had found it possible to send a representative to the district and in various ways was recognizing the needs of that thriving community.
A report on the visit, the country, and the conditions prevailing was forwarded to the
Departmental Secretary on the writer's return.
Codling-moth Control.
The codling-moth situation at North Bend occasioned a number of visits to that neighbourhood during the past season. With the co-operation of H. Gowen, of North Bend, the necessary
spraying-work was done and bands renewed and examined. There appears to be a marked
advance in the control of the pest, but the situation demands equally strenuous efforts the
coming year.
Insect Pests and Diseases.
Due to favourable conditions in the early part of the year the past season has been marked
■by a particularly bad infestation of many kinds of fungous disease. Apple-scab has been particularly bad, and even in those few orchards where control measures have been carried on the
percentage of fruit free from scab-spots has been small. Brown-rot of stone-fruits caused the
loss of a large part of the plum and prune crop, and cherries, particularly sour cherries, suffered
heavily from this disease. Mildews were the cause of a great deal of trouble and loss in both
garden and orchard. Anthracnose is very prevalent in apple-orchards throughout all the Lower
Mainland, and to a certain extent pears are affected.
Of insect pests, the currant-fly (Epochra canadensis) did a large amount of damage to the
gooseberries, and there was some trouble locally wdth the root-borer (Bembecia marginata) and
the cane-borer (Oberea bimaculata) in raspberries.
The infestation of aphis was small and insect damage, speaking generally, was negligible.
Circulars and Newspaper Articles.
As a means of getting in touch with a large section of the agricultural community and
supplying information of general interest, the Department circulars have the greatest value.
Your assistant has aided in the preparation of one of these circulars and also contributed articles
of topical interest to the press.
General Field-work.
Requests that visits be made by your Horticulturist are received during the greater part
of the year in considerable numbers, and the fulfilling of these requests occupies the major
part of the official's time. These requests for visits come from almost all sections of the
community and have reference to the gardening problems in the best residential sections of
the city, as well as to crop-pest problems in the remote parts of the country. As far as possible
all these calls are attended to, but when the demand is so great that time will not permit of
all requests being complied with preference is given to those bearing on commercial horticultural
problems.
Office-work.
Your Horticulturist for the Lower Mainland has now office accommodation in the Courthouse, Vancouver, and at this office deals with inquiries that are presented and attends to
correspondence received.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
F. L. Goodman,
District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests. IT 26 Department of Agriculture. 1922
REPORT OF DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST AND INSPECTOR OF FRUIT PESTS,
OKANAGAN VALLEY.
W. T. Hunter, B.S.A.
W. H. Robertson, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I hereby beg to submit my annual report on general fruit- and vegetable-crop conditions
in the Okanagan Valley.
The fruit-crop of the Okanagan District for 1921 established a record in point of tonnage
over any previous year. While returns are not completed, it is estimated that our< total tonnage
will run at least 20 per cent, higher than the largest crop previously recorded, which was in 1919.
The soft-fruit tonnage was approximately the same, and-some improvement in quality was
noticeable in the case of sw7eet cherries; otherwise the general standard was about the same as
in 1920. Very little improvement was noted in the quality of the peaches and apricots, and it
is very evident that, if the quality of these fruits is to be raised in the future, more attention to
the soil and cultural methods will have to be given.
The apple tonnage was much higher than in 1919, but the general quality was not as good as
in 1920 owing to the large percentage of small sizes and culls which prevailed. This was due
to a lack of sufficient thinning and to many of the orchards being in poor condition. Where
consistent heavy thinning has been practised the quality of the fruit produced in such orchards
was well above the average. Considerable breaking-down and spotting was noticeable in the
latter part of the season on Jonathan, Northern Spy, Wagener, etc., and this condition caused
a heavy loss to some orchardists. Upon investigating the causes which might lead to thia
condition, your officials are of the opinion that it has been caused mainly by the unbalanced
condition of the trees in many cases. It is very evident that our cultural methods of the past,
under the practice of clean cultivation,, whereby the natural fertility and humus content of the
soils has been depleted and no effort made to remedy this condition, the lack of available plant-
food, coupled with an underdevelopment of the feeding roots of the trees, leads to a serious
malnutrition of the fruit at some period of their growth during the hot season. The apple is
in that way injured and with many varieties does not recover, and as a result later in the season
we find the cells breaking down and becoming brown. On orchards where no deep ploughing is
practised, and where the water-supply is conserved by a shade-crop, the roots are very fully
developed in abundance, and are for this reason enabled to function to the fullest extent throughout the growing season, very little trouble has arisen.
Marketing conditions were not quite as good in 1921, as the growers might have hoped, and
at the present time no returns have been received for many of our varieties. We believe that
before long fair returns will be received in nearly all cases.
Vegetables were only an average crop in 1921. About half the acreage of onions was planted
as compared with 1920, and as a result good prices were received for this commodity. The
acreage of other vegetables and prices received have been about average.
Investigations and Demonstration Experiments in connection with Orchard-soil Problems.
This work appeared to be of such importance as to be worthy of special attention, and in
the spring of 1921 it was placed under the direction of Mr. Robinson at Vernon and Mr. Britton
at Kelowna, and these officials devoted a large percentage of their time to this branch of the
work. A series of demonstration plots iu each district are now being conducted. These plots
are purely of a demonstration nature, as it is not the intention of your officials to endeavour to
experiment along these lines, but simply to demonstrate to the growers of the different districts
the relative value of nitrate fertilizers as compared with fertilizers carrying other plant-foods;
the relative value of vetch v. alfalfa as a cover-crop; and to demonstrate, both with cover-crops
and commercial fertilizers, the proper method of handling these to the best advantage. As this
demonstration-work has been elaborated in the report of your officials at Vernon and Kelowna,
further reference to the details can be obtained therefrom.
Lectures and Meetings.
General Horticultural Meetings.—During the year your officials attended various meetings
of the Farmers' Institutes, Fruit-growers' Associations, and various other agricultural organiza- 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 27
tions, and on request discussed various phases of orcharding at these meetings. Owing to the
large number of requests for reliable information on various orchard problems, it was felt that
a series of meetings would be of real benefit to the valley, and accordingly, with the co-operation
of R. H. Helmer, Superintendent, Dominion Experimental Farm, Summerland, and the University
of British Columbia, a series of one- and two-day meetings were arranged throughout the
Okanagan District. One-day meetings were held at Keremeos, Oliver, Naramata, Oyama, West-
bank, Peaehland, Armstrong, and Salmon Arm. Two meetings were held in each case. Four
meetings covering two days were held at the following places : Penticton, Summerland, Kelowna,
Okanagan Centre, and Vernon. The series of meetings was opened at Keremeos on February
18th and concluded at Armstrong on March 4th. The subjects discussed and the various speakers
who discussed these is as follows:—
P. S. Darlington, Wenatchee, Washington, U.S.A., " Orchard Cover-crops "; R. H. Helmer,
Superintendent, Dominion Experimental Farm, Summerland, "Maintaining the Soil-fertility of
the Okanagan.Orchards " and "Irrigation"; J. R. Terry, Chief Poultry Instructor, Department
of Agriculture, Victoria, "Poultry-keeping for the Fruit-rancher"; H. H. Evans, Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon, " Control of Insect Pests and Diseases "; R. G. L. Clarke, Dominion
Fruit Inspector, Vancouver, " Packages and Packing"; Professor A. F. Barss, University of
British Columbia, " Principles and Science of Pruning" and " Interrelation of Orchard Practices"; M. S. Middleton, Arernon, "The Practices of Pruning"; W. T. Hunter, District Horticulturist, Vernon, " Varieties of Fruit recommended for Planting " and " Elimination from the
Orchard of Non-profitable Varieties"; J. A. Grant, Markets Commissioner, " Markets and
Marketing."
These meetings were very successful from the standpoint of total attendance, there having
been recorded a total of 3,316 people at the meetings, and from the comments which reached your
offices the series was much appreciated by the growers. A similar series of meetings is being
planned for the coming February and the meetings are being looked forward to by the growers
with considerable interest.
Thinning Demonstrations.—During the month of June thinning demonstrations were held
at various points in the valley, a total of twenty-seven meetings being held during the course of
twelve days. These meetings were held in the orchards and a short talk on the principles and
practices of thinning various fruits was given, besides a practical demonstration. A total
attendance of 458 growers was reported.
The series was very popular with the growers, and it is hoped the coming year that a series
of similar field meetings can be held, at which not only thinning but other problems of orchard-
management can be discussed. A separate report on this series of meetings has already been
forwarded.
Fire-blight and Codling-moth,—In the latter part of November a series of meetings was held
in connection with the fire-blight campaign, at which the subject of the codling-moth menace
was also discussed. Your officials were assisted at these meetings by R. H. Helmer and A. L.
McLarty, of the Dominion Experimental Farm, Summerland, and a total attendance of 778
growers was recorded. A separate report having been already submitted on this subject, it will
suffice at this time to say that the meetings were very enthusiastically received by the growers,
and as the fire-blight campaign and the seriousness of the codling-moth situation in the valley
was thoroughly discussed, your officials feel that the series was of very great value to the
growers. As a result of the thorough discussion of the codling-moth situation, it is hoped that
at the forthcoming British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association Convention at Victoria this
subject will be very well discussed and definite action promptly taken towards safeguarding our
valley from further infestation by this pest.
Control and Inspection Work in Detail.
Codling-moth (Cydia pomonella Linn.).—Separate reports dealing with actual quarantine-
work in connection with codling-moth are appended by those of your officials who were directly
responsible for the carrying-out of these important duties. A summary of these reports show
that, while good progress was made on the older quarantine areas, a new and very serious outbreak has been reported from the Kelowna District, being located on the K.L.O. Benches. At
this time it is difficult just to state definitely the extent of this infestation. U 28
Department of Agriculture.
1922
As your officials realized the seriousness of the whole situation, if was felt that by a series
of special meetings the interest and co-operation of the growers could be more fully aroused,
and accordingly such a series was held and the growers of the entire valley are now heartily
behind the efforts of your staff to eradicate and control this serious pest.
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorus).—During the season of 1921 much damage from this
disease was reported from several sections. A large percentage of the damage was in the nature
of blight to the blossoms during and immediately following the period of full bloom. Damage to
the extent of 95 per cent, of the blossom-spurs on entire blocks of trees was reported in many
instances and from numerous districts. As fire*-blight it only carried over the winter in holdover cankers, it was realized that if the disease was to be checked radical treatment of all
orchards infested would have to be given during the dormant season this year.
Plans were matured for an active campaign of eradication on the part of the growers, as
our quarantine regulations give your staff very little jurisdiction over the growers as far as
enforcing the actual work of cutting during the dormant season. An effort was made to arouse
the growers of the entire district to a realization of the menace of the disease to the orchards,
and it was planned to put on a big eradication clean-up. This campaign took the form of a
preliminary series of public meetings in all points, newspaper articles outlining the campaign
and soliciting the whole-hearted support of the growers, and an inspection service by your staff.
The growers were urged to co-operate in the campaign by cutting the blight as soon as possible
and reporting the completion of their work to their district offices. Officials of your staff then
visited the growers, requesting inspection, and if, after a careful > survey of the orchard, your
assistants were satisfied that the work had been well and carefully done an 8 by 10 card was
posted on the property stating that inspection had been completed. The text of the inspection-
card is here given:—
" Inspection.
" This is to certify that this property has been inspected and that, as far as can be
ascertained from a careful inspection of the orchard, all fire-blight infections which would
prove a menace have been eradicated, and in our opinion the owner, Mr. , has made a
conscientious effort to eliminate this disease from his orchard at this time. His action and
co-operation are highly commended and appreciated."
A keen neighbourly rivalry has been aroused and at the time of writing the campaign is
going forward with splendid success. That the expense and effort has been worth.while is best
attested to by the support that is being given the campaign by the growers. The public meetings
were given at twenty-five centres and were attended by 778 growers. A detailed list of the places
in which meetings were held and the attendance in each place is as follows: Oliver, 52; Cawston,
18; Keremeos, 15; Kaleden, 5; Penticton, 52; Poplar Grove, 21; Naramata, 37; Peaehland, 35;
Summerland, 57 ; Glemnore. 25 ; Ellison, 33 ; Rutland, 21; Mission, 15 ; Bankhead, 34 ; K.L.O., 36;
Westbank, 27; Okanagan Centre, 6; Winfield,-36; Oyama, 24; Lavington, 6; B.X., 28; South
Vernon, 13; Coldstream, 49 ; Armstrong, 7; Salmon Arm, 99.
Acknowledgment should be given to R. H. Helmer and A. L. McLarty, of the Dominion
Experimental Station, Summerland, for their splendid support and co-operation in assisting at
the meetings. They accompanied your assistants on their itinerary and spoke at all the meetings,
and the efforts of your staff received their support to the fullest extent.
A system of card-indexing the orchards inspected and passed was inaugurated and is being
followed up. In this way reference as to the condition of every orchard with respect to this
disease may be made at any time, as it is the intention of your staff to follow up the campaign
with close inspections of suspected properties at regular periods in the future. A determined
effort will be made to protect those growers who have joined the campaign and cut the infections
out of their orchards from delinquents who have not done so, under the authority given your
staff under the Horticultural Regulations.
Blister-mite (Eriophyes pyrii).—This pest caused very serious injury on the apples during
1921, and as a result of experimental work which was conducted by your official at Summerland
your staff is now in a better position to advise remedial measures towards the control of this
pest. However, the experimental work which was done in this regard has not been carried out
as far as it should be, and it is the intention of your staff to elaborate in this direction the coming
season in order that the most reliable control measures can be given from now on. 12 Geo. o British Columbia. IT 29
Oyster-shell Scale (Lepidosaph.es uhni Linn.).—This pest was rather serious in the Vernon
District the past season, and as the control sprays recommended .by your officials have not been
as consistently followed by the growers as they could have been, owing to a general misunderstanding as to the proper time at which these sprays should be applied, it is evident that more
attention wrill have to be paid to the control of oyster-shell scale the coming season. Accordingly,
a determined effort will be made to advise the growers more widely than heretofore as to the
correct time and the correct spray to use.
Other Pests and Diseases.—Woolly aphis, green apple-aphis, peach-worm, apple powdery
mildew, and apple-scab were more or less prevalent the past season, but the damage done by
each of these pests or diseases was not of such a nature on the whole to warrant their being
especially considered at this time. At the same time it is felt by your officials that the
information for the control of all these pests and diseases should be disseminated a little more
thoroughly and more carefully than has been the case in the past. Too many of the growers
do not realize the necessity of applying control sprays in their individual case thoroughly and
at the proper time, nor do they in many cases use the correct mixture. It would appear that
the Spray Calendar as issued by your office might be brought a little more up to date and at the
same time put out in a little more concise and intelligent manner. Complaints have been received
that the calendar is not intelligible to many of the growers; therefore it is to be hoped that the
revision as arranged by your staff will be acceptable to you and that a new edition will be
available next spring.
Pruning-schools.
The organization of classes for instruction in the science and practice of pruning has taken
considerable time during the winter months, but as the results have been excellent the effort and
expenditure appears worth while. According to detailed reports already on file, in the months
of January, February, and March, 1921, eight pruning-schools were held at the following points:
Salmon Arm, 5 schools; Rutland, 2 schools; Cawston, 1 school'; with a total registered attendance
of exactly 100 pupils. During November and December nine schools were held at the following
points: Vernon, 3 schools; Kelowna, 4 schools; Penticton, 1 school; Summerland, 1 school; with
a total registered attendance of 97. In nearly all cases the classes consisted of ten periods
with each class, nine of which were spent in the orchards on the practice of pruning, and one
period being given over to an indoor discussion of the principles of pruning, tools, grafting, etc.
The reports which have reached this office would indicate that the classes have all been satisfactory to the growers who attended, and it is very evident that this phase of the work of your
staff is very valuable and important.
Applications for further classes- at other points in the valley are now on hand and these
will be conducted during January and February if at all possible.
Packing-schools.
Very few requests were received for packing-schools this past year, and only one school was.
held at Oyama by II. H. Evans in the month of August. Up until the present time only two
requests are on file, both of these being from the Salmon Arm District. As this is to some extent
an unorganized district, in the opinion of your staff it would be advisable to hold classes at these
points in the winter of 1922.
Agricultural Fairs and Exhibitions.
Your officials acted as judges of fruit and vegetables at various fairs throughout the Province
this year, and separate reports have been forwarded covering these duties in the case of each
official. Your assistant acted as judge of fruit and vegetables at Windermere, Golden, Nelson,
New Denver, Creston, Rock Creek, Peaehland, and Penticton. A separate report of these fairs
has been forwarded.
Departmental Exhibit at Fairs and Exhibitions.
The past season an effort was made to improve the Department of Agriculture exhibit at
the fairs and exhibitions held in the valley, and this was taken charge of by B. Robinson, of the
Vernon office, and J. E. Britton, of the Kelowna office, in co-operation with Mr. Ruhmann, of
the Entomological Branch. A special feature was made this year of soil-work and cover-crops,
and judging by the interest which was aroused at every fair it was very evident that this work IT 30 Department of Agriculture. 1922
was popular. With the experience which was gained this year, there is every reason to believe
that from an educational point of view this phase of the exhibit can be successfully elaborated
in 1922. Accordingly, arrangements are now being made to make the Department of Agriculture
exhibit and information booth a large feature next year at all the valley fairs.
Weekly News Letter.
The publication of the Weekly News Letter was continued the past summer and the service
proved very popular with the public. The first edition was out on May 1st and the publication
was continued during the growing and harvesting season. The subject-matter dealt with this
year was considerably augmented by the publication of news from the entire Province, in addition
to news of importance and interest from this district. A large increase in the mailing-list of this
year over that of 1920 appears to be evident proof that the publication of thisl News Letter is of
general interest to the public. Many newspapers throughout the Province published the bulletin
as issued, and it was by many other editors used as a weekly basis for their comments on market
conditions, etc.
Horticultural District Bulletin.
The District Bulletin of the 1920 season was this year elaborated to take in news from the
other horticultural districts as to the activity of the entire Horticultural Branch. The expansion
was very popular with all, and the edition enabled the entire Horticultural staff of the Provincial Department of Agriculture to keep in close touch with the work of one another.
Okanagan Horticultural Club.
A growing need for closer harmony and co-operation among all workers in horticultural
problems in this district has resulted in the formation of the Okanagan Horticultural Club, an
organization composed of Federal and Provincial officials of the Departments of Agriculture and
ex-officials of both Departments. Regular monthly meetings are held and subjects of vital
interest to the orchard business of to-day are discussed. It is felt that this club will bring each
and every official, whether Federal or Provincial, into close touch with the work of all, and by
reason of a more harmonious understanding among" individuals, and as to the work which these
individuals are attempting, much valuable assistance and co-operation can and will be given by
all the members.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
W. T. Hunter,
District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
REPORT OF ASSISTANT DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST, VERNON.
H. H. Evans.
W. T. Hunter, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith a brief annual report of general horticultural activities for
the past season;  also detailed report of codling-moth control work.
Fall Fairs.
Your assistant had much pleasure in sharing the duties of judging at the following fall
fairs: New Westminster, Victoria, Kelowna, and Summerland. Separate reports in regard to
same have already been submitted.
Pruning and Packing Schools.
In the month of August arrangements were made for a packing-school at Oyama; T. Booth
acting as Instructor. 12 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
IT 31
In November and December your assistant arranged for three pruning-schools in the Vernon
District, conducting one personally;  M. S. Middleton acting as Instructor for the balance.
Pest-inspection Work.
Inspection of Fruit and Vegetables.—During the past season no calls were received by us
for inspection of foreign fruit shipments from the Vernon District. On potato shipments to this
date inspection has been made on seven and a half cars; of these, five and a half passed
inspection; two cars being refused certificate on percentage of diseases.
Inspection of Foreign Cars.—This work will be found incorporated in the detailed report on
codling-moth control work.
Experimental Work.
The five-year pruning experiment being carried by the Department in the Vernon District
is now entering the third year; all data possible are being kept on record in connection with
the above experiment.
Experimental Scab-control.—The work conducted this year constitutes the second year of
the three-year period testing out dry lime-sulphur and the weaker dilutions of liquid lime-sulphur.
Applications were made by E. R. Clarke, a student in agriculture of the University of British
Columbia, temporarily attached to the Department at that period. The check on the fruit was
taken by your assistant, R. A. Newman, and two of the men then on temporary employment.
Tables of applications and results are appended. In Tables I. and II. dry lime-sulphur at
different strengths was used, with the addition of hydrated lime to ascertain, if possible, whether
the addition of the lime has any bearing on the efficiency of dry lime-sulphur at different
strengths. In Plot No. 3 D.L.S. was used at a strength to conform to liquid lime-sulphur
concentrate testing 32.5 Beaume.
Definite comparisons and deductions will not be arrived at until the completion of the test
period, when averages can be determined.
Definition of Abbreviations.—L.S.—Liquid lime-sulphur. D.L.S.—Dry lime-sulphur.
Hd.L.—Hydrated lime.
Locality Scab Experiment, Vernon District.
Table I.—Material Test.
Spray Period.
Plot 1.
Plot 2.
Plot 3.
Plot 4.
Plot 5.
Plot 6.
Plot 7.
Pink	
D.L.S. 2-40
and   Hd.
L. 5 lb.
D.L.S. 2-40
and   Hd.
L. 5 lb.
D.L.S. 4i
lb. -40
D.L.S.   3
lb.-40
D.L.S.3-40
D.L.S.   2
lb.-40
D.L.S. 2-40
L.S. 1-50
L.S. 1-50
L.S.  1-60
L.S. 1-60
L.S. 1-60
Calyx	
D.L.S.   li
lb.-40 and
Hd. L.  2J
lb.
10 and 14 days later...
10 and 14 days later...
D.L.S. 2-40
and   Hd.
L. 5 lb.
D.L.S.   1J
lb.-40 and
Hd.  L.   5
lb.
Table II.—Results of Materials Test.
Plot.
No. of Apples
counted.
Fruit free
from Scab.
Scabbed but
Marketable.
Culls  on
Account  ot
Scab.
Total
Marketable.
1       	
3,441
3y600
5,930
' 4,270
3,772
4,930
4,595
Per Cent.
99.92
99.01 S
99:80
99.8S7
100.00
90.98
88.31
Per Cent.
0.08
0.055
0.20
0.14
0.02
1.54
Per Cent.
1
0.027
0.023
0.15
Per Cent.
IOO.00
2    	
99.073
3    	
100.00
4   ;	
99 97
100 00
6    	
100 00
99.85 /
U 32 Department or Agriculture. 1922
Field-work.
Fire-blight.—This disease was very prevalent throughout the district during the season of
1921, and many calls were received from growers for information peculiar to their individual
cases regarding the handling of this disease.
Oyster-shell Scale.—This is now very widespread, there being few orchards that have not
more or less of the pest to contend with. The pest is causing considerable concern to many
growers. Good work could be done by the Department in experimental spraying to determine
efficient and economical methods of eradication and control.
Aphides.—The green aphis during 1921 was not serious, but the same cannot be said of the
woolly aphis, which during the past season proved itself a serious orchard pest in this district..
The heavy infestation was undoubtedly partly due to the mild winter experienced in 1920-21,
allowing a larger percentage than usual of the over-wintering adults above ground to remain
alive.
Conventions and Meetings.
During the past year your assistant attended the following: The British Columbia Fruitgrowers' Association Convention at Nelson, January 18th and 20th; the horticultural lectures,
February 17th to March 5th ; the fire-blight and codling-moth campaign meetings, November
23rd to 30th. In addition to the above, your assistant spoke on various problems at five institute
and growers' meetings at Vernon, Winfield, and Kelowna.
General.
Most of your assistant's time has been devoted to the special work of codling-moth control
during the past year. The ever-increasing demands by the growers for advice and information
respecting the various problems of orchard activities necessitated many visits being made to
the various parts of the district. Also during the past season prospective settlers have made
considerable use of our time by way of personal visits for surveys and valuations and for reports
on prospective purchases. Correspondence and clerical work in general is increasing enormously,
proving without doubt the desire of our growers to be up to the minute and their appreciation
of the services rendered by the Department of Agriculture.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
H. H. Evans,
Assistant District Horticulturist.
REPORT   ON   CODLING-MOTH   CONTROL   WORK,   VERNON,   KELOWNA,   WESTBANK,
WALHACHIN, KAMLOOPS,  REVELSTOKE,  AND KEREMEOS.
H. H. Evans.
W. T. Hunter, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg herewith to submit a detailed report of operations, results, and costs of codling-
moth control for 1921 in the districts enumerated above. The attached tables are self-explanatory,
but a few remarks in reference to the same may not be out of place.
Vernon Town and Westbank areas can now be considered free of the pest. At Okanagan
Landing there has been found the past season a wider dissemination of the pest, it having spread
into the previously uninfested protective zone. This can be attributed to one of two causes,
either from foreign cars or the drift of moths by the prevailing high winds. Also a distinct
case of reinfestation was established in a small lot of twelve trees alongside the Canadian
Pacific Railway freight-yards, from which were taken 224 larvae, and undoubtedly due to foreign
fruit-cars at this point. Branding cattle at Beaumont's,  Chilcotin.  B.C.
^W-r:^^:
:
-
■
Calves at Riske Creek Range. Chilcotin,  B.C. f:   p-r'W
,,
,!
J'-
K.,
'.,:
■«,it:iiki>
The Chilcotin River Valley.
•i .• •
"■ -^jf
Oat crop in the Bulkley Valley.    The 1921 average for Central British Columbia was
51 bushels per acre. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 33
At Swan Lake the degree of infestation, though light, is dangerous; one specimen was
captured in a band, in the protective zone, half a mile distant from the actual quarantine area,
which will necessitate enlarged operations the coming season. It is regrettable to note the
tremendous increase in material captured, totalling 464, or an increase of 363 per cent, over
the season of 1920 for the Vernon District.
The Kelowna Town area, comprising approximately 100 acres, shows in our first year's
operations fairly heavy infestation in some portions of the area. It is with regret we announce
what may prove to be a serious outbreak on the benches at East Kelowna, situated 6 miles
from town and in the midst of a large commercial section aggregating 1,800 to 2,000 acres.
Owing to the late date when this infestation was discovered little work could be accomplished.
In checking over windfalls in the orchards we definitely established the fact of infestation on
140 acres; we also have strong suspicions that the area infested will prove much larger when
our operations are in progress this coming season.
At Kamloops, in August, an infestation was discovered in the city lots by C. G. Smith, who
had been detailed for car-inspection work at that point, he being instructed to utilize any spare
time in an inspection survey of these lots, and the British Columbia Fruitlands orchards on the
north side of the Thompson River, adjacent to Canadian National Railway trackage; no sign
of the pest was found on the last-named property. Similar work to the above was carried out
by V. T. Allan in the city lots at Revelstoke, no indication of the pest being found.
In the month of November an outbreak was traced to the Summerland Experimental Station
orchards. Superintendent R. H. Helmer feels certain this outbreak originated from freight-cars
side-tracked on the Kettle Valley Railway close to the Experimental Station. Mr. Helmer states
that he will employ drastic measures during the coming season to eradicate the pest from the
Experimental Station orchards.
Inspection of Foreign Refrigerator-cars.
The total number of foreign refrigerator-cars cleaned and inspected in 1921 was greatly in
excess of the previous year, totalling 409. Complete records of these cars and condition has been
kept, total captures made being 282.
During the past four years a certain number of Canadian Pacific Railway cars have been
inspected each season by your assistant, anticipating that eventually infestation would be found.
The fact was established this season when C.P.R. Reefer No. 284254 was found to contain
thirty-seven old cocoons, but no live material.
Spraying.
Dates of Application.—First, May 27th to June 6th; second, June 27th to July 7th; third,
August 1st to 13th.
The.dates given above are for the Vernon and Okanagan Landing areas. Applications for
Kelowna, Westbank, and Walhachin were made a few days earlier.
At Walhachin and Kelowna three applications were made; at Westbank, calyx and first
cover spray only.
Number of Trees sprayed.—Vernon, 14,100; Kelowna, 6,072; Westbank and Walhachin,
13,315.
Number of Trees banded and inspected.—Vernon, 17,300; Kelowna, 3,555; Westbank and
Walhachin, 14,210.
Number of Boxes of Fruit inspected before Shipment.—Vernon, 14,476; Kelowna, 13,205;
Westbank, 4,220.
Total Number of Material captured in all Areas.—Larva?, 799; pupa?, 108; total, 907.
Foreign-car Inspection.
Total number of cars inspected, 409; total number of material captured, 282 (larvae, 262;
pupaa, 20).   Keremeos car records are not included in the above. .
U 34
Department op Agriculture.
1922
Inspection of Bands—Dates and Material captured.
Vernon District.
Orchard-owner.
Mickleborough, G..
Forester, N	
Wylie, J...'.'.'.'.....
Standing, W..
Smart, H. B..
Weeks, J..
McDonald, Mr....
Van Antwerp, Mr.
Card, H..
Curtis, R.
Welch, P 	
Hutchinson, Mr..
Lloyd, Mr	
Fulton, C.
Swift, R	
Grahame, Mr.
Woitte, Mr...
Kearne, G	
McAllister,'D.'k.!"!
Vernon Orchard Co..
Totals	
(10
Julv 6
to
July 23.
(2.)
July 22
to
Aug. 20.
P. 4
L. 7
P. 8
L. 1
L. 12
P. 10
L. 1
L.'i
L. 4
P. 3
L. 191
P. 2
L. 3
P. 5
L. 6
L.'i
P. 4
L. 1
L. 7
(3.)
Aug. IS
to
Aug. 30.
P. 8
L. 1
P. 2
L. 1
P. 3
L. 14
P. 2
L. 1
L. 1
L. 2
P. 2
P. i
P. 4
P. 1
(4.)
Sept. 1
to
Sept. 17.
P. 4
L. 1
P. 1
L. I
P. i
(5.)
Sept. 30
to
Oct. 30.
L. 4
P. 1
L. 6
L. 1
P. 2
(6.)
Oct. 31
to
Nov. 18.
L. 1
P. 4
L. 1
P. 2
i'.'a
P. 3
L. 2
P.
L. 1
ii.
12
ii
i
i
21
7
1
12
Pup®.
219
5
Total captures :   Larvae, 310 ; pupae, 86.
Worms captured in fruit by periods-
July   	
August   	
September   	
October   	
November   	
Larvae.
....    5
    19
. ... 24
. ... 16
....    4
Total   	
The table of totals is made up as follows:—
Okanagan Landing section—
Captured in bands 	
Captured in fruit  	
Swan Lake section—
Captured in bands  	
Captured in fruit	
68
Larvae.
Pupae
303
81
65
Totals   	
Comparisons and percentages—
Okanagan Landing 	
Swan Lake 	
Vernon Town  	
Percentage of increase or decrease, 1921 over 1920—
Okanagan Landing area 	
Swan Lake  	
Vernon Town   	
Average increase on all treated areas, 363 per cent.
378
1920.
76
48
S6
1921.
449
15
Per Cent.
. Increase    590.80
. Decrease     68.75 12 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
IT 35
Kelowna Town Area.
Orchard-owner.
Rowcliffe.G	
McDonald, B	
Fletcher, G	
Patterson, G	
Bankhead Orchard..
Oalder, B	
Green, Rev	
Harvey, Mrs. W. D
McCallum, H
Lubasch, H...
Message, Mr..
Stutridge, Mrs.
McCarthy, C.
Cameron, Mrs.
McMillan, D...
Braden, Rev	
Rosse, J	
Rattenbury, D.A.
Clement, E. L	
Williams, Mrs	
Boyce, Dr	
Curtis, G	
Lloyd, M   ...
Ford, Mrs	
Dal Cal, F	
McGeens, Mr	
Totals..
(!■)
June 24
to
July 13.
L. 1
(2.)
July 13
to
July 30.
(3.)
Aug. 9
to
Aug. 20.
L. 4
L. 5
L. 3
L. 3
L. 2
L. 2
(4.)
Aug. 21
to
Sept. 1.
L. 1
L. 5
L. 2
L. 4
Adult 1
L. 3
L. 1
L. 2
L.'i
(5.)
Sept. 10
to
Sept. 20.
L. 5
L. 2
P. 2
L. 3
P. 2
L. 2
L. 1
L. 1
L. 1
L. 6
P. 1
L.'i
L.'i
P. 1
L. 1
L. 1
L. 1
L. 1
L. 1
L. 1
L. 1
(6.)
Oct. 20
to
Oct. 31.
L. 5
P. 2
L. 6
P. 2
L. 4
P. 2
Total captures :   Larvae, 171; pupae, 20.
Worms captured in fruit by periods-
July 	
August   	
September  	
October	
November 	
2
18
5
2
14
6
10
1
Pupee.
Larvae.
1
. 20
. 41
.  116
Total  •  178
Totals of material captured— Larva?.
Taken in bands  171
Taken in fruit   178
Over-wintering material    49
Pupae.
20
Totals      39S 22
K.L.O. Benclies, Kelmcna,—New area found October 12th, 1921. Taken in fruit in orchards,
23 larvae.   Number destroyed in culls and windfalls unknown.
Westbank Quarantine Area.—Banding operations consisted of one inspection for overwintering material during May and early June, and four summer band inspections between the
dates of July 15th and October 31st. No sign of codling-moth material showed up at any time
throughout the season. A check was kept on part shipments of fruit and about 4,200 boxes in
all were examined.    Here again no sign of the worm appeared.
Walhachin Quarantine Area.—Banding operations consisted of five summer inspections and
inspection of fruit on the trees; also the destruction of windfalls. During the season's operations
reports state no material found. IT 3G
Department op Agriculture.
1922
Codling-moth Control Costs, 1921.
Vernon District.
Gross cost to Department of Agriculture—Spraying—
Arsenate of lead, 1,092 lb. powder  $   349 44
Supplies, materials, .and repairs   387 92
Gas and oil for spray-machines  79 20
Two new spray-machines   1,334 00
Customs and freight  433 57
Freight and express on arsenate of lead   58 50
Man-labour, 180 days at $3.75   674 00
Man and team labour, 36% days at $8   290 00
Storage on spray-machines  38 00
 $3,644 63
Band and fruit inspection—
Materials and supplies  $    45 25
Man-labour, 661 days at $3.75   2,478 75
    2,524 00
General expense—
Nine months' car expenses for transportation        346 60
Gross cost to Department of Agriculture  $6,515 23
Cost to growers (chargeable through Department) —
Arsenate of lead, 1,008 lb. at 35 cents  $  352 SO
Man and team labour, 101 hours at $1  101 00
Man-labour, 252 hours at 50 cents   126 00
$   579 80
Gross operating cost to Department of Agriculture  $6,515 23
Less cost to growers, collectable        579 80
$5,935 43
Compensation paid city lot-holders     1,804 50
Net cost to Department of Agriculture  $7,739 93
Kelowna District.
Spraying—■
Arsenate of lead  $  267 52
Supplies, materials, and repairs (approximate)    184 08
Gas and oil  76 25
Freight and express   3 25
Man-labour, 65 days at $4.03   261 95
Man and team labour, 39 days at $8.25   322 00
Rent of spray-machine, man and team, 2 days at $20  40 00
  $1,155 05
Band and fruit inspection—
Materials and supplies   $    74 35
Man-labour, 715 days at $4.03       2,881 45
 2,955 SO
General expenses—
Eight months' expense on car for transportation          225 90
Gross cost to Department of Agriculture    $4,336 75 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. U 37
Cost to growers (chargeable through Department) —
Arsenate of lead, 836 lb. at 35 cents   $   292 55
Man and team labour, 316 hours at $1    316 00
Man-labour, 187% hours at 50 cents  93 75
$   702 30
'« 	
Gross cost to Department of Agriculture  $4,336 75
Less cost to growers  (chargeable through Department)           702 30
Net cost to Department of Agriculture   $3,634 45
Westbank,
Spraying—
Arsenate of lead, 805 lb. powder  $   257 60
Supplies, materials, and repairs   110 55
Gas and oil for spray-machines   45 25
Freight and express   3 25
Man-labour, 51 days at $3.78  192 78
Man-labour, 15 days at $4   60 00
Man and team labour, 20% hours at $1  ,  20 75
Rent of spray-machines, 30 days at $4 .-  120 00
  $   810 18
Band and fruit inspection—
Materials and supplies   $      6 35
Man-labour, 315% days at $3.78       1,192 59
    1,198 94
Gross cost to Department of Agriculture   $2,009 12
Cost to growers (chargeable through Department) —
Arsenate of lead, 785 lb. at 35 cents    $  274 75
Gross operating cost to Department of Agriculture  $2,009 12
Less cost to growers, collectable        274 75
Net cost to Department of Agriculture   $1,734 37
Walhachin.
Spraying—
Arsenate of lead, 150 lb  $    48 00
Supplies, materials, and repairs    2 45
Gas and oil for spray-machines   9 00
Freight on lead   3 25
Man-labour, 15 days at $3.50   52 50
Man and team labour, 81 hours at $1   81 00
Rent of spray-machine, 7% days at $10   75 00
 $   271 20
Band and fruit inspection—
Materials and supplies   $      2 45
Man-labour, 55% days at $3.50  194 25
       196 70
Gross cost to Department of Agriculture   $  467 90 IT 38
Department op Agriculture.
1922
Cost to growers (chargeable through Department) —
Arsenate of lead, 134 lb. at 35 cents    $    46 90
Man and team labour, SI hours at $1   81 00
$   127 00
Gross cost to Department     $   467 90,
Less cost to growers, collectable        127 90
Net cost to Department of Agriculture  $   340 00
Cost of Car-inspection Work.
Keremeos, cars inspected; wTages    $   351 00
Kamloops, cars inspected, 76; wages   351 00
Revelstoke, cars inspected, 333; wages   359 00
Materials and supplies  16 85
Total   $1,077 85
Cost per car for inspection, $1.67.
Suggestions and Recommendations.
For the coming season's operations, as closely as can be estimated, approximately 900 acres
will be carried under control operations, divided as follows: Vernon, 390 acres; Kelowna, 460
acres; Walhachin, 50 acres.
Kamloops City is not included. In this case would recommend destruction of fruit. Twenty-
six lots, carrying 235 trees, have been found infested; whatever method of eradication is
employed the area under control would be larger than is indicated by the above figures, but
would not be more than doubled.
Westbank and Vernon City.—We would suggest that bands be left on trees for the season,
giving them two inspections; and if there be no evidence of the moth at these inspections,
destroy all bands in the fall.
Vernon District.—Would recommend the regular spraying, banding, and inspection. In
the Okanagan Landing section, owing to the extension of the quarantine area this season, the
impossibility of hauling loose fruit to any of the packing plants, and lack of packing facilities
in the section named, would recommend that an endeavour be made by the Department of
Agriculture to finance the building of a temporary packing-house where fruit from infested
orchards could be packed by community agreement among the different shipping organizations.
Kelowna City.—A similar plan of operation would be recommended; in this case we believe
a suitable building could be rented at a nominal cost. On the K.L.O. Benches at East Kelowna
we have the shipping organizations now working on a plan whereby one firm will agree to set
aside their packing plant for the handling of all fruit from the infested orchards, each bearing
their own proportionate share of packing operations.
In the Kelowna District would recommend the ordinary control operations for 1922.
Summerland,—It would be advisable to make a survey of orchards around the Experimental
Station to ascertain the extent of infestation.
Kamloops.—In the city lots we would recommend, if at all possible, handling this problem
by the destruction of blossom methods, and in this case omit spraying operations.
Appended are plans of operations and estimated costs for 1922.
Car-inspection Work,
Provision in the estimates has been made to carry Inspectors for this work, as we believe
they will be necessary to supervise the work, even in the event of superheating being put into
effect.
Note.—At the time of writing, the fact has been established of further infestation extending
to the property of Kelowna Land and Orchard Company, south of the properties found infested
on the benches, which enlarges the problem to a much greater extent. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 39
Summary of 1920 Codling-moth Operations over all Areas.
Total acres under quarantine         727
Total number of trees in areas   37,582
Total number of boxes of apples inspected  31,309
Number of man-labour days on spraying        326
Number of man and team labour days on spraying         106
Total   ., .'        432
Number of man-labour days, banding and inspection .     1,981
Total labour days      2,413
Total labour costs of spraying and banding  $8,702 02
Total cost of machines, supplies, transportation      4,626 98
Total gross cost of field operations    $13,329 00
Foreign-car inspection—
Number of cars inspected      409
Cost of inspection per car  $1.67
Number of man-labour days 239%
Total labour costs of car inspection        1,077 85
Total gross costs to Department of Agriculture  $14,406 85
Less accounts receivable from growers for arsenate of lead  $1,684 75
Less cost of new spray-machines on inventory      1,334 00
■      3,018 75
Net working cost to Department of Agriculture  $11,388 10
Division of net working costs—
Field operations in all areas    $10,310 25
Foreign-car inspection         1,077 85
$11,388 10
Net working costs to Department of Agriculture   $11,388 10
Compensation paid by the Department       1,804 50
Total net expenditure by Department of Agriculture  $13,192 60
Net field operation costs    $10,310 25
Car-inspection costs       1,077 85
Net costs, operation and inspection   $11,388 10
Growers' charges        1,684 75
Gross operating costs to the Department  $13,072 85
Machines and equipment costs        1,334 00
Gross cost to the Department, all field operations  $14,406 85 U 40
Department of Agriculture.
1922
Operating costs     $14,406 85
Compensation costs        1,804 50
1921 gross costs, control-work  $16,211 35
Less costs chargeable to grower    $1,684 75
Less permanent equipment      1,334 00
 3,018 75
1921 net costs, control-work   $13,192 60
All of which is respectfully submitted.
H. H. Evans,
Assistant District Horticulturist.
REPORT OF DISTRICT FIELD INSPECTOR, SALMON ARM AND CANADIAN PACIFIC
RAILWAY MAIN LINE DISTRICTS.
- C. R. Barlow.
TP. T. Hunter, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Field Inspector for the Salmon
Arm District for the year 1921.
Field-work—Pest-control.
Codling-moth.—Following the discovery last fall of a new outbreak of codling-moth at
Walhachin, control measures were instituted this year. An area of approximately 17. acres,
containing 841 trees, was placed under quarantine. The trees in this area were all banded in
the spring, and sprayed with arsenate of lead at the rate of 1 lb. of dry arsenate of lead to
40 gallons of water on the following dates: May 20th, June 23rd, and August 4th. The bands
were inspected at intervals of ten days throughout the season, the last band inspection being
completed on November 10th. The fruit on the quarantine area was closely examined before
shipment and all windfalls destroyed. Your assistant is glad to report that no larva? or pupa?
have been discovered either in the bands or in the fruit this year.
During the month of August codling-moth was discovered in gardens in the City of Kamloops.
A systematic inspection of the trees was carried out throughout the town, and the infested area
appears to be confined to the east end of the town in the vicinity of the C.P.R. yards. This fact
indicates the probability of the outbreak having arisen from moths or larvae escaped from cars
standing in the C.P.R. yards. It will be necessary to take steps to control the outbreak next
year, and although the number of trees involved is not great, control will probably prove difficult
owing to the inaccessibility of many of the trees. Recommendations for the control of this and
the Walhachin outbreak are attached in appended form.
Anthracnose (Neofabraca mailcorticis).—This disease is becoming widely distributed over the
district, although at the present time it cannot be said to constitute a very serious menace, as
its attacks are not so severe as in the moister Coast sections. Your assistant would suggest that
some experimental work for its control be carried out.
While growers have had good results from the 8-8-40 Bordeaux formula, the weaker solutions
which have been used with success in E. W. White's experiments at Keating, Vancouver Island,
have not been given a careful test in the district.
Apple-scab (Venturia inwqualis).—Apple-scab, which is at present the most important of the
diseases affecting apples in this district, has, owing to the dry season, not been as prevalent as
is usual. The experimental work which was begun in 1919 in control of this disease W'as
continued this season, and the results of the season's work are appended to this report.
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorus).—Fire-blight has been very prevalent throughout the district
as far west as Notch Hill, the Salmon Arm section being the most severely affected, and much of
your assistant's time has been taken up with work connected with its control. A systematic
inspection of all orchards susceptible to attack wras made during the summer months, and the
removal of the great majority of dangerous Infections was thereby accomplished.   This fall a 12 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
U 41
clean-up campaign was inaugurated and the growers requested to go over their orchards and to
remove and destroy all " hold-over " cankers, and, having done so, to notify your assistant, who
would inspect the orchard, and if it were free from disease would give the owner a certificate of
inspection to post in a conspicuous position on his property. This work is occupying most of your
assistant's time at present, and he is glad to be able to report that owing largely to the wholehearted manner in which the growers are co-operating in the movement there is every prospect
of a thorough clean-up being made.
San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus).—This is still present in wild growth at Spences
Bridge, but does not appear to be spreading. The cutting and burning-over of the infested
brush patches has up to the present prevented the reinfestation of the orchards, but it is necessary
to keep a close watch for its possible reappearance in the future.
Pear-leaf Blister-mite (Eriophyes pyri).—Pear-leaf blister-mite increased rapidly during the
season 1920, but in the spring of this year the growers having affected trees paid careful attention
to spraying, and the damage caused by the pest has not been severe in the majority of cases.
Up to the present time the insect has confined its attention to the pear, and your assistant has
not observed apple-trees to be attacked, and so long as this state of affairs exists it is not likely
that the mite will become of great economic importance, as pears are not grown very extensively
in this district.
Wheat-midge (Diplosis tritlci).—Several hundred acres of spring wTheat in the north end of
the Salmon River Valley was infested with wheat-midge this season. In some cases the loss
was very heavy, amounting to as much as 60 per cent, of the kernels in some instances. The
control of this pest is very difficult, but an effort was made to have the refuse from the threshers
destroyed, thereby to some extent reducing the number of pupa? wintering over. It will, however,
be advisable for farmers not to plant wheat-crops for several years, or, if compelled to do so,
to plant only fall wheat, as this is practically immune from attack. Barley and oats were not
observed to be infested, although both these crops are sometimes attacked.
Experimental Work.
Apple-scab Control Spray.—In the spring of 1916, 1917, and 1918 a series of spraying experiments were conducted at Salmon Arm, and by means of these the dates and intervals at which
lime-sulphur should be applied to control scab with the greatest degree of efficiency were established. In 1919 a further series of experiments were inaugurated, using the intervals established
by the previous series; as a basis, with the object of determining the weakest solutions of lime-
sulphur which could be used without sacrificing efficiency in control. While the results to date
of these experiments indicate that considerably weaker solutions of lime-sulphur than those at
present in common use will effectively control scab in this district, your assistant does not feel
justified in recommending the use of these weaker solutions to growers, as the three seasons,
1919, 1920, and 1921, during which the experiments have been conducted, have been abnormally
dry and consequently unfavourable to the development of scab. Your assistant therefore recommends the continuance of these experiments until such time as a season of normal or excessive
rainfall proves or disproves the efficiency of the solutions.
Tabulated results of this season's work are as follows:—
Results of Spraying Experiments at Salmon Arm, 1921.
Plot.
Date applied.
Clean.
Scabbed.
Boxes
per Tree.
Remarks.
1
L.S.   1-30,   May   9;   1-35,   May
June 17
26;
1-35,
99,97
0.03
14
Early infection.
2
L.S.   1-30,   May  0;   l-®5>,   May
June 17; l-<60, July 11
26;
1-35,
99.86
0.14
13
>>
3
L.S.   1-35,   May  9;   1-40,   May
June  17
26;
1-45,
99.50
0.50
14%
"
4
L.S.   1-40,   May  9;   1-45,'  May
June 17
26;
1-45,
99,1 Ti
0.83
17
»
'3
L.S.   1-40,  May  9;   1-50,  May
June 17
26;
1-50,
98.99
1.01
13
"
6
'72.16
27.184
7y2
Infection at all ages. IT 42 Department of Agriculture. 1922
Cover-crop Demwnstrationsj—The plots seeded to hairy vetch in the fall of 1920 showed a
good catch this spring, but the growth of the plants was not very satisfactory, and although
ploughing in was delayed as long as possible without endangering the moisture-supply of the
fruit-trees, the resultant -amount of green matter was small. In 1920 the plots were seeded
broadcast in the first week of September, while this year a drill was used and the seed sown
on July 15th; consequently a longer period was left for development this fall than was the case
in 1920. At the present time the individual plants are a great deal stronger than at the same
time last year, although the number of plants per given acre is not as great as was the case
last year. In most of the bearing orchards of this district clean cultivation has been practised
without cessation for many years, with the inevitable result that the moisture capacity of the
soils in bearing orchards is very low, and competition takes place between the trees and the
cover-crop for the available moisture, which usually checks the development of the latter. This
factor renders it very difficult to obtain a satisfactory cover-crop at the first seeding, but it is
expected that by continuing the process for several successive seasons the humus content of the
soil will be gradually increased until a satisfactory stand can be obtained. In 1920 three different
rates of seeding were used on three of the plots—namely, 25, 30, and 40 lb. per acre. Of these,
it was found that 25 Ib. per acre did not produce a sufficiently thick stand, and while 30 lb. per
acre proved satisfactory, the plot that was seeded at 40 lb. per acre did not show enough improvement over that seeded at 30 lb. per acre to warrant the use of the extra 10 lb. per acre of seed.
In consequence all plots were seeded at the rate of 30 lb. per acre this year.
Meetings.
Your assistant attended four meetings of the Board of Directors of the Salmon Arm Agricultural Association, four meetings of the local branch of the British Columbia Fruit-growers'
Association, and seven meetings of the Board of Directors of the Salmon Arm Farmers' Exchange.
At a meeting of the Magna Bay Farmers' Institute your assistant gave an address on " Pruning
of Fruit-trees and Culture of Small Fruits."
Pruning Schools and Demonstrations.
Five pruning-schools were held in the district this year—three at Salmon Arm, one at North
Canoe, and one at South Canoe. Two of the schools at Salmon Arm were taken by J. Tait,
of Summerland, and the balance by your assistant. A full report of these has already been
submitted.
This work is much appreciated by the growers and many old pupils have applied to take
next year's schools. At Magna Bay a pruning demonstration was held, which was attended by
fourteen growers. Thirty-five pruning and grafting demonstrations were given to the growers
at Salmon Arm and Sorrento, at the request of the growers there.
Field Inspection.
Owing chiefly to the prevalence of Are-blight this year this work has required closer attention
than usual, and coupled with a large amount of visits to individual growers for the purpose of
discussing other problems has taken up much of your assistant's time, sometimes, it is feared,
to the detriment of other branches of the work.
Fall Fairs.
Your assistant acted as judge of fruits, vegetables, and field crops at Lasqueti Island and
Sooke Fall Fairs; of fruits at Ganges Harbour and of fruits and vegetables, in conjunction with
H. H. Evans, at Victoria.
Newspaper Articles.
Several short articles dealing with the control of pests and diseases have been contributed
to the local newspaper by your assistant.
Small-fruit Competitions.
This fall a small-fruit competition was organized in the Eagle River Valley, both raspberries
and strawberries being entered. This venture is of a purely experimental nature, but after a
careful inspection of soils and investigation of climatic conditions your assistant can at present
see no good reason why small fruits should not be grown profitably in the Eagle River Valley.
In your assistant's opinion there is a good prospect of raspberries and loganberries succeeding 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 43
fairly well throughout the Eagle River Valley; while strawberries should do well in some
favoured localities. This valley has excellent shipping facilities and the advantage of a short
haul to Prairie markets. The points covered by the competition are Solsqua, Boure, Malakwa,
and Craigellachie. Seventeen competitors are entered in the strawberry competition and thirty-
nine in the raspberry competition. The Canadian Bank of Commerce has kindly donated a silver
cup as a trophy. The plantings will be made in the coming spring. Full details of this competition will be available in the coming year.
Office-work.
This branch of the work is becoming more and more onerous and makes it increasingly
difficult for your assistant to efficiently carry out his field duties. A point will soon be reached
at which it will be impossible for your assistant to carry out efficiently both the field and the
office work without assistance of some kind.
General.
The tree-fruit crop has been heavy, and with the notable exception of Jonathan apples, many
of which failed to hold up in storage, the quality has been good. A much smaller percentage
of small apples were produced than has been the case for several years past. The trees have
matured fairly well and moisture conditions are good, with a good protective covering of snow
on the ground.   There is at present a promise of a fair average crop next year.
Raspberries and loganberries produced an average crop and the new growth of canes is
satisfactory.
The strawberry-crop was only fair, some damage being caused to blossoms by a frost which
occurred on the night of May 27th.
The prices obtained for all small fruits were excellent considering market conditions, and
brought the grower a very good net return.
Potatoes, while not a heavy crop, turned out better at digging-time than was expected earlier
in the season.    Other vegetables were about an average crop.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Claude A. Barlow,
District Field Inspector.
REPORT OF DISTRICT FIELD INSPECTOR, KELOWNA.
T. M. Anderson. .
W. T. Hunter, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Field Inspector for the District
of Kelowna for the year 1921.
Field-work—Pest-control.
Fire-blight.—This disease swept through the district at an alarming rate directly following
the spring rains, which were heavier than usual and which brought about favourable conditions
for the development and spread of the disease organism. Twig and blossom blight was very
evident in every part of the district and showed up badly on the apples. On pears it developed
rapidly and soon caused serious outbreaks on the main branches. Plans were made for a general
clean-up campaign. The fire-blight and codling-moth meetings were well attended in this district
and considerable concern was expressed concerning the fire-blight situation. Information was
given so that any orchardists could recognize the cankers and understand the habits of the
disease organism. Complete directions were given for cutting out cankers and the campaign got*
away to a good start. Inspection-work was started at once and it is expected that almost every
orchard will be free from cankers before spring. An inspection card is placed on each orchard
as soon as your Inspector is satisfied that the work has been well done.
Powdery Mildew.—This fungous disease has caused considerable loss during the past season
and was particularly noticeable on Jonathan apples. A lime-sulphur spray of 1-50 applied during
the latter part of the season acted as a safe control. This disease is attracting much attention
and many growers are adopting methods of control by spraying and by the careful destruction
of the terminal infections early in the season. IT 44 Department op Agriculture. 1922
Blister-mite.—Several severe infestations of this pest have occurred on apples. These outbreaks have taken place where systematic spraying has been neglected. There is a general
tendency toward more thorough spraying in the future and blister-mite will undoubtedly be
affected.
Woolly Aphis.—This insect is unfortunately becoming too well established in the district.
The winter of 1920-21 was very mild and this pest showed a rapid increase during the summer.
No satisfactory control measure has been adopted. Certain eradication methods have been
urged, but it is exceedingly difficult to control it on the tree-roots.
Codling-moth.—Control-work in the quarantine area in Kelowna has been very thoroughly
carried on during the entire season under the direction of H. H. Evans. An outbreak of codling-
moth was discovered in the orchards on the K.L.O. Benches toward the end of the season and
has received the necessary attention.
Vegetable-insects.—The onion-maggot and the cutworm have again caused serious loss to
growers in this district. It is very regrettable that the control measures outlined by the officials
of the Department have not been adopted. In two cases where the instructions were carried out
excellent and satisfactory results were obtained.
Fruit-pack Inspection.
During the packing season inspection of the pack has taken place as usual. The number of
apples showing insect-injury of a minor nature this year was very great. The coming season
will see much more thorough and systematic spraying and, it is hoped, fewer culls. A detailed
report q£tbe quantities of fruits and vegetables passing through the packing-houses and canneries
has been submitted.    At various times crop estimates and reports have also been furnished.
Fall Fairs.
Your official acted in the capacity of judge at the following centres: Prince Rupert, Terrace,
Smithers, and Quesnel.   Reports on these fairs have already been submitted.
Weekly News Letter.
A weekly report of general conditions of crops, etc., has been made to the Vernon office
during the growing season for the News Letter.
Fruit and Vegetable Production.
The amount of fruit which passed through the various packing-houses this year will be a
record-maker for the Kelowna District. Most of the fruit was in excellent condition and harvest
was one or two weeks earlier than usual; and weather conditions were ideal, except for a
destructive wind just before the Delicious were all picked. The mysterious falling-down of.
the Jonathan apple has again made its appearance. So far the cause has not been determined,
but investigations are now being made which may lead to a solution. Owing to an apparent
increase in injured fruits due to insect pests and other causes, growers would be well advised
to send the low-grade fruits to the by-products plants instead of to the packing-houses. This
would mean a considerable saving in time and money.
A much smaller acreage of onions was grown in this district during the past season and
yields were not equal to the high average of the past. However, prices have been exceedingly
good.
Tomatoes were not planted as extensively as usual and the crop was short, but the quality
was good right up to the end of the season.
Pruning Classes.
In January three pruning classes were organized, with M. S. Middleton and Mr. Chesbro as
Instructors. Forty-six pupils were enrolled and completed the courses of five days in each case.
Four classes were held in November and December, with B. Hoy and M. S. Middleton as
Instructors. Forty-two pupils were enrolled and completed the course. Judging by the appreciation shown and the application by. others for class-instruction in pruning, this work has
been of inestimable value and the service justified.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
T. M. Anderson,
District Field Inspector. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 45
REPORT OF DISTRICT FIELD INSPECTOR, SUMMERLAND.
J. Tait. .
W. T. Hunter, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Field Inspector for the Summer-
land, Peaehland, Naramata, and Westbank Districts for the year 1921.
t
General Orchard and Chop Conditions.
The fruit-crop of 1921 for this district was very nearly up to early season estimates, being
reduced by hail-injury and the consequent close grading in some sections. The movement of all
fruit throughout the season was fairly free and very little, if any, congestion occurred at the
various shipping-points.
The orchards of the district are in fairly good shape, considering the water-supply in many
sections during the late summer and fall, and bud conditions are good. As a result of the active
campaign which has been carried on by your staff throughout the valley recently to promote a
more general use of cover-crops in the orchards, more seed has been sown for this purpose than
ever before.    Fertilizers are also being more generally used.
Field-work—Pest and Disease Control.
Codling-moth.—Quarantine operations on the Westbank area were carried out by the Kelowna
staff this year and a closer check was possible on the work throughout the season than heretofore.
As no larva? were found this year, it is expected that the quarantine will be lifted in this section
this year, as this concludes the third consecutive clean year on this quarantine area.
Codling larva? were discovered on the Dominion Experimental Farm at Summerland this fall
about November 1st. The area of orchards suspected were checked over as closely as possible,
and as far as can be ascertained the infested area is confined to the orchards of the farm. Strict
deblossoming quarantine-work will be carried on by;the Dominion authorities on these orchards
the coming year and a close check will be conducted by your official of all adjacent orchards.
Blister-mite.—This pest is now widely scattered in the apple-orchards of the entire district
under my supervision. An active spraying programme for its control will be pushed forward
the coming spring, as control methods have been carefully worked out by your assistant, based
on the results of experimental work conducted this season.
Woolly Aphis.—This pest gave the usual small amount of trouble this season, but cannot
be considered of major importance in this district.
Peach-root Borer.—Some slight damage from peach-root borer was observed in some sections.
Peach-twig Borer or Peach-worm.—Peaches and apricots were fairly clean of this pest this
season, due to the fact that control sprays were reasonably well applied.
Pruning Classes.
Two classes in pruning were conducted at Salmon Arm in January, 1921, by your assistant,
a total of twenty-two pupils being in attendance. Separate reports concerning this phase of work
have already been rendered. Assistance in conducting a pruning class at Summerland in
December was also given the Instructor in charge, Ben Hoy.
Thinning Demonstrations.
In June thinning demonstrations were conducted in this district by W. T. Hunter, District
Horticulturist, Vernon, and the work met with the heartiest approval of the growers. Much
improvement was noticed in the thinning-work of the growers as a result, and it is hoped that
this work will be continued the coming season.
Spraying Experiments.
Experimental sprays for the control of blister-mite on apple were applied on a series of
orchard plots in the Summerland District, and effective control was obtained. A detailed report
on this work is given below.
Dormant lime-sulphur, strength 1 to 9, was applied with a power-sprayer on a block of trees
at the Balcoma Ranch,  Summerland, by your assistant, the owner, R. V. Agur, co-operating. •
IT 46 •     Department of Agriculture. 1922
The dates of application were as follows: March 21st, March 24th, March 29th, April 1st, and
, April 5th.
At the time of the first application the buds were practically dormant, although considerable
swelling had already taken place. Separate groups of trees were treated, the whole being in
one block of Newtowns which had the past season been seriously affected. The results were as
follows:—
From spray applied March 1st, practically 100 per cent, control; March 24th, practically
100 per cent, control; March 29th, inspection in June showed a few odd twigs affected. April
1st showed a similar condition to the trees treated on March 29th. April 5th showed considerable
infection. This would indicate that good control can be effected by lime-sulphur spray applied
very early in the spring before the buds have made any appreciable growth.
The results of this work the past season show that the latest date of application which has
been effective in 1921 was previous to the fourth week of March. These experiments will be
continued next season if it is your desire, and the work, in the opinion of your assistant, should
be elaborated to cover a little longer period of application, with particular reference to earlier
applications. Acting on your advice, a fall spray has been applied on the block of trees and
the results of these will be watched with considerable interest. •
Fall Fairs.
The following fall fairs were attended and assistance given the Directors in judging grain,
fruit, and vegetables: Keremeos, Pritchard, Lumby, Armstrong, Salmon Arm, and Peaehland.
Separate reports on this work have already been submitted.
Also assisted R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, Penticton, to judge West Summerland
Women's Institute vegetable-garden competition.
Meetings.
Attended all meetings during lecture course held in this district in February; was present
at the inauguration meeting of the Okanagan Horticultural Club in September and the future
meetings of the club. Attended the Western Canada Irrigation Association Convention held at
Vernon in July.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
John Tait,
District Field Inspector.
REPORT OF DISTRICT FIELD INSPECTOR, SOUTHERN OKANAGAN AND
SIMILKAMEEN DISTRICTS.
R. P. Murray.
W. T. Hunter, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Field Inspector for the Southern
Okanagan and Similkameen for the year 1921.
Insects and Pests.
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorus).—There was quite a serious blossom-infestation on such
varieties as Spitzenberg, Jonathan, King, and Wagener under favourable conditions. This disease
spread rapidly in some instances where growth conditions were favourable and irrigation-water
was allowed to accumulate in small pot-holes. Control measures were immediately taken and
the danger of a serious outbreak avoided. As many of the orchards are now being given considerable attention, growth conditions which favoured the spreading of the disease are greatly
improved. It will be very necessary to keep a close check on all growers and severe measures
will have to be taken where indifference is noticed, if this disease is to be stamped out in this
district. Considerable time has been given during the dormant season, personal inspections being
made of all orchards and certificates issued where no hold-over cankers have been found. This
will greatly lessen the danger of blossom-infection and should contribute a great deal to the
eventual stamping-out of the disease. -
12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 47
Blister-mite (Eriophyes pyri).—This pest is becoming more general in the Keremeos section
and severe loss has occurred in some orchards where proper spraying has been neglected.
Wherever the dormant spray (lime-sulphur 1 to 9) had been applied before the buds had opened
satisfactory control resulted. This was demonstrated in one orchard at Keremeos that was
badly infested. The spraying was done before the buds had opened and very satisfactory results
were obtained. There was no injury to the fruit and a very small percentage of leaves was
. affected by the blister-mite.
The value of the dormant spray where properly applied was proven in the Kaleden District,
where blister-mite has been serious on apples, particularly on Newtowns. Work wras commenced
on this pest last year and again during the season of 1921, with the result that it is almost
completely eradicated.
Woolly Aphis (Eriosoma lanigera).—This insect is on the increase in the Penticton District.
The rather mild winter last year favoured the wintering-over of this pest. Where control
measures were adopted during the early infestations no further trouble was experienced, but
more work will be necessary to control this pest, which is beginning to be serious.
Apple Powdery Mildew (Podospluero leucotricha).—The past season was very favourable for
this disease and in many instances considerable injury was done. Northern Spy, Jonathan, and
Grimes Golden were most affected. With the lack of spraying-machines in the district a good
many growers found it necessary to cut off and burn the diseased young terminal growth. Good
control was obtained where lime-sulphur 1 to 35 was applied in the pink stage and again after
the blossoms had fallen; where conditions are favourable to the growth of this disease a third
spray should be applied about fourteen days later. An experiment was outlined in powdery-
mildew control, but due to a misunderstanding on the part of the grower the second application
was not correctly applied and the value of the experiment was lost, as there were no means left
by which any deductions could be made. Another attempt will be made in the Penticton District
to get some data on the control of this disease..
Peach-leaf Curl (Exoascus deformans).—For the first time in several years peach-leaf curl
was quite prevalent during 1921, but there was no appreciable injury to this year's crop. Where
dormant sulphur spray had been applied no injury resulted. A thorough spraying during the
dormant season should be applied to avoid a possible recurrence.
Peach-twig Borer (Anarsia lineatella).—Peacn-twig borer caused very little damage in this
district, late peaches and apricots being less affected than the earlier varieties, although fruit
from some poorly cared-for orchards was almost worthless.
Pear and Cherry Slug (Eriocampoid.es limacina).—Although a comparatively easy insect to
control, one pear-orchard was almost defoliated with this pest. The outbreak was not general,
although in one or two instances considerable damage was done.
Lesser Apple-worm (Enarmonia prunivora).—This insect is generally on the increase here
and quite a large number of specimens were sent in, the growers confusing it with the codling-
moth. Control measures have been advised, and if followed out very little trouble should result
from this source.    In the Penticton District the Wealthy suffered the greatest injury.
Demonstration-work with Cover-crops.
Hairy Vetch.—There has been a much larger acreage sown to cover-crop the past season than
previously. Results obtained in the district on experimental plots of hairy vetch, and impressions
gained by growers who took in the trips organized by the Horticultural Branch to the Wenatchee
District, have been largely instrumental in the added interest in this phase of soil-improvement.
Hairy vetch has been the most widely used and the results obtained from the crop fully justify
its use. This refers more particularly to the Penticton District, where, toward the end of the
growing season, there is a general shortage of irrigation-water.
Sweet Clover.—Sweet clover is being used to a limited extent and is being superseded by
hairy vetch. The work involved in handling this crop and the difficulty experienced in working
the orchard while this crop is growing tend to lessen its usefulness. As an orchard cover-crop
it is not as adaptable as hairy vetch.
Alfalfa.—Several growers who took in the trips to Wenatchee were very favourably Impressed
with the results the growers of that district are obtaining with the alfalfa sod-mulch, but with
the general shortage of water, particularly in the Penticton District, there is great danger of
injuring the trees while the alfalfa is being established.    One 8-acre block jof Wealthy and I
IT 48 Department of Agriculture. 1922
Winesap, rather favourably situated, was sown to alfalfa two years ago; the alfalfa is now
quite well established and the orchard is in good condition. It would not, however, be advisable
to recommend the widespread use of alfalfa here until the supply of water is improved.
In the Keremeos section, where there is an abundance of irrigation-water, the growing of
alfalfa under the sod-mulch system should give good results. There are at present a considerable
number of orchards growing alfalfa, but it is being cut for hay. Although this practice is not
to be recommended, the trees are not suffering to the same extent as orchards under similar
conditions in the Penticton District. It is rather difficult to make a grower realize that crops
of alfalfa and apples cannot be taken from the same piece of land without considerably lessening
the yield of both, even under the most favourable conditions.
It is interesting to note that in orchards where cover-crops were turned in for two or three
seasons there is very little drought-spot, even in such susceptible varieties as Baldwin, Northern
Spy, and King.
Pruning-schools.
The first pruning-school was held at Penticton during the early part of December, Ben Hoy
being the Instructor in charge. Twelve pupils took this class and all were greatly pleased with
the results. The second pruning-school will be held in Keremeos toward the end of January
and another at Cawston toward the end of February. These schools are doing a great deal of
good, as there are a large number of new settlers coming in) who are not conversant with fruitgrowing problems.
Field-work.
There has been a great number of inquiries for advice concerning practical orchard problems
which meant considerable travelling. All such requests were attended to as speedily as possible
and as much assistance as possible was given. A considerable amount of nursery stock was
inspected during the spring and autumn, in addition to the other field-work.
Fall Fairs.
The following fall fairs were visited: Penticton, where your Inspector assisted W. H.
Robertson in judging fruits and vegetables; Kelowna, where he assisted H. H. Evans. Acted
as judge at Nakusp and Arrow Park.    Reports of these fairs have been submitted previously.
Office-work.
The Department of Agriculture office is centrally located on Main Street. During the past
season there has been a particularly large number of inquiries from residents in town relating
to insect and plant diseases affecting vegetables and small fruits, all of which have been
attended to.
General Work.
Meetings were addressed at Cawston, Oliver, and Kelowna, chiefly on vegetable-growing.
Your Inspector had the pleasure of conducting a party of twelve growers from the Penticton
District to Wenatchee in June. All were very pleased and from new ideas gained felt fully
repaid for the time and expense involved.
General Conditions.
The early spring of 1921 was rather cool and moist, such conditions being favourable to the
growth of plant-diseases. All tree-fruits, with the exception of sweet cherries, yielded well.
In the Osoyoos and Keremeos sections the tomato-crop suffered rather heavily from the western
tomato-wilt and the yield was greatly reduced in most cases. The potato acreage at Keremeos
was small and the yield light.
Settlers in the Oliver District did not get on to their ranches early enough and the acreage
planted to trees was small, but there promises to be a much increased acreage next season.
The Oliver District seems to be particularly well suited to the growing of apricots, peaches, and
sweet cherries, and quite a large acreage will be planted to these fruits.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
R. P. Murray,
District Field Inspector.   12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 49
REPORT OF DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST AND INSPECTOR OF FRUIT PESTS,
BOUNDARY AND EAST AND WEST KOOTENAY DISTRICTS.
E. C. Hunt, B.Sc.
W. H. Robertson, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C,
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector
of Fruit Pests for the Boundary, East and West Kootenay Districts for the year 1921.
Crop Conditions. ,	
The apple-crop throughout the district shows at least 100 per cent, increase over that of
1920 and will slightly exceed the big crop of 1919. Some sections, however, were short of their
1919 production. On the whole the quality of the fruit was above the average, good size, and
a marked improvement in the pack sent out over that of previous years. Other tree-fruits show
an average yield and sweet cherries especially brought good prices. The returns from most
other tree-fruits were not so satisfactory.
The strawberry-growers have had a very successful season in the Kootenay. The production
from the district shows a large increase, the crop at Wynndel being about double that of last
year. The returns to the growers from this fruit on the whole were quite satisfactory. A good
picking season and with most of the plantations under irrigation, the yield per acre was above
the average.    An average yield of other small fruits, with fair to good prices.
Vegetable production, other than potatoes, was about normal, but there is room for more
development along this line in this district, especially among the white growers. Potatoes were
a poor crop in many sections, and as the result prices have been good on the local markets.
Pruning and Packing Schools.
During February, March, and April of 1921 nine pruning-schools were held in the Kootenay
District, with a total attendance of eighty pupils. Classes were held at the following places:
By C. B. Twigg at Appledale, Slocan Park, Passmore, Canyon City, Erickson, and Creston;
by the writer at Arrow Park, Nakusp, Gray Creek, and Procter. In November and December of
this year one pruning-school was held at Grand Forks and a packing-school at Slocan Park.
The reports of these schools were sent in to the Department by the Instructors at the close
of each school. Most of the schools were well attended and this class of work is very much
appreciated by the fruit-growers in those sections where the schools were held.
Mr. Greenwood again had charge of the instruction at most of the packing-schools. These
schools were held at Grand Forks, Kaslo, Erickson, Wynndel, Nakusp, Fauquier, and Needles,
with a total attendance of eighty-eight pupils. Your assistant was in charge of the packing-
schools at Grand Forks and Kaslo, and also by special request held a three-day class at Robson
and Burton. From reports these schools have been a great help to the fruit-growers, and as
a result a much-improved pack of apples was sent out from the district this season. Reports
covering these schools have been submitted to the Department.
Notices were again sent out during November offering five-day pruning and six-day packing
schools, and the popularity of this work is shown by the fact that at the present time applications
are on file for ten packing-schools and five pruning-schools. Arrangement has been made to hold
these schools during January, February, and March, 1922.
Diseases and Insect Pests.
Apple-scab.—This disease was not so prevalent this season, a very dry May helping to keep
down early infections. Although even where growers put on the three recommended sprays,
pink calyx and llf days later, considerable late infection took place on some of the most susceptible varieties. In a season like the past, with very dry weather in May, it would undoubtedly
be best to put on a late " pink " spray and extend the time between the " pink " and " calyx,"
so as to have the third spray come on late in June. Unfortunately, it is not possible to forecast
the weather far enough ahead to do this. As the seasons and weather vary a great deal each
year, and as in most years in the Kootenay Lake, Kootenay River, Slocan and Arrow Lakes U 50 Department of Agriculture. 1922
sections the susceptible varieties (Snow, Mcintosh Red, and Yellow Newtown) are liable to a
late infection, the only safe recommendation for the control of apple-scab is the application of
four sprays to such varieties. Three sprays will control scab on all varieties at Creston, Robson,
and that section south of Castlegar to the boundary. The somewhat resistant varieties will only
need three sprays for all sections of the Kootenay if thoroughly applied at the proper time.
Fire-blight.—This disease is still present in the Nelson area, but very few trees were found
infected outside the city limits. Most all infections are confined to pear-trees, the Clapp's
Favourite being the variety to which most damage has been done. Slight outbreaks of the
disease were found at Willow Point, Slocan Park, Nakusp, and Fauquier. A thorough clean-up
was made at these places this fall and further inspection of the trees affected will be made in
the early spring. Although considerable work and time has been spent this fall in getting the
blight cut out in the Nelson area, there is considerable work to be done yet before a thorough
clean-up is made.
Pear and Cherry Slug.—The pear and cherry slug have been kept well under control in the
commercial orchards. On the other hand, they were very bad on the pear and cherry trees on
the city lots at Nelson, causing considerable damage to the foliage, which no doubt will affect
the yield of next year's crop. These pests were most abundant during August and September,
when a great many of the pear and cherry trees were stripped of their leaves. Articles were
supplied from this office to the local newspaper dealing with the control of this pest and an
effort will be made this next year to keep this insect well in check. The insect is quite easily
controlled if proper spray methods are used. A good spraying outfit and some one to do the
spraying are the main things needed to keep this pest under control in the city.
Colorado Potato-beetle.—This well-known insect has now gained a foothold in the south-east
portion of East Kootenay. The area over which the beetle has spread is considerable and can
be found in most of the potato-fields south of Elko to the Montana line. The beetle was also
found as far west as Wardner. As regards its control, very little has been done except in the
way of press articles written by Mr. Treherne and Mr. Eastham. A circular letter was also
sent out to the secretaries of the Farmers' Institutes in this area, which gave instructions as
to means of control and other information on the beetle. It is very difficult to stop the migration
of the beetles and it is questionable if the beetle can be eradicated once it has gotten into a
district, but if every potato-grower takes prompt eradlcative measures should an outbreak occur
its development can be kept in check.
Depredations of other insects were about the same as in previous years. In a few sections
the blister-mite has made its appearance on the apples and some of the trees were quite bad with
this pest for the first time. It will be necessary to make a special effort this next year to see
that a controlling spray is applied for this insect in area affected. Oyster-shell scale is still
troublesome in some sections, but is being easily kept in check where lime-sulphur is used for
the control of apple-scab.
All of the above diseases and insects were attended to, as far as time would permit, by
making personal calls on growers and giving advice and information on the methods of control
and eradication.
Cover-crop Demonstration.
This work is being carried on with hairy vetch in this district, as this leguminous crop seems
to suit the Kootenay conditions much better than any other annual cover-crop so far tried out.
The same orchard plots in the Kootenay have now been seeded for three years in succession and
about the same amount of seed sown per acre (25 lb.) each year. This is the last year of the
demonstration and much useful information has been obtained from the three-year test. Growers
have been convinced that the use of such cover-crops are not only desirable, but necessary to
keep up the fertility of their orchard soils. Better results will be had if the seed is disked or
drilled in and should be sown early in August. The soil should be inoculated the first year and
the same plot or area seeded to vetch for three years in succession; the amount of growth from
the third-year seeding increases a great deal over that from the first. It would also be advisable
to use about 35 lb. of seed per acre the first year and 30 lb. the second and third year. The
disking-in of the cover-crop may be found more suitable than ploughing it in. The seed-plots
that have been carried on have thoroughly demonstrated that hairy vetch seeds very readily in
this district. By this means growers can produce a lot of seed that can be used for cover-crop
purposes at very little cost. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 51
Fall Fairs.
Fall fairs were attended in the capacity of judge of fruit and vegetables at the following
places: Armstrong, September 21st and 22nd, assisted by J. Tait; Salmon Arm, September 28th
and 29th, assisted by J. Tait; Kaslo, October 7th; and assisted by AV. T. Hunter at the Creston
Fair on October 4th and 5th.
Your assistant judged the fruit and vegetables at the Nelson Annual Flower-show held this
year in July, and also judged the Nelson city-garden competition twice during the season.
Orchard Visits and Demonstration.
Many personal visits to different orchards throughout the district were made during the
year; a great number of requests coming in from growers for demonstrations and advice on
various horticultural subjects. This work takes up a great deal of time, but there is not much
to show for it at the end of the year. It is always much appreciated and work that is very
necessary and cannot be omitted.
In addition, your assistant has also given assistance to the Land Settlement Board on
horticultural subjects pertaining to the soldier settlement area at Camp Lister.
Survey-work.
Your officials have just completed an orchard and small-fruit survey of the Kootenay
District. This work was done as time would permit during the year. All field-notes are now
in the office and it is hoped to have the cards used in filing this report completed very soon.
Inspection of Nurseries.
As in previous years, the w7ork of inspecting the nurseries was carried out according to the
regulation laid down by the Department. The Riverside Nurseries at Grand Forks is the only
nursery operating at the present time in this district. Beside the summer inspection, a tree-to-
tree inspection was made of this stock at digging-time this fall. Crown-gall and hairy roots
were the main sources for which any of the trees were condemned. The stock on the whole was
very clean, but a little short on growth. All trees condemned were destroyed at the time of
inspection.
Crop Reports.
Crop estimates and reports are furnished from time to time during the growing season and
at the end of each year a detailed report is made of the total production of all fruits and
vegetables in the district. Information and data are also collected in a similar way from the
jam-factories of the district.   These reports have been submitted to the Department.
Office-work.
The volume of office-work has steadily (been on the increase and necessarily had to be
attended to. A large number of inquiries have been received from prospective settlers regarding
the possibilities of fruit-growing in this district. These have been attended to, and whenever
possible your assistant has called on the new settlers and personally advised them on the horticultural subjects that they were interested in. This, with tbe necessary correspondence with the
Department, has taken up a great deal of time.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
E. C. Hunt,
District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests. •
U 52
Department of Agriculture.
1922
REPORT OF DISTRICT FIELD INSPECTOR, GRAND FORKS.
Paul C. Black.
E. C. Hunt, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report as follows :—
Seasonal Conditions.
Last spring opened up auspiciously with a good moisture content in the soil as a result of
abundant rains during the previous autumn and plenty of snow during the winter. Field crops
were therefore got in under excellent conditions and orchards had a good start with favourable
weather during blossoming-time. All tree-fruits set well, with the exception of Jonathan apples;
Wageners and Wealthys being especially well loaded. The ensuing dry summer, however (which
appears to be a regular annual condition during recent years), very seriously offset the favourable spring and all crops suffered to a very great extent from drought. As a result field crops
generally, and more especially potatoes (which are one of the main dependencies of the ranchers
in this district), were very light. The orchards also suffered from the dry weather during
midsummer, but with the advent of opportune showers later in the season made a marvellous
recovery and produced good yields generally.
Diseases and Insect Pests.
The past season appears to have been most favourable for the development of these enemies
of the farmer and fruit-grower. Spraying of orchards in this district has not been as general
as it should be, and in view of the unusual prevalence of /various pests during the season just
past, and their apparent promise of increased depredations in the future, it behoves our fruitgrowers to be up and doing in this matter and adopt a more systematic, aggressive, and thorough
spraying campaign for the forthcoming and ensuing seasons.
In addition to such pests as green aphis and oyster-shell scale, which have infested the
orchards to a greater or less extent in the past, there have been this year visitations, in some
instances to a rather serious extent, of the following:—
Tussock-moth.—What might be called almost an outbreak of this insect occurred in some of
the older orchards in the district. The pest was held in check by spraying with arsenate of
lead, but timely and effective measures will have to be adopted to combat this insect this
coming season.
Blister-mite.—This pest, while not previously unknown in the district, was unusually
prevalent this past year. The injury wras mainly confined to pear-trees, though in one or two
areas apple-trees were quite badly attacked as well. A very thorough spraying with winter-
strength lime-sulphur will have to be undertaken to destroy this insect this coming spring (just
before the buds open), otherwise this pest threatens to become a serious menace to our orchards.
Leaf-hoppers.—These have been very numerous in many of the orchards this past season
and timely applications of tobacco extract (Black Leaf 40) will have to be made to keep this
pest in check.
Other insects appearing in lesser degree, but still of sufficient importance to warrant
adequate control measures, were the red-hump caterpillar, the Sphinx elegans (one of the hawk-
moth worms), and the peach-worm or peach-twig borer (Arnarsia Uneatella), which occurred
to a limited extent in plum-orchards.
Fire-blight.—This serious disease was slightly in evidence this past year, but only in
restricted areas and appearing mainly as twig-blight; very little body-blight occurring. Drastic
cutting-out of infected parts has been advised by your Inspector, and generally carried out by
the orchardists, who fully realize the danger from this disease and the importance of dealing
with it effectively.
Field crops in this district have been hitherto very free from insect pests. There occurred
this past season, however, an attack (fortunately confined to an isolated instance) of" the corn-
ear worm (Heliothis armiger), which did considerable damage in the area noted. A statement
from the Entomological Branch of the Department at Vernon (to which specimens of the worm
were sent for identification) is to the effect that this is a new pest in British Columbia. It will
doubtless have to be reckoned with in the corn-crops of the future. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. U 53
Tip-burn, Mosaic, Early and Late Blight.—Hitherto the potato-fields in this valley have been
comparatively free from attacks of fungous pests, but all three of the diseases named were
noticed to a greater or lesser degree this past season. Systematic spraying of the growing plants
will have to be undertaken in order to combat these diseases if profitable crops are to be grown.
Scab.—Very little scab is in evidence, due to the quite general practice of treating the seed
with either formalin or corrosive sublimate.
Pruning.
Practical assistance in pruning was given in several orchards. Quite a number of the
ranchers in the district are new-comers and unfamiliar with pruning methods, and particular
attention was given to these new arrivals.
Thinning.
Numerous demonstrations in the thinning of fruit were given, more particularly with apples,
and rather striking results were noted at picking-time as a consequence. The owners of those
orchards where thinning was demonstrated are enthusiastic converts to this desirable practice,
and it is believed that fruit-thinning will be quite general in the future.
Cover-crop Demonstration.
Two plots of 2% acres each, in orchards in the east and west sections of the valley
respectively, were seeded to hairy vetch on July 19th and 20th with seed supplied by the
Department. Unfortunately the soil in neither orchard was sufficiently supplied with moisture
at the time of seeding, and germination was poor in both cases. With the advent of fall rains,
however, the vetch developed rapidly and made a good growth before the ground froze up, though
the stand was more or less patchy. With the assurance of irrigation on at least a portion of
the valley this coming season, it is hoped to continue this cover-crop work under more favourable
conditions.
Orchard-survey.
Under your direction a considerable amount of orchard-survey work was done by your
Inspector in the Slocan Valley, the Fruitvale District, and the Arrow Lakes region.
Inspection of Nursery Stock.
Owing to the absence of your Inspector on sick leave during the time of nursery-stock
inspection at the Riverside Nurseries, this work was very kindly undertaken and carried out by
yourself, assisted by C. B. Twigg.
Crop Report.
Information as to the crop returns for the district have been tabulated and submitted to
the Department. The results of farm operations during the past season have not realized the
hopes and expectations which characterized the attitude of the farmers and fruit-growers at
the beginning of the year. While the apple-crop, which, though not a record yield, was fairly
large, and materially augmented an excellent crop of pears and prunes, the prices for all fruit
have been disappointingly low. And this notwithstanding the fact that the fruit-crop of the
district was this year, for the first time in its history, marketed in an intelligent and businesslike
manner; the fruit-growers profiting from past disastrous experience, having formed themselves
into a co-operative shipping association embracing 97 per cent, of the ranchers in the district.
Unfortunately, however, soon after shipments commenced, the market, as a result of nation-wide
depression, slumped disastrously, and cash returns for the crop, more particularly for the earlier
varieties, have been very poor. Complete returns for later sorts are not yet to hand, and these
may relieve the situation somewhat.
A consoling feature of the situation remains, however, from the fact that the markets this
year have broadened to a considerable extent and British Columbia fruit is better known to
the world's consumers. This is a pronounced gain and the profits therefore will undoubtedly
be reaped in the future.
Meetings and Newspaper Articles.
A considerable number of farmers' meetings have been held in the district, at most of which
your representative was present, and at some of which he read papers on timely subjects; early IT 54 Department of Agriculture. 1922
in the year the matter of co-operation among the farmers was taken up and discussed, and your
representative has the satisfaction of feeling that, in some small degree at least, he has assisted
in contributing to the formation of the splendid organization which now exists under the name
of the " Grand Forks Co-operative Growers' Exchange."
During the year a number of article's on various farm topics have been contributed to the
local press, as wTell as to papers published outside the district.
General.
Systematic field inspection has been carried on during the season and frequent visits made
to every farm not only in the main valley, but to the outlying districts as well.    Your Inspector
has been deeply gratified at the kindly attitude of the ranchers and their evident appreciation
of whatever advice or assistance he has been enabled to give them.
Respectfully submitted.
Paul C. Black,
District Field Inspector.
REPORT OF DISTRICT FIELD INSPECTOR, EAST KOOTENAY.
C. B. Twigg, B.S.A.
E. C. Hunt, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report as follows:—
Lectures and Meetings.
A lecture on pruning was given by your assistant at a Farmers' Institute meeting last winter
at Wynndel, Duck Creek. Papers were prepared on the following subjects: "Silos and Ensilage,"
" Spraying," and " Orchard Fertility," and were read by the Secretary of the Erickson United
Farmers' Association at their monthly meetings held early in the year. An address was given
on " Gardening " at a meeting of the Creston Valley Women's Institute during the spring.
Pruning-schools. '
Pruning-schools were conducted by your assistant in early spring at Creston, Erickson,
Canyon City, Appledale, and Slocan Park, in West Kootenay, and during tbe-fall of the year
a school was conducted at Grand Forks, in the Boundary District. A separate report of each
was forwarded to your office at tbe close of these schools.
Camp Lister.
Your assistant was asked to superintend the planting of over 9,000 fruit-trees at Camp
Lister during the spring, where returned soldiers are located taking up land under the Provincial
Land Settlement Board. Twenty-seven 5-acre lots were marked out and trees planted 30 feet
apart. The remainder of the trees were put in nursery rows. The area was visited several
rimes during the latter part of the year and reports on the growth and condition of same were
furnished the superintendent.
Orchard-survey.
Your assistant during part of the summer made an orchard-survey of the districts in and
around Kaslo, Mirror Lake, Queen's Bay, Procter, Harrop, and Granite Road in the vicinity of
Nelson, and copies were made from the field-notes of same in your office at Nelson.
Field Inspection.
Many orchards were visited in the various areas throughout the Creston Valley. Growers
this year were troubled very much by the blemishing of apples and pears with the larva? of the
green apple-worm and the bud-moth.
In many instances green aphis, owing to the continued dry weather, increased in such
numbers as to do apparent harm to young growth. Several growers for the first time included
arsenical poisons in their spring spraying operations. The more general and frequent use of
such will help to control many of the pests that cause complaints. Owing to dry weather during
May and the general practice of spraying with lime and sulphur during the pink and calyx 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 55
stages of growth, the orchards of the valley this year were very free from scab. Early in the
summer several specimens of clover-roots were sent in to me which were forwarded to Mr.
Eastham, Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, for verification, and were pronounced to be affected with
wilt-fungus (Scerotinia trifoliorum), familiarly known as clover sickness, which causes more or
less failure of this crop in other countries. On visiting various clover-fields I found two further
infestations, and on making inquiries of the owners where the seed came from, I learnt it had
been imported from across the line south. I informed the owners in each case that the best
remedy was to plough the remainder of the crop under and refrain from planting legumes on
the same soil for the next three or four seasons. This fall near Wynndel a strawberry-grower
brought in several small larva? which he reported doing considerable harm to his strawberries.
The specimens were forwarded to Mr. Downes, Entomologist, Victoria, and! he pronounced them
to be a species of strawberry-weevil. This is the first time this pest has been reported doing
damage in this district. The farm was visited and infestation was found in various locations.
This fall the old plants were ploughed under, which leaves the spring plantation for next year's
crop. The flat-headed borer was found on several young apple-trees at Camp Lister and in a
few instances had completely girdled the trunk, causing the loss of the top. This can hardly
be prevented, as transplanting causes a temporary check, which leaves them subject to attack
by such insects while in a weakened condition. The Colorado potato-beetle has been spreading
in the Baynes Lake area and this season has been reported as far north as Wardner. Pear-
blight has been discovered in the orchard at the Indian Mission near Cranbrook. This fall a
personal visit was made and the caretaker informed me that he was willing to remove the
trees affected.
Fall Fairs and Garden Competitions.
Garden competitions were held at Natal and Nelson. The gardens were judged during the
growing season and again later during the fall fairs by your assistant, who, acting as judge or
assistant judge, attended the fall fairs at Natal, Trail, Fruitvale, Boswell, Nelson, Appledale,
and Slocan City; also at the fruit, flower, and vegetable displays under the auspices of the
Women's Institute at Willow Point and Harrop.
Crop Reports.
A survey of the district was made in midsummer to ascertain the acreage of spring planting
to strawberries, potatoes, and other vegetables, and report of same submitted to your office.
Monthly reports were forwarded to Ottawa on local conditions and crop estimates throughout
the growing season; also rendered assistance in collecting data on the annual crop returns of
the district.
Inspection of Nursery.
Assistance was rendered in the inspection of the nursery stock of the Riverside Nursery at
Grand Forks during the fall when the trees were being removed from the nursery rows to the
cellar.
General.
This year's season was marked by a long-protracted drought which resulted in light returns
from all vegetables planted during the spring, the potato-crop being nearly a total failure, though
this may be partially attributed to degeneration of seed. This is tbe third dry summer in
succession and the growers have become interested in irrigation, to the extent that a small
acreage at Erickson was brought under irrigation last fall. This year Canyon City growers
have completed laying their pipe-line, which covers the greater part of their plantations; also
Wynndel berry-growers this spring increased the acreage of their holdings under the Skinner
system of overhead irrigation. On the other band, the valley picked the highest yield of apples
in its history. The majority of the trees are comparatively young, still increasing in size,
returning substantial annual increases in fruit. The growing season was preceded by a mild
winter with ample precipitation, which was able to be absorbed by and stored up in the soil
owing to the absence of frost in the ground, which are the main contributing factors in tlje
increase in yield. This fall the Creston District established central packing, which will
standardize the pack and help to put the output on the market in a position to meet keen
competition.
Respectfully submitted. 0. B. Twigg,
District Field Inspector. IT 56
Department of Agriculture.
1922
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVE, KELOWNA.
J. E. Britton.
W. T. Hunter, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report of my work as Agricultural Representative for
the Kelowna District for the year 1921:—
My work as Agricultural Representative has been carried on under the half-time co-operative
plan with the Department of Education. I have shared with your District Field Inspector,
T. M. Anderson, the Kelowna office, and many phases of the work has been conducted with
reciprocal co-operation. In Mr. Anderson's absence I have been called upon to give assistance
or advice in connection with inspection-work. I have devoted three days in the week to the
duties of this office, but it has been found difficult to accomplish all that is attempted, due to
the half-time limit; and it is not easy to quickly change from one field' of thought and activity
to another. Nevertheless, it is true that the class-room training helps one to be more exacting
and explicit in the field.
The office-work grows in importance to the extent in which the public make use of its
advantages. A great many calls are made by new settlers and information is sought on almost
every subject connected with agriculture.
Demonstration Plots.
Attention and study have been directed upon orchard soils and their improvement, but it
has been found impossible in the capacity of Agricultural Representative in this district to
confine the work to this subject exclusively. In every section of the district growers are realizing the need for some changes in their orchard practices which will maintain fertility and better
the soil texture. Cover-crops and fertilizers have been generally recommended. Many are
anxious to establish the alfalfa sod-mulch system as followed in the Wenatchee District.
In order to encourage the work of orchard-soils improvement and to illustrate some of the
best methods, a number of demonstration plots have been established in orchards which were
considered suitable for certain tests and where the owner was willing to co-operate with the
Department. Results of orchard experimental work in the semi-arid fruit sections of the West
have been used as a basis for the work here. All semi-arid soils are deficient in organic matter.
Irrigation and clean cultivation tend to change the physical texture of these soils and to exhaust
the humus, so that sooner or later they reach a hard and lifeless condition. But there are in
this district a number of distinctly different soil types which may show very different results
under treatment with fertilizers and cover and shade crops.
Alfalfa.—Tbe most evident requirement of the average soil is humus. Alfalfa will supply
this, penetrating the subsoil, and in addition provides a shade-crop. Being a legume, it is of
great value from this standpoint alone. Where it is already growing in the orchard and cutting
for hay has been discontinued, results are very promising. Three alfalfa-plots have been
established.
Plot No. 1 was seeded on April 4th, with a check-plot under clean cultivation. The alfalfa
made poor growth except along water furrows. Weeds made a strong growth. No fertilizer
was applied as this orchard received manure the previous season. Very little extra water was
used. No difference in the trees could be determined. This owner wishes to seed his entire
orchard to alfalfa the coming year.
Plot No. 2 was seeded to alfalfa on April 21st with 4 Ib. of nitrose to each tree. The alfalfa-
plot received 50 per cent, luore water than balance of orchard. The alfalfa made excellent
growth, reaching a growth of 4 feet in height. Weeds were plentiful but not troublesome.
The trees are 11 years old.    So far this appears very satisfactory.
Plot No. 3 was inaugurated to compare alfalfa with vetch and to determine the advantage
of using nitrate when establishing alfalfa. The orchard was divided into three plots: (a) Alfalfa
with 3 lb. of nitrate per tree; (6) alfalfa without fertilizer; (c) hairy vetch. These were
established on June 11th. Water was used very liberally during the irrigation season. Very
thorough work in preparing the seed-bed and in applying the irrigation-water have contributed
toward most satisfactory results. This later sowing gave a more uniform stand of alfalfa and
greater freedom from weeds. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 57
Hairy Vetch.—In Plot No. 3 the vetch was seeded on June 11th with 50 lb. of seed per acre
and the ground very well prepared. This is heavier seeding than generally recommended, but
if necessary for the results obtained it is justified. This is the most satisfactory plot of vetch
in the district. The vetch made very rank growth, completely covering the ground and just
beginning to show bloom when frost came. It is expected that it will seed about July or August
next and will then be disked in the soil. Roots which were examined showed a generous supply
of nodules.
Later sowings have given a very poor stand which made little growth during the fall, but
it is too soon to determine definitely the best date and amount for seeding. There is probably
considerable latitude.
Plot No. 4 demonstrates hairy vetch with nitrate to promote immediate tree-growth and
lime to improve the texture of the soil. A check was made on each of these. Twenty-five pounds
of vetch was used and 3 lb. of nitrose per tree. Unfortunately the seed did not germinate well.
The soil is a rather heavy clay and a very patchy growth of vetch was the result. This will be
repeated in 1922 with a heavier dressing of lime.
. Lime.—Judging from experiments conducted in both the Eastern and Western States, lime
has not given results which would justify its general use in our orchards. (Pennsylvania
Bulletin 121, Oregon Bulletin 166.) But some of our clay soils in this district may be greatly
improved by lime before seeding to a cover or shade crop.
Plot No. 5 is on clay soil and the trees have not made satisfactory growth. A heavy dressing
of lime was applied, leaving part of plot as a check. The trees each received about 4 lb. of
nitrose. Cultivation was very thorough and by September the limed plot was in a much better
condition, when the entire area was seeded to rye. The rye will be disked after spring growth
and the soil worked up for alfalfa or vetch which will be seeded in June. The alfalfa sod-mulch
system will be established.
Nitrate.—Nitrate was applied to ninety-six trees in Plot No. 6 at the rate of 4 lb. in two
applications; 2 lb. before the snow melted and 2 lb. at first irrigation. The entire plot was
seeded to rye on August 6th. The trees which received nitrate retained their leaves a little later
and made satisfactory growth. The rye on the nitrate plot made a much heavier growth, showing
that nitrate was evidently available after August.   The cover-crop of rye was able to retain this.
Manure.—Manure has been applied to a number of Delicious and Mcintosh trees, 11 years
old, which had not beeen producing. The manure was applied early in 1920. In 1921 the trees
produced a heavy crop.
Red Clover.—While not generally recommended, growers in the K.L.O. section have apparently procured very good results from red clover as a cover-crop.
In addition to the plots, observations have been made in many orchards where any form of
soil-Improvement was being adopted.
Distribution of Manures and Fertilizers.
Alfalfa and vetch are receiving most attention, but there is also an increasing demand for
manure and commercial fertilizers.    Following is a list of amounts sold in Kelowna during the
year:—
Tons.
Imperial, complete fertilizer         19
Other mixed fertilizers, including potash and phosphoric        31
Nitrose •        65
Lime        30
Calgary rotted manure   1,350
Manure which is shipped in from Calgary has been, costing the grower from $7.50 to $8
per ton in the orchard. It is believed that vetch will give as good results at a much lower cost,
but the value of manure is easy to understand, and where quicker results are desired it is
considered profitable. Rye as a winter cover-crop has been recommended where vetch and
alfalfa could not be used.
Lectures.
During the year lectures have been given at the following centres:  Ellison, Rutland, Mission
Creek, Mission, and Glenmore.   These have been on the subjects of:   " How Plants Grow";
" The Orchard Plant";   " Soils and Fertility."   General discussion followed each lecture and
usually brought out some information of a local nature. IT 58 Department of Agriculture. 1922
Blossoming Dates.
During the blossom period observations were taken on the important commercial varieties
of apples and pears as to the period of blooming. A table was prepared and placed in the hands
of those willing to make the records for their particular district. The results are given in
Appendices Nos. 6 and 7 for the K.L.O. section; the upper benches are somewhat later. The
dates for Glenmore ran from one to four days later than the K.L.O.
These observations have brought out other questions. Several varieties were reported,
" Heavy bloom but very poor setting." Experiments in Oregon (Bulletin 166) would indicate
that trees lacking in vigour, probably due to lack of nitrates, make very poor set. Others are
inclined to attribute a poor set of fruit to unfavourable weather conditions during the days
blossoms are pollinated.
Apple-ihinning Demonstration.
This demonstration was conducted by Mr. Harris, of the University of British Columbia,
until his departure.    It has since been completed and results tabulated in table attached.
In making observations, the yields as recorded do not show the actual results. Some of the
small yields per plot or average per tree are due to a single tree in the row reducing the yield.
With only five trees In a plot this becomes more striking. Indications are in favour of thinning
from June 10th to 17th. English experiments have shown that little or no benefit to the following
year's crop will be obtained by early thinning, and there is then the tendency to not thin enough.
Plots 2 and 3 gave best No. 1 apples, as estimated, although others packed No. 1.
Orchard-heaters.
In a few of the orchards on lower levels spring frosts often cause damage to the fruit-crop.
Eight degrees of frost were registered in one district last spring and the fruit-crop in that area
suffered considerable loss. In one orchard the use of oil-burning heaters, twenty-five to the acre,
saved the crop. Trees outside the influence of the heat had a very scanty crop, although equally
laden with bloom.
Fall Fairs.
For some years past it has been the custom of the Provincial Department of Agriculture to
stage an educational exhibit at each of the fairs held in the Okanagan Valley. Representatives
of the various branches co-operated this fall season in preparing a somewhat more comprehensive
exhibit than has hitherto been shown. Mounts of the various insect pests and the damage done
by them were displayed; specimens of diseased limbs and roots were on exhibit, and an official
of the Department was present at all times to give advice on how to recognize insect pests and
on methods of control. Samples of the various fertilizers commonly sold throughout the valley
'were prepared and placed on exhibit, together with samples of types of soils found throughout
the district.
This exhibit created quite an interest and many questions were asked regarding the proper
use of the different kinds of fertilizers. At such a time it was impossible to give definite advice
upon many of the problems, but the names and addresses of interested parties were taken with
the idea of visiting their ranches at some later date. It is planned to enlarge on this feature
somewhat next year, as considerable information regarding orchard practice and the handling
of orchard soils may thus be obtained. The following points were visited: Armstrong, Salmon
Arm, Kelowna, and Summerland.
The interest taken in the exhibit this past season was sufficient to warrant the preparation
of a more complete and permanent one for the coming year. Plans have already been laid for
the assembly of material necessary for such an exhibit, and no doubt these will be carried
through to completion. An educational exhibit at the various fall fairs not only serves to bring
before the growers every phase of the work conducted by the Department of Agriculture, but
enables Department officials to get in touch with many growers they otherwise would not meet.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
J. E. Britton,
♦ Agricultural Representative. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 59
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVE, VERNON.
V. B. Robinson.
W. T. Hunter, Esq.,
District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following as a report of the work under my supervision during the
year 1921 :—
Under the present co-operative scheme existing between the Department of Education and
the Department of Agriculture, I am able to devote three days per week to the work of the latter
Department. I find it difficult to make this time sufficient to accomplish the work I have set
myself. As the work grows, as it is bound to do, I shall have to devote more time myself or
be granted assistance. Not only do T find the matter of lack of time a problem, but I also find
it difficult to carry on the two lines of work satisfactorily. In the middle of the week I have to
drop the thread of my thoughts relating to the demonstration plots and not pick it up again until
the first of the week. The difficulty of this arrangement is apparent when one tries it. On the
other hand, the scheme of dual position has many features to commend it. I find the practical
work of the field of immense value to me in the school-room and the training of the school-room
of value to me in explanations in the field.
The lack of a definite policy of work wrhen I first assumed duties in Vernon made it somewhat
difficult to accomplish satisfactory results. Now, however, that a policy has been established and
that I have become better acquainted with conditions here, I find that much progress is being
made.
Demonstration Plots in Orchard-soil Fertility.
For some time past there has been a growing feeling among the growers of the Okanagan
fruit-growing districts that their orchard soils were nearing the point of exhaustion. Some of
the more progressive growers had already seen the danger and were attempting through the use
of cover-crops and fertilizers to build up their soils. The majority were, however, waiting for
the Horticultural Branch to advise them as to the most efficient method of handling this problem.
It was upon your suggestion, sir, that in the fall of 1920 I undertook the problem of establishing
demonstration plots in orchard-soil fertility. The plan was to start throughout the district a
number of plots which would demonstrate to the growers the best practices of the leading fruitgrowing districts of Canada and the United States. From the very conception of the work it
w^as evident that these plots could not be called experimental, nor was it desired that they should
be, for neither funds nor help we,re available to carry on the close investigations called for in all
experimental problems. Most growers were acquainted, through their various horticultural
papers, with the practices of the orchardists of other fruit-growing sections and many were
asking regarding the adaptability of these to the Okanagan. No one was in a position to give
a definite answer to these questions, and it was felt that information not based on the results
of actual experience wrould be misleading and possibly useless. It was then, with the express
purpose of furnishing the growers with first-hand information, that the demonstration plots were
established.
Neither the time nor the funds were available to undertake more than a few treatments.
As considerable interest was being shown in the alfalfa sod-mulch system of Wenatchee, the
majority of the plots established were based on this method of keeping up the nitrogen and
organic content of the soil. The usual procedure was to find some grower in the district who
was interested in this line of work and to secure his co-operation to the extent of allowing us
to use a portion of his orchard for demonstration purposes. A survey of the orchard was made
and a block suitable to the purpose was chosen. Plans were then drawn up showing the exact
treatment each portion of the block under observation would receive. A copy of these were placed
in the bands of the grower, whose duty it was to see that they were carried out by supplying the
necessary material and labour. During the growing season regular visits were made to each of
these plots and notes taken on their development.
Summary of Results.—Although careful observations were made during the season, at
picking-time no outstanding differences were noticeable. This was to be expected, as the
majority of investigators, both Canadian and American, agree that results are not evident until
the second year at the very earliest.   Next year It is possible that some results will be evident, IT 60 Department of Agriculture. 1922
but other plots will have to be carried on to the third and even the fourth year before we will
be in a position to make any definite statement regarding them.
Each of the various types of plots is described in detail in the notes that follow.
Demonstration Plots dealing with Sulphur.
These plots were based on the results obtained in Oregon with sulphur as a fertilizer for
alfalfa. The experiments referred to were conducted by F. C. Reimer and H. V. Tarter, of the
Oregon Agricultural College Experiment Station. They are described in Bulletin 163 of that
institution, entitled " Sulphur as a Fertilizer for Alfalfa in Southern Oregon."
Object.—These plots were carried on with the object of determining what effect, if any,
applications of ground sulphur would have on the alfalfa in the orchard. It was felt that
anything which would affect the growth of the alfalfa would affect the growth of the trees.
Districts.—Plots were therefore established in the Coldstream District and at Okanagan
Centre.
Methods.—Uniform blocks of orchard were chosen for this purpose. Where it was possible
three consecutive rows were treated with sulphur at the rate of 3 lb. per tree. The centre row
was taken for demonstration purposes. The first and third rows in each case were separated
from other treatments in the same orchard by blank or untreated rows. This method of using
three rows to a block, we felt, would give more uniform results, and that the danger of results
being interfered with would be minimized by basing results on the centre row7.
This method of laying out the plots was not always possible, and at the Rainbow Ranch,
Okanagan Centre, we had to use one row, the rows on each side of this being blank or untreated.
Demonstration Plots dealing with Nitrate.
Based on results obtained by R. Larsen, Soils Expert, Wenatchee, County Washington.
These have been outlined in press articles contained in the Wenatchee Daily World.
Stewart, of Pennsylvania, has also described experiments with nitrate in Bulletin 121 of
the Pennsylvania State College of Agriculture Experiment Station, entitled " Fertilization of
Apple Orchards."
Districts.—Two such plots were established in the Coldstream District and two at the
Rainbow Ranch, Okanagan Centre.
Method.—There exists some difference of opinion regarding the best time to apply nitrate.
Eastern growers are one in the practice of applying it in the spring. They state that if applied
in the fall it would be lost to the trees because of its solubility. Larsen, of Wenatchee, however,
states that in their district nitrate applied in the spring would not become available to the tree
until late in the following fall. It is the general opinion that Vernon gets more moisture in
the spring than Wenatchee, but no one seems to know whether this is sufficient to bring the
nitrate into solution. It was therefore decided to test out the two methods of application. Plots
were laid out according to the method described in the notes under the heading " Demonstration
Plots dealing with Sulphur."
Results.—Because of the readiness with which nitrate becomes soluble, it was hoped that
some results of the treatment would be evident the first season. In this we were disappointed,
and because results were not evident it was thought best not to spend the time and expense in
keeping accurate records of the fruit borne and the grading. After all, the plot is a demonstration plot, and unless the demonstration is perfectly evident to the average grower it has no value.
Next season we should see some differences, if there are to be any. In the event that no
differences show up in this particular method of treatment after two seasons' trial, it is probable
that the work with nitrate will be discontinued.
Demonstration Plots dealing with Nitrate and Sulphur..
These plots w7ere outlined with the object of combining the work of Larsen, of Wenatchee,
and Reimer and Tarter, of the Oregon Agricultural College Experiment Station.
Districts.—Two such plots were established on ranches in the Coldstream District and two
others at Okanagan Centre.
Method.—Very fine sulphur known as " ground sulphur " was used at the rate of 2 lb. per
tree. Nitrate was also applied at the rate of 3 lb. per tree. The sulphur, according to the
reports of Reimer and Tarter, has shown itself to be an excellent fertilizer for alfalfa.   The 1.2 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 61
nitrate was applied to provide against any check in the growth of the tree which the alfalfa
cover-crop might exert until such a time as it was firmly established and returning nitrogen to
the soil.
Results.—To date no results have been evident. It must be remembered, however, that it
is too soon to look for any striking results and that the sulphur is but slowly soluble. Lumps
of sulphur were found at the end of the season, which showed no effects of the weathering they
had been subjected to.
Demonstration Plots dealing with Ground Limestone.
Last season, for the first time, local lime was placed on the market in the form of ground
limestone. This material has, according to the distributers, the following analysis: Si, 4.08
per cent.; Al, 0.08 per cent.; FeO„, 0.54 per cent.; CaO, 53.02 per cent.; MgO, 3.32 per cent.;
CO,, 41.86 per cent,  (lost on ignition).
This limestone would appear to have a satisfactory CaO content, as is shown by the following
statement from " Fertilizers," by E. B. Voohees: " Chemically pure ground limestone contains
56 per cent, of actual lime, though the commercial product seldom contains more than 52 per cent,
and varies from 42 to 54 per cent, of actual lime."
The only fault that could be found with this material was that it was coarse. Most
authorities agree that for the best results all of the material should pass through a 10-mesh
screen. Quite a portion of the local material was too coarse to do this. The matter was brought
to the attention of the distributers and no doubt the material placed on the market this season
will be more uniform.
As soon as it became known that this material could be purchased many growers asked this
office for information regarding its use and value. Limestone is frequently found throughout
the entire district and the wild flora is such as flourishes on a limestone soil; for these reasons
it was felt that in most cases limestone applications would not prove advantageous; on the other
hand, it was possible that in the case of the heavier clays an application of limestone might
considerably improve the texture of the soil. In order to obtain definite information on both
these aspects of the question of the application of ground limestone, arrangements were made
for plots in both the Coldstream and Okanagan Centre Districts.
Method.—On these plots ground limestone was sown broadcast at the rate of 1% tons
per acre. It was used singly and in combination with other materials. Various soil conditions
were selected to try out this material; thus at the Rainbow Ranch, Okanagan Centre, the block
treated with ground limestone is one of stiff clay, but in the Coldstream it was tried on an
open loam.
Results.—All authorities agree that, except in the cases of extreme acidity, the benefits of
applying ground limestone are not as a rule apparent the first season. It was therefore natural
to expect no results on the various plots so treated. It is quite possible that results will be
evident next season, and for this reason the plot will be continued at least another season and
carefully observed.
Demonstration Plots dealing with the Inoculation of Alfalfa.
This work was based on a desire to obtain exact information regarding the necessity of
inoculating on our better types of orchard soils. There seemed to be a general opinion that it
was not necessary, but the Horticultural Branch was not in a position to state definitely that
they had tried it and shown that it was or was not essential. The Summerland Experimental
Station had noted that on all of their legume-plots inoculation did not seem necessary. Larsen,
of Wenatchee, stated that in their district it had shown no benefits, but that in the Leavenworth
District it had shown results, and therefore he was of the opinion that it might prove of benefit
here.
Districts.—Only one plot was chosen for this particular line of work, a ranch in the B.X.
District, Vernon.
Method.—We learned that the owner of this ranch planned on putting a portion of his
orchard into alfalfa. Accordingly he w*as approached with the object of securing his co-operation.
The block of orchard he was planting was divided into three portions. On one the seed was
inoculated according to the strength suggested by the company preparing the culture, on another
the seed was sown in such a way that only one-half the amount of culture suggested was used,
and on still a third no culture was used.   During the season notes were taken from time to time IT 62 Department of Agriculture. 1922
on the growth and development of the alfalfa, and in the early fall and at a later date plants
were dug up for the purpose of examining the nodule-development under the different treatments.
Results.—The results obtained were in keeping with the general opinion of the district.
We got no benefits from inoculation. It was found that nodules formed about the same time on
all of the plants, but that a greater number of smaller clusters were found on the roots of the
treated plots. It seemed that the bacteria had formed larger nodules on the untreated-seed
plants, but that these nodules were much fewer in numbers than was the case with the plants
on the other two plots.
The results obtained were so evident and so in keeping with Helmer's work at Summerland
that it is felt that this particular treatment will not be continued this coming season; that we
are now in a position to advise growers that on the better type of orchard soils it is not necessary
to inoculate. In this connection it might be of interest to note that cases have been reported
where inoculation has been necessary here in the valley. The type of soil probably had something
to do with this failure to get a catch, and at some later date we may be in a position to try out
plots on some of the poorer soils of the district.
Demonstration Plots dealing with the Inoculation of Vetch.
In the fall of 1920 some plots of hairy vetch were planted in the Okanagan Centre District
with the object of comparing vetch with alfalfa as an orchard cover-crop. These plots did poorly
and at the time this was attributed to poor climatic conditions. Still other plots were started .
in the Vernon District the following spring and early summer. As soon as the vetch in these
made a start it was evident that it would soon outgrow the material planted at Okanagan Centre
the previous fall. This led us to wonder if inoculation wasn't necessary on the particular type
of light sandy soil found in the demonstration plot on the B. M. Whyte Ranch, Okanagan Centre.
Method.—Early in the summer individual plants in this plot were dug up and investigated
for nodule-development. Occasional plants were found that were quite vigorous and seemed to
have a sufficient number of nodules on their roots. From this it, was presumed that the poor
catch was due to the fact that the bacteria were not sufficiently spread in the plot. Accordingly
it was decided to allow the plants present to set seed and then to scatter this seed by means of
a disk harrow. In the fall this was carried out. In another portion of the same orchard on the
same kind of soil two plots were sown to hairy vetch in the early fall. One of these was sown
to seed that had been inoculated to vetch culture, while the other was sown to untreated seed.
About the same time similar plots were sown in the B.X. District, Vernon.
Results.—Before growth had ceased in the fall the disked plot had shown a remarkable
improvement. The seed that had been scattered germinated and all that could be desired in the
way of a catch of vetch was obtained. This rather strengthened our belief that the poor catch
of the previous season was due to a lack of inoculation, but the results obtained in the new plots
sown with inoculated and uninoculated seed did not seem to support this. So far as could be
detected, there was no difference in the two plots. Neither of them was making the satisfactory
growth that the disked vetch was making. In the B.X. District this same lack of difference was
noticeable, but here the vetch was making a satisfactory growth. There was considerable difference in the soil of these two districts, that in the B.X. being much the better. This difference
might have been due to the difference in the soil, or the lack of differenec in both cases might
have been due to the fact that the culture used was faulty. This same test will be conducted
this next season.
Demonstration Plots with Vetch and Nitrate.
On some of our light soils it was felt that some sort of building-up programme should be
followed before the orchard was sown to alfalfa as a permanent cover-crop.
Method.—Two general lines of treatment were followed. In one the ground received an
application of nitrate of soda before the alfalfa was sown. On the other hairy vetch was sown
and allowed to reach its maximum growth and then turned under. Such plots were established
at the Rainbow Ranch, Okanagan Centre. Here the vetch was sown in the fall of 1920 and
the plan was to allow the vetch to grow as much as it would during the fall, to remain on the
ground during the winter months, and to be turned under in the spring, at which time the alfalfa
would be planted. Plots were also established in the Coldstream District. In this district the
plan was somewhat reversed. Here the alfalfa was sown in the spring of 1921 and fertilized
with nitrate. In the fall hairy vetch was sown on an adjoining plot. These two plots will be
compared. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 63
Results.—Because of the poor growth made by the vetch during the fall on the plots at the
Rainbow Ranch it was not possible to turn the vetch under at the time planned. Indeed, early
in the spring we were of the opinion that the vetch would never amount to anything and that we
had better give up the idea of testing it with nitrate. In a short time, however, the vetch made
most remarkable growth and by June was at least 2% feet high and very dense. At this time
it was turned under with a tractor disk so completely that not a trace of it was evident on the
surface of the soil. The original plan was to sow the plot at once with alfalfa. This was not
done, however, until early fall. This means that the plot stood bare for a couple of months.
During this entire period the increased water-absorbing qualities of this particular block were
very noticeable. The blocks included in this demonstration-work will be continued next season
and watched with a great deal of interest.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
V. B. Robinson,
Agricultural Representative.
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVE, COURTENAY.
S. H. Hopkins.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report on the District Agricultural
Representative work for 1921.
District Agricultural Office.
This office, opened in the spring of 1920, is being made use of increasingly by the farmers of
the district. Many farmers' meetings are held here. New-comers or intending settlers especially
find the office a reliable source of information. Correspondence was heavier than the previous
year. The office was open every morning; afternoons (and often evenings) being occupied with
outside work and visits to farms.
Buying and selling Stock.
Owing to scarcity of cows locally, a trip was made to Saltspring Island in the spring and
fifty head of cows and heifers were brought there for the Merville Settlement. These have given
general satisfaction. Local sales were attended and about the same number bought, also several
horses. Nine head of registered Jerseys (four bulls, five females) were sold through this office.
A Pure-bred Stock-breeders' Association for the district is now in course of organization.
Small Fruits at Merville.
A survey of the Merville Settlement and elsewhere in the district was undertaken in the
spring of 1920, together with E. W. White, District Horticulturist, and G. A. Vantreight, Gordon
Head, to ascertain the possibilities in small-fruit growing, especially strawberries, as these are
the best of the small fruits for raw, unfertilized land. As a result, 60,000 strawberry-plants and
5,000 raspberry-plants were put in at Merville that spring and there is every prospect of a good
crop this year.   About 4 acres outside of Merville were also planted.
Boys' and Girls' Competitions.
Last spring entries were canvassed for with the assistance of local school-teachers in these
competitions under the Department's auspices. Competitions organized were: Nine in chicken-
raising, three in calf-raising, and one in pig-raising; eight or more competitors in each competition.
The two latter were judged by the Representative. The parents and children seemed highly
pleased with results. The group of pigs in the pig-raising competition obtained third prize in
the Dominion Live Stock Branch car-load competition. IT 64
Department of Agriculture.
1922
Organization.
A good deal of time was spent in assisting the organization of local farmers' associations—
namely, Comox Potato-growers', Fruit-growers', and Poultry Associations.    These are now active.
They have all made arrangements to do their buying and selling through the Comox Creamery
co-operatively..
i Drainage Surveys.
Twenty-eight drainage surveys were made for farmers wanting the proper levels for under-
drains and ditches. Where necessary a rough plan of drainage system was submitted for the
farmer's guidance. At the same time orders were solicited towards another scow-load (50,000)
of cement drain-tiles which is now on the way.
Land Surveys.
Several requests from outside parties were received for the Representative to look over and
report on certain parcels of land for agricultural purposes. This was done and a full report
sent in each case.   Letters of thanks were received.
Visits to Farms.
These were made mostly at the farmer's request to deal with various problems that could
only be dealt with on the ground, such as choice of crops, soil-management, insect and plant
diseases, poultry and sheep diseases, selection of stock, potatoes, etc.
Potato Standardization.
The District Representative has been able to do effective work through the members of the
local Potato-growers' Association along the lines and with the valuable co-operation of C. Tice,
Potato Specialist. There is every prospect that Comox potatoes will become well known as the
best, both for seed and market.
Meetings and Lectures.
Thirty-four meetings were attended during the year, covering the district; some of these
were educational, some for organization, and the rest were Directors' meetings.
Writing for Press.
Articles dealing with local agricultural topics were published weekly in the Comox Argus,
constituting a sort of weekly bulletin, and the editor has given his hearty support to all work
for the betterment of farming conditions in the district.
Respectfully submitted.
S. H. Hopkins,
District Representative.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST, VANCOUVER.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.   .
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for 1921.
New7 Diseases noticed during 1921.
Wilt or Sclerotinia Disease of Clover (Sclerotinia trifoliorum).—Specimens of this disease
on red clover were sent in from Duck Creek and Creston, both in the East Kootenay District, in
April. An examination of the affected field at Duck Creek in May showed the injury from the
disease to be quite severe, patches of considerable size being killed out completely, while elsewhere individual plants were dying. Sclerotia were abundant. There is no evidence as to how
the disease has been introduced. It is a serious disease, since it can attack a number of leguminous forage-plants, including alfalfa. It was recommended to plough up the affected fields
and to try sweet clover. While this may not be immune, it is at any rate considered to be
resistant. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 65
Buck-eye Rot of Tomato (Phytophthora terrestria).—This was found doing a certain amount
of damage to the lower fruits in a greenhouse at Victoria, although it could hardly be described,
as very serious. The most objectionable feature of the disease is that in picking it is practically
impossible to distinguish fruit in the earliest stage of infection. Such tomatoes after being
packed rot in transit and damage the appearance of the whole package.
The disease was originally found and described in Florida and was later found at other
Southern points. During the present year, however, it has been reported as occurring in greenhouses in Indiana, so that it would appear to have a wide range.
While cultures were not made, the gross characters of the rot and the fungus-growth, on it,
and the microscopic characters of the fungus, seem to leave no doubt as to the identity of the
disease. Sporangia are produced in abundance on the fruit and these produce zoospores within
a few minutes when placed in water under the microscope. Measurements, etc., agree with those
given by Sherbakoff in his original article.
White-pine Blister-rust (Cronartium ribicola).—The most important event of the past year
was the discovery of the presence of this disease in British Columbia. On September 10th some
leaves and twigs of black currants were brought in to the office from North Vancouver with a
request for advice. These showed mildew and other common troubles of currants, but some of
the leaves also showed the telia of Cronartium, Samples were submitted to the Forest Pathologist at Ottawa to have the determination confirmed. Subsequently the disease was found
elsewhere, at North Vancouver, at the University Farm, Point Grey, Chilliwack, and Sardis,
Agassiz, Courtenay, Comox, Nanaimo, and Victoria, showing that the disease had already
obtained a wide distribution in the Coast section of the Province.
The disease was found almost exclusively on cultivated black currants. In a few cases
when these were heavily infected and red currants or gooseberries were growing side by side
with them a slight amount of infection might be found on the latter. In other cases, however,
although conditions were equally favourable to infection, red currants and gooseberries remained
free from the disease.
It is rather remarkable that the disease should have appeared in the form of such heavy
infections, apparently quite suddenly. In some cases, as at Courtenay, Comox, and Nanaimo,
it might be considered that the disease had escaped observation simply because no inspection
had ever been made, but this was not the case at Vancouver. The black-currant bushes at the
University site, Point Grey, showed 100 per cent, infection this year. Last fall I was conducting
classes for returned soldiers on the diseases and pests of small fruits and examination of these
bushes for any pests or disease w7as made almost weekly. It is hardly likely that had the
disease been present in other than a very light infection it would have escaped notice. It may
be that climatic conditions during the past season have favoured the development of the disease
into an epidemic. Last winter was unusually mild and leaves hung on the currant-bushes practically all winter. This would give the fungus a fair chance of wintering over by summer spores.
On the other hand, it may be that some infected five-leaved pine produced a?ciospores for the
first time last spring, resulting in heavy infection over tbe Vancouver area, and the same thing
may have happened elsewhere.
So far we have no indication of how the disease came into the Province or from what foci
it has spread. Considering, however, that the disease has been present from fifteen to twenty
years in the Eastern Provinces and States and is common and widespread in Europe, it is hardly
surprising that it should have gained entrance here before our quarantines against it were
established. The prohibition against five-leaved pines and Ribes grown in Eastern Canada only
went into effect in 1919, and we have evidence that the disease has been present on Ribes for
five years or more. Whether it came in on Ribes or pines is not known, though the latter host
is the more probable carrier. On it the disease may remain dormant for three to seven years
or in exceptional cases even longer. Such infected trees, in the early stages at any rate, may
show no indication of the presence of the disease. Port of entry inspection, therefore, or even
inspection for a year or two after planting might not detect it, and it is not, of course, possible
to keep such trees under continual observation or even to inspect them annually. After the
white-pine blister-rust conference at Portland in 1919 an attempt was made to trace up and
inspect the five-leaved pines that had come in since 1910. It was found impossible to do this
in many cases, as they had been imported and distributed by nurseries which had since gone out
of business. So far only two cases of infection on pines have been located. A few young whlte-
6 IT 66 Department of Agriculture. 1922
pine trees in a block of about 200 in the forest nursery at Stanley Park are believed to have
produced secia this year. These trees were planted out in 1915, being purchased from the Royal
Nurseries as 2-year-old stock. It was said to have been raised from seed in the nurseries. The
other instance of infection was found on some five-leaved pines imported from Europe and now
growing in West Point Grey. The lesions had not produced spores and were apparently on 5-
or 6-year-old wood. As the trees had been planted for nine years, this infection also must have
occurred subsequent to planting.
After the discovery of the disease at the Coast my duties took me to the West Kootenay
District, and I took the opportunity to do some scouting for the disease in this section. Black
currants were inspected at Kaslo, Procter, Willow Point, Nelson, and Slocan City and found to
be free from the disease. While this scouting only covered a very limited area of the Kootenay
District, this area is the one probably most exposed to infection, with the possible exception of
the country around Revelstoke. Further scouting, however, was not possible, as at this date
(October 12th) most of the currants had lost their leaves.
Early in November Mr. Putnam, of the Blister-rust Control Office of the United States
Department of Agriculture, came to Vancouver to make observations on the outbreak, and later
he was joined by Dr. Bethel, of Colorado, whose aim more particularly was to determine to
what extent native Ribes were showing susceptibility to the disease. Only one case of infection,
I believe, was found on wild currants—namely, a light infection on a leaf of wild black currant.
Red-flowering currants almost in contact with heavily infected cultivated black currants showed
no sign of the disease.
Later Dr. Bethel and Mr. Putnam worked south from the International Boundary, finding
the disease in cultivated black currants at a number of points almost to Seattle, when weather
stopped scouting. One pine was found which had apparently produced a?cia. How much farther
south the disease may extend can only be determined next season, but there is no evidence that
the outbreak in the State of Washington has originated from British Columbia. Conditions have
been identical as regards importation in both countries and it is quite likely that there may
have been a number of independent foci of the disease.
An international conference was called for December 18th, 19th, and 20th at Portland,
Oregon, to consider ways and means for localizing or eradicating the outbreak. Considering
that the Pacific States have some $200,000,000 worth of five-leaved pines (white and sugar
pines) to protect, as against probably $5,000,000 in British Columbia, it was natural that some
divergence of opinion should develop between the Canadian and United States delegates as to
the degree to which drastic action should be carried. The chief point of difference was in regard
to the necessity for destroying all cultivated black currants infected or exposed to infection;
our currants being of more commercial value than in the United States and our white-pine
interests less.
The Committee on Canadian Plans, therefore, brought in the following report, w7hich is in
the nature of a minority report:—
" Report of Canadian Committee on Investigation and Plans for Control.
"(1.) The economic value of western white pine in British Columbia is a matter of relatively
little importance in the lumber industry at the present time. It does not compare at all with
the values involved south of the International Boundary-line.
"(2.) This committee feels that the most important work that Canada can do at the present
time, in view of the limited knowledge of the extent of infestation, is to establish and maintain
an effective quarantine between the infected areas west of the Cascade Range and the remainder
of the Province, which, so far as is known to date, shows no infection.
"(3.) The Canadian committee subscribes to the findings of the general committee on
investigation and control, with the exception of the clause referring to immediate action in the
matter of eradication of cultivated black currants. We are prepared to recommend to the
Canadian authorities scouting and control measures referring to infected white pines, but cannot
agree to recommend extreme action in the eradication of cultivated black currants at the present
time, particularly In view of the peculiarly difficult situation in which infections have been
found to date.
" This reservation is made for the present time only because of the lack of definite knowledge
of the extent of the infestation and in view of the private interests at stake, and may be altered
on the basis of future data and experience." -
12 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
IT 67
The only measure capable of being put into immediate effect was the placing of a quarantine
to prevent the movement of Ribes or five-leaved pines from the infected area into the area of
the Eastern part of the Province, presumably free from the disease. This is necessary, since,
although white pine does not at present form a very valuable cut of lumber as compared with
Coast timber, it is apparently the most valuable tree in that area and likely to become more so,
since the reproduction in many places is almost pure white pine. According to one of the forest
officials, this area is capable of growing $50,000,000 worth of white pine if the young stands are
preserved.
It is necessary to include in the protected area most of the Dry Belt, since there are valuable
stands of white pine to which access is obtained through the Okanagan. Furthermore, since it
is not knowm that native Ribes may act as carriers of the disease, it is desirable to limit the
disease to its present area as far as possible. Spences Bridge w7as fixed on for the eastern limit
to which Ribes and five-leaved pines from the infested area could be shipped on the Canadian
Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railways, and Princeton for the Kettle Valley Railway
and Great Northern Railway. Further consideration showed, however, that it wTould be necessary
to place some limitation on shipments along the Pacific Great Eastern and Grand Trunk Pacific
Railways. North of the white-pine belt there is an area in which another five-leaved species,
the white-bark pine (Pinus albicaulis), occurs, although chiefly at high levels. While this pine
is of no commercial value, it is a potential host of the disease and might serve to estabilsh it
in the protected area if hosts from the infected area are allowed to reach Quesnel, Prince George,
or even points farther west. It was therefore decided to recommend, in addition, that Lillooet
on the Pacific Great Eastern and Hazelton on the Grand Trunk Pacific be made the eastern
boundary of the quarantine area along these lines. The means to be taken to enforce the
quarantine in respect to automobile and wagon traffic remain to be determined.
Potato-work.
A large amount of time has been given to field-survey work on potato-diseases in connection
more particularly with seed certification (in collaboration with Mr. Tice). Some of the more
important results of this survey are tabulated in connection with Mr. Tice's report.
This season late blight was quite severe in the Chilliw7ack Valley and also occurred at other
points in the Delta and Lower Fraser Valley. It was not found, however, elsewhere. This is
encouraging, since, if in a season like 1921 potatoes can be grown in districts like Comox without
danger from late blight, this should be very favourable to the production of a high grade of
seed-potatoes. The absence of late blight has also a bearing on the matter of the Colorado
beetle, considered below.
In last year's report notice was made of a recently observed disease provisionally known as
" skin-spot." According to recent investigations in the United States, this is merely a particular
form of powdery scab and therefore is of no special consequence.
Two years ago information was obtained that the Colorado beetle or " potato-bug" had
entered British Columbia from Montana at Gateway, while last year it was reported to have
reached Waldo. On account of the serious nature of this pest an inspection of this area was
made, with the result that the beetle was found to be abundant near the boundary, and to extend
in scattered infestations through Waldo, Baynes Lake, and Jaffray to just west of Wardner.
At this last point the infestation was quite light, but occurred in a field by the side of the
railway, so that there is danger of the insects having been conveyed to points west of this by
passing trains. Careful inspection around Cranbrook and up the St. Mary Valley gave negative
results. While the pest can be controlled by spraying, it must be borne in mind that, except in
a small portion of the Province, spraying is unnecessary at the present time, and if the pest
becomes general the w7hole cost of machinery and spraying will be incurred for this one pest.
It would certainly, therefore, appear well worth while to combat the advance of the pest along
the Crowsnest Valley into the Creston District and thence into the rest of the Province. While
it is probably impossible to eradicate it, its advance can probably be slowed down materially.
Fire-blight.
Fire-blight has been present in somewhat severe form in some parts of the Okanagan,
although on the whole it has been kept under good control. An important extension in the area
of the disease was discovered during the potato-beetle survey previously mentioned, quite severe -
IT 68 Department of Agriculture. 1922
infection being found near Cranbrook. A number of trees will have to be taken out and a
considerable amount of blight-cutting done. Fire-blight was also quite severe amongst pears
in and around the City of Nelson. This means that the important fruit district of Creston is
threatened by the disease from both east and west, although there is still a considerable disease-
free area intervening.
Recently the Commomvealth of Australia placed a complete embargo on all trees or fruits
of host-plants of the fire-blight organism from countries in which fire-blight is known to occur.
This completely excludes British Columbia apples and pears from Australia. We have felt that
this is an unnecessarily sweeping embargo, since we still have considerable fruit areas at the
Coast, Keremeos, Similkameen, and Creston where no blight has ever occurred, and it was
thought that shipments of fruit from such areas might reasonably be admitted into Australia
under certificate that they were grown in districts in which no fire-blight existed. As yet,
however, there has been no modification of this embargo. The recent introduction of the disease
into New Zealand and the serious situation which has arisen there, in a country not prepared
to combat it, may have had something to do with this. It is hoped, however, that we may
ultimately obtain some modification in our favour, in which case it will be seen that areas free-
from the disease are of considerable importance. While our shipments to Australia have never
been large, this trade, no doubt, is capable of being developed if some satisfactory arrangement
can be made to protect Australian interests in respect to fire-blight.
Experimental Work.
I again made the counts of anthracnose cankers in the plots of Mr. White's experiments.
No doubt Mr. White has reported on these elsewhere. Spraying with Bordeaux mixture with
excess of lime (Sanders formula) has been tried out in a number of places in the Kootenays
this year along the lines of the experimental work followed at Willow Point last season. Owing
to the nature of the season, however, russeting has been very severe. In some cases considerable
russeting was found on unsprayed trees, but the trouble was much intensified with Bordeaux
mixture. The question, therefore, of the superiority of lime-sulphur over Bordeaux mixture
apparently will not be decided except by experience over a number of years, including all types
of seasons.
Dusting-work was carried on again by J. J. Campbell, of Willow Point, the machine belonging
to the University being used and the results checked by myself. The material used was Sanders
Copper Dust, consisting of 10 per cent, dehydrated copper sulphate and 90 per cent, hydrated
lime. Counts were made on October 12th on a representative Spy tree in a block which had
received five dustings—namely, May 6th, 17th, 27th, June 7th and 22nd. The tree bore 504
apples, of which 102, or about 20 per cent., were scab-infected and about 2 per cent, russeted.
This percentage is somew7hat high as compared with the results of careful spraying.   .
The following is summarized from Mr. Campbell's record of costs and details of application.
No insecticides w7ere used.
Cost of Materials and Preparation.—A mixer costing $130 was to have been used, but did
not arrive in time, so that mixing was done by hand at a cost of 15 pents per cwt.
1 cwt. dehydrated bluestone    $24 35
9 cwt. hydrated lime      18 25
$42 60
Cost per cwt  $ 4 26
Mixing    ,. 15
$ 4 41
The amount used at each dusting varied from % to 1 lb. per tree, according to size of tree
and stage of growth, more being required for a tree in full leaf than for the same tree in the
semi-dormant stage. The trees were mature trees (around 15 years old). Two men and a team
were used. On May 14th (pink spray) 350 trees were dusted in 3% hours, 225 lb. of dust being
used. On May 28th (calyx spray) 450 trees on about 9 acres were dusted in 5 hours 10 minutes,
about 455 lb. of dust being used. 12 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
IT 69
Miscellaneous.
G. S. Coward, B.S.A., was appointed as temporary assistant for the months of May, June,
and July, being then transferred to the Soil and Crop Division.
In addition to my regular work, I gave a course of lectures in plant pathology at the
University;   two lectures on plant-diseases at the Y.M.C.A. short course in agriculture;   and
collaborated in the Dominion plant-disease survey and in the abstractions for British Columbia
publications for Botanical Abstracts.
Respectfully submitted.
J. W. Eastham,
Plant Pathologist.
REPORT OF ASSISTANT ENTOMOLOGIST, VERNON.
M. H. Ruhmann.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The following is a report on the routine work and a summary of the results of
technical investigations and experiments conducted during the past year by the Senior Assistant
Entomologist stationed at Vernon.
A full report of the technical investigations and experiments has been submitted to R. C.
Treherne, B.S.A., Dominion Assistant Entomologist, in charge of British Columbia entomological
work, under whose supervision the work was done.
The Senior Assistant Entomologist also attended to all inquiries concerning plant-diseases
received at the Vernon office.
Correspondence.
Inquiries regarding control measures and identity of insect pests and plant-diseases were
unusually numerous, and considerable time had to be given to the determination of material.
Library of the Department of Agriculture at Vernon.
The Senior Assistant Entomologist has charge of the Department library at Vernon. A
fairly comprehensive reference library is now available, treating particularly on horticultural,
entomological, and plant pathological subjects. This is supplemented with an extensive general
reference library placed at the disposal of the Department by the Senior Assistant Entomologist.
The indexing of the Department library is being carried on as time permits.
During the past year a few additions were made to the Department library by purchase,
and a number of Experimental Station publications were received and also added to the library.
Photographic Work.
The Senior Assistant Entomologist is responsible for the official photographic work of the
Department of Agriculture at Vernon. The equipment consists of: One Empire State camera,
5 by 7, with B. & L. Tessar No. 2b lens; one vertical photo-stand with electric-light adjustments;
one Ingento enlarging and reducing camera for negatives to 5 by 7; one Micro camera, 3% by
4%, with stand; a supply of the usual supplementary accessories for photographic work. A
suitable dark room is erected at one end of the laboratory.
During the past year photographs were taken in connection with the technical investigations
and experiments under way for record and for illustrative purposes. A number of lantern-slides
were also prepared for lecture-work.
Collections, Entomological and Plant Pathological.
The Senior Assistant Entomologist, is Curator of the collections. The entomological
collection is at present stored in four cabinets, each with an eighteen-drawer capacity; two
of these were added during the past year. These cabinets are supplemented with a large
number of unsuitable storage-boxes which must be used until further storage facilities are
available. IT 70
Department of Agriculture.
1922
The principal orders of insects represented in the collection are the Lepidoptera, Hemiptera,
Orthoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera. The above orders are well represented;
other orders have so far received little attention.
The material of the Orders Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, and Diptera have been
worked over and the majority of this material is now named. The material of the Order
Coleoptera is being worked over by R. Hopping, Assistant Dominion Forest Entomologist for
British Columbia, and is being arranged to conform with the new Leng Catalogue of North
American Coleoptera.
The Order Hymenoptera is well represented, but has not been worked over and arranged
owing to the dearth of literature on this order in the library and! the difficulty of getting determinations by specialists in this large and important order. It is hoped that at least one
additional cabinet may be added annually until a representative collection of British Columbia
material is taken care of. At present many valuable and delicate specimens must be stored in
unsuitable storage-boxes and are in danger of destruction by museum pests and accumulation
of dust.
Few additions were made to the collection during the past year owing to lack of time for
collecting, the only order receiving any appreciable additions being the Orthoptera, with material
collected by R. E. Buckell, Assistant Entomologist, during his investigations in the Chilcotin
area on the depletion of range grasses by insects.
The plant pathological collection is stored in Riker mounts, and is not yet a very representative collection of British Columbia material owing to the comparative dearth of material of
an economic nature in the irrigated sections of British Columbia. It is hoped to add to this
collection the poisonous plants and most important weeds and their seeds in the near future.
Important Insect Pests of the Year in the Dry Belt.
Codling-moth (Cydia pomonella).—This important pest has increased its distribution during
the past year; new infestations were recorded from Kelowna and Summerland. The areas
under quarantine are showing considerable improvement. The Vernon City outbreak has been
eradicated.
Lesser Apple-icorm (Enarmonia prunivora).—This insect was in evidence to an unusual
extent and caused considerable alarm in various sections of the Province, through the supposition that it w7as the codling-moth.    It was the cause of considerable loss in apples and cherries.
Wax-moth (Vitula serratilineella).—The larva of this insect resembles the codling larva very
closely and can only be definitely distinguished from it by miscroscopical examination, as is also
the case with the lesser apple-worm in its early stages. This insect is usually considered to be
a dried-fruit insect. During 1921, however, it appeared in considerable numbers in nearly mature
apples, and was also bred in large numbers from combs in bee-hives.
Onion-root Maggot (Hylemyia antiqua).—The severest infestation yet recorded from British
Columbia occurred during the past year in the onion-growing sections of the Interior. Heavy
losses were recorded in the Okanagan Valley and also in the Kootenay Districts. Successful
control experiments have been completed under Dry Belt conditions. (See summary of
experiments following.)
Cabbage-root Maggot (Hylemyia brassicm).—This insect was also in evidence to a greater
extent than usual and caused heavy losses. Absolute control is possible at a comparatively low
cost with the bichloride of mercury solution now recommended; the few growers w7ho took
advantage of this remedy suffered no loss.
Cabbage White Butterfly (Pieris rapw).—The green larva of this butterfly in many instances
completed the destruction not encompassed by the cabbage-root maggot. There is no reason why
such losses should be sustained in the Province. The three principal insect pests attacking the
cabbage-plant are the cabbage-aphis, the cabbage-w7orm, and the cabbage-maggot; these can all
be controlled at little cost in time and material.
Blister-mite on the Apple (Eriophyes sp.).—This mite is presumed to be the same as that
attacking the pear (Eriophyes pyri), but appears to require different treatment for control; so
far efforts to control have not been very successful. Severe injury has been caused by this mite
in some of the Oregon fruit sections and is now extending its range through the Lower Okanagan
Valley.    Experiments are under way for its control. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 71
Woolly Aphis of the Apple (Eriosoma lanigerum).—Owing to the mild winter of 1920-21
this aphis, wintered over on the trees, resulting in a severe infestation in all sections of the
Interior.
Black Peach-aphis (Anuraphis persicw-niger).—This pest has recently made its appearance
in the Southern Okanagan and is causing much concern. No satisfactory control Is yet known.
Experiments will be conducted during 1922 and it is hoped that a satisfactory control may be
found.
Peach-worm (Anarsia lineatella).—The larva? of this moth were observed to be severe on
both peach and prune.
Peach-crown Borer (JEgeria exitiosa).—This borer is troublesome on both the peach and
prune. " Worming" is the only remedy at present giving satisfactory results in control.
Experiments will be undertaken during 1922 in an effort to secure a more satisfactory control.
Oyster-shell Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi).—This scale proved difficult to control during 1921
owing to an unusually long hatching period. The summer spray for this pest usually gives
satisfactory results when applied at the right time. Growers, however, find it difficult to judge
this correctly; consequently many are meeting with poor results. As the result of a small
experiment conducted during the past spring, an experiment will be conducted on a commercial
scale in the spring of 1922 to obtain, if possible, a satisfactory spray for the dormant season.
A Cutworm (Mamestra trifolii) was responsible for considerable damage to truck-crops and
alfalfa in various sections of the Southern Okanagan; the same insect was submitted for
determination from the Kootenay Districts, where it was reported to be also attacking the
fruit of the apple.
Corn-ear Worm (Ghloridea obsoleta).—This serious pest was simultaneously recorded from
Summerland, Grand Forks, and the new Osoyoos settlement in the Southern Okanagan. This
is the first record of this pest to come to our attention in British Columbia. Preliminary investigations will be conducted during 1922 in an effort to establish a measure of protection against
this insect.
Douglas Fir Tussock-moth (Hemerocampa pseudo-sugata).—This insect is new to science
and was first recorded in British Columbia by W. B. Anderson, Inspector of Indian Orchards,
from Chase in 1918. It has now spread through several sections of the Interior, a severe outbreak occurring in the City of Vernon during the past year. It has also been recorded from
Armstrong and Hedley, and has been found, in the bush, in several outlying sections of the
Vernon District.
Wireworms (Elater spp.)—These insects were unusually injurious during the past year in
all districts of the Interior, potatoes and grain-crops being the most seriously affected. No
control measures are yet known; preliminary investigations and experiments will be undertaken
for itsfxmtrol during 1922.
Wheat-midge (Thecodiplosls mosellana).—This pest was recorded for the first time from
Salmon Arm during the past year. Infestation was severe and considerable loss of wheat
reported.
Bud-moth (Tmetocera ocellana).—The larvae of this moth were more in evidence than usual.
Leaf-roller (Archips rosaceana).—This larva was also unusually prominent during the past
year.
Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinolarsa decemlineata).—This beetle has become established in
British Columbia and according to reports received may be expected to reach the East Kootenays
during the coming year.
Thrips sp.? on Apple.—An injury to the fruit of the apple, supposed to be due to thrips, is
responsible for a great deal of grading-down in the packing-houses. The injury is a prominent
blemish in the shape of irregular white patches which appear on the fruit immediately on development. Investigations will be made during 1922 in an effort to definitely establish the cause
of injury, so that control measures may be undertaken.
Important Plant-diseases of the Year noted in the Okanagan Valley.
The only disease of importance brought to our attention daring the past year was fire-blight
of the* apple and pear. Infection commenced during the blossoming period in all sections and
heavy losses were anticipated. Fortunately the weather conditions during the summer were such
that infection began to check by the end of July, with the result that the epidemic did not extend IT 72 Department of Agriculture. 1922
beyond severe twig-blight, except in very susceptible varieties. The number of trees destroyed
by the infection was far less than was at first anticipated. An extensive campaign by the
Horticultural staff for a thorough clean-up is proving very effective.
The Imported Onion-maggot (Hylemyia antiqua).
Summiary of Control Experiment.—The control experiments during the season of 1921 were
conducted on the same field and acreage as during 1920. Tbe main experiment again consisted
of a tfap-crop of cull onions; these were planted in rows through! the field 100 feet apart and
spaced approximately 4 inches apart in the row and 2 to 3 inches deep. Seeding was completed
on April 4th and the trap-crop was planted on April 14th; the procedure being to omit one row
of seed every 100 feet, or approximately every eighty-fifth row, the trap-plants being set in the
vacant row7s. A block of approximately 1% acres of the field was set with twenty-five bait-cans,
as used during 1919 and 1920, for the purpose of observing their influence on general oviposition.
Oviposition.—The first eggs were found on trap-onions on May 16th, when seedling onions
were 1% inches high and the trap-onions were 6 to 8 inches high. Flies w7ere very numerous on
this date and heavy oviposition was expected. Trap-onions for regular observation were staked on
May 16th, on which date five trap-onions of an attractive type and five of an intermediate or
non-attractive type were staked in the baited area; five of each kind were similarly staked in the
non-baited area. Oviposition w7as first noted on May 16th, when eggs were found on trap-onions;
the first regular count being made on May ISth, when as high as 103 eggs were collected from
one trap-plant in the baited area and 261 eggs from one plant in the non-baited area. The highest
individual counts for the season were made on May 20th, when 354 eggs were collected from one
trap-plant in the baited area and 296 from one trap-plant In the non-baited area. The period of
maximum oviposition on trap-plants extended from May 18th to 27th, with a daily average of
5S.2 eggs from each of five trap-plants in the baited area and 85.45 from each of five trap-plants
in the non-baited area. It will be seen from the oviposition chart that the trap-plants were quite
effective to the day of their removal.
Oviposition on the Seedling Onions.—This was first noted on May 20th, when one egg was
found; from this date on light oviposition continued on the seedling onions until after the first
irrigation on June 4th and 5th; from this date the growth of the seedlings became more rapid
and oviposition increased, but after the removal of the trap-onions on June IGtb oviposition
became so heavy on the seedlings that considerable loss was feared.
As was noted during 1919 and 1920, selective oviposition again became apparent about June
20th, when practically all oviposition took place on onions previously injured by maggots and
recovering, or on plants of small and weak growth; the strong seedlings, forming the marketable
crop, were but slightly affected.
Percentage of " Attractive Type " of Trap-onions.—During the season of 1920 it wsm noted
that only 6 per cent, of trap-onions were of an attractive type; that is to say, only 6 per cent,
of the trap-plants had made a growth which was particularly attractive to the females for heavy
oviposition. The desirable type of growth is: Foliage spreading directly from or below the
surface of the soil and without stem; colour of foliage paler than normal and flaccid; in other
words, a weak, sickly growth. To determine the percentage of attractive plants this season, one
full row7 of trap-onions, 198 feet long and containing 375 plants, was carefully checked over and
found to contain: Attractive plants, 26; intermediate, 130; non-attractive, 219; total, 375; or
approximately 7 per cent, attractive, 32 per cent, intermediate, and 61 per cent, non-attractive,
making a total of 39 per cent, of the trap-plants on which oviposition w7as taking place.
As during 1919 and 1920, a secondary dipterous larva became very numerous from early
July, being found only in onion-bulbs which were being destroyed by the larva? of 'Hylemyia
antiqua; the adult of this larva has been determined by Dr. Aldrich, of the United States
National Museum, as Muscina assimilis. With reference to this species, Dr. Aldrich mentions
in his letter: The larvse of Muscina are found in various places where the scavenger diptera
breed, and they subsist largely by preying upon the other dipterous larva?. This is reported by
Keilin in " Parasitology," VIII., 1917, pages 405 and 415.
No parasites were reared from oxiion-maggot material collected before July, but material
collected after July 1st was found to be parasitized to the extent of 12% per cent, by a cynipid
parasite tentatively called Cothonaspis gillettei Wash.
Predaceous insects were very numerous and active from the middle of July until harvest
and were responsible for the destruction of large numbers of the eggs of the onion-maggot. .
12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 73
During August, although the adults of the onion-maggot were very numerous, with every
indication of heavy oviposition, it was difficult to find eggs that had not been destroyed.
The crop from this experimental field was handled under absolutely commercial conditions;
the crop from these 9 acres exceeded expectations; the stand in the spring was light and very
little thinning was done. An estimate of 12 to 14 tons per acre was considered high in early
June owing to the expectation of considerable loss after the removal of the trap-plants. The
actual crop marketed in the fall was 200 tons, or nearly 22 Vi tons per acre.
The infestation of Hylemyia, antiqua was considered to be the most severe yet recorded in
the Okanagan Valley. Adults were exceptionally numerous during the whole of the season,
appearing to be as plentiful during August as in the latter part of May.
General Summary.— (1.) Poison baits, although responsible for the death of a large number
of the adults, do not materially prevent oviposition.
(2.) The trap-onions will take the major portion of the oviposition of the first brood of
the imported onion-maggot during the most critical period of the growth of the seedling onions.
(3.) There is a partial third brood of the imported onion-maggot in the Okanagan Valley.
(4.) Thinning must be delayed until June 14th to 16th, at which time all trap-onions must
be removed from the field and destroyed. Thinning of the seedling onions should be completed
as soon after this date as possible, all infested seedlings being removed at this time and destroyed.
(5.) A certain amount of infestation cannot be avoided after the removal of the trap-plants;
this will, in the course of five or six days after thinning, be confined to plants previously injured
or of weak growth. These infested plants should not be removed from the field, as they are
acting as a trap-crop for the balance of the season.
(6.) From the middle of July the imported onion-maggot is efficiently controlled by preda-
ceous and parasitic insects.
(7.) The total cost in labour and material for this method of control does not exceed $1.50
per acre; there is a further loss of approximately 1.3 per cent, of crop-space through the use
of the trap-crop.
(8.) This experiment has been conducted over three years under strictly commercial conditions and with unvarying success; it can therefore be strongly recommended to onion-growers
under irrigated conditions.
Dusting Experiment for the Control of the Cabbage White Butterfly (Pieris rap^s).
During early June an unusually severe infestation of the cabbage-worm was observed in a
field adjoining that in which control experiments for the imported onion-root maggot were being
conducted. It was decided that an experiment be conducted to control this pest by dusting. The
grower undertook to provide the material and conduct the experiment under our supervision;
a hand dust-blower was loaned to the grower, who was instructed to use a dust mixture of
arsenate of lead and hydrated lime in the proportions of 1 lb. of arsenate of lead to 20 lb. of
hydrated lime; this quantity was applied to 3 acres of cabbages by a Chinaman and completed
in less than four hours. When the field was examined two days later no live worms could be
found. It was found to be necessary to make several applications before the crop was harvested
to give complete protection. '
A similar experiment was conducted at Armstrong during the late summer on % acre of
late cauliflowers, and although the adults were unusually numerous complete control of the
worm was effected.
Respectfully submitted.
M. H. Ruhmann,
Assistant Entomologist. IT 74 Department of Agriculture. 1922
REPORT OF CHIEF INSPECTOR OF IMPORTED FRUIT AND NURSERY  STOCK,
VANCOUVER.
W. H. Lyne.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith a report of the work carried out by the Inspector
of Imported and Exported Horticultural and Field Products and his staff of assistants during
the year ending December 31st, 1921.
Duties.
As usual, all fruit, vegetables, rice, corn, peas, and beans imported into the Province were
inspected at the several entry-ports where Quarantine Officers are stationed—i.e., Vancouver,
Victoria, Nanaimo, Prince Rupert, White Rock, Douglas, Pacific Highway, Abbotsford, Huntingdon, Similkameen, Osoyoos, Bridesville, Myncaster, Midway, Grand Forks, Cascade, Rossland,
Waneta, Kingsgate, Cranbrook, Newgate, Fernie, and Revelstoke. At Port Hill or Rykert, which
is a public highway entry from the United States into Creston District, Mr. Rykert, Immigration
and Customs Officer, looks out for fruit, etc., coining across the boundary in autos or other
conveyances. Similar work is carried out by the other quarantine officials where wagon-road
traffic is concerned.- Special attention is also given to railway passengers and baggage crossing
the United States boundary.
At Vancouver and Victoria a close watch is kept on all plant products from foreign ports,
freight, express, and passenger effects all being subject to inspection.
Shipments to Points East of British Columbia.
In co-operation with the Federal Division of Foreign Pest Suppression, all fruit and vegetable
products billed as far' east as Winnipeg are inspected and reported to the Division at Ottawa.
Similar products for points east of Winnipeg are simply reported to Ottawa and are inspected
by Federal officials in the Eastern sections. There is one exception to this rule in the event of
products arriving liable to potato-tuber moth or fruit-fly infection, in which case they would
be inspected at port of entry. If these particular shipments were infested they would not be
permitted to enter the country. Other pests are dealt with according to their economic importance.
A tabulated list of all imported fruit and vegetable products inspected at Vancouver and other
ports of entry is included with this report. The quantity inspected during the year 1920 and
1921 is given by way of comparison. Another tabulated list includes the products that were
condemned and shipped out of the country or destroyed.
Reason for Condemnation.—The imported apples and pears condemned was owing to their
being infested with codling-moth larva? and San Jose scale; peaches and plums infested with
peach-worm (Anarsia lineatella), scale (Aspidiotus), and brown-rot; cherries for brown-rot;
oranges for scale (Aspidiotus and Mytilaspis), brown and Penicillium rot; grapefruit for scale
(Aspidiotus and Mytilaspis) ; tomatoes, tomato or corn-ear worm (Heliothis armiger) ; potatoes
for Fnsarium and Fhytophthora rot;   w7alnuts, wormy, rancid, and unfit for consumption.
Imported Nursery Stock.
Complying with the Provincial and Dominion Quarantine Regulations, all imported nursery
stock, trees, shrubs, and plants entering British Columbia, or imported into other parts of Canada
by way of this Province, were inspected at the Vancouver Inspection and Fumigation Station.
All outdoor deciduous trees and shrubs subject to fumigation were treated accordingly. The
tabulated list attached to this report gives the quantity of nursery stock imported and also that
condemned.
Reason for Condemnation,—The reason for condemnation was San Jose scale (Aspidiotus
pernieiosus), European scale (Aspidiotus ostreaformis), scale (Diaspis, Mytilaspis, Chionaspis,
and Lecanium), affecting both fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs.
Many apple-trees were condemned owing to their roots being infested with w7oolly aphis
(Eriosoma lanigcra). Pear-trees were also condemned for another species of woolly aphis which
seems to have appeared in the AVest during recent years. Its attack on roots of yovmg pear-trees
is almost confined to the destruction of the tender fibrous rootlets, to the extent of sometimes
Rilling the tree. .
12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 75
Peach, apricot, plum, and prune trees were condemned for the peach-root borer (Sanninoidea
exitiosa), root-gall, and scale-insects. A number of grape-vines from the United States were
condemned for reason of their roots being infested w7ith Phylloxera devastatrix. Blackberry and
raspberry canes were condemned for root-gall and root-borer (Bembecia marginata).
Several nests of brown-tail moth were found on ornamental shrubs from France. Hundreds
of the young larvse were alive and ready to establish themselves in British Columbia. One
egg-mass of the gipsy-moth was discovered on a Castanea shrub, also from France. Two w7eeks
later a large colony of larva? had hatched from these eggs, which had been, safely imprisoned
in a breeding-jar.
Certain species of American sweet chestnut were refused entry owing to chestnut-bark
disease embargo.
Gooseberry and currant stock from Europe, Eastern Canada, and Eastern United States was
also refused entry owing to white-pine blister-rust quarantine, for which all five-leaf pine-trees
were included in the embargo.
Nursery Stock from all Parts of the World.
Several car-loads of ornamental trees and shrubs were imported from Holland, Belgium, and
France; also a considerable number of rose-trees, rose-bushes, and mixed varieties of shrubs
from England, Ireland, and Scotland. Several shipments of standard fruit-trees, shrubs, and
vines arrived from the United States. A large shipment of standard fruit-trees from Japan made
up the second instalment grown under contract from scions exported from British Columbia to
Japan. Such procedure does not appear to be good policy, nor is it necessary. There is no good
reason why such stock should not be propagated in our own Province.
It was necessary to condemn a considerable number of the trees for Aspidiotus and Diaspis
scale-insects. There were the usual shipments of ornamental shrubs from Japan, some of which
it was necessary to condemn for scale-insects-and root-borers. The imported ornamental bulbs
recorded in tbe tabulated list were mostly from Holland, Belgium, and France, though many came
from Japan and some from China.
Exported Nursery Stock.
The following nursery stock and native shrubs were exported during the year, for which
export certificates were issued: To the United States, 10 native shrubs, 7,000 apricot-trees, and
3 rhododendron; to England, 4 native conifer, cedar and hemlock; to China, 32 native shrubs
and 2 grape-vines; to Japan, 258 native shrubs, 11 native plants, 3 rose-bushes, 3 apple-trees,
2 pear-trees, 2 cherry-trees, aud 5 peach-trees.
Although the amount of stock exported is very small, the apricot-trees propagated by the
British Columbia Nursery Company and exported to the United States deserves a complimentary
remark. This particular stock was acknowledged by the nurserymen to whom it was shipped
as being equal to any they had seen. '
Storage Products.
Imported rice, maize, beans, peas, peanuts, and walnuts all underwent careful inspection
for moth, beetle, or weevil, resulting in a considerable quantity being fumigated in order to
destroy such pests.
There has been considerable improvement in the imported storage products during the last
few years. This indicates that a great deal more care is being taken by shippers and is being
insisted upon by consignees, who realize that the pests infesting such products soon rob them
of all profit.
Quarantine Stations visited.
Your Inspector visited all quarantine stations with the exception of Prince Rupert. The
Quarantine Officers in charge w7ere'questioned regarding details of their duties and additional
instructions were given them when necessary.
Resignations and Appointments.
W. H. Whimster, Quarantine Officer at Fernie, B.C., during the last eighteen years, resigned
on November 30th owing to advanced age.   Mr. Whimster was also Police Magistrate during his
service as Fruit Quarantine Officer.    He was relieved by Mr. KaStner, whom your Inspector
appointed to take Mr. Whimster's place. Mr. Edgar was also appointed to act as Mr. Kastner's assistant in order to provide for
occasions when Mr. Kastner's other duties as Deputy Sheriff prevented him attending to the
inspection of imported fruit, etc.
Potato Inspection.
Very few potatoes were imported during the year, amounting to only 203 tons, as compared
to 9,812 tons the previous year. Shipments were mostly from the Western United States, some
30 tons being special new seed. There were also small shipments from China and Japan.
Potatoes grown within the Province very easily supplied the demand for home consumption,
with some to spare for export.
Potatoes inspected for Export.
During the months of March, April, and May the following amounts of the 1920 crop carried
over the winter were inspected and exported: To the United States, 361 tons 240 lb.; Manila,
Philippine Islands, 207 tons 800 lb.; Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, 106 tons 500 lb.; Alaska, 2 tons
1,400 lb.;  total, 677 tons 940 lb.
Commencing with the month of August and continuing to the end of December, the following
amount of 1921 crop was inspected and exported: To Canadian points east of Rockies, 289 tons
800 lb.; United States, 139 tons 508 lb.; Manila, 1,226 tons; Honolulu, 200 tons 100 lb.; China,
100 lb.;   total 1,854 tons 1,508 lb.
Total potatoes exported during the year 1921, 2,532 tons 448 lb.
Potatoes for Home Consumption.
All potatoes sold for home consumption were inspected when requested by the shipper or
consignee. Such requests were-usually made in order to decide whether the potatoes qualified
according to contract. As the result of experience gained in connection with several commercial
transactions, it is evident considerable improvement could be made by amending the Dominion
No. 2 grade, and possibly adding a third.
No. 2 grade differs so slightly from the No. 1 grade that it is of very little use in establishing
market values. Under the circumstances, if a car of potatoes failed by a very small margin
to qualify as a No. 1 grade, it could not qualify as a No. 2 and thus command a recognized
market value.
It is not advisable to increase the allowance for fungus or bacterial rot, but more margin
might be allowed regarding mechanical defect, for which so many of the shipments were
disqualified.
A third grade would be of considerable service, to be known as sorted culls or trimmings.
Such a grade would establish a market value for partly rotted potatoes discarded from the
1 and 2 grades, and from which the rot or other serious defects had been trimmed.
Following are the quantities of potatoes inspected for home consumption: Lytton, Asheroft,
and Kamloops, 50 cars; Lillooet, 58 cars; Lower Mainland, 15 cars. Estimated amount of
potatoes in storage in Vancouver on December 31st, 1921, 2,424 tons.
Apple Exportation.
In compliance with regulations governing apples imported into New Zealand, your Inspector
certified the necessary forms covering 20,450 boxes of apples exported to that country from the
Okanagan.
No Australian Shipments.
Owing to the Australian Government placing an embargo on trees and fruit capable of
carrying fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorus) from any country where such disease was prevalent,
there were no apples exported from this Province to Australia.
Apples to England and United States.
Shipments of apples to Eastern Canada, England, and United States were inspected and
recorded by the Dominion Box-marks and Grades officials in co-operation with our Provincial
District Horticulturist stationed in the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 77
" Eggs Marks Act."
Since your Inspector was authorized to assist in enforcing the Provincial " Eggs Marks Act,"
II. Gutteridge and A. Irving, belonging to the staff of your Inspector, were appointed Eggs Marks
Inspectors. Besides notifying merchants and egg-dealers regarding the Act, a special effort has
been made to enforce the Act, especially as regards Chinese eggs.
In spite of all the large shipments of Oriental eggs by way of Arancouver going through to
Eastern Canada, United States, and Europe, a few enterprising jobbers shipped some back to
Vancouver. These they endeavoured to sell to local bakeries, who were immediately notified
by your Inspectors regarding the " Eggs Marks Act."
The procedure of your Inspectors caused practically all the bakeries to refuse any contracts
with the Chinese-egg jobbers. Some of the jobbers referred to are still trying to induce the
bakeries to use the Chinese eggs, but are unloading their stock very slowly. Your Inspectors
have given fair warning that an example will be made of any person or firm they can prove
guilty of wilfully disregarding the " Eggs Marks Act."
Office Routine.
At the headquarters office of your Inspector, situated in the Court-house, Vancouver, a record
is made of all inspection-work coming under his jurisdiction.
The monthly reports from each of the several quarantine stations are submitted and include
all inspection fees collected. These after being recorded are forwarded to the Department of
Agriculture at Victoria, as are also the monthly report and inspection fees of the Port of
A'ancouver.
The office dispenses information relating to insect pests, plant-diseases, horticultural and
agricultural practice, both by interview and the departmental bulletins. Persons requesting
bulletins mailed to them are informed they must apply to the Department of Agriculture at
Victoria.
All correspondence is promptly attended to, the number of incoming letters for the year
amounting to 1,036 and outgoing 1,290. Several hundred bulletins were distributed to those who
cared to come and get them.
Considerable market information is alw7ays on hand. • During publication of Markets Bulletin
by British Columbia Markets Commissioner at Calgary, the local market items are sent to the
editor each week.
This office is also in co-operation with the Dominion Bureau of Foreign Pest Suppression,
Ottawa, and the Western Plant Quarantine Board of the Western United States, Mexico,
Hawaiian Islands, and British Columbia.
The conference of the Western Plant Quarantine Board held at A'ictoria last June proved
very useful by way of enabling us to get a better view of the several quarantine regulations
in operation. This particular Board is composed of Quarantine Officers representing the Western
United States, Northern Mexico, Hawaiian Islands, and British Columbia.
White-pine Blister-rust Conference.
Your Inspector, in company with J. W. Eastham, attended the White-pine Blister-rust
Conference at Portland, an account of which is included in Mr. Eastham's report.
Supplementary Reports.
The supplementary reports by H. Gutteridge and A. Irving, special Potato and Eggs Marks
Inspectors on the staff of your Inspector, are attached to this report.
District Fieldmen assisting.
The co-operation of the district men on the Horticultural staff by assisting in the inspection
of potatoes for export from the Okanagan District was very much appreciated by your Inspector.
By such an arrangement the Department avoided considerable expense. Six cars containing
potatoes for export to Alberta, amounting to about 90 tons, were inspected and passed in the
Okanagan District between October and December 31st. There were several more prospective
shipments of the 1921 crop to follow.
.   Respectfully submitted. W. H. Lyne,
Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock. IT 78
Department of Agriculture.
1922
REPORT OF ASSISTANT POTATO INSPECTOR, A'ANCOUA'ER.
H. Gutteridge.
W. H. Lyne, Esq.,
Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stocky Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—During the early, part of the year the writer was engaged in potato-inspection work,
consisting principally of car, pit, and storage stocks, together with the " Eggs Marks Act"
enforcement.
Owing to the unusually w7et fall of 1920, growers of the Lower Mainland were unable to dig
and market their potato-crop for six weeks later than usual.
At the time of these unfortunate circumstances the wholesale dealers imported 423 cars
from the United States, practically sufficient to supply the needs of the local market until the
new crop came in. This unexpected condition, together with an indifferent export market, left
large quantities of potatoes in the hands of the growers unsold.
Part of April was given to procuring statistics regarding Oriental owners and lessees of
land in the following districts:   Savona, Asheroft, Lillooet, Lytton, Hope, and Ruby Creek.
The greater part of the summer months was given to the enforcement of the " Eggs Marks
Act." A visit to the different bakeries disclosed the fact that Chinese frozen eggs were being
used in minor quantities without proper placards and signs being displayed in accordance with
the requirements of the Act. Offenders were duly warned of the penalties provided in the Act
and agreed to discontinue the use of the Chinese product. This they are now doing, as confirmed
by frequent visits of the Inspectors.
The latter part of the year the writer was engaged in potato-inspection work in A'ancouver
and the Lower Mainland. Considerable time was given to the Lillooet District, where the potato-
crop was found to be much below normal in quality and yield. It was found that buyers insisted
on No. 1 grade being put up in accordance with the Federal grading law, a standard which few
growers possessed. This necessitated culling to the extent of 30 to 40 per cent., leaving an
excessive amount of unmarketable stock on their hands. This condition also applies to Asheroft
and Kamloops.
It is the opinion of the writer that the growers are in need of a Provincial Grading Act of
their ow7n, framed by a wider margin of difference between Nos. 1 and 2 grades than the present
Federal Act provides, which might better meet the above conditions by establishing a market
value for each grade.
Your Inspector notes with satisfaction the increased interest taken in potato-growing by tbe
Indians on the different reserves, having the past season produced approximately twelve car-loads
and intending to increase their acreage in the future. They will greatly appreciate any expert
assistance that will aid them in their work.
Respectfully submitted.
H. Gutteridge,
Assistant Potato Inspector.
REPORT OF ASSISTANT POTATO INSPECTOR, A'ANCOUVER.
A. Irving.
W. H, Lyne, Esq.,
Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report herewith as Assistant Potato Inspector and Inspector under the " Eggs
Marks Act."
Potatoes.
Owing to unfavourable market conditions and later in the season the operation of the
United States Emergency Tariff, exports of the 1920 crop during the earlier part of the year
were much lighter than usual; consequently inspections were considerably below the average.
Pit and car inspections were made at various points throughout the Lower Mainland and also
car and warehouse inspections in A'ancouver.
A new feature iu potato exports w7as the opening of a market for Lower Mainland stock in
the Philippine Islands. Such shipments were inspected and went forward at monthly intervals
throughout the greater part of the year, each shipment consisting of from 2,000 to 5,000 100-lb. 12 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
IT 79
crates. Reports from Manila were to the effect that this stock was quite satisfactory, and the
indications are for a continuance of this movement for a similar period during the coming year.
Shipments to these islands are not affected by the operation of the United States Emergency
Tariff.
In the month of August your Assistant Inspector visited the Asheroft and Kamloops Districts
for the purpose of inspecting export shipments of early stock and noting crop conditions. During
the month of October and until November 15th inspections were made at points between Lytton
and Chase, inclusive. It is an increasing practice among the buyers to contract with growers
subject to Government inspection f.o.b. loading-point, and as a consequence many inspections
were made in this service.
It was noted that rejections after the cars were loaded incurred much extra labour on the
part of the grow'ers, as such ears were usually unloaded and picked over. In order that this
condition should be reduced to a minimum it was deemed advisable to carry the inspections
back to the fields and pits, demonstrating there as to what could be shipped and what should
be culled or otherwise dealt with. Every effort was made to prevent the loading of stock that
would be rejected.
During the course of this work it was noted that many of the buyers contracted for stock
which would be up to the requirements of No. 1 Dominion grade. Arery few of the growers had
stock which could be brought up to these requirements without much sacrifice and painstaking
labour. It seems to be generally understood, how7ever, that as long as the stock is reasonably
well graded no insistence will be made on the grading being exactly up to these requirements.
It has, however, been noted that when the market weakens between the time of contracting
and delivery there is a disposition on the part of some buyers to insist upon obtaining stock
which grades up to the letter of the contract, or, as an alternative, obtaining a price reduction
or cancellation of contract. The grower's position is indefensible in this matter as the contract
is against him.
The remedy for this condition would appear to be in the hands of the grower, but unfortunately this is not so. With the exception of No. 2, a grade which only differs from No. 1 in
a very slight detail, there is no other grade but No. 1 authoritatively defined. Buyers do not
feel disposed to place contracts which do not stipulate some grade, as such a contract would
perhaps leave them open to acceptance of potatoes of very inferior quality. The remedy would
appear to be the establishment of grades with a. sufficient range to cover the different qualities
a grower may be able to market. Such grades would enable him to contract for just that grade
he could deliver.
During the latter part of November and the month of December potato inspections were
carried out in Vancouver. Late blight was found to be very prevalent in the Lower Mainland
crop and very seldom was a lot inspected which could be passed without being culled over for
this disease.
Eggs Marks Inspections.
Inspections under the provisions of the " Eggs Marks Act" were carried out throughout the
year, special attention being given to the use of frozen canned Chinese eggs and egg products
by the bakeries. A systematic campaign was undertaken, all known bakers' establishments being
visited. The proprietors were provided with copies of the " Eggs Marks Act " and informed that
the provisions would be strictly enforced. The result of this campaign was very gratifying.
The use of the Chinese products was discontinued forthwith, occasionally at some loss to bakers
who had contracted for further deliveries. Visits to the bakers' establishments were continued
throughout the year as other duties would permit.
Wholesalers, importers, and retailers were also given attention and warned as to requirements of the Act as it affected them. Copies of the Act were freely distributed to those whom
it would concern. Slackness in the observation of the requirements was checked whenever found.
Owing to the numerous changes in management of the smaller retail businesses it was found
necessary to do much policing of such establishments, as very often the new owners or managers
came from beyond the Province and had no knowledge of the " Eggs Marks Act."
In following out inspections some difficulty was encountered owing to the restricted nature of
the powers given Inspectors. As the Act oniy empowers Inspectors to visit premises where eggs
are sold or offered for sale, such premises as where eggs were used (as in bakeries), stored, or
processed were beyond the legitimate field of visit, and instances arose when entry was disputed U 80
Department of Agriculture.
1922
and in one instance denied.    It must be apparent that only with the greatest difficulty can the
Act be adequately enforced when entry to such premises is beyond the powers of Inspectors.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Irving,
•.       , Assistant Potato Inspector.
REPORT OF PRAIRIE MARKETS COMMISSIONER, CALGARY.
J. A. Grant.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report for the year 1921.
Early in January last your Markets Commissioner attended a conference of the Western
jobbers at Winnipeg, and addressed them, calling attention to the great increase of small-fruit
acreage which would largely be in bearing in June, especially strawberries, also to the condition
of the jam-manufacturing industry, who were holding over large unsold stocks that were put up
in a time of extremely high prices, which in order to save themselves would have to be sold before
further manufacturing could be done. The need for an increased distribution of raw fruit and
educating housewives to restock with home-made jam, with berries and sugar at a low price,
also the need to stock up largely with jam-sealers (that were reported short), was emphasized
and notes taken by the Secretary to provide this supply. Immediately after the annual meeting
of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association was attended at Nelson, and the financial
condition of the Prairies and elsewhere pointed out; the need for more united market quoting
from British Columbia to prevent internal competition and the quick recovery of the market if
this was done was featured. Addresses along the line of preparing the growers for reduced
prices and the need of centralizing the organizations in an effort to try to prevent selling under
the cost of production were delivered_ at Saanich, Hatzic, Salmon Arm, Okanagan A'alley points,
and in the Kootenay. Just before returning to the Calgary headquarters all important Prairie
points were visited and the situation fully discussed with the jobbers, many of whom were
apprehensive of the results of centralized shipping of perishables, which was fast becoming
apparent that this method of marketing would be tried out. It was known that in raspberry
shipping one central selling agency would control, and in strawberry shipping all but one
organization would sell the same way.
Market Review of 1921.
The season opened with shipments of Hatzic rhubarb, which came forward in excellent
condition in the new aerated crate. When ample supply could be obtained from British Columbia
the Walla Walla supply was stopped. We are pleased to note that Hatzic has increased their
acreage of rhubarb, and very soon we well look upon the Prairie rhubarb trade as ours in our
season.    Prices realized were good and no complaints, excepting shortage of supply, w7ere made.
Strawberries.
t
Very few American strawberries were imported ahead of the British Columbia season, as
the trade were well aware that the market would be fully taken care of when our berries
commenced to roll. Fine weather favoured Hood River growers; their strawberries came on
the Prairie market just before the Island and Lower Mainland berries, and the few cars that
came in were good; this showed a marked contrast to the first three cars from British Columbia,
which were picked wet and far too green. AVe immediately wired the condition of arrival to
those in position to correct the mistake, after which berries began to arrive showing good pack
and colour. Owing to continuous wet weather at shipping-point some mould was evident. AVhen
berries from Vancouver Island arrived they were expected to show exceptional quality, colour,
and pack, and did not disappoint in this regard, but mould was in evidence sufficient to make
jobbers hesitate to handle them for out-of-town shipment.
Precooled Magoon and Paxton berries from Hatzic, Mission, and Haney began to arrive in
better condition than the uncooled Island berries. Wet weather kept up during the whole strawberry-picking time in A'ancouver Island and Lower Mainland.   The Wynndel, Creston, and Salmon 12 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
IT 81
Arm growers were more fortunate; Wynndel shipped excellent dry-picked berries; the sale of
so many understandard berries hurt their market. The following average prices for the season
will show the exact condition of arrival as they were sold on the value showing at destination:—
Wynndel.
Haney-
Hammond.
Hatzic-
Mission.
Gordon Head-
Keating.
Winnipeg, per crate
Regina, per crate .
Calgary,   per  crate
$2 96%
3 00
3 28
$2 '72%
3 0-8
3 00
$2 31%
2  T2
2 94%
$2 30%
2 41%
2 96
The table shows that the short haul netted most.
None of the berries were sold on a f.o.b. shipping-point basis; all were sold from car by
the brokers, and independent jobbers as well as those belonging to the car-sharing pool were
supplied. Some 139% refrigerator-car lots were shipped, not including the amount forwarded
L.C.L. •
Immediately on the completion of the main shipping season a visit was made to the Terrace
District on the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. W. H. Robertson, Provincial Horticulturist,
A'ictoria, and R. G. L. Clarke, Chief Dominion Inspector, A'ancouver, were met at that point,
and after visiting the growers at Remo, Kitsumgallum, and Terrace a meeting was held and
the growers addressed in field-work, packing, marking, and marketing. This is a promising young
district, which grows berries (Clark's Seedling and Magoon variety) on the hill system. Their
shipping season does not start until all other points are finished. When they can obtain satisfactory crates and better shipping facilities they will have an assured Prairies market; at present
their market is chiefly found at Prince Rupert, Prince George, and Edmonton.
Raspberries.
During the Markets Commissioner's visit to Terrace raspberries from Lower Mainland
commenced to roll heavy to L.C.L. and some car-lots. The weather was ideal and quality
excellent. Owing to the disappointing prices made by strawberries both in British Columbia
and Prairie points, many who had signed up with the association broke away and consigned
to wholesale and retail merchants in Calgary; the result was an immediate break in price.
AVhen this news was wired to Victoria your Markets Commissioner sent a wire to Calgary
to feature the debacle in the bulletin and call for immediate returns on these shipments; the
prices realized were also printed. AVhen growers got their returns most of them got behind
their organization and the market steadied; the few that continued to consign were responsible
for keeping the price low. The demand was good, the berries excellent, and the first test of
centralized selling was made; the result was that Prairie dealers reported the 1921 raspberry
deal the best they had ever seen in any line of fruit marketing; they all got supplied; all
bought at same price; it was sufficiently low to please the consumer, as well as to return the
shipper a trifle over the cost of production. Had those berries been marketed otherwise, all but
the consumer would have lost money, besides overworking express company employees in an
effort to make transfers at junctional distributing-points, with resultant loss.
In all, seventy-four cars of raspberries were shipped, and with the exception of slight mould
at end of the season, due to overripeness, no loss was reported. The following average prices
show a reversal of strawberry prices, inasmuch as the distant shipments netted most:—
Pacific British  Columbia
Berry-growers. Berry-growers.
Winnipeg, per crate       S3 09% $3 34
Regina, per crate       3 30 3 05
Calgary, per crate       3 29% 3 237/M
A car shipment went to Chicago, which was delayed in transit and did not net as much as
if it had arrived when that market was bare; the price was satisfactory. If this car had
shallow-pint crates in it and could have entered Milwaukee, a better price could have been
secured. The Canadian raspberry-crate contains 24 hallocks of % quarts, net weight 15 lb.;
the standard United States crate contains 24 hallocks (shallow pints), net weight 18 lb. Any
hallock not conforming to American standard must be marked " short." This little difference in
7 U 82
Department of Agriculture.
1922
package practically means our being shut out of the American market, and we strongly urge a
change to conform with the United States package; at least, to change the law to permit of
experiments being made with the shallow-pint hallock.
Loganberries.
For some years past a few shipments of this berry have been made L.C.L. from the Lower
Mainland; the result was in general unsatisfactory owing to moulding in transit. Salmon Arm
had better results, but their berry does not grow to the size and retains an unsightly hull when
picked that dealers objected to. This season a trial was made in shipping them in with raspberries in precooled cars under refrigeration in transit; these arrived in perfect condition and
the large clean berries made quite an impression wherever they w7ere offered for sale. AVinnipeg
had not seen them before, as they were an experiment; there the demand was not as great as
in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Prices realized for the loganberries were equal to those obtained
for raspberries; in some cases they sold at 25 cents per crate over raspberries. Only about
one-tenth of the demand was supplied, as the shippers were awaiting assurance that they wTould
carry*to their destination before risking heavy shipments. Next year the demand for raw
loganberries will increase; we do not think that the demand will ever reach to the proportion
that strawberries and raspberries has reached. Shipments in car-lots were made from Washington to United States points as far as Chicago and very satisfactory prices obtained. Loganberries
should be shipped in shallow hallocks, the same as  raspberries and blackberries.
Gooseberries.
Gooseberries were more of a drag on the market than in any former year. Grow'ers should
reduce their acreage; there is little hope for them making cost of production for some years
at least.
Blackberries.
Blackberries were shipped in car-lots for the first time and arrived in fine condition; prices
were fully up to expectation and the supply under the centralized distribution was made to
conform to the demand. Without organized assembling, precooling, and distribution this fruit
would have been at the mercy of rival jobbers; car shipments would have been impossible.
A hazel discolouring appeared on the Everbearing variety which depreciated their selling chances
considerably.
Black and Red Currants.
Black currants arrived in excess of the demand; many were undersized and far from
attractive. Chilliwack black currants were usually large and superior to those from up-country
points. Red currants also slightly exceeded the demand. If these berries were confined to the
large-sized varieties the demand for them would increase. They arrived in deep and shallow
pints, usually poorly filled; some came in 4-lb. baskets. We recommend the deep-pint strawberry-
hallock for all currants.
Cherries.
The Early Richmond and Governor Wood cherries are disappearing from the Prairie market.
The first car-lot of British Columbia cherries arrived in Calgary on July Sth; they were largely
Black Tartarians and Royal Annes, with some underripe Bings. The black cherry is the favourite here, Bings and Lamberts preferred. Tartarian, Deacon, and Royal Anne also find favour.
Cherry prices remained firm during their season. Forty-four cars rolled to the Prairies from the
Okanagan A'alley alone. Several cars were rolled to Minneapolis and other United States points;
they cleaned up with satisfactory prices. The strawberry-crate for fine-quality cherries finds
favour in Winnipeg, while the 4-basket crate is popular in Calgary. Cherries were better graded
this year and averaged equal to any imported stuff.
Apricots.
British Columbia apricots were small in size and many complaints were made about them.
A large-sized apricot is demanded; the Tilson variety was the only one to give satisfaction;
most of the arrivals were too small to pack. Considerable improvement is needed in apricots;
the*4-lb. basket is most popular, but when of good size the peach-box is satisfactory. Low7 prices
prevailed for apricots this year. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 83
Prunes and Plums.
These fruits were imported in bulk just ahead of the British Columbia supply; they came
from California, Oregon, and Washington. The varieties are the finest; size and pack exceptionally good, especially the plums; the package used was the 4-basket crate, excepting the
Italian prunes, which came on the market in 16-lb. (suit-case) lugs. When British Columbia
plums are ready the public have usually been satisfied, and sales of Pond's Seedling, Black
Diamond, Peach plums, and such-like, do not bring satisfactory prices. We noticed that plums
sold at very low prices this year. Italian prunes were forced on the Prairie market from United
States points at prices far below7 their average price at home; this was done in an effort to
clean up what seemed to be an overproduction or inability to place their usual contracts with
dehydrating-factories. The size of the bulk of the British Columbia prunes shipped were under
the average size from AA'ashington; an effort should be made to increase the size. Many prunes
were lost in transit by pilfering and being put in poorly made lugs; the size of the prunes will
have to be increased or the slats placed closer.
Apples.
Owing to the early season the market for apples, was dull at the start. The early varieties
arrived on the market in advance of the harvest demand, and this supply, usually provided by
early varieties, was filled by fall varieties.
It was evident to British Columbia shippers that the Prairie demand would fall short of
the usual, and outside markets were tried, especially in the Eastern States and New .York City.
Early shipments to these points were sold at higher prices than ruled in Canada. The. British
market also opened well and many good sales were made, but as the season advanced both the
British and United States markets slumped, due to oversupply.
After issuing the last bulletin for the season an extended visit was made to all distributing-
points where British Columbia apples were sold. Regina, Winnipeg, Minneapolis, Chicago,
Toronto, Hamilton, Buffalo, and New York were visited; Saskatoon and Edmonton were taken
in on the return trip. A'ery few apples were found in storage at any Canadian point; a few cars
w7ere inspected in Chicago and found in good condition; Toronto had a few cars stored, three
of which showed "water-core" to a considerable extent, wdiich were all of the Jonathan variety;
New7 York and Jersey City had about 300 ears in storage, of which about 100 cars were Jonathans
and Macks ; a few Macks w7ere noticed shrivelled owing to early picking and a trace of " Jonathan
scald " was noticed in the Jonathans; practically all the New7 York offerings from British Columbia were in good condition. The trade complained of shortage in w7eight in the boxes, due to
irregular sizing of the apples; some complained of small size and other minor matters. All
jobbers interviewed, as well as the brokers, think that British Columbia apples will have a
permanent place on the New York market. About 800 cars were shipped to New York from
British Columbia this year and over 200 cars for Chicago and Minneapolis distribution. Western-
grown apples of large size and perfect colour w7ere exhibited for sale in all Eastern cities; it
would appear by comparison w7ith Eastern-produced apples that a permanent demand for Western
apples will be confined mostly to large, well-coloured, fancy apples, excepting in years of a short
Eastern crop. The Toronto District bought over 200 cars of British Columbia apples this year;
the trade comments there were favourable, all agreeing that their future demand would increase.
Potatoes.
The market for British Columbia potatoes on the Prairies in 1921 was confined to early
potatoes and select Interior stock; apart from these there is little chance of finding an outlet
for British Columbia potatoes on the Prairies in normal years. The Prairie Provinces have
increased their acreage and they are organizing to improve their grades. In November it was
estimated that 1,800 cars of potatoes were held in the three Provinces for export; prices are
low, with no movement, although a shortage of the general crop in Eastern Canada and the
United States is known to exist. The two varieties principally grown in the Prairies are Early
Ohio and Irish Cobbler, with Wee McGregor and Gold Coin being tried out. We would advise
growing Netted Gems for the special Prairie trade at Interior points; this variety is popular
and cannot be grown successfully on the Prairies.
Certified Seed.—The Prairie market will provide some outlet for certified seed grown in
British Columbia.    During 1921 this office made some inquiries to this end and expect results U 84
Department of Agriculture.
1922
will follow. The lack of shipments from a central selling agency was again responsible for
Irregular supply and unsatisfactory prices for early potatoes at Prairie points. We cannot see
any chance to secure full market prices for early potatoes until British Columbia growers link
up their local associations; considerable work was done last spring to this end and prospects
point to carrying it into effect this year.
Vegetables.
There was no change in the vegetable market in 1921 that was different from that of 1920,
excepting onions, which were a short crop with a reduced acreage; the supply was less than
the demand and prices were high. Samples of sweet potatoes grown in Peaehland were forwarded to Calgary and proved fully equal to imported yams; the Prairie market could take
many cars of these each season.
Dumping.
For the first time in five years fruit has been dumped on the Prairie market. Italian prunes
and Bartlett pears were being cut in price; every time the British Columbia shippers reduced
prices to meet Washington's cut another cut would be made until they were offered at prices
far under the cost of production. Their agents stationed in Calgary were soliciting business,
evidently prepared to sell under anything British Columbia could offer. During a brief visit to
ATernon this matter was brought to the notice of the Executive of the British Columbia Fruitgrowers' Association and the Traffic and Credit Association; a recommendation to have the
dumping clause enforced was passed next day at a British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association
Executive meeting in Kamloops. This act has been effective in securing a market for British
Columbia pears, peaches, and apples in Canada.
Pack and Packing.
The need for uniform standards in packages and packing was again apparent. The box
apples meeting competition with Western States should have the same definition of grades.
Without exception all dealers interviewed on this matter agreed that the British Columbia
box-marks should be the same as adopted in Washington and the standard lived up to. The
barrel and box standards should be different, as they do not compete. The Okanagan pack has
reached a point where little more can be expected from it. We noticed no improvement on it
this year; their chief defects when compared with the best Washington packs were sizing and
colour, which goes to show that better work is needed in selection by packers, stricter inspection
in the packing-houses, and less rush on the part of piece-work packers. The Kootenay Lakes,
Grand Forks, Arrow Lakes, and Creston improved their pack remarkably, leaving little, if any,
between their average pack and the pack of tbe older organizations. One noticeable feature of
all British Columbia tree-fruits was the lack of size, especially in cherries, apricots, plums,
prunes, crab-apples, and peaches, which shows a need for better fertilizing and thinning in the
orchards.
Weight Contents of Package.
The trade is demanding a minimum weight content on packages of fruit similar to those
coming from Oregon packing-houses; this is more needed in berries, plums, peaches, apricots,
and cherries than in apples, although it would be welcome on all packages containing fruit.
British Columbia shippers are behind their Western States competitors in filling their fruit-
containers to capacity. We recommend a minimum weight standard for all fruit-packages; if
this is not adopted, neither the shipper nor the consumer knows what they are getting; without
a weight standard no set price can be made.
Crates and Boxes.
One of the things that your Markets Commissioner had his attention drawn to in New York
was the well-made boxes that a California shipper packed his apples and pears in. There is
evidence of rush-work in most of our packages on exhibition, and this has a bad effect at the
selling end.
Another matter noticed was that many shippers did not paper the sides of their apple-boxes,
and when placed alongside of those having paper they showed to a disadvantage. Attractive
labels on the boxes were missing in some cases, giving a cheap appearance to the pack. We
noticed some prunes sent in lugs to Winnipeg that were so small that many of them rolled out 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 85
between the slats. Many of the berry-crates were well made, the only exception being crates
sent to distant points in the " knock down " and made up at shipping-point; in such cases both
hallock and crate were usually lopsided.
Jam and Pulp.
As previously pointed out, the jam-manufacturers did not buy in 1921. No price was
established by the growers and it is doubtful if any could have been named. The buyers named
the price at 7 cents on a deferred-payment plan for jam-berries on a very limited demand.
The associated organizations pulped their surplus or made it into jam. Indications point to
prices being realized to surpass the price obtained from the manufacturer, and increased demand
is evident for jam at time of writing, especially from Eastern United States. In April your
Markets Commissioner wrote J. Forsyth Smith, Canadian Trade Commissioner, Liverpool, asking
him to sound the British market for frozen pulp; many replies were received, some asking for
samples. The great difficulty appears to be the want of cold storage at the British end; most
of the applicants preferred unfrozen pulp. This trade is being investigated and one or more
orders have been placed for our pulp. Exchange uncertainty and a firm market at home may
prevent developments this year; however, the near future will bring this demand to the sup-
plying-point. Several Eastern manufacturers have expressed themselves of the opinion that
Western-grown berries are firmer and better for jam-making than Eastern-grown berries; some
are now investigating the supplies available preliminary to establishing in British Columbia.
The 1922 outlook for contracts for jam-making Is about normal; the stock carried over from
1920 is exhausted, and it remains for the growers to decide whether they will act together and
establish a price or allow the same conditions to prevail that governed last year's operations.
Advertising.
Some well-placed advertising was carried out by the British Columbia Berry-growers'
Association, with the assistance of the Provincial Government; they called attention to the
exceptional low prices of sugar and berries and gave advance notice of the start and duration
of each berry season. Other advertising was done by the Traffic and Credit Association, assisted
by the Western jobbers, which followed similar lines. A very effective advertisement was placed
in moving-picture shows throughout the Prairies by the Dominion Government, showing the
importance of the apple industry in Ontario; similar films, it is expected, will be available
next year of the British Columbia fruit-growing industry.
The Markets Bulletin.
The first bulletin was issued on June 18th and foreshadowed the season's crop outlook.
During the shipping season we featured prices prevailing on all markets supplied from British
Columbia; wholesale and retail prices were quoted in the principal cities. Competitive f .o.b.
shipping-point prices quoted against our prices were also given, as well as f.o.b. shipping-point
prices quoted at principal British Columbia points; small organizations and individual shippers
found this a guide for their quotations. The circulation is now over 3,000 weekly. The last
issue was sent out on November 5th, making twenty-one bulletins for the season.
DlRECT-TO-THE-CoNSUMER  TRADE.
We notice with regret that large concerns have entered this business with extremely
unsatisfactory results. Cash in advance was sent by customers; many of their orders are still
unfilled and much of the fruit forwarded was unfit for Prairie shipments, arriving in decayed
and mouldy condition. Substituting fruit for that ordered was complained of. Some disappointed customers have filed claims at this office. The following is an extract from a letter
received, showing goods ordered and how they w7ere filled:—
" Two crates Yellow Transcendent crab-apples; these came not crab-apples, but small apples
so badly decayed they would not even make jelly. One crate Greengage plum, never received.
One crate blue damson plum, never received. One crate red crab-apples, never ordered; arrived
in scabby condition. One crate small pickling-cucumbers; came one crate cucumbers as large
as quart bottles, half-ripe and mostly rotten, absolutely a total loss."
We consider that direct-to-the-consumer trade by L.C.L., especially on a perishable fruit
like berries in a season like 1921, is an injury to the good name of British Columbia.    Some :
U 86
Department of Agriculture.
1922
measures should be taken to prevent irresponsible shippers from injuring the legitimate fruit
trade, and also to protect Prairie customers against loss by uninspected consignments.
Information wanted.
During the season of 1921 many inquiries were made at this office for information with a
view to settling in British Columbia. We received a supply of literature covering the Northern
and Central Interior, and with our knowledge of many districts in British Columbia w7e were
able to give the information required, or connect inquirers with members of the Agricultural
Department who could furnish information wanted. As a result many of those inquirers are
now shipping produce to this market from British Columbia.
General.
At no time during the marketing season of 1921 did the Prairie market show strength;
while the crops were above average, the prices for stock and grain were low. The farmer's
buying power was reduced and reflected to all lines of industry. As the season wore on the
depression seemed to increase.
In conclusion, we beg to acknowledge the many kindnesses received from brokers and jobbers
at Prairie points in securing prices and other information, also the splendid co-operation to this
end received from our correspondence staff, and last, but not least, to tbe painstaking and
thorough way Mr. Baxter, of the Fruit Division, and his staff co-operated in every matter
affecting the betterment of the fruit industry.
Respectfully submitted.
J. A. Grant,
Markets Commissioner.
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK COMMISSIONER, VICTORIA.
AV. T. McDonald, M.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report for the Live Stock Branch for
the year ending December 31st, 1921.
General Conditions.
The live-stock industry as a whole can be described as passing through an unsettled period
of depression which has been most keenly felt by producers of beef cattle and sheep. The
so-called Fordney Tariff of the United States has practically cut off the markets in that country
for beef and wool and created a critical situation. British markets were investigated, but did
not present opportunity for immediate relief. Owing to urgent representations by Canada, a
British Royal Commission was appointed to inquire into the British embargo on Canadian cattle.
After full investigation this Commission recommended the removal of the embargo, but up to
the present date the Imperial Government has not seen fit to carry out the recommendation.
The Dominion Government is still continuing its efforts to secure the removal of the embargo,
and has indicated a willingness to take action in accord with a request from the Western
Canada Live Stock Union to the effect that efforts be made to secure the entrance of Canadian
■cattle to interior points in Great Britain for immediate slaughter. Under present regulations
they must be slaughtered at the port of entry.
Range conditions have been fairly favourable during the past season, though, on the whole,
the cattle were not in quite as good condition as the fall of 1920. In certain sections, and particularly in the Nicola District, locusts did a great deal of damage and In places consumed all
pasture grass.   They also proved to be disastrous where dry-farming was attempted.
The past summer w7as favourable for hay production over practically all of the hay-producing
sections of the Province. While at some points the yield was not high, still the average on the
whole was very satisfactory and ensures an abundant supply where normally sufficient hay is
produced for local consumption.   However, we encountered an early winter, and unless this is 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 87
followed by an early spring the rangemen may run short of hay, as many of them are carrying
over cattle which they did not market owing to the extremely low price of beef in the fall.
During the past year a careful investigation has been made of marketing conditions in the
Province. There has been considerable agitation favouring the establishing of stockyards at
some Coast point, but such a move would be of doubtful value unless full co-operation of producers and buyers could be assured. One factor which militates against such a move is that
there would be a very limited market for stockers and feeders at the Coast. The encouragement
of home slaughtering properly done would doubtless prove of value in developing local markets.
During the war period a campaign was conducted for the purpose of conserving meats and
the civilian population was urged to use meat substitutes, and often comparisons, written and
illustrated, were used that had as their purpose the placing of meat among the less desirable
of human foods. Often those responsible for such propaganda have failed to appreciate its far-
reaching influence, and we believe the principal effect has been that of curtailing the consumption
of meat. It has been estimated that the per capita consumption of dressed meat and lard fell
from 181.5 lb. in 1900 to 154.3 lb. in 1920, and doubtless the above-mentioned factor has had some
influence in bringing about this reduction.
t Horses.
The continued business depression has had a direct influence on the horse-breeding industry,
but the surplus of horses that resulted from the diminished amount of lumbering and construction
has been absorbed, so that with a marked improvement in general business conditions it would
be difficult to meet the demand that w7ould develop for heavy horses. Even at the present time
dealers are finding difficulty in filling orders for good draught horses.
During the past year there has been evidence of an increased interest in horse-breeding and
a considerable number of stallions of the draught breeds were sold within the Province. In the
Chilliwack and Agassiz District a Horse-breeders' Club was organized under the Dominion plan
of assistance and a Clydesdale stallion was leased for the season. We feel that our farmers in
several districts might well take advantage of the Federal assistance, and with that end in view
we are co-operating with R. E. AVilson, of the Horse Division of the Dominion Live Stock
Branch.
Considerable interest was taken in the horse departments of our principal fall exhibitions
and there were an unexpected number of entries in the light classes. While some excellent
draught stallions were shown, there is need for more heavy stallions of the right sort.
An investigation of conditions reveals the fact that some firms are replacing motor-trucks
with horses owing to greater economy and efficiency in certain classes of work.
Both heavy and light horses shown by British Columbia exhibitors at the recent Pacific
International Live Stock Exposition held at Portland, Oregon, met with remarkable success and
many first-prize ribbons were captured, as well as championship honours.
The number of horses in the Province remains about the same as for the previous year,
or 44,558.
Cattle.
As previously indicated, the producers of beef cattle have had a trying year owing to the
extremely low prices that have prevailed. Notwithstanding this fact, a considerable number of
pure-bred females, as well as males, of the beef breeds have been imported into the Province,
most of these going to Interior points where a number of pure-bred herds are being established.
There is no doubt that the past year has been an opportune time for the purchase of pure-bred
beef cattle and many have so regarded it. The financial depression in the Prairie Provinces has
forced many of the breeders there to dispose of portions of their herds at low prices. A considerable number of breeding females have been brought into British Columbia from the Calgary
and Edmonton Stockyards.
The number of beef cattle in the Province is 159,854, as against 154,772 for the previous
year.
The past year has been favourable for the development of the dairy industry owing to the
comparatively high prices prevailing for dairy products. Along the line of the Grand Trunk
Pacific and at points on the Pacific Great Eastern where previously beef cattle had been dominant, many dairy cattle have been introduced and two new creameries are making satisfactory
progress.   These districts have been particularly fortunate in being able to secure high-grade IT 88
Department of Agriculture.
1922
cows from the Lower Fraser Valley, where the average production of the dairy cattle is high.
Present conditions would indicate that the above-mentioned districts will absorb a large number
of dairy cattle during the coming year.
The development of pure-bred herds of the dairy breeds has been making excellent progress.
More and more attention is being given to records of production, and at the present time it is a
difficult matter to sell a sire that is not backed up by high-producing female ancestry.
Many of our pure-bred herds are being placed under the " accredited herd " system and there
are now ten fully accredited herds in the Province.
The British Columbia Holstein-breeders' Association and the British Columbia Jersey-
breeders' Association are active in promoting the interests of their respective breeds. Each
association has held a successful sale during the past year. Plans are now under way for
organizing a Guernsey-breeders' Association and an Ayrshire-breeders' Association. Such associations accomplish much good for their respective breeds and thereby for the dairy-cattle
industry as a whole.
The number of dairy cattle increased from 94,S16 in 1920 to 101,518 in 1921.
Sheep.
The year just closed has been one of low prices for wool and mutton. The Canadian
Co-operative AVool-growers, Limited, faced a critical situation when the 1921 clip was ready
for market; the United States market was cut off by a tariff of 15 cents per pound on fleece
wool, and investigation indicated that the English market was so heavily stocked as to eliminate
that channel as a means of disposing of any appreciable quantity. It therefore became necessary
to develop a home market, and the association deserves much credit because of the fact that the
1921 clip will be entirely disposed of at an early date. Though the price received has been low
as compared with recent years, still the association has undoubtedly proven of great service at
this critical period.
The fall of the year has shown a revival of interest in sheep and many farmers have taken
advantage of the low prices to purchase breeding ewes. Shortage of feed, curtailment of the
range, and the financial depression combined to force the sale of thousands of sheep in Southern
Alberta. Fortunately, British Columbia buyers were able to handle much of the breeding stock
and at prices that should make them a very profitable investment. There is room for a great
many more sheep in the Province and it is gratifying to note this renewed interest at this time.
The sheep-show at the summer and fall fairs in AVestern Canada was probably the largest
and of the best quality In the history of these fairs.
The number of sheep has increased from 46,473 in 1920 to 51,457 in 1921.
Swine.
There has been a marked decrease in the number of hogs in Canada, and while this decline
has not been as marked in British Columbia as in certain other Provinces, yet the sw7ine population dropped from 44,010 in 1920 to 41,522 in 1921. With the prices of feedstuffs as at present
prevailing, there is a tendency to revive the hog-breeding industry, and with judicious use of
pasture the raising of pigs can be conducted on a profitable basis.
Though there has been a marked decrease in the foreign imports of other meat products,
there has been an increase in the importation of pork from foreign countries.
A conference was held in Ottawa on November 2nd and 3rd, 1921, for the purpose of
considering ways and means of encouraging the production of a type of bacon-hogs suitable for
the production of bacon for the British market. At this conference the following classification
for market-hogs was adopted:—
(1.) Select bacon-hogs: Jowl and shoulder light and smooth; back from neck to tail evenly
fleshed; side long, medium depth, dropping straight from back; ham full, good general finish,
no excess fat.   Weight, 160-210 lb.
(2.) Thick, smooth hogs: Not conforming to Wiltshire standard, but of smooth fleshing and
finish.    Weight, 160-210 lb.
(3.) Heavies:  Any type of smooth fleshing and finish.   AVeight, 210-260 lb.
(4.) Extra heavies:  Same as heavies, but weighing over 260 lb.
(5.)  Shop-hogs:  Any type of smooth conformation;  finished.   Weight, 120-160 lb.
(6.) Lights and feeders: Any type of smooth conformation; unfinished. AA'eight, 160 lb.
and under. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 89
(7.)  Roughs:  Of rough conformation.    Any weight.
(S.) Sows: All females that have raised one or more litters. No. 1, sows of smooth finish
and smooth underline up to 350 lb.;  No. 2, all other sows.
(9.)  Hogs that have been castrated and are well healed before being offered for sale.
The present plan calls for grading according to the above standard to begin May 1st, 1922.
This grading will be supervised at stockyards by Federal Government representatives. The
packers agreed to pay a minimum premium of 10 per cent, for select bacon-hogs. This is a
matter which at present affects British Columbia only indirectly. We are importers of hogs
(alive and dressed) and our local markets mainly demand an animal of the shop-hog type.
Goats.
Tbe number of milch goats in the Province has now increased to approximately 6,000,
showing an increase of about 1,000 over the previous year. Milch goats are becoming a factor
of considerable importance in certain suburban districts and a number of breeders possess
animals of high quality, both from the standpoint of breeding and of production. Importations
of pure-bred breeding stock are being made from Great Britain and the United States.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
There is an increasing interest in Boys' and Girls' Clubs, and this particularly applies to
poultry, calf, and pig clubs. During the past year three pure-bred Jersey calf clubs were
organized and very successfully conducted. The members exhibited their pure-bred heifer
calves at Chilliwack, Salmon Arm, and Armstrong Fairs respectively, and the quality and
condition of the exhibits reflected great credit on the boys and girls. Plans are under way for
the organization of several additional pure-bred calf clubs and the number of pure-bred calves
available will be the only limiting factor in regard to the number of clubs formed. In the case
of these clubs the local banks have financed the scheme where clubs are in existence.
The Boys' and Girls' Clubs deserve every encouragement and it is gratifying to note the
growing appreciation of this work.
Pure-bred Sires.
The policy of supplying pure-bred sires to Farmers' Institutes on easy terms of payment
has been continued. The Provincial Department has co-operated with the Federal Department
in this matter and assisted many districts in taking advantage of the free-loan policy of the
Dominion Live Stock Branch.
There are still many scrub sires in the Province and every effort is being made to encourage
tbe use of pure-bred sires.    The results of this compaign are very evident in many districts.
Dry-farming Stations.
The Quilchena Dry Farm, the last of the dry-farming station^ was closed during the past
year and the stock and equipment sold. The results obtained while the station was operated
have furnished the Department with valuable information regarding the district.
Brands.
During the year 232 horse-brands and 365 cattle-brands were allotted and 189 horse-brands
and 266 cattle-brands were renewed.    Thirty-two hide licences were issued.
A brand-book containing all horse and cattle brands of good standing at the end of 1920
was published and placed on sale at the cost price of $1.
Fairs.
The live-stock exhibits, particularly in the cattle, sheep, and swine departments, were very
satisfactory and the sheep-show was an outstanding feature at the large exhibitions. The dairy-
cattle exhibits were excellent at the shows held in the dairy districts, while at A'ancouver, New
Westminster, and A'ictoria all four dairy breeds were well represented. Your Live Stock Commissioner acted as one of the judges at Vancouver and at New Westminster and as superintendent
of the horse department at A'ictoria. Unfortunately, most of the other fairs were held on dates
conflicting w'ith the larger exhibitions, which permitted attendance at only a few of them. lT 90 Department of Agriculture. 1922
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association.
The question of live-stock marketing has received a good deal of attention from the British
Columbia Stock-breeders' Association during the year just closed and efforts will still be made
with a view to improving conditions, especially in the marketing of beef cattle. 0w7ing to local
conditions the problem is one not easy of solution; one difficulty being that the market for killing
cattle Is largely at the Coast and the market for Blockers in the Interior, thus complicating
matters in so far as stockyards may be considered a remedy.
A successful convention was held in A'ictoria on February 10th and 11th, 1921. The third
annual bull sale and show was held at Kamloops on March 22nd and 23rd, 1921. Ninety-seven
head were sold for $19,6S7.50, which was considered very satisfactory under existing conditions.
Tbe highest price paid in all similar sales held in AA'estern Canada during the past year was
$1,250, paid at Kamloops for the Shorthorn bull " Clear the Way." In addition to the judging
of the regular show7 classes, stock-judging demonstrations are held in connection with the bull-
sale, making the event as strongly educational as possible.
I am submitting herewith the annual reports of George C. Hay, District Agriculturist,
Kamloops, and of J. R. Terry, Chief Poultry Instructor.
Respectfully submitted.
W. T. McDonald,
Live Stock Commissioner.
REPORT OF CHIEF VETERINARY INSPECTOR, VICTORIA.
Dr. A. Knight, A'.S.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the report of the A'eterinary staff for the year from January 1st to
December 31st, 1921.
I am pleased to report at the outset that outside of dealing with tuberculosis we have had
very little trouble with the stock throughout the Province from a health standpoint.
A number of cases of disease among live stock have been reported, but upon investigation
nothing of a serious nature was found. During the year, however, we have had to deal with
several cases of influenza among horses, but these were confined to a small area in the vicinity
of Williams Lake. The outbreak w7as not as serious as one would anticipate by the report sent
in, as apparently only a few horses were affected and no loss occurred.
Internal Parasites among Sheep and Cattle.
%
There have been some losses among sheep affected with liver-fluke (Distomum hepaticum).
These losses, however, have occurred on premises where sheep have been pastured for a number
of years on land subject to overflow, which makes it a favourable ground for the propagation
of flukes.
When discussing this matter the owners have been advised upon different occasions to either
drain the land or put it under crop for a few years. Also they have been advised to supply lime
to infected ground, but I believe little, if any, remedial measures have been taken and as a
consequence a number of losses have occurred.
In talking to a number of butchers who handle beef cattle, which also covers the same
ground, I have been informed that in almost every animal slaughtered the liver has been found
infested with flukes, but apparently not to such an extent as to have any serious effect on the
■market value of the animal.
Plant-poisoning.
Cases of plant-poisoning have been reported to the Department, more particularly during
the early spring and summer months. As in previous years, the losses occurring from this cause
have been reported more especially from Central British Columbia, where apparently water-
hemlock is prevalent.    This plant appears to be quite widely spread throughout Central British ■
12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 91
Columbia, and under the conditions which animals are kept, no doubt losses will occur from
year to year. Owing to the nature and range conditions of the country it will be almost
impossible for years to come to prevent losses from wafer-hemlock.
Larkspur, although somewhat prevalent, is causing very little trouble to stock-owners.
Only In one case have I heard where a few animals were lost due to eating an excessive amount
of this plant, and in this case the animals were apparently without food flor some little time,
and being turned loose where larkspur was prevalent, no doubt the animals engorged themselves,
with the result that a few fatalities occurred.
Mange.
Dr. Ilsley reports that a few cases of mange were reported to him; on investigation,
however, he found they were simple cases of ringworm.
Actinomycosis.
Cases of this disease were reported from the Cariboo District, of which a number occurred
among range cattle. The advanced cases were collected and destroyed by the owners. In a
number of cases in the early stages the owners treated this disease with potassium iodide with
fair success, the animals being subsequently turned loose.
Infectious Abortion.
This appears to be more or less widely spread in the northern section of the Cariboo District,
more particularly among the ranges adjacent to the Fraser River, south of Quesnel. No attempt
has been made to deal with this question outside of advising the owners to take precautionary
measures towards keeping animals showing evidence of the disease isolated.
Sanitation of Stables and Dairies.
The grading of dairies and stables as reported by your Inspectors shows a greater number
listed under Grades A and B. This would Indicate an improvement in the general sanitary
conditions affecting our milk-supply. I also know that a greater number of stables are graded
higher throughout our country districts than those found within the confines of our cities. In
their method of handling dairy products we find a greater care is usually taken by farmers
than parties keeping cows within the city. Where the stables are in an unsanitary condition
the owners are instructed by your Inspectors wherein to remedy matters.
If it were possible to follow up these unsanitary premises by regular inspection every few
months I am satisfied that much improvement could be made, but with our present limited staff
attempting to cover such wide areas as our work calls for It is impossible to repeat our visits to
these unsanitary premises as often as we would like.
We also find in a number of cases'that milk is not properly cooled immediately after milking.
Such milk does not arrive at its destination in a very good condition, especially during hot
weather. Over this matter, however, it is impossible to keep daily supervision. If milk was paid
for according to grade, no doubt it would have a salutary effect upon the negligent milk-producers.
Tuberculosis.
As in previous years, the time of the A'eterinary staff has been devoted largely to tuberculin-
testing of dairy cattle throughout the Province. The cities of the Province are requesting
certificates from all dairymen to the effect that their herds have been tested. For this reason
the work of the staff has been spread over large areas in order to comply with the requests of
the cities and also requests by farmers. With the idea of attempting to provide each dairyman
with a certificate as per requests, so as not to prevent him selling milk, we have been unable to
repeat our tuberculin tests in infected herds as often as we would like.
To make our work more effective in the elimination of tuberculosis it is absolutely necessary
that infected herds should be retested at least every three months, until we are satisfied that
no tuberculosis exists in such herds. With our limited staff and money set aside for compensation we have been unable to repeat our tests as often as we deem it necessary.
During the year we have visited 2,737 premises, tested 17,706 cattle, finding 997 reactors.
Considerable time has been devoted to the testing of cows within the boundaries of Vancouver,
Burnaby, New Westminster, A'ictoria, Nanaimo, and Prince- George.   The great majority of these IT 92
Department of Agriculture.
1925
cows are kept by private parties on lots. To find these cows and make the test entails considerable time, without showing a corresponding number of cows tested for the time devoted to
this work. For instance, within the combined boundaries of A'ancouver, Point Grey, South
A'ancouver, North Vancouver, and Burnaby there have been 1,104 cows tested. In our
tuberculosis-work I find that the greatest percentage of reactors is found in those herds adjacent
to the cities. This feature is quite marked in several instances as shown by the work covered
this year.
A list of the districts in which herds were tested will be found in Appendix No. IS.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Chief Veterinary Inspector.
REPORT OF CHIEF SOIL AND CROP INSTRUCTOR, A'ICTORIA.
W. Newton, B.S.A., M.S.
Dr. D. Warnoclc, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Soil and Crop Division.
General Conditions.
The fall in the price of agricultural products during the year ending December 31st, 1921,
has increased the interest on the part of the. farmers of British Columbia in soil-management
and crop-management problems. This interest has been very apparent to the officials of the Soil
and Crop Division. Inquiries have been received from all parts of the Province for assistance in
outlining how crops can be more economically produced. The productivity of the soil is such an
important factor in producing crops at a profit that particular attention has been paid by this
Division to problems relating to soil fertility and management.
The interest awakened throughout the Province in the improvement of the potato industry
as a specialized phase of the activities of this Division has already been recognized as economically sound.    The report of C. Tice covers this work.
Soil Investigations.
Investigations in relation to the character of the soils in different parts of the Province
have been continued. Up to the present these investigations have been of a general nature, the
results of which have been presented in separate reports and to public meetings in the districts
where the investigations have been made. Part of these investigations are covered in the report
of the soil and crop surveys appended.
Sufficient data and field experience have now been secured to outline a more definite system
for classifying soils. This system is now being prepared and copies will be forwarded to all
officials of the Department of Agriculture who are likely to be called upon to describe the soils
in the districts they cover. The object of so doing is to secure definite information in relation
to soils that will enable the Department of Agriculture to deal more accurately with problems
of soil-fertility and crop-management.
The continuance of the arrangement with the Department of Mines is reported, whereby the
chemical analysis of soil samples are undertaken upas the approval of this Division. The
indiscriminate forwarding of samples for analysis has been discouraged, for there are so many
factors that may account for low yields, apart from the chemical composition of the soil, that we
consider a chemical analysis alone as valueless. In order to deal with samples of soil forwarded
to the Soil and Crop Division for examination a special report on field conditions must be
submitted. The forms may be secured upon application. Upon the receipt of the field report
a physical analysis of the sample is made, and when a chemical analysis is considered to be of
value arrangements are made to have the work done. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 93
Drainage.
Underdrainage as a means to prevent the spread of alkali in the Interior irrigated districts
has continued to be a policy of the Division. Assistance has been granted in outlining drainage
systems for this purpose.
In the Low7er Fraser A'alley and Island Districts the farmers have awakened to the value
of underdrainage as a means of increasing crop yields. It has been in these districts that the
bulk of the assistance in drainage problems has been granted. The procedure has been as
follows: On receiving an application for assistance a general survey of the area is made to
ascertain the probable value and type of drainage system most suitable for the area in question.
If underdrains are deemed advisable, levels are taken over the area and the nature of the soil
is determined. From such information it is possible to determine accurately the system of
underdrains most suitable to the area, including the depth the tile, rock, or wood drains should
be placed, the size of the tile that will effectively carry off the water, and the distance apart
the drains should be placed. Many farmers who desire to install drains have not had previous
experience in drainage operations. Furthermore, they do not possess the accurate instruments
that are necessary for taking levels. The assistance given by this Department is consequently
appreciated.
Reclamation by Drainage.
Several areas in the Lower Fraser A'alley and on A'ancouver Island were surveyed during
the past year with the view of determining the economic feasibility of their reclamation. Special
reports were given to the parties interested on these areas.
Seed-i mprovement.
To encourage the use and production of better seed a Provincial Seed Fair was held by this
Division in Victoria. Exhibits were received from all parts of the. Province. Addresses and
discussions were arranged for that were of interest to the producer as well as the purchaser of
seed. Special attention was given to the adaptability of many Interior sections to the production
of alfalfa-seed. The growing of flower-seeds, particularly sweet peas, on Vancouver Island was
brought to the attention of the farmers present.
Arrangements are now being made to keep in closer touch w7ith the alfalfa-seed growers than
has taken place in the past. Inspection forms have been compiled that will enable the Division
to keep on record notes as to the field conditions of the principal alfalfa-seed areas of the Province
next year.
The necessity of securing the highest-quality stock seed and that special attention be paid in
maintaining the purity of such stock seed by careful " roguing" has been advocated by this
Division as the means of building up the flower-seed production industry of Vancouver and
adjacent Islands. The industry Is comparatively new. That high-quality flower-seed, particularly sweet peas, can be produced has been clearly proven. The future of the flower-seed
industry depends upon the demand for British Columbia grown seed on the English market.
It is at this time, when the industry is in its infancy, that it is possible to build a reputation
with the English seed-houses.
Silo-demonstration Work.
Several silos were erected during the past year under the supervision of this Division. This
work has been greatly curtailed during the past year, partly due to the resignation of the Silo
Demonstrator, and partly to the fact that there is now less call for-demonstration-work of this
sort. In order to encourage a more general use of the silo the original policy of the Department
was to assist in the erection of a demonstration silo in every district of the Province. When
once the value of the silo has been clearly demonstrated by a number in active use in any district
further demonstration-work is not required. Except in a few of the newer districts where
assistance in the actual construction and filling of the silo would serve to introduce the silo,
the future work of this Division will be in the nature of supplying the farmers with information
relating to construction of silos and the most suitable silo crops for the particular district from
w7hich the application for information is received. The work of this Division during the past
year has largely been of this character.
The continuance of the policy of loaning forms for the erection of concrete silos is reported. ■
IT 94
Department of Agriculture.
1922
Judging at Fall Fairs.
The principal fairs held on the Lower Mainland and on A'ancouver Island were attended.
Although present in the capacity of a judge, the opportunity was taken to discuss with the
farmers in attendance the relative merits of the exhibits present in relation to their farming
operations.    These discussions were principally confined to forage-crops.
Lectures.
Lectures relating to the management of soils and the production of crops were given
throughout the Province. AA'hen it can be arranged the policy of the Division is to spend
sufficient time In the district to become familiar with the important local problems before a
lecture is given.
Personal Contact.
Whenever possible the farmers' problems are discussed in the field rather than on the
platform. The personal-contact factor is an important one, particularly in giving instruction
in soil-management, owing to the variable soil conditions of the Province of British Columbia.
CORRESPONnENCE.
We again desire to emphasize to any one desiring information through correspondence to
clearly define the location of the farm to be dealt with. This particularly applies to information
regarding soil-management or the adaptability of specific crops. In order to deal accurately
with problems through correspondence the Division is gathering and classifying local information
in regard to soils and climatic conditions. The amount and nature of the correspondence during
the past year suggests that the farmers throughout the Province appreciate our efforts in this
regard.
Publications.
Timely articles were published in relation to soil and crop management in the Agricultural
Journal.    Bulletin No. 87 was published dealing with the value and use of fertilizers.
Appended are reports on soil and crop surveys.
Respectfully submitted.
, W. Newton,
Chief Soil and Crop Instructor.
REPORT OF SOIL AND CROP INSTRUCTOR, VICTORIA.
C. Tice, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The need for improvement of the potato industry in this Province being so necessary,
your Soil and Crop Instructor has devoted the greater part of his time during the past year
to activities along this line.
The system of seed-potato inspection and certification which was outlined in 1920 was put
into effect this year.
To improve the potato industry in this Province it was realized that three factors were
essential—namely, that of better seed, standardization of varieties, and organization of the
giwvers. The system of seed-potato certification which has been adopted in this Province
involves all of these factors.
Seed-potato Certification.
Preliminary Work.—Interest in this work was first aroused by a series of articles which
appeared in the Agricultural Journal and other papers, and also by the publication of a pamphlet
on seed-potato certification.
During the winter months meetings were held in those districts where the growers showed
enthusiasm and desire for taking up this new work, due consideration necessarily having to be
given to the suitability of the district. Several districts which applied for inspection of their
crops had to be rejected, both on account of their location and also because the funds available .
12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 95
were not sufficiently large to give the necessary assistance. However, it is hoped, with the extra
assistance which is available next year, that it will be possible to carry on the work in all
those districts which make application for inspection, provided the district is considered suitable.
Wherever possible local organizations have been' formed, because it is realized that
co-operative effort is necessary in undertaking work of this nature.
Each district taking up the seed-certification work has to select one or a limited number of
varieties as standard for that particular district. No other varieties but the ones selected may
be entered for seed-certification purposes. By this means it will be possible to bring about the
standardization of varieties in the various districts.
Foundation Stock.—As there was no certified seed available in this Province, there were tw7o
courses for the growers to pursue, in the obtaining of good foundation stock: First, to import
certified seed, or, secondly, to use the best local stock. The Ellison District imported a car-load
of certified seed from Minnesota and excellent results have been obtained. The crops were more
vigorous and freer from disease, which resulted in increased yields.
All other districts used the best local seed obtainable. The results secured were not as
good as they would have been had certified seed been used.    However, they were satisfactory.
Method of carrying on Work.—Two inspections of the growing crop are made and two after
harvest. The first field inspection is made at bloom-time, since this is the best time to detect
impurities and certain diseases, such as leaf-roll and mosaic. The second field inspection is made
just prior to maturity to ascertain whether the crop lias been rogued, and this is also the best
time to detect such diseases as wilt and rhizoctonia. The first tuber inspection is made before
grading and the second just prior to shipping.
■Certain standards have been set for a crop to measure up to at each inspection. Those
growers whose crops pass all inspections are entitled to sell their seed as " certified." Suitable
tags are issued for this purpose and are attached and sealed to each sack by the Inspector at
shipping-time.
Additional Assistance.—Work of this nature which necessitates the carrying-on of several
inspections, and these to be made at a certain fixed time, requires much additional assistance.
This year G. S. Coward, a recent graduate of the British Columbia University, was appointed
to assist in this work.
Co-operation of other Officials.—The co-operation of J. W. Eastham, Plant Pathologist, has
always been very-acceptable not only in assisting to draw up the standards which have been
adopted, but also in making the inspection of crops in various districts.
The co-operation of the Agronomy Department of the University, the various Dominion
Experimental Farms throughout the Province, and other departmental officials has been gratefully received.
Extent and Progress.—During the past year eighty-nine growers, covering nine districts,
had their crops inspected. The total number of acres inspected was 195, the number of acres
passing the first field inspection was 175, and 157 passed the second field inspection. At the
time of preparing this report the final tuber inspection has not been made. However, it is
estimated that about 5,000 sacks of seed will be offered for sale by the growers. (See Appendix
No." 19 for results of inspection.)
Attitude of Growers.—Growers in all parts of the Province are beginning to realize tbe
necessity for planting better seed, for organization, and the standardization of varieties. Applications for inspection are coming in from all parts of the Province, as also are applications for
good seed. Districts which thought they had little or no disease are beginning to realize that
most of the important diseases do exist and that immediate control methods must be applied.
Pacific North-icest Potato-growers' Conference.—It was the privilege of your Instructor to
attend the Pacific North-west Potato-growers' Conference held in Spokane, AVashington, in
December of this year. Experts were present from various parts of the United States to discuss
and impart the latest information in connection with the potato industry.
One evening session was devoted to a discussion of seed-certification standards.
Of the speakers, the most notable w7ere Dr. AA'm. Stuart, Potato Expert, Washington, D.C,
and Dr. G. K. K. Link, of the Bureau of Plant Industry.
Fairs and Potato Exhibits.
The assistance rendered by this official in the way of acting as judge at the fairs was much
less than in the previous year, the reasons being that the increased work in connection with IT 96 Department of Agriculture. 1922
potato inspection and certification required his attention, also because an educational potato
exhibit was staged by this Division at the three large fairs. The potato exhibit included a
display of the varieties recommended for the Province, the kind of seed to plant, samples of
certified and uncertified seed, and specimens of diseases with methods of control. Much interest
was shown in this exhibit by those w7ho attended the fair.
Publications and Charts.
A bulletin entitled the " Potato in British Columbia " was issued during the year, also a
pamphlet on " Seed-potato Certification." Articles on various topics were written for the
Agricultural Journal and a chart on potato varieties prepared. A chart on potato-diseases is
now being prepared by this official, with the co-operation of J. AV. Eastham, Plant Pathologist,
for distribution throughout the Province.
Meetings attended.
Many meetings were attended during the past year and lectures given in various parts of
the Province. For this purpose your Instructor has now prepared a set of slides which cover
nearly all phases of the potato industry.
Potato-crop Competitions.
This official again acted as judge iu local potato-crop competitions held in Malakwa and
Errington. The value of these competitions In these two districts is being appreciated more each
year by the farmers.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
C. Tice,
Soil and Crop Instructor.
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, KAMLOOPS.
Geo. C. Hay, B.S.A.
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report for the year 1921.
Canadian Co-operative AVool-growers, Limited.
It is well within the truth to state that the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited,
has during its very brief existence almost revolutionized wool grading and marketing in Canada,
and has succeeded in developing a home market for raw wool in our own country by a persistent
and highly intelligent sales and propaganda policy. It has virtually proven the salvation of
the flockmasters in handling the last two seasons' clips against world conditions, which were not
far removed from entire demoralization. It is gratifying to note that the entire Canadian clip
is gradually finding its way into the capable hands of this organization, which deserves the
support and patronage of every sheep-owner in Canada.
Canada has been the chief market for Canadian wools the past season, and it is worthy of
note that 1921 sales to the Canadian trade far exceed those of 1920. This growing trade and
the increase in the use of Canadian wools by the Canadian mills is a most encouraging feature
of the work which has been done on Canadian wool in the past few years. Better sheep, better
methods of preparing wool for market, better grading of the wool, and the sale and featuring
of Canadian wool by the growers' own organization are responsible for the improvement.
The organization is a purely co-operative one, w7orking in an endeavour to improve the
Canadian w7ool-clip, thereby encouraging the sheep industry in Canada, and of course the monetary
returns to tbe growers themselves as a result. It comprises and is affiliated with practically
all the sheep-breeders' and wool-growers' associations in Canada. It handles the wool-clip of,
some 12,000 growers, or about 5,000,000 lb. annually. This amount is approximately one-third
of the spring wool-clip in Canada, or about one-half of the clip which reaches the open market, 12 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
IT 97
since much wool in recent years has been made up on the farm. Of the 5,000,000 lb. handled by
this organization in 1920, some 45 per cent, was placed with the Canadian trade, 50 per cent,
with the American trade, and 5 per cent, with the English trade. From this it will be noted
that some 55 per cent, of the w7ool was exported, and it is possible that some of the wool which
was sold to the Canadian customers was also exported. The season of 1921 presented an absolutely different situation. The emergency tariff of 15 cents per pound on fleece-wools entering
the United States has made it absolutely prohibitive to market our wool in that country. The
English market has been very heavily stocked w7ith wools carried over principally by the British
Government. Consequently the market for the 1921 Canadian wool-clip has had to be found in
the Canadian mills, and sales have been more or less slow and in small quantities to supply their
immediate needs.
British Columbia Wool-growers' Association.
As a director of the British Columbia AArool-growers' Association your Agriculturist has tried
to advance the interests of sheepmen, and particularly by marketing their wool through this
association.
British Columbia wrool was collected at Kamloops from all parts of the Province, and
car-loads made up and forwarded to the central warehouse of the Canadian Co-operative Wool-
growers, Limited, at Toronto, and this organization on receipt of same graded and offered the
wool for sale. Some 100,786 lb. of wool was shipped from this Province, which we are sorry to
state is a decrease of 75,000 lb. as compared with last year's shipments. The cause of these
decreased shipments is accounted for as follows: First, statistics of the sheep population of
the Province show a decrease of 6,000 lb., which would represent approximately 4.5,000 lb.
Secondly, quite a large amount of the 1921 wool-clip did not come on the market and is still
retained on the farms owing to the demoralization of the market, and prevailing high freight rates.
Furthermore, a small percentage of the clip was consumed by the Canada Western Woollen Mills
in A'ancouver.
Shipments were received from all parts of the Province, and more and more are the sheepmen regarding the organization as their chief selling agency, as well as their medium for
purchasing supplies.
Kamloops Bull-sale.
As Secretary of the 1921 Kamloops Bull-sale your Agriculturist has had considerable to do
in this connection throughout the year. The sale on the whole was most successful and it is
well within the truth to state it was the leading sale in Western Canada last year. The following
statistics will substantiate this statement:—
Averages at Western Sales, 1921.
Place.
No.
Shorthorn.
No.
Hereford.
No.
Angus.
46
38
190
119
21
$203 15
23i7 50
221 00
200 40
174 93
211 00
40
4i
19'6
16
$218 50
215 00
187' 50
137 27
198 43
9
63
30
4
$170 63
208 00
108 4-3
■     138 50
140 00
Top Price at each Sale, 1921.—Kamloops, $1,250 ;   Edmonton, $900;   Calgary, $850;  Regina,
P725;  Brandon, $510;  Prince Albert, $425.    (For a detailed statement of tbe sale see Appendix
No. 20.)
British Columbia Shorthorn-breeders' Association.
The British Columbia Shorthorn-breeders' Association has been fairly active during the past
year, considering this was their first year of organization-work. There are now thirty-one
members in good standing and a much keener interest taken in the furthering of the breed
interests in the Province. Besides the usual secretarial work, your District Agriculturist as
Secretary has had much to do w'ith straightening out and keeping in order registration papers
for the various members. IT 98 Department of Agriculture. 1922
British Columbia Hereford-breeders' Association.
This association can also report progress, and again your Agriculturist has taken care of
the secretarial work.
Institute Meetings.
During the past year various institute meetings were arranged and on many different
occasions addresses were given on agricultural topics. Wool-growers' meetings, breed association
meetings, and boys' and girls' meetings were arranged for and conducted by your Agriculturist.
Fall Fairs.
The fairs visited during the past year were Vancouver, New AVestminster, A'ictoria, Forest
Grove, and Invermere. At each of these fairs, with the exceptiohTif Vancouver, your Agriculturist officiated as judge.
Stock-judging Demonstrations.
On different occasions throughout the season stock-judging demonstrations and competitions
were held, and later on a judging team was taken to the Coast fairs which was successful in
gaining first honours at the three exhibitions. The result of this work has created a keen interest
on the part of all concerned, and particularly the younger class, who are looking forward to
associating themselves with ihe work during the coming season.
Land Settlement Board.
Throughout the summer your Agriculturist acted as agent for the Land Settlement Board in
this district and made quite a number of appraisals and reports on loans, all of which took
considerable time and extra travelling in connection with same.
Quilchena Dry Farm.
Operations at the Quilchena Dry Farm were conducted as in previous years until the end
of September, when the station was closed dowTi. Nothing special was conducted during the
past year, as we were advised at the early part of the season to discontinue operations as soon
as possible. The nature of the work therefore consisted of growing a crop and harvesting it,
and at the same time disposing of stock and equipment whenever the occasion arose until everything was finally closed up at the end of September.
Kamloops District Creamery.
In response to the continued requests of the Board of Directors of the Kamloops District
Creamery Association your Agriculturist has undertaken the work of general manager of this
organization. It has involved a decided increase in the office-work and much personal attention
has had to be given to the creamery daily.
Office.
The above lines of work, together with frequent inquiries for information at the office, has
kept your Agriculturist especially busy during the past year. Every effort is made at all times
to assist the farmers in every way possible, and the steady increase in correspondence, as well
as the number of visitors, is encouraging, and tends to show that the efforts on the part of the
Department of Agriculture to further the work in this district is more and more appreciated.
Respectfully submitted.
Geo. G Hay,
District Agriculturist,
\ 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 99
REPORT OF CHIEF POULTRY INSTRUCTOR, VICTORIA.
J. R. Terry.
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith report for the year 1921.
General Conditions.
Considering the dull times and consequent drop in prices for all kinds of market produce,
poultry products of all kinds fetched fairly satisfactory prices. An increase in chicks hatched
is to be recorded, averaging about 10 per cent, over the previous year.
In the majority of cases where this branch of ranching did not prove as remunerative as
was expected during the year, lack of capital and experience can be rightly blamed.
During the year several large commercial chick-hatcheries were instituted at the Coast.
One concern, with a branch at Seattle, hatched several hundred thousand chicks and found no
difficulty in disposing of same. The Division is especially drawing the attention of the new
settlers in the northern parts of the Province to the fact that day-old chicks can now be brought
in much earlier'than they can be hatched there, thus giving early chicks a chance to mature
before cold weather sets in.
Prices of Eggs.
Following is a comparison of prices (wholesale) from 19C5-21, inclusive:—
Cents. Cents.
1905* 24Y2 1914 35
1906 29V2 1915 32y2
1907 31 1916 34
1908 3iy2 1917 41
1909 33% 1918 50
1910 34%. 1919 60%
1911 34% 1920 G71/2
1912 ' 41 1921  .391/2
1913 35
Co-operative Marketing of Eggs.
The Poultrymen's Co-operative Organization has during the year made great strides and now
has a branch on Vancouver Island. Eggs w7ere shipped by this organization to New York and
other Eastern markets at a good profit. Eastern and Prairie markets are also being profitably
tapped. With lower prices for eggs, it has been found that the co-operative organizations have
attained much higher membership and consequently more strength.
Importations.
During the year the main source of eggs arriving in the Province has been from the United
States and Eastern Provinces. We have to report a further decline in importations from other
Provinces in the Dominion. Demonstrating the decrease in these importations during the past
few7 years, the figures show that in 1919 we imported from other Provinces 1,041,202 dozen eggs
and last year only 306,210 dozen eggs, making a drop of nearly 750.000 dozen in two years.
To offset this, foreign importations increased from 1,073,567 to 1,161,403 dozen, being an increase
of nearly S8,000 dozen, but a decrease in importations from all points of 118,294 dozen.
Weather Conditions.
The winter of 1920-21 w7as one of the mildest on record, and as a result a heavier yield
of eggs was received during the winter months. More trouble affecting the organs of production
has to be recorded. Arery heavy losses were experienced in some sections where production was
increased by artificial lighting. In some cases the mortality exceeded 15 per cent, of the flock
during March, April, and May alone.    In the cases investigated it w7as found that the immediate
• Figures supplied by ranchers from 1905 to 1911.    From 1912 onwards the prices are those received
for contest eggs. .   . IT 100
Department of Agriculture.
1922
cause of death was ovarian trouble brought on by overstimulation, lack of exercise, and insufficient
green food. In many cases, owing to the mild spring-like weather in December and January,
flocks of the light varieties, such as Leghorns, were producing nearly as many eggs daily without
artificial light as those that were so treated. It would appear that the use of artificial light
will prove more beneficial during severe winters than mild ones. Quite a few of those who have
been using lights for the past three or four years are now7 lessening the light period per day.
In many cases the birds are allowed to go to roost at the ordinary time and the lights are
switched on for about half an hour from 8 to 8.30 p.m. During this period the birds are given
a full feed of whole grain in troughs. This has been termed a " late lunch." Good returns have
been received from this method of lighting.
Breeding Operations.
A very satisfactory increase is to be recorded in the number of breeders pedigreeing their
fowls by means of trap-nest work. The number of blank record forms given out by the Department during the year trebled those of the previous year. Quite a number of those who trap-nest
make use of the traps only during the period of minimum production—October, November, and
December—and in August and September. By so doing the breeders obtain an idea of their best
early winter and winter layers. This work entails much labour and also means that a man
usually handling 1,000 unrecorded birds can keep only about half this quantity when recording
is practised. The Dominion Government Record of Performance work is gaining great headway
not only here, but in all Provinces. Provincial breeders were successful in Egg-laying Contests
in Connecticut, Ottawa, and AVashington State during the year. Several breeders sent fowls to
Chicago, Buffalo, New York, Toronto, and Guelph Shows. Their handsome winnings enabled
them to make many sales of stock and eggs at highly remunerative prices.
During the poultry-shows in November and December a scheme was discussed for engaging
one or more railroad-cars to he fitted up so as to accommodate a large number of fancy and
utility fowls of the highest quality. It is proposed to send at least one or two experienced
exhibitors with the car throughout the Prairie and Eastern Provinces, and, if possible, to finish
up w7ith the biggest shows in Eastern America, such as Buffalo, Chicago, and New York. A
Arancouver exhibitor who has been showing at the largest shows in the East during the past
three years claims that the American shows offer very remunerative prizes and good prices were
willingly paid him for stock and eggs.
Departmental AVork.
This year an additional Instructor has been secured and located in the Interior. This move
has filled a long-felt want.
Three Instructors are now visiting ranchers in all parts of the Province. One of the
Instructors is located at New Westminster and covers the territory from Hope westwards.
The other is located at Grand Forks and covers the territory from Kamloops west. On the
Mainland the poultry-breeders are now being visited regularly and meetings of the local Poultry
Associations attended quite frequently. Very valuable work is being done, in addition to the
routine work, in encouraging Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs. Valuable work is being done in
selecting breeding stock and checking outbreaks of disease.
Now that additional Instructors have been appointed the writer has found it possible to do
more field-work in various parts of the Province, and particularly on Vancouver Island and Gulf
Islands. A'isits were also made along the Grand Trunk Pacific as far as east of Prince George
and up the North Thompson River.
Lectures and demonstrations are held at centres w7herever requested by United Farmers,
Farmers' and Women's Institutes, Poultry Associations, and allied organizations. The Division
put on displays and fulfilled judging engagements at fall fairs, etc. It is interesting to note
that this Province is the only section of Canada really catering to commercial poultry-breeders
by giving generous classes and prizes at every show.
Provincial Poultry Association.
Twelve poultry-shows were held in the Province and were assisted by the usual departmental
grant, according to the importance of each show. The last show of the season was the Provincial
Poultry-show held iu A'ancouver.    The exhibits were numerically less than last year, being just 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 101
about 3,000. The display of incubators and poultry appliances was the largest ever held. The
feed-supply houses also had a few very complete exhibits of foodstuffs; showing the growing
importance of the poultry industry, it is interesting to note that three of the largest companies
in the Province have now engaged poultry experts to assist poultry-breeders, whilst also increasing
the sale of their merchandise.
During the year the local associations increased in number by four, bringing the total up
to thirty-four local associations affiliated with the Provincial. The new associations are those
of Abbotsford, Port Kells, Rossland, and Revelstoke. The Provincial Association again distributed egg-record journals to its members and also published a Breeders' Directory. The
edition of 2,000 copies was exhausted early in the fall and a previous directory of which we
had a surplus had to be used. Breeders operating commercial hatcheries report increased trade
outside of the Province.   Most of the orders for chicks come from Alberta and Saskatchewan.
Annual Poultry Convention.
During August the American and Canadian Poultry Association held its annual convention
in Seattle and was attended by breeders from practically all parts of the world. In addition to
the American and Canadian breeders, visitors were present from New Zealand, South Australia,
Great Britain, and Sweden. The poultry-breeders from this Province are to be congratulated
on the fact that they were the second largest delegation at the convention. In addition to
lectures from some of the best-known poultrymen in the world, visits were made to possibly the
largest commercial poultry-farm in the world at Hollywood, where 10,000 birds are being trap-
nested; also to the Alderwood Manor Estate, where apparently at least one land-development
company is making good. Twenty thousand acres of logged-off land has been laid out for
poultry-farms and fruit. Sufficient settlers have located there to make it worth while for the
company to put up a $30,000 high school in addition to a demonstration poultry-farm, at which
possibly 6,000 birds are kept, which is being operated by the company.
After the convention many of the American visitors made a trip to Victoria and Vancouver.
Among the distinguished visitors were H. Damon, Chief Poultry Husbandman of the United
States, Washington, D.C, and T. Riggs, President of the American Poultry Association, of
Chicago, 111. The former gentleman admitted that until visiting the Dominion Experimental
Farm at Sidney he had regarded the egg yields of the Pacific Coast, as related at Seattle, as
fairy tales.    In all, about thirty visitors were entertained after the convention.
Egg-laying Contest.
The Tenth Egg-laying Contest was concluded in Victoria' on September 21st, 1921, after
having run for eleven months. The competition this year was held along what Is believed to
be original lines. Owing to the development of the Dominion Government Egg-laying Contests
it was thought wiser to change to what is known as the twin-bird contest. Two birds are sent
by each competitor and one of the birds is placed in a pen with a bird belonging to another
contestant. The birds are so housed that in each pen there is one bird from Class 1 and one
from Class 2. As the birds in each pen lay one brown egg and one white egg, this plan obviates
the use of trap-nests and is an adaptation of the single-bird contests held for years in Australia.
In addition to the two birds entered, each contestant sends a spare bird which is placed in a
house according to its class and a trap-nest record is kept of each bird. This form of contest
works very satisfactorily and is appreciated by the contestants, as instead of sending six birds
they had only to send half that number.
During the year inquiries were received from two Western States as to the working details
of our contest, as they are thinking of running similar contests in their States.
A grand total of 13,405 marketable eggs were laid by the 80 birds competing, being an
average of 167.5 eggs per bird. In Class 1 (40 birds) 15 birds each laid over 200 eggs apiece
during the eleven months. The highest layer in this class produced 235 eggs and the poorest
layer 63 eggs. In Class 2 (40 birds) 7 birds each laid over 200 eggs apiece during the eleven
months; the best layer produced 239 eggs and the poorest layer 31 eggs, while one bird went
through the eleven months without laying a single egg.
Four pens were disqualified for laying eggs less than 24 oz. to the dozen, average weight.
The Department awarded the usual cash prizes, and in addition the Provincial Poultry Association awarded cash prizes, monthly diplomas, and monthly bronze medals to the highest layers in
each class.   A report of the contest, together with further details, is attached. •
IT 102 Department of Agriculture. 1922
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
The Department again carried on these competitions. Clubs were formed at Kamloops,
Vancouver, Courtenay, Royston, Comox, Grantham, South Vancouver, Sandwick, and Merville,
a total of fourteen clubs. One instructive feature in connection with the judging of the clubs
is that certain parts of the Province, owing to altitude and climatic conditions, can apparently
mature chicks much faster than others. For instance, the Kamloops District, starting a month
later than the Coast District, can develop chicks fast enough to average as great maturity as
those on the Coast by September 1st. After this date the milder conditions of the Coast operate
in favour of the chicks and ordinarily they commence to lay sooner at the Coast. Many children
now sell breeding stock at exceedingly remunerative prices to ranchers and others.
Tbe Comox District beat all records for the number of entries in clubs since club-work
started. There were no fewer than eighty-two entries in the eight clubs formed there. The
District Agriculturist at Courtenay organized the clubs for the district.
POULTRY'-DISEASES.
Owing to the favourable spring weather fewer complaints were made as to mortality amongst
the young chicks. As mentioned previously, a number of visits of the Instructors were asked
for by breeders with reference to ovarian trouble.
During the latter part of the year, owing to the excessive rainfall in the Coast and Islands
Districts, many outbreaks of colds and roup were recorded. Instructors were able to remedy
the situation by advising against overcrowding and dirty litter. The excessive rainfall also
drew attention to the fact that matters of inadequate ventilation will have to be considered,
especially in the Fraser A'alley District. Some breeders were forced to change litter almost
daily owing to the sodden conditions. Precautions against driving rains in open-front houses
was also recommended as remedy for this condition.
Publications.
During the year, in addition to the revision of several of the Department's bulletins, new
bulletins were issued which proved to fill a long-felt want. A stencil bulletin on " Home Preservation of Eggs " received wide distribution, and " Some Good Egg Recipes," compiled by Miss
Leighton, of the Department, proved useful to Women's Institute members and others. Articles
were supplied to the farm journals of the Province, the departmental publication, the Agricultural Journal, and to various Provincial newspapers. The Egg-laying Contest monthly records
were distributed as usual to the various institutions on the American continent, Europe, and
Australia.    ,
Office-work.
An increased demand was experienced for all kinds of poultry bulletins, especially from
back-yard breeders. This happened in 1912, 1915, 1920, and again this year. Every dull period
seems to be taken advantage of by beginners to start in the business, commercially or otherwise.
The reduced price of lumber, equipment, and feed greatly encourages this work.- On the other
hand, those unfortunately starting in the business during the period of inflation, oftentimes on
borrowed capital, are severely hit by the reduction in values and dull times.
Many applications for particulars re poultry-raising generally in conjunction with small-
fruit growing were received from intending settlers in Eastern Canada, Prairie points, Great
Britain, and particularly from British possessions in the Far East.
In conclusion, the Division is of the opinion that present conditions' will gradually better
themselves and that the present low prices for products will rise owing to a bigger demand.
Low prices induce consumption, just as rising prices for eggs in the fall slacken the demand.
Respectfully submitted.
J. R. Terry,
Chief Poultry Instructor. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 103
REPORT OF DAIRY COMMISSIONER, VICTORIA.
H. Rive, B.S.A.
Dr. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as Dairy Commissioner for the year 1921.
General.
Good progress has been made by the dairy industry in British Columbia during 1921.
Increased production is reported from the older dairy districts and new districts are being
established.
The weather experienced during the year was not unfavourable, large crops of green forages
and silo mixtures being harvested in many sections of the country.
Prices for dairy products experienced a considerable drop about midsummer, and while
rising gradually towards winter, remained well below the figures of previous years. Prices of
dairy feeds have also continued to decline.
In February F. Overland, formerly with the Union Milk Company, of Calgary, joined the
staff of this Branch as Dairy Instructor and Inspector, replacing T. A. F. Wiancko, now of
Toronto. Mr. Overland, whose duties will be chiefly on the Lower Mainland, has given good
evidence of interest in and capacity for his work.
Creameries.
Calls have been made on all factories in the Province, though not as frequently as is
desirable owing to lack of assistance. The creameries of British Columbia in the main are
in good condition, with modern equipment, but these features even with skilled supervision in
butter-making do not atone for careless or unsanitary handling of milk or cream on the farm.
Calling on faulty patrons, therefore, ranks amongst the most important duties of the Inspector,
but in this respect the outside districts have not received the necessary attention owing to the
cause above mentioned.
The butter manufactured in British Columbia is of good quality, the creamery managers,
with few exceptions, possessing a thorough appreciation of the requirements of the Canadian
export butter standards which govern our wholesale markets. Great improvement still can be
effected in the supplies from the farm.
The newly established creameries at Vanderhoof and Quesnel have made good progress and
should in a short time be on a self-supporting basis. More dairy cattle, however, are required
in these as in all the new districts.
Throughout the Province there exists a demand for dairy information and institutions. The
tendency to establish small creameries in weak or new dairy districts is not being encouraged, but
where transportation facilities exist efforts are being made to bring about a greater centralization,
obviating undue costs of manufacturing which attend small enterprises.
Extract from the report of F. Overland, Provincial Dairy Instructor and Inspector :—
" Creameries.—In the early months of the year a visit was made to all the creameries of
the Province. The greater number of these were found in good condition; many were making
alterations and installing more modern and extensive machinery to cope with increased production. With the exception of a few of the smaller ones, the creameries of British Columbia now
pasteurize the cream for butter-making. A second and third visit was made to the creameries
on the Coast and Lower Mainland.
" About 500 inspection visits were made to farm dairies and stables on the Lower Mainland,
and while a number were found in a satisfactory, many were only in a fair condition. There
have been many new stables erected this year, improving sanitary conditions to some extent.
Quite a number of dairy-farmers are striving to make their old stables do until the cost of
labour and building material has further decreased. The past, two years have given the dairy-
farmers a small return only for their labour, and consequently until they secure better returns
no great amount of building or improvements can be expected.
" Under these conditions it is rather difficult to show results of inspection-work, but
assistance and advice were given on the care and handling of milk and cream. IT 104 Department of Agriculture. 1922
" Samples of the milk from the farms were taken frequently as they arrived at the creamery
and tested for temperature, sediment, and acidity.
" Fall Fairs.—Last fall the writer attended and acted as judge at the following fairs:
Chilliwack, Richmond, and assisted A. P. Slade at A'ancouver, New Westminster, and A'ictoria.
The grade of butter showm was of excellent quality, with a large list of entries. In the creamery
classes at A'ancouver, New Westminster, and Arictoria there were many entries from the Prairie
Provinces.
" Conventions.—During the past year the following conventions w7ere attended: The Northwestern Dairy Inspectors and Milk Dealers, Seattle; the British Columbia Dairymen's Association
at Arictoria and Vanderhoof; also the Dominion Butter-graders' Conference at Toronto."
A list of the manufacturing plants of the Province is herewith appended.
Dominion Educational Butter-scoring Contest.
The plan for 1921 was greatly altered from that of previous years, one creamery only from
each Province participating each month for six months.
The fall butter-scoring meeting was this year held in Toronto. F. Overland attended as
representative of this Branch.
Cheese-making.
The manufacture of Cheddar cheese in British Columbia increases steadily, if slowly, in
spite of the competition experienced from Eastern Provinces. It is possible, however, that the
surplus of milk on the Lower Mainland that for the past few7 years has been made into cheese
of this type may find its way on to the market through more remunerative outlets, with a
resulting decline in local manufacture.    .
There is room also for other varieties on the Coast markets, as our imports clearly show.
The manufacture of simple types on the farm for home consumption should also be encouraged.
Many requests for information on this subject have been received from Women's Institutes.
Information as to several types of cheese well suited to be manufactured commercially in
British Columbia can be obtained from the Department of Dairying, University of British
Columbia.
Condenseries.
The Pacific Milk Company, Limited, of Drake Street, A'ancouver, with its condenseries at
Ladner and Abbotsford, is still the sole operating condensery firm in this Province, the Borden
Milk Company's plant at South Sumas remaining closed. The class of milk produced is of the
unsweetened type, which finds a good market locally and is also shipped to Europe and the
Far East.
Milk-powder.
A milk-power manufacturing company under the name of Dairy Products, Limited, has
erected a factory at Chilliwack. It expects to commence operations shortly and should afford
another profitable outlet for the butter-fat of the district.
Dairy- Legislation.
An addition by Order in Council to the regulations made in connection with the " Creameries
and Dairies Regulation Act, 1920," requiring the testing by licensees of creameries or dairies,
and the reporting of the account of the test, of samples of milk or cream not less often than
semi-monthly, represents activities under this heading.
Testers' Licences during 1921.
Seventeen candidates were examined by the Dairy Branch and seventy-three licences were
issued.    (List of testers holding licences appended.)
Dairy and Creamery Licences during 1921.
To forty-six persons or companies buying milk or cream on the butter-fat basis licences for
businesses wrere issued.    (List of creameries and dairies so licensed appended.)
Check-testers.
At the end of the present fiscal year the contribution of this Department for the last several
years towards the salaries of check-testers on the Low7er Mainland is being discontinued.   The ':■, '•■:   '   ^ - e' % ■•**'■    '-'
•'-?   .
■." i
o
3
^. In
Zl SB
"E o i   mj 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 103
original purpose of this was to assist in furnishing competent and trustworthy testers to have
charge of the testing-work of the factories of a district, and so eliminate from the patrons'
minds suspicions of petty manipulations of the test on the part of rival concerns.
With the consolidation of dairy producers' interests on the Lower Mainland this work is
no longer as between rivals, and has become the ordinary commercial work of one organization
calling for no official arbitrator, and therefore without claim on departmental assistance.
Cow-testing—Milk-record AVork. •
As in past years, considerable attention and direct financial support has been given to this
movement. The associations have remained in charge of G. H. Thornbery, whose enthusiastic
care for the work has not lessened.    He reports as follows:—
" The returns received from each association during the last twelve months show a decided
increase in the average yield per cow; in fact, all associations report a higher average than at
any time since they were instituted.
" The average yield in the Chilliwack, Comox, and Langley-Surrey Associations for the year
1915 was 6,539 lb. of milk containing 266.1 lb. of butter-fat. During 1920 the average yield
reported from these associations was 6,8S0 lb. of milk and 304.4 lb. of fat, or an increase of
38 lb. of fat per cow in these three dairy sections.
" Testing Centres.—New testing centres are in operation in the Powell River and Cowichan
Districts, and the Courtenay Centre, which was started during 1920, continues to do valuable
work amongst the small herds.
" Official Testing.—There has been a decided falling-off in the number of Holstein Advanced
Registry tests carried out during the past year. Record of Performance and semi-official w7ork
are in many cases replacing the short-time official test.
" Testers have been supplied to the Colony Farm to supervise official tests, and also to
conduct regular monthly semi-official tests, under the rules of the Holstein-Friesian Association
of America.
" Following is a brief report of each association:—
" The returns from the Chilliwack Association show an improvement in the yield per cow
over last year, although the number of cows reported is very small.
" Finances are not in a very satisfactory condition; in fact, there is a balance on the wrong
side. This may be accounted for by a temporary lack! of interest in the work, but we are glad
to report that conditions have shown a decided improvement towards the end of the year and
there is every indication that this association will soon be in good shape.
" Comox again holds premier place for the highest average yield per cow7 in British Columbia
and, we believe, in Canada.
" The average yield of cow7s reported is 6,362 lb. of milk containing 324 lb. of butter-fat.
The average for 1915 was 4,950 lb. of milk and 231.3 lb. of fat, showing an increase in five years
of 1,412 lb. of milk and 93 lb. of fat per cow.
" The average for 1920 may seem abnormally high, but it is interesting to note that the
average of the highest producing herd in this association is 9,119 lb. of milk and 486 lb. of fat.
" This herd of high-grade Jersey cows, amongst whose ancestors were Shorthorns, belongs
to Mrs. McMillan, of Denman Island, and contains fourteen head. In 1917 this herd averaged
5,963 lb. of milk and 296 lb. of fat, a remarkable proof of the value of keeping record of what
each cow is producing.
" The Langley-Surrey Association now covers a large area, reaching from Coquitlam to
Matsqui, Glen Valley, Milner, Langley, and Surrey.
" It is hoped that it may be possible, in the near future, to increase the membership in the
Port Hammond and Haney Districts, which would allow this large area to contain two .separate
associations.
" The association in the Richmond District has not shown much progress during the last year
owing to a change of testers and also absence of tester on sick leave. Dairymen in the Ladner
District have been called on with a view of making one healthy association out of these two
large dairy sections. «
" There is probably more interest and appreciation of the value of cow-testing work shown
by the members of the Kelowna-A'ernon Association than elsewhere. This is perhaps due to the
fact that the district is comparatively new from a dairy standpoint, and for this reason the IT 106 Department of Agriculture. 1922
monthly visits of the tester are of greater value to the members, in that he is able to be of more
help to those who are keen to carry on their dairying operations in the most up-to-date and
economical manner.
" The association has not been in operation long enough to be able to furnish any data in
regard to average yields, but we are looking for a good showing this coming year.
"Much time has been spent during the last year visiting districts where Cow7-testing
Associations are in operation, with a view to creating a greater interest in the work. Problems
dealing witn the feeding, breeding, and weeding of dairy cows have been discussed, and where
possible helpful information given towards their solution.
" It is frequently noted that the farmers are not using the information gained from testing
their cows regularly to the best advantage, and it is becoming more apparent that the average
member of a Cow-testing Association does not sufficiently appreciate the value of this w7ork.
This is a surprising fact when it is remembered that dairymen across the line are paying testing
fees which are two or three times greater than those of the dairy-farmer of British Columbia.
" There are several reasons for this state of affairs, the most important of which is the fact
that the Record of Performance work carried on by the Dominion Department of Agriculture is
obtainable free of charge by owners of pure-bed cows. This fact is making it difficult to keep
up the required number of cows in some of the associations.
" Practically all members have been visited twice during the past year, with the exception
of those in the Kelowna-A'ernon District, to whom a visit was paid in April.
" In conclusion, the prospects of giving greater service to all members of the associations
are good and we anticipate a marked improvement in the interest taken in this work by the
dairy-farmers of British Columbia."
British Columbia Dairymen's Association.
The business of the association  requires constant attention.    Refunds on transportation
charges of pure-bred dairy cattle have been made as in previous years.   Prizes are awarded
■ for production in the local  Cow-testing Associations  and in the  C.N.R.P.  classes  in British
Columbia.
A very successful display of milk values was made at the time of the annual convention in
Victoria last February, and as an object-lesson was taken full advantage of by the domestic-
science teachers of Victoria and their classes.
The summer meeting of the association was held at Vanderhoof, in the Nechako ATalley,
early in June. These meetings, though necessarily brief, arouse great interest and undoubtedly
afford stimulation for new dairy districts.
Publications of the National Dairy Council have been brought In and distributed. The
annual convention for 1922 occurs in Chilliwack on Wednesday and Thursday, February 22nd
and 23rd.
Dairy Manufacturers.
The British Columbia Dairymen's Association being essentially an organization of producers,
it is not advisable to discuss at its meetings topics technical and relating to the manufacture of
dairy products. This field to-day offers an immense scope and requires a wide acquaintance
with methods, tests, and theories not to be acquired speedily. There is in this Province no
provision for meetings of those interested in treating and manufacturing, and on account of the
nature of the already existing dairymen's organization as noted above, encouragement should
be given for the establishment and a grant allowed for the support of a Dairy Manufacturers'
Association of British Columbia.
There exists also in British Columbia no dairy school, as in other Provinces, offering during
the winter months short courses of tw7o or three months on subjects vital to beginners in dairy
factories. It is advisable, therefore, that an appropriation be allowed for holding in Vancouver
and at some point in the Interior, say at Salmon Arm, six-day courses for dairy manufacturers.
The most important features only could be dealt with, such as butter-grading, cream-grading,
acidimetry, neutralizes, cream-testing, etc.; this to continue for a few years in order to allow
time for the organization of a dairy school. Some such arrangement appears necessary in view
of the fact that the young men entering factories in British Columbia to-day have no opportunities whatever of discussing dairy problems with their fellows or of becoming conversant w7ith
up-to-date practice that may not be known to their immediate supervisors. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. U 107
Publications.
During the year five circulars have been published. Of these, four dealt w'ith farm cheese-
making and were prepared for this Branch by Professors Sadler and Golding, of the Dairy
Department of the University of British Columbia. Many requests have been received for this
set from the Women's Institutes of the Province. The remaining one on " Ararying Butter-fat
Tests"  (reprint) has been in good demand by creameries for distribution to their patrons.
Conclusion.
The dairy industry in British Columbia has reached a stage in its development where the
natural increase in dairy cattle appreciably affects the annual returns of dairy production.
Considering the probable amount and value to this Province in a very few years of its
dairy commodities, more attention should be given than is at present to both producers and
manufacturers.
Respectfully submitted.
Henry Rive,
Dairy Commissioner.
REPORT OF STATISTICIAN, AHCTORIA.
Geo. H. Stewart.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Statistics Branch for the year
ending December 31st, 1921.
Scope.
The duties of this Branch during the year consisted of the collection of data relating to
agricultural production, imports, and exports. Figures relating to crop areas and numbers of
live stock were collected by means of a postal census during the month of June. Card schedules
were distributed to every farmer in the Province, to be filled in and returned to this office, where
the compilation was completed.
Data relating to imports from other Provinces in Canada are now collected by means of
returns from the distributers of agricultural food products in the Province. During the month
of October 1,060 returns were dispatched to the various importers; of this number, 96 per cent,
have been filled in and returned to this office. Data concerning importations from foreign
countries are obtained from the Customs Department of the Dominion Government at Ottawa.
All other returns in connection with the production of hops, wool, fruit, butter, cheese, etc., are
now being collected and the results will soon be ready for publication. The fullest co-operation
has existed throughout the year between the Dominion Bureau of Statistics and this Branch.
Crop Correspondents.
The voluntary services of 107 crop correspondents, located in all sections of the Province,
were secured by this office at the beginning of the. year. The duties of these correspondents
consisted in rendering monthly reports to this office concerning the condition of crops, average
yields, prices, weather conditions, etc. This enabled this Branch to furnish reliable and accurate
information at all times regarding the agricultural industry in the Province.
In addition to these correspondents, a large number were appointed and asked to report to
the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa. By mutual agreement the results were exchanged
and averages agreed upon. This eliminated the publication of conflicting figures and at the
same time assured the greatest degree of accuracy. IT 108
Department of Agriculture.
1922
Postal Census, 1921.
The total number of cards mailed to individual farmers was 16,164; compiled, 5,9S6. The
following were returned blank, etc.:—
■ " Removed " or " gone away "    425
Returned by recipients " not farming "   252
Returned noted " dead "     94
Not called for at post-office  756
Returned by post-office " unknown "    428
Total     1,953
After deducting the 1,953 cards returned by the post-office the estimated number of actual
farmers is 14,211. The total number compiled would therefore be 42 per cent, of the estimated
total farmers, to w7hich was added 58 per cent, of the latter total.
The following table, extracted from the Dominion Government " Monthly Bulletin of
Agricultural Statistics " for November, 1921, shows the percentage of returns received by each
Province during the last five years. It will be noted there was a decrease in the percentage of
returns received this year in British Columbia as compared with last year. This is accounted
for owing to the fact that a large number of farmers did not return the card schedules, thinking
it unnecessary to do so because of the decennial census which was also taken this year. The
Province of British Columbia, however, still leads the other Provinces in the percentage of
returns received.
Province.
Number
of
Farms,
1921.
Number of Returns.
Percentage op
Returns.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
13,888
46,269
35,562
142,017
184,337
5% 184
120.900
86,000
14,211
698,368
28,133
35,592
14,444
6,886
7,766
20,868
13,937
34,894
79,968
17,808
46,089
13,574
6,534
3,770
12,136
6,643
24,735
36,213
10,536
35,531
4,919
7,970
4,903
16,249
7,266
19,076
31,342
16,738
35,939
14.454
8,694
4,414
16,781
5,853
29,374
37,870
15,271
32,660
11,862
5,986
21.0
34.0
21.0
46.0
55.0
38.0
36.0
20.0
43.0
38.0
44.0
20.0
42.5
27.0
24.0
17.0
17.0
19.0
21.0
34.0
7.0
58.0
30.0
30.0
19.5
13.0
17.0
33.0
34.6
21.0
60.0
32.0
36.0
16 0
21.0
20 0
28.0
27.0
42.0
241,438
142,453
154,661
160.071
36.0
21.5
23.0
23.0
Oriental Survey.
Due to the ever-increasing occupation of agricultural lands in the Province by Orientals, the
Legislature during the spring session voted a sum of $2,000 to cover the cost of obtaining a
complete record of all lands held by Orientals in British Columbia. This work commenced on
April 1st and was carried on under the supervision of this Branch, where the compilation was
also completed.
Valuable assistance was received in connection with this report from the Provincial Horticulturist and the members of his staff, also from the Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery
Stock and his assistants. Your Statistician personally covered that portion of Arancouver Island
from Duncan to Campbell River and the adjacent islands, also the Lower Mainland section of
the Province from A'ancouver to Haney, including the Municipalities of Point Grey, Burnaby,
South A'ancouver, and Coquitlam. The Government Agents in outlying portions of the Province
were asked to submit returns to this office showing the lands occupied in their districts by
Orientals. This enabled us to get a complete summary of all lands held and at the same time
eliminated a great deal of expense that would have been incurred should a personal visit have
been made. The results of this survey have been placed before you and published in all the
leading newspapers in the Province.    (For final summary see Appendix No. 2S.)
Information for Freight-rates Case.
Considerable time was spent by your Statistician in obtaining information for G. G. McGeer,
Counsel for the Government of British Columbia, in connection with their fight before the
Dominion Board of Railway Commissioners for the equalization of freight rates in this Province. 12 Geo. 5 British Columbia. IT 109
This consisted of rendering comparative statements for the years 1910 to 1921, inclusive,
showing the agricultural production year by year, the quantities and values of agricultural
imports and exports, the numbers of farm live stock, the acreage planted to various crops, and
other information concerning agriculture in this Province.
Farm Accounting.
Recognizing that the farmer, to successfully conduct the business of his farm, must keep
some record of his business transactions, this Branch in 1920 designed tbe " Farm Account Book."
One thousand copies of this book were printed, and so great was the demand that the last copy
was distributed during the early months of 1921. It was found advisable to print a second
edition of 1,000 copies, of which over 500 copies have already been distributed, with the demand
daily increasing. Your Statistician has examined several of the books, and it is indeed gratifying
to note the keen interest that is being displayed by the farmers and the creditable manner in
which the entries are recorded.
General.
The total number of letters received by this Branch during the year was 1,S43, while the
total number of letters dispatched was 1,234. Eight circular letters, comprising in all 2,360
letters, were sent out to Farmers' Institutes, manufacturers of dairy products, etc. In addition
to this, over 1,000 crop-report forms were dispatched to crop correspondents.
During tbe early part of the year Bulletin No. 88, " Agricultural Statistics, 1920," was issued.
Of the 1,200 copies printed but forty copies remain to be distributed. During the year weekly
reports have been furnished to several banking concerns, and numerous reports have been
supplied to manufacturing and financial interests in Canada and the United States.
With the attention given to correspondence, the compilation of the June census and crop
correspondents' returns, and other routine matters, the time of your Statistician has been fully
occupied.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
G. H. Stewart,
Statistician.
REPORT OF CHIEF INSPECTOR OF APIARIES, NELSON.
W. J. Sheppard.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report as Chief Inspector of Apiaries, in special charge of the
Kootenay and Okanagan territories, together with the reports of the Inspectors for Vancouver
Island and Gulf Islands and the Fraser Valley, for the past season.
General Conditions.
The season of 1921, although showing an estimated total increase of 41 tons over last year,
may be reckoned, on the whole, as being one of our poor years for honey production. In districts
where there has been sufficient moisture to keep the nectar-yielding plants in good condition
excellent crops of honey have been obtained. The irrigated sections of the Okanagan and
Thompson River show up well in this respect, as also some portions of the Fraser Valley.
As indicated by the reports of the Inspectors for the Fraser Valley, European foul-brood,
which has been so troublesome in the past in this part of the Province, shows improvement,
largely owing to better methods of bee-keeping and the increased introduction of good Italian
stock.
The system of establishing demonstration apiaries in different centres, which was started
this year, for the purpose of drawing attention to the advantages of using up-to-date equipment
and practising modern methods has produced excellent results in the Fraser Valley and shows
the value of this innovation.    Owing to the long distances to be covered to make the necessary U 110
Department of Agriculture.
1922
arrangements, demonstration apiaries in other parts of the Province could not be started early
enough this season to show results. A separate report, together with a list of Provincial
demonstration apiaries established to date, is appended.
The Lewis system for the treatment of European foul-brood, by spraying the combs with an
antiseptic solution of sodium hypochlorite, has been tested by your Inspectors during the past
season, and gives good promise of being a useful accessory in eliminating this disease. A separate
report on the treatment is attached.   '
Several cases of American foul-brood have been found during the past season at the following
places and promptly dealt with: At Nelson, Birchbank (near Trail), Willow Point, Camp Lister,
Kelowna, and Chilliwack. Compensation has been paid to the bee-keepers for the frames of
comb destroyed.
Outdoor demonstrations and lantern lectures on bee-keeping have been given by your
Inspectors in different districts during the season whenever opportunity has occurred.
Demonstration Apiaries in Fraser Valley, 1921.
With the opening of the spring of 1921 a new system of education for bee-keepers who wished
to learn the most up-to-date methods of honey production and the control of bee-diseases in their
own locality was adopted by the Department of Agriculture in the establishment of a number of
demonstration apiaries in the Province. These apiaries were placed under the direct supervision
and management of Apiary Inspectors.
Fifteen of them, numbering altogether forty-one colonies, were located at various points in
the Fraser Valley in apiaries that were already established. The Department incurred no expense
in the establishment of these apiaries, the owners of which purchased the equipment recommended
by the Inspectors; the object in each case being to demonstrate the possibilities of honey production with the use of modem methods and equipment in that particular locality, also to have a
model apiary within reach of every bee-keeper where the Inspectors could hold demonstrations
and give " talks " on the problems of that particular district.
The first work undertaken was to see that every colony was put into first-class shape.
Nearly all were requeened with a young vigorous Italian queen and the hive itself put in a
Kootenay case (which has proved after several years' trial to be the ideal method of protection
not only in the Interior, but in the milder districts of British Columbia). Many of the apiaries
when taken over were in a run-down condition and nine of them were affected with European
foul-brood.
A large amount of work and regular visits were required to get the colonies in shape for
homey production. The result of this work at the close of the season has proven fully as
successful as was anticipated, as the tables attached would indicate.
The apiaries showing an average of 150 lb. or more per colony were established wdth modern
equipment and Italian stock prior to 1921, which naturally gave them the advantage over apiaries
put into similar shape this season, and no doubt the rest will show better results in the future.
Many bee-keepers in the vicinity of these apiaries have been watching them very closely, and
upon comparing the results obtained from, them with the returns from their own bees in the
same location are adopting similar methods and equipment.
Natural swarming was eliminated in these apiaries and the colonies in several of them were
increased 1