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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. T. D. PATTULLO,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1921

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT
op
THE EOEEST BEANCH
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. T. D. PATTULLO, Minister.
P. 7i. Caverhill, Chief Forester.
FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31ST
1921
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY  OF  THE   LEGISLATIVE   ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1922.  Victoria, B.C., February 21st, 1922.
To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Keport of the Forest Branch
of the Department of Lands for the year 1921.
T. D. PATTULLO,
Minister of Lands. The Hon. T. D. Pattullo,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There are submitted herewith statistical tables with a brief comment
thereon, covering the main activities of the Branch during the calendar year 1921.
P. Z. CAVEKHILL,
Chief Forester. REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The year 1921 will be remembered as a period of readjustment and deflation. In.no case
has this condition been more marked and obtained more promising results than in the lumber
industry of British Columbia. Early in the year prices of lumber products were dropped close
to pre-war levels and in general have been throughout the year 40 to 50 per cent, below those
prevailing in 1920, a level only justified on the assumption that replacement values could be
materially reduced. The result was gratifying, demand strengthened, and foreign trade increased.
Labour responded by accepting reduced wages and increasing efficiency. Provisions also declined
and with the close of the year deflation in equipment was progressing.   .
The year has not been without its successes, and in some fields new records have been
created, new milestones passed, which mean much for the future of the industry. Readjustment
and deflation have caused a close scrutiny of cost of production, which has been brought to a
minimum; new foreign fields have been entered and new markets developed. In spite of the
financial depression, the volume of business done, as shown by the scale, exceeds any previous
year, except only 1920. The revenue charged on operations was $1,544,251, as against $1,547,461
in 1920.
WATER-BORNE EXPORT.
The export demand remained strong throughout the year, especially from Japan and China.
The Japanese trade increased from 5,990,266 to 52,447,160 feet B.M. and the Chinese trade showed
an increase of 180 per cent, over the previous year. Of still greater interest is the increase in
"United States coastal trade. In 1920 4,162,848 feet were supplied, whereas the record for 1921
was 25,553,543 feet. The total export was 1S8,000,000 feet, an increase of 42,000,000 feet for
the year and a new record for British Columbia. This business now exceeds 10 per cent, of the
total scale of all forest products and 20 per cent, of logs scaled west of the Cascades, after
deducting for those going to pulp plants, shingle-mills, and for export direct. A still further
encouraging feature of our export business is the increase shown in relation to the total export
from the Douglas fir region. In 1916 we contributed only 3.1 per cent.; in 1920, 8.65 per cent.;
and during 1921, 9.6 per cent. This rapid increase is in a large measure attributable to better
co-operation and organization in handling the export business. The organization of the Associated
Timber Exporters of British Columbia, the formation of several export companies, now gives a
foreign buyer direct contact with British Columbia exporters, while the Canadian Mercantile
Marine has aided in solving the shipping problem.
Lumber exported, 1919, 1920, and 1921.
Destination.
1919.
1920.
1921.
FeetB.M.
8,515,600
1,551,574
17,183,430
4,675,730
65,381,100
5,044,672
475,088
6,259,346
785,726
108,872,266
Feet B.M.
32,218,155
4,169,099
5,523,102
14,911,232
5,990,266
61,217,805
7,330,531
5,619,747
4,162,845
2,996,123
1,479,950
1,015,414
Feet B.M.
27,275,928
4,553,603
1,317,825
41,944,011
52,447,160
13,592,562
2,931,969
8,429,403
25,553,543
1,158,805
20,668
941,422
8,566,400
Totals ^	
146,624,269
188,733,299 I 6
Department op Lands.
1922
WATER-BORNE      SHIPMENTS
FROM
DOUGLAS     FIR     REGION
B.C.   PORTION   SHEWN BLACK
yj
1916
1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 12 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 7
WATER-BORNE      SHIPMENT S
FROM
. B.C.
AS   COMPARED   WITH
TOTAL     SCALE
■
■
1916
1917
1
■
■
1918
1919
1920
1921 LUA1BER TRADE EXTENSION.
Educational work was continued. Significant results from the work in Eastern Canada are
beginning to show. These include changes in specifications for engineering-works and in the
building codes of the various cities, so that British Columbia woods are included where before
only Eastern or foreign woods were used. The work done on battery separators has led to the
completion of a plant for their manufacture, an entirely new industry for British Columbia.
The results from this work will be cumulative and each year hereafter will bring its contribution
to the industry.
One of the noteworthy achievements of the year was the co-operative arrangement for a
permanent lumber display at Toronto. Each of the various associations pledged itself to contribute funds for this work and thus recognized the vital interest and obligation of all in this
important question.
New premises in which the exhibit will be housed have been secured at 51 Yonge Street,
Toronto, in the heart of the down-town business and financial district. Here it is planned to
construct a modern suite of rooms, finished and furnished with British Columbia lumber products,
so that architects and builders will have every opportunity to study effects in the finished product
rather than in the rough.
The display of British Columbia wood products was again awarded a diploma"and gold
medal at the Canadian National Exhibition.
Lumber Commissioner Turnbull, following up trade prospects in Europe and Egypt, left for
England and is still in London, where he is carrying on educational work and assisting the
Agent-General of the Province in timber matters.
TRADE PUBLICITY. I
During the year the Department had prepared several rolls of motion pictures illustrating
various phases of the industry. These have been shown through co-operation with the Lumber
and Shingle Associations. Films were also taken to London for the use of the Agent-General
and the Lumber Commissioner in publicity work in England.
Farmers' bulletins were also distributed through the "better-farming movement" on the
Prairies and direct to inquirers. The new series, "Uses, Strengths, and Working Stresses of
B.C. Woods," was distributed to architects and builders through the Canadian Trade Commissioners throughout the world, the Agent-General in London, and Lumber Commissioner's office
in Toronto. In all, some 40,000 of these booklets were sent out. Samples of the various species
of woods have also been distributed to educational institutions and also in response to trade
inquiries at home and abroad.
Advertising, calling attention to the use of British Columbia woods, was again carried in the
various trade and professional journals.
FOREST PRODUCTION.
The value of production shows a marked falling-off, being placed at $64,970,000 for the year,
as compared with $92,G2S,000 for 1920. Almost every item shows a decrease and it is especially
noted in lumber, pulp, paper, and shingles. This is accounted for chiefly on account of falling
prices, although in some instances quantities were also reduced. Prices during the year have
apparently reached bottom and were advancing with the close of the year. It is encouraging to
note that, excepting 1919 and 1920, years of inflated prices, the value is higher than in any
preceding year. 12 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 9
Estimated Value of Production.
Product.
Lumber	
Pulp and paper 	
Shingles	
Boxes	
Piles, poles, and mine-props	
Miscellaneous	
Ties, railway   	
Additional value contributed by the wood-cutting industry
Product of Dominion lands	
Laths	
Logs exported	
Totals	
$26,219,697
10,517,250
5,305,417
1,845,195
1,087,418
1,773,821
1,689,810
4,953,829
120,278
148,808
$54,162,523
$31,000,000
12,554,257
12,801,564
2,142,000
1,532,448
5,256,520
2,091,346
1,720,000
195,594
991,365
$70,285,094
$46,952,500
21,611,681
12,081,476
2,650,000
1,543,087
1,495,729
2,250,682
2,580,000
847,920
615,732
$92,628,i
$33,533,000
13,500,000
7,032,000
2,000,000
1,479,000
1,180,000
2,314,000
2,034,000
250,000
1,648,000
$64,970,000
■Included in other items.
PULP AND PAPER.
The pulp industry suffered severely through falling prices and slow buying, especially on
sulphite and sulphate products, and some of the mills had to close for a time. Paper-mills ran
throughout the year, although at slightly below capacity.
Output figures are as follows:—
Pulp.
1919.
1920.
1921.
Tons.
80,347
9,473
99,769
Tons. ,
92,299
16,380
108,665
Tons.
68,502
6,519
89,725
All of the ground wood and 30,000 tons of sulphate were manufactured into paper, the
products being:—
Newsprint..  .
Other papers .
1919.
123,607
7,202
136,832
9,792
110,176
6,934
TIMBER SCALED.
The quantity of timber scaled for the year shows a drop of 256,000,000 feet, or 12 per cent.
The production is greater, however, than was expected in face of the adverse conditions prevailing, and exceeds, excepting 1920, all previous years. The cut of ties, 3,850,203, was the largest
on record and accounts for the large cut of lodge-pole pine, which is fast being recognized as
the tie-wood. I 10
Department of Lands.
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Forest Branch.
I 11
CRANBROOK
CARIBOO
FORT-
GEORGE?
PRINCE
RUPERT
KAMLOOPS
NELSON
VERNON
ISLAND
VANCOUVER
IMBER    SCALED
BY
DISTRICTS
=S
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
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Figures  indicate Millions of Feet  B.M. I 12
Department op Lands.
1922
SPECIES     CUT
1921
DOUGLAS
FIR
SPRUCE
HEMLOCK
CE DAR
WESTERN
SOFT
PINE
LARCH
ALL
OTHER
SPECIES
■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■»
;
1917
1918
1919
1920:
1921
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1917 m
1918
1919
1920
1921
1917
1918
1919
I920
1921
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Figures indicate Millions of Feet B.M. 12 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 13
Species cut, 1921.
Forest District.
Eh
CO
fa
sp:
o    -
a a
78,915
3,469
8,648
21,874
12,693
19,323
■5
■eri
PkJ
23,449
157
17,520
2,958
1,651
91
M
o   .
2%.
§«
fa
jtri
746
900
2,153
116
2,142
5,687
11,644
14,003
971
f,405
20,379
32,023
§
s
pari
a
S .
Sri
p-a
8,469
178
7,050
413
c
■Sri
3,954
13,177
2,406
209
19,746
11,020
19
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o
o
£   .
§a
Sri
5a
427
oT
V
'8
ta
pt,
*—'
.Sm'
ca
~a
Sri
Cranbrook 	
4,560
9
2,182
8,310
38,247
4,132
1,829
5
152
11,035
267
11,009
15
386
6,419
20,804
38,633
751
2,485
3,236
41,869
27,680
161,038
4,640
Prince George	
3
]
43,689
31,380
10,013
1,564
124
334
886
1,037
22
1,016
2,075
2,961
6,046
"i.7
17
"89
89
106
32
89,374
52,741
Totals, Interior..
144,912
6,490
180,004
489,619
676,113
821,025
52,440
32,988
54,660
310,280
397,928
450,368
45,826
75,372
8,890
21,704
105,966
151,792
203,246
13,288
16,110
39,260
382,762
30,355
38,202
113,160
181,717
195,005
291,585
290
2,438
2,728
18,838
267
5,718
171,265
284,057
951,933
Totals, Coast	
11,039
30,785
11,616
5,985
1,407,255
Grand totals, 1921
45,245
1,790,017
Grand totals, 1920
901,442
445,957
49,112
65,213
31,465
40,754
2,046,468
Total Amounts of Timber scaled in British Columbia fob Years 1920-21
(Comparative Statement in Board-feet).
Forest District.
1920.
1921.
Loss.
Gain.
Net Loss.
187,118,865
56,023,381
14,531,068
40,633,735
98,668,328
53,428,987
161,038,620
43,689,461
4,539,924
31,379,605
89,374,662
52,740,408
26,080,245
12,333,920
9,991,144
9,164,130
9,293,666
688,579
450,304,364
382,762,680
284,056,003
171,264,991
951,933,691
67,541,684
273,752,261
202,649,582
1,119,762,752
1,596,164,595
2,046,468,959
31,384,591
167,829,061
10,303,742
1,407,254,685
188,909,910
Totals for B.O	
1,790,017,365
256,451,594
TIMBER-SALES.
The demand for timber-sales naturally "fell off with the dropping market; 531 sates were
disposed of, however, covering an estimated equivalent to 248,000,000 feet, details of which are
contained in the following tables. The stumpage prices also declined, not being influenced by
the competitive bidding which in 1920 forced some sales to extremely high prices. The average
price, however, shows a creditable advance over 1919, being $1.46 for all species, as compared
with $1.S0 in 1920 and $1.38 in 1919. These figures show conclusively that the Department has
a real equity even in the small fractions of timber left from the general staking of previous years.
These fractions constitute most of the areas disposed of. The quantity cut from timber-sales
exceeded all previous years and reached 11 per cent, of the total cut. I 14
Department of Lands.
1922
Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1921.
Forest District.
No. of Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
No. of
Posts.
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(No. of Cords).
No. of
Railway-
ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
Cranbrook 	
25
41
39
27
73
87
210
29
6,271
7,532
9,400
6,794
9,948
9,131
36,248
6,290
1,182,100
9,309,080
9,067,109
2,141,000
15,545,000
28,349,000
103,874,000
19,504,485
4,870
07,675
191,100
44,000
1,217,290
437,885
237,125
279,150
290
6,570
1,614
2,530
200
20,054
3,033
34,291
57,900
33,397
428,958
171,230
91,350
209,332
260
$ 7,616 46
34,228 72
61,014 76
24,625 96
73,794 82
Vancouver	
95,247 20
290,537 17
59,422 56
Totals, 1921...
531
91,614
121,690
188,971,774
2,479,095
993,417
$ 646,487 65
Totals, 1920...
594
440,649,755
2,811,095
2,899,000
149,300
86,726
6,415,349
$1,799,039 08
Totals, 1919...
356
61,809
245,209,300
5,000
52,557
957,804
701,654
$  654,372 99
Totals, 1918...
227
34,257
44,914
159,659,000
378,080
1,517,450
20,000
40,000
18,478
9 380,408 33
Totals, 1917...
255
240,307,057
43,766
381,200
92,000
S 483,281 50
Totals, 1916...
133
23,318
136,345,000
435,810
26,666
S 259,769 12
Average Sale Price by Species.
Saw-timber.
Douglas fir	
Cedar	
Spruce 	
Hemlock	
Balsam fir	
White pine	
Western soft pine.
Tamarack	
Other species	
Totals.  ..
Figures for 1921.
Board-feet.
44,835,675
41,980,000
22,688,143
40,866,166
12,834,000
1,662,500
11,009,710
8,679,480
4,516,100
188,971,774
Price per M.
SI 65
1 57
1 60
1 55
98
1 55
1 82
1 79
1 31
$1 46
Figures for 1920.
Board-feet.
93,483,893
75,223,700
141,849,200
71,176,402
25,056,500
8,457,000
20,919,000
5,437,000
4,047,000
440,649,755
Price per M.
$2 04
2 23
2 05
1 06
1 23
2 06
1 37
2 24
1 78
SI 84
Figures for 1919.
57,456,460
55,655,350
69,151,000
28,836,200
17,296,000
2,257,500
7,479,900
3,019,400
4,057,500
245,209,300
Price per M.
$1 48
1 54
1 56
73
82
1 63
1 50
1 55
1 IS
$1 38
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1921.
Forest District.
Feet. B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
397,391
6,265,979
12,389,416
4,573,677
5,573.432
48,749,953
92,780,966
9,049,242
179,780,056
3,776
60,937
304,775
19,126
841,031
369,065
140,883
429,957
238
1,505
884
14
405
293
6,841
303
31,248
50,289
146,322
233,101
87,465
267,407
4,348
11,243
Totals, 1921	
2,169,550
1,638,549
10,483
831,423
Totals, 1920   	
168,783,812
107,701,950
113,927,610
99,078,832
17,703
654,829
Totals, 1919	
672,699
12,208
573,286
Totals, 1918	
499,689
15,539
146,807
Totals, 1917	
545,429
14,862
34,937
Totals, 1916	
63,055,102
225,799
8,425 12 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 15
SAW AND SHINGLE MILLS OF THE PROVINCE, 1921.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
6
ft
"CJ
B
CJ
~ a
UrH
oflg
64
1,485
303
660
218
456
5,122
604
8,912
10,729 ■
6
. p    .      ...       1 Operating,   Estimated
'.   £ r-. :   £ !   :   :       i Daily Capacity,
•  5o-w  • ■         Shingles. M.
d
T3
0
d
.'0
H 3
§£
■ga cs
MS
75
110
387
378
550
464
65
2,029
909
d
S3
Shut down, Estimated
Daily Capacity,
Shingles, M.
10
36
6
33
17
127
35
289
341
'9
2
68
12
2
13
9
18
22
2
i
i
4
g
Nelson	
Prince Rupert	
85
700
Totals for 1921	
79
10,885
78
6
788
Totals for 1920	
109
13,426
37
2
30
LOGGING INSPECTION.
In order to ensure the carrying-out of the regulations of the Department and to prevent
trespass, inspection is necessary for all logging operations. The records show that 4,053 inspections were made during the year, as against 2,703 for 1920, and for the first time we have been
able to have these inspections carried out systematically. There were a greater number of
trespasses reported than in previous years, but owing to closer inspection they were discovered
sooner and the quantity of timber involved was less than in previous years. Penalties for
trespass amounted to .$15,924.22, and in addition thirty trespasses were discovered on privately
owned lands which were reported to the owners for adjustment.
Logging Inspection, 1921.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Total
Operations.
No. ol
Inspections.
Prince Rupert	
22
61
53
113
61
77
250
54
136
60
31
84
114
166
167
95
466
208
53
145
167
279
228
308
766
262
90
206
252
409
186
471
437
Totals, 1921	
691
186
1,331
2,208
4,053
Totals, 1920	
605
220
1,961
2,796
2,703
Totals, 1919	
365
200
757
1,322
1,884 I 16
Department of Lands.
1922
TRESPASS, 1921.
No. of
Cases.
Area cut
over
(Acres).
Quantity cut.
be
g
o
« $
oS
.  N
£'»
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
9
8
7
13
6
22
10
23
297
583
115
302
59
239
200
143
50.500
41,939
174,235
343,868
256,176
1,097,359
574,435
684,161
3,222,673
1,240
65,865
22,625
87,030
11,700
20,945
40
967
8
146
68
iii
286
3,693
891
1,255
264
113
10,749
3,000
1,640
21,605
'2
1
7
$   490 30
757 73
2,066 64
4,766 95
2,121 95
4,200 05
Totals, 1921.. 	
98
73
1,938
1,788
209,395
104,048
1,639
1,882
10
.$15,924 22
Totals, 1920..	
4,904,079*
6,716
10
$17,119 85
Totals, 1919	
87
2,454
12,708,365
48,860
88
87,120
8
$21,730 12
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
Areas examined, 1921.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Fort George..
Kamloops......
Nelson	
Prince Rupert
Vancouver	
Vernon	
Totals.
Applications for
Crown Grants.
15
2
19
2
10
18
24
15
Acres.
2,688
120
3.769
317
1,484
2,435
4,057
2,723
17,543
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
80
53
1,424
15,785
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
138
5
149
10
20
22
43
37
Acres.
18,000
775
22,353
1,518
2,268
4,977
5,963
5,373
61,227
Applications to
Purchase.
103
17
52
4
18
48
29
34
Acres.
14,505
2,850
15,633
720
3,012
11,171
4,314
7,724
59,929
Miscellaneous.
No.
4
18
12
4
66
16
1
Acres.
28,840
2,129
4,198
6,463
58
15,407
1,271
120
58,486
Classification of Areas examined, 1921.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Fort George...,
Kamloops	
Nelson   	
Prince Rupert..
Vancouver	
Vernon	
Totals..
Forest District.
Acres.
78,211
5,874
45,953
9,018
6,822
34,070
15,658
17,364
212,970
Agricultural
Land.
Acres.
16,742
1,015
34,419
2,763
2,505
13,191
4,106
3,690
i,431
Area
recommended
for Reserve.
4,216
1,432
401
3,956
2,232
1,661
13, i
Estimate of
Timber on
Reserved Area.
40,458
2,471
2,291
69,384
24,837
9,836
149,277
Pre-emption Record Examinations, 1921.
Cariboo   	
Cranbrook
Prince George
Kamloops
Nelson   	
Prince Rupert
Vancouver
Vernon  	
5SC
170
879
148
99
951
921
120
Total  3,874 12 Gbo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 17
TIMBER EXPORTS.
Export of Logs dueing Year 1921.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Total, 1921.
Total, 1920.
Fir	
Spruce	
7,628,811
2,580,986
247,581
27,530,479
12,950,741
2,379,076
15,053,294
2,520,636
950,129
1,301,614
2,725,000
12,957,278
1,109,742
281,140
51,514,198
18,052,363
6,301,786
12,957,278
1,109,742
281,140
1921	
1920	
Totals
10,457,378
4,013,711
42,860,296
18,524,059
18,374,774
90,216,507
Totals
16,521,832
4,315,532
3,822,863
28,673,938
Export of Poles, Piling, Props, Ties, Fence-posts, Cordwood, Pulp-wood, and
Shingle-bolts, 1921.
Forest District.
Cranbrook—
Cordwood	
Piling	
Poles	
Fence-posts
Mine-props
Mine-ties	
Pulp-wood	
Railway-ties....
Prince George—
Cedar poles..   . .
Cedar piling.  ..
Mine-props
Fence-posts	
Mine-ties	
Cordwood	
Corral-poies	
Railway-ties.   . .
Kamloops—
Poles	
Fence-posts
Nelson—
Poles	
Piling	
Fence-posts
Prince Rupert	
Poles	
Vancouver—
Poles	
Shingle-bolts...
Totals, 1921.
Totals, 1920.
Quantity exported.
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
No.,
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
No.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
1980
343,199
34,960
17,297
15,297
.  902
374
1,183,122
387,020
10,655
1,088
472
48
64
16
383,921
174,105
48
3,503,058
68,666
4,368
6,020
1,601,684
1,107
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
15,840
34,310
3,496
155,673
162,970
19,844
2,618
591,561
46,442
1,278
10,880
4,248
1,440
512
144
264,385
9,245
480
245,214
6,180
34,988
160,168
10,516
SI,773,034
$1,486,691
Where marketed.
United States.
32
35,935
374
66,810
1,142,625
56,644
1,488
1,601,684
1,107
1,948
307,264
34,960
17,297
15,297
902
320,210
10,655
1,088
472
48
64
16
383,921
92,455
48
2,360,433
12,022
2,880
FOREST RECONNAISSANCE.    '
During the summer of 1921 six areas were covered with intensive reconnaissance, and two
areas with extensive reconnaissance. Areas covered by intensive reconnaissance were cruised
and not less than 5 per cent, of the trees measured. A careful topographic map was prepared
in each case. In extensive reconnaissance an area is covered only in a general way and a rough
estimate of the general amount of timber obtained.
The "Upper Fraseb Valley.
Late in 1920 an application was received for a thirty-year supply of pulp-wood for a 100-ton
sulphite plant to be located in the vicinity of Prince George. The cruise was proceeded with
early in the year and a total of over 2,000,000 cords, averaging S5 per cent, spruce and 15 per cent,
balsam, was estimated on an area of 167,000 acres. Of the spruce, 75 per cent, of the total
volume is contained in logs 9-inch top diameter and over, and 25 per cent, in logs less than
9-ineh top.    The timber lies entirely within the valleys of the Fraser and Bowron Rivers, to
2 I 18
Department of Lands.
1922 12 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 19 I 20 Department op Lands. 1922
which the timber is easily accessible, the average hauling distance being less than 2 miles.
Weather conditions favour snow-logging and the Eraser, being easily drivable to Prince George,
furnishes a ready means of transporting the logs to the mill. A considerable portion of the
area was found to be adaptable for agricultural development after the timber has been removed.
The Kitimat Area.
An investigation was also made into the timber resources on Crown land in the Kitimat
Valley and subsidiary valleys tributary to it. The valley drains by way of Kitimat River into
Kitimat Arm, at the extreme head of Douglas Channel; it extends northward approximately
20 miles, a low divide of 600 feet separating it from the Lakelse Lake drainage-basin. The
width of the valley averages 3 to 4 miles, being bounded on the east by the Coast Range proper
and on the west by outlying spurs of the same range. Three tributary rivers of importance
enter the Kitimat—namely, the Clearwater, which joins the Kitimat 7 miles from its mouth, and
the Little and Big Wedeenes, whose junctions are 3 and 4 miles respectively farther up. The
topography of the valley proper is almost featureless, being unusually broad and flat for the
Northern Coast region. The tributary valleys are narrow, with steep slopes, and the rivers
confined to deep canyons in places. The slopes of the main valley and tributaries bear timber
to as high as 1,200 feet above sea-level, but 600 feet is the average limit of merchantability.
Along with the cruising proper, data were secured for a map showing 100-foot contours;
details were secured by use of the " topographic Abney level " and 2-chain " topographic tape "
with trailer. These instruments, used for the first time, proved highly satisfactory and assured
comparative accuracy of the topography. Merchantable types were classified according to site,
as on the whole this was found to be the determining factor influencing the quality, density,
and mixture of the stand.
An area of 22,000 acres was covered by the cruise and a total of 250,000,000 feet was found,
35 per cent, of which is hemlock, 34 per cent, balsam, 25 per cent, spruce, and 6 per cent, cedar.
Of the 22,000 acres covered, 60 per cent, was found to bear merchantable timber and 40 per cent,
were non-merchantable areas, principally muskeg. The estimate was prepared from volume
tables quoted later in this report, made by members of the party during the summer, and
opportunities were thereby afforded the estimators of comparing their judgment with actual
measurement of representative trees.
Logging by railroad is the most obvious method of extracting the timber, as there is a very
easy grade up the entire west side of the river and preparation of a road-bed would be a simple
matter.
Nass River Area.
In 1914 a preliminary reconnaissance was made of the Nass Valley. During.the year 1921
this preliminary investigation was followed up with a more intensive cruise, covering .about
31,000 acres. The Nass River is similar to the Skeena River and the Fraser River, in that its
headwaters are east of the Coast range of mountains and the river itself breaks through the
Coast Range on its way to the sea. The timber stands, therefore, are in two distinct types:
(a) The Coast type; and (6) the Interior type, east of where the river breaks through the
Coast Range. All of the main bodies of commercial timber on the Coast side of the range were
cruised during the past summer and a start was made in the Interior region. The area covered
in the upper valley above Ayansh contained 20,000 acres lying on the west side of the Nass
River between the Quinetalil River and the Kinskooch River.
The total amount of timber found during this year's work on the Nass River was 311,000,000
feet, being 32 per cent, spruce. 13 per cent, balsam, 50 per cent, hemlock, and the remaining
5 per cent, lodge-pole pine and cedar. Adverse weather conditions made it impossible to complete
the reconnaissance during the present season.
North Thompson River Area.
Work was started late in 1920 on a cruise of the timber on the North Thompson River above
its junction with the Albreda River. The work was discontinued because of the inclemency of
the weather during the late fall, and was completed during 1921. The North Thompson River
flows east through a timbered valley averaging about half a mile in width. The hills on either
side of the valley are steep, but covered with timber to an elevation of approximately 4,000 feet
above sea-level.   The valley has a very heavy precipitation for the Interior and a heavy snowfall 12 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 21
during winter. There is practically no agricultural land in the valley. Thunder Basin, located
24 miles above Thompson's Crossing, is about the limit for saw-timber. Above that point the
timber is spruce and balsam of pulp quality. In the bottom lands a good stand of spruce and
balsam is found, while on the slopes hemlock and cedar come into the mixture and the balsam
drops out. The total area of merchantable timber on the North Thompson River covered by the
survey was found to be 10,110 acres. A total stand of 193,000,000 feet was found on this area,
consisting of 40 per cent, spruce, 40 per cent, cedar, 10 per cent, hemlock, and 5 per cent, each
of fir and balsam.
The area is particularly well adapted to summer. logging. The logs may be skidded with
horses to chutes, and from that into the river and driven down the river to a mill below.
The Clearwater Area.
The Clearwater reconnaissance during the past summer covered two distinct areas: (a) The
east side of the valley proper lying between the mouth of the Clearwater River and the upper
reaches of the Myrtle River; and (b) an unsurveyed area covered with a stand of pulp-timber
lying to the east of the Clearwater River and south of Myrtle Lake and at an elevation of some
3,000 feet above the valley proper.
The Clearwater River is young in geological time and is overlooked by rocky cliffs and
precipitous slopes 500 to 1,000 feet in height. The valley proper lies about 1,000 feet above and
to the east of the Clearwater River. It has its greatest width near its junction with the Myrtle
River, and narrows and finally disappears entirely in a box canyon about 12 miles from its
mouth.   To the east of the valley the hills rise steeply.
The valley lands have been mostly burned over and the original stand destroyed or badly
thinned out. An excellent stand of reproduction is replacing the stand burned, over practically
the whole of the valley. An area of less than 25,000 acres of merchantable timber was found
in 58,000 acres of the valley investigated, containing a stand of 242,000,000 feet, of which
40 per cent, is Douglas fir, 35 per cent, cedar, 14 per cent, spruce, and some hemlock and
lodge-pole pine. It is estimated that approximately 20,000 acres of the valley is suitable for
agriculture when cleared.    The remainder is rocky and steep.
Only 23,000 acres of an estimated area of 140 square miles was cruised in the spruce and
balsam area during 1921. The stand, averaging 8,500 feet B.M. per acre, lies at an elevation
of 5,000 feet above sea-level, on the headwaters of small tributaries of the Clearwater River and
Myrtle Lake. The topography is rolling and plateau-like, and the various small streams, separated
by low divides, converge towards the valley below, joining, while still at a high elevation, into
one stream before entering Myrtle Lake. The stand is 65 per cent, spruce, 30 per cent, balsam,
and the remaining 5 per cent, cedar and lodge-pole pine.
Only a relatively small proportion of the Clearwater Valley watershed was covered during
the past summer. Due to weather conditions it was necessary to abandon the work in the
early fall.
masset Inlet Area.
During the past summer an area of 32,000 acres lying north and east of Masset Inlet, on
Queen Charlotte Islands, was investigated. Of this area less than 8,000 acres was found to be
covered with a stand of merchantable timber. The remainder of the area is covered with a
scrub stand of defective spruce and hemlock and a very large percentage of the area is muskeg.
A stand of 67.000.000 feet was found on the merchantable area, 55 per cent, of which was cedar,
30 per cent, balsam, and 15 per cent, spruce.
The country in general is rolling, with small creeks flowing out of muskegs and into Masset
Inlet. Along the streams there is usually a narrow strip of mercWantable timber. Farther back
the land is muskeg and the ridges have been burned, leaving a scrub stand of timber unfit for
commercial use.
Tahtsa Lake Reconnaissance.
Co-operating with a topographic survey party under the direction of F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S.,
an extensive reconnaissance was made of the timber laud surrounding Tahtsa Lake, which lies
in a deep mountain valley on the eastern edge of the Coast Range. It receives its waters from
glacier-fed rivers and creeks, none of which are very long, and then drains by way of Tahtsa
River into Ootsa Lake.    The area is very mountainous and all the merchantable timber is found v
I 22 Department of Lands. 1922
on the lower slopes near the lake-shore.   The major blocks, of timber lie chiefly near the broad
delta-mouths of the larger creek-valleys and extend up these valleys for about a mile.
A stand of 67,000,000 feet on an area of 8,000 acres was found tributary to Tahtsa Lake.
The timber is hemlock and balsam, the best stands being, roughly, 60 per cent, balsam and
40 per cent, hemlock.
Kitlobe River and Lake Reconnaissance.
During the survey of the Kitlobe River and Lake region a reconnaissance of the timber
resources of that area was made after the same fashion as explained above on the Tahtsa Lake
area. The Kitlobe Lake and River drain into the head of Gardner Canal, which has very steep
mountains sloping down to the water, bare of merchantable timber. Kitlobe Lake, located
8 miles above the head of Gardner Canal, is 8 miles long and three-quarters of a mile wide
and is only 30 feet above sea-level. Except for its northern and southern end, it is walled with
precipitous mountains and little merchantable timber is to be found along its shores.
All of the branches of the Kitlobe River receive their waters from glaciers, 'and the whole
district is a rugged mountainous one, with numerous glacier-capped peaks. Along the 8 miles
of valley between Gardner Canal and Kitlobe Lake the merchantable timber is scattered.
A great part of the flat land along the river-banks is swampy and covered with alder, although
there are some large spruce-trees to be found.
The largest area of timber is near the junction of Kitlobe River and Kitlobe Lake. Here the
valley widens considerably and a fairly heavy stand of spruce and hemlock is found, running
about 15,000 feet per acre. Farther up the Kitlobe River there are other small isolated blocks
of timber of a quality and quantity to warrant exploitation at some future date.
GROWTH STUDIES.
Studies of forest-growth were undertaken during the past summer in the Kitimat Valley in
connection with the cruising-work which was being carried on. It was proposed to find out, if
possible, if the annual growth in this valley was sufficient to supply, continuously, the raw
material for a pulp-mill, and, if so, the size of mill which this increment would supply. For
the purpose of study the following timber types were recognized: River-bottom, low bench,
side-hill, and upper bench.
River-bottom.
This includes the area subject to flooding. Spruce predominates and in cases is represented
by isolated veterans among a dense growth of devil's-club. The stand is overmature and badly
affected by fungi.
There is very little spruce reproduction except on the margins of sand-bars. The indications
are that the area, where spruce predominates in the mature stand, has gone through the evolution
of sand-bar to river-bottom, and the present stand was reproduced in the early stages. The study
carried on would show that a satisfactory crop of spruce from natural reproduction will be
difficult to obtain after logging, due to the density of the shrub undergrowth which grows in
all openings in the stands.
Test borings with the increment borer on a large number of trees show that the annual
increment in this type is over 400 board-feet per acre.
Low Bench.
This includes the flat plain stretching back from the river, but not subject to flooding. The
soil is a sandy loam, deep, fresh over gravel, and supports an under-story of devil's-club and
blue-berries. Balsam and hemlock predominate, with occasional large spruce in the moister
places. All species are badly affected by fungi and the hemlock by mistletoe. Reproduction of
balsam and hemlock is rapid. Balsam comes in under the old hemlock stand. Clear cutting
of all species except spruce, to remove the diseased and suppressed trees and the favouring of
spruce during the cutting of the stand, should later result in an increase of the percentage
of spruce in the reproduction.
The yield table on page 25 is empirical. 12 Geo. 8
Forest Branch.
I 23
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Department of Lands.
1922
AVERAGE    DIAMETER    OF    TREES    OF    DIFFERENT   AGES
KITIMAT       VALLEY
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Forest Branch.
I 25
Yield Table per Acre, Low Bench, Kitimat Valley.
Hemlock.
Balsam.
Spruce.
Cedar.*
All Species.
Age.
ca
□j
a
a
JJEQ
H
'o
d
§
1^
O
d
I*
H
o
d
0,
s
H
d
01
jig
H
O
d
* fi h
a) c 2
d
ho
<&
ft
45
i>n
<!P
15
>a
<IO
14.9
S3
12
>CQ
15.2
!z;
>«
fe
13,180
S<!«
<l
100
13.4
7,040
11.5
33
3,300
2,480
6
360
96
132
100
110
14.0
41
7,994
13.0
30
4,266
16.1
11
2,675
17.2
6
693
87
15,628
140
110
120
14.7
38
8,435
14.6
28
5,626
17.3
10
2,800
19.3
5
906
81
17,766
148
120
130
16.4
35
8,640
16.1
25
6,336
18.6
10
3,120
21.4
5
1,095
75
19.191
148
130
140
16.0
32
8,497
17.5
23
6,980
20.0
9
3,240
23.3
4
1,096
68
19,813
141
140
150
16.8
29
8,240
18.7
21
7,200
21.5
8.
3,370
25.7
3
1,218
61
20,028
134
150
The annual increment as shown by the increment borer is 179 feet board measure per acre.
* The growth for cedar is compiled from data gathered in 1920 in Roscoe Inlet, probably under considerably different growth
conditions from that of the Kitimat Valley and on much few*er trees than the growth for hemlock, balsam, and spruce.
Side-hill and Fppeb Benches.
These types include tbe slope and benches above the river plains. The soil is mostly deep
and fresh and overlies gravel. The present stands are even-aged. A large per cent, has been
burned over in the last 200 years, although no recent burns were found. The stands with south
exposure are of better quality than those on the north. Balsam and hemlock predominate, with
occasional spruce and cedar. Fungous disease is prevalent and the hemlock very badly affected
by mistletoe. Balsam and hemlock reproduction is rapid. Balsam has suffered more than
hemlock from suppression in the early stages. Very dense hemlock reproduction follows burns;
balsam follows blow-downs. On account of the prevalence of disease, the soil-pi'otection afforded
by the undergrowth, the liability to windfall, and the rapidity of reproduction, clear cutting of
all species would be advisable, and broadcast burning is desirable to combat the disease and to
kill off the useless suppressed reproduction at present in the stand.
Yield Table, Side-hill and Upper Bench.
Age.
ioo
no
120
130
140
150
Hemlock
Balsam.
Average
No. of
Volume
Average
No. of
D.B.I1.
Trees.
B.M.
D.B.H.
Trees.
11.0
97
8,300
10.3
98
12.0
79
8,930
11.4
69
13.0
57
S,130
12.6
54
13.7
47
7,290
13.8
38
14.4
37
6,960
16.0
31
15.0
32
6,680
16.2
25
Volume
B.M.
6,200
6,730
6,950
7,010
7,060
7,110
All S
No. of
Volume
Trees.
B.M.
195
14,500
148
15,660
111
15,080
85
14,300
68
14,020
57
13,790
Mean Annual
Age.
Increment.
145
100
142
110
124
120
110
130
101
140
92
150
The annual increment as shown by borings on a number of trees is 133 board-feet per acre.
Methods of Study. '
Sample plots of % to 1 acre were laid off and all trees on them carefully measured. As no
volume tables for the district were available, tables had to be made locally in the Kitimat
Valley and they were applied to the sample plots later. The average diameter breast-high of the
trees in each plot was determined and a tree of that diameter was felled and complete stem
analysis was made. From this was determined the age of the average tree, which was taken
as the average age of the stand. The ages of the different species checked very closely. From
this data the yield tables quoted above were prepared.
To find the growth per cent, of these stands, borings wrere taken in every merchantable tree
on the sample plot, and the growth per cent, computed by Schnieder's formula and applied to
the average acre. This growth per acre does not take into consideration loss from natural
agencies, such as decay and blow-down, and presumes that the trees will keep on increasing in
the future as they have in the past. This method therefore only serves as a check on the yield
expressed in the tables. I 26
Department op Lands.
1922
VOLUME TABLES. !
The volume tables were compiled by the same party which made the growth studies in the
Kitimat Valley for hemlock, balsam, and spruce, and these tables are quoted below. The
measurements were obtained from windfalls collected from all types and sites in the valley.
Western Hemlock, Kitimat Valley.
Based on measurements of windfalls, 2.5-foot stump, 32-foot logs, and B.C. Rule.
10	
12	
14	
16	
18	
20	
22	
24	
26	
28	
30	
32	
34	
36	
38	
40	
42	
44	
46	
48 ...,	
Basis
1.
i-
2.
2J.
3.
Si.
4.
H-
65
70
35
20
I
75
55
_■:;
i    310
85
76
27
i    360
95
i05
il
)    430
520
106
!35
17
)    500
630
!66
12
1    580
730
890
!95
4S
1    660
850
1,030
53
)    740
960
1,170
1,390
,!l
)    830
1,070
1,310
1,560
ill
)    930
1,020
1,200
1,320
1,460
1,620
1,730
1,920
1,110
1,440
1,770
2,100   2,440
1,200
1,550
1,910
2,270   2,620
1,280
1,660
2,040
2,410   2,790
1,360
1,770
1,890
2,010
2,140
2,180
2,350
2,500
2,640
2,600   3,010
2,800 - 3,240
2,9S0   3,470
3,150   3,660
2,270
2,800
30
3,32
11
)   3,830
18
18
4
40
42
>      1
Top D. LB.
7.6
7.9
8.2
8.5
8.8
9.2
9.6
9.9
10.3
10.6
11.0
11.3
11.6
12.0
12.2
12.4
12.6
12.8
13.1
13.4
11
19
16
26
19
17
11
19
8
11
6
10
6
6
4
5
4
2
The above table was compiled by frustrum form factor method.
Sitka Spruce, Kitimat Valley.
Based on 2.5-foot stump, 32-foot logs, and B.C. Bule.
D.B.H.         ]
.
1J.    2
2
\.        s
3|
4.
*i
5.
5i.
No. of
Trees.
Top
D.I.B.
8   5
0
5
iio '.'.
i
7.2
7.5
12   6
1
126   1
J5
7.8
14   6
5
140   2
5
3
8.2
16   7
5
170   2
)5
360
3
8.5
18   8
5
200   3
iO
430
5
8.8
20   9
n
230   3
)5
600
340
4
9.2
22	
24	
4
4
)5
70
670
660
735    90
350   1,04
0
0
3
6
9.5
9.9
26	
5
10
750
365   1,18
0
4
10.2
28	
6
X)
S40   1,
180   1,35
0   1,57
0
8
10.6
30	
6<
0
960   1,
230   1,5C
3   1,77
)
4
11.0
32	
1,
060   1,
360   1,67
0   1,98
0   2,2
90
5
11.3
34	
1,
160   1,
495   1,8;
0   2,17
5   2,5
20
9
11.6
36	
1,
270   1,
345   2,01
0   2,41
5   2,8
00
5
12.0
38	
1,
380   1,
?95   2,2]
5   2,63
5   3,0
55
6
12.3
40	
1,
510   1,
560   2,41
0   2,86
0   3,3
20   3,78
)
2
12.6
42	
2,
2,
120   2,61
275   2,81
5   3,10
0   3,36
0   3,6
0   3,8
00   4,09
90   4,42
)
)    ....
8
5
12.8
44	
13.1
46	
3,02
D   3,61
3   4,2
30   4,79
i   5,385
6
13.4
48	
3,23
0   3,85
0   4,4
65   5,10
i   6,725
4
13.6
50	
4,K
3   4,7
36   5,40
3   6,080
2
13.8
52	
4,32
4,55
5   5,0
0   5,3
5,6
5,9
50   5,76
25 6,10(
50   6,46
26 6,811
)   6,460
)   6,880
)   7,240
)   7,650
2
5
2
3
14.1
54  	
14.3
56	
14.6
68	
14.7
60	
6,2
75   7,16(
)   8,040
3
15.0
62	
7,52(
8,580
3
15.2
64	
7,S7(
8,860
2
16.4
66	
8,21(
8,60(
)   9,270
)   9,690
1
15.6
68	
16.7
70	
-'— —
8,96(
)  10,070
1      6
15.9
3
3
7
15     2
9     1
r>
17      (
114
The above table was compiled by frustrum form factor method. 12 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 27
Balsam (Abies amabilis), Kitimat Valley.
Based on measurements of windfalls, 2.5-foot stumps, 32-foot logs, and B.C. Rule.
D.B.H.
1.
ii-
2.
2}.
3.
3J.
4.
41
Top
D.I.B-
Basis.
10	
55
65
80
100
110
125
140
155
175
205
235
270
7.8
8.0
8.3
8.5
8.9
9.1
9.4
9.7
10.0
10.3
10.7
11.1
11.6
12.1
12.6
13.2
5
12	
230
270
316
366
420
470
14
14	
15
16             	
370
435
600
570
655
740
860
1,000
1,160
21
18	
27
20	
630
. 730
840
960
1,100
1,260
1,460
1,660
1,870
2,080
24
22	
1,030
1,185
1,345
1,536
1,760
2,040
2,260
2,510
2,740
29
25
24	
22
26	
1,400
1,590
1,810
2,060
2,430
2,770
2,990
3,170
18
2,360
2,820
3,170
3,470
3,600
1
16
28 .     	
8
30	
7
32	
14
34	
10
36	
8
38	
5
40	
1
41
51
46
14
22
222
The above table was compiled by the conventional method.
PRINCE GEORGE VOLUME TABLES.
There has been a great need for a volume table for spruce for use in the Prince George
District. Previous tables for this locality have been constructed for estimating in board measure
only, and in view of the possible pulp development it was considered that trees might be utilized
for pulp-wood to a smaller top diameter than it was customary when put through the sawmill;
therefore a table was compiled showing the volume in board-foot measure to the customary point
of utilization plus the volume of the merchantable portion of the remaining top in solid cubic
feet. Measurements from which the tables were compiled were collected from felled trees in
the district. The trees were separated into diameters and 16-foot log-length classes. A taper
curve was then constructed for each diameter and log-length class, the curves scaled off in
log-lengths, and the total volume of the tree computed from the B.C. Log Scale. The volumes
were then replotted for each log-length class according to volume based on diameter, and from
this set of curves the final tables were read. From the same taper curves scaled off in 4-foot
lengths cubic volume of the merchantable length was computed. After evening up these volumes
as explained above, the final volumes were read off as shown in the volume table for solid cubic
feet. I 28
Department of Lands.
1922
-
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Forest Branch.
I 29
White Sfbtjce  (Engelmanjs).
Volume table for the Upper Fraser Valley in solid cubic feet based on measurements of 392 felled
trees in the vicinity of Hutton and Aleza Lake.    Stump-height, 2.5 feet;   16-foot logs and
half-logs.    Log-lengths to same D.I.B.  as for Board-foot Table for ease in cruising, but
volumes computed to D.I.B. shown below.
D.B.H.,
Inches.
2 Logs.
2J Logs.
3 Logs.
3| Logs.
4 Logs.
4} Logs.
5 Logs.
5J Logs.
6 Logs.
Top
D.I.B.,
Inches.
No. ol
Trees.
Average.
Cu. Ft.
Logs.
6
4.0
5.8
9.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6.0
6.0
6.0
2
9
23
21
40
32
40
36
40
37
35
16
15
8
9
9
8
5
5
2
4.0
6.0
9.0
12.0
15.5
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.5
41.0
47.0
53.0
59.0
66.0
72.0
81.5
90.0
98.0
106.0
114.0
121.0
127.0
132.0
137.0
141.0
7
8
9     ■
11.0
13.0
15.0
17.0
2.0
10
15.0
17.5
20.0
22.0
24.5
27.0
17.5
20.5
24.0
27.0
30.0
33.0
36.5
40.0
43.0
2.5
11
2.5
12
27.0
30.5
34.0
38.0
41.0
45.0
49.0
52.0
56.0
59.0
63.0
30.0
s4:o
38.0
42.0
47.0
61.0
55.0
59.0
64.0
68.0
72.0
76.0
81.0
86.0
91.0
96.0
102.0
108.0
116.0
3.0
13
3.5
14
3.5
IS
47.0
52.0
57.0
62.0
67.0
72.0
76.0
81.0
86.0
91.0
96.0
101,0
107.0
112.0
118.0
125.0
62.0
57.0
63.0
69.0
74.0
80.0
86.0
91.0
97.0
103.0
109.0
114.0
120.0
126.0
132.0
138.0
4.0
18
4.0
17
4.0
18
4.0
19
4.5
20
5.0
21
90.0
97.0
104.0
111.0
118.0
125.0
132.0
139.0
146.0
153.0
ios'.i)
111.0
119.0
127.0
135.0
144.0
151.0
158.0
165.0
5.0
22
5.0
23
24
5.0
5 0
25
5.0
26
27
5.0
5.0
28
5.0
29
5 0
30
5.0
Compiled by L. S. Hope, after measurements by McVickar.
SAMPLE PLOT AND REGENERATION STUDY.
It is very important, if we are to build up a technique for proper forest management in the
widely different forest conditions of the Province, that investigations of systematic character
and conducted with scientific accuracy form an important part of the work of the service.
At the present time, as we are severely handicapped by lack of reliable information based on
experience, it is considered advisable to establish permanent sample plots which will be intensively studied, periodically, over a term of years. The studies which will be carried- out on
these sample plots might be classified as follows: Reproduction studies, growth and yield studies,
and thinning effects on remaining stands. During the past year twenty-five sample plots with
these objects in view were established in different parts of the Province.
The ultimate aim in following out all of these investigations is to introduce a workable
sylvicultural policy to be applied to the logging of Crown lands.    Such a policy to be of any
value, and at the same time to be feasible under present conditions or conditions likely to prevail
in the immediate future, must meet the following requirements:—
(1.)  It must ensure an adequate reproduction.
(2.)  It must not be so costly as to make logging unprofitable.
(3.)  It should as far as possible encourage the regeneration of the most valuable species.
On the Lower Coast a start wras also made in the study of seed-dissemination with a view to
finding the total and effective radius of seed-distribution in various species. One condition of
such a study is that the area must have been burned with sufficient intensity to destroy all seed
in the litter, so that all reproduction obviously will have originated from the seed-tree in question.
It was difficult to find such situations. The only species studied was Douglas fir. Lines were
run in the four cardinal directions from the seed-trees which stood in the open, and at intervals
of 1 chain along these lines square-rod seedling plots were taken. As a result of these it was
found that the maximum radius of seed-dissemination from a 175-foot fir was 325 feet in the
direction against the prevailing wind, 525 feet with the prevailing wind, and 400 feet to right
and left of the line of the prevailing wind, giving an oval plot of approximately 13 acres. The
effective radius, however, of seeding was found to be only about 300 feet. Beyond this distance
the seedlings were found to be too sparse to ensure a fully stocked stand. I 30 Department of Lands. 1922
THE CONTROL OF FOREST INSECTS.
The fight against the forest insects which have caused tremendous loss in the yellow-pine
region of Vernon District, and which has called for drastic measures to prevent further loss,
was continued during 1.921. When the infestation has been found on Crown land the measures
for control have been financed by the Provincial Government.
The work consists of three phases: (1.) Timber-sales of infested areas where the timber is
cut under special rules and regulations; (2.) Direct-control work where the trees are felled,
peeled, and the bark and slash burned on the spot; (3.) Prevention of the multiplication of the
bark-beetles that are causing the damage by burning all slash and cull logs in the district.
Two large areas have been subject to these epidemics—one in the Princeton region, where
from 40 to 90 per cent, of the standing timber has been killed during the period from 1913 to
1919, and the epidemics around Merritt which began about 1917. It was to prevent a repetition
of the Princeton loss that control operations were begun in 1920 in the Merritt region. The work
has been carried on under the direction of Ralph Hopping, of the Division of Entomologists,
Ottawa.
More or less epidemic conditions also exist in certain areas of Douglas fir, white pine, and
lodge-pole pine.- Direct-control work was this year begun around Adams Lake, where infested
Douglas fir and white pine were found; 493 trees with a footage of approximately 34,000 feet
were handled in this project.
Several epidemic areas existed in lodge-pole pine, but, as these are not in commercial timber,
control measures are not at present prosecuted.
The work around Merritt during 1921 was handled on two separate areas. The largest
infestation exists on Midday Creek and a smaller infestation is located on Voght Creek around
Kingsvale. On Midday Creek the work consisted of recleaning the area worked in 1920 and
extending this area to include further infected trees on the north-east side of the creek. It was
found on going over the areas worked in 1920 that over SO per cent, of the infestation had been
destroyed in the first cleaning. Ordinarily it is expected that about 40 per cent, reinfestation
will show the second year. The low rate of infestation was due not only to the thorough work
done by the men in charge, but also to the policy of burning the slash and cull logs after they
had become infested on the cut-over areas immediately adjoining. Some 1,010 trees having a
volume of 188,000 feet board measure were destroyed in the direct control on the Midday area.
Work was begun on Voght Creek in the spring of 1921 under the name of Kingsvale area,
where the largest part of the season's work was done, and the greater part of the infested trees
were cut and burned. The infestation is killed in this area and will not return as an epidemic,
providing a small amount of recleaning is done in 1922. A total of 2,840 yellow pine and 105
lodge-pole pines were cut and burned with a volume of 4S6,000 feet.
A total of 4,340 trees were felled, peeled, and the bark and slash burned, thus destroying
all of the beetles, during 1921. These trees amounted to 708,000 feet, not including small trees
under S inches, of which no record was kept.
FOREST RECORDS.    ■
Foeest Revenue.
Revenue from forests shows a decline of $507,493.67 over the previous calendar year; this
decline is almost wholly due to decline in payment of timber-licence renewal fees and penalties
on arrears of same, these two items accounting for $642,543.51. Royalty and stumpage both show
increases, these being respectively $111,323.83 and $70,254.06.
The operating revenue or the amounts charged for products from the actual operation of
timber lands was $1,544,251.36, a decrease of only'$3,210.11 over the record established in 1920.
A comparison of the revenue from forests just prior to the war and at present, and the proportion
accruing from rentals as compared with actual operations, is of interest and is given in the
cut on following page. 12 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 31
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Department op Lands.
1922
Forest Revenue.
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
Dec, 1921.
Dec, 1920.
Dec, 1919.
Dec, 1918.
Dec, 1917.
Deo., 1916.
Timber-licence rentals...
$1,193,654 58
$1,654,747 43
$1,236,530 41
$1,372,789 28
$1,074,129 07
$1,138,879 22
Trespass penalty	
11,245 86
18,114 34
7,464 12
1,599 38
3,207 32
893 39
990,326 99
879,003 10
78S,746 69
698,059 27
785,543 42
456,863 29
Timber-lease rentals	
81,840 61
81,989 68
85,101 37
77,748 25
76,426 74
77,040 59
Scaling fees	
2,015 83
26,476 91
64,571 19
56,304 90
62,381 50
32,590 20
Scaling expenses   	
765 98
5,041 71
13,072 79
9,753 29
6,055 74
3,158 71
Seizure expenses	
330 80
530 03
280 12
2,813 82
507 11
1,364 84
50,859 19
232,809 85
49,259 95
79,605 09
11,928 01
28,524 00
317,488 77
247,234 71
219,012 08
151,598 86
113,498 13
68,779 87
3,735 00
9,175 00
4,855 00
6,525 00
2,790 00
4,625 00
4,070 00
9,700 00
3,670 00
Hand-loggers' licence fees
7,250 00
2,975 00
7,100 00
Interest	
21 85
12 59
345 10
69 67
68 04
100 09
12,659 91
17,881 40
Timber-sale rentals	
10,045 26
7,753 84
9,467 72
5,235 35
Timber-sales cruising....
4,640 39
7,642 80
3,763 49
1,921 73
2,687 03
1,148 74
Timber-sales advertising.
1,695 08
2,749 93
1,929 71
1,152 40
1,183 35
391 89
Scalers' examination fees.
455 00
670 00
205 00
315 00
295 00
225 00
General miscellaneous ...
1,972 33
3,363 90
1,055 67
1,980 70
561 53
401 80
291 03
2,519 43
3,550 80
1,637 91
470 61
45 22
82,683,174 20
$3,190,667 87
$2,494,973 76
$2,472,703 39
$2,162,170 32
$1,826,412 20
11,221 79
9,500 41
Taxation   from  Crown-
grant timber lands ....
261,896 49
302,557 26
261,264 82
258,105 14
176,163 20
179,528 56
Total revenue from
forest sources ...
$'2,956,292 48
$3,508,842 57
$2,755,738 98
$2,730,808 53
$2,338,333 52
$2,005,940 76
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1921.
(Amounts charged.)
Rovaltv and
Tax.
Trespass
Penalties.
Seizure
Expenses.
Scaling
Expenses.*
Scaling
Fees. *
Scaling Fund.
Stumpage.
Forest District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Totals.
Vancouver	
Island	
Cariboo	
Cranbrook 	
Prince Rupert..
Nelson	
$600,539 92
61,465 34
2,142 43
106,978 59
100,837 78
56,369 23
27,540 04
32,496 30
18,891 98
$3,559 38
109 40
137 82
625 07
6,292 45
584 78
1,207 91
1,051 60
728 98
$14,297 39
$316 45
-45 50
49 00
25 00
8 25
10 00
52 15
10 50
$200 16
20 00
85 62
65 18
21 85
376 27
$ 656 48
228 94
324 03
47 25
$7,550 95
2,012 38
1,832 78
$82,576 27
15,867 63
16,006 53
$183,144 35
2,684 69
17,419 76
77,069 58
33,593 74
19,509 36
36,998 40
25,883 31
$878,343 80
79,929 35
4,984 94
124,158 04
202,453 33
89,625 10
48,267 31
Fort George ...
Kamloops	
70,974 72
45,514 77
Totals, 1921
$1,005,261 61
$516 85
$     769 08
$ 2,677 68
$12,055 43
$ 1,256 70
$14,155 67
$61,591 27
$11,396 11
$114,450 43
$396,303 19
$322,828 67
$1,544,251 36
Totals, 1920
$1,091,389 81
$15,284 61
S14,SS3 57
$121 33
$10,114 36
t
$90,889 44
$1,547,461 47
Totals, 1919
$  728,711 25
$250 52
t
$159,695 09
$   977,187 13
*On scales made by Rangers, etc t Scaling Fund was created by 1920 Amendment as from April 1st, 1920.
Forest Expenditure.
The sums voted for forest-work for the fiscal year 1921-22 were as follows:—
Vote No. 173—Salaries       $220,6S6 00
„        175—Travelling expenses and wireless telephone         50,250 00
„ .     177—Lumber-trade extension          30,000 00
„       178—Reconnaissance,  etc       75,000 00
„        179—Insect damage:   investigation and control         10,000 00
„        180—Grazing:   range improvement         6,000 00
$391,936 00
In addition to this total, sums were available from Vote No. 174 for temporary assistance,
.and from Vote No. 175 for office supplies, maintenance of launches and autos, and miscellaneous
expenses; from Vote No. 188 for publicity; from Vote No. 189, general investigations; and from
Vote No. 190, contingencies. The sum of $300,000 was also voted as the amount of the Government's contribution to the Forest Protection Fund. 12 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 33
General Administrative Expenditure.
(For Nine Months, April to December, inclusive.)
Forest District.
Headquarters .
Cariboo	
Cranbrook
Kamloops....
Nelson	
Prince George,
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver
Vernon	
Totals.
Vote 173:
Salaries.
: 79,110 32
3,558 66
6,593 91
4,629 97
6,940 00
8,310 94
14,727 89
58,749 37
6,315 74
I 80
Vote 174:
Temporary
Assistance.
$   248 35
380 00
18 33
8 66
750 16
1,904 63
1,612 68
330 00
$5,252 81
Vote 175 :
Expenses.
$ 26,493 41
4,511 52
7,198 53
2,202 04
7,014 44
3,178 99
23,618 70
76,624 50
6,538 39
$157,380 52
Total.
$105,852 08
8,450 18
13,792 44
6,850 34
13,963 10
12,240 09
40,251 22
136,986 55
13,184 13
$351,570 13
Forest Protection Fund.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1921 :—
Deficit brought forward from fiscal year 1919-20 |gfr... $106,457 03
Expenditure, fiscal year 1920-21   $645,842 29
Less refunds       11,975 50
 633,866 79
$740,323 82
Collections, fiscal year 1920-21    $189,816 80
Government's contribution       189,816 80
 379,633 60
Balance (deficit)   $360,690 22
Balance (deficit)      $360,690 22
Expenditure, April-Dec, 1921  (nine mths.) $427,443 00 . ,
Less refunds (nine months)        12,094 00
  $415,349 00
'■  <   776,039 22
Collections, April to December, 1921  (nine months)   .. $142,756 31
Government's contribution  (nine months)        237,181 74
 379,938 05
Deficit on nine months' working   $396,101 17
Forest Protection Expenditure.
Fiscal Years.
1914-15.
1915-16.
1916-17.
1917-18.
1918-19.
1919-20.
1920-21.
1921-22
(9 mos., April
1st to Dec.
31st, 1921).
Patrols.	
$228,352
31,385
143,461
$157,432
5,151
19,449
$144,261
3,747
7,124
$100,304
20,111
91,470
$159,030
36,913
50,293
$198,172 35
28,397 43
165,688 80
$267,402 76
85,548 87
292,890 66
$645,842 29
$297,766
25,661
104,116
Totals	
$403,198
$182,032
$165,122
$211,885
$246,236
$392,258 58
$427,443 ■
I 34
Department of Lands.
1922
Expenditure by Districts for Nine Months ending December 31st, 1921.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook....
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver
Vernon	
Victoria	
Undistributed
Totals
Patrol.
13,928
31,634
27,930
31,512
23,169
16,413
85,642
19,668
7,870
40,000
7,766
Fires.
22,356
2,713
43,859
2,507
692
14,124
13,885
$104,116
Improvements.
$ 2,064
1,247
1,214
2,486
4,497
532
12,234
1,287
$25,561
Total.
$ 19,972
55,237
31,857
77,857
30,173
17,637
112,000
34,840
7,870
40,000
$427,443
Crown-grant Timber Lands.
Area of Private
Timber Lands.
1911 :     824,814
1912     S74,715
1913     922,948
1914     960,464
1915     913,245
1916     922,206
1917     916,726
1918     896,188
1919     883,491
1920     867,921
1921 .'     845,111
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts
following table:—
Average Value
per Acre.
$ S 72
8 60
9 02
9 66
9 55
9 73
9 61
9 60
9 48
11 62
10 33
are shown by the
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1921.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1920.
Average Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value per
Acre since
1920.
45,251
186,360
94,949
29,732
81,298
4,615
88,145
184,862
1,168
48,609
16,673
44,450
2,660
16,449
4-684.26
-6,179.20
4-3,869.43
-40,169.82
4-1,491.41
4-39.95
-396.97
4-14,121.63
4-1,168.00
No change.
No change.
4-28.44
No change.
4-2,533.00
$20 72
13 16
16 76
11 03
3 80
2 97
12 51
3 38
16 51
11 52
3 52
6 97
25 00
21 61
-0.33
4-0.16
4-1.99
4-3.42
No change.
-0.03
4-0.43
4-0.22
-0.04
4-0.02
4-1.91
-5.89
845,111
-22,809.87
10 33
-1 29
Report on Timber-marks for the Year 192L
1920. 1921.
Old Crown grants   10S 106
Crown grants, 1887-1906     119 73
Crown grants, 1906-1914     115 83
" Royalty Act"   330 240
Stumpage reservations      23 26
Pre-emptions under sections 28a and 28b, " Land Act "       22 53
Timber leases (50 cents royalty)        12 3
Dominion lands       49 36
Timber-sales     581 524
Hand-loggers     128 140
Carried foncard  1,487 1,2S4 12 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 35
Report on Timber-marks—Continued.
Brought foncard  3,4S7 1,284
Special marks        2 1
Rights-of-way          2 2
Totals  1,491 1,287
Transfers and changes of marks     295 350
Hand-loggers' licences issued  (approximate)       325 370
Correspondence.
Letters inward, numbered and recorded   26,000
Letters, reports, etc., received, not numbered or recorded   12,000
Total   38.000
Outward typed letters    19.160
Outward circulars, form letters, etc  22,500
Total   41,660
Work done by Forest Branch Draughting Office.
During the year the Draughting Office has prepared thirty new blue-prints of reference maps
for the atlas and thirty-seven old atlas maps were brought up to date. In every case all atlas
references have been carefully altered to comply with the new map.
A new gazetteer for the atlas has been started for use in the Draughting Office and is well
on to completion.
In addition to the above work the staff has been engaged on the preparation of plans
showing surveyed timber licences throughout the Province, with bearing trees. Ninety-six of
these plans have been made, all in the Vancouver Forest District.
In regard to the routine work, which consists of making tracings, principally for blueprinting, of sketches for examination, timber-sales, etc., the following analysis -will show it in
detail:—    -
Number of Tracings made.
Blue-prints
made from
S.G. Ref.
Maps.
Month.
Examination
Sketches.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers.
Timber-
marks.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
62
64
43
90
80
72
75
72
51
43
50
39
741
25
15
29
18
19
11
9
10
7
22
5
14
17
37
47
86
42
46
17
26
14
23
8
8
139
96
43
68
95
74
56
45
55
38
66
65
17
24
41
16
33
42
31
25
23
29
37
26
260
236
203
278
269
245
188
178
150
155
166
152
February 	
15
13
8
167
15
63
7
42
13
115
184
371.
840
344
2,480
From time to time numerous graphs have been prepared, requiring considerable study and
thought, and much work has been done in supplying the cruising parties with adequate information on which to base their sketches;  also in making the finished maps from the sketches sent in.
FOREST PROTECTION.
The fire season of 1921 was normal in the coastal and northern regions, but rose above
normal in the Southern Interior. A larger number of fires broke out and were fought in 1921
than in 1920, but owing to a more complete system of organization the fire losses were cut very
appreciably;   the results are shown in the tables following. I 36
Department of Lands.
1922
Publicity.
The publicity programme followed out during the season consisted of carrying advertising
matter in the various papers throughout the Province during the danger months of June, July,
and August, appealing to the general public to be careful with fire. Calendars were issued
bearing publicity matter relative to slash-burning and the precautions that should govern this
operation. Twenty-two thousand posters bearing excerpts from the Fire Law and Logging
Regulations were issued and displayed. In addition to this, 30,000 envelopes bearing a pictorial
warning to fishermen were distributed through the various sporting-goods houses, who used them
as wrappers for fishing-tackle.
Fire Law Enforcement.
When laws governing the use of fire are enacted it becomes the duty of the interested
organizations to enforce their compliance. Consequently, infractions of the Fire Law were
vigorously dealt with, and seventy-nine informations were laid for contravening the Regulations.
Forty-five prosecutions were entered for burning without a permit, fourteen for leaving camp-
fires burning, five for refusing to fight fire, six for neglecting fire when burning on the defendants' property, and the remaining nine for failure to equip donkeys with the necessary fire-
preventive equipment, operating an open burner without a permit, and two incendiary cases.
The vigorous enforcement of the Fire Law is necessary if we are to stop the annual
occurrence of fires resulting from carelessness. In this policy we feel that the Department is
backed by the force of public opinion.
Organization.
The maximum strength of the staff during the fire season was 461, of which number 255
were temporary. In addition to this, 196 Honorary Fire Wardens were enrolled. These latter
public-spirited citizens undertook to immediately suppress any fires which occurred in their
immediate vicinity. It is this prompt initial action which is so desirable in fire-suppression,
and the Honorary Fire Wardens proved themselves.to be of great assistance and carried out in
the fullest sense their responsibilities as citizens. The thanks of the Department and the public
generally are due to these men.
Fire Occurrence.
As already stated, the season was normal on the Coast and Northern Interior, but south
of the Railway Belt a four to six weeks' drought, assisted by high temperatures and strong
winds, brought more than the usual quota of fires. This is clearly denoted in the weather chart
which follows this resume.
The total number of fires fought during 1921 was 1,330, against 1,251 for 1920, an increase
of 6 per cent. It will, however, be noted that 554, or 41.6 per cent, of the total, were extinguished before they had reached a quarter of an acre in size, and 430, or 32.S per cent., before
they had spread over 10 acres. The remainder. 340. covered areas of more than 10 acres. It is
a very creditable record to have suppressed practically 75 per cent, of the fires during the past
season before they had spread over 10 acres, as compared with 6S per cent, in 1920, 67 per cent.
in 1919, and only 66 per cent, in 1918.
Further classification shows that 1,169, or 88 per cent., were extinguished before they had
done damage to the extent of $100; 134, or 10 per cent., did damage between $100 and $1,000;
and 27, or only 2 per cent., did more than $1,000 worth of damage. When we consider that each
of these fires might have assumed large proportions had it not been for the Forest Protection
staff, the real value of this organization becomes apparent.
The season's record, therefore, is one that reflects credit on the increased efficiency shown
by the fieldmen and organizing staffs.
Causes or Fires.
In spite of the publicity work carried on, fires caused by campers and travellers still head
the list, causing 308 fires, or 23.2 per cent., while the operation of railways caused 283, or
21.3 per cent. Lightning and industrial operations were the cause of 164 and 119 respectively,
the percentage of the total being 12.3 and 9 per cent, respectively. Other causes, in the order
of fire-occurrence numbers, were brush-burning, miscellaneous, known and unknown causes, and
incendiary.    It is to be regretted that such a  large percentage of the  fires are from human 12 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 37
causes, carelessly left camp-fires, lighted cigarette-stubs, or defective spark-screens.    It at the
same time points to need of further educational work on this subject.
Damage by Fire.
The quantity of timber killed by fire in 1921 was 68,000,000 feet, of which 39,500,000 is
salvable, leaving a net stumpage loss of $73,011, as compared with a loss in 1920 of 180,000.000
feet valued at $294,873, a decrease of 75 per cent. Other forms of property destroyed amounted
to $195,221, of which the loss due to burning of buildings, logging camps, and equipment is
$153,660, the remaining loss of $41,561 representing the loss of products in the course of
manufacture, grain, fruit-trees, etc. From a point of view of damage, the season compares
very closely with the year 1917, a year of very low fire risk, when the damage done amounted
to $291,457, but the number of fires in that year was but 986, compared with 1,330 in 1921.
Slash-burning.
During the past year, following the policy of encouraging land-clearing before and after
the peak of the danger period, 74,696 acres were burned over, compared with 53,425 acres in
1920. The permits issued amounted to 12,730, compared with 6,7S2 of 1920, or an increase of
88 per cent. Of these permit fires, but 59, or less than one-half of 1 per cent., escaped control;
15,683 acres of logging-slash burned during the season under permit, while an area of 29,237
acres was disposed of under co-operative arrangement provided in section 127a of the " Forest
Act," making the total area of logging-slash disposed of during the year 44,920 acres. The
elimination of this hazard will materially reduce the hazard for 1922, and it is hoped that
tire-fighting costs and expense will be cut down in proportion.
Aviation.
The establishment by the Dominion Air Board of a seaplane base at Jericho Beach for
co-operation with the various Government departments gave the Branch an opportunity during
the present season of trying out aeroplanes in forest-protection work. In the area around the
Gulf of Georgia there is a heavy concentration of logging camps and a great number of donkeys
operating. Tourists, campers, and automobile parties flock to the mountain and seaside resorts
during the holidays and week-ends, increasing materially the hazard at that time.
Throughout the months of July and August a system of bi-weekly patrols was instituted.
This patrol was carried out on Wednesdays and Sundays and consisted of a circuitous trip from
Point Grey, following the Coast north to Bute Inlet, landing and reporting from Thurston Bay
Ranger Station, and returning by the east coast of Vancouver Island. The trip occupied about
three hours of flying-time and meant that approximately 3,500,000 acres of territory was covered,
and the forest officer in charge had a knowledge of all forest fires burning within that region.
In addition to the above fire-detection, patrols and planes were used iu making a reconnaissance of the damage done.by the storm of January 29th, 1921, and of general timber
reconnaissance. In all, fifty-six flights were made, and the results were most satisfactory and
show conclusively that the plane has possibilities as a complement to our ground force iu
forest-protection, as well as being of considerable service in gathering general information
rapidly and in supervision where time has to be considered.
Pump Operation.
Various improvements were evolved in the portable fire-fighting pump adopted by the
Department and as a result this piece of mechanical equipment was used to a greater extent
than heretofore, both for fire-fighting purposes and for control of slash-burning fires.
The total running-time of the pumps as shown by reports is 2,400 hours. If the figure of
35 gallons per minute of delivered water is taken, and this figure is acknowledged as a conservative one, it means that a total of 5,760,000 gallons of water was used in the control and
extinguishing of forest fires, or 25,200 tons of water. There can be no doubt whatever that
the use of this mechanical means of fire-suppression marks the greatest step forward in recent
years in the work of forest-protection.
To a greater extent than ever, logging-camp operators are adopting this means of fire-
suppression, showing conclusively that it has passed the primary experimental stage and is
now accepted as a necessary piece of equipment in a modern logging operation. I 38
Department of Lands.
1922
Wireless Telephone.
The continued and increased use of the wireless telephone during the season agaiu proved
that rapid communication in the areas that are devoid of the ordinary telephone and telegraphic
facilities, or, in some cases, a fairly frequent mail service, is an essential in order to carry out
the work of forest-protection.
The three land stations, situated at Vancouver, Myrtle Point, and Thurston Bay, were fully
occupied during the past season, a total of over 2,000 messages being received and relayed during
the fire season, May to September. An improvement in the sending capacities of the launch
transmitting-sets was effected, which added materially to the increased use and efficiency of this
means of communication. When it is known that over 90 per cent, of the messages transmitted
during the fire season had direct reference to forest-protection matters, the importance of the
wireless telephone system can be appreciated at its full value.
The field office staffs were kept in close touch with each other as the season progressed, and
transfers of men and equipment were immediately ordered and carried out at a speed that
would have been otherwise impossible owing to the slowness of- the only other means of
communication.
Improvements. '
Equipment for fire-fighting was still further augmented and brought to what is considered
to be our general requirements, and all districts received additional supplies of fire-tools, fire-
pumps, hose, and general equipment. These were placed at strategic points and in case of fire
breaking out were readily available to meet the emergency. Noteworthy among the equipment
secured was twenty-six fire-fighting pumps and fifteen new cars.
The forest-protection equipment now in possession of the Branch consists of 41 launches,
53 cars, 75 pumps, 88,800 feet of hose, with shovels, axes, mattocks, and general equipment for
2,042 men, with a capital value of $147,500.
In addition to trails and telephones, the Branch now has the following permanent forest
improvements: 16 tool-caches; 10 Ranger and Assistant Ranger headquarters; 27 rest-cabins
and look-outs ;  2 garages.
Approximately 1,200 miles of trail were cleared and constructed during the past fire seasjn,
about 90 per cent, of the work being done by departmental labour as opportunity offered.
The programme of opening up the back valleys will be carried out more and more each
year as the surveys of existing trails are made, so that new trails may be projected in a manner
that will create a co-ordinated system.
FOREST BRANCH ORGANIZATION.
Distribution of Total Force, British Columbia Forest Branch.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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461 12 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 39
FIRE   CHART. SEASON    1921.
RAINFALL 1   1 VERTICAL  DIVISION =  1 INCH   .   FIRES^M VERTICAL    DIVI SI ON = IO  FIRES.
TEMPERATURE  /\l VERTICAL  DIVI SION = IO DEGR EE S.
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1922
FIRE   CHART.SEASON     1921.
RAINFALL 1 1  VERTICAL DIVI SION = 1 1 N CH .    FIRES S\\ VERTICAL   DIVISION = IO  FIRES.
TEMPERATURE XXI VERTICAL DIVISION- IO DEGREES.
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I 41
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1922
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Forest Branch.
I 43
Damage to 'Property other than Forests, 1921.
Forest District.
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
$     120
23,210
666
4,911
225
2,164
5,827
$     200
16,000
1,200
1,750
200
16,365
30,150
13,400
$50,000
140
24,265
$     200
3,540
400
268
40
$       520
89,210
1,866
10,341
425
18,909
60,610
13,440
0.3
45.6
1.0
5.3
0.2
9.7
31.0
6.9
Totals	
$37,113
$79,255
$74,405
$4,448
$195,221
100.0
Comparison or Damage caused by Forest Fires in the Last Seven Years.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
1,330
145,838
68,476
39,553
$ 97,332
195,221
1,251
389,846
229,253
49,575
$485,963
473,900
1,141
433,797
287,520
93,559
$393,183
345,787
910
140,085
42,886
22,387
S 25,930
200,335
986
237,289
267,186
48,133
$129,125
162,333
864
161,288
50,415
2,757
$48,913
26,962
$75,875
1,031
Area burned (acres)	
Standing timber destroyed or damaged (M. ft. B.M.)
Amount salvable (M. ft. B.M.)	
244,189
187,250
43,030
$108,873
Damage to other forms of property..
57,774
Total damage	
$292,553
$959,863
$738,970
$226,265
$291,457
$166,647
Fires, 1921, classified by Place of Origin and Cost of 1 ire-fighting.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver	
Vernon 	
Totals	
Per cent	
Totals, 1920
Per cent—
Totals, 1919.
Per cent—
p
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= a
a
> 5
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89
67
32
144
141
3
119
22
97
339
72
267
7S
10
68
52
10
42
359
64
295
150
39
111
1,330
416
915
100.0
31.2
68.8
1,251
384
867
100.0
30.7
69.3
1,141
422
719
100.0
37.0
63.0
Extinguished without Cost.
62
80
100
217
70
42
220
100
891
67.0
611
48.8
518
45.4
■^
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B q
a.fc
7.0
9.0
11.2
24.4
7.7
4.7
24.8
11.2
100.0
• a.
O in
4.7
6 0
7.5
16.3
5 3
3.2
16.5
7.5
67.0
Cost Money to
extinguish.
19
122
8
10
139
50
439
33.0
646
51.2
623
54.6
6.1
14.5
4.3
27.8
1.9
2.3
31.7
11.4
100.0
2.2
4.8
1.4
9.3
0.6
0.8
10.1
3.8
33.0
51.2
54 6
Total Cost of
fighting Eire.
3,860
20,089
2,689
42,663
2,507
692
12,995
12,981
98,476
257,126
158,707
rlS-p
■sfs
co
a. g-fc,
3.9
20.2
2.7
43.3
2.6
0.7
13.3
13.3
100.0
Average Cost
per Fire.
43 37
139 51
22 60
125 85
32 14
13 31
36 20
86 54
74 04
205 53
139 09 I 44
Department of Lands.
1922
Fires, 1921, classified by Size and Damage.
Total
FlRES.
Under \ Acre.
J  ACRI
to 10 Acres.
Over
10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
Forest District.
Is   .
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— '-
to
16
22
— —
ClEl
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— —
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— —
LLi.
14.4
17.4
5
caw
5
89
144
6.7
10.8
18.0
15.3
2.9
4.0
24
63
27.0
43.7
6.5
14.5
49
59
65.0
41.0
79
111
9
29
4
119
9.0
46
38.6
8.3
60
50.4
13.7
13
11.0
3.8
114
5
Nelson	
339
25.5
180
53.1
32.5
101
29.7
23.2
58
17.2
17.1
290
39
10
78
5.8
9
11.5
1.6
26
6 0
55.2
7
52
3.9
4
7.7
0.7
17
32.7
3.9
31
59.6
9.1
43
7
2
359
27.0
243
67.7
43.9
78
21.7
17.9
38
10.6
11.2
935
17
7
150
11.3
34
22.6
6.1
67
44.4
15.3
49
33.0
14.4
100.0
127
21
Totals	
1,330
100.0
654
100.0
436
100.0
340
1,169
134
27
Percent 	
100.0
1,251
41.6
___^_
32.8
25.6
88.0
10.0
2.0
Totals, 1920	
345
392
514
1,049
107
95
100.0
27.6
31.3
-—
41.1
83.8
8.6
Totals, 1919	
1,141
290
374
477
993
96
53
100.0
25.4
32.8
41.8
87.1
8.3
4.6
Number and Causes of Fires, 1021.
Forest District.
Cariboo 	
Cranbrook 	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George
Priuce Rupert	
Vancouver	
Vernon	
Totals ...
Per cent.
si
q
13
q
Co
o
CO
is
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CO
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as
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3
44
1
7
3
4
2
25
89
25
35
17
7
2
11
9
11
27
144
14
2
69
8
6
1
1
18
119
88
62
108
30
2
6
3
6
34
339
12
18
11
3
1
2
12
19
78
8
10
17
1
2
1
13
52
6
102
26
1
45
5
88
16
23
47
359
28
43
34
1
1
1
8
5
8
21
150
164
308
283
2
126
20
119
40
64
204
1,330
12.3
23.2
21.3
0.1
9.5
1.5
9.0
3.0
4.8
15.3
100.0
6.7
10.8
25.5
5.9
27.0
11.3
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Nine Years.
Causes.
Lightning	
Campers and travellers	
Railway operation	
Railways under construction	
Brush-burning, not railway-clearm
Public road-construction	
Industrial operation	
Incendiary	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
Totals.. "..
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
164
304
115
134
48
67
100
169
308
246
310
158
209
268
305
487
283
227
146
104
335
121
82
361
2
126
I
96
22
97
1
100
17
267
98
164
48
148
20
7
5
2
5
12
20
11
119
104
129
80
50
59
28
60
40
32
21
15
13
22
28
42
64
69
140
72
55
19
24
83
204
165
156
224
214
148
160
367
1,330
1,251
1,141
910
986
864
1,031
1,832
34
195
110
62
26
9
24
7 12 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 45
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1,601
1,343
1,135
6,378
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Department of Laxds.
192:!
Prosecutions for Fire Trespass, 1921.
Forest District.
Cariboo ,
Cranbrook	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George ,
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver	
Vernon	
Totals	
Totals, 1920 .
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No.
Amount.
7
3
4
2
8    20 00
1
4
10
1
8
1
8
261 50
2
8
S
6
60 00
1
1
14
1
10
i
2
10
116 00
1
3
2
2
2
20 00
1
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2
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2
6
19
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4
25
552 00
3
5
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1
79
34
1
2
1
5
1
10 00
9
9
7
2
2
1
2
2
6
45
14
54
$1,029 50
7
2
6
22
2
3
21
$   442 50
IMPBOVEMENTS   AND  MAINTENANCE,   1921.
The following amounts were spent on Improvements and maintenance, by districts:
Cariboo.
Improvements—
Garage and oil-house, Quesnel   $    250 00
Booting Williams Lake Headquarters   *  150 00
Two fire-fighting pumps, equipped  1,879 14
One Ford car     425 00
$ 2,704 14
Cranbrook.
Improvements—■
Fernie Garage    $    428 00
Gold Creek Trail and Telephone Line   194 00
Sheep Creek Trail    30 00
Sulphur Creek Trail    212 00
McGuire-Wigwam Trail  250 00
Three Ford cars   1,312 00
Two fire-fighting pumps, equipped   1,516 50
Maintenance—■
Casey Mountain Telephone Line
Baker Mountain Telephone Line
Elk Valley Telephone Line 	
? 3.942 50
 - ?     IIS 00
  56 00
 •  148 00
?     322 00
Kamloops.
Improvements—
Birch Island Telephone Line   '.  $      26 00
Blue River Speeder-house    17 00
Swift Creek Speeder-house   47 00
Birch Island Speeder-house    70 00
Barriere Forks-Brennan Creek Trail   375 00
Blue River Ranger Station Fuel-shed   32 00
One railway velocipede    125 00
Two fire-fighting pumps, equipped    1,530 00
$ 2.222 00 12 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 41
Kamloops—Continued.
Maintenance—■
Painting and repairs, Seymour Arm Ferry, Scow, and Shed   $ 30 00
Humamilt Cahin   61 00
Thompson Crossing Ranger Station   9 00
Big Bend Telephone  17 00
$ 117 00
Nelson.
Improvements—■
Launch  " Amabilis "   $ 1,500 CO
Launch " Willow "     500 00
One power-speeder   430 00
Boat-house     338 OO
One Ford car    444 00
Ymir Garage    13 00
Lardeau Speeder-'house and Tool-shed    128 00
Whatshan Rowboat and Shelter   129 00
Grizzley Creek Cabin    3 00
Falls Creek Cabin    108 00
Marsh Creek and Champion Lake Trail   40 00
Four fire-fighting pumps, equipped   3,060 00
Slash-burning     314 00
6,693 00
Maintenance—
Ymir Tool-shed   ?        8 00
Hooker Creek Trail   45 00
Kettle Valley Telephone Line  5 00
Shields-Sheep Creek Trail  27 00
Renata-Bowman Trail     45 00
Green City-West Fork Trail  45 00
Sheep Creek Telephone Line   1 00
Evans Creek Trail   18 00
Duncan Valley Telephone Line  3 00
Duncan River Trail  103 00
? 300 00
Prince George.
Improvements—
One power-speeder   ■ $ 303 00
Four hand-speeders    252 00
Red Mountain Tool-house  36 00
Willow River Trail    933 00
Standard tool-kits  934 00
Goat River Cache   •  370 00
Stuart Lake Boat-house  62 00
Giscome Tool-cache   310 00
McBride Tool-house   22 00
Three fire-fighting pumps, equipped   2,295 00
$ 5,517 00
Maintenance—■
Red Mountain Ranger Station Wood-shed  $      43 00
Additional pump equipment    389 88
432 88 I 48
Department of Lands.
1922
Prince Rupert.
Improvements—■
One Evinrude motor    $    150 00
One Ford car  416 00
Two railway velocipedes    193 00
One power-speeder   312 00
Hazelton Speeder-house    60 00
One fire-fightiug pump, equipped   757 60
$ 1,888 60
Maintenance— •
Lakelse Telephone Line    $      70 00
Vancouver.
Improvements—■
Myrtle Point Fire-break   $      56 00
Lillooet River Rowboat    78 00
Tool-caches    61 00
Pemberton Meadows Tool-shed    83 00
Haslam Lake Rowboat   90 00
Lynn Creek Tool-box     20 CO
Langley Prairie Telephone Line    9 00
Myrtle Point Trails Survey   19 00
Camp Fireplaces (Vancouver Island)     56 00
Six new Ford cars    2,667 00
One power-speeder (P.G.E.)     603 00
Five new launches      10,764 OO
Five dinghies for above  .'  185 00
Painting house, Myrtle Point   100 00
Dam at Myrtle Point    173 00
Thurston Bay Property-room    25 00
Felling snags on pipe-line, Thurston Bay   150 00
House at Thurston Bay   60 00
Ten fire-fighting pumps and equipment   7,650 00
$22,849 00
Maintenance—
Theodosia  Trail   $     201 00
Vancouver Island Trails    61 00
Englishman River Trail   166 00
Cowichan Lake Boat-house   33 00
Repairing tools    185 00
Myrtle Point Telephone Line   290 00
Additional pump equipment  4,084 67
$ 5,020 67
Vernon.
Improvements—
Little White Mountain Telephone Line   $    156 00
Reiter Creek Trail   44 00
Three Ford cars   1323 00
Two fire-fighting pumps and equipment  3,530 00
$ 3,053 00
Maintenance—
Little White Mountain Look-out  $      14 00
B.X. Telephone Line   35 °°
Additional pump equipment    557 23
$    606 23 12 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 49
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF GRAZING.
The past season on the open range was better than usual. The comparatively light winter
was followed by a fairly early opening of the range season and the growth of the forage was
excellent. This was also true of the hay-crops through most of the Interior, and in consequence
there is a good supply of hay on hand for most of the stock in all communities, which is going
into the winter in fair to excellent condition.
AUTHORIZATION.
Authority was granted to graze the following numbers of the different classes of live stock
on the Crown ranges during the 1921 season :—
riioti.i^t Cattle and Sheep and
Ulstucr- Horses. Goats.
Cariboo     32,000 3,300
Cranbrook   ....'"  2,500 10,000
Fort George     500                  	
Kamloops   2,000 500
Nelson    2,000 200
Prince Rupert     300                  	
Vancouver     200 ....
Vernon (Nicola-Princeton)     15,000 5,000
Vernon   (Okanagan-Similkameen)     5,500 5,000
Totals       60,000 24,000
The records to October 31st show that permits for the following numbers of stock have been
applied for:—
nisrfri,.* Cattle and Sheep and
L,1SU1C,:- Horses. Goats.
Cariboo     27,185 4,424
Cranbrook     1,449 1,000
Fort George  19                 	
Kamloops      999 150
Nelson    1,377 385
Vernon     12,114 1,750
Totals       43,143 7,709
The amount of grazing fees  collected for the period  January  1st to  November  30th is
$10,393.49.
The heavy drop in cattle prices this year and the extreme difficulty experienced in disposing
of the beef has been the cause of tardiness in the payment of grazing fees this year.   Payments
are, however, coming in now more rapidly than one month ago.
Organization.
By far the most important phase of the grazing administration from now on will be the active
range-management work carried on in co-operation with the organized live-stock associations.
There are twenty-two organizations dealing with questions of range-control, but as many of
these are really district organizations progress in real co-operative work out on the range has
been_slow. The near future will see the stockmen of each community within each district banded
together in local organizations for active range-work.
The ultimate and only successful system of organization is one under which communities
are organized to co-operate in the management of the particular Crown range used by the stock
from each community. Such organizations will have the direct control of the stock on their
respective ranges and all users will be required to observe any special rules established for
each range. Local problems can be dealt with in each community and need not be referred
outside unless they embody matters of interest to the industry at large.
A local organization should include all users of the particular unit of range used by its
members. They should manage the stock on the range co-operatively and will deal with such
questions as:—
4 I 50 Department of Lands. 1922
Range Plans.—The division of the range iuto spring, summer, and fall range; the protection
of any particular portions of the range to promote growth of forage, to save range for breeding
cows, beef, etc.
Range Improvements.—Trails;   dangerous mud-holes;   fences ;   development of springs.
Stock Management.—The question of a particular breed for the range to secure beef of
uniform quality and grade; the furnishing of bulls of that breed, either individually or by the
association; the separation of the breeding cows during the breeding season; the special care
of the beef animals to be marketed;  the hire of herders needed for range-work.
These and other matters are vital, local problems to be dealt with by local associations only.
All associations should be affiliated with a district association, or, if deemed advisable, a
delegate from each community association will form a District Advisory Board to deal with
district problems and matters relating to the general welfare of the industry. Finally, each
district association will appoint a member to act as its representative on a Provincial Advisory
Board.
Associations for range-work must necessarily be small and include in their respective
memberships the users of definite units of range where the problems of each unit are vital
to the users thereof. Large associations are unwieldy in dealing with local problems. Those
assembled at the meetings are seldom representative of tbe districts or any communities within
them and consequently are not competent to deal with community questions.
The stockmen have not yet realized this, but there will, however, soon develop a realization that the small association is the only workable unit in the management and control of a
range-stock business. The low price of beef, together with high operating costs, is causing the
stockmen to look into the matter of organization with a view to securing better prices for their
beef. The discussion has so far dealt with the establishment of central selling agencies, saleyards
at strategic points, and has even considered reaching the consumer through killing and distributing facilities controlled by the stockmen. Nothing conclusive has been done, for the reason that
a live interest on the part of the great majority of stockmen has not been aroused. An apathetic
attitude prevails which leads each to expect the other to do the work. Too many feel that with
the election of the officers of an association their interest and duty ends. The formation of a
successful organization to market beef depends on the willingness of the producers to co-operate
and on their full realization of what such co-operation means. It must mean to each real, live,
active interest and work out on the range.
During the year 1920 15,836 head of beef cattle, valued at $1,821,000, were shipped into the
Province, and iu addition to this 1,214,809 lb. of beef and veal were imported. The above are
importations from Canadian Provinces only. It will be seen from this that the British Columbia
stockman has to deal with heavy outside competition. This competition has grown up not on
account of better quality in the outside stock, hut on account of the inaccessibility of the homegrown product.
The British Columbia stockmen have to contend with range conditions differing from those
experienced on the ranges of the Prairie Provinces. The more rugged and timbered character
of the local ranges render such preliminaries to marketing as locating and noting the condition
of the beef throughout the open season, as well as the gathering of it when needed, more difficult
than on open prairie range. Furthermore, as is very general nearly everywhere, the beef raised
in all localities is not of uniform grade. This usually requires inspection before sales are made.
These features of the marketing problem place the British Columbia stockman at a disadvantage
which he can only overcome through organization and individual and collective activity out on
the range.
The solution of the whole marketing problem lies in organization for active range-work, and
work to that end must begin there and not in the establishment of central selling agencies
to sell something which is largely inaccessible at the present day. While the stockmen are
casting about for ways and means to better market conditions this office is constantly advocating
local organization for range and stock management, and is preparing the way for the real active
interest that is developing by undertaking and by urging all users to become active in suggesting
and assisting in carrying out the range improvements under way and contemplated.
The success of these associations is assured by the " Grazing Act," which provides for the
establishment of special rules for any unit of range having the force of law and the improvement
of the range.    The policy of encouraging communities to organize will be continued, and very 12 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 51
shortly will see all communities following the lead taken by such active associations as the
Heffley Creek Stock Association, with its interest in co-operative range management and improvement, and the Okanagan Falls Association, which has committed itself to the ranging of a
definite hreed of beef animal.
Range Improvements.
The Grazing Office has been enabled during the past season to undertake many needed range
improvements with the money available in the Range Improvement Fund. Wherever possible,
this office has refrained from undertaking any work before notifying live-stock associations
interested in the use of the range upon which the work is to be done. All range-users are
encouraged to refer their suggestions for range-improvement work to the secretary of the
association in which they are interested, to be listed and referred on to this office.
This, it is believed, is the correct attitude to take, as it not only awakens interest in the
development of the range, but also enables the Department to secure the collective opinion of
the range-users regarding the projects placed before the meetings. It would seem advisable to
refrain from expending any part of the Range Improvement Fund in communities where the
users fail to organize for range-management purposes.
The main improvement project carried out during the past grazing season was the fencing
of the open range on the Lundbuni Commonage near Merritt. This portion of the range comprises
the early spring and late fall grazing-grounds needed by a large part of the stock raised in the
vicinity of Merritt. It has been badly overgrazed in the past and without a fence there was
no hope of its recovery even with herding.
After a reconnaissance survey had been made to determine the location of fences and water,
the lines for the proposed fence were selected and marked and the matter fully discussed with
the Nicola Stock-breeders' Association at regular meetings, 'both of the association members and
also of the Advisory Board. It was decided to take advantage of the lakes, water-holes, and
other advantageous features, and by constructing approximately 12 miles of fence divide the
commonage and adjoining Crown range into three divisions. Tenders were called for the work
and a local returned man was the successful tenderer, the total cost being $4,148.50.
Beginning with the season of 1922, it will be possible to introduce a rotation system of
grazing on the spring and fall range controlled by this fence that will rapidly restore most of
H to something like its former condition. Large portions of the range around the watering-
places have been so badly depleted by overgrazing that very little vegetation except dandelions
are growing on them. They have also become so badly infested with pocket-gophers that experimental poisoning is being planned in co-operation with the Department of Agriculture to eradicate
these pests.
A small tract of the commonage range, protected entirely from grazing by a fence, is under
observation in order that comparative data regarding the rate of recovery on badly overgrazed
areas may be obtained.
At the suggestion of this office the Department of Public Works made a slight change in the
Old Nicola Road, so that a spring could be fenced in with the main body of the commonage
range. The cost of the runway constructed under the road to enable the stock to reach the
water-trough was $55.50.
A small fence 1 mile in length was constructed between the Allen Grove and. Keremeos
Stock-ranges to stop drift from the latter to the former range. The wire was supplied by the
Government and the work was done by an interested grazing permittee who has not yet submitted
cost figures.
Several dangerous small lakes and mud-holes on Crown lands of the Heffley Stock-range
have been fenced and safe runways to water provided. In consequence, further serious losses
of stock through becoming mired in such places has been, pre vented. The work was done by the
Heffley Creek Stock Association and charged to the Range Improvement Fund, the cost being
$284.25.
Dangerous watering-places on the Lac la ITaehe and Nicola Ranges were fenced. All cost
figures have not yet been received. The fencing of three lakes on the Nicola Range cost $223.85.
The cost of six lakes will average a'bout $75 each and on the average half a mile of fence is
constructed in each case. Other places have been discovered and reported and are on the list
for examination and fencing in 1922. An inspection of these places during the past season shows
that losses of cattle are extremely heavy owing to being mired down in efforts to reach water. J
I 52 Department op Lands. 1922
Rendering these places safe, as well as developing other sources of water, will be a most
important feature of the range-improvement work during the next few years.
The construction of stock-trails to remote sections of range is receiving attention. In most
places overgrazing has so lowered the capacity of the front or near-by early ranges that the cattle
must be taken back to the summer ranges proper during the midsummer months if the early
range is to be restored to anything like its former condition. It is necessary, therefore, in a few
cases that trails be opened up to enable the cattle to be drifted back.
An important trail was constructed from the Empire Valley to drift cattle to the ranges at
the head of Churn Creek without the trouble of crossing and driving to the range by way of
the north side of that creek. Proper use of this trail will mean the restoration in a satisfactory
way of the very badly overgrazed low range of the valley, as well as the protection of the fall
range north of Churn Creek.    The cost of the above project was $259.50.
Another trail leading into the above ranges from the Williams meadow was authorized, but
owing to changes in the personnel of the Cariboo District and the illness of the Acting District
Forester it was not constructed until late in the year.    The cost will approximate $150.
The field-work of the past three years has resulted in a very fair knowledge of the ranges
being acquired, so that this office is now fairly well conversant with the needs of the range
country in the matter of dividing lines which are being established between districts and the
main division of district. A knowledge of this is necessary in order that the Range Improvement
Fund may be allotted, and also that the stockmen may be properly organized for active range-
work and be on an active and useful advisory basis regarding the expenditure of the Range
Improvement Fund within their respective districts.
Burning and Reseeding on the Crown Ranges.
A very important phase of the range-improvement policy is that dealing with investigations
into the advisability of burning and reseeding on the summer ranges. For the past three years
this office has been making a study of the effect of fires on the forage-growth of Crown ranges.
Growth conditions of timber and forage following fires indicate that it is inadvisable to permit
fires to run over range country. This was dealt with in detail in a report on range-burning
dated December 13th, 1920.
Since no very definite information regarding the permanent effect of such fires could be
obtained without confining the study to special areas, several tracts of typical range have been
selected for experimental work. These cover ranges where accidental burns have occurred and
also where burning has actually been done for investigative purposes.
The reseeding-work with grasses and clovers also required the selection and establishment
it experimental plots.
An examination of the reseeding-work done in 1919 on the 59-Mile burn with brome-grasses
and orchard-grass or cocksfoot shows that the grasses have failed to establish themselves. The
burn was a light one which merely cut down the old grass and small seedlings. The grasses were
sowii on the burn shortly after the fire occurred and made fair growth in the early part of 1920.
The cultivated species could not compete with the native vegetation and consequently were
choked out.
A small area on the Minnie Lake Commonage near Nicola was sown with the seed of the
common bunch-grass (Agropyron tenerum) in 1919, but has shown no good results so far. The
area was not protected in any way, but was left open to be grazed at all times stock were on
the commonage. It is difficult to get good results unless plenty of seed is available, as the
percentage of germination in the average lot of bunch-grass seed collected is a little better than
3 per cent.
In July of this year an area was selected for a range-burning experiment on the Lower
Nicola Range after a conference with the Advisory Board of the Nicola Stock-breeders' Association and the users of the range unit involved. Controlled burning is the special feature of this
experiment. The users of the range desired that it be burned over to clear off the reproduction
which it was claimed was interfering with grazing. From an examination on the range with
members of the association it did not appear that a general bum would be of any use, but it
was deemed advisable to select a tract which was typical of the lower range of the district
and burn it in such a way that definite information regarding growth figures could be obtained.
The area embraced a stand of Douglas fir seedlings and saplings up to 20 years old and also
areas of range entirely free of timber-growth. 12 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 53
As shown on the sketch which is made a part of this report, a portion of the tract was
burned over to destroy the young seedlings and saplings and also to burn the growth of grasses
and weeds remaining after the season's grazing on the open areas of the plot. Two acres were
enclosed with a good fence, 1 acre being burned over and the other not. The following grass
and clover seeds were sown both inside and outside of the fence on burned and uuburned
timbered and untimbered range: Chewing's fescue, perennial rye, white Dutch clover, and sweet
clover.
Grasses, such as western wheat, which might be expected to give better results in range-
sowing could not be obtained as they are classed as noxious weeds and importation prohibited.
This experiment will give important information relative to: The effect of the fire in retarding or influencing reproduction; the effect of the fire in retarding or influencing the growth of
the forage on both open and timbered areas and the character of natural growth resulting;
results following the sowing of the cultivated grasses on burned and unbnrned areas of both
open and timbered land and comparative data in connection therewith.
Fence
X x x x x
x x x x x o
S C      ;<
IC lover Fescue^
WD.   |2ldGRrx
iCIover j 20yrs. [')
|2n-dGRrl2n-dGFirxO
| 20yrs I20yrs ;< £
J :^ll
i '<
l8^6Firl20fiGFir:(
20yrs |20yrs *
4-
j^Per
.S/|2^GFir|    Per
ICIover^FescuelCiover'^Oyrs I   Rye   *
 ^— ^-o)OC X X X^X XX X X X X X x x
Fence
After the burned saplings and seedlings fall naturally they will be burned on part of the
area to ascertain the effect of a second fire on forage-growth.
The cost of the project, outside of time expended in examining the Lower Nicola Range and
locating the area, was:  Fencing, $40.95;  grass and clover seed, $5;  total, $45.95.
Another area was selected on the Lillooet Plateau and is located iu the S.W. % of the
S.W. % of Lot 1687, Lillooet District. The tract was burned over in August of this year and
was representative of the severe burns which occur in the lodge-pole and jack-pine types of
range. All of the timber growing on the area was destroyed by fire and on the actual plot
selected most of the down timber was destroyed. A very good seed-bed existed for the cultivated
grasses and clovers sown. These were perennial rye, Chewing's fescue, white Dutch and sweet
clovers.
A plot, 1 chain square was fenced with a strong pole fence and divided into four compartments, in each of which was sown one of the four species of cultivated forage mentioned.   The I 54 Department op Lands. 1922
same grasses and clovers were sown on the open burn on the outside, each species being sown
on separate areas. This experiment will give information regarding artificial reseeding on a
severe burn where soil conditions are favourable and on areas protected and unprotected from
grazing, and also information of value in reference to the growth of the native vegetation in
competition with cultivated species will also be obtained.
In connection with this study the growth of reproduction will be carefully noted. Although
the area Was absolutely bare of reproduction owing to the severity of the fire, the cones of the
large trees, which will probably die, were opening as a result of the heat from the fire and
were showering seed on the tract at the time the experiment was established.
The cost of establishing this experiment, outside of one day and a half in time expended
by members of this offie, was:   Grass and clover seed, $15;   nails for fence, $1;   total, $16.
A small supply of seed was furnished the Lillooet Stock-raisers' Association, which will be
sown on cultivated land in the spring in the vicinity of Beaver Dam and near to the experimental
plot.    This sowing will furnish data for comparative purposes.
The above special experiments will be carefully observed at different times each year by
menibers from this office and growth records and other data kept. Other experiments on different
types of range will be established as time will permit. The two initiated this year, however,
cover areas typical of the yellow-pine and lodge-pole types of range.
Reservations.
It is becoming evident that the reservation of small bodies of Crown range for the benefit
of the range-stock industry of the Interior must be given increased attention. These reservations
will cover areas needed for:—
Driveways.—From one portion of the Crown range to another and to shipping-points.
Watering-places.—'Both for camp use and as stock-watering places.
Holding-grounds.—Particularly for beef cattle on the drive and close to shipping-points.
Reservations for the above purposes can generally be arranged to cover areas which are of
no value for agricultural purposes and would not interfere with- bona-fide settlement. Any
discussion of settlement requirements would always recognize the fact that the major activity
in sections of the country embracing such reservations is the range-stock industry, and that
reservations are created for community and not for individual benefit.
In the range country the hay-producing lands are essentially lands which can only be
successfully operated in connection with the raising of range cattle, and only then when a use
of the open range is available. The cattle are on this open range from April to November and
they make their biggest growth there. The hay lands (winter ranches) are absolutely dependent
on the use allowed of the summer range, and therefore encouragement given the range stockman
to develop his property will be an important factor in the success of the range-stock business
of the Province. The successful development of the Interior depends in a very large degree on
the proper control and management of the summer ranges.
All areas covered by applications to lease and purchase Crown range 'are carefully examined
to ascertain whether their approval will result in blocking driveways and alienating sources of
water needed by stock using adjoining range. In all cases where applications are disapproved
for the above reason it would appear advisable to have the area involved listed as a reservation.
Grasshopper-control.
The investigative work carried on by the Entomological Branch in co-operation with the
Grazing Office for the purpose of discovering some method of preventing, or at least lessening,
' the damage done by grasshoppers on the range was continued during the past season.
The experiments of 1920 indicated that poisoning operations would not be successful. There
are over sixty varieties of grasshoppers on the range, and apparently those doing the worst
damage could not be checked by ordinary poisoning methods. It was deemed advisable to
enclose a small area of the range to ascertain if complete protection from grazing would enable
the grass to grow more rapidly than the grasshoppers could consume it. In this respect the
experiment was a success, as there is a splendid growth of grass inside the fence, while on
the outside where grazing was unregulated the forage was entirely consumed. The investigation
disclosed the fact that owing to heavy grazing and the destruction by the grasshoppers the
growth of forage was so sparse that the grasshoppers were forced to travel far for food.   T'nder 12 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 55
such conditions it is not possible for their ordinary enemies to keep them down to normal
numbers.    In consequence they have rapidly increased.
The construction of drift-fences or the application of other range plans which will protect
the forage to a great extent during the growing season will localize the grasshopper by making
travel in search of feed unnecessary. The parasites and other enemies which prey on the
grasshoppers will then be enabled to reach them and will keep them down to a point where
the damage they do will not be so noticeable. The pasture established has served to demonstrate
the truth of this, and it will now be used to secure data to indicate the period of time that must
elapse before satisfactory restoration may be expected on the range and as a guide to forming
working plans.    The cost for this year's work to the Department was $328.22.
Depredations by grasshoppers in the Nicola District were unusually bad during the past
season. It is understood the Entomological Branch intends to do considerable investigative
work in that section in 1922. If this ster) is taken this office can materially assist, since it
possesses first-hand knowledge of the location of the principal seed-beds of the grasshopper.
Herbarium.
The herbarium contains 860 specimens of mounted forage-plants; 792 specimens have been
identified. Observations are made regarding their forage value and noted. The studies made
on overgrazed areas give interesting information on the value of forage of the plants growing
thereon, which enables this office to determine very closely the method of using any area to
bring about the restoration of the primary forage-plants which are the most nutritious and
palatable.
Thos. P. Mackenzie,
Commissioner of Grazing.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1922. 

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