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FIFTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1922-23 BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1923

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Full Text

 FIFTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
of the province of
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1922-23
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
WITH APPENDICES
printed by
authority of the legislative assembly.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1923.  To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg herewith respectfully to present the Fifty-second Annual Report on the
Public Schools of the Province.
j. d. Maclean,
Minister of Education.
November, 1923.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Part  I.
Page,
Superintendent's Report    9
Inspectors' Reports—
High Schools  20
Elementary Schools  24
Municipal Inspectors' Reports—
Vancouver     41
Victoria  43
Reports on Normal Schools—
Vancouver  47
Victoria  48
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind  49
Report of the Organizer of Technical Education   52
Report of the Director of Elementary Agricultural Education   57
Summer School for Teachers   69
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Free Text-book Branch   74
The Strathcona Trust  76
Part  II.
Statistical Returns—
High Schools  2
City Elementary Schools  16
Rural Municipality Elementary Schools  54
Rural and Assisted Elementary Schools  SO
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts  104
Part   III.
High School Examination—
Names of the Winners of Medals and Scholarships    Ill
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre  112
High School Entrance Examination—
Names of Medal-winners ,  116
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre   116
High School Entrance Examination Papers    123
High School Examination Papers—
Preliminary Course (Junior Grade)    128
Advanced Course  (Junior Grade)     138
University Matriculation  (Junior)     145
University Matriculation (Senior)    159
Third-year Course, Commercial    170
Third-year Course, Technical   1S3
Third-year Course, Household Science   • 190
PRC\ . i :~nARY,
VICTORIA, B. C  PAET I.
APPENDICES.  REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION,
-1922-1923.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., November, 1923.
To the Honourable J. D. MacLean, M.D., CM.,
Minister of Education.
Sib,—I beg to submit herewith the Fifty-second Annual Report of the Public Schools of
British Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1923.
Enrolment.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 91,919 to
94,888 and the average daily attendance from 75,52S to 77,752.
Number of Pupils enrolled. Increase oyer Year
High  Schools       9,220 586
City elementary schools   41,174 209
Rural municipality elementary schools     25,733 1,362
Rural and assisted schools  18,761 812
Totals     94,888 2,969
The gain in school population was confined almost entirely to rural districts and rural
municipalities.
Teachers employed. Increas^oyerYear
High Schools  332 31
City elementary schools  1,141 8*
Rural municipality elementary schools   777 58
Rural and assisted schools   868 43
Totals '     3,118 124
* Decrease. New SCHOOLS.
High schools were established at Abbotsford, Dennison (Matsqui Municipality), Howe Sound,
Keremeos, Nakusp, New Denver, Port Coquitlam, Princeton, and Smithers; and superior schools
at Silverton, Sooke, and Vanderhoof.
Schools were opened for the first time in the following localities:—
Locality. Electoral District.
Premier   Atlin.
Baker  Creek;   Black  Creek;  Bouchie  Lake;   Canyon Creek;
Castle Rock; Quesnel Dam     Cariboo.
Forde   Columbia.
Galley Bay; Oyster River; Rendezvous Island; Wildwood ....   Comox.
Dawson Creek, North; Dewey; Fort Fraser, North; Fort St.
James; Hudson Hope; Newlands   Fort George.
Anglemont; Birch Island   Kamloops.
Birken; Green Lake, South; Shalalth; Tranquille, Upper .... Lillooet.
Cassidy Townsite   Newcastle.
Capilano Intake    North Vancouver.
Kispiox; Omineca; Palling; Streatham; Woodmere   Omineca.
Copper City; Lakelse Valley; Woodcock   Prince Rupert.
Blakebum       Similkameen.
Joe Rich Valley; Kelowna, South; Longbeach    South Okanagan.  •
Seaforth  (Burnaby)       South Vancouver.
Bonnington; Hall Siding   Trail.
Cheam View  Yale. F 10 Public Schools Report. 192,:
The steady growth in school population of the northern section of the Province is shown by
the large number of new schools that are established from year to year in the Cariboo, Fort
George, Omineca, and Prince Rupert Electoral Districts. Altogether there are in the Province
744 school districts and 1,044 schools, consisting of 67* high, 16 superior, and 961 elementary
schools.
School Accommodation. '
In some localities the ratepayers declined to vote money for the erection of permanent school
buildings. In such districts Boards of Trustees experienced difficulty in providing suitable
class-room accommodation for all pupils. Modern high-school buildings were erected in North
Vancouver, Burnaby, Trail, Maple Ridge, and Mission City. The High School, South Vancouver,
was enlarged by four rooms. Besides, school-houses were erected at Abbotsford, Ferndale
(Mission),*Haney (Maple Ridge), and a few other localities. Reports received at this office
would indicate that in many districts the equipment and sanitary arrangements were much
improved during the year.
Gbading and Classification.
At the end of the year the plan of classifying pupils into Junior, Intermediate, and Senior
Grades was abolished. The eight-grade system, which is the one generally followed in the other
Provinces of Canada and in the United States, was adopted for British Columbia. As the
nomenclature is now the same as that of the other Provinces, the teachers will experience less
difficulty in classifying pupils coming from places outside the Province. Under the plan which
has been discarded it was attempted to complete the Course of Studies for the elementary schools
in seven years, one year less than that taken in the other Provinces and the United States.
The new arrangement, which divides the course into eight grades, will give the pupils and
teachers an opportunity to do more thorough work. Formerly, the slower pupils, in attempting
to do work in seven years for which eight years were allowed elsewhere had to repeat several
terms' work before they reached the Entrance class.
It is expected that, as was the case in the past, the brighter pupils will be able to complete
the course in six or seven years.
New Readebs and Literature.
The new Canadian Readers which replaced the 20th Century Readers at the beginning of
the school-year were favourably received by teachers and their pupils. The old Readers had
been in use in the schools of the Province for about twenty years. The new Course in Literature
prescribed for Entrance pupils is regarded as much more suitable for study than the selections
formerly taken from the Readers.
Elementary Ageicultueal Education.
The activities of this branch include the giving of regular courses of instruction in the
science and practice of agriculture in high and superior schools, agricultural nature-studies in
public schools, extension or short courses in agriculture held during the winter months, and the
planning and improving of school-grounds. Regular courses in nature-study are being supplemented by instruction in school-gardening, school-supervised home-gardening, and other projects
in agriculture which are optional with the teachers and School Boards. More attention has
been given to the proper placing of new buildings and to the planning and beautifying of school-
grounds than ever before, a development that is entirely in harmony with the modern view of
education. The educational values that grow out of a well-ordered and judiciously managed
school-ground are of great importance in the training and all-round development of boys and
girls during the years of school-life, and the assistance which the Department gives to School
Boards in establishing and maintaining a good out-of-doors school environment for the pupils
in the way of commodious and well-kept school-grounds is being more and more appreciated.
The teachers and also the pupils themselves are beginning to take more of a proprietary interest
in their school-grounds.
Regular Two-year Courses in Agriculture were conducted by specialists in twelve high
schools in the Province, and satisfactory progress is being made. The number of students
enrolled in these classes during the year was 510, an increase of 53 over last year. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Keport. F 11
Teachers' Bureau.
This branch of the Department of Education continued to give free service to teachers and
Boards of School Trustees, who were placed in communication with one another without unnecessary delay by the distribution of lists of vacancies. Over 600 copies of each list were distributed.
Notices of approximately 300 vacancies were received. Over 200 of these were filled by teachers
selected by the Bureau at the request of the School Boards. A careful scrutiny of Inspectors'
reports and the fact that no complaints have been received from any of the Boards would appear
to indicate that the great majority of these teachers had given satisfactory service in the schools
in which they were placed by the Bureau.
Teachers' Certificates.
Three types of teachers' certificates are issued by the Department of Education—Permanent,
Interim, and Temporary. These certificates are again divided into four classes ■— namely,
Academic, First Class, Second Class, and Special—in accordance with the regulations governing
the granting of each class. Special certificates are granted for the most part to teachers of
manual training and domestic science.
Eighty-five Academic, 144 First-class, 37S Second-class, and 47 Special Certificates, a total of
721, were issued during the year, as compared with 705 the previous year.
In addition to the above, it was found necessary to issue sixty-seven Temporary Certificates
to meet the needs of the Province. This number was 135 less than that granted in 1921-22.
These certificates were mainly issued to teachers who had previous experience and some Normal
training, but who were not in possession of all the qualifications necessary to meet the full
requirements for regular certificates.
The granting of Third-class Certificates has been discontinued. No certificates of this class
have heen issued since June 30th, 1922. As a result there has been a very marked increase in
the number of students qualifying for First-class and Second-class Certificates.
Correspondence Courses and Night-schools.
Instruction by correspondence was given: (a) To twelve teachers, holders of First-class and
Academic Certificates, who desired to qualify for teaching commercial subjects in high schools;
(b) to 184 children of school age who lived in localities in which there was not a sufficient number of children residing to keep a school in operation; (c) to 152 coal-miners who desired to
qualify for the positions of shotlighters, overmen, mine surveyors, and mine managers.
Night-schools, attended by 3,996 pupils, were conducted in twenty-nine cities and rural
municipalities. These figures, according to the latest report of the Organizer of Technical
Education for Canada, place British Columbia third in rank among the Provinces in the matter
of attendance.
The total amount spent by the Department for night-schools, correspondence-work and
technical education (not including manual training and domestic science) was $70,164.76.
Towards this expenditure the Dominion Government contributed $34,479.32.
Normal Schools.
The number of students in attendance at the Normal Schools exceeded by 152 the number
enrolled the previous year. In all, 6S9 students—155 men and 534 women—were enrolled in
the two Normal Schools, 420 in Vancouver and 269 in Victoria. Of the total number enrolled,
31 failed, 23 withdrew before the end of the year, 72 were granted interim certificates, and
563 were recommended for permanent certificates.
Last year was the first time in which interim certificates were issued. Previously permanent
certificates were granted to all students whose work was not classed as poor by the Normal
School teachers. Under the new arrangement, students whose work is wholly unsatisfactory
are not granted certificates of any class, while students whose work is only " fair " are issued
interim certificates valid for two years. Before the holders of such certificates are given
permanent standing they must show by, actual teaching during the time their certificates are
in force that they possess adaptability for class-room work.
Students will no longer be admitted to Normal School on the old qualifications—namely,
Junior Matriculation Certificates. Hereafter, high-school students who are preparing to enter
the teaching profession will be required to take up in their High School Course the subjects F 12 Public Schools Report. 1923
of Canadian History, Canadian Civics, British History, Geography, Arithmetic, and Drawing,
as well as the work prescribed for Junior Matriculation students in Literature, Composition,
Algebra, Geometry, one Science, and one foreign language. It is expected that this modification
of the course will result in improvement in the teaching service. Normal School graduates will
take charge of their schools with a better preparation for their work then they would have
under the old requirements. In the past, University graduates who desired to take up teaching
had to attend Normal School for one term only. In future they must attend for two terms
of fifteen weeks each. During the first term (September to December) they will receive training
at the Normal and Model Schools. The second term (January to May) will be spent at the
University. One or two of the high schools will be used as model schools for observation and
practice-work. The training during the first term will prepare them chiefly for teaching in
elementary schools and that of the second term for teaching in high schools.
School for the Deaf and the Blind.
The School for the Blind which was established several years ago by the Vancouver School
Board was taken over by the Provincial Government in September. Accommodation was provided for the children in the building at Point Grey formerly used as the Boys' Industrial
School and now operated as a School for the Deaf and the Blind.
There were in attendance during the year 70 children, 38 boys and 32 girls, 58 of whom
are deaf and 12 blind. Forty of the pupils resided in the school; the other 30, who have their
homes in Vancouver and its suburbs, attended as day scholars. The Inspector reports that the
children are making very satisfactory progress. Four of the blind pupils were promoted to
high-schol work at the end of the school-year. They will continue their studies at the institution.
The older pupils are taught work of a practical as well as of an academic nature. The girls
receive instruction in plain sewing, dressmaking, and housekeeping duties. The boys are
required to work about the garden and other parts of the grounds. They are also taught manual
training. Two of them attended the Technical School Vancouver, one day a week to learn
printing.
Summer Schools.
The fourth summer session of the University of British Columbia was held in Vancouver in
July and August under the direction of Dean Coleman. About 300 teachers, Inspectors, and
Normal School Instructors were in attendance. Instruction by specialists was given in educational subjects, in commercial work, and also in the regular University courses.
The Summer School, which was in session in Victoria during the midsummer vacation, was
attended by 360 teachers, as compared with 234 last year. Five new courses were added, making
twenty-four courses offered altogether. These post-normal training courses are having excellent
results in improving the standard of work done in the schools of the Province.
Change of Status.
Section 15 of the " Public Schools Act" provides that a city in which the average daily
attendance of pupils exceeds 1,000 shall be ranked for school purposes as a city of the first
class, and that a city with an average daily attendance of between 250 and 1,000 shall be ranked
as second class. To meet the requirements of this section, Nanaimo has been raised to the
status of a first-class city, and Armstrong, Duncan, Cumberland, Merritt, and Prince George
to that of second class.
Revision and Consolidation of the " Public Schools Act."
During the year the " Public Schools Act" was revised and consolidated. In its present
form, with its new classification, rearrangement of sections, and index, it is more convenient
for the use of trustees and teachers than the old Act.    Some of the changes brought about are:—
(a.) The wife or the husband of every person who is qualified to fill the office of school
trustee shall, if she or he is 21 years of age or over and a resident of the district, be qualified
also to serve as school trustee.
(6.) When a vacancy arises on a Board of School Trustees of a municipal district for any
cause other than the expiry of the regular term of office, the remaining trustees, in case the
Council of the municipality fails to hold an election within thirty days after it has been served 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 13
with due notice, may, with the approval of the Council of Public Instruction, appoint some duly
qualified person to fill the position which has become vacant.
(c.) The assessment voted by ratepayers at school meetings in rural districts must be paid
over to the Boards of Trustees of each district in equal quarterly instalments on the first days
of September, December, March, and June in each year. Under this arrangement payments
are made one month earlier than in the past. The payments made at the first of June and
December will enable trustees to pay teachers their salaries before they leave for their holidays,
while the payment received on September 1st will make it possible for Boards to meet, before
the schools open, any expenditure they may make during the summer vacations in purchasing
equipment and supplies or in making improvements to buildings or grounds.
(d.) Such rural districts as comprise areas under or controlled by a corporation are to be
regarded for school purposes as company towns. In each of such districts there is usually only
one ratepayer, the Corporation. It has therefore been impossible for residents to qualify for
the office of school trustee or for' voting at school meetings. The new Act authorizes the Council
of Public Instruction to appoint three residents, whether qualified voters or not, to serve as
school trustees and to exercise the powers of ratepayers.
(e.) A penalty is provided in the case of teachers who leave the service of School Boards
without giving due notice. The certificate of a teacher who violates the Act in this connection
may be suspended by the Council of Public Instruction for such period as the Council considers
expedient.
(/.) A teacher who is absent through illness a number of days not exceeding ten shall be
paid salary in full during the period of sick-leave. No teacher, except one who has not used
the allowance of previous years, shall be entitled to salary for a longer period of sick-leave
than ten days in any school-year.
{g.) A Board of School Trustees of a municipal school district may, with the approval of
the Council of Public Instruction and of the Council of the municipality, make a retiring allowance to any teacher who has to leave its service owing to ill-health or old age.
(Tt.) Boards of School Trustees are given power to expend a part of the tuition fee* c %1 ''""'<'d
from pupils attending colleges, high schools, or technical schools in establishing  re': is
for deserving pupils who are students at the schools or colleges in which the fees : d.
(i.) Normal School students may be charged tuition fees.    It has been the practie fly
all other Provinces and countries to require students to contribute to the cost of the mai aiance
of the schools at which they receive training for the teaching service. The fee of $40 which is
now imposed for the first time will meet about 30 per cent, of the amount required each year for
the maintenance of the two Normal Schools. F 14
Public Schools Report.
.1923
High Schools.
The enrolment in the high schools during the year was 9,220. Of this number, 4,046 were
boys and 5,174 were girls.
The number of divisions, the total enrolment for the school-year 1922-23, and the total
enrolment for the school-year 1921-22 are shown in the following table:—
High School Centre.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1922-23.
Total
Enrolment,
1921-22.
Abbotsford  	
Agassiz   	
Armstrong  ......
Bridgeport   	
Burnaby    	
Chilliwack  	
Courtenay   	
Cranbrook   	
Creston   	
Cumberland    ....
Duncan    	
Enderby    	
Esquimalt   	
Fernie    	
Golden   	
Granby Bay   ....
Grand Forks  ....
Greenwood    	
Howe Sound  ....
Kamloops    	
Kaslo   	
Kelowna    	
Keremeos   	
Ladner    	
Ladysmith	
Langley   	
Maple Ridge
Matsqui   	
Merritt    	
Mission	
Nakusp    	
Nanaimo   	
Nelson   	
New Denver   ....
New  Westminster
Oak Bay   	
Ocean Falls	
Peachland   	
Penticton   	
Point Grey   	
Port Alberni  ....
Port  Coquitlam   .
Powell River
Prince George ...
Prince Rupert ...
Princeton    	
Revelstoke   	
Rossland   	
Salmon  Arm   ....
Slocan   	
Smithers   	
Summerland   ....
Surrey   	
Trail    	
Vancouver   	
Vancouver,   North
Vancouver,   South
Vernon  	
Victoria   	
Totals    .
67
1
2
3
1
5
2
3
1
2
3
2
2
2
1
3
1
5
7
1
19
5
1
1
5
17
1
1
80
9
18
5
30
25
34
66
69
218
184
41
125
27
38
61
29
44
110
14
18
68
16
156
47
102
19
42
61
38
52
49
43
56
17
154
224
25
543
156
19
21
130
496
29
27
24
32
111
18
102
101
62
16
16
77
80
90
2,749
325
626
122
976
316
9,220
34
69
53
30
140
29
97
26
40
68
34
45
77
13
19
76
15
147
51
104
38
69
42
54
21
30
74
162
213
673
149
15
19
116
393
19
29
101
123
101
54
12
68
55
78
2,759
274
565
109
1,026
8,634 14 Geo. 5
i
Public Schools Report.
F 15
City Elementary Schools.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 41,174. The number of boys was 21,088;
of girls, 20,086.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, the total enrolment for the school-year
1922-23, and the total enrolment for the school-year 1921-22 in each city are shown in the
following table:—
City.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1922-23.
Total
Enrolment,
1921-22.
Alberni    	
Armstrong  	
Chilliwack   	
Courtenay   	
Cranbrook   	
Cumberland    ....
Duncan    	
Enderby   	
Fernie    	
Grand Forks  ....
Greenwood   	
Kamloops    	
Kaslo   	
Kelowna    	
Ladysmith   	
Merritt   	
Nanaimo    	
Nelson   	
New Westminster
Port Alberni ....
Port Coquitlam ..
Port Moody	
Prince Oeorge ...
Prince Rupert .. .
Revelstoke  	
Rossland   	
Salmon Arm
Slocan   	
Trail	
Vancouver  	
Vancouver,  North
Vernon   	
Victoria   	
Totals ..
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
30
3
i
17
4
15
10
5
17
13
11
5
23
11
3
20
4
15
12
10
26
25
66
5
7
6
8
19
16
11
20
446
38
22
138
115
521
377
240
688
517
413
162
886
431
79
816
140
535
446
392
1,189
1,008
2,574
201
250
206
310
691
659
454
173
48
746
18,307
1,388
851
5,361
92
1,038
41,174
112
534
40S
209
653
511
540
167
939
453
80
735
142
554
436
368
1,183
978
2,491
173
254
186
279
751
620
454
169
60
656
17,890
1,366
860
5,694
40,905 F 16
Public Schools Report.
1923
Rural Municipality Elementary Schools.
The enrolment in the rural municipality elementary schools during the year was 25,733.
The number of boys enrolled was 13,287;  of girls, 12,446.
The following table gives the names of the several municipalities, the number of schools
in each, the total enrolment for the school-year 1922-23, and the total enrolment for the school-
year 1921-22 :—
Municipality.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1922-23.
Total
Enrolment,
1921-22.
Burnaby  	
Chilliwack   	
Coldstream   	
Coquitlam   	
Cowichan, North   	
Delta   	
Esquimalt   	
Glenmore  	
Kent   	
Langley   	
Maple Ridge  	
Matsqui   	
Mission   	
Oak Bay	
Peachland   	
Penticton    	
Pitt Meadows  	
Point Grey   	
The Deaf and the Blind
Richmond    	
Saanich   	
Salmon Arm   	
Sumas    	
Summerland   	
Surrey   	
Vancouver, North 	
Vancouver, South 	
Vancouver, West 	
Totals 	
15
14
2
5
4
12
1
1
2
17
9
11
9
2
2
2
2
7
1
7
16
7
5
1
19
6
14
4
80
31
3
17
17
1
5
28
19
19
17
15
4
21
3
73
9
21
59
37
-20
184
13
2,956
918
77
225
162
511
573
28
171
954
642
508
555
607
100
758
79
2,890
70
772
2,004
229
167
337
1,135
722
7,118
465
197
734
25,733
2,756
904
66
206
49b
581
178
962
612
530
557
572
107
775
62
2,477
60
745
1,926
229
163
340
1,078
714
6,913
420
24,431
Rural and Assisted Elementary Schools.
The total enrolment in these schools for the year was 18,761.    Of this number, 9,662 were
hoys and 9,099 were girls.
Expenditure for Education, 1922-23.
Education Office:
Salaries      $     18,541 33
Expenses of office—
Books and papers  $    116 S6
Expressage     65
Furniture and repairs   31 08
Insurance premiums   20 00
Postage       1,160 32
Printing and stationery       6,996 82
Repairing and cleaning typewriters   80 04
Telegrams, telephones, etc      1,001 89
  9,407 66
Travelling expenses     430 83
Carried forward  $    28,379 82 14 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
F 17
Brought forward   $    28,379 82
Free Text-book Branch:
Salaries     6,104 25
Expenses of office—
Expressage    $      12 05
Furniture, etc  47 30
Insurance premium  5 OO
Postage       1,496 06
Printing and stationery      2,699 29
Repairing and cleaning typewriters   29 00
Telegrams und telephones           148 24
  4,436 94
Books, maps, etc        126,387 58
Agricultural Education:
Salaries    $18,949 99
Less contributed by Districts       9,053 00
  9,896 99
Office supplies  $ 1,206 99
Travelling expenses      1,583 69
Grants in aid      13.674 43
Summer  school         S,875 64
 25,340 75
Industrial Education :
Salaries     7,048 31
Office supplies    '. $ 1,839 55
Travelling expenses        1,488 84
Night-schools       15,890 40
Summer school       9,791 06
Grants in aid     34,230 59
         63,240 44
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries     50,774 15
Office supplies  $ 3,798 28
Travelling expenses      19,530 02
 23,328 30
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries      26,070 00
Office supplies    $ 2,600 87
Travelling expenses    74 45
Fuel, water, and light       2,032 54
Maintenance and repairs        5,170 40
Students' mileage         1,908 05
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal students       3,155 00
         14,941 31
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries     24,204 00
Office supplies    $ 2,495 OS
Travelling expenses           464 00
Fuel, water, and light       3,286 43
Maintenance and repairs       1,611 29
Students' mileage         6,130 00
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal students      1,625 OO
Incidentals      9 50
 15,621 30
Carried forward  $  425,774 14:
B Brought fonvard   $  425,774 14
School for Deaf and Blind:
Salaries  19,144 29
Office supplies   $    137 62
Travelling expenses     51 40
Fuel, water, and light       2,066 97
Maintenance and repairs        2,115 52
Furniture, etc         396 49
Provisions, etc      3,288 71
Incidentals            395 08
  8,451 79
Per capita grant to cities   699,003 39
Per capita grant to district municipalities    483,836 00
Per capita grant to rural school districts   159,510 20
Salaries to teachers in assisted schools   516,747 80
Salaries to teachers in Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Belt   105,335 35
School buildings, erection and maintenance   241,898 24
Libraries     1,530 02
Manual-training equipment     518 98
Examination of teachers and High School Entrance classes  32,19S 17
Conveying children to central schools  32,390 20
Miscellaneous grants    500 00
Incidentals     3,597 70
Grant to University of British Columbia  446,250 01
$3,176,686 28
Amount expended by—
Cities     2,727,755 24
District municipalities   1,371,146 88
Rural and assisted school districts   354,421 14
Grand total cost of education   $7,630,009 54
The following ta'ble shows the cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil on enrolment
and on average daily attendance during the past ten years:—
Year.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Average Actual
Daily Attendance.
1913-14  	
$20 04
21 78
22 50
22 47
22 64
24 88
27 20
29 01
29 33
27 92
$25 27
26 65
1914-15   	
9§ 56
1916-17  	
27 83
1917-18  	
27 93
1918-19   	
31 59
1919-20  	
36 05
1920-21   	
36 38
1921-22   	
35 70
1922-23  	
34 07 14 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
F 19
The gradual growth of the schools, as well as the cost to the Provincial Government of
maintaining the same, is shown by the record of attendance and expenditure given in the
following exhibit:—
Number
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Percentage
Government
Year.
of School
Actual Daily
of
Expenditure for
Districts.
Attendance.
Attendance.
Education.
1877-78   	
45
2,198
1,395.50
63.49
$     43,334 01
1882-83   	
59
2,693
1,383.00
51.36
50,850 63
1887-88   	
104
6,372
3,093.46
48.54
99,002 04
1892-93   	
169
11,496
7,111.40
61.85
190,558 33
1897-98   	
213
17,648
11,055.65
62.64 ■
247,756 37
1902-03   	
268
24,499
16,357.43
66.76
397,003 46
1907-08   	
189
33,314
23,195.27
69.62
464,473 78
1912-13   	
359
575
5S2
57,608
'67,516
72,006
43,274.12
54,746.76
56,692.38
75.12
81.09
78.73
1,032,038 60
1917-18   	
1,529,058 93
1918-19   	
1,791,153 47
1919-20   	
636
'79,243
59,791.39
75.45
2,155,934 61
1920-21   	
665
85,950
68,497.57
79.69
2,931,572 25*
1921-22   	
716
01,919
75,528.38
82.16
3,141,737 95*
1922-23   	
744
94,888
77,752.98
81.94
3,176,686 28*
* This amount includes annual grant to Provincial University.
The following statement shows the number of teachers of each sex employed during 1922-23
and 1921-22, and also the number of certificates of each class held by the teachers:—
Number of
Number of
Certificates of each Class.
Teachers
of each Sex.
Total.
Academic.
First.
Second.
Third.
Temporary.
Special.
Male.
Female.
High schools	
290
14
28
213
119
332
Urban municipalities  ....
128
313
525
80
5
90
200
941
1,141
Rural  municipalities   ....
47
162
432
88
3
45
137
640
777
Rural and assisted   	
56
163
459
129
61
179
689
868
Totals,   1922-23. .
521
688
1,416
297
83
163
729
2,389
3,118
Totals,   1921-22..
482
548
1,217
374
202
171
700
2,294
2,994
Further particulars regarding the work  of the schools are given  in  the reports  of the
Inspectors and other officials.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education. F 20
Public Schools Report.
1923
INSPECTORS' REPORTS.
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
Victoria, B.C., August 31st, 1923.
J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg leave to submit herewith my report on the high and superior schools of
Inspectorate No. 1 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1923.
The boundaries of this inspectorate are the same as they were in September, 1919, when
two high-school inspectorates were formed. It now contains four superior schools, six ungraded
high schools, and twenty-five graded high schools, making a total of thirty-five schools with
168 teachers.
During the year a superior school was opened at Sooke and the one at Abbotsford was
raised to the status of a high school. In Langley Municipality the high-school classes formerly
conducted at Murrayville were transferred to temporary quarters at Milner, a point more
convenient to the majority of pupils iu the municipality. The superior schools at Bradner and
Mount Lehman, in Matsqui Municipality, were reduced to their former status as public schools
and the pupils of each who were doing high-school work attended the newly created high school
at Dennison, which is midway between Bradner and Mount Lehman and about a mile from
each centre. This arrangement is a distinct advantage to the community. Instead of the
principals of each superior school spending the greater part of the day teaching high-school
subjects, they are now free to devote all their time to the Senior Grade pupils of the public
school, while the teacher in the high school at Dennison, which serves both communities, gives
instruction in high-school subjects only.
In April of this year the City of Chilliwack and the District Municipality of Chilliwack
were formed into one high-school area. In accordance with the terms of the " Public Schools
Act," two trustees were appointed from the City School Board and two from the Municipal
School Board, the four members thus appointed constituting the Board of School Trustees of
the high-school area. This High School Board is given powers similar to those vested in Boards
of Trustees of municipal school districts. The appointment of the High School Board and the
extension of the boundaries of the district have ensured greater activity and interest in the high
school by the people of the Chilliwack Valley generally. The effective consolidation of educational interests such as that which has been brought about at Bradner, Mount Lehman, and
Chilliwack serves to confirm the wisdom of making the " Public Schools Act" readily adaptable
to urgent local needs.
The work done in the schools of this inspectorate, as shown in the results of the Departmental Examinations, was above average. This is also true of the general average in the high
schools of the Province. The members of the Board of Examiners who read the answer papers
stated that the good results were not due to less difficult examinations than in the year previous,
nor to greater leniency in marking the papers, but to the improved character of the candidates'
answers, which could be accounted for mainly by the higher standard of teaching in the schools.
The results of the examinations were as follows :—
Grade.
Number of
Number
Granted
Supple-
mentals.
Candidates.
passed.
371
267
211
134
46
31
12
21
12
6
17
6
6
1,746
1,028
436
111
27
38
2,523
1.505
498
Preliminary Course, Junior Grade  	
Advanced Course, Junior Grade  	
Third-year Commercial  	
Third-year Household Science   	
Third-year Technical Leaving  	
Junior Matriculation (1 Returned Soldiers' Applied Science)
Senior Matriculation 	
Totals ,	 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 21
Including those who were granted supplemental, the pass-list was 2,003 out of a total of
2,523 candidates, or slightly over 79 per cent, of those who wrote did not fail in the examinations.
This year, for the first time, supplemental were granted to Third-year Commercial, Household
Science, and Technical Leaving candidates. Those who were granted supplemental in Junior
Matriculation subjects may remove them in June or September, but if they were granted supple-
mentals in subjects peculiar to the Third-year Commercial, Household Science, or Technical
Leaving Course they must write their supplemental in June only.
As Secretary of the Board of Examiners, I should like to record my appreciation of the
promptness with which the principals of the high and superior schools of the Province filled out
the returns calling for an estimate of the number of candidates in each grade and the optional
subjects which they intended to write upon at the Departmental Examinations in June. Upon
these statistics were based the number of booklets and examination papers required at each
centre. Thirty-five thousand booklets were ordered, manufactured in the Province, and sent to
the various centres.
The immediate supervision of the High School and Matriculation Examinations was in
sole charge this year of the Inspectors of Schools and members of the Normal School staffs.
Examinations were held in every high and superior school of the Province, as well as in five
more or less isolated public schools. In all, there were eighty-three examination centres. It is
greatly to the credit of those who supervised and presided that the answer booklets from every
one of the 2,523 candidates, including those who wrote at Atlin and Hudson Hope, arrived at
the Education Office in time to be read, adjudicated upon, and tabulated before the publication
of the results on July 2Sth.
According to the new schedule of fees, stipulated in the Courses of Study, the sum of $5 must
be paid by a high-school pupil who writes upon any one of the Departmental Examinations in
June, 1924. This does not, of course, apply to candidates in Grades IX. and X. of superior
schools, for whom the Departmental Examinations are obligatory. The charging of fees will
not work a hardship on high-school pupils, because they may still be promoted from Grades IX.
and X. by their principals on the advice of the assistant teachers, whose recommendations
should " largely determine the promotion lists." If, however, a pupil or his parent is not
satisfied with the recommendation of the teacher or principal, the pupil, by paying the required
fee, may write upon the Departmental Examination and thus have the Board of Examiners as
a " Court of Appeal," whose decision as to whether the pupil should be promoted will be final.
One of the new clauses in the Courses of Study just issued should have a far-reaching
influence upon the system of promotion in our high schools. It reads thus: " Pupils who fail
to do well in part of their examinations should not be required to repeat the year's work in those
subjects in which they have shown a marked degree of proficiency, but should be allowed to
proceed to the next year's work in such subjects. This method of promotion leads logically to
granting credit to students who write on the Matriculation and other examinations, in those
subjects in which they obtain the required percentage. If this principle of promotion were put
into effect, I believe it would economize the teacher's and pupil's time as well as the ratepayer's
money, and it would also relieve the pupil from the monotony of spending another year upon
a subject or subjects in which he had already shown proficiency.
Several changes have been made in the Courses of Study, which will come into effect at the
opening of the school-year in September. Not the least important change is that made in the
cumbrous terms " Preliminary Course, Junior Grade" and " Advanced Course, Junior Grade,"
for which may be substituted the simple terms Grade IX. and Grade X. respectively.
In Grade IX. a supplementary story, " Lorna Doone," has been added to the Course in
Literature, and certain selections for study have been chosen from the Fifth Reader. Canadian
History has been added end Civics has been dropped. A new Geometry, by Godfrey and
Siddons, has been substituted for Hall and Stevens' Geometry. Gregory and Simmons' Science
Texts have been eliminated, while Caldwell and Eikenberry's General Science has been retained.
In Grade X. the French text " Histoires et Jeux " has been substituted for " La Mere Michel
et son Chat." The history prescribed in this grade for those who wish eventually to enter
University is the Canadian edition of West's " Early Peoples," while those who are preparing
for Normal Entrance will study Wrong's " High School History of England." In this grade
Botany is no longer compulsory. Grade XI. includes the subjects of Junior Matriculation and
Normal Entrance.    The requirements for each are identical, except that Geography is to be F 22 Public Schools Report. 1923
taken by Normal Entrance candidates instead of a second science or a second language, and
" English History and Civics " will be studied instead of " General History." Those students
who wish to take a general course or who desire to pursue their studies no further than the end
of the High School Course may now take advantage of the educational value to he derived from
the study of subjects such as History and Geography. These changes and improvements should
make the outlook for secondary education in this Province brighter than ever before.
I have, etc.,
A. Sullivan,
Inspector of High Schools.
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
Vancouver, B.C., September 1st, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the high and superior schools of my inspectorate
for the school-year ended June 30th, 1923 :—
This inspectorate embraced thirty-five high and eleven superior schools, containing 176
divisions. The number of teachers employed was 195, an increase of sixteen over the previous
year. It is interesting to note that thirty-one of the teachers in the secondary schools of my
district are graduates of the University of British Columbia. This is rather a remarkable
showing when we consider that the Provincial University granted degrees for the first time
in 1916.
During the year the following schools were raised from superior to high-school status:
Howe Sound, Keremeos, Nakusp, Port Coquitlam, and Princeton. Greenwood was reduced to
a superior school because of the falling-off in the number of high-school pupils. Excellent new
high-school buildings have been provided in Maple Ridge and South Burnaby. These were
formally opened by the Honourable the Minister of Education, the former on September 7th'
and the latter the following day. Accommodation, ample for present high school needs, has been
provided at Agassiz, Keremeos, Penticton, and Summerland, either through the erection of new
public schools or through additions to the old buildings. High-school buildings are under construction at Mission, Trail, and North Burnaby, while a four-room wing is being added to the
South Vancouver High School.
The new Course of Study has rechristened the high-school grades and now refers to them
as Grades IX., X., XL, and Senior Matriculation. During the year the Education Department
has made a number of important changes in the High School Course of Study. Canadian History
will replace Civics in the subjects for Grade IX., while in the second year Arithmetic is now
required and Botany is optional. Science has been made the equivalent of a foreign language
in Grade XI. Pupils looking ahead to Normal School will be asked to follow a course of study
differing somewhat from that required of Junior Matriculation candidates. " Students of Grade
XI. who wish to enter Normal School in September, 1924, must take the prescribed course in
English History and Civics and in Geography, the former in place of General History and the
latter in place of a second science or second language. In other respects the requirements for
Normal Entrance and Junior Matriculation are identical." Students of Grade X. who plan on
entering Normal School in 1925 should substitute British History for the General History of
that year. Candidates who pass the Normal Entrance Examination in June, 1924, and who may
later decide to enter the Provincial University, will be given credit for those matriculation
subjects in which they have been successful. A year's Normal Training is now required of
University graduates working for Academic certificates. Part of the time will be spent at
Normal School and the remainder at the Provincial University. New texts have heen prescribed
for first-year Geometry and second-year History and French Authors. The Grade X. Botany
and the Geometry and Botany of Grade XI. have been redrafted. Instead of requiring al! the
Fifth Reader of first-year classes certain selections have been prescribed, but the classes will be
asked for two books of prose.
I have been making a careful study of the grading of first- and second-year high-school
pupils during the last few years and have been forced to conclude that grading standards differ 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 23
widely. I have five large (twelve or more divisions) high schools in my district—all the five
being located in the Lower Mainland. In 1921 the number of Advanced Junior pupils in these
schools compared with the enrolment in Preliminary classes the previous year ranged all the
way from 56.2 to 76.5 per cent; in 1922 the range was from 57.3 to 81.3 per cent.; and in 1923
from 46.2 to 75.7 per cent. A comparison of Junior Matriculation pupils with the Advanced
Junior pupils enrolled the previous year reveals the following variations: In 1921, from 37.6
to 93.3 per cent.; in 1922, from 53.9 to 92.5 per cent.; in 1923, from 5S.4 to 81.3 per cent.
While it is obvious these figures are affected somewhat by several causes, such a*, the
greater number of pupils dropping out in some schools, yet it cannot be denied the main reason
for the variation is the difference in the standards adopted in setting and marking grading
papers. If trustees are going to judge a school's work by the results of the Junior Matriculation
Examination, the criterion should not be the percentage of candidates who are successful, but
rather the relationship between the number of successful candidates and the total enrolment of
the school. It ought to be possible for the high schools of Vancouver to adopt uniform standards
for grading. Such an arrangement need not ignore teachers' judgments in doubtful cases. In a
number of smaller schools there is still evident considerable laxness in grading. Unless we keep
our standards high we are bound to develop in the pupils habits of cheap workmanship.
Homogeneous grouping of pupils is now being employed in most of our large high schools.
No such grouping is worthy of consideration unless the object is to make an arrangement which
will prove of value for our boys and girls; this, I believe, is the object the principals have had
in mind. The practice followed in several schools in this Province has been to arrange according
to ability all the pupils of any one year and then to divide these into classes, beginning with
the very bright and ending with the slowest. In a school of six or more Preliminary classes
this invariably results in the formation of one class who look upon themselves as dullards, and
hence are discouraged at the very beginning of their High School Course and accordingly fail
to live up even to their limited capabilities. Teachers usually approach such classes with
reluctance and distaste, miss the inspiration provided by a class of eager, intelligent pupils,
and thus are not in a position to give of their best. Principals in other places have learned that
it is unwise to make too fine a division of pupils, and that the most satisfactory plan is to have
three groups only—the bright, medium, and slow. With the increasing number of optional
subjects the difficulties of homogeneous grouping from an administrative standpoint are greatly
increased. It is unwise to attempt to do much along this line in a school of less than 250
or 300 pupils.
Of late years the high-school principal has been coming back into his own. School Boards
are consulting principals more and more regarding appointments and dismissals and are centring
in their hands responsibility for instruction. They realize that it is not sound policy to pay a
principal a large salary for doing secretarial work or for simply teaching his own classes.
A good principal must be strong in discipline, wise in his dealings with pupils and assistants,
and a leader in his school, not simply one of the staff. To be a leader he must be capable of and
willing to undertake effective supervision. I meet principals occasionally who have the mistaken
idea that they are in no way responsible for the quality of work being done by their assistants.
Such principals should make up their minds to assume such responsibility or give woy to
others who will.
During the past summer I have had exceptional opportunities of considering the attitudes,
ideals, and methods of high-school teachers in other places. I have returned home fully convinced that the high-school teachers of British Columbia are, on the whole, exceedingly earnest,
conscientious, and efficient.
During recent years there has been a remarkable increase in the high-school enrolment of
the Province.    The number of high-school pupils by years since 1917 is given below:—
School-year                                                                                             ggffifi Increase.
1016-17   4,841
1917-18   5,150 309
1918-19   5,806 656
1919-20   6,636 830
1920-21   7,259 623
1921-22   8,634 1,375
1922-23   9,220 56S F 24 Public Schools Report. 1923
In the last six years there has been an increase of 4,361, or 90 per cent. These figures do
not take into account the number of superior-school pupils doing high-school work. This surely
indicates a growing appreciation of the value of the training offered by our secondary schools.
" Many claim the function of the high school is to train for leadership. ... There is
only one qualification for leadership and that is efficiency. The object of the high school should
be to train for efficient service. One becomes a useful citizen through the amount of silent
directive thinking one does and through the material, spiritual, and aesthetic contributions one
makes to society. The immediate and paramount duty of the high school is to inculcate into
pupils as much knowledge as possible of subjects of study and to build up within him those
habits of discipline, of concentration, of mental reserve, of perfection, and of duty which alone
can raise him to leadership when a leader is wanted."
I have, etc.,
J. B. DeLong,
Inspector of High Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
Victoria, B.C.,  October 1st, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 1 for the year
ended June 30th, 1923 :—
The inspectorial district remained as defined in 1921, and, as then, comprised the elementary
schools of the City of Victoria and of the islands of Galiano, Mayne, Pender, Saltspring, and
Saturna. While there was a decrease in the number of children attending the city schools and
a corresponding decrease in the number of teachers employed, the enrolment in the rural schools
of the inspectorate remained much the same as in the preceding year.
One cannot pass from an inspection of one of the city schools to an inspection of one of
the rural schools without feeling acutely the little opportunity for advancement afforded the
rural child as compared with that presented to the city child. The problem of higher education
for the children of the smaller islands is, undoubtedly, a difficult one to solve economically, but
the dwellers on Saltspring Island have not the same reasonable excuse to offer for withholding
the opportunities for higher education from the children of the island. A consolidation of schools
in the northern part and another consolidation in the southern part of the island would give
opportunity for the establishment of superior schools at those points and the child's educational
field would be that much extended. The Annual Report for 1922 shows an enrolment of 8,634
pupils in the high schools of the Province and an enrolment of 83,285 in the elementary schools,
a ratio of 1 to 10. I failed to discover that even one Saltspring Island pupil was attending a high
school that year, although the elementary-school enrolment for the island was 141, and in the
above proportion the island should have had at least fourteen pupils in the high school. Consolidation, by creating better conditions in and around the school, should also affect the teacher's
tenure of office. Under present conditions few teachers remain with a school for a greater period
than one year. Of the fifteen teachers employed in the islands in June, 1922, only three returned
in September of that year. The aim of nearly all teachers is to obtain a position in a graded
school, where the work is of a less trying character and there is a possibility of associating with
others of the same calling.
For several years Parent-Teachers' Associations have been operating very effectively at
several of the city schools. The best understanding has always existed between these associations and the School Board, as the associations recognize .their own limitations and respect the
powers of the Board, the elected representatives of the people. Besides the benefit derived
through the association of parent and teacher, much has been done by these associations to
improve physical conditions at the schools, assisting the school library, clearing school-grounds,
etc.
Although the work is not always reported, some of the teachers in the rural schools do
attempt to beautify the school-grounds, and in some instances gardening on a small scale has
been carried on.   In but few cases would it be possible to create a garden of the regulation 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 25
size, as the school-sites are usually the poorest pieces of ground in the communities; in the past
the school-site was oftentimes a gift of land of little or no agricultural value, and accepted
as satisfactory for school purposes, inasmuch as a playing-ground was at the time the only
consideration.
The result of the 1923 examination for entrance to high school was generally satisfactory
to both the city and rural schools of this inspectorate. Notwithstanding the smaller enrolment,
168 candidates from the city schools were successful in passing the examination, an increase of
forty-eight over 1922, while the rural schools passed seventeen candidates as against eight in
the previous year.
I have, etc.,
W. H. M. May,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
Victoria, B.C., August 31st, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public elementary schools of
this district for the school-year ended June 30th, 1923:—
The territory covered comprised the southern portion of Vancouver Island, from Nitinat
on the west coast to a point 5 miles north of Ladysmith on the east coast, including James and
Thetis Islands, but not including the City of Victoria.
Within this territory are included the following schools:—
Schools.     Teachers.
City municipality districts        2 23
Rural municipality districts       22 98
Rural and assisted schools      50 65
Totals        74 186
While the result of the Departmental Examination for entrance to. a high school is not the
sole criterion by which to judge the work of the schools, it is still a very important factor in
determining efficiency in teaching, and few will seriously contend that failure to pass the test
augurs as well for the future prospects of the child as the ability, requisite knowledge, and
training necessary for the successful accomplishment of the task. In this inspectorate two
schools only—Monterey Avenue, Oak Bay, and Lampson Street, Esquimalt—availed themselves
of the privilege of recommending for high school 60 per cent, of their Entrance classes without
writing the Departmental Examinations. From the former thirty-two were recommended and
from the latter thirty-three.
In addition to the pupils recommended as qualified to take up high-school work without
examination by the Department of Education, 416 candidates wrote at the sixteen centres, and
of those 241 were successful, an increase over last year of 69 and 3S pupils respectively. Of the
successful candidates, the Municipality of Oak Bay and the Saanich Peninsula contributed two-
thirds of the number.
It is a matter of deep regret that, at a time when the schools of the Saanich Municipality
are approaching a condition of comparative efficiency, the Board of School Trustees, driven, as
the members state, and much against their inclination, by the stern necessity of rigid economy,
should not only cut off the manual training, but at the same time reduce the salaries of the
teachers; the curtailment of the school curriculum and the reduction in salaries to take effect
when the schools reopen in September.
There are three fairly distinct types of ability to be found among normal children—
mathematical ability, literary ability, and motor or manual ability. These are three modes of
self-expression in children. While progress in arithmetic and composition is symptomatic
of the special abilities in mathematics and literature, there is little or no means, in the absence
of manual training, of ascertaining what practical ability or special aptitude for craftmanship
the pupils actually possess. F 26 Public Schools Report. 1923
While one can feel assured that the reduction in salaries, though a very serious grievance
to those affected by it, will not interfere with the progress of the children in the mastery of
the ordinary course of study because of the high sense of honour and duty possessed by the
great majority of teachers, still this retrograde movement of impoverishing the curriculum is
greatly to be deplored, as it tends to handicap the children in obtaining a uniform and all-round
development in their training for the duties of life.
That link in the educational chain known as the superior school is a great boon to the
enterprising and intelligent ratepayers of rural schools. For a few years past the small graded
school of two divisions in the Sooke District was turning out an increasing number of successful
candidates at the High School Entrance Examinations, and the secondary education of these
children became a serious problem to the School Board and the parents. In September, 1922,
the Board of School Trustees, with the approval of the ratepayers, established in the district
a superior school. While the people as a whole made a considerable contribution towards the
maintenance of the school, the parents of the children so benefited also bore no small portion
of the expense by making a monthly contribution towards the cost of the institution, while the
children, so helped and encouraged in obtaining secondary education, manifested their gratitude
and appreciation of the efforts put forth on their behalf by passing the Departmental Examinations for the first year of high school with marked distinction.
On the whole, I have found throughout the inspectorate an increasing and intelligent interest
in the educational progress of the children on the part of both parents and School Boards, and
the year just closed marks a forward step in a large number of rural schools.
I have, etc.,
A. C. Stewart,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 3.
Nanaimo, B.C., September 22nd, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 3
for the school-year ended June 30th, 1923:—
This inspectorate, which remained the same this year as last, comprises five city schools
with fifty-five teachers and sixty-nine rural and assisted schools with 111 teachers. To these,
245 visits of inspection were made during the year.
Hyde Creek was the only school which remained closed all year, while new schools were
opened at Oyster River and New Camp 3; the latter called " McGuigan " after the school at
Old Gamp 3, destroyed in the Merville fire, July, 1922. A new school was authorized at Maple
Grove, Lasqueti Island, and will be in operation next term. Cassidy District was divided into
two districts, Cassidy and Waterloo, with a two-room school in each district. New divisions
were opened in Cumberland, Alberni, Port Alberni, Harewood, and Mountain.
At the High School Entrance Examination in June 280 candidates presented themselves, of
whom 146, or about 52 per cent., were successful, while sixty pupils were promoted without
examination. It is pleasing and encouraging to note that a pupil of a two-room rural school
carried off the Governor-General's medal for this district. It was won by Florence C. Olson,
of Waterloo School, with 404 marks out of a possible 500.
The following schools passed 100 per cent, of their recommended pupils: City, Nanaimo;
rural, Chase River, Nanaimo Bay, Waterloo, Sandwick, Nob Hill, Puntledge, and Suquash,
The teachers of the Comox Valley, headed by the staffs of Gnmberland and Courtenay, have
shown a very progressive spirit by their organization of a school fair. This has been conducted
most successfully for two years and has resulted in a new stimulus in the work in general and
a marked improvement along many lines, especially drawing, geography, writing, and composition.
Last autumn the organization broadened out and a most successful institute for the district was
held at Courtenay in November, at which able and helpful addresses were given by Inspectors
Mackenzie and Stewart;   Mr. Weston, of Vancouver Normal School;   and Mr. E. S. Martin, of 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 27
Nanaimo.    Too much cannot be said for the invigorating influence of such an organization and
I hope to see other districts organizing along similar lines.
I find a great many teachers have availed themselves of the opportunity to increase their
efficiency by attending the Summer Courses at Vancouver, Victoria, and elsewhere, and as a
consequence are bringing into their schools a new freshness and vigour. Modern ideas of
education and modern methods are permeating everywhere, and those who have rested serenely
on their oars for several years are beginning to awaken to the fact that they are going to be
hopelessly left behind unless they, too, better themselves.
This report would be incomplete without reference to the efforts made at Nanaimo to develop
the physical side of the pupil as well as the mental. Through the untiring efforts of Mr. E. S.
Martin, the Principal, a gymnasium has just been completed, fully equipped with hot showers,
etc., and containing the largest basket-ball floor in the Province. The $15,000 necessary to erect
and equip this building was raised by donations and subscriptions and by the aid of local
organizations who realize the importance of this phase of education.
I have, etc.,
J. M. Paterson,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 4.
Vancouver, B.C., September 24th, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 4 for the school-year 1922-23:—
The following schools comprise the inspectorial district: Nine assisted schools along the
Coast, extending from St. Vincent Bay to Roberts Creek, East; the graded school, Howe Sound,
at Gibson's Landing; and the following schools in Vancouver City: Aberdeen, Bayview, Beacons-
field, Block 70 School, Dawson, Charles Dickens, Simon Fraser, Grenfell, Hastings, Kitsilano,
Livingstone, Mount Pleasant, Macdonald, and Strathcona. The number of schools and of
teachers engaged was :—
Schools.        Teachers.
Assisted schools      8 8
Rural schools      1 3
Vancouver City schools    14 200
Totals      23 211
During the past school-year the Vancouver City School Board has experienced difficulty in
providing suitable accommodation. The money by-laws to provide for a building programme
were defeated. This made it imperative to continue the erection of more frame buildings
containing one or two rooms. As an effort was made to relieve the overcrowded conditions of
class-rooms, it was necessary to continue the use of attic and basement rooms, teachers' rooms
and libraries. At Howe Sound School one room was added to the public school building, but
the ever-increasing child population of this district made it necessary to utilize again for school
purposes an old building that had been temporarily abandoned.
Prizes awarded under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust were as follows:—
Marguaritta M. S. Taylor, 6th Division, Hastings School, Vancouver.
Mrs. Dorothy Johnston, 23rd Division, Dawson SchooJ, Vancouver.
Colin McDougall, Elphinstone Bay School (ungraded).
Important changes were-introduced in elementary-school work during the year. The new
Canadian Readers have been favourably received; the new Course in Literature prescribed for
Entrance pupils is considered a decided improvement; and as no written examination on this is
required it is generally felt that pupils more readily develop an appreciation of good literature
and a fondness for good reading. The decision to change the seven-year Elementary School
Course to an eight-grade course is an important one.    As our nomenclature and classification now correspond with those generally in use throughout the Dominion, the United States, and
Great Britain, accurate comparisons by use of standard tests can be made, and much confusion
and misunderstanding will be avoided when grading the large number of pupils constantly
entering our Province.
A large number of teachers, especially in the graded schools, continue to teach with marked
success the MacLean Method of Muscular Movement Writing. In schools where it was carefully
taught in all grades, and supervised by the principal or a well-qualified teacher, excellent results
were obtained. I have no hesitation in stating that the standard attained in many rooms is
higher than set by the Ayres scale for pupils in corresponding grades. There is, of course, a
number of teachers who have not yet made any serious effort to master the new system and
who, in consequence, are not getting good results.
The work done by the majority of the teachers, particularly in the graded schools, continues
to improve. The socialized recitation, project method, and dramatized lesson are being used
successfully in many class-rooms. In these rooms the class period has now come to be regarded
as one of training and learning through active participation by the pupil.
As my plan of procedure during the last part of the school-year was interrupted by sickness,
this report will not consider some phases of the work that I had intended to discuss. I wish,
however, to express my appreciation of the kindly courtesy everywhere extended to me.
I have, etc.,
J. T. Pollock,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 5.
Vancouver, B.C., September 20th, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education,  Victoria,  B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 5
for the school-year ended June 30th, 1923:—
Inspectorate No. 5 comprises the schools in the Rural Municipalities of Maple Ridge, Matsqui,
Mission (with rural and assisted districts adjacent), Sumas; Abbotsford Rural School District;
and in Vancouver City the Cecil Rhodes, Florence Nightingale, General Gordon, Grandview,
Laura Secord, Model, Seymour, and Lord Tennyson Schools. At the close of the school-year
this inspectorate included 200 divisions—127 divisions in Vancouver and 73 rural school divisions
in the Fraser Valley.
A visit of inspection was made to each division, and as far as time permitted a second visit
of inspection was made to the rural schools. In addition to regular visits of inspection, special
visits were made frequently to the rural districts in connection with the departmental administration of these schools generally.  ,
Any extension-work, worthy of the name, in the way of erecting new school buildings to
provide for the increasing school population has been confined to the rural districts. The
splendid eight-room school building erected at Abbotsford was opened early in the school-year
and the status of the Abbotsford Superior School was raised to that of a high school. In
Mission Municipality a fine new modern school building was erected at Ferndale, while in Maple
Ridge Municipality an additional room was erected at Webster's Corners and a splendid new
three-room school building was erected at Haney. This new building, together with the old
Haney school building, will provide five class-rooms at Haney for the coming school-year.
The city schools included in this inspectorate are administered by experienced and capable
principals, assisted in the main by. excellent staff's of grade teachers.
From time to time a number of young inexperienced teachers are appointed to the various
staffs. The administrative qualities of school principals are well exemplified by the fact that
they are able to give these inexperienced teachers a training-in-service by directing their reading
and study to the literature of the new education and by demonstrations and periodical consultations to assist them in acquiring and developing a good technique in effective modern methods.
And in this regard it should be stated that a source of great strength and help and inspiration to the principals and teachers of the Vancouver schools is the community library established 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 29
at the School Board Offices. Very great credit is due to all concerned in the launching of this
project. Here all the best books and periodicals on the psychology and pedagogy of modern
education are available for all teachers. Funds for the establishment of this library and for
augmenting it from time to time are provided for by an annual grant of $200 from the School
Board, by an annual fee of $5 for principals, and a small nominal fee of 50 cents for grade
teachers. There is abundant evidence that excellent use is being made of these educational
books and magazines, for already the new education has made advances in Vancouver schools.
Class-room procedure is being modernized along the lines of socializing the recitation, of introducing the "project," and achievement results are being measured objectively by the use of the
standard tests.
One of the most encouraging features of the work in the schools is the number of young
University graduates who are taking up the work of teaching as their chosen profession. " Caed
Mille Failthe " to them, one and all. Fortified by a sound university training, imbued with the
spirit of scientific research, and intolerant of ancient and worn-out shibboleths, these young
graduates display rare enthusiasm and genuine readiness to make themselves familiar with the
newer movements in education. Such keen champions of progress and truth are bound to wield
a most wholesome influence upon the educational forces of the present day.
It is with some reluctance that I turn to the rural schools to refer to conditions there more
specifically. The picture is not so bright. The story is an old one now and has been repeated
over and over. With very few exceptions, practically all of the rural schools in this inspectorate experienced a change of teachers at the beginning of the present school-year. The
incoming teachers in almost every instance were without previous experience. Res ipsa loquitur.
The teachers of the rural schools, whether experienced or' inexperienced, practically without
exception were filled with the spirit of service and worked most diligently and faithfully, in many
cases amidst great and trying difficulties. Reference has been made in a preceding paragraph to
the community library in Vancouver City, which is proving a source of the greatest assistance
in providing a means for a course in, training-in-service for the teachers of the city schools. I
am persuaded that steps should be taken immediately to establish something of the same sort
in our rural municipalities. The inexperienced teachers who come each year to our rural schools
have no opportunity to secure such a training-in-service as is being done for young teachers
by principals in large graded city schools. A whole library of books on the philosophy, psychology, and pedagogy of modern education has been produced in the last decade. Modern
methods of class-room procedure and standardized tests for measuring achievement as well as
intelligence have been devised. No teacher can afford to be in ignorance of these movements.
I am not prepared at present to recommend that the Free-Text Book Branch should undertake
extension-work of this kind, but possibly some assistance might be given. The Department
already makes provision for a grant of $50 per annum to any School Board providing a similar
sum for the purpose of establishing a library. Possibly some further assistance might be
secured from the Provincial Library Commission. A substantial grant given by a rural municipality School Board, supplemented by the departmental grant and by an annual fee contributed by all teachers in the municipality, would provide the means for, establishing in a very
short time in every rural municipality the nucleus of a library of educational books and periodicals for the use of the elementary- and high-school teachers. At the present time it is a rare
thing to find in a rural school any one of the many excellent educational magazines. Right here
is a place where the Parent-Teachers' Associations can render yeoman service.
As detailed reports on the work observed in each school have been forwarded regularly to
the Superintendent of Education, only a very few general observations will be made in this
brief report. There is still in the majority of our schools too much " text-book teaching " and
too little oral and mental work. In rural schools generally and in many city class-rooms about
90 per cent, of all recognized talking is done by the teacher. Under such conditions it is futile
to expect any real development of language-power on the part of the pupils. Of a writing of
tests, and especially compositions, there is no end. These compositions in most cases are diligently and conscientiously red-inked, sometimes beyond all recognition. But there is an end of
the matter. The errors are not brought home to the offenders against the .rules of the game
of writing English, and as a consequence there is a repetition of errors ad infinitum. With the
exception of the more experienced teachers, very few have any definite plan or scheme for
teaching English iu the grades.    In reading, the old-fashioned style of teaching or, rather, hear- F 30 Public Schools Report. 1923
ing oral reading still prevails. In the city schools, however, silent reading is receiving due
recognition and the results are most encouraging. (Teachers would find the books on silent
reading by O'Hearn and by Stone especially helpful.) Grammar in many instances is taught
in a dull and formal manner to the dislike apparently of both teacher and taught. I have
observed that on the time-table in the average class-room altogether inadequate provision
has been made for the teaching of English. Three periods a week is insufficient to open the
glories of English literature, the intricacies of its grammar, the possibility of its composition,
while pupils are left largely to their own devices in speaking it. Throughout the English-
speaking world a movement is under way for " better-spoken English." English is coming to be
■the language of the world. Its conservation is a necessity; its disintegration would be a
calamity; its preservation, intact, is in the control of those who teach it and those who use it
while they teach. The pernicious practice still persists of giving long lists of unrelated words,
the most difficult that can be found in a " reading lesson," to be studied as a spelling lesson
for home-work. And all this in spite of the fact that so many excellent books on methods of
teaching spelling are available, to say nothing of the many splendid and helpful articles on this
subject appearing from time to time in current educational magazines. Perhaps one of the
best helps in dealing with the teaching and assignment of spelling is to be found in " Test and
Study Speller" (First, Second, and Third Book), by Starch and Mirick, published by Silver,
Burdett & Co.    A minimal spelling-list for the grades is much to be desired.
In arithmetic our rural schools pupils too often waste time floundering amidst written
problems and giant " sums." The present-day tendencies seem to point towards a mastery of
the four fundamentals in the first four school-years; towards a mastery of fractions, decimals,
and percentage in the next three years; towards making a practical application of the facts
and processes learned to social and business life and towards casting aside all obsolete methods
and processes and all topics which are now regarded as unreal or merely disciplinary. It is
generally admitted that in the past too much time has been given to arithmetic on the grounds
of a supposed disciplinary value. It is now proposed to omit many confusing, laborious
processes, and concentrate upon a complete mastery and skilful handling of the fundamental
processes, using smaller numbers in the problems and examples. A conscious effort is being
made from the very first school-year to have arithmetic function in its true relation to our daily
needs. Practical applications are made of the facts and processes learned, and they are connected in so far as possible with actual life situations. I would recommend every teacher to
read carefully " The Psychology of Arithmetic," by Thorndike, published by the Macmillan Co.
I have made reference to English in its various branches, and to arithmetic specifically, for
the simple reason that these are undoubtedly the weakest subjects in the great majority of
schools. A great deal might be said in reference to history and geography, especially the
methods employed in teaching history in what has been known up to the present time as the
Intermediate Grade. It is to be expected, however, that with a growing knowledge on the
part of our teachers of the " project method" and of the " socialized recitation," satisfactory
results generally will be achieved in history and geography.
In the past the chief weakness in primary work lay in the methods of teaching primary
reading, where little or no stress was given to thought-getting. A great improvement is noted
in this respect in the Vancouver City schools visited, where the primary work generally, due
to the indefatigable efforts of the primary supervisor, is of a very high standard indeed.
In like manner very excellent work in drawing is being done in practically all of the
Vancouver schools visited. Here again great credit must be given to the supervisor of drawing.
In many rural schools very little attention is paid to drawing until about the time the Senior
Grade is reached. Then indeed there is a great industry displayed, once the High School
Entrance Examinations begin to loom up. It is not uncommon to find cases where Entrance
class pupils are spending early morning sessions learning to do what should have been taught in
drawing several terms previously.
I have, etc.,
II. H. Mackenzie,
Inspector of Schools. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 31
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 6.
Vancouver, B.C., September 25th, 1923.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 6 for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1923:—
This inspectorate comprises the following schools in Vancouver City: Alexandra, Central,
Fairview, Franklin, Henry Hudson, Lord Nelson, and Lord Roberts; also those in Point Grey
Rural Municipality, eleven schools in or near Powell River, and the Provincial School for the
Deaf and the Blind.
Only one school was opened during the year-—an assisted school at Wildwood—but sixteen
additional divisions were opened in the schools already established; at the close of the school-
year there were twenty-six schools, with 222 teachers. The increase in the teaching staffs
occurred chiefly in Point Grey, where the number of teachers grew from sixty-two in June, 1922,
to seventy-three in June, 1923; the increase will likely be even greater during the coming year.
The School board and ratepayers of Point Grey have in the past shown willingness to care for
the increasing attendance by building modern schools; no doubt they will continue to do so.
There has been a steady growth at Powell River also, but the pressure was relieved by the
opening of a seventh division as well as by the establishment of the Wiidwood Assisted School,
which took some twenty of the younger children who had been permitted to attend the Powell
River School. In Vancouver the overcrowding is not increasing greatly; this difficulty seems
likely to be entirely removed in time by the migration of parents to adjacent districts whose
ratepayers endeavour to provide modern school accommodation.
On the whole the teaching is satisfactory. The results in arithmetic, composition, and
nature-study are generally rather unsatisfactory; on the other hand, more time is given in many
class-rooms to writing, spelling, and oral reading than is warranted by the importance of these
subjects. The majority of teachers seem to have lost sight of the objects of physical training,
and the subject has degenerated into a mere drill; on many time-tables it is called " drill."
In January group intelligence tests were given to all pupils attending the Vancouver schools.
The information obtained has already proved to be of such value, in those schools where it was
used, as to justify the giving of two more tests, or at least one, to detect such mistakes as are
likely to have occurred in the examination of so large a number of children, many of whom are
nervous, and some of whom were probably not in normal physical condition on the day the test
was taken.
At the beginning of the year the School for the Blind was taken over from the Vancouver
School Board, a second division was added, and it was incorporated with the Provincial Oral
School, the name being changed to the " School for the Deaf and the Blind." By those who
'know little of the thoroughly modern work this school is doing it is frequently called the School
for the Deaf and Dumb; this is a misnomer, for the teachers permit none of their pupils to
remain dumb; even the two who are both deaf and blind are being taught to speak, and one of
these already speaks wonderfully well, while the other, who came during the present year, is
making excellent progress. At the end of the year four of the blind pupils were promoted to
high school; they will continue their studies at the School for the Deaf and the Blind.
I have, etc.,
Leslie J. Bruce,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 7.
Vancouver, B.C., September 24th, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 7 for
the school year 1922-23 :—
This inspectorate comprises all the public schools in the Rural Municipalities of Delta,
Kent, Richmond, and South Vancouver; and the rural and assisted schools in the vicinity of F 32 . Public Schools Report. 1923
Hope. In all, there were forty-one schools in operation during the year, with a staff of 233
teachers. The Delta Municipality has twelve schools with a staff of seventeen teachers; Kent,
two schools with a staff of five; Richmond, eight schools with a staff of twenty-one; South
Vancouver, fourteen schools with a staff of 184. In the district about Hope there are five
schools with a staff of six.
During the year all schools in the inspectorate received one inspection. The rural and
ungraded schools received a second inspection, and a second inspection was also given to a
considerable number of divisions in the larger graded schools. Owing to the size of this inspectorate it was quite impossible to visit each class-room twice during the year.
The High School Entrance Examinations in June were held at seventeen centres. Two
hundred and seventy-four candidates were promoted on the recommendation of the principals;
348 wrote on the examination, and of these 166 were successful. Thus 440 pupils were granted
certificates of entrance to high school. This is 70 per cent, of the total number of candidates.
These results compare favourably with those obtained in other parts of the Province. The
Governor-General's medal for this district was won by Miss Margaret Lehrman, of Division 1,
General Brock School, South Vancouver.
The three prizes allotted to this inspectorate for excellence in physical training under the
provisions of the Strathcona Trust were awarded to Miss B. II. Killip, Division 4, Selkirk School;
Miss E. N. Pugh, Division 3, Sexsmith School, South Vancouver; and Miss A. Smith, Trennant
School  (ungraded), Delta Municipality.
The schools in South Vancouver were in charge of a Commissioner from 191S to 1923.
Mr. J. A. Blair, who was appointed in July, 1918, as Secretary, was the actual administrator for
the schools from the time of his appointment until April, 1923, when a Board of Trustees was
again elected. The capable manner in which Mr. Blair administered school affairs during this
very trying period, the good judgment exercised, the splendid standing maintained in the schools,
and the fearless way in which he carried out his duties bespeak his sterling qualities as a man
and his ability as a school administrator. It is with regret that I report that Mr. Blair saw
fit to tender his resignation as Secretary of the Board in June last. South Vancouver has lost
the services of a capable official.
The Board of Trustees has combined the office of Secretary and Municipal Inspector to
curtail financial expenditure. To this dual position the Board appointed in June last Colonel A.
Graham, former principal of the Selkirk School.
The work of supervision over the primary grades in the South Vancouver schools carried
on by Miss A. T. G. Reid is most commendable. The organization of her work, the helpful
criticisms given where criticism is most required, and the co-operation she received from the
teachers in these primary grades testify to the efficiency of her work. The primary work in
South Vancouver schools is of a high order.
There is a tendency on the part of trustees and principals to place too many teachers of
limited experience in charge of the work in Grades II., III., and IV. The results of the good
work obtained in the primary grades is frequently lost due to this fact. The work in Grades
II., III., and IV. requires just as efficient teaching and just as close supervision as the work in
other grades of the school. A number of senior classes tested throughout the year showed
weakness in certain essentials. It was quite evident that there had not been efficient teaching
of this work in the lower grades.'
In conclusion, I wish to thank the members of School Boards, the principals, and teachers
in this inspectorate for their ready and sympathetic co-operation in all matters educational.
I have, etc.,
F. G. Calvert,
Inspector of Schools. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 33
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 8.
Vancouver, B.C., September 19th, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.,
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report in respect of the public schools of Inspectorate No. 8
for the school year ended June 30th, 1923.
This inspectorate includes the City Districts of North Vancouver and Port Moody; the Rural
Municipalities of Burnaby, North Vancouver, and West Vancouver; the rural and assisted schools
on Burrard Inlet, Howe Sound, the Pacific Great Eastern Railway as far north as Seton Lake,
and those on the Coast and adjacent islands from Lund to Sayward. Seventy-six schools were
in operation during the year, with a staff of 205 teachers; these were divided as follows:—
Schools. Teachers.
City municipalities       5 45
Rural municipalities   29 114
Rural schools       3 7
Assisted schools   39 39
76 205
During the year new schools were opened for the first time at Shalaltli, Birken, Rendezvous
Island, Galley Bay, Seaforth (Burnaby), and Capilano Intake (West Vancouver). Additional
teachers were added at Squamish, Britannia Beach, and Britannia Mine, as well as at most of
the larger schools in Burnaby and in North Vancouver; in all, twenty-two more teachers were
employed than in the previous year.
In Burnaby and North Vancouver somewhat extensive and very essential building operations have been undertaken, the ratepayers having approved the necessary by-laws by substantial
majorities. In North Vancouver the new building is to be used for high-school purposes, thus
relieving the congestion existing at Queen Mary School, while two-room annexes are being placed
on the grounds at Lonsdale and Ridgeway. The considerable programme in Burnaby includes
a new high school in North; Burnaby, new elementary schools at Riverway West and Capitol
Hill, and additions at Douglas Road, Schou Street, and Inman Avenue. In West Vancouver the
Twenty-second Street building has been materially enlarged as a result of the decision of the
municipality to provide its own high-school facilities.
I have, etc.,
A. R. Lord,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 9.
New Westminster, B.C., September 27th, 1923.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education,  Victoria, B.C.,
Sir,—I beg to  submit a report on  the public  schools of  Inspectorate No.  9  for  the year
1922-23.
This inspectorate comprises: (a) The city schools of New Westminster, Chilliwack, and
Port Coquitlam; (6) those of the Rural Municipalities of Chilliwack, Coquitlam, Langley, and
Surrey; (c) the schools at Alvin, Barnston Island, Essondale, and Popcuin; together with the
Provincial Boys' Industrial School at Port Coquitlam.
I was assigned to this inspectorate in December and began the work of inspection in
January; all schools in operation were visited once, and a number employing inexperienced
teachers were visited twice.
In the majority of schools careful and conscientious work is being done; a few teachers
fail to realize their responsibilities, but these are becoming fewer.
High  School Entrance Examinations were conducted in ten centres  in this  inspectorate.,
A very satisfactory showing was made by the candidates,
c F 34 Public Schools Report. 1923
School-gardens were in operation at most schools in this inspectorate; agricultural supervisors were in charge in Surrey, Langley, Chilliwack, and New Westminster.
Organized recreation as carried on in many schools of this inspectorate is most desirable.
It is an aid in maintaining discipline and makes for greater efficiency in organization. Teaching
becomes more effective and the general class-work tends to be of a higher order. The foundation
is laid for the development of sound citizenship.
In concluding, permit me to express my appreciation, of the'assistance rendered to me by
those interested in the advancement of education in this inspectorate.
I have, etc.,
R. S. Shields,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 10.
Kamloops, B.C., September 17th, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 10 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1923:—
There were in actual operation in the Kamloops Inspectorate throughout the year just
closed ninety-one schools, with a staff of 128 teachers. The classification of these schools
according to number of divisions was as follows:—
Ungraded  (rural and assisted)   schools     83
Graded schools of two divisions   3
Graded schools of three divisions    2
. Graded schools of four divisions   1
Graded schools of nine divisions   1
Graded schools of twenty divisions   1
Total      91
Of the above number of ungraded schools six were established and opened for the first time
during the year. It was found necessary to reopen the 2nd Division in Clinton School, which
had been closed throughout the previous year, and to add three new divisions to the Kamloops
Public School. The schools at Red Lake, Aspen Grove, 70-Mile House, North Bonaparte, Ray
Lake, and Knutsford were closed during the whole year owing to lack of the required
attendance.
The school accommodation provided throughout the inspectorate has been improved in a
number of instances during the year. A fine new school building containing two class-rooms
was opened in Lillooet early in the year. In a large number of assisted districts the lighting
and other sanitary arrangements in connection with the school property have been improved
and the equipment for carrying on work in the class-room has been increased. In a few of
the ungraded schools, however, extensive repairs to the buildings are required, and better
facilities for carrying on the school-work, especially in the matter of larger and improved
blackboard surface, should be provided. I have brought these matters to the attention of school
trustees in the districts affected, and have endeavoured to emphasize the necessity for .the
changes suggested. I have found that the school-grounds and school property in general
have been well cared for in the majority of cases throughout this inspectorate. There are
still, however, a number of districts where the appearance of the school property could be
greatly improved by enclosing and grading the playgrounds and by laying out small plots for
gardens. The teacher's influence, as I have intimated in a previous report, can do much
towards interesting trustees and ratepayers in the improvement of their school property and
class-room equipment. Inadequate equipment and poorly kept grounds and buildings are rarely
met with in schools where the quality of the teaching is high and the interest in school-
work keen. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 35
During the year 196 visits of inspection were made to the schools in this inspectorate, and
a number of additional visits were made on matters of school administration and for conferences with trustees and others interested in school-work. All the class-rooms received at least
one visit, and a second inspection was made of the great majority of rural schools. A second
visit was made to the divisions in city and larger graded rural schools only in cases where it
was felt that such was required, or on the request of principals or School Boards. I would
take this opportunity of expressing my appreciation to teachers and trustees and to all those
interested in the work of our schools with whom I have come into contact for the kindly
consideration shown and the courtesies extended to me while visiting their districts. With few
exceptions the School Boards throughout the inspectorate are keenly interested in the work of
the schools under their charge, and do all in their power to carry out any suggestions which
tend to increase the efficiency of their schools.
I believe that, in general, the character of the work performed by the teachers in the
elementary schools is improving from year to year. This improvement would be more marked
if the average tenure of service was longer in the rural schools. There has been a alight increase
during the past year in the number of teachers who remained in the same school for a second year,
and I believe that this tendency will become more marked as the number of teachers available
for positions in rural schools continues to increase. Frequent change of teachers is still, however, a great detriment to really efficient teaching in the small ungraded schools, and when
this condition is accompanied by a lack of practical experience in the succession of teachers
the general progress of the school is retarded. As the small ungraded schools are to a large
extent the professional training-ground for young and inexperienced teachers, I believe that
visits of inspection to these schools, not so much for purposes of criticism as for kindly advice
and helpful direction in the work, should be made by the Inspector as frequently as possible.
If it were possible for the Inspector to visit the rural schools four or five times a year, and
make this visit of inspection as helpful as possible to the teacher, the rural school would thus
gain much of the advantage that is now enjoyed by the larger graded school with an experienced
principal at the head of it to advise the less experienced members of his staff. This, however,
would mean the breaking-up of the inspectorial districts into much smaller units than at present
and a large addition to the staff of Inspectors.
High School Entrance Examinations were held at eleven centres in this inspectorate at
the end of the last school-year. A larger number of pupils from rural schools wrote on this
examination than in the previous year. Approximately 50 per cent, of those writing were
successful, which was a little below the percentage of all successful candidates writing at this
examination. The Governor-General's medal for this district was won by Miss Alma M. Faren-
hurst, of Merritt Public School. This candidate had the distinction, also, to stand at the head
of the list of successful candidates for the whole Province.
The following teachers were awarded the prizes for physical training under the provisions
of the Strathcona Trust for the school-year ended June 30th :—
Large graded schools—Miss Tryphena Sampson, Division 8, Kamloops Public Schooi.
Small graded schools—Mrs. C. M. Venables, Division 3, Fruitlands Public School.
Ungraded schools—Miss Grace Kerr, Grande Prairie School.
I have, etc.,
A. F. Matthews,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 11.
Kelowna, B.C., September 22nd, 1923. -
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 11 for the
year ended June 30th, 1923:—
This inspectorate includes the Okanagan Valley from Vernon to the International Boundary,
the Similkameen, and the valley of the Kettle River east to Eholt. During the year there were
in operation seventy-seven schools, employing in all 165 teachers.   Of these totals, three were F 36 Public Schools Report. 1923
city schools with a total staff of forty, eight were rural municipality schools employing in all
forty teachers, while the remaining sixty-six were rural and assisted schools employing a total
of eighty-five teachers. Schools were in operation for the first time at Blakeburn, Joe Rich
Valley, and South Kelowna, while second divisions were opened at Okanagan Landing and
Mission Creek; schools at Reiswig and Despard were reopened after having been closed for a
number of years.    A new school has been authorized at Kerr Creek.
All schools within the inspectorate were inspected once, and a second visit was paid to
forty-four schools; in all, 209 inspections were made.
In the great majority of cases the attitude of the teachers toward their work has been
good. While results have of necessity varied considerably, the average of attainment has been
high; certainly the teaching staff, with very few exceptions, has spared no effort to make it
so, and it is a pleasure to testify to their zeal and energy.
The High School Entrance Examination was held at fifteen centres. The total number of
public-school candidates was 292, of which number 155, or 53 per cent, were successful; in
addition, ninety-one pupils of the larger graded schools were promoted on the recommendation
of the principal. In both the larger and smaller schools the examination results varied from
excellent to poor; a pleasing feature was the very good showing made by a number of rural
schools. The Governor-General's medal was won by Miss Allene G. Fisher, of the Penticton
Public School.
Prizes for excellence in physical training under the conditions of the Strathcona Trust were
awarded as follows :—
Large graded schools—Miss Bessie Seaton, Division 3, Vernon Public School.
Small graded schools—Miss Constance Batten, Division 3, Princeton Public School.
Ungraded schools—Miss Dorothy F. L. Debney, Kettle Valley School.
On October 19th to 21st the Okanagan Valley Teachers' Association held its annual convention at Vernon; great credit is due the officers of the association for the excellent programme
provided and for the general manner in which the convention was conducted. The attendance
was good and a fine spirit characterized the convention as a whole.
The service rendered by the various School Boards of the inspectorate calls for special
mention. There have been instances where there was a lack of interest and consequent handicap
to teacher and pupils, but such cases have happily been few. On the whole, the attitude of the
Boards has been most satisfactory, reflecting, it has seemed to me, the attitude of the general
public toward educational work. Owing to unfavourable conditions prevailing in certain industries on which this district is largely dependent, the past year has been one of serious financial
depression in practically all of this inspectorate; I cannot but express my admiration of the
spirit which has dominated the district as a whole—a spirit which hasi been responsible for the
continued maintenance in the face of adverse conditions of educational facilities of a highly
creditable character.
I have, etc.,
T. R. Hall,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 12.
Revelstoke, B.C., September 20th, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 12 for the school-year which ended on June 30th, 1923:—
During the year an assisted school was opened at Anglemont, on Shuswap Lake, and another
at Forde, a few miles east of Golden. The schools at Galena, Parson, and Three Valley were
again placed in operation after having been closed for longer or shorter periods. An additional
division was opened in the Revelstoke School, another in the Salmon Arm School, and still
another at Grindrod. Owing to lack of a sufficient number of pupils to keep up the required
average attendance, the schools at Hendon, Sinclair, and Twin Butte remained closed throughout
the year, while the Armstrong School and the Notch Hill School each suffered a reduction of 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 37
one division as compared with last year. In all, there were ninety-three schools in operation
in this district during the year, with a total staff of 138 teachers, a net gain of two schools and
three teachers. Of these totals, one was a consolidated (city and rural municipality) school,
with fourteen teachers; three were graded city schools, with a staff of twenty-six teachers;
seven were rural municipality schools (one graded), with a staff of eight teachers; five were
graded rural schools, with a staff of thirteen teachers; ten were ungraded rural schools; and
the remaining sixty-seven were ungraded assisted schools.
The standard of efficiency noted in previous reports has been very well maintained. At
the end of June twenty-four pupils were promoted to high school without examination on the
recommendation of their principal, while of 239 duly recommended candidates who wrote on
the Entrance Examination, 153 were successful, a percentage of 64.01. The following schools
passed 100 per cent, of their recommended pupils :—City : Division 1, Revelstoke. Rural municipality : Broadview. Rural: North Enderby, Nakusp, Silver Creek. Assisted: Athalmer, Castle-
dale, West Denial's, Falkland, Fire Valley, Mount Ingersoll, Renata, Tappen Valley, White Lake,
Wilmer.
There would appear to have been, on the whole, rather less changing about of teachers than
for some years past, and it is to be hoped that conditions in this respect may continue to
improve.
I have, etc.,
A. E. Miller,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 13.
Nelson, B.C., August 14th, 1923.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 13 for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1923:—
This inspectorate includes the Nelson, Rossland, and Grand Forks Electoral Districts,
together with the greater part of Trail District and the valley of Slocan Lake and River.
During the year new schools were opened at Bonnington and Hall Siding, additional rooms
were provided at Thrums and in the Hume School at Nelson, while a high school was established at New Denver.
At Rosebery, Perry Siding, and Williams Siding buildings were erected which reflect the
greatest credit upon the School Boards and ratepayers. At Winlaw an excellent school was
provided by the Department and arrangements have been made for the erection of a similar
building for Appledale. The new school at Bonnington, built by the West Kootenay Power and
Light Company, is a model of good taste and completeness. In Nelson a contract has been
awarded for the completion of the new Hume School to replace the four-room wooden building
which has seen many years of service. The Slocan City Board, with characteristic energy,
constructed a high-school building to meet an urgent need. In Trail a fine high school was
erected of reinforced concrete and is one of the best in the Interior.
Owing to a lack of pupils the schools at Summit Lake and Columbia Park did not reopen
after June, 1922.
With few exceptions the schools of this inspectorate have shown a commendable increase
in efficiency. In these few cases partial failure has resulted from a lack of effort on the
part of the teacher or from the handicap of increasing years.
It has been a pleasure to co-operate with the majority of the principals and teachers, while
the Boards have, almost without exception, shown an increasing desire to provide the best that
conditions will allow for the rising generation.
I have, etc.,
E. G. Daniels,
Inspector of Schools. F 38 Public Schools Report. 1923
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 14.
Cranbrook, B.C., September 5th, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 14 for the
school-year 1922-23.
The boundaries of this inspectorate remained unchanged during the year. It extends from
Sandon and Willow Point on the west to the Interprovincial Boundary, and from Cooper Creek
at the northern end of Kootenay"1 Lake and Larchwood School at Skookumchuck southward to
the International Boundary. Included within its limits are the city schools of Cranbrook,
Fernie, and Kaslo with forty-five teachers, and sixty-one rural and assisted schools with ninety-
one teachers.
To care for an ever-increasing school population two teachers were added to the Cranbrook
staff and an additional room was opened in each of the Elko, Kimberley, Wardner, and Yahk
Schools. The Roosville School, which had been closed for two years, was reopened. The
Curzon School did not open as there were not sufficient children available. In Fernie and
Cranbrook the School Boards were unable to find suitable temporary accommodation until
permanent additions were ready for use, and it was necessary to put classes on the " double-
shift " plan, the former city having six such classes and the latter four. But in both cities the
ratepayers realized the advantage of good buildings, aud with the opening of school in
September, 1923, ample accommodation will be available for full-time instruction. In Michel
School District the accommodation was not only insufficient, but the two four-roomed buildings
were in a very dilapidated state of repair. In McGuire Assisted School District, now Grasmere,
the ratepayers have built a modern school of which they might be justly proud. New standard
schools built by the Department at Wynndel and Willow Point have been much appreciated.
All schools were inspected during the year, and with the exception of the Fernie schools I
was able to make two inspections. A few of the ungraded schools received a third visit. As
the supply of qualified teachers was more plentiful, the number with temporary certificates was
greatly reduced. Even the fully qualified teachers are realizing more and more the necessity
of " refresher" courses, and each year larger numbers of them are taking advantage of the
summer courses offered by the Department in Victoria and Vancouver. It is pleasing to note
the improvement in the teaching of those who have availed themselves of this instruction.
Entrance Examinations were held at seven centres. If we are to judge the year's work by
the pass-list, the results must be considered as satisfactory. Of those writing the examination
60 per cent, were successful. A feature of this work was the splendid showing made by the
rural schools, where, although much handicapped, a large percentage of the candidates were
successful in qualifying for admission to high school.
In the competition for excellence in physical training the prize for large graded schools
was awarded to Division 4 of the Fernie School, taught by Mr. G. H. Stocks. The prize for
small graded schools was awarded to Division 1 of the Sandon School, taught by Mr. E. B.
Broome. In the ungraded schools the prize went to the Hosmer School, where Miss A. L.
Kerr was the teacher.
During the year I was able to test 200 pupils with intelligence tests, the two forms used
being the Otis Group Intelligence Scale and the National. The results proved most interesting
to the principals, teachers, and myself. An effort was also made to assist the Faculty of
Education of the University of Toronto in compiling Canadian scores for the Ayres' Spelling
List. Over 30,000 words were given to 2,000 pupils of the city and rural schools of ithis
inspectorate.   Up to the present the results of this research-work in spelling are not available.
In conclusion, I wish to thank the members of School Boards, the principals and teachers
throughout my inspectorate for the many courtesies extended to me and for their hearty
co-operation, without which success is not possible.
I have, etc.,
Y. Z. Manning,
Inspector of Schools. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 39
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 15.
Prince Rupert, B.C., September 26th, 1923.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate'No. 15 for the
year ended June 30th, 1923 :—
The boundaries of this district remain unchanged, the inspectorate being comprised of the
schools in the Electoral Districts of Atlin, Prince Rupert, and Omineca, with headquarters at
Prince Rupert. The inspection of the school farthest from the centre means a journey of 1,178
miles, taking fifteen days and a half. While not so remote, some of the schools on the Coast,
if they are to be inspected, require almost as much time as the above. In a scattered district
like this, one must of necessity be away from headquarters for weeks at a time, a condition
which explains delays in looking into " specials." Being familiar with this, the average School
Board accepts these delays with patient courtesy.
Most of the small schools were inspected twice during the year, a few receiving a third
short visit in June. On account of illness in May and office-work in June, it was impossible
to reach the schools on the Princess Royal and the Queen Charlotte Islands in time for an
inspection.    These districts were visited later, however, and school affairs adjusted.
The following schools were in operation for the first time: Lakelse Valley, near Terrace;
Woodcock, on the Grand Trunk Pacific; Kispiox, 20 miles from Hazelton; Woodmere, near
Telkwa; Rose Lake and Palling, in the vicinity of Burns Lake; Streatham, on Ootsa Lake;
and Premier, 16 miles from Stewart.
The schools at Copper City, Porcher Island, Skidegate, and Georgetown Mills were reopened;
those at Colleymount and Surf Inlet Mine were closed on account of diminished attendance.
The Westview School at Prince Rupert was also closed, the pupils being conveyed to the Borden
Street School.
A school has been authorized at Aiyansh, on the Nass River, and will be ready to begin
work in October.
At the beginning of the year the superior school at Smithers was raised to the status of
high school. This school, together with the high schools at Anyox, Prince Rupert, and Ocean
Falls, again came under my inspection. At Prince Rupert Senior Matriculation work was carried
on with a class of nine pupils. Five pupils in outlying assisted schools undertook high-school
work; of these, two were successful in passing the examinations, one from North Bulkley and
one from New Hazelton.
The school at Usk has been raised to the status of rural school and a fine two-roomed
building is being erected.
. Of the 164 candidates who wrote the High School Entrance Examinations, 107, or 65 per cent.,
were successful. This shows an increase of twenty-five candidates over last year and a 5-per-
eent. increase in the proportion of successful pupils. This will probably mean the opening of
superior schools at Stewart, Terrace, and Burns Lake. The Governor-General's medal for this
district, which includes the whole of Northern British Columbia, was won by Edward McLean,
of Prince Rupert, a pupil of Miss S. A. Mills. His total, 436, was only one mark lower than the
highest made in the Province.
Telkwa is the only school in this inspectorate to make, even in a small way, a move towards
consolidation. This year the children at Tyee Lake have been conveyed to the school in Telkwa.
In due time Woodmere and Round Lake Schools may be incorporated in this district.
Three schools in the Bella Coola Valley—MacKenzie, Bella Coola, and Lower Bella CoOIa—
should soon be raised to the status of rural schools. Here is a splendid opportunity for a consolidated school, where the pupils might in time have the advantages of a high-school education.
During the past year we have been fortunate in securing regularly certificated teachers for
practically all our schools. In September only one school was in the charge of a teacher with
temporary certificate. It is gratifying to know that the supply of qualified teachers will next
year meet the demand. The majority of our teachers, however, were recent graduates of the
Normal Schools, and while some did very well indeed, not a few were immature and failed to
realize the responsibility of their position as teachers.    Too many regard the north as a great F 40      ' Public Schools Report. 1923
adventure, a place where the conventionalities of society may be ignored, rather than the land
of opportunity to make a good start in schools that should not be beyond the capabilities of the
beginner.
I have, etc.,
H. C. Fraser,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 16.
Prince George, B.C., August 25th, 1923.
iS. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 16 for the
school-year ended June 30th, 1923:—
This inspectorate comprises the schools in the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Belt east of
Endako; those in the Cariboo and Lillooet Districts as far south as the 100-Mile House; and
those in the Peace River District.
During the year the following assisted schools were opened: Baker Creek, 30 miles west
;of Quesnel; Black Creek, 15 miles east of Harpers Camp; Bouchie Lake, 9 miles north of
Quesnel; Canyon Creek, 45 miles south of Prince George; North Dawson Creek, Peace River;
Dewey, on the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway east of Prince George; North Fort Fraser; Fort
St. James; Hudson Hope; and Quesnel Dam. The Castle Rock and the Newlands Schools were
reopened, and additional teachers were appointed to the Prince George and to the Williams Lake
Schools. Vanderhoof was raised to the status of a superior school and Prince George to the
status of a city school district of the second class. The Chief Lake and the Chilcotin Schools
remained closed throughout the year.
Schools have been authorized and should soon be in operation at North Alexandria; Woodpecker, 35 miles south of Prince George; Kelly Lake; North Swan Lake; and Sunset Prairie.
The last three schools named are In the Peace River District. The establishment of new schools
year after year indicates the steady growth of this northern section of the Province. About
ten years ago, when I first came north as an Inspector, there were but a few scattered schools
in all Northern British Columbia.
Although there have been no marked changes in this inspectorate since my last report, the
general tendency has been toward improvement, and the work of the year generally has exhibited
many encouraging features. Presumably because of the fact that more qualified teachers are
available, there have been fewer temporary certificates issued in this district than formerly,
and there has been a greater inclination on the part of teachers to remain for longer periods in
the schools. Results, as measured by the regular Departmental Examinations, have been at
least fairly satisfactory.
We were fortunate during the year in having a visit from Mr. John Kyle, Organizer of
Technical Education for the Province. Mr. Kyle delivered inspiring addresses in two of the
larger centres, encouraging a broader educational outlook.
Prizes, for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Schools of more than four divisions—Miss Florence Horwood,  5th Division, Prince
George.
Schools of from two  to four divisions—Miss Mary Kathleen Morrow,  2nd Division,
A^anderhoof.
Schools of one room only—Miss Drina Fraser, Fort Fraser.
I have, etc.,
G. H. Gower,
Inspector of Schools. 14 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
F 41
REPORTS  OF  MUNICIPAL   INSPECTORS.
VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
Vancouver, B.C., September 10th, 1923.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Vancouver for the school-
year ended June 30th, 1923 :—
Anticipating the usual annual increase in enrolment of nearly 1,000, plans were made for
additions to the staff at the beginning of each term. The changes made are indicated in the
following table:—
Public-school teachers     from 437 to 449
Ordinary classes   from 418 to 427
Special classes ,     IS   „    22
*School for the Blind ».      „       1   „       1
Junior high-school teachers       „       0   ,,      3
High-school  teachers          „     87   ,,    90
General Course     from    55 to    57
Commercial Course ,      12   „     13
Boys' Technical Course        ,,      17   „     17
i Home Economics Course       „       3   „       3
Manual-training teachers         „     20   „     20
Domestic-science teachers        „      14   „     15
Special instructors         „      11   ,,     11
Total     from 569 to 588
* Taken over by Provincial Government.
Organization.
Our anticipations in regard to increase in school population, however, were not realized.
The increase for the year of only sixty-four, the smallest for eight years, is set forth in the
following table, which gives the maximum enrolment for the year as compared with that of the
previous year :—
Month.
Public
Schools.
High
Schools.
Junior High
Schools.
Total.
February, 1923 	
17,164
17,092
2,503
2,584
73
0
19,740
19,676
+ 72
-SI
+ 73
4-64
By planning for a considerably larger school population for the year than we really had
we materially reduced the average size of classes in all schools. In February ordinary public-
school classes averaged 39.75; special public-school classes, 15.95; junior high-school classes,
36.5; and high-school classes, 31.29. Good work should be done with such classes; and, except
to provide for future increase of school population, no reasonable excuse can be offered for
further increase in the teaching staff.
Junior High School.
The one outstanding change in our organization during the year was the opening of the
Junior High School in September, with an enrolment of eighty-one pupils and three teachers.
This school aims to give at least two years' academic and practical work to boys and girls who F 42 Public Schools Report. 1923
have completed the Public School Course, but who are not in a position to take one of the
ordinary High School Courses.
The year's experiment has been very -encouraging; so much so, indeed, that we purpose
doubling the size of the school for the coming year. Lack of suitable accommodation alone
hinders the more rapid extension of this work.
School Accommodation.
No permanent school accommodation was provided during the year. Additional classes
organized and opened had to be housed in basement rooms or in the cheapest possible one-room
frame schools. By these temporary expedients it was possible to provide class-rooms for all
pupils for full time; but it has increased the number of temporary class-rooms .to 158 out of
a total of 573 rooms.
Capital Expenditure.
In December a school money by-law for $25,000 to purchase school-sites received the endorsa-
tion of the ratepayers; and for this amount three very good sites have been purchased in the
eastern portion of the city. A very desirable high-school site was also purchased in the western
end of the city for $40,000, to be paid in four annual payments, the City Council permitting the
expenditure.
In June the ratepayers were asked to vote a sum of $275,000 for the erection of an up-to-date
high school on the site recently purchased;  but they declined to do so.
Exchange Teachers.
During the year there was an exchange of three Vancouver teachers for three teachers from
other parts of the Empire. Miss Jessie E. R. Fisher, of our Model School, exchanged with
Miss D. Jameson, Christchurch, N.Z.; Miss E. S. Brinton, also of our Model School, with
Miss I. M. Penny, Glasgow, Scotland; and Miss Bessie Bigney, of our Dawson School, with
Miss A. BricknelL London, England. Miss G. D. Burris, a member of King Edward High School
staff, was also granted leave for the year to teach in London, England; and Miss Ella Herd
to teach a special class in Glasgow, Scotland; while the Vancouver School Board engaged
Miss A. E. Clogg, of London, England, as a teacher in our Fairview School.
After two years' experience in the exchange of teachers I am more than ever convinced that
these exchanges are beneficial when properly managed. They tend to widen the educational
outlook of the exchange teachers and of the teachers with whom they come in contact, and lead
to a fuller knowledge and a better understanding of conditions in different parts of the Empire.
They also, I venture to state, exercise a salutary influence in British Columbia by making it clear
that in few, if any, parts of the Empire do teachers work under more favourable conditions than
they do here.
Class-roOjM Work. i
The conditions under which class-room work was carried on throughout the year were never
better. The size of classes was reduced, and a smaller number of special class pupils was
allowed to remain in ordinary classes.
The work of supervision was never more satisfactorily done, there being no change in the
personnel of the staff, except in the appointment of Miss M. E. McEwen, of Ottawa, as supervisor
of sewing. All work supervised—primary work, music, drawing, physical drill, domestic science,
sewing, manual training, and special class-work—is showing marked improvement.
The improvement, in several of the schools, in writing was also very gratifying. The
greatest improvement was to be found in those where the MacLean system was most carefully
followed.
Medical Inspection.
The Chief Medical Officer, Dr. Robert Wightman, who had done splendid work foi four
years, resigned at the beginning of the year. His place was taken by Dr. J. Harold White, who,
with his capable staff of ten nurses, has done much to safeguard the health of pupils and teachers.
An epidemic of smallpox broke out in the city in April, and even found its way into the schools.
There were in all thirty-eight cases among school-children. When one knows that each child to
suffer had never been vaccinated, while no vaccinated child contracted the disease, though many
of them were in contact with it, he wonders why vaccination should not be more general. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 43
Despite the effects of this epidemic, and a less alarming one of measles, which interfered
with regular attendance, the health of the children and the attendance throughout the year were
good.
Dental Work.
The dental staff was reduced from five to four during the year; but, as a result of better
organization of the work and a different system of selecting children and having them attend
the clinic, better results were secured than ever before. Broken appointments, all too common
formerly, were greatly reduced in number by the active co-operation of the school nurses with
the dental department.
Standard Intelligence Tests.
For several years a number of teachers have been found in our schools giving standard tests
to pupils. The interest among teachers, too, in such tests has been increasing. We consequently
decided last January to give such tests to all public-school pupils and to all preliminary students
in the high schools, using the Indiana University Mental Survey Tests, Primer Scale, for pupils
in the first four grades and the Illinois General Intelligence Scale, Form I. and Form II., for
the older pupils—Form I. for Grades V. and VI. and Form II. for Grades VII. and VIII. and
first-year high-school students. As most of those tested had been with their teachers for at least
a term, the teachers naturally had formed their own opinions as to their comparative intelligence.
To test the accuracy of their judgments, or at least to compare them with the ratings obtained
by means of the standard tests, it was agreed that each teacher should arrange the members of
her class in order of merit before giving them the standard tests and ranking them according to
the scores obtained. This method resulted in many surprises; and, naturally, there was far from
nnanimity as to the reliance to be placed upon the results of standard tests. The general impression, however, seemed to be that, where a very great difference occurred between the teacher's
first ranking of a pupil and her second, with the aid of the tests, the latter was the more
teliable if the tests were properly given and the scores properly reckoned. It is therefore highly
probable that standardized tests may be used more commonly in future as an aid in the classification of pupils.
The Community and the Schools.
In concluding this report, brief reference should be made to the community in its relation
to the schools. Many organizations, too numerous to mention, have interested themselves in
our schools during the year and to them our thanks are due. A better understanding of the
aims of the school is being gradually brought about; while the schools are striving, with
increasing earnestness, to serve adequately the communities in which they are located. The
entire year has consequently been marked by the heartiest co-operation of all those connected
in any way with the schools.
I have, etc.,
J. S. Gordon,
Municipal Inspector of Schools.
VICTORIA CITY SCHOOLS.
Victoria, B.C., October 5th, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on Victoria schools for the school-year ended
June 30th, 1923 :—
Owing to the unsettled business conditions which prevailed generally throughout the country,
many families were moving from place to place.    This resulted in a fluctuating enrolment, and F 44
Public Schools Report.
1923
as more moved away from than into the city there was a decrease in school population, as
follows:—
Schools.
Sept.,
1921.
Sept.,
1922.
Sept.,
1923.
5,247
981
97
4,999
958
115
4,772
978
High    	
College   	
133
Totals      	
6,325
6,072
5,883
As the above attendance in September, 1923, included 200 more Chinese pupils than in
September, 1922, there was a decrease of about 427 white pupils in the graded schools at end
of school-year under review.
A conscientious effort has been made during the past two years to reduce expenditure
by increasing enrolment in many of the classes. This policy, together with above decreased
attendance, resulted in schools reopening in September, 1923, with an instructional staff (including
medical and dental) of 187, as compared with 216 in June, 1922, a reduction of 13.4 per cent.
Both principals and teachers have undertaken the larger classes willingly and without protest,
realizing that ideal conditions cannot be expected until times are better. However, there is a
limit to the size of classes beyond which average progress cannot be expected. While it is
realized that school expenditure must be governed by the taxability of the State, yet it would
be false economy to adopt a policy of retrenchment which resulted in impaired efficiency.
The total expenditure for the year 1922 was $563,927.37, distributed as follows:—
School.
Expenditures.*
Receipts.
Net
Per Capita
Cost.
$ 21,556 19
144,894 99
391,024 30
6,451 89
$    7,347 67
35,941 98
80,199 85
4,385 60
$132 79
122 64
4 07
Totals    	
$563,927 37
$127,875  10
* Including interest and sinking fund.
Expenditure.
Per Cent.
$  12,523 43
360,583 29
58,656 12
25,659 90
10,634 93
94,612  11
2 23
64 09
10 42
4 56
1,89
16 81
$562,669 78
1,257 59
Total expenditure,
$563,927 37 14 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
F 45
Revenue (where Money comes from).
Revenue.
From whom received.
Per Cent.
$436,052
96,408
3,904
6,200
7,026
12,028
2,306
27
30
85
00
80
29
$563,927 37
Victoria taxpayers  	
Provincial Government grant on basis of $460 per teacher  	
Provincial Government special grants  	
Dominion   Government   grants,   including   special   grants    ($5,593.58)    towards
technical expenditures for equipment for previous year
Students'  fees	
Contributions outside municipalities towards high-school costs  	
Sales of materials to pupils, rent, receipts, etc	
1
Total   |
77.32
17.10
0.69
1.10
1.25
2.13
0.41
I
Graded Schools.
During the year certain school boundaries were redefined and the rule requiring pupils to
attend the school within their own district was enforced more strictly. This action was necessary
for effective organization and economical administration. Further, it was realized that pupils
of foreign extraction with defective knowledge of English were retarding the progress of other
pupils. To remedy this condition such pupils were assigned to special classes in the North Ward
District. This policy affected principally Chinese pupils, whose parents through misrepresentation construed the act as one of racial discrimination. The resulting agitation was regrettable,
and the consequence was that less than six Chinese pupils below the Entrance Grade attended
the public schools during the year. However, I am pleased to report that the parents concerned
have accepted the assurances of the Board, and this term their children are again attending the
public schools.
On the whole, satisfactory progress was made during the year. In some instances progress
was retarded by defective classification. Pupils should not be promoted or transferred to a
higher grade until they are fit for same. If transfers are necessary to relieve congestion, pupils
should still carry on the work of their grade until they have the foundation necessary for the
higher grade. Where premature promotions were made there was a tendency on the part of
teachers to neglect the brighter pupils and set the pace by the abilities of the duller ones.
Generally speaking, teachers avoid as much as possible having two classes. As a result, in a
class of forty pupils the brighter ones are not given the opportunity to progress as rapidly as
they should. If, for example, these pupils in arithmetic were assigned a contract and permitted
to go ahead independently, receiving assistance when necessary, the teacher could give sufficient
time to the duller pupils. Certainly, if the eight grades in the new Course of Study are to be
completed in seven years, the progress of brighter pupils must be governed by their ability and
not restricted to the pace of the slower ones.
With one exception, the schools with High School Entrance candidates obtained good pass-
lists at the June examinations. A difficult problem surrounds recommended pupils who fail
on account of weakness in one subject. To repeat the year and go over the same work in all
subjects, in order to strengthen one, is most discouraging to the pupil and an economic loss to
the parents. A satisfactory solution might be found by permitting the pupil concerned to write
a supplemental examination during the first week in September. Another method would be to
centralize certain pupils who are repeating the grade and have them cover a specially adapted
course which included some of the subjects prescribed for Grade IX. By this means the weak
subject would be strengthened and the pupil better prepared for future high-school work.
Keen interest was taken in the interschool games, which comprised association football,
basket-ball, lacrosse, and field sports. During the coming season a rugby series will be organized
for the senior boys of the graded schools, as it is felt this splendid game should be encouraged
and included in competitive school sports.
High School.
There were five divisions of matriculation students—three taking French and Latin; two,
French and science; and a small number substituting Latin for French. The total number of
candidates was 145.    Of this number, 13 failed to get any standing, while the others—132—were F 46 Public Schools Report. 1923
successful in passing the whole examination, or were granted supplemental examinations in
one, two, or three subjects. A closer analysis shows that 78 passed completely, 35 fell below
in one subject, 16 in two subjects, and 3 in three subjects. Outside of chemistry and botany,
the number of failures in any one subject was quite small.
In the Preliminary and Junior years promotions were made on the basis of the year's work
and a final examination in June set by the staff. About 40 per cent, of the students were passed
on recommendation, the others being required to pass a final examination in June. A very much
larger percentage was successful this year in the June examinations than a year ago. Supplemental examinations for those securing their total, but. failing in one or two subjects, were held
at the end of August, the majority of those writing being successful.
Victoria College.
Not only was the growth of the Victoria College in the number of its students very noticeable,
but the work of the past session showed a marked improvement, a large percentage of the
students being successful in all subjects.
In the second year 17 students were successful, Miss Edith Lucas leading with an average
of 89 per cent.; in the first year 72 students were successful, F. H. Sanders leading with an
average of 87 per cent.
General.
The usual night-school classes were held from October to March. Although the attendance
fluctuated considerably in some classes, a fair average was maintained and satisfactory results
secured. The poor attendance which usually obtains during March almost justifies closing the
session at the end of February.
After careful consideration the School Board decided that the graded schools will benefit by
placing more male teachers in charge of higher grades. This will also relieve the principal of
work connected with outside activities and permit more attention being given the important
duties surrounding organization and supervision. The success of this policy will depend entirely
on the type of male teacher appointed. These should not be " effeminate males who would perish
out in the practical work of the world, but upstanding, broad-minded, intelligent, courageous
human personalities, able and ready to play the part of a real man inside the school and out."
There should be as little delay as possible in getting school into full sway during the first
week of the term, and there seemed to he a tendency to spend too much teaching-time at the
end of the term on arrangements surrounding examinations, closing exercises, etc. All preliminaries in connection with organization, classification, and time-tables should be completed
definitely before opening day. Optional subjects should be elected finally before June 30th.
Estimating on the basis of 195 school-days for 1922, the average daily cost of operating the
Victoria schools was $2,892. Any unnecessary encroachment, therefore, on the time prescribed
for instructional purposes was at the expense of both pupils and ratepayers.
In my opinion the extension of the daily school session to 4 p.m. for Grades III. to VI.,
inclusive, of elementary schools and all grades in the high school would be in the interests of
city schools. This extra time should not be devoted to regular teaching, but used to assist
backward pupils and for supervised study of home lessons, with the object of reducing the time
now spent on home-work. Such extension would also permit of greater flexibility of time-table
for optional subjects, and provide against special activities, such as cadet-training, etc., encroaching on teaching-hours.
With very few exceptions the teachers were unsparing in their efforts to promote the progress
of their pupils.    This resulted in better work and satisfactory achievement.
I have, etc.,
George H. Deane,
Municipal Inspector of Schools. 14 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
F 47
PROVINCIAL   NORMAL  SCHOOLS.
VANCOUVER. PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
Vancouver, B.C., June 11th, 1923.
J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the report of the Provincial Normal School, Vancouver, for the school-
year ended June, 1923.
During the fall term, September to December, 1922, 371 students were enrolled, 290 young
ladies and 81 y,oung men. During the term five withdrew. At the close of the term in December
diplomas were granted to forty-seven students, of whom forty-three were University graduates.
Of the fifty University graduates enrolled, seven failed to qualify at the close of the term.
Interim certificates were recommended for three English teachers who were allowed to attend
for six weeks.
In summing up the term's work in December, several students were found to be very low
and were advised to discontinue.    At the close of the term six of these withdrew.
The enrolment for the Advanced term was 356, 70 young men and 286 young ladies. Of
the seven University graduates who had failed to secure their diplomas in December, four
returned to complete. In February two of these were granted diplomas and in March the
remaining two were recommended for interim certificates. As the term advanced four students
were advised to withdraw, as their work was not satisfactory. Thus the enrolment at the close
of the session in May was 345. To 300 of these diplomas were granted; twenty-four were
recommended for interim certificates; and twenty-one failed. The following summary will show
clearly the enrolment and results of the work of the session:—
Enrolled.
Diplomas         Interims
granted,     recommended.
Withdrew.
Failed.
333
87
271
78
26
6
15       1        21
3
1
Totals 	
420
349
32
15                         9,1
We were pleased to have two instructors in physical training for the entire session. Classes
are now so large that satisfactory work can be done only by dividing each class into two. Very
satisfactory work was done in this department during the year. Of the 372 who were examined,
339 qualified for Grade B certificate.
One change in the personnel of the staff occurred during the session. Mr. E. H. Murphy,
Instructor in History and Geography, left the staff in December after twelve years' faithful
service. His place was taken by Inspector Anstey. Mr. Anstey has had a very thorough training
as a teacher and has been an Inspector of Schools in the Province for ten years. He has thus
a wide experience with school problems, especially with those problems pertaining to rural schools.
His training and experience will undoubtedly prove valuable to the students-in-training at the
Normal School.    All members of the staff have worked earnestly during the session.
I wish to thank the teachers in the Model, Cecil Rhodes, and Lord Tennyson Schools for
their very helpful co-operation in the training of our students. The Vancouver School Board
very kindly allowed our students to observe for several weeks the work being done in the various
schools of the city.   This privilege was most helpful to our students.
In concluding my report for the year, I wish to express my appreciation of the services of
Miss E. B. Abernethy as Secretary in the Normal School. Miss Abernethy has been most
conscientious in her work.
I have, etc.,
D. M. Robinson,
Principal. F 48 Public Schools Report. . 1923
VICTORIA PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
Victoria, B.C., September 21st, 1923.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report of the work of the Provincial Normal School at
Victoria for the school-year which ended June 30th, 1923:—
The total enrolment for the year was 269 students. The following table sets forth, this
enrolment and the final results in detail:—
Women.
Men.
Total.
The number granted diplomas 	
The number granted interim standing	
The number who discontinued attending during the year
The number who failed  	
Totals
160
27
7
7
201
54
13
1
214
40
269
This enrolment was slightly over 100 per cent, of an increase on that of the preceding year.
It may be noted that the number of men formed over 25 per cent, of the total in attendance.
Of the 214 granted diplomas, eight were University graduates, seven of whom completed their
work in December, 1922, and one in May, 1923.
In September, 1922, one additional member was appointed to the staff in the person of
Miss G. G. Riddell. This caused a reapportionment of the work as follows: The Principal—
Psychology, class management and school law, history of education, literature, and arithmetic.
Mr. V. L. Denton—History, geography, and reading. Mr. H. Dunnell—Art, writing, and manual
arts. Mr. B. S. Freeman—Language, grammar, and nature-study. Miss A. M. Macfarlane—
Household science and hygiene. Miss G. G. Riddell—Music and primary-work. Sergeant A.
Bain—Physical training.
During the summer of 1922 Miss Macfarlane took a course in household economics at
Columbia University, New York, and the principal attended classes in education at the University
of British Columbia.
During the term, September to December, Colonel Lome Drum once again gave instruction
in first aid to the injured. On account of the large number of students the course had to be
confined to the men only. All of the men who had not taken the work previously completed the
course successfully and were awarded St. John Ambulance First-aid Diplomas. The work in
physical training under Sergeant Bain was also exceptionally successful. Only nine students in
all failed to obtain physical-training certificates.
The large increase in attendance made it necessary to have more model-school accommodation
for the practical teaching of our students. The Oaklands School, Victoria, under Principal R. H.
Mclnnes, was chosen for this work. It is pleasing to state that Mr. Mclnnes and his staff
undertook the work most enthusiastically and rendered us excellent service. The Model School,
under its Principal, Miss Kate Scanlon, and the North Ward School, under Principal J. M.
Campbell, again assisted us most efficiently as they always have done. I wish also to thank
Mr. George H. Deane, Municipal Inspector of Victoria Schools, for his willing and helpful
co-operation at all times.
In concluding this report, I should like to express my appreciation of two changes made by
the Department of Education in the regulations governing our work. This is the first year that
the minimum non-professional qualification for admission to our Provincial Normal Schools was
raised to Junior Matriculation or its equivalent. This is also the first year when an interim
standing might be granted to students-in-training whose work left some doubt as to their adaptability to the teaching profession. These, thus granted interim standing, must prove their
adaptability in actual teaching and must be reported upon favourably by the Provincial Inspectors
of Schools before they receive permanent teaching-certificates. One can hardly conceive of more
desirable changes, nor of changes that will more effectively raise the standard of those qualifying
to teach in our elementary schools. t have, etc.,
D. L. MacLatjrin, Principal. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 49
SCHOOL   FOR  THE   DEAF  AND  THE   BLIND.
REPORT OF THE PRINCIPAL.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
. Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the School for the Deaf and the Blind:—
I might mention at the beginning that the school became Provincial in scope and directly
under the Department of Education in September, 1920, and for a year and eight months it was
conducted as a day-school in temporary quarters on Oak Street, Vancouver.
In May, 1922, it was moved to its permanent abode, where accommodation was provided for
housing all the children who attended from beyond the limits of Vancouver City.
From May 1st of that year until the end of June, only the deaf were under my charge.
The blind remained where they had been previously, with Mrs. Burke.
In September, 1922, the blind children of the Province were admitted and the school thus
became dual in nature.
Attendance.
During the school year 1922-23 seventy children—thirty-eight boys and thirty-two girls—
were enrolled. These included fifty-eight deaf and twelve blind, of whom two were also deaf.
It will thus be seen that our problems were rather more complex than those in schools where
only blind or deaf children are taught.
The blind-deaf constitute a class whose minds are very difficult to reach, and only teachers
of very special training can do successful work with them.
The ages of the pupils ranged from 6 years to 21 years. Forty pupils of those in attendance
resided in the school, the remaining thirty attending as day pupils only.
Class-work.
With the blind practically the same curriculum was followed as that in the public schools.
The school equipment, however, is different. The text-books are all in braille, and maps, globes,
etc., are of a specially prepared kind. The children have to be taught to read by the sense of
touch, which at first is very slow, but later on becomes almost as rapid and reliable as the eye.
Four of the blind pupils did Entrance work and made such progress that they were advanced
to high-school studies; while three boys passed with honours the examination set by the Royal
College of Music in London.
The class-work with the deaf is conducted by the " oral method." The children are taught
speech and lip-reading. Finger spelling or signs are neither used nor countenanced in any of the
exercises. When a child fails to comprehend an expression from the lips of the teacher, writing
on the blackboard is resorted to.
We cannot follow the same curriculum with the deaf as with the blind, especially in the
junior classes. Language has to be developed before even the simplest books are placed in the
hands of the child.
In passing, I might remark that there is probably no department of education about which
so little is known as that of the deaf.
The fact that the deaf child is taught to speak and read the lips of others is generally
accepted. People are also aware that in order to become a teacher of the deaf some kind of
special training is necessary, but beyond that the average person knows very little. The general
idea seems to prevail that when the child is taught to say words, in some instances, in a fairly
natural tone and in others not so agreeable, all the rest follows easily.
No greater mistake could be made. Speech is not necessarily language. A child may be able
to articulate words and even read them from other's lips and yet have no comprehension of the
import.
The task of developing a language requires skill as well as experience on the part of the
teacher, and also an inexhaustible store of patience. F 50 Public Schools Report. 1923
The Teaching Staff.
To carry on the work efficiently it is necessary to assign very small classes to each teacher.
A class should not contain more than eight or nine pupils, as individual attention is constantly
required.
Our staff consists of eight teachers besides myself. It would make for greater efficiency if
the principal were free to supervise all the classes and help teachers over hard places. We
have not yet reached that point where this can be advantageously done, and consequently I have
taught a class in addition to attending to the many other duties.
It is gratifying" to record that all the teachers are faithful in the performance of their duties
and co-operate with me in every way to promote harmony in the school.
Each teacher endeavours to do his or her best to equip the children for the battle of life,
and make them not only self-respecting and self-supporting, but an asset to the State instead
of becoming a social menace.
Both teachers and household officers live very close to the children and diffuse such a homelike atmosphere that the school is more like a big family than an institution.
Health.
I doubt if any other similar institution can boast of a better health record than we enjoy.
During the year and a half that we have been in our present home there has been no occasion
calling for medical attendance, except in three cases of chicken-pox. This disease was contracted
by pupils who were at home for Christmas holidays and was developed after they returned.
The fact that we raise our own vegetables and control our own milk-supply contributes largely
to our unique health record.
Mrs. Lawrence, the matron, and her assistants exercise a watchful care over the children
and see that they have regular, well-balanced meals and sufficient outdoor exercise.
The following extract taken from one of our daily papers gives an idea of how outsiders
regard the school and its environment. A reporter who was present at our closing exercises
in June last thus writes :—
" On entering the grounds from University Avenue, visitors were first impressed with the
neatness of the walks, the driveway, the close-cropped lawns, the carefully trimmed shrubbery,
and the wealth of midsummer blooms everywhere.
" They then entered a neat two-story building and explored reception-hall, dining-rooms,
dormitories, and class-rooms. All were like a high-class hotel in point of well-kept orderliness
and cleanliness."
Industrial Training.
The older girls are taught light housekeeping duties and the boys make themselves helpful
about the garden and the grounds.
A class of girls receives instruction and practice in cooking at Queen Mary School, Point
Grey.    They are also taught plain sewing and dressmaking at the school here.
The older boys are taught manual training at Queen Mary School and have completed some
very neat models.
Two boys from the school attend the Technical School one day a week to learn printing.
I hope to send more there this year.
Public Interest.
More and more the outside public are recognizing our efforts, and we have received very
tangible manifestations of their interest in the work.
Sir Arthur Pearson Chapter I.O.D.E. presented the school with a complete copy of the Bible
in braille. Mrs. Pendleton, of Vancouver, and friends gave us two swings for the smaller
children. Mrs. A. R. Mann made the school a present of a Gerhard Heintzman player-piano.
The Gyro Club has promised to give us several pieces of playground equipment.
The Rotary Club and the Kiwanis Club have both offered to supply any needs we may have
in the line of useful and helpful equipment. At Christmas-time the Elks of Vancouver gave the
children a Christmas tree and provided a useful gift for each child. They also provided enjoyable entertainment on two occasions. Shelly Brothers' Minstrels gave us an entertainment and
offered to come again. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 51
I might call attention here to the fact that we are in dire need of a suitable auditorium.
When friends come to give us an entertainment we have no room large enough to hold even a
fair-sized audience.    The entertainments have to be given in very crowded quarters.
I would suggest and recommend that a building be provided which could be used in winter
for a gymnasium and for an auditorium as occasion requires.
Respectfully submitted.
S. H. Lawrence,
Principal. TECHNICAL  EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE ORGANIZER.
Victoria, B.C., September 13th, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the work of manual training, domestic science,
night-schools, and technical education for the year 1922-23:—
Manual Training.
Classes in the above subject are conducted in the following cities: Armstrong, Chilliwack,
Cranbrook, Kelowna, Nanaimo, New Westminster, Nelson, North Vancouver, Prince Rupert,
Vancouver, Vernon, and Victoria.
Similar classes are also held in the following municipalities: Burnaby, Chilliwack, Delta,
Esquimalt, Maple Ridge, Mission, Penticton, Point Grey, Pitt Meadows, Rutland, Saanich,
Summerland, and South Vancouver.
Manual-training statistics from these places are as follows:—
Manual-training centres          79
Instructors  69
Elementary-school pupils attending  10,507
High-school pupils       1,564
The work of manual training in the Province continues to be carried on in a satisfactory
manner. Thanks to well-trained and capable instructors, the interest of the pupils in this
phase of educational activity is increasing. One hears less and less of the faults which are
usually associated with instructors who have lost touch with the twentieth-century outlook on
the subject, but may observe the appreciation tendered to those who take advantage of opportunities to enrich their knowledge and experience.
The figures above rank the Province of British Columbia second in the Dominion of Canada,
the .only one with a better record being the Province of Ontario. When one considers that the
whole cost of equipment is paid by the latter Province, while British Columbia pays but 50 per
cent, of cost of equipment, it must be conceded that this Province holds a most gratifying position
in the Dominion.
The system by which the Department of Education trains manual instructors has proved
to be entirely satisfactory, and during the present term five new trained men have been placed
in responsible positions where they will teach on probation for one year. Moreover, the
elementary-school manual-training certificate and the manual-training teacher's high-school
diploma have become the steps by which men may rise to positions in technical-school workshops.
The future progress of manual training will depend in a great measure upon the following:
(o) The inclusion of workshop projects which have useful purpose and are not mere exercises;
(6) an appreciation of the fact that high-grade benches and vises are not so essential to good
work as careful grading of the projects and the thorough manner in which simple fundamental
operations are mastered; (c) encouragement to boys to build simple equipment in basements or
sheds and engage in woodwork at home. When manual activities spread from the manual-
training centres to the homes a high standard of educational success may be confidently expected.
For these reasons instructors are left free to develop a course of work suitable to the urban
or rural districts in which they are placed.
In progressive countries manual training is looked upon as a necessary and compulsory part
of the school system, and school trustees who obstinately refuse to provide the means for
balancing their school curriculum find in consequence that the Government grant is considerably
reduced.
The time seems opportune for a similar enforcement in all British Columbia cities of the
first and second class. The few cities of the second class that have not already adopted manual
training have planned for it and provided accommodation in their schools.   A compulsory clause 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 53
in the "Public Schools Act" would stamp the approval of the Education Department upon the
subject and encourage expansion.
Domestic Science.
Classes in the above subject are conducted in the following cities: Armstrong, Chilliwack,
Kelowna, Nanaimo, New Westminster, North Vancouver, Prince Rupert, Vancouver, Vernon,
and Victoria.
Similar classes are also held in the following municipalities: Burnaby, Delta, Esquimalt,
Mission, Penticton, Point Grey, Rutland, and South Vancouver.
Domestic-science statistics from these places are as follows:—
Domestic-science centres           51
Instructors           49
Elementary-school pupils attending    6,784
High-school pupils attending   1.662
Although it cannot be claimed that the work of domestic science develops at the same pace
as manual training, yet the numbers above quoted again rank the Province as second in the
Dominion of Canada.
As in manual training, the Province of Ontario leads the way by paying the full cost of
equipment.    The Province of British Columbia, on the other hand, pays 50 per cent, of the cost.
Public confidence in domestic science would be immensely strengthened if the lessons were
made to conform more closely to the real work of the home. Cookery should be carried on as
much as possible in family quantities, so that the school lessons can easily be translated in the
home-kitchen with reasonable accuracy. This system has been successfully practised in many
countries for the past thirty years, and a number of teachers in British Columbia have courageously shown that the system can be successfully adopted in this Province without in the least
impairing the theoretical studies which are so highly prized. Problems in patching, darning,
and sewing should, as far as possible, come from the homes of the pupils. The number of real
projects which are to be found there leave little excuse, for instance, for cutting holes in perfect
material in order to provide exercises in patching. Where domestic-science teachers appreciate
this copartnership attitude of home and school favourable public sentiment is perfectly evident;
on the other hand, where little effort is made to consider the home needs of the girls and lessons
are of a stereotyped nature murmurings of dissatisfaction are heard. . In the City of Victoria
two or three teachers are to be commended for using home credit-cards, whereby a record is
kept of all pupils who accomplish household-science duties at home, marks for such work being
duly credited to the pupils.
During the past year Saturday classes have been conducted in order to give instructors
opportunities to improve their status. Courses of instruction in dressmaking and ladies' tailoring, pattern drafting and design, colour harmony and artistic stitchery, millinery and mechanics
of the household are provided, and will enable an elementary-school domestic-science teacher,
by assiduous application, to equip herself to teach in a high school or vocational class.
If courses in home economics are to command the respect of the public, the standard of
cooking, dressmaking, and millinery must have professional style. The present high-school
standard of excellence in all three sections is, with two or three exceptions, far from satisfactory.
This is true especially of dressmaking and millinery, and the teachers have much to attain before
they can claim to have reached an artistic standard of workmanship. When suae work is to
be done vocationally, in high-school courses of home economics, and in technical schools for girls,
well-educated professional dressmakers and milliners who have been trained to teach will bring
the best results.
If the Saturday classes for teachers of home economics bring the same results in that subject
as they have in manual training, there need be no fear of the future development of this work.
School authorities in progressive countries have long since made the study of domestic
science compulsory for girls, and when School Boards refuse to install equipment a corresponding
reduction is made in the education grant. The time seems opportune in British Columbia Jo
pass a compulsory measure for all cities of the first and second class; such an Act would show
the people of the Province that the Department of Education was behind the movement and
would do much to encourage and inspire School Boards elected in cities of the third class and
in rural municipalities to proceed with some measure of domestic science. F 54 Public Schools Report. 1923
Technical Schools.
Technical schools are organized in the Cities of New Westminster, Vancouver, and Victoria,
and in the industrial city of Trail a school has been built which will be in operation next year.
The following table gives the number of students attending these technical courses:—
New Westminster . .   146  (including 75 Technical, 45 Commercial, and 26 Home
Economics).
Vancouver 1,019  (including  4S2  Technical,   452  Commercial,   and  85
Home Economics).
Victoria    258  (including 169 Technical and 89 Commercial).
Commercial Courses only.
Cranbrook    13
Kamloops     40
Ladysmith   14
North Vancouver    62
Point Grey    39
Revelstoke     20
South Vancouver  66
Total    1,677
While it is satisfactory to know that the above figures rank the Province fourth in the
Dominion of Canada for the amount of technical work accomplished, yet the numbers should
not be considered an attainment of which to be proud. British Columbia, with its innumerable
raw resources and prospects of development along many diversified lines, should feature industrial training and technical education with unqualified enthusiasm.
The schools mentioned above are gradually unfolding themselves and developing marked
characteristics, but the academic colour persists and is too prominent in some of the schools.
The great field which should receive first attention from those interested in the preparation
of youth for life's work is the one which contains boys and girls over school age who have not
reached the entrance to high-school class, or who, having reached it, fail to rise to the required
standard in the entrance to high-school examination. To these may be added the students who
pass out of high school after having attended about twelve months. New Westminster and
Vancouver are the two places where most is done for such boys and girls; especially is this
the case in Vancouver, where a building called the " Junior High School" has been erected, and
the staff are both remarkably well selected and wonderfully sympathetic with the aims and
ideals of the School Board. This school cannot fail to grow, because it is taking care of those
students who heretofore have been allowed to drift (unprepared) from school into any occupation
they could find. In place of this unsystematic procedure, methodical training and guidance are
offered and an opportunity is afforded the pupils to select intelligently occupations which appeal
to their temperament. Fifty per cent, of the school-time is spent in workshops and 50 per cent.
in academic class-rooms. The school opened in 1922 with thirty-four pupils and the second year
these were increased to 124.
That the Junior High School will ultimately develop into a vocational school seems almost
certain, for already in Vancouver Technical School vocational classes are formed in machine-shop
practice and electrical engineering; in addition, several individual vocational students are
engaged in cabinetmaking, printing, and sheet-metal work.
The formation of such vocational classes is undoubtedly the work of the future; to neglect
them would leave industrial training with no finality of purpose. Technical-school principals
would do well to give more consideration than they do at present to this direct preparation of
students for participation in industrial work. Preparation for University Matriculation Examinations tends to prevent teachers from thoroughly correlating academic and technical studies
in the technical schools, and therefore academic teachers in technical schools cannot be induced
too strongly to become familiar and interested in workshop operations, activities, and experiences.
Excellent results accrue when such valuable subject-matter is used as class-room exercises.
Reference to section 138 (2) of the Manual of School Law will reveal the following: " Where
any technical school or any course of instruction is established the Board of School Trustees 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 55
may appoint advisory committees to consult with and advise the Board in respect of the conduct
of the school or course." Such a committee, consisting of twelve men prominently connected
with the industrial and productive work in the City of New Westminster, was invited by the
school trustees to act in an advisory capacity in order to aid in establishing a satisfactory
technical school. It is unanimously acknowledged by the school trustees that valuable assistance
was liberally rendered by that committee.
The first step taken on their appointment was to consider the necessity (which was
questioned) of a technical course; they therefore investigated the occupations to which boys
and girls gravitated in New Westminster and also the school training which the children received
in preparation for those occupations. This led to the decision that there was undoubtedly an
important place in the community for a technical school, and because of the number of over-age
pupils in the grades, that it must be open to all pupils of school-leaving age regardless of whether
or not they had passed the entrance to high-school examination.
The next step was to find what subjects, included in the present high-school curriculum
were of most importance to those who intended to participate in activities of a technical nature.
In order to come to a conclusion each member of the advisory committee undertook to tabulate
the knowledge necessary to conduct successfully the business in which he was directly connected.
The result was that the establishment of a technical school was fully endorsed, and a circular
in which the limitations of the various educational courses in the city were clearly explained
was distributed to parents. Visits to elementary schools were made by the advisory committee
to explain to pupils and teachers the policy of the School Board, and to testify that the employers
of labour tendered their unanimous support of the movement.
The school trustees of Vancouver and Victoria would be well advised to follow the example
set by the Board at New Westminster, for trustees, already burdened with the demands of
elementary education, require every possible assistance in their endeavour to provide adequate
training suitable to the present age of industry and commerce.
The lack of well-trained, capable instructors for commercial courses has undoubtedly kept
the courses from increasing in the Province, and for the purpose of remedying this fault summer
training classes and correspondence instruction have been carried on by the. Department of
Education. The results are going to be all that could be desired. Twelve selected teacher-
students participated in the correspondence lessons, and nine tried the departmental tests held
at the close of the summer school. By this means, instructors are being prepared to carry on
the necessary work of commercial training, and when competent teachers are placed in charge
of the classes School Boards may be expected to have confidence in establishing commercial
courses in the high schools under their direction.
Technical Coueses in Home Economics.
These courses are to be found in the two cities of New Westminster and Vancouver, but the
development of this work has been considerably hampered by the requirements for University
Matriculation. In order to prepare for this examination much of the important work of home
economics has to be either neglected or studied after school-hours. It is to the credit of teachers
and students that they do not hesitate to work overtime, and for the past few years have shown
remarkable interest in having the science and art of home-making included in the high-school
curriculum.
In the home economics course the quality of work in cookery, dietetics, physiology, and
attendant subjects far exceeds that done in dressmaking and millinery. The standard of workmanship and taste should he higher than it is, and this, will only be attained by recognizing
professional dressmakers and milliners as teachers. There also seems to be a need of some
controlling spirit on each staff who could unify all sections of the work and assign definite
lessons in colour-harmony, arrangement, and design which would touch and enrich home
economics at every angle; i.e., in dressmaking, millinery, table-decoration, interior decoration
of the home, the home-garden, English literature, music, physical culture, and life itself. There
is greater freedom to carry out this idea in the Junior High School than in the general High
School, because the staff are not compelled to divert their attention to subjects which are
required for University Matriculation. Whether full advantage will be taken of this freedom
to reach out for a high standard of efficiency and accomplishment remains to be seen; the
teachers undoubtedly have the opportunity in their hands. F 56 Public Schools Report. 1923
Night-schools.
Night-schools are conducted in twenty-nine cities and rural municipalities in the Province
and 3,696 students are attending. These numbers rank the Province third in the Dominion,
and while this- position is exceedingly gratifying, yet the numbers could easily be doubled.
In the larger cities the school trustees might well observe the tactics of business schools and
colleges, and adopt more adequate methods of making the public aware of what they have to
offer. The people have a right to know; and large posters might, be placed in prominent positions
notifying citizens that certain classes will be held for their benefit. There is no more worthy
civic expenditure than that spent on night-schools. From every standpoint the work is beneficial
to the community. The attitude of those who claim that night-schools should be self-supporting,
while high-school education is free, shows that they do not possess a true democratic spirit.
Directors of night-schools should take active steps to plan opportunities for the workers to
pass the University Matriculation Examinations from night-school classes. Assiduous study by
those who are accustomed to apply themselves to steady work should make it possible for an
ambitious person to climb right to the top of the ladder. That ladder should be set in the
night-schools.
Long years ago it was written that the work of managing a home had become " an art and
a science." It is even so to-day, and this fact is realized by many branches of the Women's
Institutes, for they are associating themselves more and more with classes for mutual improvement. When efficient instructors are found there is little difficulty in forming classes in dressmaking, millinery, first aid, and care of the child, etc. While such classes are frequently held
Juring the afternoon, yet they are permitted to be conducted as night-schools, and when held
under the segis of the school trustees the regular night-school grant is paid for their support.
Correspondence Classes.
Courses of study by correspondence are given to the following:—
(1.) Pupils who live beyond the reach of schools   184
(2.)  Coal-mine workers who wish to qualify as shotlighters, overmen, mine
surveyors, and mine managers   152
(3.) Teachers of commercial subjects      12
These numbers rank the Province of British Columbia third in the Dominion. The work
among children of pioneer families who live in distant parts of the Province commends itself
to all thinking persons. Letters expressing thankfulness for the regular communications which
go out to pupils working under difficult conditions testify to an appreciation of the sincere efforts
of those who, in an office environment, pursue their work of teaching.
The endeavour to assist coal-miners in preparation for their" arduous and dangerous tasks
is an object no less admirable, and the fact that there are 152 students working for various
certificates proves that the insistent demand which was made for this type of tuition was
warranted and the adoption of lessons by correspondence has been fully justified. An attempt
to do this teaching entirely by night-school classes and another to link up tutorial work at
night-schools with the correspondence classes had both previously failed.
Expenditure.
The total amount of expenditure during the year 1922-23 on the*subjects enumerated above,
exclusive of manual training, domestic science, and correspondence-work with elementary-school
children, amounted to $70,164.76, and of that sum the Dominion Government paid $34,479.32.
Excerpts from the latest report of the Dominion Organizer of Technical Education show that
the Province of British Columbia takes second, third, and fourth places respectively for the
various phases of work accomplished, while the cost of administration is one of the lowest in
the Dominion.
I have, etc.,
John Ktle,
Organizer of Technical Education < y s/UfeYeAsYdlGAs
I \jP/f
■O
Metal-forging, Technical Course, Victoria High School.
■
tl
Sheet-metal Course, Vancouver Technical School '■'■■
■
Metalwork, Manual Instructors' Course, Summer School.  VJ;,.^:.,»-JV.-. -■
Furniture-making, Vancouver Technical School.
■
\:
-;ji.iiB|.>
Furniture-making and  wood-turning.  High  School  Course,  Summer   School.  14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 57
ELEMENTARY AGRICULTURAL  EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
Victoria, B.C., September 30th, 1923.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith a report dealing with elementary agricultural
education for the year ended September 30th, 1923.
The chief lines of work included under this branch are:—
(1.) In the elementary schools of the Province agricultural and general nature-study,
including school and home-gardening and agricultural  home-project work:
(2.)  Agricultural instruction in high and superior schools:
(3.)  General improvement of school-grounds in co-operation with School  Boards.
As grants to School Boards on account of expenses incurred in the operation of school-
gardens and the holding of school fairs are not payable until December, it is not yet possible
to give definitely the number of schools qualifying this year to receive these grants. A few
schools have dropped out and some new ones have come in, so that there will not be any
marked change as to numbers from last year. The number of schools operating school-gardens
this year will net close to 150, whilst, in addition, a great many schools are giving some attention
to the work, although not yet meeting the standard required to entitle them to special grants.
It is pleasing to note that with increasing experience in this branch of school-work the quality
of the work done has steadily improved. It is a regrettable fact, on the other hand, that all
of our teachers are not genuinely interested in nature-study and some are inclined to neglect
it, especially as it is no longer a subject for examination for entrance to the high school. It
is becoming more and more evident that a special course of training for teachers in the subject
of nature-study and elementary agriculture is necessary in order that teachers generally should
feel themselves competent to give reliable and up-to-date instruction in that subject. The
Provincial Summer School for Teachers provides such an opportunity, but so far only a small
percentage of the teachers have taken advantage of it. It seems impossible to find sufficient
time for adequate training in the subject during the one-year Normal School period. Very
satisfactory work is being accomplished in those schools which are under the supervision of
District Instructors in Elementary Agriculture—about sixty altogether.
Agricultup.al Courses in High Schools.
The regular two-year course in agriculture is now carried on in twelve high schools and
one superior school in the Province, the total enrolment for the year being 510, an increase
of fifty-three over last year. The two-year course in agriculture is given in Grades X. and XL
and in most cases is preceded by a course in general science in Grade IX. This introductory
course in science has been found advantageous as an introduction to the study of agriculture
as well as to other branches of science, and is usually taught by the agricultural instructor.
The offering of courses in agriculture in city high schools was ltfoked upon at first as a
rather doubtful experiment, and no doubt many were ready to regard it as rather fantastic
and quite inappropriate as a subject of study in such schools. Those, of course, who so
regarded it were labouring under a wrong impression as to the character and purpose of
these courses—the impression that only those boys who were definitely preparing to go on
the land to earn their living could possibly be interested in such courses or could hope to
be benefited by them. After six years of experience in the City of Victoria and three in New
Westminster, and an even longer period in smaller cities in the Province, there is little room
for doubt as to the beneficial character of the work in those cities. Spasmodic efforts are made
from time to time by" Boards of Trade and other organizations to promote mutiial understanding
and good-fellowship as between the rural inhabitant and the dweller in the city. This, of course,
is highly desirable, but in no way can it be as soundly and permanently established as by giving
to city-bred boys and girls the opportunity to study at first hand the essentials of food production and of rural economics. City boys and girls have responded llnsa. very satisfactory
manner in every case where an opportunity has been offered them (to j includei the study of F 58 Public Schools Report. 1923
agriculture in their elective courses.    We should have more agricultural  specialists in our
city high schools.
We must all, however, confess to a certain amount of surprise at the remarkable degree
of success which has attended the study of agriculture by the girls in our various high schools.
In the class-room, in the experimental gardens, and in the judging pavilion they have more
than held their own, for they have succeeded on more than one occasion in carrying off the
premier honours in examinations and in agricultural judging competitions in which more boys
than girls participated.
We are indebted to the extension department of the Provincial College of Agriculture for
the holding of a most interesting agricultural contest by way of a written examination open
to boys and girls less than 19 years of age who had attended the lectures given by various
members of the staff at the following places in the spring of this present year: Duncan, Salmon
Arm, Enderby, Creston, Rock Creek, and Appledale. The immediate objective of this examination was to determine the winner of the $50 scholarship offered by Mr. J. L. Pridham, late
President of the United Farmers of British Columbia. The paper was set and the answers
evaluated by a committee of professors in agriculture, the results being as follows:—
Marks.
Kathleen F. E. Miles, Salmon .Inn      90
Kathleen Ruddy, Salmon Arm       84
Trefor Y. Bazett, Duncan       82
Frances Hughes, Salmon Arm       80
Mary C. McKay, Enderby      79
Gordon Cant, Appledale       69
Gerald A. McPhail, Salmon Arm       68
Ruth M. Marshall, Salmon Arm      63
Bert Quist, Creston       62
Lome Campbell, Appledale        60
John L. Owens, Duncan      60
The boys and girls in the above list from Salmon Arm, Duncan, and Enderby were students
in the high-school agricultural classes. Lest some might think that this agricultural test was
very elementary and not " practical " enough to mean anything, the questions as submitted are
reproduced from a copy of the examination paper and are as follows:—
1. By what methods can we increase and preserve the moisture in our soils?
2. Give a detailed description of the growing of either corn or roots.
3. Outline a suitable method of caring for and feeding a dairy calf or a beef calf
from birth to 3 months of age.
4. Describe the formation of a dairy cow that you would expect to utilize her feed
for profitable production. Give brief reasons why the conformation you describe is
desirable.
5. Discuss the factors which influence the souring and spoiling of milk.
6. Define a " high-grade cream." What precautions must be taken in order to secure
such a cream, and why are the precautions to be observed?
7. Describe briefly the chief factors which influence the quality of vegetables.
8. What causes may be responsible for the failure of fruit-trees to produce satisfactory
crops?   Suggest remedies.
9. A farmer in your district has a flock of pullets that laid an average of 120 eggs in
their first year. Describe an economical breeding system for this farmer to follow
over a period of three years to increase the egg production of his flock.
10. (a.) If a farmer has a flock of early, well-matured pullets bred from a good laying
strain, how could he feed these pullets during the months of October, November,
December, January, and February to secure good egg production? (b.) How would
you proceed to fatten fifty heavy-weight cockerels for market?
Special Problems.
11. Assuming thtrt nitrate of soda with 15.5 per cent, nitrogen costs $60 per ton, what is
the value of one pound of nitrogen in: (a.) Sulphate of ammonia? (6.) Liquid
manure?    (e.)   Raw-bone material? 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 59
12. Discuss briefly three important reasons why some dairy-farmers succeed while others
fail.
13. (a.) What is meant by " milk suitable for cheese-making"? (6.) what is " starter "?
(c.)  Why are starters used in cheese-making?
14. Briefly indicate how the following fruits are propagated: (1) Strawberries; (2)
red raspberries; (3) loganberries; (4) black currants; (5) gooseberries? Explain
how the pruning of the black currant differs from that of the gooseberry.
15. How would you take care of 300 baby chicks coming from an incubator at one time?
Describe how to feed these chicks until they are 2 months old.
School Fairs and Exhibitions.
The parents and adults generally, as well as the children, are showing an increased interest
in school fairs and they are receiving every support from School Boards, Agricultural Societies,
Women's Institutes, and other local societies. In most cases the school fair is held in conjunction with the general agricultural fair and not infrequently proves to be one of the most
interesting and attractive features of it. Year by year the exhibits are improving iii quality
and are coming to represent a wider range of school activities. In addition to the exhibits,
a good deal of attention is being given to demonstration-work, such as cooking and manual
training carried on by classes of boys and girls right in the fair buildings. Competitions in
sports and school games are also held and the interschool competition is growing in interest,
due partly to the pupils' love of contests and partly to the generous support in the way of
special prizes and trophies donated by public-spirited men. It is to be hoped that interschool
competitions in vocal and instrumental music and in elocution and dramatization may also
be added in the near future. If our fair executives would encourage more entertainment of
this kind and absolutely abolish such blatant and disgusting fakirs and sideshows as up till
now have held sway it would be better,for all concerned. So far the executives of our largest
fairs have not had the courage to make the venture, although some of the largest and most
successful fairs on the Continent of America have shown them how to do it and make money
at the same time.
Judging Competitions at Fairs.
Competitions open to boys and girls not over 18 years of age in the judging of live stock,
fruit, and field crops have been conducted in connection with most of the larger agricultural
fairs of the Province, and with gratifying success. To students in agriculture particularly
this has been beneficial directly as well as indirectly, as it provides a certain incentive to
careful study along these lines in the agricultural classes during the year. The students have
come to regard it as an honour to have won by good work a place on the judging team chosen
to represent the district at the Provincial Fair. It is interesting to note again that in these
judging competitions, which demand accurate agricultural knowledge as well as careful and
discriminating judgment, together with ability in stating reasons clearly and correctly, girls
have taken a prominent place. Following are the awards made at the Provincial Fair at New
Westminster:—
1. Junior Stock-judging Competition by District Teams, Judging Heavy Horses, Dairy Cattle,
and Beef Cattle.—First prize, major trophy, challenge cup, donated by the British Columbia
Stock-breeders' Association, and a gold medal by the Royal Agricultural and Industrial Society
to each member of the team—Won by Blanche Blair, Greta Harrison, and Patricia McMillan,
of the Langley High School; coached by J. M. Shales, B.A., B.S.A.
Second prize, a silver medal to each of the members of the team by the Royal Agricultural
and Industrial Society—Won by Allan Keer, Stewart McClure, and John Clark, of Cranbrook;
coached by Angus Hay, B.S.A.
Third prize, bronze medals to the members of the team by the Royal Agricultural and
Industrial Society—Won by Philip Fraser, Larry McMullin, and Annie Owens, of Salmon Arm;
coached by W. H. Grant, B.S.A. Also entered in this competition were teams from Chilliwack,
Kamloops, New Westminster, Kelowna, and Rutland.
Special prize, presented by Mr. A. D. Paterson, M.L.A., for the first and second ranking
individuals in the judging of horses in the above team contests: First ($12), Annie Owens,
Salmon Arm, B.C.; second ($8), Patricia McMillan, Langley, B.C. F 60 Public Schools Report. 1923
Special prize, presented by F. M. Clement, Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture, University
of British Columbia, for the first ranking individual in the judging of dairy cattle in the above
team contests:  First ($10), Stewart McClure, Cranbrook, B.C.
2. Individual Competition in Stock-judging (open to boys and girls under 21 years of age).—
First ($12), James Davidson; second ($10), Blanche Blair, Langley, B.C.; third ($8), Patricia
McMillan, Langley, B.C.; fourth ($6), Mike Furiak, Kamloops, B.C.; fifth ($4), Max Miller,
Kamloops, B.C.
3. Junior Crop-judging Competition by District Teams—Judging Oats, Mangels, and
Potatoes.—First prize, major trophy, silver challenge cup, donated by the British Columbia
Agronomists' Society, and a gold medal by the Royal Agricultural and Industrial Society to
each member of the team—Won by Jack Berry, Roy Mountain, and Dorothy Lawrence, or
Langley, B.C.
Second prize, silver medal to each member of the team—Won by Irene Woodworth, Ella
Fraser, and Ena Brown, of Chilliwack.
Third price, bronze medal to each member of the team—Won by John Aitkin, Edwin Harvey,
and John Williams, of Kelowna, B.C.
The highest individual score made in the judging of field crops was made by Allen Dalgleish,
of Rutland, B.C.
4. Special Seed-oat and Potato-growing Competition.—The major trophy here consisted of
a silver cup presented by Professor Paul Boving and Professor G. G. Moe, of the Department
of Agronomy in the Provincial College of Agriculture. In order to compete for the trophy any
district in charge of a District Supervisor must be represented by four entries of " U.B.C.
Banner Oats " and four entries of " U.B.C. Spud." An oat entry called for one sheaf of the
above-named variety of oats and 4 lb. of the threshed grain, and a potato entry consisted of
20 lb. of the above-named variety of potato. The seed for the competition was supplied by
the Agronomy Department of the University of B.C.
First prize, the Boving-Moe trophy and diploma—Won by Langley District.
Second prize, diploma—Won by Chilliwack District.
5. Exhibits from Boys' and Girls' Live Stock Clubs.— (1.) Jersey heifer under 1 year:
First ($10), Victor Chevalley, Chilliwack, B.C.; second ($8), George Lumley, Chilliwack, B.C.;
third ($6), Marguerite Chevalley, Chilliwack, B.C.
(2.) Jersey heifer over 1 year: First ($12), Wilfred Carter, Sardis, B.C.; second ($9),
John Kirkness, Sardis, B.C.
(3.) Holstein heifer under 1 year: First ($10), Hugh Thompson, Chilliwack, B.C.; second
($8), Keith Thurston, Chilliwack, B.C.
(4.) Guernsey heifer under 1 year: First ($10), George Leary, Chilliwack, B.C.; second
($8), Wilfred Tnrney, Chilliwack, B.C.; third  ($6), Allan Nelems, Chilliwack, B.C.
(5.) Yorkshire sow, 7 to 12 months, inclusive: First ($10), Reed Banford, Chilliwack, B.C.;
second ($8), J. W. Readey, Chilliwack, B.C.
(6.)  Block hog, 120 to 160 lb.: First  ($8), Clarence McRae, Agassiz, B.C.
(7.) Bacon hog, 100 to 210 lb.: First ($9), Reed Banford, Chilliwack, B.C.; second ($7),
J. W. Readey, Chilliwack, B.C.
6. School-garden Exhibits.— (1.) For the best district school-garden exhibit: First prize,
major trophy, Provincial school-garden shield and cash prize ($100)—Won by New Westminster
city schools. Second prize ($75)—Won by Chilliwack District schools. Third prize ($50) —
Won by Langley Municipality schools.
(2.) Best individual school exhibit: First prize ($20)—Won by Lister aud Kelvin School,
New Westminster.   Second prize ($15)—Won by Herbert Spencer School, New Westminster.
Throughout the Province the various live-stock breed organizations and poultrymen's
societies have given valuable assistance in helping to organize clubs and arrange competitions
in the interests of junior agriculture.
We have also had the full co-operation and support of the Provincial College of Agriculture
as well as the Provincial Department of Agriculture in connection with these various competitions. This practical assistance has been very much appreciated. Without it much that was
carried through successfully could not have been attempted. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 61
School-grounds  Improvement.
The interest manifested in the movement initiated by the Department some years ago,
looking towards the providing of more adequate and more sightly school-grounds, is rapidly
increasing. More attention is being given by School Boards to the correct placing of new school
buildings, as well as to the beautifying of the grounds. Measures towards improvement have
been carried forward on approximately fifty school-grounds during the year, and the time is
approaching when the full time of a Provincial Supervisor will be required to meet the requests
from School Boards along this line.
During the past few years several cases have come under my observation where the architect's plans for a new school building were drawn entirely without reference to the particular
site upon which the building was to be placed. In almost every case when a new school-ground
is being laid out there is a decided preference as to which end is best for boys' grounds and
which for girls'. It is obvious that this should be determined before the plans are drawn or
at least before they are accepted by the Department, so that the boys' basement and toilets
will be located in that end of the building adjacent to that part of the playground allotted to
them, and similarly with reference to the girls' basement. In view of the serious inconvenience which has arisen in several instances during recent years, I would recommend that more
attention be given to the planning of new grounds before the plans of buildings to be placed
on them be drawn 'or approved. I may add that on a few occasions within the past year I
was called in consultation with the School Board and the architect whom they had employed
for the purpose of determining these most important matters before the plans were completed
or contracts let.
• Reports from  District  Supervisors  of Agricultural  Instruction.
During the year Mr. E. L. Small, B.S.A., who for the past six years held the position of
District Supervisor in the Municipality of Surrey, resigned to take a position on the staff of
the State Teachers' College of South Dakota. During his term of office in this Province, Mr.
Small rendered excellent service and gave generously of his time and energy to every movement, social as well as educational, that aimed at the betterment of rural conditions. He was
succeeded by Mr. F. J. Welland, B.S.A., a graduate of the University of British Columbia.
Following are brief reports from District Supervisors, which go to show the trend of the
work and some of the main activities connected with it in their respective districts:—
Report of J. C. Readey, B.S.A., District Supervisor, Chilliwack City and Municipality.
The work of the year has included teaching agriculture in the Chilliwack High School;
supervision of the teaching of elementary agriculture and nature-study in the public schools;
management of the School Fair; organization and supervision of home projects in live stock,
field crops, and gardens; instruction in soils at the Victoria Summer School for Teachers; and
participation in local farmers' or educational organizations. I was able also to take a three-
weeks' course in educational psychology and vocational guidance at the University Summer
School, Vancouver. The work of the year has been successful and gains have been made in
all departments. During the year 445 school visits were made and 508 classes taught or
supervised.
Agriculture in the High School.—All matriculation students were successful in the June
examinations, the lowest mark made being sixty. The new class of 1923 consists of seventy-one
students, twenty of whom are boys and fifty-one girls. .All students ill Grade X. are now taking
agriculture, and in order to meet the needs of these and the Matriculation class I am required
to give fifteen class periods per week. It is indeed gratifying to report that this subject, which
was at first so much misunderstood and against which there was so much prejudice, has won
its way, by virtue of its own qualities, to a standing equal to that of the oldest of school subjects. During the year much interesting and useful work was done by the students in the
high-school garden. The material thus grown has been valuable in the class-work of the
present term. A new hotbed heated by electrically heated water has been installed and promises
to be a useful addition to the equipment.    This hotbed measures 4 by 27 feet.
Nature-study and Agriculture in the Public Schools.—I am pleased to report steady progress
in this branch of the work. A topical outline based upon the Departmental Course of Study
has been prepared.   This outline has met with the unanimous approval of the teachers.   The F 62 Public Schools Report. 1923
outline calls for definite work based on the activities of the school-garden and on the produce
grown, and also indicates definite topics from nature for study. The problem of the summer
care of the gardens has been solved by the employment of a competent person to care for all
the gardens. Where home prejudices do not alter the pupils' attitude and where the subject
is well taught, this work in the public schools invariably results in a quickened interest in all
school subjects, a keener appreciation of natural phenomena, a stimulated love for the beautiful
and wonderful in nature, and, what is probably just as important, the seeds of a wholesome
respect for our basic industry, agriculture, are planted.
" Wild Animals of North America," published by The National Geographic Society, and
several bulletins have been added to the library of each school during the year.
The School Fair.—This institution, held under the auspices of the Chilliwack Teachers'
Association, has grown from very small beginnings to be one of the important annual events
in the activities of the schools and in the life of the district. This year the entries numbered
1,119 and included exhibits from almost every department of school-work. For the past two
years money prizes have been given in live-stock and home-garden classes only. In all other
cases attractive prize ribbons have been given. It requires about $800 per year to operate the
fair.
The School Fair was instituted under my own direction, but was later taken over by the
Teachers' Association, who have appointed me as manager each year.
Home Projects in Agriculture.—Under this work an attempt is being made to interest the
boys and girls of the schools in the growing of crops and the raising of live stock and to relate
this interest to the work of the school. Two hundred and ninety-seven pupils took part in the
work this year. This number was divided as follows: Those choosing calves, 14; pigs, 15;
lambs, 12; gardens, 98; chickens, 83; rabbits, 26; photography, 49.
I believe this to be a sound form of educational activity. It is a form of expression very
natural to the child and comprehensive in its scope.
We are still weak in the time given to the supervision of the work, in the amount of
practical instruction given, and in the relating of the mental activities involved to the work
of the class-room.
Several local organizations have given very practical support to this work. Chief among
these are the Jersey-breeders, Guernsey-breeders, Holstein and Ayrshire breeders, and the local
poultrymen. Parent-Teacher Associations and the Board of Trade have always given encouragement and support. Our thanks are due these organizations and many individuals for their
help.
Exhibits at the Provincial Fair.—These consisted of a district school exhibit, four exhibits
of oats and four of potatoes, six Jersey, three Guersney, and two Holstein calves, four purebred Yorkshire pigs, and one lamb from the home projects. We also entered a team in field-
crop judging and another in live-stock judging. Our total winnings amounted to $228 in cash
and three silver medals.
Allied Activities.—During the year I have taken an active part in the activities of the
Board of Trade, the Agricultural Association, the Teachers' Association, and the Parent-
Teachers' Association of this district. This has made some drain upon my time and energy,
but I find that my efforts are reciprocated and that my own efforts in the class-room are
stimulated and made more effective by the associations which these organizations afford. I
have found the Board of Trade particularly helpful in this respect.
Report of J. M. Shales, B.A., B.S.A., District Supervisor, Langley Municipality.
The work in Langley during the current year has included giving the regular Two-year
Course in Agriculture in the high school, supervision of the teaching of nature-study and
elementary agriculture in the public schools, conducting school-gardens and home projects,
and the organization of the school fair. Numerous public lectures have been delivered and
information given to many farmers of the district in individual consultation.
In the high school all students writing examinations in matriculation agriculture were
successful. Twenty-five students are now taking the course, thirteen in the Second-year and
twelve in the Third-year classes. For the past two years this option has been the unanimous
choice of the students, and it would appear that the pupils and parents as well are coming
to recognize more and more the great educational and cultural value of this subject apart usin
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Senior class in Agriculture, Penticton High School. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 63
from its vocational significance.    The absence of a high-school building and suitable laboratory
space has made teaching and learning conditions far from satisfactory.
The eighteen public schools of the district were visited once in two weeks on schedule,
and type lessons were taught, source material supplied, and lantern-slide talks given. Twelve
school-gardens were conducted and furnished material for much first-hand study and observation by the pupils. Home projects in the raising of field and garden crops increased still more-
in numbers and general interest this year. Many splendid exhibits of the products of these
plots testified as to the uniform measure of success attained. The exhibit of " U.B.C.
Banner Oats" and " U.B.C. Spuds" grown by the pupils of the district merited the
Boving-Moe trophy at the Provincial Exhibition. Live-stock projects included the raising of
pure-bred Yorkshire and Berkshire pigs and Leghorn and Wyandotte poultry, and were enthusiastically and profitably taken up by many boys and girls.
The School Fair, although coming on the second day of school in September, was the largest
and most keenly contested ever held in Langley. A notable feature was the skill shown in
selection of the show classes of field crops and vegetables, also in the fitting of live stock,
showing that the oft-repeated exemplification of types and quality of farm products to the
pupils is becoming generally grasped. A district school-garden exhibit was staged at the
Provincial Exhibition.
Teams were trained and entered in the stock-judging competition at Vancouver Exhibition
and in both stock- and crop-judging competitions at New Westminster, and in every contest
carried off first honours for the district.
A new feature of the work this year was the giving of a two-months' course of evening
classes during the winter. The course was designed particularly to give both practical and
cultural assistance to boys on farms who had not been able to attend high school, and included
a study of farm animals, feeds and feeding, drainage, fertilizers, and farm poultry. An average
attendance of sixteen boys was recorded.
Our work in this district appears to be increasing in popularity and correspondingly in
complexity. The vast amount of detail and routine work now presenting itself would indicate
that clerical assistance will be required if the programme is to be further expanded as it should
be.
Report of E. L. Small, B.S.A., late District Supervisor, Surrey Municipality.
Work in the Public Schools.—Careful attention was given to the method of instruction
followed in the public schools during the year, as well as to the topics selected. The best
work was done when topics were followed up on the modern project method, allowing from
one to four weeks for each topic so treated. This, of course, included a wide range of
correlations with other school subjects, which after all is one of the most valuable considerations in conducting courses in nature-study cr agriculture. As examples of special
emphasis on large topics for a limited period mention may be made of our Bird Week, Tree
Week, Weed Week, poultry and dairy projects, etc.
I found it necessary at certain times to abandon the regular time schedule of visits in
order to give special attention to those schools where help was most needed. 1 regret to state
that many teachers show a decided lack of interest in nature-study and elementary agriculture,
especially since that subject has been removed from the list of required subjects for Entrance
Examination.
This year nine school-gardens were operated under supervision. Each year the children
show increased interest in their garden studies and have materially extended their knowledge
of this practical work.   The poor garden has practically been eliminated.
Home projects in agriculture conducted for the purpose of linking up class-room instruction
with home practice included potato-growing, mangel-seed growing, the growing of oats, and
the raising of poultry. Special interest was shown in the introduction of U.B.C. potatoes and
U.B.C. Banner oats, the seed of which was supplied by the Agronomy Department of the Provincial College of Agriculture.
Agriculture in the High School.—The soil conditions in the immediate vicinity of the high
school are of such a nature as to make gardening almost impossible, and after two or three
years' trial the old garden-site was finally abandoned. A much more suitable plot for gardening
and general agricultural experiments was secured this year, which proved of considerable aid
in practical teaching. F 64 Public Schools Report. 1923
School-grounds Improvement.—During the year four of the school-grounds were graded
and improved under my personal supervision, and additional tree planting and decoration was
carried out on several additional grounds. From work thus accomplished during the last few
years a number of the school-grounds of Surrey Municipality are beginning to show favourable
results. As an evidence of the interest of the people in this line of Improvement^ mention need
only be made of the fact that a very considerable amount of free labour was contributed by
the citizens themselves, thus supplementing in a very practical way the assistance given by
the Department by way of money grants and supplies of planting material.
Community Work.—Certain lines of work, apart from actual teaching and school supervision, might be mentioned. Of these nothing gave greater pleasure and satisfaction than the
organization of a municipal school picnic, when the school-children of the entire municipality
were brought together for a day of fun and feasting. No finer example of large community
enterprise and of true community spirit has ever been seen in Surrey. At another time a
successful municipal school concert was organized and was enjoyed by parents and children
alike.
Assistance was given in the organizing of several new Parent-Teacher Associations and in
assisting others already functioning. Addresses on such subjects as playground improvement,
vegetable-gardening, bulb-growing, making and care of hotbeds were given at Women's Institute
meetings.
In conclusion, I can say that I look back with pleasure upon my uniformly happy relations
with the Surrey School Board in our joint efforts towards the improvement of the rural schools
and of rural education generally in the community in which I was privileged to work.
Report of J. E. Britton, B.S.A., District Supervisor, Kelowna and Rutland.
During the past year agriculture has been taught in the districts of Kelowna and Rutland
as a high-school subject for second- and third-year students. In addition to the instruction
given in agriculture, the Supervisor taught second- and third-year botany and general science.
Work in the public schools was limited to' two visits a week in one school and occasional visits
to others in order to teach and assist the teachers in the subjects of nature-study and elementary
agriculture. Greater emphasis has been placed upon project methods, whereby classes or
individual pupils work out purposeful problems or develop a subject of study by gathering the
material, facts, and information and presenting the matter in an attractive book form, with
illustrations, clippings, drawings, and reports. When possible the student is encouraged to
carry on some practical work, such as the raising of a crop or the care of live stock. In fact,
any activity out of school associated with the subject is encouraged. Sufficient work of this
nature has been completed to show its wonderful possibilities in developing interest in nature
subjects, the powers of observation, and its value to almost every school subject. Two classes
have entered into correspondence with Prairie schools. They have sent stories and pictures
of life in British Columbia and have packed and shipped boxes of apples to the Prairie children.
Both teachers and pupils are keenly interested in this method of handling the nature-study
work.
An interesting and valuable day was spent at the Summerland Experimental Station with
the four classes in Agriculture. The officers of the station very graciously instructed and entertained the boys and girls, giving them a complete tour of the farm.
Bee-keeping was introduced early in the spring, and three of the boys obtained colonies
which have done fairly well during the season and supplied a surplus of honey.
Poultry-raising did not meet with the success of former years. Cockerels were crate-
fattened at the school by one of the classes and a chicken-dinner banquet served, the Domestic
Science classes and their instructor co-operating with the Agricultural classes in this interesting
event.
Agricultural plots at the school were devoted to the crops which were under study by the
different members of the class; each being reported on when the study was completed.
There has been a slight increase in the numbers enrolled in agriculture, with a larger
proportion of boys attending.
It is believed that the public realize more than ever the importance of the agricultural
interests, and while the object has not been to produce young agriculturists, it has aimed to
inculcate and foster the agricultural view-point and a correct vision of rural life. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 65
Report of A.  M.  McDermott, B.S.A.,  District  Supervisor  for New   Westminster.
In the number of students choosing agriculture as a science option, in the better understanding of its objects by co-workers and others, and in the practical work out-of-doors, this
has been the most successful year in this district.
Laboratory and lecture work was given in the T. J. Trapp Technical School for both High
School and Technical School classes; outside work in the area set aside for experimental work
near by. During the year extensive planting was done, so that this area can now be managed
in accord with the best systems of rotation and conservation of fertility. While the work as
outlined in the Course of Study gives to agriculture a high value as a science option for matriculation, at the same time no effort is spared to give its every phase a real vocational value.
Sixty students in all began the year's work—in Second-year classes thirty-six and in
Matriculation classes twenty-four. Of this number, twelve discontinued attendance at high
school during the first and second terms, twenty wrote on the Matriculation Examination in
Agriculture, and nineteen were successful. This year's registration shows sixty-six in all—
forty-one in Second-year classes and twenty-five in Matriculation classes. The change in the
Course of Study with regard to sciences and languages accounts for the apparent lack of increase
in registration.
The various topics on the Course of Study were taken in season as far as possible, and
where excursions, outside directed observation, outside lecturers, or lantern-slides could be
used to advantage either as introductory, as a conclusion and review, or to fix in mind important points, this was done in all topics. Class excursions were held to numerous points of interest
in the district; among others, to Colony Farm, to the nurseries at Essondale, the plant of the
Triangle Chemical Company, and of the Westminster Mill, where in each case those in charge
gave an excellent resume of the season's activities in a most interesting, painstaking, and
instructive way.    It is hoped that the resulting influences may be mutually advantageous.
In December the British Columbia dairymen met in convention here. Their kindness
through the Secretary, Mr. Henry Rive, made possible the arrangement of a special series
of lesson topics dealing with milk, and finishing with a drawing contest among high- and
public-school students showing the food value of milk. These drawings were classified in
competition and substantial prizes were presented to the winners at a public educational
evening programme.
In the spring special attention was given to poultry and seed-work. In the former subject
projects were carried out in incubation and brooding. The Faculty of Agriculture of the
University of British Columbia were again good enough to make possible some excellent
experimental-plot work with cereals and grasses. Many farmers during the season remarked
the strength of this feature of our work. Variety tests were conducted in cereals—wheat, oats,
barley, buckwheat; with root-crops; in comparison of nine grasses and four legumes; and in
demonstrations of such as hemp, millet, and vetches.
To balance the programme, work in fruit was added. Areas were set 6ut in strawberries,
Marshall; in raspberries, Cuthbert; in gooseberries, Josselyn; in black currants, Boskoop Giant;
in red currants, North Star; one tree of each of cherries, prunes, plums, pears; and of
apples one tree of each of the varieties Yellow Transparent, Wealthy, Duchess, Blenheim
Orange, King, Gravenstein, Red Astrachan. In addition, the whole area was proportionately planted to hedges, climbers, annual and perennial flowering species. On
the whole, we hope, an area well fitted for the actual practice in management of the common
types of ornamental, cereal, and food crops. In this, a city district, where out of a large
number of students few are familiar with actual agricultural operations, an attempt is made
to give a thorough familiarity with the best actual practices.
A district agricultural exhibit was arranged and won first place in competition with
Surrey, Langley, and Chilliwack at the Provincial Exhibition at New Westminster. A team
was entered in junior live-stock judging competitions at the same time.
During the year much time was given to assistance in the teaching of nature-study and
elementary science in the public schools. Some of the most valuable assistance was rendered
by providing material and information on the various topics, though in the office, as well
as in the teaching of lessons in the class-rooms as suggesting method and matter, it is hoped
some good was accomplished. The teaching of this work has not yet reached the place of
importance it should have in the public schools of the city.
E F 66 Public Schools Report. 1923
Many lectures and addresses, some of them illustrated, were given in schools and to various
organizations in the city and adjoining district. Among others where assistance was given
were: The Junior Philatelic Society, St. Margaret's Social Club of South Vancouver, St.
Stephens Young People's Society, The Boy Scouts, St. Paul's Young People, and The Gyro Club.
Regular classes in other than agricultural topics were taken in the T. J. Trapp Technical
School. This included one class in the Chemistry of Technical Courses and three Household
Science classes in Physics and. Chemistry. This term classes in Literature and Mathematics
are occupying part of each day's programme.
During July and part of August I attended classes at the University of British Columbia
as part of a plan to improve my scholastic standing which might enhance service to the
community.
In whatever success has attended my efforts, I am deeply indebted to many co-workers
for friendly assistance in numerous ways. To the teaching staffs of the various schools with
whom I am associated, to the School Board, and to Mr. J. E. McKenzie, the School Engineer,
I owe an expression of gratitude.
Located as I am in the Technical School, it has repeatedly occurred to me that there are
a great number of boys (and girls) m the city of 'teen age who are decidedly below the standard
in attainments in regular school-work, and I would commend to your careful consideration
these for whom so little is done in our educational system, but whose needs are greater than
those of the brighter students. It is just possible that many might " find themselves " in an
arrangement of courses in more or less vocational agriculture suited to their needs.
In review of my year's work, I cannot withhold expression of a hope that some provision
may soon be made to give teachers-in-training a larger and broader conception of nature-study
both in matter and method, so that they may impart to their pupils a less material but more
pleasurable outlook in life.
Report of V. B. Robinson, B.S.A., District Supervisor, Penticton and Siommerland.
The High School Agricultural classes are steadily growing in size and the work is gaining
in popularity. Not only is this shown by the increasing number of students electing agriculture,
but also by increasing interest manifested by the ratepayers themselves. It is gratifying to
know that even during a period of retrenchment, due to poor prices for crops, it was not thought
advisable to discontinue the teaching of agriculture. This attitude is in a measure due to the
realization that teaching through and about the daily life of the community is sound pedagogy.
During the year arrangements were made whereby the high-school agricultural students
attended a number of the field lectures and demonstrations held in the district for the benefit
of the local growers. In this way the students obtained a great deal of first-hand information
relative to the many practical problems confronting the growers and were the better able to
appreciate the various recommendations made by specialists for the solution of these problems.
Following is a brief summary of these field excursions:—
A visit was made to the Dominion Experiment Station near Summerland, when Superintendent Helmer and Assistant Superintendent Mann and Palmer conducted the class over
the farm, explaining the nature of the various projects under way. Mr. II. L. McLarty,
Dominion Plant Pathologist, also gave some practical demonstrations in the pathological
laboratory relative to the identification and study of plant-diseases.
Following special classes in the judging of fruit, a fruit-judging competition was arranged
in connection with the Summerland Fruit Show. So successful was this competition that the
growers decided to make junior fruit-judging competitions a regular part of the Fruit Fail-
programme.
A trip to the South Okanagan Poultry Exhibition, where Professor Lloyd, head of the
Poultry Department of the Provincial University, gave practical demonstrations in the selection
of utility and exhibition stock. Professor Paul Boving, head of the Agronomy Department of
the University, also spoke to the classes on the subject of selecting and judging field roots.
An afternoon was spent attending a field demonstration in the top-working of fruit-trees,
given by W. T. Hunter, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, and Mr. John Tait, District Field
Inspector. Many things were explained and much valuable instruction given on the subject
of the top-grafting of fruit-trees. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 67
A practical demonstration in fruit-thinning was given to the class by Mr. Hunter and
Mr. J. R. Peters, a prominent fruit-grower from Wenatchee, Washington.
Mr. H. Harris, Demonstration Apiarist, conducted the classes through the demonstration
apiary at Poplar Grove.
This method of occasional outdoor instruction with excursions to important places will
be continued next season.
The experimental gardens have proved a valuable adjunct to the Course in Agriculture.
They were planned this year on the basis of a representative kitchen-garden. It was revealed
that many of the students were totally unacquainted with some of the choicest varieties of
garden crops and could not even give the names of standard garden varieties. Thus the garden
experiments served a double purpose, as it resulted in varieties new to the pupils being introduced into many of the homes. Experiments in testing out the suitability of standard varieties
to the locality were carried ont and will be continued.
Considerable use was made of visual instruction as an aid in teaching. A new lantern
was purchased for the Summerland schools and has proved of great assistance in both public
and high schools. During the, coming year an effort will be made to secure several sets of
slides as part of the regular equipment of the schools of this district.
Regular meetings were held with the teachers of the Summerland public schools and
assistance was given in planning suitable programmes in nature-study. This help was appreciated
by the teachers and resulted in a better grade of class exercises.
Report of W. H. Grant, B.S.A., District Supervisor, Salmon Arm City and Municipality.
Public Schools.—Visits have been made to the public schools on an average of every two
weeks and instruction given in nature-study and agriculture as per Course of Studies. This
has been in accordance with the work carried on by the teachers and every possible assistance
has been given them. The necessity for this work in the public schools is evidenced by the
extreme ignorance of the average public-school pupil concerning the commonest things of natural
life and natural phenomena about him, and by the eagerness and interest with which he accepts
the instruction given. I am more than ever convinced of the value of this work, in that the
students coming into the high school are evidencing a much broader outlook and a greater
knowledge of common subjects than was the case before this work was started.
School or home gardens have been conducted in all of the schools of the city and district
during the past year, and their value was amply illustrated at the Fall Fair here recently when
the school exhibits far outnumbered and in many cases excelled the exhibits of the adults.
High School.—The agricultural option in the High School Course of Studies is proving
a popular one with students, as up to the present time only one student has elected to matriculate
without it, and in the last Matriculation Examination all students from here were successful
in making the required marks in agriculture.
Valuable equipment has been added for the Course in Agriculture, and experimental grounds
have been started, which should prove valuable in years to come.
Interest in the work is evidenced in many ways, but in no more striking way than at the
farmers' short course conducted here by the University last February. The United Farmers
of British Columbia offered a scholarship to the son or daughter of one of their members who
stood highest in the examination following the course. Five from the Salmon Arm High School
entered the competition and stood first, second, fourth, sixth, and seventh in a class of over
thirty competitors.
In stock-judging the greatest interest has been shown, and it has now become an established
fact that the judging team to compete at the Provincial Exhibition shall be chosen from Grade
XL This year the Salmon Arm team stood third in the competition and in the individual
honours one member of the team got first in judging horses.
School Clubs.-La.st fall a second Jersey Calf Club was formed consisting of eight members.
These received their calves early in the spring and were all well pleased. The original Calf
Club members have continued their interest and several members entered their heifers in the
R.O.P. test with good success.   This year still greater numbers have entered.
A very successful Berkshire. Pig Club has been carried on this year with twenty-four members. Evidence of advancement in handling the pigs was shown in the very superior quality
and condition of this year's animals as compared with those of last year. Five Poultry Clubs with a total membership of eighty-five have been conducted with a fail-
measure of success. This year the fertility of the eggs was low in a great many cases, but
those who succeeded in getting a hatch showed great interest and skill in rearing the chicks.
School Fair.—The school- and home-garden work, club-work, etc., have their culmination
in the School Fair. This year the School Fair held in conjunction with the Fall Fair was
bigger and better than ever and bids fair to becoming an important part of the school-work.
Greater financial assistance is required in carrying on this work and especially for the subjects
of the general course.
Conclusion.—The work here entails a great deal of visiting, consulting with farmers, offering
advice, and in many ways endeavouring to render assistance. The value of this is difficult to
estimate, and in any case would be unfair to judge except over a long period of time. But
surely it is to the advantage of every person to know something of the natural phenomena about
them, and to study a science which has all the training advantages of the others, with the
added value of containing a large amount of useful knowledge. Surely the boys and girls and
the community are better for having tidy and well-arranged school-grounds. What was good
enough for a generation ago is no longer sufficient, and rightly so.
Report of F. J.  Wetland, B.S.A., District Supervisor for Surrey Municipality.
The class in First-year Agriculture is composed of fourteen pupils in attendance at the
Surrey High School, Cloverdale, and an additional five pupils at the new superior school at
White Rock, making a total of nineteen students taking the first-year work. These classes,
together with the second-year agricultural students at Cloverdale, require five half-days per
week in instructional work.
The home-project work initiated by my predecessor, including work with home vegetable-
gardens, hotbeds, orchard practice, canning of fruit and vegetables, potato-growing, the growing
of oats and mangels for seed, and the raising of two breeds of poultry, was carried through
successfully and with significant enthusiasm. Excellent results were seen in the exhibits at
the Surrey School Fair.
There are now nineteen public schools in the district, of which five are ungraded, having
thirty-five divisions altogether. These are visited on a regular schedule, the ungraded schools
being given more frequent attention than the graded schools. The work in these schools consists of the teaching of type lessons and in helping to secure illustrative material, such as
collections of weeds and weed-seeds, for study and specimens of the more important orders
of insects.
The nine school-gardens operated during the year, in addition to providing an abundance
of material for nature-study work in the school-room, also furnished some very attractive
exhibits at the Surrey School Fair.
In some of the gardens experimental work showing the value of sulphur in controlling
potato-scab was conducted and some notable results secured.
The School Fair was a decided success, there being no less than 149 successful exhibitors
claiming prizes for well-earned awards made in the various classes.
School-ground improvement work has been encouraged and arrangements have been made
to continue this good work.
I have, etc.,
J. W. Gibson,
Director of Elementary Agricultural Education. ■ffrffffffi  ^9?!^?^^*-55^^^      ^^^^^^^
14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 69
SUMMER  SCHOOL  FOR  TEACHERS.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
Victoria, B.C., October, 30th, 1923.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith a report on the Provincial Summer School for Teachers
held in Victoria from July 9th to August 10th, 1923.
As in previous years, the classes were conducted in the Victoria High School, with the
exception of classes in Cooking, which were held in the Central School. No finer accommodation
could be desired than that which this splendid building affords. Students as well as instructors
are frequently heard to express their pleasure in being so happily situated and so adequately
accommodated in lecture-room, laboratory, and gymnasium. If some arrangement could be
made whereby a fully equipped room for the giving of practical lessons in cookery could be
provided the situation would be well-nigh perfect. Under present conditions, considerable
inconvenience has been experienced by those students who combine lessons in cooking and
dietetics taken at the Central School with needlework and household chemistry which are
taken.at the High School. The classes for Manual Training and Technical School Instructors
have for the past two years been conducted in the Vancouver Technical School, and, whilst the
facilities for teaching these subjects are much superior in the Vancouver school to those at
present available in Victoria, yet there are obvious disadvantages in having the school so
divided. The instructors in Vancouver, as well as the students, have experienced a certain
amount of unpleasant isolation, and it may be that some change will be found advisable in
order to obviate this disadvantage.
The advantages of intensive courses of study for teachers, such as the summer school
provides, is being recognized more and more widely. These courses have the advantage over
the regular Normal Training Courses, In that the student's attention is directed towards and
concentrated upon the mastery of a single subject. As a matter of fact, a student taking all
the work offered in a single summer course for four or five hours per day for five weeks is
able to cover more ground in that subject than is usually covered in any one subject in the
regular Normal School Course, because of the large number of subjects which must be carried
on there simultaneously. This makes it possible for teachers in active teaching service to become
more proficient in any particular line of school-work in which they may feel the need of assistance
or in which they may wish to hold special qualifications. In view of the fact that as yet no
higher grade of certificate has been granted to teachers taking this additional training in what
might be termed post-normal or graduate teachers' courses, it must be conceded that the large
number of teachers in the Province who, year after year, devote the major part of their summer
vacation to their own professional improvement through special study are deserving at least
of honourable mention when new appointments are under consideration. Surely the time has
come when our School Inspectors will give due consideration to this fact when making recommendations to School Boards, and when School Boards, on the other hand, will ascertain to
what extent teachers of experience have taken advantage of the facilities offered for professional
improvement in summer courses in this or other Provinces before engaging them. This is but
the minimum recognition for advanced professional work which all such teachers have a right
to expect, and it is gratifying to know that already a few School Boards in the Province are
giving some practical encouragement to their teachers to attend summer school, in the way of
bonuses.
The plan adopted some years ago, whereby the University summer session receives financial
assistance from the Department, was again followed out this year, and with excellent results.
As a large proportion of the summer students in the University are teachers who are aiming
to improve their academic as well as their professional standing, it seems appropriate that the
Department should maintain this policy of co-operation and support. Under the arrangement
the Department pays the transportation of teachers from within the Province who attend the
University summer session, just as it does in the case of British Columbia teachers who attend F 70 Public Schools Report. 1923
the departmental summer school in Victoria, and, also makes a grant of $1,500 towards the
salaries of instructors who are giving courses in education and in commercial subjects. The
courses in education are open to all School Inspectors, Normal School Instructors, and District
Supervisors without fees; in other words, to all appointees of the Department of Education.
Fourteen of these men took the lectures in education offered in the second term and are high
in their praise of the work. Approximately 300 elementary- and high-school teachers attended
the summer session of the University this year..
Enrolment by Courses.
Following is the enrolment by courses in the Provincial Summer School for Teachers:—
Rural Science  (two courses)        15
Primary Grade Teachers' Course (three parts)        85
Art (four courses)        70
Manual Training (six courses)       24
Home Economics (four courses)        27
Vocal Music and Harmony (three parts)        12
History and Civics (also took Geography)        35
Geography for Elementary School Teachers     42
Geography for High School Teachers       17
English Literature and Reading      51
Physical Training (Strathcona B Certificate)   (two parts)        22
Writing and Penmanship (taken by students enrolled in other courses)   . ..  128
Gymnastics, Games, and Folk-dancing (taken by students enrolled in other
courses)        70
As some of the courses occupied only from two to three hours per day, it was possible for
students to combine certain of these courses. Many of the students who took the Course in.
English Literature also took Geography or History, and all of the students in History and Civics
took Geography. A large number of students taking full-time courses took an additional hour
per day in Writing and Penmanship or in Gymnastics and Folk-dancing. There were comparatively few students who took less than five hours per day and many took as high as six hours,
but as these longer courses offered considerable variety and a frequent change of programme,
the students did not weary of them. Very little out-of-school study was expected, so that the
students found sufficient time for rest and recreation outside of school-hours.
The quality of the work done by the summer classes is steadily improving. The earnestness
and the fine spirit exhibited by the students throughout the entire course was much in evidence
and was a matter of frequent comment by the instructors. There are no shirkers at our Summer
schools; rather have we sometimes found it necessary to advise against undertaking too much
work. The plan of giving intensive work in single courses has always made a strong appeal
to experienced teachers, granted, of course, that the instructors are thoroughly competent, and
this we have always endeavoured to safeguard by selecting instructors of known ability and
specialists in their own departments.
The instructors and the subject taught by each are as follows:—•
Arthur Anstey, B.A., Provincial Normal School, Vancouver—History and Civics.
Frank H. Arnold, Supervisor of Penmanship, Spokane, Wash.—Penmanship.
Miss Adeline Baxter, Supervisor of Drawing, Winnipeg—First-year Art.
Miss E. A. Coleman, Designer and Art Needleworker, Vancouver— Advanced Needlework.
Miss Ethel M. Coney, Provincial Normal  School, Vancouver—Vocal Music.
C. F. Connor, M.A., King Edward High  School, Vancouver—Household Physics and
Chemistry of Foods.
F. C. Coombs, M.A., Ontario College of Education, Toronto University—Psychology and
Educational Method of Primary Grade Work.
George A. Cornish, M.A., Ontario College of Education—Elementary and High School
Geography.
Gordon Darling, Vancouver Technical School—Electricity and Gas-engines.
E. C. Davis, Victoria High School, Edmonton—Dramatics.
F. Fairey, Technical School, Vancouver—Mechanics. !
■%
n
a
< Applied design.     Pottery from B.C. clays.
High School sectii 14 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
F 71
Nathan Fasten, Ph.D., Oregon Agricultural College, Corvallis—Animal Biology.
John Fraser, Technical School, Vancouver—Sheet-metal and Forge Work.
W. Frost, Sergeant-Instructor, Victoria—Physical Training.
W. H. Grant, B.S.A., Salmon Arm—Poultry and Live Stock.
Miss M. Goldie, B.Sc, Provincial Normal School, Calgary—Home Economics.
Miss Unina Hall, Britannia High School—First-year Art.
Mrs. Clara Heaslip, Vancouver—Primary Grade Work.
J. W. Hotson, M.A., Ph.D., University of Washington—Botany.
A. E. Hutton, Provincial Normal School, Calgary—Manual Arts.
Harry A. Jones, Technical School, Vancouver—Art Metalwork.
Miss Ruby Kerr, Vancouver—Special Lectures on the Psychology of Manual Training.
John Kyle, A.R.C.A., Education Department, Victoria—Applied Design.
Miss A. B. Marcellus, Provincial Normal School, AHctoria—Needlework.
R. W. MacKenzie, Vancouver—AVriting and Penmanship.
John It. MacLean, Technical School, Vancouver—Wood-turning and Furniture-making.
E. W. Parker, Technical School, Vancouver—Carpentry and Building Construction.
J. C. Readey, B.S.A., Chilliwack—Soil-study and Field Husbandry.
V. B. Robinson, B.S.A., Penticton—Horticulture.
Miss K.  Scanlon, Provincial  Model  School,  Victoria—Intermediate  Grade Class-work.
G. G. Sedgewick, B.A., Ph.D., University of British Columbia—English Literature.
C. E. Scott, Supervisor of Drawing, Vancouver—Advanced Art.
J. Semyn, Victoria—Decorative Design.
Mrs. B. Sharland, Vancouver—Millinery and Dressmaking.
E. L. Small, B.S.A., Cloverdale—School-gardening and Home Project Studies.
Miss E. Taylor, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon—Gymnastics, Games, and Folk-
dancing.
Mrs. A. Ward, North Vancouver—Pattern Draughting.
F. T. C. Wickett, A.R.C.O., Victoria—Harmony.
Miss Mary Young, Banff, Alta.—Pottery and Clay Modelling.
Analysis of Enrolment.
Altogether 360 students were enrolled in the Provincial Summer School, including those in
the Manual Training classes held in the Vancouver Technical School. The following table shows
the number of men and women coming from cities, rural municipalities, and unorganized
districts:—
Cities.
Rural
Municipalities.
Rural and
Assisted.
Total.
32
123
14
48
25
118
71
°89
Totals    . . . .'	
155
62
143
360
This table includes sixteen visiting teachers, all women, from the Prairie Provinces, nine
from Alberta, and seven from Saskatchewan.
New Courses included.
An effort was made in preparing for the last summer school to meet the needs of as large
a number of teachers as possible in the courses offered. The Art Courses were extended to
include Applied Design in the making of art pottery from British Columbia clays. Special
attention was given to the application of the best elements of native Indian designs suitable
to the decoration of articles made from clay. Some very creditable work was accomplished and
many of the students are anxious to extend the knowledge gained along the same line. A modern
burning-kiln was installed which gave very satisfactory results. Various samples of British
Columbia clays were received and tested out in connection with these classes, and although F 72 Public Schools Report. 1923
only a small beginning was made, yet sufficient has been accomplished to show that this Province
possesses clay-deposits of good quality for pottery purposes, which may some day become the
basis of a profitable line of industry. In this connection it must be mentioned that we had the
hearty co-operation of the Department of Industries. It is our hope and expectation that,
profiting from our first year's experience, we shall be able to carry the work to a higher degree
of perfection by another year.
The Home Economics Courses provided advanced work in draughting as well as in millinery
and dressmaking, in which some very excellent work was accomplished.
A Course in Geography for High-school teachers was introduced for the first time and
attracted a class of sixteen high-school teachers. In view of the fact that geography was being
introduced into the High School Course for teachers, and further that the author of the textbook to be used was himself the instructor, there should have been a larger enrolment in this
class. The Public School Course in Geography attracted a large number of teachers, no less
than sixty-five being enrolled.
History and Civics formed a separate course this year and had a large attendance. It is
fitting that special mention should be made of the fact that a most valuable service was rendered
by the Librarian and staff of the Victoria Public Library in the matter of supplying large
numbers of excellent reference-books, particularly applicable to the topics treated by the
instructors in English Literature, History and Geography. As a result of the painstaking efforts
of Miss Stewart and her assistants in the Library, a large number of teachers were able to
become more or less familiar with a wide range of excellent reference-books.
Social Features and Weekly- Entertainments.
The social life of the school was never better than this year, despite the fact that the
students were scattered in private boarding-houses throughout the city. Once a week the
Students' Social Committee arranged a social evening in which music, games, and dancing were
enjoyed by the students and instructors.    Occasional class picnics were also held.
Three Friday evening entertainments were arranged during the course, and, as on former
occasions, the public was invited. The first of these was given by the Esquimalt School Choir
under the direction of their trainer, Mr. F. Waddington, who the vear before had given a
similar demonstration concert, assisted by members of the Victoria Orchestral Society under the
leadership of Mr. Drury Pryce. The fact that more than a thousand people crowded into the
assembly-hall to enjoy the programme is ample testimony as to the high esteem in which these
two musical organizations are held in Victoria. Our best thanks are due not only to these
artists, but to the children and to their parents also, who made possible at some considerable
sacrifice this excellent entertainment right in the middle of the children's summer vacation.
In this work, with him a labour of love and a ruling passion, Mr. Waddington has set for the
vocal instructors in our schools a high ideal.
The second of the weekly entertainments consisted of a very enjoyable recital given by
Mr. Harold Nelson Shaw, dramatic reader, and Mr. Hopkinsdn, vocal soloist, both of Vancouver.
Following this a most interesting lecture on astronomy, illustrated with lantern-slides, was given
by Dr. J. S. Plaskett, Chief of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory. In this lecture
Dr. Plaskett acquainted the students with much valuable information relative to the size,
movements, distances, and evolutionary development of the heavenly bodies. He also showed
something of the methods used from day to day at the Observatory, including an explanation
of the working of the giant telescope. On the following evening the students paid a visit to the
Observatory in response to an invitation given by Dr. Plaskett, where they were able not only
to see the great instrument previously described from the screen, but also to get a glimpse of
some of our sister planets at close range.
During the latter part of the term we were favoured with two special lectures—one by
Dr. Peter Sandiford, of Toronto University, on "Modern Movements in Education," and the
other by Professor John D. Stark, B.A., head of the Schools Employment Service hi the City
of Pittsburgh, Pa., both of whom were engaged as lecturers in the summer session of the
Provincial University.
Closing Exhibition and Entertainment.
On the afternoon of Thursday, August 9th, a School Fair was held in the school lawns from
3 to 5 p.m., at which each of the classes arranged exhibits of work done during the session. ^^
Applied design  (Indian motifs), High School Course, Summer School.  r
Furniture-making and wood-turning, High School Course,  Summer School,
Furniture-making,  High  School Course,  Summer School.  14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 73
These made a fine appearance and gave the students an opportunity of seeing each other's work.
The School Fair programme arranged by the instructors under the leadership of Mr. V. B.
Robinson included a programme of sports, in which the students themselves became the
contestants, and a variety of games and drills, including the May-pole dance, were carried
out under the direction of Miss Taylor, physical instructor in the summer school. One of the
chief purposes in mind was to illustrate as far .as possible in the limited time such a variety
of features as might find a place on the programme of any well-organized school fair.
At 7 p.m. of the same day the class-rooms and laboratories were thrown open to inspection
and the public was invited to attend. That the people of Victoria take more than a passing
interest in the work of the summer school is evidenced by the fact that during the entire evening
the class-rooms and corridors of the high school were thronged with interested visitors. A very
entertaining programme was carried out in the assembly-hall, consisting of vocal and instrumental
music, demonstrations in eurythmics and pantomime by the students of the Music class, and
a one-act play by some of the students from the class in Dramatics. Mr. S. J. Willis, Superintendent of Education, occupied the chair, and complimented the students and instructors on the
good work done and on their zeal for professional improvement which caused them to forego
the major part of their summer holidays in order to spend five weeks in summer study.
The balance of the programme which marked the closing of the summer school was carried
out in the gymnasium, where the instructor in gymnastics and folk-dancing .put on a most
delightful series of folk-dances with the children of the Intermediate Grade Demonstration class,
and in a more extensive way with her regular classes of student-teachers. Many of these dances
were done in costume, which added to their spectacular beauty. A social hour or two following
this demonstration brought the 1923 summer school to a close.
In conclusion, I wish to bear testimony to the helpful and ready co-operation of the Victoria
School Board in all matters pertaining to class-room accommodation and equipment, to the
valuable assistance rendered from day to day by Major Riddel, Superintendent of Buildings
and Grounds, and to the janitors in the High and Central Schools for their unfailing courtesy
and the solicitude with which they attended to the multitude of details required in connection
with the daily routine of every class.
I wish also to express my sincere appreciation of the daily and hourly assistance rendered
by my esteemed colleague, Mr. John Kyle, not only in arranging all details in connection with
several of the courses, but also in helping to plan and organize those courses. His genuine
belief in the advantages of summer-school instruction, coupled with his fine appreciation of
meritorious work, has made him a most reliable adviser and an invaluable executive officer
in all matters pertaining to summer-school work.
I have, etc.,
J. W. Gibson,
Director of Summer Scliool. F 74 Public Schools Report. 1923
FREE  TEXT-BOOK  BRANCH.
Education Department, Free Text-book Branch.
Victoria, B.C., October, 1923.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the work of the Free Text-book Branch for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1923:—
The total number of free text-books, etc., issued during 1922-23 to the public schools
(common, graded, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence Course
established for children in isolated districts where there are no schools in operation, was as
follows : 15,766 B.C. Beginner's Reader; 20,638 Canadian Second Reader; 20,221 Canadian Third
Reader; 18,429 Canadian Fourth Reader; 24,877 Canadian Fifth Reader; 4,498 20th Century
Fifth Reader; 14,269 First Arithmetic; 11,612 Second Arithmetic; MacLean Method Writing
Books—13,051 Compendium No. 1; 13,082 Compendium No. 2; 14,276 Compendium No. 3; 14,018
Compendium No. 4; 10,286 Senior Manual; 572 Commercial Manual; 717 Teachers' Manual;
53,450 Drawing Books; 1,788 Supplementary Readers (Heart of Oak, Book One; Art-Literature
Primer; Art-Literature, Book One; Art-Literature, Book Two; Progressive Road to Reading,
Book 3a; Robin Hood Reader; B.C. Phonic Primer; B.C. First Reader; B.C. Third Reader);
475 Essentials of Health: 9,637 How to be Healthy; 2,646 Latin Lessons for Beginners; 59 Canadian Civics; 137 Syllabus of Physical Exercises; 110 World Relations and the Continents;
10,857 History of Canada; 611,268 sheets Drawing Paper, 9 by 6 inches; 54,274 sheets Drawing
Paper, 9 by 12 inches; 9,451 Public School Grammar; 226 Union Jacks (3-yard Jack) ; 189 Flora
of Southern British Columbia ; 46 " Scrap of Paper " ; 47 " Fathers of Confederation " ; 53 Maps
of British Isles; 76 Maps of Dominion of Canada; 67 Maps of World; 64 Maps of British
Columbia; 72 Maps of North America.
At prevailing retail prices the books and other supplies issued would have cost $148,973.05.
Requisitions to the number of 3,8S3 for the above supplies issued were required to be filled.
No shipment was lost in transit.
In addition to the books supplied free to the public schools and pupils taking the Correspondence Courses, a small stock of the books which are not supplied free to the children was kept
by the Free Text-book Branch during the school-year 1022-23. These books were sold to pupils
in the rural districts where there is no local book-store. Four hundred and eighty-seven requisitions were honoured in supplying our purchase orders, and the sum of $2,569.20 was received
under this head and paid into the Provincial Treasury.
As already stated, the Free Text-book Branch distributed during the past school-year textbooks and other supplies which would have cost parents and School Boards $148,973.05. To
purchase and distribute these among the various schools of the Province through the Free Textbook Branch required an expenditure of $97,434.23, made up as follows:—
Text-books (laid-down cost)    $83,336 51
Distribution (freight, boxes, etc.)         3,0S5 30
. Salaries of staff        5,160 00
Temporary assistance          755 50
Office supplies        5,096 92
Total    $97,434 23
The saving on the year's transactions is, therefore, $51,538.82.
During the school-year 1922-23 a change was made in the Readers, the Canadian Readers
becoming the authorized text-books. The publishers, however, were unable to prepare the
Canadian First Reader in time for school-opening in September, and we continued to use the
B.C. Beginner's Reader as the text-book for the first-year pupils.
This change made it necessary to distribute a larger number of Readers than in former
years, as each pupil in the various classes required a new book, with the exception of those in 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 75
the Entrance class.    Under the new system five Readers are used in the public schools instead
of six as formerly.
A substantial reduction in the prices of the various books was obtained from the publishers
when the supplies were ordered for the past school-year. These reduced prices made it possible
to finance the increased cost of the change in the Readers without the necessity of securing a
supplementary vote to cover the cost of text-books during the past year.
The plan of stocking a small supply of the books which are not supplied free and selling
them to the children of the rural districts where there are no local book-stores was favourably
received by the teachers in these districts. Several letters were received expressing appreciation
of this step, as it enabled the pupils to secure their text-books with less delay than in former
years. It also meant that the cost of such books to the children of the outlying districts was
not greater than the cost of the same books to the children in the various centres which are
supplied with book-stores.
Night-schools.
Of the night-schools in operation during the past school-year, six were supplied with textbooks of some kind by the Free Text-book Branch. Supplies were issued to the pupils attending
these schools on the same conditions as in former years.
Returns for 1922-23.
The annual reports of free text-books for the school-year 1922-23 are all on file. It was
not found necessary this year to hold back any supplies until the arrival of this report.
While the annual reports show that generally more care has been taken of the free textbook records in the schools, it is still evident that some of the teachers are not keeping these
records properly, particularly during the first term (September to December). If the teacher
changes to a new school at Christmas, it is quite true that his failure to keep the Record Book
for the first term will not incommode him, as he is not required to submit a report at Christmas.
It makes it impossible for his successor, however, to send an accurate report at the end of June.
Many of the principals and teachers are still neglecting to quote their attendance in the
various grades when submitting an order for supplies. A space is provided for this purpose at
the head of the requisition form, and it would be of great assistance to the Free Text-book
Branch if care was taken to fill this in correctly when the requisition is being made out.
I have, etc.,
J. A. Anderson,
Officer in Charge. F 7G Public Schools Report. 1923
THE  STRATHCONA  TRUST.
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust, for the
Province of British Columbia, for the School-year 1922-23.
Victoria, B.C., November, 1923
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows on the work of the Local Committee for the
school-year 1922-23:—
Instruction of Teachers in Physical Training, 1922-23.
A total of 607 students have qualified for Grade B physical-training certificates since last
report, as under:—
Normal School, Vancouver    339
Normal School, Victoria     242
Summer School, Victoria       22
CD.C.I. Course, Victoria       4
This is an increase of 127 certificates over the number issued in 1921-22.
In view of the fact that two instructors have been employed at each of the Normal Schools,
and that increased opportunity has thus been given students to reach a higher state of efficiency,
a higher standard has been demanded at the examinations in this subject.    As a result a somewhat larger percentage than in former years failed to qualify.
About 4,678 teachers and prospective teachers of this Province have now qualified as physical-
training instructors.
Physical Training, 1922-23.
The list of prize-winners of Strathcona Trust prizes for excellence in physical training is
as follows:—
High and Superior Schools.
T. S. Whittemore, B.Sc. 4th Division, Oak Bay High School;  P. C. Tees, B.A., 10th Division,
King Edward High School, Vancouver.
(Note.—Four prizes not awarded.)
Graded Schools (Five Divisions or more).
Miss Annie L. Bigney, 6th Division, Lord Roberts School, Vancouver; Miss Jessie F. Parkes,
3rd Division, Franklin- School, Vancouver; Miss Bessie H. Killip, 4th Division, Selkirk School,
South Vancouver; Miss Ethel M. Pugh, 3rd Division, Sexsmith School, South Vancouver; Mrs.
Laura J. Morrish, 8th Division, Central School, Trail; Miss Florence A. Horwood, 5th Division,
Central School, Prince George; Miss Bessie Seaton, 3rd Division, Central School, Vernon; Miss
Henrietta R. Anderson, 1st Division, Lonsdale School, North Vancouver; G. H. Stocks, 4th
Division, Central School, Fernie; Miss Tryphena Sampson, 8th Division, Central School, Kamloops; T. W. Hall, 1st Division, George Jay School, Victoria; Miss Annie S. McKinnon, 14th
Division, Sir James Douglas School, Victoria; Miss Ruby M. Nachtrieb, 6th Division, West
Victoria School, Victoria; T. Aldwortb, 1st Division, Consolidated School, Armstrong; Miss
Fanny E. Kenyon, 5th Division, Central School, Nanaimo; Bliss Marguaretta M. S. Taylor, 6th
Division, Hastings School, Vancouver; Mrs. Dorothy Johnston, 23rd Division, Dawson School,
Vancouver; H. B. King, M.A., 1st Division, General Gordon School, Vancouver; H. A. Eckardt,
1st Division, Central School, Mission; Miss Jessie J. Mclntyre, 6th Division, Richard McBride
School, New Westminster; W. Brynjolfson, 3rd Division, Monterey School, Oak Bay; H. D.
Southam, 2nd Division, Granby Bay School. Anyox. 14 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 77
Graded Schools (Two to Four Divisions).
Miss Elizabeth M. Bell, 2nd Division, Vananda School; H. F. Reynolds, 1st Division, Fruitvale School; Miss Mary K. Morrow, 2nd Division, Vanderhoof School; Miss Constance Batten,
3rd Division, Princeton School; Mrs. Agnes Ferris, 1st Division, Keith Lynn School, North
Vancouver Municipality ; E. B. Broome, 1st Division, Sandon School; Mrs. C. M. Venables, 3rd
Division, Fruitlands School; H. J. C. Poore, 1st Division, Qualicum Beach School; Peter A.
Hughes, Hatzic School, Mission Municipality; Miss Cecelia Harper, 1st Division, Kensington
Prairie School, Surrey Municipality; Miss Stella Mason, 1st Division, Cowichan Station School;
Miss Lena Wolfenden, 1st Division, Ocean Falls School.
(Note.—One prize in this group not awarded.)
Ungraded Schools.
Miss Anniemay Smith, Trenant School, Delta Municipality ; Miss Helen F. Dewar, Winlaw
School; Miss Drina Fraser, Fort Fraser School; Miss Dorothy Debney, Kettle Valley School;
Miss Ella Martin, Rock Bay School; Miss Alice L. Kerr, Hosmer School; Miss Grace Kerr,
Grande Prairie School; Miss Edna D. Bird, Mount Ingersoll School; Miss Anne Jones, Bain-
bridge School; C. McDougall, Elphinstone Bay School; Miss Frances Perram, Colebrook School,
Surrey Municipality ; Miss Gwendoline Williams, Bench School; Joseph Dilworth, New Hazelton
School.
Three prizes of $9 each awarded to each of the eighteen inspectorates; amount expended
under this head for 1922-23, $441.
Physical Training, 1923-24.
For competition among the various schools during 1923-24 the sum of $30 has been granted
to each of the nineteen inspectorates. This sum is to be divided into three prizes of $10 each.
For purposes of competition and inspection the schools are to be divided into three groups or
classes, viz.: Group A, of five divisions or more; Group B, of two to four divisions, inclusive;
Group C, of schools containing only one room or division. In any inspectorate where this classification is found to be unsatisfactory the matter of dividing the schools into three groups or
classes for the purpose of awarding three prizes of equal value is to be left to the discretion
of the Inspector in charge.
In all cases, however, the teacher and the class are to he considered as the unit in making
comparisons for granting awards. The full amount of the award is to be expended for a picture
or some piece of apparatus (suitably inscribed) for the room in which the prize was won. Only
those teachers who are the holders of physical-training certificates granted under the Strathcona
Trust are eligible to compete.
Military Drill. 1922-23.
The following report on military drill for the year 3922-23 was submitted to the Local
Committee by Captain J. M. Cumming, Inspector, Cadet Services:—
" Number of school cadets during the year 1922-23  5,436
Number of boys of cadet age during the year 1922-23    5,229
Number of boys of cadet age at annual inspection   4,849
Number of school cadet corps (active)           51
" These figures show a slight decrease both in numbers of cadets trained and also in the
number of active cadet corps as compared with the year 1921-22. The decrease is attributable
to: (a) The lack of qualified instructors at certain points where corps were active during the
previous year; (b) to a policy which has aimed at securing a higher state of efficiency among
cadet corps .rather than simply increased numbers (in several instances corps have been permitted to remain dormant rather than to continue with indifferent or incompetent instruction) ;
(c) certain corps which originally were directly connected with schools are now being conducted
as independent corps and have been removed from the list of active school corps.
"The syllabus of training carried out by cadet corps has been limited to the following
subjects:  Close-order drill, physical training, rifle shooting, signalling, and first aid.
" Certain features of cadet training of a purely military character, such as manual of arms,
have either been eliminated from cadet instruction, or have been left to the discretion of the
individual instructor, while increased emphasis has been placed on physical training and on the
value of close-order drill for its disciplinary benefits. F 78 Public Schools Report. 1923
" Very successful cadet camps from eight to twelve days' duration were held at Sidney,
Vernon, Victoria, Nelson, Trail, Enderby, and Penticton. These camps were attended by 40
instructors and 1,076 cadets.
" A course of six weeks' duration for candidates for the Corps of School Cadet Instructors
was held at Victoria in July and August, and was attended by twenty-three candidates, all of
whom qualified—seven with distinction.
" Every possible care was exercised in selecting suitable candidates for this course. Only
physically fit men who might be expected to be in a position to instruct cadet corps during the
coming year were accepted.
" At the annual inspection in June, 1923, the rank of each of the various corps was decided
on the basis of 1,000 points, made up as follows: Infantry traiuing, 2S0; physical training, 280;
musketry, 100; signalling, first aid, gymnastics, 50; percentage of strength on parade to roll
strength, 100; appearance, steadiness, ceremonial, 40; hours of training performed (one point
given for each hour of training), maximum 100;  care of equipment and stores, 50.
" The comparative rank then awarded is as follows: No. 388, Victoria Cadet Battalion,
North Ward School, 779; No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment (King Edward High School, 777;
Technical High School (E), 773; General Gordon School, 745; Technical High School (D), 724) ;
No. 388, Victoria Cadet Battalion (Boys' Central School, 716; Margaret Jenkins, 700) ; No. 112,
Victoria High School, 683; No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment (Britannia High School, 673;
Lord Tennyson School, 668; King George High School, 663) ; No. 530, New Westminster Cadet
Battalion (Mission, 662; T. J. Trapp Technical School, 655) ; No. 388, Victoria Cadet Battalion
(Victoria West School, 639; Quadra School, 633) ; No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment (Simon
Fraser School, 625; Central School, 616) ; No. 530, New Westminster Cadet Battalion, Duke of
Connaught High School, 614; No. 388, Victoria Cadet Battalion, Sir James Douglas School, 614;
No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment, Cecil Rhodes School, 608; No. 530, New Westminster Cadet
Battalion, Central School, 606; No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment (Henry Hudson School,
600; Kitsilano School, 598; Fairview School, 597; Franklin School, 592); No. 388, Victoria
Cadet Battalion, George Jay School, 587; No. 349, Esquimalt, 584; No. 101, Vancouver Cadet
Regiment (Alexandria School, 582; Model School, 5S1; Livingstone School, 579; Strathcona
School, 579; Lord Nelson School, 56S; Hastings School, 565; Grandview School, 564; Lord
Roberts School, 563; Macdonald School, 559; Laura Secord School, 556) ; No. 611, Lord Selkirk
School (South Vancouver), 555; No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment (Aberdeen School, 553;
Dawson School (A), 553) ; No. 892, Vernon, 545; No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment, Charles
Dickens School, 545; No. 604, Richard McBride School (South Vancouver), 540; No. 101,
Vancouver Cadet Regiment, Dawson School (B), 425; No. 388, Victoria Cadet Battalion, South
Park School, 365."
Twenty-six prizes were awarded in accordance with the schedule adopted at the last meeting
of the Local Committee held November 14th, 1923, one-half of each prize to be paid to the corps
and one-half to the instructor, provided he is a public-school teacher qualified as a cadet
instructor. When the instructor is not a public-school teacher, one-half of the prize reverts
to the general fund of the Local Committee.
The expenditure under this head for 1922-23 amounted to $318, and was made according
to the following schedule: 1st prize, $25; 2nd prize, $20; 3rd and 4th prizes, $18; 5th and 6th
prizes, $16; 7th and 8th prizes, $14; 9th and 10th prizes, $12; 11th to 26th prizes, inclusive,
$10 each.
Rifle Shooting.
From the grant for rifle shooting, 1922-23, prizes were provided for forty-two qualified
corps or units specified in returns—viz., $3.75 each; this amount to form cash prizes for the
three best shots in each corps or unit (1st prize, $1.50; 2nd prize, $1.25; 3rd prize, $1).
The following accordingly received grants of $3.75 each for rifle shooting, 1922-23: No. 101,
Vancouver Cadet Regiment (Britannia High School (A) and (B), King Edward High School
(A) and (B), King George High School, Technical High School (A) and (B), Aberdeen, Alexandria, Cecil Rhodes, Central, Charles Dickens, Dawson (A) and (B), Fairview, Franklin, General
Gordon, Grandview, Hastings, Henry Hudson, Kitsilano, Laura Secord, Macdonald, Model, Nelson,
Roberts, Simon Fraser, Strathcona, Lord Tennyson) ; No. 112, Victoria High School; No. 388,
Victoria Cadet Battalion  (Boys' Central, Sir James Douglas, George Jay, Margaret Jenkins, x4 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 79
North Ward, Quadra Street, South Park, Victoria West) ; No. 530, New Westminster Cadet
Battalion (Duke of Connaught High School, T. J. Trapp Technical High School, Central School,
Chilliwack High School).
The expenditure under this head for 1922-23 amounted to $157.50.
Financial Statement for 1922-23.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Committee for 1922-23 amounted to $1,525.83 and the
expenditure for the year $917.98, leaving a balance of $607.85. Of the latter sum, $570 has
already been voted for physical-training prizes for 1923-24.
Receipts.
1922-23. Balance on hand from 1921-22   $  554 16
Interest to November 30th, 1922  14 73
Interest to May 31st, 1923   S 52
Allowance to Secretary (added to fund)     10 00
Grant for 1922-23   938 42
$1,525 83
Disbursements.
1922-23. Prizes for physical training   $   441 00
Prizes for military drill  318 00
Prizes for rifle shooting  157 50
Revenue stamps for cheques   1 48
$   917 98
Balance on hand  $   607 85
I have, etc.,
J. L. Watson,
Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust,
for British Columbia.

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