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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR 1924 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1925

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
NINETEENTH ANNEAL REPORT
OF  THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1924
PRINTED   BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F.   Banfield,  Printer to  the King's  Most Excellent  Majesty.
1925.  To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1924.
E. DODSLEY BARROW,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., June 30th, 1925.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture—Dr. D. Warnock  7
Report of Departmental Secretary—W. J. Bonavia  9
Report of Departmental Secretary re Fall Fairs—W. J. Bonavia :  16
Report of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests—W. H. Robertson  19
Report of Chief Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Vancouver—W. H. Lyne.... 28
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver—J. W. Eastham  32
Report of Assistant Entomologist, Vernon—M. H. Ruhmann  35
Report of Markets Commissioner, Calgary—J. A. Grant  40
Report of Acting Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria—Dr. A. G. Knight  45
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector,Victoria—Dr. A. G. Knight  48
Report of District Agriculturist, Kamloops—Geo. C. Hay  49
Report of District Agriculturist, East Kootenay—Angus L. Hay  52
Report of District Agriculturist, Duncan—W. M. Fleming  53
Report of District Agriculturist, Prince George—R. G. Sutton  55
Report of Dairy Commissioner, Alctoria—H. Rive  60
Report of Chief Poultry Instructor, Victoria—J. R. Terry .•  63
Report of Chief Agronomist, Victoria—C. Tice  67
Report of Statistician, Victoria—G. H. Stewart  69
Report of Provincial Apiarist, Nelson—W. J. Sheppard  73
Report of Apiary Inspector, Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island Districts^A. W. Finlay 74
Report of Apiary  Inspector,  Okanagan,   Shuswap,  and  Thompson  Valley  Districts—J.   F.
Roberts     75
Report of Secretary of Women's Institutes, Victoria—Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan  76
Appejmdices.
Appendix No.—
1. Total Correspondence received and dispatched, 1923 and 1924  83
2. Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1924  83
3. Score-card for Judges at British Columbia Fairs, 1924  85
4. Judges' Score-card Reports, 1924 Fairs  SG
5. Agricultural Fairs, 1924—Grants in Aid of Prize-lists  88
6. Priming-schools, 1924   89
7. Pruning Demonstrations, 1924   90
8. British Columbia Berry Acreage, 1920, 1922, and 1924 ,  90
9. British Columbia Berry Acreage, 1924  91
10. Imported Fruit,  Potatoes,  Corn, etc.,  inspected at all  Ports of  Entry  in  British
Columbia   (including those  condemned)  91
11. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at all Ports of Entry in British Columbia 92
12. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Vancouver (including those condemned)  93
13. Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver  94
14. Imported Fruit, Vegetables, etc., inspected at Vancouver (including those condemned) 94
15. Imported Fruit, Vegetables, etc., condemned at Vancouver  95
16. Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., inspected at Vancouver  96
17. Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, etc., inspected at Victoria  97
18. Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which no Certificates were issued  98
19. Nursery Stock exported, 1924, for which Inspection Certificates were issued  100
20. Fruit and Vegetables exported, 1924, for which Certificates were issued  100
21. List of Herds tested by Municipalities and Districts  101
22. Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act," 1924  104
23. Creamery or Dairy Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,"
1924   105
24. Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia  106 K 6 Contents. 1925
Appendix No.-—Continued. Page.
25. Final Report, Thirteenth International Egg-laying Contest at Exhibition Grounds,
Victoria     107
26. Individual Egg Records at Thirteenth International Egg-laying Contest at Exhibition
Grounds, Victoria   108
27. Analytical Data   109
28. Synopsis of Certified Seed-potato Work in British Columbia, 1924  Ill
29. Summary of British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Fields, 1924  Ill
30. Report on Field Inspections made in Certified Seed-potato Districts, 1924  112
31. Synopsis of Diseases in all Varieties inspected for Province of British Columbia, 1924 113
32. Report on Tuber Inspections made before Grading in Certified Seed-potato Districts,
1924     114
33. Report on Field Inspections made in Districts where Crops had not been entered for
Certification Purposes, 1924   114
34. Estimated Honey-crop, 1924  115
35. Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—
(a.)  Kootenays     116
(b.) Fraser Valley  ... 117
(c.)  Vancouver  Island    118
(d.)  Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys  118
(e.)  Summary     118 REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
REPORT  OF THE  DEPUTY MINISTER  OF  AGRICULTURE.
D. Wabnock, O.B.E.
Hon. E. D. Barrow,
Minister of Agriculture,  Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of Agriculture
for the year 1924.
General Review.
Climatic conditions during the year were on the whole normal. In January low temperatures
were experienced during the early part of the mouth, followed by a mild February and March,
with spring work well under way. April was backward and held up farm operations in many
districts, but very little damage appeared to have been done through winter frosts and all crops
wintered well. A decrease was noted in small-fruit acreage and early in the season small-
fruit growers were anxious about their markets, these difficulties being later overcome to a
considerable extent. Stock wintered well and there appeared to be little or no shortage of
feed, while the prices for farm produce were firm, with the exception of eggs and pork.
The month of May was exceptionally dry and crops in many districts were in need of
rain, the hay yield on Vancouver Island and the Lower Fraser Valley being affected.
June and July were fair, with light rainfall, the Interior ranges being reported to be
badly burned up. In June the British Columbia Poultrymen's Co-operative Exchange wound
up their business largely owing to lack of loyal support from members. The result of the strawberry-crop was very disappointing as regards quantity marketed, although returns to growers
were generally better than in 1923.
Harvesting in August and September was carried out under excellent weather conditions,
the hay and grain crops being below average in many districts. Market conditions in the
Central Interior were better, farmers experiencing less difficulty in disposing of their produce.
Milch cows commanded good prices during the year and much interest was evidenced in
the sheep industry, but the scarcity and high price of breeding stock precluded any forward
movement  of  consequence.
Throughout the year there was but little demand for farm-labour, several districts reporting outside work as very scarce.
Grasshopper   Outbreaks.
From reports received at the close of 3923 it was obvious that a further outbreak of
grasshoppers would occur in the present year in several sections, the Okanagan Valley in
particular showing evidence of heavy infestation. Thorough co-operation for control measures
was effected between the Dominion Entomological Branch and this Department, large quantities of poison (white arsenic) being furnished free to farmers and growers, as well as the
other ingredients—bran, molasses, salt, etc.—necessary for the complete formula. Several
central mixing-stations were established, particularly effective work being done in the Kelowna
District. The widespread nature of the outbreak in the Lower Nicola Valley was not so easy
to control and there was also lack of local organization among the ranchers, the consequence
being that hay and range grasses in that section were seriously affected. Outbreaks of this
pest were also reported in the Francois Lake District in the central portion of the Province,
effective control, however, being obtained by use of poison bait.
Agricultural Production.
The total agricultural production for 1924 was estimated at $60,029,224, being an increase
of 1.47 per cent, on the figures for 1023. Imports of agricultural produce, both from Dominion
and foreign points, valued at $16,399,502, also showed a decrease of nearly 14 per cent. Agricultural exports from the Province are also becoming a feature of increasing value each year,
the total exports for 1924 amounting to $6,022,019, the chief items being fruit and vegetables,
amounting to $4,580,808, meats, poultry products, evaporated milk, hops, etc. K 8 Department op Agriculture. 1925
The fruit industry showed a distinct advance, due no doubt to the better organization
effected through the efforts of the Associated Growers of British Columbia, which were responsible for marketing over SO per cent, of the year's crops.
Field crops and grains both showed a slight decrease, due to the drought of the summer
months. Prices, however, were well maintained, potatoes averaging $9.40 a ton more than in
1923.
There was a considerable increase in the area of grain-hay, due to the shortage of the
clover and timothy crop.
The acreage in alfalfa continues to increase slowly but surely, there being now almost
19,000 acres under this crop in the Province. The average yield, however, for the past year
was rather lower than the average, being 2.62 tons per acre.
The outstanding feature of the year was the splendid increase in dairy production, the
total value for all dairy products being $9,709,549, constituting a record; the item of creamery
butter having shown an increase of practically 24 per cent, for quantity manufactured over the
previous year.
Live Stock.—Horses increased slightly in the Province during the year, whilst milch cows
increased in number by 4,875. Swine also showed a forward movement after a period of
depression over several years.
The poultry industry experienced a normal year, the average market price received by
producers for eggs during the year being 32 cents, or 4 cents higher than in the previous year.
The high price of feed, however, proved a serious handicap to the industry. The " Eggs
Marks Act " of the year 1923 had a salutary effect, due to the clause which required every
egg-dealer who had in his possession or under his control eggs which had been imported into
the Province, and which had not been marked, to mark such eggs with the words " Produce
of," followed by the name of the country of origin.
Bee-keepers experienced a very favourable year, the total production of honey being
estimated at 679,289 lb., as against 432,518 lb. the previous year. Values were also satisfactory. ,
The detailed reports of officers for the various branches of the Department are appended
herewith.
Respectfully submitted.
D.   Warnock,
Deputy Minister. M&k
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'i  15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 9
REPORT   OF  DEPARTMENTAL   SECRETARY.
Wm. ,7. Bonavia.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report for this office for the year
ended December 31st, 1924.
Staff.
The Estimates for the fiscal year 1924-25 provided for a similar number of appointments
as in the previous year.
The following table will show the number of permanent appointments made and removals.
The year was marked by the untimely loss of two members of the staff of the Department,
D. Gavet, senior assistant of the Fruit Inspection Branch at Vancouver, dying on January
28th suddenly whilst on his way to work, and W. T. McDonald, Live Stock Commissioner,
dying after a very brief illness on November 26th.
1924. Permanent Appointments.
April   1. J. B. Munro, Assistant Agronomist, Soil and Crop Branch.
April  1. M.  S. Middleton, District Horticulturist,  Vernon.
April   1. H. W. Epps, Inspector, Fruit Inspection Branch.
Feb.     1. Miss W. R. Parsell, Stenographer, General.
April   1. Miss A. P. Woodward, Stenographer, District Agriculturist, Duncan.
April 22. Miss E. V. S. Bickle, Stenographer. Dairy Branch.
Aug.    1. Miss C. MeG. Bigland,  Laboratory Assistant, Entomology,  Vernon.
Dec.     1. Miss F. Gates, Stenographer, General.
April   1. R. Whitlaw, Messenger, General.
Removals.
Jan.   28.    D. Gavet, Inspector, Fruit Inspection (died).
Mar. 31.    W. T. Brookes, Veterinary, Veterinary Branch  (retired).
Mar. 31.    R. Anderson, Messenger, General  (resigned).
April 12.    Mrs. J. Stewart, Stenographer, Dairy  (resigned).
Aug. 31.    Miss M. M. MacLoud,  Stenographer,  General   (resigned).
Nov. 26.    W. T. McDonald, Commissioner, Live Stock (died).
Temporary Appointments.—The usual number of temporary appointments were made during
the season in connection with the work of the Horticultural Branch,  Soil and Crop Branch,
Dairy Branch, etc. „
Correspondence.
The total number of letters received was 25,214, and dispatched, 21,855, the latter being
an increase of 4 per cent, over 1923.
A considerable increase in the correspondence of the Dairy Branch was noted, as well as
that of the Soil and Crop Branch, both in and out.    (See Appendix No. 1 for full details.)
Circular Letters.—A total of 35,962 circular letters was dispatched, this being an increase
of over 8,000 as compared with the year 1923.    These letters were grouped under the following
general headings :—■
Agricultural Associations       977
Farmers'  Institutes       940
Women's  Institutes     7,060
Dairy  Branch        6,806
Horticultural Branch      2,425
Live Stock Branch—
Brand Recorder         100
British Columbia Goat-breeders' Association      1,560
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association         260
Soil and Crop Division      6,060
Poultry Division      6,855
Miscellaneous       1,404
Statistics   '.     1,515
Total    35,962 K 10
Department op Agriculture.
1925
Stencils.—The arrangements for stencilled addresses of persons whose names have been
put on the various mailing-lists have been improved and enlarged. During the past year a
total of 3,237 names were filed, this being a big increase over the previous year's total of 1,801.
The increase is very largely accounted for by a new mailing-list created in connection with
seed-certification work by the Soil and Crop Branch.
Pound Districts.
The past year has been one of unusual activity in the investigation of petitions for the
" Pound District Act" to be made applicable to new areas.    The correspondence in connection
with the Passmore area in the Slocan Valley was active throughout the entire year.
The following new districts were organized by Order in Council:—
1924.
Keremeos Pound District   Jan. 22
Wardner Pound District   Jan. 22
Nakusp Pound District   Nov.   7
Passmore Pound District   Nov. 25
Mountain  (Nelson)  Pound District   Dec.    8
Harrop Pound District   Dec. 23
At the close of the year investigations into applications from the Hillbank District on
Vancouver Island and from Dewdney were still  incomplete.
Returns from pound-keepers in forty-seven active districts showed considerably higher
figures than usual for estrays, sales, and fees.    No prosecutions were recorded.
Operation of Pound, Districts in British Columbia, Year 1924.
Pound District.
Estrays  captured.
No.  of
Sales  of
Estrays.
Amount
realized
from
Sales.
Fees
charged
for
Sustenance.
Total  Fees
paid to
Pound-
keeper.
Horses.
Cattle.
5
5
2
11
22
1
S
1
4
3
36
10
18
10
42
4 ■
21
3
26
7
3
6
35
11
1
3
$  12 00
$  10 00
$  12 00
Burton  (Carroll's Landing)	
6 10
18 45
44  10
109  58
273 15
Elko
2 00
Gray Creek	
20
39 20
14 50
15 00
1  75
63 00
5 00
23 15
Ladysmith 	
6 00
24 00
12 00
North Rend
7  50
1 00
99  75
4 50
31 00
162 00
100
185
17
$155 00
$289 23
$640 10
Sheep-protection and Grazing Districts.
No new sheep-protection districts were constituted during 1924, although at the close of
the year investigations were being carried on as to the advisability of organizing the whole
of the South Okanagan Electoral District into a sheep-protection area.
One grazing district was organized under the provisions of the "Animals Act Amendment
Act"; this covered a tract of land on the east coast of Graham Island, the Order in Council
approving same being issued on May 27th.
Petitions were also received during the year from the Cranbrook area, situated within
the Columbia-Kootenay Grazing District, setting forth that the presence of bulls at large in
the Cranbrook extra-municipal school district were found dangerous to school-children, and
also that the beef bulls permitted to be at large during a certain period of the year interfered
with the grazing and proper care of milk cows in the vicinity of Cranbrook. The area in
question was withdrawn from the whole grazing district by Order in Council approved
November 5th. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 11
Agricultural Poison Licences.
The total number of licences issued under the provisions of the " Pharmacy Act " with
regard to the sale of agricultural and horticultural poisons was twenty-six, being two less
than the previous year. This reduction is due to the consolidation in the supply of spray
materials, weed-killers, etc., that has taken place in the Okanagan Valley under the auspices
of the Associated Growers.
Special Rates on  Crushed Lime Rock.
Permits for the special tariff on crushed lime rock, to be used as fertilizer by members of
Farmers' Institutes and other agricultural bodies on Vancouver Island, were issued for 75
tons, this being a slight decrease on the previous year.
A recapitulation of departmental action with regard to the lime situation may be of interest
and is appended herewith.
The Department has had an arrangement with the Canadian Pacific Railway and Esquimalt
& Nanaimo Railway Companies since the year 1912 with regard to a special freight rate on
crushed rock lime used for fertilizer purposes and consigned to farmers individually or
collectively to Farmers' Institutes.
The deposits of lime that have been most used in recent years are in the vicinity of
Victoria, the companies operating same being the North-west Lime Company, the Rosebank
Lime Company, and the Victoria Lime Company. None of these companies are operating at
the present moment, however.
The arrangement with the E. & N. provides for a special tariff on agricultural lime when
shipped in car-lots of 60,000 lb. minimum. The shipments have to be accompanied by a certificate signed by the Deputy Minister of Agriculture, certifying that the lime was to be used
for agricultural purposes. The usual procedure has been, when an order was received by a
lime company, for them to bring into the Department the bills of lading, when a certificate
was issued in duplicate, attached to same, and handed to the transportation company. The
rates applied on shipments of lime from Colwood and Palmer's Siding, some of the rates being
as follows:—
Per 100 lb.
Colwood and Palmer's Siding to Cobble Hill   3%c.
Colwood and Palmer's Siding to Duncan   4c.
Colwood and Palmer's Siding to Nanaimo   4%c.
Colwood and Palmer's Siding to Parksville Junction   5%c.
Colwood and Palmer's Siding to Courtenay   7%c.
Colwood and Palmer's Siding to Alberni   7%c.
A very similar arrangement has been in effect for a shorter period on C.P.R Mainland
points from Vancouver as far east as Penticton, including points on the main line in between.
The Great Northern Railway and the Canadian National Railway have also issued special
rates, subject to departmental certificate, for Mainland points served by them.
Re Price of Agricultural Lime.—The price of agricultural lime has risen steadily in recent
years. In 1912, when the first arrangements were made with transportation companies,
Evans, Coleman & Evans, Limited, were offering farmers crushed rock lime in car-lots at $4
per ton bulk or $5 per ton in non-returnable sacks for all points in the Lower Fraser Valley
between Sumas and Vancouver. In more recent years and up to the beginning of 1924 the
Rosebank Lime Company's rate has been $8.50 per ton sacked, at the close of the year reaching
the very high rate of $10.50 when handled through a local firm.
Farmers'  Institutes  and similar  bodies  should  make  a  definite effort  to  place  a  stated
quantity of lime among their different districts, and when they know the quantity they want
and the points of delivery they should then open up negotiations with the different lime firms
with the aid of this Department  and thus  secure a stated contract  price.    Such  procedure
would be more satisfactory to farmers and manufacturers both, for it would enable the farmer
to strike a bargain somewhere among the different firms competing for business, and it would
give the manufacturers a definite contract upon which they could estimate the cost per ton
f.o.b. in quantity.
Farmers    Institutes.
The total membership of Farmers' Institutes as recorded at the close of the year was
5,076, being a decrease as compared with the previous year.    Five new institutes were incor- ar 1923.
Tear 1913.
148
92
453
449
8,652
10,162
19
22
156
282
5,643
8,144
92.97
$30,949.73
39.42
25,041.67
porated, as follows:   March  20th,  West Quesnel;   June 11th, Winlaw;   August 2nd,  Capitol
Hill;  October 14th, Pender Island and Refuge Bay (reorganized).
The net total number of institutes in good standing at the end of the year was 140, being
a slight decrease also.    The following ten institutes were those with the largest membership:—
Surrey Centre   156 Metchosin   113
Coquitlam   141 Islands   108
Nanaimo-Cedar   128 Victoria     94
South  Saanich    121 North-east Burnaby      92
Kitsumgallum    119 Mission       88
The movement continues to progress satisfactorily and during the year, from correspondence
received, it was evident that certain United Farmer Locals are contemplating organizing as
Farmers' Institutes, and in the case of Winlaw this was actually accomplished.
A rather interesting summary of the progress of Farmers' Institutes was prepared for the
Advisory Board for their annual meeting in this city and is attached herewith as a matter
of record:—
Progress of Farmors' Institutes, Ten-year Period, 1918-23.
Farmers' Institutes organized 	
Meetings held 	
Attendance 	
Average attendance at meetings 	
Addresses given	
Members  	
Receipts      $127,992.97
Expenditures       116,339.42
Lectures and Demonstrations.
Two extended itineraries were organized by the Department during the year, one in which
J. B. Munro, Soil and Crop Instructor; Geo. C. Hay, District Agriculturist, Kamloops; and H.
E. Waby, District Poultry Instructor, Salmon Arm, were associated. The institutes visited
were along the main line of the C.P.R. from Salmon Arm to Malakwa and also up the North
Thompson, eight centres being visited.
A longer itinerary was arranged covering practically the entire month of February in the
Columbia Valley and Boundary Districts, in which Angus L. Hay, District Agriculturist,
Cranbrook; C. Good, District Poultry Instructor, Nelson; and A. Morton, Dominion Sheep and
Swine Promoter, took part. Thirteen institutes were visited, including some of those that had
been missed in the itinerary of the previous year when severe winter conditions necessitated
the cancelling of dates.
A further itinerary was arranged on the Island for A. Morton, several Farmers' Institutes
in the vicinity of Victoria being given lectures and demonstrations.-
Gopher-control.
The Department was able to get a vote passed by the Legislature in aid of gopher-extermination competitions amounting to the sum of $750, and early in the year the Department
circularized all Farmers' Institutes, United Farmer Locals, and other bodies of agriculturists,
outlining a scheme whereby a grant of $20 would be made by the Department where competitions were held for killing gophers and where the local body agreed to put up an equal
amount of prize-money. The scheme outlined was taken advantage of by several institutes,
especially in the Kootenay, Columbia, and Boundary Districts, as follows: Arrow Lakes, Arrow
Park, Briscoe, Columbia Valley, Cranbrook,- Eagle River Valley, Elk Valley (two competitions),
Horse Creek, Midway U.F. Local, Moberly to Donald, Procter and Balfour, Rock Creek, Rossland,
Slocan Valley, and Winfield.
The largest number of tails reported came from Brisco Farmers' Institute with 1,200,
and from Elk Valley, first competition, 1,09S.
Fairs held by Farmers' Institutes.
The total number of fairs organized by Farmers' Institutes in districts where no Agricultural Fair Association existed was eleven; the places being as follows:— 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
. K 13
Circuit I.—Metchosin,  September 17th; Demnan Island, September 26th.
Circuit II.—Howe Sound, August 29th and 30th; Whonnock, September 6th; Fern Ridge,
October 1st.
Circuit IV.—Crawford Bay, September 6th; Boswell, September 10th; Kaslo, October 1st.
Circuit V.—McBride, September 4th; Vanderhoof, September 5th and 6th; Forest Grove,
September 26th.
Other farmer organizations held fairs also at Pemberton Meadows, Falkland, Birch Island,
and Houston, making the grand total of these events fifteen, as against sixteen recorded the
previous year.
Co-operative Activities of Farmers' Institutes.
The returns for the year 1923, the last available, showed that twenty-four institutes
exceeded the sum of $1,000 for receipts as compared with the year 1922, when the total was
twenty-three. The success of the Crawford Bay Farmers' Institute co-operative store is
outstanding, the figures recorded for receipts and expenditures each exceeding the sum of
$16,000. Other items of interest were fruit sold by the Kitsumgallum Farmers' Institute,
$3,496, and from Bella Coola the sum of $7,465 in connection with the purchase of feed, flour,
hay, and fertilizer for members.
Table showing Chief Lines of Activity of Farmers' Institutes whose Receipts were over $1,000,
Year 1923.
Name of Farmers'
Institute.
Aldergrove .  	
Bella Coola	
Cranbrook	
Crawford Bay	
•Chilliwack	
Delta	
Denman Island	
Fern Ridge	
Graham Island	
Gray Creek	
Horse Creek	
Kent	
Kitsumgallum	
Matsqui  	
Moberly to Donald....
Northern Okanagan...
Otter District	
Powell River	
Smithers	
Spallumcheen	
Strawberry Hill	
Surrey 	
Whaletown	
White Creek Valley...
Totals (24 institutes)
Receipts.
$ 4,742 88
9,006 18
1,542 66
16,869 63
4,714 70
1,406 97
1,020 07
1,193 46
5,468 62
2,713 69
1,254 48
4,747 98
11,181 32
2,037 13
2,947 32
3,364 50
4,808 58
1,709 41
1,939 43
2,228 39
2,630 22
9,880 13
2,151 01
2,756 44
§102,315 20
Expenditure.
8 4,087 11
8,708 97
1,500 62
16,069 58
4,519 61
233 71
672 25
1,107 70
5,162 38
2,513 95
1,114 00
4,485 13
11,052 09
1,964 46
2,634 59
2,977 21
4,758 13
1,620 70
1,797 25
2,167 20
2,549 78
9,701 54
2,093 96
2,592 41
95,454 33
Powder,
Fuse, and
Caps sold
to
Members.
$ 2,533 29
1,115 60
185 01
111 43
4,075 00
868 35
419 67
189 00
95 60
362 05
3,103 02
2,057 10
1,722 13
175 80
2,132 15
2,174 35
1,500 00
711 25
1,903 00
2,351 00
9,461 79
599 56
$37,846 15
Seed sold
to
Members.
$     214 99
$1,176 28
Feed, Flour,
Hay, Fertilizer, etc.,
sold to
Members.
$    7,465 67
1,211 51
14,673 55
4,815 86
2,442 S6
773 12
3,496 81
2,450 71
2,228 44
1,091 55
2,049 80
1,913 15
$44,61-2 53
Miscellaneous.
$     437 10
r 1,151 23
I    345 36
598 67
(,904 07
166 70
78 00
$7,191 78
Remarks.
Drain-tile sold.
Sale of eggs.
Sale of apples.
Prize-money for fair.
Implements.
Fruit sold.
Ensilage-cutter, etc.,
bought.
Payment on bulls.
Prize-money for fair.
The Advisory  Board  of Farmers'   Institutes   and   District   Conventions.
The Advisory Board met for its annual meeting from November 12th to 20th, sitting in
the Provincial Public Library, there being present the following: District A, C. E. Whitney-
Griffiths ; District B, no representative; District C, R. J. Blackburn; District D, W. Harrison;
District E, Jas. Bailey; Districts F and H, O. B. Appleton; District G, M. P. Williams; District I, D. O. Bricker.
Including the legislative reports, over 150 resolutions were handled arising through the
Farmers' Institutes as well as coming from other agricultural organizations. A printed
legislative report was issued on the work carried out.
In addition to the annual meeting the Executive of the Advisory Board met during the
summer at Westminster. The district institutes met at the following places during the year:
District A, January 22nd, Victoria; District B, no gatherings; District C, February 29th,
Vanderhoof, and August 1st, Prince George; District D, January 12th, Kamloops, and October
23rd,  Salmon Arm; District E, February 8th and October 31st, New Westminster;  Districts K 14
Department of Agriculture.
1925
F and H, January 24th and September 18th, Nelson; District G, February 11th and October
23rd, Vernon; District I, January 30th and 31st, October 29th and 30th.
District B did not hold a convention, but a visit was made by the Chairman and Secretary
to that section and arrangements will be made for a convention in  1925.
The district conventions have reached during this year their highest point of efficiency,
meeting no less than twice in the year. It should he noted that the district institutes pay their
own expenses and no delegates are paid by the Government. Whilst development may seem
slow in consolidating the Farmers' Institute movement, the records clearly show marked and
steady lines of progress.
Statistics re Stumping-powder used by Farmers' Institutes and Similar Organizations in clearing
Land for Agricultural Purposes.
The past year shows a decrease in the use of stumping-powder, there being 1,247 less
cases used by the above bodies than in 1923-24, although the applications for payment of special
rebate have increased.
The following table shows comparative data:—
Fiscal  Year.
Cases of
Powder
purchased.
Value.
No. of Cases
Rebate
paid on.
No.  of
Applications.
Acreage
cleared.
1923-24.  	
1924-25 	
12,301
11.054
$85,030
73,036
8.276i/2
8,988%
2,796
3,072
5.141%
5,094%
Women's  Institutes.
The total recorded membership for the year 1924 was 3,177 for 109 institutes, both figures
being a slight decrease on the previous year. The ten institutes with the largest membership
were as follows :—
Nelson    143
Cranbrook      67
Esquimalt      61
Hatzic      52
Kaslo      52
Cowichan     51
Similkameen     51
Vernon and District   50
Parksville   48
Peachland   48
Six new institutes were incorporated during the year and it will be no very long period
of time before the Women's Institute organizations will catch up with those of the Farmers:
January 23rd, Patricia; January 25th, Luxton and Happy Valley; February 12th, Cedar;
May 9th, Wistaria; June 6th, Squamish Valley;  September 4th, Shirley.
Fall Fairs, Floioer-shows, Exhibits of Women's Work, etc.
Eighty-seven events of the above character were organized by Women's Institutes, all
previous records being surpassed again. The following rough grouping will give some idea
of the wide scope that these annual functions embrace:—
(a.) Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.—Twenty-seven events, including seventeen flower-
shows, one fall fair, two better-baby clinics, and seven exhibitions of school-children's work, etc.
(6.) Lower Mainland,—Twenty-five events, including fourteen flower-shows, three better-
baby clinics, one manual-training exhibit, five exhibitions of school-children's work, etc.
(c.) Okanagan and North Thompson.—Nineteen events, including six better-baby clinics,
one health exhibit, nine flower-shows, etc.
(d.) Kootenay.—Sixteen events, including twelve flower-shows, seven exhibits of school-
children's work, etc.    (See Appendix No. 2 for full details.)
Publications.
The past year was a more active one than 1923 in connection with the issuing of bulletins
and circulars, a total of 92,500 being received from the King's Printer, as against 80,950 the
previous year. The majority of the issues were reprints. Bulletin No. 68, " Diseases and Pests
of Cultivated Plants," was, however, completely rewritten, although retaining the original series
number. 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 15
Agricultural Journal.—This publication was continued during the year, but owing to
intimation that it would likely be discontinued early in 1925 fresh subscriptions were not
actively canvassed for and renewals in many cases were carried on automatically without
pressing for payment.    The average monthly circulation was 1,800.
The following statement shows the total number of bulletins, circulars, etc., printed during
the year:—
Date.
Name.
Description.
No.
Feb.
4
Mar.
31
April
16
May
12
June
16
Jan.
2
Feb.
22
„
22
Mar.
24
,,
31
Aug.
IS
Nov.
4
»
4
June
12
Oct.
11
Nov.
26
Bulletins.
The Potato in B.C.  (2nd Ed.)  	
Practical Poultry-raising (8th Ed.)	
Climate or B.C.   (9th Ed.)  	
Agricultural Statistics for 1923	
Diseases and Pests of Cultivated Plants  (2nd Ed.)
Horticultural Circulars.
Spray Calendar 	
Gardening on a City Lot (Reprint 3rd Ed.)   	
Planting Plans and Distances (Reprint 2nd Ed.) ...
Fire-blight   (Revised  Ed.)   	
Strawberry-root Weevil  (4th Ed.)  	
Top-working of Fruit-trees  (Reprint)   	
Selection of Orchard Sites and Soils  (4th Ed.)  	
Currant and Gooseberry Culture  (3rd Ed.)  	
Bulletin No. 86
26
27
95
Hort. Circ.
Agricultural Department Circulars.
Some Facts about B.C	
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands  (3rd Ed.)  .
Agriculture in West Kootenay   (2nd Ed.)   	
Mar.   31
May    15
Circular Bulletins.
Poultry-keeping on a City Lot  (4th Ed.)
Dairy Circulars.
Certified Milk and Butter-fat Records 	
Jan.
26
Feb.
22
Jan.
10
July
2
»
18
Jan.
18
Feb.
18
Mar.
17
,,
25
April
IS
May
19
June
13
July
22
Aug.
18
Sept.
13
Oct.
21
Nov.
21
Dec.
19
April
4
May
5
June
13
July
15
Sept.
30
Soil and Crop Circulars.
Kale  and Rape   	
Certified Seed-potatoes—Rules and Regulations
Reports.
Report of B.C. Agricultural Legislative Work 	
Report of Department of Agriculture, Year 1923 	
Report of Secretary of Women's Institutes for Year 1923
Agricultural Journal.
Agricultural Journal	
Miscellaneous.
List of Publications 	
Poultry-keeping   	
Book-keeping Methods for the Farm  	
Our Banking System and how it affects the Farmer
List of Publications 	
Total  	
No. 43
62
66
33
42
53
56
Agr. Dept. Cir. No.
44
33
31
Circ. Bulletin No. 11
Dairy Circ. No. 8
Soil and Crop Circ. No. 3
Soil and Crop Circ. No. 3
ISth Annual
Month of February
,,         March   ....
,, April   	
Month of May .
,, June.
July 	
August   ....
September
October   ....
November
December
January   ..
Booklet
Leaflet
8,000
5,000
1,500
1,500
3,000
3,500
2,000
2,000
3,000
3,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,500
1,500
2,500
5,000
1,000
5,000
1,000
750
1,100
500
2,000
2,000
2,000
250
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
2.200
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
1,000
2,000
200
500
1,000
92,500 K 16 Department of Agriculture. 1925
Bulletins and Circulars distributed during 192k-—The total number of all publications
issued by mail was 98,303, being practically identical with the figures for 1923. The details
are as follows :—
Horticultural  circulars  -.  27,795
Poultry bulletins and circulars :  18,129
Mixed Farming   15,117
Department circulars  10,808
Circular bulletins         685
Miscellaneous bulletins      8.396
Miscellaneous circulars and posters      3,415
Dairy circulars       6,009
Soil and Crop circulars     6,170
Agricultural Department Report        908
Women's Institutes and Farmers' Institute Reports        871
Total   98,303
Respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
REPORT  OF  DEPARTMENTAL  SECRETARY  RE  FALL  FAIRS.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to present herewith the report on fall fairs held in the Province
in 1924.
The total number of fairs held was sixty-four, divided into the following circuits:—
Circuit I.—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands      14
Circuit II.—Lower Mainland      22
Circuit III.—Okanagan and Dry Belt       8
Circuit IV.—East and West Kootenay      11
Circuit V.—Central British Columbia      9
Of the above number, two were stock-shows held in June at Ladner and Knutsford.
Fifteen associations cancelled their events after dates had been allotted to them.
Early in the season it looked as though all records would be broken for the number of
fairs, but actually the number held was considerably less than in 1923,  when the total was
seventy-five.
Reports of judges indicate that in spite of a very dry season exhibits were, generally
speaking, of excellent quality and the management of the majority of fairs excellent. Reports,
liowever, indicate, from many districts, that attendances were small, and this indeed has been
quite a general feature during the last two or three years.
Judges.
As in past years, the Department again supplied judges free of cost to all associations,
very few requests being turned down.    The total number of judges supplied was as follows:—
Department     Outside
Officials. Men.
Horticulture      10 8
Field  crops        4 7
Live stock  6 14
Poultry         4 11
Domestic science and women's work       2 14
Totals  -26 54
The total number (80) constitutes a new record, the chief increases being in field-crop and
women judges. under this crop.
re there is over 500 acres
•^^■-■•^^■■se&jsmm
taking hoys away to be dried in the kiln      *
k"n-    Scene at ■"" hop-yards. Sardis.  15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 17
New System of Reports on Fairs.
In 1924 an additional method of reporting on fairs was initiated by the writer in the form
of a score-card. The underlying idea was that, in addition to the usual written report, the
judge should endeavour to condense the value of a fair to a standard percentage basis. A brief
description of the system is as follows: The maximum points obtainable by a fair were fixed
at 100, divided up as follows:—
Points.
Fruit and vegetables      10
Grains, field crops, potatoes     10
Live stock      10
Poultry        10
Dairy products and honey        5
Domestic science and ladies' work      10
Support of fair by local exhibitors        10
Grounds and equipment      10
Interest of public in exhibits and judging      10
Management of fair      15
Total     100
This scoring system may be modified and improved in the future. The results, however,
were extremely interesting, and in the cases where from three to five judges were at certain
fairs a very good average check was obtainable.
The classifying of these score-cards has meant considerable work, but the table prepared
should be of much interest to members of Agricultural Associations. (See Appendices Nos.
3 and 4.)
Under this scoring system, which is of course more or less arbitrary, it is noted that the
fairs scoring highest, in the opinion of judges for the year 1924, taking into consideration all
the items enumerated above, were as follows:—
Per Cent. Per Cent.
Mission   84.7 Saanichton     81.6
New Westminster   84.0 Lumby     81.6
Courtenay    83.0 Enderby   77.8
Armstrong   82.9 Kelowna  77.6
Maple Ridge   S2.S
Grants.
A notification was sent out to associations advising that the rate for the year would be
18 per cent. From the correspondence that ensued it was evident that this allotment was a
disappointing one,  resulting  eventually  in the cancellation of  several fairs.
At the close of the year 1924 grants amounting to .$22,676 had been paid, and in view of
special representations made by eight associations   (Ladysmith,  Coombs,  Saanichton.  Agassiz,
Chilliwack,  Knutsford,  Armstrong,   and Windermere)   additional  grants  totalling  $2,986  have
been paid since January 1st, the total amount thus paid in grants being $25,598.    (See Appendix
No. 5.)
Annual Returns of Associations.
The records in this case are necessarily one year behind as the returns for 1924 are only
partially to hand, some of the annual meetings not yet having been held.
The record figures for 1922 with regard to receipts and expenditures have not been maintained, there being a slight decrease shown, taking the whole number of associations, for all
the items listed as follows :—
Year 1923—
Total receipts  •  $263,875 19
Total expenditures     252,945 68
Cash prize-money paid      101,717 80
Assets     190,554 26
Liabilities      70,593 42
This reduction is amply accounted for by the cancellation of the fifteen events previously
referred to. The British Columbia Fairs Association.
The affairs of this association have progressed satisfactorily during the past year, the
paid-up membership having increased slightly.
The annual meeting was held at Vancouver on March 1st and a meeting of the Executive
at Victoria on August 20th. At the latter meeting the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture was
present and many matters of moment to Agricultural Associations were discussed with him.
The Hon. the Minister stated that he recognized the Royal Agricultural and Industrial Association at New Westminster as the body which was holding the Provincial show for the Province.
The increasing number of small fairs and the recognition of the difficulty that the Department has in providing adequate grants has met with considerable attention from the members
of the association during the past year, and the Executive undertook to make a special effort
to outline some plan which would meet the wishes of the individual members and at the same
time be agreeable to the Department with regard to prize-money.
Recommendations and Suggestions by Judges.
A. J. Mann, B.S.A., Assistant Superintendent of the Dominion Experimental Farm at
Summerland, who acted as a judge, at the close of his work for this Department submitted
the following interesting remarks and suggestions :—
"Fall Fair Buildings.—In travelling about the Province attending fall fairs (including
Vancouver and New Westminster) I have always been impressed with the high overhead and
depreciation in the many poorly constructed buildings on the fair-grounds—buildings with far
too much useless and expensive upper superstructures at the expense of adequate serviceable-
ness and durability below where needed.
" The above impression is considerably aggravated when it is considered that these buildings
are only used from one to a few days each year.
" The ideal would be to have fewer fall fairs in the Province and these located permanently
at convenient centres in compact, durable, and well-ventilated and lighted buildings in park-like
grounds kept in good condition and planned in such a way as to be of service when needed to
the community all the year instead of from one to a few days each year. In other words,
to have fair grounds and buildings become community centres for other district programmes
beside fair-work.
" The second ideal would be to have same as outlined above, except on a smaller scale
and located at a different place each year, so as to give each district an opportunity to exhibit
at home once every few years and maintain a wholesome spirit of goodwill amongst the
different towns or districts concerned.
" For the above suggestions to be practical more prize-money would need to be given to
attract exhibitors and assistance in transportation of exhibits and people.
" Judging.—The lack of standardization from year to year in judging, and in the public,
especially the exhibitors, not knowing along what lines or principles the judge worked, has
been and is still disappointing and often defeats the true purpose of a fair—education. To
illustrate this point: No two judges work alike; one year a judge goes to a certain district
and judges along certain lines, and the public, especially the exhibitors, take notice of the
awards and endeavour to exhibit next year accordingly. Next year, however, another person
with different ideas and methods of judging may judge; the result is often a confusion of
ideas and principles and the exhibitor does not know what to do or not to do in exhibiting
next year.
" Prize-list.—The prize-list should be carefully reconstructed and standardized and kept
up to date. Owing to the extreme variable soil and climatic conditions of the Province it
would probably be necessary to modify the standardization for certain districts. The Department might have printed sectional models of prize-lists (not in bulletin form), the same to
be sent as guides to the Secretary of the various fall fairs. Examples: The prize-list would
show a class for green squash and a class for yellow squash and not have these two different
types of squash competing with one another in the same class. The prize-list would suggest,
say, the exhibit of six worthy varieties of potatoes known to do well in the district instead
of sixteen varieties and two-thirds of them not known and not on the list of potatoes recommended by the Department. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 19
" Department Assistance in Prize-money.—The Department might help the fairs more by
giving special prizes, especially for boys and girls. These prizes need not necessarily be given
in actual cash, but in the form of well-bred young cattle, sheep, horses, pigs, poultry, seeds,
and plants.
" To sum up briefly:   Reduce unnecessary overhead in buildings;   to have fewer and better
fairs;   standardization of judging and prize-lists;   better exhibits through education and more
attention and encouragement to the work of the boys and girls—the farmers of to-morrow who,
. we hope, will not break faith."
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
REPORT  OF  PROVINCIAL HORTICULTURIST  AND  INSPECTOR  OF  FRUIT  PESTS.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to  submit herwith my  report as Provincial Horticulturist  and
Inspector of Fruit Pests for the year 1924.
Horticultural Conditions in British Columbia.
The year 1923 may be considered as the year of reorganization in the fruit-growing industry of the Province. As pointed out in a previous report, two large organizations for the
marketing of fruit were formed in that year. While it seemed as if at the beginning of 1924
there might be a tendency on the part of many growers who were members to break away
from both of these organizations, the membership has on the whole remained about the same,
and the results in 1924 from a marketing standpoint have been most encouraging. Prices for
tree-fruits on pools which have up to the present date been closed are in advance of 1923 and
the indications are that the later pool returns will be satisfactory.
Small-fruit returns have been in all cases equal to and in some cases better than in 1923.
One outstanding feature of the past season was the securing of a loan from the Provincial
Government for the purpose of assisting the Berry-growers' Co-operative Union in the financing
of their fruit-pack which was put up in their canning and jam plant at Mission. This enabled
the members of the Co-operative to dispose of their berries when there was a tendency for
the fresh-fruit markets to weaken. In this way satisfactory prices were maintained not only
for the co-operative member, but for the independent shipper as well.
One of the features of the marketing of small fruits has been the increasing sale of loganberries for wine-making purposes. In 1923 approximately 9,000 gallons of wine were manufactured, while in 1924 the quantity manufactured had increased to 48,000 gallons, requiring
approximately 100 tons of fruit. While it is early to forecast the production of wine for 1925,
it is expected that the quantity manufactured will be double that of 1924.
From a seasonal standpoint it should be pointed out that in many sections the rainfall
has been even less than usual. This was particularly noticeable in the Coast sections. In the
irrigated sections of the Okanagan certain districts have suffered materially, due to lack of
storage-water in the reservoirs. This was brought about by light snowfall in the mountains
during the winter, as well as the fact that because of the undertaking of repairs certain reservoirs
could not be made ready in time to collect their full supply of storage-water. In the Kootenays,
while the most of the growing season, was very dry, heavy rains in the later part of the season
resulted in materially increasing the crops. In the same section also there has been a considerable amount of winter-injury, due to the rapid fall in temperature on December 15th
following a comparatively high temperature.
Pruning Schools and Demonstrations.
A change in the policy relating to pruning-schools was instituted during the past season.
The policy of your Branch had been to hold a five-day pruning-school at any point where a group
of eight or more growers requested it. While a school of this length had proven of value in the
past, there was a demand in many of the districts for schools of shorter duration. To meet
this demand your Branch instituted a three-day school; the fee to be $1 per pupil with the same
minimum requirements as to pupils. K 20
Department of Agriculture.
1925
In addition to pruning-schools, pruning demonstrations were also held. These were of
one-day duration and were instituted for the purpose of assisting districts which felt that
they did not require a three-day school. No minimum as to the number of pupils was required
and no charge was made.
For detailed information regarding both pruning-schools and pruning demonstrations see
Appendices Nos. 6 and 7.
Small-fruit Survey.
In co-operation with the Statistical Branch, a survey of the small-fruit acreage was made
in the Province in order to determine the acreage devoted to the various small fruits. This
was carried out along similar lines to the surveys conducted in 1920 and 1922. The survey
shows but slight increase in the acreage devoted to the growing of small fruits. For tables
showing the comparison of acreage as given by the last three surveys see Appendix No. 8. A
table also is submitted showing the acreages devoted to the various small fruits in the different
districts.    (See Appendix No. 9.)
Orchard Survey.
The last orchard survey of the Province was conducted in the years 1920-21. In view of
the fact that there have been many changes in the tree-fruit acreages in the principal tree-
fruit sections during the past five years, it seemed advisable that another orchard survey be
made. This was started in the late fall and your Horticultural staff are busy collecting the
data. It is hoped that this work will be completed by the end of 1925, when a full report will
be submitted.
Demonstration-work.
Gordon Head Strawberry-plot,—Since its inauguration in 1919 this work has been carried
out under the supervision of E. W. White, District Horticulturist. With regard to this work,
Mr. White reports as follows:—
" This 6-acre plot, which was established in March, 1919, and reported on in 1919, 1920,
1921, 1922, and 1923, was again operated in 1924. This opportunity is taken to express appreciation for the conscientious and earnest way in which Councillor G. A. Vantreight, on whose
farm the plot is located, co-operated in the work of the plot.
" A brief description will here be given of the operations carried out on the various lots
during 1924 and the rotation which is being followed.
" The work in connection with the weevil-barriers was very carefully and efficiently
attended to during the season by Wm. Downes, Assistant Entomologist, Dominion Entomological
Branch.
"Lot 1.—In 1919 this lot was in clover; 1920, Sir Walter Raleigh potatoes; 1921, planted
to strawberries ;  1922, first crop ;   1923, second crop ;  1924, third crop.
"The spring work on this lot consisted of three hoeings and four cultivations. On March
29th an application of chemical fertilizer was made. An effort was made to get some comparison
between muriate of potash and sulphate of potash. On half the lot a mixture of 100 lb. of
muriate of potash and 150 lb. of superphosphate was applied, while on the other half 100 lb.
of sulphate of potash and 150 lb. of superphosphate was applied. On May 16th an application
of 100 lb. of nitrate of soda was made.
" Strawing was completed on June 7th, twenty-eight bales of straw being used.
" The following table shows the dates of picking and the quantities of both crate and jam
berries harvested:—
Date of Picking.
Variety Magoon.
Crates.
Hallocks.
Lb. Jam-
berries.
1
6
20
42
64
12
!
1         "
1
|
|          I
„       4 . .                ..                   	
„     10                                                      	
	
„     14                                                                       	
	
..     ->1                                    	
oc
650
150
Totals                              	
145
1         19
800 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 21
" At the approximate average price received for crate-berries and for jam-berries, the
gross return per acre would be as follows:—
145 19/24 crates at average price of $2.08  $303 25
800 lb. jam-berries at 7 cents        56 00
Total     $359 25
" In 1923 the yield on Lot 1 and the average .prices received were as follows:—
372 13/24 crates at average price of $1.88  $700 38
1,513 lb. jam-berries at 7 cents     105 91
6 1/6 crates  (fall crop)  at $3.50       21 58
Total     $827 87
" In 1922 the yield on Lot 1 and the average prices received were as follows:—
160 2/3 crates at average price of $2.10   $337 40
1,350 lb. jam-berries at 10 cents     135 00
Total     $472 40
" Drought conditions during the season of 1924 undoubtedly affected the production of this
lot as it did in 1922, when the lot produced its first crop and was in excellent condition. The
third-year crop in 1924 almost equalled the first-year crop in 1922.
" Four rows on the east side of this lot were affected by weevil and practically produced
nothing. On the basis of the remaining plants the approximate average yield per plant was
0.313 lb.    In 1923 the figure was 0.68 lb. and in 1922 0.356 lb.
" The price of crate-berries showed an improvement of 20 cents per crate over the 1923
figure, although the price of jam-berries remained the same.
" Picking commenced earlier this year than usual, beginning ten days sooner than in 1923,
but also finishing ten days sooner.
" This lot having produced three crops, the decision was made to remove it. The straw
was burnt on July 12th, the plants ploughed out on July 22nd, harrowed twice on July 23rd,
and piled and burnt the same day. On August 11th the lot was ploughed and on the 10th
130 lb. of fall wheat were sown by hand. The lot was harrowed twice and floated the same
day.
" The wheat made satisfactory growth during the fall months, but at the present time
it is impossible to say what damage the heavy frost of December may have caused.
" Lot 2.—In 1919 this lot was in Sir Walter Raleigh potatoes; 1920, planted to strawberries;
1921, first crop; 1922, second crop; the plants were ploughed up and burnt in September, 1922,
and in October the lot was seeded to fall wheat and clover. Owing to winter-killing of clover
the lot was reseeded to clover on May 4th, 1923. The wheat was cut for hay on July 12th.
During 1924 this lot was in clover-hay. The crop was cut on June 19th, raked up and cocked
on June 21st, and hauled in on July 9th. The crop was fair, yielding about 2 tons. This lot
was still in clover at the end of the year.
"Lot 3.—In 1919 this lot was in fall wheat; 1920, oats and vetch; 1921, Sir Walter
Raleigh certified seed-potatoes; 1922, planted to strawberries; 1923, first crop; 1924, second
crop.
" The spring work on this lot was practically identical with Lot 1 and consisted of three
hoeings and four cultivations.
" The same application of chemical fertilizers was made as on Lot 1, the potash and
phosphoric acid being applied on March 31st and the nitrate of soda on May 13th. Strawing
was completed on June 2nd, thirty-six bales being used.
" This lot was producing its second crop and the effects of the drought were not apparent
because it received two good irrigations. The application of the water was very evident in
the production resulting. K 22
Department of Agriculture.
1925
" The following table shows the dates of picking and the quantities of both crate and jam
berries harvested:—
Variety Magoon.
Date of Picking.
Crates.
Hallocks.
Lb. Jam-
berries.
1
34
16
4
77
59
91
72
14
14
12
7
10
12
4                                              	
9	
„     10                                                                                   	
„     12                                         	
„     13                                               	
„     19                   	
„     20                   	
„     25                           	
„     26                                               	
„     30                            	
300
July     1                                           	
436
175
„       7                            	
50
382
41
961
" At  the  approximate  average  price  received  for  crate-berries  and for  jam-berries,  the
gross return per acre would be as follows:—
383 17/24 crates at average price of $2.08   $798 11
961 lb. jam-berries at 7 cents      67 27
Total     865 38
; In 1923 the yield on Lot 3 and the average prices received were as follows:—
372 14/24 crates at average price of $1.88   $700 46
1,663 lb. jam-berries at 7 cents      116 41
10 15/24 crates (fall crop) at $3.50       37 19
Total     $854 06
" On a basis of 11,000 plants the average yield per plant in 1923 was 0.69 lb. In 1924 this
dropped slightly to 0.65 lb.
" It will be noted that the total yield in 1924 was slightly less than in 1923, but owing
to an increased price for crate-berries the gross returns were higher.
"Although this lot only produced its second crop in 1924, it was decided to remove it;
consequently the straw was burnt on July 12th, the plants ploughed out on July 30th, harrowed
twice on August 6th, and piled and burnt on August 9th. On August 16th ploughing was started,
finished on August 18th, and the weeder drove over the same day. On August 19th 130 lb.
of fall wheat were sown by hand.   The lot was harrowed twice and floated the same day.
" The wheat appeared to be in good condition up to the time of the heavy frost in December.
« L0t £—in 1919 this lot was planted to strawberries; 1920, first crop; 1921, Sir Walter
Raleigh certified seed-potatoes; 1922, oats, seeded to clover, reseeded to clover in fall of 1922;
1923, again reseeded to clover in spring, volunteer crop of oats, some clover and grass; 1924;
clover-hay.
" The crop was cut on June 19th, raked up and cocked on June 21st, and hauled in on
July 9th. The crop was fair, yielding about 2 tons. This lot was still in clover at the end of
the year.
« Lot 5—in 1919 this lot was in fall oats; 1920, spring oats and seeded to clover; 1921,
clover;   1922, Sir Walter Raleigh certified seed-potatoes;   1923, planted to strawberries;   1924,
first crop.
" Owing to the drainage-work carried out on this lot in the spring of 1923 and the late
date of planting, the plants did not make as vigorous growth as they should. This fact and
the drought of 1924 materially affected the first crop on this lot. 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 23
" Being a new patch this lot required more work to keep it in good condition than did Lots
1 and 3.    The spring work consisted of six hoeings and four cultivations.
" The same application of chemical fertilizers was made as on Lots 1 and 3, the potash
and phosphoric acid being applied on March 31st and the nitrate of soda on May 9th.
" The runners were cut on June 4th and strawing was completed on June 5th, thirty-four
bales being used.
" The following table shows the dates of picking and the quantities of both crate and
jam berries harvested :—
Date of Picking.
Variety Magoox.
Crates.
Hallocks.
Lb. Jam-
berries.
June
1	
2
11
40
3
48
1
23
14
11
1
2
12
....
4           	
9	
13	
14	
19	
20
21        	
26     	
30 	
175
Totals
156
15
175
14
Fall Crop.
Oct.
1
1
6
11
27	
Totals
2
17                   	
1
" At the approximate average price received for the Prairie shipments and for jam-berries,
the gross return per acre would be as follows:—
156 15/24 crates at average price of $2.08  $325 78
175 lb. jam-berries at 7 cents   ...      12 25
2 17/24 crates (fall crop) at $4.00       10 83
?reat
Total   ....:  $348 86  .
" It will be noted that there were a few berries harvested in the fall.    There were a
number of berries which set and developed, but the birds destroyed most of them.
" On the basis of 11,000 plants the average yield per plant was only 0.24, the lightest yield
experienced on the demonstration plot.
" The plants were cut down on July 7th and all straw and tops burnt off on July 12th.
This was the first time that burning had been practised on the demonstration plot.
" Two hoeings and five cultivations were given this lot during the fall mouths and it went
into the winter in good condition.
" Lot 6.—In 1919 this lot was in fall oats; 1920, English Wonder peas, ploughed down
on June 10th and Sir Walter Raleigh potatoes planted; fall of 1920, planted to fall wheat and
in spring of 1921 seeded to clover; 1921, wheat-hay; 1922, clover; 1923, clover; 1924, Sir
Walter Raleigh certified seed-potatoes.
" This lot, which was ploughed late in the fall of 1923, was kept well worked in the spring
of 1924 in preparation for potatoes. On May 14th and 15th fifty-one rows of Sir Walter Raleigh
certified seed-potatoes were ploughed in by a man and single horse, with two men dropping in,
a total of sy2 hours.    There were 1,262 lb. of seed used.
" The lot was cultivated three times and hoed once during the season.
" Roguing was carried on and the lot passed the two field inspections of the Soil and Crop
Branch for certified seed.
" Digging took place between October 25th and 30th and all potatoes were carefully weighed.
The total yield was as follows: Selected in the field for certified seed, 5,356 lb.; commercial
stock, 10,314 lb.; culls, 588 lb.; or a total of 16.25S lb. K 21 Department of Agriculture. 1925
" The six-year lease expires on the demonstration plot in March, 1925, but arrangements
have been made to carry on Lots 5 and 6 for a still longer period, and it is the intention to
erect one more weevil-barrier—namely, around Lot 6"—early in 1925 and make the final planting
of strawberries."
Pruning Experiments.—Experimental work to determine the best system of pruning is being
carried out on two blocks of apple-trees in the Vernon District. The work has been undertaken
yearly for the past five years on trees varying in age from 3 to 13 years. The final work will
be concluded in the spring of 1925 and a full report submitted in the 1925 report.
Demonstration Pruning Plots.—For the past two years three plots of 10 acres each have
been used in the Oliver District for the purpose of demonstrating the best method of pruning
young trees. The three blocks comprise apples, peaches, and apricots. The results obtained
have been most satisfactory.    The coming season will terminate our work on these plots.
Thinning Demonstrations.—This work was instituted with the idea of showing the growers
of tree-fruits the advisability of thinning for the purpose of crop-improvement and has been
carried on for the past two years at Salmon Arm, Vernon, Kelowna, Summerland, and Penticton.
With regard to the work which has been done, M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist
for the Okanagan, reports as follows :—
" Results of the thinning tests in the different sections are given in the reports of the
various officials who carried on this work. It would appear that growers in whose orchards
these thinning plots are located have thinned their trees just as well as the test-trees, so that
the results of our test-trees are of little turner value. Another line of comparative experiments
might be undertaken with a view to determining labour costs and the effects of thinning on
regular bearing of different fruits."
Fertilizer Tests.—This work was undertaken in the Kelowna District. Various fertilizers
were used on different blocks of tree-fruits. While the results were not altogether satisfactory,
it is anticipated that it will be possible to carry out further work during the coming season
and in addition to tree-fruits to include certain vegetables as well. M. S. Middleton, District
Horticulturist,   reporting  on  this   work,   makes  the  following  statement:—
" Fertilizer tests made at Kelowna should be carried on again, with various proportions
of nitrate of soda applied to blocks of trees in different orchards, as owing to spring frosts
destroying the set of fruit, the dry seasonal conditions, and shortage of irrigation-water the
results of these tests this year was influenced materially. Improvement was noted, however, in
the manifestly larger and darker green leaves on the fertilized trees.
" Further fertilizer tests were carried on in four different orchards at Kelowna. As in
the nitrate tests, results were disappointing owing to prevailing conditions, and arrangements
have been made for further trials with these fertilizers next year.
" It is evident that the time has arrived when correct fertilizers, properly applied, would
increase materially the yields and quality of the various crops. Tests with various mixtures
and commercial brands should be made to determine those best adapted to the different localities
on the more important fruit and vegetable crops. Accurate comparative tests would demonstrate the value of fertilizers in crop production to the growers, and would also be the means
of saving them untold expense in trying out worthless mixtures."
Strawberry-packing Demonstrations.—These packing demonstrations were held by your
district officials in many of the small-fruit sections of the Province, a total of five in all. Due
to the fact that the season-was somewhat shorter than usual and also that many of the districts
had held demonstrations during the past three seasons, the total number was smaller than in
previous years. New growers, however, in districts where no demonstration was held were
visited and shown the best method of handling their fruit.
Spraying Demonstrations.—Under this heading would be included all spraying-work which
has been undertaken by the officials of your Branch other than actual quarantine-work. Information regarding the value of new sprays as well as the value of old sprays in the control
of certain fruit insects and diseases is being continuously requested. In order to keep informed,
and to give the growers the best possible advice, it has been found necessary to try out various
sprays before making recommendations. The work which has been carried out and reported
upon by the various officials of your Branch is herewith submitted for your consideration.
Blossom-blight Spray.—E. W. White, District Horticulturist for Vancouver Island and the
Gulf Islands, reports as follows:—
I B.C. Potato and Seed Show, Vancouver, 1024. Section of certified seed-potato exhibit.
The prize for the best individual exhibit was won by H, C. Fuller, of Windermere, with
a display of Netted Gem variety.
:: ..   ...  ^H
'wmmm
Headquarters of the Doukhobor settlements in the West Kootenay District.
J am-factory, grain-elevator, and administrative buildings.  ■■m
Sfc
2 * a
OJ
Cl GJ CJ
-a*B~
C-S g  15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 25
" An effort was made this year to secure more definite information in reference to a disease
attacking sour cherries, which has spread quite rapidly during the past few years, causing
serious loss, and which is commonly designated as ' blossom-blight.'
" In December, 1923, Station Circular 53, entitled ' Brown Rot and Related Diseases of
Stone Fruits in Oregon,' by H. P. Barss, was published by the Oregon Agricultural College
Experiment Station, Corvallis, Ore. This circular describes and names a new fungus as Monilia
oregonensis, Barss & Posey, which attacks stone-fruits, causing principally a blossom and spur
blight.
" On April 24th typical specimens of the blossom-blight were taken from Olivet-cherry
orchards in the Gordon Head District and sent to Professor H. P. Barss for identification. On
May loth word was received from Professor Barss stating that the specimens sent yielded the
typical Monilia oregonensis in culture.
" Arrangements had previously been made to carry on some spraying-work in an effort
to control this trouble. The Olivet-cherry orchards of Councillor G. A. Vantreight and F. E.
Aitken in the Gordon Head District were selected. On April 25th both orchards received
a 4-4-40 Bordeaux spray just as the blossoms were opening. Certain trees were left unsprayed.
On May loth and 16th, just as the blossoms were falling, about half the trees in each block
received a second application of 4-4-40 Bordeaux.
" There was considerable development of the disease in each orchard, both before and after
the spraying, but it was the opinion of J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, after an
examination made on May 9th, that the trouble was not as prevalent as in 1923. It is planned
to continue the spraying-work in 1925, and it is hoped that the cumulative effect of the spraying
will be evident in 1925."
Apple-scab (Ventaria inequalis) Spray.—This work was carried out in the Salmon Arm
District along similar lines as reported to you in the 1923 report. Owing, however, to the
extremely dry weather no results were obtained, unsprayed check-trees showing as good results
as the sprayed trees. During wet seasons this disease is very troublesome and it is proposed
to continue the work during the coming year. Work of a similar nature will also be undertaken in the Kootenay District. At the latter point dry lime-sulphur will be used as against
the liquid preparation in use at Salmon Arm. It is hoped that this work will show the comparative value of these two sprays both from a cost and a control standpoint.
B'lister-miite (Eriphyes pyri) Spray.—Demonstration-work in the control of blister-mite was
undertaken in both the Vernon aud Kelowna Districts. Both fall and spring applications gave
satisfactory control and good, results were obtained with dilutions of lime-sulphur as weak as
1 to 20.    Your staff, however, is recommending its use at the strength of 1 to 15.
Calcium Arsenate Sprays.—Large quantities of arsenate of lead are used yearly in the
fruit-growing districts of the Province. As an insecticide calcium arsenate has the same killing
properties as arsenate of lead and is cheaper in price. The tendency to burn the foliage under
certain climatic conditions has made your officials hesitate to recommend it. It has, however,
been used extensively in the East. This year it was tried out by your Branch at Vernon with
no resultant burning. Before recommending it to the growers, however, your officials deem
it advisable to make further tests during the coming season.
Oil Sprays for the Control of Leaf-roller (Cacwcia argyrosphila).—The problem of oil sprays
for leaf-roller control is one of the most important problems in spraying at the present time.
Your Assistant District Horticulturist at Vernon, co-operating with a representative of the
Dominion Entomological staff, has devoted considerable time to this work. His report on the
work which has been done is very comprehensive and it is hoped that further work may be
possible during the coming season. An extract from the report of the District Horticulturist,
which is particularly applicable, is herewith given:—
" A series of experiments were also carried out to ascertain the effects and results of
certain home-made cold-water emulsions and commercial miscible oils, with a view to discovering
an oil which would prove reasonably cheap and be effective against this pest. Four commercial
brands of oil and three grades of engine lubricating-oil with home-made cold-water emulsifiers
were also tried out. The results, although interesting, would not warrant the general recommendation of cold-water emulsions to growers at the present time. Some of the commercial
products proved worthless and others very satisfactory. K 26 Department of Agriculture. 1925
" The importance of oil sprays against such insects as the leaf-rollers and scale-insects
is a live one, and the extremely complex composition of various oils used makes further
experiments with commercial products and with various grades of oils in cold-water emulsions
of a more comparative nature imperative. These should also be worked out with lime and
sulphur in combination, with a view to controlling the blister-mite, another common serious
pest, at the same time."
Pest-contkol and Inspection Wobk.
Codling-moth (Cydia pomonella).—The codling-moth quarantine-work was carried out by
your staff along the same lines as in previous years. The area subject to quarantine is increasing each year. In 1924 the area which was sprayed amounted to 1,244 acres, while an
additional 877 acres were under quarantine regulations and subject to band inspection. It is
anticipated that the area to be sprayed in 1925 will be approximately 1,652 acres, while the
banded area not to be sprayed has not yet been established.
Eradication of this pest from the orchards of British Columbia may be considered an
impossibility. The area subject to quarantine is increasing each year, and as your official
pointed out to you in his previous report: " The alarming fact, however, is that the outbreaks
are scattered and show that the moth was present a year or two previous to the actual finding
and quarantine." How much longer the present system of quarantine can continue it is hard
to say, but it would seem as if there might be a possibility of the work having to be dropped,
particularly if new areas develop as rapidly as has been the ease during the past season.
San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus).—The presence of this pest in the Province is by
no means general. For a number of years it has been present in the vicinity of Spences Bridge,
but the methods employed in the control have always proven satisfactory, although never
resulting in its eradication. This year it was found at Kaslo. Your District Horticulturist,
E. C. Hunt, in his annual report makes the following statement with regard to this outbreak.:—
" Specimens were collected on a pear-tree at Kaslo on September 3rd, 1924, and identified
on October 3rd by M. H. Ruhmann as being San Jose scale. Your assistant made a thorough
inspection of the district when the infestation was reported and at once placed the area under
quarantine. As the result of the two-day inspection it was found that the scale had not spread
over a very large area. The outbreak is just outside of the city limits at Kaslo in what is
known as the Allen Addition and the McDonald Addition. There are sixteen growers affected
by the quarantine and the total number of trees is about 600, mostly apple-trees; of this number,
about twenty-five trees are badly infected and the rest are slightly infested or adjacent to
infested trees. Steps have been taken for spraying this area with an oil spray in the spring
of 1925, and it is hoped that within a short time this pest may be eradicated."
Grasshopper-control.—A number of sections had suffered from grasshopper attacks previous
to the past season. In 1923 in the Oliver District considerable damage had been done to the
growing crops and young trees. In anticipation of a further outbreak in 1924 preparations
were made to supply growers with poisoned bait. Outbreaks in other sections of the Okanagan
also required prompt control measures which gave most satisfactory results. Your official
cannot do better than quote from the report of the District Horticulturist regarding this work:—
" Unusually early hatching of this pest occurred and it was soon learned that the outbreak
would be very serious in some sections—namely, at Westbank; Kelowna, on the Belgo and
Rutland benches; Oyama and Winfield and at Vernon adjoining the city; Middleton Mountain
and Cousins Bay ranges. Immediate action was taken in the Kelowna outbreak. The young
hoppers were found hatching in myriads in the onion-fields and doing great damage to the
young plants. Early experiments proved effective, so that following a conference of the
Executive of the Vegetable-growers' Association; E. H. Buckell, of the Dominion Entomological
staff; and officials of the Horticultural Branch, the growers were organized into sections and
a thorough application of bait was given to the infested areas with excellent results. It was
later considered advisable to establish central mixing-stations at Kelowna and Vernon, where
growers, upon request, could be supplied free of charge with the properly mixed bait. This
plan proved very satisfactory and was very much appreciated by all concerned.
" It is rather difficult to ascertain definitely at the present time what trouble we might
expect next year from this insect. However, in co-operation with the Dominion officials, it
is proposed to keep close watch on the hatchings, and as soon as the major hatching-beds can be 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 27
located the growers in these sections will be organized to cope with the situation. After this
year's experience it seems imperative that the insects be tackled while in the nymph stage,
as it is more costly and less effective to check them when they commence to fly."
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorus).—This work has been carried out by the officials of your
Branch in a similar manner to previous years. A total of 16,521 acres were inspected. Of
the total area inspected, 11,122 acres were passed as free from fire-blight and therefore qualifying for a blight-inspection certificate. This is a form of work which necessitates considerable
time being expended on inspection, but which results in a material benefit to the fruit-growing
districts where blight is prevalent.    The work will be continued during the coming season.
Nursery Inspection.—Inspection of all fruit stock in the various nurseries was again undertaken by the officials of your Branch. These inspections were made at digging-time and all
stock not considered satisfactory was destroyed. A total of fourteen inspections were made
in the eleven principal nurseries of the Province. A total of 169,777 trees were inspected, of
which 14,047 trees, or approximately 8.3 per cent., were destroyed.
Export Fruit Inspections.
Many countries are at the present time requiring that all important fruit be covered by an
inspection certificate issued by the Agricultural Department of the country where the fruit
is grown. Working in co-operation with the Vancouver Inspection Office, your Branch undertook
to carry out the inspection-work and issue certificates where required. These were made up
as follows:—
District.
New Zealand.
South
Africa.
China.
Apples.
Onions.
Apples.
Apples.
Salmon Arm  	
3,900
25,655
1,300
3,531
2,200
10,970
2,649
5,721
5,250
1,580
Summerland	
Totals 	
34,386
13,170               13,620
1
1,560
Phess Articles and Publications.
From time to time articles on seasonal topics have been issued to the press by the various
officials of your Horticultural Branch. In this way the growers in the various districts have
been advised as to the best horticultural practices at seasonal times. Articles have also been
prepared dealing with horticultural conditions for various sections of the Dominion press.
As in the past two years, your Branch again issued a Weekly News Letter. This letter
was first sent out on May 17th and continued until August 16th. It is made up of weekly
reports submitted by the various district officials on the fruit and vegetable situation in that
particular district. Covering as it did all fruit-growing sections of the Province, it was very
much in demand not only by the growers, but by the agricultural press, Boards of Trade, and
other bodies directly interested in the horticultural conditions in the Province. Its success in
the past would warrant its continuance during the coming season.
Fall Fairs.
The demand for judges of horticultural products at the various fall fairs throughout the
Province requires a considerable amount of time of your Horticultural staff. Judges are
supplied, wherever possible, not only for the fall fairs, but for flower-shows and garden competitions. This is considered a good policy to continue as fully as possible as it creates a
uniform standard of judging. Full reports on the judging of all fairs have been forwarded
to the Secretary of the Fall Fairs Association.
Changes in Staff.
Your Horticulturist reported the resignation of W. T. Hunter in the fall of 1923. This
position remained vacant until April, 1924, when the appointment of M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., as District Horticulturist for the Okanagan was made.   There have been no other changes
in the permanent staff.
Acknowledgment.
Your Horticulturist, in conclusion, wishes to express his sincere appreciation of the hearty
co-operation which he has received at all times during the past season from members of his staff.
His thanks are due also to the various Dominion and University of British Columbia officials
for their assistance in the various lines of horticultural work undertaken.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Robertson.
REPORT OF CHIEF INSPECTOR OF IMPORTED FRUIT AND NURSERY STOCK,
VANCOUVER.
W. H. Lyne.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report herewith the work of the Inspector of Imported and
Exported Horticultural and Field Products and his staff of assistants during the year ended
December 31st, 1924.
Plant products such as fruit, vegetables, rice, corn, peas, beans, walnuts, peanuts, etc.,
imported into the Province were inspected at the several ports of entry where Quarantine
Officers under the direction of your Inspector were stationed. Any such products found to be
infested or infected with insect pest or disease of sufficient economic importance were condemned
and shipped out of the Province or destroyed. Certificates were issued permitting the distribution and sale of that which passed inspection and condemnation certificates were issued for that
which was condemned. Inspection fees were collected on the products necessitating rigid and
systematic inspection.
Tourist and Passenger Traffic
Besides the inspection of fruit and vegetables in commercial quantities, strict attention
was paid to tourists and passengers entering by boat, train, or wagon-road who had in their
possession small quantities of fruit or vegetables for their immediate use. But in that case
no certificates were issued or inspection fees charged.
Observation List.
No certificates were issued or fees collected on certain varieties of fruit and vegetables
not generally associated with destructive pests or disease of sufficient importance to warrant a
very close inspection. Such products, however, came under the observation of the Inspectors
and might at any time be placed on the regular inspection-list did conditions arise to warrant
that procedure. The varieties of the products referred to will be found on one of the tabulated
sheets attached to this report.
Vancouver Island Ferry Service.
The auto-ferry service between the United States and Vancouver Island was considerably
increased during the summer. Commencing April 4th, the run between Anacortes and Sidney
was continued until the end of December. From the middle of May to the middle of September
three vessels were on the run daily, plying from Anacortes and Bellingham to Sidney; one
of the boats making two trips daily. From April to the end of November 4,542 autos and
19,448 passengers were landed at Sidney; 3,366 were United States cars. One of the routes
was via Orcas and San Juan Islands and several tons of fruit, mostly pears, were' shipped
from Orcas Island to Sidney, where they were used for canning. A daily ferry was also in
operation between Port Angeles and Victoria.
Coast and Ocean Service.
The Coast service consists of boats plying from South American ports, also Los Angeles,
San Francisco, Portland, and Seattle, to Victoria, Vancouver, Prince Rupert, and other northern
ports in British Columbia and Alaska.    Fruit and vegetable products were often included in 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 29
the  freight  of  such  boats,  necessitating  a  careful  inspection.    Passengers  also  would  often
have such products in their baggage or other effects.
There has been a very noticeable increase in the ocean shipping, which now plies from all
parts of the world, notably from Great Britain, France, Holland, and Belgium via Panama
Canal; also from New Zealand, Australia, China, Japan, India, and various islands in the
Pacific Ocean.   A close watch is kept on all freight, passengers, and baggage.
Fruit and Vegetables imported.
The miscellaneous varieties of fruit and vegetables imported are recorded on the tabulated
sheets and also those condemned.    (See Appendices Nos. 10 and 11.)
Fruit and Vegetables condemned.
The several pests and diseases for which the imported fruit and vegetables were condemned
were as follows :—
From the United States: Apples and pears infested with codling-moth larva? and San Jose
scale; prunes infected with brown-rot; peaches with brown-rot and peach-worm (Anarsia
lineatella) ; cherries with brown-rot; oranges infested with Aspidiotus auranti and Mytilaspis
scale-insects; grapefruit with Mytilaspis and Aspidiotus scale-insects; common potatoes with
Fusariwm and late-blight rot.
From China:   Sweet potatoes with weevil (Cylas forrndcarius) and black-rot.
From Mexico:   Tomatoes with corn-ear worm  (Heliothus armager) and anthracnose rot.
Imported Nursery Stock.
All nursery stock, such as trees or shrubs, that entered the Province consigned to points
within the Province or to any port of Canada were inspected at the Dominion and Provincial
Government Fumigation Station, Vancouver. Stock subject to fumigation as prescribed by
the regulations was treated accordingly. Both the Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest Act"
and the Provincial regulations governing the importation of nursery stock were carried out by
your Inspector and his staff.    (See Appendices Nos. 12 and 13.)
Tabulated List of Nursery Stock.
The number and variety of trees, shrubs, plants, dormant roots, and bulbs are included
with the other tabulated sheets attached to this report. The number and variety of stock condemned is also recorded.
There is a noticeable falling-off in the number of standard fruit-trees that were'imported
during 1924 as compared to those imported in 1923. Possibly the poor returns for most
varieties of tree-fruits during the two previous seasons may account for the smaller number
of trees imported. The British Columbia nurserymen who are endeavouring to pi'opagate more
and import less may also have assisted in reducing the importation.
The slight increase in the number of nut-trees, mostly walnut, may indicate a keener
interest being taken in their production. Considerable enthusiasm in commercial production
of walnuts, cobnuts, and filberts is apparent in the States of Washington and Oregon and may
spread to British Columbia.
The importation of cranberry and grape vines was a little ahead of the previous year,
also raspberry and loganberry stock. A modest attempt to grow cranberries on a commercial
scale is being made in the Queen Charlotte Islands. E. H. Kettridge, who has had experience
growing them in the Eastern cranberry districts, is of the opinion they could be a commercial
success in British Columbia. Quite a few are now grown in the States of Washington and
Oregon, from where the vines were imported.
Panama Koijte for Nursery Stock.
The importation of ornamental shrubs and trees was about equal to that of the previous
year, rose-bushes being slightly in excess. Most of this class of stock came from Holland by
way of the Panama Canal, which is becoming quite a popular route owing to the steamship
companies having considerably improved their cool-storage accommodation by including better
ventilation. K 30 Department of Agriculture. 1925
Successful importation by this particular route is quite an improvement on that by way
of St. John, N.B., and overland to British Columbia during the winter, as the stock escapes
the extreme low temperatures of the Eastern and Prairie Provinces.
Nursery* Stock condemned.
The following pests and diseases were responsible for some of the stock being condemned
and destroyed or shipped out of the country:—
Scale-insects: Aspidiotus perniciosus and ostrceformis on fruit-trees from United States;
Aspidiotus ostrceformis and forbesi on fruit-trees and ornamental shrubs from Europe, Japan,
and United States; Aspidiotus perniciosus on ornamental shrubs from Japan ; Aspidiotus hedera
on ornamentals from Europe; Diaspis and Chionaspis on ornamental shrubs from Europe and
Japan; Aspidiotus rapax and quercus on mistletoe from United States; Aulac.aspis rosea on
blackberry, raspberry, and rose bushes from United States; Leeanium hemisphericum and
hesperidium on ornamental shrubs and trees from Europe, United States, and Japan; Leyi-
dosaphes ulmi on fruit and ornamental trees from Europe and United States.
Root-borers : Sauninoidea exitiosa in peach, apricot, and plum trees from United States
and Eastern Canada; Bembecia marginata in blackberry and raspberry canes from United
States; a species of Saperda in ornamental shrubs from Japan; crown-miner (Aristotella)
in strawberry-plants from United States.
Aphis: Eriosoma lanigera on apple-trees from Europe and United States; Eriosoma pyri
on roots of pear-trees from United States; Aphis nigre on roots of peach-trees from United
States.
Phylloxera on roots of grape-vines from United States.
Bark-canker, anthracnose, sour-sap, root-gall, and hairy-root affecting fruit-trees and
shrubs, ornamental trees and shrubs from Europe and United States.
Nursery Stock exported.
The total amount of nursery stock exported was comparatively small, but indicates the
gradual opening-up of trade in that particular commodity between our local nurserymen and
patrons abroad.
Countries to which the stock was exported were England, United States, China, Japan,
and New Zealand.
A tabulated list of the number and variety and the countries to which they were exported
is presented with this report.
The seed recorded as exported to England was all native conifer-seed from the seed-
extraction plant of the Dominion Forestry Branch at New Westminster.
Each shipment of nursery stock exported was carefully inspected by your Inspector or a
member of his staff, and an export inspection certificate issued complying with regulations
of the country to which it was shipped.    (iSee Appendix No. 19.)
Fruit and Veoetj\bles exported.
Export inspection certificates were issued after careful inspection of fruit and vegetables
to the various countries as listed on separate tabulated sheet attached to this report. The
list does not contain the quantity of fruit shipped to England or other European ports from
the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts owing to the inspection having been carried out by the
Provincial and Dominion District Inspectors at point of shipment.    (See Appendix No. 20.)
Travelling.
During the year your Inspector visited most of the Quarantine Officers stationed at ports
of importation. He also attended the annual British Columbia Fruit-growers' Convention
at Chilliwack and Conference of Horticulturists, Entomologists, and Plant Pathologists at
Penticton.
Foot-and-mouth Disease.
The outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in California naturally caused considerable anxiety
and speculation as to the possible danger of the disease reaching British Columbia through
the importation of the numerous fruit and vegetable products from so many parts of that
particular State.    The necessity for placing an embargo on such products or enforcing strict 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 31
quarantine measures regarding them was very seriously considered. The admirable precautionary measures taken by the California State Department of Agriculture and the watchfulness
of our own officials, however, considerably modified the necessity for more drastic action.
No plant products of any kind were allowed to leave a known infested area and precautionary
measures, such as fumigation, were strictly carried out in connection with any products from
areas outside the danger-zones.
Your Inspector and his staff have always co-operated with the officials of the Dominion
Health of Animals Brancla in enforcing the regulations prohibiting hay, straw, fodder, etc.,
from States, Provinces, or countries where the disease exists. The fumigation station has
often been a ready recourse for fumigating a large variety of shipments that might possibly
carry the disease.
Such shipments were subjected to a four-hour exposure to formaldehyde and potassium
permanganate, and the hay or straw in which they were packed was destroyed by burning.
" Eggs Marks Act."
Your Inspector, with the aid of two assistants, H. Gutteridge and A. Irving, has endeavoured
to. enforce the new 1923 " Eggs Marks Act" to good effect, so far as importations via Vancouver
were concerned. Other Assistant Inspectors have kept watch in various other parts of the
Province.
The assistants referred to were all engaged in other branches of work connected with the
Department of Agriculture, such as District Agriculturist, Horticulturist, Fruit Quarantine
and Poultry officials, so that no additional salaries were involved in the enforcement of the
Act.
Results obtained have on the whole been very satisfactory. Only 1,302 cases of United
States eggs were imported during the year and a few lots for setting arrived in other parts of
the Province; 1,453 cases arrived from China, but were shipped through to points east of
British Columbia. Very small quantities of salted eggs and some preserved in clay often
arrived from China for the exclusive use of Chinese residents.
Mourn Loss of Colleagues.
Your Inspector and his staff sincerely mourn the loss of R. C. Treherne, D. Gavet, and G.
E. Wilkerson. The sudden death of these well-known associates with the Department occurred
during the year.
Mr. Treherne, Dominion Assistant Entomologist, and latterly Chief of the Division of
Dominion Field Crop and Garden Insects, was for many years closely associated with your
Inspector and his work. He rendered most valuable assistance to both the Dominion and
Provincial Departments of Agriculture. His death on June 7th after only a few days' illness
was a great shock to all his friends.
D. Gavet, senior assistant to your Inspector, had been a faithful servant of your Department
since 1907.    He died very suddenly  on  January 28th,  apparently from heart-failure.
B. E. Wilkerson, although not a gazetted official, was Fruit Quarantine Officer at the
Port of Victoria for over twenty years, serving on the staff of the late Thomas Cunningham
and afterwards on that of your Inspector. He was an extremely conscientious and faithful
servant. He has been succeeded by his assistant, John Noble, who in turn is now assisted by
W. A. Carpenter. Mr. Wilkerson's death occurred on September 6th and was almost as sudden
as that of Mr. Gavet.
Mr. Gavet's place was filled by the Vancouver staff being advanced in order of seniority,
and Horace Epps advanced from casual assistant to the regular staff after serving eight years
in the former capacity.
Office-work.
At your Inspector's headquarters office in the Court-house, Vancouver, all details of work
performed in the inspection of imported and exported horticultural and field products were
carefully recorded. Information regarding regulations, insect pests, and plant-diseases was
dispensed by personal interviews and correspondence. The departmental bulletins and circulars
relating to horticultural and agricultural subjects were always on hand, for which there has
been a steady demand. K 32 Department of Agriculture. 1925
Stored Products  fumigated.
In the foregoing report your Inspector omitted reference to the various stored products
that arrive infested with moth, beetle, or weevil, in which case the consignee has the option
of the shipment being refused entry or fumigated. Such products consist of rice, corn, peas,
beans,, peanuts, etc., including dried fruits and spices. Fumigation is carried out at the
Government Fumigation Station, Vancouver, or in the two fumigation chambers provided at
Victoria. A list of the quantity and various products fumigated during the year appears on
one of the tabulated report sheets attached to this report.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Lyne.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST, VANCOUVER.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for 1924.
Seasonal Conditions.
The summer of 1924 was unusually dry. As a consequence certain fungus-diseases which
often do serious injury were of little importance. Apple-scab, which is the most serious disease
that the apple-grower in the Kootenays has to contend with, did very little injury in that
section. There were one or two areas on the Kootenay Lake, however, where a slight outbreak
of scab occurred on susceptible varieties late in the season (September) as a consequence of
late summer rains. Such late infections are unusual. As a result of experimental work in
scab-control in the Kootenays it was considered that a spray later than two to three weeks
after the calyx spray would not be worth while oftener than once in five years.
The only fungus-disease which assumed unusual prominence last season was the powdery
mildew of clover (Ergsiphe sp.). Some fields of red clover in the Kootenay District were so
completely covered with the fungus that the whole field appeared greyish-white, being conspicuous even at a distance. The perithecial stage was not observed. Notwithstanding the
amount of mildew present there did not seem to be any serious injury to the plants. In some
instances rust (Uromyces) was also present on the same plants.
Physiological diseases were prevalent and severe, especially drought-spot and corky core
of apples. Certain orchards of Mcintosh had the entire crop rendered almost worthless from
this trouble, which appears to be associated with drought and certain unfavourable soil or
root conditions.
Potato-diseases.
A somewhat perplexing trouble occurred in potatoes grown for certified seed in the
Courtenay District. Certain fields of the Burbank variety which were still green when frost
came in the last week of September were cut by the frost and the tubers subsequently developed
a discoloration in the vascular ring. This discoloration was confined to the vascular ring,
not being noticeable in the pith or cortex as in net necrosis or frost necrosis. In many cases
it extended completely from end to end of the tuber, and while in the majority of cases faint,
in others it was pronounced enough to make a purchaser possibly suspect wilt. No wilt, however, had been found in the field inspections during the growing season, but under the circumstances it was thought best to refuse certification, for fear of possible complications with
purchasers, until the matter had been further investigated. A considerable number of cultures
were made from discoloured tissue, but no organism was found associated with the discoloration.
Samples of the affected potatoes were planted at Courtenay, the University Farm at Point
Grey, and the Dominion Experimental Farm at Invermere. The plants raised from this seed
were healthy and vigorous showing no evidence of any weakness or disease. Those at Invermere, however, were cut down by frost again and the same trouble reappeared in the tubers.
The other plots, however, which matured normally, gave tubers which were free from any
discoloration. Some of the Holstein cows in the stock parade at the picnic of the Fraser
Valley Milk-producers' Association held at. the Experimental Farm, Agassiz,
June 14th, 1924.
Judging demonstration at picnic of Fraser Valley Milk-producers' Association, held at Experimental Farm, Agassiz, June 14th. 1924. The late
W. T. McDonald. Live Stock Commissioner, is shown outlining comparative
strong and weak points in lour young females.  15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 33
It seems probable that the discoloration is in the nature of a sap-stain from the decomposed
products of the frozen leaf-tissue being carried down into the tubers rather than any form of
wilt or necrosis. From the work carried out last year it would appear that potatoes so affected
are as good as any others for seed purposes, but, at the same time, it may not be desirable to
certify them for fear of dissatisfaction on the part of the purchaser.
Burhank potatoes have also suffered severely from a genuine net necrosis in certain places
on Lulu Island. This was not correlated with frost nor with leaf-roll, and the cause of it is
obscure. It would seem, however, that the Burbank is particularly susceptible to various internal streakings and spottings of the tuber.
During the judging at the Potato Fair at Vancouver an exhibit of Netted Gems was noticed
showing a peculiar and unrecognized defect. Patches of the flesh showed a black rubbery
consistency resembling " black-heart," but affecting the external layer of the flesh and not the
heart. Inquiry showed that these potatoes had been dug wet and then placed near the stove
to dry. Conditions, therefore, were probably somewhat similar to those responsible for " black-
heart."    Another exhibit of undetermined history showed a similar condition.
During the past season, as in the preceding years, occasional plants have been found with
very numerous weak shoots. These have been classed as a form of " spindling sprout." Recently, certain investigators in the State of Washington reported that this disease has occurred
there to the extent of affecting 50 per cent, of the crop and that it may he of the nature of
a " virus " disease. It has been shown to be carried in the tubers. Probably, therefore, this
will have to be added to our scheduled diseases in connection with potato-certification.
Colorado  Beetle.
At the beginning of June I received a telegram from Ashcroft stating that " potato-bugs "
were doing much injury and calling for immediate assistance. As there was a remote possibility that this might be a new outbreak of Colorado beetle I left immediately to investigate.
The pest turned out to be the grey blister-beetle (Epicauta sp.). It had done considerable
damage in certain places, completely stripping the young plants. Even at that date, however,
the insects were beginning to leave the potato-fields and go back to the range. Although
damage is occasionally done by this insect, the larvse feed on the eggs of grasshoppers, so that
it is probably on the whole a useful insect. Recommendations were made for the use of Paris
green or lead arsenate should the attack persist.
On the whole, the result of the Government's efforts to control the Colorado-beetle infestation in the East Kootenay has been satisfactory. The numbers of the pest present south of
Elko, and in particular at Wardner, were only a fraction of those to be found in the two
preceding years. Unfortunately, however, the bug has made quite a jump in the Cranbrook
District, as it was found on a small garden-patch about 4 miles west of Cranbrook and probably the last potato-patch between the Cranbrook District and Lumberton. A careful examination of all potato-fields and patches between this outpost and Cranbrook gave negative results,
although a slight infestation was found on a very small portion of the large potato acreage
in the hands of Chinese growers just east of Cranbrook. These extensions of infestation are
probably the result of the conveyance of adult bugs on cars or other vehicles.
There is no question but that the beetle is permanently established in the territory east
of Cranbrook, and even if eradication were possible reinfestation would immediately recur
from across the boundary. The Government's action in supplying free poison and spraying
and dusting machines has given the farmer valuable assistance in controlling the pest, at a
time when any additional expense was a serious matter and whilst many of the growers were
unfamiliar with the insect and the best means of control. Moreover, the rapidity, ease, and
efficiency of dust applications have been demonstrated. It would seem, therefore, desirable
that after the coming year the problem of control be turned over to the growers in the district
east of Cranbrook as a matter of ordinary farm procedure, and the Government give assistance
only in the case of new infestations or westward extensions of the existing one.
In the Creston area no extension of the infestation was recorded, though the pest reappeared on the original location on the Langston Ranch at Camp Lister. Mr. Hunt found about
a dozen adults just emerged on June 19th and about twenty-four egg-masses on volunteer
plants. A trap of potatoes was planted near this spot. An inspection on July 3rd showed
nothing, but all potato-plants were sprayed on that date and again the last week in July. In
3 K 34 Department of Agriculture. 1925
company with Mr. Twigg I made a very careful examination of all plants on August 4th, but
no indication of the pest in any stage was discovered. There would seem to be grounds,
therefore, for hoping that the pest has been eradicated here.
Miscellaneous  Diseases.
Blossom-blight, especially of Olivet cherries, was again severe in the vicinity of Victoria.
This appears to be identical with the form reported from Oregon as due to a new species of
fungus (Monilia oregonensis) related to the common brown-rot organism. The spraying programme which is recommended for Oregon, however, did not prove very successful under our
conditions and it is hoped to carry on some experimental work next spring.
About the middle of June some alarm was expressed by certain growers in the Saanich
District concerning the number of developing fruit that were drying up instead of developing
on loganberry and raspberry plantations. In conjunction with Mr. White I made a careful
inquiry in the district, but did not think that there was any cause for alarm. In no case was
more than 20 per cent, of the fruit not developing and in most cases a much smaller percentage.
In some cases the trouble had been noticed the preceding season, but the growers had harvested
a good crop. In a few cases insect-injuries were found and in a few others a fungus (Botrytis),
but in most cases the drying appeared to be purely physiological and probably associated with
the dry climatic conditions prevailing in this locality.
Snapdragon-rust (Puccinia antirrhini) was very noticeable around Victoria and occasioned
a serious and, in some cases, destructive disease of this favourite garden flower. It also proved
destructive in certain greenhouses. It was also reported as destructive at Courtenay. It was
not observed on the Mainland. The disease is native to America, being first reported from
California in 1896, and in recent years has spread pretty well over North America. This,
however, is the first time it has been reported as a serious garden pest in British Columbia.
Black-knot of Plums and Cherries (Plowrightea morbosa).—Several cases of this were
found by G. E. AV. Clarke on Lulu Island. Previous findings have been on the Indian reserve
at Point Grey and one case at Kerrisdale. The disease did not appear to have spread as much
as might have been expected, the specimens being apparently confined to old neglected trees.
Infections have been cut out and destroyed.
Mushroom Root-rot (Armillaria mellea).—The severest case of disease that I have noticed
as definitely due to this organism was seen in the home orchard of a Shaughnessy Heights
residence. Apple, plum, cherry, and pear trees were dead or dying, rhizomorphs being found
in abundance over the roots and up the trunks. On the whole, the amount of injury that can
be definitely attributed to this fungus in the Coast area of British Columbia is surprisingly
small when compared with the reports from the Pacific States, but it is evident that under
favourable conditions it can be destructive.
Other    Work.
During the past year a revised edition of Circular No. 23, " Fire-blight," was prepared and
issued as Circular No. 66, New Horticultural Series. Bulletin No. OS, " Diseases and Pests of
Cultivated Plants," which has been out of print for some years, has been rewritten and much
enlarged, forming a fairly comprehensible guide to the diseases and pests of the Province. As
in previous years, I took part in the short course in horticulture given by the University,
collaborated in the plant-disease survey carried on by the Dominion Government, and furnished
abstracts of British Columbia agricultural publications for Botanical Abstracts.
Respectfully submitted.
J.  W. Eastham. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 35
REPORT  OF ASSISTANT ENTOMOLOGIST,  VERNON.
M. H. Ruhmann, B.A.
Dr. D.  Warnock,  O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
iSir,—The following is a report on the entomological activities of this office during the past
year:—
The Entomological staff during the past year consisted of: Max H. Ruhmann, Assistant
Entomologist in Charge; Miss C. M. Bigland, Junior Laboratory Assistant.
On May 9th a report was received of an outbreak of grasshoppers which was causing
severe injury to an onion-crop near Kelowna. This case was immediately investigated and
found to be serious. The various growers of this section were immediately interviewed and
arrangements made for combined action in the application of control measures. On May 10th
bran, molasses, salt, and fruit extract were procured by the growers, the Department supplying
the necessary poison. These materials were conveyed to a central mixing-station and a demonstration of mixing the poison bait was given. This area received constant and thorough treatment throughout the season, the result being that only a slight injury occurred to the crop.
From this time on through the early summer many reports of outbreaks from widely
distributed points were received, with the result that several central mixing-stations for the
preparation and distribution of poison bait were installed by the Horticultural Branch in an
effort to combat the hopper outbreak. Large quantities of poisoned bait were distributed free
by the Department and considerable benefit resulted, although lack of local organization among
the growers minimized the results that might have been obtained. The greatest losses occurred
in the unorganized sections in the Douglas Lake areas, where hay and range grasses were
seriously depleted.
E. R. Buckell, Assistant Dominion Entomologist and a specialist in the Orthoptera, took
charge of investigations and general supervisory work. The outbreak was, however, so extended
that many Department officials had to give considerable of their time to the work.
It is anticipated that, although parasitism and predacious enemies of the hoppers were
considerable in some sections, the hoppers will be very much in evidence over a large area
during 1925.
The codling-moth (Gydia pom-onella), although considerably reduced in some areas, new
outbreaks have occurred in other important sections, so that, on the whole, ground is gradually
being lost in the effort to reduce the total area.
The fruit-crop on the whole was exceptionally free from both insect and fungus injuries.
The reduction in insect-injuries was to a large measure due to the thorough general spraying
of the trees which has been in progress for the last two years in the more important fruit sections. Many sections, however, lack power-sprayers and every effort should be made to induce
growers to invest in this very necessary equipment. Every year is showing an increasing need
of power-sprayers. With the almost annual appearance of new pests and the great increase
and wider distribution of the old ones, the problem promises to be a serious matter for the
fruit-growers in a few years' time unless a more active spirit in the control of our pests is
shown.
The Codling-moth Situation in British Columbia.
Work on the codling-moth in British Columbia has been in progress since 1905, at which
time there were three small areas in the Province infested. In spite of every effort to eradicate,
the moth has gradually spread through the fruit sections of the Province and at the present
day every important fruit-growing centre has the moth either present or in its near vicinity.
The spread has been gradual and, although eradication has been effected in many centres, new
outbreaks and reinfestations have constantly occurred. The cost of this work has been heavy,
with an ever-increasing annual expenditure by the Department of Agriculture. This expenditure
has been well warranted in so far that general infestation has been prevented for so many
years. Now the infestations are so widespread that it is only a matter of a very few years
that general infestation will be an accomplished fact. Before this point has been reached it
would be advisable for the fruit-grower to take an active interest in the matter and to prepare
and equip himself to control the codling-moth in his own orchards. K 36 Department of Agriculture. 1925
Protective Spraying Zones.—There have been requests for some years by progressive growers
to have protective spraying zones established. The Department has greatly favoured these.
So far, however, nothing has materialized to this end, mainly through the inability of a sufficient
number of growers in a given zone to support such a movement.
A petition to establish a protective spraying zone requires the signatures of 80 per cent,
of the growers in a given zone irrespective of the individual acreage to be protected. It would
be desirable if one or two such zones could be established so that effective and practical regulations for the control of such zones could be established.
In the creation of a large number of such zones before some experience in the management
of them has been attained would create considerable difficulty and possible hardship on small
growers.
The desirability of protective zones is very evident and would increase the output of commercial grades of fruit considerably from our present acreage.
A lecture on pest-control was given at Keremeos early in the year. A great deal of time
had to be spent in the field on experiments and investigations. Most of the necessary travelling
was done by car, a total distance of approximately 11,000 miles being covered in this manner.
Owing to lack of time Kelowna Fair was the only one visited, where an exhibit of fruit pests
and diseases was displayed.
The revision of the Entomological section of Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 68
was completed and published.
Reports on the investigation of the life-history of the codling-moth in relation to temperature, onion-maggot control with the bichloride-of-mercury treatment, the San Jose scale outbreak at Kaslo, and the cherry fruit-fly are attached hereto.
Projects for 1925.
Control experiments of the currant and gooseberry fruit-worm. This is a necessary project
owing to the impossibility of growing these fruits commercially in the Interior, due to the
injuries of this insect.
Continuation of the control experiments of the onion-root maggot with bichloride of mercury.
Investigations regarding the injury by a lepidopterous larvae to sour cherries at Kelowna.
Investigations regarding the distribution of the cherry fruit-fly.
Observations on the control of San Jose scale with oil sprays.
Experiments on the control of a lepidopterous crown-borer of shade-trees. A large percentage of the shade-trees in the City of Kelowna have been killed and many more are dying
from the injuries caused by this pest.
Investigations regarding the elimination of the tree-bands in codling-moth areas. The
annual cost for the inspection of bands is very high and it is thought that this cost may be
reduced or eliminated.
Codling-moth Investigations.
Life-history in relation to Temperatures.—This investigation was undertaken as the result
of similar work reported on favourably from Washington, U.S.A. The object was to ascertain
if local evening temperatures has any bearing on the time of general emergence, so that it might
be possible for fruit-growers in infested areas to definitely determine the correct time for the
application of the first cover spray on their own trees.
In the American investigations it was suggested that when the evening temperature reached
60° F. at 8 p.m. general emergence of the moth might he expected. Owing to the known great
variation of the general emergence of the moth in the spring under comparatively slight differences of elevation and location a preliminary investigation was decided upon.
Two infested areas were chosen, approximately 3 miles apart and having a difference of
elevation of about 100 feet; the lower elevation was marked " Experiment A," the higher
" Experiment B."
On Experiment A it was arranged to have the temperatures read daily at 8 p.m. On
Experiment B a thermograph was installed. Owing to uncontrollable circumstances the temperature readings on Experiment A could not be regularly taken at 8 p.m. and a difference of
from thirty to sixty minutes later frequently occurred.    As the drop in temperature is usually 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 37
rapid after 8 p.m. the recorded temperatures for this experiment are, in some instances, lower
than they actually were.
One tree on each experimental plot was caged with mosquito-mesh, Winch mesh; this
was necessary owing to the fact that infestation in these areas is not general and it was
desirable to prevent further distribution from the experimental material. Codling-moth material
collected in the fall of 1923 was enclosed in each cage and kept under close observation.
Plot A is an orchard in which the trees average over 20 years old, is low-lying, sheltered,
and is practically level land, underdrained, soil a sandy loam.
Plot B consisted of trees averaging about 12 years old, elevation approximately 100 feet
higher than Plot A with a slope of about 6 per cent, fairly exposed, soil a light clay loam to
clay loam. Owing to the fact that this orchard changed hands in the fall of 1923 the original
owners had taken down the cage, which had to be re-erected; consequently this experiment did
not get under way until the middle of May.
In each experiment 350 codling-moth larvte were used. The following are the daily evening
temperatures recorded during the experiment and the number of moths which emerged during
this period:—
Experiment A.
Date.
8  p.m.
Temp.
Adult
Emergence.
Date.
8 p.m.
Temp.
Adult
Emergence.
April
May
27       	
1
57
52
49
46
48
54
50
t
59
74
76
68
68
66
72
68
66
70
62
57
60
56
57
62
56
1
2
1
3
1
2
5
1
1
3
2
May    26	
27	
58
57
52
. 54
70
58
00
62
58
64
53
56
62
62
56
58
64
60
58
68
64
66
59
58
62
58
7     •
16
2	
3 -	
4	
5	
6
2S	
11
29	
8
•'
30	
31	
23
17
15
7
9
28
8
3	
4......	
,,          5	
6	
19
9  .
12
-
10	
11
14
18
12 	
13	
14	
15	
16	
23
8	
47
"
9	
10  ...
- 11	
- I2	
"       13	
"       14	
.,        15	
••   '   16	
- «
„       18	
„       19	
20$  	
9
3
7
,,
17	
18	
19	
1
4
"
20	
21	
99
"
"-3	
24	
25        	
1
No record.
t Not taken.
t Experiment discontinued.
Total emergence for April     1
Total emergence for May   103
Total emergence for June  200
Mortality    46
Total material of Plot A
350 K 38
Department of Agriculture.
1925
Experiment B.
Date.
8 p.m.
Temp.
Adult
Emergence.
Date.
8 p.m.
Temp.
Adult
Emergence.
May
19 	
60
66
58
62
58
64
■ 6S
69
68
66
64
70
eo
64
63
61
60
1
2
1
1
2
10
1
28
54
54
60
64
59
55
66
64
60
63
65
66
60
62
63
59
17
20	
6	
7	
8
22
"
21 	
22	
7
31
23	
9
27
»
24	
25
„  10	
11
18
16
"
26	
27	
12 	
13 	
14	
15	
16	
17 .....
IS	
35
29
"
28	
29...	
30	
25
17
9
31  	
1 	
2
3	
4	
4
19	
20'     [
* Experiment   discontinued.
Total emergence prior to May 19th        4
Total emergence May 19th to 31st        5
Total emergence during June   298
Mortality        43
Total material of Plot B   350
Summary and Conclusions of Investigation.—General emergence commenced nine days
earlier on Plot A than on Plot B. The first temperature of 60°, or over, at 8 p.m. on Plot A
was recorded on May 10th, sixteen days before general emergence commenced. Twelve days
before general emergence commenced, the 8 p.m. temperature on Plot A reached 60° or more.
The 8 p.m. temperature on Plot A was below 60°, when general emergence commenced. The
first emergence was recorded thirty days before general emergence commenced.
On Plot B from May 10th to the date of general emergence, June 4th, fourteen days occurred
on which the 8 p.m. temperature was 60° or over.
It is our opinion that relative humidity has considerable bearing on adult emergence of
the codling-moth; this complication would make it impractical for the average grower to
definitely determine general emergence from temperature records, as humidity readings would
also have to be taken and comparative tables constructed.
It is our opinion that the most satisfactory method for the grower to determine the time
of emergence under his local conditions is to collect mature larvae in the fall, placing them in
a breeding-cage in a well-protected part of his orchard, and watch for the general emergence
of adults in the spring. It would be necessary to use about 100 larvffi in such a breeding-cage
to get satisfactory emergence data. One such cage w*ould be sufficient for a comparatively large
area. All pome-fruit trees should be well covered with an arsenical spray immediately general
emergence is observed.
Experiment in the Control oe the Imported Onion-maggot.
Owing to satisfactory control of the onion-maggot with trap-crops being entirely dependent
on local climatic conditions, it was decided to test the commercial possibility of using the
bichloride-of-mercury solution as used so successfully in the control of the cabbage-root maggot,
a very similar insect. In the past it has been thought impractical and too costly to apply to
an onion-crop owing to the large number of plants per acre which would require contact treatment and the necessity of repeated applications.
We have been fortunate in having had the use of an excellently located truck-field for a
number of years, the property of Captain J. Mutrie, of Vernon, who has always given us every
encouragement and assistance in the application of our experiments, often at the risk of consider- 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 39
able loss. In the spring of 1924 he again put his onion-crop at our disposal for the purposes of
this experiment.
For the purpose of applying the solution a 4-gallon (imperial) tank was constructed with
shoulder-straps similar to a knapsack sprayer. Near the bottom of the tank, on the right side,
a short brass tube % inch diameter was soldered, on which a length of rubber tubing was
fastened; this tubing had a a/4-inch bore and was sufficiently long to easily reach the ground
when the knapsack tank was carried on the back. To guide the flow of solution from the tube
to the plants a stout wire about 2% feet long was attached to the lower end of the rubber tube
and acted as a handle; a cut-off was attached to the tube to prevent the solution from running
away when refilling the tank.
Eighty rows, each 300 feet long, were staked off into four blocks. Block 1 received one
application; Block 2 received two applications; Block 3 received three applications. The fourth
block received no application and was used as a check.
The first application was given to Blocks 1, 2, and 3 on May 13th; the second application
was given Blocks 2 and 3 on May 23rd; and the third applications was given to Block 3 on
June 2nd.
The results were: One application gave perceptible control; two applications gave approximately 75 per cent, control; three applications gave approximately 95 per cent, control. The
check-plot was practically eliminated by the onion-maggot.
The bichloride-of-mercury solution was applied to the plants by gravity flow from the tank
as the operator walked slowly down the rows; it was found that only one row at a time could
be treated by one man; an attempt to treat two rows at once with two tubes from the tank
could not be satisfactorily accomplished.
Captain Mutrie thought so favourably of the experiment that he decided to have the balance
of his onion-crop treated and had a similar tank constructed. Owing to unpreparedness he
was unable to get his applications on either fast enough or at the proper intervals, so that
although considerable control was obtained it was not satisfactory.
The experiment on the whole was very satisfactory and gave ample proof of efficiency so
as to warrant the continuation of the experiment. The points of importance in this treatment
are: (1) Proper solution, 1 oz. of bichloride of mercury to 10 gallons of water; (2) treating
the entire acreage within three days after oviposition commences; (3) proper spacing of intervals of application; three applications at ten-day intervals.
Cost of Application per Acre for Three Applications.—The cost of application was figured
from the time and amount of material used on the larger acreage as being the better guide in
commercial applications: 4 lb. bichloride of mercury at $1.24, $4.96; time of preparation and
application, $11; total, $15.96.
A method of treatment that will practically guarantee complete control of the onion-maggot
would not be excessive at a cost of $25 per acre. The bichloride of mercury promises well,
and even if it were necessary to make four applications at seven-day intervals the cost would
not be excessive.
The San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus) Outbreak in Kaslo.
Kaslo was visited on September 3rd when an outbreak of San Jose scale was discovered
on a lot in a residential section approximately 1 mile north of Kaslo. The material was
taken to Vernon so that a microscopic determination might be made. The outbreak was then
reported to W. H. Robertson, Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, so that
the area might be quarantined and measures of eradication proceeded with. This area was
again visited at the request of Mr. Robertson on October 21st to ascertain the full extent of
the infestation. A thorough examination of the infested area and surrounding district was
made. The infestation appears to be quite localized, immediately surrounding the original
point of infestation.
The original infestation was recorded in the year 1904 and eradication-work continued from
that time until 1912 under the direction of the late Thomas Cunningham. The present infestation is a result of the incomplete eradication of the original infestation and has taken twelve
years to reach its present extent.
The eradication of the present infestation will be undertaken by the Horticultural Branch
under the direction of W. H. Robertson, Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests. K 40 Department op Agriculture. 1925
The Cherry Fruit-fly  (Rhagoletis fausta?).
A fruit-fly of the cherry has made its appearance in the Interior of British Columbia. One
larva was submitted to this office in 1921. This failed to reach the adult stage, so that its
identity could not be determined. Six larva? were secured during the summer of 1924. These
have pupated and it is expected that adult flies will be reared from these in the summer of
1925, so that their identity may be determined.
This hiaterial was received from an important cherry district and from an isolated point
and it is hoped that general infestation may be prevented.
Respectfully submitted.
Max H. Ruhmann.
REPORT  OF  MARKETS   COMMISSIONER,   CALGARY.
J. A. Grant.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report for the year 1924.
The activities of 1924 commenced with the annual meeting of the British Columbia Fruitgrowers' Association at Chilliwack. Various other meetings were addressed on the Lower Mainland, the Okanagan, and Vancouver Island points.
In reviewing the marketing season of 1924 we should keep in mind that the early frosts
and later dry spell reduced the crop available for market to below the normal expectation;
therefore the selling end had a very different problem from that of marketing the 1923 crop.
In almost every line prices showed a considerable advance, although the purchasing power
of the Prairie people had not improved. The higher prices, in my opinion, were realized by
the smaller supply, together with the harmonious understanding that was maintained between
opposing shipping interests in British Columbia and the co-operation of the two brokerage
concerns on the Prairies.
Some physical conditions existed that prevented a much better showing being made, the
principal ones being :—
(1.) Conditions on the Prairies were bad until farmers were assured that the price of
grain would more than make up for the shortage in crop.
(2.)  Rain at end of raspberry season, shortening the amount that the market would absorb.
(3.)  Break-down in Jonathans and almost all other apples.
Had these conditions not been present much better returns would have been secured for
the growers.
When it became known that the Associated Growers had lined up to supply the Mutual
Brokers, with reservation in favour of other houses being able to buy direct from them, the
Growers' Sales Agency found little difficulty in lining up the balance of the shippers. The
result was that at nearly every stage of shipping an excellent working arrangement was maintained and the best possible prices were realized.
The season of 1924 has been a very busy one for your Markets Commissioner, as right
from the start of shipping many unforeseen matters had to be dealt with under emergency.
We called attention in Bulletin No. 1, June 7th, 1924, to the need of a representative on
the Prairies to look after the interests of the berry-growers. This advice was not taken and
subsequent events has demonstrated that, while the deal is handled by brokers not supervised
by the shipping end, it is necessary to have some one appointed by the growers to see that
they get a fair deal in adjusting their financial differences.
We again strongly recommend that rhubarb and berry shippers follow the example of the
Associated Growers, and send a representative to the Prairies to attend to adjustments and
other claims made upon them, or, better still, to amalgamate the selling under one head of all
British Columbia produce, having separate pools for the various shippers, or locals, as far as
dates of shipment go. Examining and adjusting claims during the shipping season is a man's job. Crop of Green Mountain potatoes grown on a farm at Chilliwack. Certified
seed was used for planting, which accounts for the uniformity of the plants and
the luxuriance of the growth.
Experimental plot, Sumas Reclamation Area.     This field of mangels forms part
of what was formerly overflow lands.  1
s »
silli**
,.'....'.                1:
:>tlifc-
I ..'-.iusHLom.
, ,„ ,!,' ft1'0 over -0I ° g?ats m British Columbia. " Lily " and " Belle." two
half-bred Saanen goats. " Lily," recently deceased, had a record of 10 1 lb
milk in a day and " Belle " has a record of 13 6 lb
vS;
it;
ld-*5f4.«jlsJW!4
■""». -.................. .. ■"
\is?-y-*-'- \
R»3-
Flock of sheep on midsummer range opened up by cutting a trail from the
Upper North Thompson River near Vavenby.  15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 41
The usual annual difficulty was encountered in lining up the rhubarb and berry deals. The
Nash interests lined up the major part of the berry deal, while the Dewdney rhubarb shippers
lined up with the Growers' Sales Agency, who promised to quote market prices before cars
rolled. At the commencement of the British Columbia shipping season the Prairie market was
full of Walla Walla rhubarb and it had to be forced out by a low price. The Growers' Sales
could not get a satisfactory opening price and cars were rolled to them on consignment; the
sales were unsatisfactory and the rhubarb-men switched their account to the Mutual Brokers.
The first British Columbia car sold in Winnipeg and Regina netted a low price as it met imported
cars there, but from then on the market advanced and prices were firm until the local rhubarb
came in. The car-lot movement by freight is a profitable way to ship rhubarb. In this connection I strongly recommend refrigerator-car movement by freight for hothouse tomatoes and
cucumbers as well as strawberries and raspberries as far as Regina, excepting when the market
is bare and needs a rush supply. Missouri and other American strawberry-growing points ship
a longer distance in this way and thereby greatly reduce their transportation charges.
The time has arrived for a reorganization of the system of brokerage. At present they
are owned by the jobbers who control them and at the same time they are paid to act as shippers'
agents. There is no doubt that brokers owned as described above must serve those who employ
them. We cannot see any reason why British Columbia shippers should continue to pay for
service that, under the described circumstance, they cannot hope to get, and are of the opinion
that brokerages so owned should be declared illegal, as collecting brokerage from the shipper
and receiving a salary from the buyer is unlawful.
What is needed is a brokerage owned and controlled by British Columbia shippers of
produce, whose duties will be to serve the people who employ them and distribute without fear
or favour to all responsible jobbers. Notwithstanding our advance in marketing methods, the
control of distribution and feeding the market from storage has yet to be taken over by our
shippers; until this occurs there will be dissatisfaction amongst rival jobbing-houses on the
Prairies.
Strawberries.
Strawberry shipments fell off considerably in car-lots but increased L.C.L., chiefly because
the Upper Country had increased their acreage but were unable to precool and assemble car-
lots. This will be corrected to some extent this year. Returns were more satisfactory to the
growers than in 1923. Strawberries sold in Ontario as low as 4 cents per quart and quotations
were made from Minneapolis at 5 cents per quart f.o.b. shipping-point, but the Western jobbers
were satisfied to lay off buying and keep a steady market at a fair price for British Columbia
supplies rather than break it to pieces. After British Columbia strawberries were through,
two cars of Wisconsin strawberries were imported into Winnipeg and sold at a price under
the price that British Columbia secured.
Raspberries.
Raspberries from the Lower Fraser Valley arrived in excellent condition. During the
peak of the raspberry-shipping season as many as fourteen cars of raspberries were rolling or
on track unsold. A conference was held and two proposals put before your Markets Commissioner. One was to reduce the price to a point that would be below cost of production; the
other was to freeze four cars—one in Winnipeg, one in Regina, one in Saskatoon, and one in
Calgary. The latter course was decided upon and concurred in by British Columbia managers;
just then rain fell at shipping-point long enough to prevent cars being rolled for some days;
this allowed the backing-up berries to clean up at a fair price. The average net returns to
the growers were better than 1923.
Some independent jobbers were advertising for supplies. Some telling of prices obtainable
far beyond the market and soliciting consignment. Many Japanese and some whites fell for
the bait, with the result that Alberta markets were flooded by L.C.L. raspberries and prices
ranging from 50 cents to $2 per crate replaced the former firm price of $3.25. A few cars rolled
to Saskatchewan points and sold at $3.25; at the same time Calgary was paying $2 to $2.25
for the same class of berries arriving L.C.L. Fortunately for the growers, this occurred after
the peak of the season.
The raspberry production having grown beyond the jam-factory and fresh-market demand,
the Berry Growers' Union took steps to get assurance from canners that they.would purchase K 42 Department op Agriculture. 1925
at a fair price all the surplus cannery berries. This they failed to do, and the result was that
the Union obtained a loan from the Government and purchased the King-Beach Cannery at
Mission. By having their own cannery they were able to take care of the surplus the canners
could not, or would not, handle. The venture looks like a profit-maker for the growers. In
addition to the surplus berries they bought the surplus tree-fruits and could have absorbed
more than was offered. For the first time on 'record raspberries were not imported into the
Prairies from the United States points.
Cherries.
Kootenay cherries were a good crop in 1924 and sold at top prices for the Bing and Lambert
varieties. We consider that the acreage planted to these varieties, in suitable parts of the
Kootenay districts, could easily be doubled as far as safety of finding a market is concerned.
The possibilities of extending the market for them are good. We think that markets can be
developed in the United States as there are no American cherries on the market in the Kootenay
cherry season.
We noticed with considerable pleasure the disappearance of the Governor Wood and Early
Richmond cherries from the market and hope that our cherry-planting for the future will he
confined to the Bing and Lambert varieties, excepting for necessary pollenizing, as the demand
is for these two varieties.
Cherry prices were good, especially for late-ripening sorts. We again point out that
Okanagan sour cherries of the Olivet variety are not wanted on the Prairie market; they arrive
in poor condition and too early, hurting the sale of better varieties from other parts of British
Columbia that ripen later.
Peaches and Apricots.
Peaches and apricots should be grown more extensively south of Penticton, as well as
Italian prunes and Winesap apples. The demand on the Prairie market for the above-named
fruits is far in excess of the British Columbia supply. The bulk of the wholesale needs in these
fruits is imported from Washington right in our season.
Cantaloupes.
Early cantaloupes should be grown in districts where early ripening can be assured; late
cantaloupes are not good sellers as this melon is a hot-season fruit.
"We have made a careful estimate of the possibilities of the market for cantaloupes that
come on the market from August 23rd to the end of the season. We find that over fifty cars
are consumed in British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, and of these over twenty cars
are used in Vancouver. We find that the total shipped last year from the Osoyoos District
was about four cars.
The variety wanted is a pink-flesh sort with a firm rind. The Oliver District is splendidly
suited for growing cantaloupes and we would advise them to grow up to thirty cars.
The Associated Growers could afford in handling this amount to bring in an expert to coach
the growers in packing and picking methods. Growing this amount of cantaloupes would solve
the problem of what to plant until the trees came into bearing. We expect cantaloupe-growing
to be fully tested out during the season of 1925.
Tomatoes.
The tomato industry in British Columbia is an important one. Tomatoes are grown at
many points for canning purposes and many cars are rolled heavy with tomatoes to Prairie
points for culinary use. While it is true that many of the tomatoes shipped are used for catchup
by the housewife, at least as great a quantity is used by the restaurant trade and in homes
for table use in their raw state.
The package used by British Columbia shippers is largely the four-basket crate. The
package used by most shippers from United States in sending tomatoes is the lug. The British
Columbia package is expensive, especially as it is used to ship tomatoes, the bulk of which is
not fit for table use. We would strongly recommend that tomato-growers use both the four-
basket crate and a lug about 30 lb. net, 35 lb. gross, and standardizing them; one to contain
choice table-stuff for slicing and the other for culinary purposes. At present prices are set by
the low-class tomato found in the four-basket crate, at the expense of districts who ship out
tomatoes in the same package that are choice stock. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 43
Sweet Potatoes.
Having in mind the solution of the problem of what to plant while the trees are coming
into bearing, to tide the grower over the non-productive period, we investigated the market
needs for sweet potatoes. We found that west of Winnipeg the Canadian Prairie cities and
Vancouver imported about fourteen cars. We noticed that our varieties were mixed and not
popular on the market.
On my December trip to the Eastern States a visit was made to Swedesboro, N.Y., where
soil-cultural methods and storage was investigated. We found that the Jersey variety and the
Nancy Hall were popular; that no kiln-drying was practised, but a thorough fixing or grading-
over was done to storage varieties, and those stored were treated to the same storage as onions
are in British Columbia.
We would not recommend any large planting of sweet potatoes as the market is limited,
but we were impressed with the similarity of growing conditions found in Swedesboro and the
nature of the soil in the Oliver and Osoyoos Districts, and consider that the best results should
be got if the sweet potatoes were grown in these districts.
Apples.
The season of 1924 was marked by a severe return of apple break-down. Commencing with
the Jonathans, many apples were affected by it. When it became noticeable a rush was made
to place them on consumption as quickly as possible, with the result that serious loss in adjustments has been taken, as well as much dissatisfaction created among merchants, both wholesale and retail.
In some districts this trouble appears to affect from 5 to 20 per cent, of the fall and winter
apple-crop, and it would seem advisable to store doubtful apples in loose storage, repacking
about December, when the break-down ceases, and ship only the fruit that is sound. The
Kelowna, -Summerland, and Salmon Arm Districts suffered worst.
We examined a shipment of a car of Delicious apples in Sudbury; half of the car was from
Vernon, the other half from Kelowna. Rival jobbers split the car between them; the man taking
the Vernon apples had nice stuff to sell in March, while the man getting the Kelowna end had
to repack in December and take a big loss because they had to be forced on a full market.
Up to the time this break-down was noticed nothing but compliments were heard for British
Columbia apples in the East.
The break-down caused apple-buyers serious loss that the rebates did not cover, and in
marketing 1925 crop, both on the Prairies and in the East, we predict buying with great caution
and in smaller quantities.
Growers must make provision for storing and shipping out goods that will keep to their
variety season if they are to retain the confidence of the trade.
We have noticed a great deal of shrinkage and unnecessary adjustments made for storage-
scald. Apples wrapped in oil wraps seemed immune from this trouble. The ordinary sulphur
wrap was found to be useless in preventing cold-storage scald. Oil wraps should be used in
wrapping all winter apples for storage; it prevents scald and maintains the natural green on
the apple, making them more attractive on sale. The forcing of so many winter apples on the
market earlier than their natural season will create a scarcity in spring, and we predict high
prices for those who were able to keep their winter apples until March and April.
Potatoes.
Both this year and last prices at opening of the potato-marketing season were low. Last
year, or the beginning of 1924, importations had to be made from Alberta because of the
scarcity in Vancouver, and it looks like a greater importation would have to be made this year.
Alberta has not enough for her own needs this year, and supplies to meet the demand will have
to come from Eastern Canada, where they have a bumper crop, or from Washington State,
where little or no surplus is available.
It is apparent that the commercial potato-growers are badly disorganized for marketing.
The large production by Orientals makes organization a difficult task. Until organization is
brought about no stability can be obtained in marketing the early or new potato crop. When the
growers show a desire towards organizing, your Markets Commissioner will do all in his power
to bring it about. Selling through the growers' brokerage concern should be the desired end,
so that the available crop can be fed to the market as potatoes are required. . . K 44 Department op Agriculture. 1925
Crowsnest Pass Agreement.
About the middle of September your Markets Commissioner was summoned to Ottawa for
the purpose of being examined in connection with an affidavit made showing the effect of the
discrimination in freight rates on British Columbia fruit. It may be interesting for the public
to know that the records of this office show that 50 per cent, of the total production of fruit
in British Columbia is sold on the three Prairie Provinces. That the Province of Ontario and
Nova Scotia are active competitors on this market. That from 1915 to 1923 British Columbia
shipped 17,612 cars of apples, peaches, plums, pears, and cherries, while in the same period
Nova Scotia and Ontario shipped 5,903 cars, or 25 per cent, of the whole. That during the
years 1915 to 1920 10,101 cars came from British Columbia and 4,657 came from Nova Scotia
and Ontario, being 31 per cent, of the total shipped. That during the years 1921-22-23 7,511
cars were shipped from British Columbia to Prairie points and 1,246 cars were shipped from
Nova Scotia and Ontario, or 14 per cent. The decrease of Eastern shipments in that time was
due to the removal of discrimination in freight rates brought about by the freight-rate adjustment made during the years 1918 and 1920.
There was more fruit sent from Ontario this year into the Prairie Provinces than in any
previous year during the past eight years. The restitution of the Crowsnest Pass Agreement
for a time was mainly responsible for this, but as it happened the Ontario season was late this
year and British Columbia was cleaned up, or nearly so, on all competitive stuff before the
Ontario produce came on the market. Ontario shipped as far as Calgary many mixed car-lots
of plums, peaches, and pears. Several car-lots of apples were bought in Alberta of Ontario
Russets, Tolman Sweet, and Northern Spy apples; these sold slowly as prices equal to the
British Columbia produce were asked. Ontario and Eastern Canada had a good crop of fruit
this year, and had the Crowsnest Pass Agreement been operative a serious situation could have
easily been created at Prairie points.
Consignment to jobbers was practically confined to the Lower Mainland Japanese and
Orientals in the Upper Country. The tomato market was broken by consignment goods from
Summerland, but soon recovered. Potatoes from the Coast in the early season suffered from
the old trouble of brokers quoting on spuds they did not have, forcing the new potato price
lower than the lowest point that mature potatoes were offered for.
Packages.
During 1924 many of the troubles of other years were noticed in packages. The cherry-
lug was tried out and but for the construction of the lug we think it would have been a success.
The bottom or top of the lug should be placed so as to prevent pressure of the cherries forcing
bottom or top layers down or up past the bottom or top; air-space should be provided at sides or
by a cleat under the lid or bottom. Much damage was again caused by poorly constructed plum-
lugs or suit-cases.
The Associated Growers had all their new stock made of firmer material or similar to the
American suit-case. No doubt much of the trouble will disappear during the coming year, as
new lugs should be made uniform to conform with the American lug by the box-manufacturers.
Double-planed lids should be used on all crates to prevent sawdust getting on the fruit.
The jobbers complain that no standard weight is found in crated apples of the same variety,
and as there is no regulation governing sizes of apples in packages, we consider that a minimum
weight of 38 lb. be adopted, as well-filled crates even of the large sizes and light-weight apples
should exceed this weight. Express and freight charges are based on a gross weight which
exceeds the 3S lb. minimum recommended. The same principle would be welcome in all soft
fruits shipped, particularly in apricots, peaches, cherries, and plums, as the pack varies to a
great extent.
Another vital need is that of a Federal bond in lieu of the present unsatisfactory Provincial
bond, which is not giving satisfaction in Alberta. Every jobber or commission merchant that
sells goods on consignment should be bonded—a guarantee given to his customers that their
money will not be used to pay his debts. In this law a stipulation should be made that such
dealers publish their commission charges and any other charges they may make on goods they
sell, and provide a maximum time that returns to the consignor should be made. I know of
houses doing business that do not put up any bond and shippers to them run the risk of complete
loss of all goods consigned to them. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 45
We again draw attention to the unsatisfactory financial standing of some of the wholesale
fruit-dealers. We have a number of applications from shippers for help in making collection
from firms that have little or no means of paying. Most of these debts are for goods sent on
consignment. Some of the firms doing business have not taken out a Government bond for the
Province of Alberta, which, by the way, is of little protection to British Columbia shippers.
We are pleased to note that the Canadian Horticultural Council is taking steps to have all
fruit wholesale houses doing business in Canada bonded by the Dominion Government. We
wish it success in its efforts as this is a long-felt want. We believe that the same Council is
seeking a readjustment of Customs tariff as applied to fruit and vegetables, with a view to
prevent satiating the taste of Canadians with imported fruit and vegetables, similar to commodities grown in Canada, coming on the market just ahead of the Canadian supplies.
In every commodity, from rhubarb to apples, we are compelled to force our way on to the
Canadian market by rolling cars to markets already filled by American produce; this causes a
sharp drop in prices and leaves the market in a demoralized state at the start of every commodity.
The cream of the market is completely lost to Canadian farmers, and before the effect of the
first cut in price is over the peak of the season in many commodities is past.
Markets Bulletin.
During the marketing season of 1924 we issued twenty-one numbers of the Markets Bulletin.
We were favoured with many complimentary letters and many useful suggestions were made
towards improving the market news.
We had only one criticism, claiming prices quoted as being incorrect. Upon investigation
we found that the critic was wrong and prices quoted were correct.
We had the best staff of correspondents on record; very few defaulted even for one week.
The staff assisting us are chosen for their knowledge- of the business, and while we have not
found the perfect correspondent, we think that we are fortunate in having the assistance of
men of well-known ability and who possess the respect of Prairie wholesalers.
Our circulation will go beyond 4,000 for 1925. The cost per number is a trifle under 5 cents
per copy. This includes postage, envelopes, printing, and correspondents' allowances, but does
not include office-help.
In conclusion and casting an eye to the immediate future, we can see a nervous condition
ahead as far as selling is concerned. There is no certainty as to how the line-up of Independent
and Associated shippers will approach the brokerage question; whether the proposed growers'
owned brokers will receive the support of the independents, and nothing is known at time of
writing whether jobbers' owned brokers will be declared illegal. At present there are two
such brokerage houses in existence and there is no room on the Prairies for three big brokerage
concerns.
A brokerage concern owned by British Columbia shippers is almost sure to be launched
and keen competition may be looked for during 1925. Prospects for a bigger distribution are
bright, farmers are more hopeful, and there is unquestionably more money in circulation.
The whole fabric of the fruit industry in British Columbia will suffer if discrimination
in freight rates continues, but if corrected (which it is fully anticipated it will be) the outlook
for marketing 1925 produce on- the Prairies looks encouraging.
Respectfully submitted. J. A. Grant.
REPORT OF ACTING LIVE STOCK COMMISSIONER, VICTORIA.
Dr. A. G. Knight, V.S.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the annual report of the Live Stock Branch for the year ended
December 31st, 1924.
The live-stock industry shows a small but steady growth. Prices for beef have shown a
slight increase over 1923, with a tendency for a steady rise. I believe our stockmen are taking
a more optimistic view of the industry and will continue to do so as marketing conditions
improve.
Prices for dairy cattle remain on a par with 1923, with an increased demand and higher
prices towards the end of the year, spring calvers bringing $80 to $125 and fall calvers $125 to K 46 Department op Agriculture. 1925
$160, with exceptionally heavy producers running above the latter figure; 2-year-olds brought $45
to $75 and yearlings $30 to $45. The high standard of excellence set by our pure-bred breeders of
dairy stock is being maintained by careful selection of sires, attention being paid to the production end, together with type and constitution. The production records of our pure-bred and grade
herds compare favourably With the average herds found throughout Canada and the United States.
The breeders of pure-bred dairy cattle are in a position to meet the Provincial demand for dairy
sires, although they may be obliged to go outside the Province occasionally for sires to head
their herds.
Owing largely to the depressing market conditions for beef cattle in the past, our pure-bred
breeders of beef stock have not given the same consideration to maintaining their herds up to
high standards. In a number of cases the pure-bred herds have been dispersed. As a result,
breeders of grade-beef herds are obliged to look outside the Province for 50 per cent, of their
sires. I believe our local breeders could supply the greater part of this demand by producing
sires of the required quality.
A shipment of dairy cattle was selected by representatives of the Live Stock Branch on
behalf of the Kelowna Creamery Association. Forty-three head of dairy cows, two Holstein
bulls, two boars, and three sows were shipped from this port to Hong Kong during the latter
part of the year.
Horses.
There has been little or no change, generally speaking, in the producing or market end of
the horse trade. The market is open to a limited extent for heavy horses over 1,600 lb. weight
for city drayage purposes, also there is some demand for heavy horses for logging purposes.
Teams for city work carrying the desired weight and well matched command good prices,
ranging around $600 to $800 per team. Heavy-weight horses, plainer type, for logging purposes,
bringing $400 to $500. A small demand for saddle-horses has been created in some of our larger
cities, the greatest call coming from riding-schools. The price for this class of horse scarcely
meets the cost of production. We cannot look for much increase in numbers of this type until
prices are commensurate with the production costs. The fall fairs at New Westminster and
Ladner brought out some very creditable animals in the heavy classes, Provincial-bred animals
being worthy of special mention.
Sheep.
No phase of our live-stock industry has commanded more attention than sheep. This no
doubt is due to the satisfactory prices paid for mutton, lamb, and breeding stock; also those
interested are awakening to the future possibilities and opportunities offered in this Province
for extending and enlarging the industry. Mutton and lamb have probably reached the peak
in prices. The market for wool is good, with prices tending to rise. Reports from authentic
sources indicate a shortage of wool on the world markets; therefore, if the law of supply and
demand holds good, we can expect a stable market for wool for some time to come, with fair
returns to the sheepmen.
In 1923 there were 53,336 sheep in the Province. These numbers have been augmented by
20 per cent, of the natural increase of ewe lambs, besides the importation from Alberta of a
considerable number of breeding ewes. The great bulk of the sheep brought in from Alberta
have been allotted to parties in the Cariboo and Interior range areas.
A number of our breeders of pure-bred flocks have requested to have their lambs graded
this fall. The Dominion Department of Live Stock is willing to detail a specialist in this line
and the prospects at present are that grading will be carried out before the fall sales.
The menace of the sheep-killing dog is proving a deterrent to many farmers in keeping
sheep on their farms. Unless this menace is removed farmers will hesitate in establishing
new flocks or adding to their present numbers.
The number of sheep in the Province in 1923 was 53,336; in 1924, 55,151. We can look for
considerable increase owing to the number of ewe lambs being kept and the importation of ewe
lambs from Alberta.
Swine.
Although there has been a slight decline in price compared with 1923, still we find an
increase in the numbers of hogs in the Province during the year. Breeding sows have been
conserved and not slaughtered as is the usual custom when the market is slow and there is a 15 Geo. 5 ",        British Columbia. K 47
lowering of price. There still exists among breeders some controversy as to the most suitable
type of hog (bacon or thick smooth), with the majority favouring the latter as more suited to
British Columbia markets.
The hog population for 1924 is 47,619, as compared with 42,845 for 1923. Prices for the
latter part of the year have stiffened and the market price is encouraging for the coming year.
Goats.
The demand for goat's milk is a factor in maintaining the interest of people engaged in
goat-raising. Prices obtained for milk have been considerably higher than those obtained for
cow's milk. The adaptability of goats in utilizing rough pasturage and lending themselves to
being kept in small areas have made them popular with parties wanting milk for household
purposes.
At present there are in the Province about 500 pure-bred goats, made up of Saanens, Toggen-
burgs, and a few Nubians, and 9,500 grade goats, making a total of about 10,000.
Distribution of Pure-bred Sires to Farmers' Institutes.
The policy, as in previous years, of supplying sires to members of Farmers' Institutes has
been continued. The call for sires has not been heavy. In selecting sires for members of
institutes an effort is made to secure animals of good conformation and typical of the breed.
In the case of dairy breeds only animals with milk and butter-fat backing a»e chosen. The
choice is in some cases restricted owing to the limitation of price the purchaser wishes to pay.
The assistance of the Department is appreciated, as it gives men with limited capital the opportunity to obtain good sires on easy terms of payment. We often receive inquiries for good-
grade or pure-bred stock from those who have secured pure-bred sires. A number of rams,
boars, and dairy bulls were selected by this Branch for members of institutes in various parts
of the Province. Judging by the number of inquiries recently received,'there will be a greater
demand this coming season for pure-bred sires.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
A considerable interest was taken In this phase of education among boys and girls in various
sections of the Province, more attention being given to Pig Clubs than to any other class of live
stock. Probably the reason for this is that results are obtained more quickly in raising pigs
and the small space required for housing, etc. Very creditable specimens, both of the bacon
type and thick smooth, were produced and great credit is due the boys and girls taking part
in these clubs, as shown in the care that was given the animals and the final results obtained.
Special mention may be made of the scale required by the boys and girls as shown by judging
competitions which took place at our fall fairs, which reflects great credit on your District
Agriculturists and Instructors who had charge of these clubs and judging classes.
Brands.
There were issued during the year 1924: New cattle-brands, 195; renewed cattle-brands,
4S0; new horse-brands, 121; renewed horse-brands, 354. A new Brand Book is being prepared
and will shortly be available for distribution.
Fairs.
Although the number of stock at our fall fairs did not exceed previous years, yet it was
the general opinion that the average quality was superior, while several strong exhibits of beef
cattle, sheep, and pigs were brought in from other Provinces. The dairy stock was practically
confined to British Columbia bred animals.
Our breeders in all classes of live stock are to be congratulated on the quality of the animals
exhibited. The animals brought out are the result of careful selection of breeding stock. No
doubt the educational factor of our fairs is having its effect in the improvement of all live stock
bred in the Province.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight. K 48 Department op Agriculture. 1925
REPORT OF CHIEF VETERINARY INSPECTOR,  VICTORIA.
Dr. a. G. Knight, V.S.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Veterinary Branch for the year
January 1st to December 31st, 1924.
The past year has been singularly free from any serious outbreaks of disease affecting live
stock of a contagious or infectious nature. With the exception of a few isolated districts, all
settled portions of the Province have been covered by one or more of your Veterinary Inspectors,
who have made an examination of the stock and, when so requested, have applied the tuberculin
test to cattle. A few reports were received from stockmen in Central British Columbia stating
that a good number of cattle had died from unknown causes. An investigation was made and in
one or two cases where portions of the intestinal tract were sent in for examination the trouble
was found to be due to plant-poisoning. By the description given of the animals so affected
and examination of the stomach contents, water-hemlock appeared to be the chief source of
trouble. The swampy margin of the numerous small lakes in this portion of British Columbia
lends itself to the growth of the above plant. The stockmen have been advised from time to
time to keep cattle off swampy ground early in the spring until other feed is available.
A few cases of advanced actinomycosis reported from the Peace River District were dealt
with and the animals destroyed under the supervision of the Provincial Police in the district.
Treatment was advised for early cases with apparent success.
Two urgent reports were received from the Lillooet District that disease affecting the feet
of cattle had occurred. On investigation this was found to be the common ailment of mud-
fever, due to the cattle travelling through mud and soft ground on the edges of the lakes, an
excess of alkali being -in the ground. As foot-and-mouth disease was so prominently before
the minds of the people at that time, this no doubt accounted for the urgency of the case.
Hematuria.
A number of letters have been received and cases reported of cattle being affected. These
reports usually come in from districts which may be termed red-water areas. As such areas
are gradually being brought under cultivation this trouble appears to be gradually disappearing.
Sterility.
At the request of a number of farmers and Farmers' Institutes a visit was made in June
to the district surrounding Grand Forks and the Boundary country to look into the cause of
sterility among dairy and beef cattle. Nine herds were examined, including one herd in the
Southern Okanagan, and in all cases severe nodular vaginitis was present, a young heifer 3
months of age and mature cows being affected. The same type of disease was prevalent in
a number of herds in the Northern Okanagan, one in Kamloops, and one in the Lillooet District.
To assist recovery treatment, with iodine solution was advised. A second visit was made to
Grand Forks on December 29th. The general condition of the cattle had greatly improved
although a number were still sterile, but the severity of the disease appeared to be abating.
This disease, by preventing conception over a more or less lengthy period, entails serious
financial loss to the dairy and stock men.
Inspection of Dairies.
Your Inspectors have carried out, simultaneously with their tuberculin testing, the inspection of dairies and stables. A gradual improvement in sanitary arrangements is taking place,
though in a number of cases conditions are not as we would wish to see. No doubt as the
farmers become better situated financially new buildings will be arranged for. Your Inspectors
in such cases insist on cleanliness and the proper keeping of dairy products, giving advice as
to methods of cooling milk, etc. Sanitary dairies and stables appear in better condition on
Vancouver Island than on the Mainland, which you will note on attached Appendix (No. 21)
under grade of premises; 109 were under Grade A, 377 under Grade B, and 2,145 under Grade
C; 71 Grade A, 253 Grade B, and 385 Grade C out of this total were found on Vancouver Island
and the adjacent Gulf Islands. 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 49
Tuberculosis.
The time of your Inspectors has been largely taken up by the application of the tuberculin
test at the request of owners of cattie. There has been an increase in the number of herds
tested over last year, but a slight reduction in the number of cattle tested. There has also
been a slight drop in the percentage of reactors, it being 4.64 per cent, compared with 5 per
cent, last year. During the year 2,631 herds have been tested, comprising 21,536 head of cattle,
with 1,000 reactors. The general districts where tuberculin testing has been carried out are as
follows:—-
District.
No. of
Herds.
No.
tested.
Reactors.
Per
Cent.
Grade cf Premises.
Lower Mainland   	
Coast   points	
Central B.C., Cariboo and Lillooet ..
East Kootenay 	
Kootenay and Arrow Lakes	
Okanagan   	
Interior points on C.P.R	
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands
Totals	
1,433
27
49
93
121
134
65
709
12,456
234
431
822
872
844
516
5,361
2,631
21,536
622
7
15
9
73
8
1
265
4.99
2.99
3.48
1.09
8.37
0.94
0.19
4.94
.1,000
22   |
71
109
45
1
9
4
22
37
14
253
1,366
26
46
89
92
92
49
385
377   I   2,115
No. of Clean and Infected Herds.
Clean
Herds.
Lower Fraser Valley  1,209
East and West Kootenay  199
Coast points   23
Central B.C. and Cariboo  41
Okanagan  128
Interior points on Mainland of C.P.R  04
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands   583
Appended you will find list of herds tested by municipalities and districts.
Respectfully submitted.
Infected
Herds.
224
15
4
8
6
1
126
A. Knight.
R9PORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, KAMLOOPS.
George C. Hay, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Wamock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to attach herewith my annual report for the year 1924.
Wool-marketing.
As director of the British Columbia Wool-growers' Association and director of the Canadian
Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited, your Agriculturist has always taken an active interest in
marketing the Provincial wool-clip. The 1924 returns to the patrons of the organization were
generally most satisfactory and decidedly in advance of the past season. The association keeps
in touch with the prevailing local markets and usually there is a great range of prices paid.
During the season of 1924 dealers' prices ranged from 10 to 20 cents per pound, a fair average being 15 cents per pound. The association's net price f.o.b. growers' shipping-point was
27.07 cents per pound. Therefore a clear margin of 12 cents per pound represents the 1924
actual value of the British Columbia AVool-growers' Association to its patrons in the matter
of wool-selling. The quantity of wool bandied by the association amounted to, in round
numbers, 88,000 lb. Therefore the saving to wool-growers who availed themselves of the opportunity of selling their wool co-operatively amounts to 88,000 lb. at 12 cents, or $10,560. K 50 Department op Agriculture. 1925
Provincial statistics for 1923 estimate the sheep population at 53,336. These at a conservative average of 6 lb. of wool per head would produce a wool-clip of 53,336X6 = 320,016 lb.
The difference between the estimated Provincial clip and what the association handled (320,016—
S8,0OO = 232,016 lb.) represents the amount of wool handled by other trade channels than the
Co-operative Wool-growers' Agency. The margin in favour of co-operative selling—namely, 12
cents per pound—also represents the average loss to the grower who sold outside the cooperative. In dollars and cents this loss to growers selling outside the association amounts to
232,016 lb. at 12 cents, or $27,841.92.
The success attained by the Wool-growers' Association last season is not unique in its
history, rather there has always been an average margin in favour of co-operative selling
since the inception of the organization. In spite of this fact there still remains a large proportion of growers who prefer to bargain with buyers of wool in respect to the sale of their
own product. As long as the organization continues its present policy of allowing growers to
sell their wool of their own free will without binding contracts we can expect a percentage,
large or small, to be joining and breaking away from the association. However, it still remains
the consensus of opinion of those in charge of Canadian co-operative wool-marketing that the
best policy for that organization is to continue to stake its chances of success on its efficiency,
which is judged by the wool-growers themselves. The organization has made continued progress, attaining a strong financial position, and during its development has been always able
to pay a higher average price than any other wool-buying concern functioning throughout the
Province. This fact is not disputed, but at the same time is to be expected, since the organization is assisted very substantially by both Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture,
which realize the advantage to sheep-raisers. Briefly, the wool-growers' organization has
advantages which make it the best medium for a grower to get the maximum value for his
product. This statement is borne out by continued years of substantial margins in favour of
co-operative selling.
Not Infrequently attempts are made to beat the association's prices and this the association
considers quite legitimate and quite in order. The association's purpose is to sell wool to the
grower's best advantage, and, as already stated, the belief exists on the part of those in charge
of the affairs of the association that no better medium exists than the British Columbia Wool-
growers' Association for the British Columbia wool-grower to market his product. An interesting attempt to sell wool to better advantage than the association was undertaken by a number
of growers in the vicinity of Kamloops this season, when a car-load was assembled and sold
after careful investigation of the wool market for 20 cents per pound. This shipment included
some of the very best wools in the Province. In comparing this price with the association's
net price of 29.6 and 30 cents per pound to two neighbouring growers with very similar wool
we find a margin of approximately 10 cents in favour of co-operative selling. This also represents a loss to the seller outside the association of $2,400 on a 24,000-lb. car—surely a good
profit for the wool-dealer. Mention is made of the occurrence simply to exemplify still further
the belief that the Wool-growers' Association is the best marketing agency.
The Sheep Industry*.
All assistance possible to the encouragement of establishing more flocks of sheep in the
Province has been given from time to time. At the present time one party is negotiating for
the bringing-in of from 5,000 to 10,000 head during the coming summer. The removal of the
duty for four months last fall on breeding ewes coming in from the States stimulated very
materially the exchange of breeding ewes during the fall business.
Prices of lambs and wool have been encouraging and this department of the farm is
buoyant. No branch of .agriculture can record such a quick come-back and prices for both wool
and lambs are relatively higher to-day than for most other farm products. The main trouble
with the sheep industry is the lack of consistency of the sheep-raiser. Too many are attracted
when prices are high and their enthusiasm keeps rising until they finally make a plunge
when the wave is at its height. Then the wave breaks and they are submerged with it. We
do not infer that a fall in sheep values is evident. This is contrary to predictions of authorities
in close touch, but we would guard our members against that final plunge which always catches
a proportion when things are about to change. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 51
Beef Industry.
There is a general feeling that the cattle-raising industry has reached the bottom of the
depression which began in 1920 and that the journey on the up-grade to better conditions has
commenced. Crops were good in 1924 and prices generally more satisfactory than at any time
in the four years preceding. While the handicap of several bad seasons is not overcome by one
good one, it is at least some satisfaction to feel that progress is being made. While beef
production generally has perhaps been least encouraging, there has been an increase in winter-
feeding, so that more finished beef is being produced for spring marketing when prices are
highest.
The sixth annual bull-sale was held at Kamloops, April 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, and was quite
successful. One hundred and twenty-two registered animals changed hands at satisfactory
prices. Jas. Turner's Shorthorn bull secured premier honours and topped the sale at $375.
The highest-priced Hereford, sold by T. H. Baird, brought $260, while the top-priced Angus,
sold by C. H. Richardson, Bowden, Alberta, brought $180.
A quite satisfactory commencement was made with a fat-stock show as an adjunct to the
sale. Murray Davie, of Ladner, captured first honours with "U.B.C. Jock," an animal claimed
by authorities who had occasion to visit the various 1924 Western shows to be the best animal
of his kind at Canada's Western fairs that season.
Swine Industry*.
Hog production has not been very encouraging. Prices for the greater part of the year
have been at or below the cost of production. The Boys' and Girls' Clubs have not been void
of dissatisfaction in their endeavour to establish bacon-hog production in this Province along
the lines of the Dominion bacon-hog policy. This contentious question was discussed by the*
delegates of the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association at the Western Canada Live Stock
Union with H. S. Arkell, Dominion Live Stock Commissioner. The whole matter is still under
consideration and it is hoped that a proper understanding of the British Columbia hog situation
will soon he arrived at, when organized effort may be more effective.
A Pig Club competition was successfully conducted in the district during the past year,
when upwards of forty boys arid girls contested. The club stood third in the Provincial scoring
and the prize-money received, together with a fair market price, made the contestants a small
margin of profit.
Stock-judging.
Stock-judging demonstrations and competitions were held on different occasions and great
interest was shown on the part of the younger people. A district judging team was taken to
Vancouver Fair and stood third in the contest. Later two teams were trained for New Westminster Fair and stood first and fourth respectively.
Land SettlejMent Board,
Throughout the year numerous reports and appraisals on farm loans have been made for
the Land Settlement Board. This work has grown considerably and entails much more travelling in connection with same. On account of the series of dry years in the district more calls
were made for loans from the Board.
Grasshoppers.
The infestation of grasshoppers throughout the dry-farming and range areas of the Interior
has been serious this last season. Assistance in organization and poisoning was given and the
results were noticeably effective. A thousand pounds of Paris green were given to the farmers
by the Department of Agriculture, for which they were particularly grateful.
Meetings.
Throughout the year various meetings have been arranged and on different occasions
addresses were given on agricultural topics. Farmers' Institute meetings, Wool-growers' meetings, Breed Associations' meetings, Boys' and Girls' Club meetings, etc., have been arranged
for and assistance given. K 52 Department op Agriculture. 1925
Fairs.
Various fairs throughout the Province were attended and, in the capacity of judge, assistance was granted whenever possible.
During the latter part of April and the month of May your Agriculturist was granted leave
of absence to go East and purchase a foundation herd of pure-bred Ayrshires for Captain J. C.
Dun-Waters, Fintry, B.C. This was accomplished to the entire satisfaction of the purchaser,
but not without considerable thought and carefulness.
In conclusion, it is the writer's opinion that agriculture's greatest need at the present time
is efficient and reliable marketing agencies to take care of the different lines of agricultural
production. Agencies which, through proper connection with outside markets and together with
efficient administration, are able to return to producers the greatest value for their product
are to be desired. Such agencies may be in the form of private enterprise, joint-stock company,
or along the lines of co-operation. The matter of form from a community or national point of
view is not so important as the economic value; and, generally speaking, the economic value
is determined by the returns paid to the producers. .Briefly, the marketing agency to be desired
is the one which is able to pay the producer the greatest value for his product, with a reasonable profit to itself and without becoming a profiteering concern.
With this idea continuously in mind and every effort possible made to meet the district's
requirements, the Department's office in Kamloops is gaining a strong hold on the agricultural
interests of the district, all of which is reflecting credit on the Department of Agriculture.
Respectfully submitted.
Geo. C. Hay.
REPORT   QF  DISTRICT   AGRICULTURIST,   EAST  KOOTENAY.
Angus L. Hay, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1924.
The season of 1924 has not been favourable in the East Kootenay for agricultural production, the rainfall being almost one-third lower than the average for the last ten years and
lesulted in crops being a failure in many districts where irrigation was not available, for after
the thaw in February there was very little moisture until June.
Land Settlement Board Work.
Due to the dry conditions prevailing throughout the district the work in connection with
the Land Settlement Board increased considerably, as many farmers filed applications for loans
which necessitated appraisal reports being filled out on their farms. This work entails a great
deal of travelling.
Co-operative Wool Shipment.
Being a director of the British Columbia Wool-growers' Association, your Agriculturist
handled the collecting and shipping of the wool for the East and West Kootenay wool-producers.
Practically all the wool in the district was marketed in this way, making up a car-load of
approximately 14,000 lb., which was shipped to Weston, Ontario, in July.
Agricultural Meetings.
During the year thirty-five meetings of the Farmers' Institutes and Women's Institutes
were attended and at twenty-eight of these addresses were given on agricultural topics. Also
numerous meetings of the Cranbrook District Agricultural Association, the Cranbrook Stockbreeders' Association, and the District Central Institute for District I were attended, your
Agriculturist acting as Secretary for these three organizations.
Fair-work.
The fairs attended during the year were Invermere, Cranbrook, Armstrong, Creston, the
Kamloops Bull-sale and Show, the Fernie Poultry-show, and Nelson Poultry-show. At these your
Agriculturist judged live stock at Invermere and Creston Fairs and dairy cattle at the Armstrong Fair. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 53
• Potato-work.
The final tuber-inspection w*ork in connection with the certified' seed-potato growing in East
Kootenay was done in April.
In June the potato-bug again made its appearance and continued its ravages until September.
Poison supplied by the Department of Agriculture was given out to growers as required through
the Cranbrook office. This was of great assistance to the growers and no doubt helped to
prevent the spread of this pest to other districts.
Live-stock Judging Work.
Throughout the summer months, as often as time permitted, live-stock judging demonstrations were held on different lines of live stock in various parts of the district. These judging
days were well attended and created considerable interest throughout the district.
A stock-judging team of three boys was taken to the Vancouver and New Westminster
Exhibitions, winning first and fifth places respectively at these fairs. At New Westminster
the special for the highest individual score in dairy-cattle judging was won by a Cranbrook
boy, where thirty were competing, and the highest individual score in all classes at Vancouver
Fair was won by a Cranbrook boy.
Boy-s' and Girls' Live Stock Clubs.
A Boys' and Girls' Swiue Club was again formed in the southern part of the East Kootenay
District, in which there were about forty members. This club included members from Galloway
to Marysville, and the competition was extremely keen throughout the summer months and
especially on show-day, which was at the time of the Cranbrook District Fair. In the open
competition with other districts of the Province for the best district display the East Kootenay
Club was again placed first.
Office-work.
There has beeii a continual demand at the office for general information relating to agricultural work and the requests for bulletins and pamphlets has greatly increased during the past
year. Also the correspondence is on the increase. Although the office-work in general is
steadily increasing, your Agriculturist endeavours to spend as much time as possible throughout the district, especially during the summer months, meeting the farmers and discussing their
local problems on the farms and at their various meetings.
Respectfully submitted.
Angus. L. Hay*.
REPORT  OF  DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST,  DUNCAN.
W. M. Fleming, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Wamock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit for your consideration the following report of my work as District
Agricultural Representative at Duncan for the year 1924:—
Live-stock matters received a great deal of attention. The Cowichan Stock-breeders'
Association organized in 1920 is steadily growing in importance and usefulness. This association is incorporated under the " Societies Act." Membership is open to all breeders of live
stock in the Cowichan District who pay the membership fee of $5 per annum and agree to be
governed by the constitution. A board of nine directors (three elected each year for a term
of three years) manage the business.    The officers are chosen by the Board of Directors.
Listings are made on approved forms of stock offered for sale. Five per cent, commission
is charged on all sales made through the association. No commissions are charged for animals
listed but not sold through the association.    All fees and commissions are devoted to advertising.
As a result of a constructive policy, this association is becoming known all over the Province
and buyers seeking stock know that when they come to the district they may find what they
want with the minimum loss of time. Many inquiries are received at the office each week,
entailing an extensive correspondence. K 54 Department op Agriculture. 1925
In addition to the regular sales it was decided to conduct an auction sale, which was held
on April 30th. The work of preparing catalogue, extended pedigrees, and other detailed work
was performed by this office. Eleven pure-bred Guernseys, twenty-eight pure-bred Jerseys,
three grade cows, twenty ewes, fifteen lambs, seven mature pure-bred hogs and two litters were
sold.    The value of stock sold at this sale amounted to $5,440.08.
A cow-testing centre has been organized. Samples are taken by the farmers and are
collected at this office. After tests are made by a competent tester the empty bottles and
reports are distributed from this office.    Over 000 samples were tested in eleven months in 1924.
On request, live stock has been purchased for buyers in other districts. Shipments were
made to various parts of Vancouver Island this way after the districts had been, visited and
the needs of each district were familiar to your Representative.
Requests were frequently received for assistance in tracing pedigrees and completing
registration of pure-breds. The office is now well equipped for compiling extended pedigrees
of Jerseys and Guernseys. Assistance at several pure-bred auction sales has been given in
preparing pedigrees. A determined effort was made to organize a canning-factory, but sufficient
capital was not forthcoming and the attempt was abandoned.
The proposal to establish a milk-condensery was investigated and valuable data are on file
if required.
Irrigation is a pressing need in the district, but at present the cost seems to be too great
to be undertaken. An irrigation project is quite feasible for the district and as more land
comes under cultivation will ultimately be adopted.
Lime for agricultural purposes is also required for the district. There are several lime-
deposits in the district that would furnish all the lime required. All known available supplies
were investigated. The problem is to grind the rock and put it on the market at a reasonable
cost.    The limited amount required makes the overhead cost of a crushing plant prohibitive.
The growing of sweet peas for seed is an important industry in Cowichan. Growers were
finding difficulty in marketing their seed, due to the fact that some inexperienced growers were
not roguing their seed-plots carefully. A careful study of sweet peas was undertaken and much
valuable information collected for the assistance of seed-growers. This industry is profitable
w*hen properly conducted, but intending growers should master the details in a small way before
putting their produce on the market.
As usual, there were many requests for soil and crop inspections, also requests for assistance in selecting fertilizers. Three drainage surveys were made and one field sampled carefully
for detailed analysis.
Intending settlers frequently write to this office for detailed information about the district.
Many intending purchasers also requested advice from this office before finally locating.
Your Representative assisted in judging at the following centres: Flowers at Vimy
Women's Institute; field crops at Victoria, Burquitlam, Agassiz, and Mission Fairs; sheep and
swine at Agassiz; and potatoes at the Provincial Potato-show in Vancouver.
Addresses were delivered at numerous meetings throughout the district.
As part of general extension-work, your Representative worked in close co-operation with
the Cowichan Agricultural Society, the Duncan Board of Trade, the Horticultural Society, and
the Poultry Association.
About 1,200 letters, 1,000 circular letters, and 400 parcels, including bulletins, catalogues,
etc., were sent out from this office.
Some 3,412 miles were travelled by motor during the year.
Respectfully submitted.
Wm. Melvin Fleming. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 55
REPORT  OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, PRINCE  GEORGE.
R. G. Sutton, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—It is with a certain amount of gratification that we submit this, the fourth annual
report, as we are confident these pages will show a marked increase in the volume and the scope
of the work over and above that of preceding years.
The greater part of January was spent in Victoria discussing details and mapping out
work for the year, both in the Board's office and in the offices of the various heads of branches
of the Department.
We also visited the College of Agriculture at the U.B.C. and spent some time with the staff
there discussing matters relative to agricultural development in the Province. This trip was
considered a necessity, as we felt we were getting sadly out of touch with a great deal of work
of the Department, with the experiments that are being conducted and the advancement which
has been made in our profession ; also that we might work more intelligently with the various
branches of the Department. We made the best use possible of this trip and kno'w it was well
worth while.
While absent Mr. Heald remained in charge of the office. He attended to all correspondence,
rearranged our filing system and our area records, and attended to all the routine work and all
the countless little jobs which are always left for the winter months. He also collected and
arranged a considerable amount of material relative to freight rates, prices of produce, and the
existing or possible markets. This information has proved very useful in shaping our plans and
recommendations for new and old settlers.
During the latter part of January one trip was made to Vanderhoof District to attend a
meeting of the farmers of the district and discuss with them ways and means of co-operative
effort in marketing. It is interesting to note that subsequent to this1 meeting, and others which
followed, a Farmers' Co-operative Association was formed for the purpose of buying and selling.
To date it has made good progress but has not yet had time to become firmly established.
While in the district we interviewed a number of the members of the Vanderhoof Cattle
Club and reached an arrangement with Mr. Mitchell, a new settler, whereby he took over three
head of cows from the F. Park herd. A substantial payment was secured and two notes
accepted for the balance. This arrangement had the double effect of assisting a new settler
to get a start with some good milk cows on very reasonable terms, and it also meant that
Mr. Park was enabled to reduce his indebtedness by $345.
We also assisted to prepare a report of the meeting of the Farmers' Institute Advisory
Board, so that this report could be presented to the meeting of District C in Vanderhoof in
March. This report was later submitted to the Agricultural Journal and appeared in a summer
issue.
During February it became necessary to spend a considerable amount of time on the Mud
River Cattle Club. Three members of this club had resold their cattle to a professional man
of this town who was operating a farm about 50 miles east of here. This man agreed with
them that he would meet all payments due on these cows. He not only failed to do this, but
he suddenly left the district under very unfortunate circumstances. Previous to his going he
made over all his cows to his tenant on the farm. When this came to light it became necessary
to organize the Cattle Club members interested and take a leading part in an attempt to recover
the cattle. This attempt was successful and, moreover, had the effect of two more of the club
accounts being cleared up.
During this time Mr. Heald was attending to a considerable amount of correspondence
relating to letters of inquiry and also matters of a purely agricultural nature. Later, in compliance with instructions from Victoria, we went over the Board's booklet and made a number
of suggested alterations in the text, as it was thought certain sentences were somewhat ambiguous, others conveyed a wrong impression, and others were out of date by reason of the advancement of the district. We also spent a considerable amount of time in the study of maps and
reports of the Stuart Lake Reservation in order to be prepared for the coming of the Esthonian
settlers.
We also attended a meeting of the Prince George Fall Fair Association and rendered all
possible assistance and advice in the preparation of their plans for the year.    In the past four K 5G Department op Agriculture. 1925
years we have assisted in the starting of three Fall Fair Associations, all of which are making
good headway.
On April 3rd the first party of the Esthonian settlers arrived under the leadership of Sir
John Pitka. We accompanied them to Vanderhoof, where they detrained, and spent several
days with them, assisting them to purchase supplies, tools, clothing, machinery, and live stock.
In this connection we worked in co-operation with the Department of Lands, the Public Works
Department, and the Dominion Colonization Branch. This matter has been fully reported
on under date of April 28th, 1924.
Later on in April we made a number of inspections of clover-growing competitions carried
on by the Dominion Experimental Farms system. We watched these experiments and noted
results so that we might be in a better position to advise regarding this crop, and also because
the information will be useful in the preparation of a publication on clover-growing, which we
hope to prepare early in 1925. We also visited a number of farms in the district and tried
to get some of the farmers to sign on for growing certified seed-potatoes. While a number
appeared interested in the matter, no one took any actual steps as yet. However, since the
visit of Mr. Jones, Potato Inspector, during the past summer a number of men have promised
to take up the work for the coming year. We also had a call to visit two of the dairy herds
supplying milk to the city, in order to ascertain the cause of a bad flavour in the milk. This
flavour was found due to a weed in the pasture.
The latter parts of April and May were taken up with various details of the work. Mr.
Heald made several trips to Vanderhoof, once to meet Sir John Pitka to assist him in finding
some horses and a second-hand portable sawmill, once to attend to some land-seekers and to put
through two land sales, aud once to run boundary-lines and take levels for drainage for settlers.
One trip he made in company with the Board's accountant, who personally interviewed as
many of the delinquent clients of the Board's as possible. Here in Prince George w-e made
inspections of some properties where foreclosure proceedings were contemplated or where a
client of the Board's had died and the heirs lived at a distance. We also interviewed a number
of the Mud River Cattle Club members and collected as much as possible on account of the
overdue notes.
We spent several days in the field advising and studying seeding operations. Spent some
time also working for the establishment of a Horticultural Society in this town. This has not
yet materialized, but we hope to have it started next spring. We were in Vanderhoof and met
the excutive of the Farmers' Institute to arrange for an annual picnic. We also talked up
certified seed-potatoes in an effort to get some men started in the work.
During the month w-e published several articles in the local press in the nature of seasonable
hints and recommendations. We met the Pine View Farmers' Institute and gave an address
on the subject of soil formation.
Early in June Mr. Heald made a trip to the Quesnel and Williams Lake District to make
a number of loan appraisals and to attend to various matters connected with the settlement
areas in that locality. Here we attended to correspondence, some loan appraisals, taking
land-seekers over the land, and the sale of some lands. As soon as Mr. Heald returned we
started for Stuart Lake and spent several days with the new Esthonian settlement there. We
made a rough inspection of the district in which they are settling, interviewed them, and advised
and assisted as much as possible. Returning to Vanderhoof, we met the management of the
Vanderhoof Creamery and discussed with them ways and means of getting in a shipment of
dairy cows. We went into the matter thoroughly and interviewed as many as possible of the
farmers and other parties interested. This has also been reported on at length under date of
June ISth, 1924.    After making several loan appraisals we returned to Prince George.
Before the end of June instructions came to hand to proceed with a detailed cruise of the
Esthonian settlement area at Stuart Lake. We at once proceeded with preparations for this
work. Mr. Heald secured the services of one assistant cruiser and later had to secure a
second in order to finish the work in time. We secured the services of an assistant for the
office while we should be absent in Stuart Lake and Quesnel Districts.
Mr. Heald's party arrived at Stuart Lake about July 3rd and started work at once. We
spent a few days with them going over the ground and then returned to Vanderhoof. We
made several loan appraisals in that and the Fort Fraser District and attended a meeting of \
15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 57
the cream-shippers, addressing them on the subject of working together and supporting their
own organizations.
During July we were busy attending to land-seekers, making out agreements of sale, loan
appraisals in the Willow River and Dunster Districts. We made an examination of the damage
being done to forest trees and found it to be the common tent-caterpillar. We attended a
field demonstration on the Pine View Illustration Station and gave an address on cultural
methods and crop-rotation. The following day we attended the same demonstration held at
Salmon River and gave the same address.
Towards the end of the month we commenced a survey of conditions relating to the hog
industry here. This was largely done through circular letters and very satisfactory results
were obtained. This was started at the request of the Live Stock Commissioner and all information collected has been forwarded to his office.
We attended a meeting of the District C Farmers' Institute in Prince George called to
discuss the proposition of a creamery for this town. The project was not endorsed by the
meeting.
The first of August we went to Quesnel and Williams Lake and made a penalty-tax inspection of Areas Nos. 7, 8, 9, and 14. We attended to other work in connection with the Quesnel
Cattle Club and to possible land-sales in the district. On return to Prince George we went to
Stuart Lake again and spent several days with Mr. Heald and his party as they were finishing
their work of cruising. After interviewing the new settlers and noting their progress we all
returned to this point. About the last of the month we attended a Farmers' Institute meeting
at Hixon Creek and gave an address on the subject of co-operation and also on the exhibiting
of fruits and vegetables. Mr. Heard's two assistant cruisers and our office assistant were let
go by the end of the month.
With the first of September came the season of fall fairs. We were asked to judge at
Woodpecker, Prince George, McBride, and later at Quesnel and Forest Grove. Details of these
fairs have been submitted to the Secretary's office some time ago. We also assisted in the
preparation of an exhibit sent to the Prince Rupert Fair. It is interesting to note that this
Prince George district exhibit again took first place at this fair. It was in competition with
exhibits from Terrace, Hazleton, and the Bulkley Valley.
It was necessary for Mr. Heald to spend practically all of September and a part of October
in writing out the descriptions of the quarter-sections cruised by the party during the summer.
In addition, he sketched in on each description sheet a small map of the quarter-section. He
also prepared a large-scale map of the district cruised and a general report of the work. This
material has all gone forward some time ago. Correspondence and some loan appraisals brought
us to the last week of September. At this time we both set out for Quesnel, Mr. Heald to clean
up several loan appraisals in the district and we were to have judged at the Quesnel and
Forest Grove Fairs. Bad weather and poor roads led to complications which ended in a
break-down and caused us to be two days late arriving in Quesnel. We were too late for both
fairs.    It was necessary to return to Prince George by boat.
Arriving here the first of October, Mr. Heald finished his work on the Stuart Lake report and
then left for Vanderhoof to attend to penalty-tax inspection in Areas Nos. 2, 4, and 12. Here
at the office we had a number of land-seekers to attend to. This resulted in a number of sales,
and the correspondence and the clerical work attendant thereto, together with the inspection
of Areas Nos. 5 and 13, carried us over into November. We interviewed several potato-growers
in the district in an effort to have a number of exhibits sent to the Potato Fair. The season
had, however, been unfavourable and we were only able to get one exhibit.
Notes on General Conditions.
Seeding in this district commenced about April 15th and was all finished by May 10th.
The seed went into the ground in good shape; it germinated well, but was retarded by a June
drought.
Hay was a good crop, but short in the stem because of this same drought. It came on
well, however, in the last two weeks, thus making a little better showing than was expected.
Estimated average for the district, iy2 tons per acre.
Grain and silage crops came on well. Harvesting commenced about September 1st, but
was badly delayed by  almost continuous  rains during that  month.    Threshing returns show K 58
Department op Agriculture.
1925
the average per acre to be about the same as last year, but the acreage was a little smaller
owing to the larger acreage in hay.
Potatoes and roots were under the average in yield and quality as a result of the early
drought and the latter rains.
Spring seeding came on well in the summer and went into the first cold snap under a
foot of snow. This blanket has been maintained, and while the weather in December has been
unusually cold, yet no frost damage is anticipated.
Live stock went into the winter in good condition. Practically no new stock were brought
into the district.
Unusual activity in the lumbering industry last .winter meant a big increase in the capacity
of the local market and provided winter work for all who wished it. This winter the activities
are somewhat reduced to that of last winter, but still they are consuming large quantities of
local produce aud employing a fair number of men.
Letters of Inquiry.
During the year we have received well over one hundred definite inquiries from interested
correspondents. These letters have all been answered in detail and the writers supplied with
maps and whatever information we think will be of use to them. It is interesting to note
where these letters come from; fully 50 per cent, of them are from the United States—chiefly
from the Dakotas, Montana, Idaho, and the Coast States, with a sprinkling from the other States.
Another 45 per cent, come from the Canadian Prairie Provinces and the remaining 5 per cent,
from Europe.
Farmers' Institute Meetings Amended.
Date.                  Place.
Time of Meeting.
Attendance.
Subject of Address.
Vanderhoof 	
Vanderlioof 	
Vanderhoof 	
50
10
50
40
60
20
23
25
75
30
25
Co-operative effort.
Purchase  of cattle through Cattle
Co-operation in supporting the ere
Soil  formation.
Better cultural methods.
Better cultural methods.
Effect of too many creameries.
Exhibiting fruits and vegetables.
Judging demonstration.
Need for united effort.
Need for united effort.
June  16
July   12
June 21
Afternoon 	
Club,
amery.
July   18
July   19
Aug.      1
Aug.   16
Sept.    1
Oct     17
Pine View  	
Afternoon	
Prince George	
Afternoon  	
Evening	
Afternoon  	
Oct     18
We try to keep in touch with the majority of the Farmers' Institute meetings held in the
district.    The above table sums up fairly well our activities in this line.
Publications.
We have been repeatedly asked both by the Secretary of the Department and by
farmers of the district to bring out some bulletins or circulars which will be written expressly
for this Central Interior. The Department has bulletins on a very wide range of subjects, but
with one or two exceptions they have all been written for farmers of the Lower Fraser Valley
and Coast District, and written by men whose experience, ripe as it may be, is limited in
regard to this Central Interior. With this in mind we have been preparing notes for some
time and had hoped to spend part of this winter in the preparation of the bulletins—one on
clover-growing and the other on cultural methods for the typical soil.
Clover-seed.
Four years ago, when we first came into the district, clover growing, either wild or under
cultivation, was a very rare sight. Many a new-comer that first season, looking for clover and
missing it, went away shaking his head and saying that the country can't be much good if it
won't grow clover. This last June and July there were over 500 acres of clover growing
within thirty minutes' drive of the town. The air was heavy with the perfume of it and vibrant
with the hum of bees—wild bees. AVe have watched this crop for every season and know that
in the average year common red, alsike, and white sweet all set seed, plenty of seed, and if 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 59
allowed to come to maturity will furnish a bright, clean, plump grade of seed which should
take a leading place on the market because it is grown on the 54th parallel of latitude. In
this opinion we are backed by that of such men as E. S. Archibald, B.A., B.S.A., Director
Dominion Experimental Farms, and Dr. G. McRostie, Dominion Agrostologist. Because of this
condition as outlined above we are anxious to get a clover-hulling machine into the district
as there is none here now. If some department could be induced to take the initial step of
putting such a machine here for a year there would be a considerable acreage of saved seed,
and we believe once this was threshed and put on the market nothing more would be needed
to build up a very profitable side-line in seed production. It may be remembered that as yet
we have no field weeds here.
Still another seed project is claiming our attention. During this last summer W. Hunter,
B.S.A., of Summerland, visited the district. While here he mentioned that certain parties
would be glad to give contracts to the farmers here for the growing of seed-peas where such
seed could be grown free from weeds and weavils. We are now in correspondence with these
parties and trust that some trial contracts will be placed here next year.
Bee-keeping and Honey Prospects.
We mentioned on a previous page that the bees, wild bees, were working on the clover-
field in June. There is one man here and one in the Vanderhoof District keeping bees. They
both started with one hive a few years ago and have made very good progress building up
their colonies. They are producing a very good quality of honey. Every year there are thousands of acres of scrub willow and fireweed blooming at different periods and massed banks
of wild raspberry and hundreds of acres of clover. Because of this and because every year
there are hundreds of pounds of honey shipped in from the East and from California, it will
be our aim during the coming season to draw as much attention as possible to bee-keeping
and hold one or two demonstrations in different parts of the district. In this we have been
promised the co-operation of the Dominion Experimental Farm system.
General.
We hope also to hold several live-stock judging demonstrations during the early summer.
There has been nothing of this nature held here since the U.B.C. Extension Course held one
in Vanderhoof three years ago. The increased number of farmers and the increased number
of tillable acres on farms makes it imperative that more attention be given to live stock.
More and better stock will be the objective.
Among other objectives we have in mind the formation of a Horticultural Society in this
city. At present no seed of flower, no blade of grass nor tree is planted nor tended by public
or co-operative effort. This in a city of over 3,000. A few enterprising citizens, by a little
expenditure and a little thought, have shown what can easily be done in the way of velvet
green lawns, of banks of perennials and annuals, and flowering shrubs and shade-trees. A
little encouragement and a little advice might help transform bare unsightly streets and
squares into avenues of shade and beauty. It is some one's place to foster such a movement;
then why not the Department of Agriculture.
Pacific Great Eastern Railway Developments.
We are watching carefully for indications of any activities in connection with the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway. Should any construction start on this line between Quesnel and Prince
George, it would at once create an increased interest in lands adjacent thereto. This would
mean a number of land-seekers and a number of laud-sales. Should activities on this line
finally materialize to such an extent that there would be any kind of regular train service,
then there would be two or three communities along this line that would at once request
assistance in the matter of Cattle Clubs, so that they might ship cream to the Quesnel Creamery.
There would be an increased demand for loans to develop farms along the line and it might
even mean requests for new settlement areas.
One of the most promising communities which will be tributary to the proposed extension
of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway is Woodpecker. It lies 40 miles south from Prince George
and is largely made up of English, Americans, Scandinavians, Russians, and Germans. In
spite of the handicap of transportation they have been working steadily and have made splendid K 60 Department op Agriculture. 1925
progress. Such progress is indicated by the fact that last fall they held their own first fall
fair, and held a good one without any assistance from the Department or from outside sources.
Indicated also by the fact that this fall a threshing-machine went into the district and threshed
grain for the first time.    Once given transportation their progress will be remarkable.
During the past year we have noticed a marked interest being taken in this, the Vanderhoof
and the Quesnel Districts. We have every reason to believe this will be sustained during the
coming year. One man, a sheep-rancher from New Zealand, has moved on to Board land in
the Quesnel District; others may follow. The publicity given to the Prince George District
by the Pacific Great Eastern Railway has resulted in attracting attention as nothing else
would. This is shown in the increase in sales in this area over last year. We expect more
interest next year. In the Vanderhoof District the reputation of the Nechako Valley and the
publicity given by the coming of the Esthonians have had a good effect. There is no reason
to suppose this will decrease next year.
The Esthonian Settlement.
Before concluding we would like to draw your attention to the Esthonian settlement at
Stuart Lake. There are now six families there, as well as a number of single men whose
families are still in the Old Country. Three more families have come out since the first party
came. There are six new houses either built or in the process of building. Sir John Pitka
has a fine log house now and in it he and his family are sheltering the families of new arrivals
until their own houses are ready. Sir John's plan is to have a few new families come each
year at intervals, so that those already settled can accommodate the new-comers until they
can build for themselves.
These people are unfamiliar with our laws and customs, with the various departments in
charge of works in the district, and they quickly look to some one on whom they can depend
and through him they learn the ways of the land. We have tried to give them to understand
that this office was always ready and willing to do all possible to help them, whether it be in
getting a new road or a school, a cow or the name or the best variety of grain for their district.
We are in continual correspondence with them and believe we have established a good understanding between them and this office.
Respectfully submitted.
R. G. Sutton.
REPORT OF DAIRY COMMISSIONER, VICTORIA.
H. Rive, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as Dairy Commissioner for the year 1924.
The dairy industry shows a good increase for the past season in spite of its being a most
unfavourable one. The drought affected very seriously all dairy districts, with a resulting
shortage in green fodders and root-crops.
Prices for dairy produce have been somewhat lower than for several years. Prices of dairy
feeds have risen steadily during the year and no prospect is shown of any decline for many
months at least.
Creameries.
The creameries of the Province have received the fullest attention possible, but not yet
as much as is desirable in view of the forthcoming inception of systems of cream and butter
grading. More time should be devoted to instructional inspection of factories and farm dairies.
A better understanding of good sanitary practice exists than heretofore around the factories
and few glaring offences in this respect occur. Great improvement can still be effected in
general practice, nevertheless, by both producer and manufacturer.
The Provincial Dairy Instructors and Inspectors, F. Overland and F. C. Wasson, have
carried out throughout the year work of this nature, the former being occupied principally on
the Lower Mainland and the latter in other parts of the Province. Extracts from their respective reports are here appended:— 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 61
" Regular calls were made throughout the year on all factories and creameries on the Lower
Mainland. New machinery has been installed in several creameries and better methods applied
than formerly in the handling of the product. . Most of them are keenly interested in the
improvement of butter-manufacture and are putting cream-grading into practice. Considerable
work has been done during the past year in grading cream on arrival at the creameries, and
every possible effort made to impress the importance of this upon butter-makers and their
assistants. Calls were also made on the milk-vendors and many farm dairies were visited and
given instruction in the handling of and caring for milk and cream. Several warnings were
given to careless producers. Examinations for testers' licences were given to thirteen applicants during the year.    Grading of butter was done for Vancouver producemen."—F. Overland.
" The summer season was given entirely to visiting creameries and dairy-farms in the
Okanagan, Cariboo, and Kootenay Districts. About eighty calls were made on creameries and
about 160 days were spent receiving and grading cream at these places. One hundred and ten
days were spent on the road visiting dairy-farms, of which 300 were called on. Information
was given as to care of milk and cream. Help was also given in the installing of new machinery
at several points. Many creameries in British Columbia are buying cream to-day according to
grade, but in several the grades used are not as high as those approved of by the Dominion
Dairy Conference. Where the higher ones are employed, those creameries as a result are
receiving a premium on butter produced and are able to pay their patrons a higher price for
cream. The balance of the year was employed in giving examinations, making analyses, assisting at short course, attending meetings, preparing production and price charts, and office-work."
—F. C. Wasson.
Ice-cream.
The manufacture of ice-cream is developing rapidly, the output doubling in quantity during
the past five years. Close to 500.000 gallons were made during 1924. The business is worthy
of all encouragement, as it provides a most healthy food and a good outlet at profitable prices
for large quantities of cream that would otherwise have to be disposed of through channels
offering lower returns.
Cheese-making.
More interest is being shown in this branch than formerly. For the manufacture of Cheddar
there is one factory and one for two Italian varieties, both situated in the Chilliwack District.
Experimental work with Edam has been undertaken by several firms, and undoubtedly a market
exists in this Province for considerable cheese of this kind, but not to any extent comparable
with that afforded the Cheddar types.
The building-up in British Columbia of a demand for home-made cheese is well worth
while. Certain varieties appear suitable to our purposes and would prove remunerative once
popularized. The Dairy Department of the University of British Columbia has done considerable experimental work with likely kinds and is in a position to give advice and tuition in the
manufacture. The Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz has also made several kinds of
cheese for a number of years and can offer assistance in regard to this question.
CONDEN SERIES.
The condenseries at Ladner and Abbotsford (formerly owned by the Pacific Milk Company,
Limited, and now the property of the F.V.M.P.A.) with that of the Borden Milk Company at
South Sumas are the only ones to be found in the Province. The product is largely disposed
of locally, though some is exported. ' The amount manufactured fluctuates considerably from
year to year with the state of the market for milk and butter.
Dairy Legislation.
The " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act" has been amended and now provides for
the grading of cream immediately after its arrival at the creamery or dairy. The grading is
to be done by a licensed cream-grader who shall have given proof of competency. The regulation comes into operation on January 1st, 1926.
Testers' Licences.
Twenty-five applicants were examined by the Dairy Branch and ninety-three licences were
issued.    (For the list of testers holding licences during 1924 see Appendix No. 22.) K 62 Department op Agriculture. ■ 1925
Dairy and Creamery Licences.
To forty-seven persons, firms, or companies buying milk or cream on the butter-fat content
basis licences for business were issued. (For the list of creameries and dairies so licensed
see Appendix No. 23.)
Cow-testing—Milk Records.
Seven Cow-testing Associations are now in operation in this Province. (For list of associations and officers see Appendix No. 24.) Extract from the report of G. H. Thornbery, Assistant
in Charge of Cow-testing:—
" The chief dairy districts in the Lower Mainland are now all within areas covered by one
or another of the Cow-testing Associations with the exception of a section located between Haney
and Coquitlam. Calls have been made on all associations twice during the past year and,
where necessary, more frequently.
" The number of lactation records received by this Branch is decidedly on the increase.
The average production recorded in this way for 1924 is 7,537 lb. milk and 311.7 lb. fat. During
the year 369 certificates of production were issued and to date 1,064. A full report will appear
in Dairy Circular No. 10.
" Testing Centres.—In districts so desirous, where dairy herds are not large enough for
a regular association to operate successfully, testing centres are formed. Farmers take the
samples of milk, delivering them to a central point where they are tested by a qualified man.
Testing centres are operating at Cowichan, Mount Lehman, Bradner, and Princeton."
Fall Fairs.
Assistance was given as usual in connection with the judging of dairy exhibits at fairs.
The British Columbia Dairymen's Association.
The annual meeting of this association is being merged for 1925 in the Western Canada
Dairy Convention, which will be held at Vancouver, February 10th to 13th. This convention,
which will be participated in by the dairymen from the four Western Provinces and will also
attract visitors from Eastern Canada, is being, held for the first time in British Columbia and
should do much to bring the stability of the dairy industry to the notice of our own citizens.
Considerable time has been devoted by the Secretary-Treasurer as well as by all members of
this Branch to preparations for this event.
The usual prizes for cow-testing and R.O.P. records have been continued. No summer
meeting was held in 1924.
An amendment to the constitution to be presented to the annual meeting provides for the
inclusion by the association of all branches of the dairy industry in the Province.
Short Course.
The second short course for those employed in dairy factories in British Columbia took place
at the premises of the Fraser Valley Milk-producers' Association, Eighth Avenue and Vukon,
Vancouver, February 18th to 29th. Ten students registered. On occasion for special lectures
many more attended.
The subjects dealt with were cream-grading, butter-scoring, testing, pasteurization, neutralizes, moisture and salt determinations, etc. The staff of the Dairy Department of the
University joined with our own in conducting several phases of the work. H. J. Crowe, of
the Saskatchewan Dairy Department, was present for three days and gave valuable instruction in grading and scoring.
During one afternoon ice-cream topics were dealt with. W. V. S. Robb, of Seattle, delivered
an address.
For the use of the association's premises and the uniformly obliging and courteous treatment accorded us by its staff, acknowledgment is gratefully made.
Publications.
Dairy Circulars No. 8, being a list giving particulars of certificates issued in respect to
cows completing their lactation periods in 1923, and No. 9, " Sterilizing Equipment for the
Dairy Farm," represent the publications of this Branch for 1924. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 63
Cream and Butter Grading.
The recent amendment to the " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act" will make necessary in 1926 more frequent and thorough supervision of creamery operations than is possible
with the present staff. There will also be required arrangements with some operating creamery
(for use of premises and opportunity for receiving cream in regular practice) for the instruction and examination of applicants for a cream-grader's licence. Some equipment may also
be required.
The decision to institute in Vancouver a butter-grading service is most timely. In no way
now can greater good be done our butter-manufacturers than by furnishing what will be a
complete check on factory methods and on the system of cream-grading about to be made
general. The education value should be great and the move will meet with approval from
all producemen and dealers in the Province.
Attention is directed to the fact that one addition only has been made to the staff of this
Branch since 1914. During that time the progress of the dairy industry has been greater
and more constant than that of any other phase of agricultural work in British Columbia, the
value of its products increasing from $3,000,000 to nearly $11,000,000 in 1924.
Office-work.
This work has greatly increased so that clerical assistance other than that afforded by
one' stenographer is required.
Conclusion.
The services of the two dairy instructors and inspectors, of the assistant in charge of
cow-testing (milk record) work, aud of the clerk-stenographer of this Branch are deserving
of commendation.
Respectfully submitted.
Henry* Rive.
REPORT OF CHIEF POULTRY INSTRUCTOR,  VICTORIA.
J. R. Terry.
Dr. D. Wamock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report for the year 1924.
General Conditions.
Possibly due to the policy of retrenchment on the part of the majority of commercial breeders, at the beginning of the year prices for eggs and stock were above those of 1923. However,
notwithstanding the slightly enhanced price of eggs, many breeders commenced shipping their
breeding stock by the first week in May. This action tended to strengthen the price of eggs
but slightly depreciated the value of poultry-meats.
The day-old chick business was quiet on the whole, several of the larger hatcheries being
forced to rear their chicks instead of selling them. The prices for day-old chicks were about
on a par with those of the previous year. There was a fair market for 8- to 12-weeks-old pullets
at reasonable prices. Prices for pedigree progeny were 25 per cent, higher than in 1923. The
average market price received for eggs during the year was 32 cents, being 4 cents higher than
in 1923. But this higher price was offset by the high price of feedstuffs during the last three
months of the year.
Price of Eggs.
The following is a comparison of prices (wholesale) from 1905-1924, inclusive. Figures
were supplied by ranchers from 1905 to 1911. From 1912 onwards the prices are those received
for Victoria Egg-laying Contest eggs. Cents. Cents.
1905   24% 1915   32%
1906  29% 1916   34
1907   31 1917  41
1908   31% 1018  50
1909   33% 1919   60%
1910   34% '       1920   57%
1911    34% 1921  39%
1912  41 1022  32%
1913  35 1923  2S
1914   35 1924  32
It is to be regretted that during the year the British Columbia Poultrymen's Exchange was
forced to close down. After disposing of a large number of cold-storage eggs at remunerative
prices the Exchange was able to pay a little over 70 cents on the dollar to its members. It is
doubtful if such an organization would be successful during the present quiet times.
During the year the co-operative egg circles reported satisfactory progress; the largest
of these organizations are the Cowichan Creamery and the Comox Creamery Egg-collecting
Stations. The Cowichan Association has been in existence since 1909 and is still doing good
work for its members.
Egg marketing Legislation.
The Federal Government Inspectors have been doing consistent work during the year in
enforcing the Dominion regulations. The Provincial " Eggs Marks Act " has been certainly a
step in the right direction. The fact that all foreign eggs have to be stamped before entering
the Province is causing the wholesalers in Washington State to add 1 cent per dozen extra
for stamping the eggs when quoting to possible buyers in this Province. This, together with
the reasonable price asked for eggs, has been the meaus of cutting down imports.
Importations.
During 1923 the importations of dressed poultry from foreign points into the Province
were valued at $3,443.    Egg importations from the same source were valued at $10,839.
In 1924 importations of poultry and game dropped to $2,839. From Canadian Provinces
the dressed poultry imports for 1923 totalled $227,315. During 1924 this dropped to $177,442.'
The total foreign imports into the Province, including dressed poultry, day-old chicks, breeding
stock, and eggs, are valued at $55,626. Day-old chicks to the number of 17,454 were imported
at an average price of not quite 20 cents each; 1,728 matured breeding stock were brought
in at an average price of $4.50 per bird.
Exports.
The total value of exports was $329,792. Live poultry to the number of 1,842 were shipped
out at a value of just over $7,000; dressed poultry was valued at $16,064; the rest of the shipments consisted of nearly 1,000,000 dozen eggs valued at just over $300,000.
Weather Conditions.
The season was again dry and if it were not for the heavy rainfall during the last month
of the year the average would have been even below that of the previous year. The hatching
and rearing season was very mild and favourable and accounts for the excellent laying records
put up during the late winter.
Breeding Operations.
A further increase is to be recorded in the number of trap-nesters. The Department distributed a very large number of trap-nest record forms and present indications point to an
increase. The R.O.P. Breeders' Association has again further enlarged its membership and
by means of a directory and systematic advertising outside the Province has greatly increased
its sales of breeding stock and eggs.
As an item of interest it may be pointed out that several breeders in the Province have
imported a new breed of utility fowl called " Barnevelders." This bird has similar colouring
and marking to the Golden Laced Wyandotte, but the colour is not so uniform and the bird is
midway in size between a Leghorn and a Wyandotte.    The breed has become very popular in 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 65
England because of its utility qualities.    It is reported that their eggs are large and of a good
colour.
Departmental Work.
During the year the District Inspectors located at Nelson, Westminster, and Salmon Arm
have been very active in visiting all parts of their districts. They report an increased interest
in poultry, particularly by ranchers engaged in mixed-farming operations. With the more
optimistic tone of mining matters there has been a brighter demand for all farming products,
particularly eggs. Throughout the Province the members of this Branch have lectured and
demonstrated at meetings of Farmers' and Women's Institutes, United Fanners' Clubs, and
Boys' and Girls' Clubs. Members of the Branch again officiated at many of the fall fairs as
well as the poultry-shows. Many interviews were given to interested persons by members of
the Branch while in attendance at the larger exhibitions and during the convention.
Provincial Poultry Association.
Vernon was the venue this year of the Annual Provincial Poultry-show and Convention.
This is the first time for nine years that this annual event has been held in the Interior.
Whilst the show was not as large as the Vancouver meetings, yet the quality of birds showed
no diminution. Nearly all of the thirty-odd local associations sent delegates to the annual
meeting, and many matters of importance to the industry were brought up and decisions made
which should be of great benefit to the poultry industry of the future. The whole of the
Branch staff attended the show and convention at Vernon and conferences were held and work
for the ensuing year was outlined.
The association again published a Breeders' Directory and also gave out many valuable
premiums to its members, not the least of which was a sample trap-nest front.
At the Vernon meeting the association decided to present a grand silver challenge cup to
the High School Class in Agriculture judging at the New Westminster Fair. Bronze medals
are also being offered for judging competitions to be held for children at the fall fairs.
Diplomas and bronze medals were awarded monthly to the winners in the different classes
of the Egg-laying Contest.
Nine of the district groups affiliated with the Provincial Association held shows during
the fall and winter, all of which were assisted by the usual departmental grant. In practically
all instances the shows were able to come out on the right side of the ledger despite the hard
times.
Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs.
With the aid of the District Poultry Instructors the Branch is pleased to report that the
number of Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs last year was more than three times the number of
the previous year. Possibly the simplification of the rules and regulations assisted in increasing
the number, but most of the credit is due to the District Poultry Instructors and, in several
instances, to the local Poultry Associations.
As showing the possibility of arousing interest in the minds of the young towards the
poultry industry, it should be specially mentioned that the Rev. C. McDiarmid, President of
the British Columbia Poultry Association, organized ten clubs, totalling over eighty members,
in the Mission District. In addition to the Department's competition the children were asked
to exhibit their birds at the fall fair. On the day of the show the superintendent of the
poultry exhibit was simply swamped with the children's exhibits, whose birds alone totalled
over 400. This, it may be added, is a larger number of birds than appears even at straight
poultry-shows in some sections of the Province. Several of the Mission children sent their
birds to the Provincial Show at Vernon and won nearly $50 in prize-money. According to
inquiries the coming season bids fair to beat all records.
Rabbit-breeding.
As in the past, the Branch has handled inquiries and given information regarding rabbit-
breeding. The District Instructors at New Westminster and Salmon Arm, having had long
experience in rabbit-rearing, have been of much assistance in taking care of this growing
industry. During the past three years the breeding of rabbits for fur purposes has overshadowed the breeding of rabbits for meat purposes. The Hudson's Bay Company, in many
instances, are taking the complete output of pelts from breeders in the Province. ' The principal
5 K 66 Department of Agriculture. 1925
rabbits used for this purpose are Angoras, Beverens, Flemish, French, English, Dutch, Siberian,
Indian, New Zealand, and Polish, and include all the fashionable colours in these breeds. At
the present time there are two Rabbit Associations in the Province. The title of Provincial
Association has been taken by both, the Victoria Association being known as Local No. 1 and
the Vancouver as Local No. 2.
Just at present a good deal of interest is being taken in Chinchillas; this breed has been
very strongly boomed in England, and the boom has reached the United States and in a small
way has created interest in this Province. As with booms in poultry and other forms of live
stock, extravagant statements as to the capabilities of this breed are being made, and the writer
cannot but form the opinion that there will be large sums of money made by those selling
breeding stock at high prices and later on equally large sums of money lost by those unfortunate
enough to take up this breed at the waning of the boom.
A new bulletin profusely illustrated with all the leading fur breeds and entitled " Management of Fur and Table Rabbits " is in course of publication.
Publications.
The usual demand for the Department's bulletins was in evidence throughout the year;
advantage was taken of a new issue of the trap-nest record forms to change the size of the
sheet, making the records wider though shorter, thus making accommodation for fifty birds
per sheet, while taking up less room.
Information dealing with poultry and allied subjects was prepared by members of the
Branch and handed out to the rural newspapers and agricultural periodicals.
The usual reports on the Egg-laying Contest were sent regularly to all parts of the world
and in addition single-leaf circulars were issued occasionally. Three of the bulletins issued
by the Department were revised and new editions printed.
Diseases.
About the usual number of dead fowls were sent in to the head and branch offices for
post-mortem examination. It is satisfactory to note that each year shows a decrease in the
cases of tuberculosis. No doubt the excellent work in connection with the slaughter of tuberculous cattle has assisted in this pleasing state of affairs. In the old days fowls were extremely
liable to infection whilst exercising and scratching amongst manure-heaps from tuberculous
cattle.
Egg-laying  Contest.
The Thirteenth and concluding Egg-laying Contest ended on September 22nd, 1924, after
running for a period of eleven months. The twin-bird system was used again, the contest being
divided into two classes, one being known as the. heavy-weight or general-purpose birds; the
other as light-weights or birds kept primarily for egg production. Two birds were sent by each
competitor and one of them was placed in a pen belonging to another contestant. The birds
were so housed that in each pen there was one bird from Class 1 and one from Class 2. As
the birds in each pen lay one white and one brown egg respectively, there is no necessity for
the use of trap-nests. The plan is an adaptation of the single-bird contests held for years in
Australia. In addition to the birds competing, each contestant sent a spare .bird, which was
housed according to its class and a trap-nest record kept of each bird.
A total of 13,995 marketable eggs was laid during the eleven months, the heavy-weights
laying 6,445 and the light-weights 7,550;  there were forty birds in each class.
The heaviest layer in either class was a White Wyandotte hen in Class 2, which laid 258
eggs in eleven months. The heaviest layer in Class 1 was a White Leghorn, which laid 241
eggs.
The light-weight classes had fifteen birds which laid over 200 eggs apiece, the poorest
layer laying 84 eggs.
In Class 2 seven birds laid 200 eggs; the poorest layer laid 9 eggs and one bird failed to lay.
The Provincial Poultry Association presented monthly diplomas for the highest pens and
bronze medals monthly to the highest layers in each class, in addition to the usual prizes at the
conclusion of the contest.
During the year one pen was disqualified for laying eggs under 24 oz. to the dozen, average
weight. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 67
Owing to the fact that the Federal Government now operates two contests in the Province
and there is a possibility of a third starting, and the termination of the Martin Burrell " Agricultural Instruction Act," whereby the contest had been assisted financially during the ten
years' duration of the Act, it was decided to terminate the contest. It should be remembered
that the contest was the first official one started on the American Continent and has been the
means of weeding out unprofitable breeds, and also during the past thirteen years has brought
large sums of money into the Province for breeding stock as a result of the many free advertisements given the reports of the contests.
Respectfully submitted.
J. R. Terry.
REPORT  OF CHIEF AGRONOMIST,  VICTORIA.
C. Tice, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Wamock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Soil and Crop Branch.
General Conditions.
The season, of 1924 was not a favourable one for field crops on account of the extremely
long period of dry weather. The year opened with mild weather followed by abundant rains.
During the month of May, however, the soils in many sections started to dry out, with the
result that the crops began to suffer from the drought. This condition gradually became worse
during the succeeding months. Fall-sown crops came through the winter of 1923-24 well, with
little damage by frost, and so got off to a good start, and asi a result yielded much better than
spring-sown crops. The hay-crop was light in most places, particularly on the high gravelly
soils. Grain-crops headed out early and were short in the straw. The weather for haying and
harvesting was generally good and the crops were harvested in good condition. Pastures dried
up early in most sections. Mangels and swede turnips also suffered considerably on account
of the dry weather, although the latter were severely attacked in many districts by insects.
Grasshoppers also were very prevalent and assisted in reducing the quality and quantity of
the crops in some sections. The acreage planted to potatoes was a slight increase over that
of 1923, but the dry period from May to October was also very detrimental to this crop. Consequently the yield was estimated at about 75 per cent, of that of the 1923 crop.
Soil Investigations.
This work was continued throughout 1924 along lines similar to those followed in previous
years. A careful study was made of the physical characteristics and chemical composition
of the soils in many districts and as a result recommendations were made as to the best
cropping methods to practise. In addition to this, samples of soils have been analysed for
individual farmers who requested this service and advice given as to the best methods of
handling such soils.    (See Appendix No. 27.)
The analytical soil-work has been done, as in past years, by officials of the Mines Branch.
Recently, however, the practice of accepting soil samples from individuals has been curtailed
on account of the fact that this system has not proven altogether satisfactory. There are four
main reasons for this: (1.) The individual has not had a clear idea of the reason for submitting
his soil for analysis. Many farmers have the idea that a soil-analysis can be made in a few
minutes and that it will solve all their problems. This, however, is not the case. (2.) The
samples are often secured at randonl by inexperienced persons who neglect a furnish any data,
which is very essential if conclusions of value are to be reached. (3.) Chemical analysis shows
only the percentage of plant-food present without giving an accurate estimate of the amount
available to the crop owing to the numerous factors involved in plant-nutrition. (4.) There are
many other factors other than chemical composition that largely influence the productivity of any
soil. These are depth of soil, nature of subsoil, drainage facilities, humus content, moisture-
holding capacity, climatic conditions, type of farming practised, etc. K 68 Department op Agriculture. 1925
It will be readily observed, therefore, under such circumstances, it is difficult to impart
information to the farmer which will be helpful in deciding the best cropping or fertilizer
method to practise. As an alternative, farmers whose soils are unproductive, due apparently
to a deficiency of some plant-food material, are being advised that it would be decidedly to
their advantage to establish some plots on their farms and try out several types of fertilizer,
for it is only in this way they can expect to obtain accurate information. In this connection
it is desired to point out that this Branch is always ready to give information and assistance
in conducting such tests.
Fertilizer and Gypsum Experiments.
In 1924 a few experiments with commercial fertilizers and gypsum were undertaken under
the supervision of this Branch. Positive results have not been secured, partly due to the
extremely dry weather prevailing throughout the growing season and also because the materials
were applied too late in the spring. Careful observations have led to the conclusion that
throughout the Province an increase in the humus content is essential to improve the texture
and water-retaining capacity of the soil and to add to the supply of available nitrogen. On
the red loam soils of Vancouver Island good results have been obtained where kelp and other
potassic fertilizers have been used.
Many applications for information regarding the use of gypsum were received throughout
the year. Practical tests have shown that in some sections of the Fraser Valley where gypsum
has been applied good results have been secured. Only negative results have followed its use
when directly applied to soils under observation on Vancouver Island. Extremely dry weather
may be partly to blame for this, but owing to the chemical analyses of the soils showing acidity
and deficiency of potash the practical value of gypsum is questionable.
Lime Survey.
The accessible lime-deposits of British Columbia have been investigated and their locations
marked. Large quantities of high-grade limestone, as well as beds of marl, have been found
and the material analysed. In some instances the marl and the natural deposits of finely
powdered lime material are in such a condition that farmers. can secure what they require
direct from the source ready for applying to the land without, the necessity of further pulverizing.
Tests for lime in the soil have been made in several sections of the Province by means of the Litmus,
Truog, and the Soiltex methods of determination. Most of the soils of the arid sections of the
Province have sufficient lime for legume production and are either neutral or alkaline in nature.
The lime survey indicates that British Columbia has abundant lime material available
and easily accessible for all agricultural districts. With improved methods of distribution
and collective buying through farmers' organizations, satisfactory purchases can be arranged.
Underdrainage.
Assistance has been given in handling drainage problems as far as time has permitted.
Surveys of main drains have been made for farmers who have requested this service. The
practical results of underdrainage as shown by increased crop yields and improved field conditions at seeding and harvest time have aroused the interest of the farmers, especially in the
Island districts.
FORAGE-CROPS.
The usual forage-crop work embracing silage, roots, hay, pasture, etc., has been continued
and several native plants which give promise of economic value have been studied. Among
these are three native legumes—namely, llosackia denticuluta,^or bird's-foot clover; Trifolium
fimbriatum, or perennial clover;   and Trifolium trid-entatum, or lance clover.
The bird's-foot clover was found in the vicinity of Princeton along the Similkameen River,
and also at an elevation of about 3,000 feet near Jura, where it had almost completely choked
out a newly seeded field of alfalfa. It is a thrifty and succulent plant in moist soils and is
much relished by stock, but, being an annual, its economic importance as a forage-plant is
doubtful.
The perennial clover found on the Saanich Peninsula has a fleshy underground root-stalk
and appears to do well in swampy wet soils of the Coast districts. Seeds of this clover have
been secured and distributed among officials in several districts, where they are being tested
for germination, hardiness, and yield. B.C. Potato and Seed Show, Vancouver, 1024.     Section of commercial potato exhibit at
Potato and Seed Show.
iiSi
■■'...'.. ' . :
Field of corn growing on the farm of Yorston Bros., south of Quesnel
Photo taken July 16th,  1924.  15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 69
The lance clover from the Comox Valley has not yet been tested out, but a few of the seeds
have been collected and will be sown in the spring of 1925. This clover appears to be much
relished by cattle and thrives on the loams near Sandwick, especially where plenty of moisture
is obtainable in summer.
All. three of the native legumes being studded are profusely supplied with nodules on the
roots, and no doubt are capable of increasing the available nitrogen-supply in the soils where
they abound.
Seed of the Australian saltbush (Atriplex semibacata) was this year secured from
California and sown in experimental rows on irrigated and non-irrigated land at Tranquille.
None of the seed germinated.    A further trial is planned.
Seed and Potato Show.
The third annual potato-show and educational seed exhibit was held in Vancouver from
November 27th to 29th under the direction of this Branch working in co-operation with the
Vancouver Board of Trade and tile British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Growers' Association.
Classes were provided for certified seed, commercial potatoes, fancy pack, gardeners' exhibits,
district exhibits, Women's Institute exhibits, boys' and girls' exhibits, and prepared dishes of
potatoes. The event was a success in every way and from the standpoint of interest and
number of entries surpassed the two previous potato-shows. There were 552 entries (representative of all parts of the Province) in the competitive classes. The Women's Institutes
were again represented by numerous exhibits, there being a total of 117 lots of potatoes grown
by members of that organization.
The educational exhibit of seeds staged in conjunction with the potato-show was greatly
enlarged over the previous year and included field, vegetable, and flower seeds of many kinds
from the numerous sections of the Lower Mainland and Island. During the week of the show
the annual meeting of the British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Growers' Association took
place and many excellent addresses by leading authorities were given.
Special mention should be made of the fact that the staging of an exhibition such as this
requires several weeks of preparation in order to make it a success. Considerable advertising
and correspondence has to be done in order to make the event known over the entire Province
and to secure exhibitors.
Potato-improvement Work.
The seed-potato inspection and certification work started in 1921 has continued to form
an important part of the work of this Branch during the past year. As a result of our efforts
along these lines there has been a marked improvement in the kind and quality of seed-potatoes
which have been offered on the market.
On account of the interest which has been shown by the farmers it has been possible to
form a British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Growers' organization with local associations
distributed throughout the Province. Your official was appointed Secretary-Treasurer of this
organization.
Extent and Progress.—Three hundred and thirty-nine fields covering twenty-two districts
were inspected for certification purposes during the year. The total number of acres inspected
was 296.47; 240.12 acres passed the first field inspection and 200.87 passed the second field
inspection. As a result of the first tuber inspection made last fall, it is estimated that approximately 450 tons of certified seed will be offered for sale by the growers in the spring of 1925.
A number of tables have been prepared giving the figures in detail covering the inspection-work
for 1924.    (jSee Appendices Nos. 28-33.)
Co-operative Agreement.—The increase in acreage inspected and the number of districts to
which inspection was granted is due to the valuable assistance rendered by the Division of
Botany of the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. This Department provided for the first
time two Inspectors for a period of six months to work in co-operation with our staff and
under our supervision. This arrangement we found entirely satisfactory and the assistance
so ably rendered is much appreciated.
Study, of Certification Methods in States.—It was the privilege of your Chief Agronomist
to visit several of the leading potato-growing States during the month of May and to come in
contact with those who have charge of the certification-work. Although it was too early in
the year to examine any of the growing fields, much valuable information was gained with K 70 Department op Agriculture. 1925
respect to the methods adopted in certifying seed-potatoes in Montana, Wisconsin, North Dakota,
Michigan, and Minnesota.
Outside Officials' Visits.—During the month of August visits were received from Dr. Schultz,
of Maine, and Dr. McMillan, of Colorado. Both these gentlemen are Plant Pathologists connected with the United States Department of Agriculture and were visiting the Province in
connection with their studies of potato mosaic.
Test-work.—This Branch arranged for a number of samples of certified seed-potatoes to
be sent to points in Eastern Canada and the United States for test purposes. It is felt that
this Province, being admirably suited for seed-potato production, should be shipping seed-
potatoes in large quantities to outside markets.
Canadian Seed-growers' Association.
The annual meeting of the Canadian Seed-growers' Association held in Guelph, Ontario, in
June was attended by your official. A brief address on the seed situation in British Columbia
was presented. Much of the time was spent in discussing matters of national importance to
the seed industry and in laying plans for future activities.
Provincial Seed Board.
During the month of February a Provincial Seed Board was appointed. This Board, which
meets from time to time, deals with matters of local importance to the seed industry.
Lectures and Fall Fairs.
Officials of this Branch have addressed a large number of meetings during the year as
well as assisting with the judging at local fairs and exhibitions.
Articles and Publications.
Many timely articles dealing with soil and crop problems have been written during the
year. In addition to this, a circular on " Kale and Related Plants " was published and Bulletin
No. 86, " The British Columbia Potato," was revised.
Executive Positions.
In addition to attending to the ordinary work coming under his Branch, your chief official
has held a number of executive positions during the year which bring about added responsibilities
and take up a great deal of time. These positions are: Member of the executive council and
director of the Canadian Seed-growers' Association; vice-president of the Pacific North-west
Potato-growers' Association; chairman of the Provincial Seed Board; secretary of the British
Columbia Certified Seed-potato Growers' Association; and recently appointed vice-president
of the Potato Association of America.
Acknowledgments.
In carrying on the work of this Branch during the past year your chief official wishes to
express his appreciation of the valuable assistance rendered by the various officials and
stenographer-clerk attached to the Branch; also the co-operation received from Provincial,
Dominion, and University officials interested in field-crop problems.
Respectfully submitted.
C.   Tice.
REPORT  OF  STATISTICIAN,  VICTORIA.
G. H. Stewart.
Dr. D. Warnock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Statistics Branch for the year
ended December 31st, 1924.
Due to unfavourable weather conditions the volume of agricultural production only
slightly exceeded that of the previous year. The spring of 1924 was later than the average;
sharp frosts occurred during the month of April, which resulted in considerable damage being 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 71
done to small fruits and tree-fruits. During the months of May, June, July, August, and
September the weather was very warm and the precipitation much below normal, which greatly
reduced the yield of all field crops. Despite these adverse conditions several branches of the
industry show gratifying progress.
Agricultural production for the past year is shown in value as $60,029,224, against $59,159,798
for the year 1923, representing an increase of $869,426, or 1.47 per cent. The outstanding
increases occurred in meats, poultry products, dairy products, and honey. A substantial decrease
is noticed in the value of agricultural products imported during the same period. The total
value of imports is placed at $16,399,502, a decrease of $2,61S,629, or 13.76 per cent. Imports
from other Provinces are valued at $13,617,709, against $15,622,678 in 1923, while imports from
foreign points decreased from $3,395,453 to $2,781,793 in 1924.
The value of exports for the year is estimated at $6,022,019. This total represents an
increased value of $135,647, or 2.30 per cent.
Fruits.
All tree-fruits with the exception of pears showed a decreased production, which is largely
accounted for owing to late frosts during the blossoming season. The net returns to the producer, however, were more satisfactory than during the two previous years, which can be
attributed largely to the efforts of the new co-operative organization, the Associated Growers
of British Columbia, which marketed some 85 per cent, of the crop.
The total production of all fruits amounted to 138,636,000 lb., valued at $5,419,238, as compared with 176,887,879 lb., valued at $6,034,976, in 1923, indicating a decrease of 21.62 per cent,
in quantity and 10.20 per cent, in value.
The small-fruit production amounted to ll.S66,C0O lb., an increase of 124,191 lb. over the
previous year. Strawberries came through the winter of 1923 in poor condition and as a result
of late frosts in the spring the crop was greatly reduced. Raspberries, blackberries, and loganberries all showed an increased production.
Vegetables.
The area of potatoes in 1924 was 247 acres more than the previous year. The yield,
however, was 5,908 tons less, caused chiefly by drought during the summer months. Potatoes
averaged $9.40 a ton more than in 1923. An increase of 16.85 per cent, is shown in the quantity
production of rhubarb. The 1924 crop amounted to 714 tons, valued at $41,312. A marked
increase in the yield of outdoor tomatoes occurred, especially in the Okanagan Valley, where
the average price was from $17 to $19 per ton for cannery purposes. The crop amounted
to 11,886 tons, against 9,815 tons produced in 1923. There was an Increase of 26.65 per cent.
in the quantity of greenhouse tomatoes produced; the 1924 crop amounted to 784 tons, valued
at $282,624.
The total vegetable-crop amounted to 219,933 tons, or 11,950 tons less than in 1923.
Grains.
The total area sown to grains was 127,196 acres, a decrease of 3,622 acres from the year
1923. Owing to unfavourable weather during the summer a larger percentage than usual
was cut green or turned into hay, thus reducing the quantity of grain for threshing considerably.
The production of all grains amounted to 4,501,590 bushels, valued at $4,253,512, representing a decrease in quantity production of 423,437 bushels, or 8.59 per cent., but an increase
in value of $286,675, or 7.22 per cent.
The price of wheat increased from $1.19 a bushel in 1923 to $1.44 a bushel in 1924; oats
from 62 cents a bushel to 68 cents.    Similar increases are noted in the prices of all grains.
Fodders.
The area sown to fodders amounted to 287,021 acres, which was 14,731 acres, or 5.41 per
cent, greater than the previous year.
Fodder-crops aggregating a total of 582,935 tons, valued at $10,671,692, were produced, as
compared with 671,556 tons, valued at $12,312,725, in 1923. The area of grain-hay increased
considerably over 1923;   this was due largely to so much grain being cut green or turned into K 72 Department of Agriculture. 1925
hay to relieve the shortage resulting from the failure of the clover and timothy crops.    Clover
and timothy averaged 1.83 tons to the acre, as against 2.30 tons in 1923.
Fodder corn, while still comprising a small percentage of the total .acreage of fodders, is
rapidly increasing, there being recorded 4,944 acres in 1924.
Dairy Products.
The dairy production was the largest on record and increases are shown in all branches
of the industry. The value of all dairy products was $9,769,549, being an increase of $534,973
over the year 1923. The quantity of creamery butter produced amounted to 3,670,670 lb.,
which was 709,500 lb., or 23.96 per cent., above the year 1923. Dairy butter increased 309,860
lb., or 24.57 per cent., during the year.
It is interesting to note that in the Okanagan Valley, heretofore considered purely a fruit
and vegetable section, the output of creamery butter was 255.S86 lb., or 31.69 per cent, greater
than in the previous year.
The quantity of cheese manufactured during the year amounted to 317,839 lb., an increase
of 27,753 lb. over 1923. The quantity of fresh milk consumed was 13,900,000 gallons, being
1,599,930 gallons more than the previous year.
Ice-cream and evaporated milk both showed small increases in quantity production.
The average price of creamery butter in 1924 was 37.4 cents per pound, while the price in
1923 was 42.2 cents per pound.
Live Stock.
The value of all domestic animals is placed at $16,790,007, representing an increased value
of $869,979 over the year 1923.
There was a small increase in the number of horses in the Province over the previous
year. Dairy and beef cattle both showed an increase in numbers. Sheep increased in number
to the extent of 1,815, there now being 55,151 in the Province. Swine increased in numbers
11.14 per cent, during the year. Poultry shows an increase during the year of 215,765 lb.
Egg production increased by 339.4S7 dozen, there being produced during the year 7,351,672 dozen.
Miscellaneous.
The quantity of all meats marketed during the year increased 7.69 per cent., while the
total value was 10.31 per cent, greater.    Prices strengthened slightly during the year.
The honey production for the year was 679,2S9 lb., valued at $149,444, as compared with
432,518 lb., valued at $95,154, in 1923.
There was a slight increase in the quantity of wool marketed and prices were very satisfactory.
General.
During the summer months, with the assistance of H. Stickland and officials of the Horticultural Branch, a small-fruit survey of the entire Province was made, the results of which
have been submitted to you.
The total number of letters received by this Branch during the year was 2,107, while the
total number dispatched was 1,221. During the year seven circular letters, comprising 1.520
letters in all, were sent out to Farmers' Institutes, wholesale establishments, etc. In addition
to these, over 1,400 crop-report forms were mailed to crop correspondents. Some 1,200 copies
of the Agricultural Statistics Bulletin for the year 1923 were issued and these have all been
distributed to interested parties.
Considerable assistance was given to farmers in order to help them in keeping records
of the business transactions of the farm, and it is noted with a great deal of satisfaction that
the farmers are becoming keenly interested in this work.
With the compilation of the June census returns, the monthly reports of crop correspondents,-
together with the attention given to correspondence, preparing reports, and other routine
matters, the entire time of your Statistician was taken up.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
George H. Stewart. Between the rows at Rosebay Apiary in June. 1924     Hives set on rail«™»
Provincial Government Demonstration Apiary for the Chilliwack District.  15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 73
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL APIARIST,  NELSON.
W. J. Sheppard.
Dr. D. Warnoclc, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report as Provincial Apiarist, together with the estimated honey-
crop report, the demonstration apiaries reports, and the reports of A. W. Finlay and J. F.
Roberts, Apiary Inspectors, for the past season.
The Honey-crop.
The season of 1924 has been a great improvement on that of 1923 for honey production.
The total estimated crop of 339 tons very nearly approaches that of the yield of 355 tons for
the year 1922, when the weather conditions were very favourable for nectar-secretion. British
Columbia may be considered very fortunate in doing as well as this as there has been a short
crop in the other Provinces.
The average production per hive for 1924 is estimated at 46 lb., as against 32 lb. last year
and 61 lb. in 1922.    (See Appendix No. 34.)
There has apparently been a decrease in the number of bee-keepers, 2,408 as compared
with 2,439 last year, but an increase in the number of hives. This may be accounted for by
the fact that there is an increased number of large producers and some of the smaller beekeepers having dropped out.
Exceptional Yield of Honey in East Kootenay.
There has been an exceptionally good yield of honey this year in the Fernie District in
East Kootenay, where no bees had been previously kept. A. H. Smith, who lives at Natal, on the
C.P.R. Crowsnest line, reports that from sixteen 3-lb. packages of bees he imported in the
spring he has taken 3,800 lb. of honey, an average of 238 lb. per hive. This honey was practically all gathered from one of the snowberries (Sympho-ricarpos). This variety is probably
the one known as the wolfberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis), which apparently only grows
in East Kootenay, and large quantities of which are to be found in this section of the Province.
The variety, commonly referred to as snowberry (Symphoricarpos racemosus), to be found in
West Kootenay, is very abundant in some places and has long been recognized as a good honey-
plant. The former variety has much larger flowers than the latter, the leaves are also larger,
and it is more compact and shorter in growth. Both varieties belong to the honeysuckle family.
The honey is light in colour, grades in the white class, and is of good consistency and
flavour. Mr. Smith exhibited some of this honey at Vancouver and New Westminster Exhibitions. At Vancouver he was awarded the gold medal for the best honey in the 50-lb. class,
and at New Westminster he obtained fourth prize in the 50-lb. class and second prize in the
20-lb. class in very keen competition. As both the snowberry and the wolfberry bushes remain
in flower for several weeks they may be considered of great value as honey-producers where
they are to be found in sufficient quantity.
Poor Honey-crop in the Bulkley Atalley*.
A report from Telkwa, in the Bulkley Valley, states the honey-crop there has been practically a failure this year, flreweed having yielded little or no nectar.
AU of which is respectfully submitted.
W. J. Sheppard. K 74 Department of Agriculture. 1925
REPORT  OF APIARY  INSPECTOR,  LOWER  MAINLAND  AND  VANCOUVER  ISLAND
DISTRICTS.
A. W. Finlay.
W. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Nelson, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report herewith for the season of 1924.
General Conditions.
The season of 1924 was not entirely favourable for honey production on the Lower Mainland,
the crop at the end of the season being below normal. This was largely due to a backward
spring, as little nectar came into the hives until about the first week in June. The usual spring
flow from maples and dandelions was very light, so that brood-rearing was curtailed to some
extent, except where the bee-keeper resorted to syrup-feeding. A fairly good honey-crop was
secured during June from white clover, raspberries, locust-trees, etc:, in localities where these
were plentiful. July was the only month when conditions were generally favourable and a fair
honey-crop was secured from alsike clover, etc. August was disappointing, especially in those
districts where the bee-keepers depend mainly on securing a crop from fireweed, as this plant
failed to secrete nectar much beyond the bees' requirements for their maintenance. Considerable
honey-dew was reported towards the end of the season in many localities. A considerable
improvement in bee-keeping methods and apiary management has been noticed over those of
previous years, and also a considerable increase in commercial apiaries, which have been
developed from smaller ones. It is satisfactory to note that British Columbia markets are
being investigated for honey in quantity, both for home consumption and export, and beekeepers have experienced little difficulty in disposing of their crops this season at fair prices.
Demonstration Apiaries.
The Provincial demonstration apiaries in the Fraser Valley have again proved successful
by securing a honey-crop of 151 lb. per hive, this being more than three times the average
per hive for the Province. It is to be regretted that very little time could be devoted to these
apiaries this season by your assistant owing to the increased number of special calls for inspection and the extra work of cleaning up diseased areas by a system of district inspection
mentioned later. A demonstration apiary has been established in the Lulu Island District on
request of the bee-keepers in this locality, at which demonstrations have been given in transferring bees and preparing them for winter, and which were well attended.
Bee-diseases.
A serious outbreak of American foul-brood was reported early in the spring in the Boundary
Bay District of the Delta Municipality. Investigation by your assistant, in which he was
assisted by bee-keepers in the district, resulted in the discovery of a considerable number of
diseased brood-combs scattered amongst the driftwood at tide-water, which had evidently been
thrown out by some careless bee-keeper. The action of the tides had spread the diseased
combs along a considerable distance of the beach and all apiaries within radius of bee-flight
were found to have been infected. Prompt measures were at once taken to clean up the diseased
area. Two additional Inspectors appointed by the Department of Agriculture, Alex. Keir and
F. E. White, assisted in the work, and afterwards a complete inspection of every known
colony of bees in the Delta District was made. So successful was this system of district
inspection that your assistant thinks it would be advisable to carry it through in other districts
from time to time as far as possible. Lulu Island was the next district to be dealt with in
the same manner, every known colony of bees being inspected and, where disease was found,
treatment and instruction given. Special calls from other parts of the Lower Mainland limited
the amount of inspection by districts to the two areas mentioned. Your assistant visited 384
apiaries and inspected 3,136 colonies of bees; 325 colonies were found affected with American
foul-brood and 267 with European. A greater number of cases of American foul-brood were
treated this season than in any of the past few years. This was partly due to the wholesale
infection caused by the gross negligence of one bee-keeper in a certain district, and partly by
the sweeping district inspection, with the assistance of the additional Inspectors, of areas known 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 75
to be the most infected, and does not in any way indicate that disease generally is increasing.
Twenty-four samples of diseased brood-combs were microscopically examined, fourteen of which
were received through the mail. Six of the latter were found to be affected with American
foul-brood, six European foul-brood, and two free from disease. The installation of a Spencer
microscope and equipment at the New Westminster office this season obviates the necessity of
sending away samples of comb for examination for disease as formerly, thus saving much
valuable time.
Exhibition-work.
The New Westminster Exhibition was attended daily and many bee-keepers were met there
and given information. Models of apiary equipment and working appliances were shown and
demonstrated at the Provincial Government honey display staged in the Industrial Building.
The honey display staged in the Horticultural Building under the management of the British
Columbia Honey-producers' Association exceeded even the splendid exhibits of former years and
was upndoubtedly the premier attraction of the building. Competitive entries almost doubled
those of last year and it is hoped that a large space will be provided for next year's expected
requirements. Practically all of the 5% tons of honey exhibited was sold before the close of the
exhibition and orders taken for other large quantities from wholesale buyers.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
A. W. Finlay.
REPORT OF APIARY INSPECTOR, OKANAGAN,  SHUSWAP, AND THOMPSON VALLEY
DISTRICTS.
J. F. Roberts.
W. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Nelson, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report herewith for the season of 1924
General Conditions.
The past season has been an unusual one owing to the differences in the yields of honey
in similar districts, which was most noticeable in the Okanagan Valley. The southern portion
from Oliver to Summerland, and notably Penticton, has yielded large crops, the average per
colony being about 75 lb., while to the north, as far as Armstrong, the crop has been poor,
although a slight improvement on last year. It is hard to explain the reason for this difference
as the climatic conditions have been the same right through, very hot and dry, with scarcely
any rain at all.
The Shuswap Valley bee-keepers have had an excellent honey-crop, more especially in the
Salmon Arm District, where the honey-flow this year seemed to last a good deal longer than
usual. It is, however, a noticeable fact that the biggest crops in this district have been obtained
by the skilled bee-keepers who had their colonies in the right condition at the commencement
of the honey-flow.
The Thompson Valley District has also had a good honey-crop this season. It is very
unusual not to obtain a good honey-crop in this district and it is to be regretted that there
are not more bees kept to gather the nectar. Although the best locations are perhaps a trifle
isolated, there is room for hundreds of colonies where at present there is not a bee for miles.
Bee-disbases.
American foul-brood has unfortunately been found in a good many places and has been
promptly dealt with. There is likely to be a recurrence of this disease in the spring owing
to the deadly habit of loaning and borrowing honey-extractors, there being no more certain
medium for spreading disease than this. In one particular instance this year an extractor was
borrowed and the honey from an apiary rotten with disease extracted with it. It was then
returned to the owner as it was. He in turn allowed his bees to clean it out, with the result
that can better be imagined than described.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
J. F. Roberts. K 76 Department of Agriculture. 1925
REPORT   OF   SECRETARY  OF  WOMEN'S   INSTITUTES,  VICTORIA.
Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan.
Dr. D. Wamock, O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report of the Women's Institutes
of British Columbia for the year ended December 31st, 1924.
General.
The year 1924 has been somewhat unusual in several respects. First, the idea of a central
institute, which was discussed by the first Advisory Board in 1911, actually materialized in
April of this year. Second, the Women's Institute exhibit at the Canadian National Exhibition
in Toronto, at which many of the Provinces were represented, and through the kindness of Sir
Henry Thornton in granting free transportation for the Women's Institute exhibits. Third,
and perhaps the most important of all, the wonderful progress we have made in our treatment
for the crippled children of British Columbia. These will all be dealt with under the representative committee heads.
The idea of Women's Institute schools, known as lessons in civics and citizenship, were
carried on in three points last year—Lake Hill, South Saanich, and Langford. This branch of
work marks an era in the Women's Institute organization.
Six new institutes were formed in British Columbia last year; they are Patricia and
Squamish, in the Lower Mainland, on January 23rd and June 6th respectively; Luxton and
Happy Valley, Cedar, and Shirley on January 25th, February 12th, and September 4th; and
Wistaria, in Central British Columbia.
The ten committees are functioning not only successfully, but are beginning to make their
power felt. The work under each is extending, and particularly in the Immigration Committee
it is being realized the use that our institutes can be in settling and Canadianizing desirable
citizens.
Provincial Convention.
The first annual convention of Women's Institutes of British Columbia was held in Vancouver, April 21st, 22nd, and 23rd, with representation from the vast majority of institutes
throughout the Province. There were no reports from the individual institute, programme
being composed largely of the reports of our ten committees and with discussion and information on the functions and relations of each to the various Government departments and other
organizations.
Among the different visitors were Miss Beardmore, National Convener of the Standing
Committee on Agriculture of the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada, and Miss Yates,
the only woman President which the Ontario Horticultural Society, with a membership of
50,000, has had.
The Mayor and City Council entertained the delegates at luncheon in the Pavilion at
Stanley Park. The British Columbia Products Bureau were hosts at a luncheon at the Hotel
Vancouver. The Hon. E. D. Barrow and Mr. Justice M. A. Macdonald were speakers. A joint
banquet and conference with parent-teachers was one of the features. At the final session
a resolution providing for Provincial federation was passed.
District Conference.
There were three district conferences held during the year; the Okanagan District considered it was unnecessary to hold a conference. The Lower Mainland, Kootenay, and Vancouver Island, however, held district conferences and the institutes financed the expenses of
the delegates.
Home Economics.
I still have to report that in the Committee of Home Economics we are not making the
progress of the other committees. The classes in cookery, however, and canning are gaining
in popularity and a number of institutes have held classes in dressmaking and millinery very
successfully. I am very pleased to report the book, " Science of Eating," by Alfred McCann,
offered as a prize to the various flower-shows, is proving very popular.    I have heard many 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 77
members reporting interest in and information received from the same. Another book, the
" American Home Diet," compiled by Dr. E. V. McCbllurn, would be of equal interest.
I have to report a class in canning, which was carried on in Coghlan by Mrs. J. D. Gordon,
and advice from the institute indicates that it was very successful, the members not only of
the class but of the neighbourhood even calling after hours for information and instruction.
The night-school classes are capable of great extension and development if they can be
properly organized. Our women are taking a great interest in the different subjects which
can be taught under these classes, yet are not fully aware of the conditions under which they
can be organized. The relation of the Education Department to the Board of School Trustees
needs to be emphasized; the fact that the Board of School Trustees is the only body to which
the Department of Education can legally pay money is not sufficiently understood. AH classes
must be held under the auspices of the School Board and all instructors must be engaged by
the School Board, the Department of Education paying four-fifths of the salary of the instructor, the class or the institute making up the remaining one-fifth, together with any
expenses of heating, light, or transportation of the instructor.
We have great need of help in the farm homes for the mother of children, and more
especially for the expectant mother, but unfortunately there are few, if any, reporting financial
ability to hire such. Here is a great opening for organization-work such as is carried on in
Saskatchewan, known as the nursing housekeepers. We can do no better than follow the plan
of Saskatchewan, although this in one sense comes under the heading of public health and
child-welfare.
There have been some inquiries received regarding charts and exhibits of food and demonstration tables for the fall fairs. It would seem as though a good movement had been started
in this direction.
I again urge the reading and discussion, under home economics, of the report on domestic
science found in the Fifty-third Annual Report of the Public Schools of British Columbia for
the year ended June 30th, 1924, pages 74, 75, inclusive; particularly the concluding paragraphs
would make material for discussion and resolution.
" The time seems to be opportune for making the study of home economics compulsory
in cities of the first and second class. The subject would then be placed upon an equality with
others which have no greater claim to importance.
" There is much important work to be done in the Province in regard to fostering and
stimulating interest in the teaching of home economics and child-welfare. A special Provincial
supervisor would find a great duty awaiting her to broadcast the correct interpretation of
the educational aims which stand behind the subject of home economics."
Public Health and Child-welfare.
The progress of this committee is again the most marked of any committee reporting. The
compulsory medical examination of all school-children, which became active in 1911, is being
carried on throughout British Columbia. The medical inspection in seventeen rural districts
is assisted by a school nurse whose duty it is to follow up the reports of any defects and
confer with the parents on methods of treating these defective children.
The medical inspection is a waste of money unless the parents realize the importance
and act upon the doctor's and nurse's suggestions. The medical inspection of the rural schools
cost the ratepayers of the Province of British Columbia $12,687.25 during the year ended June
30th, 1924. In the unorganized districts and the municipalities, not including the cities, 39,362
pupils were examined :—
1,743 country  school-children were found to be suffering from  malnutrition.
351 to be mentally deficient.
2,331 to have defective vision.
318 to have defective hearing.
1,738 to have defective nasal breathing.
3,677 to have goitre.
10,093 to have decayed teeth.
2,495 to have adenoids.
7,569 to have enlarged tonsils.
2,424 to have enlarged glands. K 78 Department of Agriculture. 1925
The Provincial Department of Health will assist financially in any district where a Public
Health Nurse is required. To show what this means to physically defective children I will
quote from the schools report in Vernon, where the Women's Institute was responsible for establishing and maintaining such a nurse:—
52 children had defective eyesight.
45 children had enlarged tonsils.
160 children had defective teeth.
25 children had defective eyesight corrected by glasses.
18 children had enlarged tonsils corrected by treatment.
150 children had teeth corrected.
Agassiz Women's Institute reports a dental clinic; the institutes in the Cowichan Electoral
District are supporting a dental clinic in that locality ; Sayward Women's Institute on Vancouver Island and Fruitvale Women's Institute in the Kootenay have organized dental clinics.
In all these districts the Provincial Department of Health has rendered assistance and advice,
and I am pleased to be able to report that other districts are -making the preliminary surveys
and lining up for this work.
I again urge the reading of the report of the Provincial Medical Officer of Health as an
address for a programme on public health and child-welfare. We have compiled material on
the health of the Province which may be used as roll-call and a question-box on different branches
of the health-work carried on through the Department of Health. All these may be had upon
request. Some institutes have been supplied with this and report an interest in and support
of the general movement toward the improved health of the individual citizen.
The outstanding accomplishment of the institutes in child-welfare work in 1924 is the
progress of our Crippled Children's Fund. The moneys received from the institutes for the
year 1924 are $2,002, and assisted with a gift of $432.59 from their gracious Majesties, also
Her Excellency Lady Byng and Mrs. Nichol. Accompanying the gift from their Majesties
was the suggestion that a nucleus of a fund for an orthopaedic hospital be set aside for this
purpose. I am pleased to be able to report that this fund is steadily growing as the information is being disseminated. We have treated in all forty-one cases; the great majority of
these have been greatly improved. Some children from being helpless cripples have been
restored to normal health aud will look forward to a future of activity and self-support. As
the interest has increased there has been a corresponding increase in the membership until
at the end of 1924 application is being made for incorporation, giving due credit to the Women's
Institutes, who had the honour of initiating this movement, and which will result in worldwide fame for the institutes of British Columbia.
Literature on health subjects was sent to various country fairs in the Province for distribution, meeting with marked success, the demand far exceeding the supply.
Education and Better Schools.
I have to report in this committee an ever-increasing interest. Twenty-five institutes have
held exhibitions of school-children's work jointly either with the fairs or flower-shows. Vernon
again featured the bird-house exhibit, while Salmon Arm and Vernon each held a May-day
celebration, making it thoroughly a children's day.
Attention has been called to the discrepancy between the appearance of school buildings
which are erected by the Department of Education and the appearance of school-grounds for
which the district authorities are responsible. We are gradually arousing an interest in and
a responsibility for the school-grounds, while scarcely a day goes by that I do not receive a
report from some institute reporting on the sanitary conditions of their local school or efforts
toward improving the grounds.
To secure the full benefit of the night-school provisions there must be confidence and cooperation between the School Boards and the institutes, because, as stated before, the School
Board is the body with which the Department of Education deals. I regret to have to report
that there has been no effort reported to establish household science and manual training in
any of the institute localities. Frequently members of institutes will express a strong desire
for the inclusion of these subjects in the school curriculum and yet no effort to stimulate
organized action or impress public opinion has been made.    We have permissive legislation on 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 79
our statute-books providing for the teaching of these subjects when the majority of ratepayers
desire it.
Hot lunch or milk for country school-children is being provided in a great number of the
country schools. I again emphasize the benefit of reading the annual report of the Department
of Education, especially for a programme on education and better schools. The Superintendent's
report, the Inspector's report on the local district, the report on the technical education, that
of the Director of Elementary Agricultural Education, are all articles of absorbing interest
if we could but rivet the attention of our members to these subjects.
I can do no better than to repeat my recommendations from last year's report, that the
members of the institutes meet and confer with the Provincial Inspector when he visits the
local school; that the members communicate with J. W. Gibson, Department of Education,
for advice on improving and beautifying school-grounds; that they communicate with Mr.
Kyle, Department of Education, for advice on choosing and arranging pictures for the schoolrooms and for books for the school library. H. Killam, Travelling Library, Parliament Buildings, will be pleased to give advice on the selection of books for a community library.
Legislation.
The interest in the Committee on Legislation has increased surprisingly. This branch is
constantly receiving requests for information on the different Acts relating to women and
children.
Unfortunately there is still a great lack of knowledge on existing conditions, as evidenced by
the wording of resolutions coming before the conferences. For instance, a resolution submitted
by Cranbrook Women's Institute to the Kootenay Conference was entirely erroneous in its
premises, yet these premises were accepted and the resolution endorsed by both the Kootenay
and the Lower Mainland Conferences without apparently one question being put as to the
accuracy of these premises. I would again urge all institutes to post motions for a month
before endorsing them; discuss every premise clause by clause; ascertain the authority of the
statements. It is very humiliating to present these resolutions to the Government departments
knowing that such lack of knowledge will seriously affect the attitude of these departments
towards our institutes.
An outstanding report of a district convener's on legislation for the Lower Mainland was
presented to the conference by Mrs. Cooper, South Vancouver, and the recommendations made
by the local institutes as submitted by this convener are so excellent that they are herewith
submitted as a good example of a practical working policy as evolved by the institutes.
"(1.)  That we encourage more women to offer themselves as school trustees.
"(2.) That whenever possible the Women's Institutes call meetings to hear and question
those persons, both men and women, who aspire to hold municipal office and endorse and support
only those who will work for good morals and health of their community.
"(3.) That we strengthen our representations to Ottawa re Oriental exclusion.
"(4.) That we ask for strict medical inspection of all persons handling foodstuffs in restaurants, boarding-houses, hotels, and other public places.
"(5.) That all Women's Institute members ask for copies of 'Notes of Procedure' from
their district M.L.A. It will keep us more in touch with the laws that are being enacted in
British Columbia.
"(6.) That members secure copies of municipal code in rural communities from their local
Council and study the laws under which they live.
"(7.) Make a particular study of the laws of British Columbia as they apply to women
and children, marriage and property laws, and the franchise.
"(8.) That papers on our Provincial Government be prepared, read, and discussed at
meetings.
"(9.) How the Women's Institutes may help in securing better legislation and needed
reform in our law.
"(10.) That when institutes send resolutions that affect legislation it is suggested they
send sufficient information to allow other institutes to vote intelligently.
"And last but not least: The committee suggests that in future all reports be in the hands
of conveners at least two weeks before a report is called for." K 80 Department of Agriculture. 1925
Immigration and Settlement.
We started out in this committee at the end of the year with questionnaire to the institutes
for information on the possibilities of each district. We inquired as to the prospect of employment for British labour. In carrying on this work our Provincial convener, Mrs. J. H. Porter,
was very careful to first submit her plan to Miss A. C. Franklin, Secretary of the Society for
the Overseas Settlement of British Women, and during the entire year Mrs. Porter has been in
constant communication with this society.
The questionnaire and accompanying letter was also submitted to the Premier for his
information and approval. I am pleased to be able to report that he expressed the opinion,
-" With time and patience you will have some very valuable data," and it is surely reasonable
to suppose that the institutes will play no small part in helping to settle the communities with
British citizens.
Attention is again called to the report of our penitentiary and the mental hospital as
regards the proportion of foreign-born.
Publicity and National Events.
The work in this committee is becoming very much more interesting as it develops;
probably the outstanding item for the year was the exhibit of the Women's Institutes of British
Columbia sent by the Department, through the courtesy of Sir Henry Thornton, to the Canadian
National Exhibition. The Department, with the assistance of the British Columbia Products
Bureau, was very fortunate in being able to send Mrs. W. D. Todd in charge of the exhibit.
This exhibit consisted of features peculiar to British Columbia—British Columbia evergreens,
a model of the Saanich War Memorial Health Centre, pottery from Summerland, preserved
loganberries, home-canned salmon, and an exhibit of British Columbia wool in all its stages
up to knitted lace and sturdy tweeds.
While in Toronto Mrs. Todd collected material for an all-Canadian programme for an
evening entertainment. This she attempted to put on at various points in the Province on her
return trip; unfortunately her health broke down at Procter and the concert tour had to be
dropped.
Industries.
In this committee I have to report the completion of Mrs. Todd's tour. At the end of
1923 eighty institutes had received a visit from Mrs. W. D. Todd in the interests of the British
Columbia products campaign. By June, 1924, Mrs. Todd had completed the list of institutes
in the Province. Following this and carrying out her suggestion, a plan to " save the labels "
was started in the Kootenay District; the children particularly in Kaslo School showed great
enthusiasm and interest and some good photographs of the collection were made. I understand
a general campaign will be put on throughout the Province during the year 1925.
There is still much to be done to consolidate the buy-at-home campaign, and again I urge
the institutes in affiliation with and through the Local Council of Women to keep up the
campaign for the support of the city housewives in the purchase of British Columbia products
of the fields. There is not nearly enough attention nor effort made to unite the women of the
country and the women of the city in the common cause of home markets. This is a great
patriotic duty: " We desire trade to flourish, not for the enrichment of the manufacturers and
business-men, but because a flourishing trade is necessary for the revenue of the State and the
personal welfare of the population, and we seek revenue for the State and the personal welfare
of the population because these things are necessary to the evolution of man's moral and
spiritual nature."
Agriculture.
The activities of the Women's Institutes at the Potato Fair has been the outstanding
feature of this committee-work. Point Grey took the first prize in the competition of potato-
dishes at this fair held in Vancouver in November. Vancouver Island District won the cup
which Mrs. Murray, of Country Life, gave for yearly competition among the district institutes
for exhibits of potatoes. South Saanich won the special prize of $15 as well as a prize offered
by its own district. Lazo Institute came second and Cedar third. Mrs. Saltmarsh, of Metchosin,
won first prize of $5 for the best 5 lb. of potatoes grown by a member of an institute. Mrs.
W. D. Mitchel, of South Saanich, was second, securing the prize of $3. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 81
Efforts have been made by the Provincial convener, Mrs. Mabel L. Tomer, to work up an
interest in the Curb Market in Vancouver. Over 500 pamphlets advertising the advantages and
the possibilities of the Vancouver Curb Market were personally distributed.
In several instances markets have been found for the farmers who had produce to sell.
Managers of canning-factories have been appealed to in disposing of products. Undoubtedly
the great problem confronting the agricultural industry to-day is that of marketing.
The institutes are exhibiting either at their own local flower-shows or jointly with the
fall fairs.    There has been a substantial increase in the number of these events.
Community Betterment.
The principal work of the institutes is in this committee. The great bulk of the money
raised by the institutes is spent for community betterment. Halls, parks, roadsides, cemeteries,
and other community projects of immediate and vital interest to the neighbourhood all receive
the support of the Women's Institutes. I have neither time nor space to report all the activities.
Some of the outstanding activities are the caterpillar contests and the queen-wasp contests
organized among the school-children.
The institutes reporting successful efforts in these lines are Boswell-Sauca, Hazelmere,
and Royal Oak, and others I know are waging war on these agricultural pests.
Women's Institute Work and Method.
We start the year with 109 institutes; 105 institutes received from various sources, including the balance on hand at the end of the year 1923 of $7,104.31, the sum of $50,717.25.
They spent $43,000.65, leaving a balance on hand of $8,708.60. Twelve institutes raised over
$1,000, as follows: Kelowna, $2,140.95; Salmon Arm, $1,814.27; Nelson and District, $1,476.15;
West Saanich, $1,446.11; Victoria, $1,399.18; North Saanich, $1,327.44; Esquimalt, $1,269.22;
Vernon, $1,257.37; Langley Fort, $1,205.44; Strawberry Vale, $1,157.49; Cedar, $1,115.10;
Cobble Hill, $1,056.38.
The total receipts include the grant made by the Department to each individual institute,
which amounted to $2,193.75;   flower-show* grant, $546;   total, $2,739.75.
In addition to this, the Department paid towards the expenses of one delegate from each
institute to the Provincial Conference in Vancouver according to the following rule: transportation, sleeper-berth, and $3 per diem allowance, amounting to $3,396.85.
The institutes contributed $2,002.36 to the Crippled Children's Fund; $157 to the Federated
Women's Institutes.
Legislation providing for the Provincial organization was passed at the 1924 session of
House.
Duties of Directors  of Individual District and  Provincial Institutes.
The Board of Directors of the individual institute is elected by the membership to aid them
in carrying on the work decided on by the institute. It is the duty of the said Board to carry
it out by the methods decided upon by the institute according to the recognized rules for orderly
procedure.
A District Board of Directors may be elected by the representatives of the institutes of
the district to co-ordinate the work and carry out the will of the majority of institutes in that
district according to recognized rules. It is the duty and privilege of said Board to recommend
lines of work to institutes and conveners for their consideration, guided in this by the reports
of the preceding year and the policy of the Department.
The Provincial Board of Directors shall be elected by representatives of the institutes
of the Province to co-ordinate the work and aims of the institutes of the Province and to carry
out the will of the majority of institutes in the Province in all work which they may decide
to undertake provincially.
The Provincial Board is the body to deal with other Provincial bodies and with the
Federation of Women's Institutes of Canada. It is the duty and privilege of this Board to
recommend lines of work to the District Boards, to the Provincial conveners, and to the institutes, guided in this by reports of the preceding year and by the policy of the Department.
Conveners.
It is the duty of the local convener of any committee to inform herself on the scope and
relation of this committee, its bearing on community, Provincial,  and national welfare.    To
6 K 82 Department op Agriculture. 1925
report any items of interest to the regular meetings and to fill in questionnaire and forward
same to district convener.
It is the duty of the district convener to summarize the information forwarded by the
local conveners and submit this to the district conference and to the Provincial convener. It
is largely these reports which are the guides to the District Board in making recommendations
to the institute.
It is the duty of the Provincial convener to summarize the information forwarded by the
district conveners and submit this to the Provincial conference. It is largely these reports
which are consulted when the Provincial Board informs and advises the Minister on all matters
within the scope of Women's Institutes under the " Agricultural Act."
I had the very great privilege of laying my annual report of the year's work before the
Select Standing Committee of Agriculture, which in submitting its report to the Legislature
was pleased to speak of our organization in the following terms:—
" The Secretary of Women's Institutes appeared before the Committee and submitted a
full report dealing with the activities of that organization during the year.
" It was shown that this organization had been very active and had accomplished a large
amount of very valuable executive work, particularly along the lines of home economics, public
health, child-welfare, community betterment, education, and school environment.
" Your Committee desires to express its unqualified approval of the activities of the Women's
Institutes, and notes with particular satisfaction the ability and success of this organization
in so satisfactorily meeting its financial requirements."
All of which is respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.)    V.  S.  MacLachlan. 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 83
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX No. 1.
Correspondence received and dispatched by the Department of Agriculture  (at Victoria)
for the Years ended December 31st, 1923 and 1924.
Received.
Dispatched.
1924.
1923.
1924.
1923.
Office of the Deputy Minister—
General and Secretary's office ....
1
1
4.887        1           5.973
3,388
736
560
559
1,569
2,052
2,087
3,433
1,331
1,886
3,033
1,221
3,157
Farmers' Institutes 	
2,533
912
3,180
005
495
892
Women's Institutes 	
505
Agricultural Associations 	
543
Secretary, Women's Institutes ..:	
1,924
1,520
1,178
Dairy  Branch  	
1,725
2,114
3,707
1,421
2,259
4 213
1 541
Horticultural Branch 	
1,816
3,979
1,672
2,407
2 170
Live Stock Branch—
General 	
Brands	
1,292
1,629
1,929
2,107
1 515
Poultry Branch 	
Soil and Crop Branch 	
1,923
1,721
1,986
Statistics  Branch           	
1,097
Totals  	
25,214
27 111
21,855
20,957
APPENDIX No. 2.
Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1924.
Date.
Name.
Occasion.
April
11
20
26
10
23
6
13
16
16
27
27
27
29
5
9
10
10
13
■zi
26
5
Vancouver Island, etc.
Metchosin 	
July
»
Luxton and Happy Valley..
Shawnigan Lake 	
Esquimalt 	
West  Saanich 	
North Saanich 	
Whaletown 	
Lake Hill 	
Langford 	
Sept.
South Saanich 	
Valdes Island 	
»
Cobble Hill 	
Royal Oak	
Cedar 	
"
Denman Island 	
Gordon Head 	
Nov.
Granby     	
Flower-show and sale of home cooking.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show.
Flower-show.
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work and sale  of  work.
Flower-show;   exhibition of women's work.
" Better babies " clinic.
Exhibition of women's work and flower display.
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work and sale of work,
exhibition of  women's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's work,
exhibition of women's work.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's wor'.r.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's wort.
exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show
Flower-show
Flower-show
Flower-show
Flower-show
Flower-show
Fall fair.
Flower-show
" Better babies " clinic.
Exhibit at fall fair.
Exhibit at fall fair.
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work and sale of work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work
Exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show at fall fair.
Wool bee.
Exhibition of women's work.
Bazaar ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work. K 84
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 2—Continued.
Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1924—Continued.
Date.
Name.
Occasion.
16
7
11
26
27
3
11
27
29
6
13
14
20
20
23
17
17
-18
1
12
29
5
3
24
24
26
31
12
28
12
-18
Lower Mainland.
Bulb-show.
Flower-show.
»
Matsqui 	
'• Better babies " clinic.
July
Burquitlam 	
Agassiz 	
Surrey 	
Exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show.
Strawberry Hill 	
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work and sale of work.
Flower-show.
Flower-show;   manual-training  exhibit.
Exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Port Kells 	
Flower-show.
Sept,
Coghlan and District	
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show;   exhibition of women's work.
Exhibition of women's work.
„   17
Central Park 	
Exhibition of women's work.
Sweet-pea show.
" Better babies " clinic.
Oct.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of  school-children's Work.
Exhibit at Potato Fair.
Okanagan and North
Thompson.
Bird-house competition.
" Better babies " clinic.
July
Rutland 	
" Better babies " clinic and health exhibit.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
»
Lumbv	
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Aug.
Okanagan Centre 	
Valley 	
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
" Better babies " clinic.
Aug.
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work.
Sept.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
„   16
Armstrong 	
Cawston	
18
0-
.   2
31
21
10
27
25
7
15
20
21
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work.
" Better babies " clinic.
Oliver 	
" Better babies " clinic ;   health exhibit.
Sept.  ;
Oct
Health exhibit at fall fair.
Oct.
Flower-show ;   exhibition of school-children's work.
Nov.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Dec.
Kalamalka 	
Kootenay.
Exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show.
July
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work,  school-children's work,
and cherry-show.
Flower-show ; exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ;   exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work. 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 85
APPENDIX No. 2—Continued.
Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1924—Continued.
Date.
Name.
Occasion.
Sept.
1
3
6
10
11
13
-18
-IS
-18
Kootenay—Continued.
Cranbrook 	
Flower-show ;
Flower-show;
Flower-show ;
Flower-show.
exhibition of women's work and school-children's
exhibition of women's work and sale of work
exhibition of women's work and school-children's
exhibition of women's work and school-children's
exhibition of women's work and school-children's
women's work at Nelson Fair,
women's work at Nelson Fair,
women's work at Nelson Fair.
work.
Flower-show ;
Exhibition of
Exhibition of
Exhibition of
„   16
Bonnington and South
■■   16-
„   16-
Nelson 	
APPENDIX No. 3.
Score-card for Judges at British Columbia Fairs, 1924.
The judges will please fill up this score-card immediately after each fair and return same,
without delay, to the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture at Victoria, duly signed and
dated.
Fair held at  Date	
As regards number of entries and quality of fruits and vegetables 	
As regards number of entries and quality of grains, field crops, potatoes,
etc	
As regards number and quality of horses, cattle, sheep, and swine 	
As regards number and quality of poultry exhibits 	
As regards number and quality of dairy products, honey, etc. .._-.	
Domestic science and ladies! work 	
Support of fair by local exhibitors 	
Grounds  and  equipment ___	
Interest of public in exhibits and judging	
Management of fair 	
Total
REMARKS :   Give report in detail respecting the following:—
Weather    '.	
Attendance  (estimate of number present)  	
Did harvesting interfere with fair? 	
Was there keen competition generally? 	
Were side-show's or non-agricultural exhibits a prominent feature?
Which breed of horses, cattle, sheep, and swine predominate? 	
Maximum.
10
10
10
10
5
10
10
10
10
15
100
Points
recommended
by Judge.
What improvements would you recommend?
What line did you judge? 	
Signature 	
Note.—Further remarks may be written overleaf. K 86
Department op Agriculture.
1925
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<i J H W fa M Ah ZOOHoKX?Ht,Z od Ph t» fa Eh W S a fa K 88                                      Department op Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 5.
Agricultural Faibs, 1924—Grants in Aid of Prize-lists.
Circuit I.—                          Place where Pair held.                                                             Grant paid.
Victoria                                                        $2,090 00
Fulford Harhour          20 00
Lasqueti  Island          20 00
Sayward                                  56 OO
Cobble Hill  -                          16 00
Ganges Harbour          45 00
Ladysmith    '        136 00
Alberni                   .                                                                      47 00
Coombs    _         1S6 00
Colwood ,  100 00
Duncan  234 00
Courtenay      139 00
Denman   Island  40 00
Saanichton    301 00
Circuit II.—
Ladner  153 00
Vancouver    5,010 00
Burquitlam  100 00
Gibson's Landing  20 00
South   Vancouver  92 00
Agassiz    !  112 00
Chilliwack  74S 00
North Vancouver   57 00
Brighouse  113 00
Whonnock  37 00
New Westminster   11,886 00
West Vancouver    28 00
Aldergrove   '.  49 00
Mission  155 00
Central Park   20 00
Haney  105 00
Giftord     119 00
Milner     162 0C
Surrey    154 00
Fern Ridge   20 00
Pemberton Meadows   20 00
Circuit III.—
Knutsford  299 00
Lumby    67 00
Falkland   20 00
Armstrong    .,  649 00
Birch  Island   20 00
Kelowna     125 CO
Circuit IV—
Windermere    295 OO
Natal    32 00
Cranbrook     213 00
Crawford Bay  20 00
Boswell  20 00
Fruitvale           24 00
Nelson  167 00 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 89
APPENDIX No. 5—Continued.
Agricultural Fairs, 1924—Grants in Aid of Prize-lists—Continued.
Circuit IV.—Continued.        Place where Fair held. Grant paid.
Trail     $       70 00
Nakusp    - 61 00
Kaslo    20 00
Creston     60 00
Circuit V.—
Smithers    240 00
Prince George   213 00
McBride     20 00
Nechako  100 00
Prince Rupert   206 00
Houston    20 00
Terrace  27 00
Forest Grove   20 00
Total   $25,598 00
APPENDIX No. 6.
Pruning-schools, 1924.
District.
Instructor.
Dates.
No. of
Pupils.
10
12
8
11
12
10
Islands.
1. Happy Valley
2. Ladysmith 	
3. Alberni 	
4. Ladysmith 	
5. Nanaimo	
6. Whaletown   ...
7. Sayward  	
Lower Mainland.
1. Richmond -
2. Burnaby 	
3. Burquitlam
4. Sardis 	
Kootenays.
1. Gray Creek .
2. Boswell 	
Okanagan.
Lytton
E. W. White
G. E. W. Clarke
E. C. Hunt ..
C. B. Twigg
C. R. Barlow
Jan.  29 to 31 	
Feb. 5 to 7	
Feh. 20 to 22 	
Feb. 26 to 28 	
Mar. 4 to 6 	
Mar. 25 to 27 	
Mar. 29 to April 1..
Jan. 28 to Feb. 2
Feb. 4 to 6 	
Feb. 12 to 14 	
Feb. 20 to 22 	
Dec. 4 to 6  (1923)
Feh. 20 to 22 	
Jan.  29 to Feb. 1;  Mar.  15 to
Mar. 17 	
10
9
Total number of schools, 14 ;   total number of pupils, 129. K 90
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 7.
Pruning Demonstrations. 1924.
District.
Instructor.
Dates.
No. of
Pupils.
Islands.
E. W. White 	
9
Feb.   18	
12
1.    Sidney 	
18	
20
2.    Langford 	
18            	
6
23	
10
29	
7
Lower Mainland.
G. E. W. Clarke
Feh.     7	
22
2.    loco 	
16	
17
18	
3C
Mar     3    ....
12
Okanagan.
R. P. Murray 	
Mar,  3-4  	
9
2.    Oliver 	
„     5-6	
19
Total  number  of demonstrations,   12 ;    total  number  of pupils,  173.
APPENDIX No. 8.
British Columbia Berry Acreage, 1920, 1922, and 1924.
1920.
1922.
1924.
Growers.
Acres.
Growers.
Acres.
Growers.
Acres.
White 	
989
234
2,350%
970%
2,051
355
4,641%
1,560%
2,162                4,844%
366        1       1,465%
Totals 	
1,203
3,330
2,386
_J
6,202
2,528                6,310
1 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 91
APPENDIX No. 9.
British Columbia Berry Acreage, 1924.
o
O
1271
357
86
175
639
2528
Raspberries.
Blackberries.
Logans.
Strawberries.
District.
1924.
1923.
Pre.
1924.
1923.
Pre.
1924.
1923.
Pre.
192L
1923.
Pre.
Fraser Valley	
Kootenay-Boundary..
Salmon Arm	
Vancouver Island ...
30J
131
2f
n
6 2/6
60
255J
18$
17i
32i
411/10
364}
1,561|
109J
571
125
1081
1,96LJ
2f
1/12
1
"ii
5J
12|
'si
2 4/5
19
177 7/12
Si
18f
H
21 5/1J
227|
24J
h
32
113|
"h
37 3/5
156}
339
19/10
25
209f
575J
306 1/12
100 1/10
'ei
121 §
4241
126 1/10
8 11/12
26J
197 3/5
783J
642|
159|
271/24
36i
247}
Totals	
534 1/12
1,0131
2,3861
251J
764i
2,331
OJ
o
0
1271
357
86
175
639
2528
Red Curr
ANTS.
Black Cl-rrants.
Gooseberries.
Rhubarb.
District.
1924.
1923.
Pre.
1924.
1923.
Pre.
1924.
1923.
Pre.
1924.
1923.
Pre.
Kootenay-Boundary..
North Okanagan	
1J
3|
6/iJ
4
23J
24 1/10
1/10
¥
4
531
13}
i
i1
19/10
29 11/12
i
H
u
44
69|
58 7/12
15J-
4|
31f
If
"1
11/20
6r}
"i
1 1/16
8i
33
30}
4}
3i
14*
85 5/6
5
"i
12/5
6 3/5
17 5/6
'ii
21
21ft
93|
30
If
3
Vancouver Island....
251
Totals...  	
H
17
42 1/12
180 7/12
2i
154
68g
239J
96i
182J
Total acreage, 6,310 acres.
APPENDIX No. 10.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports oe Entry in
Beitish Columbia (including those condemned).
1924. 1923.
Apples   (boxes)     43,266 20,457
Apples  (V2 boxes)    17 300
Apples (barrels)              4
Crab-apples   (boxes)     3 7
Pears (boxes)  35,1.67 40,992
Pears  (% boxes)    2 76
Plums   (boxes)     14,033 14.575
Prunes (boxes)  .'  15,999 9,922
Peaches  (boxes)    115,402 116,459
Apricots   (boxes)     18,720 34,366
Cherries   (boxes)  11,129 10.2S4
Yakarnines  (boxes)    201 133
Quince (boxes)   10 21
Tangerines  (boxes)    50 93
California oranges (boxes)    207,024 192,298
Japanese oranges (boxes)   166,343 206,991
Japanese oranges (boxes)  (to points east of B.C.)  267,000 348,090
Marmalade oranges  (boxes)    4,S09 1,803
Chinese oranges  (boxes)  668 565
Lemons   (boxes)    33,287 31,854
Limes (boxes)   3 50
Grapefruit   (boxes)     24,016 21,250
Pomeloes   (boxes)     762 789
Pineapples   (boxes)     611 439
Tomatoes   (boxes)     20,748 20,987
Peppers  (boxes)    1.307 1,132 K 92 Department of Agricultltre. 1925
APPENDIX No. 10— Continued,
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry in
British Columbia—Continued.
1924. 1923.
Eggplants  (boxes)    457 85
Persimmons  (boxes)    400 384
Pomegranates   (boxes)     1,023 613
Potatoes   (tons)    !  3,55S 662
Sweet potatoes (tons)  .'  299 366
Yams   (tons)     53 59
Taro  (tons)    132 112
Rice   (tons)  17.4S8 18,799
Corn   (tons)    17,140 15,979
Popcorn  (tons)    12                    	
Peas  (tons)    601 665
Beans   (tons)     2,273 1,925
Peanuts  (tons)    3,619 2,874
Walnuts (tons)   1,129 772
Strawberries (crates)    16 153
Oats (lb.)   5,400                    ;..
Vetch  (tons)   „    4
Hops (tons)          • 5
APPENDIX No. 11.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at all Ports of Entry in
British Columbia.
Apples   (boxes)   	
Apples  (Y2 boxes)  	
Pears   (boxes)   	
Pears  (% boxes)  	
Plums   (boxes) ,	
Prunes   (boxes) ,	
Peaches   (boxes)   	
Cherries   (boxes)	
Quince  (boxes)   ,	
California oranges  (boxes) 	
Chinese oranges  (boxes)  	
Australian oranges  (boxes)	
Lemons  (boxes)  	
Grapefruit   (boxes)   	
Tomatoes   (lb.)    -	
Tomatoes  (boxes)	
Peppers (boxes)	
Pineapples   (boxes)	
Potatoes   (tons)    ,	
Potatoes  (lb.)    5,520
Sweet potatoes   (crates)       204
Sweet potatoes  (lb.)    3,200 	
Cabbage   (tons)       1
Asparagus (boxes)     60
Taro   (lb.)     2,000
1924.
1923.
1,019%
1,049
17
2,562%
2,656
61
%
497
1,322
321
isoy3
1,183%
39
130
	
10
28
80
360
•      %
69
179
185
5%
16
971/2
1
1
17 15 Geo. o British Columbia. K 93
APPENDIX No. 12.
Memorandum  of  Imported Nursery  Stock inspected at Vancouver   (including
those condemned).
Standard fruit-trees— 1924. 1923.
APPle    6,4S4 13,006
Crab-apple  Ig2 541
pear     2,562 4,537
Cherry  ,  6,663 9,880
P1um     1,469 4,743
Pl'™e   1,263 2,930
Peach   4.224 10,445
Yakamine    41       . 41
Quince  97 88
Nectarine     07 77
Apricot     3,087 9,522
Pig '.  6 7
Persimmon    2 18
Nut-trees—
Walnut     655 ■ 228
Hazelnut   154
Butternut  354 4
Pecan  12
Filbert ,, 245
Chestnut     18 4
Almond     13 10
Seedlings, grafts, and scions—
Fruit  seedlings   156,349 404,280
Ornamental  seedlings  36,556 6S.724
Grafts     3,300 3,201
Scions          17,279 32
Small-fruit bushes and plants—
Cranberry-vines  1.501 2
Grape-vines     2,817 1291
Currant-bushes     65 498
Blueberry-bushes     440 22
Gooseberry-bushes     39 175
Raspberry-canes     5,858 4,330
Loganberry-canes    1,205 665
Blackberry-canes    *  1,418 2,350
Strawberry-plants     61,033 122,528
Miscellaneous—
Ornamental  trees,  etc  43,620 58,006
Ornamental cuttings   16,950
Rose-bushes     75,162 65,649
Plants    (herbaceous)      28,1S8 28,224
Roots and bulbs*  •    2,705,317 2,202,051
Totals    3,1S4,110 3,018,324
Inspected at Victoria, 1924: Cuttings, 1,192;  roots, 1,593;  bulbs,  129,079;  rose-bushes,  8;
plants, 575.    1923: Bulbs, 243,606.
Roots, 48,470 ; bulbs, 2,656,847 ; total, 2,705,317. K 94 Department of Agriculture. 1925
APPENDIX No. 13.
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver.
Standard fruit-trees—                                                                           1924. 1923.
Apple  282 210
Crab-apple     9 4
Pear   278 83
Quince    1                    	
Cherry    ;.... 25 132
Plum     14 109
Prune     20 7
Peach   149 231
Apricot     77 257
Nut-trees—
Hazelnut   20                    	
Chestnut    2                    	
Seedlings, grafts, and scions—
Fruit seedlings   13,029 17,970
Grafts     2                    	
Scions                 28
Small-fruit bushes and plants—
Grape-vines     18 55
Currant-bushes     65 302
Gooseberry-bushes     39 175
Raspberry-canes     25 83
Blackberry-canes     20 48
Loganberry-canes    10                    	
Strawberry-plants                9
Miscellaneous—■
Ornamental  trees, etc  112 298
Ornamental cuttings   9                    	
Rose-bushes     86 114
Plants     72                    	
Bulbs   6,S43                    	
Roots and bulbs     96
Totals         21,207 20,211
APPENDIX No. 14.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, etc., inspected at Vancouver (including
those condemned).
1924. 1923.
Apples  (boxes)    33,316 13,309
Apples  (% boxes)  3 218
Apples   (barrels)                1
Crab-apples   (boxes)    1 7
Pears   (boxes)     30,261 36,783
Pears (Y2 boxes)                61
Plums   (boxes)     11,466 10,S66
Prunes   (boxes)     10,807 8,876
Peaches   (boxes)  96,271 90,129 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 95
APPENDIX No. Ii—Continued.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, etc., inspected at Vancouver—Continued,
1924. 1923.
Cherries   (boxes)     6,304 7,605
Apricots   (boxes)     12,121 27,800
Quince   (boxes)                5
Yakamines   (boxes)     191 123
Tangerines   (boxes)     50 83
California oranges   (boxes)     159,017 146,863
Japanese oranges   (boxes)     141,603 166,524
Japanese oranges  (boxes)   (to points east of B.C.).... 184,000 307,290
Marmalade oranges   (boxes)     4,759 1,803
Chinese oranges (boxes)    379 324
Lemons   (boxes)      25,800 24,598
Grapefruit    (boxes)      20,169 18,178
Pomeloes   (boxes)  508 472
Limes   (boxes)     3 50
Pineapples   (Boxes)     556 392
Persimmons  (boxes)    393 328
Pomegranates   (boxes)     856 551
Tomatoes  (boxes)     19,175 18,422
Peppers   (boxes)     802 619
Eggplants  (boxes)    432 38
Potatoes   (tons)     3,046 521
Sweet potatoes  (crates)  5,349 6,107
Yams   (crates)     736 749
Taro   (crates)     2,292 1.895
APPENDIX No. 15.
Memorandum  of Imported Fruit,  Vegetables, etc.,  condemned at  Vancouver.
Apples  (boxes)  	
Apples  (V2 boxes) 	
Pears  (boxes)  	
Pears (% boxes) 	
Plums   (boxes)   	
Prunes   (boxes)   	
Peaches  (boxes)  	
Cherries    (boxes)    	
Quince  (boxes)	
California oranges   (boxes)
Chinese oranges  (boxes)  	
Australian  oranges   (boxes)
Lemons   (boxes)   	
Grapefruit   (boxes)   	
Pineapples   (boxes)   	
Tomatoes   (boxes)   	
Peppers   (boxes)   	
Sweet potatoes (crates) 	
Taro  (crates)   	
Potatoes (tons) 	
1924.
1923.
490
967
17
2,425
2,572
61
490
1,322
120
189
844
38
115
5
28
so
8
360
69
176
180
1
80
1
31
204
20
3
17 K 96
Department op Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 16.
Memorandum op Imported Rice,  Beans, Peas,  Corn, etc., inspected at Vancouver.
70,000    50-lb. sacks rice
1,560    53-lb.
580    54-lb.
2,795   55-lb.
13S,17S ICO-lb.
2,443 110-lb.
892 112-lb.
5,189 192-lb.
9,417 2O0-lb.
2.000 224-lb.
86,414   44-lb. mats  	
149.470    50-lb.     „       	
1924.
Tons.
16,289
1923.
Tons.
17,384
3,598    50-lb. sacks beans ...
1C0    75-lb.
270    80-lb.
280   87-lb.
42,523 100-lb.
2 150-lb.
12 1604b.
1 200-lb.
2 250-lb.
5,916 100-lb. sacks peas 	
20 105-lb.
21 150-lb.
1,365 167 lb.
1,364 169-lb.
338 200-lb.
17 125-lb. sacks popcorn
35 140-lb.
105 150-11).
6,500 200-lb. sacks corn 	
26,136,862 lb.   bulk   corn  	
7.230,457 lb.  peanuts  	
2,254,117 lb.  walnuts  	
2 244
1,904
The following were
2,998    44-lb.
51    50-lb.
100   75-lb.
270    80-lb.
280   87-lb.
1,237 100-lb.
fumigated :—
mats rice ...
sacks beans
1,365 167-lb. sacks peas 	
1,364 169-lb. „ 	
280 200-lb. „ 	
81,177 lb.  peanuts  	
123,630 lb.  walnuts  	
16 tons almonds (19 tons in 1923).
2 tons pea-seed..
2 tons coriander-seed (525 lb. in 1923).
990 lb. sweet potatoes.
255 cases pineapples (128 cases in 192.3).
400 lb. prunes   (864 boxes in 1923).
975 lb. raisins   (939 cases in 1923).
561
13.730
3,615
1,127
90
257
41
62
562
12,682
2,S71
768
121
34
300
56
2 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 97
APPENDIX No. IQ—Continued.
Memorandum of Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, etc, inspected at Vancouver—Continued.
5 tons figs  (574 cases in 1923).
500 lb. barley.
1 ton nutmeg (35 boxes in 1923)..
27,295 empty mats.
148 cases Crosse & Blackwell vinegar.
56 cases Vichi Water in bottles.
5 crates straw covering for bottles.
15 cases beer in straw coverings.
225 cases window-glass- packed in straw.
The following were fumigated in 1923:—
8 tons filberts.
500 cases currants.
100 boxes dried peaches.
2,464 boxes evaporated apples.
234 lb. mixed spices.
1 sack (200 lb.) whole ginger.
360 empty  sacks.
APPENDIX No. 17.
Memorandum  of Imported  Rice,  Beans,  PejVs,  etc, inspected at Victoria.
Rice   (tons)	
Corn   (tons)	
Corn   (lb.)   	
Popcorn   (lb.)   	
Peas   (lb.)   	
Peas   (tons)   	
Beans (tons)  	
Beans   (lb	
Peanuts   (tons)   	
Walnuts   (tons)	
Walnuts    (lb.)   	
The following were fumigated:—
Rice   (tons)   	
Rice  (tons)   (Rithet's Warehouse, Victoria, B.C.)  ....
Peas  (tons)  	
Almonds   (lb.)   	
1924.
1923.
1,192
1,3S3
2,497
2,145
1,900
900
920
55
29
20
750
2
1
3
700
3oy2
25
400
1,400 K 98 Department op Agriculture. 1925
APPENDIX No. IS.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc, for which no Certificates  were issued.
Asparagus    : :	
Artichokes    :	
Almonds          313,732
Avocado pears 	
Beets     	
Bananas	
Brazil  nuts   '....
Brussels   sprouts   	
Bak   Choy   	
Beans   (green)   	
Black walnuts	
Butternuts	
Broom-corn   	
Blackberries	
Corn-husks  	
Cabbage   	
Cabbage   (tons)   	
Cauliflower   	
Oasabas   	
Chestnuts   	
Caladium	
Carrots    ....
Cloves   	
Cucumbers   	
Celery   	
Cocoanuts   	
Cocoa-beans	
Cantaloupes   	
Carambolas   	
Chicory   	
Chard   	
Coffee   	
Cactus pears 	
Carobs   	
Cranberries   	
Dill-flowers   	
Foo  Gwah  	
Filberts  	
Figs   	
Endives   	
Gye Choy 	
Grapes   	
Ginger-root 	
Garlic   	
Geet Gwah 	
Horse-radish   	
Huckleberries	
Hickory nuts 	
Hazel nuts 	
Lettuce   	
Lychee	
Lentils  	
1924.
1923.
Crates.
Crates.
4,288
4,059
149
136
313,732
64,375
15
225
4
58,296
58,495
92,086
624
285
878
42
122
74
34
200
53
376
81
940
700
6,221
7,092
95
5,149
6,569
3,965
10,246
17,512
46,058
26,S50
4S.560
986
262
SOO
35,000
217
158
4,731
2,219
270
418
612
1.04S
19,478
12,704
50
25
9
3
131,650
S5
200
2,263
995
100
27
19
66,400
700
1,575
5
53
671
39,536
37,395
58,177
51,610
7,042
2,500
34
19
1,000
357
200
100
21,663
22,049
200
525
23,700
100 15 Geo, 5 British Columbia. K 99
APPENDIX No. 18—Continued.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc, for which no Certificates were
issued—Continued.
Leeks 	
Loquats  	
Lily bulbs   (edible)  	
Melons 	
Melons (by count) 	
Mint  	
Maize 	
Mangoes   	
Nutmegs   	
Onions  	
Olives 	
Okra   	
Parsley   	
Peas   (split)   	
Peas (green)  	
Passion fruit 	
Pine nuts	
Pecan nuts 	
Peppercorns   	
Potatoes (Canadian)     1,419,460
Quassia logs 	
Radishes  	
Rhubarb 	
Raspberries 	
Rutabagas	
Spinach	
Squash 	
Seeds (miscellaneous)        835,255
Sue Choy 	
Sugar-cane	
Sing Gwah 	
Strawberries   	
Turnips  	
Water-chestnuts   	
Water-lily rhizomes 	
White nuts 	
Water-caltrops   	
Watermelons   	
1924.
1923.
Crates.
Crates.
2
300
2,000
1,246
5,379
2,207
5
%
1
1
550
4,700
1,750
23,700
17,582
275
10
25
184
80
22,500
2,440
302
20
100
610
3,835
53.300
119,460
1,340
135
136
4,807
4,357
4,419
3
770
6,944
7,795
32
55
,35,255
155,313
46
125
37,500
83,000
16
10
12,750
18,463
75
2,050
43,900
44,500
79,950
186,205
10,050
4,420
2,200
1,300
37,948
32,704 K 100
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 19.
Nursery Stock exported, 1924, for which Inspection Certificates were issued.
Fruit and
Not.
Small
Fruit.
fji
Ornamentals.
c"
OJ
0J
OJ
o
M
"3
cq
To.
OJ
CD
0
a
tn
o
1=1
tart
OS
a
©
Xfl
to
0J
CJ
U
Eh
p
a
cd
s
1
"3
ft
m
-a
OJ
CJ
25
40
26
20
....
304
26
85
48
150
40
582
47
80
64
98
41
250
1,560
610
39
66
450
264
2,610f
China 	
54*
100
20
330
85
198
40
709
203
250
2,209
T80
2,664t
* Packets.
t Pounds.
APPENDIX No. 20.
Fruit and Vegetables exported, 1924, for which Inspection Certificates were issued.
To.
Apples.
Pears.
Potatoes.
Onions.      Celery.     Tomatoes
Turnips.
Cabbage.
Lettuce.
United States ....
New Zealand 	
South Africa ....
Singapore 	
Ceylon 	
Suva, Fiji Islands
Honolulu 	
Apia, Samoa 	
China 	
Totals	
Boxes.
: Boxes.
33
Tons
0
Lb.
200
Tons
Lb.
39,235
■538
800
5,850
200
12
1,000
150
281
2
25
1
166
1,000
0
0
300
42
0
1,682
47,403
33
207
500
580
800
Crates.
Crates.
Sacks.
Crates.
Crates. 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 101
APPENDIX No. 21.
List of Herds tested by Municipalities and Districts.
District.
No. of
Herds.
No.
tested.
Reactors.
Grade or Premises.
A.
B.
C.
Lower Fraser and Adjoining Districts.
Agassiz 	
13
1
13
54
37
269
91
18
198
175
58
20
27
24
20
16
194
17
124
21
2
28
1
11
1
211
1
201
270
248
2,887
1,129
241
1,519
1,663
692
198
95
433
282
216
1,285
110
489
55
6
115
3
39
68
1
17
4
68
73
10
47
156
16
8
1
43
32
25
75
33
4
8
1
2
3
2
1
2
4
4
3
1
7
11
2
6
10
3
1
1
1
1
2
13
1
13
54
37
260
Delta 	
80
18
193
Lulu Island  	
Matsqui    .-	
167
47
20
Mission	
Pitt Meadows 	
27
24
15
15
Surrey 	
Squamish  	
189
17
119
20
2
23
1
Yale	
11
Totals      	
1,433
12,456
622
22
45
1,366
Coast Points.
15
2
3
3
1
1
1
1
90
23
15
60
1
20
8
17
1
1
4
1
1
15
1
3
3
1
1
Anyox	
1
1
Totals      	
27
234
7
1
26
Central B.C.,  Cariboo, Lillooet.
Bulkley Valley 	
13
22
9
1
4
169
101
117
20
24
5
3
7
1
2
13
22
6
1
4
Totals 	
49
431
15
1
2       |         46
East Kootenay.
Elk Valley 	
I
32
13
44
3
1
179
397
232
11
3
8
1
1
1
2
31
12
42
3
1
Totals      	
93
822
9
....
4
89 K 102                                    Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 21—Continued.
List of Herds tested by Municipalities and Districts
—Continued.
District.
No. of
Herds.
No.
tested.
Reactors.
Grade op Premises.
A.
B.
c.
Okanagan.
Armstrong	
Enderby 	
Falkland 	
43
4
1
1
1
1
21
2
2
1
1
10
1
3
2
3
20
12
5
376
21
5
6
10
11
159
32
14
8
18
23
11
7
18
7
64
41
13
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
15
1
1
9
1
5
3
2
25
3
1
Fintry       ,
Glenemma  	
1
Grindrod 	
1
11
2
Mara 	
2
Okanagan Mission 	
1
1
Oliver	
9
1
3
o
3
15
8
West Bank       	
3
Totals  	
134
844
8
5
37
92
Kootenay.
Anglemont   	
6
14
1
13
1
6
1
11
38
4
24
11
52
4
1
1
35
3
2
2
8
1
2
3
1
6
14
1
10
1
Bluett	
4
1
4
8
2
3
3
2
26
1
3
13
1
1
1
1
8
5
1
5
1
84
33
9
243
29
7
3
3
2
16
1
2
82                   1
8
Shulus ....
11
2
10
2
139
36
4
25
4
31
4
1
1
1
1
Trail  	
3
4
1
Winfleld      	
5
1
Totals 	
121
■872
73
7
22
92
Interior Points.
Ashcroft 	
1
8
1
1
1
3
18
6
26
1
188
1
2
7
74
66
75
102
1
2
1
1
3
9
1
6
1
1
Malakwa 	
1
2
Salmon Arm 	
15
6
Grand Forks	
16
Totals 	
65
516
_1
1
3
13
49
V
■ 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 103
APPENDIX No. 21—Continued.
List of Herds tested by Municipalities and Districts—Continued.
District.
No. of
Herds.
No.
tested.
Reactors.
Grade of Premises.
A.
B.
C.
Vancouver Island.
143
207
48
63
11
■4
4
4
97
9
57
3
2
10
644
1,817
274
523
200
5
70
42
947
55
469
16
7
32
32
160
5
17
4
1
29 2,S.
17
3
10
3
27
5
1
19
1
1
40
89
20
23
3
3
2
29
2
26
1
1
100
108
25
13
Cobble Hill             ..    ..                  	
3
Crofton 	
4
2
Nanaimo   __	
49
6
30
9
2
9
Totals                                	
662
5,101
265
70
239
353
Gulf Islands.
1
3
10
5
23
17
15
29
60
112
48
1
1
1
3
2
4
3
3
7
o
19
Valdes Island -  	
14
59
267
_J
1
1
13
45 K 104 Department of Agriculture. 1925
APPENDIX No. 22.
Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act," 1924.
Name. Address.
Asserlind, H. H. E 2136 Union Street, Vancouver.
Bell, S. A Northwestern  Creamery.
Boulter,  Wm Ladner.
Boyne, Wm Kamloops.
Brooks, F 1723 Fourth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Calder,  Jas SS2 Hamilton  Street, Vancouver.
Caldwell, John  1855 Georgia Street East, Vancouver.
Cameron, W. C  : 1411 Broadway West, Vancouver.
Carman, J. E Revelstoke.
Carradice, F. W 1270 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Carroll, W. J Courtenay.
Carter, Jas. N 187 Seventeenth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Chevalley,  F Abbotsford.
Chevalley,  P Abbotsford.
Cook, E. W 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Cranswick, P Royal Dairy, Vancouver.
Crawford,  Thos 7828 Prince Albert Street, Vancouver.
Crawford, Wm 7S2S Prince Albert Street, Vancouver.
Dalzell,  Ed Salmon Arm.
Dempster, A. M Kamloops.
Drake, A. W Ganges.
Dudman,  A 333a Thirteenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Dunn, J. S 553 Fifth Street, Nanaimo.
Egerton,  W R.M.D. 4, Victoria.
Enman, V 2056 Forty-ninth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Farmer, R. W Golden.
File, G. A Salmon Arm.
Fowler, R. S Box 214, Kamloops.
Godwin,   F Vernon.
Grimes, G. G Langley Prairie.
Hall, F. D. B Box 172, Chilliwack.
Hansen, H. M .....Jackman Road, Aldergrove.
Harkness, Wm Nelson.
Henderson, C. A Kamloops.
Holmes, J Penticton.
Hurley, M. H llll Fort Street, Victoria.
James, D. A 1114 Broadway West, Vancouver.
Jenne, H. H Nelson.
Johnson, Alfred  Quesnel.
Karnagel, R Salmon Arm.
Kell,  George  516 St. George Street, New Westminster.
Livingstone, J. M 15 Alexander Street, Vancouver.
Lord, T Vernon.
Magar, J. A Sardis.
Main, T 3917 Albert Street, Vancouver.
Matheson, T. W Port Haney.
McAllister, C. W 707 View Street, Victoria.
McKay, L. W 2346 Fifth Avenue West, Vancouver.
McKerricher, W. R 1924 Fortieth Avenue East, South Vancouver.
McLean, H Invermere.
Menzies, T. A Abbotsford.
Metcalfe, J. F 3436 Oak Street, Vancouver.
Moor, J. S Penticton.
Morse, A. O 1750 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver. 15 Geo. 5 British Columbia. K 105
APPENDIX No. 22—Continued,
Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act," 1924—Continued.
Name. Address.
Nelson, C E J. M. Steves' Dairy, Vancouver.
Newland, C G Colony Farm, Essondale.
Norton, F. H. A 1311 Broad Street, Victoria.
Outram, G. H Vanderhoof.
Overland, F 2571 Thirty-sixth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Parkinson, R. F Kelowna.
Patten,  W .Armstrong.
Patterson, W. L 536 Twenty-flrst Avenue West, Vancouver.
Price, T. W 905 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Quaedvlieg, E Keremeos.
Richards, T. E 1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Rive, Elias c/o Pacific Milk Co., Abbotsford.
Rose, Wm Courtenay.
Russell, Geo. F 220 Maple Avenue, Powell River.
Scouten, W Box 387, Chilliwack.
Sejrup, V. M Box 491, Duncan.
Sellers, J. H 1257 Eighteenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Sherwood, E. G 1032 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Silver, Mark R. 2215 Dundas Street, Vancouver.
Smith,  R - Penticton.
Taylor, Arthur  Pouce Coupe.
Thomas, S. J Kelowna.
Thomson, J. S ...Armstrong.
Thornbery, G. H Department tof Agriculture, Victoria.
Turnbull, Miss M .1 Kelowna.
Valentin,  M Prince Rupert.
Van der Wall, W General Delivery, Vancouver.
Wagg, G. H Ganges.
Washington, F. J.  1170 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Wasson, F. C -Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
Watson, J. B R.R. 1, Sardis.
Weighill,  F 1716 Duchess Street, Victoria.
Wells, B : Ladner.
Wells, J. R Penticton.
West, C, II 280 Sixth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Westlund, Mrs. A c/o P. Burns & Co., Woodland Drive, Vancouver.
Wood, R. K 930 North Park Street, Victoria.
Woods, R. H Grand Forks.
Yeates, W 2190 Princess Street, South Vancouver.
APPENDIX No. 23.
Creamery or Dairy Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act," 1924.
Name. Address.
Beaconsfield Dairy Co 905 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Borden Co., Ltd Sardis.
Burns, P., & Co Woodland Drive, Arancouver.
Caldwell's Dairy  1847 Georgia Street East, Vancouver.
Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Creamery Assn Quesnel.
Carman, J. E Revelstoke.
City Dairy & Produce Co., Ltd 414 Pender Street East, Vancouver.
Columbia Valley Co-operative Creamery Association..Golden.
Comox Creamery Association  Courtenay.
Cowichan Creamery Association  Duncan. K 106
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 23—Continued.
Creamery or Dairy Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,"
1924—Continued.
Name. Address.
Crescent Ice Cream, Ltd Burrard and Hastings Streets, Vancouver.
Curlew Crpamery Co., Ltd Nelson.
East End Dairy  2469 Oxford Street, Vancouver.
Ferrara Cheese Manufacturing Co Chilliwack.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association 405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association  • 1170 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Eraser Valley Milk Producers' Association  Chilliwack.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association  Sardis.
Jersey Creamery Co 1317 Commercial Drive, Vancouver.
Kelowna Creamery Co., Ltd Kelowna.
Kettle Valley Creamery Co Grand Forks.
Lake Windermere Creamery, Ltd Invermere.
Nanaimo Creamery Association  025 Pine Street, Nanaimo.
Nechaco Valley Co-operative Creamery Assn Vanderhoof.
Northern Okanagan Creamery Association  Armstrong.
Northwestern Creamery, Ltd 1311 Broad Street, Victoria.
Pacific Milk Co., Ltd.  (Abbotsford)   1328 Drake Street, Vancouver.
Pacific Milk Co., Ltd.  (Ladner)  132S Drake Street, Vancouver.
Penticton Ice & Cold Storage Co Penticton.
Pouce Coupe District Co-operative Creamery Assn. ...Kilkerran.
Purity Dairy, Ltd 280 Sixth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Quaedvlieg, Victor Keremeos.
Royal City Dairy  309 Sixth Street, New Westminster.
Royal Dairy  1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Royal Dairy  707 View Street, Victoria.
Salmon Arm Creamery Association  Salmon Arm.
Saltspring Island Creamery Association  Ganges.
Spencer, David, Ltd., Creamery  Kamloops.
Spencer. David, Ltd., Creamery  Cordova Street West, Vancouver.
Steves, J. M., Dairy 2024 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Valley Dairy, Ltd 1569 Sixth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Vancouver Creamery Co., Ltd 23 Alexander Street, Vancouver.
Vancouver Ice & Cold Storage Co., Ltd 11 Gore Avenue, Vancouver.
Vancouver Island Milk Producers' Association  930 North Park Street, Victoria.
Vernon Creamery  Vernon.
Victoria City Dairy Co., Ltd llll Fort Street, Victoria.
White Lunch, Ltd 124 Hastings Street West, Vancouver.
APPENDIX No. 24.
Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia.
Name.
Instituted.
Secretary.
Tester.
Departmental
Grant.
Chilliwack 	
Comox Valley 	
Langley 	
Okanagan 	
Richmond-Ladner ....
March 17, 1913
April 23, 1914
June 8,  1914  	
April, 1920 	
March, 1919 	
November, 1924
November, 1923
T. B. Watson, Sardis —	
R. M. Halliday, Sandwick
Alec. Hope, Langlev Fort
T. J. M. Clarke, Vernon 	
G. M. Alexander, Steveston ....
E. T. Bailey, Cloverdale 	
$600
600
G. G. Grimes 	
H. Turnbull 	
G. H. Medd    	
600
600
600
D. Banks	
100
P. W. Starr, Abbotsford 	
T. A. Menzies 	
600 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 107
APPENDIX No. 25.
Thirteenth International Egg-laying Contest—Final Report.
.The Thirteenth International Egg-laying Contest was held under the auspices of the Poultry
Branch, Department of Agriculture, at the Exhibition Grounds, Victoria, B.C., from October
23rd, 1923, to September 22nd, 1924 (eleven months). The total number of eggs laid is as
follows:—•
Pen
No.
Name and Address.
Breed.
Total
Eggs.
19, 20
39,40
9, 10
13,14
35,36
5,    6
3,   4
23,24
25,26
37,38
29, 30
27, 28
21,22
11,12
15, 16
17, 18
1,   2
33,34
7,   8
31, 32
17, 18
3,   4
11, 12
21, 22
15, 16
23,24
13,14
27, 28
31, 32
25, 26
*5, 6
37,38
7, 8
1, 2
19,20
39,40
33,34
35,36
9,10
29, 30
Class 1.—Light-weight Varieties.
E. T. White, 2785 Twenty-ninth Avenue West, Vancouver   (First
prize, $15, and best laying bird, $7.50)
Gray & Son, Duncan  (Second prize, $10)	
W.  Bradley, Langtord  (Third prize, $5)   	
St. J. P. Considine, Maple Bay  (Fourth prize,  Canadian Poultry
Review bronze medal)
Mrs. McDowell, Dow Place, West Burnaby 	
A  Peters,  Kamloops	
F. A.   Considine,   R.M.D.,   Duncan   	
J. Gar'side,  Cranbrook  	
J. W. Bancroft, Third Avenue,  Steveston	
J. J. Dougan, Cobble Hill 	
Bolivar Leghorn Farm, Cloverdale (Second best laying pullet, $5)
P. Darbey & Son, Port Hammond	
H. S. Cadwell, Keremeos .'.'	
Mrs.  Hodgson,   Alberni	
A. V. Lang,  Sevenoaks 	
Barlow & Sturgeon, Forty-second Avenue West, Vancouver 	
A. Adams, 3290 Dublin  Street, Victoria 	
J. T. Webster, Robson 	
H. A. Wells, Port Haney	
J. Dickson,  Agassiz	
White Leghorns
Blue Andalusians
White  Leghorns ..
Red Caps	
White Leghorns
Blue Andalusians
Anconas  	
Total
Class 2.—Heavy-weight Varieties.
Mrs. C. R. Welch, Port Kells  (First prize, $15, and best laying
pullet, $7.50)
Spencer Percival,  Port Washington  (Second prize, $10)   	
F. Matthews,  Abbotsford   (Third prize,  $5) 	
J.   A.   Corlett,   3334   Whittier   Avenue,   Victoria   (Fourth   prize,
Canadian Poultry Review bronze medal)
J. Bann, Kamloops  (Second best laying pullet, $5)    	
J. Lambie, Earl's Road and Forty-fifth Avenue, South Vancouver
A. Cant, Appledale 	
W. Robbins, Runnymede Avenue,  Victoria	
A. W. Abbs, Thirteenth Avenue West, Vancouver	
C. P. Worts, 2134 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
A. M. Dykes, 331 Twentieth Street North, Lethbridge	
Dean Bros., Keating         	
R. V. Robinson, Lavington 	
J. Lambie,  County Line   	
R. T. Vyvyan,  Saanichton 	
D. R. Manson, 3028 Kitchener Street, Vancouver	
H. Jowett, R.R. 1, Port Haney 	
R.  N.  Clerke,  Vernon	
W. Bradley, Langford 	
G. Hetley, R.R. 1, Agassiz	
Total   .;.	
White Wyandottes
Barred  Rocks 	
White Wyandottes
Barred  Rocks  	
White Wyandottes
Single Comb Reds
Barred  Rocks	
White Wyandottes
Barred  Rocks  	
White Wyandottes
Buff Orpingtons ....
Rose Comb Reds ....
White Wyandottes
474
447
443
426
414
400
396
396
383
389
391
377
368
368
342
339
338
324
296
229
7,550
441
390
388
387
384
382
381
378
345
340
338
328
307
298
287
283
254
199
167
163
6,445
* Eggs underweight.
B.C.P.A. diploma winners :   Class 1—First,  Gray & Son ; second, W. Bradley ; third, St. J. P. Considine.
Class 2—'First, A.  Cant; second, J. Lambie, Vancouver ; third, Dean Bros.
B.C.P.A. bronze medal:   Class 1, W. Bradley ;   Class 2, Dean Bros. K 108
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX 26.
Thirteenth International Egg-laying Contest—Individual Egg Records.
Pen
No.
Name and Address.
Breed.
Band
1.
Band
2.
Spare.
1,   2
3,   4
5,   6
7,   8
9, 10
11,12
13,14
15,16
17,18
19,20
21,22
23, 24
25,26
27,28
29, 30
31,32
33,34
35,36
37,38
39,40
1, 2
3, 4
5,   6
7, 8
9, 10
11,12
13,14
15, 16
17,18
19,20
21,22
23,24
25, 26
27,28
29,30
31,32
33, 34
35, 36
37,38
39,40
Class 1.—Light-weight Varieties.
A. Adams, 3290 Dublin Street, Victoria 	
F.  A.  Considine,  R.M.D.,  Duncan  	
A. Peters, Kamloops	
H. A. Wells, Port Haney 	
W.  Bradley, Langford 	
Mrs.  Hodgson, Alberni 	
St. J. P. Considine, Maple Bay  .,	
A. V.  Lang,  Sevenoaks	
Barlow & Sturgeon, Forty-second Avenue West, Vancouver
E. J. White, 2785 Twenty-ninth Avenue West, South
Vancouver
H. S. Cadwell, Keremeos 	
J.  Gartside,  Cranbrook 	
J.  W. Bancroft, Third Avenue, Steveston 	
P. Darby & Son, Port Hammond	
Bolivar Leghorn Farm, Cloverdale	
J.  Dickson, Agassiz	
J.   T.  Webster,   Robson	
Mrs.  McDowell,  Dow  Place,  Burnaby 	
J. J. Dougan, Cobble Hill 	
Gray & Son, Duncan 	
Class 2.—Heavy-weight Varieties.
J. Lambie, County Line 	
Spencer Percivale,  Port Washington	
A.   M.   Dykes,   331   Twentieth   Street   North,   Leth-
bridge
R. V. Robinson, Lavington 	
W.  Bradley,   Langford  	
F. Matthews,   Abbotsford   	
A.   Cant,   Appledale	
J.  Bann,  Kamloops  	
Mrs.  C.  R.  Welch, Port Kells 	
R.  T.  Vyvyan,   Saanichton 	
J. A. Corlett, 3334 Whittier Avenue,  Victoria	
J.    Lambie,   Earl's   Road   and   Forty-fifth   Avenue,
South   Vancouver
C. P. Worts, 2134 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver
W.  Robbins,  Runnymede  Avenue,  Victoria 	
C. Hetley,  R.R.  1, Agassiz 	
A. W. Abbs, Thirteenth Avenue W'est, Vancouver ....
H. Jowett, R.R. 1, Port Haney 	
R. N. Clerke, Vernon 	
Dean Bros., Keating   	
D. R. Manson, 3025 Kitchener Avenue, Vancouver....
White Leghorns
Blue Andalusians
White Leghorns ....
Red  Caps
White Leghorns
White Wyandottes.
Barred Rocks 	
White Wyandottes
Barred   Rocks .
Single Comb Reds .
White  Wyandottes .
Single Comb Reds .
Buff Orpingtons 	
Rose Comb Reds ...
White Wyandottes .
White Leghorns 	
White Leghorns 	
Barred  Rocks   	
White Wyandottes ....
Barred Rocks 	
199
204
210
180
212
199
219
185
151
233
170
207
194
148
235
S4
199
222
182
213
162
203
211
165
0
186
1S7
159
258
122
172
195
151
170
154
179
118
117
160
123
139
192
190
86
232
169
207
157
188
241
166
189
199
229
156
145
125
192
207
234
136
187
127
142
167
202
194
225
183
165
215
187
189
208
9
166
136
82
168
160
146
160
182
146
221
199
184
109
142
221
146
158
156
178
147
117
135
179
104
42
108
75
182
98
196
235
198
167
114
190
73
13
150
48
118
162
144
211
146
136 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 109
APPENDIX No. 27.
Analytical Data.
District   and  Nature   of   Soil.
Nitrogen.       Potash
Phosp.
Acid.
Lime
Carb.
Iron and
Alumina.
Vancouver Island—
Neutral 	
Neutral 	
Acid 	
Acid 	
Acid	
Acid 	
Acid 	
Acid 	
Acid 	
Neutral 	
Acid 	
Acid	
Acid 	
Acid 	
Acid 	
Acid 	
Saltspring Island—
Acid	
Texada Island—
Acid 	
Sumas Area—
Neutral	
Neutral	
Neutral	
Neutral 	
Neutral 	
Alkaline 	
Alkaline 	
Mission—
Neutral 	
Neutral 	
Neutral 	
Aldergrove—
Ac-id 	
Kamloops—
Alkaline 	
Alkaline 	
Alkaline 	
Alkaline 	
Alkaline 	
Alkaline 	
Alkaline 	
Alkaline	
Alkaline	
Alkaline 	
Alkaline 	
Alkaline	
Alkaline 	
Alkaline 	
Alkaline 	
Alkaline	
Alkaline 	
0.08
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.10
0.12
0.18
0.03
0.19
0.35
0.25
0.53
2.05
0.07
0.75
1.66
0.86
0.04
0.06
0.04
0.07
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.08
0.12
0.14
0.11
0.18
0.19
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.15
0.13
0.16
0.15
0.08
0.16
0.04
0.29
0.12
0.06
0.19
0.04
0.07
0.02
0.12
0.03
0.14
0.15
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.10
0.15
0.09
0.12
1.6
0.8
1.0
1.5
1.8
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.6
1.0
1.0
88.0
0.6
10.7
9.2
10.9
10.2
13.8
10.1
10.3
8.8
8.0
12.5
15.0
17.5
17.0
t
*
1.0
2.0
*
0.05
1.4
8.3
*
t
0.3
1.6
0.02
0.06
2.9
5.0
*
0.1
4.5
1.8
0.19
0.25
0.9
11.7
0.15
0.25
1.3
11.6
0.15
0.24
1.0
10.3
0.12
0.23
1.1
10.5
0.15
0.24
1.0
10.2
0.06
0.19
1.1
10.7
0.11
0.15
1.2
7.0
0.85
0.05
1.1
11.8
0.15
0.25
1.3
12.3
0.15
0.32
1.2
12.6
0.06
0.08
0.5
11.8
0.42
0.18
1.0
9.4
0.34
0.12
0.7
9.2
0.43
0.13
0.7
9.8
0.43
0.24
1.1
10.9
0.60
0.10
0.9
6.2
0.62
0.18
0.8
7.0
0.32
0.15
2.4
11.6
0.51
0.16
0.9
13.5
0.62
0.25
1.1
11.0
0.89
0.19
1.2
11.0
0.08
0.10
3.8
7.6
0.34
0.25
3.0
11.3
0.27
0.03
1.1
8.7
0.10
0.25
2.4
10.5
0.10
0.19
1.5
9.2
0.20
0.20
1.7
12.7
0.06
0.10
2.9
10.7
* Trace.
t Nil. K 110
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 27— Continued.
Analytical Data—Continued.
District  and  Nature  of   Soil.
Nitrogen.
Potash.
Phosp.
Acid.
Lime
Carb.
Iron and
Alumina.
Shuswap Lake—
0.04
0.10
0.10
0.05
0.04
0.05
0.02
0.08
0.03
0.01
0.03
0.06
0.05
0.08
0.09
0.10
*
*
0.20
0.10
0.20
0.26
0.28
0.30
0.20
0.38
0.12
0.08
0.07
0.17
0.17
0.35
0.35
0.3*5
0.16
0.22
0.21
0.25
0.42
0.30
0.25
0.16
0.19
0.19
0.38
0.09
0.25
0.55
0.5
1.3
0.4
0.4
0.6
1.0
0.6
0.7
0.4
0.7
*
*
*
0.09
8.4
8.8
8.S
5.2
6.2
7.4
9.0
9.0
6.8
Acid ....
Acid 	
Nakusp—■
Acid  	
Acid 	
6.5
12.3
4.7
8.2
3.5
Princeton—
7.3
9.8
Grand Forks—
Neutral
Acid 	
Acid 	
Revelstoke—
Acid 	
Alkaline
Alkaline
Alkaline
Trace.
0.08
0.08
0.05
0.08
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.07
0.26
0.35
0.33
0.32
0.12
0.12
0.28
0.12
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.2
4.5
6.1
12.2
S.O
8.1
11.8 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 111
APPENDIX No. 28.
Synovwis of Certified . Seed-potato Work in  British  Columbia, 1924.
District.
0)
o
rt
cs
03
5
aj
be
OJ
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13 —
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ta o rt
BE-i.S
Estimated
No.   of
Sacks of
Certified Seed.
Alberni 	
6
37
15
4
12
11
8
8
17
6
16
1
11
12
3
4
5
3
1
2
10
31
32
10
32
20
19
17
49
20
18
3
20
3
8
11
7
2
4
3.90
21.80
22.55
3.85
40.20
21.90
10.80
16.75
48.92
10.95
15.15
1.00
23.25
13.75
6.00
8.20
18.05
4.70
1.25
1.25
8
25
27
10
19
8
11
15
46
17
18
8
20
22
3
5
9
5
2
3
3.80
18.10
21.35
3.85
26.90
11.35
5.45
15.25
43.17
8.20
15.15
1.00
23.25
13.25
6.00
5.45
11.05
3.05
1.25
3.25
3
17
24
7
18
2
6
6
38
16
18
3
15
22
3
4
9
4
2
2
2.00
9.75
20.60
3.00
26.40
3.00
4.50
7.25
39.67
7.95
15.15
1.00
19.40
13.25
6.00
4.20
11.05
2.70
1.25
2.75
2
17
18
5
16
2
6
6
26
13
14
3
10
21
O
4
8
2
1
1
1.50
9.70
18.70
2.50
22.40
3.00
4.50
7.25
22.72
6.20
11.80
1.50
17.10
13.-00
6.00
4.00
10.05
1.80
0.25
2.25
8.50
76.73
129.55
15.70
110.50
25.00
21.50
26.50
198.00
42.60
142.50
7.75
153.80
113.60
59.00
41.30
68.35
9.80
1.50
20.00
60
752
Cowichan 	
461
145
Keating....	
Gordon Head
Metcbosin 	
Central B.C	
Chilliwack 	
Surrey 	
Mount Lehman ]
Bradner   /
Pitt Meadows .. (
Burnaby  /
Lulu Island       1
Ladner  j
Windermere
1,000
250
200
265
1,745
536
705
100
1,869
538
101
250
Vernon  1
Kelowna  J
192
56
Grand Forks
Summerland	
200
Totals
163
339
296.47
276      1   240.12
219
200.87
178
165.72
1,272.18
9,425
APPENDIX No. 29.
Summaey of British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Fields, 1924.
No.  of fields inspected   339
No.  of acres inspected   296.47
No. of fields passed   219
No. of acres passed  200.87
Per cent, fields passed  64.60
Per cent, acres passed   67.70
Average per cent, disease in total fields inspected—
Black-leg     0.07
Leaf-roll  0.55
Mosaic     1.47
Wilts     1.04
Impurities    0.59
Lack of vigour   1.15
Average per cent, disease in total fields passed—
Black-leg     0.04
Leaf-roll   0.41
Mosaic     0.73
Wilts   0.33
Impurities     0.06
Lack of vigour   0.59 K 112
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 29—Continued.
Summary of British Columbia Certified Seed-potato Fields, 1924—Continued.
Average per cent, disease in total fields rejected—
Black-leg          0.1S
Leaf-roll         0.53
Mosaic        3.04
Wilts         1.89
Impurities          0.72
Lack of vigour        2.31
Of tie 339 fields inspected—
1 containing 0.50 acre was rejected owing to black-leg.
4 containing 3.15 acres were rejected owing to leaf-roll.
66 containing 54.45 acres were rejected owing to mosaic.
16 containing 8.95 acres were rejected owing to wilts.
4 containing 4.00 acres were rejected owing to impurities.
29 containing 24.55 acres were rejected owing to lack of vigour.
APPENDIX No. 30.
Report on Field Inspections made in Certified Seed-potato Districts, 1924.
District.
Average Percentage of
Leaf-roll.
Mosaic.
Black-leg.
Wilt.
Impurities.
1.06
0.04
0.O5
0.33
0.08
2.00
0.08
1.79
0.06
0.04
0.09
1.33
0.33
0.03
1.75
0.11
0.47
1.11
2.13
1.65
2.56
0.75
0.46
0.81
1.77
1.13
0.78
0.03
3.90
1.04
0.65
0.25
6.91
2.50
0.24
0.008
0.035
0.01
0.23
0.055
0.43
0.11
0.08
0.32
0.07
9.37
0.03
0.31
1.61
0.15
0.28
1.27
0.56
0.29
0.43
0.02
1.10
0.50
1.66
0.10
0.11
2.95
0.02
0.25
0.20
Cowichan 	
0.07
0.17
0.94
0.81
0.78
0.23
0.12
0.05
0.16
0.13
0.01
Average per cent, all districts 	
0.48
1.43
0.07
1.04
0.19 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 113
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Department op Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 32.
Report on Tuber Inspections made before Grading in Certified Seed-potato Districts, 1924.
Average Percentage per Field,
District.
No. of
Fields
inspected.
Acres.
Stem-end
Rot
or Wilt.
L.B. and
Rot.
Scab.
Net
Necrosis.
Rhizoc-
tonia.
9
30
17
18
6
7
1
1
3
2
3
10
3
9
1
17
1
1
22
12
5
3
3
4
9.00
38.22
9.75
16.20
7.25
3.00
2.00
1.25
6.10
1.80
6.10
9.80
6.00
7.05
2.25
7.95
0.50
0.50
13.25
16.40
4.50
2.00
1.00
4.20
0.51
0.36
0.33
0.16
5.34
0.66
3.00
0.88
4.82
0.14
1.00
2.35
1.00
0.08
2.48
0.80
8.00
2.77
1.22
0.03
0.11
0.59
0.07
1.31
0.88
0.33
0.22
2.00
12.00
8.33
1.29
3.00
3.43
0.06
12.00
6.50
•  0.07
2.06
0.06
0.71
0.30
7.10
0.44
0.29
0.42
6.89
10.15
1.89
Central British Columbia	
0.25
8.54
0.50
5.00
25.33,
3.00
1.41
2.61
2.00
5.40
12.00
13.79
5.00
10.00
3.45
5.20
4.80
10.00
5.11
4.00
Totals       	
188
176.07
35.90
0.73
51.42
11.45
152.87
Av. percentage of diseases
1.49
0.03
2.14
0.47
6.37
APPENDIX No. 33.
Report on Field Inspections made in Districts where Crops had not been entered for
Certification Purposes, 1924.
District.
No. of
Fields
inspected.
Acres.
Average Percentage of
Leaf-roll.
Mosaic.       Black-leg.
Wilt.        Impurities.
Central British Columbia :
Lakes District 	
Bulkley Valley 	
Terrace 	
Prince George 	
Vancouver Island 	
Fraser Island 	
Revelstoke and Malakwa .
Princeton and Jura 	
Kelowna and Westbank ...
Nakusp 	
Nelson-Grand Forks 	
Ashcroft 	
Lytton 	
Kamloops 	
Chase-Notch Hill 	
Salmon Arm 	
Windermere 	
Armstrong 	
Vernon-Lumby 	
Keremeos-Cawston 	
Totals 	
57
51
16
24
7
36
10
2
3
12
5
13
6
4
12
11
22
306
32.05
69.03
14.55
21.85
7.25
45.22
16.00
1.35
17.00
16.00
18.25
246.00
32.50
55.00
206.00
85.75
0.60
44.00
21.70
21.60
85.75
0.51
0.21
0.30
0.10
1.50
0.19
0.10
0.58
3.08
4.87
4.55
0.50
2.25
1.58
1.55
2.50
0.97
6.40
8.43
6.83
3.75
22.75
6.91
24.15
14.42
6.33
21.62
16.60
15.50
0.50
15.72
5.'75
12.10
0.71
0.71
2.31
0.04
0.28
1.53
0.20
0.71
2.58
i.00
0.94*
9.72*
0.75*
0.38
1.48
2.36
3.34
0.98
3.04
3.95
1.92
6.00
0.95
6.17
3.00
0.50
1.60
1.78*
24.12
11.50
2.42
2.09
2.14
3.76
7.35
0.79
2.78
1.21
0.50
0.50
1.80
3.05*
* Average percentage of diseases for all districts. 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 115
APPENDIX No. 34.
Estimated Honey-crop, 1924.
District.
Apiaries.
Hives.
Crop.
Average
per  Hive.
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.
Comox 	
58
85
00
38
100
185
400
402
240
90
400
550
Lb.
26,000
12,060
12,000
3,150
6,000
5.500
Lb.
65
30
Gulf  Islands	
50
35
15
10
Totals   	
526
2,082
64,710
31
Greater Vancouver.
Burnaby  	
86
30
25
54
28
48
25
48
50
620
150
110
250
90
210
85
200
148
21,700
4,500
3,520
5,000
2,250
4,200
2,955
6,000
1,776
35
30
Kerrisdale	
32
South  Vancouver	
20
Marpole    	
North Vancouver	
25
20
35
30
12
Totals 	
394
1,863
51,901
28
Lower  Fraser  Valley.
Delta	
95
135
150
135
70
55
708
1,394
900
1,160
420
410
46,020
58,548
49,500
58,000
12,600
20,500
65
Surrey	
42
Maple Ridge 1	
50
30
50
Totals 	
640
4,992
245,168
49
Upper Fraser Valley and Chilliwack.
Chilliwack 	
80
30
28
72
70
405
140
230
350
520
18,225
8,960
13,800
26,250
28,600
45
Kent    ;
64
60
75
Totals  	
280
1,645
95,835
58
Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys.
Okanagan  	
270
50
55
2,000
250
385
80,000
112,250
22,100
40
45
60
Totals 	
375
2,635
113,350
43
Kootenays.
1
29
30
40
23
11
9
23
28
250
115
160
230
115
62
350
105
21,500
6,900
13,600
18,400
7,475
6,200
22,750
10,500
86
60
85
80
65
East  Kootenay	
100
65
100
Totals    	
193
1
1,387
1
107,325
77 K 116
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 34—Continued.
Estimated Honey-chop, 1924—Continued.
District.
Apiaries.
Hives.
Crop.
Average
per  Hive.
Summary.
Vancouver Island and  Gulf Islands	
Greater Vancouver 	
Lower  Fraser  Valley	
Upper Fraser Valley and Chilliwack 	
Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys
Kootenays 	
Totals	
526
394
640
280
375
193
2,082
1,863
4,992
1,645
2,635
1,387
Lb.
64,710
51,901
245,168
95,835
114,350
107,325
Lb.
31
28
49
58
43
77
2,408
14,604
679,289
46
Value of honey-crop at average price of 22 cents per pound. .$149,443 ; value of beeswax produced in
1924, estimated at 10,000 lb., at 50 cents per pound, $5,000 ; capital value of bees, hives, supers, and other
apiary equipment, reckoning 14,604 hives at, say, $25 each, $365,100.
APPENDIX No. 35.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Reports for Season 1924.
(a.) Kootenays.
Situation of
Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Date Queen
introduced.
Surplus
Honey
taken.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
Castlegar
Appledale
Grand Forks
Boswell
Balfour
Slocan City
Creston 	
Crawford Bay
Totals
A.  E.  Tittaway
B.  Munch
John  A.  Hutton
James  Coupland
Charles  Holt
V. K. Soharev
John Blinco ....
W. J. Kidman
20
(1) July, 1923
(2) July, 1923
(3) July, 1923
(4) July, 1922
(1) June, 1924
(2) June, 1924
(1) June, 192?
(2) June, 1923
(1)   1923
(2)   1923
(3)   1923
(1) April, 1924
(2) April, 1924
(3) April, 1923
  1923
(1)   1922
(2)   1923
*fl) April, 1924
*(2) April, 1924
*(3) April, 1924
Lb.
40
78
32
54
98
94
110
98
58
120
63
168
147
146
120
320
316
17
26
16
Lb.
204
192
208
241
461
120
59
2,121
Lb.
96
104
70
154
120
318
19
106
* One-pound package. 15 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
K 117
APPENDIX No. 35—Continued.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Reports for Season 1924—Continued.
(b.) Fraser Valley.
Situation of
Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Date Queen
introduced.
Surplus
Honey
taken.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
Sullivan
Port Kells
Langley Prairie
Bradner
Huntingdon
Agassiz 	
Mission 	
Ladner
Matsqui
Murrayville
Chilliwack
McKay, Burnaby ...
Totals
W. H. Turnbull
Phibbs & Lawson
Mrs.  J. W. Berry
T. L. Baker
J.  W.  Winson
Dominion Exp.  Sta.
Charles Moore 	
Mrs. M. B. McCallan
A. W. Finlay
E. Chipperfleld
H.  Langton  Johnson
George Coe
40
(1) May, 1924
(2) May, 1924
(3) May, 1924
(4) May, 1924
(1)   1923
(2)   1923
(3)   1923
(1) May, 1924
(2) June, 1924
(3) May,  1924
(1) May,  1924
(2) June, 1924
(3)   1923
(4)   1023
(1)   1923
(2*)   1923
(3)   1923
(1) July, 1923
12) Mar., 1924
(1) May, 1924
(2) May, 1924
(3) May, 1924
(4) May, 1924
(1)   1922
(2)   1922
(3)   1922
(1) Aug., 1923
(2) May, 1924
(3) May, 1924
(4) July, 1924
(1) May, 1924
(2) May, 1924
(3) May, 1924
(4) May, 1924
(1) Aug., 1923
(2) June, 1923
(3) Aug., 1923
(4) Aug., 1923
(1)   1923
(2)   1923
Lb.
150
180
126
150
106
108
106
93
160
116
160
160
140
120
80
90
200
131
238
197
233
242
90
100
60
165
250
225
180
175
200
125
160
139
161
160
148
175
161
Lb.
606
320
369
580
331
910
250
820
660
608
336
Lb.
106
123
145
84
165
83
205
165
152
118
S.042 |
151
17
. K 118
Department of Agriculture.
1925
APPENDIX No. 35—-Continued.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Reports for Season 1924—Continued.
(c.)  Vancouver Island,
Situation of
Apiary.
Name of Owner.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Date Queen
introduced.
Surplus
Honey
taken.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
Courtenay
Fred Swan
(1) May,    1924
(2) May,     1921
Lb.
182
94
Lb.
276
Lb.
138
.(cl.)   Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys.
4
2
2
„2
4
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1922
1922
1923
1923
1923
1923
200
193
190
175
95
80
43
56
152
189
75
60
55
50
758
175
09
341
240
189
88
49
170
60
J. F. Roberts 	
1
II. D.  Child
1
1
Dominion  Exp.  Sta.
1
1
April,
April,
April,
April,
1
Totals
1.4
1,613
115
6
(e.)   Summary.
Territory.
Hives
under
Supervision.
Surplus
Honey
taken  during Season.
Average
per
Hive.
Increase
made.
Fraser  Valley	
40
20
14
2
Lb.
6,042
2,121
1,613
276
Lb.
151
106
115
138
17
8
Okangan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys 	
Vancouver Island  «	
6
Totals                        	
76
10,052
132
31
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed  by  Charles  F.   Banfield,   Printer to  the  King's   Most  Excellent   Majesty.
1925.

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