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FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1924-25 BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1925]

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Full Text

 FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OF  THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1924-25
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F.  Banfield,  Printer  to  the King's  Most Excellent  Majesty.
1925.  To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honouk :
I beg herewith respectfully to present the Fifty-fourth Annual Report on the
Public Schools of the Province.
j. d. Maclean,
Minister of Education.
November, 1925.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Part I.
Page.
Superintendent's Report  9
Inspectors' Reports—
High Schools  24
Elementary Schools  27
Municipal Inspectors' Reports—
New Westminster  41
Vancouver  42
Vancouver, South  46
Victoria  47
Reports on Normal Schools—
Vancouver  49
Victoria  50
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind  52
Report of the Organizer of Technical Education  54
Report of the Director of Elementary Agricultural Education  62
Report of the Director of the Summer School for Teachers  66
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Free Text-book Branch  73
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust  75
Part II.
Statistical Returns—
High .Schools (Cities)      2
High Schools (Rural Municipalities)  12
High Schools (Rural Districts)  16
Elementary Schools (Cities)  IS
Elementary Schools (Rural Municipalities)  5S
Elementary Schools (Rural Districts)  82
Xarnes of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts.  10S
Pakt III.
High School Examination—
Names of the Winners of Medals and Scholarships  115
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre  116
High School Entrance Examination—
Names of Medal-winners  119
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre  120
High School Entrance Examination Papers  129
High School Examination Papers—
Grade IX  136
Grade X  145
Grade XI. (Junior Matriculation)  154
Grade XII. (Senior Matriculation)  170  PART I.
GENERAL REPORT.  Report of the Superintendent of Education,
1924-1925.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., November, 1925.
To the Honourable J. D. MacLean, M.I)., CM., LL.D.,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Fifty-fourth Annual Report of the Public Schools of
British Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1925.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 96,204 (48,712
boys and 47,492 girls) to 97,954 (49,621 boys and 48,333 girls), and the average daily attendance
from 79,262 to 82,721. The percentage of regular attendance was 84.45, the highest reached in
any year.
The number of pupils enrolled and the number of teachers employed in the different classes
of schools are shown hereunder:—
Number of Pdpils
enrolled.
Increase in
Enrolment.
Number of Teachers
employed.
Average
Numher
ot Pupils
1924-25.
1923-24.
Grade
Teachers.
Special
Instructors.
per
Grade
Teacher.
7,373
•    2,855
369
41,280
27,178
18,889
7,084
2,478
327
41,215
26,230
18,870
289
377
42
75
948
19
234
97
19
1,069
797
899
28
104
45
2
31
High   schools   (rural   municipal-
29
High schools (rural districts)    .
Elementary schools (cities)	
Elementary schools (rural munici-
19
39
34
Elementary   schools   (rural   dis-
21
Totals	
97,954
96,204
1,750
_]
3,115
179
In addition to the enrolment shown above, there were in attendance at the—
Normal School, Vancouver  379 students.
Normal School, Victoria   252       „
Victoria College     170
University of British Columbia   1,451        „
New Schools.
Superior schools were established at Dewdney, Procter, North Saanich, and Union Bay.
Schools were opened for the first time in the following localities:—
Locality. Electoral District.
Alexandria, North Cariboo.
Echo Lake Cranbrook.
Gibson Creek Creston.
Charlie'Lake;   Fort St. John, East;   Loos, West;   Pouce
Coupe, East Fort George.
Lone Butte Lillooet.
Loughboro, Namu, Southview Mackenzie.
Springbend North Okanagan.
Jervis Inlet, Kleindale North Vancouver.
Tintagel Omineca.
Meadow Creek Salmon Arm.
Four Mile Skeena.
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY,
VICTORIA, B. C. M 10 Public Schools Report. 1925
Survey of School System.
The survey of the school system of the Province, which was begun last year by Dr. J. H.
Putman, Senior Inspector of Schools, Ottawa, and Dr. G. M. Weir, Professor of Education, The
University of British Columbia, was completed on May 30th. The Commissioners have submitted
an exhaustive report covering almost every aspect of our educational problems and have made
recommendations which, if carried into effect, will result in material improvement to the school
curriculum, the training of teachers, and the inspection and supervision of schools, will make
more equitable the incidence of school taxation and will provide for the superannuation of
teachers. They emphasize the importance and value of domestic science and manual training
as regular school subjects and recommend that a policy of paying bonuses to rural school districts
be adopted with a view to securing and retaining the services of good teachers in rural schools.
In the matter of the curriculum the Commission recommends the establishment of middle schools,
or junior high schools, for pupils between twelve and fifteen years of age, embracing Grades VII.
and VIII. of the elementary school and Grade IX. of the high school, and suggests that a more
elastic programme of studies be provided for those grades as well as for senior high-school classes.
The survey which has just been completed has been the most thorough examination of a school
system ever made in Canada, and the educational worker will find the report a chart of progress
for the next decade.
New Text-books.
During the year new Music Readers were prepared for Grades III. to VIII. by Miss E. M.
Coney, Music Mistress of the Vancouver Normal School staff, assisted by Mr. F. T. C. Wickett,
A.R.C.O., Victoria. For many years American text-books, adapted for Canadian schools, were
prescribed for use in the schools of this Province, but the books were expensive and not largely
used. The various parts of the new Canadian Music Course are within the means of every
child. The price of Book 1 is twenty cents and Books 2, 3, and 4 twenty-five cents each. There
is no good reason now why music should not form a part of the regular programme in all the
elementary schools of the Province.
The " Public School Speller" was replaced in September of this year by a new text
entitled " Spelling for the Grades." This book was prepared by this Department in conjunction
with the Department of Education of Alberta and is now being used in the elementary schools
of both Provinces. The supply for British Columbia was printed by the King's Printer at a
cost of sixteen cents per copy. The price of the old book was fifty-five cents. " Spelling for the
Grades " contains a list of 4,000 words carefully graded to suit the attainments of the pupils.
Cornish's Chemistry, which has been used in Grades X. and XL, will gradually be replaced
by Black and Conant's Practical Chemistry, which has been adapted for use in our high schools
by Professor R. H. Clark, of The University of British Columbia. 'The new book was selected
after a careful examination of all available text-books in chemistry.
The High School Fifth Reader, which had been used in the Province for over twenty years,
has been replaced by " Narrative English Poems," compiled by Drs. MacDonald and Walker, of
The University of British Columbia, with the advice and assistance of representative high-school
teachers.
Music for High-school Students.
High-school students, other than those taking the course of study which leads to Junior
Matriculation, may now select music as an optional subject in lieu of geometry, botany, agriculture, physics, or chemistry. Music lessons are not provided by the high school and are not given
by music-teachers during school-hours. Students intending to select the music option are required
to pass a preliminary test in June, at which they must give proof of natural aptitude for the
subject and enough native talent to make success probable. At the preliminary test the
examiners determine what section of our Music Syllabus the different candidates will be required
to study during the following school-year.
Agricultural Instruction.
For a period of eleven years the Dominion Government met a considerable part of the
funds required to provide instruction in elementary agriculture. This source of support has
now been discontinued and as a result it became necessary to bring about a change in the
District Supervisor system.   Each of the Supervisors is now a member of the high-school staff 16 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. M 11
of his district and he devotes his time almost entirely to teaching agriculture and other science
subjects. . Langley, Surrey, Salmon Arm, and New Westminster are the only municipalities
which now maintain a service for the elementary schools. During the year a Course in
Agriculture was taken in eleven high schools by 591 students. This shows a gain of seventy-five
over the number receiving instruction in the subject the previous year.
Manual Training and Domestic Science.
There were eighty-one manual-training and fifty-five domestic-science centres in the Province,
with seventy-one manual and fifty-four domestic-science instructors. The pupils attending the
manual-training centres numbered 14,223 and those attending domestic science 11,193.
Technical Education, Night-schools, and Correspondence Classes.
Technical schools were in operation in the Cities of New Westminster, Trail, Vancouver,
and Victoria, with a total enrolment of 1,676 students. In addition, ten other cities conducted
commercial courses with an attendance of 434. Teacher-training for technical work proceeded
satisfactorily in the Technical School, Vancouver; and teacher-training for commercial subjects
was undertaken by correspondence and at Summer School, Vancouver.
Night-schools were conducted in thirty-five cities and rural municipalities in the Province,
with an enrolment of 7,386 students. These numbers, according to the latest report of the
Dominion Organizer of Technical Education, rank the Province third in the Dominion.
Instruction by correspondence was given to 250 pupils who live in localities in which schools
have not yet been opened, and also to 202 coal-mine workers who wish to qualify as stiotlighters,
overmen, mine-surveyors, and mine-managers.
In 1924-25 the total amount spent by the Department for night-schools, correspondence-
work, teacher-training, and technical education generally (not including manual training and
domestic science) reached $108,219.25, and of that sum the Dominion Government paid $54,124.62.
Excerpts from the latest report of the Dominion Organizer of Technical Education show that
the Province of British Columbia takes fourth place for the total amount of expenditure on
technical education, fourth place for the number taking correspondence classes, and second for
the number of students being trained as technical teachers.
Summer Schools.
The sixth summer session of The University of British Columbia was held in Vancouver
in July and August under the direction of Dr. H. T. J. Coleman, Dean of the Faculty of Arts,
University of British Columbia. About 300 teachers and other students were in attendance.
Instruction was given in educational theory and method, in commercial work, and also in the
regular University courses.
A Summer School for teachers was held in Victoria at the same time. There were in
attendance 350 teachers, the majority of whom were from rural districts. A demonstration
school of five divisions with an enrolment of 150 pupils was organized for the service of the
Summer School students. In these classes the most approved educational methods were
practised.
Teachers' Bureau.
The Teachers' Bureau, organized in connection with the Department of Education in 1920,
continued to give free service to Boards of School Trustees and to teachers. For the first time
in several years the supply of fully qualified teachers was found to be equal to the demand
for them. The knowledge of this fact no doubt prevented many teachers from relinquishing
their posts at the end of the school-year 1923-24. Consequently a much smaller number of
vacancies were reported to the Bureau, and fewer requests were received from School Boards
for assistance in securing suitable teachers.
Teachers'  Certificates.
Four classes of certificates are issued by the Department of Education—namely, Academic,
First-class, Second-class, and Special. Special certificates are issued to teachers of manual
training, domestic science, and commercial subjects. M 12
Public  Schools Report.
1925
Sixty-eight Academic, 178 First-class, 365 Second-class, 36 Special, and 16 Temporary Certificates, a total of 663, were issued during the year, as compared with 70 Academic, 197 First-class,
562 Second-class, 43 Special, and 24 Temporary Certificates, a total of 896, in 1923-24.
The following statement shows the number of teachers of each sex employed during 1924-25
and 1923-24, and also the number of certificates of each class held by the teachers:—
Number of Certificates of each Class.
No. OF
Teachers of
each Sex.
Total.
Academic.
First.
Second.
Third.
Temp.
Special.
Male.
Female.
High schools -   	
335
124
32
44
358
215
207
537
483
577
60
64
63
5
4
2
.   8
38
90
46
2
237
243
1'62
205
141
930
680
696
378
1,173
Rural municipal elementary.	
Rural and assisted elementary	
842
901
Totals, 1924-25	
535
526
780
717
1,597
1,516
187
235
19
40
176
177
847
779
2,447
2,432
3,294
Totals,  1923-24	
3,211
High Schools—Cities.
The enrolment in the city high schools during the year 1924-25 was 7,373. Of this number,
3,315 were boys and 4,058 were girls.
The number of divisions and the enrolment for 1924-25 and 1923-24 in each city are shown
in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1924-25.
Total
Enrolment,
1923-24.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
3
6
2
4
2
2
1
5
3
6
2
3
3
1
6
8
21
2
1
3
6
5
4
3
i
4
79
11
5
32
86
227
58
132
55
48
32
122
90
182
38
94
74
44
190
244
649
42
41
69
145
113
83
75
12
118
2,837
315
138
1,020
84
200
55
113
46
60 .
23
120
87
Kamloops	
143
43
112
60
34
153
257
621
28
30
54
116
106
92
71
22
Trail.	
98
2,786
319
134
1,017
Totals	
36
234
7,373
1
7,084 16 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
M 13
High Schools—Rural Municipalities.
The enrolment in the rural municipal high schools during the year was 2,855. Of this
number, 1,219 were boys and 1,636 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the years 1924-25 and 1923-24
are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1924-25.
Total
Enrolment,
1923-24.
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
10
2
3
2
2
2
2
4
7
1
0
24
3
3
4
18
4
322
63
53
29
61
52
51
78
195
12
176
684
91
65
107
744
72
286
Delta (Ladner)	
48
Esquimau	
64
30
47
43
43
77
Oak Bay	
183
20
147
570
77
67
82
655
39
Totals	
21
97
2,855
2,478
High  Schools—Rural Districts.
The enrolment in the rural high schools during the year was 369. Of this number, 177
were boys and 192 were girls.
The number of schools and of divisions and the enrolment for the years 1924-25 and 1923-24
are given in the table below:—
Locality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1924-25.
Total
Enrolment,
1923-24.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
55
50
18
24
19
11
24
31
26
26
36
18
13
18
45
Creston :	
47
15
24
17
8
20
26
Ocean Falls	
25
20
23
18
20
19
Totals	
14
19
369
327 Elementary  Schools—Cities.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 41,290. The number of boys was 21,131;
of girls, 20,159.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, the total enrolment for the school-year
1924-25, and the total enrolment for the school-year 1923-24 in each city are shown in the
table below:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1924-25.
Total
Enrolment,
1923-24.
Alberni   :	
1
1
1
1
3
i
i
i
i
i
'   i
i
i
i
i
i
4
2
5
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
30
3
1
16
4
14
10
7
19
13
11
4
21
10
21
4
13
11
10
28
26
68
7
7
7
9
21
16
11
5
2
23
471
39
21
133
117
488
352
273
724
491
403
115
831
382
100
818
108
522
377
366
1,180
939
2,563
233
253
223
363
786
621
465
183
47
852
18,838
1,481
793
5,003
129
538
380
260
Cranbrook	
716
488
Duncan  	
407
139
874
398
74
&15
111
539
429
390
1,184
992
2,556
232
Port Coquitlam _	
243
220
332
719
616
441
166
50
759
18,586
1,411
814
5,207
Totals, 1924-25 -	
94
93
1,060
1,041
41,290
41,215
_]
41,215
Totals, 1923-24   - 16 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
M 15
Elementary Schools—Rural Municipalities.
The enrolment in the rural municipal elementary schools was 27,178. The number of boys
enrolled was 14,082; of girls, 13,096.
The following table gives the names of the several municipalities, the number of schools
in each, the number of divisions, the enrolment for the school-year 1924-25, and the enrolment
for the school-year 1923-24 :—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment,
1924-25.
Total
Enrolment,
1923-24.
Burnaby  	
16
14
2
6
4
12
1
1
2
17
9
11
9
2
2
1
2
9
1
8
15
7
4
1
20
5
16
4
83
32
3
9
7
19
15
1
5
31
21
19
17
16
3
IS
3
95
9
25
60
8
7
9
41
22
202
17
3,187
856
82
246
199
535
482
32
165
869
701
558
570
578
72
667
91
3,661
80
975
1,846
256
193
281
1,180
710
7,528
578
2,935
Chilliwack	
897
Coldstream  	
82
Coquitlam          	
236
Cowichan,  North...	
152
Delta	
523
Esquinialt	
523
28
Kent	
157
Langley .'	
929
643
524
Mission	
Oak -Bay                        	
533
606
Peachland	
91
712
82
3,206
School for Deaf and Blind              	
72
924
1,887
232
183
310
1,170
747
7,313
533
Totals,  1924-25.           	
201
199
797
766
27,178
26,230
26,230
Totals,  1923-24	
Special Tests.
Written examinations for admission to high school have been confined, for several years,
to the subjects of arithmetic, grammar and composition, geography, drawing, penmanship,
dictation and spelling. From time to time reports were received by officials of this Department
to the effect that the other subjects of the prescribed course were, in some of the schools, not
receiving adequate attention. It was therefore decided to give an objective test to Entrance
pupils in the subjects of Canadian history, British history, hygiene, and nature-study. This test,
which was conductd by the Inspectors, was taken in May and June last by more than 5,000 pupils.
There were fifty-five questions in the hygiene paper and sixty each in the other three subjects,
235 questions in all. The table which follows shows the average number of correct answers that
were received from pupils of various schools throughout the Province. Schools in which the
average number of correct answers per pupil reached 50 per cent, of the whole—that is, where
it exceeds 117 in the four subjects—may be said to be doing at least fair work. M 16
Public Schools Report.
1925
Cities.
Scbool.
No. of
Pupils.
Average Number of Correct Answers
(noR Pupil) in
Canadian
History.
British
History.
Hygiene.
Nature-
study.
The Four
Subjects.
47
27
56
34
67
18
78
49
13
90
12
37
52
35
94
60
19
87
75
28
35
9
11
30
28
28
58
61
16
5
72
71
50
44
44
38
75
63
78
76
69
64
69
30
73
75
122
65
66
69
104
25
29
44
29
23
28
24
26
31
34
30
28
30
24
24
29
28
37
31
24
35
23
26
24
23
21
29
30
29
28
22
33
28
21
34   .
26
33
28
28
30
31
27
26
28
29
33
30
32
28
26
29
28
27
32
34
32
36
34
30
30
21
29
33
36
30
28
30
25
26
32
35
37
31
22
35
29
32
29
25
20
29
29
30
26
23
30
29
22
32
27
37
32
30
31
35
31
29
34
30
34
32
38
30
29
29
31
30
29
38
30
37
40
42
42
42
42
47
45
46
42
42
41
43
43
43
45
43
40
43
40
40
44
40
39
43
42
43
40
40
46
39
40
44
43
46
45
42
50
43
42
43
43
41
43
43
45
43
44
41
43
41
43
42
44
25
30
25
26
26
30
31
29
23
26
28
28
26
27
29
24
25
27
27
29
28
27
22
24
28
27
24
24
31
21
21
30
25
31
29
33
30
26
29
26
27
24
29
23
28
26
28
26
24
23
29
27
2fi
128
123
126
114
123
142
146
135
121
127
119
122
131
134
147
Nelson :
129
110
New Westminster :
139
120
MeBride	
126
125
Port Coquitlam :
115
101
126
Prince Rupert:
Booth            	
128
128
119
109
141
117
Trail	
104
Vancouver:
140
121
145
135
133
140
133
129
124
132
123
139
128
Nightingale	
Rhodes	
143
128
126
124
125
121
132
North Vancouver :
Lonsdale	
141
133
42                  32
148
1 16 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
M 17
Cities—Continued.
School.
No. of
Pupils.
Average Number of Correct Answers
(per Pupil) in
Canadian
History.
British
History.
Hygiene.
Nature-     The Four
study.       Subjects.
Victoria :
Boys' Central	
Sir James Douglas
Girls' Central	
George Jay	
Margaret Jenkins...
North Ward	
Oaklands 	
South Park	
West..... 	
29
58
67
102
31
72
62
71
37
26
33
22
23
31
28
28
29
25
29
34
24
23
31
24
28
26
23
42
42
42
36
42
40
41
41
41
22
119
30
140
25
112
22
103
27
131
24
115
27
123
24
120
24
112
Rural Municipality Schools.
Chilliwack :
Atchelitz	
8
11
12
15
20
21
6 •
6
37
41
22
11
6
13
13
14
15
5
19
11
4
5
19
5
33
42
37
7
37
5
4
16
24
5
7
17
7
27
20
25
26
20
24
36
23
29
34
26
24
21
33
29
22
34
23
34
32
24
18
20
32
28
39
30
28
32
30
20
26
26
28
29
33
34
27
26
31
29
22
26
36
22
. 28
34
25
28
22
34
28
29
30
23
31
35
30
17
23
33
34
34
30
30
28
28
16
27
27
30
28
36
34
40
40
41
40
37
40
43
42
38
43
41
45
43
46
42
43
44
39
39
31
40
34
38
39
42
39
41
40
43
47
37
40
42
36
39
42
44
29
26
31
27
23
32
33
28
24
31
27
37
29
36
31
35
31
18
30
31
28
21
26
33
34
25
25-
26
30
35
20
25
22
28
31
26
37
123
Cheam	
112
127
Robertson    	
122
102
Sardis    	
121
Coquitlam—Central	
148
115
Delta—Ladner	
Esquimalt—Esquimalt	
Kent—Agassiz	
Langley :
119
142
119
134
County Line 	
Langley ITort	
116
149
131
Milner	
Murray ville	
Maple Ridge :
Hammond     	
128
139
104
134
129
121
Matsqui:
90
109
Mount Lehman	
137
139
Oak Bay:
136
125
124
Richmond :
133
140
Mitchell	
94
Saanich :
Cedar Hill         	
118
117
122
126
137
150
1_ M 18
Public Schools- Report.
1925
Rural Municipality
Schools-
—Continued.
School.
No. of
Pupils.
Average Number of Correct Answers
(per pcpil) in
Canadian
History.
British
History.
Hygiene.
Nature-
study.
The Four
Subjects.
Saanich—Continued.
Strawberry Vale	
14
24
24
13
22
10
7
6
17
34
106
31
46
63
61
25
24
84
21
54
38
52
2S
26
31
26
26
32
26
29
19
26
33
26
34
32
28
33
35
25
29
28
26
'23
31
27
29
29
27
27
28
29
32
25
34
36
28
34
35
32
38
30
27
33
29
30
24
35
28
40
43
42
43
45
43
43
39
44
44
41
45
41
40
41
44
42
44
41
3S
41
45
42
25
26
26
33
30
28
28
25
34
26
26
33
29
23
27
32
24
27
32
25
25
31
25
120
Tillieum	
130
Tolmie	
Salmon Arm—Salmon Arm, West	
121
128
Surrey :
Cloverdale	
135
Hall's Prairie	
126
Newton	
131
Tynehead	
108
White Rock	
139
Vancouver, South :
Brock	
Carleton	
139
121
146
137
McBride	
MacKenzie	
124
139
Norquay	
142
119
Selkirk	
133
130
118
Van Home	
Wolfe	
112
142
Vancouver, West—Pauline Johnson ..!	
122
Rural and Assisted Schools.
Abbotsford	
35
3
2
3
3
5
13
10
16
3
4
8
5
7
5
10
20
4
7
2
17
12
4
3
14
6
9
3
26
14
24
28
27
19
27
28
26
20
19
33
30
29
14
26
22
34
2S
20
22
19
28
19
29
21
27
18
27
23
22
35
22
19
28
29
27
24
20
37
35
30
16
24
22
30
27
17
22
20
26
29
32
21
26
20
41
36
37
45
42
36
43
40
40
41
46
44
40
44
40
44
38
42
41
46
40
39
46
40
45
41
41
42
26
20
21
38
26
26
26
24
26
28
28
28
27
29
23
30
25
34
23
29
22
22
24
25
28
27
28
30
121
Anarchist Mountain	
94
104
Balfour	
146
117
100
Chase	
124
121
119
Divide    	
Enderby, North t	
114
114
143
Fort George, South	
132
132
93
Glenbank :	
124
106
Kettle Valley	
141
119
Marysville	
113
105
101
124
113
134
111
122
Perry Siding	
111 16 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
M 19
Rural and Assisted  Schools—Continued.
School.
No. of
Pupils.
Average Number of Correct Answers
(per Pupil) in
Canadian
History.
British
History.
Hygiene.
Nature-
study.
The Four
Subjects.
Procter	
6
6
2
3
5
3
5
3
4
4
12
4
8
5
24
31
20
24
27
21
29
26
35
30
21
19
18
21
24
34
14
27
25
22
31
25
35
27
22
IS
18
19
38
45
38
44
40
44
45
49
45
34
38
44
43
41
27
26
27
33
35
21
2S
30
30
32
23
36
24
27
113
137
98
Rock Creek	
127
127
Salmo            ...
108
Silverton	
133
Skidegate _	
Slocan Junction	
130
146
122
Vanderhoof	
104
Willow Point	
Yahk	
117
104
Ymir	
107
Salaries.
The following tables show the sums paid in salaries, together with the highest and the lowest
salaries paid to teachers during the school-year 1924-25:—
Schools.
Amount paid
in Teachers'
Salaries.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
High Schools.
Citv            .     .
$   023.225 00
225,069 00
37,710 00
$2,393 17
2,273 42
1,984 74
$4,000 00
4,074 00 •
3,500 00
$1,480 00
Rural municipal	
Rural	
1,300 00
1,450 00
Totals	
$   886,004 00
$2,343 93
$4,074 00
$1,300 00
Elementary Schools.
Cities.
$        4,400 00
17,920  00
12,450 00
8,380 00
23,920 00
17,350 00
12,510 00
4,900 00
33,275 00
12,250 00
3,410 00
27,322 50
5,600 00
17,750 00
13,925 00
14,100 00
39,020 00
39,250 00
93,775 00
8,290 00
7,400 00
7,550 00
13,400 00
34,650 00
20,760 00
14,300 00
$1,100 00
1.280 00
1,245 00
1,197 15
1,258 95
1,239 28
1,137 27
1,225 00
1,512 50
1,225 00
1,136 66
1,301 07
1,400 00
1,365  38
1,265 91
1.281 73
1,345 52
1,453  70
1,379 04
1,184 28
1,057  14
1,078 57
1,488 88
1,650 00
1,297  50
1,300 00
$1,300 00
2,400 00
2,100 00
1,800 00
2,500 00
2,100 00
2,000 00
1,700 00
3,000 00
2,000 00
1,400 00
1,900 00
1,900 00
2,700 00
2,100 00
2,600 00
2,500 00
2,800 00
2,700 00
1,550 00
1,400 00
1,800 00
2,250 00
2,360 00
2,500 00
2,100 00
$1,000 00
1,080 00
Chilliwack      ....         	
1,000 00
960 00
1,100 00
Cumberland	
950 00
850 00
Enderby	
Fernie   	
Grand Forks .....   	
1,000 00
1,160 00
1,100 00
960 00
1,175 00
KasLo  	
Kelowna	
1,150 00
1,080 00
900 00
1,000 00
1,000 00
1,100 00
920 00
1,0S0 00
900 00
850 00
1,100 00
1,250 00
1,050 00
900 00 M 20
Public Schools Report.
1925
Salaries—Continued.
Schools.
Amount paid
in Teachers'
Salaries.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Elementary Schools—Continued.
Cities—Continued.
Salmon Arm          	
$        6,160 00
2,300 00
29,940 00
751,330 00
59,655 00
29,460 00
208,795 00
$1,232 00
1,150 00
1,301  74
1,575 12
1,529 62
1,402  86
1,569 90
$2,100 00
1,300 00
2,400 00
3,510 00
2,880 00
2,400 00
2,775 00
$   960 00
Siocan	
Trail	
1,000 00
1.0S0 00
1,020 00
1,080 00
1,260 00
Victoria	
950 00
Totals	
$1,595,677 50
$1,477 48
$3,510.00
$   850 00
Rural Municipalities.
$   109,120 00
30,000 00
3,560 00
9,350  00
7,310 00
21,200 00
21,843 00
1,200 00
5,000 00
30,000 00
20,950 00
18,600 00
18,550 00
25,570 00
3,050 00
26,920 00
3,500 00
151,537 00
28,340 00
63,676 00
8,800 00
7,280 00
11,960 00
41,750 00
30,740 00
307,270 00
22,170 00
$1,299 05
1,000 00
1,186 66
1,038 89
1,044 29
1,115  79
1,365 19
1,200 00
1,000 00
967 74
1,047 50
978 95
1,091  18
1,598 13
1,016 66
1,416 84
1,166 67
1,595  13
1,133 60
1,157 75
1,100 00
1,040 00
1,328 89
1,018 29
1,392 73
1,506 22
1,304  12
$2,750 00
1,350 00
1,260 00
1,300 00
1,500 00
2,000 00
2,800 00
1,200 00
1,250 00
1,250 00
1,600 00
1,250 00
2,140 00
3,125 00
1,250 00
2,750 00
1,350 00
3,360 00
2,700 00
2,085 00
1,350 00
1,200 00
2,000 00
1,400 00
2,500 00
3,360 00
2,300 00
$   760 00
850 00
1,100 00
Coquitlam	
900 00
840 00
Delta ....	
900 00
1,100 00
1,200 00
Kent	
900 00
800 00
800 00
800 00
840 00
Oak Bay...            	
900 00
900 00
1,200 00
1,000 00
1,080 00
850 00
697 00
1,000 00
960 00
1,150 00
800 00
1,020 00
1,020 00
960 00
Totals                      	
$1,029,246 00
$1,309  47
$3,360 00
$   697 00
Rural, Assisted, and E. & N. Belt.
Rural	
$   317,320 00
524,276  35
114,469  65
$1,117 74
994 83
1,069 81
$2,550 00
1,600 00
1,560 00
$   780 00
900 00
E. & N. Belt         	
900 00
Totals..	
$   956,066 00
$1,063 48
$2,550 00
$   780 00
Manual Training and Domestic Science.
$   130,258 00
69,660 00
$2,003 97
1,548 00
$3,010 00
2,500 00
$1,000 00
1,050 00 16 Geo. 5                                  Public  Schools Report. M 21
Expenditure for Education, 1924-25.
Education Office:
Salaries  $    19,653 03
Office supplies  9,665 38
Travelling  expenses  116 97
Free Text-book Branch :
Salaries  ,  5,598 17
Office supplies  '.  3,987 24
Text-books, maps, etc  54,531 29
Agricultural Education:
Salaries     $15,S82 14
Less contribution by districts        6,731 25
  9,150 S9
Office supplies   645 44
Travelling expenses  923 00
Grants in aid   18,683 56
Industrial Education :
Salaries   7,667 85
Office supplies  .'  1,662 91
Travelling expenses  1,369 47
Grants in aid  49,384 43
Night-schools    23,633 84
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries  52,993 15
Office supplies   4,827 89
Travelling  expenses     19,305 29
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries   26,417 50
Office supplies   3,361 13
Travelling expenses   201 55
Fuel, water, and light   2,274 28
Maintenance and repairs   3,083 54
Students' mileage   980 15
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal students  3,890 00
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries   26,952 69
Office supplies  2,670 25
Travelling expenses   155 50
Fuel, water, and light   2,630 22
Maintenance and repairs  2,344 47
Students'   mileage    7,453 45
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal students   1,815 00
Incidentals    43 50
School for Deaf and Blind :
Salaries   21,897 42
Office supplies   163 97
Travelling expenses  *  47 90
Fuel, water, and light  2,191 23
Maintenance and repairs   3,240 88
Furniture, fixtures, etc  2,046 38
Provisions   1,303 40
Incidentals   223 42
Per capita grant to cities   717,890 91
Per capita grant to municipalities  538,748 80
Per capita grant to rural school districts  169,921 35
Carried forward  $1,825,838 69 M 22
Public Schools Report.
1925
Brought forward  ,  $1,825,838 69
Salaries to teachers in assisted schools   524,276 35
Salaries to teachers in Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Belt   114,469 65
School buildings, erection and maintenance   179,606 36
Libraries   2,709 22
Examination of teachers and High School Entrance classes   23,275 50
Conveying children to central schools  32,405 37
Summer schools  _  21,195 03
Incidentals  $ 2,972 62
Incidentals, Survey of Education      30,922 03
  33,894 65
University of British Columbia   466,000 00
$3,223,670 82
Amount expended by:
Cities    $2,959,648 88
District municipalities      1,094,552 25
Rural and assisted school districts        451,216 50
 5,105,417 63
Grand total cost of education   $8,329,088 45
The following table shows the cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil on enrolment
and on average daily attendance during the past ten years:—
Year.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Average Actual
Daily Attendance.
1915-16	
$22 50
22 47
22 64
24 88
27 20
29 01
29 33
27 92
27 36
27 17
$28 56
1916-17	
27 83
1917-18	
27 93
1918-19	
31 59
1919-20            ..            	
36 05
1920-21         ...                                              	
36 38
1921-22	
35  70
1922-23	
34 07
1923-24         	
33 21
1924-25
32 17 16 Geo. 5
Public  Schools Report.
M 23
The gradual growth of the schools, as well as the cost to the Provincial Government of
maintaining the same, is shown by the record of attendance and expenditure given in the
following exhibit:—
Year.
Number
of School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of
Attendance.
Government
Expenditure for
Education.
1877-78	
1882-83	
1887-88	
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
575
582
636
665
716
744
760
759
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
67,516
72,006
79,243    ■
85,950
91,919
94,888
96,204
97,954
1,395.50
1,383.00
3,093.46
7,111.40
11,055.65
16,357.43
23,195.27
43,274.12
54,746.76
56,692.38
59,791.39
68,497.57
75,528.38
77,752.98
79,262.23
82,726.14
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
81.09
78.73
75.45
79.69
82.16
81.94
82.39
84.45
$     43,334 01
50,850 63
99,902 01
1892-93	
190,558 33
1897-98	
247,756 37
1902-03	
397,003 46
1907-08	
1912-13 .'	
1917-18	
464,473 78
1,032,038 60
1,529,058 93
1918-19	
1,791,153 47
1919-20	
1920-21	
2,155,934 61
2,931,572 25*
1921-22	
1922-23	
3,141,737 95*
3,176,686 28*
1923-24	
3,173,395 26*
1924-25	
3,223,670 82*
* This amount includes annual grant to Provincial University.
Additional information regarding the work of the schools is given in the reports of the
Inspectors and other officials.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education. M 24 Public Schools Report. 1925
INSPECTORS' REPORTS.
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
Victoria, B.C., August 3rd, 1925.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg leave to submit herewith the following report on the high and superior schools
of Inspectorate No. 1 for the year ended June 30th, 1925:—
There has been a marked increase in the number of teachers in this inspectorate during the
past year. Additional teachers were appointed at Chilliwack, Kamloops, Nanaimo, Oak Bay,
King George V. (Point Grey), Port ATberni, Prince George, Prince Rupert, Revelstoke, Salmon
Arm, Surrey, West Vancouver, and Victoria. Superior schools were established at North
Saanich, at Kitsumgallum (Terrace) in the northern part of the Province, and at Union Bay
on Vancouver Island. At the beginning of the fall term the" newly organized Lord Byng High
School was opened with a staff of five teachers in the old Lord Kitchener Public School in West
Point Grey. The corner-stone of the new building was laid in September by His Excellency
the Governor-General of Canada, after whom the school is named, and it was formally opened
in January by the Honourable the Premier of British Columbia. A new high-school building
was also opened in Langley Municipality at the beginning of the calendar year. This school is
situated on a well-paved portion of the Yale Road between Langley Prairie and Murrayville.
The erection of these new schools brings the total number of buildings in this inspectorate to
forty-six. Thirty-five of these are high schools, ten are superior schools, and there is one junior
high school. The year's increase in the number of teachers was twenty-five, bringing the total
number in Inspectorate No. 1 to 213 teachers.
Under ordinary conditions the duty of inspecting and reporting upon so large a number of
teachers would be a very heavy one, but when one takes into consideration the facts that these
teachers have had academic and professional training, that the majority change their positions
very seldom, that the children come from English-speaking homes, and that the principals, almost
without exception, have their schools well organized, it can be readily understood that under
such favourable conditions my duties as Inspector were considerably lightened.
Although my regular work was impelled by the time spent in giving the Educational Survey
Tests in twenty-one schools of this inspectorate, yet I found time to inspect all schools' but two,
and even there I conferred with the principal or the teachers regarding class-room procedure,
the limits covered, and any difficulties encountered in school management. I cannot speak too
highly regarding the spirit of co-operation manifested by the teachers in every school where
the Survey Tests were given and in the extra work which they undertook in checking and
tabulating the results. The detailed tabulation was in some schools so heavy that it chilled
for a time all desire on the part of the teachers for giving further tests. In the majority of
schools, however, a real interest was aroused in their study and use. Some principals now give
at least one test a term to each grade, and they compare and check the Intelligence and Achievement Quotients with the teachers' estimates of their pupils' ability and with the results of the
ordinary examinations.
In connection with the Language Tests furnished by the Survey Commission, some teachers
were disappointed in the very few Henmon Latin and French Tests that were given their pupils,
the number being insufficient for the purpose of forming a fair estimate of their knowledge of
these two subjects. In the few schools in which these tests were given the results were not as
satisfactory as the language instruction, which the students received in these subjects, would
warrant. A few teachers in our high schools contended that in order to make the tests absolutely
fair their students should have studied the same texts as those which were used by the pupils
in the United States who took the same tests. According to the Directions for Scoring prepared
by Dr. Henmon, of the University of Wisconsin, these Latin Tests were based upon " A tabulation of all the different words occurring in thirteen recent or widely used beginners' books,
Caesar, Cicero, and Vergil.   The 239 words common to all the books were given a thorough 16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools Report. M 25
try-out and a scale value or weight was determined for each word." The pupils in the high
schools of this Province had studied only portions of Caesar, Books IV. and V., and lines 1-505
of Vergil's Aeneid, Book II. They had not studied any part of Cicero. The quality of the
instruction given in Latin and French in the high schools of this Province and the knowledge
acquired by our students in their three years' course may be judged in part from the papers
set at the end of that time and from the results obtained. Last June 934 pupils wrote on the
Grade XL papers in Latin authors and Latin grammar and their average mark was over 62
per cent., while 1,565 wrote on the Grade XI. papers in French and their average mark was
above 60 per cent. The average of these two subjects was higher than that in any other
subject except mathematics. To those who are interested in language surveys I would
recommend a perusal of the New Hampshire Survey of "Latin in Secondary Schools," completed
in 1919 by Mr. H. A. Brown, head of the Bureau of Educational Research in the New Hampshire
Department of Public Instruction. A copy of this report may be obtained from the Provincial
Librarian, Parliament Buildings, Victoria.
The publication in the press report of the average mark made by all the high-school pupils
of the Province in each subject of the Grade XI. examination was appreciated generally by high-
school principals and Boards of School Trustees. It gave school authorities a basis of comparison upon which they could estimate the standing of the pupils of their school, their teachers
individually, and the school as a whole. These averages give value to the examination in much
the same way as the average or norms for mental tests make it possible for teachers to compare
the standing of their schools with that of the Provincial or State average.
All students who were granted supplemental in the Matriculation examinations received
with their statements of marks information to the effect that these examinations would be
conducted this year not only in Vancouver and Victoria as formerly, but also in the high schools
at Kamloops, Kelowna, Nanaimo, Nelson, Prince George, Prince Rupert, and Revelstoke.
In the course of the year new libraries were established in several high schools, in others
the number of books was increased, and in still others a better use was made of the books
already in the library. Many teachers are encouraging their pupils to do more general reading,
knowing that in training them in the use of good books they are introducing their pupils to a
perennial source of information and enjoyment.
As I review in restrospect the schools which I have visited during the year with their 5,000
or more students, I cannot imagine a healthier, more intelligent, and happier group of high-
school boys and girls anywhere within the bounds of those countries where the English language
is spoken.
I have, etc.,
A. Sullivan,
Inspector of High Sc-hools.
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
Vancouver, B.C., October 5th, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the high and superior schools of my district
for the school-year ended June 30th, 1925:—
Owing to the work done in connection with the Educational Survey I was unable to visit
all my schools.   Two high schools and one superior school were not inspected last year.
New superior schools were established at Dewdney, Procter, and Kimberley, while Vananda
was reduced from superior to public-school status.
The new high-school building at Grand Forks was opened early in the school-year. The
citizens and pupils of this city are justly proud of their new building, which fills a long-felt
want.
Practically all my time during the fall term was spent in conducting tests in connection
with the work of the Educational Survey. Tests were given to 2,015 pupils (965 boys, 1,054
girls), distributed among the grades as follows: Technical, 195; Household Science, 88;
Commercial, 72; Grade IX., 711; Grade X., 49S; Grade XL, 430; Grade XII., 21. M 26
Public Schools Report.
1925
While it was impossible to include all pupils of all the schools of my district, yet tests were
distributed in as fair a proportion as possible. One rural school, six rural-municipality, three
Vancouver schools, and four city schools outside Vancouver were included in my testing pro- .
gramme. Four Hotz Algebra Tests, one Henmon French, and two Henmon Latin Tests were
made use of; while special tests in Geography, History, General ^Science, and Intelligence were
prepared for the Survey. Last year I obtained copies of the same Hotz Algebra and Henmon
French and Latin Tests and used them in some of my schools during my visits of inspection,
but I found them unsatisfactory in my work of inspection because of the fact that they were
prepared for schools in the United States and hence were not altogether suitable for schools
such as ours, which use different texts and have a different system of organization.
I found the testing-work most interesting and appreciate very highly the opportunity
accorded me for giving intelligence and achievement tests on such an extensive scale. It was
very interesting to note that the schools which took leading places in the departmental tests of
this summer almost without exception occupied places at or near the top of the list in the
majority of the tests given.. I wish to take this opportunity to thank the teachers who willingly
gave so much of their time and did such careful, efficient work in marking papers and
tabulating results.
My report of last year contained a table giving the average marks made in the different
Grade XL papers, as well as the percentage of failures on each. As a large proportion of the
teachers seemed interested in these figures, I am giving a similar table this year.
Subject.
Candidates.
Average.
No. of
Failures.
Percentage
of Failures.
Composition	
Literature —
General History	
Algebra —
Geometry	
Chemistry	
Physics	
Botany	
Agriculture	
Latin Authors	
Latin  Grammar.	
Greek	
French Translation
French Grammar....
German Authors	
German Grammar...
Geography	
1,703
1,701
1,652
1,660
1,648
1,287
718
158
194
935
933
20
1,570
1,560
24
24
514
55.70
57.40
60.33
74.31
61.02
60.19
59.79
55.27
65.28
54.05
70.07
71.35
58.70
62.94
59.67
57.00
50.28
82
127
80
111
220
105
81
10
162
30
157
77
7
54
4.81
7.46
4.84
6.68
13.34
8.15
11.28
6.32
17.32
3.21
10.00
4.93
29.16
10.50
I-have often felt that an analysis of the answers to the different questions of the several
subjects of examination would be of material assistance to the teachers. It is obviously
impossible for me in the space at my disposal to analyse the answer papers in all subjects and
grades. No doubt teachers of French will be interested in the following detailed analysis of
the Grade XL French papers.
Out of 271 papers in French translation selected at random, four candidates failed on
Question 1, twenty-nine on Question 2, twenty-five on Question 3, and fifty-five on Question 4.
A similar study of 387 papers in French grammar showed that three candidates failed on
Question 1, thirteen on Question 2, twenty-six on Question 3, eighty-seven on Question 4, eighty-
seven on Question 5, seven on Question 6, and nineteen on Question 7.
This summer two important changes were made in connection with supplemental examinations. In the past, September supplemental® in Grades XL and XII. were written only in
Vancouver and Victoria; this September centres were established at Kamloops, Kelowna,
Nanaimo, Nelson, Prince George, Prince Rupert, and Revelstoke, as well as at Vancouver and
Victoria. Students of Grades IX. and X. for the first time were granted supplemental in the
June examinations. The Superintendent of Education has informed such students that they
must satisfy their principal by oral or written examinations given at the opening of school in
September that they have gained a fair standard of proficiency in the subjects in which they 16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools Report. M 27
failed in June, and then may be promoted to the next grade without further Departmental
Examination. ;
I have, etc.,
J. B. DeLong,
Inspector of High Sclwols.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
Victoria, B.C., October 7th, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit the following report on the public elementary schools in Inspectorate
No. 1 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1925:—
The definition of the district remained the same as for the previous year.
The school-grounds at Ganges Harbour have been cleared and an additional class-room was
in course of erection at the end of the school-year for use at the beginning of the autumn term;
the teachers at Beaver Point, Ganges Harbour, and Vesuvius continued school-gardening on a
small scale. Apart from these few improvements, nothing was done towards the beautification
of school premises by the rural and assisted districts; in fact, some of the school-yards are
still uncleared, while others have yet to be fenced. The majority of school premises in the
City of Victoria are rendered attractive to the eye through the labours of the school gardener,
assisted' in some instances by the teachers and janitors; the teachers and pupils of the Burn-
side, George Jay, Kingston Street, and Oaklands Schools had another year of success with
school-gardening.
The school-work of the teachers was much the same as in.former years; if any criticism is
to be offered, it is that the teacher is still inclined to do too much for the pupil and to do too
little In the way of directing his studies. Many of the teachers have yet to realize the
importance of silent reading on the part of the pupil, and those who have realized the importance
of it are sadly handicapped through an insufficient supply of reading material. A pupil retarded
one year is an extra cost to the community of at least $60, a sum of money that would have
purchased a considerable amount of good reading-matter. When School Boards recognize the
fact that poor reading ability on the part of pupils is the cause of much of the retardation in
our schools, they will then, perhaps, realize that it is a wiser and better policy to provide a
goodly supply of supplementary readers and other reading-matter than to provide the funds
required for repeaters.
Full-time teaching was exacted of all but one of the principals; the one, with part time
free from class responsibility, secured much better results at the Entrance Examination than in
previous years. This increased pass-list alone, I have no doubt, paid the salary of the additional
teacher required.
The following were recommended for excellence in the teaching of physical exercises under
the provisions of the Strathcona Trust:—
Mr. Ivor Parfitt, 1st Division, Ganges Harbour School.
Miss Doris B. Graves, 6th Division, North Ward School.
Miss Kathrine McKay, 14th Division, Oaklands School.
I have, etc.,
W. H. M. May,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
Victoria, B.C., August 31st, 1925.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public elementary schools of
Inspectorate No. 2 for the year ended June 30th, 1925:—
For the year just closed there has been no change in the extent of territory covered, while
the number of teachers engaged has remained practically the same as last year. M 28 Public Schools Report. 1925
The period under review may justly be characterized as one of general and substantial
progress all round. Trustees and teachers generally worked in harmony and in the best interests
of education. The attendance of the children was comparatively regular and in only a few
cases was it materially interfered with by epidemics of any kind. The health of the teachers
was such that in only one case am I able to recall where a substitute was in charge owing to
the illness of the regular teacher.
If there is one factor more than another that has contributed to the general progress and
advancement of the cause of education during the past year, it is the universal law of supply
and demand. The operation of this inexorable law is largely responsible for the fact,
especially during the last few years, that there were fewer changes in the personnel of the
teachers in control of the rural and assisted schools in this territory. Even this degree of
permanency of tenure was plainly evident in the results of this year's work.
Examinations of pupils for entrance to high schools were held at seventeen centres throughout the inspectorate for the convenience of parents and children. At these centres 475
candidates wrote, of whom 352 were successful. For the first time the candidates from rural
and assisted schools scored as high a percentage of " passes" as those from the cities and
municipalities.    To me personally, I am free to confess, this is always a gratifying result.
I have, etc.,
A. C. Stewart,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 3.
Nanaimo, B.C., October 5th, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 3 for the school-year which ended on June 30th, 1925:—
This inspectorate, whose boundaries remain unchanged, includes seventy-four schools with
177 divisions and 179 teachers. New divisions were opened in Alert Bay, Courtenay, Nanaimo,
and Union Bay during the year; a new school was opened at Clayoquot, while Suquash remained
closed.
It was found impossible to visit all the schools during the year, as the first term was
entirely devoted to the Provincial Educational Survey. However, that term's work was most
valuable from all points of view. Teachers, even those of schools which were not tested, had
an interest aroused which will lead to incalculable benefits, and the demand of the public for
light upon the subject shows an awakening and an entirely new and sympathetic attitude.
Many teachers from this inspectorate spent their vacations in search of further light.
At the Entrance Examinations 310 pupils presented themselves from the public schools.
Of these, 211, or 68 per cent., were successful, while eighty-seven were promoted on recommendation. Thus out of 397 pupils in Grade VIII., 298, or 75 per cent., were passed into high
school. • Twelve more were passed from private schools, and it is worthy of note that, of these,
four were Indians—three from Alert Bay and one from Ahousat. The higher percentage of
passes this year is largely accounted for by the fact that the large number of teachers available
has kept teachers from changing schools and so increased efficiency. Florence Ferguson, of
Nanaimo, won the Governor-General's medal with a total of 450 marks.
Local conventions were held in Courtenay and Ladysmith. The one held at the latter
centre was attended by the teachers from the southerly portion of Inspectorate No. 3 and the
northerly part of Inspectorate No. 2. These conventions are found to be most instructive and
inspirational.
I have, etc.,
J. M. Paterson,
Inspector of Schools. 16 Geo. 5
Public  Schools Report.
M 29
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 4.
Vancouver, B.C., September 30th, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 4 for the school-year 1924-25:—
This inspectorate comprises nine assisted schools along the Coast and five along the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway; the graded schools at Howe Sound and Squamish; the Rural Municipalities of North Vancouver and West Vancouver; the City of North Vancouver; and the
following schools in Vancouver City: Aberdeen, Bayview, Beaconsfield, Block 70, Dawson,
Charles Dickens, Simon Fraser, Franklin, Grenfell, Hastings, Kitsilano, Livingstone, Mount
Pleasant, Macdonald, and Strathcona.
During the year an assisted school was opened at Kleindale, near Pender Harbour, and
another at Jervis Inlet, near Egmont.
It is pleasing to report that in the rural and city municipalities the respective Trustee
Boards were able to carry out extensive building programmes. At both the Charles Dickens
and Hastings Schools in Vancouver City twelve additional class-rooms will be provided; at
Lonsdale, North Vancouver City, four additional class-rooms were also provided.
The regular work of inspection and supervision was much delayed, as practically all of the
fall term was occupied in conducting Intelligence Tests, Standardized Tests, and other tests in
connection with the recent School Survey. These tests were fairly distributed over all the
schools of this inspectorate. All the class-rooms in the assisted and rural schools, in the Rural
Municipalities of North Vancouver and West Vancouver, and in North Vancouver City were
visited and reports issued according to regulations.
Supervision of the schools in Vancouver Cit-y was confined to new teachers, those holding
interim certificates, and to the general organization and conducting of High School Entrance
Examinations.
The results of the High School Entrance Examination held in June, on the whole, show
improvement over those of last yeai\ Of the candidates who wrote from rural and assisted
schools over 75 per cent, were successful. The following table for schools in the Cities of
Vancouver and North Vancouver presents interesting and significant information when conditions
are considered. Owing to the consolidation of Entrance pupils at some centres no figures are
given for the two rural municipalities.
School.
Enrolment
in June.
Passed on
Recommendation.
Passed on
Examination.
Total.
Per Cent.
of June
Enrolment.
Wrote
for
Medal.
Vancouver.
Aberdeen	
Bayview 	
Beaconsfield 	
Charles Dickens	
Dawson  	
Franklin	
Simon Fraser  	
Grenfell  	
Hastings 	
Kitsilano	
Livingstone	
Macdonald	
Mount Pleasant	
Strathcona	
North Vancouver.
Lonsdale..  	
Queen Mary.-- .....
Ridgeway	
448
441
428
491
959
336
579
96
829
461
437
595
703
1,203
404
500
4S6
17
18
15
22
51
14
26
39
35
18
19
28
31
22
1
14
8
16
22
14
4
9
10
11
6
19
21
24
16
11
IS
32
23
38
73
28
30
48
45
29
25
47
57
24
47
4.0
7.3
5.4
7.7
7.6
8.4
5.2
5.8
9.7
6.6
4.2
6.7
4.7
5.9
9.4
6.8 M 30 Public Schools Report. 1925
In  concluding this  report,  I  desire to  acknowledge the many kindnesses  and courtesies
extended to me during the past year by School Boards and their officials and also by teachers.
I have, etc.,
J. T. Pollock,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 5.
Vancouver, B.C., October 5th, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 5
'for the school-year ended June 30th, 1925:—
During the year under review Inspectorate No. 5 comprised a group of eighteen rural and
assisted schools on the Northern Coast; Port Moody, loco, Lake Buntzen, and Sunnyside No. 2,
on Burrard Inlet; the Rural Municipalities of Maple Ridge, Matsqui, Mission (with rural and
assisted schools adjacent), Sumas; Abbotsford Rural School District; and in Vancouver City
the General Gordon, Grandview, Model, Florence Nightingale, Cecil Rhodes, Laura Secord,
Seymour, and Lord Tennyson Schools. The inspectorate included 245 divisions in a territory
stretching from districts in the Fraser Valley, 70 miles east of Vancouver, to the head of
Loughborough Inlet, over 200 miles north of Vancouver, and including types of schools varying
from the large graded city school of over twenty divisions to the little logging-camp school-house
with an enrolment of pupils barely sufficient to maintain an average of six.
As the fall term from October until the close of the term in. December was given over to
the work of the testing programme of the Educational Survey, no inspectorial or supervisory
work was possible during that period. On the reopening of the schools in January the regular
work of inspection was resumed.
A visit of inspection was made to all rural and assisted schools and to the divisions in
Vancouver City schools to which new teachers had been appointed.
As a great many special visits to rural districts were necessary in connection with matters
of departmental administration the regular visits of inspection were of necessity brief.
There was no time to make a thorough visit of supervision to all of the schools during the
past year. In the visits of inspection made to the schools an attempt was made to measure
objectively the achievements of the pupils, particularly in the " tool subjects."
In arithmetic the Woody-McCall Mixed Fundamentals and Otis Reasoning Tests were used.
Columns from the Ayres' Spelling Scale (Buckingham Revision) were employed to test achievement in spelling. To measure comprehension in silent reading, the Ayres-Burgess Scale, the
Pressey Attainment 'Scale, and Thorndike-McCall Reading Tests were employed.
The results of this objective measuring were typed on the regular official report forms
forwarded to the Department periodically. In every case the median score for each class was
given as well as the range and the norm for the grade tested. It would be noted in the
returns forwarded that a very wide range existed in a given grade among the varied types of
schools found in this inspectorate.
It is possible, however, to make a few generalizations that will bear scientific investigation.
In our graded urban schools and in many of our rural schools, where there is some degree of
permanency of the teaching staff, median class scores are above the standard norms for the
grades in arithmetic and spelling. Writing, too, is much above the grade standards. The results
generally in comprehension in silent reading, however, are disappointing. While in the primary
grades very good work is being done as the results clearly indicate, above the second grade,
however, particularly in Grades III., IV., and V., the class medians fall below standard norms.
This is especially true of our rural and assisted schools. In many of the larger city schools
where teachers have become students of the new education and where a silent-reading technique
has been mastered, class medians are well above the grade norms. 16 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. M 31
Intelligence tests and certain standardized achievement tests are of very great value in
diagnosing the wretched grading and classification found in many rural schools.
Speaking of tests recalls a reference at the beginning of this very brief summary of the
work of Inspectorate No. 5 to the testing programme of the Educational Survey.
Being somewhat constrained to write at some length on observations made during the
work of inspection and supervision, I am reminded that for the space of nearly one year an
Educational Survey has been testing, observing, and weighing in the balance teacher and taught,
inspector and inspected, supervisor and supervised, and that it were well, rather than attempt
to elaborate upon all of the good and all of the evil, the advantages and shortcomings of our
educational system, to adopt the fatalist attitude of the conquering Saracens in reference to
the library of Alexandria and the Koran. It will be recalled that the Mohammedans defended
their action of burning that priceless repository of Greek and Egyptian wisdom and culture by
claiming that if the books in the Alexandrian Library were at variance with the Koran, then
truly they must be burned; and if, on the other hand, they were in agreement with the teachings
of the Koran, then truly they were superfluous and should be destroyed.
So, in like manner, if what I might write in a lengthy annual report concerning our elementary schools should be at variance with the findings of the Educational Survey, then truly such
writings should be destroyed; and, contrariwise, if such writings should happen to be in entire
accord with the report of the Survey, then truly they would be superfluous.
I have, etc.,
H. H. Mackenzie,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 6.
Vancouver, B.C., October 5th, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 6 for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1925 :—
This inspectorate comprises the following schools in Vancouver City: Alexandra, Central,
Fairview, Henry Hudson, Lord Nelson, and Lord Roberts; also those in Burnaby and Point
Grey Rural Municipalities, ten schools in and near Powell River, ten schools near Lund, four
schools on Howe Sound, and the Provincial School for the Deaf and the Blind. During the year
schools were established at Kelly Creek and Southview, and the number of teachers increased
thirteen in Paint Grey and two in Burnaby. There were in all fifty-seven schools, with 342
teachers.
Much of the first term was spent applying the Educational Survey Commission's tests, and
some of the second term in testing Eighth-grade classes in subjects not covered by the Entrance
Examination. One hundred and ninety-five visits of inspection were made. All the rural schools
and all the schools of Burnaby were inspected. All but two of the schools of Point Grey were
inspected, and in these two schools visits were made to the teachers who had been appointed
since the previous inspection.
The teaching as a whole continues to improve, particularly that of the teachers just out of
Normal School.    Taken by subjects, the greatest improvement is in the teaching of arithmetic.
An evil in the ungraded schools is the tendency to promote pupils before they are ready,
while many graded schools go to the opposite extreme and require all their pupils, however
brilliant, to spend two full terms in each of the eight grades.
I have, etc.,
Leslie J. Bruce,
Inspector of Schools. M 32
Public Schools Report.
192c
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 7.
Vancouver, B.C., October 2nd, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the elementary schools of Inspectorate No. 7
for the school-year 1924-25 :—
For the year just closed there has been no change in the boundaries of this inspectorate.
The number of schools remained practically the same, but there was a slight increase in the
number of teachers employed. The assisted school at Hope Station was closed down during
the year and a new school was opened at East Richmond.
Two hundred and thirty-nine visits of inspection were made to the various schools during
the year. A few schools received no inspection. The Commission appointed to conduct an
educational survey of this Province was engaged in its work during the year. The services of
the Inspectors were required in carrying out a programme of " Standard Tests." Over 1,600
pupils of all grades were given these tests in this inspectorate. The results were very interesting.
They will, no doubt, be embodied in the report of the Commission. Little time was therefore
available for inspection and supervision until the second term.
In June 445 candidates wrote on the High School Entrance Examination, and of these 333
were successful. In addition to this number, 306 were given High School Entrance standing
on the recommendation of their principals. These results show a decided improvement over
those of the previous year.
The following were allotted the three prizes assigned to this inspectorate by the Strathcona
Trust for excellence in physical training:—
Miss G. W. Killip, 5th Division, Gordon School, South Vancouver.
Miss M. Martin, 2nd Division, Secord School, South Vancouver.
Miss M. A. Ford, English School, Richmond.
The tests prepared by the Department in Canadian History, British History, Nature Study,
and Hygiene were given during the last week in May and the first week in June. Seven hundred
and forty-four pupils in Grade VIII. were examined. The results obtained in these tests revealed
the fact that in a large percentage of the schools in this (inspectorate these subjects were taught
with the same earnestness and care as those prescribed for the written examination for High
School Entrance.    The average scores in the different subjects were as follows :—
Municipality.
Canadian
History
(Maximum
60).
British
History
(Maximum
60).
Hygiene
(Maximum
55).
Nature
Study
(Maximum
60).
29.75
25.50
30.60
29.10
29.10
26.8
24.8
26.7
31.9
31.2
39.0
41.0
43.1
41.9
41.7
24 6
27.3
29 8
Averages for the whole inspectorate	
27.1
During the year considerable use was made of standardized tests in my inspection-work.
These proved of valuable assistance in gaining a better knowledge of the standing of the classes
in the various grades. They proved especially helpful in the rural ungraded schools. The
principal or teacher who wishes to increase the efficiency of his school will do well to use them,
but he must guard against any illusion that they will prove to be the panacea for all educational
ills. Good organization, good methods in presentation, good technique, are still essential to
success, hut the results of these can be judged only by efficient methods in testing.
In the Programme of Studies splendid bibliographies have been prepared. Many principals
and teachers, I find, are making careful study of the latest methods prescribed in these references.
A feVv teachers, it is quite evident, are still content to pursue antiquated methods and exhibit
little interest in the changes that are taking place.   Needless to say, such teachers should be 16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools Report. M
eliminated from the profession. In these bibliographies, lists of supplementary books for pupils
are also given. Some Boards of Trustees are making an earnest effort to provide their schools
with these essential supplies for class-room work, but in a number of schools little in the way
of supplementary readers and other equipment so necessary has as yet been provided.
I have, etc.,
F. G. Calvert,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 8.
New Westminster, B.C., September 8th, 1925.
8: J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public elementary schools of Inspectorate
No. 8 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1925:—
Throughout the year seventy-five schools were in operation with a staff of 200 teachers.
Owing to the fact that for three entire school-months I was engaged in work connected with
the Educational Survey, it was impossible to visit every class in this inspectorate. All classes
in rural and assisted districts and in rural municipalities were inspected once; while all city
classes, excepting a number in each of three New Westminster schools, were given at least one
visit.
The special tests in British History, Canadian History, Hygiene, and Nature Study were
given to 507 Entrance pupils, and results showed that, while some teachers were giving definite
and valuable lessons in these subjects, in other cases they were receiving too little attention.
The High School Entrance Examination was held in June at nineteen points. A total of
645 candidates were examined, 580 of whom were recommended for promotion by principals
and teachers. Of these, 478 were successful, making a pass-list of 74 per cent, of all who wrote,
or 81 per cent, of the recommended pupils. Twenty-three schools passed 100 per cent, of their
recommended pupils. 4
The Governor-General's medal for this district was won by Gordon Sheldon Rothwell, whose
aggregate was third highest in the Province. As in the case of last year's medallist, he was a
pupil of Miss B. M. Bournes, Central School, New Westminster.
On pages 27 and 28 of the last Annual Report it may be noted that in four municipalities,
out of sixty in this Province, the average annual salary in the elementary schools was below
$1,000 per year. Of these four municipalities, three are included in this inspectorate with 103
teachers on the staffs. Speaking generally, the result is that any teacher whose work is particularly efficient has little difficulty in securing a position in nearby municipalities where average
salaries are as much as $600 per year higher.
To keep pace with demands for accommodation and modernization, various building projects
have been carried out by the School Boards. In New Westminster a four-room wing has been
added to the Richard McBride School, completing the sixteen-room plan. The Langley Board
has replaced the old schools at Lochiel and Glen Valley with larger, more modern, and more
comfortable buildings. In Surrey Municipality the Board has had constructed a new school at
Woodward's Hill, while the White Rock School has been enlarged by the addition of another
class-room.
At Lindell, south of Cultus Lake, a new building, after some six months of use, was burned
as a result of a forest Are, but such was the enthusiasm of the people, and such the generosity
of the management of the Campbell River Mills, Limited, that another equally modern and
well-equipped school was erected within a few months.
The fact that there has been a considerable surplus of teachers has changed the attitude
of many Boards toward their employees.    A demand for greater efficiency and a tendency to
dismiss the less efficient have been particularly noticeable.    On the other hand, it should be
stated that teachers as a body have never realized more fully their responsibilities.   Many are
3 M 34 Public Schools Report. 1925
making a definite effort to keep abreast of the times, thereby setting an excellent example to
their less ambitious fellow-workers.
Without exception, the Boards with whom I have had the pleasure to co-operate have shown
increasing zeal and good judgment and are making a contribution to the public welfare that is
difficult to valuate.
I have, etc.,
E. G. Daniels,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 9.
Kamloops, B.C., September 29th, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools in Inspectorate No.- 9 for the
school-year ended June 30th, 1925:—
The number of schools in operation in this inspectorate throughout the year just closed
varied very little from that of the preceding year. No new schools were established, but the
schools at Big Bar Creek, Big Bar Upper, and Bridge Lake were reopened. The school at Criss
Creek was closed at the beginning of the first term.
One hundred and forty visits of inspection were made to schools in this inspectorate during
the year just closed. All schools in the inspectorate were visited once at least, with the exception
of three schools in isolated localities. In addition to these visits of inspection, over 400 Intelligence and Achievement Tests were given to various schools in order to supply information to the
Educational Survey Commission.
The number of experienced teachers in charge of rural schools was higher than it has been
for some years, and the number of new teachers engaged in these schools has been lower. This
is attributable in a large measure to the increase in the number of teachers available for positions
in this Province, making, as such a condition does, for a keener competition for teaching positions
throughout the Province.
Owing to the shifting of school population it has been found necessary to make new adjustments in the boundaries of a number of school districts in this inspectorate during the past two
years. Such a proceeding is generally the source of some controversy on the part of the residents
in the districts affected. A good deal of this controversy is due to the disparity that often exists
in the mill-rate which is imposed for school purposes in contiguous districts. However, in every
case where district boundaries have been changed, every endeavour has been made to adjust
these boundaries in accordance with the interests of the children who are attending the public
schools and to place assessable property within that school district to which it is naturally
tributary.
Entrance to High School Examinations were held in eleven centres in the Kamloops Inspectorate in the month of June. A total of 238 candidates wrote at the various centres, and of
these over 69 per cent, were successful. This is a creditable record for the schools sending up
candidates for the examination when it is considered that the percentage of successful candidates
for the whole Province was 64. The Governor-General's medal for this district was won by
Leslie A. Cameron, a pupil in the Lady Byng School, Ashcroft.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Schools of five or more divisions—Miss Kathleen Lawrence, 14th Division, Kamloops
Public School.
Schools of two to four divisions—.Miss Grace Meredith, 3rd Division, Fruitlands School.
Schools of one division—Miss Vera Palmer, North Thompson, West, School.
I have, etc.,
A. F. Matthews,
Inspector of Schools. 16 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. M 35
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 10.
Kelowna, B.C.,  September 1st, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 10 for
the year ended June 30th, 1925:—
The number of schools in operation within this inspectorate during the past year was
sixty-one; the number of teachers employed was 156, of which number eighty-four were employed
in city and rural municipality schools and seventy-two in rural and assisted schools. The
assisted schools at Allen Grove, Despard, Heywood's Corner, and Copper Mountain were closed
during the year, while the Armstrong, Summerland, and Mission Creek Schools were each reduced
one division. The schools at Reiswig and Nickel Plate Mine were reopened, and an additional
division was in operation at Blakeburn. The increased number of high-school pupils at Oyama
led to the raising of the status of the superior school at that place to that of a high school.
During the year the Department of Education provided a new standard building in the Falkland
Rural District; new buildings were also erected by the Fir Valley, Jura, and South Kelowna
Assisted Districts.
As practically two months were given to duties in connection with the educational survey of
the Province, the regular work of inspection was considerably curtailed; in all, 153 visits of
inspection were made.
School property and equipment were for the most part well maintained and most School
Boards continue to manifest the commendable interest in educational matters noted in previous
reports. A few Boards furnish marked exceptions, and it seems difficult to overcome the
indifference which causes ratepayers to acquiesce in such a situation. Many Boards, both rural
and urban, deserve credit for their generosity in the matter of supplying books of reference and
supplementary reading material.
The majority of teachers continue to make an honest effort to render good service; in most
cases presentation of lessons indicated careful thought and planning, and in an increasingly
large number of class-rooms there was reflected an effort to keep in touch with modern developments in education through reading and study of current professional literature. There are
still, however, too many cases where systematic preparation of work and definite effort to improve
standing by the means referred to are lacking; certainly no teacher questions the obvious
importance of taking such measures as will give to her pupils the best in educational practice,
and failure to make reasonable effort to this end can be attributed only to indifference.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Large graded schools—Mr.  T. Aldworth,  1st Division,  Armstrong and  Spallumcheen
Consolidated School.
Small graded schools—Miss Kathleen Corry, 2nd Division, Hedley Superior School.
Ungraded schools—Miss Thelma Hobbs, Kaleden Public School.
Instruction in this important branch of school-work shows a slight improvement over previous
years, but in many cases still leaves much to be desired. In the larger centres generally, and
in a few of the smaller centres, there has been a gradually developing interest in school athletics;
interest in this direction has been greatly stimulated by the annual Okanagan inter-school athletic
meet, the promoters of which deserve credit for the good work done.
The most recent consolidation of schools in this inspectorate, that of Vernon and Okanagan
Landing, has proved an undoubted success; the arrangements for transportation are excellent
and have had much to do with the successful inauguration of the scheme. I am pleased to be
able to report a further development in the way of centralization; arrangements have been
concluded whereby some thirty pupils who have been attending the Glenmore School will, with
the opening of the fall term, be conveyed to the Kelowna School. This makes the ninth move
toward centralization in this inspectorate, and I think there can be no question of the benefits
accruing in each case.
I have, etc.,
T. R. Hall,
Inspector of Schools. M 36 Public  Schools Report. 1925
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 11.
Revelstoke, B.C., August 29th, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 11 for
the school-year 1924-25 :—
During the year an assisted school was opened at Meadow Creek, a little to the north of
Shuswap Lake, near Celista, and another at Springbend, on the Enderby-Salmon Arm Road,
south of Giindrod. The Moberly School, which had not been in operation for some time, was
reopened, while the school at Twin Butte remained closed throughout the year. In all, there
were ninety schools in operation in this district, with a total staff of 122 teachers, a net gain
over 1923-24 of two schools and two teachers. Of these totals, three were graded city schools
with a staff of twenty-five teachers; seven were rural municipality schools (one graded) with
a staff of eight teachers; four were graded rural schools with a staff of eleven teachers; nine
were ungraded rural schools; one was a graded assisted school with three teachers; and the
remaining sixty-six were ungraded assisted schools.
The standard of efficiency noted in previous reports has been well maintained. The percentage of candidates passing the Entrance Examination in June was higher than for some
years past, and it is gratifying to note that many of the rural and assisted schools contributed
to the improved standing thus detained.
The tendency on the part of teachers to change positions all too frequently seems to be on
the wane somewhat, and it is to be hoped that a desire for reasonable permanence of tenure
may soon prove to be the rule rather than the exception.
I have, etc.,
A. E. Miller,
Inspector of Scliools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 12.
Nelson, B.C., September 30th, 1925.
S. ./. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 12 for the
school-year 1924-25:—
This inspectorate includes the City of Nelson;   the area along the Great Northern Railway
southward to the International Boundary;   the valley of Slocan Lake and River;   the Kootenay.
Valley to the west of Nelson;   and the Electoral Districts of Rossland-Trail and Grand Forks-
Greenwood.
During the year there were in operation sixty schools, employing in all 136 teachers. Of
these, nine were city municipality schools with a total staff of seventy-six, eleven were regularly
organized rural schools employing eighteen teachers, and forty were assisted schools employing
forty-two teachers.
At the beginning of the school-year the school at Anaconda was closed, an arrangement
having been made whereby the children of that district were to attend at Greenwood. The
school at Gilpin did not reopen, due to the lack of a sufficient number to maintain the required
attendance. One division at Grand Forks was closed, while three more divisions were added
to the Trail schools. A new district was created at Gibson Creek and a very creditable building
erected by the residents there.
Due to the very nature of the Kootenay country, many schools are opened that cannot be
permanent. The mining or lumber camp is usually the nucleus around which the settlement
grows. Employees in these industries bring in their families and a school is established. In
some cases when the timber has all been cut, or when the mine has failed to fulfil its original 16 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. M 37
promise, the population moves on, leaving the school as one of the monuments to past, activity.
In others, the mine becomes a steady producer, and in districts favourable to agriculture farms
are located where the forests once stood, and the little school continues to fill its mission or to
grow as the settlement grows. This inspectorate contains at least a dozen closed schools. In one
or two areas good permanent buildings were erected, but in most instances the pioneer settlers,
with commendable discretion, erected temporary structures at no great expense. The equipment
of such closed schools is moved on to do pioneer duty in another area. In my opinion a pioneer
school of this sort, established in a cheaply constructed building, justifies its existence even if it
remains open only for a few years.
Since the months of October and November were devoted to the testing programme for the
School Survey Commission, it was impossible to make the usual number of official inspections.
All the schools were visited at least once during the year, many of them receiving two or more
visits.    The distance travelled in connection with official duties was 10,707 miles.
High School Entrance Examinations were held at nine centres. Of the 303 candidates who
wrote on the examination, 187 were successful in passing, a percentage of, 61.7. Sixty-nine
others were granted certificates on recommendation of their principals. From the rural schools
there were 111 candidates, of whom fifty-three were successful, the percentage, being 47.7. It
would be interesting to know how many of the fifty-three are making use of their certificates
to attend a high school. I have noted with some concern how few of the boys who graduate
from the rural school are able to proceed to high school. In this regard girls have a decided
advantage in opportunity over boys. Girls in the interior towns can usually defray at least
part of the expenses of board and lodging while they attend high school by performing light
housekeeping duties after school-hours. The teachers in some rural areas, with commendable
zeal, are taking time after school to give instruction in the secondary school subjects.
Early in November the teachers of the Kootenay held at Nelson a two-days' convention, at
which most of the teachers of the district were in attendance. The general discussions and the
several model lessons, most of which took the form of socialized recitations, were interesting
and of great practical value. In view of the benefits which accrue to those teachers who attend
these conventions and to their class-room work after the convention, it is really worth while for
School Boards to insist that the teachers in their employ should attend such gatherings.
It is fitting in this report to refer to the distinguished service of Miss Elizabeth Thom,
Principal of the Trail public schools, who in June retired from the profession. After several
years of teaching in Eastern Provinces and eight years on the staff at Nelson, Miss Thom in
1908 assumed the principalship of Trail, then a school of three divisions, and for seventeen years
continued to guide its destiny. On June 20th the citizens of Trail in a public function expressed
their appreciation of her long and able service as principal and presented her with a purse of
most substantial amount.
The prizes for excellence in physical drill according to the conditions of the Strathcona
Trust were awarded as follows:—
Large graded schools—Miss M. Constance Martin, 11th Division, Nelson Central.
Small graded schools—Miss I. H. Strathearn, 3rd Division, New Denver.
Ungraded schools—Mr. Earl Marriott, Myncaster.
In some few cases teachers are giving too little attention to health education and physical
drill, while in other areas the importance of this subject is recognized.    In the City of Trail
this year a specialist in physical training was added to the school staff, and every child in the
school whose physical condition permits is required to spend two periods a week at drill or at
games under supervision in the gymnasium of the splendid Memorial Building.
Generally the teachers of this inspectorate have made during the past year a sincere and
determined effort to teach the various subjects of the curriculum to the best of their ability.
School Boards, too, are showing a growing and commendable desire to seek the advice of the
Inspectors and of the departmental officials in the selection of their teachers, which, with the
present surplus of teachers and the large number of applications made for every vacancy, has
become all the more necessary.
I have, etc.,
P. H. Sheffield,
Inspector of Schools. ' M 38 Public Schools Report. 1925
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 13.
Cranbrook, B.C., September 1st, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 13 for
the year ended June 30th, 1925 :—■
The boundaries of this district remained unchanged, the inspectorate including all the
schools of Fernie and Cranbrook Electoral Districts and part of the schools in the Electoral
Districts of Creston and Kaslo-Slocan. In all, there were sixty-five schools in operation during
the year, employing 136 teachers.
A new school was opened during the year at Echo Lake, a logging camp 35 miles north of
Cranbrook. An additional teacher was added to the Cranbrook staff and" three new teachers
to the Kimbefley staff. At the latter school all the accommodation in the new wing was in use,
and the Board has had to prepare plans for another addition to take care of an ever-increasing
attendance in this fast-growing mining centre. In Fernie it was found possible to reduce the
staff from twenty-four to twenty-two teachers without impairing the efficiency. The Cooper
Creek School did not open in September owing to an insufficient number of pupils.
Superior schools were established during the year at Procter and Kimberley, which with
the Waldo Superior School provided high-school instruction for Grades IX. and X. pupils in
areas where no high schools existed. Grade IX. pupils were taught also in the Camp Lister,
Fort Steele, Three Forks, and Riondel Schools, and from the successes obtained in the Departmental Examinations in June it would appear that this policy might well be extended to other
public schools where, on account of distance or lack of means, pupils would be unable to attend
a high school.
The dangerous and unsanitary school buildings in the Michel School District continued to
be used throughout the year. However, at the present, plans for a new twelve-roomed fire-proof
building are so far advanced that it is hoped first-class accommodation will be available at that
point by the opening of school in the autumn of 1920.
Much of my time in the early part of the year was spent in giving the intelligence and other
tests prepared for the Educational Survey Commission. The wealth of testing material made
available at that time convinced me that it would be well at all times for Inspectors to have
a convenient source of supply from which they might requisition the tests required.
High School Entrance Examinations were held at eleven centres. Of the 226 pupils who
wrote the examination, 160, or 71 per cent., passed, which compares favourably with the average
for the Province of 64 per cent. The showing made by the Fernie Public School was particularly
creditable, all the candidates qualifying either by recommendation or examination. Thomas
Miard, of this school, won the Governor-General's medal for the district, making 442 marks
out of a possible 500.
The following teachers were awarded the prizes for physical training under the provisions
of the Strathcona Trust:—■
Large graded schools—Miss N. P. Douglas, 12th Division, Fernie School.
Small graded schools—Mr. H. F. Reynolds, 1st Division, Procter Superior School.
Ungraded schools—Miss C. A. Douglass, Harrop School.
I have, etc.,
V. Z. Manning,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 14.
Prince Rupert, B.C., September loth, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 14 for the year
ended June 30th, 1925 :—
The boundaries of this inspectorate remained unchanged during the year. They include the
Electoral  Districts of Atlin,  Prince Rupert,  Skeena,  Omineca  as  far east  as Endako,  and 16 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. M 39
Mackenzie as far south as Namu.   Within this district seventy-eight schools were in operation,
employing 120 teachers.   These schools were classified as follows:—
High schools      4
Superior schools    2
Schools of more than seven divisions      2
Schools of from four to seven divisions   -4
Schools of two divisions      4
Schools of one division only   62
Since two months were taken up in work for the Survey Commission, not all these schools
were twice inspected. But all except three received one visit and wherever possible a second
inspection was made.
Schools were opened for the first time at Namu, 40 miles from Ocean Falls; at Tintagel,
east of Burns Lake; and at Four Mile Settlement, in the Kispiox Valley, 16 miles from Hazelton.
On account of diminished attendance the Pratt School and the Hanall School were closed. The
Glentanna School also remained closed during the year.
-    A new three-room school building was built at Burns Lake at a cost of $15,000.    The school
at Ocean Falls was remodelled and enlarged to accommodate the increased attendance.
Kitsumgallum was raised to the status of superior school at the beginning of the year and
made a fair showing at the examinations in June. Stewart Superior, as usual, did well. In
addition to the twelve who passed at Stewart and Terrace, four pupils from the following elementary schools successfully completed the work of Grade IX., three that of Grade X., and one that
of Grade XI. in the June examinations: Francois Lake, 1; Southbank, 2; New Hazelton, 2;
Pacific, 1;  Driftwood Creek, 1;   South Bulkley, S -
For the fourth year I have had the additional pleasure of inspecting the high schools in this
district. The number of- pupils is steadily increasing. This year another division was opened
in Prince Rupert. Ocean Falls and Granby Bay will likely each employ a third teacher during
the coming year. A higher average of marks in the Matriculation Examination should be aimed
at in the northern high schools.
Examinations for Entrance to High School were held at sixteen centres. Of the 167
candidates, 124, or 74 per cent., were successful, a decrease of eleven candidates compared with
last year, but a 3-per-cent. increase in the proportion of successful candidates. The Governor-
General's medal was this year won by the neighbouring inspectorate of Prince George, but some
very creditable marks were made in this district, Essington, Ocean Falls, and the Alex. Manson
School of Ootsa Lake making 419, 417, and 416 respectively.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
Large graded schools—Mr. D. H. Hartness, 1st Division, Booth School, Prince Rupert.
Small graded schools—Mr. H. D. Southam, 2nd Division, Granby Bay.
Schools of one division—Mr. J. S. Wilson, Houston.
Through the initiative of Mr. Donald Cochrane, of South Bulkley, a teachers' convention
was held in March at Smithers, with an attendance of twenty-eight teachers, when plans were
laid for a school fair at Burns Lake in September.    Mr. V. Crockett, principal of the schools at
iSmithers, contributed largely to the success of this venture.
Each year sees fewer changes among the teachers in this inspectorate. This means in general
better results. School Boards recognize the value of the Teachers' Bureau and are more and
more depending upon this branch of the Department to secure for them competent men and
women for outlying districts. As a result fewer disappointments have marked the past year
and more effective teaching has been done. In most schools there is a fine spirit of co-operation
between trustees and teachers and a fair attempt on their part to put into effect the recommendations of the Inspector.
I have, etc.,
H. C. Fraser,
Inspector of Schools. M 40 Public Schools Report. 1925
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 15.
Prince George, B.C., August 28th, 1925.
S. J. Wilis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 15 for the
school-year ended June 30th, 1925 :—
The boundaries of this inspectorate remain unchanged from last year. It comprises the
schools in the Canadian National Railway Belt east of Endako; those in the Cariboo District
as far south as the 100-Mile House;  and those in the Peace River District.
During the year the following assisted schools were opened: Alexandria, North ; Lone
Butte ; Loos, West; Charlie Lake; Swan Lake, North ; Fort St. John, East; Pouce Coupe, East.
The four last-named schools are in the Peace River District. Schools were authorized and should
soon be in operation at Reid Lake and at Tabor Creek. xVn additional teacher was appointed
to the Prince George staff and a second teacher to the Giscome School. The Pineview District
was abolished. Ninety-nine schools, employing 119 teachers, were in operation during all or
some portion of the year.    All but nine of the schools are assisted.
A large portion of my time during the first term of the past school-year was occupied with
work in connection with the recent School Survey. However, during the year all schools which
were in continuous operation received at least one visit of inspection. In addition, a large
number of specials were dealt with.
Although there is still much to be desired, the general standing of the schools in this northern
inspectorate is steadily improving and school conditions generally are gradually becoming more
satisfactory. With few exceptions, results as measured by Departmental Examinations held
at the close of the year were commendable. The Governor-General's medal, awarded to the pupil
making the highest mark in the Entrance Examination in the Prince George and Prince Rupert
Inspectorates, was won by Miss Roberta Bogle, a pupil of the Dome Creek Assisted School.
I have, etc.,
G. H. Gower,
Inspector of Schools. 16 Geo. 5
Public  Schools Report.
M 41
REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
NEW WESTMINSTER CITY SCHOOLS.
New Westminster, B.C., October 8th, 1925.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of New  Westminster for the
school-year ended June 30th, 1925 :—
The school attendance for the past year showed an increase of 181.
Month.
Public
Schools.
High
Schools.
Total.
February, 1925....
February, 1924....
Increase.
2,484
2,316
581
568
3,065
2,884
168
13
181
To accommodate part of this increase it was necessary to have a part-time class at the
Richard McBride School, which condition was eliminated by a four-room addition, erected at a
cost of $11,000, one room of which was opened in September.
We feel that in every department of schooHife splendid progress has been made; each
teacher has felt his or her responsibility to the citizen of to-morrow and has thrown wholehearted energy and thoughtfulness into each day's tasks; the results of which are manifest
throughout our whole school system.
The results of the June examinations were pleasing; 94.6 per cent, of Entrance students
were successful in passing their examinations, Sheldon Rothwell, of Central School, winning the
Governor-General's medal for this district; Stewart Reid, of Duke of Connaught High School,
was successful in winning the Governor-General's medal on the Matriculation Examinations.
In obtaining such splendid results on examinations the physical and literary side was not
neglected. Perhaps never in the history of our school system has as much emphasis been placed
on the all-round development of our boys aud girls, the work of the teachers in this respect being
most commendable; especially those teachers who unstintingly gave of their time after school-
hours and on Saturdays in order that the various activities of the students might have proper
direction.
Organized recreation has been a feature of the year's work ; basket-ball, football, baseball,
lacrosse, field sports, and gymnastics have all received due attention.
During the year Miss Mabel Mcintosh, B.A., of the Trapp Technical High School, taught in
London, England, while Miss Emily Horwood, of London, was filling a position on our public-
school staff most acceptably.
Agriculture has been carried on successfully by the public schools of the city and the showing
made in competition at the Provincial Exhibition was commendable. Through the courtesy of
the Royal Agricultural and Industrial Society, Grades VII. and VIII. of the schools of the city
were permitted to spend the mornings of Exhibition week on the Exhibition grounds studying
poultry, live stock, agriculture, and horticulture under the supervision of their teachers. The
judges of the various departments gave every assistance in making these excursions profitable
and interesting.
Music has received careful attention in the schools of the city and the results were all that
could be desired.
Evening classes were carried on at the Trapp Technical School in day-school continuation-
work, woodwork, workshop mathematics, machine construction and design, steam for engineers,
gasolene-engines, commercial subjects, dressmaking, millinery, sheet-metal, drawing and design,
electricity, mineralogy and assaying, physics, advanced mathematics, china-painting, basketry,
literature, lumbering, and first aid. M 42
Public Schools Report.
1925
Three hundred students took advantage of the courses offered and much enthusiasm was
manifest.
To Dr. D. A. Clark and Miss A. S. Stark, R.N., special credit is due for the satisfactory
health condition of our school-children.
We have in the city five Parent-Teacher Associations. These associations have worked hard
in the interests of the schools and have given of their best to every worthy object which would
make the school-life of the children better and brighter. Other organizations have also interested
themselves in our schools and to them our thanks are due; each year, through co-operation, our
schools are becoming a greater factor in community life.
For the success of our school-year we must also thank each and every member of the Board
of School Trustees of this city, busy men who have given freely of their time and their ability
for the betterment of the schools.
I have, etc.,
R. S. Shields,
Municipal Inspector of Schools.
VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
Vancouver, B.C., August 21st, 1925.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—X beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Vancouver for the school-
year ended June 30tb, 1925 :—■
The increase in the school attendance for the year just closed has been greater than usual,
the maximum enrolment for the year being 787 in excess of that for the previous year. This
increase was for the most part in the elementary schools, as the following table indicates:—
— .	
Month.
Public
Schools.
High
Schools.
Junior
High
School.
Total.
17,884
17,222
2,636
2,551
144
104
20,664
19,877
February, 1924 	
662
85
40
787
The teaching staff for the year, as compared with that of the preceding year, \
follows:—
1924.           1925. 1924. 1925.
Public-school teachers   457 472
Ordinary classes   435 450
Special classes      22 22
Junior high-school teachers  •.       6 7
High-school teachers     91 92
General Course     58 59
Commercial Course     13 13
Boys' Technical Course      17 17
Home Economics Course      3 3
Manual-training teachers     20 21
Domestic-science teachers      16 16
Special instructors     13 12
Total     603 620
Increase of staff    17 16 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
M 43
School Accommodation.
With an increasing school population to care for and the defeat of all school money by-laws
in May, 1924, the School Board faced, at the beginning of the past school-year, what appeared
to be an impossible task—the providing of adequate school accommodation. Weary of erecting
cheap, one-room school buildings, and fearing the public might become satisfied with that as a
permanent policy, the Board resolved to build no more. The only alternatives were to rearrange
school boundaries, to fill every available class-room—some too full—and to crowd a few more
classes into basements. By these questionable methods, accommodation, by no means adequate,
was provided; while an attempt was made to fully inform the public as to how serious the lack
of proper school accommodation had become. The results of this policy were most gratifying,
for it led to the emphatic endorsement of all school money by-laws submitted by the Board in
December. The splendid majorities polled for each of the three by-laws, coupled with the
consideration that no moneys had been voted since 1913 for the erection of permanent school
buildings, seem, to presage a better day for Vancouver schools. If the present Board give the
public the school accommodation promised for the amounts voted, as I believe they will, one is
justified in anticipating this as a beginning of a sane school-building programme. The details
regarding the by-laws are set forth in the following table:—
By-law.
Twelve-room addition and auditorium to the following schools
(1.)  Hastings	
(2.)  Charles Dickens	
(3.)   General Gordon	
Amount.
$105,000
105,000
105,000
Votes
for.
4,438
4,245
4,209
Votes
against.
1,843
1,925
1,921
Contracts have already been let for these buildings and they will be completed in the near
future. When they are, the present congestion will be relieved in the eastern, southern, and
western portions of the city, where these schools are situated.
During the year over $100,000 was expended on the repairing and renewing of school buildings
which had been neglected for several years. Among the schools to benefit were Alexandra,
Britannia High, Fairview, Grandview, Henry Hudson, King George High, Kitsilano, Kitsilano
High, Macdonald, Model, Mount Pleasant, Nelson, Roberts, and Tennyson. The School Board
Office Building also received much-needed attention, and a splendid wood- and metal-work shop
was erected at Kitsilano High School. With this shop completed a year ago, it was possible to
give all high-school students in the city the same opportunities throughout the year in manual
training.
School-sites.
Another forward step was taken by the Vancouver School Board last year in the purchasing
of school-sites. Six very good sites were secured in the now comparatively unoccupied eastern
and south-eastern portions of the city at a total cost of only $8,750.26—a price less than half of
that paid for a single east-end school-site purchased twelve years ago. While these sites may
not be needed for some years, the good judgment of the School Board in purchasing them, with
the concurrence of the City Council, cannot be questioned.
Vancouver's First Platoon School.
A platoon school was opened in Vancouver in September last—the first school of the kind in
Western Canada. This was made possible by making certain structural changes, at a cost of
approximately $3,380, in the Tennyson School—a sixteen-room building, with a small gymnasium
and a large auditorium. By organizing this school on platoon lines it was found possible to
accommodate twenty-one classes of forty pupils each instead of sixteen classes as formerly.
This consideration alone might have been sufficient to warrant the change; but there was
another consideration (and a more important one), the hope that better work could be done.
After observing this school's operations for a year, I am only the more confirmed in opinions
I formed after studying the platoon schools in Eastern Canada and the United States two years
ago.   These opinions may be briefly summarized as follows :— M 44 Public Schools Report. 1925
Given a principal with a genius for organization and a clear understanding of platoon-school
methods, a staff of teachers with enthusiasm for the teaching of their special subject or subjects
and strong in discipline, and a school plant specially planned for platoon work, and the platoon
school will render splendid service; but just to the extent these or any of these are lacking,
to that extent will weaknesses develop that in time will make good work less possible than in
the ordinary type of school. I may conclude these references to platoon-school work by pointing
out that the three schools we are now enlarging are planned for work on platoon lines. This is
good evidence that, despite the special difficulties we believe the platoon school has to encounter,
we feel assured these difficulties are surmountable. Tennyson has done a good year's work and
is expected to do  better in future.
School Attendance.
The school attendance throughout the year was exceptionally good, notwithstanding the fact
that we had the services of an attendance officer for only three months, and infectious diseases,
notably smallpox, chicken-pox, scarlet fever, diphtheria, and whooping-cough, were prevalent.
For the good attendance much credit is due the teachers and nurses for keeping so closely in
touch with the homes—a comparatively simple and pleasant task in this day of telephones. After
teachers and nurses have done their best, however, to secure regular attendance, I am convinced,
after observing our school system without even one attendance officer for a whole year, that at
least one such official is required to deal with difficult cases of non-attendance.
Medical Inspection.
The connection between school attendance and medical inspection of schools is so close that
the latter is entitled to careful consideration. The more efficiently medical inspection is
carried on the better the school attendance, and only with good school attendance, in turn, is
teaching of the highest order possible. School administrators are consequently very sympathetic
with any schemes of medical inspectors calculated to reduce non-attendance to a minimum.
The most fruitful single cause of absence from school last year was the prevalence of smallpox in the city. To reduce, as far as possible, its interfering with school attendance, our medical
staff did all they could to have school-children vaccinated. The number of parents, however, who
failed, for various reasons, to have their children vaccinated was very large, particularly during
the first term of the year. This resulted very detrimentally to the schools. To illustrate by a
concrete example: In the month of October the loss of school-time by reason of smallpox and
contact with cases amounted to 1,310 school-days, an average of sixty pupils per day. When it
is understood that the absences due to smallpox were confined entirely to unvaccinated children,
one can understand why those desirous of having better attendance in school are advocates of
vaccination. In October there were twenty-one cases of smallpox among school-children—all
unvaccinated; for the entire year there were 149 cases, with a proportionately large number of
contacts and broken attendance at school.
Under such c'onditions, we welcomed the Order in Council, dated March 19th, 1925, that made
vaccination of all who were not " conscientious objectors " obligatory. That order was honoured
in our schools with most gratifying results. Exclusions on account of smallpox or contact with
the disease was reduced to a minimum before the close of the school-year. It is gratifying to be
able to report, on the authority of our school medical staff, that no serious case of " bad arm "
occurred among the 5,056 children vaccinated in the school clinic.
School Dental Clinic.
Four dentists, working for ten months of the year, from 9 a.m. to 12 m.. and two working
the same hours in the month of July, have enabled 1,371 school-children to live more happily,
attend school more regularly, and do better work in school than would have been possible without
dental treatment. This department of school activity is contributing very materially to child-
welfare in Vancouver at comparatively small cost.
Violin Classes and School Music
The violin classes referred to in my last report have been conducted throughout the year
with gratifying results.   There are great possibilities for this work.
Music in our schools has made a better showing than in any previous year. At the annual
musical festival held in the city last spring several school choirs and individual pupils did credit 16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools  Report. M 45
to their teachers and schools as well as to themselves. To Mr. F. W. Dyke and his recently-
appointed assistant, Miss E. Lloyd Roberts, much credit is due for the good work in music so
many of our teachers are doing.
May I add, in speaking of school music, that the Department's making it possible for certain
high-school students to take music as a high-school subject was a commendable step; and may
I express the hope that this step will soon be followed by others. Music instruction, for all
music-loving students at least, it seems to me, should be provided from; the kindergarten course
to university graduation.
Physical Training and Cadet-work.
The usual care has been taken during the year with all work calculated to develop children
into robust men and women. Formal drill in class-rooms has been regularly taken; organized
play has been encouraged and is becoming more general; our cadet organization has grown till
it now has a total of 3,863, as compared with seventy twelve years ago. When it is pointed out
that a thousand of our cadets to-day cost the ratepayers less than a score did in 1912, we should
hear no charge against cadet-work as " another expensive frill."
The remedial work carried on by Miss L. Cotsworth has been encouraging. Of the 1,285
cases needing expert treatment to safeguard against serious results later, 386 were discharged
after satisfactory treatment, ninety left the city, and 809 are still receiving treatment. It is
impossible to overestimate the value of this work. The placing of a single child on the road
leading from deformity to vigorous, happy life is a great act—who can state its value in dollars?
Night-schools.
No branch of our school-work manifested more vitality last year than our night-schools.
In them the final enrolment was 1,842, as compared with 1,100 the previous year. The enrolment
per class was also good and the attendance fairly regular. The subjects taught included
accounting, book-keeping, shorthand, typewriting, cabinetmaking, plumbing, cookery, millinery,
dressmaking, china-painting, English, arithmetic, music (vocal and instrumental), drawing,
show-card work, design, engineering, machine-shop practice, ignition, electricity, printing, carpentry, drafting, mathematics, sheet-metal work, machine-construction, wireless telegraphy,
French, elocution, geology, and mining.    To teach these, thirty-six instructors were engaged.
Class-room Work.
I saw more class-room work during the past school-year than usual, having visited each of
the 472 elementary classes at least once and a number of the ninety-nine high-school classes
once. After the completion of the inspection of each school a brief written statement was made,
both to the principal and to the School Board, of the impressions formed. This left me but little
time for office duties, which include, among other things, the perusal of reports on class-room
conditions made by Inspectors, supervisors, and principals. Such reports, however, I found time
to read, and their contents, taken in conjunction with my own personal observations, gave a very
good idea of the work being done in the different schools. For the most part. I am pleased to
report favourably on class-room instruction. There was a splendid tone in nearly all the schools
—a spirit of earnestness, making for real progress.
Intelligence Tests.
The tide of interest in Intelligence Tests has been rising somewhat during the past year.
One might even venture to suggest that faith in their value, even for promotion purposes, may
be finding a place with teachers now who formerly regarded them with suspicion. At any rate,
it may be reported that, on the request of the public-school principals of the city, they were all
supplied with certain Intelligence Tests to be given their Entrance pupils to see what light these
would throw on the difficult problem of arranging pupils in order of merit as is now required by
departmental regulation.
The principals were asked to make returns showing how their students ranked on the
Intelligence Tests, how they ranked when tested by ordinary examinations on the promotion
subjects, and how they were ranked, finally, in the light of both methods of measuring their
fitness for High School Entrance.
These returns have come to hand and have been found intensely interesting study. One
would require a considerable time to study them all minutely.   Having had but a few days to M 46
Public Schools Report.
1925
spare on them thus far, I have examined only a limited number—ones done with extreme care.
My observations, as far as I have gone, incline me to the conviction that a passport into high
school should be issued not to those of intelligence (ability to do work) merely, but to the
intelligent who have actually achieved something creditable on their public-school work.
General Observations.
In conclusion, I am pleased to report that the attitude of the Vancouver citizens to their
schools has been that of intelligent interest during the past year. This interest they showed in
many ways other than by their endorsement of the by-laws. Whereas in other years the trusteeship of the schools went almost abegging, last year ten candidates offered themselves for election.
There was a spirited campaign and a good vote was polled, resulting in the return of the three
trustees who stood for re-election.
Utmost harmony between the City Council and the School Board, between the City Health
Department and the School Medical Department, and between the School Board and its officials
and teachers did much duriug the school-year 1924-25 to make the administration of school
business—both financial and educational—an agreeable duty.
I have, etc.,
J. S. Gordon,
Municipal Inspector of Schools.
VANCOUVER, SOUTH, SCHOOLS.
South Vancouver, B.C., October 3rd, 1925.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of the Municipal
District of South Vancouver for the year ended June 30th, 1925:—
Enrolment.
1923-24. 1924-25.
Elementary schools—Pupils enrolled      7,343 7,433
High School—Pupils enrolled        655 744
Totals     7,998 8,177
During the year several schools have been overcrowded. Chief of these are High, Carleton,
Selkirk, Gordon, Moberly, Mackenzie, and Van Home. Half-time classes were established in
Selkirk, Van Home, Moberly, and Mackenzie Schools, while a basement room had to be occupied
in Gordon School. Relief from overcrowding at Carleton and Selkirk will be obtained by the
building of a six-room addition to Norquay School, now under construction. A proposed two-
room annex at Mackenzie School and one at the High School will give temporary relief at each
of these. Relief at Gordon, Moberly, and Van Home will have to be considered for the coming
year.
The staff consists of the following:—
Male.
Female.
Total.
High-school teachers 	
Elementary-school teachers..
Manual-training teachers	
Domestic-science teachers	
Supervisor, primary grades..
Doctors	
Nurses	
Inspectors	
Attendance officers	
Totals	
11
35
9
7
168
18
203
9
7
1
1
2
1
2
59
185
244
The work in general has been satisfactory throughout the year.    Teachers are giving their
best to the work and are constantly seeking to improve. 16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools Report. M 47
Singing.
This subject has received due attention. A class for teachers was organized and was well
attended. The result of this training has been very effective teaching by those who took the
course.
Domestic Science and Manual Training.
Increased accommodation is necessary for the better carrying-on of work in these subjects,
as we are unable to train all Grade VI. pupils in the present centres. Effort will be made in the
coming year to provide more centres.
Sports.
School sports are carefully organized and efficiently supervised by the teaching staff. Inter-
school competition gives zest to the work of the playground.
Physical Training.
Satisfactory work in this subject has been done throughout the year. School principals are
giving this subject the attention it merits and results are very convincing.
V
Night-schools.
Attendance at night-school classes increased from 31S in 1923-24 to 582 in 1924-25. The
demand for technical training in night-schools is increasing perceptibly and better provision for
handling this work is essential.
Health.
During the year an epidemic of smallpox of a mild type swept through the schools and
increased the work in this department to such an extent that extra nurses were engaged to
assist in coping with the situation. An additional nurse would make for closer checking-up of
contagious and infectious diseases. At present each nurse has to inspect approximately 4,000
pupils.    Much more efficient work could be done if another nurse could be provided.
I have, etc.,
Alex. Graham,
Municipal Inspector of Schools.
VICTORIA CITY SCHOOLS.
Victoria, B.C., October 20th, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Victoria for the school-year
which ended June 30th, 1925 :—
The total enrolment in the graded schools and the High School was slightly below that of
the previous year, but there was a marked increase in the number of students who attended
Victoria College.
The School Board continued its policy of strict economy, but supported every effort to
promote efficiency in the schools and the general welfare of the pupils. Further improvements
were made to the High School grounds, which now provide ample facilities for rugby, soccer,
tennis, hockey, and other athletic activities. Additional improvements were also made to the
grounds of the Oaklands, Quadra, and Girls' Central Schools respectively. Certainly, the School
Board and the City Council are deserving of commendation in their efforts to provide adequate
playground facilities and thus encourage organized games and field activities.
While the general character of the work throughout the year was satisfactory, certain
conditions obtained which will require careful attention during the forthcoming school-year.
In some of the grades there were too many over-age pupils and it is becoming more apparent
that the bright pupil is suffering from the " lock-step " method of classification and promotion.
As the correction of this defect depends mainly upon careful organization and efficient supervision, the principals of our larger graded schools should have more time for supervisory
duties. M 48 Public Schools Report. 1925
The percentage of High School Entrance passes was satisfactory, but the High School
Matriculation results were disappointing. Victoria College continued to grow in numbers and
maintain its standard of efficiency. The subject of biology was added to the curriculum for the
year 1925-26. This addition not only gives a greater number of options, but provides for students
who intend to graduate in the department of applied science or nursing.
With but few exceptions, the Victoria teachers performed their duties efficiently and were
unsparing of time and effort in assisting community activities. Undoubtedly the most attractive
feature of the July 1st parade was the school-children's display.
The question of providing the opportunity of a high-school education to pupils who live in
a district which does not maintain a high school is one deserving of serious consideration. At
the present time there is in attendance at Victoria High School a number of students whose
parents reside in such districts. The expense of supporting their children away from home
is a great burden on the parents concerned without paying a per capita high-school maintenance
fee. To encourage residence in the country districts, children in these districts should have,
as far as possible, the same educational opportunities as the children in municipal districts.
Possibly the problem might be solved by additional grants from the Department to Boards
admitting these students.
I have, etc.,
George H. Deane,
Municipal Inspector of Schools. 16 Geo. 5
Public  Schools Report.
M 49
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
VANCOUVER PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
Vancouver, B.C., July 28th, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the report of the Provincial Normal School, Vancouver, for the year
ended June, 1925.
The following will show the enrolment for the preliminary term, September to December :—
Enrolled.
University
Graduates.
Regular
Students.
Teachers
taking
Short
Course.
305
74
30
14
274
59
1
Males            	
1
Totals	
379
44
333
*>
During the preliminary term two young ladies of the regular students withdrew. The lady
taking the short course also withdrew. At the close of the term four students who had received
Normal School training in Eastern Canada were granted diplomas. One teacher from England
was recommended for the usual interim certificate. The class of University graduates who had
received training in elementary-school work left to finish their training at the University.
Twenty-nine students whose work during the term was not up to standard were asked to withdraw at the close of the term in December.
At the opening of the advanced term in January 297 of those attending during the fall term
returned. These were joined by sixteen students with previous Normal School training and in
March an Alberta teacher enrolled for an eight-weeks' course to supplement her Alberta training.
Thus the total enrolment for the advanced term was 314—259 young ladies and fifty-five young
men. During this term five students withdrew because of unsatisfactory work. Two discontinued the course. I regret to report the death of two students during the session—in
November a young lady of the University class and in March a young man from among the
regular students.
The advanced term closed with an enrolment of 300. At the close of the session 213
students were granted regular diplomas, sixty were recommended for interim certificates, and
thirty-three failed.
The following summary will show clearly the enrolment and results of the entire session,
September to May :—
Females.
Total.
University graduates	
Regular students 	
Teachers taking short course....
Total enrolment	
Withdrew, work unsatisfactory.
Discontinued course	
Died 	
Failed..	
Interims recommended	
Diplomas granted	
30
288
2
320
28
5
1
27
51
178
14
61
1
76
6
1
6
10
39
44
349
3
396
34
33
61
217
The instruction in physical training was conducted during the session by Sergeant-Major
Wallace and Sergeant Knox.    Very satisfactory work was done in this department.    Of the 330
students examined, 310 qualified for Grade B certificates.
4 M 50
Public Schools Report.
1925
The enrolment was again very heavy. We have been hoping for some years for an enrolment which the Normal School can comfortably accommodate, but each year sees our hopes
deferred. The introduction of the very wise regulation of excluding all students who have
not fully completed their non-professional standing will serve to reduce considerably the
enrolment during coming years.
Mr. A. R. Lord joined the staff during the year.
Our thanks are extended to the teachers in the Model, Cecil Rhodes, and Lord Tennyson
Schools for their very hearty co-operation in the training of our students. Our thanks are due
also to the principals and staffs of the Lord Roberts, Dawson, Central, Strathcona, Mount
Pleasant, and Simon Fraser Schools for their courtesy and kindly assistance during periods of
observation.
In closing my report, I wish to thank Miss Weld for her services as Secretary during the
year. Her work has been most acceptable to members of the staff and to the student body. I
regret that she is leaving the service.
I have, etc.,
* D. M. Robinson,
Principal.
VICTORIA PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
Victoria, B.C., September 25th, 1925.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the Provincial Normal School at Victoria for
the school-year which ended June 30th, 1925:—■
The total enrolment for the year was 252. The details of this enrolment and the final
results are set forth in the following table:—
Women.
Men.
Total.
The number awarded diplomas	
The number granted interim standing	
The number who discontinued attending during year.
The number who failed	
Totals	
143
56
31
8
174
64
8
6
40
252
Of the eight who discontinued attending during the year, one, an Arts graduate, transferred
in January, 1925, to the High School Teachers' Training Class in the University of British
Columbia; one, whose parents moved to Vancouver, transferred to the Normal School there;
six left school.
At the opening of the session in September, 1924, one addition was made to the staff in
the person of Mr. C. B. Wood, formerly Principal of Cumberland High School. The work of
instruction was apportioned as follows: The Principal—Arithmetic, class management, school
law, and psychology. Mr. V. L. Denton—History and geography. Mr. Hy. Dunnell—Art and
writing. Mr. B. S. Freeman—Literature and nature. Mr. C. B. Wood—English grammar,
language, and reading. Miss G. G. Riddell—Music and primary work. Miss L. B. Isbister—•
Household science and hygiene.
The physical training was conducted by Sergeant-Major Bain and Sergeant Frost. Two
hundred and fourteen students were awarded certificates in this course.
Under the able direction of Colonel Lome Drum, instruction in first aid to the injured
was given to the men. Twenty-five of these men did the work successfully and were awarded
St. John Ambulance Certificates.
The plan followed for the practical teaching of the students during this year was a new
one. Instead of confining the work to a few schools, all of the elementary schools in the City
of Victoria were used. The students began their practical work in Grade II. Several lessons
were taught by each student in each grade before proceeding to a higher grade.    Teaching in 16 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. M 51
Grade I. was reserved until some experience had been gained. This plan had the advantage
of not requiring students to teach in the higher grades until experience in lower grade work
had been gained. It had the disadvantage of distributing the work among a large number of
critic-teachers. It seems probable that a plan can be adopted that will retain the advantage
mentioned and lessen the disadvantage of too wide distribution.
It gives me pleasure, however, to state that the most hearty co-operation was given to us
in our work by Mr. George H. Deane, Municipal Inspector of Schools for Victoria, by the
principals of the Victoria schools and their staffs, and by Miss Scanlan and Miss Barron, of
our own Model School.
I have, etc.,
D.  L.   MacLaurin,
Principal. M 52 Public Schools Report. 192
SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND.
REPORT OF THE PRINCIPAL.
Point Grey, B.C., September, 1925.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the School for the Deaf and the Blind for
the year ended June 30th, 1925:—
The total enrolment of pupils for the year was eighty, of whom sixty-two were in the
department for the deaf and eighteen in that for the blind.
These constituted nine divisions or classes, and eight teachers besides myself were employed,
two for the blind and six besides myself for the deaf. As in previous years, I found it necessary
to take full charge of a class.
Only one change occurred in the teaching staff. Miss Sims, who had the primary class,
retired at the close of the previous year on account of ill-health, and her place was filled by-
Miss Miller, who proved herself a valuable assistant.
Throughout the entire year I had a band of loyal and painstaking helpers, who spared not
themselves in their efforts to fit their pupils to enter upon the enjoyment of all the rights
and privileges belonging to them and to make them God-fearing and law-abiding citizens.
The course of study followed was practically that of the public and high schools of the
Province.    The only exception being drawing—with the blind.
With the deaf we are compelled to make haste slowly. The language of the text-books being
too difficult for them, much of the subject-matter had to be simplified, especially with those in
the lower grades.    It therefore took a longer time to cover work that the blind readily finished.
Some criticism' has been advanced, both through the press of Vancouver and by other means,
respecting keeping both these classes in one common school. This might have some force in a
school where the numbers of both were large. But in a small school, such as ours, my
experience lias shown me several distinct advantages, apart from the saving financially.
During the year the general health of pupils was good. Apart from occasional colds, there
were only two cases which called for medical treatment. One was that of a boy who contracted
chicken-pox at home and it developed after he came back. Fortunately by prompt attention it
was not communicated to any other pupils. The other case was that of a girl who returned
after Christmas with skin eruptions of eczema. This latter defied treatment for a long time,
but was ultimately arrested and before the term ended in June it had entirely disappeared.
This excellent health record is, in my opinion, due to the ideal location of the school,
which has a bountiful supply of fresh air and ample room for exercise, in addition to the
splendid sanitary conditions, well-balanced meals, and regular habits of living.
Mrs. Lawrence, the matron, and her assistants are unceasing in their efforts to do everything possible to make the children comfortable and happy and create an environment of home
atmosphere.
The addition of our new gymnasium, which was completed early in 1925, has proved a
valuable asset.    It is not yet fully equipped, but new apparatus is being continually added.
I am hoping this report may meet the eye of some who may be moved by our need to
help us along this line as the Gyro Club, the Elks, and other organizations have done in the
past. I can assure them that any gift will be thankfully received and faithfully applied. There
is reference made in Holy Writ about faith being shown by works, and this is a case where
it can be exemplified.
Since my last report a room for manual training as well as one for sewing, dressmaking,
and millinery have been fitted up and equipped. These will enable the school to turn out
•pupils better equipped to engage in the battle of life than with merely a literary education.
Before closing I wish to make mention of the enlargement of the living-room in the
principal's quarters.    It affords undreamed-of comfort  and enables  us to  receive delegations 16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools Report. M 53
which come from time to time to inspect the school and discuss ways and means of helping on
the work.
I also want to express deep appreciation of the help at all times generously given by the
Honourable the Minister of Education, and to thank you, sir, for your patient and kindly
treatment of my shortcomings.
I have, etc.,
S. H. Lawrence,
Principal. M 54 Public Schools Report. 1925
TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE ORGANIZER.
Victoria, B.C.,  September,  1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education,  Victoria,  B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the work of manual training; domestic science;
technical high school courses, including technical course for boys, household science course for
girls, and commercial course; Junior High School; teacher-training; night-schools; correspondence classes;   and technical education generally for the year 1924-25 :—
Manual Training.
Classes in the above subject are conducted in the following cities: Armstrong, Chilliwack,
Cranbrook, Kelowna, Nanaimo, New Westminster, Nelson, North Vancouver, Prince Rupert,
Port Moody, Rossland, Trail, Vancouver, Vernon, and Victoria. Similar classes are also held
in the following municipalities: Burnaby, Chilliwack, Esquimalt, Maple Ridge, Penticton, Point
Grey, Pitt Meadows, Richmond, Summerland, South Vancouver, Surrey, South Wellington,
West Vancouver, and in the Rural Districts of Rutland and Harewood.
A summary of manual-training statistics from these places is as follows :—
Manual-training centres ...  81
Manual instructors  71
Elementary-school pupils attending      12,231
High-school pupils attending      1,992
In the varied centres mentioned above we do not insist upon the adoption of one specific-
course of models. Instructors are encouraged to send original courses of work to the Department of Education for approval; these should conform to the character of the community in
which the centre is placed and to the equipment which has been installed there. After a certain
number of tool exercises have been taught everything possible is done to respect the wishes of
the pupil to make objects into which he can bring his heart and soul and mind, but in
construction-work, as might well be supposed, much judgment is required to guide him from
projects which would undoubtedly turn out to be fiascos. An honest attempt is being made in
most centres to run a middle course between the hard-and-fast mechanical list of models and
the absolute freedom of making whatever the pupil desires. Manual instructors often encourage
unselfishness and an interest in the school community by permitting groups of workers to make
necessities for the school-rooms and the schools.
Classes for training manual instructors are held every Saturday afternoon in the Technical
School, Vancouver. These are open to both craftsmen and public-school teachers, and the total
number of training-hours amount to 775. While 275 hours at the bench are required from the
schoolmen, very little is required in practical teaching. The disposition of hours is reversed,
however, with the craftsmen, 200 hours being given to general education and seventy-five at the
bench. The training classes have provided us with teachers who have a good conception of
the educational value of creative work and who invariably return course after course to increase
and broaden their knowledge.
The course of work for teachers in training is as follows: Entrance examination in English
and arithmetic, mechanical drawing and solid geometry, drawing and design, blackboard drawing, light forms of hand-work, bench-work in wood, theory of woodwork, theory of education,
three years' course of projects, one year's successful teaching.
When men have graduated as manual instructors for elementary schools they have the
opportunity and privilege of proceeding onward and upward for the high-school certificate.
The programme of studies is as follows: (1) Furniture-making; (2) wood-turning; (3) sheet-
metal work; (4) art-metal work; (5) machine-shop bench-work, design, educational methods,
course of work; 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, thesis on manual training, use and care of woodworking
machinery, science relating to wood and metal work. Chemistry laboratory, Trail Technical High  School.
Draughting-room,  Trail  Technical High  School.  16 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. M 55
It is owing to the sterling qualities of the manual instructors that the work has been so
stable during the past economic period and to them entirely should be given the credit of our
position in the Dominion; for British Columbia still holds second place for the number of
teachers engaged in the work and the number of centres in operation.
Diplomas have been awarded to school pupils who obtained 400 of the GOO marks possible
in the woodwork and drawing of the course and who completed at least the first four groups
of models, particulars of which may be found in the programme of studies for elementary
schools.
In the Ontario course for qualifying manual-training instructors established at Hamilton
Technical School it is observed that they also admit two classes of students: (a) Normal
graduates—holders of second-class professional certificates; and (6) skilled mechanics. This
course extends from October 5th to June 18th.
Domestic Science.
Classes in the above subject were conducted in the following cities: Armstrong, Chilliwack,
Kelowna, Nanaimo, New Westminster, North Vancouver, Port Moody, Prince Rupert, Vancouver,
Vernon, and Victoria. Similar classes are also held in the following municipalities: Burnaby,
Esquimalt, Penticton, Point Grey, South Vancouver, and in the Rural District of Rutland. A
summary of domestic-science statistics from these places is as follows:—
Domestic-science centres   55
Domestic-science instructors    54
Elementary-school pupils attending      9,231
High-school pupils attending      1,902
The work of domestic science is conducted in the Province under various conditions—(a)
the simplest form being sewing and needlecraft only, taught by the grade teachers in the classrooms (such classes are not included in above statistics) ; (b) cookery taught with a simple
equipment of oil-stoves, the girls working in groups; (e) classes taught in fully equipped rooms
with individual equipment. There is still another economical way which has been adopted with
success; i.e., the demonstration method where the teacher with one or two girls do the actual
cooking while the class take notes. They, in turn, cook at home and bring their result tabulated
on a credit card.
Considerable headway and many changes have been made in the teaching of domestic
science during recent years and the work of the centres visited show a greater appreciation of
the value of home quantities and of linking up the lessons of the school with the actual work
of the home. Health lessons form an important part of domestic-science work, but great care
must be taken not to let the domestic-science lessons evolve into talks. " Learn by Doing"
should be the motto. Correct and common-sense methods of cooking and clothing embrace a
knowledge of textiles and wearing-apparel, of foods and their functions, all of which can be
taught more effectively during active participation in cooking and sewing than by lecturing to
the children and having them make copious notes on the subject-matter.
Teachers should also be careful to adopt proper methods for ventilating their kitchens while
cookery is in operation. Windows should be open at the top. Fly-screens should be fixed outside
the windows. There is no reason I can see why the manual-training boys should not assist
in making necessary things for the domestic-science work. There are excellent purposeful home
projects right in the domestic-science centre worthy of careful consideration, and, moreover,
they are thoroughly educational in character. Good habits in sewing are also a necessity;
perpetual vigilance is required on the part of the teacher against the child tendency to work
without a thimble, to hold the work the wrong way, and to dream over it.
One cannot conceive of subjects more desirable for girls than those embraced in home
economics or domestic science. One cannot imagine any educational subject more important than
the management of a home. The breadth and scope of the work ranks it as worthy of inclusion
in the University of British Columbia just as it has found a place in many a similar institution.
We still find, however, those who state that this subject can be taught by the average mother
in the home.
Last year a series of lessons to domestic-science teachers on costume design were taught in
the art-room of the School Board office, Vancouver. The class was well attended and a splendid
introduction was made to a subject which is vast in extent and has many educational ramifica- M 56
Public Schools Report.
1925
tions important to teachers of home economics. It would be highly desirable to continue this
course, as its importance to this branch of the teaching profession cannot be overestimated.
Arrangements were made to conduct other classes in domestic science and it was thought the
following programme, which would give teachers in elementary schools an opportunity to
qualify for high-school work, would meet with approbation, but unfortunately most of the classes
did not materialize. The list of subjects was as follows: Sewing, stitcbery, design and home
decoration, dressmaking, millinery, mechanics of the household, physics of the household,
chemistry, bacteriology, physiology, psychology.
Through such classes we had hoped to graduate teachers who would be prepared to teach
in a girls' technical or vocational school. While we have an ample supply of well-equipped men
ready to staff a real technical school for young men, it would be hard to find the right kind
of technical teachers for young women.
Perhaps I may be permitted to again call attention to the great work awaiting a Provincial
supervisor of home economics, one who would champion the ideals of the movement among
women and correct many popular misconceptions and misunderstandings.
Technical High School or Day A7ocational School Courses.
Technical courses in high schools are organized in the Cities of New Westminster, Vancouver,
Victoria, and Trail. In the T. J. Trapp Technical School, New Westminster, may be found the
four divisions—academic, home economies, technical, and commercial—which go to. form what
is known in Ontario as a composite high school. The three-year technical courses of study in
these schools embrace the following subjects:—
Technical Course for Boys.—English, citizenship and economics, history, French or Latin,
mathematics, applied mechanics, physics, chemistry, drawing and design, electricity, physical
culture, shop-work in wood and metal.
Houseliold Science Course for Girls.—English, citizenship and' economics, history, French
or Latin, mathematics, chemistry, physics, physiology, dietetics and cookery, needlework (dressmaking and millinery), drawing and design, household art, vocal music, physical culture.
Commercial Course—(a) Secretarial; (6) accounting—English business correspondence and
filing, arithmetic, book-keeping and accounting, commercial geography, shorthand, typewriting,
commercial law.
At the conclusion of these courses examinations are held for the Technical Leaving Certificate, Junior Matriculation Certificate, and Commercial Certificate, all of which are issued by
the Department of Education.
The following table gives the number of students attending the technical, household science,
and commercial courses:—
Technical.
Household
Science.
Commercial.
New Westminster
Trail	
Vancouver	
Victoria	
Burnaby	
Kamloops	
North Vancouver.
Point Grey	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke	
South Vancouver-
Surrey	
West Vancouver..
Totals....
104
35
554
97
790
42
99
141
55
482
208
52
27
82
75
17
18
22
102
20
19
1,179
Total, 2,110 students.
Representations have been made to make the Technical Leaving Certificate stand in lieu
of the Junior Matriculation.    This seems to be a reasonable request in order to admit students 16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools Report. M 57
to the applied science course at the University. The subjects of English, mathematics, and
chemistry of the Technical Leaving Examination are already accepted for Junior Matriculation.
Trigonometry, drawing and design, practical woodwork, metalwork, and machine-shop bench-
work of the technical course are not required for matriculation, but the boy who aspires' to
University must add history and a foreign language.
If a special technical examination in industrial history and economics could be provided
instead of the history taught in the academic course, this would meet the needs of the technical
boys. To equalize the expense of this step, let the present three technical papers—electricity,
mechanics, and physics—be supplanted by the ordinary matriculation physics paper which now
includes mechanics. In regard to the foreign language it could be commenced in the first-year
university and treated as a supplemental.
While there is no doubt in my mind that this link with the University should be forged,
yet the main objective of a technical course should be a technical school and specific vocational
studies, or direct entrance to industrial work. The great field for technical education is among
the 80 per cent, who do not enter high school and the additional number who leave the high
school during the first year, and should direct the thoughts of those to industrial training.
Techetcal Courses.
The high school technical courses are still gaining steady favour in the cities where such
are in operation.
When the School Boards of Burnaby, Point Grey, and North Vancouver make up their
minds to enrich their courses of study by embracing technical work, a regular and fully equipped
technical school can be successfully established in Vancouver. Such a school is highly desirable,
for, as Dr. A. N. MacCallum, chairman of the Research Committee of Canada, states, " What
we need is a highly skilled population having every scientific means of adding value to the raw
material." It is at technical schools where skill in creative work is fostered. It is there that
the people are trained to establish high standards of taste and skill in production. The technical
school is the basis of industrial prosperity and the time is ripe for its erection. Already the
question of apprenticeship is taking form with various trade organizations; already schemes
have been formulated whereby boys will be trained systematically in the building trades; and
included in the indenture drawn up by business-men and employers of labour is a proposal that
" The apprentice be paid full time throughout apprenticeship and allowed off duty at least one
day per week during the winter months to attend a technical or vocational school." Thus we
see the arrival of the method already adopted in Ontario, in the United States of America, in
Great Britain, and in Germany. Here educational authorities may obtain a glimpse of how
they can best serve the people who are entering industrial life and who are going to be the
producers of wealth. No better paying investment could be made to-day in Vancouver than
equipping a school where all the necessary knowledge could be obtained and skill developed in
order that productive trades might be successfully conducted. When the large technical school
was built in Toronto a few years ago, croakers said it would be a " white elephant." Since its
erection, however, it has become necessary to build two more technical schools, so .great has
been the call from the inhabitants of the city.
Aid in planning a technical school should be sought from an advisory committee. A well-
selected body of business-men would be in a position to lend valuable assistance and guidance
to the school trustees in making expenditures on mechanical equipment. The Advisory Board
of New Westminster have been assiduous in their endeavours to assist the school trustees in
their manifold duties. In Vancouver the selection of men has not been so happy and with two
or three notable exceptions their attendance at meetings has been disappointing.
Extension of facilities in the Vancouver Technical School for studying motor mechanics is
urgently needed. The gasolene-engine plays such an important part in modern life that an
opportunity for a thorough understanding of its mechanism forms a tremendously valuable part
of a man's stock of knowledge.
The introduction of a three-year technical course in South Vancouver High School failed to
materialize owing, in a great measure, to the fact that South Vancouver and Vancouver were
likely to join forces. It is hard to understand what difference such an amalgamation would
make in the situation, for, even if the populations combined, the best thing that could he done
for South Vancouver would be to organize a high school with four departments—academic, M 58 Public Schools Report. 1925
technical, commercial, and home economies. This kind of school is certainly the most suitable
type for a democratic community and one which would lend itself admirably to the introduction
of the Junior High School system.
The City of Victoria might also with great advantage seriously consider such a change in
her high school. In Vancouver City a school of applied arts and design has been formed with
a view to raising the standard of taste among producers and of training designers for industries.
Industrial countries are fully alive to the importance of such training, for a school of design
always accompanies a technical school. The combination of satisfactory design with good
technique produces a work or art; i.e., " The well-doing of what needs doing " ; in other words,
art is thoughtful workmanship, and the success of the Vancouver School is assured.
A students' follow-up system should be started without delay. Something must be done
not only to guide the boy into his proper vocation, but to keep track of him and mark the
practical value of his training on his progress. By means of a follow-up system we could check
up the school-work and keep adjusting it to meet the real needs of the people. Record-cards have
already been printed for a systematic check-up and we shall soon be endeavouring to glean
information which must prove exceedingly interesting and helpful and will do much to prevent
undue attention being paid to secondary issues.
High   School  Course  in  Home Economics.
Only two high schools in the Province provide a three-years' course in the above subject.
These two schools are the T. J. Trapp Technical School, New Westminster, with forty-two
students attending, and the King Edward High School, Vancouver, with ninety-nine students on
the roll. Members of these classes may graduate to the Normal School, but their standing is not
yet recognized by the University of British Columbia, as the subjects of their final examinations
are not accepted as equivalent to the Junior Matriculation Examination. It would seem, however, that by a very slight adjustment a reasonable educational basis could be arrived at by
which the students of the Home Economics Course would not be handicapped for matriculation
to university and yet preserve the present standard of their practical work.
Dressmaking and millinery in the Home Economics Course should be taught with a view
to vocational efficiency. In the usual high school domestic science course the sewing, dressmaking, and millinery should be taught from quite another angle. The teachers in the Home
Economics Course should boldly attack their work with workshop methods and practice always
in mind. Draughting patterns for clothing, designing costumes, studying colour schemes and
harmonies, etc., are all included in the three-years' course. These practical problems, together
with a scientific study of chemistry, physiology, and physics, make this high school course of
great importance.
Commercial Courses.
The above courses are attended by 1,179 students and this number will continue to grow
because the merchandising and trading firms are still on the upward grade. The rearrangement
of the three-years' course is proving a great success and there is no more thorough office training
to be obtained anywhere. It has been suggested that school trustees should put on a short
intensive course such as people demand and receive at commercial schools conducted by private
enterprise. Intensive work is commendable, not only in commercial subjects but in all subjects.
The most evident thing in school-life is the fact of pupils being permitted thirty minutes to do
a fifteen minutes' job. In all technical training, be it in commercial, home economics, or industrial lines, the time element should be seriously reckoned with.
The commercial courses are straight vocational. Unlike those who attend the technical
and home economics classes, the students do not clamour for an examination to admit them to
university. The commercial students find a direct avenue to office-work and in their real
working environment they seem to acquit themselves creditably. At open tests in typewriting
and stenography held in the Province the students from the high schools can hold their own
with other competitors and each year they carry a good share of trophies to their schools.
Junior High  School, King Edward High  School, Vancouver.
While the name of this school is a misnomer, yet the school is one in which excellent work
is being accomplished.    The greater proportion of the students pass out into industrial  life, Sheet-metal working shop, Trail Technical High School.
Wood-working shop, Trail Technical High School.  16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools Report. M 59
while a few pass into various high schools. Pupils undoubtedly find themselves and discover
their capabilities in this school. They obtain an insight into active life outside the school by
visits to factories and workshops, and by listening to regular talks from successful business men
and women. By being occupied during 50 per cent, of their time with hand-work of the most
up-to-date character they are prepared for industrial life.
There is no more commendable educational work being done in the Province to-day than
that in the Junior High School and the staff is well chosen. The work done by the girls in
home economics has a true ring to it, and in child-welfare studies the children in the orphanage
are visited and all the necessary work of the day undertaken from cooking the meals to washing
and bedding the children. Such practical exercises as are found in the Junior High School reach
a high level in education for girls. " We need to invigorate and reinvigorate education," says
H. G. Wells. " We need to create a sustained counter-effort to the perpetual tendency of all
educational organizations towards classicalism, secondary issues, and the evasion of life."
Teacher-training.
Teacher-training for technical-school work is proceeding satisfactorily and the members of
the class, twenty-five in number, are composed entirely of practical craftsmen, who either are
engaged at present as manual instructors or have passed through the manual-training instructor's
class and thus have caught the educational view-point.
The success of technical education will depend upon the attitude, training, skill, and educational background which the instructors possess. So far the teachers in the Province are far
above the average and the opportunity to attend such classes as have been organized will tend
to keep up the standard. The teachers find a way of advancement through these classes; they
return year after year to continue their studies. They have a vision of ever-increasing technical
work being undertaken by Provincial educational bodies and they are determined to be prepared
for the work of instruction. In having men of this attitude we are singularly fortunate, for it
gives one confidence in dealing with School Boards who wish to participate in the advance which
is being made along the lines of technical education.
Technical teachers' certificates are of two kinds—interim and permanent. After two years'
successful teaching experience the interim certificate may be made permanent. The course of
study is not so general but more specific than that for the manual-training teachers' high-school
certificate. Part I. consists of a study of trade analysis and a study of teaching methods and
principles, during which they chart out a course of work.    Part II. consists of practice teaching.
Notice has come from the Hamilton Technical School that the Ontario Training College for
Technical Teachers has been opened and the syllabus shows that an excellent system of training
is now being undertaken. It is improbable, however, that successful craftsmen teachers will
be attracted to the East, as the salaries are not sufficiently high to warrant a man in stopping
his wage-earning occupation to run into great expense in order to attend college.
The training of first-class certificated teachers as commercial teachers is also undertaken
by class-work and by correspondence. Twenty-two students are enrolled in shorthand, typewriting, book-keeping, and teaching methods. The work is conducted at Summer School classes,
and by correspondence lessons as a means of continuing the studies and linking up the Summer
School. The growth of commercial work in high schools and the difficulty of obtaining efficient
practical teachers lead to the idea of training instructors. The step has been pronounced an
unqualified success and the men in charge deserve great praise for the faithful way they have
held to their purpose. This opportunity for training should be continued, as the success of
high school commercial courses depend entirely upon it.
Commercial certificates are of two kinds—interim and permanent. After two years'
successful teaching experience the interim certificate may be made permanent.
The sum spent on teacher-training, both technical and commercial, for the year October 1st,
1924, to September 30th, 1925, amounted to $8,906.02.
Night-schools or Evening Vocational Schools.
Night-schools were conducted in thirty-five cities and municipalities in the Province, with
an attendance of 7,380 pupils.
The following subjects are included in the night-school courses: English, English for
foreigners, subjects for Civil Service examinations, subjects for pharmaceutical examinations, M 60 Public Schools Report. 1925
subjects for junior matriculation, citizenship and economics, mathematics, mechanics, physics,
machine construction and drawing, pattern-making, forging, machinists' work, steam engineering,
automotive ignition system, magnetism and electricity, electrical engineering, chemistry,
metallurgy, coal-mining, building construction, carpentry and joinery, architectural design, estimating, navigation, forestry, paper-making, printing, commercial English, typewriting, stenography, accounting (elementary and advanced), commercial languages—i.e., Spanish, Russian,
Japanese, Chinese, French; salesmanship, drawing and design, modelling, metal repousse, wood-
carving, embroidery, .pottery, china-painting, show-card writing, dressmaking, milliner}-, costume-
designing, laundering, bread-baking, canning, cookery, music (instrumental and choral), elocution and public speaking.
The first essential in a night-school is an instructor who is master of his work and consequently has public confidence. The next important feature is for such a man to chart out
his lessons for the whole course. This rule is invariably adopted in classes characterized by a
high average attendance. After the season's course is planned each individual lesson should be
carefully prepared and such a procedure is soon reflected on the class.
School Boards might well study the business methods of private firms who run night-schools.
They must remember that the public need to be informed, and therefore advertising is imperative
to a successful enrolment. Each boy and girl in the day-schools is a medium for such publicity;
each goes to a home and might well carry at least a handbill or programme of studies. Each
school-teacher is a point of contact with the general public. The newspapers and churches rarely
object to a public appeal. No activity in the community deserves more support, for habitual
attendance at night-schools has a tremendous effect on character.
Women's Institutes are more than usually interested in night-schools, but they cannot
receive grants direct. Ten institutes under the auspices of the 'School Boards held classes and
330 students were enrolled. In rural districts it is often necessary to hold the classes during
the afternoon and in such cases the meeting is counted as a night class. Unsolicited testimonials
to the beneficial effect on efficiency and the spread of knowledge have come from many quarters.
The people who have gone to live in outlying rural districts deserve every encouragement to
gather together for mutual help and improvement, and it is to the credit of the Department of
Education that it stepped into the breach when the Department of Agriculture abandoned its
educational work amongst women.
Correspondence Classes.
Not only is educational work carried on among adults, but in the most inaccessible parts
of the Province, where as yet no school exists, the helping hand goes out to the children. The
home of the pioneer is invaded with school-work and 250 children conduct their lessons by mail.
We have examples of pupils who, though they have never been to school, have passed the
entrance to high school examinations successfully.
From the same office are sent out the lessons to those engaged in coal-mining operations.
The way is prepared clear and straight for an ambitious boy working in a coal district to step
gradually upward to the highest rung of the ladder. Such a youth can start by correspondence
at 15 years of age and work to the age of 23 on the fundamental mining subjects. Six separate
sections of study at $5 per section will give him ample preparation by the time he is of age to
try the shotlighters' examination. With a continuance of his study his papers as overman will
not be difficult to obtain, and following these two the aspiring coal-miner may go to any height
he desires. There are 202 mining students enrolled who desire to qualify as shotlighters, overmen, mine-surveyors, and mine-managers.
Under the democratic arrangement whereby persons employed in some occupation during
the daytime may try the University Matriculation Examination in four parts, it may easily be
seen that an ambitious and intelligent young man may even emancipate himself entirely from
his environment in order that he may specialize in the directions which call into activity the
gifts with which nature has endowed him.
It is surprising that there are not more night-school tutorial classes at which correspondence
students could study and receive individual help. The combination of the two would give
students a remarkable opportunity for advancement. 16 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. M CI
Expenditure.
The total amount of expenditure from October 1st, 1924, to September 30th, 1925, on the
subjects previously referred to, but exclusive of manual training, domestic science, and correspondence-work with elementary-school children, amounted to 8108,249.25, and of that sum the
Dominion Government paid $54,124.02.      «
Excerpts from the latest report from the Dominion Organizer of Technical Education show
that the Province of British Columbia takes fourth place for the total amount of expenditure
on technical education, third place for the number of students attending night-school, fourth
for the number taking correspondence classes, and second for the number of students undertaking training as technical teachers. Considering that the cost of administration is also
shown to be one of the lowest in the Dominion, it would seem to prove that the situation is
one which might be considered satisfactory.
I have, etc.,
John Kyle,
Organizer of Technical Education. ELEMENTARY AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
Victoria, B.C., September 30th, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—1 have the honour to submit herewith a brief report dealing with elementary
agricultural education for the year ended September 30th, 1925.
During a period of eleven years the Federal Government through the "Agricultural
Instruction Act" provided a considerable portion of the funds needed to finance the various
lines of work conducted in elementary agriculture in this as in the other Provinces. The
dicontinuance of this means of support proved a serious blow to the work everywhere and many-
useful lines of agricultural instruction have had to be greatly reduced if not entirely abandoned.
In British Columbia bonus grants to teachers on account of special instruction in elementary
agriculture through school and home gardening has been discontinued and other grants somewhat reduced. A fair measure of assistance to School Boards, however, has been maintained
towards meeting the expenses connected with agricultural instruction in elementary and high
schools, with school fairs, and with school-grounds improvement. If the present policy can be
maintained and adequately supported it should be possible to extend the work so as to include
new districts in the Province.
Change in the District Supervisor System.
With the cessation of Federal Government assistance a change in the District Supervisor
system was brought about, and the District Supervisors have devoted most of their time during
the past year to the teaching of science and agriculture in their respective high schools. In
the Municipalities of Surrey, Langley, New Westminster, and Salmon Arm it has been possible
to maintain a part-time service in the elementary schools, and in all cases where travelling
expense became necessary the Department has assisted the School Boards on a 50-per-cent.
basis. No special assistance towards the salaries of the instructors in science and agriculture
is given under the new plan, but a yearly allowance, not to exceed $300, towards local maintenance costs is allowed to each high school where the authorized two-year course in agriculture
is given. Each of the science and agriculture specialists is a member of the high-school staff
and carries a full-time teaching programme, including in addition to agriculture such subjects
as physics, chemistry, botany, general science, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, history, literature,
composition, drawing, etc. The time, therefore, that was formerly given to the teaching and
supervision of elementary agriculture in the public schools is now largely occupied in the
teaching of high-school subjects.
Agriculture in High Schools.
During the past year the regular course in agriculture was conducted in eleven high schools,
with a few special students in other schools, giving a total enrolment of 591 students in that
subject. This'is an increase of seventy-five over last year. On account of the scarcity of funds
available for the work, no attempt was made to open up new centres for agricultural instruction ;
but now that the work has come entirely under Provincial auspices and a more permanent policy
has been adopted, it is hoped that the study of agriculture will be included in a larger number
of high schools. It is already apparent that one of the chief difficulties will he the securing
of competent instructors to fill such positions. In order to have official recognition as a high-
school specialist in science and agriculture, the instructor must be a graduate in agriculture
from a college or university of recognized standing and must also have teaching qualifications.
Such specialists are not numerous in Canada at the present time, and School Boards must
recognize the necessity of offering somewhat higher salaries in order to secure and retain the
services of men holding such qualifications. Furthermore, it would appear that the time has
arrived when young men who have obtained the bachelor's degree in agriculture and who seem 16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools Report. M 63
well adapted to teaching should be encouraged to take the professional course in the faculty
of education and thus become eligible to teach in high schools.
After a period of ten years of faithful and highly efficient service as District Supervisor
of Agricultural Instruction at Chilliwack, Mr. J. C. Readey, B.S.A., resigned from the staff of
the high school there and has since accepted a position as professor of agricultural education
on the staff of the State Teachers' College for South Dakota. The position thus rendered
vacant at Chilliwack has been filled by the appointment of Mr. F. J. Welland, B.S.A., formerly
engaged as District Supervisor in Surrey Municipality.
Agricultural Instruction in Elementary Schools.
Nature-study with practical applications to agriculture in the higher grades is taught in all
of the elementary schools of the Province. This season has witnessed a falling-off in the number
of school-gardens operated in the elementary schools, due in part to the abandonment of the
District Supervisor system and to the cessation of bonus grants to teachers. Some of the larger
schools of the Province have continued to operate their gardens and have found them advantageous as part of their educational programme. Several new gardens were started this year
in outlying districts, due mainly to the personal interest and initiative of teachers. Practical
difficulties will always be found in connection with school-gardening, and until there is a more
complete understanding on the part of both teachers and School Boards as to the true
educational value of practical nature-studies based upon such practical projects as school and
home gardening little progress can be looked for. The daily round of doling out second-hand
information from text-book sources still occupies most of the time and attention of a great
many teachers. The emphasis which modern education places upon the social and industrial
aspects of the work of the school has not yet been realized by them. In our rural schools the
work has hut scant relationship to the life and interests of the community and the resultant
influence is towards city life rather than towards life in the country.
In an official circular recently issued by the Board of Education of England reference is
made to the place and value of gardening as an activity for boys and girls as a part of their
education, in the following terms:—
" Gardening is, or should be, eminently useful, and as a manual occupation should train
the hand to greater skill, the mind to more careful observation, and the character to a fuller
appreciation of the virtue of patience and the joys of successful craftsmanship. The school-
garden may produce very fine vegetables and flowers and yet entirely fail to -achieve the object
for which gardening is included in the school curriculum. . . . School-gardening, therefore,
rightly understood, is allied to ' nature-study' and should not be regarded as professional
training for an industry. . . . While it is not anticipated that there will be any falling-off
in the efficiency of the practical work, every effort should be made to develop the school-garden
on its observational side for the benefit of the younger children and on its scientific and
experimental sides for the older pupils; in a word, to make of it an efficient educational
instrument."
Since the inception of this comparatively new branch of instruction nearly twelve years
ago this point of view has frequently been set forth, but until it becomes an integral part of the
educational belief of our teachers and is emphasized more strongly in our training-schools only
slow progress will be made.
During the year a few teachers have reported very satisfactory results from school-
supervised home-gardening projects, and unless the horticultural conditions at the school are
reasonably good the home-gardening project is to be preferred. Other out-of-school projects of
an agricultural character have also been conducted in a number of schools with success, such
as the growing of staple field crops, potatoes, mangels and farm seeds, and also the raising of
chickens and pure-bred farm animals. Several important agencies as well as private individuals
outside of the schools have given valuable support along this line.
School-ground Improvement.
During the year a good deal of attention was given to the work of school-ground improvement.
Growing out of the policy and plan of assistance adopted by the Department some years ago,
a  large  number   of   School   Boards   have  become   interested in the general improvement and M 64 Public Schools Report. 1925
development of their school properties. It is now the settled policy of many Boards, especially
in the cities and rural municipalities of the Province, to do something definite each year along
this line. Their plan is to select the most needy schools first and then proceed to put all of
their school-grounds into good condition, taking one or two each year. During the past year
improvement-work was carried on with the assistance of the Department in no less than sixty-six
schools, as follows :—
(1.) Cities.—Victoria High School, Victoria West; Ridgeway and Lonsdale Schools, North
Vancouver; Central School, Fernie; Kelowna Central and High; Salmon Arm Central and High;
six schools in New Westminster, Courtenay, and Duncan.
(2.) Rural Municipalities.—Agassiz Elementary and High; Mission Elementary and High;
Stave Falls and Cedar Valley in Mission Municipality; MeBride, Norquay, and Gordon in South
Vancouver; North Star in North Vancouver District; Lloyd George, Kerrisdale; Lord Kitchener,
Prince of Wales, and Magee in Point Grey; Langley High School, six schools in Burnaby, ten
elementary schools in Surrey; Craigflower, Cloverdale, Strawberry Vale, and Tillicum in Saanich;
and Summerland.
(3.) Rural and Assisted.—Rutland Superior, Campbell River, Crawford Bay, Ellison, Hilliers,
North Bend, Valdes Island, Metchosin, Willow Point, Willow River, Parksville, Dewdney, and
Balfour.
In most of the above cases financial assistance was given on a 50-per-cent. basis, and in all
eases valuable planting material in the form of trees and ornamental shrubs were supplied from
the Provincial Schools Nursery at Essondale. It was found necessary to provide continuous
assistance in the nurseries, as the volume of work entailed in shipping material, as well as in
propagation-work and general care, has greatly increased. It is important that the full-time
services of at least one experienced man be provided in the nurseries all year round, as the
time of the regular nursery staff of the Mental Hospital is very fully occupied and they cannot
longer continue to give the schools department of the nursery the attention it requires without
substantial and permanent assistance. In this connection I wish to make special mention of the
valuable co-operation of Dr. Steeves, Medical Superintendent at Essondale; Mr. P. H. Moore,
Superintendent of the Colony Farm; and Mr. John Renton, Head Nurseryman. Without the
hearty co-operation and skilful services of these men for years past the schools department of
the nursery could not have been maintained.
School Fairs and Judging Competitions.
In order to encourage the holding of school fairs the Department offers financial assistance
to the extent of 25 per cent, of the money paid out for prizes in accordance with such prize-list
as is approved by the Department. The maximum grant to any one school fair has been placed
at $100. The holding of these annual school exhibitions act as an incentive to good work on
the part of both teachers and pupils. The better the school fair the more completely
representative it will be of all school activities. It helps to establish a high standard of work
in any district, in all subjects, by frequent comparison, with the work done in other districts.
The holding of school fairs has also served to bring the people of the district into close
touch with the work of the school and has led to a greater measure of co-operation in all school
enterprises. In many cases such organizations as Women's Institutes, Parent-Teacher Associations, United Farm Women Agricultural Associations, etc., have accepted the responsibility of
managing and staging the fair, and all such are deserving of the highest commendation.
Judging competitions for juniors have come to be a prominent feature in connection with
many of the larger fairs. These competitions now include the judging of live stock, poultry,
field crops, fruit, and vegetables. The largest competitions in judging during the past season
were those held at the Vancouver Fair and at the Provincial Exhibition at New Westminster.
The outstanding team this year at both exhibitions was trained at Cranbrook by Mr. Angus
Hay, B.S.A., and consisted of Maurice Goddens, Margaret McClure, and Ernest Warden. This
clever team not only secured first place in stock-judging at Vancouver, but took first place in
three different competitions at New Westminster—namely, live stock, poultry, and field crops.
The second-prize team in live-stock judging came from Kelowna and was trained by Mr. J. E.
Britton, B.S.A., while the third-prize team was from Summerland and was trained by Mr. V. B.
Robinson, B.S.A. The second^prize team in crop-judging was from Richmond and was trained
by Mr. Harold Steeves, B.S.A., while the Summerland team won the third prize. 16 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. M 65
In poultry-judging at the Provincial Fair at New Westminster the team from Armstrong
won the second prize and the Kamloops team third. This year for the first time poultry-judging
by teams of three boys or girls was introduced at the New Westminster Exhibition and was
greatly aided by the British Columbia Poultrymen's Association, which organization provided
a beautiful challenge cup for annual competition.
The interest shown in the progress of agricultural education generally by different organizations and also by private individuals during the year has been most gratifying; some of the
newspapers have also made valuable contributions through their columns in support of the
work. In this connection I wish to make special mention of the valuable assistance rendered
by the superintendents and staffs of the Dominion Experimental Farms at Agassiz, Summerland,
and Sidney. Agricultural classes have benefited greatly by visits to these farms during the
year. On the occasion of their last visit to the Sidney Experimental Farm the Victoria High
School agricultural class, which is the largest in the Province, also visited the fine farm of
Mr. S. H. Matson close by, and were accorded the greatest of kindness by Mr. Matson, including
an excellent midday banquet.
The interest manifested in the progress of agricultural education by the Chilliwack Board
of Trade has been gratifying at all times, and during the past year they have rendered a valuable
service in the interests of agricultural education by sponsoring a special meeting for the
consideration of the work in that district.
I also wish to make special mention of the hearty co-operation of several of the officials of
the Provincial Department of Agriculture, who always stand ready to assist when the opportunity
arises.    The assistance so rendered has been greatly appreciated.
One of the best examples of whole-hearted community co-operation noticed during the year
was the Surrey School excursion and picnic to Stanley Park, Vancouver. It was a most
ambitious undertaking, requiring as it did no less than twelve special cars to bring the children
and their friends, 1,200 strong, over the British Columbia Electric Railway, the largest excursion
ever handled by the company over that line. The fact that the cost of transporting the children
was met by public subscription shows what a genuine spirit of co-operation can accomplish.
Much credit for the success of the undertaking was due to thorough organization under the
capable leadership of Mr. F. J. Welland, secretary of the Field Day Committee. The children
had a wonderful day, combining education with recreation, and all without mishap of any kind,
which speaks well for the management throughout. Other districts would do well to mobilize
their forces in similar manner in the interests of their young people, and local school authorities
might well take the lead in doing so. Parents not infrequently do something of this kind for
their own children, and " what the best and wisest parent wants for his own child, that must
the community want for all of its children." This is a basic principle in all public systems of
education.
I have, etc.,
J. W. Gibson,
Director of Elementary Agricultural Education. M 66 Public Schools Report. 1925
SUMMER SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
Victoria, B.C., September, 1925.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith a report on the Provincial Summer School for Teachers held
in Victoria from July Oth to August 7th, 1925.
In the absence of Mr. J. W. Gibson, who has successfully directed the Summer School for
many years, the task of conducting its activities was entrusted to me. An earnest student body
and a staff of instructors who pursued their work with unselfish devotion made my duties
extremely pleasant. Practically the whole staff were unsparing in their efforts to make the
school a success. Perhaps the strongest testimonial from students in favour of Summer School
is the way they return again and again to their studies. Three hundred and fifty students
enrolled and many of these had attended from two to six previous summers. The fact that the
students do not live in dormitories, as is customary in many summer schools, makes it difficult
to preserve an esprit de corps and have successful evening gatherings. All such difficulties,
however, were reduced to a minimum by the efforts of the staff, who rendered whole-hearted
support to the school functions. The courses offered and the number enrolled in each were as
follows (some students took several courses) :—
Rural Science Course      19
Primary Grade   116
Art Courses (including Applied Art)   100
Manual Training     25
Vocal Music      27
History       25
Civics and Citizenship      14
Geography     58
English Literature      22
Health Education  143
Penmanship    127
Demonstration School   150
Of the number in attendance, 304 were women and 40 men. A further classification may be
made as follows :—
From cities in British Columbia   76
From rural municipalities   80
From rural and assisted schools   109
Unclassified and without schools   59
From points outside of British Columbia   26
Total   350
The following is a complete list of the instructors and the subjects taught by them respectively :—
Arthur Anstey, B.A., Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver—History.
W. Gordon Brandreth, Member of the Institute of Hygiene, London, England—Hygiene
and Physical Education.
Miss Elizabeth G. Breeze, Chief School Nurse, Vancouver City.
J. E. Britton, B.S.A.,  Specialist in  Science and Agriculture,  Kelowna High  School—
Horticulture.
Miss Leila A. Burpee, Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver—Primary Grade
Hand-work.
Fred E. Coombs, M.A., Professor, Toronto University, Ontario College of Education—
Theory and Practice of Primary Grade Work. m  16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools Report. M 67
Miss Ethel M. Coney, Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver—Vocal Music.
Miss Lena K. Cotsworth, Supervisor of Physical Education, Vancouver—Folk-dancing
and Physical Education.
Ira Dilworth, M.A., Graduate Student, Harvard University—English Literature and
Reading.
John Davidson, Assistant Professor of Botany, University of British Columbia—Plant-
life Studies.
Harry O. English, B.S.A., Instructor, Victoria High School—Agriculture.
H. P. Eldridge—Weaving.
E. S. Farr, B.A., LL.B., Instructor, Victoria High School—Civics and Citizenship.
John Fraser, Instructor, A'ancouver Technical School—Sheet-metal and Forge Work.
Mrs. Margaret Grute—Pottery.
E. A. Howes, B.S.A., Dean, College of Agriculture, University of Alberta,  Edmonton,
Alta.—History of Agriculture and Agricultural Education.
F. A. Jones, B.A., D.Paed., Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Ottawa—Geography.
Harry A. Jones, Instructor, Vancouver Technical School—Machine-shop Practice.
John Kyle, A.R.C.A., Organizer of Technical Education, Victoria—Art Appreciation and
Applied Design.
James S. McMillan—Applied Art.
Will Menelaws, Graduate of Royal Scottish Academy of Art, Edinburgh—Figure-drawing
and Sketching from Nature.
H. B. MacLean, Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver—Penmanship.
Rowan W.  MacKenzie,  Instructor, Tennyson  School,  Vancouver—Penmanship.
Miss Dorothy Morton—Music Accompanist.
Edward W. Parker, Instructor, Vancouver Technical School—Building Construction.
G. S. Spencer, B.S.A., M.S., Assistant Professor of Zoology, University of British
Columbia—Animal-life Studies.
James G. Sinclair, Instructor, Vancouver Technical School—Preliminary Art.
Mrs. Margaret Spouse—Intermediate Grade Hand-work.
Mrs. Ina D. D. Uhthoff, Graduate of Glasgow School of Art—Advanced Art and Applied
Design.
W. P. Weston, Instructor, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver—Preliminary Art and
Lecturer on Art Appreciation.
F. C. T. Wickett, A.R.C.O., Victoria—Choral Singing and Summer School Accompanist.
Staff of Demonstration School.—Harold L. Campbell  (Head Master),  Grade VII.;   Miss
Charlotte Mazzoline, Grades V. and VI.;   Miss Margaret Cameron, Grades III. and IV.';   Miss
L.   Grace  Bollert,  B.A.,   Grades   La  and  II.;   Miss  Jessie  E.   R.  Fisher,  Receiving  and   I.b ;
Frederick Waddington, Instructor in Singing;   Miss Vera Cussans, Instructor in Folk-dancing.
Courses oe Study, with their Content and Aim.
Rural Science—-The Rural Science Course consisted of studies in the history of agriculture
and agricultural education, horticulture, plant-life studies, and animal-life studies. History
is a new department in the field of agriculture. It is felt that too little attention in the past
has been paid to the story of agriculture in its relation to the progress of the race. Perhaps
the agriculturist has profited least by the successes and failures of those who have gone before.
The course covered a brief study of Grecian and Roman agriculture and of agricultural practice
in England, United States of America, and Canada. The study was correlated with the regular
history course as at present taught in schools.
Horticulture, which is the branch of agriculture dealing with fruits, vegetables, flowers,
ornamental trees and shrubs, was included in the Course of Rural Science. This department
was designed to help the teacher to better understand the selection, growth, and care of cultivated
plants. To the child the garden contains a world of wonder and beauty, and plant-life studies
should be encouraged. Such studies as the following were carried out: How plants absorb soil
water; how plants get rid of superfluous water; how plants economize or store water when they
are exposed to arid conditions. Floral structure and its relation to pollination was discussed,
noting the presence or absence of nectaries, the colour, size, and arrangement of the floral parts!
Following the study of the life of the individual plant, the class took up the study of plant M 68 Public Schools Report. 1925
communities or plant associations and the relation of such communities to their particular
environment.
Class excursions and much out-of-door work formed an important means of studying plant-
life.
Animal-life studies began with a review of the anatomy and functions of the human body
and then a comparison was made with animal life and the structure or habits that made these
animals particularly suitable to their surroundings. Insect-study was engaged in to familiarize
the class with the commoner orders, especially those that are of economic importance.
Primary Grade Course.—The Primary Grade course consisted of Part A (theoretical) and
Part B (hand-work). Part A consisted of lectures to give the teachers a broader conception of
the nature and meaning of education and of experience, to give an insight into the nature and
meaning of the learning process and of the teaching process. In connection with these topics
many ideas and theories were discussed, of which the following are typical: Education is
(a) the conscious and continuous reorganization and reconstruction of our social inheritance or
culture, and (6) the conscious and continuous development of individual capacities along
lines of initiative and flexibility, so that the individual may be capable not only of fitting into
the changing environment, but also of becoming the wise and directive agent in the changes
which the environment and his own capacities undergo. Education is a social necessity. It is
the means whereby social life in its most pregnant sense perpetuates itself. A true learning
situation when analysed reveals the following steps: (a) A problem; (6) a selecting activity;
(c) a relating activity; (d) a test. The main principles inherent in any true learning situation
are: (a) Motivation; (6) analysis—synthesis; (c) apperception; (d) self-expression; (c) right
to generalize or to infer belongs to the pupil. The laws of learning are: (a) Readiness;
(o) exercise; (e) satisfaction; (d) mind set, etc.
In studying the teaching process various lesson types and methods of teaching were fully
considered.
Primary hand-work consisted of projects suitable for little children from 5 years of age
upward. The joy of creating should always be encouraged, and materials for that purpose, such
as paper, scissors, plasticene, clay, crayons, paints and brushes, were used freely. The third
and fourth grade work included basketry and thin woodwork. From basketry in particular
children gain much skill of hand and eye. A basket, by the very nature of its construction,
shows up inevitably any slipshod workmanship.
Art Course.—The Preliminary Art Course covered an extensive field and it embraced nature
drawing, design, model drawing, lettering, and blackboard-work.
In nature drawing each student was expected to be able to give a more or less true rendering
of flowers, leaves, butterflies, shells, etc., through the medium of pencil, water-colour, and tempera.
These drawings were then made the bases for motifs in design for borders, geometrical spaces,
diapers, etc., all executed in certain " set" colour schemes as laid out in the lessons on tone and
colour. These nature drawings and designs were further used for practice on a large scale on
the blackboard, which side of the course is very much stressed, as such drawings are the ultimate
medium in the hands of the teacher. Practice is given in the principles of model drawing, with
their application to the drawing of common objects, which are done in pencil, crayon, and ink.
The Second-year Advanced Art and Applied Design Course was intended chiefly for high-
school and public-school teachers. Commencing with tone studies in pencil, the work proceeded
to the use of chalks, pastels, water-colours, black and white chalks on tinted paper, and pen
and ink drawing. Nature drawings were made from various plant forms and used as the bases
of designs for stencils, gesso, block prints, embroidery, pottery, book-plates, and posters. These
designs were carried out in some practical form by the students, thus giving them a good working
knowledge of design. There was also a class for etching on copper and zinc, in which the
processes of preparing the plates, etching them in the acids, and finally printing the proofs in
the etching-press were carried through.    Special attention was paid, to lettering and printing.
The Third-year Art Course was inaugurated last year in response to those teachers who
desired to supplement their artistic knowledge beyond that given in the ordinary school
curriculum. It has proved to. be a great success. Figure drawing and construction, drawing
from life, including action drawing and poster composition, was taught; this also included the
painting or drawing of the figure in such mediums as oil-colour, water-colour, pastel, and pen Weaving Course, Summer School for Teachers, 1925.
Simple looms for school-work.  16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools Report. M 69
and ink. Landscape painting and picture composition was also included in this course. Students
studied landscape drawing and painting direct from nature in conjunction with class-room
lectures, and they thereby were impressed with the points which govern the good composition
of a picture. The class regularly met on such sketching-grounds as are to be found at Beacon
Hill Park, the wharves, Cordova Bay, and other places, all teeming with beautiful colour schemes,
as well as figure and action " subjects."
Applied Art.—The course of work in pottery included the building of vases by hand and
practice of " throwing" the forms on the wheel. The products were then dried, fired, and
glazed; great progress was made during the summer course. Designs were worked out from
direct study of the native Indian collection in the Provincial Museum. A growing appreciation
of the skill of the native craftsman and of the significance of his work, which was gained from
the material found in the Provincial Archives, strengthened the work of the students and
justified the opportunity offered by this branch of applied design. For this work local clay
was used entirely.
Weaving was demonstrated for the first time and a hand-loom with four harnesses was built
and put into operation. Two small table-looms were also used and even a small one of primitive
form was made out of a chalk-box. It is intended to use local wools for this work and to card,
spin, dye, and prepare the yarns.
Art-appreciation lectures were given and the following course was amply illustrated by
slides and reproductions: The Florentine School of painting and art craftsmanship; the
Venetian school; the artists of Flanders, Holland, France, Britain, America, and Canada. The
lectures were well attended, and as this subject was introduced for the first time this year the
success of the lectures warrant the continuance of the course.
Music.—The opportunity to study the New Canadian Music Course Books made the session
of 1925 in music particularly interesting and profitable. The music syllabus for schools as
suggested in the Course of Study is full and comprehensive. It includes choral singing, sight-
reading, ear-training, rhythmic expression, music appreciation, and theory of music.
In addition to making themselves acquainted with the school music for the various grades,
the music students of the Summer School were required to reach a certain standard for themselves. Realizing the importance of the subject and the large amount of work to be covered,
they applied themselves faithfully and earnestly, and at the close of the session the students,
together with the choir from the Demonstration School, took part in a musical evening.
Community Singing.—One of the most interesting characteristics of music is the communal
spirit which it engenders. Especially is this manifest where people congregate to enjoy what is
termed "community singing"; that is, the singing together of songs that are understood and
loved by the people. Believing that a short time spent in singing before starting the more
serious studies of the day is of inestimable benefit, the opportunity was given for the school
students to meet for singing from 8.45 to 9 a.m. Judging from the good attendance, the morning
music-makings appeared to be much enjoyed, many of the students not missing a single morning.
The leader of the community singing also formed a small orchestra from among the students
who were able to play musical instruments.
History.—The History class had a slightly larger enrolment than that of last year and
was engaged upon the study of subject-matter and of teaching methods suitable to the various
grades of the elementary and junior high school. To-day's trend in history-teaching is twofold
—emphasizing the social and economic aspects of the story of the past and looking for greater
pupil activity in the class-room. New " methods" were studied in their relation to broad
principles in the light of the best educational theory, and in the Demonstration classes they
were practically tested. Several periods were spent in working over some of the documents and
exhibits in the Provincial Archives, and in securing some knowledge of the raw material from
which the early history of our Province has been drawn.
Geography.—This class studied not only the subject-matter but the best means of teaching
same. During recent years the point of view in regard to teaching geography has changed
very materially. Too often in the past geography has been treated as a study of the earth,
with emphasis upon location, physical features, and political units. To-day, instead of placing
the emphasis on rivers, resources, climate, industries, and commerce as such, the tendency is
to stress the relationship which exists between human life and the natural environment. Most
of the facts of formal geography, such as position, location, imports, exports, etc., can best be learned incidentally as essential details of interesting problems regarding man's activities in a
world which is his home. Teaching that shows the earth as the home of .people essentially like
ourselves, except as modified by geographic environment and social inheritance, will tend to
make the whole world kin.
Civics and Citizenship.—The class studied those institutions which have developed in concentric circles from the home out to the League of Nations. When humanity was first dropped
into the pool of existence, the first ring of authority formed was the home. Since then for us
five secondary rings—municipal, provincial, federal, imperial, international—have emanated from
the first. Among them there is no conflict; each has its own circle of authority, and, taken
together, express the totality of human effort.
The course included lectures and class discussions on materials for practical work in civics
and citizenship throughout the course of study, and suitable charts, pictures, and diagrams were
given a prominent place.
English Literature.—The Course in English Literature was planned to comprehend the study
of both language and literature. Realizing the great importance of language as a tool, the
vehicle of thought and emotion, a definite effort was made to develop accuracy and precision
in its use. This was done by a careful study of words and their exact meaning, by an examination of the principles of sentence structure, and by forming an intimate acquaintance with the
language and usage of literary masterpieces. In addition to this practical use, it was realized
that the study of language may have the further and even higher function of opening the door
to the vast stored treasuries of literary art. The noblest thoughts, the most aspiring hope and
vision of great minds of all ages, the records, legendary or historical, of the achievements of
heroic souls of all times—these lie within the golden realm which is called literature, and it is
believed that to reveal beauty and truth and high idealism to a child is to challenge his nature,
and that his response to that challenge will be a conscious, or oftener an unconscious, reaching
up to the standard thus set before him. So, in this world of ours, where so much concern is
shown about the things physical, the wherewithal to clothe and house and feed ourselves, a
greater portion of time and more intelligent attention must be given to the study of language
and literature.
Hygiene and the Child Health Programme.—This course was designed to assist teachers in
their presentation of health education in the class-room and to supplement their training so
that they will be equipped to give sound health training along modern lines. The course included
nutrition and fundamental instruction regarding foods and normal growth, personal hygiene
and health habits, the prevention and control of communicable diseases, modern methods of
sanitation, and the possibilities of the correlation of health-work with other subjects of the
curriculum.
Health Exercises.—Keen enthusiasm was seen daily in the gymnasium on a much varied
and progressive programme of free standing work, club-swinging, wall-bar.exercises, and niany
other activities.
The hygiene lectures given in the auditorium and class-room were also a source of animated
interest. The aim was not to give the students a mere recital of the normal functionings of
the human body, but rather to instruct them in the art of manipulating this wonderful machine
comfortably and efficiently with a view to gaining whatever is most worth while in life, and,
moreover, to give them this understanding so that they may in turn teach the same art to their
respective pupils in an interesting manner.
The important branch of swimming was not omitted and fourteen swimmers were trained
and passed the tests for the certificate and medallion of the Royal Life Saving Society. The
tests took place at the Crystal Gardens. Besides this class, one composed of beginners met
regularly at the Y.M.C.A. swimming-pool and made rapid progress in the aquatic art.
Folk-dancing.—By including folk-dancing and games in the Summer School Course it was
hoped to bring to the teachers' notice the importance that these subjects should play in the
recreational side of school-life, bringing, as they do, an outlet for the child's energy coupled
with decided enjoyment.
The teachers all seemed to enjoy their activity. The course covered the work suitable to
the various grades, from primary to high school, giving material for class-work and for the
numerous concerts that always occur at festival times. Raffia weaving, Intermediate Grade hand-work, Summer School for Teachers, 1925.
Basketry, Intermediate Grade hand-work,  Summer School for Teachers,  1925.  Intermediate Grade hand-work,  Summer School for Teachers,  1925.
Examples of pottery,  Summer School for Teachers,  192  16 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. M 71
Penmanship.—This was a special course for teachers who wished- to improve their own.
penmanship and blackboard writing and to acquire the most modern methods of teaching
handwriting.
A portion of each daily lesson period was devoted to a study of the pedagogy of penmanship.
Class-room problems of all grades were discussed and practical suggestions given. The following topics received special attention: Primary Grade writing; rhythm in writing; the story-
method of teaching writing; blackboard writing; the correct posture, pen-holding, and movement
for the development of freedom, speed, and control.
Demonstration School.—In connection with the Summer School there was conducted a
Demonstration School of five classes. The 150 children attending were recruited from the city
schools, and many more children applied for admittance than could be accommodated.
The purpose of the Demonstration School was twofold. In the first place it was desired to
provide the children with a five-weeks' course conducted along recreational lines. Much solid
drill-work on essential subjects was accomplished, but it was largely interspersed with interesting and novel project-work. A generous course in singing and folk-dancing assisted greatly in
preserving the recreational spirit.
The second purpose of the school was to provide teacher students with an opportunity to
observe some of the newer methods put into actual practice with a class of pupils. Demonstration lessons, as they were called, were given by members of the faculty of the Summer School
and by the teachers of the Demonstration classes.
The primary department of the Demonstration School was organized and arranged in two
groups: (1) Beginners and one-term pupils; (2) second- and third-term pupils, with an enrolment of sixty-five. Here, for three hours each day, the students of the Summer School came
for observation and discussion of methods.
As nearly as possible, the usual class-room procedure prevailed, but special stress was given
such subjects as number and reading (including beginners' reading and silent and dramatized
reading), and in these subjects a course allowing for individual and unrestricted advancement
of pupils was outlined and demonstrated.
Projects correlating all the class-room subjects were worked out by the pupils in each
division. An additional feature of this term's work was the opportunity given pupils for
organized play and a play-room for the little beginners. This play instinct of the child was
made the basis for the work throughout all the subjects.
A singing class was conducted as part of the regular work of the Demonstration School,
the several classes taking their lessons at the assigned periods daily, with, usually, many teachers
present as observers.
Since the demonstration concerts given by the Esquimalt School Choir, 1922-23-24, increased
interest has been shown locally in school museic, and most teachers are eager to find out how
the standard is attained. The present demonstration class was designed to give the teachers
exactly that knowledge, and to show how possible it is to lead children to appreciate the
intellectual, emotional, and spiritual content of what they are singing.
Manual Training.—These classes met in the Technical School, Vancouver, and consisted of
twenty-five manual instructors who desired to work for the Manual-training-teacher's High-
school Certificate and also the Technical-instructor's Certificate. The subjects included:
Furniture construction, building construction (construction of roofs, stairs, etc.), sheet-metal
draughting, art-metal work, and machine-shop work. Many of the students in these classes
also regularly attended the lectures by Dr. Weir on " Psychology " at the University of British
Columbia.
Concerts, Lectures, Sports, and Pastimes.—Each week of the Summer School saw some
evening gathering to which students could bring their friends and at which much inspiration
was received and high standards set for individual attainment.
Of these evenings, four were musical and one a lecture. We were particularly fortunate
in obtaining an excellent varied programme from the great Russian interpretive singer, Vladimir
Rosing. Another song recital was given by Madam AVinifred Lugrin Fahey, dramatic soprano.
An instrumental evening of great enjoyment was given by the well-known Victoria trio, consisting of Drury Pryce, violin; Harold Taylor, violincello; Ira Dillworth, piano. Three lectures
were given by Dr. Charles Upson Clark, Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. These were
entitled " With Roman and Moor in Andalusia," " The Russian Situation," and " The Italian M 72 Public Schools Report. 1925
Situation."   Another lecture by Mr. Maynard, on the " Early History of B.C.," was arranged
especially for the History class, but was thrown open to all interested.
The closing concert of the Summer School was given by the Music class under the direction
of Miss Coney and a choir from the pupils of the Demonstration School under the leadership
of Mr. Frederick Waddington. Part I. of the programme consisted of songs and choruses by
the Music class, assisted by solos from members of the class, Mrs. Willcox, A.T.C.M., and Mr.
T. R. McLean. Part II. was composed of appropriate songs for school-children from the pupils
of the Demonstration School. Following the musical programme the audience gathered in the
gymnasium to witness a fine representative display of folk-dancing. Miss Lena K. Cotsworth
was responsible for the work of the Summer School students and Miss Vera Cussans for the
work of the children from the Demonstration School.
An exhibition of work was held on the same evening, to which the public was invited, and
this, together with the concert, brought an audience which overtaxed the capacity of the
auditorium. The rooms opened to the public consisted of the following: Art rooms, showing
drawings and applied art, posters, needlecraft, pottery, etching, gesso-work, weaving, life studies
and sketches from nature; Rural Science rooms, illustrating plant-life studies, table decoration,
animal-life studies; Manual Arts rooms, showing hand-work of Primary and Intermediate
Grades, including paper-cutting, plasticene modelling, wool-weaving, raffia-weaving, basketry,
thin-wood work, sandboard projects; History and Geography rooms, showing the schemes of
work and projects for improved methods of study; penmanship of all grades and the work of
the pupils in the Demonstration School.
On Saturdays trips were taken to places of interest. A visit was made to the Naval Station
at Esquimalt. The Senior Naval Officer, Commander Brabant, very kindly arranged with his
officers to show the teachers around, and as a climax to their hospitality refreshments were
served at the barracks. This delightful reception was highly appreciated and the company of
teachers was deeply sensible of the fine spirit which prompted the officers who accompanied the
party. Visits were made to the Museum and the Archives at the Parliament Buildings. Trips
were also taken to Butchart's Gardens, the Observatory, and the Meterological Station. The
school picnic held at Elk Lake Athletic Association Park was the largest outdoor gathering. A
sports programme for students, the faculty, and children was indulged in, and after lunch the
distribution of prizes proved a source of merriment. The party then took part in baseball,
boating, swimming, etc., and voted the picnic a great success. A picnic was given to the children
of the Demonstration School, the staff and pupils spending a delightful day at Elk Lake. The
Primary Grade children had a special picnic to themselves in the public park near the High
School.
The tennis tournament during the Summer School added considerably to the enjoyment of a
large section of students. This was conducted in a manner characterized by fairness and good
sportsmanship. A number of the teachers visited the Y.M.C.A. tank for lessons in swimming
and also the Crystal Gardens for the course in life-saving. No more desirable accomplishment
could be encouraged.
The Very Reverend Dean Quainton very kindly invited the students of the Summer School
to a special morning service at the Cathedral, where he honoured them by delivering an inspiring
address on education.
It would not be right to conclude this report without extending thanks to all who were
instrumental in making the Summer School a success; to the various student committees; to
Mr. George H. Deane, Municipal Inspector of Schools, and the Board of School Trustees, who
took an active interest in the work of the school and who placed at our disposal the commodious
High School building; to Mr. Aude, of the Crystal Gardens, who gave the students special
concessions; and to the staff of school janitors, who were ever at hand to arrange and rearrange
in preparation for the various school activities.
I have, etc.,
John Kyle,
Director, Provincial Summer School for Teachers. 16 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. M 73
FREE TEXT-BOOK BRANCH.
Education Department,
Victoria, B.C., October, 1925.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the work of the Free Text-book Branch for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1925:—
The total number of free text-books, etc., issued during 1924-25 to the public schools
(common, graded, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence Course
established for children in isolated districts where there are no schools in operation, was as
follows: 12,162 Canadian Reader, Book I.; 11,347 Canadian Reader, Book II.; 12,012 Canadian
Reader, Book III.; 11,846 Canadian Reader, Book IV.; 11,017 Canadian Reader, Book V.; 4,577
20th Century Reader, Book V.; 9,759 First Arithmetic; 9,222 Second Arithmetic; MacLean
Method Writing Books—9,374 Compendium No. 1; 10,080 Compendium No. 2; 11,016 Compendium
No. 3; 13,954 Compendium No. 4; 10,651 Senior Manual; 833 Commercial Manual; 978 Teachers'
Manual; 1,042 Supplementary Readers (Heart of Oak, Book One; Art-Literature Primer; Art-
Literature, Book One; Art-Literature, Book Two; Progressive Road to Reading, Book 3a ; Robin
Hood Reader; B.C. Phonic Primer; B.C. First Reader; B.C. Second Reader; B.C. Third Reader) ;
292 Essentials of Health; 9,451 How to be Healthy; 2,952 Latin Lessons for Beginners; 23
Canadian Civics; 669 Syllabus of Physical Exercises; 132 World Relations and the Continents;
9,311 History of Canada; 30,975 sheets Drawing Paper, 9 by 12 inches; 756,399 sheets Drawing
Paper, 9 by 6 inches; 9,451 Public School Grammar; 135 Union Jacks (3-yard Jack) ; 44 Flora
of Southern B.C.; 29 Maps of Dominion of Canada; 31 Maps of World (in Hemispheres) ; 24
Maps of British Columbia; 28 Maps of North America; 24 Maps of British Isles; 21 Scrap of
Paper; 21 Fathers of Confederation; 3,536 Teachers' Manual of Drawing and Design.
Three thousand four hundred and twenty-nine requisitions were filled by this Branch during
the past school-year for free text-hooks and supplies. In addition to these, 1,158 orders were
filled for those teachers in outlying districts who wished to purchase for their pupils books
other than free text-books which could not be secured in their vicinity, and also for private
institutions desirous of purchasing books supplied free to the public schools. The sum of
$4,525.77 was received from this source and paid into the Treasury for the credit of Vote 88,
" Text-books, Maps, etc."
The supplies distributed free by the Free Text-hook Branch during the past school-year
would have cost the parents and School Boards $115,263.55 at prevailing retail prices. To
purchase and distribute these among the various schools of the Province through the Free
Text-book Branch required an expenditure of $75,052.42, made up as follows:—
Text-books  (laid-down cost)    $61,680 78
Distribution (freight, boxes, etc.)      2,365 63
Salaries of staff        5,203 08
Temporary assistance         608 00
Office supplies         5194 93
Total   $75,052 42
The saving on the year's transaction is, therefore, $40,211.13.
During the school-year 1924-25 Blair's Canadian Drawing Series was discontinued, and was
replaced by the Teacher's Manual of Drawing Design. This accounts for the large number of
copies issued during the year, and also accounts to some extent for the reduced cost of operating
the Free Text-book Branch during the last year.
The sales of books, not supplied free, to the pupils in rural districts where there are no
local hook-stores were greatly increased during the past school-year, 1,158 orders being filled
for this purpose, as compared to 701 in the previous year. It is quite evident that the plan
of stocking and selling these books by the Free Text-book Branch is well appreciated by the
people of these districts. M 74 Public Schools Report. 1925
NlGHT-SCHOOLS.
Of the night-schools in operation during the past school-year, three were supplied with
text-books of some kind by the Free Text-book Branch on the same conditions as in former
years.
Returns eor 1924-25.
The teachers' annual reports of free text-books for the school-year 1924-25 are all on file
with the exception of nine. Steps, however, have been taken to secure these, and it is expected
that they will be on file at the Free Text-book Branch within the next few days.
From the annual returns and also from the requisitions received, it is evident that many of
the teachers believe the books placed in the schools for their use to be their own personal
property. A great many orders have been received for such books as the Teachers' Writing
Manual, MacLean Method, the Syllabus of Physical Exercises, and the Teacher's Manual of
Drawing and Design. These books should be left in the school at the close of the term or
school-year, as it causes great inconvenience to new teachers when they arrive to take charge
of the schools and find that these books are not in stock.
I have, etc.,
J. A. Anderson,
Officer in Charge. 16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools Report. M 75
THE STRATHCONA TRUST.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY, LOCAL COMMITTEE, STRATHCONA TRUST, FOR THE
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, FOR THE  SCHOOL-YEAR 1924-25.
Victoria, B.C., October, 1925.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows on the work of the Local Committee for the
school-year 1924-25 :—
Instruction of Teachers in Physical Training, 1924-25.
A total of 529 students have qualified for Grade B physical-training certificates since last
report, as under:—
Normal School, Vancouver   308
Normal School, Victoria   218
Cadet Instructors' Course, Victoria        3
This is a decrease of ninety-two certificates as compared with the number issued in 1923-24.
This decrease is largely due to the reduced number of students attending the Normal Schools
during the past year.
About 5,829 teachers and prospective teachers of this Province have now qualified as physical-
training instructors.
Physical Training, 1924-25.
The list of prize-winners of Strathcona Trust prizes for excellence in physical training is
as follows :—■
High Schools.
P. C. Tees and E. L. Yeo, King Edward High School, Vancouver; Miss Grace P. Smith and
G. C. G. Kerr, High School, Kaslo.
(Note.—Four prizes in this group not awarded.)
Graded Schools (Five Divisions or more).
Miss Anna L. Bigney, Division 6, Lord Roberts School, Vancouver; Robert Straight, Lord
Tennyson School, Vancouver; Miss Ethel M. Pearson, Division 4, Mount Pleasant School, Vancouver; Miss Flora E, Hurst, Division 11, Dawson School, Vancouver; Miss Grace W. Killip,
Division 5, Gordon School, South Vancouver; Miss Mary Martin, Secord School, South Vancouver ; Miss Doris B. Graves, Division 0, North Ward School, Victoria; Miss Katherine McKay,
Division 14, Oaklands School, Victoria; Miss Elizabeth M. Crake, Division 2, Prince of Wales
School, Point Grey; A. J. Dodd, Division 8, Central School, New Westminster; D. H. Hartness,
Division 1, Booth School, Prince Rupert; Miss Eliza Milligan, Division 7, Central School, Prince
George; T. Aldworth, Division 1, Consolidated School, Armstrong; Miss Norma P. Douglas,
Division 12, Central School, Fernie; Miss Kathleen Lawrence, Division 14, Central School, Kamloops ; Miss Ruth E. Turner, Division 3, Central School, Salmon Arm; H. A. Eckardt, Division 1,
Central School, Mission; Miss Sadie J. Forrest, Division 5, Lonsdale School, North Vancouver;
Philip E. Cain, Division 2, Kingsway East School, Burnaby; Miss M. Constance Martin, Division
11, Central School, Nelson; P. C. Routley, Division 1, Saanich; Miss Vivian J. Aspesy, Division
6, Central School, Cumberland.
Small Graded Schools (Tido to Four Divisions).
Mrs. Norah Purslow, Division 1, Vananda School; H. K. Manuel, Division 2, Chilliwack
Rural Municipality; H. D. Southam, Division 2, Granby Bay School; Miss Kathleen M. Morrow,
Division 2, Vanderhoof School; Miss Kathleen Corry, Division 2, Hedley School; H. F. Reynolds^
Division 1, Procter School; Miss Grace Meredith, Division 2, Fruitlands School; Ivor Parfitl
Division 1, Ganges School;   Miss Margaret  Shiell,  Division 1, Mara  School;   Miss Isobel h! M 76 Public Schools Report. 1925
Strathearn, Division 3, New Denver School;   Miss Marjorie Sing, Division 1, Cowichan School;
Miss Alice M. Wood, Division 1, Comox School.
Ungraded Schools.
Miss Mary A. Ford, English School, Richmond Municipality; Miss Louise Girling, Anniedale
School, Surrey Municipality; J. S. Wilson, Houston School; Miss Inez Ratledge, Bouchie Lake
School; Miss Thelma Hobbs, Kaleden School; Miss Charlotte A. Douglass, Harrop School;
Miss Vera Palmer, North Thompson West School; F. Job, East Arrow Park School; Miss
Clare E. Blaney, Deroche School; Miss Dorothea K. Bagshaw, Sayward School; Miss Yolande E.
Pemberton, St. Vincent School; Miss Marjorie G. Robertson, South Gabriola Island School; Earl
Marriott, Myncaster School;  Miss Honora E. Staneland, Sahtlam School.
Three prizes of $10 each awarded to each of the eighteen inspectorates; amount expended
under this head, $500.
Physical Training, 1925-20.
For competition among the various schools during 1925-26 the sum of $30 has been granted
to each of the seventeen inspectorates. This sum is to be divided into three prizes of $10 each.
For purposes of competition and inspection the schools are to be divided into three groups or
classes, namely: Group A, of five divisions or more; Group B, of two to four divisions, inclusive;
Group C, of schools containing only one room or division. In any inspectorate where this classification is found to be unsatisfactory the matter of dividing the schools into three groups or classes
for the purpose of awarding three prizes of equal value is to be left to the discretion of the
Inspector in charge.
In all cases, however, the teacher and the class are to be considered as the unit in making
comparisons for granting awards. The full amount of the award is to be expended for a picture
or some piece of apparatus (suitably inscribed) for the room is which the prize was won. Only
those teachers who are the holders of physical-training certificates granted under the Strathcona
Trust are eligible to compete.
School Cadet Corps, 1924-25.
The following report on the activities of the school cadet corps during 1924-25 was submitted
to the Local Committee by Captain J. M. dimming, Inspector, Cadet Services :—
" Number of cadets between the ages of 12 and 18 years of age trained
during the year  6,275
Number of active school cadet corps       52
Other active corps      20
Total number of active corps        72
" The above totals show a fairly substantial increase both in number of cadets trained and
in the number of active cadet units over the previous year.
" By reason of the policy of holding cadet instructors' courses each summer, and by the
careful selection of candidates for these courses, an ample supply of excellent instructors is being
maintained. It is believed that the standard of discipline and training shows steady improvement.
" While cadet camps could not be held at the public expense during the summer of 1925,
every effort has been made to encourage instructors to hold local camps, for which camp equipment is available Without charge.    A number of these camps have been successfully held.
" A qualifying course for cadet instructors was held at Victoria from July 13th to August
22nd, when eighteen candidates qualified, six being granted ' special' certificates. The majority
of these new instructors have already become actively employed on cadet instructional work.
" Fourteen cadet instructors attended a refresher course for two weeks in July at Victoria,
while seven cadet instructors attended a promotion course at Victoria during July and August,
receiving qualifications of promotion from lieutenant to captain in the C.S. of C.N.P.
" In connection with cadet-work, a very gratifying feature is the added interest which many
School Boards and school officials have shown in the work; while there would appear to be a
continued lessening in the extent of adverse criticism of the work.
" The withdrawal of rifles from all schools and the abolition of training in manual of arms
appears to have had excellent results.    The limitation of the training syllabus to those subjects 16 Geo. 5 Public  Schools Report. M 77
shown on the list of cadet corps attached has resulted in a constantly improved standard in
physical and disciplinary efforts."
Hereunder is a list of the various cadet corps in order of merit as at their last annual
inspection, June, 1925 :—
(Possible marks, 1,000.)
101, King Edward High, Vancouver   890
388, Boys' Central, Victoria   835
388, North Ward, Victoria   830
E Co. 101, Technical, Vancouver     810
530, Mission, Mission  765
101, Alexandra, Vancouver   760
101, Lord Tennyson, Vancouver   735
101, General Gordon, Vancouver   730
101, Britannia High, Vancouver  720
101, Aberdeen, Vancouver   720
112, Victoria High, Victoria   720
938, Gilmore Avenue, Burnaby   720
1126, Armstrong, Armstrong   720
101, Kitsilano High, Vancouver   710
388, Sir James Douglas, Victoria   710
349, Lampson Street, Esquimalt  710
530, T. J. Trapp Technical, Westminster  705
38S, South Park, Victoria   700
530, Chilliwack Public, Chilliwack  ,  095
D Co. 101, Technical, Vancouver  690
1169, Sexsmith, South Vancouver   680
101, Cecil Rhodes, Vancouver   680
101, Central, Vancouver  680
101, Lord Nelson, Vancouver   665
101, King George High, Vancouver   660
101, Model School, Vancouver   660
101, Kitsilano, Vancouver   655
388, Oaklands, Victoria  650
101, Grandview, Vancouver   645
101, Henry Hudson, Vancouver   645
388, Victoria West, Victoria   640
101, Simon Fraser, Vancouver   640
101, Livingstone, Vancouver   640
530, Connaught High, Westminster   630
388, Quadra Street, Victoria  610
101, Macdonald, Vancouver   010
950, Merritt, Merritt   005
101, Strathcona, Vancouver   605
530, Central, Westminster   600
208, Tecumseh, South Vancouver   600
3S8, George Jay, Victoria   590
101, Beaconsfield, Vancouver  590
101, Hastings, Vancouver  590
388, Margaret Jenkins, Victoria   580
101, Laura Secord, Vancouver   580
101, Franklin, Vancouver   530
101, Fairview, Vancouver  520
101, Charles Dickens, Vancouver :  510
C Co. 101, Lord Roberts, Vancouver   510
F Co. 101, Lord Roberts, Vancouver   510
A Co. 101, Dawson, Vancouver   510
B Co. 101, Dawson, Vancouver   510 M 78
Public Schools Report.
1925
Twenty-six prizes were awarded in accordance with the schedule adopted at the last meeting
of the Local Committee held October 27th, 1925, one-half of each prize to be paid to the corps
and one-half to the instructor, provided he is a public-school teacher qualified as a cadet
instructor. When the instructor is not a public-school teacher, one-half of the prize reverts
to the general fund of the Local Committee.
The expenditure under this head for 1924-25 amounted to $331, and was made according to
the following schedule: 1st prize, $25; 2nd prize, $20; 3rd and 4th prizes, $18; 5th and 6th
prizes, $16; 7th and 8th prizes, $14; 9th to 13th prizes, inclusive, $12; 14th to 26th prizes,
inclusive, $10 each.
Rlele Shooting.
From the grant for rifle shooting, 1924-25, prizes were provided for forty-nine qualified corps
or units specified in returns—namely, $3.75 each; this amount to form cash prizes for the three
best shots in each corps or unit (1st prize, $1.50;  2nd prize, $1.25;  3rd prize, $1).
The expenditure under this head for 1924-25 amounted to $183.75.
Financial Statement for 1924-25.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Committee for 1924-25 amounted to $1,530.17 and the
expenditure for the year $1,015.93, leaving a balance of $514.24. Of the latter sum, $510 has
already been voted for physical-training prizes for 1925-26.
Receipts.
1924-25. Balance on hand from 1923-24   $   564 87
Interest to November 30th, 1924   10 32
Interest to May 31st, 1925  8 71
Allowance to Secretary (added to fund)   10 00
Grant for 1924-25   930 27
$1,530 17
Disbursements.
1924-25. Prizes for physical training  $  500 00
Prizes for cadet-training   331 00
Prizes for rifle shooting   183 75
Revenue stamps for cheques   1 18
$1,015 93
Balance on hand  v.  $   514 24
I have, etc.,
J. L. Watson,
Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust,
for British Columbia.

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