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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1925

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT
OF   THE
COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER SlST, 1924
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED   BY
AUTHORITY OF THE  LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by  Chaeles  F.   Banfield,  Printer  to  the  King's  Most  Excellent  Majesty.
1925.  To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department
for the year ended December 31st, 1924, with Appendices.
WILLIAM SLOAN,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia, December 30th, 1924.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT FOR 1924.
Page.
Value of Fisheries and Standing of Provinces in 1923     7
Species and Value of Fish marketed in 1923     7
The Salmon-pack of 1924     8
The Salmon-pack by Districts     S
The Herring-pack of 1924     9
Halibut-catch of 1924     9
Contribution to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon     9
Tagged Salmon in Northern Waters    14
Reports from Salmon-spawning Areas, 1924  15
The Halibut Treaty  16
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.    (Paper No. 10.)    By C. H.
Gilbert, Ph.D  IS
The Spawning-beds of the Fraseb River  40
The Spawning-beds of the Skeena River....,  43
The Spawning-beds of Rivers Inlet  46
The Spawning-beds of Smith Inlet    49
The Spawning-beds of the Nass River  50
Notes on the Fur-seal.    By John Pease Babcock  52
Treaty for the Protection of the Pacific Halibut  55
Canadian Act for the Protection of the Northern Pacific Halibut-fishery    57
The Salmon-pack of 1924 in Detail  59
The Salmon-pack of the Province, 1909' to 1924, inclusive  60
The Sockeye-salmon Pack of the Fraser River System, 1909 to 1924, inclusive  63
The Sockeye-salmon Pack of the Province, by Districts, 1909 to 1924, inclusive  63  FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT FOR 1924.
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of Provinces.
The value of fishery products of Canada for the year 1923 totalled $42,565,545, as against
$41,800,210 in 1922 and $34,931,935 in 1921.
During the year 1923 British Columbia produced fishery products of the value of $20,795,914,
or 4S.0 per cent, of Canada's total for that year. The value of the catch in British Columbia
in 1923 exceeded that of 1922 by $1,946,256.
British Columbia again led all the Provinces of Canada in the value of her fishery products
in 1923. Her fishery-output that year exceeded in value that of Nova Scotia, the second in rank,
by $12,347,529, or more than 125 per cent.; and her output exceeded that of all the other Provinces
combined by $7,474,668 or 56 per cent.
The capital employed in the fisheries of Canada in 1923 totalled $47,672,865, of which
$17,817,716, or 37.4 per cent, was employed in British Columbia.
The persons engaged in fishing in Canada in 1923 totalled 53,517, of whom 14,857, or 27
per cent., were engaged in British Columbia. Of those engaged in British Columbia, S.136 were
actually employed in catching fish and 6,123 in packing and fish curing.
In 1923 British Columbia, with but 27 per cent, of the total persons engaged in the fisheries
of Canada, and but 37.4 per cent, of the capital employed, produced 48.6 per cent, of the total
value of the fishery products of Canada.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of the fishery products of
the Provinces of Canada for the years 1919 to 1923, inclusive:—■
Province.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
British Columbia  	
Nova Scotia       	
New Brunswick---	
Ontario	
$25,301,607
15,171,929
4,979,574
3,410.750
4,258,731
1,536,844
1,031,117
475,797
333,330
8,800
$22,329,161
12,742,659
4,423,745
3,336,412
2,592,382
1,708,723
1,249,607
296,472
520,078
33,100
$13,953,670
9,778,623
3,690,726
3,065,042
1,815,284
924,529
1,023,187
243,018
408,868
28,988
$18,849,658
10,209,258
4,685,660
2,858,122
2,089,414
1,612,599
908,816
245,337
331,239
10,107
$20,795,914
8,448,385
4,548,535
3,159.427
2,100,412
Prince Edward Island - -
Manitoba. - -  	
1,754,980
1,020,595
286,643
Alberta  	
438,737
11,917
Totals 	
$56,508,470
$49,241,339
$34,931,935
$41,800,210
$42,565,545
.  , The Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia.
The total value of each principal species of fish taken in British Columbia for the year
ended December 31st, 1923, is given in the following statement:—
Salmon   $11,936,608
Halibut    6,271,993
Herring  1,338,450
Pilchards   92,036
Cod   203,056
Black cod   136,492
Flounders, brill, etc  3,163
Soles   28,757
Crabs    61,482
Clams and quahaugs   87,216
Red cod   17,559
Oysters     27,228
Perch  12,578
Grayfish     12,812
Carried forward  $20,229,490 The Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Brought forward  $20,229,490
Shrimps   26,004
Smelts    9,700
Octopus   4,848
Sturgeon    11,487
Skate    4,174
Oolachans     2.255
Fur-seals   78,475
Shad  	
Hake and cusk   193
Whiting   396
Whales  332,781
Fish-oils  64,696
Fish-meal -    31,087
Fish-fertilizer     12,360
Miscellaneous    	
Total   $20,795,914
The above statement shows that the value of the salmon-fishery of the Province for 1923
totalled $11,936,628, or 574- per cent, of total.
The halibut-fishery for the year 1923 shows an increase of $2,353,552 over the previous year.
The increase is due to an increased catch and higher prices.
The foregoing data are derived from the " Fisheries Statistics of Canada," issued by the
Dominion Bureau of Statistics.
The Salmon-pack of 1924.
The data used here were furnished by the British Columbia Division, Canned Salmon Section,
of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association. We have, however, credited the sockeye salmon
packed at Esquimalt to the Fraser River District, as it consisted of sockeye seeking that watershed. Likewise we have credited Rivers Inlet with the sockeye caught there and packed at
Namu. In consequence our figures differ slightly from the association's statements and those
which appear in the much-valued " Year-book " of the Pacific Fishei-man for 1925.
The salmon-pack of the Province in 1924 totalled 1,745,313 cases, as against 1,341,677 cases
in 1923, 1,290,336 cases in 1922, and 603,548 cases in 1921. The 1924 pack is the largest ever
made in the Province. It is 400,000 cases larger than any pack in the last five years and exceeds
the previous high record pack of 1918 by 129,156 cases. The increase is due almost wholly to
the packs of pink and chum, which combined totalled 1,226,454 cases, or 77 per cent, of the entire
pack of the Province.    There was a slight increase in the pack of sockeye.
The total pack consisted of 657,538 cases of pinks, 568,916 cases of chums, 369,603 cases of
sockeye, 115,722 eases of cohoes, 27,456 cases of springs, and 6,078 cases of bluebacks and steel-
heads.
The 1924 Salmon-pack by Districts.
The Fraser River System.—The pack of all species of salmon in the Fraser River system in
the Province totalled 212,059 cases, and consisted of 109,495 cases of chum, 39,743 cases of sockeye,
31,968 cases of pinks, 21,401 cases of cohoe, 7,630 cases of springs, and 1,822 cases of bluebacks
and steelheads. The pack of chum and pink combined totalled 141,463 cases, or 674- per cent,
of the whole The sockeye pack totalled 39,743 cases, a gain of 8,088 cases over that of the
previous year and 8,656 cases less than in the fourth preceding year
The pack of sockeye in the State of Washington waters of the Fraser River system in 1924
was 69,369 cases.
The pack of sockeye in the entire Fraser River system in 1924 totalled 109,112 cases.
The Skeena River Pack.—The catch of salmon from the Skeena River in 1924 totalled
390,858 cases, as against 338,863 cases in 1.923, 477,916 cases in 1922, 234,765 cases in 1921,
332,887 cases in 1920, and 398,877 cases in 1919. The pack consisted of 144,747 cases of sockeye,
181,313 cases of pinks, 26,968 cases of cohoes, 25,588 cases of chums, 12,028 cases of springs, and
214 cases of steelheads.    There were 941 gill-nets used in sockeye-fishing on the Skeena this year. 3 5 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 9
Rivers Inlet Pack.—The pack at Rivers Inlet in 1924 totalled 117,445 cases. The catch of
sockeye produced a pack of 94,891 oases, as against 116,850 cases in 1923. The catch was less
than anticipated. The run to Rivers Inlet is believed to have equalled that of the previous year,
but the weather conditions were unfavourable for the catching of sockeye. Heavy cold rains
fell during the greater part of the season, with the result that the fish travelled too deep in
the water to be taken in the nets. The escapement of sockeye was fully manifested on the
spawning areas. Reports from all sections of the spawning-beds show them to have been better
seeded than in any former year since inspections have been made. As usual, the run to Rivers
Inlet consisted largely of sockeye. The catch of pinks and chums produced less than 20,000
cases.    There were 771 gill-nets used at Rivers Inlet in 1924.
The Nass River Pack.—The catch of salmon in the Nass River District was the second
largest made there. It produced a pack of 142,939 cases, as against the record pack of 191S
of 143,908 cases. The pack consisted of 33,590 cases of sockeye, 72,496 cases of pinks, 26,612
cases of chums, 6,481 cases of cohoes, 2,725 cases of springs, and 1,035 cases of steelhead trout.
There were 210 gill-nets fished on the Nass in 1924. The catch of sockeye was one of the largest
made on the Nass and very much larger than the average for the last ten years.
The Mild-cured-salmon Pack of 1924.—The eight mild-cured fish-packing establishments
operated in the Province in 1924 produced 2,969 tierces of salmon, totalling approximately
2,375,000 lb., as against 1,465,200 lb. in 1923. The tierced pack was well above the average for
the past six years.
Salmon marketed in Frozen State.—The six food-fish-freezing plants operated in the Province
in 1924 marketed 8,405,656 lb. of salmon, as against 7,396,943 lb. in 1923.
Dry-salt-herring Pack of 1924.-—The dry-salted-herring pack of the Province for 1924 totalled
46,478 tons, of which 30,798 tons were packed on the west coast of Vancouver Island and 15,070
tons on the east coast of that island.    The pack of 1924 exceeded that of 1923 .by 10,621 tons.
The Halibut-catch of 1924.—The landings of halibut at Pacific ports in 1924 totalled 56,747,556
lb., of which 45,466,956 lb. were landed at both Canadian and United States ports by American
vessels and 11,280,600 lb. by Canadian vessels at British Columbia ports. The catch of 1924 was
2,979,954 lb. greater than in 1923.
The landings at British Columbia ports totalled 32,194,700 lb., of which 20,914,100 lb. were
landed and shipped in bond by American vessels and 11,280,600 lb. were landed by Canadian
vessels. Of the total landings in Canadian ports, 28,974,400 lb,, were landed at Prince Rupert,
2,509,200 lb. at Vancouver, and 711,100 lb. at Butedale.
Contribution to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.
Dr. C. H. Gilbert's tenth contribution to the reports of the Department on the life-history of
the sockeye salmon, which is issued herewith, contains an analysis of the sockeye runs to the
principal waters of the Province for the year 1924. We have therefore an uninterrupted series
of observations for thirteen years. It is the only extended record of the kind that has been made
of any run of fish to any water.    It is of high scientific and commercial value.
The following is a digest of Dr. Gilbert's present contribution:—
The Fraser River Sockeye Run of 1924.
Dr. Gilbert in his paper states that in another section of this report Mr. Babcock, Assistant
to the Commissioner, calls attention to the fact that in recent years the run of sockeye to the
Eraser has been well maintained almost exclusively by the races which spawn in the Harrison-
Lillooet watershed and in the other tributaries, such as Pitt and Cultus Lakes, which enter the
Fraser below the canyon above Yale. The run to the upper river, which formerly furnished the
most valuable part of the Fraser pack, is now so reduced as to have little commercial significance. ■
Apparently the run to the lower river is maintaining itself with little change. The amount of
fishing-gear in use remains year by year relatively constant, and the salmon-supply having
reached a very low ebb, a state of equilibrium seems to have been attained.
If no considerable change is introduced in the amount of gear employed or in the intensity
of the fishing, the present condition may possibly maintain itself for an indefinite period. We
shall then have exchanged a property capable of producing over a million cases of sockeye
annually for one yielding less than 10 per cent, of that amount, and will keep it at the present
low ebb of production unless we surrender present profits, which are inconsiderable, in order that
we may spare the seed for an ampler harvest. I 10 Report of the Commissioner op Fisheries. 1925
The total pack of Fraser River sockeye in 1924 amounted to 109,112 cases. Of these, 39,743
cases were packed in Provincial territory and 69,369 cases in the State of Washington. We have
included in the Provincial pack the 3,543 cases packed at Esquimalt from sockeye captured in
traps located along the southern shore of Vancouver Island. The Fraser run is well known to
skirt that shore on its way through the Strait of Fuca.
The One-year-in-lake Type.—As a basis of our analysis of the Fraser River run of 1924 we
have data secured from an examination of 1,563 sockeyes selected at random on a series of dates
and including forty-two samplings. Of the total run, 86 per cent, were of the one-year-in-lake
type, in their fourth or fifth year, the prevailing group in the Fraser, which was present in somewhat more than average proportions in 1924. In 1.923 78 per cent, of the run belonged to this
group and in 1922 80 per cent. In 1924, within the limits of this group, 78 per cent, were in
their fourth year and 22 per cent, in their fifth, a smaller percentage of four-year fish than has
occurred in the runs of recent years.
The sexes are present in almost equal numbers, as is typically the case in the Fraser race.
Our samples, including all year-classes, consisted of 51 per cent, of males and 49 per cent, of
females.
In 1923 attention was called to the increase in the average size of the prevailing four-year
group for that year. This had been preceded by a series of years during which the size seemed
distinctly smaller. 1923 seemed to be inaugurating a movement backward to the old standard,
but 1924 is again in the opposite direction. The size of the members of this group has again
diminished, having descended to 23.8 inches for males and 22.8 inches for females, the smallest
average size, with one exception, of which we have a record.
The Grilse.—The grilse were more numerous than in 1923, fifteen individuals being included
in our material. Of these, thirteen had spent one year in the lake before migrating to salt
water and were in their third year, and two had spent two years in the lake and were in their
fourth year.
Adverse comment, Dr. Gilbert states, has been passed on the use of the term " grilse " for
precociously maturing individuals of the Pacific salmon. But a name is required for this group,
and it does unmistakably represent as nearly as may be in our Pacific salmon the Atlantic group
to which the term is commonly applied. As we here use the term, it includes all sockeyes which
mature in their first or second summer in the sea, this being one or two years prior to the usual
period of maturing. They are usually males, but females are found among them in certain races
of sockeye, especially those races which prolong their residence two to four years in fresh water.
One individual grilse among those found in 1924 had spent a single year in the lake and was
a female. This has been paralleled only in one or two cases among the thousands of Fraser
River grilse that Dr. Gilbert has examined. The larger size of the two-year-in-lake grilse is
conspicuous. They were little larger than the one-year-in-lake type on reaching the sea, but it
is evident they pushed their growth more rapidly during their equal sojourn in salt water.
The Two-years-in-lake Type.—This type was much more numerous in 1924 than in the
preceding year. The samples examined by Dr. Gilbert contained 152 individuals, or nearly
10 per cent, of the whole. Of these, 144 were in their fifth year, having been captured following
their third summer in the sea, and eight were in their sixth year.
The Three-years-in-lake Type.—A very unusual occurrence in the Fraser River sockeye run
of 1924 was an individual male that had remained three full years in fresh water before migrating
to sea.    It was 23 inches long.
The Sea-type.—This group was much less numerous in 1924 than in either of the two
preceding years, when they constituted 12 and 17 per cent, of the runs. In 1924 they constituted
less than 3 per cent. Fish of this type run out to sea as soon as they are free-swimming, and
have therefore no period of active residence in fresh-water. They grow far more rapidly in
the ocean than do those that remain in their native lake, and they mature and spawn a year
earlier than do the others. The sea-type mature at the age of three or four; those which spend
one year in fresh- water mature in the Fraser River run at the age of four or five; those which
spend two years in fresh water mature at the age of five or six.
In most years this group does not appear in the Fraser run until the last half of July.
In 1924 one specimen was taken on May 29th, the next June 23rd, and the regular run of this
type did not begin until July 16th. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 11
The Rivers Inlet Sockeye Run of 1924-
In dealing with the sockeye run to Rivers Inlet, Dr. Gilbert calls attention to the pack of
94,S91 cases, which was but little below the high level of 1923 and presents gratifying evidence
of the recuperative capacity of this stream. Not only was the commercial catch large, but the
spawning escapement was one of the best ever observed on the spawning-beds tributary to
Owikeno Lake.
As was indicated by Dr. Gilbert in his 1923 report, there was every reason to anticipate a
successful season in Rivers Inlet in 1924. The two brood-years were 1919 and 1920. In 1919
there was a poor pack, but the spawning-beds were found exceptionally well supplied that year.
The first return of that brood occurred in 1923, when the four-year fish constituted 76 per cent,
of the very heavy run of that year. It wholly bore out Fishery Officer Stone's prediction that
1919 would produce a big return. The remainder of the 1919 brood were due to return in 1924 as
five-year fish, and it was found that they constituted the majority of the run, in spite of the
fact that 1920, which furnished the four-year fish, was also reported by Mr. Stone to have been
a phenomenally successful spawning-year.
The 1924 Rivers Inlet run consisted of 56 per cent, of five-year sockeyes and 46 per cent, of
four-year individuals of the one-year-in-lake type. As the five-year fish are averagely about
10 per cent, longer than the four-year group, it is apparent why they attracted Mr. Stone's
attention on the spawning-beds. Both the four- and five-year fish of the Rivers Inlet basin have
a well-defined standard size, from which they deviate almost imperceptibly in any series of years.
When, therefore, the run is made up of fish of larger size than are commonly observed, this is
invariably due to the large proportion of older individuals.
The prospects for 1925 in Rivers Inlet, Dr. Gilbert states, are good, in so far as these can
be inferred from our present knowledge. The five-year fish from 1920 should appear in large
numbers, although it is still a question whether, in spite of the intensive seeding of that year,
it will prove as favourable a producer as did 1919. The reports from the spawning-beds in
1921 were not as favourable as during the two preceding years.
In previous reports Dr. Gilbert has called attention to a significant decrease in the average
size of individuals in both the four- and the five-year classes in the Rivers Inlet run. This is
true of both males and females of each year-group. The reduction in size made its appearance
in 1917 and has remained with little change to date, with the single exception of 1922. As
pointed out in Dr. Gilbert's report for 1923, the use of gill-nets of a certain mesh effectually
screens out the larger-sized fish in undue proportions and permits large numbers of smaller
fish to escape to the spawning-grounds. All the Rivers Inlet three-year males pass through the
nets and are a detriment rather than an aid on the spawning-beds, where they have no useful
function. The total results of limiting the size of the mesh by law is to ensure propagation to
an undesirable extent from the smaller fish, which consist of three-year-olds, which are all males,
the four-year-olds, and the stunted five-year-olds. The common practice of limiting by law the
size of mesh in sockeye gill-nets is not a conservation measure and may even result detrimentally.
As all sockeye die after spawning, it cannot be in the interests of conservation to save from
capture the smaller-sized individuals.
The Distribution of the Sexes.—In 1924 the two sexes were equally represented, a condition
directly dependent on the excess of five-year fish.
The number of eggs deposited in the Rivers Inlet gravels in 1924 must have been extraordinarily large, for not only was the escapement on a very large scale, but the proportion of
males and females was as favourable as possible. This was in sharp contrast to the condition
obtaining during the two seasons preceding, when but little more than a third of the spawning
fish were females. In 1922 and 1923 the four-year fish were far more numerous than the five-
year group, and as in the Rivers Inlet race the four-year class always produces a great excess
of males, in these two years the excess of males characterized the runs.
The Skeena River Sockeye Run of 1924-
General Characteristics and the Year-groups.—The Skeena River sockeye-pack of 1924,
totalling 144,747 cases, was one of the largest known in the history of the industry. It has
been exceeded but twice before—in 1910 and in 1919. In both of these years the pack exceeded
180,000 eases, and it is significant that one of these years, 1919, was one of the brood-years of
1924.   The success of 1919 as a producer was commented on in Dr. Gilbert's digest of the run I 12 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
of 1923, for it was largely responsible for the magnitude of that run, having furnished a larger
percentage of four-year fish than is customary in this race of sockeye.
The run of 1924 emphasizes the pre-eminence of 1919 on the spawning-grounds, for it contained as five-year-olds the remainder of the 1919 brood, and they comprised 75 per cent, of a
very large run. The condition in the Skeena, therefore, as concerns the runs of 1923 and 1924,
closely parallels that in Rivers Inlet. In both waters the very prosperous runs of 1923 and
1924 were due largely to 1919, which in both waters furnished the four-year fish which constituted
the majority of the run in 1923, and the five-year fish comprising a large majority of the run
of 1924.
The second brood-year in 1924 gives far less promise. For in 1920 Overseer Gibson reported
the spawning escapement to be one of the smallest known in the Skeena basin, with large areas
of the spawning-beds inadequately seeded. Inasmuch as 1920 will be responsible for the five-year
fish of the run of 1926, and 1921 for the four-year fish, the outlook for the 1925 run is obviously
less favourable than it was in 1924. For 1921 was only an average spawning-year in the Babine
section and less than an average in the Lakelse District.
The 1924 run consisted of 92 per cent, of one-year-in-lake type, 75 per cent, of which were
in their fifth year, derived from 1919 spawning, and 25 per cent, in their fourth year, derived
from 1920.
Proportion of the Sexes in Skeena River.—On examination of the proportion of the sexes in
the year-classes of the Skeena for a series of years it becomes apparent that, notwithstanding
considerable variation, the four-year fish of the one-year-in-lake type and the five-year fish of
the two-years-in-lake type are almost uniformly characterized by more males than females. In
the four-year class above mentioned the males outnumber the females in ten of the twelve years
recorded. Only in 1920 and 1921 were the females more numerous than the males. This is not
only true in general also of the five-year group which spent two years as fingerlings in fresh
water, but the only exceptions to the rule are the same two years, 1920 and 1921, which are
exceptions in the case of the four-year class. A similar condition exists in the run of 1924.
In the four-year group the number of males and females is equal, and in the five-year class (two
years in the lake) the males are less numerous than the females. Of the 1,9S9 individuals
included in the 1924 samples, 889, or 45 per cent., were males and 1,100, or 55 per cent., females.
This is a most unusual condition in the Skeena basin.
The Nass River Sockeye Run of 1924-
The commercial catch of Nass River sockeyes in 1924 amounted to 33,590 cases and formed
the largest pack since 1915. The average for the eight years from 1916 to 1923 is 22,360 cases.
The very favourable showing in 1924 is surprising in view of the report of the condition of the
Nass River spawning-beds in 1919. The reports from the spawning area that year showed the
smallest number of spawning sockeye ever observed in that district. In only one section were
sockeye in numbers reported. In spite of the unfavourable aspect of the 1919 inspection, it is
now shown that the spawning of that year produced one of the most extensive runs known to
the Nass, for not only was the pack of 1924 very large, but the reports from the spawning-
grounds, which appear elsewhere in these pages, indicate a more extensive seeding than has been
observed in many years past. That this enormous run was largely dependent on 1919 as a
brood-year is shown by the fact that 84 per cent, of the run consisted of fish in their fifth
year.
Dr. Gilbert shows that the usual eight year-classes were present in the 1924 run to the
Nass. He examined 2,100 individuals taken at random. Of these, 81 per cent, were in their
fifth year and belonged to the two-years-in-lake type, and 3 per cent, were five-year fish that
had spent only one year in the lake before passing to sea. Dr. Gilbert presents a table, XXIIL,
which gives percentages of the four principal year-classes in the Nass for a term of years, from
which it appears that the run of 1924, in its percentages of the dominant year-classes, equalled
that of 1922, and that these two far exceeded in this respect all the other years during the
period in which the Nass run has been subjected to critical examination.
The appearance of extraordinarily heavy runs of sockeye in Rivers Inlet, the Skeena, and
the Nass during a single season is, Dr. Gilbert states, recognized as an unusual occurrence.
It is still more remarkable, he says, to find, on making an analysis of these runs, that they
were due almost exclusively to the success of a single brood-year, 1919. The Rivers Inlet and
Skeena spawning-grounds were well seeded in that year, but the Nass River grounds were so 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 13
poorly populated as to give promise of a very scant yield. In view of these facts we are
impelled to speculate on the possible extent to which the extraordinarily successful results of
the 1919 spawning were due to other causes than abundance of spawn. " Is it not," Dr. Gilbert
asks, " possible there were present widespread physical or biological conditions which were
unusually favourable? These might, in the case of the Nass, more than offset the small
provision of spawn by bringing a much larger proportion of it to successful development. And
in the streams with more adequate number of spawners they might operate to augment the
results naturally to be expected."
Dr. Gilbert in previous reports has called attention to a well-marked tendency in Rivers
Inlet and Skeena sockeye to show a reduction in average size during recent years. This has
been obvious in all year-classes and equally marked in average lengths and average weights.
The Nass River run is the only one of the northerrn group which has failed to exhibit this
tendency. Throughout the period of his observations the average size of the different year-
classes in this stream has been subject year by year only to such small variations as may well
be dependent on the nature of the material afforded him. This is again well shown in the
1924 run. The average lengths and weights a little exceed those of 1923, as they do also the
average from 1912 to 1921.
Again it is notable, as in previous years, that the Nass River five-year group which had spent
two years in fresh water and only three summers at sea averaged a little larger in size of
individuals than did the members of the group of equal age which had spent only one year in
fresh water and had had four summers on the sea-feeding grounds. Dr. Gilbert has previously
called attention to the exceptional nature of this phenomenon. In all other streams thus far
reported on the number of years spent in sea-feeding determines the final stature at maturity.
We should, he states, expect the Nass River sockeyes of the two-years-in-lake group, maturing at
the age of five, to equal in size the one-year-in-lake group maturing at the age of four. But the
Nass fish in this respect exhibit a sharp divergence in growth-habit, which is a well-marked
racial peculiarity.
It is instructive to review the growth-history of the two groups. Members of the same brood,
they live together in the lake for their first year and differ but little in the size which they attain
during that period. But a portion of the brood at the end of the first year pass out to sea,
leaving their fellows to a second year's residence in fresh water. The group which first seeks
the sea, Dr. Gilbert has shown, average a little larger in size than those which remain behind.
On reaching salt-water, at once they initiate a most vigorous growth which they maintain during
the entire year. But the second group, that remained behind in the lake, grow but little, and
when, in the following spring, they in turn seek the ocean they have been far outdistanced by
their fellows, which now are more than twice their length and more than four times their
weight. Although the two groups are composed of brothers and sisters, with a common history
during their first year, a wide gap now separates them, a gap which in other streams than the
Nass is never bridged. But in the Nass the late-comers grow with extraordinary vitality and
overhaul their brethren of the one-year-in-lake history and finally pass them before attaining
maturity. Why a year, spent as it were in retirement, with but little expenditure and meagre
apparent results, should have brought about the accumulation of such remarkable stores of
growth-energy remains an interesting problem—one of the most interesting and remarkable of
the many problems that Dr. Gilbert has developed in his long-continued, close, and discriminating
study of the races of sockeye which frequent the waters of the Province.
The Meziadin and Bowser Lake Sockeye Colonies.
In his visit to the spawning-grounds of the Nass watershed in September, 1924, Inspector
Hickman obtained additional material from the Meziadin River at the falls, and from the Nass
2 miles above its junction with the Meziadin. Those taken in the Nass were presumably bound
for Bowser Lake. In the material were included scales and measurements of 160 sockeye from
the Meziadin and thirty-four from the Nass.
On every visit to this district it has been reported that the Nass above the Meziadin has been
so turbid with sediment that it has been impossible to obtain ocular evidence of the abundance
of sockeyes bound for Bowser Lake. In 1924 every effort was made to secure specimens in this
turbid water by means of gill-nets, which were fished from September 18th to the 26th, with
the meagre results above noted. From this Dr. Gilbert concludes that we are compelled to
assume that if Bowser Lake has any considerable importance as spawning-grounds for sockeye I 14
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
salmon, these must ascend the stream earlier than the run to the Meziadin, and earlier than
September, when the observations have been made.
Examination of all the material obtained presents additional evidence of the distinctness
of the two races. And at the same time it discloses the interesting fact that certain of the
differences noted in the run of 1923 are not invariably found. In 1923 the nuclear area of the
scale, which gives the history of the young salmon in fresh water, was unquestionably different
in the two races, and indicated that during the two years when the five-year fish of the run of
1923 were fingerlings in their respective lakes (1919 and 1920) the Meziadin finger] ings made a
larger growth than those which inhabited Bowser Lake. This was reflected in the number of
nuclear rings in the growth of both years, averaging 8+14 in Meziadin and 7+10 in Bowser
Lake.    This difference was not apparent in the run of 1924.
Another difference between these two races, shown in previous reports, concerned the habits
of their fingerliug colonies with respect to length of residence in fresh water before seeking the
sea. The Meziadin fingerlings showed a definite tendency to remain longer in fresh water than
did the others. Very few Meziadin fingerlings migrated when one year old. The majority
remained two full years in the lake and a number of them three full years. In Bowser Lake,
on the contrary, a large number migrated when one year old and very few remained until they
were three. A similar tendency was undoubted in the run of 1924. Among the Meziadin fish
(160 specimens) none had sought the sea at the age of one year and 24 per cent, had remained
until their third year. But the Bowser Lake material presented IS per cent, of one-year-in-lake
individuals and only one specimen of the three-years-in-lake type.
Another line of evidence bearing on the distinctness of these two races is now available in
the size attained by the individuals of the two races. The Bowser Lake colony is made up of
fish that averaged distinctly smaller than those belonging to the Meziadin. The males of the
former averaged 25.5 inches in length, while the latter averaged 26.8 inches. Similarly, the
females averaged respectively 23.6 and 25.7 inches.
The full text of Dr. Gilbert's paper is reproduced in the Appendices of this report.
Tagged Salmon caught in our Northern Waters.
In order to determine the movements of salmon in Alaska waters, the United States Bureau
of Fisheries has for the last two years been taking fish from traps, fastening numbered aluminium
tags at the base of the tail, and then liberating the fish. Until this year operations were carried
out in the Far North. Tagging operations were this year extended to salmon taken from traps
in South-eastern Alaska, as far south as Cape Fox, just north of the International Boundary-
line. Nineteen of the salmon tagged near Cape Fox, Duke Island, and Ruin's Point, Sumner
Strait, were recaptured in Provincial waters. The following statement gives the date and
location where they were tagged and the date and place where they were recaptured:—
Record of Tagged Salmon caught in Provincial Waters in 1924-
No. of Tag.
Where tagged. *
Date tagged.
Date recaptured.
Ill
152
155
162
171
223
276
383
413
2047
2136
2196
2243
2469
2601
2701
2764
2768
2870
Tree Point Light*..
Tree Point Light*..
Tree Point Light*..
Tree Point Light*..
Tree Point Light*..
Tree Point Light*..
Tree Point Light*..
Duke Island*	
Duke Island*	
Ruin's Point*	
Point*	
Point*	
Point*	
Point*	
Ruin's
Kuin's
Ruin's
Ruin's
Ruin's Point*..
Ruin's Point*..
Ruin's Point*..
Ruin's Point*..
Ruin's Point*.
July
Aug.
8..
8..
8..
8-
8-
8..
12,.
19-
19..
19..
27..
27..
3..
3-
3..
3..
20	
13	
11	
13	
13	
13	
July
24	
28 	
July
28 .
7.	
10	
11	
15	
14	
Skeena River.
Skeena River.
Skeena River.
Skeena River.
Nass River.
Skeena River.
Skeena River.
Portland Canal.
Portland Canal.
Skeena River.
Skeena River.
Skeena River.
Skeena River.
South end of Grenville Channel.
Skeena River.
Skeena River.
Skeena River.
Skeena River.
Skeena River.
* See text below for location. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 15
Of the above all were sockeye with the exception of No. 383, which was a pink salmon.
Tree Point Light is north of Cape Fox, Revillagigedo Channel, Dixon Entrance, Alaska.
The trap from which these fish were taken is some 2% miles north of Cape Fox and approximately 75 miles north of the Skeena entrance.
Duke Island is to the west of Cape Fox, on the opposite side of Revillagigedo Channel,
Alaska, and approximately 75 miles north of the Skeena.
Ruin's Point, Kosciusko Island, Sumner Strait, Alaska, some 200 miles north of the Skeena
River. It is an interesting speculation whether these Skeena fish were entering Sumner Strait
and coming out again, or whether they were bound through Sumner and Clarence Straits and
down to the Skeena.
The outstanding feature of this marking experiment, so far as the Province is concerned,
is that in approaching the coast some of the Skeena and Nass Rivers bound fish are at times
associated with salmon seeking Alaska waters to spawn, and in consequence are subject to
capture in Alaska fish-traps as far north as Sumner Strait.
It will be noticed also from the statement that the fish tagged at Ruin's Point took from
five to seventeen days to reach the fishing-grounds of the Skeena River, an average of eleven
days, while those tagged at Duke Island reached Portland Canal and the Nass River in three
or four days.
Scales were obtained from but eight of the fish that were recaptured in the Skeena.
Dr. Gilbert, who examined them, states:—
"The results have a bearing on the question of homing on the part of fish that had been
far distant from their native stream. Each of the eight were undoubted Skeena sockeye. They
coincide exactly with the racial features of the Skeena salmon, and, furthermore, six of them
agree with the prevailing five-year class characteristic of the 1924 run. In 1923 only 29 per cent,
of the run to the Skeena consisted of five-year-old fish, while in 1924 67 per cent, of the run were
five-year-old fish."
As no fish-traps are permitted in Provincial waters approaching the Skeena or Rivers Inlet,
tagging operations to trace the movements of salmon seeking entrance are impossible.
Reports from the Salmon-spawning Areas of the Province in 1924.
Following the practice inaugurated in 1902, the Department again inspected the salmon-
spawning areas of the Fraser, Skeena, and Nass Rivers and Rivers and Smith Inlets, detailed
reports of which are reproduced in the Appendix of this report.
The Fraser River.—John P. Babcock, Assistant to the Commissioner, again inspected the
salmon-spawning beds of the Fraser River basin, his twenty-second annual inspection. In his
report he states :■—
"The number of sockeye that escaped capture in the fishing waters and which reached the
spawning areas above Hell's Gate Canyon was not greater than in 1923, and, like the escapement
of that year, was so small as to make little visible impression in any section of the upper lakes
and tributaries of the Fraser. . . . The reports that salmon are unable to negotiate the
rapids at Hell's Gate are without foundation. There is and has been no blockade there for more
than a few hours at a time in any season since 1914. In that year the last vestige of the great
slide of 1913 was removed. All the salmon that now reach that canyon have no more difficulty
in passing upward through the rapids than those encountered which reached there previous to
1913. . . . No salmon are known to have entered Quesnel Lake this year. . . . Only a
few hundred sockeye entered the Chilcotin. . . . The run up the Thompson was very
small.   .    .   .
" The sockeye run to the Birkenhead, at the head of the Harrison-Lillooet Lakes section of
the Lower Fraser, this year was the largest I have seen' there since 1902. A great many
thousands of sockeye reached there during the season, which lasted from late August to well
into October. T. W. Graham, Superintendent of the hatchery, reported that the run was 20
per cent, greater than in any year since the hatchery was built in 1907.
" The present run of sockeye to the Fraser River must certainly be attributed to the races
that spawn in the Birkenhead-Harrison-Pitt-Cultus Lakes sections of the Lower Fraser basin.
The number of sockeye that spawned above Hell's Gate in the last ten years has been too small
to be a factor in the run that now seeks the Fraser." I 16 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
The Skeena River.—The sockeye-spawning areas of the Skeena were again inspected by
Fishery Overseer Robert Gibson. His report states that all the creeks in the Lakelse Lake
section were abundantly seeded this year; from all reports better seeded even than in 1919,
a big year. " In summing up the Babine Lake section, I am pleased to say that the spawning-
grounds were exceptionally well seeded, better than in 1919. . . . The Bulkley River had
a fair run.    .    .    .    One cannot be but optimistic as to the run four and five years hence."
The Spawning-beds of Rivers Inlet.—Fishery Overseer A. W. Stone again visted the spawning area of the Rivers Inlet run of sockeye. It was his twelfth consecutive annual investigation.
He reported great numbers of sockeye in all sections. In summing up his report, which is given
in full in the Appendix to this report, he states: " I am of the opinion that the run of sockeye
to all the tributaries of Owikeno Lake—the spawning area of the Rivers Inlet run—was in excess
of any run seen within my experience.   The escapement must have been very large."
The Spawning-beds of Smith Inlet.—The spawning-beds of Smith Inlet were again inspected
by Overseer A. W. Stone. He reports conditions as having been unsatisfactory and expresses the
opinion that a moderate run only need be expected from this season's spawning. The lack of
those numerous masses of sockeye which had possession of the spawning-beds in 1919 and 1920
cannot but have its effect in curtailing the extent of the run of fish that will return four or five
years hence.
The Nass River Spawning Areas.—The spawning-beds of the Meziadin basin of the Nass
River watershed were again inspected by Inspector of Fisheries C. P. Hickman. He was
accompanied by A. E. Young, representing the Dominion. The extreme northern section of
the Nass basin was not visited this year owing to the difficulty of the trip and the discoloration
of the water, which prevents observations of value.
In summarizing his report on the Meziadin, Mr. Hickman wrote: " Of the Meziadin watershed I have to admit that the whole district was well seeded. Many salmon were observed at
all places. During the ten days that we spent at the fishway sockeye salmon were passing
through all the time and there appeared to be no let-up at the end of our visit. At all places
along the lake shore where sockeye spawn the beds were well seeded. They were literally
covered with spawning fish..
" The level of the lake was higher when we reached there than on any previous visit, but
on our leaving it was 2 feet lower and, with cold weather, will drop farther still. This may
result in the destruction of many eggs laid in the sand on the shores of the lake."
The Halibut Treaty.
A treaty for the protection of the Pacific halibut, signed by Canada and the United States,
came into force on October 21st, 1924. It is the first treaty signed by Canada alone as the
representative of the King, and it is also the first treaty between the high contracting parties
for the joint and uniform regulation of a great fishery in which both are concerned.
The treaty imposes certain regulations upon the fishery and establishes an International
Fisheries Commission to study conditions and to recommend whatever measures are necessary
to conserve the supply. The Commission consists of two representatives from both countries.
W. A. Found, Director of Fisheries for Canada, and John Pease Babcock, of the Fisheries
Department of British Columbia, were appointed by the Dominion of Canada, and Henry
O'Malley, United States Commissioner of Fisheries, and Miller Freeman, of Seattle, Washington,
were appointed by the President to represent the United States. On its organization in Seattle
in November Mr. Babcock was made Chairman and headquarters established in Victoria.
The conditions that led to the adoption of the treaty were fully developed by the investigation
of the British Columbia Fisheries Department in 1913-15. The outstanding feature of that
investigation was depletion of the supply. The data produced led the authorities of Canada
and the United States by treaty to provide joint and uniform regulations for the preservation
of the Pacific halibut.
The halibut-fishery of the Pacific is an international fishery in which British Columbia and
the State of Washington are most largely concerned. The bulk of the catch is taken in the open
sea by Canadian and United States fishing-vessels that land their catch in British Columbia or
United States ports. To ascertain the condition of the fishery and to conserve the supply it
became necessary to provide joint and uniform regulations governing the nationals and inhabitants and the fishing-vessels and boats of Canada and the United States;   hence the treaty. 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
I 17
The halibut-catch from the North-east Pacific and Behring Sea is worth in excess of
$15,000,000 annually. It is the second largest fishery on the Pacific Coast. It is next in
importance to the salmon-fishery.
The ratification of the treaty is a long step in the right direction in the administration of
the fisheries in which Canada and the United States are mutually interested. It is the first
acknowledgment on their part that one of their great fishing industries cannot be effectively
and conservingly administered individually; that joint and uniform control is necessary. The
halibut treaty follows along the lines so successfully adopted by Great Britain, the United States,
Japan, and Russia for the restoration and preservation of the fur-seal.
The Halibut Treaty and the " Act for the Protection of the Northern Pacific Halibut
Fishery," passed by the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, are reproduced in the
Appendix of this report.    A similar Act has been passed by the Congress of the United States. I 18 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO  THE  LIFE-HISTORY OF  THE  SOCKEYE   SALMON.
(No. 10.)
By Charles H. Gilbert, Ph.D., Professor of Zoology, Stanford University-.
1.   THE FRASER RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1924.
In another section of this report J. P. Babcock, Assistant to the Commissioner, calls attention
to the fact that in these recent years the run of sockeye salmon to the Fraser River has been
maintained almost exclusively by the races which spawn in the Harrison-Lillooet watershed and
in the other tributaries, such as the Pitt and Cultus Lakes, which enter the Fraser below the
canyon at Yale. The run to the upper river, which formerly furnished the most valuable part
of the Fraser River pack, is now so reduced as to have no commercial significance. Apparently
the run to the lower river is maintaining itself with little change. The amount of fishing-gear
in use remains year by year relatively constant, and the salmon-supply having reached a very
low ebb, a state of equilibrium seems to have been attained. If no considerable change is
introduced in amount of gear employed or in the intensity of the fishing, the present condition
may possibly maintain itself for an indefinite period. We shall then have exchanged a property
capable of producing over a million cases of sockeyes annually for one yielding less than 10
per cent, of that amount, and will keep it at the present low ebb of production rather than
surrender present profits, which are inconsiderable, in order that we may spare seed for an
ampler harvest.
The total pack of Eraser River sockeyes in 1924 amounted to 109,112 cases. Of these,
39,743 were packed in Provincial territory and 09,369 cases in the State of Washington. We
have included in the Provincial pack 3,543 cases packed by J. H. Todd & Sons from sockeyes
captured in traps situated along the southern shore of Vancouver Island. The Fraser River run
is well known to skirt this shore closely on its way through the Strait of Fuca, and the fish
secured by these traps are on their way to the spawning-grounds of the Fraser River.
(1.)  The One-year-in-lake Type.
As a basis of our analysis of the Fraser River run of 1924, we have data secured from an
examination of 1,563 sockeyes selected at random on a series of dates distributed throughout
the fishing season. These dates extended from May 26th to September 13th and included forty-
two distinct samplings.
Of the total run, 86 per cent, were of the one-year-in-lake type, in their fourth or fifth year.
This is the prevailing group in the Fraser River watershed and was present in somewhat more
than its average proportions in 1924. In 1923 78 per cent, of the run belonged to this group
and in 1922 80 per cent. In 1924, within the limits of this group, 78 per cent, were in their
fourth year and 22 per cent, in their fifth. This represents a smaller percentage of four-year
fish than has occurred in the runs of recent years.
The sexes are present in almost equal numbers, as is typically the case in the Fraser River
race. In our samples, taken at random, and including representatives of all year-classes, 51 percent, are males and 49 per cent, females. 15 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
I 19
Table I.—Eraser River Sockeyes, One Year in Lake, 1924, from Vancouver Island Traps,
grouped by Age, Sex, and Length.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Total.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
17%	
1
2
5
9
10
19
11
24
27
43
60
78
103
84
39
21
1
1
1
3
4
9
15
17
20
21
40
83
96
106
66
33
5
1
1
1
1
6
14
12
16
24
11
18
9
18
7
5
3
1
1
1
6
8
13
18
22
16
24
13
11
8
1
2
1
1
18	
1
18%                        	
4
19	
7
19%	
14
20	
24
20%	
28
21                	
41
21%	
38
22	
73
22%	
129
23	
171
23%	
200
24                	
176
24%   	
184
25                    	
113
25%	
68
26            	
39
26%                                   	
26
27	
10
27%	
5
28 .,	
3
28%	
2
Totals                 	
544
521
147             145
1,357
23.S
22.8
24.9           23.9
23.5
In our report for 1923, page 17, attention is called to the Increase in the average size of
the individuals constituting the prevailing four-year group for that year. This had been preceded
by a series of years, during which the size seemed distinctly smaller than previously, and 1923
seemed to be inaugurating a movement backward to the old standard. But the experience of
1924 is again, in the opposite direction. As shown by the following table, the average size of the
members of this group has again diminished, having descended to 23.S inches for the males and
22.8 inches for the females. It will be noted that this is the smallest average size, with one
exception, for any year of which we have record.
Table II.—Average Lengths, Fraser River Sockeyes, Four Years old, One Year in Lake,
for a Term of Years.
Males. Females.
Average lengths for five years prior to 1919  25.0 24.1
Lengths in 1919   24.1 22.8
Lengths in 1920   24.1 23.2
Lengths in 1921   23.7 23.0
Lengths in 1922  24.0 23.0
Lengths in 1923   24.3 23.3
Lengths in 1924   23.8 22.8
(2.) The Grilse.
The grilse were more numerous than in 1923, fifteen individuals being included in our
material. Of these, thirteen had spent one year in the lake before migrating to salt water and
were in their third year, and two had spent two years in the lake and were in their fourth year.
Adverse comment has been passed on the use of the term " grilse " for precociously maturing
individuals of the Pacific salmon. But a name is required for this group, and it does unmistakably represent as nearly as may be in our Pacific salmon the Atlantic group to which the term is commonly applied. As we here use the term, it includes all sockeyes which mature in
their first or second summer in the sea, this being one or two years prior to the usual period
of maturing. Such precociously maturing individuals are usually males, but females are found
among them in certain races of sockeyes, especially in those races which have the habit of
prolonged residence (two to four years) in fresh water before migrating to the ocean.
In the following table are given the lengths of all grilse included in our samples of the
1924 run. It will be noted that one individual, among those which had spent a single year in
the lake after hatching, was a female. We regret we were unable to verify this record, which
has been paralleled in only one or two cases among the thousands of Fraser River grilse that
we have examined. The larger size of the two-year-in-lake grilse is conspicuous. They were
little larger than the one-year-in-lake type on reaching the sea, but it is evident they pushed
their growth more rapidly during their equal sojourn in salt water.
As in 1923, grilse appeared in the run earlier than has usually been observed, two occurring
in our samples of June 5th. But none others were observed until July 16th, the usual time for
the beginning of the grilse run in this watershed.
Table III.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Grilse, from Vancouver Island Traps, grouped by
Age, Sex, and Length.
Length in
Inches.
One Year in Lake,
Three Years old.
Two Years in Lake,
Four Years old.
Males.     Females.
Males.
17                        	
1
4
4
1
1
1
1
17%	
18	
is% 	
19	
19%                         	
20                     	
1
20%..  .   .                                                        	
21     	
1
Totals	
12
1        1                      2
(3.)  The Two-years-in-lake Type.
This type was much more numerous in 1924 than in the preceding year, containing among
our samples 152 individuals, or nearly 10 per.cent, of the whole. Of these, 144 were in their
fifth year, having been captured during their third summer in the sea, and eight were in their
sixth year. It is thus only in the five-year class that we have enough individuals to furnish
average lengths of any significance. In this class, as the following table indicates, the average
length of the males is 23.7 inches and that of the females 22.7 inches. In each case this is one-
tenth of an inch less than the average of the four-year fish which had spent a single year in
the lake (see Table I.). These fish were one year younger than those of the present type, but
had spent an equal time in the sea. 15 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
I 21
Table IV.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Two Years in Lake, 1924, from Vancouver Island Traps,
grouped by Age, Sex, and Length.
Length in Inches.
Number of
Individuals.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
19.  	
1
1
3
1
3
19%                	
1
o
2
o
7
12
S
10
11
4
4
2
5
4
4
5
14
10
15
14
1
2
20	
20%               	
21 _	
21%	
22                   	
22%              	
23	
23%               	
24	
24%	
1
25	
25%	
26         	
Totals	
67
77
7
1
23.7
22.7
24.3
(4.)  The Three-years-in-lake Type.
A very unusual occurrence in the Fraser River sockeye run is an individual that remained
three full years in fresh water before migrating downward to salt water. One specimen, a male
23 inches long, was found among our samples of the run of 1924.
(5.)  Average Lengths on a Series of Dates.
In the following table the run is divided into a series of five consecutive periods, and the
average lengths of males and females are given for each of these. A progressive increase in
length is noted in each group for the first, second, and third period, followed by a slight but
unmistakable decrease in the fourth and fifth period. The fact that all the year-groups agree
in these changes gives them unquestioned significance. In a homogeneous run, consisting of
a single race, a constant increase in all year-groups is expected throughout the season, because
of added stature acquired through longer residence on the feeding-grounds. AVhere an interruption occurs in the sequence, and smaller average sizes appear later in the run to a large complex
watershed like the Fraser, it seems probable the effect is produced by late-appearing races, one
or more of which may be characterized by its small size.
Table V.—Average Lengths of Principal Year-groups, Fraser River Sockeyes, 19,24, during
Different Periods of the Run.
Date.
One Year in Lake.
Four Years old.
Males.    Females.
Five Years old.
Males.    Females.
Two Years in Lake.
Five Years old.
Males.       Females.
May 26 to July 9	
July 11 to July 30	
Aug. 1 to Aug. 13	
Aug.  15 to Aug.  29	
Sept. 1 to Sept. 15	
Totals  (each class)
22.2
23.5
24.7
24.3
24.1
23.8
21.4
23.2
23.4
22.9
22.9
22.)
24.3
24.9
25.7
24.7
24.5
23.3
24.1
24.3
23.7
23.6
24.9
23.9
21.9
23.6
24.8
24.3
24.1
23.7
21.7
23.2
23.3
22.6
23.3
22.7 I 22
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
(6.)  The Sea-type.
This group was much less numerous in 1924 than in either of the two preceding years, when
they constituted 12 and 17 per cent, of the runs. In 1924 they comprised less than 3 per cent,
of our samples. The fish of this type run out to the sea as soon as they are free-swimming,
and have therefore no period of active residence in fresh water. They grow far more rapidly
in the ooean than do those that remain in their native lake, and they mature and return to
spawn a year earlier than do the others. Those of sea-type mature at the age of three or four;
those which spend one year in fresh water mature in the Fraser River run at the age of four
or five; those that spend two years in fresh water, in the Fraser River run, mature at the age
of five and six.
In most years this group does not appear in the Fraser River run until the second half of
July. In 1924 one specimen was observed in our samples as early as May 29th. The next to
appear was on June 23rd, and the regular run of this type did not begin until July 16th.
Table VI.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Sea-type, 1924, from Vancouver Island Traps,
grouped by Age, Sex, and Length.
Length in Inches.
Number of
Individuals.
Three Years old.
Four Years old.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
19                  	
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
5
1
19%                                        	
20     	
20%                      	
21  :	
21 %	
22    	
22%          ;	
1
23                  .'	
1
23%             	
1
24                        .                         ...                	
7
24%                    .                                   	
1
25                        	
2
25%	
3
26                   ...              	
1
2fiV„                                          	
Totals                      ..                  	
4
4
13
17
25.2
24.4
2.   THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1924.
(1.) General Characteristics and Age-grotjps.
The Rivers Inlet pack for 1924, amounting to 94,891 cases, was but little below the high
level of 1923 and presents gratifying evidence of the recuperative capacity of this stream. Not
only was the commercial catch large, but the spawning escapement was one of the best ever
observed on the spawning-beds tributary to Owikeno Lake. Detailed evidence of this is presented
in the annual report of Overseer Stone, which appears elsewhere in these pages. Each tributary
of the lake was found fully supplied with spawning fish, the total escapement, according to
Mr. Stone, being the greatest he had observed during the many years he has examined these
spawning-grounds. Everywhere he comments on the large size of the spawners, and in the more
important tributaries he finds the males and females in about equal numbers. This is an
unusually favourable condition in this watershed.
As we indicated in our report for 1923, there was every reason to anticipate a successful
season in Rivers Inlet in 1924. The two brood-years were 1919 and 1920. In 1919 there was
a poor pack, but the spawning-beds when examined by Mr. Stone were found exceptionally well
supplied, and the first return of this brood in 1923, when as four-year fish it constituted 76 per
cent, of the very heavy run of that year, wholly bore out Mr. Stone's prediction that 1919 would
give a good account of itself.    The remainder of the 1919 brood were due to return in 1924 as 15 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
I 23
five-year fish, and we find in fact these constituted the majority of the run, in spite of the fact
that 1920, which furnished the four-year fish, was also reported to be a phenomenally successful
spawning-year.
As shown in the following table, which takes into account only the one-year-in-lake type
which prevails in Rivers Inlet, 56 per cent, of the run consisted of five-year sockeyes and 46
per cent, of four-year individuals. As the five-year fish average about 10 per cent, longer than
the four-year group, it is apparent why the spawners in 1924 should attract by their larger size.
In 1923 only 24 per cent, were of the five-year group. But if we segregate the two ages and
compare the average lengths of the four-year fish of 1924 with those of equal age for previous
years, and in like manner the average lengths of the five-year fish of 1924 with those of other
years, we find no difference of any moment. Both the four- and the five-year fish of this basin
have a well-defined standard size, from which they deviate almost imperceptibly in any series
of years. When, therefore, the run is made up of fish of larger size than are commonly observed,
this is invariably due to the larger proportion of older individuals.
The prospects for 1925 are good, in so far as these can be inferred from our present
knowledge. The five-year fish from 1920 should appear in large numbers, although it is still
a question whether, in spite of the intensive seeding of that year, it has proved as favourable
a producer as did 1919. The reports from the spawning-beds of 1921 were not as favourable
as during the two preceding years.
Table VII.—Percentages of Four- and Five-year Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, in Rims from 1912 to
1924, with Broods from which they were derived.
Run ol the Year.
Percentage,
Four and Five
Years old.
Brood-year from which
derived.
1912 (112,884 cases) 1
1913 (61,745 cases).  j
1914 (89,890 cases) \
1915 (130,350 cases)	
1016 (44,936 cases) -  J
1917 (61,195 cases) (
1918 (53,401  cases) (
1919 (56,258 cases)	
1920 (121,254 cases) [
1921 (46,300 cases)...- -  [
1922 (60,700 cases)...- - j
1923 (107,174 cases) j
1924 (94,891 cases) j
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs,
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
79%
21%
20%
80%
65%
35%
87%
13%
76%
24%
67%
33%
43%
57%
54%
46%
95%
5%
51%
49%
18%
82%
24%
76%
56%
44%
1907 (87,874 cases).
-   1908 (64,652 cases).
1909 (89,027 cases).
1910 (126,921 cases).
1911 (88,763 cases).
!1912 (112,884 cases).
1913 (61,745 cases).
I   1914 (89,890 cases).
[   1915 (130,350 cases).
I
j. 1916 (44,936 cases).
I
J- 1917 (61,195 eases).
I
j- 1918 (53,401 cases).
1919 (56,258 cases).
1920 (121,254 cases). I 24
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
(2.)  Lengths and Weights.
We have called attention in the reports of previous years to a slight but significant decrease
in the average size of individuals in both four- and five-year classes. This is equally true in
both males and females of each group and is shown equally well in the lengths and in the
weights. The reduction in size made its appearance in 1917 and has remained with little change
since that date, with the single exception of 1922, in which a recovery of the older standard was
conspicuous in all classes. The measurements throughout the period have been made by Overseer
Stone, who undertook the duties of his position in 1913. There can be no reason, therefore, to
doubt the reliability of the data. In the following table we give average lengths of the principal
groups from 1912 to 1916, in a second column from 1918 to 1923, and finally for comparison the
average lengths for the years 1923 and 1924 separately.    There follows a similar table of weights.
rTable VIII.—Average Lengths of Rivers Inlet Sockeyes.
1912-16,
1918-23.
1923.
1924.
23.0
22.8
25.9
25.0
22.5
22.4
24.8
24.3
22.4
22.3
24.6
24.1
22.3
22.3
24.9
24.3
Table IX.—Average Weights of Rivers Inlet Sockeyes.
1914-16.       1918-23.
1923.
1924.
Four-year males....
Four-year females
Five-year males.—
Five-year females.
5.4
5.1
7.4
6.7
5.2
5.1
6.7
6.3
5.0
4.8
6.5
5.9
4.9
4.8
6.6
6.1 15 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
I 25
Table X.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1924, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Inches.
Number of Individuals.
One Year in  Lake.
Four Years old.
Males.
Females.     Males
Five Years old.
Females.
Two Years in Lake.
Five Years old.
Males.     Females.
	
Six Years old.
Males.      Females.
Total.
19%	
20	
20%	
21	
21%	
22	
22%	
23 :	
23%	
24	
24%	
25	
25%	
26-	
26%	
27	
27%	
28...	
28%	
29  	
29%	
30	
Totals	
Ave. lengths
4
6
31
35
48
25
21
28
11
2
1
6
19
23
32
20
5
304
22.3
109
22.3
1
1
3
15
18
29
21
19
13
10
9
8
10
4
1
1
27
62
77
57
49
30
27
10
6
163
355
11       I
24.9
24.3
6
31
42
71
60
78
1
89
1
115
2
134
109
3
83
1
48
39
1
21
14
10
4
1
1
1
Table XI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1924, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight, and by
their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Pounds.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Total.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
B'emales.
3	
2
19
71
72
40
32
34
23
9
1
1
12
43
38
12
3
1
5
7
35
40
21
11
10
15
6
7
3
3
6
41
107
73
53
37
21
13
4
1
2
3
2
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
1
4
1
2
19
84
129
134
191
153
3%	
4	
4%	
5	
5%	
6	
6%	
7 .  .           	
59
32
7%	
8	
31
10
7
3
3
8%	
9	
9%	
10	
Totals	
304
109
163
355
11
6
4
9
961
Ave. weights . .
4.9
4.8
6.6
6.1 I 26
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
(3.)  Distribution of the Sexes.
The number of eggs deposited in the Rivers Inlet gravels in 1924 must have been extraordinarily large, for not only was the escapement on a very large scale, but the proportions of
males and females was as favourable as possible. This was in sharp contrast to the condition
obtaining during the two seasons preceding, when hut little more than a third of the spawning
fish were females. In 1924 the two sexes were equally represented, a condition directly dependent
on the excess of five-year fish. In 1922 and 1923 the four-year fish were far more numerous than
the five-year group, and as in the Rivers Inlet race the four-year class always produces a great
excess of males, in these two years the excess of males characterized the run as a whole.
In 1924 the four-year males outnumbered the females in their normal proportion, while
five-year males were in less than their usual numbers.
Table XII.—Relative Numbers of Males and Females, Rivers Inlet Sockeyes,
One-year-in-lake Type, 1916 to 19
1916.     1917.     1918.     1919.     1920.     1921.     1922.     1923.     1924.
Average percentages—
Four-year males	
Four-year females	
Five-year males.	
Five-year females	
Percentage total males....
Percentage total females
74
26
40
60
52
48
20
42
58
53
47
74
26
49
51
66
34
79
21
45
55
58
42
74
26
48
52
49
51
65
35
3S
62
51
49
66
34
38
62
61
39
71
29
33
67
62
38
74
26
31
69
50
50
3.   THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1924.
(1.) General Characteristics and the Year-classes.
The Skeena River sockeye-pack of 1924, consisting of 144,747 cases, was one of the largest
known in the history of the industry. It had been exceeded but twice before, in 1910 and in
1919. In both of these years the pack exceeded 180,000 cases, and it is significant that one of
these years, 1919, was one of the brood-years of 1924. The success of 1919 as a producer was
commented on in our account of the rim of 1923, for it was largely responsible for the magnitude
of that run, having furnished a larger percentage of four-year fish than is customary in this race
of sockeyes.
The run of 1924 emphasizes the pre-eminence of 1919 on the spawning-grounds, for it
contained as five-year-olds the remainder of the 1919 brood, and they comprised 75 per cent,
of a very large run. The condition in the Skeena, therefore, as concerns the runs of 1923 and
1924, closely parallels that in Rivers Inlet. In both streams the very prosperous runs of 1923
and 1924 were due largely to 1919, which in both rivers furnished the four-year fish which
constituted the majority of the run in 1923, and the five-year fish comprising a large majority
of the run in 1924.
The second brood-year in 1924 gives far less promise. For in 1920 Overseer Gibson reported
the spawning escapement to be one of the smallest known in that section, with large areas of
the spawning-beds inadequately seeded. Inasmuch as 1920 will be responsible for the five-year
fish of the run of 1925 and 1921 for the four-year fish, the outlook for the 1925 run is obviously
less favourable than it was in 1924. Overseer Gibson reported that 1921 was only an average
spawning-year in the Babine section and less than an average in the Lakelse District.
In the following table it is seen that the one-year-in-lake type, which constituted 92 per cent,
of the 1924 run, contained 75 per cent, of fish in their fifth year, derived from 1919, and 25 per
cent, in their fourth year, derived from the spawning of 1920. 15 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
I 27
Table XIII.—Percentages of Four- and Five-year Skeena River Sockeyes that spent
One Year in Lake, in Runs of Successive Years.
Run of the Year.
1912 (92,498 cases)...
1913 (52,927 cases)-
1914 (130,166 cases) .
1915 (116,553 cases).
1916 (60,923 cases)...
1917 (65,760 cases)...
1918 (123,322 cases).
1919 (184,945 eases)
1920 (90,869 cases)..
1921 (41,018 cases)..
1922 (100,667 cases)
1923 (131,731 cases)
1924 (144,747 cases)
Percentage,
Four and Five
Years old.
Brood-years from which
derived.
5 yrs. 43%
4 yrs. 57%
5 yrs. 50%
4 yrs. 50%
5 yrs. 75%
4 yrs. 25%
5 yrs. 64%
4 yrs. 36%
5 yrs. 60%
4 yrs. 40%
5 yrs. 62%
4 yrs. 38%
5 yrs. 59%
4 yrs. 41%
5 yrs. 69%
4 yrs. 31%
5 yrs. 82%
4 yrs. 18%
5 yrs. 24%
4 yrs. 76%
5 yrs.  19%
4 yrs. 81%
5 yrs. 34%
4 yrs. 66%
5 yrs. 75%
4 yrs. 25%
1907 (108,413 cases).
1908 (139,846 cases).
1909 (87,901  cases).
1910 (187,246 cases).
1911 (131,066 cases).
1912 (92,498 cases).
1913 (52,927 cases).
t   1914 (130,166 cases).
1915 (116,553 cases).
1916 (60,923 cases),
j.   1917 (65,760 cases).
I
L   1918   (123,322  cases).
j
1919 (184,945 cases).
1920 (90,869 cases).
Table XIV.—Percentages of the Principal Year-classes, Skeena River Sockeyes,
from 1916 to 1924.
Year.
One Year
in Lake.
Two Years
in Lake.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1916                                            	
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
18
1917	
5
1918	
6
1919	
4
1920	
8
1921	
3
1922	
n
1923 ...                  .      .           .       .           	
7
1924                   	
1
-rages, 1916 to 1923	
47
37
•
7 I 28
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
(2.)  Lengths and Weights. .
Full data concerning lengths and weights in the different age-classes of the 1924 run are
given in Tables XV. to XXI. Our material consisted of nearly 2,000 specimens, taken at random
without selection from the cannery floor at frequent intervals throughout the fishing season.
They can be accepted as giving a fair sample of the entire run. It is interesting to note that
the small size of individuals which has characterized the runs of the past two years has been
replaced in 1924 by the normal stature in all year-classes. This is made obvious in Tables XVI.
and XVII., which present a comparison between the average lengths of the different age-classes
in 1924 and in a series of preceding years. In every class the average length is materially
greater than in 1922 or 1923. In fact, it is necessary to go back to the brood-year 1919 to find
average lengths as great as in 1924. In this respect the Skeena run of 1924 differed widely
from the Rivers Inlet run, with which in other respects there was so much in common. The
size of the Rivers Inlet fish remained still distinctly below the normal.
Table XV.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1924, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
One-year-in-lake Type.
Two-years-in-lake Type.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Total.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
21 	
1
2
7
8
19
39
50
46
32
20
4
2
3
16
42
52
52
37
22
3
4
2
10
19
61
96
117
119
S7
50
18
3
2
3
5
29
89
107
164
1S9
119
57
15
3
1
1
1
4
2
13
17
9
7
5
1
1
1
1
3
15
17
9
7
12
2
2
3
2
1
2
3
4
4
1
1
21%	
6
22	
27
22%	
69
23	
98
23%.           	
133
24	
208
24%	
2
1
4
3
2
1
228
25	
276
25%         	
326
26	
26%	
251
184
27              	
103
27%      	
53
28	
21
28%     	
3
29	
2
Totals	
230
231
584
781
62
73               13
15
1,989
Averages	
24.1
23.3
26.2
25.2
24.7
23.6
25.8
24.8
Table XVI.—Average Lengths of Skeena River Sockeyes, One Year in Lake,
for Twelve Successive Years.
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
23.5
22.9
25.5
24.7
24.2
23.4
26.2
25.1
24.2
23.5
25.9
25.0
23.9
23.6
26.2
25.0
23.6
23.2
25.5
24.7
24.1
23.3
25.9
25.0
24.3
23.4
25.7
24.8
23.8
23.2
26.2
25.3
23.8
23.1
25.2
24.2
23.6
23.2
25.3
24.4
23.7
23.1
25.5
24.5
24.1
Four-year females	
Five-year males	
Five-year females	
23.3
26.2
25.2 15 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
I 29
Table XVII.—Average Lengths of Skeena River Sockeyes, Two Years in Lake,
for Nine Successive Years.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
24.1
23.8
26.2
24.8
23.9
23.8
25.4
25.0
23.9
23.4
25.2
24.7
24.3
23.4
25.S
24.7
24.1
23.4
26.2
25.1
24.2
23.4
24.9
24.2
23.S
23.3
24.6
24.1
23.9
23.2
25.6
24.4
24.7
23.6
Six-year males	
25.8
24.8
Table XV1I1.—Average Lengths of Skeena River Sockeyes, 1924, compared with 1923
and with General Averages, 1,912 to 1921.
Average
Lengths,
1924.
Average
Lengths,
1923.
Averages,
1912 to
1921.
One year in lake—
Four-year males...
Four-year females
Five-year males....
Five-year females.
Two years in lake—
Five-year males....
Five-year females.
Six-year males	
Six-year females...
24.1
23.3
26.2
25.2
24.7
23.6
25.8
24.8
23.7
23.1
25.5
24.5
23.9
23.2
25.6
24.4
24.0
23.3
25.8
24.9
24.1
23.6
25.7
24.8
Table XIX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1924, grouped by Weight, Age, Sex, and
by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals that
SPENT
Weight in Pounds.
One Year
in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Total.
Males.
Females.
Males.   1 Females.
1
Males.
Females.
1
Males.   [ Females.
1
4	
13
21
41
57
37
45
12
4
19
63
64
56
24
4
1
1
10
22
73
120
IIS
127
64
37
10
2
7
48
144
199
194
121
55
12
1
1
4
6
17
18
5
10
1
6
19
21
14
10
2
1
1
1
4
1
3
1
2
4
3
5
2
1
39
4% 	
115
5	
195
5%	
314
6	
370
6%	
373
7	
267
7% 	
187
8     	
78
8% 	
39
9	
10
9% 	
2
Totals	
230
231
584
781
62
73
13
15
1,989
Ave. weights
5.6
5.0
7.0
6.3
5.9
5.1
6.6
5.8 I 30
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
Table XX.—Average Weights of Skeena River Sockeyes for Eleven Successive Years.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
One year in lake—
5.9
5.3
7.2
6.3
5.7
5.2
6.8
6.2
5.9
5.2
6.6
6.0
5.4
5.1
7.1
6.3
5.8
5.4
7.1
5.9
5.3
5.0
6.4
6.0
5.5
5.2
6.3
5.8
5.S
5.3
6.9
6.4
5.7
5.3
6.6
6.1
6.1
5.5
7.0
6.2
6.1
5.4
6.9
6.3
5.6
5.1
7.2
6.4
6.3
5.1
7.3
6.3
5.7
5.1
6.4
5.7
5.8
5.1
6.0
5.6
5.4
5.1
6.5
5.7
5.5
5.1
6.2
5.7
5.3
4.9
6.3
5.7
5.3
4.8
6.3
5.4
5.6
5.0
7.0
Five-year females	
Two years in lake—
6.3
5.9
5.1
6.6
Six-year females	
5.8
Table XXI.—Average Weights of Skeena River Sockeyes, 1924, compared with 1923
and with General Averages, 1915 to 1921.
Average
Weights,
1924.
Average
Weights,
1923.
Averages,
1915 to
1921.
One year in lake—
Four-year males :	
5.6
5.0
7.0
6.3
5.9
5.1
6.6
5.8
5.3
4.9
6.3
5.7
5.3
4.8
6.3
5.4
5.7
5.2
6.8
6.2
Two years in lake—
5.9
5.2
6.7
6.0
(3.)  Peopobtions of the Sexes.
On examining the proportions of the sexes in the different year-classes, as shown in Table
XXI. for a series of years, it becomes apparent that, although considerable variation is shown,
the four-year fish of the one-year-in-lake type and the five-year fish of the two-years-in-lake type
are almost uniformly characterized by presenting more males than females. In the four-year
class above mentioned the males outnumbered the females in ten of the twelve years recorded
in our table. Only in 1920 and 1921 were the females more numerous than the males. This is
not only true in general also of the five-year group which had spent two years as fingerlings in
fresh water, but the only exceptions to the rule are the same two years, 1920 and 1921, which
were exceptions in the case of the four-year class. A similar condition exists in the run of
1924. In the four-year group the number of males and females is equal, and in the five-year
class (two years in the lake) the males are less numerous than the females. Inasmuch as the
other two classes given in the table showed in 1924 their customary excess of females, it results
that deficiency of males is shown for the entire run. Of the 1,989 individuals included in our
samples, 889, or 45 per cent., were males, and 1.100. or 55 per cent., females. This is a most
unusual condition in the Skeena basin. 15 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
I 31
Table XXII.—Percentages of Males and Females in each of the Different Year-groups,
Skeena River Sockeyes, in a Series of Years.
One Year
in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
1912	
54
69
60
55
70
65
63
53
41
44
52
60
50
40
31
40
45
30
35
37
47
59
56
48
40
50
42
58
54
58
56
45
41
43
53
40
46
1913	
47
47
45
43
48
46
46
37
44
41
37
43
53
53
55
57
52
54
54
63
56
59
63
57
56
65
61
52
43
50
52
56
46
44
35
39
48
57
50
48
44
54
1914	
1915	
1916	
46
1917	
42
1918	
44
1919	
55
1920	
59
1921	
57
1922	
47
1923	
60
1924	
54
Averages before 1923	
57
43
44
56
54
46
50
50
4.   THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE REN OF 1924.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The commercial capture of Xass River sockeyes in 1924 amounted to 33,590 cases and formed
the largest pack since 1915. The average for the eight years from 1916 to 1923 is 22,360 cases.
The very favourable showing in 1924 is surprising in view of the report of the condition of the
Nass River spawning-beds in 1919. Inspector Hickman reported for that year the smallest
number of spawning sockeyes ever observed in that district. He said, in part: " At the falls
and fishway there was a great scarcity of salmon, very few to be seen at any place, and during
the whole time that we were there we saw only one salmon try to leap the fall. There were not
more than ten salmon in the pockets of the fishway at any one time. It has been usual in the
past, and at this time of the year, to see at least 200 salmon in the pockets of the fishway, and
also to see hundreds congregating below both the main and second fall, and continually leaping in
their efforts to reach the waters above, but this season there were so few salmon that only a
trained eye would know that it was a salmon-stream." He reported further that very few
spawning fish were observed along the shores of the lake, except for a limited area at the
extreme head of the lake, where a considerable number were seen. This was the only spot in
which salmon were observed in anything like the numbers reported on previous visits of
inspection.
In spite of this unfavourable aspect of the spawning-grounds of 1919, we now find that they
were responsible for progeny that have produced one of the most extensive runs of sockeyes
known to the Nass, for not only was the pack of 1924 very large, but Inspector Hickman's report
from the spawning-grounds, appearing elsewhere in these pages, indicates a more extensive
seeding than he had observed for many years past. That this enormous run was largely
dependent on 1919 as a brood-year is apparent in the analysis of the run which we present in
tables to follow, in wdiich it appears that some S4 per cent, of the entire run consisted of fish
in their fifth year.
(2.) The Age-groups.
The usual eight year-classes were present in the run of 1924, including the seven enumerated
in Table XXIV., and an additional one, represented by only two individuals, a male and a
female, which had spent three full years in fresh water and four summers in the sea, and were
in their seventh year when captured. The male was 29% inches long and weighed 10 lb., and
the female 28 inches long and weighed 7% lb.
Our samples, collected at frequent intervals during the entire fishing season, include some
2,100 individuals.    Of these, 81 per cent, were in their fifth year and belong to the two-years-in- I 32
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
lake type, and 3 per cent, were five-year fish that had spent only one year in the lake before
passing down to the sea. It is seen, therefore, that 84 per cent, of the whole run were five-year
fish and were the descendants of the 1919 spawners.
From Table XXIII., which gives percentages of the four principal year-classes in this
watershed for a term of years, it appears that the run of 1924, in its percentage of the dominant
year-class, equalled that of 1922, and that these two far exceeded in this respect all other years
during the period in which the Nass run has been subjected to critical examination.
The appearance of extraordinarily heavy sockeye runs in Rivers Inlet, the Skeena, and the
Nass during a single season is recognized as an unusual occurrence. It is still more remarkable
to find, on making an analysis of these runs, that they were due almost exclusively to the success
of a single brood-year, 1919. The Rivers Inlet and Skeena spawning-grounds were well seeded
in that year, but the Nass River grounds were so poorly populated as to give promise of a very
scant yield. In view of these facts we are impelled to speculate on the possible extent to which
the extraordinarily successful results of the 1919 spawning were due to other causes than
abundance of spawn. Is it not possible there were present widespread physical or biological
conditions which were unusually favourable? These might, in the case of the Nass, more than
offset the small provision of spawn by bringing a much larger proportion of it to successful
development. And in the streams with more adequate number of spawners they might operate
to augment the results naturally to be expected.
Table XXIII.—Percentage of Principal Age-groups present in the Nass River Sockeye Run
from 1912 to 1924.
Percentage of Individuals that spent
Year.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years
in Lake.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1912                 	
8
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
2
1913  	
2
10
1915	
8
1916 —	
8
1917	
4
1918  	
9
1919 .-.
6
1920    	
6
1921            	
s
1922            	
1
1923	
6
1924            .	
o
Averages, 1912 to 1922   	
11
17
66
6
.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
We have called attention in previous reports to a well-marked tendency in Rivers Inlet and
Skeena sockeyes to show a reduction in average size during recent years. This has been obvious
in all year-classes and equally marked in average lengths and in average weights. The Nass
River run is the only one of the northern group which has failed to exhibit this tendency.
Throughout the period of our observations the average size of the different year-classes in this
stream has been subject from year to year only to such small variations as may well be dependent
on the nature of our material. This is well shown in the record of the present year. As
exhibited in Tables XXV. and XXVI., the averages for 1924 a little exceed those of 1923, as
they do also the general averages from 1912 to 1921.
Again it is notable, as in previous years, that the Nass River five-year group which had spent
two years in fresh water and only three summers at sea averaged a little larger in size of
individuals than did the members of the group of equal age which had spent only one year in
fresh water and had had four summers on the sea-feeding grounds.    We have previously called 15 Geo. 5 Life-history of Sockeye Salmon. I 33
attention to the exceptional nature of this phenomenon. In all other streams thus far reported
on the number of years spent in sea-feeding determines the final stature at maturity. We should
expect the Nass River sockeyes of the two-years-in-lake group, maturing at the age of five, to
equal in size the one-year-in-lake group maturing at the age of four. But the Nass fish exhibit
in this respect a sharp divergence in growth-habit, which is a well-marked racial peculiarity.
It is instructive to review the growth-history of the two groups. Members of the same brood,
they live together in the lake for their first year and differ but little in the size which they attain
during that period. But a portion of the brood at the end of the first year pass out to sea,
leaving their fellows to a second year's residence in fresh water. The group which first seeks
the sea, it has been observed, average a little larger in size than those which remain behind.
On reaching salt water, at once they initiate a most vigorous growth which they maintain during
the entire year. But the second group, remaining behind in the lake, grow but little, and when,
in the following spring, they in turn seek the ocean they have been far outdistanced by their
fellows, which are now more than twice their length and more than four times their weight.
Although the two groups are composed of brothers and sisters, with a common history during
their first year, a wide gap now separates them, a gap which in other streams than the Nass,
is never bridged. But in this stream the late-comers grow with extraordinary vitality, overhaul
their brethren of the one-year-in-lake history, and finally pass them before attaining maturity.
Why a year, spent as it were in retirement, with but little expenditure and meagre apparent
results, should have brought about the accumulation of such remarkable stores of growth-energy
remains an interesting problem. I 34
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
63
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Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
I 35
Table XXV.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths of Principal Classes from 1912 to 1924.
One Yeab in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
1912 (inches)... .
24.6
24.1
24.6
24.0
24.5
23.4
25.0
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
23.3
23.5
22.7
23.5
23.3
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
26.5
25.6
26.1
25.9
26.4
25.5
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2
25.1
24.8
25.1
25.2
25.0
24.7
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
26.2
26.0
26.3
26.5
26.5
25.3
25.9
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.4
25.2
25.5
25.9
25.6
24.7
25.0
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
27.0
26.0
26.9
26.6
27.9
26.5
27.2
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
25.6
1913        „        	
26.6
1914        „        	
25.6
1915        „        	
25.3
1916        „        	
25.7
1917        ,,        	
25.5
1918        „        	
25.2
1919        „        	
26.7
1920        ,,        	
25.9
1921        „        	
26.2
1922        „        	
25.9
1923        „        	
26.5
1924        „        	
25.4
Table XXVI.—Average Lengths of Principal Classes of Nass River Sockeyes,
compared with 1923 and with General Averages of 1912 to 1921.
1924,
Average
Lengths,
1924.
Average
Lengths,
1923.
General
Averages,
1912 to
1921.
One year in lake—
Four-year males...-
Four-year females
Five-year males	
Five-year females..
Two years in lake—
Five-year males....
Five-year females..
Six-year males	
Six-year females....
24.7
23.8
26.2
24.9
26.3
25.4
28.0
25.4
24.3
23.7
25.9
25.3
26.2
25.5
27.2
26.5
24.3
23.5
26.0
24.9
26.2
25.5
27.1
25.8 I 36                           Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
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Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
I 37
Table XXVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes Average Weights of Principal Classes, from 1913 to 1924.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
1913 (pounds)	
5.5
1
6.3
6.5
1
6.7
1914        „         	
6.2
5.6
6.0
5.3
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
7.4
6.9
7.2
6.8
7.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
7.2
7.0
7.2
6.3
7.2
6.7
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.5
6.6
6.2
5.8
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
7.9
7.2
8.1
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
6.8
1915        „             	
6.5
1916       „              ...... 	
6.4
1917       „         	
6.4
1918        ,,         ....           	
6.7
1919        „         	
6.7
1920        „	
7.0
1921        „         	
6.6
1922        „          -	
6.6
1923        „         	
6.8
1924        „         .   ..
6.5
Table XXIX.—Average Weights of Principal Classes of Nass River Sockeyes, 1924,
compared with 1923 and with General Averages of 1914 to 1921.
Average
Weights,
1924.
Average
Weights,
1923.
5.9
5.8
5.4
5.2
7.2
6.7
6.1
6.1
6.8
6.6
6.1
6.0
8.0
7.2
6.5
6.8
General
Averages,
1914 to
1921.
One year in lake—
Four-year  males...
Four-year females.
Five-year  males—.
Five-year females.
Two years in lake—
Five-year males	
Five-year females.
Six-year males	
Six-year females...
5.9
5.3
7.0
6.3
7.0
6.3
7.8
6.6
(4.)  The Meziadin and Bowser Lake Sockeye Colonies.
While visiting the spawning-grounds of the Nass River watershed in September, 1924.
Inspector Hickman obtained additional material from the Meziadin River at the falls and from
the Nass, 2 miles above its junction with the Meziadin. Those taken in the Nass were presumably
bound for Bowser Lake. In this material were included scales and measurements of 160 sockeyes
from the Meziadin and thirty-four from the Nass.
On every visit to this district it has been reported that the Nass River above the Meziadin
tias been so turbid with sediment that It has been impossible to obtain ocular evidence of the
abundance of sockeyes bound for Bowser Lake. In 1924 every effort was made to secure
specimens in this turbid water by means of gill-nets, which were fished from September 18th
to the 26th, with the meagre results above noted. We are compelled to assume that if Bowser
Lake has any considerable importance as spawning-grounds for sockeye salmon, these must ascend
the stream earlier than the run to the Meziadin, and earlier than September, when our observations have been made.
Examination of all the material obtained presents additional evidence of the distinctness
of the two races. At the same time it discloses the interesting fact that certain of the differences
noted in the run of 1928 are not invariably found. In 1923 the nuclear area of the scale, which
gives the history of the young salmon in fresh water, was unquestionably different in the two
races, and indicated, as is shown in Table XXXV., that during the two years when the five-year
fish of the run of 1923 were fingerlings in their respective lakes (1919 and 1920) the Meziadin
fingerlings made a larger growth than those which inhabited Bowser Lake.    This was reflected in the number of nuclear rings in the growth of both years, averaging 8+14 in the Meziadin
fish and 7+10 in the Bowser Lake colony. This difference no longer appears in the run of 1924,
the nuclear rings of the Meziadin sockeyes averaging 5.3+14.5 and the Bowser Lake sockeyes
6+ia7. Considering the limited amount of material available, these can be considered identical.
In the scales of sixty fish caught on the fishing grounds outside the averages are 7.5+13.4.
Another difference between these two races, shown in our previous reports, concerned the
habits of their fingerling colonies with respect to length of residence in fresh water before
seeking the sea. The Meziadin fingerlings showed a definite tendency to remain longer in fresh
water than did the others. Very few Meziadin fingerlings migrated when one year old, the
majority remaining two full years in the lake, and a number of them three full years. In Bowser
Lake, on the contrary, a larger number migrated when one year old and very few remained until
they were three. A similar tendency was undoubted in the individuals which constituted the
run of 1924. Among the Meziadin fish (160 specimens), none had sought the sea at the age
of one year and 24 per cent, had remained until their third year. But the Bowser Lake material
presented 18 per cent, of one-year-in-lake individuals and only one specimen of the three-years-
in-lake type. The history of the three years in this respect, in which we have obtained material,
is shown in the following table:—■
Table XXX.—Percentages of Meziadin and Bowser Lake Runs, showing Different
Number of Years in Fresh Water.
Years in Lake.
No. of
One
Year.
Two
Years.
Three
Years.
Specimens.
Meziadin,  1922                 	
13
40
33
18
80
84
76
60
64
79
20
3
24
3
3
10
Meziadin, 1923	
63
Meziadin,  1924            	
160
Bowser,  1922	
15
Bowser,  1923	
41
Bowser,   1924	
34
Another line of evidence bearing on the distinctness of these two races is now available in
the sizes attained by the individuals comprising the two runs. The Bowser Lake colony is made
up of fish that average distinctly smaller than those belonging to the Meziadin. As shown in
Table XXXI., the Bowser Lake males averaged 25.5 inches long, while the Meziadin males
averaged 26.8 inches. Similarly, the females averaged respectively 23.6 and 25.7 inches. The
effect of the gill-nets on the Bowser Lake material would be to screen out the smaller sizes and
thus increase the average size. The true Bowser Lake averages may therefore be even smaller
than here given.    The details are presented in the following table:— 15 Geo. 5
Life-history of Sockeye Salmon.
I 39
Table XXXI.—The Lengths of Individuals comprising the Meziadin and Bowser Lake Runs
in 1924.
Number of Individuals
FROM
Length in Inches.
Bowser Lake.
Meziadin Lake.
Males.
Females.
Males.
Females.
2014  ---   	
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
3
1
4
7
4
11
20
17
11
7
8
2
2
1
21                                                                         	
21% -	
22   	
22%                                 	
1
23                                                                          	
23%    	
1
24	
2
24%	
5
25	
11
25%   	
12
26	
15
26%   	
10
27...                                  .                	
6
27%   -	
1
28	
28%	
29	
29%    	
1
30...              .                	
30%     	
31	
Totals 	
12
22
95
65
25.5
23.6
26.8
25.7 I 40 Eeport of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE FRASEK BIVEE.
Hon. William Sloan,
Corn/missioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit that during the season of 1924 I again visited the principal
lake sections of the Fraser River basin, where formerly the sockeye salmon spawned in abundance.
It was my twenty-second annual inspection.
The catch of salmon in Provincial waters of the Fraser River system this year produced a
total pack of 208,516 cases, as against 226,869 cases in 1923 and 140,570 cases in 1922. It consisted of 39,748 cases of sockeye, 7,630 cases of springs, 21,401 cases of cohoe, 109,495 cases of
chums, and 31,968 cases of pinks. -   ■
The sockeye-pack was 8,093 cases more than in 1923 and 8,651 cases less than in the fourth
preceding year,  and 1,291  cases  less  than  the  average for the  three preceding years.
The sockeye-pack in the State of Washington waters of the Fraser River system in 1924 was
69,396 cases, a gain of 6,715 cases over the pack of the fourth preceding year.
The sockeye-pack in the entire Fraser River system in 1924 totalled 109,117 cases, as against
111,053 cases in the preceding fourth year.
The number of sockeye that escaped capture in the fishing waters and which reached the
spawning areas above Hell's Gate Canyon in the Fraser River was not greater than in 1923,
and, like the escapement of that year, was so small as to make little visible impression in any
section of the upper lakes and tributaries of that river. Small numbers of sockeye were in
evidence at Hell's Gaite Canyon, above Vale, during July, August, and September. Water conditions in the canyon were favourable throughout the run with the exception of one day, when
for some twelve hours very few, if any, were enabled to pass above the canyon. Then the water
dropped and within a few hours all had passed upwards, and no others were delayed there during
the season. The reports that salmon are unable to negotiate the rapids at Hell's Gate are without
foundation. There is and has been no blockade there for more than a few hours at a time in
any season since 1914. In that year the last vestige of the great slide of rock that was thrown
Into the river-channel in the winter of 1913 was removed. All of the salmon that reach that
canyon now have no more difficulty in passing upward through the rapids in Hell's Gate Canyon
than those encountered which reached there previous to 1913.
No salmon are known to have entered Quesnel Lake this year. Since the dam at the outlet
of the lake was removed and the water restored to its original channel the movements of fish
at that point cannot be as clearly observed as formerly. Nevertheless, had any considerable
number of salmon reached there this year, they would certainly have been noticed by the many
local fishermen who angle there for trout throughout the season. Those interviewed all stated
that they had not seen one salmon there this year.
No sockeye were observed in either the Horsefly or Mitchell Rivers, the two largest tributaries
of Quesnel Lake, and which in earlier years were most frequented by sockeye. Many residents
on the banks of the Horsefly River, up as far as the wood-jam, were interviewed. None of them
had seen a single sockeye in that river in the last two years.
Only a few hundred sockeye entered the Chilcotin River this fall. Indians who fished at
Fish Canyon, the rapids below Hanceville, and at Indian Bridge, beyond Alexis Creek, reported
that they had caught some 300 spring salmon and less than 100 sockeye. Reports from the
headwaters of Chilko Lake, to which the sockeye that enter the Chilcotin River are headed, are
to the effect that very few sockeye reached there this 3'ear.
The run up the Thompson to Shuswap Lake was very small. No sockeye reached Adams
Lake and comparatively few were observed in any one of the many other tributaries of Shuswap
Lake.
Less than fifty sockeye are known to have entered Seton and Anderson Lakes.
The sockeye run to the Birkenhead River, at the head of Harrison-Lillooet Lakes section of
the Lower Fraser, this year was the largest I have seen there since my first inspection in 1902. 15 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of Fraser River. I 41
A great many thousands of sockeye reached there during the season, which lasted from late
August until well into October. T. W. Graham, Superintendent of the hatchery on the Birkenhead, reported to Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Inspector of Fisheries for the Dominion Government in British Columbia, that the number of sockeye that reached the Birkenhead was 25 per
cent, greater than in any year since the hatchery was built in 1907. Thirty-odd million of
sockeye-eggs were collected for the hatchery without making any noticeable drain on the run
of spawning fish. The run was so heavy by the end of September that many thousands of
sockeye were permitted to pass through the weirs to spawn in the upper end of the river.
After the hatchery was filled with sockeye-eggs the weirs were removed and many thousands
of fish passed farther up-stream. Throughout the season the bed of the Birkenhead, from the
hatchery to the mouth, was covered with spawning fish.
For the last seven years the run of sockeye to the Birkenhead River has been up to the
average, if it has not exceeded the runs since 1902. How the race of sockeye that spawn there
have not only maintained their numbers, but apparently have increased them, while those that
spawn in every other important section of the Fraser River basin have been almost exterminated,
is not in evidence. Dr. Gilbert in his analysis of the run of sockeye to the Fraser in 1923
established that the greater proportion of ithe catch of that year consisted of the Birkenhead
type, and it is anticipated that it will be shown to have been so in 1924.
The present run of sockeye to the Fraser River system must certainly be attributed to the
races that spawn in the Birkenhead-Harrison-Pitt-Cultus Lakes section of the Lower Fraser
basin. The numbers of sockeye that have spawned in the basins above Hell's Gate in the last
ten years have been too small to be a factor in the run that now seeks the Fraser. The greater
part of the present run must be attributed to the Birkenhead spawners.
In outward colouring the sockeye which spawns in all waters below Hell's Gate Canyon,
including the Birkenhead, differ very greatly from those which formerly spawned above the
canyon. The males of the latter were characterized by the brilliant red colour of the sides
and backs and the dark green of their heads. Many of the females commonly had red on their
sides. On the other hand, the males of the sockeye that spawn in the Birkenhead and in the
waters to the south are far less brilliantly marked with red and their heads are not so green.
Many of the males show but little colour and all those that do so are of a dark brick colour,
and most of the females show no red at all.
The fact that the Birkenhead sockeye are a distinct race from those which formerly spawned
above Hell's Gate is also indicated by the fact that most canners and buyers state that the
quality of the present pack of Fraser sockeye is less rich in oil and paler in colour than formerly,
that the Fraser pack of sockeye is no longer more valuable than that of the Skeena and Rivers
Inlet, and that the pack is no longer regarded as the best on the Coast.
The number of sockeye that reached Harrison Lake was not up to recent good years. Less
than 3,000,000 eggs were collected at the hatchery stream, as against 12,000,000 in 1923.
The run to Morris Creek was above the average of recent years. Upwards of 3,000,000 eggs
were taken there. The increase in the run to Morris Creek is attributed to the planting of eyed
eggs in the gravels in recent years. For many years Morris Creek supplied most of the sockeye-
eggs collected for the hatcheries at Harrison Lake and at Bon Accord. None of the fry were
liberated in Morris Creek or lake for a considerable period and the run rapidly declined and
finally stopped. Since 1919 liberations of fry have been made there and eyed eggs planted in
gravel.    The present run is attributed to that work.
The run of sockeye to Pitt Lake and tributaries is reported to have been the best since the
hatchery was established. Over 5,000,000 eggs were collected and many fish spawned naturally.
It is also reported that the sockeye run to Cultus Lake was much the largest since the hatchery
was established there. Five million eggs were collected—all the hatchery would hold—and it
was estimated that four times that number could have been taken.
I am indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell, Dominion Chief Inspector of Fisheries, for much
of the information here given for the Lower Fraser, and for having furnished the Department
with the following statement giving the number and species of salmon-eggs placed in the
hatcheries of the Fraser River:— I 42
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
Statement of Salmon-egg Collections in Hatcheries of Fraser River, Season 1924.
Hatchery.
Sockeye.
Spring.
Cohoe.
Chum.
5,075,000
6,518,000
31,200,000
5,678,000
	
577,500
66,000
228,000
Pitt  Lake                         	
Totals
48,471,000
577,500
66,000
228,000
Respectfully submitted.
John Pease Babcock,
Assistant to the Commissioner. 15 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of Skeena River. I 43
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE SKEENA   RIVER.
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In obedience to your instructions, I beg to submit the following report on the spawning-
beds of the Skeena River for the year 1924:—
I left Prince Rupert on September 1st and visited Lakelse Lake the following day. This
lake is 12 miles by automobile from Terrace and thence 4 miles by foot to the hatchery. On my
arrival at the hatchery I met Mr. Hearne, the Superintendent, who has been transferred from
Babine Hatchery. I was agreeably surprised to learn that Mr. Hearne had the hatchery full,
having a total of 8,624,000 sockeye-eggs. He informed me that he could easily have had
20,000,000 sockeye-eggs as the run was so good this year. This is the fourth year this hatchery
has been in use, being completed in the spring of 1920. The first sockeye were seen in the lake
on June 7th, which was fully a week earlier than the three preceding years. Mr. Hearne commenced spawning on August 2nd and had obtained his quota by August 14th, which established
a record for Lakelse.
In the afternoon I visited Schallabuchan Creek, or " Son of a Gun," as it is commonly called.
This is a small creek having about 5 miles of good spawning-grounds, commencing 1 mile from
the lake. The fences for spawning purposes were put in on July 21st and removed on August
14th, so many sockeye passed up both before and after the fences were in use. The showing
of sockeye in this creek surpassed that of all previous visits, the males and females being about
equal in number and of good size.
Calling in at Hot Spring Creek a little farther along the lake I found it also in excellent
shape. This small creek has about 2 miles of spawning-grounds, and as it is the latest spawning-
creek on Lakelse there were still a good number of sockeye breaking water in the lake at the
mouth of the creek. Some 400,000 eggs were collected for the hatchery from this creek alone,
an unusual number for so small a creek, which in no way interfered with the natural propagation,
if one could judge by the number of decaying fish. The black bear are very numerous around
Lakelse and cause much havoc among the sockeye in all the small creeks.
I next went down Lakelse River as far as the old hatchery-site. This river is the outlet of
the lake and enters the Skeena 12 miles distant. Very few sockeye spawn in this river, as they
go straight through to the creeks on the lake. Lakelse River is generally a good humpback-river
and at the time of my visit large numbers of this variety were much in evidence.
Returning to the hatchery, next morning I visited Salmon Creek and three small tributaries
of Granite Creek. These are all small creeks quite close to each other, Salmon Creek being the
best. These four small creeks have spawning areas varying in length from % to 2 miles, and
from the number of sockeye seen should all be well seeded.
The last creek visited was Williams Creek at the head of the lake, the principal sockeye-
creek on Lakelse. This is a big swift-running stream, over 20 miles in length, and it is the
earliest spawning-creek. Six million sockeye-oggs for the hatchery were collected from this
creek during the big run in the early part of August. A large number of sockeye went up the
creek before the fences were put in on July 19th, and again when the fences were removed on
August 12th. All up the creek the bars were littered with dead fish and many were in their
last stage along the bank. All the big pools for a considerable distance were a dense mass of
sockeye and they showed up like streaks of red on the gravelly patches.
In summing up the Lakelse spawning area, I may say that all the creeks will be abundantly
seeded this year and, from all reports, much better than that of 1919.,The sockeye were of a
better average in size than the last four years, the males and females being apparently evenly
balanced. As the sockeye-pack on the Skeena was 184,945 in 1919 and 89,064 in 1920, it is quite
apparent that a big percentage of this years' run were five-year fish.
I left Terrace on September 3rd and arrived at Burns Lake next morning. After outfitting,
etc., at Burns Lake I reached Donald's Landing, Babine Lake, on the night of the 7th.
Leaving the landing early the following morning, I set out for Pierre Creek, but did not
reach there until the afternoon of the 9th owing to a strong head-wind which made travel in a I 44 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
small boat extremely dangerous. Pierre Creek is of a fair size and has always been a good
sockeye-creek, having excellent spawning-grounds for a distance of about 2 miles. On my arrival
the creek was swarming with fish-ducks and sea-gulls, crows and eagles being also much in
evidence, and to judge by the numerous tracks and half-eaten sockeye, friend Bruin was not
far off. Pierre is considered an early spawning-creek, but there was a large school of sockeye
in the lake at the mouth of the creek. On going up the creek spawning sockeye were seen in
large numbers, but the dead and the decaying sockeye were in the majority. The fish were of
an average size, with the exception of a number of three-year grilse, or " runts," the males and
females being evenly balanced.
Making an early start next morning, I arrived at Hatchery Creek in the afternoon. One
Indian family from the village of Old Fort have a smoke-house near the boat-landing. This
family catch their fish near the mouth of the creek and had already caught approximately
1,000 sockeye. Hatchery Creek is about 3 miles in length and is the best all-round sockeye-creek
of the Skeena watershed. This creek has a muddy bottom for about a quarter of a mile from
the mouth, but beyond that the water is swifter and sockeye make their appearance, increasing
in numbers right up to Morrison Lake, almost at the door of the hatchery. Fences and pens
are placed in the creek at the mouth of the lake to enable the hatchery crew to collect the eggs
for the hatchery. I met Mr. Tingley, the Superintendent of the hatchery, who informed me that
the sockeye were first noticed in this creek on July 26th. Spawning operations commenced
September 10th on the day of my visit, 700,000 eggs being collected. This is a record for. this
hatchery for the first day's spawning, as a first day in any previous year did not exceed 400,000.
The quarter-mile stretch at the head of the creek was simply alive with sockeye, so one cannot
be but optimistic as ,to the run four and five years hence. The sockeye were of a good average
size, some fine big specimens of both sexes being noticed, the males being slightly in excess of
the females. There are four excellent retaining-ponds close to the hatchery, fed by running
water from Morrison Lake. The ponds were full of last year's sockeye-fry and they were
remarkable for their size and condition. I stood watching these yearlings for some time, and
as they were very active after flies they gave the impression that rain was falling. The situation
here is ideal, being as near to the natural state as possible. Next morning I visited Salmon
Creek at the head of Morrison Lake, some 12 miles from the hatchery.    This creek is about
5 miles in length, but there were few sockeye to be seen owing to the fences at the head of
Hatchery Creek. At the rate the hatchery crew were collecting their eggs, it would only be a
matter of a few days till they obtained their quota, 8,000,000 eggs, when the fences would be
removed, allowing the fish to pass on up.
Returning to the hatchery again, I left next morning and reached Babine in the afternoon.
Babine village is at the outlet of the lake and sixty-five Indian families from this village were
fishing on Babine River, in the 12-mile stretch from the lake. Going down the river next morning
I visited several of their smoke-bouses, there being about thirty in all. Every smoke-house was
well stocked with sockeye and on a conservative estimate each family would average 1,000
sockeye. The smoke-houses of the lower stretch had in addition a number of humpbacks and
some fine big springs. The fish are caught by nets staked out at night, one net being supplied
each family by the Dominion Government every two years. There are two fishery guardians
on Babine Lake, as the same weekly close season prevails as on the Lower Skeena. In the swift
and shallow water many sockeye could be seen spawning and large numbers in the pools would
dart away on the approach of the boat. Beyond this 12-mile stretch there was a good showing
of humpbacks, and also a few springs here and there. Babine River will be well seeded this
year, and there is no doubt of it being a big run, as even the Indians did not complain.
Returning to Babine, I left next morning and arrived at Tachek or Fulton River that night.
The following morning I went to the falls at the head of this river, being approximately 3 miles
from the lake.    These falls have a sheer drop of about 40 feet, with smaller falls of about
6 feet a little farther down. A number of sockeye were seen in the pool at the lower falls, but
none between the two. Fulton River is the largest stream entering Babine Lake and ranks
second to Hatchery Creek in importance.    It is also one of the latest spawning-creeks in this
■area, the sockeye running up to the beginning of October. Large numbers of sockeye were to
be seen on the spawning-beds all the way down. A number of " runts " were observed, but for
the most part the sockeye were of an average size, the males, if anything, predominating. If
this creek were not so far in the wilds it would be a fisherman's paradise, as the many big pools 15 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of Skeena River. I 45
are swarming with rainbow trout up to 6 and 8 lb. in weight.    Three Indian families have a
smoke-house at the mouth of this creek, which was well filled with sockeye.
Leaving Fulton River, I reached Donald's Landing the same night. On the morning of the
18th I visited 15-Mile Creek, which is the proposed location for a new hatchery. Work had
already commenced this spring, but was for some reason postponed to a later date. This creek
was also in good condition, having splendid spawning-grounds for a distance of a quarter of a
mile. Sockeye were very thick here and resembled the head of Hatchery Creek, being literally
in the tens of thousands. A distressing feature of this creek, however, was the presence of a
large number of " runts," which would in my opinion average about 20 per cent, of the spawning
fish. On my first inspection five years ago—i.e., 1920—and again in 1921, I made a note of the
same condition in this creek. There are grilse in every creek, of course, but this one creek
is particularly noticeable in this regard.
I next called in at 4-Mile Creek near the head of the lake. This is a small creek, but judging
by the number of dead and decayed sockeye for a distance of 3 miles, it should equal the others
in proportion to its size.
That night camp was made at the head of the lake and the following morning I made a
detour of 9 miles in order to reach Grizzly Creek. This creek runs into Beaver Creek about 7
miles from the lake. Sockeye do not spawn in Beaver Creek but pass through it to reach
Grizzly Creek. Grizzly Creek is 120 miles from the outlet of the lake and incidentally it is the
earliest spawning-creek on Babine. This is a small creek having only about half a mile of
spawning-grounds, but nevertheless it is worthy of notice. Very few live fish were seen, but
the bars and pools were covered with decaying fish. The sockeye were of a high average in
size, few " runts " being seen. As this was the last point of interest on Babine Lake, I returned
to Donald's Landing and arrived at Burns Lake on September 21st.
In summing up the Babine area, I am pleased to say that the spawning-grounds were
exceptionally well seeded this year, being the best I have yet seen, and, from all reports, even
better than 1919. The fish were large in size in comparison with the four preceding years and
it is evident that a big percentage were of the 1919 seeding.
I arrived at Hazelton on September 24th and visited Agwillgate Canyon on the Bulkley
River. Towards the end of July the Agwillgate and some of the Hazelton Indians gathered at
this canyon and caught some 3,000 sockeye with dip-net and spear. In former years the canyon
was a great meeting-place among the Indians during the sockeye run, but now only a few of the
older Indians keep up the practice. From all reports the Bulkley River had a fair run of sockeye
this year. At the time of my visit the run was practically over, and I was informed that owing
to the high water during July and August it was exceedingly difficult to form an estimate of the
number of fish passing up. The Indians were of the opinion that the run up the Bulkley was
good.
Kispiox River was again up to expectations, the river being one teeming mass of humpbacks.
In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation of the kindness of the Hatchery Superintendent and Fishery Guardians.
I have, etc.,
Robert Gibson,
Fisheries Overseer.
Port Essington, B.C., October 14th, 192.',. I 46 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF RIVERS INLET.
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Acting upon instructions from the Department to again make an inspection of the
sockeye-spawning beds of Rivers Inlet, I have the honour to submit my report for 1924.
Following the method adopted last year to inspect the early-running salmon-streams situated
at the head of the Owikeno Lake first, I left the cannery at Rivers Inlet on September 17th,
with the intention of going right through to the head, but was delayed on account of the
exceptionally bad weather. Stopping off at Quap, I had a look at the spawning-beds, but few
fish had arrived at that early date. The hatchery crew were busy making prepartions for
the usual collection of eggs for the hatchery and were of the opinion that no difficulty would
be experienced in obtaining their full quota. While waiting for the weather to moderate I took
the opportunity to cross over to the Dalley River to see if the sockeye had entered this stream,
but few fish had arrived. From the number that were schooled up at the entrance, indications
pointed to a big run later on. Proceeding up the lake next day, we were compelled to again
take shelter at Asklum River. The spawning-beds even at this early date were beginning to
show activity, as large numbers of sockeye could be seen in the clear water; indications here
pointed to a big run of fish later on.
Eventually reaching the head, I made camp and next day examined the Cheo River, one of
the three tributaries situated at this point. The run of sockeye to this stream excelled in
numbers any that had been seen within my memory, or in the twelve years that it has been
inspected by me. It was not until we had proceeded above the first rapids that this was
manifest; here the sockeye lined the beds in immense numbers, the greater number being of
an exceptional average in size. Continuing my way up to the log-jam and from there to the
falls, the same conditions prevailed, while all the side-streams contained their full quota of
fish. In estimating the proportion of males and females, the males outnumbered the females
about two to one. With the exception of the log-jam already referred to, no obstructions
interfered with the movement of the sockeye up-stream.
The Indian River, lying over on the extreme left, contained a run of fish similar in all
respects to that met with on the Cheo. The spawning-beds are restricted in size, but owing
to the absence of obstructions they were able to make use of every foot of gravel at their
disposal. Dead bodies of sockeye were drifting down-stream, while large numbers covered the
bars, indicating that earlier a big run had entered. In size they averaged up well with the
fish seen on the Cheo.
The Washwash River more than fulfilled its reputation as one of the most productive salmon-
streams on the lake. Like the Cheo and Indian Rivers, the spawning-beds contained a run of
sockeye surpassing in numbers anything that has been witnessed here before within my memory.
The spawning-beds below the numerous log-jams contained a milling mass of sockeye, the recent
freshet having formed these obstructions previous to my visit. They did not, however, form an
impregnable barrier to the sockeye reaching the spawning-beds above, as was evidenced in the
large numbers seen spawning all the way to the falls, but these obstructions should be removed
or they will eventually block the river. The high average in size of the sockeye was again in
evidence here, the males outnumbering the females two to one.
Returning from the head of the lake, the small mountain stream known as Sunday Creek
showed up very well, especially in contrast to the poor runs experienced in recent years. The
gravel-bars at the entrance were covered with spawning sockeye, all of an exceptional average
in size, the males and females being about evenly distributed.
At the " Narrows," and close to the Indian smoke-house, few sockeye had made their appearance, but the cohoe salmon lined the beds in large numbers. In examining the Sheemahant
River, the largest tributary on the lake, it was encouraging to note the improvement in the run
of sockeye in comparison with recent years. The spawning-beds from the entrance for a
distance of 2 miles contained a run of sockeye resembling that of 1919, one of the brood-years.
Lining the beds above each rapid, they could be seen clearly, and, like the other streams already 15 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of Rivers Inlet. I 47
inspected, the fish were of an exceptional average in size. Farther up the Indians had a net out
and were well pleased with the catches they were making. In proceeding on to the falls few
fish were in evidence, as the discoloration of the water prevented an accurate estimate of the
actual run, but sufficient was obtained to satisfy me that it is the best run of fish since the
brood-years 1919-20. At the falls cohoe salmon were much in evidence, many making futile
efforts to surmount them. At certain stages of the water they do surmount this obstruction,
because Indians and white trappers have seen them on what is known as the White River,
40 miles in, as late as December and January. No sockeye so far have been known to surmount
the falls.
The inspection of Jeneesee Creek and other tributaries of the lake was continued on my
return from the inspection of the spawning-beds at Smith Inlet; by this time the movement of
the sockeye salmon into these streams had hegun in earnest. Jeneesee Creek received one of
the biggest runs in its history and excelled even the remarkable run of fish in 1919, one of the
brood-years of the present run. From the mouth right up to the fence a milling mass of sockeye
had congregated and the hatchery crew were not slow in taking advantage; as quickly as
possible they were let into the pen and spawned out. Some trouble had been experienced earlier
in keeping the Machmell River from breaking through the dam, but quick work on the part of
the hatchery crew prevented any damage to the Jeneesee Creek and the ponds that had been
constructed close by. Again the high average in size of the sockeye was noted, the males being
about evenly distributed with the females.
Examining the Machmell River next, conditions were not favourable in estimating the run
of sockeye, as the thick muddy water prevented all efforts to see the fish. Farther up dead
bodies had been cast up on the bars, showing that this river is used by the salmon for spawning
purposes, but I do not think to any extent. It is in the Nookins (or Nechants) River, a tributary
to the Machmell, that the greater number of sockeye spawn. The spawning-beds right up to the
rough water contained one of the biggest runs of fish that has been seen in years, while the side-
streams all contained their full quota of salmon. No log-jams or other obstructions prevented
the movement up stream.    In size, as in the case of the other rivers, the average was high.
The opinion expressed on my first visit to Asklum River, that a big run of fish would later
arrive, was more than fulfilled on my return. From the mouth all the way up a seething mass
of sockeye lined the spawning-beds, representing one of the biggest runs seen here for many
years. Schools of fish waiting in the deeper portions of the river will add their quota of eggs
when ready to spawn, ensuring a very successful return of adult sockeye from this season's
spawning. There are one or two log-jams that might with advantage be removed, but at present
cause no obstruction to the movement of the fish up-stream.
The run of sockeye salmon to Quap River, where the hatchery collect most of their eggs,
was again a scene of unparalleled activity. Instead of showing any decrease in the remarkable
numbers that have returned in recent years, the run of fish is even greater. Both outside in the
surrounding waters of the bay a milling mass of sockeye were waiting, while inside the river
right up to the fence the same conditions prevailed. The hatchery crew experienced no difficulty
in collecting all they required for the hatchery and could have, if necessary, filled it three times
over. It emphasizes the value of restocking the streams each year; in this connection it is
interesting to note that no fewer than 19,647,900 young fry were liberated into various rivers
during the spring of 1920-21, the brood of the present run of adult sockeye. The return this
year would seem to indicate that the immense number seen on the spawning-beds is largely due
to the measures employed by the hatchery at that time.
Crossing over to the Dalley River, indications on my first visit that a big run of sockeye
would arrive later were confirmed by the immense numbers that had taken possession of the
spawning-beds all the way up to the falls, thousands of dead bodies were distributed over the
bars, while in the deeper portions thick masses of sockeye waited. It is easily one of the best
runs that has ever entered the Dalley. In size the fish were well up to the average of other
streams examined.
The small creek adjoining the hatchery received one of the biggest runs it has ever known,
the majority being of an exceptional average in size.
The fine spawning-beds at the head of the Owikeno River and surrounding the Old Town
Rancherie were again a scene of activity, the Indians having no difficulty in procuring all they
required for winter use.   The run is one of the largest experienced here.   Below the first rapids I 48 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
spring salmon in large numbers were jumping in all directions, showing that this species of fish
had arrived in big numbers.    Dog-salmon lower down the river were also in evidence.
In summing up the results of the inspection of the spawning-beds at Rivers Inlet, I am of
the opinion that the run of sockeye to all the tributaries of Owikeno Lake was in excess of any
run seen within my experience. The escapement must have been very large, and I can only
conclude that the close season in force during the fishing season permitted thousands to escape
to- the spawning-beds.
In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation of the courtesy extended by the management of the B.C. Fishing & Packing Company, also by Weldon A. Reid, Superintendent of the
Dominion Hatchery, and the men at the various spawning camps.
I have, etc.,
A. W. Stone,
Fisheries Overseer.
Rivers Inlet, B.C., November 4th, 1924. 15 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of Smith Inlet. I 49
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF SMITH INLET.
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my report upon the inspection of the spawning-grounds
at Smith Inlet for the year 1924.
Leaving for Smith Inlet on October 3rd, I made arrangements with Indians and left for
Long Lake. Arriving at the Docee River (the overflow to the lake), it was found necessary
to again pack our outfit overland, as it was in freshet. Making camp at the mouth of the lake,
I had a look at the spawning-beds both in the river and along the shore-line at the mouth. The
run of spring salmon showed no falling-off from other years, the gravel-bars being literally
covered with them. No cohoe salmon were in evidence here, but many were breaking water as
we made our way up the lake. At Quay Creek, which lies about 7 miles from the mouth, I found
that the run of sockeye was nearly over; many in an advanced stage of spawning covered the
beds both inside the creek and outside along the shores of the lake, while dead bodies of the
fish had been cast up on the bars in all directions. At the falls a large school of sockeye had
congregated, and as they were in fair condition a good idea as to their size could be determined.
They were well up to the average, the males outnumbering the females two to one.
Arriving at the Geluch River, situated at the head of the lake, and comprising the principal
spawning-grounds of the sockeye, I was disappointed with the extent of the run, as the prolific
numbers noted in the brood-years 1919-20 should have yielded a better return. Going up the
river to the falls the spawning-beds were covered with sockeye, and will no doubt provide
adequate seed to ensure a fair return from this season's spawning. The small mountain streams
emptying into this river all contained their full quota of fish, while outside in the lake big
schools were much in evidence, breaking water in all directions. In size the fish were of good
average, the males outnumbering the females two to one. No log-jams or other obstructions
impeded the movement of the fish up-stream.
The spawning-beds of the Delebah River, which lie to the south of the lake, about 2 miles
from the head, did not contain anything like the immense runs which returned in the brood-years
1919-20. The dense masses of sockeye recorded at that time were entirely lacking. Outside
in the lake few sockeye were in evidence; usually in a "big" year they can be seen schooled
up in thousands. Proceeding up the river, which terminates in falls about 1% miles in extent,
a much better showing of sockeye could be seen, the beds all the way up being thickly covered.
Few fish had schooled up in the deeper portions of the river, and it is the lack of such schools of
fish, both outside and inside the river, that is bound to have its effect in curtailing the extent of
the run of adult sockeye that will return from this season's spawning, as compared with the
brood-years 1919-20. No obstructions were noted, so that the fish were able to utilize fully the
extent of the spawning-beds. In size they were well up to the average, the males and females
being about evenly distributed.
Returning down the lake, numerous sockeye were in evidence at all the small mountain
streams, and it may be that a big run of sockeye is still in the lake, not ready to move on to
the spawning-grounds; if such is the case we may not take a pessimistic view of the lack of fish
seen on the Geluch and Delebah Rivers. Arriving at the mouth of the lake once more, I noticed
that several schools of cohoe salmon were making their way up the river, and could be detected
in the clear water intermingled with the springs at the head.
In summing up the results of the inspection of this watershed, I am of the opinion that a
moderate run only need be expected from the spawning of this season. The entire lack of those
immense masses of sockeye which had possession of the spawning-beds in 1919-20 cannot but
have its effect in curtailing the extent of the run of fish that will return four and five years hence.
I have, etc.,
A. W. Stone,
Fisheries Overseer.
Rivers Inlet, B.C., November 4th, 1924. I 50 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE NASS RIVER,
Hon. William Sloan,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In obedience to instructions received from the Department to make an inspection of
the salmon-spawning areas in the Meziadin Lake watershed of the Nass River, I beg to submit
the following report :—
In the past few seasons the Dominion and Provincial Fisheries Departments have joined
forces in the inspection of this area, and A. E. Young was again appointed to represent the
Dominion Fisheries.
Upon my arrival at Stewart on September 6th I met Mr. Young. After getting our outfit
together and engaging two assistants we left Stewart for the interior on the 10th instant. Owing
to the bad condition of the trail, more especially the crossing over the Bear River Glacier, we
did not reach the head of Meziadin Lake until Sunday evening, September 14th. The next day
we assembled the canvas canoe and proceeded to examine the whole of the shore-line of the lake
on both sides and for a distance of 3 miles down. In all places reported on in former years a
large number of spawning sockeye were to be seen and many salmon were breaking water in
all parts of the lake. In this portion of the district the principal spawning-grounds of the
sockeye are situated, and great activity was to be observed on all of the gravel reaches of the
lake, there being more salmon here this season than I have seen in many past seasons. Hanna
River and McLeod Creek are two clear-water streams entering the lake about 9 miles from its
head, and it is to be noted that sockeye do not ascend these streams to spawn. Quite a few.
small bunches of salmon were to be seen at the mouths of these streams, but they do not spawn
here as the creek-bottom is either mud or very fine sand. At the time of our visit the water
in the lake was very high owing to the excessive rains, but by the time we had completed our
inspection it had gone down considerably, as it was then snowing in the higher altitudes.
On leaving the lake at its outlet many salmon were to be observed at the foot of the McBride
Rapids. A number of spawning spring salmon in a greatly advanced stage were still to be seen,
also numerous trout which were feeding on the spawn as soon as it was expressed.
There is a splendid stretch of water with little current from these rapids for a distance
of 3% miles down the Meziadin River. On our way in, this water was simply alive with young
salmon between the fry and fingerling stages, which were to be seen winnowing the water in
large schools. There is no doubt but that this is the place where the young spring salmon of
this watershed spend their early lives before they commence their seaward migration, for it is
an ideal natural retaining-pond of great magnitude.
On our arrival at the falls we found that two logs had jammed across the exist of the
fishway. Though they did not stop the fish, they were removed without delay. Very satisfactory
conditions were to be found here; many sockeye and a few cohoe were congregated below both
falls and salmon were continually passing through the fishway. There were at least 200 salmon
in each of the five basins of the fishway. These conditions prevailed for the whole of the time
we were in this vicinity, about ten days. We had a fine opportunity to study the run, and fresh
sockeye were ariving daily at the.lower fall and passing up through the fishway to the waters
above. Toward the end of our stay here cohoe appeared to be arriving in greater numbers, but
at the time of pur departure there were at least 80 per cent, sockeye in the run. While at the
fishway one evening we had an interesting visit from four large grizzly bears. They came out
of the bush on the far side of the river below the falls, went right into the river, and caught
their evening meal of salmon. The bush below the fishway and lower fall on the river-bank was
all trampled down by bear, which shows that they are very plentiful in this district and that
they are fully aware when there is a large run of salmon.
During the time we were camped at the falls, from the evening of September 16th until the
morning of the 27th, we obtained scales, measurements, lengths, and sex from 160 sockeye
salmon taken from the Meziadin River. We also tried to intercept the sockeye run in the Nass
River, 2 miles above its conjunction with the Meziadin River. In this effort we were only
partially successful. In the prosecution of this work I took in with me two pieces of gill-net
about 100 feet long, one piece of 25-mesh deep and the other 60-mesh.   On the 18th we made 15 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of Nass River. I 51
corks and hung the 25-mesh net and by the afternoon had it placed in the river. On the morning
of the 19th we had five sockeye and three more in. the evening. After we had attended to the
net in the morning we hung the 60-mesh net and had it in the river by evening. The site we had
chosen, about a quarter of a mile higher up-stream, was not a good one as there was not enough
back current to hold the net out in midstream, and after a lot of bard work we had to lift it.
On the 20th we had three sockeye in the 25-mesh net. We then found a new location for the
60-mesh net at a narrowing point of the river and were successful in getting a fine set, there being
a heavy back eddy which held the net well out in midstream. On the 21st we took only one
sockeye from the two nets, though they were set day and night. On the 22nd we caught four;
23rd, four ; 24th, one; 25th, seven; and the 26th, seven; this being the last set we made. The
nets were fished day and night for the time accounted for.
The results of this work were very disappointing. I fully expected we would have obtained
a large number of specimens owing to the excellent set of the 60-mesh net. Provided that there
had been many salmon in the river we could not have failed to have obtained better results,
and I would infer from the work carried out that very few sockeye were passing up the Nass
at this time. It is possible that many sockeye enter the river earlier in the season in passing
to the streams at the headwaters of the Nass. I have been informed by prospectors who have
been into the head of the Nass that they have seen many salmon in a tributary known in this
locality as the Blackwater. This river has a small lake system at its head and rises at the divide
between the Nass-and Skeena Rivers; it is not far distant from No. 6 Cabin on the Dominion
Yukon Telegraph Trail.
An Indian trapper and his wife were camped close to the falls and figured on taking about
700 to 1,000 salmon for winter food. They were taking their salmon from the Meziadin River
below the lower fall.
The fishway is in splendid condition after the work done on the crib and basins last season.
The approach to the fishway is now in its natural condition and the salmon find no difficulty in
entering the basins. While some salmon get over on to the far side of the fall, they eventually
work their way back and find the easy passage through the fishway.
After completing our work at the fishway and Nass River we commenced our return journey
to Stewart, arriving there in the evening of October 2nd. On our way up the lake many salmon
were still to be seen breaking water.
In summarizing on the salmon-spawning areas of the Meziadin watershed, I have to submit
that the whole of this district was well seeded. Many salmon were observed at all places.
During the ten days that we spent at the fishway sockeye salmon were passing through all the
time, there appearing to be very little difference toward the end of our visit. At all places along
the lake-shore where sockeye spawn the grounds should be well seeded, as they were literally
coverecl with fish.
At the time of our arrival at the lake the water was very high and I do not recollect seeing
it at a higher stage. Sockeye were spawning close up to the water's edge under the overhanging
bushes. On our return the lake-level must have been 2 feet lower and, as the cold weather
advances, the water would continue to recede until it reached its lowest stage. It appears to me
that this would kill out a large amount of spawn that was deposited during the high-water stage,
for it would be left high and dry until the freshet of next June and after the ice breaks up.
It is possible that this may be the cause of the difficulty in accurately comparing field reports
with the commercial catch at the mouth of the river four and five years hence. The sockeye-
spawning area here differs greatly from other lake spawning-grounds. There are no small creeks
tributary to Meziadin Lake where salmon in numbers spawn, the major part taking place in
the lake directly.
Should no unforeseen occurrence happen that is likely to kill out the spawn deposited on the
beds this season in this district, there will be a splendid return at maturity.
Respectfully submitted.
C. P. Hickman,
Inspector of Fisheries. I 52 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
NOTES ON THE FUR-SEAL.
By John Pease Babcock.
The history of the world's fur-seal fisheries is a record of cruelty and waste. Commercially
the fur-seals were formerly the most valuable of fur-bearing animals. As a group they were the
most abundant. They were of world-wide distribution, being found in the Antarctic, on both the
east and west coasts of South America, in Japan, on the Commander Islands, on the coast of
Australia and New Zealand, and Alaskan waters. Virtually all but those on the Pribilof
Islands, the Commander Islands, and the Japanese Islands, and a small island off the La Plata
River, Uruguay, have been commercially exterminated.
The herd on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, was formerly the largest. On the purchase of
Alaska in 1867 by the United States this herd was estimated to contain over 2,000,000 individual
seals. Some estimates placed it as high as 3,000,000. Under the policy adopted by the United
States killing was limited to bachelor males taken on land. Pelagic killing was not permitted.
The total number killed per year was limited to 100,000 bachelor males only. The total pelagic
catch in the North Pacific up to 1906 was 877,331. The skins were sold in London for $10,307,359.
The total bachelor male skins taken from the Pribilof Islands herd in those thirty-eight years—
1868 to 1906, inclusive—totalled 3,341,579 and the raw skins were sold in London for $47,242,998.
Due to rapid increase in pelagic sealing and the fatal effects of such practice, the herd
on the Pribilof Islands rapidly dec-lined. The census of the herds in 1911, when the treaty
became effective, showed that the herds totalled but 127,000 individuals, and the kill of bachelor
males on the islands that year was but 3,764.
The Fur-seal Treaty came into effect in 1911. Since that time killing has been confined to
the islands, only bachelor males being taken. The 1923 census of the herd showed that it
had increased to 697,158 individual seals, -a gain in fourteen years of 570,158, or nearly 450 per
cent. The number of skins taken in 1923 totalled 31,156, or 27,392 more than in 1912, a gain of
over 120 per cent.
Fur-seals breed only on land. They return, after migration, to their accustomed breeding-
places with great persistence. They cannot be driven away, stupidly remaining until nearly
exterminated, as was the case on all rookeries in the Antarctic, Australia, New Zealand, South
America, Japan, and Siberia. So certain is their habit of returning to their breeding-grounds
that re-establishment soon follows protection.
Fur-seals are highly polygamous and the rookery communities are divided into harems.
The breeding male—bulls over six years of age—arrive at the islands first early in June and
fight furiously for possession of space. The females follow and divide themselves over the
rookery in number from twenty to a hundred to each male. The bachelor males and the
immature females accompany the northern migration and " haul out" on the rock adjacent to
and overlooking the breeding-grounds. The young are born in the harem shortly after the
females arrive and remain there until the last of August or early in September, being nursed
by their mothers, who, after giving birth, go to sea for food, ranging from 200 to 300 miles from
the rookeries. At first the mothers return frequently. Gradually the trip is extended until, at
the end of the island residence, the pup is fed only once in ten days or more. The highly
polygamous habit naturally results in a large number of surplus males. Formerly the Pribilof
Islands produced a surplus of 100,000 males per year, which herded themselves on near-by
" hauling-grounds " adjacent to the breeding-rookeries. It is from these bachelor males that
the catch on the islands is made. The United States has never permitted the killing of females
on the islands or within the 3-mile limit at sea.
Pelagic sealing, being conducted in the open sea, perrnits of no selection being made and
the kill consists of both young and old, male and female. By far the greater proportion consisted of females. Pelagic sealing during the northern migration in the spring results in the
destruction of many females and their unborn pups. Pelagic sealing in the summer and early
fall destroys mainly females that have a nursing pup on the rookeries, which in consequence
dies of starvation, and each female is with pup. The female is served by the bull within a
few days after her pup is born.   The period of gestation is only a few days short of a year. 15 Geo. 5 Notes on the Fur seal. I 53
The killing of each female means not only her death, but the death of her nursing pup in the
harem and the death of the pup she is then carrying. The killing of any bird, animal, or fish
under such conditions means the destruction of the species.
The last ten years of pelagic sealing in the North Pacific so decimated the herds that the
hunting was no longer profitable. Up to 1902 pelagic sealing was almost wholly conducted by
Canadians, but in that year the Japanese became engaged, and as a result of a bounty of $10
per ton given by the Japanese Government to foster the deep-sea fisheries and pelagic sealing,
Japanese vessels engaged in sealing increased yearly. In 1906 Japanese sealers landed on the
Pribilof Islands and killed both male and female seals. The guards killed some of the Japanese
raiders.
The.advent of Japanese sealers soon effected a reduction in the Canadian catch, though it
had been declining for some years. In 1905 Canadian vessels averaged per vessel 725 skins; in
1906, 596; and in 1907 but 359 skins. By 1910 pelagic sealing was no longer profitable; most
sealers were losing money.
On February 27th, 1908, William Sloan, M.P. in the House of Commons in Ottawa, in speaking
of the fur-seal question, said:—
" I have shown the value to the world of the fur-seal fisheries of the North Pacific Ocean.
" I have pointed out the urgency of action being taken to save this valuable animal from
total extinction.
" I have suggested the Hague Tribunal as competent and unbiased to deal with this question.
" In conclusion, Mr. Speaker, the destruction of the fur-seal species would be unwarranted;
furthermore, it would be an unnatural, immoral, and unpatriotic policy.
"The protection and conservation of the fur-seals of the North Pacific Ocean is an obligation
due posterity by the nations of to-day who are directly responsible and directly interested.
"This question is not one that can be settled on lines of selfish consideration. It can only
be settled by compromise and generous patriotic statesmanship."
In that speech Mr. Sloan laid down the principles upon which the Fur-seal Treaty was
afterwards drawn. That speech is now as important as when delivered. It is the one notable
speech made in Ottawa upon the question.
Since the treaty took effect Canada has received, as her share of the proceeds of the
bachelor seals killed on the Pribilof Islands, the sum of $650,203.77. Since 1920 the demand
for seal-skins has decreased and the price fallen to a low level. If the present treaty expires
and pelagic sealing is again permitted, the herd on the Pribilofs will be destroyed in five or six
years. At existing prices pelagic sealing cannot be made profitable after a year or two. The
building of a fleet in Canada to engage in pelagic sealing will be followed by the equipment of a
fleet by Japanese, neither of which will prove profitable.
The safeguarding of the Pribilof herd and that at the mouth of the La Plata River, Uruguay,
has proved a sound business policy.
The Canadian pelagic fleet was a British Columbia fleet. Almost the entire investment was
made by British Columbians. It was a British Columbia fishery; no other Province was
engaged. The treaty put an end to that industry. The United States pays Canada 15 per cent,
of the sales of skins for the surrender of her pelagic fishing rights. Under the provisions of the
treaty the Pribilof herds will grow and in time equal in numbers those of 1867—2,000,00 or
3,000,000. When the fashion changes and seal-skins again advance, the return from the sale
of skins may equal that of the period 1868 to 1906; to wit, $47,242,99S. If so, Canada's share
would total $7,086,347.
If pelagic sealing is resumed the herds will soon be destroyed and Canada will reap no
benefit.    A growing asset will be destroyed.
The Fur-seal Treaty of 1911, signed by Great Britain, the United States, Japan, and Russia,
protects, so far as those four countries are concerned, the three northern species of fur-seals (the
Alaskan, the Japanese, and the Russian). It prohibits killing fur-seals in the water. It permits
only the killing of male seals on the land by the respective Governments owning the islands on
which the seals herd. In order that Great Britain would give up her right to kill seals on the
high seas, the United States offered and Great Britain accepted a 15-per-cent. interest in the
Alaska fur-seal herd. Russia and Japan did the same. So Great Britain, by the surrender
of Canada's right to engage in pelagic sealing, which was no longer of value, gained not only I 54 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
a 15-per-cent. interest in the Alaska fur-seal herd, but a 15-per-cent. interest in the Russian
and Japanese herds as well.    She acquired a growing asset.
This very substantial interest will continue just so long as the treaty remains in force, and
the money value of the 15-per-cent. interest will increase every year. Should the treaty be
abrogated, this very substantial interest will of course be forfeited, and Great Britain and
Canada will thereafter obtain nothing except as may come from the extremely uncertain pelagic
killing for a few years.
Formerly there were fur-seal rookeries in various parts of the world on islands of the
British Empire, among which may be named South Georgia, South Shetland, the Falklands,
islands on the New Zealand coast, islands on the coast of Australia, and on a number of small
islands elsewhere. As a result of pelagic sealing and greed in land killing, all these herds,
some of which were originally nearly as large as the Alaska herd ever was, long ago became
commercially extinct. However, small remnants of most of these herds still exist and they
could no doubt be restored to their former size if given the same protection which the Alaska
herd is now receiving under the present Fur-seal Treaty. The restoration of those herds would
yield many millions to the British Government in annual income. Merely as a business proposition, one of the best things the British Government could do would be the bringing about of an
international treaty for the protection from pelagic killing of all fur-seal wherever found and
the confining of killing to the taking of bachelor males on the breeding islands. No other policy
will produce anything. Any other policy means the annihilation of the existing fur-seal—the
destruction of the most valuable of all fur-bearing animals. 15 Geo. 5 Treaty for Protection of Pacific Halibut. I 55
TREATY FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE PACIFIC HALIBUT.
His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the
British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, and the United States of America, being
equally desirous of securing the preservation of the halibut-fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean,
have resolved to conclude a Convention for this purpose, and have named as their plenipotentiaries :—
His Britannic Majesty: The Honourable Ernest Lapointe, K.C., B.A., LL.B., Minister of
Marine and Fisheries of Canada;  and
The President of the United States of America: Charles Evans Hughes, Secretary of State
of the United States;
Who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found in good
and due form, have agreed upon the following articles:—
Article I.
The nationals and inhabitants and the fishing vessels and boats of the Dominion of Canada
and of the United States, respectively, are hereby prohibited from fishing for halibut (Hippo-
glossus) both in the territorial waters and in the high seas off the western coast of the Dominion
of Canada and of the United States, including Behring Sea, from the 16th day of November next
after the date of the exchange of ratifications of this Convention to the 15th day of the following
February, both days inclusive, and within the same period yearly thereafter; provided that upon
the recommendation of the International Fisheries Commission hereinafter described this close
season may be modified or suspended at any time after the expiration of three such seasons, by
a special agreement concluded and duly ratified by the High Contracting Parties.
It is understood that nothing contained in this Article shall prohibit the nationals or
inhabitants and the fishing vessels or boats of the Dominion of Canada and of the United States
from fishing in the waters hereinbefore specified for other species of fish during the season
when fishing for halibut in such waters is prohibited by this Article. Any halibut that may be
taken incidentally when fishing for other fish during the season when fishing for halibut is
prohibited under the provisions of this Article may be retained and used for food for the crew
of the vessel by which they are taken. Any portion thereof not so used shall be landed and
immediately turned over to the duly authorized officers of the Department of Marine and Fisheries
of the Dominion of Canada or of the Department of Commerce of the United States. Any fish
turned over to such officers in pursuance of the provisions of this Article shall be sold by them
to the highest bidder and the proceeds of such sale, exclusive of the necessary expenses in connection therewith, shall be paid by them into the treasuries of their respective countries.
Article II.
Every national or inhabitant, vessel or boat of the Dominion of Canada or of the United
States engaged in halibut-fishing in violation of preceding Article may be seized except within
the jurisdiction of the other Party by the duly authorized officers of either High Contracting
Party and detained by the officers making such seizure and delivered as soon as practicable to
an authorized official of the country to which such person, vessel, or boat belongs, at the nearest
point to the place of seizure, or elsewhere, as may be mutually agreed upon. The authorities
of the nation to which such person, vessel, or boat belongs alone shall have jurisdiction to conduct
prosecutions for the violation of the provisions of the preceding Article or of the laws or regulations which either High Contracting Party may make to carry those provisions into effect, and
to impose penalties for such violations; and the witnesses and proofs necessary for such prosecutions, so far as such witnesses or proofs are under the control of the other High Contracting
Party, shall be furnished with all reasonable promptitude to the authorities having jurisdiction
to conduct the prosecutions.
Article III.
The High Contracting Parties agree to appoint, within two months after the exchange of
ratifications of this Convention, a Commission to be known as the " International Fisheries Commission," consisting of four members, two to be appointed by each party.   This Commission shall I 56 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1925
continue to exist so long as this Convention shall remain in force. Each party shall pay the
salaries and expenses of its own members and joint expenses incurred by the Commission shall
be paid by the two High Contracting Parties in equal moieties.
The Commission shall make a thorough investigation into the life-history of the Pacific
halibut and such investigation shall be undertaken as soon as practicable. The Commission
shall report the results of its investigation to the two Governments and shall make recommendations as to the regulation of the halibut-fishery of the North Pacific Ocean, including the Bearing
Sea, which may seem desirable for its preservation and development.
Article IV.
The High Contracting Parties agree to enact and enforce such legislation as may be necessary
to make effective the provisions of this Convention with appropriate penalties for violations
thereof.
Article V.
This Convention shall remain in force for a period of five years and thereafter until two
years from the date when either of the High Contracting Parties shall give notice to the other
of its desire to terminate it. It shall be ratified in accordance with the constitutional methods
of the High Contracting Parties. The ratifications shall be exchanged in Washington as soon
as practicable, and the Convention shall come into force on the day of the exchange of
ratifications.
In faith whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention in
duplicate, and have thereunto affixed their seals.
Done at the City of Washington, the second day of March, in the year of our Lord one
thousand nine hundred and twenty-three.
(Sgd.)    Ernest Lapointe.
(Sgd.)    Charles Evans Hughes. 15 Geo. 5        Northern Pacific Halibut Fishery Protection Act. I 57
" NORTHERN PACIFIC HALIBUT FISHERY PROTECTION   .
ACT."
DOMINION OF CANADA.
Chap. 61.
An Act for the Protection of the Northern Pacific Halibut Fishery.
[Assented to 30th June, 1923.]
H
IS MAJESTY, by and with the advice and consent of the  Senate and
House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:—
1. This Act may be cited as " The Northern Pacific Halibut Fishery Protee- short title.
tion Act."
2. In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears :— Interpretation
(a.)  " Close season " means the period from the sixteenth day of November " Close season."
in any year to the fifteenth day of February in the next following
year, both days inclusive, while this Act is in force, or any other
period which may be substituted therefor by the authority of the
Governor in Council:
(b.)  "Territorial  waters  of  Canada"   means  the  territorial  waters  of "Territorial waters
Canada contiguous to the Western coast of Canada: of Canada."
(c.)   "Territorial   waters   of   the  United   States"   means   the   territorial "Territorial waters
waters of the United States of America contiguous to the Western of Uuiteu States."
coast of the United States of America:
((7.)   "Prohibited waters" comprises and means the territorial waters of "Prohibited waters."
Canada, the territorial waters of the United States, the high seas
extending westerly from the limit of the territorial waters of Canada,
and of the United States of America, also Behring Sea.
3. (a) Every person who at any time in the close season fishes for or catches Fishing for halibut
or  attempts  to  catch  halibut   (Hippoglossus)   in   the  territorial   waters  of jjbited waters in""0"
Canada;   and  (b)  every national or inhabitant of Canada who at any time close season
in the close season fishes for or catches or attempts to catch halibut (Hippo- forbladen-
glossus)  in prohibited waters, is guilty of an offence against this Act:   Provided that the catching of halibut unintentionally or incidentally while fishing Exception as to
during any close season in any of the waters aforesaid for any species of fish jj^ea^for^od1115
other than halibut, which the person fishing is at the time by law permitted by crew or delivered
there to fish for or to catch, shall not be an offence against this Act, if the t0 offlC8r-
halibut so caught be used for food by the crew of the vessel by which they
are taken, or, if not so used,  be landed and immediately delivered to any
officer of the Department of Marine and Fisheries authorized to receive the
same.
4. The owner or master of every vessel and every other person who in the Making use of Cana-
close season or at any time within three days next preceding the beginning vSselP to'en^age^in
of the close season makes use of any port or place in Canada for the purpose prohibited fishing.
of furnishing, providing, preparing, or outfitting in any manner, whether in
whole or in part, any vessel for the purpose of engaging in the halibut fishery
or for the purpose of fishing for halibut in the close season in the prohibited
waters or any part thereof;   or who causes or permits any vessel to depart Permitting departure
from any such port or place with the intention of fishing for halibut in any ?.f Tepsel wltn i.nten-
.  .,,.,.     , tion to engage in
of the prohibited waters in the close season, or with the intention that such such fishing.
vessel shall fish or be used in fishing for halibut in any of the prohibited
waters in the close season, shall be guilty of an offence against this Act;  and Entry in Canada
in like manner the owner or master of any vessel shall, if the said vessel enter fiSj^leor0witl^i?alibut
or come to any port or place in Canada while upon or in the prosecution of any oil board. I 58
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
voyage at any time during which the said vessel fished or was used in fishing
for halibut in prohibited waters in the close season, or having on board the
said vessel any halibut intentionally caught during the close season in prohibited waters, be guilty of an offence against this Act.
Vessel, cargo, and
outfit liable to
seizure and forfeiture.
R.S.,  c.  47.
5. Every ship, vessel, or boat, including all furniture, apparel, appliances,
gear, tackle, and rigging thereof, which is in any manner operated or used for
the purpose of committing an offence against this Act. or for aiding or facilitating the commission of any such offence, may be seized by any officer authorized
by the " Customs and Fisheries Protection Act" to board and search, and shall
be forfeited; and, moreover, all the cargo and stores found on hoard any such
ship, vessl, or boat at the time of the seizure shall also be forfeited.
Nationals or inhabitants of Canada or
United States and
ships registered
therein or belonging
to them liable to
E.S.,  c.  47.
Canadian  vessels
may be forfeited.
U.S. vessels to be
delivered to
U.S. officials.
6. Every national or inhabitant of Canada or of the United States, and every
ship, vessel, or boat registered in Canada or the United States, or belonging to
a national or inhabitant of Canada or of the United States, together with all
furniture, apparel, appliances, gear, tackle, and rigging thereof, engaged in or
used in connection with fishing for halibut in prohibited waters during the
close season (O.C. 27/5/24), or aiding or facilitating or used for the purpose
of' aiding or facilitating such fishing, may be seized by any officer authorized
by the Customs and Fisheries Protection Act" to board and search. In case
any such ship, vessel, or boat or other property be registered in Canada or
belong to a national or inhabitant of Canada, the same shall be forfeited;
and, moreover, all the cargo and stores on board any such ship, vessel, or boat
at the time of the seizure shall also be forfeited. In case any such person,
ship, vessel, or boat or other property be a national or inhabitant of the United
States, or be registered in the United States or belong to a national or inhabitant of the United States, the same shall be delivered as soon as practicable to
an authorized official of the United States to be dealt with in accordance with
the law of the United States.
7. Every person who knowingly has in possession any halibut unlawfully
Knowingly in
possession of halibut
unlawfully caught,    caught withm any of the waters aforesaid during any close season shall be
guilty of an offence against this Act.
Penalty for
violation.
8. Every person guilty of an offence against this Act shall be liable, upon
summary conviction, to a penalty of not less than one hundred dollars and not
more than one thousand dollars, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding
one year, or to both such fine and imprisonment.
9.  [Repealed.]
" Customs and    _ io. Section 5 and all the following sections except sections 10 and 29 of the
Fisheries Protection - .... , ,   , ,     .
Act " to apply. Customs and Fisheries Protection Act    shall be deemed to apply in so far
R.S., c. 47. as applicable for all the purposes of this Act, and shall have effect as if enacted
in this Act.
International
Fisheries
Commission.
Salaries and
expenses of
Commission.
Powers of
Commission.
11. (1.) It shall be lawful for the Governor to Council to join with the
Government of the United States in appointing a Commission to be known
as the " International Fisheries Commission," consisting of four members, two
to be appointed by the Governor in Council and two to be appointed by the
Government of the United States, and such Commission shall continue to exist
for a period of five years, and thereafter until two years from the day when
either of the constituting Governments shall give notice to the other of its
desire to terminate it.
(2.) Canada shall pay the salaries and expenses of the members of the
Commission appointed by the Governor in Council and one-half of the joint
expenses incurred by the Commission.
(3.) The Commission shall be empowered to make a thorough investigation
into the life-history of the Pacific halibut, and to report the result of its 15 Geo. 5        Northern Pacific Halibut Fishery Protection Act.
I 59
investigation to the Government of Canada and to the Government of the
United States, and may make recommendations for the regulation of the
halibut fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean, including the Behring Sea, as
may seem desirable for the preservation and development of the said fishery.
12. The Governor in Council is authorized to make regulations for giving Regulations by
effect to the recommendations of the Commission and otherwise as may be CJovernor m Counci.
deemed necessary or  expedient for the purpose of giving full  effect to the Power to create
provisions of this Act, and such regulations may provide for the creation of penalties,
offences and for imposing not only pecuniary penalties and forfeitures, but also
imprisonment for the commission of any such offences.
13. This Act shall come into force on a day to be named by the Governor in Commencement
of Act
Council, and may be repealed by the Governor in Council, provided that it
shall not be repealed by the Governor in Council  at any time during the Power to repeal.
existence of the International Fisheries Commission hereinbefore authorized.
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1924.
Fraser
River
District.
Skeena
River
District.
Rivers
Inlet
District.
Nass
River
District.
Queen
Charlotte
Islands
District.
Vancouver
Island
District.
Outlying
Districts.
Grand
Total.
39,743
2,982
592
4,056
1,757
65
21,401
31,968
109,495
144,747
9,366
1,361
1,301
94,891
153
261
131
33,590
2,142
208
375
88
15,618
187
40,926
2,829
933
483
369,603
17,659
Fancy Red Springs	
Standard Springs	
3,355
96
2,510
6,442
4,267
214
26,968
181,313
25,5S8
1,035
6,481
72,496
26,612
497
26,031
141,878
195,357
1,811
1,980
15,105
4,924
2,268
151,676
41,779
30,593
63,102
165,161
115,722
Pinks	
657,538
568,916
212,059
390,858
117,445
142,939
195,811
277,267
408,934
1,745,313 I 60
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1909 TO 1924, INCLUSIVE.
Frasee Rivek.
1924.     I   1923.     |
' I	
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
Sockeyes	
Springs, Red	
Springs, White	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Bluebacks and Steelheads
Totals	
39,743
2,982
4,648
109,495
31,968
21,401
1,822
31,655
3,854
4,279
103,248
63,645
20,173
15
212,059     226,869
51,832
10,561
6,300
17,895
29,578
23,587
817
39,631
11,300
5,949
11,233
8,178
29,978
1,331
48,399
10,091
4,432
23,884
12,839
22,934
4,522
38,854
14,519
4,296
15,718
39,363
39,253
15,941
19,697
15,192
24,853
86,215
18,388
40,111
4,395
140,570   I   107,650
136,661
167,944
208,857
148.164
10,197
18.910
59,973
134,442
25,895
4,951
402,538
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
1909.
Sockeyes	
Springs, Red	
Springs, White	
Chums	
Pinks -	
Cohoes	
Bluebacks and Steelheads
Totals	
32,146
17,673
11,430
30,934
840
31,330
3,129
91,130
23,228
5,392
18,919
138,305
43,514
31
198,183
11,209
15,300
74,826
6,272
43,504
719,796
3,573
49
22,220
20,773
16,018
123,879
15,856
9,826
12,997
574
36,190
58,487
7,028
6,751
47,237
142,101
39,740
150,432
1,018
8,925
52,460
128
35,031
585,435
1,428
27,919
127,472
320,519   |   349,294
782,429
199,322
301,344
247,994   |   623,469
Skeena River.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelhead Trout
Totals	
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelhead Trout
Totals	
144,747
12,028
25,588
181,313
26,968
214
390,858
131,731
12,247
16,527
145,973
31,967
418
338,863
96,277
14,176
39,758
301,655
24,699
1,050
41,018
21,766
1,993
124,457
45,033
498
89,364
37,403
3,834
177,679
18,068
1,218
184,945
25,941
31,457
117,303
36,559
2,672
123,322
22,931
22,573
161,727
38,759
4,994
477,915
234,765
332,887
398,877
374,306
65,760
16,285
21,516
148,319
38,456
1,883
292,219
1916.
1915.     I     1914.
I
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
1909.
60,293
20,933
17,121
73,029
47,409
3,743
116.533
15,273
5,769
L07.578
32,190
1.798
223,158
279,161
130,166
11,740
8,329
71,021
16,378
52,927
26,436
66,045
18,647
92,498
23,833
504
97,588
39,835
131,066
17,942
70
81,956
23,376
187,246
9,785
13,473
11,531
237,634      164,055
254,25S
254,410
222,035
87,901
12,469
)
} 28,120
12,249
140.739 15 Geo. 5
Statement showing Salmon pack of the Province.
I (51
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1909 TO 1924, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Rivers Inlet.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
Sockeyes	
94,891
545
4,924
15,105
1,980
116,850
599
3,242
10,057
1,526
53,584
323
311
24,292
1,120
82
48,615
364
173
5,303
4,718
97
125,742
1,793
1,226
25,647
2,908
56,258
1,442
7,089
6,538
9,038
53,401
1,409
6,729
29,542
12,074
61,195
817
16,101
8,065
9,124
Steelhead Trout
117,445
132,274
79,712
59,272
133,248
80,367
103,155
95,302
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
1909.
Sockeyes	
44,936
1,422
20,144
3,567
15,314
130,355
1,022
5,387
2,964
7,115
89,890
566
5,023
5,784
7,789
61,745
594
112,884
1,149
3,845
8,809
11,010
88,763
317
288
5,411
6,287
126,921
383
89,027
587
2,097
3,660
19
2,075
1,400
Totals	
85,383
146,838
109,052
68,096
137,697
101,066
129,398
01,014
Nass River.
1923.
1922
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelhead Trout.
Totals	
33,590
2,725
26,612
72,496
6,481
1,035
17,821
3,314
25,791
44,165
7,894
595
142,939   |   99,580
31,277
2,062
11,277
75,687
3,533
235
9,364
2,088
2,176
29,488
8,236
413
16,740
4,857
12,145
43,151
3,700
560
28,259
3,574
24,041
29,949
10,900
789
21,816
4,152
40,368
59,206
17,061
1,305
124,071
51,765
81,153
97,512
143,908
22,188
4,496
24,938
44,568
22,180
1,125
119,495
1910.
1915.     I     1914,
I
1912.
1911.
1910.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelhead Trout.
Totals	
31,411
3,845
11,200
59,593
19,139
1,498
39,349
3,701
11,076
34,879
15,171
113
126,686     104,289
31,327
3,385
25,569
25,333
9,276
23,574
3,151
2,987
20,539
3,172
94,890
53,423
36,037
6,936
3,245
12,476
12,468
71,162
37,327
3,759
5,189
11,467
7,942
30,810
1,239
351
895
6,285
140
65,684
39,720
28,246
2,337
3,589
6,818
40,990 I 62
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1925
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1909 TO 1924, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Vancouver Island Districts.*
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
Sockeyes	
15.618
283
165,161
63,102
30,593
2,510
12,006
138
120,520
30,149
21,342
7,097
15,147
886
108,478
36,943
18,575
5,495
6,936
3,230
34,431
10,660
11,120
3,151
0,987
29,211
12,591
14,391
20,555
6,452
36,013
128,013
43,186
53,629
6,143
29,324
251,266
Pinks	
Cohoes	
57,035
40,752
Totals	
277,267
191,252
185,524
69,528
74,170
267,293
389,815
Other Districts.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelheads and Bluebacks
Totals..	
40,926
4,245
195,357
141,878
26,031
497
24,584
2,711
148,727
146,943
29,142
732
47,107
4,988
80,485
113,824
31,331
409
18,350
4,995
21,412
14,818
18,203
2,790
64,473
15,633
30,946
247,149
33,807
3,721
54,677
14.766
165,717
110,300
35,011
702
51,980
8,582
90,464
201,847
42,331
1,009
408,934   | 352,839
 I
278,144
80,568
395,728   I   381,163      404,793
 i I	
32,902
6,056
112,364
112,209
30,201
S65
204,597
1916.
1915.     I     1914.
1913. 1912.
I
1911.
1910.
1909.
Sockeyes -	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelheads and Bluebacks
Totals	
45,373
11,423
160,812
143,615
70,431
712
432,366
98,600
9,488
40,849
83,626
48,966
985
313,894
87,130
7,108
70,727
111,930
43,254
320,168      285,
149,336
7.246
52,758
83,430
28,328
79,464
22,837
37,734
i 28,296
65,800
67,866
12,659
39,167
64,312
42,457
334,187
226,461
70,506
7,439
5,551
20,098
19,460
123,054
49,832
2,196
6,148
13,532
71,708
Total packed by
Districts
in 1900 to 1924, inclusive.
1924.
1923.
1 -
1      1922.
1
1921.
1
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
212,059
390,858
117,445
142,939
277,267
604,745
226,869
338,863
132,274
99,580
191,252
352,839
I
140,570
|    477,915
79,712
124,071
185,524
278,144
1
1    107,650
|    234,765
59,272
51,765
1      69.528
80,568
136,661
332,787
157,522
81,153
84,170
395,223
167,944
398,877
80,367
97,512
267,293
381,163
210,851
374,216
103,155
143,908
389,815
404,793
402.538
292,219
95,302
119,495
* Vancouver Island
t Other Districts	
325,723
294,597
Grand totals.-.
1,745,313
1,341,677
11,285,946
|    603,548
1
1,187,616
1,393,156
1,626,738
1,557,485
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
1909.
Fraser	
127,472
223,158
85,383
126,686
320,519
279,161
146,838
104,289
349,294
237,634
109.052
94,890
782,429
164,055
68,006
53,423
199,322
254,258
137,697
71,162
301,344
254,410
101,066
65,684
247,994
222,035
129,398
39,720
623,469
140,739
Rivers Inlet	
Nass River	
91,014
40,990
432,366
313,894
320,169
285,898
334,187
226,461
123,054
71,708
Grand totals....
995,065
1,164,701
1,111,039
1,353,901
996,626
948,965
762,201
_J
967,920
* Previously the Vancouver Island pack was shown in Outlying Districts pack.
t Including Queen Charlotte. 15 Geo. 5
Statement showing Salmon-pack of Fraser River.
I 63
STATEMENT   SHOWING  THE   SOCKEYE-PACK  OF  THE  FRASER  RIVER
SYSTEM FROM 1909 TO 1924, INCLUSIVE.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
Fraser River, B.C.
State of Washington
39,743
69,369
31,655
47,402
51,832
48,566
39,631
102,967
48,399
02,654
38,854
64,346
19,697
50,723
148,164
411,538
Totals	
109,112
79,057
100,398
142,598
111,053
103,200
70,420
559,702
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
1909.
Fraser River, B.C
State of Washington
32,146
84,637
91,130
64,584
198,183
335,230
719,796
1,673,099
123,879
184,680
58,487
127,761
150,432
248,014
5S5,435
1,097,904
Totals    	
116,783
155,714
533,413
1
2,392,895
308,559
186,248
398,446
1,683,339
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1909 TO 1924, INCLUSIVE.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1
1921.
1
1920.
1919.
1918.
1
1917.
39,743
144,747
94,891
33,590
15,618
41,014
31,655
131,731
116,850   1
17,821   |
12,006
24,584
51,832
96,277*
53,584
31,277
15,147
47,107
39,631
41,018
48,615
9,364
6,936
18,350
48,399
89,064
125,742
16,740
6,987
64,473
38,854
184.945
56,258
2S,259
6,452
54,677
19,697
123,322
53,401
21,816
6,243
51,980
148,164
65,760
Rivers Inlet	
61,195
22,188
Vancouver Islandf ...
Other Districts	
9,639
32,902
Totals
369,603
334,647
1
295,224
163,914
351,405
369,445
276,459
339,848
1916.
1
1915.
1
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
1909.
32,146
60,923
44,936
31,411
9,223
36,150
J
91,130   |
116,553
130,350   |
39,349
198,183
130,166
89,890
31,327
719,796
52,927
61,745
23,574
123,879
92,498
112,884
36,037
58,487
131,066
88,763
37,327
150,432
187,246
126,921
30,810
585,435
Skeena River	
87,901
89,027
Nass River	
28,246
	
Other Districts	
98,660   |
87,130
149,336
	
79,464
67,866
	
70,506
49,832
Totals	
214,789
476,042
1
536,696
972,178
444,762
383,509
565,915
840,441
* 4,390 cases deducted from Skeena for 1922, Alaska sockeye.
t Vancouver Island's pack not previously segregated.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Charles  F.   Banfield,  Printer  to  the King's  Most Excellent  Majesty.
1925.

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