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Printed by Chahles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1924.  To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol, ■
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Rex>ort
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1923.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., June 26th, 1924.
Minister of Agriculture.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
' Page
Report of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture—Dr. D. Warnock  7
Report of Departmental Secretary—W. J. Bonavia  9
Report of Departmental Secretary re Fall Fairs—W. J. Bonavia  15
Report of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests—W. H. Robertson  18
Report of District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, Vancouver Island and Gulf
Islands—E. W. White  22
Report of District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, Lower Mainland—G. E. W.
Clarke    2S
Report of District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,  Okanagan Valley—W.  T.
Hunter     32
Report of District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,. Boundary and East and
West Kootenay Districts—E. C. Hunt  37
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver—J. W. Eastham  41
Report of Assistant Entomologist, Vernon—M. H. Ruhmann  43
Report of Chief Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Vancouver—W. H. Lyne  ' 4S
Report of Prairie Markets Commissioner, Calgary—J. A. Grant  53
Report of Live  Stock Commissioner, Victoria—W.  T.  McDonald  58
Report of District Agriculturist, Kamloops—Geo. C. Hay  63
Report of District Agriculturist, East Kootenay—A. L. Hay  66
Report of District Agriculturist, Duncan—W. M. Fleming  68
Report of District Agriculturist, Prince George—R. G. Sutton  '"9
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria—Dr. A. Knight  73
Report of Chief Poultry Instructor, Victoria—J. R. Terry  74
Report of Dairy Commissioner, Victoria—H. Rive - -  79
Report of Chief Agronomist, Victoria—C. Tice  S3
Report of Statistician, Victoria—G. H. Stewart  86
Report of Provincial Apiarist, Nelson—W. J. Sheppard  SS
Report of Assistant Provincial Apiarist, Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island Districts—
A.  W.  Finlay  89
Report of Assistant Provincial Apiarist,  Okanagan,  Shuswap, and Thompson Valley Districts—J.   F.   Roberts  91
Report of Secretary of Women's Institutes, Victoria—Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan  92
Appendix No.—
1. Total Correspondence received and dispatched. Years 1922 and 1923  105
2. Women's  Institute Flower-shows in  1923    105
3. Grants to Agricultural  Fairs  107
4. Pruning-schools   in   1923  108
5. Packing-schools  in  1923  109
6. British Columbia Greenhouse Survey, 1923  109
7. Exportation and Importation of Potatoes  109
8. List of Nursery Stock inspected and passed for Export  110
9. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry  Ill
10. Imported Fruit,  Potatoes, etc., condemned at all Ports of Entry  112
11. Imported Fruit, Vegetables,  etc., inspected at Vancouver  112
12. Imported Fruit, Vegetables, etc., condemned at Vancouver  113
13. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Vancouver   114
14. Imported Nursery  Stock  condemned at Vancouver  115
15. Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., inspected at Vancouver  116
16. Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., inspected at Victoria  117
17. Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which no Certificates were issued  117
18. Districts and Herds tested for Tuberculosis, showing Reactors  119 I 6 Contents. 1924
19. Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act"  122
20. Creamery  or  Dairy  Licences  issued  under  " Creameries  and Dairies  Regulation
Act"   123
21. Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia >  124
22. Synopsis of Potato Inspection and Certification for 1923 and 1924  125
23. Report on Field Inspections made in Certified Seed-potato Districts in 1923  125
24. Report on Tuber Inspections made before grading in Certified Seed-potato Districts
in  1923    126
25. Report on Field Inspections made in Districts where Crops had not been entered
for Certification purposes in 1923  126
26. Table  of  Average  Percentages  of  Diseases   showing  on  the  Growing   Crop,   also
Impurities in Varieties under Certification in 1923  127
27. Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—
(a.) Fraser Valley    128
(li.) Vancouver Island  ■.  129
(c.)  Kootenays    130
(d.)  Okanagan and Shuswap   131
(e.)  Summary  .'.  131
28. Final Report, Twelfth International Egg-laying Contest at Willows, B.C  132
29. Summary of Results at Twelfth International Egg-laying Contest  133
30. Individual Egg Records at Twelfth  International Egg-laying Contest  134
31. Spare Bird Record at Twelfth International Egg-laying Contest  135 REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
D. Warnock, P.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.
Hon. E. D. Barrow,
Minister of ■ Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of Agriculture
for the year 1923.
General Agricultural and Climatic Conditions.
The year opened with mild weather and continued so during the greater part of January
and February, the first severe cold spell being from February 12th to 18th; a number of districts
reported feed as becoming short at this time, but no serious difficulties arose. In the first part
of March there was some cold wet weather with snow in the southern portion of the Province,
but the latter part of the month was spring-like, except in the northern sections. By the end
of the month ploughing and general spring work was well under way in the south; reports at
this time showed that considerable hay was still to be sold from the Central Interior. During
April the weather continued very generally favourable, being fairly warm with just enough
rain, and by the end of May seeding was generally completed; pastures being in good condition
with evidence of a bumper hay-crop. June was a warm month, the strawberry-crop being,
however, brought on a little too quickly, whilst throughout July in the south ideal conditions
were experienced for haying; forage-crops also being above average and small grains promising
well. Unsettled w7eather, however, in the Central Interior interrupted haying. Roots, potatoes,
and pastures began to show evidence of the lack of rain, this condition being accentuated
throughout August. The small-fruit season was generally unsatisfactory to growers. Throughout August and September the weather continued favourable for harvesting, threshing on Vancouver Island and the Lower Fraser Valley being completed satisfactorily. Stock was generally
in good shape with ample winter feed in sight, cattle still being out on the ranges in October
in the Lillooet and Cariboo Districts. November and December proved also unusually fine,
much fall ploughing being done on Vancouver Island and in the Lower Fraser Valley. Feed
was abundant and reasonable in price, with a better outlook generally for the farmer than
had prevailed for some years.    No really cold spell was reported up to the close of December.
Production, Imports, and Exports.
A satisfactory general increase in the total agricultural production over 1922 was again
in evidence, the total for 1923 being $59,159,798, an increase of 6.93 per cent. The chief items
showing substantial gains were live stock, dairy products, fruits, and grains. Decreases in
total values included meats, poultry products, vegetables, and honey.
It is a matter for regret that coincident with the increase in home production there was
also during the year an increase in imported agricultural products from other Provinces; the
total value being $15,622,078, as against $12,970,001 in 1922. These increases appear largely
in butter, cheese, and milk in its varied forms, such as condensed, evaported, powdered, etc.
A very large increase is also noted in the importation of wheat, mill-feeds, and malt. Importations from foreign points, on the other hand, decreased in 1923, the total being $3,395,453, as
against $4,173,321 in 1922.
Exports.—As an offset to importations, a satisfactory feature of agricultural production is
the increasing value of our exports, showing that new outside markets are being won even if
but slowly. The total exports for 1923 were valued at $5,886,372, fruit and vegetables accounting
for 85 per cent, of this sum; other interesting items included live stock, $38,148; dairy products
(chiefly evaporated milk), $244,669; poultry products, $286,658; hops, $169,602, etc.
Live Stock.—An increase from $14,550,494 to $15,920,028 is noted in.the value of this branch
of industry, horses, sheep, and swine increasing slightly, the notable increase being in dairy
cattle, which show 12,070 more in numbers than in 1922.
The number of poultry also increased over 13 per cent, and eggs produced 15.5 per cent.,
but prices for these ranged low.
The beef industry did not recover from its depressed condition, the result showing strongly
in decreased numbers for all classes, especially in cows, 2 years old and over and yearlings. I 8 Department op Agriculture. 1924
Dairy Products.—The excellent growing condition noted above aided very materially in
the increased milk-flow and products depending on same. Over 4,000,000 lb. of butter were
manufactured and evaporated milk and ice-cream both showed substantial Increases; the total
value for all dairy products being placed at $9,234,576, as against $8,001,135 in the previous
Fruits.—The apple-crop constituted a record; values, however, remained unsatisfactory to
the producer in spite of the efforts of the uew co-operative organization, the Associated Growers
of British Columbia, which controlled some 85 per cent, of the crop. Plums and prunes showed
a decrease. Small fruits also showed an increased production, with a decrease in value of 9.2
per cent.   The total values for all fruits were, however, $6,034,976, as against $4,915,604 in 1922.
Hay, Grains, and Fodder-crops.—There was a considerable increase in acreage and production, the latter amounting to 18 per cent, for grains alone. The average yield for oats
was 51.50 bushels per acre and for wheat 24.50; total values increased from $3,486,726 to
$5,482,967 this year.   Hay, largely clover and timothy, produced 103,941 tons more than in 1922.
Alfalfa is a steadily increasing crop in the Province, over 17,400 acres being recorded; the
general yield of fodder-crops was 29.4 per cent, over that of the previous year, but the prevailing
low prices reduced the total value.
Vegetables.—This crop was slightly less than in 1922; the area planted to potatoes showing
a decrease of 1,085 acres.    The total value for all vegetables was $5,853,026.
Hops, Honey, etc.—A large increase in the production of hops is noted, 999,804 lb. being
produced at a value of $399,992, an increase in value of over 46 per cent.
A poor season was recorded for the apiarist, in common with many other parts of this
continent. Climatic conditions were apparently unfavourable for the secretion of nectar for
many native plants and the average production per hive was only 32 lb., as against 61 lb. in
There was no farm-labour problem in any part of the Province during the past year;
periodical reports from various districts showed that at practically all seasons there was a
sufficiency of local help. At harvest-time on Vancouver Island and the Lower Fraser Valley
there was a fair demand for additional help, which was fully met.
Farm wages showed practically no difference in 1923 as compared with 1922; the average
monthly wage for men and women in the summer season, including board, wras as follows:
Men, $76; women, $53; as against $75 and $54 in 1922. The average wages for the whole
Dominion were $61 and $39 respectively.
The detailed reports of officers for the various branches of the Department are appended
Respectfully submitted.
D. Warnock,
Deputy Minister.   14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 9
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report as Departmental Secretary
for the year ended December 31st, 1923.
The Estimates for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1924, provided for a total of seventy-
eight staff appointments, as against seventy-two the previous year.    A reorganization of the
various branches showed the following apportionments:—
Deputy Minister's Office and general clerical staff   16
Horticultural, Inspection, Markets, Pathological, and Entomological Branches 31
Live Stock Branch      5
Veterinary  Branch   -     8
District Agriculturists      5
Poultry  Branch     5
Soil and Crop Branch     3
Dairy Branch     5
Total  78
New Staff Appointments.—January 1st, Mrs. Jean Stewart, stenographer; April 1st, Robert
Anderson, messenger; April 1st, W. J. Sheppard, Provincial Apiarist; April 1st, G. H. Thornbery,
Supervisor of Cow-testing; April 16th, James Allen, District Poultry Instructor; June 1st,
Benjamin Hoy, District Horticulturist; June 1st, H. E. Waby, District Poultry Instructor;
June 1st, Miss M. M. MacLoud, stenographer; October loth, F. C. Wasson, Dairy Instructor.
Resignations.—T. M. Anderson, March 31st; W. T. Hunter, October 31st; Miss G. Lindsay,
September 15th; W. Newton, June 25th; R. J. Quirie, September 30th; Chas. W. Traves, February
W. T. Hunter, District Horticulturist for the Okanagan, resigned to accept an appointment
as Superintendent of the Dominion Experimental Farm at Summerland, whilst Dr. W. Newton,
who had been on extended leave of absence in California, obtained an appointment in that
Temporary Appointments.—A number of temporary appointments were made during the
season to the Horticultural Branch, Soil and Crop Branch, Apiary Branch, etc.
Correspon de n ce.
The total letters received were 27,111, being practically the same figure as for the previous
year, while the letters dispatched totalled 20,957, somewhat less than the average.    There .was
a  marked  increase in  the correspondence  relating to   Agricultural  Associations,  horticultural
matters, and brands.    (.See Appendix No. 1 for full details.)
Circular Letters.—A total of 36,060 stencilled letters were sent out, grouped as follows,
considerable increases being noted for the Dairy Branch and Secretary of Women's Institutes
over the figures for the previous year:—
Agricultural Associations        470
Farmers'  Institutes  	
Dairy Branch	
Horticultural Branch 	
Live Stock Branch—
Brand Recorder 	
British Columbia Goat-breeders'
British Columbia Stock-breeders'
Soil and Crop Division 	
Poultry Division 	
5 020
3 550
Women's  Institutes  	
• I 10
Department of Agriculture.
The rotary mimeograph machine used in connection with stencilled letters is giving satisfaction, but part of the equipment, consisting of the stencil-cutting and envelope-addressing machine, needs replacing by more up-to-date devices. The parts referred to have been in constant use
for some fifteen years, and even with the best of attention the output does not reflect credit
on the Department.
Pound Districts.   t
The past year has seen considerable activity in connection with the organization of pound
districts, entailing much correspondence, also with regard to irregularities in the Brilliant Pound
The following six districts were constituted by Order in Council: May 9th, Kaslo; June
28th, Trail East, Rutland, Ashcroft, and B.X.; September 24th, Grand Forks.
The Hon. Minister after investigation decided not to sanction pound areas in the Columbia
Valley and at Ainsw7orth. Several other districts were in progress of formation at the close
of the year, the total number in operation being forty-two. The Glenmore Valley Pound District
was abolished by Order in Council owing to this district, which adjoins Kelowna, having been
incorporated as a rural municipality, with its own pound by-law.
Returns from pound-keepers were again collected, which show that in the large majority
of pound districts the Act is well observed by local communities. No prosecutions occurred
during the year.
Pound District.
No. of
Sales of
Total Fees
paid to
charged for
2               6
10             15
....       1         6
$  1  50
20 00
2  70
49  15
2 00
$    3 05
Balfour    -	
20 00
$ 5  00
East Trail            	
North   B'end   	
3 50
4 00
73 25
87 25
....      |        3
63             74
$78 25
$82 85
$110 30
* No details. f Six horses. % None charged.
Sheep-protection and  Grazing Disteicts.
A Proclamation was issued on April 11th constituting a sheep-protection district in the
Columbia Valley, the portion included on the representations of the local Stock-breeders' Association lying between the southerly boundary of the Dominion Railway Belt and Canal Flats, and
comprising the settlements at Brisco, Edgewater, Wilmer, AVindermere, Invermere, etc.
Two grazing districts were organized also during the year under the provisions of the
" Animals Act Amendment Act " of 1920; the first iu the Greenwood Electoral District, providing
for bulls of a good beef type over 1 year old ti run at large from July 1st to November 30th in
each year, aud the second in the Lillooet Division in the neighbourhood of 83-Mile House, providing for the running at large of stallions over 1 year old between June 1st and December 31st
in each year.
Agricultural Poison Licences.
The number of licences issued under regulations based upon the " Pharmacy Act, 1911,"
was twenty-eight during the past year, as against forty-six in the previous year. This reduction
has to a large extent been due to a ruling of the Attorney-General's Department 'that wholesale
and retail firms handling poisons for agricultural and horticultural purposes did not require
more than one licence; hitherto branches had also paid the $5 licence fee.
Permits for Special Rates on Crushed Lime Rock used as Fertilizer.
Three permits only for reduced freight rates for 90 tons of lime were issued during the
year.   The high rates charged by lime companies—i.e., $8.50 per ton in car-load lots or $10 L.C.L.
—prevent the wider distribution of lime, a matter much to be regretted. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 11
Farmers' Institutes.
In the past year nine Farmers' Institutes were organized, somewhat less than the number
in 1922, but showing good evidence of the soundness and progress of the movement. The details
were as follows :—
Date and Name. Membership.
Jan. 8, Burns Lake   52
Jan. 26, Francois Lake   47
Feb. 26, Grassy Plains  26
Mar. 6, Wistaria   42
April 5, Alert Bay   13
May 14, Cokato  15
July 3, Wardner   27
Sept. 25, Chief Lake   28
Oct. 17, Oona River   16
Total     266
The total number of Farmers' Institutes in good standing at the end of the year was 148,
an increase of nine over 1922.    The total membership was 5,643, as against 5,498 in 1922.
The following eleven institutes were those with the largest membership  (over 100) :—
Kitsumgallum    154 Nanaimo-Cedar   122
Delta    152 Mission    116
Surrey   146 Chilliwack     114
Coquitlam   144 South Saanich   114
Islands  131 Maple Ridge  104
Metchosin  129
Lectures and Demonstrations.
In addition to the numerous individual institutes at which officials of the Horticultural,
Poultry, and Soil and Crop Branches, etc., addressed meetings, itineraries were arranged by
the Department as follows:—
(a.) Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.—Fourteen meetings were held by Mr. Fairley,
Dominion Poultry Instructor, and A. Morton, Dominion Sheep and Swine Promoter, whose
services were made available by the co-operation of the Dominion Live Stock Branch.
The itinerary covered a period of twenty-six days, many outlying farm communities on
the smaller islands being visited for the first time.
An outstanding feature was a moving-picture outfit with poultry and sheep films which
was successfully operated at every point; in places where no power was available the machine
was operated by a generator attached to the engine of a Ford car or of a Wee McGregor saw.
Very large and enthusiastic audiences were noted.
(6.) Columbia Valley.—A. L. Hay, District Agriculturist (Cranbrook), and C. W. Traves,
District Poultry Instructor (Nelson), arranged for eleven meetings, covering all points from
Moberly to Baynes Lake, but the latter portion of the trip had to be abandoned owing to severe
snow-storms; individual points were, however, covered later by special trips.
(e.) Central British Columbia.—Nine Farmers' Institutes were visited by R. G. Sutton,
District Agriculturist of the Land Settlement Board, co-operating with this Department; the
trip started at McBride on February 17th and terminated at Terrace on March 2nd. Attendances
were not so good as at other points, the weather being more or less unfavourable, and the
absence of a lecturer on poultry subjects being a disappointment to many.
Fairs held by Farmers' Institutes.
A record number of fall fairs was held by Farmers' Institutes in the past year, the total
being sixteen, as against ten in 1922. Judges were supplied free to all events except those at
Masset (Graham Island) and Vanderhoof. Quite a number of these fairs are well handled;
they are located in sections of the Province where there are no specially incorporated Agricultural
Associations. The institutes concerned are thus filling a double purpose. Fairs held were as
follows:— I 12
Department of Agriculture.
Circuit 1.—Qualicum District, East Sooke, Shawnigan and Cobble Hill, and Denman Island.
Circuit 2.—Squamish, "Whonnock and District, and Fern Ridge.
Circuit 3.—Peaehland.
Circuit Jf.—Boswell, Arrow Park, Kaslo, Rock Creek, and Crawford Bay.
Circuit 5.—Masset, McBride, and Vanderhoof.
Co-operative Activities of Farmers'' Institutes.
The steady progress made by certain institutes in co-operative purchasing for their members is well known by the following figures:—Institutes whose receipts exceeded $1,000: Year
1920, 12; 1921, 20; 1922, 23.
Whilst the major portion of the sums mentioued above were expended for stumping-powder,
large sums were also spent on feed, flour, and other supplies; for instance, Kitsumgallum,
$3,253; Rosslaud, $2,368.82, The general co-operative store at Crawford Bay is also increasing
its turnover very substantially each year.
TaMe shoioing Chief Lines of Activity of Farmers' Institutes whose Receipts were over $1,000.
Name of Farmers'
Arrow Lakes.	
Bella Coola. 	
Crawford Bay	
Gray Creek	
Kitsumgallum  ....
Magna Bay	
Northern Okanagan	
Strawberry Hill	
Surrey .   	
White Creek Valley	
Winderemere Dist.  F. I.
and Agriiudtural Assn,
Maple Ridge 	
Totals (23 institutes)..
$  6,124 86
•2,420 47
9,047 07
4,238 04
15,791 40
1,391 21
1,429 92
2,244 29
1,117 76
1,486 31
8,399 17
1,034 27
2,654 85
3,650 75
2,784 93
3,236 52
1,010 95
3,046 16
9,136 09
1,770 77
2,334 92
3,014 96
7,091 68
$95,056 35
$  5,139 70
2,060 87
9,493 46
3,913 34
14,292 53
171 53
1,369 24
2,103 56
1,117 76
1,246 06
6,984 00
930 64
2,999 26
2.925 15
2.441 72
3,181 S3
970 45
2,904 69
8,954 25
1,735 99
2,193 93
3,014 96
6,424 86
•186,569 78
Fuse, and
Caps sold
$ 3,893 43
S46 81
500 00
3,789 22
614 27
834 51
1,136 65
3,114 38
917 20
2,355 20
2,750 53
2,699 90
8,766 50
390 38
1.048 06
600 56
6,269 86
$40,617 46
Feed, Flour,
Seed sold     Hay, Ferti-
to lizer, etc.,
Members. sold to
!   Members.
S     604 76*
S.864 61
443 20
2,161 42
$2,936 27
715 65
1,808 91
597 39
2,368 82
1,314 23
1,078 70
$20,606 06
15,043 41
100 00
341 80
768 72
77 75
622 El
863 05
$19,123 90
A   car-load   of   "drain-
Freight   on    purchase,
General co-op. store for
Grant to fair.
3 car-loads feed.
Pure-bred stock.
Bld^r. materials for hall.
Prize-money at fair.
Buildings erected.
Expenses of fair.
* Potatoes.
The Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes and District Conventions.
The Advisory Board held its annual meeting, following the usual practice, during the sitting
of the Legislature, from Novemher 9th to 17th, 1923.
The session was an unusually long one as over 100 matters were dealt with, with the
usual very wide range. The Board considered the session a very satisfactory one and the
plans laid should bring about a consolidation of the Farmers' Institute movement in the Province,
especially along the lines of establishment of the district associations.
The annual district conventions were held and in addition extra meetings in some districts.
District A, annual meeting held March 27th, Victoria; District B, none held; District C,
March 7th, Prince George; District D, January 18th and November 3rd, Kamloops; District E,
February 9th and October 26th, New AVestminster; District G, none held; Districts F and H,
February 22nd and September 18th, Nelson; District 1, March 14th, Cranbrook.
The attendance at conventions was very satisfactory and the organization is steadily
strengthening, all district centres now financing their own meetings. Special attention is being
paid to bring about such changes in the regulations that will assure every institute having
delegates or being properly affiliated to the district centres. 14 Geo.
British Columbia.
I 13
The members of the Advisory Board for the year were as follows:—
District A, Vancouver Island, Gulf Islands, and Bella Coola—C. E. AVhitney-Griffiths,
R.M.D.  1, Metchosin.
District B, Bulkley Valley, Skeena and Nass Valleys—J. H. Young, Terrace.
District C, Prince George, including district from Endako to McBride—R. J. Blackburn,
Prince George.
District D, Kamloops, North Thompson Valley, Nicola Valley, and district between St.
Elmo and Revelstoke—W. Harrison, Pritchard.
District E, Langley and all institutes on south and north sides of the Fraser to Chilliwack, and Howe Sound—Jas. Bailey,  Sardis.
District G, Kelowna, including Okanagan Valley from Mara to Kaleden, also Salmon
River Valley—J. Goldie, Okanagan Centre.
Districts F and H, Grand Forks, Arrow and Slocan Lakes and Boundary Districts,
Kootenay Lake and Kootenay River Institutes—O. B. Appleton, Procter.
District I, Columbia Valley and South-east Kootenay—D. O. Bricker, Fernie.
Statistics re Stumping-powder used by Farmers' Institutes and Similar Organizations iu clearing
Land for Agricultural Purposes.
Fiscal Year.
Cases of
No. of Cases
paid on.
No. of
15.281      I     J111.SB3
. 6,702
1923-24  .■' -	
Women's Institutes.
During the past year seven new Women's Institutes received certificates of incorporation,
four of these being in the Lower Fraser Valley, as follows:—
Date and Name. Membership.
March 24, Slocan Valley   15
April 6, Clearbrook Road  27
April 19, Huntingdon   24
May 21, North East Burnaby  21
June 15, Aldergrove   31
June 25, Fern Ridge  16
Aug. 1, Oliver 	
The total number of institutes at the close of the year was 111, with a total membership
of 3,433, the latter figure being a decrease of 291 on the previous year's total.   The institutes
were grouped as follows:—
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands     32
Lower Mainland      34
Okanagan and North Thompson      25
Kootenay and Boundary     20
Total     IU
The movement has not been taken up so far in Central British Columbia, although at the
close of the year communications were received from Wistaria (Ootsa Lake) showing that the
women of the district might organize shortly.
The four institutes with the largest memberships were Nelson (212), Victoria (118), Cranbrook (107), and Vernon (93) ; the Nelson District again creating a record.
Fall Fairs, Flower-shows, Exhibits of Women's Work, etc.—The past year has seen an
extraordinary activity in the holding of events such as the above a total of seventy-eight being
recorded in this office; the previous year's total of these events being only fifty-nine. Some
institutes held two events, such as Colwood, a bulb-show in the spring and a flower-show and
exhibit of women's work in July; Langford, a flower-show and an exhibit of women's work
later; Vernon, a bird-house exhibit and a better-baby clinic, etc. I 14
Department of Agriculture.
The South Saltspring Island Women's Institute again held a very successful fall fair at
Fulford Harbour, this being the most ambitious event staged by the ladies of any district.
Eight health exhibits and better-baby clinics were arranged, as against six in 1922. (See
Appendix No. 2 for full details.)
The past year was an average one with regard, to the issue of new publications and the
reprinting of others, the grand total reaching 80,950.
The long-expected bulletin (No. 92) on " Bee Culture" by the Provincial Apiarist was
issued in the spring, the first edition of 3,000 copies being quickly exhausted and a second
edition printed before the close of the year.
Among other new issues were a horticultural circular on " Tomato-growing "; three Department circulars on the Okanagan, the Columbia-Kootenay, and the Similkameen Valleys; and
a bulletin (No. 93) on " Feeding for Egg Production " by Professors Lloyd and Asmundsen, of
the University of British Columbia.
Agricultural Journal.—This publication has been printed at the rate of 2,000 per month,
with the exception of September, when the issue was increased at 2,500 copies. Subscriptions
and renewals were normal, and in order to extend the subscription-list a leaflet descriptive
of the Journal is included with parcels sent out to persons applying for publications of the
Department; a number of subscriptions from outside the Province have been brought in through
this means.
The following statement shows the total number of bulletins, circulars, etc., printed by
the Department during 1923:—
Bee Culture in B.C -	
Feeding for Egg Production 	
Climate of B.C.  (8th Ed.)  	
Agricultural Statistics for 1922 	
Care and Feeding of Dairy Cattle (3rd Ed.)
Bee Culture in B.C.  (2nd Ed.)  	
Horticultural Circulars'.
Currant Gall-mite (2nd Ed.) 	
Tomato-growing in B.C ,	
Woolly Aphid of the Apple (3rd Ed.)  	
Soap Solutions for Spraying (3rd Ed.) 	
Varieties   of  Fruit   recommended   for  Planting   (Revised
Agricultural Department Circulars.
The Okanagan Valley	
Peat and Muck Soils  (2nd Ed.)  	
The Columbia-Kootenay Valley 	
Agriculture in the Similkameen, etc	
Aug.    11
Circular Bulletins.
Poultry Rations   (4th Ed.)   	
Dairy Circulars.
Certified Milk and Butter-fat Records 	
Seventeenth Annual Report of Department of Agriculture
Soil and Crop Circulars.
Certified Seed-potatoes—Why They Will Pay !..
Legislative Work of Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes
Legislative Work of Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes
List of Publications 	
Carried forward	
Bulletin No. 92
Hort. Circ. No. 35
Agr. Dept. Circ. No. 40
Circ.  Bulletin  No. 19  	
Dairy Circ. No. 7 	
Year 1922	
Soil and Crop Circ. No. 1
49,950 14 Geo. 5
Bkitish Columbia.
I 15
*      „
Brought forward
Agricultural Journal.
Agricultural Journal	
Month of February
,, March   ....
Month  of April  	
,, May  _.v	
,,        June   	
„ August   	
,, October   ....
,,        November
,, December
,,        January   ..
Bulletins and Circulars distributed during 1923.—The grand total of all publications issued
by mail was 98,101, practically equal to the figures for 1922, the details being as follows:—
Horticultural circulars   26,882
Poultry bulletins and circulars   23,941
Live stock and mixed farming   12,994
Department  circulars     9,577
Circular bulletins  •.       951
Dairy circulars     4,566
Soil and Crop circulars      3,355
Agricultural Department Annual Reports        827
Miscellaneous bulletins   11,275
Miscellaneous circulars and posters      2,530
Institute reports and pamphlets  '.     1,203
Total     ■.  98,101
Respectfully submitted.
Wm.  J.  Bonavia,
/ Wm. J. Bonavia.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to present herewith the report in connection with fall fairs held
in the Province during 1923.
The total number of fairs held was seventy-five, with two stock-shows in addition. This
total shows an increase of twelve over the number of fairs in 1922, the. increase being being
accounted for almost entirely by the unusual number of small fairs held by Farmers' Institutes,
United Farmer Locals, and similar bodies for the first time in outlying districts, as follows:
Sayward, East Sooke, Fern Ridge, Pemberton Meadows, Enderby, Birch Island, Winlaw, Masset,
Vanderhoof, and Fort St. John. This large increase has been commented on in various quarters
and is referred to later on in the recommendations and suggestions attached to this report.
The Delta Stock-show held at Ladner on June 23rd was a new departure and was attended
with every success. The association later in the fall only arranged for classes to include fruit
and vegetables, field crops, women's work, etc. It is understood that this summer show is to
become an annual event.
The Kamloops District Stock-show held at Knutsford on July 2nd was also a success and
has now become a well-established annual event. I 16 Department of Agriculture. 1924
A very full report has been compiled from the judges' reports as sent in to the Department.
On looking this over a general consensus of opinion is noted that the number of entries was
somewhat lower in the past year than in previous years, but that the quality of exhibits and
the manner in which they were prepared for show was on the up-grade. In the cases where
special criticisms have been made by the judges or suggestions for improvement sent in to the
Department, these will be issued shortly to the secretaries of the fair associations concerned
in order that they may incorporate any necessary changes in their prize-lists.
Leaving out the three big Coast exhibitions, which are in a class by themselves, there is
a group of fairs which are developing along sound lines and their directors are to be congratulated on the progress made, both from an educational standpoint and also for their excellent
management. Amongst such fairs can be mentioned the following: Duncan, Ganges, Chilliwack, Mission, Salmon Arm, Armstrong, Trail, Grand Forks, and Smithers.
The Department again supplied judges free of cost to the various associations to the number
of seventy-five, being a decrease of five on the previous year's total. There is always difficulty
in obtaining competent men as judges for live stock, a total of thirteen outside judges being
employed in this connection in addition to six departmental officials.
Women's work and domestic-science exhibits are also calling each year for a larger number
of lady judges at the various fairs, a total of fourteen having been supplied during the past
year by the Department.
The attached table shows the details:—
Staff. Outside.
Horticultural and floral          15 7
Field crops    2 2
Live stock   6 13
Dairy products   2
Poultry    3 11
Domestic science and women's work   1 13
Totals            29 46
Valuable assistance in judging was also rendered by Professors E. M. Straight and
R. G. Newton, of the Dominion Experimental Farms, also Professors Jones, Davis, Barss, Buck,
and Moe, of the University of Britislh Columbia.
The Provincial Estimates for the year 1923-24 provided for a vote of $35,000, this being a
decrease of $7,000 as compared with the vote for the previous fiscal year. This reduction in
the vote necessitated a further cut in the individual prize-list grants, which, at an interview
with the Hon. Premier, were fixed as follows: The three Coast exhibitions, Victoria, Vancouver,
and New Westminster, 20 per cent, of the cash prize-money certified as having been paid the
previous year; to all other associations, 25 per cent.; whilst in the case of certain small fairs
held by Farmers' Institutes and United Farmer Locals a flat grant of $25 was arranged for.
(For list of grants see Appendix No. 3.)
Annual Returns of Associations.
The completed annual returns for the year 1923 are not yet to hand owing to many associations not yet having held their annual meetings, but the figures for 1922 have been tabulated
and compared with 1921, the following totals being submitted for your information:—
1921. 1922.
Grants by Department  _      $ 31,826 00 $ 33,337 00
Total receipts         283,265 37 276,353 23
Total  expenditures           263,536 30 299,081 06
Assets            160,178 67 201,432 88
Liabilities            35,397 79 55,486 17
Cash prize-money paid         107,807 44 112,608 80
Fairs held                63 75
The figures (in 1922) for expenditures and cash prize-money paid constitute new records. 14 Geo. 5 . British Columbia. I 17
The British Columbia Fairs Association.
This association has continued to function satisfactorily during the year; the annual meeting
being held at New Westminster on January 15th. The active membership, although not reaching
the figure hoped for, comprises about 75 per cent, of the associations holding fall fairs annually.
A number of matters relating to increased grants, the provision of judges, and adjustments
with regard to the " Amusements Tax Act" were dealt with during the year by the executive.
Recommendations and Suggestions by Judges.
The following recommendations and suggestions have been compiled from a large number
of judges' reports:—
Publicity Value of Fairs.—The fall fairs are held at the time of the year when the people
of the district should make it a point to come together for the purpose of seeing and comparing
the year's efforts. Visitors, as well as exhibitors, should feel the time at the fairs well spent,
and they should go away with a comprehensive idea of the advantages of the district and what
the farmers are actually doing for themselves. Presentation and arrangement is therefore a
very important factor.
Less Small Fairs an Advantage.—The opinion has been advanced that there are too many
fairs held annually. Many places now holding them would in all probability find a community
gathering or picnic serve the purpose to better advantage. The educational value in many
cases is a minus quantity. The number and class of entries for the smaller sections are usually
small and for this reason do not attract outside competition. It would be to the advantage
of all concerned if fewer fairs were held, making one fair serve considerably more territory
than is now the case. Such a centralized fair, in all probability, could be held at different
points throughout a district at regular intervals and should attract larger and better exhibits.
By doing this, prize-money could be made more attractive and in general help to make the fall
fair serve the purpose for which it is intended.
Prize-lists.—The larger centres in arranging for the fall fair ought to make a special effort
to include the outlying small points. At the present time it would appear that the attention
was given to the close-in farmer.
Prize-lists should show a little more care in preparation and give prominence to those
divisions of agriculture for which the district is adapted. The prize-list should be made to
fit the fair, not the fair to fit the prize-list. The advertising of a prize-list and keeping it before
the farmers to ensure a large entry-list is as important as the advertising of the event.
Talks and Explanations by Judges.—A good plan at many of these smaller fairs would be
for the judges to take five or ten minutes and explain their placings in the different classes
in fruit, vegetables, and domestic science. It was announced at some fairs that the judges
would be free to explain any placings if the exhibitors would question them in person. This
is a step in the right direction, but many of the exhibitors did not know who the judges were
and were unable to find them. If ten minutes had been taken to explain certain placings in
the potato classes and vegetable classes some of these fairs would have been really educational.
The crowds seem anxious for information. The material is right at hand for demonstration,
and with a little organization and preparation beforehand these exhibitions can be made highly
educational along such lines.
Management of Fairs and Live-stock Exhibits.—Some of the fairs were well run, with
details cared for and organization apparent, while at other places organization was lacking.
Much of the success of the fair would appear to be dependent on the executive capacity with
w7hich it is handled. It would appear that the Department could give valuable aid to the fairs
by supplying the various executives with hints on how to organize the fair, lines to develop,
classes to drop and new ones to take on, a good system of handling entries, judging cards,
and prize-money. It was quite apparent that some were much better than others in this
respect and there is a field for considerable schooling.
In general, live-stock exhibits do not seem to be as popular as they should. While live
stock will always have a limited field of appeal, it would seem that this field could be greatly
enlarged by including judging competitions, especially among the boys and girls. Some attempt
should be made also to utilize the knowledge of the judge in pointing out types of desirable
animals and the points to look for.
Poultry.—It would be advisable to recommend the supplying of show-coops by all associations
holding poultry-shows. Where birds are judged in boxes, etc., supplied by the exhibitor they
2 I 18 Department of Agriculture. 1924
are never seen by the public, as usually such boxes, etc., are of a very primitive nature and
the above point lost sight of in the making of them.
Boys' and Girls' Exhibits.—Some of the judges emphasize the desirability of the management of fall fairs paying more attention to garden and vegetable exhibits by young people.
This is quite an attractive feature of high educational value.
Women's Work.—Domestic Science, Needlework, etc.—Re bread exhibits: It is suggested
that bread be in uniform size—say, from 1 lb. loaves to IV2 lb. It would help the judge greatly,
as there is much difference in the texture between a very large loaf and a smaller one; also
the odour, as the gases do not seem to quite escape from the centre and the large loaves have
not the sweet smell or fine nutty flavour.
It is also suggested that jellies should be shown in uniform containers, such as jelly-glasses
or honey-jars. It is difficult to compare as to clearness or texture when jelly is in a glass or
in a quart jar.
Handicrafts.—Several prize-lists printed a copy of the judge's score-cards in the various
sections, a great help to the exhibitor and tending to a better understanding of a judge's work.
More attention should be given to real handicrafts, such as rug-making, basketry, wood-carving,
etc., and to children's work, such as sewing, canning and baking, and collections of flowers,
grasses, weeds, leaves, or mosses mounted and correctly named for the girls, and collections
of minerals, fodder grasses and plants, bird-houes or rustic window-boxes for the boys. At
Slocan City one boy showed a miniature bee-hive perfect in every detail. Judges find that
children's competitions are never a success unless the elders take an interest in them and
help the children to persevere.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
AV. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my annual report as Provincial Horticulturist and
Inspector  of Fruit Pests for the year  1923.
Horticultural Conditions in  British  Columbia.
The year 1923 will long be remembered as one of the outstanding years in the fruit-growing
industry of British Columbia. The returns to growers, particularly in the tree-fruit districts,
for the year 1922 were most unsatisfactory. It was felt that something should be done to
remedy conditions. The result was that after considerable discussion a new co-operative
marketing organization was formed. This was called " The Associated Growers of British
Columbia," and comprised not only the growers of the tree-fruits in the Okanagan Valley, but
in the Kootenays as well. The tonnage controlled by the association was about 85 per cent.
of the total and embraced not only apples and pears, but stone-fruits as well.
At the same time that the organization of the tree-fruit growers was taking place the
growers of small fruits—e.g., strawberries, raspberries, etc.—undertook to form a new cooperative marketing organization. The result was that the Berry-growers' Co-operative Union
came into existence. This was made up of local associations in the various sections of the
Province where small fruits were most extensively grown.
The formation of these two organizations was the two outstanding features of the year.
In the tree-fruit districts the climatic conditions have been exceptional. This is particularly
true of the Okanagan Valley, where the rainfall in the early part of the season was very heavy.
The result was that stone-fruits, particularly cherries, were often very soft when picked and
when shipped resulted in loss. On the whole, however, tree-fruits have been moved in excellent
condition, and due no doubt to climatic conditions, as well as proper picking, there has been
but very little of the breaking-down of apples, which was so serious in previous years. The
excessive rainfall has resulted, however, in certain sections having a larger percentage of scab
than usual. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 19
In the small-fruit sections the cane-fruits suffered a certain amount of winter-injury. Loss
was also caused in the case of raspberries by the heavy rains just at picking-time. Growers
were forced to store and freeze these berries in place of shipping to the fresh-fruit market,
and the returns therefore were not as good as hoped for at the beginning of the season. Strawberries came through the winter in excellent shape and the crop was on the whole equal to
the 1922 crop. Returns to the growers, however, were somewhat lower than for the previous
The vegetable-crop throughout the Province was, both from the standpoint of quality and
quantity, equal to 1922.   The returns from these crops have been satisfactory.
, Packing and Pruning Schools.
There were very few packing-schools held in the Province during the past season. This
is no doubt due to the fact that growers were actively engaged in reorganization meetings.
Four schools, however, were held in the Kootenay District, with a total attendance of fifty
Pruning-schools were also held at different points throughout the Province. In all, twelve
schools were held, with a total attendance of ninety-eight pupils.
In both packing and pruning schools competent instructors are secured and the pupils are
given demonstrations in the work, as well as being required to undertake the work themselves.
The result has been an improvement in both the packing and pruning standards throughout
the Province.    (For detailed information see Appendices Nos. 4 and 5.)
Greenhouse Survey.
As the greenhouse industry is becoming one of the important industries of the Province
your Branch made a survey during the past season. This was done in order to ascertain the
acreage under glass, as well as the number of growers engaged in this work. The final figures
show that there are 120 growers in the Province who devote either the whole or part of their
time to this work. The total area in glass is 1,905,180 square feet. Of this total, 546.052
square feet is controlled by eleven Oriental growers.    (See Appendix No. 6.)
Dem onstration-work.
Gordon Head Straivberry-plot.—A full report covering the fourth year with this plot will
be found in the report of E. W. White, District Horticulturist. It has been clearly demonstrated
that the weevil-barrier as used on this plot is quite practicable and most effective. Many of
the more progressive growers are adopting this system of weevil-control. While the initial cost
is high, the fact that it will at least ensure a third crop under ordinary circumstances warrants
its installation.
Soil and Cover-crop Demonstration.—For the first time your Branch is undertaking the
planting of cover-crops in a few of the small-fruit plantations on the Lower Mainland. This
is being done to demonstrate the value of cover-crops in maintaining the. fertility of fhe soil,
which in many cases is showing a serious depletion of plant-food.
In the Okanagan Valley not as much time was devoted to this work as was hoped would
be possible earlier in the season. Leguminous cover-crops, however, have proved their value
and the growers are realizing that a cover-crop of some kind is a necessity, the kind to be
planted depending to a large extent upon the available supply of water for irrigation purposes,
as well as the condition of the soil previous to planting. Commercial fertilizers, principally
nitrate of soda, were applied to several plots. No outstanding results were noted, but it is
the intention of your Branch to continue this work during the coming year.
The soil and cover-crop work carried on in the Kootenays was a continuation of the previous
year's work'—namely, the advisability of using vetch. Vetch as a,cover-crop has proven eminently
satisfactory, the system of seeding and ploughing under depending altogether upon the district
and whether or not irrigation is possible.
Spraying Demonstrations.—In order to demonstrate to the grower the advisability of using
the right sprays in the control of certain fruit pests and diseases, spraying-work along the
following lines was carried out:—•
Apple-scab Sprays.—This work was carried out by C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector
stationed at Salmon Arm.   In reporting on this work Mr. Barlow writes as follows:— I 20
Department of Agriculture.
In the seasons of 1916, 1917, and 1918 experimental work was carried on at Salmon Arm
to determine the number of applications of lime-sulphur spray that was necessary and the times
at which they should be applied to give effective control of apple-scab.
By these experiments it was established that three applications (pink, L.S. 1-30; calyx, L.S.
1-35; and three weeks later, L.S. 1-35) gave efficient control, and these times and strength of
solution have since been in general use by orchardists in this district and have given good results.
It was felt, however, that there was a possibility that the solutions used in these experiments were unnecessarily strong, and in 1919 the present series of experiments were embarked
upon, using the established times as a basis with a view to determining the weakest solutions
which jvould give efficient control. Unfortunately the seasons of 1919, 1920, 1921, and 1922
were unusually dry and very little scab developed, even on the check-plot, but this season has
been exceptionally favourable for scab-development and reliable results have been obtained.
There were three Mcintosh Red trees in each plot and all plots had a very heavy crop this
On Plot 1 the established strengths were used; on Plot 2 an additional weak spray was
applied with a view to determining its value in checking late development of scab, but from
results it would appear to be of no value. On Plot 7 the same strengths of solution were used
as on Plot 5, but with the addition of 1 lb. of spreader to every 100 gallons of mixed spray in
all applications.    The results on this plot are outstanding.
The check-plot produced 100 per cent, of infected fruit.
From the results tabulated below it would appear that it is not safe to use weaker solutions
than 1-30 for the first spray and 1-35 for the last two sprays in the Salmon Arm District. The
results obtained on Plot 7, however, warrant further investigation being made of the value
of spreader, as it is probable that by its addition it would be safe to reduce the solution.
Results of Spraying Experiments, Salmon Arm, 1923.
Date applied.
L.S.  1-30,  May 3;
1-35,  June 15
L.S. 1-35, May 23
; L.S.
Early infection.
L.S. 1-30, May 3;
1—35,  June 15 ;
L.S. 1-35, May 23
L.S.   1-60,   July   6
L.S.  1-35, May 3;
1-45, June 15
L.S. 1-40, May 23
Infection at all stages.
L.S. 1-40, May 3;
1-45, June 15.
L.S. 1-45, May 23
L.S. 1-40, May 3 ;
1-50, June 15
L.S. 1-45, May 23
L.S. 1-40, May 3;
■L.S. 1-45, May 23
Chiefly early infection.
1-50,   June   15,
plus   " Kayso "   1
lb.   to
100 gals, in all
Blister-mite and Leaf-roller Sprays.—All the work which has been conducted during the
past season has been carried out at various points in the Okanagan. On the whole, most satisfactory results have been obtained and the information secured will be of great value to the
growers throughout the Province. Full details regarding the work are given in the report
of the District Horticulturist for the Okanagan.
Thinning Demonstration Blocks.—As pointed out in the report of the District Horticulturist
for the Okanagan, this work was inaugurated in 1922 and continued through the season of
1923. It is proposed to continue this work through the 1924 season and, if necessary, over a
more extended period. A number of plots have been established at various points in the
Okanagan, and it is hoped that at a later date it will be possible to present a concise report
showing the advantages or otherwise of this practice.
Strawberry-packing Demonstrations.—Started in 1921, this work has proved increasingly
popular in the small-fruit districts of the Province.
On Vancouver Island a total of nineteen demonstrations were held, with a total attendance
of 431 growers, or an average of 22.6. On the Lower Mainland twelve demonstrations were
held, with a total attendance of 244, or an average of 20.3. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 21
Two demonstrations were also held in Armstrong, making the total for the Province of
thirty-three demonstrations, with a total attendance of 697.
Work of this nature is very much appreciated not only by the growers, but by the shipping
organizations as well, the result being a much improved pack with resultant higher prices.
It is the intention of your Branch to again offer these to the growers during the season of 1924.
Pest-control and Inspection Work.
Codling-moth (Cydia pomonella).—The quarantine which is at present in force is the
only case in the fruit districts where quarantine-work of this nature has been necessary for
the control of a fruit pest. During the past season the total area quarantined has amounted
to 2,188 acres. New outbreaks have occurred not only in areas adjacent to the present quarantine zones, but in districts well removed from old areas. This has necessitated the establishment of new zones, but as a number of the old areas will be somewhat limited in extent it is
expected that your Branch will not have to deal with more than 1,500 acres at the beginning
of the season of 1924.    This may in all probability be increased before the end of the "season.
It is the opinion of your official that this work has been as thoroughly carried out as is
possible, and it is hoped that your Branch may be permitted to continue the work through 1924.
If so, a fair amount of success may be looked for. As was pointed out in an address before
the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association, " The total increase has not been so marked
between 1922 and 1923. The alarming fact, however, is that the outbreaks are scattered and
show that the moth was present a year or two previous to the actual finding and quarantine."
The sooner that the growers realize that spraying is a necessary adjunct to commercial orcharding the sooner will the production of high-class fruit increase in quantity and value.
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorous).—As pointed out to you in the report presented for
1922, a system of fire-blight inspection was carried out. This was again followed out in 1923.
The results have been excellent and your official believes that it has been of material assistance
to the growers.    A total of 14,124 acres was inspected.
Nursery Inspection.—Following the practice of previous years, a thorough inspection was
made of all nurseries in the Province shipping fruit-trees. A total of eighteen inspections was
made of the twelve nurseries in the Province. In this work as carried out by the staff of
your Branch 202,441 trees were inspected, of which 17,648, or S.7 per cent., were destroyed.
Fall Fairs.
Your staff of the Horticultural Branch were again asked to judge at the various fall fairs
held throughout the Province. Judges were also supplied for various flower-shows and garden
competitions. While considerable time is required for this work, your official considers it
time well spent, as by making use of the various members of the staff in this way a uniform
standard of judging is established.
Publications.   ,
Among the publications which have been issued by your Branch during the past year is
one entitled " Tomato-growing in British Columbia," by R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector
at Penticton. This covers the subject of tomato-growing thoroughly and makes a most useful
addition to the already extensive list of horticultural publications.
" Varieties of Fruit recommended for Planting in British " has been revised and reissued,
while the demand for various other of the horticultural publications has necessitated the
printing of new editions.
Your Branch again undertook the issuing of the Weekly News Letter during the summer
months. As this dealt with the fruit conditions in the various sections of the Province there
was a large demand for it, many of the papers quoting it verbatim. It is proposed to continue
its publication during the coming season.
Changes in Staff.
There have been a number of changes in the staff of your Horticultural Branch during
the past season. T. M. Anderson, District Field Inspector at Kelowna, resigned. The position
was filled by the appointment of B. Hoy, B.S.A., the official title of this officer being changed
to that of Assistant District Horticulturist. W. T. Hunter, B.S.A., District Horticulturist for
the Okanagan, also resigned to accept the position of Superintendent of the Dominion Experimental Farm at Summerland.    It is expected that this position will be filled at an early date.. I 22 Department of Agriculture. 1924
Before concluding this report your Horticulturist wishes to express h's appreciation of
the hearty co-operation which he has received at all times from every member of the Horticultural Branch. Appreciation is also due to the various members of the Dominion Fruit Branch
and to the University of British Columbia officials for their assistance in the various phases
of horticultural work which have been undertaken by your staff during the past year.
Respectfully submitted. „T   TT   „
J W.   H.   Robertson,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
E. W. White, B.S.A.
W. H. Robertson, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report as District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit
Pests for Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands for the year 1923.
Horticultural Conditions.
Climatic conditions during the past year have varied greatly from those prevailing in 1922.
For the most part they have been favourable to crops. A very heavy rainfall occurred the first
week in January, while during the second week of February an extremely heavy snowfall was
prevalent on Vancouver Island. The latter part of the month was exceptionally fine. March
was very mild, with an abnormal amount of sunshine. Vegetation advanced rapidly. Growth
received somewhat of a check in April, due to cool weather and lack of rain. The early part
of May was bright and warm, but the latter part was cool, with quite heavy rains and less
than normal the amount of sunshine.
Extremely hot weather prevailed the first week in June, followed by rain. The balance
of the month was abnormally fine weather. Rains also occurred early in July, followed by
fine dry weather. August was generally fine and warm, with very heavy showers about the
20th of the month.
The last four months of the year have been very exceptional for the amount of clear bright
weather and the absence of rain. Temperatures were much higher and no killing frosts occurred
until very late in the fall. Potato and root crops were harvested in excellent condition. A very
sudden and severe cold spell struck the district on the last two days of the year and continued
into January. Winter and spring conditions were so favourable that there was practically no
heaving of strawberry-plants. No frosts occurred during the blooming period, while there were
seasonable rains in. June and July. These factors all tended towards an excellent crop of
strawberries and other small fruits. As a result of the extremely mild fall which prevailed,
an excellent second crop of strawberries was produced on the standard Magoon plants. The
first berries ripened about September 18th and picking continued up to as late as November
26th.   Prices received were not as good as in 1922, being more on a parallel with 1921.
Tree-fruits were not a heavy crop, but well up tp the average. The rains of June and
July, however, caused a considerable infection of scab. The big bulk of the apple-crop was
sold in crates and, very few fancy or extra fancy were packed. The crop moved out quite
satisfactorily early in the season and until the Okanagan fruit flooded the market. From that
time on sales of local fruit were much slower.
Early in the spring reorganization of the small-fruit shipping associations occurred on the
Lower Mainland, but on the southern end of Vancouver Island the Saanich Fruit-growers'
Association and the Gordon Head Fruit-growers' Association again combined as in 1922 in
making car-lot shipments. The following shipments were made: Strawberries, 42 cars to the
Prairies, 1 car to Vancouver; Iogans and raspberries mixed, 5 cars to the Prairies, 1 car logans
to New Westminster; cherries, 6 cars to the Prairies.
The Cowichan Co-operative Fruit-growers' Association, although affiliated with the Berry-
growers' Co-operative Union of British Columbia, did not ship through them. The raspberry-
crop and a portion of the strawberry-crop was disposed of, but the big bulk of the strawberries 14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
I 23
were put in cold storage in Victoria and sold later in the season. A trial shipment of crate
strawberries was made to Victoria for inclusion in the car shipments to the Prairies. Transportation difficulties seem to be adverse to this policy.
The Nanoose District Berry-growers' Co-operative Association, who were actively affiliated
with the Berry-growers' Co-operative Union of British Columbia, disposed of their strawberry-
crop locally and in Nanaimo, while the bulk of the loganberry-crop was shipped to Vancouver
and there processed for future sale.
In the Comox District the Comox Creamery again handled the crop, disposing of considerable as fresh fruit and the balance being put up as jam in their own plant.
A new enterprise in the fruit industry developed in Victoria during the past season-
namely, the Growers' Wine Company, Limited. This was a strictly private company which
was organized and engaged in the manufacture of wine from loganberries. Considerable
quantities of loganberries were used and the company had a confirmed order from the Liquor
Control Board before they began operations.
The Victoria Hothouse Association was more completely organized early in the year, and
eight car-lot shipments of tomatoes as well as many L.C.L. shipments were made to the
Prairies by the Mutual Vancouver, Limited. Owing to the construction of a number of new
greenhouses the crop was considerably increased in 1923 over any previous year. With better
marketing conditions prices were more stable and fairly satisfactory.
Demonstration Strawberry-plot, Gordon Head.
This 6-acre plot, which was established in March, 1919, and reported on in 1919, 1920, 1921,
and 1922, was again operated in 1923. This work required a great deal of attention during the
year by your District Horticulturist.
The opportunity is taken at this time to express appreciation of the conscientious and
earnest way in which Councillor G. A. Vantreight, on whose farm the plot is situated, co-operated
in the work of the plot.
A brief description will here be given of the operations carried out on the various lots
during 1923 and the rotation which is being followed.
Lot 1.—In 1919 this lot was in clover; in 1920, Sir Walter Raleigh potatoes; 1921, planted
to strawberries; 1922, first crop; 1923, second crop.
The spring work on this lot consisted of two hoeings and three cultivations. Strawing
was completed on May 24th, forty-four bales of straw being used.
The following table shows the dates of picking and the quantities of both crate and jam
berries harvested:—
Date of Picking.
Vaeiety Magoon.
Lb. Jam-
„     12                 	
„     14                    .'.	
10                    ..                 	
17                                                    —                              	
20             .•	
„     21                   	
July    3           	
..      12                       	
Fall Crop.
Ort.      9
1           4
!   ::::
30                     .                 	
Nov     8                          	
1            4          1 I 24
Department op Agriculture.
At the approximate average price received for the Prairie shipments ■ and for jam-berries,
the gross return per acre would be as follows:—
37213/24 crates at average price of $1.88  $700 38
1,513 lb. jam-berries at 7 cents :     105 91
6% crates (fall crop) at $3.50      21 58
Total  $827 87
Ifi 1922 the yield on Lot 1 and the average prices received were as follows:—
160% crates at average price of $2.10 : <.  $337 40
1,350 lb. jam-berries at 10 cents  :     135 00
Total ; : ■.  $472 40
In 1923 the approximate average yield per plant for the main crop was 0.68 lb., while in
1922 it was only 0.356 lb.
It will be noted that prices were considerably lower in 1923 than in 1922, but the yield
was so much higher, due to favourable climatic conditions, that the gross receipts per acre
were approximately 75 per cent, greater.
Picking commenced three days earlier and continued four days longer than in 1922. The
plants were cut down on July 20th and two loads of straw were hauled off and stacked on
August 14th.
Two hoeings and three cultivations were given during the fall months.
The work in connection with the weevil-barriers was very carefully attended to during the
season by Wm. Downes, Assistant Entomologist, Dominion Entomological Branch.
Lot 2.—In 1919 this lot was in Sir Walter Raleigh potatoes; 1920, planted to strawberries;
1921, first crop; 1922, second crop..   The plants were ploughed out and burnt in September.
In October, 1922, this lot was seeded to fall wheat and clover. The fall seeding to clover'
was more or less as an experiment. The seed germinated excellently and the young plants
were making very satisfactory growth until the very severe freeze-up occurred in November.
During the latter part of the year and in the early months of 1923 the climatic conditions
were too severe for the young clover-plants. It was therefore necessary to reseed the lot to
clover, which was done on May 4th with 7 lb. of red clover and 4 lb. alsike.
The crop of wheat was cut on July 12th for hay; it was raked up and cocked on July 16th
and hauled in on August 3rd.    The crop was light, yielding about 1% tons.
At the end of the year the catch of clover is in a very satisfactory condition and gives
prospects of a good crop in 1924.
Lot 3.—In 1919 this lot was in fall wheat; 1920, oats and vetch; 1921, Sir Walter Raleigh
certified seed-potatoes; 1922, planted to strawberries; 1923, first crop.
The spring work on this lot was practically identical with Lot 1 and consisted of two hoeings and three cultivations. Strawing was completed on May 28th, forty-four bales of straw
being used.
The following table shows the dates of picking and the quantities of both crate and jam
berries harvested:—
Variety Magoon.
Date of Picking.
Lb. Jam-
„     14      ...                             .    .              	
,.     21                                                            	
„     22                     	
27                                 ..    .                   	
„     28                                                                                 ...
„     29                                                              -	
July    4                                                           	
„       6          -                     .                     	
38         1      1,663   14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
I 25
•       .                                                                Fall Crop. ■' ■
Variety Magoqn.
Date  of  Picking.
Lb. Jam-
Oct.     8 '. ..'.. '.	
„     12  : j	
„    29 : .£.'! :....: :	
Nov.    7 . .-...- <   .
„     26      '.	
,•    At the approximate average price received for the Prairie shipments and for jam-berries,
the gross return per acre would be as follows:—
37214/T crates at average price of $1.S8 ,  $700 46
1,663 lb. jam-berries at 7 cents  ,     116 41
10 ar'A crates (fall crop)  at $3.50 '.      37 19
Total    $854 06
On a basis of 11,000 plants the yield was 0.69 lb. per plant.
The plants were cut down on July 20th and two loads of straw were hauled off and stacked
on August 13th.
Two hoeings and three cultivations were given during the fall months.    ■
Lot If.—In 1919 this lot was planted to strawberries; 1920, first crop; 1921, Sir Walter
Raleigh certified seed-potatoes; 1922, planted to spring oats and seeded to clover. Owing to
the drought of the summer of 1922 the clover was killed out. The lot was reseeded to Clover
in October, as an experiment and in an endeavour to get a cutting of clover-hay in the summer
of 1923. The severe nature of the weather early in 1923 killed out the fall-seeded clover. It
was decided to reseed the lot again to clover and this was done on May 4th. A volunteer crop
of oats and some little clover and grass came up and a light crop of hay, about 1% tons, was
cut on July Sth.    It was raked and cocked on July 11th and hauled in on July 17th.
The lot is now in clover, and although the catch is not as good as that on Lot 2, it should
yield a fair crop in 1924.
Lot 5.—In 1919 this lot was in fall oats ; 1920, spring oats and seeded to clover; 1921, clover;
1922, Sir Walter Raleigh certified seed-potatoes; 1923. planted to strawberries.
The plan of rotation followed on this lot all tended towards the planting of strawberries
in 1923.
It was considered necessary that this lot should be tile-drained before being planted to
On March 5th the drainage-levels were taken by J. B. Munro, Soil and Crop Instructor,
and work began soon after on digging the ditches. It was necessary to dig a drain along the
entire south end of Lot 5 135 feet near the boundary fence; this had to be continued along the
south end of Lot 6 135 feet to provide an outlet. It was also necessary to extend this drain
up into Lot 4 a distance of 56 feet.
The main drain ran down the centre of Lot 5 a distance of about 31S feet, but was not
connected to the drain on the south boundary. There was a lateral drain constructed of about
156 feet in length which ran diagonally across the north end of Lot 5 and was connected with
the main drain down the centre. A total of approximately 800 feet of 3-inch tile drain was
constructed, 776 tiles being used. The total dost was $58.05. The drainage-work was completed
on April 25th.
On April 27th the lot was disked twice and harrowed and on the same day four loads of
manure were scattered down the centre of the lot over the main drain. The lot was ploughed
on April 28th and harrowed twice on the same day.
A complete oil barrier was erected around this lot on May 2nd and 3rd at a cost of $102.75.
On May 3rd the lot was disked twice, harrowed, and floated: On the same day eight rows of
strawberries were planted by two men in 2% hours each; on the 4th eighteen rows were planted I 26 Department op Agriculture. 1924
by two men in five hours each; and on the 5th eighteen rows were planted by two men in five
hours each; a total of forty-four rows, or approximately 11,000 plants, set by two men in 12%
hours each.
This lot was cultivated eight times, hoed five times, and the runners cut four times during
the season. The blossoms were also kept cut. The plants made fairly satisfactory growth
during the season.
Lot 6.—In 1919 this lot was in fall oats; 1920, English Wonder peas, ploughed down on
June 10th and Sir Walter Raleigh potatoes planted; fall of 1920 planted to fall wheat and in
spring of 1921 seeded to clover; 1921, wheat-hay; 1922, clover; 1923, clover.
This lot was manured in the fall of 1922 in preparation for potatoes in 1923 in accordance
with the six-year rotation which was being followed.
Owing to the fact that the six-year lease expires on this property in March, 1925, and the
decision to leave Lot 1 in strawberries in 1924 to produce a third crop, it was decided to alter
the rotation on Lot 6 slightly, and it was left in clover for the second year in 1923.
The crop was cut on June 18th and cocked up on June 21st and hauled in on July 17th.
Approximately a 3-ton crop was harvested.
During the latter part of November and during December the lot was manured with six
3%-yard loads of chicken manure and four 4-yard loads of barnyard manure. On December
27th the lot was ploughed crossways. It is intended to plant this lot to Sir Walter Raleigh
certified seed-potatoes in 1924.
. Pruning-schools.
Notices of five-day pruning-schools were again sent out in the fall of 1922 and four applications were received—namely, Whaletown Farmers' Institute, Nanoose District Berry-growers'
Co-operative Association, Qualicum Beach Farmers' Institute, and Coombs Farmers' Institute.
Dates were set in February, but very unfavourable weather intervened about that time
and all schools were cancelled except the one at Whaletown. On request, G. E. W. Clarke very
kindly consented to conducted this school.
Strawberry-packing Demonstrations.
Under your supervision notices were again sent out offering strawberry-packing demonstrations at the beginning of the season in the various small-fruit centres.
Your District Horticulturist conducted the following demonstrations: Cowichan Co-operative
Fruit-growers' Association, June 7th, 2 demonstrations, attendance 20; June 10th, 1 demonstration, attendance 18; Gordon Head Fruit-growers' Association, June 11th, 3 demonstrations,
attendance 92; Saanich Fruit-growers' Association, June 12th and 13th, 5 demonstrations, attendance 119; Metchosin Co-operative Fruit-growers' Association, June 14th, 2 demonstrations,
attendance 17.
In addition to the above, T. H. Bain, Dominion Fruit Inspector, Vancouver, conducted the
following demonstrations: Nanoose District Berry-growers' Co-operative Association, June 13th,
3 demonstrations, attendance 64; Comox Fruit-growers' Association, June 14th and 15th, 3
demonstrations,  attendance 101.    There was a total attendance of 431  at 19 demonstrations.
Only two more demonstrations were held in 1923 over 1922, but the attendance increased
from 288 to 431, indicating that the work was appreciated.
In addition to T. H. Bain, valuable services were rendered at various demonstrations by
Robt. Murray and D. Henderson, Dominion Fruit Inspectors.
Greenhouse Survey.
Under your instructions, during the year considerable time was spent in making a complete
survey of the greenhouses in operation iu the district. An endeavour was made to secure as
much detailed information as possible which would show the status of the industry at the
present time, as it has made rapid strides in recent years, especially along the line of the production of hothouse tomatoes for shipment to Prairie points. Detailed forms covering this
survey have already been submitted.
Horticultural Competitions.
During the past year a number of competitions were held in the district, at which your
District Horticulturist acted as judge. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 27
The Victoria and District Gardeners' Association conducted a garden competition among
its members. There were twelve entries and two judgings were made on July 6th and August
10th.   Geo. A. Robinson, of Elk Lake, co-operated in the task of judging on both dates.
The South Saanich Farmers' Institute conducted a farm-garden competition. There were
only four entries and judging took place on July 23rd. Geo. A. Robinson rendered valuable
assistance in the judging of this competition.
The Canadian Colleries (Dunsmuir), Limited, conducted a home-gardening competition
among their employees at three different points in the Ladysmith District. Three prizes of
$20, $10, and $5 were offered in each district and a championship prize of $75 for the best
garden in the whole district.
In Ladysmith there were seven entries, in Extension eleven entries, and in South Wellington
seven entries. Only a single judging was made and this took place on July 30th, 31st, and
August 1st.
The Merville Community Association conducted a garden competition for their members
who were burnt out in the devastating fire of 1922. There were nine entries and the judging
took place on August 6th. The settlers who were so seriously handicapped by the fire deserve
the greatest credit for the way in which they rehabilitated themselves in the short space of a
The Sooke Farmers' Institute conducted a raspberry competition for patches which were
set out in the Spring of 1923. In Class A, consisting of more than 500 canes, there were five
competitors, and in Class B, less than 500 canes, there were also five competitors.
Judging took place on August 15th in conjunction with a field-day and evening meeting for
those interested in the prospects for raspberry-growing in the district.
Flower-shows, Cottage Gardeners' Exhibitions, and Fall Fairs.
The following flower-shows and cottage gardeners' exhibitions were attended in the capacity
of judge: Luxton, April 18th; Metchosin, April 20th; Colwood, July 25th; Victoria West,
August 24th and 25th; Ward V., Saanich, Royal Oak, August 25th; Ward IV., Saanich, Garden
City, August 29th, assisted W. H. Robertson; Ward II., Saanich, Cloverdale, September 1st,
assisted W. H. Robertson.
The following fall fairs were attended in the capacity of judge of fruit and vegetables:
Qualicum Beach, August 22nd; Victoria, September 1st to Sth, assisted with judging under supervision of W. H. Robertson; New Westminster, September 10th to loth; Trail, September 12th
to 14th, assisted by O. B. Appleton, of Procter; Boswell, September 15th ; Nelson, September
18th to 21st; Creston, September 24th to 26th; Grand Forks, September 27th and 28th. At the
last three fairs Paul C. Black assisted with the judging. North and South Saanich, October
2nd and 3rd, assisted W. H. Robertson.
Inspection op Nurseries.
This work was carried on according to regulations as far as possible. Inspections were
made in the spring when the stock was being shipped, in the summer during the growing season,
and again in the fall when some stock is dug for fall shipment.
Insect Pests and Diseases.
No serious outbreak has occurred during the past year, but a number of pests and diseases
have again been troublesome.
The strawberry-root weevil showed an increase. However, there was also a big increase
in the number of weevil-barriers erected, principally of the oil type. Growers are rapidly
adopting the barrier as a means of protection in infested districts and are loud in their praises
as to its effectiveness when properly erected.
Leaf-rollers appear to be rapidly increasing in the district and are becoming a serious pest.
Cutworms were especially bad over the whole of Vancouver Island during 1923.
Apple-scab was much more prevalent than in 1922 owing to rains during June, July, and
Blossom-blight in sour cherries, caused by the spores of the plum-rot, is rapidly increasing
and remedial measures will again be attempted in 1924 for this trouble.
Conventions and Meetings.
The annual convention of the British Columbia Fruit-growers'  Association was attended
in Kelowna on January 17th, 18th, and 19th. I 28 Department op Agriculture. 1924
The annual convention of the C.S.T.A., held in Vancouver on March 22nd and 23rd, and
the fall meeting, held at the same place on November 28th, were attended.
On .December 6th, 7th, and Sth your District Horticulturist attended the annual meeting
of the Western Washington Horticultural Association at Everett, Wash., and delivered an
address on " Practical Strawberry-growing on Vancouver Island."
During the year a large number of meetings held under the auspices of various farmers'
organizations were attended and talks given on various horticultural subjects.
Demonstrations and General Work.
Demonstrations in various lines of horticultural work and personal visits to growers
occupied a great deal of time during the year; although this type of work is extremely popular
and much appreciated, there is very little, to show for the same at the end of each year.
In company with J. R. Terry, a special trip was made this year during the week of July
8th into the Sayward District. This trip had been planned several times, but never accomplished. There is no doubt but that this valley will witness great development in the next
few years, when transportation facilities are improved. The settlers were very appreciative
of the advice given and the service rendered.
A stop was also made at Whaletown on the return trip.
Fruit and Vegetable Crop Statistics.
The collecting of figures on fruit and vegetable production and returns from manufacturing
plants for the Statistics Branch occupies considerable time during the year.
Publications, Correspondence, and Office-work.
During the year horticultural articles have been prepared for the press. Correspondence
and office-work has required considerable attention. Many visitors and prospective settlers
have called at the office during the year seeking information, and all the assistance possible has
been given.
Respectfully submitted.
E. W. White,
District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
•    G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A.
W. H. Robertson, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector, of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith beg to submit my report as District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit
Pests for the Lower Mainland for the year 1923.
General Seasonal Conditions.
The fall of 1922 was mild, and conditions were favourable for continued growth. The plants,
as a result, after making this extraordinary growth were not prepared to go into the winter
when the sudden cold weather, accompanied by snow, with the usual thawing and freezing,
arrived. The effect of the considerable winter-injury was to be noted in the spring and more
particularly on those parts of the Lower Mainland exposed to the sweeping winds during the
cold spell.
The spring this year was early. The days were comparatively warm and bright, but the
nights were cool, a condition which was not conducive to rapid and vigorous development. The
month of April was warm, with very little rain. May continued warm, but there was considerable rain with less sunshine. The early part of June was wet and between showers slightly
warmer, although the nights continued cool. The favourable weather prevailing during the
latter part of June and the first few days in July was broken with a heavy rain over the week- 14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
I 29
end of July 7th. Throughout the summer, fall, and until the end of December the weather
was practically ideal, although a little cold weather prior to the sudden cold snap would have
been desirable.
The following monthly weather report from the Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz
indicates the weather conditions, in general, throughout the principal small-fruit districts on
the Lower Mainland:—
Mean. Maximum.     Minimum
June --	
August ....
October   _.
60.80 '
The following weekly weather report shows the trouble period during the shipping season:
„     12                                     . .
„     19             	
„     26           	
June    2       —	
„     23	
„     30	
Crop Conditions.
The strawberry-crop was not as heavy as was anticipated early in the season, the yield
averaging about 1% to 2 tons per acre, representing about a 60-per-cent. crop. The plantings
came through the winter with remarkably little injury in spite of the dry spell of the previous
summer and the severe winter. Blossoming began early and hung on, and the setting was
very slow, due to climatic condition. The earlier picking showed quite a percentage of nubbins
and malformed berries, and a certain amount of sun-scald was to be seen. Although picking
began about June 1st, the ripening was very uneven and the fruit heavy with moisture. Consequently, shipping stock was not very satisfactory and lacked flavour.
Toward the end of the summer strawberry-plants showed a tendency to blossom and
produce a second crop, and small shipments were made from valley points until about October
Raspberry-canes suffered considerably during the winter, particularly in the more exposed
sections. When growth commenced in the spring many patches which had shown a tendency
to throw laterals and produce fruit during the previous fall failed to respond. The Cuthbert
variety suffered more than others of the commercial variety. In some sections the yield was
practically nothing, while other sections had a yield of 60 to 75 per cent. The Herbert variety,
not having responded to the induced growth of the fall so readily, wintered in good shape.
The growth of canes this year has been very strong and vigorous and gave evidence of
beginning to ripen up well. The crop prospects for the coming season seem very favourable,
due to the fact that the canes are strong and are apparently going into the winter in a much
better condition than has been the case for the past couple of years. I 30 Department op Agriculture. 1924
The picking of raspberries commenced about July 1st, and the first car left the valley for
the Prairies on July Sth, a week earlier than last year.
After July 6th, and during the peak of the season, mould developed on the raspberries,
instances being noted in the fields, as well as in the crates at assembling-points. This condition
was general throughout the Lower Mainland, and reports from the raspberry districts in the
State of Washington stated mould to be prevalent as well. On account of this prevailing condition, raspberries throughout the Fraser Valley were to a large extent sent to the cannery
and jam plants or put into storage during this period.
Considerable winter-injury was noted on blackberries, but the crop, although lighter than
last year, was sufficient to meet the market demands.
The loganberry-canes came through the winter in better shape than was the case of the
previous year and there was a considerable increase in crop. The loganberries came on the
market early, practically as early as the raspberries. The growth of canes has been strong
and healthy and they are hardening up in good shape.
The acreage in currants and gooseberries is small. Gooseberries came in early and yielded
well. Red currants were a good crop. Black currants gave evidence of yielding heavily, but
the cool nights during the blossom period affected the setting of fruit, and the crop, in the
main, was very disappointing.
The tree-fruits on the Lower Mainland would be in much better shape to produce more
marketable fruit were a little more attention given to many of fhe orchards. At the present
time there is a limited demand for Lower Mainland pears and apples, and this is due to a
considerable degree to the large number of different varieties planted. While the crop was-
lighter this year, nevertheless, in many instances, the fruit was not picked. Cherries, plums,
and prunes set well, but on account of the wet weather considerable brown-rot was in evidence.
Due to the marketing and financial conditions prevailing during the past season in particular, the small-fruit industry on the Lower Mainland is more or less at a standstill. This
present depression has not been conducive to an increase in acreage nor to the proper care
and attention of plantings in and coming into full bearing.
The acreage in bush and cane fruits shows very little change. Small new plantings of
black currants, gooseberries, raspberries, and loganberries are to be noted throughout the district. Many places have received very little attention since the picking season and will require
considerable careful handling, more particularly the younger plantings, before the best results
can be expected.
Strawberry-packing Demonstrations.
Upon request from the districts the Provincial Horticulturist arranged for the holding of
demonstrations again this year. Your District Horticulturist conducted demonstrations at
Haney, Hammond, Whonnock, Ruskin, Port Kells, and Strawberry Hill. In addition to the
above, additional classes were conducted on Lulu Island and at Abbotsford by Professor F. E.
Buck, of the University of British Columbia. Growers and pickers have shown considerable
interest and are appreciating the value of a first-class pack of good quality and uniformity.
A three-day pruning-school was held at Whaletown, Cortes Island, on February 12th, 13th,
and 14th.   This was necessarily a small school, but the interest shown was very gratifying.   '
On March 14th a pruning demonstration was held at McGreer's orchard under the auspices
of the Otter District Farmers' Institute.
Requests were received from individual growers for instructions in pruning and attention
was given.
Insect Pests and Diseases.
Control measures for the codling-moth were carried on at North Bend. In addition to the
calyx and cover spray, a second cover spray was applied this year. T. Schiller, of North Bend,
assisting in the inspection of the bands throughout the season and this arrangement proved
very satisfactory.
Insect pests and diseases were a source of considerable trouble, but much damage and
annoyance could have been avoided were the growers to make more general use of the sprays
and control measures as advocated by the Department.
Brown-rot appeared on the cherries, plums, and prunes, and very materially affected the
movement of the fruit to market. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 31
Apple and pear scab was more noticeable in the orchards this year, due to the wet weather
favourable for its development.
A mould appeared on the raspberries shortly after picking commenced and for a period
of nearly two weeks very seriously affected the shipping of car-load lots.
The spread of rose-scale is very noticeable among many of the raspberry plantings, particularly in the Hatzic section, and measures for its control will have to be taken by the growers.
The work of the raspberry-cane maggot and also the borer is to be noted, but with a little
attention these pests can be kept well in hand and no appreciable damage result.
Tent-caterpillars were again present in large numbers, but where individuals adopt control
measures early in the season no damage resulted.
The maggot of the currant fruit-fly was in evidence to quite an appreciable extent in many
pickings of black currants.
Cover-crop Demonstration.
In view of the fact that cover-crops are likely to become a very important factor in connection with the growing of small fruits on the Lower Mainland, and more particularly where
it is difficult to obtain good barnyard manure free from weed-seeds, arrangements were made
to establish demonstration plots.
Prior to outlining the work to be undertaken, in company with Mr. Robertson a trip was
made to Everett, where 0. O. Weiss, the District Horticulturist, very kindly showed the work
as it was being conducted at Munroe and Snokomish and the surrounding country.
The work as outlined for the Lower Mainland is being conducted in the raspberry plantings
of T. H. Northcote, of Mission City, and of II. D. McGillivray, of Hatzic. The seeding was
done during the month of September after the old canes had been removed. The growth of
the fall rye and spring vetch sown has been very satisfactory and there should be a good growth
to be turned under this spring.
Inspection of Nurseries.
Nursery inspections were carried out during the past year at time of digging at the several
nurseries. The young stock has made excellent growth this year, is strong, vigorous, and free
from insect pests and diseases. During the year the market for fruit-trees has been light, but
the demand for ornamental trees and shrubs is much improved. Considerable attention is being
paid to the growing of ornamentals and several growers are contemplating the growing of bulbs
more extensively.
Greenhouse Survey.
A census of the greenhouses on the Lower Mainland was made this year and a full report
covering the area under glass and general particulars pertaining thereto has been submitted.
Fall Fairs.
A detailed report covering the fall fairs and flower-shows attended at Hatzic, West Vancouver, Mission City, Tynehead, Port Kells, North Vancouver, Langley Prairie, Chilliwack,
Surrey, Whonnock, Fern Ridge, Sayward, Abbotsford, Aldergrove, Richmond, and Pemberton
Meadows has been submitted to Victoria.
Conventions and Meetings.
During the early part of the year meetings were addressed by Aaron Sapiro at Vancouver,
and at Mission, Chilliwack, Haney, and New Westminster by Boyd Oliver, setting forth the
value of co-operative organization.
The annual convention of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association was attended
at Kelowna on January 17th, 18th, and 19th.
The one-day session of the British Columbia Entomological Society held in Vancouver was
attended on February 17th.
The annual convention of the C.S.T.A., held in Vancouver on March 23rd, and the Fall
meeting on November 28th were attended.
Field and General Work.
Throughout the year requests have been received for demonstrations and instruction in
horticultural work.   Considerable time has been spent in personal visits, which are much appreci- I 32 Department op Agriculture. • 1924
ated by the growers. Regular and special meetings of the horticultural and farmers' organizations on the Lower Mainland have been attended and many of the problems pertaining to the
work have been taken up and discussed.
During the past year considerable improving of land has been noted and quite a number
of small holdings are being cleared and developed. In the course of the year many inquiries
had been received from prospective settlers and visitors, all of which are given every possible
Fruit and Vegetable Crop Statistics.
Considerable time is required in the collecting and compiling of the annual fruit and
vegetable production reports which are forwarded to Victoria.
Publications and Correspondence.
Throughout the season information regarding the prospects, general conditions, and items
of interest have been given to the Vernon office for the Horticultural Bulletin and News Letter,
and also to the several papers throughout the Lower Mainland.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
G. E. W. Clarke,
District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
AV. T. Hunter, B.S.A.
W. H. Robertson, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report for the Okanagan Horticultural District
for the year 1923.
General Fruit and Vegetable Crop Conditions.
The fruit-crop of the Okanagan District for the year 1923 was in all respects the largest
and finest crop of fruit which has ever been harvested in this district. Records as to the final
tonnage are not yet available, but the total tonnage harvested will exceed that of any previous
year. This is true of practically all fruits, but more particularly true of apples. The trees
evidently carried over the winter in much better condition during the winter of 1922-23, and
a much stronger set of fruit-buds were brought to maturity, due to the heavy rains which
occurred during the summer of 1922. In passing, it might be stated that it is not often that
two large crops are experienced in succession such as has been the case in the seasons of 1922
and 1923, and not only in volume was the crop large, but the quality was well above the average.
The quality of the soft fruits, particularly cherries, was not all that could be desired, and considerable loss was taken in this crop, due to the breaking-down in transit.
The returns received by the growers for their crop will be above the average of the returns
received during 1921 and 1922. While these returns are not complete at the present time, it
is very evident that the reorganization which has taken place in the whole system of marketing
fruit in this district has had a very beneficial effect, which is going to be evident in the net
returns which will be received by the growers for their 1923 crop. It is further quite evident
that the growers are well satisfied with the progress of their organization towards a betterment of their marketing conditions, and that these conditions will prevail during the coming
season at least.
The vegetable acreage was decidedly lower for this district than in 1922. The onion acreage
planted was probably below that of 1922, and due to the depredations of the onion-maggot this
acreage was very considerably reduced early in the season. Tomatoes for cannery purposes
were late in ripening, and the crop was cut off very early in the fall by frosts, and the tonnage
harvested was relatively low. Thus, while the acreage planted was comparatively high, the
yield was not as good as in 1922. There was a decided reduction in the acreage of potatoes
and other vegetables throughout the northern parts of the district. Stf
jKi._ ^«i l^A
TP. " ^.jy* .  • «r -.= -I i
. •* *r      ■ ... • J&4* -1
. ^^      i;^*-
fn.o1"?* 4'- straw,?el'rl' demonstration plot, Gordon Head, showing first tangle-
was harvested! an "Se macle of young cockerels after the first cfop
December   lambs  on   the  1'arm   of  .1.   R  Armishaw,   of   Savward  District
\ ancouver Island,  B.C. ■        : ■■■■■yyyy.
This field of mangels  (1 1/30 acres)  yielded 74 tons.    The crop was grown
by Fred Burns, of Lake Hill  P.O.     Photo taken June  28th,  1923.
Potato-field on the farm of Dr. Gain at Francois Lake, B.C. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 33
Cantaloupes received considerable attention from the growers in the southern part of the
valley, but the returns and yields were relatively low, due to poor methods of growing and
In conclusion, it may be stated that the season of 1923 will have been the most remunerative
from the standpoint of net returns to the growers than has been the case for the last two years,
There is a decided improvement in the outlook and the feeling of pessimism in the business
which prevailed at the same time last year does not exist to the same extent this season.
Considerable checking-up on the results of work which was done with demonstration blocks
of orchards covers the entire field of work in this direction by your staff in this district for
the 1923 season. Owing to the fact that funds were not available to provide assistants for
this work during the past season, and also to the fact that the time of your regular staff was
almost entirely devoted to codling-moth control work, very little attention could be devoted to
this feature. However, demonstration blocks where nitrate of soda had been applied were
checked throughout the growing season, and also observations were taken on the results of
permanent cover-crops established in the previous season. These observations would lead your
staff to conclude that nitrate of soda cannot be depended upon to give maximum results unless
its use is accompanied by the addition of humus-forming materials. It is quite apparent that
leguminous cover-crops, such as vetch or permanent alfalfa, are the cheapest means by which
a grower can improve the physical condition of his orchard soil. Observations on orchards
which had been seeded to alfalfa, which is being treated as a permanent mulch-crop, lead us
to conclude that, while great care must be exercised during the first two years in which the
alfalfa is becoming established in an orchard, as soon as it has become deep-rooted it is probably
the best all-round cover-crop that has yet been discovered. It serves not only as a shade-crop
and returns a tremendous tonnage of humus to the soil each year, but it also serves the purpose
of breaking up very quickly the subsoil. It also has the additional feature in its favour of
being economical to handle. Hairy vetch, on the other hand, provides probably the quickest
results of any cover-crop which can be grown, but as it must be disked during the growing
season, this feature adds greatly to the cost of handling an orchard. However, where irrigation-
water is scarce, hairy vetch has an advantage over alfalfa, inasmuch as it can be turned under
at a moment's notice; and if a shortage of water is likely to occur, the injury which might
result from any such shortage can be anticipated and the damage can in this manner be avoided.
Thinning Demonstration Blocks.
The demonstration-work in thinning of apples as inaugurated during 1922 in the Vernon
District was elaborated during 1923 in each of the other sub-districts. Nine blocks were conducted at Vernon, four were established at Kelowna, two at Summerland, four at Penticton,
and two at Salmon Arm. These were of similar nature to the blocks which were established
at Vernon during the previous season, and the methods employed and policy followed were
similar. The varieties which were selected include the following: Mcintosh, Delicious, Winesap, Wealthy, Jonathan, Stayman Winesap, Newtown, Grimes Golden, Rome Beauty, Wagener,
and Bartlett pears. As it is the intention of your staff to continue this work for a series of
several years, the results will not be tabulated at this time. These would, as a matter of fact,
indicate very little at the present time, owing to the fact that a majority were only established
this season, but it is anticipated that at the end of 1924 season very positive results will show
not only that thinning methods improve the quality of the fruit harvested, but that it will do
a lot to establish regular bearing habits in the leading varieties of apples grown in this district.
In fact, in the Vernon District several blocks are already showing this tendency.
In view of the extreme importance of thinning as an orchard practice, your staff would
strongly urge that this work should be continued and should receive every consideration.
Lectures and Meetings.
Winter Series of Horticultural Meetings.—Owing to the numerous meetings which were
being held by the growers all through the winter of 1922-23 in connection with their marketing
problems, it was decided by your staff, in consultation with those who have in the past assisted
at these meetings, that it would be unwise to attempt to hold any educational meetings during
the past winter. As a result of such a decision being reached, no winter series of horticultural
3 I 34 - Department op Agriculture. 1924
meetings were held. During the spring of 1923 an interesting series of demonstration meetings
was held throughout the district by your staff, which were conducted by the local District
Inspector assisted by the District Horticulturist, at which practical demonstrations in " top-
working of fruit-trees " were given. A separate report covering this work in detail has already
been submitted. Therefore, at this time it is sufficient to say that these meetings were well
received, and judging by the attendance, which totalled 573 growers, they were highly successful.
A great deal of attention will have to be given to the question of top-working obsolete or poor-
paying varieties of fruit in this district in the near future, and it is very evident that further
work along this line is essential.
Demonstrations in thinning Apples.
During the month of June practical demonstrations on the thinning of apples were held
in each of the principal fruit-growing sections throughout the district. Your staff were assisted
at these meetings by John Peters, of Wenatchee, a practical grower from that fruit-growing
section, and who is making a marked success of the thinning of fruit on his own place. The
meetings, as demonstrated by your staff and Mr. Peters, provided very little that was new,
but the. information which was supplied by the latter was of inestimable value to the growers
of this district. The practice of thinning of tree-fruits was greatly stimulated in the district
as a result of these meetings, and the improved quality of the fruit harvested in a great many
instances bears testimony to the real value of these demonstrations. A separate report covering
this feature has already been submitted to your office.
During January, February, and March six pruning-schools were held at the following points
in the district: Ewing's Landing, 1; Kelowna, 1 ; Cawston, 1; Salmon Arm, 2. Owing to
insufficient number of pupils attending, the one at Penticton was cancelled after the first two
Agricultural Fairs and Exhibitions.
Your official had the pleasure of acting as judge of fruit and vegetables at New Westminster
and Courtenay.
AVeekly News Letter.
The publication of the Weekly News Letter was conducted by this office during the season
of 1923, and, as in the past, the publication of this letter proved of great interest to the general
public and to those interested iu the fruit business. This report during the season covered
estimates of the probable tonnage and details in connection with the condition and movement
of different varieties of fruit and vegetables. Recommendations to the growers were issued
from time to time dealing with problems of interest.
Okanagan Horticultural Club.
Your officials took a very active part in the meetings of this organization, and by meeting
with their co-workers in horticulture from all departments were enabled to keep in close touch
with the work of these several departments and with each official.
Meetings outside the Province.
Your assistant had the pleasure of attending the convention of the North-western Association
of Horticulturists, Entomologists, and Plant Pathologists, held at Boise, Idaho, in July. A
separate report covering the subjects discussed and the information gleaned has been submitted
to your office. It is with a great deal of pleasure that your assistant can announce at this
time that the 1924 convention of this association will be held at Penticton, B.C., in July. This
association has grown in importance and in the scope of its activities very greatly during the
past few years and their deliberations are very valuable to your staff.
Control and Inspection Work.
The work of codling-moth control engaged the major portion of the time of your staff in
this district during the past season. Three separate reports on the codling-moth control work
in the districts of Vernon, Kelowna, and Penticton, respectively, have been submitted, and these
cover in detail the activities of the officials in charge in each of these districts.    However, a 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 35
brief summary of conditions in general is necessary at this time. Appended herewith is also
a table showing the area infested in each district during the 1921, 1922, and 1923 seasons, and
also the amount of material captured, which included both larvse and pupse in each of these
districts for these three years. This table will indicate the direction in which progress is being
made and also the points where the outbreak is becoming most severe. Dealing with the codling-
moth situation by districts, the following can be said:—
Vernon District.—During the year 1923 a decided improvement in the situation at Vernon
was noticeable. Not only was the acreage materially reduced from 375 to 340 acres, but the
amount of material captured showed a heavy reduction. It is interesting to note, from the
report of the official in charge for this district, that practically the entire amount of the material
captured was taken in a very small locality. What is known as the Swan Lake section was
clean during the past season. Practically all the material captured came from one orchard.
This orchard has been practically neglected for several seasons and your staff would strongly
recommend that steps be taken to remedy this condition in the near future.
The packing-house erected for the convenience of the growers in the quarantine area at
South Vernon proved very satisfactory during the past season, and quite justified the expenditure
in that dii'ection by the manner in which the operations were facilitated.
Kelowna District.—On the K.L.O. Bench a decided improvement occurred in the codling-
moth infestation during the past season. The only material which was taken was captured in
a relatively restricted area, and there is every indication that control operations have materially
reduced the area of infestation during the past two seasons. In the City of Kelowna area,
however, a very serious situation exists. As outlined in the report of the official in charge
of this district, your attention is drawn to the situation and your staff would recommend that
the most severe methods be employed in this area. It is apparent to those in charge that the
City of Kelowna as a municipality should bear some of the responsibility in connection with
this outbreak.
Summerland District.—Routine work of spraying and banding was carried on in this district, and as no material was found it is recommended at this time that this area be released
from quarantine in the future.
Penticton District.—In the Kaleden District, which was in quarantine in 1922, a decided
improvement has taken place, and outside of three pupae which were captured early in the
spring, no further material was taken. It may therefore safely be concluded that the situation
in the Kaleden District is better than in 1922.
In the Penticton-Dog Lake section, however, a further acreage was taken under quarantine
during the season. At the present moment there are approximately 203 acres under quarantine
in that district, and it is difficult to know whether this acreage embraces the entire infestation.
However, as this is a commercial section, little difficulty in establishing a satisfactory area
should be encountered.
At Green Lake two isolated orchards, 20 acres in extent, were proved to be infested during
the summer, but these should present no difficulty, as in the one case the grower is removing
his entire orchard, and in the other very severe control measures will be easy to enforce.
In conclusion, it might be stated that the control-work with codling-moth during the season
of 1923 has been highly satisfactory and that the work of those officials in charge of operations
has been efficient may be best judged by the results secured. It the codling-moth situation in
the entire Province were confined to the Okanagan Valley, the recommendations of your staff
would be to the effect that the work should be vigorously pursued in the immediate future.
But the future policy in connection with this work will have to depend largely upon the situation
from a Provincial standpoint. During the past three seasons, while many outbreaks of very
considerable extent have been combated in this district, the results as indicated in the reports
of previous years and in the reports of this year would indicate that your staff in this district
has more than held its own with the situation.
Control and Inspection Work (other than Codling-moth).
Fire-blight.—A vigorous campaign of eradication during the dormant season was again
inaugurated by your staff during the past winter, but owing to the decidedly adverse conditions
under which the campaign was waged, the results were not as satisfactory in the majority of
districts as might have been the case had the growers entered more fully into the spirit of the I 36 Department of Agriculture. 1924
undertaking. Poor returns for fruit was largely responsible for this situation. The growers
did not have the heart to do the work, nor did they have the money in many cases to carry it
out. However, the work will be pushed with all vigour the coming season, and as a general
improvement in the financial situation is apparent at the present time, much better results are
anticipated during the winter of 1923-24.    The placarding system will again be employed.
Blister-mite.—In the reports of the individual officials of each sub-district will be found
a detailed report of the experimental work which was inaugurated for the control of this pest
during the spring of 1923 and the fall of 1922. A study of these reports will show that very
complete control was obtained on the whole from the use of lime-sulphur at strengths varying
from 1-9 to 1-20 applied in the fall and in very early spring. These control experiments should
be conducted in the spring of 1924 in order to check this work more effectively. Blister-mite
on the apple has a spread over the entire district and at the present moment is a serious menace
to fruit-growers.
Leaf-roller.—Leaf-roller during the season of 1923 was very serious all through the Okanagan
Valley and is perhaps the most serious pest with which the fruit-growers have to contend. From
a close study of the situation and from observations in the States south of this district, it is
apparent that a miscible-oil spray applied early in the spring offers the best control which
your staff can recommend at the present moment. Unfortunately this spray material is relatively high in price and your staff would recommend that investigations be undertaken with
a view to ascertaining whether or not a cheaper spray cannot be brought out. The best preparation which is available at the present moment is Dormoil, and on tests with this material
which were conducted by your staff at various points in the district during the Spring of 1923
very good results were obtained at a strength of 8 per cent. Spraying for leaf-roller will in
all probability become a general practice in the near future throughout the entire district.
Other Pests and Diseases.
Very little damage occurred during the 1923 season from such minor pests as woolly aphis,
green aphis, peach-worm, powdery apple-mildew, etc. Climatic conditions may have influenced
this condition to some extent. However, apple-scab was very prevalent in the more northern
sections of the district, and in fact in certain sections the damage was very severe, and instances
were reported of entire crops being ruined. This result can be traced to negligence on the part
of the growers in the majority of cases. Warnings issued from this office were not heeded and
in a great many cases the preventive sprays were not applied. The omission of the growers
to apply these sprays resulted in serious infections occurring which could not be controlled by
the later sprays. Apple-scab is a serious menace in certain sections at all times and the growers
should be strongly urged each season to apply the preventive sprays under all circumstances.
This concludes the report of the activities of this office for the season of 1923. In closing,
your assistant desires to take this opportunity of expressing his deep appreciation to those
officials who assisted him in carrying out the work of the Horticultural Branch in this district
and for the spirit of co-operation which was evident throughout the entire season. The season
has perhaps been the most active in the history of the present administration of this office, and
while many of the plans outlined in the spring along certain lines were not carried out, this
was not due to negligence on the part of your staff or your assistant, but was due to factors
over which they or he had very little or no control, such as the codling-moth situation. However,
this work is of such relative importance that it is hoped that the work of your staff has been
satisfactory to you this season.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
W. T. Hunter,
District Horticulturist. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 37
E. C. Hunt, B.Sc.
W. H. Robertson, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1923.
General Horticultural Conditions.
The apple-crop in the Kootenay and Boundary District in 1923 was not as large in volume
as was first anticipated early in the season. While all records are not complete, figures and
estimates on hand at this time place the tonnage for the three sections of the district as follows:
Grand Forks and Boundary, 15 per cent, less than last year; Creston area, 15 per cent, less;
and the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes areas, about 50 per cent, less than in 1922. The excessive
rainfall during May, June, and July and the general weather condition was very favourable
to the development and spread of apple-scab, and a very heavy infestation of this disease
occurred in many of the orchards along the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes. Weather conditions,
and the fact that many growers did not do the usual amount of spraying required for the
control of scab in a season with so much moisture, was the main cause for such a large decrease
in the output of apples from the Kootenay. There were a number of orchards where scab was
so bad on the fruit of Mcintosh Red, Yellow Newtown, and other susceptible varieties that the
whole crop or a large portion of it was left on the trees. 1923 was an off-year for a number
of varieties in some sections owing to the trees producing a very heavy crop in 1922. Most
varieties of apples were of better size than last year, and other than for scab conditions, the
quality as a rule was much better than in 1922. Although very few complete returns on apples
have been made to growers, indications are that prices on the whole will be somewhat better
than last year; but at that, marketing conditions have not been very good from the producer's
The plum and prune tonnage will show a heavy increase over the output in 1922. At
Grand Forks the output of prunes in crates alone was more than six times the output of last
year, 1922 being a decidedly off-year for this crop. Prices received for plums on the whole
were very unsatisfactory and the prune situation was not •much better as regards returns
to the growers.
The cherry tonnage from the district will be less than last year. The heavy rains when
the fruit was ripening caused the early varieties and the Bings to split badly. A lot of damage
to this crop was also caused by the wasps just when the fruit was ready to pick. Prices for
cherries will average less than last year, but on the whole returns to the growers have been
much better than most of the other tree-fruits.
The Kootenay District produced the heaviest strawberry-crop on record. The acreage in
bearing was larger than in previous years, and on top of this weather conditions were very
favourable for the plants to produce a record yield per acre. The strawberry-plants came
through the winter in fine shape, and with plenty of rain during the spring and early summer
the plants made good growth and the picking season was extended over a rather long period.
The fruit was rather soft owing to so much rain and the condition of the crop was not the
best for shipping in crates; the Wynndel and Creston areas sending out most of the crated
stock, with a small quantity from the Harrop District. The entire crop from other sections,
except what was required on the local markets, went to the jam-factories at Nelson and Brilliant.
Prices for jam-berries ranged from 7 to 8 cents per pound f.o.b. shipping-point. Raspberries
were quite a good crop, the yield being somewhat affected by the dry weather during part ot
July and August. More tonnage of this crop going to the jam-factories than usual and prices
received for both the crate and jam berries were quite satisfactory. Black currants as usual
brought a good price, but the acreage planted to this crop is not very large.
Pears were an average crop and of good quality. Growers might be well advised to plant
more pears of the winter varieties, such as Anjou, Bosc, and Howell, as prices for good winter
pears are as a rule very attractive.
Weather conditions during October, November, and December were ideal. Not a great
deal of rain and no cold weather until December 29th, when quite a severe freeze-up occurred, I 38 Department op Agriculture. 1924
but this cold spell was preceded by a heavy snowfall to the extent of 12 to 18 inches, which
should be ample protection to all crops. All tree-fruits matured well and moisture conditions
are good.   Present indications are for a heavy crop of tree-fruits next year.
Vegetable production was about normal, but there is room for more development along
this line in the Kootenay District, especially among the white growers. There is always a
good demand and profitable returns for the man that grows potatoes, cabbage, cauliflower,
winter turnips, and asparagus for the local markets. There is also a good demand for early
greenhouse vegetables grown in this district.
Pruning and Packing Schools.
During February, March, and April, 1923, six pruning-schools were held in the Kootenay
District, with a total attendance of forty-nine pupils. Classes were held at Balfour, Renata,
and Perry Siding by C. B. Twigg, and at South Slocan, Fauquier, and Harrop by the writer.
The schools did not show a record attendance, but good work was accomplished by those present.
The apple-packing schools in the district were again in charge of H. Guy Greenwood, of Wiliow
Point. Packing-schools were held at Fruitvale, Fauquier, Renata, and Gray Creek, four in
all, with a record attendance of fifty pupils. The packing-schools, as well as the pruning-schools,
have proved of great help to the fruit-growers and the work was much appreciated by all.
Reports covering both pruning and packing schools have been submitted to your office.
Announcements were sent out and notices made through the local press in November
offering three-day pruning and six-day packing schools, the schools to be held during November
and December, 1923, and January, February, and March, 1924. So far only three applications
for pruning-schools have been received, and no packing-schools. One of the pruning-schools
(Gray Creek) was held by your assistant the first week in December, a report of which will
be submitted when all the schools have been held. As the different sections of the Kootenay
District are getting better organized as regards central shipping and packing, the demand for
apple-packing schools in the future should and will be much on the decrease.
Lectures and Meetings.
A series of meetings were arranged for and held at the following places on the Arrow
Lakes during April: Nakusp, April 10th; Renata, April 11th; Arrow Park, April 12th (afternoon) ; Burton, April 12th (evening) ; and Needles, April 13th. The meetings were as a whole
very successful and the series much appreciated by the growers. The five meetings had a
total attendance of 147 people, or an average of better than 29 at each place.
The various subjects discussed and the speakers were as follows: R. G. L. Clarke, Dominion
Fruit Inspector for British Columbia, Vancouver, " New Grades and Packages of Fruit "; J. A.
Grant, Markets Commissioner, Provincial Department of Agriculture, Calgary, Alta., " Markets
and Marketing"; and E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C., "Varieties of Fruit
recommended for Future Planting."
Your assistant during the year visited a number of farmers' and fruit-growers' meetings
and on request discussed various phases of horticulture at the meetings. A talk on small-fruit
culture for the home garden or orchard was also given in connection with the short course
held at Nelson by the Soldier Settlement Board.
Cover-crop demonstration plots were continued for another year at Grand Forks and
Creston with hairy vetch. No seed was supplied this past season iu connection with this
work, the plots being reseeded by disking the 1922 sown cover-crop in when sufficient seed is
ripe or developed for this purpose. Very good results are being had with vetch as a cover-
crop under this system of reseeding where the grower has sufficient water for irrigation. Without irrigation the vetch has given better results in this district if sown in the fall and ploughed
in the following spring and the orchards .clean-cultivated during the summer and reseeded
again in the fall.
Insect Pests and Diseases.
Codling-moth.—Separate reports dealing with the actual quarantine-work in connection
with codling-moth control in the Kootenay and Boundary have been submitted to your office
by those officials who were directly responsible for the carrying-out of this work. The reports
show that very good progress was made in the control of this pest in the quarantine area 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 39
established at Grand Forks in the late fall of 1922 and the area put under quarantine at
Creston at the beginning of August, 1923. New outbreaks have occurred in many parts of the
Grand Forks District this past season and temporary quarantine measures were placed on all
as soon as the infestations were substantiated. This spread of the moth in the Grand Forks
Valley was not due to any lack of strict quarantine being carried out on the areas placed under
quarantine, but can be traced to a large extent to the movement of orchard-boxes and apples
from the orchards infested before the discovery of codling-moth larvae in the fall of 1922. So
widely is the spread of the moth over the Grand Forks District, it will be necessary to place
a much larger orchard area under quarantine regulations in 1924.
The situation at Creston is much better so far, as the infestation in this area is quite light
and was found early in the season, so that our quarantine regulations could be carried out in
connection with the movement of the 1923 crop. The last cover-spray was applied to all trees
in the actual infested area, and all trees in the quarantine area were banded and inspected
four times. No new outbreaks were found outside of the original quarantine area and very
few larva? were found adjacent to the actual infested area. It would appear from this that
the 89.5 acres under quarantine in the Creston District will not need to be extended next year.
Codling-moth material was collected, reported, and confirmed from J. D. Anderson's orchard
at Birchbank (near Trail) late in October. All the larva? found were in the fruit after it had
reached the packing-house. Unfortunately it was not possible to find any larvae in the orchard,
although every effort was made to do so. Temporary quarantine regulations were enforced
on the 90 acres as soon as the outbreak was reported.
Apple-scab.—This disease was very bad in the Kootenay District the past season, other
than at Grand Forks and Creston. With a lot of rain during May, June, and part of July,
conditions were very favourable for the development and spread of apple-scab. Many of the
orchards were badly attacked and more damage than usual was caused to the crop. More
spraying than usual was required to keep the disease under control, but the majority of growers
only put on two sprays, which were not enough under the weather conditions that prevailed
in 1923. As has been pointed out before, the only safe rule to follow in the control of apple-
scab in the Kootenay is to put on three sprays of lime-sulphur to all varieties and in a wet
season four to the susceptible varieties.
Fire-blight.—Fire-blight was very bad in parts of the Grand Forks District the past season.
A slight outbreak was found at Erickson, in the Creston District, one pear-tree being affected.
The infested area in the Cranbrook District was quite bad, but this area has been well looked
after this fall and should give little trouble in the future. Most other sections in the Kootenay
were free of the disease, other than a few pear-trees in the City of Nelson. No trace of the
blight was found at Harrop, Sunshine Bay, or Carroll Landing this year, a thorough clean-up
having been made of these areas in the fall of 1922. The Grand Forks area is the most difficult
to take care of, and your staff has planned to carry on a fire-blight clean-up campaign in that
section this winter and early spring. The eradication of blight in the Grand Forks District
depends to a large extent on' the co-operation your officials receive from the growers, as it
may be stated that the present bad infestation in this area is mostly due to the fact that a
few growers have not made a very strong effort to eradicate the blight from their orchards.
Blister-mile.—Blister-mite is becoming thoroughly established in many sections throughout
the Kootenay and Boundary Districts, affecting the apple-trees in particular. Where control
measures have not been adopted, aud very few have in this district, the pest has increased
this past year and in some sections caused considerable damage to the apple-crop. Demonstration
spraying with lime-sulphur, strength 1 to 9 applied early in the spring, has been carried on in
the Grand Forks District for the past two years for the control of the mite. Fair to good
results were obtained with this spray and the pest is being kept fairly well under control in
that district. This fall your assistant did some demonstration spraying for the control of the
mite, using lime-sulphur, strength 1 to 15. This spray was applied on December 21st in the
Willow Point District, the orchard being badly infested last year. It was thought here in the
Kootenay, where we have a very heavy snowfall and find it very difficult to get into the orchards
with a spray outfit very early in the spring, that the fall application of lime-sulphur would
perhaps give us better control of the blister-mite than the average spring application. This
demonstration with a spring application for comparison should give some useful information on
the control of this very serious pest. I 40 Department op Agriculture. 1924
Tent-caterpillar.—This pest was very bad again this year in most sections of the Kootenay
District, although not a great deal of damage was noticeable in any of the commercial orchards.
Where spraying was done for the control of other pests and diseases, having arsenate of lead
in the spray material,' the caterpillars were kept well under control. Indications are that this
pest will not occur in any large numbers, if at all, in 1924.
Leaf-roller.—The leaf-roller was very bad in some of the orchards in the Grand Forks
District the past season and indications are that the fruit-crop next year will be more seriously
damaged than in 1923 if steps are not taken to control this pest. It also has been found that
this insect is distributed to a limited extent in all fruit-growing sections in the Kootenay.
Arsenate of lead, 2 lb. to 40 gallons of water, has to a limited extent kept the leaf-roller under
control in orchards where only a light outbreak has occurred. This strength put on in the
pink stage seems to have given the best results in the Kootenay. The situation at Grand Forks
is very serious, and to get any immediate control it is recommended that an oil spray of some
kind be used in those orchards where the leaf-roller is so bad.
All of the above diseases and insect pests, as well as others of less trouble, were attended
to as far as time would permit, by making personal calls on growers and by the use of the
local press, giving advice and information as to methods of control and eradication.
Fall Fairs.
Your assistant acted or gave assistance as judge of fruit and vegetables at the following
fall fairs: Burquitlam, August 28th and 29th; North Vancouver, August 31st; Squamish, September 3rd; Chilliwack, September 4th and 5th; Surrey, September 6th; Fern Ridge, September
8th; New Westminster, September 10th to 15th; Matsqui, September 18th and 19th; and Abbotsford, September 20th.   A detailed report on this work has been submitted.
Inspection of Nurseries.
As in previous years, the work in connection with the inspection of nursery stock was carried
out according to the regulations laid down by the Department as far as it was possible. The
stock as a whole was of good quality as to size and maturity, although not quite as clean as
last year, a considerable number of trees being condemned and destroyed for root-gall, crown-
gall, and hairy root. A little over 50,000 trees were inspected at the fall digging-time for the
two nurseries at Grand Forks, and out of this number 7,052 trees were condemned for the
troubles mentioned above. A separate report covering the inspection has been submitted to
your office by the officials who actually did the work.
Orchards visited and General Work.
Many personal visits to different orchards throughout the district were made during the
year, a number of requests coming in from growers for demonstrations and advice on various
horticultural subjects. This work has taken up a great deal of your assistant's time, but it
is work much appreciated by the fruit-growers and very necessary, yet not much to show for
it at the end of the year.
Your assistant has also been called upon at different times during the past year to do
appraisal work in connection with loans to farmers under the Land Settlement Board. So
far this work has not been very heavy and your assistant has been able to look after all applications for loans when making trips in connection with the regular horticultural work.
Crop Conditions and Reports.
Crop conditions and estimates are furnished to your office from time to time during the
growing season. Information on horticultural conditions in the district was supplied to the
Vernon office for publication in the Weekly News Letter issued from that office every week
from May 1st to September 1st. At the end of the shipping season a detailed report is made
of the total production of all fruits and vegetables in the district. Information and data are
also collected in a similar way from the jam-factories of the district. These reports are now
being prepared for your office.
Much office-work had to be attended to during the year, and this work is increasing each
year, taking up a great deal of your assistant's time that should be spent in field-work. 14 Geo. 5 .        British Columbia.       . I 41
During the year your assistant had the privilege of being able to attend the annual convention of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association held at Kelowna in January and
the annual meeting of the North-west Horticulturists, Entomologists, and Plant Pathologists
held at Boise, Idaho, in July. A great deal of information was obtained by attendance at these
All of which is respectfully submitted.
E. C. Hunt,
District Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture,  Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for 1923.
Diseases of Beets and Mangels.
These crops are, on the whole, Very free from disease in this Province. Two troubles to
which our attention was called this season are probably not new, but more noticeable on account
of climatic conditions during the past spring and summer.
Root-blight of Seedlings.—Complaints were made that mangel seedlings in certain places
.on Lulu Island were turning black at the level of the ground and dying. Investigation showed
that the surface soil in the areas affected was baked into a hard crust. Where better cultivation
had been given and the surface soil pulverized the disease was not noticed. At the time when
the disease was reported the weather was very dry. A good rain came shortly afterwards and
many of the slightly affected seedlings recovered.   The final effect on the yield was very small.
This disease has been long known in Europe and its cause has been much disputed. It is
maintained by some investigators that the fungus Phoma beta is the agent, and by others that
physical conditions are chiefly, if not entirely, responsible, the fungus being of secondary importance. In the Lulu Island case cultures were not made and therefore the presence or absence
of Phoma cannot be stated, but it was quite evident from the distribution and behaviour of
the injury that unfavourable soil conditions exercised a controlling influence on its occurence.
Heart-rot.—This shows itself as a dry-rot in the interior of the root associated with a
blackish discoloration externally. Specimens were sent in from Duncan, V.I., and Lulu Island.
As with the previous trouble, the cause of the disease has been much discussed. Some investigators consider the fungus Phoma betcc is entirely responsible, and others that this fungus is
of secondary importance, unfavourable soil and weather conditions, especially drought, being
the real causes. Cultures were made from both the Duncan and Lulu Island material and the
fungus Phoma betce was isolated from many of the roots from each locality. This establishes
the disease as the one associated with this fungus. At the same time it was noteworthy that
cultures from tissue from the interior of the root, distinctly affected by a spongy dry condition
to which the term " dry-rot" could appropriately be applied, remained sterile, indicating that
extensive alteration of the texture of the mangel in the direction of a dry heart-rot could occur
without the presence of the fungus. This supports the contention of those who consider the
disease to be primarily physiological, white the secondary invasion of Phoma beta; from the
soil completes the destruction of the root. The unusually dry season at the Coast last year
no doubt had an influence in bringing about the disease. Cultivation to retain the soil-moisture
is an important factor in the prevention of the disease. Lime should not be applied just
previous to the mangel-crop. A long rotation may be necessary where the disease becomes
White-pine Blister-rust.
Work in this connection has been carried on almost entirely by A. T. Davidson and his
staff. A certain amount of scouting was, however, done by myself incidentally to other duties.
As pointed out in last year's report, the season of 1922 was much less favourable for the location
of the disease on black currants than that of 1921. Negative results, therefore, could not be I 42 Department op Agriculture. 1924
accepted as final. This has, unfortunately, proved only too true, the disease having been found
this year down the Arrow Lakes and also at Grand Forks and Nelson, where three inspections'
last year and a late fall one in 1921 had given negative results and a reasonable ground for
hoping that the. disease might not have reached the Kootenays. With the results of this year's
work before us, it would seem that the quarantine between the Coast and the Interior of the
Province is no longer of any practical value. The only thing that can now be relied upon to
protect valuable white-pine stands or reproduction areas is by eradication of both wild and
cultivated Ribes in and around the area to be protected. The elimination of the cultivated
■black currant in the West Kootenay section would probably delay the progress of the disease
to some extent and could probably be carried out without excessive cost. It would not be
advisable, however, in my judgment, to undertake such work without some degree of compensation for the bushes destroyed.
Colorado Potato-beetle.
This season free poison was supplied to all in the infested areas who would undertake to
use it according to instructions. Two hand dust-sprayers were also purchased by the Department and placed where they were likely to do most good. For use with these dusting-machines
the poison supplied consisted of two forms of calcium arsenate. Elsewhere arsenate of lead
was supplied. It is satisfactory to know that the dust method proved not only quicker, which
was anticipated, but also more effective than that of liquid spraying, and the results obtained
were encouraging. A new area slightly infested was found at Bull River, which brings the
,pest a few miles nearer the important potato-growing areas of the Columbia Valley, and late
in the season it was also found in the City of Cranbrook. This latter jump means that the
growers of the St. Mary District will need to be very much on the alert if they are to hold
back a general infestation for any length of time.
At the beginning of August an inspection was made, in conjunction with Mr. Twigg, of
the potato-patches at Camp Lister, on which the beetle was found last year. A number of
larva? had been picked off during the season and a few more were found. A considerable number of adults were also found at this time, apparently just emerging. Specimens of both grub
and adult were shown to the children on neighbouring places and a reward of 1 cent per insect,
in either stage, offered for any that were brought in to the Superintendent of Camp Lister.
No more insects, however, were reported, and it is just possible that the outbreak has been
cleaned up. The origin of this outbreak is still obscure. If the pest has been brought in seed-
potatoes from Alberta, as seemed at one time possible, it is strange that it has not appeared
elsewhere in the valley, since inquiry showed that considerable quantity of seed-potatoes were
so brought in and distributed in small lots over a wide area. It seems now more probable that
one or two adult beetles have been transported by auto or other vehicle from infected areas in
Idaho. While we cannot expect to keep the potato areas of the Interior free from this pest
indefinitely, it is well worth while taking all reasonable measures to slow down its advance.
An appreciation is due to A. Hay for the work he has done in combating the pest in the East
Kootenay District under difficult conditions and in sparsely settled territory. A circular was
prepared during the fall by myself which it is hoped will help to give the necessary publicity
to the problem and furnish additional information not possible to convey in the poster previously
Disease Survey in Central B.C.
During the month of August an investigation was made into plant-disease conditions in
the country along the Grand Trunk Pacific. No inquiry had previously been directed towards
ascertaining the extent of injury from plant-diseases in this section. One of the most important
objects was to determine whether certain degenerative diseases of the potato, which constitute
a difficult problem in the production of certified seed, were present to the same extent in this
northern country as elsewhere in the Province. The trip was made in conjunction with Mr.
Tice and the more important observations were published in the Agricultural Journal. It will
.be sufficient here to mention that virus diseases of the potato were noticeably less prevalent,
especially in the Skeena Valley, than in Southern British Columbia, and provided other factors,
such as cost of transportation, are not prohibitive, this would seem to be the area in Province
destined to produce the highest possible grade of seed-potatoes. Other plant-disease, such as
cereal-rusts, were also found to be present to an exceptionally slight extent.    With intelligent 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 43
care on the part of the growers, there is no reason why the favoured position of this territory
in respect to disease losses should not be maintained.
Miscellaneous Diseases.
Fire-blight was observed in quite severe form in the City of Cranbrook. This is not surprising in view of the severity of the disease at the St. Eugene Mission, a few miles away. It
is, however, of some importance to record the gradual spread of the disease. The owners of
the infected trees were carefully instructed how to deal with them.
Sweet potatoes seem likely, with proper care, to be a profitable crop in certain sections of
the Southern Okanagan and Osoyoos Districts. At present these areas are probably free from
the chief pests and diseases affecting this crop, and it was suggested by leading growers that
a quarantine against imported sweet potatoes would be desirable in safeguarding this infant
industry. An article was prepared and published in the Agricultural Journal giving reasons
why an embargo, which would be the only really effective protection, could hardly be justified.
At the same time recommendations were made which, if followed, will largely safeguard against
these diseases.
Much time, as usual, has been spent in connection with potato-certification of diseases—-
the revision of standards, training of Inspectors, identification of diseases brought in by Inspectors, and in actual inspection-work.
Other Work.
Upon representations from the Provincial Apiarist, I undertook the microscopical diagnosis
of bee-diseases for the inspection of foul-brood. A considerable amount of time was given to
this work, especially in connection with one important and disputed case.
I gave the regular course in plant pathology at the University and also several lectures in
horticultural short course; collaborated in the Dominion plant-disease survey and in the preparation of abstracts of British Columbia publications for Botanical Abstracts.
Respectfully submitted. J; w_ Eastham>
  Provincial Plant Pathologist.
M. H. Ruhmann.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The following is a report on the entomological activities of this office during the past
The Entoniological staff during the past year consisted of: Max H. Ruhmann, Assistant
Entomologist in Charge; Miss C. M. Bigland, Junior Laboratory Assistant; N. W. Ruhmann,
Temporary Junior Field Assistant (employed two hours daily for four months and full time
for two months).
The major project for the year 1923 was life-history investigations of the codling-moth
(Cydia pomonella) in the infested areas of the Interior, with particular reference to the time
of the application of cover-sprays.
The codling-moth is slowly but surely spreading through all the Interior fruit sections
and no hope of its ultimate eradication should be entertained. New areas of infestation during
the past year appeared at Erickson (Creston District), Penticton, Green Lake (near Okanagan
Falls), and Trail. Extension of area of infestation occurred at Grand Forks. Every effort
should be made to keep this pest to a minimum; whole-hearted practical co-operation of the
grower is, however, necessary to attain this end.
Life-history in relation to temperature investigations have been commenced with the object
of ascertaining the possibility of timing cover-sprays by local thermometer readings. To this
end three bearing apple-trees have been enclosed in field-cages. These cages have been erected
at suitable points where considerable variation in the life-history of the moth is expected.
Standard thermometers have been placed at suitable points in the near vicinity of the cages
and daily readings have been arranged for. The codling-moth material turned over to this
office last spring had wintered badly and some delay was caused thereby in getting an early
start. During the summer considerable material became available for this experiment and a
satisfactory supply is now on hand to continue this work. The Leaf-roller (Caccecia argyrospila).—This insect has become a serious pest in the fruitgrowing sections of the Interior. Owing to the severe injury caused by this pest during 1922
many growers were anxious to apply control measures during 1923. Extensive experimental
tests of various insecticides used for the control of this insect in Oregon showed the superiority
of a miscible oil sold under the trade-name of "Dormoil." The use of this oil was therefore
suggested. Two car-loads of this oil was imported and used in the Okanagan Valley, the oil
being used at a strength of 8 per cent. Thorough examinations were made of all orchards in
which this oil was used, and in all cases where good covering of spray had been obtained excellent control resulted. Unfortunately, in many instances good covering of spray was not obtained
and severe infestation resulted. From our examinations we must, however, conclude that
Dormoil is an efficient spray for the control of the leaf-roller 0. argyrospila, providing the
application is made during the dormant season and all egg-masses covered. This spray being
a contact spray, all egg-masses missed will produce a normal hatch of larva?. Arsenate-of-lead
sprays did not give as good control as the Dormoil even when applied at the strength of 8 lb.
to 100 gallons. Unfortunately, Dormoil is too expensive to be classed as an economical spray
and every effort will be made to find a cheaper spray that will give as satisfactory results.
Two other leaf-rollers, Cacmcia rosaceana and Tortrix alleniana, are also recorded in the
Interior, C. rosaceana being of considerable economic importance and in the past season was
nearly as destructive as C. argyrospila. Owing to a difference in the life-history of these insects
the dormant sprays are not effective in the control of 0. rosaceana. Arsenical sprays must
consequently be used where this insect is present.
The Blister-mite of the Apple (Eriophyes pyri).—This pest was first observed to be serious
on apples at Keremeos in the year 1918. It is now recorded from all the Interior fruit sections
as affecting the apple.
For many years previous to 1918 it was well known as a pear pest, but its control on the
pear was a simple matter; an application of lime-sulphur 1-9 just before the breaking of the
buds proved an effective control.
On the apple the control is more difficult owing to the fact that the mite obtains entrance
under the bud-scales during the late fall, whereas in the pear the mite cannot get under the
bud-scales until the buds begin to open in the spring.
Experiments were conducted during the late fall and spring of 1922-23 in several sections
of the Okanagan Valley, using a miscible oil (Dormoil) and lime-sulphur sprays applied at
various strengths during this period.
Dormoil was used at a'strength of 8 per cent., but in no instance was satisfactory control
obtained. Lime-sulphur was used at strengths of 1-9, 1-15, 1-20, and 1-25. In applications
made between the end of November and the end of February excellent control was obtained
with strengths 1-9 and 1-15; the weaker strengths in some instances gave good control, but
appeared to be uncertain. Applications of lime-sulphur 1-9 and 1-15 as late as March 10th
also showed good results, but were not dependable. It was found that a period of two months
is necessary for lime-sulphur to be fully effective in the control of the blister-mite.
On this finding it is necessary to advise the application of lime-sulphur at least two months
before the buds break, using a strength of 1-9 until further experiments prove the efficiency
of the weaker strength of 1-15.
The Lesser Apple-worm (Laspeyresia prunivora).—Numerous specimens of the larva of
this moth were received for identification, most of them being submitted as codling-moth larva?.
This insect is not serious but is widely distributed, and an occasional larva may be found in
any bearing orchard. Outbreaks sometimes occur, but these are quite local, often being confined to areas of less than 40 acres. An outbreak of this pest came to our attention during
1923, in which 25 per cent, of the crop of the affected area was destroyed. This pest is readily
controlled by the arsenical sprays.
The Cherry and Pear Slug (Caliroa cerasi).—This insect can only become serious where
infestations are neglected. During the late summer of 1923 a considerable number of cherry-
trees were observed to have been completely defoliated by this insect in the Kootenays.
The Apple-tree and Forest Tent-caterpillars (Melacosoma sps.).—These insects were very
plentiful during 1923, the latter particularly so, assuming epidemic proportions in some localities. The districts most seriously affected were in the neighbourhood of Kamloops, Enderby,
and Armstrong.    Orchards were only affected where no efforts were made to control. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. !■ 45
The Apple-seed Chalcid (Syntomaspis druparum).—This is the first record of this insect
in British Columbia; it was reported and specimgns submitted by a- Japanese packer from
Kelowna. The specimens were obtained from cull apples taken from the local packing-houses
and stored for use.    Adults were first noticed in early June, at which time it was reported.
The Peach-tree Borer (Sanninoidea opalescens).—As in past years this insect was causing
considerable losses in peach and prune orchards, the old control method of worming is being
neglected. A small test with the Paradichlorobenzine treatment is now under way. It is
proposed to conduct a more extensive test during the spring and fall of 1924. There is every
reason to believe that this treatment will be satisfactory under our conditions; extended tests
are, however, desirable.
The Imported Onion-maggot (Phorbia. ceparum).—During the past four years the trap-
crop method has given good commercial control under the usual climatic conditions as found
in the Okanagan Valley from the Vernon District south. Owing to unusual precipitation during
the spring and early summer of 1923 the trap-crops were unsatisfactory. It is proposed to
undertake an experiment during 1924 to ascertain if bichloride of mercury can be economically
applied on a commercial scale. The bichloride-of-mercury treatment has been so successful
in the control of a closely allied insect, the cabbage-root maggot, that it is thought good control
can be obtained with it on this pest, but the problem of thorough application in relation to
the high cost of this poison is a problem that must be solved before general recommendations
can be given for the use of this control on a commercial onion-crop. Captain J. T. Mutrie, of
Vernon, is kindly placing part of his 1924 onion-crop at our disposal for the experiment and
has offered to give every possible assistance iu the application of the experiment.
The Flat-headed Apple-tree Borer (Chrysobothris femorata).—Considerable loss resulted
from the attacks of this insect in the newly planted Oliver section.
Locusts (Various Species).—Locusts caused considerable anxiety to growers in the fall of
1923 in orchards adjoining range land, particularly at Oyama and Oliver, where many young
trees were entirely defoliated and hark stripped from young branches. The locusts in these
areas almost reached to the proportions of an epidemic.
Strawberry Leaf-roller.—A species of leaf-roller attacking the strawberry, both leaf and
fruit, was reported from Castlegar and Armstrong. As we failed to obtain adults of this moth
its identity has not been established.
The Bed-bug (Acanthus lectularia).—This household pest is widely distributed in British
Columbia. It can be successfully eradicated from any good tight building by the hydrccyanic-
gas process of fumigation; unfortunately this is costly, and the very poisonous nature of the
gas makes it dangerous to handle. Fumigation with this gas should only be undertaken by
persons experienced in the handling of it.
The European Fruit-scale (Aspidiotus ostreeeformis).—This scale is now found in most of
the older fruit sections of the Interior and is frequently submitted to this office as the San Jose
scale (Aspidiotus pernicious), which it closely resembles.
The Oyster-shell Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi).—This scale is present in nearly all bearing
orchards and is not receiving the attention that it should. Many blocks of apple-trees were
observed this year on which the entire crop was reduced to culls owing to the presence of this
scale on the fruit.
Entomological.inquiries referring to specific insects received at this office were as follows:—
No. of
Common  Name. Scientific Name. Inquiries.
Codling-moth  .Cydia pomonella   117
Bud-moth    Tmetocera ocellana   63
Lesser apple-worm  Laspeyresia prunivora  79
Apple-tree tent-caterpillar  Malacosoina pluvialis   17
Forest tent-caterpillar  Malacosoma disstria   43
Fall webworm  Hyphantria cunea    33
Peach-tree borer  Synanthedon opalescens   72
Peach-worm  inarsia  lineatella    47
Cabbage-worm  Pieris rapa?   52
Diamond-back moth  Plutella maculippenis   4 Lepidoptera—Continued.
No. of
Common  Name. Scientific  Name. Inquiries.
Clothes-moth   Tineola biselliella       9
Leaf-roller    Cacoecia argyrospila  163
Leaf-roller    Cacoecia rosaceana   147
Leaf-roller (on strawberries)  (?)        2
Cutworms  (Various species)      92
Other Species of Lepidoptera sent in for Identification.
No. of
Scientific Name. Scientific Name. Inquiries.
Sphinx perelegans   7              >Melita?a sps  7
Pachysphinx modesta :  2               Venessa califorica   1
Telea polyphemus   9               Venessa antiopa   4
Samia euryalus    17               Venessa atalanta     8
Papilio eurymedon   1               Venessa cardui   2
Pieris occidentalis   2               Basiiarchia lorquini  5
Pieris protocide   3               Celeria gallii   1
Danaus archippus     3               Halisidota maculata   4
Argynnis leto   1               Estigmene acrsea  1
No. of
Common   Name. Scientific Name. Inquiries.
European fruit-scale  Aspidiotus ostrea?formis  9
Oyster-shell scale  Lepidosaphes ulmi   64
Apple-aphis    Aphis pomi & A. avena?  28
Rosy aphis Aphis sorbi   16
Cherry-aphis    Aphis cerasi     9
Bed-bugs  Acanthus lectularia   IS
Tarnished plant-bug   Lygus pratensis   3S
Wireworms Alaus melanops   1
Wireworms Corymbites cribrosus  3
Wireworms - Corymbites fraternus  1
Wireworms Corymbites resplendens   2
Wireworms Corymbites fallax   2
Wireworms  (larvae)   (Various species)   23
Ladybeetles    Anatis 15-punctata var. mali  1
Flat-headed apple-tree borer  Chrysobothris femorata   3
Prionid beetles  Prionus californica    5
Prionid larva (in apple-root)  Prionus sp  1
Carpet-beetles    Anthrenus scrophularia?   6
Fruit-tree leaf-syneta  Syneta albida   1
Pea-weevil   ., Bruchus pisorum  5
Rose-beetle  Rhynochotes bicolor  11
Other Species of Coleoptera sent in for Identification.
No. of
Scientific Name. Scientific Name. Inquiries.
Rosalia funebris  1 Melasoma scripta   7
Aphodius fimitarius  1 Aphorista laeta  2
Canthon simplex ,  2 Eleodes hisilubris  3
Polyphyla decemlineata   8 Magdalis a?nescens  2
Tetraopes femoratus var. basalis 1 Magdalis lecontii   1
No. of
Common  Name.                                                   Scientific Name.                                Inquiries.
Locusts  ....... .— (Various species)     16 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 47
No. of
Common Name. Scientific  Name. Inquiries.
Currant and gooseberry fruit-worm  Epochra canadensis      41
Cabbage-root maggot  Phorbia brassica?     38
Onion-root maggot  Phorbia ceparum      21
Apple-seed chalcid  Syntomaspis druparum   1
Dock false-worm  Ametastegia glabrata   8
Cherry and pear slug  Caliroa cerasi   19
Ants  (in house or lawn)  (Various species)   11
Red Spiders and Mites.
The leaf blister-mite  Eriophyes pyri  118
Red spider  Tetranychus bimaculatus     23
Rodents were quite troublesome during 1923, particularly in orchards under cover-crops.
Many trees were girdled by mice during the winter of 1922-23.
Fungous diseases of plants particularly noted during the year, and on which inquiries were
received, are:—
Apple-tree Anthracnose (Glomerella rufomaculans).—Infections of this fungus are being
frequently reported at the northern end of the Vernon District in recent years. It is not anticipated that this disease will ever become a serious problem in the Dry Belt.
Mushroom Root-rot (Armillaria mellea).—This fungus is occasionally noted on cold wet
Powdery Mildew of the Apple (Podosplucra Oxyacanthce).—This is a common disease in
the Dry Belt and has become a serious problem in some sections.
Apple-scab (Venturia pomi).—This disease was unusually severe in the Vernon District
during 1923. This was due to unusual amount Of rain during the spring and early summer,
which made it difficult to apply the control sprays.
Silver-leaf Disease (Stereum purpureum).—Many inquiries regarding this disease were
received during the past year. Investigation, in nearly every case, showed that the silvery
appearance of the foliage was due to root-injury during the winter of 1922-23. With proper
attention such trees may be expected to fully recover.
Alfalfa Leaf-spot (Pseudopeziza medieaginis).—This disease was very conspicuous in many
orchards in alfalfa cover-crop.
Sclerotinia sp.—Broad beans attacked by this fungus were submitted to this office, the entire
crop of a grower having been destroyed by this fungus. These beans were being grown as a
Truck-crops.—Requests for the examination of potato and other truck-crops were complied
with and advice given. A demonstration of the roguing of a certified seed-potato crop was
also given.
Bacterial diseases of plants particularly noted during the year, and on which inquiries
were received, are:—
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorus).—This disease is an annual cause of trouble in the Dry
Belt and requires extreme care in the control-work. Most growers now realize this and are
very successful in keeping this disease well in hand.
Crown-gall (Bacillus tumefaciens).—Although inquiries regarding this disease are occasionally received, the thorough inspection of nursery stock as conducted by the Department of
Agriculture during the last few years has practically eliminated this disease from the younger
Miscellaneous orchard troubles investigated and on which inquiries were received: Silver-
leaf due to frost-injury; gummosis of cherry and plum due to frost-injury; sun-scald of fruit-
trees and fruit; spray injuries.
Loss of vitality in fruit-trees. In most instances where investigations were made the
causes were fOund to be due to winter-killing of roof-fibre, soil conditions, collar-rot, improper I 48 Department of Agriculture. 1924
irrigation, or excessive seepage. A report was received of an outbreak of what was thought to
be peach-yellows on young peach-trees in the Southern Okanagan. Owing to the serious nature
of this disease immediate investigation was made. The cause of the trouble was found to be
due to the young trees having been planted too deep in a silt loam, which had packed so tightly
round the roots that aeration was impossible and root-development had been seriously retarded.
Requests received for the identification of weeds and weed-seeds were complied with.
One test was made for alcohol content for legal purposes and a certificate issued; the
equipment for this test was kindly loaned by the local Customs Officer for this purpose.
In the spring of 1923 a motor-car was provided for the use of this office; this was of great
service and' made it possible to make investigations at otherwise inaccessible points. It also
permitted of investigations at lake points and returning to Vernon on the same day, where
otherwise with boat and rail transportation such investigations would occupy the better part
of three days. Such points as Grand Forks could be reached, investigations made, and return
to Vernon in a period of three days, whereas with boat and rail transportation at least five
to six days would be occupied to accomplish the same work. Two hundred and forty-three
investigations were made possible. A total distance of approximately 8,000 miles was covered
by ear investigation-work and experimental observations during the period from May 1st to
November 30th.
Fall Fairs.—The fall fairs at Fruitvale, Nelson, and Grand Forks were attended, exhibits
of fruit pests and plant-diseases being displayed in co-operation with R. H. McLarty, B.Sc,
Plant Pathologist at the Summerland Experiment Farm.
Respectfully submitted.
Max IL Ruhmann,
Assistant Entomologist in Charge.
W. H. Lyne.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report herewith the work of the Inspector of Imported and
Exported Horticultural and Field Products and his staff of assistants during the year ended
December 31st, 1923.
Plant products, such as fruit, vegetables, rice, corn, peas, beans, etc., imported into the
Province were inspected at the several ports of entry where Quarantine Officers under the
direction of your Inspector were stationed. Inspection certificates were issued and fees collected
on shipments admitted as being free from destructive insect pests or disease. In the event of
any such products being infested or infected with pest or disease of sufficient economic importance
they were refused entry and either shipped out of the country or destroyed. Owing to recent
outbreaks of codling-moth in some of the commercial apple districts within the Province, and
the effort made by the Government to eradicate it, special care was given to the inspection of
all apples, pears, quince, or containers imported.
Tourist and Passenger Traffic
Besides the regular commercial importation of plant products by freight and express, the
large number of automobiles crossing the United States boundary have greatly increased the
work of the Quarantine Officers.
Tourist and passengers by auto or railway-train often carry small parcels of fruit, etc., all
of which have to be inspected. Owing to the long range of this particular traffic, we never
know from what part of the continent serious pests may be introduced.
Coast and Deep-sea Boat Service.
The steady increase of freight and passengers arriving by boat from so many parts of the
world and the Pacific Coast often taxes the energy and ability of the inspection staff. The
cheerful co-operation of the several transportation companies, however, helps to maintain an
efficient routine. J'TT '• '-!•
Soilage-crop yielding 19 tons per acre.    Grown from a mixture of 1 bushel each of oats, wheat, peas,
with 30 lb. of vetch.     This stand was produced on the farm of Dean Bros., Keating, B.C.
Lot 2. strawberry demonstration plot, Gordon Head. Protected hy the second
tanglefoot harrier erected. Production. 1921, first crop, 392 crates 1 405 lb iam-
berries; 1922, second crop (short crop due to drought), 200 crates, 1.3S0 lb
jam-berries, ■   m ■"■'■■ 4
.* "'"is'
" Owl Vesta," C.J.C.C. 16239. Canadian champion 2-year-old Jersey, 1923.
(Photo by courtesy of W. J, Moore, commercial photographer, Vancouver,
'*?yu I
" Sir Edward Garnet," grand champion male. Clydesdale classes, Provincial
Exhibition, New Westminster, B.C., 1923. Owned by Messrs. Lindsay and
Currie. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 49
Sidney Ferry Service.
The auto ferry service between the State of Washington and Sidney, Vancouver Island,
was increased by an additional service from Bellingham. The connection between Sidney and
Anacortes which started the previous year was also continued during the spring, summer, and
fall of 1923.
J. J. White, assisted by Mr. Bain, both Customs officials stationed at Sidney, acted as Fruit
and Vegetable Quarantine Officers by special arrangement with your Inspector.
Owing to the possibility of tourists bringing in potatoes from California infested with
potato-tuber-moth, no potatoes were admitted unless accompanied with an affidavit as to where
grown.    Several small lots were accordingly refused entry.
Following is the number of automobiles and passengers arriving at Sidney between the
dates of May Sth and November 30th, 1923: May, 422 cars, 1,353 passengers; June, 839 cars,
2,303 passengers; July, 1,617 cars, 5,334 passengers; August, 1,301 cars, 5,793 passengers; September, 516 cars, 2,151 passengers; October, 109 cars, 498 passengers; November, 73 cars, 343
passengers; total, 4,877 cars, 17,775 passengers.
New Appointments.
June 25th. S. Campbell, Customs Officer at Aldergrove, was appointed a regular Fruit
Quarantine Officer for that port. Previous to that date no commercial shipments of fruit or
vegetables subject to inspection had been allowed entry by way of Aldergrove. The new ruling
was made with a view to lesson the work of the Quarantine Officer stationed at Pacific Highway
owing to so many shipments of fruit coming in from the Lynden District, State of Washington.
July Sth. Mr. Kirby, Customs Officer, was appointed Fruit Quarantine Officer at Huntingdon in place of Mr. Blatchford, also Customs Officer of that port, who was transferred to
another branch of the Dominion service.
The foregoing appointments were made by your Inspector in accordance with the regulations of the Board of Horticulture under the " Agricultural Act " of 1915.
Tabulated Lists.
The number and varieties of the various fruits and vegetables, etc., are recorded in tabulated
form and attached to this report. The amounts imported and inspected during the years 1922
and 1923 are each recorded by way of comparison. Note the small number of apples and tomatoes
imported in 1923 as compared to 1922, which was largely the result of our British Columbia
product supplying the market.
Most of the imported tomatoes were from Mexico and California, but the wholesale merchants stopped importing when the British Columbia hothouse tomatoes were able to supply
the market.
The lists referred to include a separate sheet describing the fruit and vegetables inspected
at the Port of Vancouver, and another containing a total of that inspected at all ports of
Australian Grapes.
An experimental shipment of 152 boxes of grapes from the State Water Conservation and
Irrigation Commission, Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area, arrived at Vancouver from Sydney,
New South Wales, Australia, ex S.S. "Niagara," May 26th, 1923. Part of these were packed
in granulated cork and the remainder without a filler of any kind. The grapes were in very
good condition. Those packed in cork were apparently a little better than those without. Their
sale was somewhat handicapped owing to their having to compete with fresh cherries and strawberries and California plums, apricots, and peaches. They were retailed at about 60 cents per
pound, but not very readily.
Bananas and Pineapples from Fiji.
On a few occasions the Fiji Islands have attempted to introduce certain varieties of their
fruit to the Canadian markets, but so far with very indifferent success.
On February 19th a shipment of 476 bunches of bananas arrived from Suva. Although
these were an improvement on the consignment of the year before, they did not compare very
favourably with those from the District of Columbia and other points South with which they
had to compete.   A second shipment of 424 bunches of bananas arrived from Suva ex S.S.
4 I 50 Department of Agriculture. 1924
" Makura " in April. Although there was some indication of a little better grade and quality,
they were in very poor condition, apparently owing to method of handling and shipping. We
are given to understand they could improve as to quality if better shipping facilities were
available.   In that case there is a prospect of success.
A consignment of fifty cases of pineapples to the Dominion Canners, Limited, Vancouver,
from Suva, ex S.S. "Niagara," December 3rd, was exceptionally good—equal to any that have
ever arrived from Florida or the Hawaiian Islands.    They were packed in sisal fibre.
Fruit and Vegetables Condemned.
The tabulated list of imported fruit and vegetables also records those that were condemned
for various pests and diseases—namely, apples and pears infested with codling-moth larva and
San Jose scale; plums, prunes, and peaches with peach-worm (Anarsia Hneatella) ; oranges,
lemons, and grapefruit with scale-insects and brown-rot; tomatoes infected w:'th corn-ear worm
and anthracnose; sweet potatoes for weevil and black-rot, and common potatoes for late blight
and Fusarium rot.
Imported Nursery Stock.
All nursery stock, such as trees or shrubs, that entered the Province consigned to points
within the Province or to any part of Canada were inspected at the Dominion and Provincial
Government Fumigation Station, Vancouver. Stock subject to fumigation as prescribed by
the regulations was treated accordingly. Both the Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest
Act" and the Provincial regulations governing the importation of nursery stock were carried
out by your Inspector and his staff.
Tabulated List of Nusery Stock.
The number and varieties of trees, shrubs, plants, dormant roots, and bulbs are included
with the other tabulated sheets attached to this report. The number and varieties of stock
condemned is also recorded
The importation of standard fruit-trees was not so great as previous years, but the shortage
was offset by larger importation of fruit seedlings for future propagation by budding and grafting.
There appears to be a tendency on the part of the nurserymen of this Province to produce
more of their own stock and import less. The prospect of a greater demand for ornamental
stock in the future has encouraged them to turn their attention to that also.
From whence imported.
A very large proportion of the ornamental nursery stock imported during the year came
from Holland, and was composed of the following: Conifers, laurel, box, bay, rhododendron,
azalea, rose-bushes, dutzia, spirea, holly, oak, elm, poplar, hawthorn, willow, ash, horse-chestnut, and many other varieties, including most of the bulbs that were imported. There were
also ornamentals from England, Ireland, Scotland, France, Belgium, and Japan.
Most of the fruit stock and some of the ornamentals were from the United States.
Stock condemned.
The following insect pests and diseases were responsible for some of the stock being condemned and destroyed or shipped out of the country :—
Scale-insects : Aspidiotus perniciosus and ost reef or mis on fruit-trees from the United States;
Aspidiotus ostrwformis and forbesi on fruit-trees and ornamental shrubs from Europe, Japan,
and United States; Aspidiotus hedera on ornamentals from Europe; Diaspis and Chionaspis
on ornamental shrubs from Europe and Japan; Aspidiotus rapax and qucrcus on mistletoe
from United States; Aulacaspes rosea on blackberry and rose bushes from United States;
Lecanium hemisphericum and hesperidium on ornamental shrubs from Europe, United States,
and Japan; Lepidosaphes ulmi on fruit and ornamental trees from Europe and United States.
Root-borers: Sanninoidea exitiosa in peach, apricot, and plum trees from United States;
Bembecia marginata in blackberry and raspberry canes from United States.
Aphis: Eriosoma lanigera on apple-trees from Europe and United States; Eriosoma pyri
on roots of pear-trees from United States; Phylloxera on roots of grape-vines from United
States; crown-miner  (Aristotella)  in strawberry-plants from United States.
Bark-canker, anthracnose, and sour-sap affecting fruit and ornamental trees from United
States and Europe. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 51
Nursery Stock exported.
Although the quantity of nursery stock exported was very small, there was sufficient to
suggest the possibility of a steady increase each year.
The following list of destinations will give some idea as to the different parts of the world
to which nursery stock may be exported in the future: United States, British Isles, New Zealand,
Australia, Germany, France, Mexico, Hawaiian Islands, China, and Japan. The quantity and
varieties of the stock exported will be found on one of the tabulated sheets attached to this
report. Each shipment was carefully inspected and a certificate to that effect was attached
to each container and another to the billing or shipping papers.
Fruit and Vegetables exported.
Export certificates were issued by your Inspector on the following varieties of fruit and
vegetables after a careful inspection, the certificates stating that the shipments they covered
were commercially sound and apparently free from pests or disease:—
To China: 5,423 boxes of apples, 6 boxes pears, 1,307 crates and 1,043 sacks potatoes, 65
crates and 306 sacks onions.
To Straits Settlement: 1,400 boxes apples, 1 box pears, S43 crates potatoes, 3 sacks carrots,
3 sacks beets, and 1 sack parsnips.
To Suva, Fiji Islands:   50 boxes apples.
To Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands:   700 sacks potatoes.
To Ceylon :  50 boxes apples.
To New Zealand:   1 crate potatoes and 17,316 boxes apples.
To Mexico:   5 boxes apples and 10 crates potatoes.
To Peru, South America:   10,500 sacks wheat of 224 lb. each.
To the Yukon: 110 crates potatoes.
To United States of America:   1 box apples, 4 sacks potatoes, and 50 sacks beets.
Inspection certificates covering apples shipped to England and other European ports from
the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts were issued by the District Horticultural staff at the
points from which the apples were shipped.
The New Fumigation Station.
On May Sth, 1923, the old fumigation station in the C.P.R. freight-yards was vacated, or
rather what was left of it, as the work of tearing down the buildings had been proceeding several
days and only one room and the two cyanide-chambers remained. Possession was taken of
the new station the same day the old was vacated, although still in the hands of the contractor,
who had not completed his work.
The accommodation of the new station, which is situated at the C.N.R. terminal between
the passenger and freight depots, is very satisfactory. The inspection staff is able to work
to good advantage with plenty of room to handle the stock on hand.
Fumigation of Stored Products.
Besides the inspection and fumigation of all imported nursery stock, the fumigation station
is utilized for the fumigation of stored products infested with moth, beetle, weevil, or other
injurious insects, for which a regular fee is charged. Several hundred tons of such products
were fumigated during the year. They consisted of rice, corn, peas, beans, peanuts, walnuts,
almonds, filberts, dried figs, raisins, currants, prunes, peaches, apples, numerous spices, and
empty sacks.   All of which are recorded on tabulated sheet attached to this report.
Office Routine.
Your Inspector's headquarters office, situated in the Court-house, Vancouver, is also shared
by the Provincial Plant Pathologist, J. W. Eastham, and the District Horticulturist, G. E. W.
Clarke. There is also accommodation for the Markets Commissioner, Mr. Grant, when in
All records connected with the work of your Inspector are carefully made. Reports are
received each month from the Quarantine Officers stationed at the various ports of importation,
who remit all their returns to this office. Inspection fees received by your Inspector are turned
in to the Government Agent at Vancouver each month, with all duplicate certificates, etc. I 52 Department op Agriculture. 1924
Information dispensed.
All current bulletins dealing with horticultural and agricultural subjects are on hand for
distribution to any one requesting them. People wishing bulletins mailed to them usually
are requested to apply to Victoria. Numerous applications for general information received
prompt and courteous attention.
All correspondence was handled with care and dispatch. The number of letters received
were 1,139 and the number sent out 1,312.
Inspection Reports.
Several requests were received for inspection reports covering shipments of plant products
involving defects or claims. Shippers, consignees, and transportation companies appear to be
taking for granted that the Government Inspectors are a very convenient recourse when an
influential witness is required.
Dominion and Provincial Co-operation.
In order to prevent overlapping or duplication iu the work of inspecting and dealing with
imported plant products, your Inspector and his staff fulfilled the duties of both Dominion and
Provincial officials. By such an arrangement the Provincial Horticultural Regulations and
the Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest Act" were each enforced.
Plant Products to Points East of B.C.
In order to assist in carrying out the Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest Act" regulations, all other plant products in addition to nursery stock landed at this Coast and consigned to points as far east as Winnipeg were inspected by your Inspector's staff. Similar
products consigned to points east of Winnipeg were reported to the Bureau of Foreign Pests
Suppression, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. Your Inspector issued all such reports in
time to enable the Ottawa officials to arrange for inspection of the product at destination or
before they were delivered.
Dominion  Regulations  Amended.
The newly amended Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest Act" regulations came into
effect September 1st, 1923. Their scope is much broader than formerly, involving the inspection
of all plant products.
International Co-operation.
In order to keep in active touch with other plant quarantine departments, especially those
of the West, your Inspector has the honour to represent this Province on the Western Plant
Quarantine Board. This particular organization is composed of representatives of the Western
United States of America, Northern Mexico, the Hawaiian Islands, and British Columbia. An
annual conference is held which enables the officials to become intimately acquainted with the
different methods of inspection.
The conference of 1923 was held at Phoenix, Arizona, U.S., which your Inspector attended.
The 1924 conference will probably be held at Boise, Idaho, U.S., or Denver, Colorado, U.S.
At this conference representatives of the several Nurserymen's Associations, fruit and vegetable
dealers, and transportation companies will be in attendance.
" Eggs Marks Act."
The new Dominion " Egg Marks and Grade Act " relieved your Inspectors, H. Gutteridge
and A. Irving, of considerable responsibility other than dealing with imported Chinese eggs,
to which they devoted most of their attention.
Owing to the strict enforcement of the Act there were no Chinese eggs, fresh, frozen, or
preserved, imported for general consumption in this Province. The few that arrived were eggs
in the shell preserved in clay covering and were used exclusively by the Chinese population.
A few fairly large shipments of Chinese eggs arrived at Vancouver, all of which were consigned to Eastern Canada and United States.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Lyne,
Inspector of Imported and Exported Horticultural
and Field Products, etc. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 53
J. A. Grant.
Dr. D. WOrnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report for the year 1923.
The year 1923 adds another lean year to the history of the fruit industry. The world-wide
deflation in agricultural produce prices has not improved to any appreciable extent since 1922
and the buying-power of farmers was at its lowest ebb.
The redeeming feature as far as tree-fruit marketing was concerned, especially apple-
marketing, lay in the fact that due to superior organization and control of a commanding
volume of the fruit offered for sale, prices were stabilized by common consent, both by the
jobber as well as by the shipper. Prices were set at an exceedingly low standard, as all
interests knew that the industry could not survive if lower prices were quoted.
It was recognized that unstable prices were the greatest disrupting factor in distribution.
The season of 1923 has under the most difficult marketing conditions, and solely due to stabilizing
the prices, seen a record distribution on almost every product that was offered from British
Hothouse tomatoes greatly increased both in volume and average price. Berry-distribution
was the greatest on record and apple-distribution rose over 1,000 cars on the Prairies. In 1916
the population of the Prairies was half a million less than in 1922, still they consumed over
2,000 cars of apples in 1916, against a slightly less consumption in 1922. If proof of what
a stable price will do to increase consumption is needed, the proof will be found in the fact
that, under greater depression than existed in 1922, 3,000 cars of apples were consumed on
the Prairies in 1923.
The activities of your Markets Commissioner commenced with a New Year's visit to Seattle,
where a meeting with the leaders in the berry movement was held to arrange for an international
meeting of berry-growers' officials and managers with a view to having a clearer understanding
of marketing problems and get closer in touch with the consuming-power of their markets.
This meeting took place in the Fry Hotel, Seattle, on March 1st, and resulted in the formation of a federation representing Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia shipping organizations.    The British Columbia Markets Commissioner was made an honorary member.
Meetings were addressed in the Interior of British Columbia at Malakwa, Salmon Arm,
Arrowhead, Deer Park, Nakusp, Burton, Renata, Needles, and several sessions of the executive
of the Associated Growers were attended at Vernon. Your Markets Commissioner also attended
the general meeting of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association held at Kelowna. The
annual meeting of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association was out of the usual, owing
to the efforts of Aaron Sapiro, of California, who with Dr. Maclin, of Wisconsin, had previously
visited the fruit-growing districts and convinced the growers of the need of organization. This
air pervaded the meetings and the greatest interest was manifested in organizing.
Meetings were addressed at Hatzic, Mission, Whonnock, Hammond, Brighouse, Chilliwack,
Abbotsford, and Port Kells on the Mainland, and at Parksville, Courtenay, and Keating on
Vancouver Island.
A special visit was made to Walla Walls to investigate the variety and cultural methods
used by that district in supplying the Prairie market with mixed cars of rhubarb and early
vegetables. A meeting of the vegetable-growers of Walla Walla was attended and all the needed
information secured. This district has three vegetable-growers' organizations—namely, American,
Japanese, and Italian; of these the Italians were the most prosperous.
The varieties in popular demand were: Asparagus, Colossal and Palmetto; spinach, Long
Standing and Washington Market.
The spinach is usually fall-planted; if frozen out during winter it is resown in spring.
This and other information was given to interested growers at a meeting held at Dewdney
on March 21st. lt is the intention of the rhubarb-growers of this and Hatzic District to gradually
supply the early vegetables now procured in Walla Walla, so as to make their rhubarb-cars
more attractive to buyers. It is known that much rhubarb is now being imported in mixed
cars, because jobbers cannot import straight cars of vegetables and have the rhubarb practically wished on them. When British Columbia vegetable-growers can supply the desired proportion
of vegetables in their cars they will have little difficulty in displacing the Walla Walla rhubarb,
as it is freely admitted by the trade that the British Columbia rhubarb is of superior quality.
Berry-growers' Organizations fail to co-ordinate.
Contrary to the advice given by California market specialist and your Markets Commissioner, the men in charge of the leading Berry-growers' Unions failed to come to an amicable
arrangement as to how they would supply the requirements of jam-manufacturers. This split
led to dividing the deal of supplying fresh berries to the Prairie markets. No arrangements
were made with the jam-manufacturers until the shipping season was on, and then one of the
organizations sold most of their output at 7 cents per pound. This set the price for all jam-
supplies, as well as being the basis of the Prairie prices. As this price was below the recognized
cost of production, the want of harmony amongst the managers or shippers cost the growers
a huge price. Not only did the United Growers suffer, but the division kept many out of the
union, and while they escaped the central overhead charges, their market was badly shattered.
Prices of strawberries and raspberries were cheaper in Vancouver than ever before. The
cost of crates and picking was considerably above normal.
Hothouse Vegetables.
The hothouse-men of Victoria and Vancouver organized and shipped their products to market
through brokers instead of through Vancouver jobbers as formerly. The Mutual Brokers and
the Growers' Sales handled the deal.
The two organizations shipped 38,082 crates of hothouse tomatoes, which brought back
$144,171.28. They shipped 22,639 dozen hothouse cucumbers, which returned .$32,279, or a total
return of $176,450.28 for hothouse vegetables. To this amount must be added the product of
a few independent shippers. This is by far the greatest distribution ever made from British
Columbia and the average price was satisfactory to the organizations. Vancouver City took
about 3,000 crates of the above tomatoes and a similar quantity of cucumbers. The balance
was shipped to the Prairies.
There is some confusion about the classification of hothouse tomatoes by the express companies. Some general plan should be adopted by shippers of hothouse vegetables to enable their
produce to be shipped under commodity rates. Field tomatoes have a rate, but hothouse
tomatoes have not.    This industry is capable of much expansion under field-tomato rates.
Gooseberries as usual were in greater supply than the demand. The same condition has
existed for years, but growers continue to ship in spite of all warnings.
Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland strawberries arrived in good condition, but
owing to the surplus moisture which prevailed in the Salmon Arm and Wynndel Districts their
berries usually arrived in a soft condition and the- returns they obtained were very much below
The Prairie jobbers were well advised that a heavy movement of berries was due, and they
made ample preparation to give a satisfactory distribution. Owing to the crop conditions and
the lateness of the season, the Missouri berries, which upset the market in 1922, were hardly
in evidence.   Fewer cars were imported in from the South ahead of our season than was usual.
When berry-cars commenced to roll, the rival jobbers were inclined to give each other a
run for their money, but wiser counsels prevailed. This office was used by the brokers and
their advisers to settle upon a daily policy, both in regard to distribution and the price set
in line with conditions arising from day to day. We consider that this action on the part of
those responsible for the distribution of British Columbia berries helped greatly to secure the
growers a better return for the berries they shipped than any other factor in the case.
The following car-lots of strawberries were shipped: Haney, 59; Victoria, 43; Wynndel, 13;
Hatzic, 11; Salmon Arm, 6; total, 132.
Raspberries and Loganberries.
Raspberries and loganberries from the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island arrived in
bad condition for the first week, due to mould and wet weather; after the weather modified 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 55
in British Columbia the berries arrived in good condition and commanded a fair price. The
Vancouver Island loganberry-shippers sent forward five cars heavy to logans and did not secure
sufficient returns to net the grower anything.
The following car-lots were shipped:—Raspberries: Hatzic. 44 ; Haney, 22; Chilliwack, 8;
Mission, 7; Salmon Arm, 6; total, 87.   Logans:   Victoria, 5; Salmon Arm, 3; total, 8.
Many of the raspberry-cars had about 10 per cent, logans and blackberries in them.
It will be seen that this is the greatest car-lot distribution of berries ever made from British
Columbia, and with this amount a very large L.C.L. distribution took place.
We would again advise L.C.L. shippers on consignment to secure information regarding
the financial standing of the parties they entrust with their goods. We know of many houses
that have defaulted in their returns and some have made an assignment. It is singular to
find that consignment shipments are classed with a legitimate debt instead of treated as goods
sent on trust to sell on commission. Some of the concerns referred to have the bulk of their
debtors parties who shipped on consignment. Not only did they absorb the commission they
were entitled to, but the balance of the money belonging to the consignor. We would consider
that a test case should be made, to show that goods sent on a consignment basis are not assignable
for the benefit of'creditors, and that using the growers' funds on hand after commission has
been deducted is a criminal offence.
The early cherries from British Columbia arrived in a wet condition. Many car-lots were
jobbed during the Okanagan shipping season. Unfavourable weather conditions on the Prairies
prevented a satisfactory distribution. Country roads were inaccessible and the distribution
was largely confined to the cities. Under good conditions what would have been a normal
supply was turned into a glut; this was relieved when the Kootenay cherries began to roll
and fair prices were obtained for them. The acreage of Bing and Lambert cherries grown in
the Kootenay can be largely increased, as they come on the market after all competition has
been exhausted.
Plums and Prunes.
There was the usual repetition of last year's experience in marketing plums. They came
in car-lots and were usually inferior in size and quality to competitive stuff and prices were
not satisfactory. We regret to note that we can see little hope for plum-growing in British
Columbia. The Lower Mainland is barred by plum-rot, while the Upper Country growers do
not appear to grow the plum to a competitive size, and their varieties are not as popular as
those coming from across the line. The Pond's Seedling and Peach Plum, as well as the Black
Diamond, coming from British Columbia does not sell like Tragedy, Climax, Burbank, and
Grand Duke coming from California, Oregon, and Washington ahead of our season.
Short of Apricots, Peaches, and Pears in British Columbia.
We have advised British Columbia fruit-growers who are situated in districts suited to
pear, apricot, peach, and Winesap apples to grow more of these fruits. At present Washington
supplies the deficiency not being produced in British Columbia. The importation of such fruit
as we cannot supply always includes a proportion of what we can supply, as these fruits are
loaded in attractive mixed cars containing prunes, plums, canteloupes, and early apples in
addition to the pears, peaches, and apricots that may be needed.
At present there are not enough apricots grown in British Columbia to supply the Vancouver market, and peaches are only grown in quantities to supply Winnipeg. Pears are also
considerably short in production. We would recommend the planting of Bartletts ("Dr. Jules
Guyot" and others of the Bartlett family that are better keepers than the old Bartlett sort).
Also Beurre d'Anjou; these are the prime favourites on the market, and can, by resorting to
cold storage, be supplied right through the pear season until January. The next two varieties
popular on the market are Bosc and Winter Nelis. The Bartlett and d'Anjou are by far the
most in demand.   Winesap apples are also safe to grow where they can be raised successfully.
Cantaloupes and Melons.
This year the amount of imported cantaloupes was greater than usual. The opening of
the British Columbia shipping season found the market flooded with Washington cantaloupes.
The extra supplies from British Columbia aggravated this situation and low prices ruled for I 56 Department op Agriculture. 1924
about a week; after this the British Columbia cantaloupes held the market until the close of
the season.
We would direct shippers' attention to the possibilities of the Coast cities for the cantaloupe
trade, as the cool nights on the Prairies retard their consumption, while the balmy Coast
weather creates a lengthened demand. Last year, when the Okanagan held off the Vancouver
market about the end of September, the supplies coming in from Washington were increased.
The British Columbia Hoodoo is better flavoured than the Washington Burrells Netted Gem.
The Netted Gem, however, has more rind and less flesh than the Hoodoo and usually arrives in
a firm condition.
It has again been shown that Transcendent crab-apples and others of the early class are
overproduced, or that the supply is greater than the demand. We would recommend that no
further planting be made of these at present and that many of the trees now producing be
worked over and the weaker ones entirely removed.
Apple Deal.
The season of 1923 has been a record one as far as distribution goes. Prices were low of
a necessity owing to the heavy tonnage produced in the North-western States, and those
responsible for marketing with the advice of Prairie jobbers set opening prices sufficiently low
to keep out competition from that quarter.
Previous to this year we have heard the jobbers say that British Columbia produced too
many Wealthys. This came about because the Mack came in just two weeks after the Wealthy,
practically driving the Wealthy off the market or reducing prices to a point where the grower
suffered a loss. This year a decided improvement took place. The Associated Growers kept
the Macks back until the Wealthys were practically cleaned up. This they repeated all through
the season, keeping the late varieties off the market until the fall varieties cleaned up. Independent shippers would be well advised to follow this practice instead of shipping indiscriminately as they did this year.
The independent British Columbia shippers were the direct cause of lowering prices below
what the outside competition set. They made offerings of equal merit sufficiently low in price
to ensure a preference in their movement, not only in apples but in all fruit and vegetables.
Apart from lowering the growers' returns, this internal competition practically placed the
control of prices in the hands of the jobbers. The Associated Growers' salesmen had a difficult
task to sell under these conditions. If they had attempted to meet this undercut a repetition
of 1922 would have followed. The saving of the situation lay in the volume controlled by the
Associated Growers. In one or two cases independents secured top prices for their goods, and
in one case a premium was secured, due to the superior pack.
We have called attention to the cause of great loss in claims—namely, carelessness in the
packing-houses. This year claims were abnormally high, as packers seemed imbued with the
idea that packing down to a legal grade instead of up to a merchandising standard was their
duty. For this reason we are glad to call attention to the fact that at least one independent
shipper secured a premium for his produce over the best prices paid for Associated Growers'
If the Associated Growers will place the superior products they control on the market under
their brand, so that jobbers can show their customers a superiority, the question of competition
of independents would be under control.
Bulk Apples.
This year saw a considerable volume of bulk apples shipped from British Columbia. The
low freight rate, and the fact that Manitoba and Saskatchewan markets were importing bulk
apples from Ontario, induced the Associated Growers to cater to this trade. Many cars were
rolled, especially to Winnipeg market. It was found that the grower netted as good returns
on them as he received after packing-house charges were deducted from his better sort.
The trade generally does not approve of the shipment of bulk apples, because it has a
depressing effect on the crated-apple movement. The farmers, who consume most of the apples
shipped to the Prairies, could not have their wants supplied in this. way. The long wagon-haul
and having the apples placed in sacks render them unfit to keep.   As the farmer wants apples 14 Geo. 5 . British Columbia. I 57
sound and cheap, we would recommend that a crate to contain 60 lb. instead of 40 lb. be used;
these could be filled in the orchard and shipped direct. This method would remove the objec-
tionai overhead features and apples in crates of this size would arrive in good condition for
distant delivery.   It would be an economy in freight and crates.
Eastern Visit.
During December a hurried visit was made to points east of Winnipeg, including St. Paul,
Minneapolis, Chicago, Hamilton, Niagara, Buffalo, Toronto, Grimsby, St. Catharines, Montreal,
Boston, and New York. The jam-manufacturers were visited and informed of the situation
in British Columbia regarding processed and pulp berries. It was found that the Canadian
factories had all the raw material in the berry line that they expected to need. They welcomed
the news that British Columbia had disposed of the most of their processed strawberries in
the United States and that a market existed there for most of the raspberry-pulp on hand.
They fully expected to be able to clean up their unsold stock and be in a position to enter the
1924 market requiring a full normal supply.
At Niagara, N.Y., apples from British Columbia stored there were examined. After conferences in Toronto, Montreal, and New York, when the holding of British Columbia apples
in storage and the best time to place them on the market was discussed, it was decided to
to clean up this stock by the middle of February.
The New York auction market was attended during the time when two cars of British
Columbia Macks were being sold. It was easy to see that large sizes and very small were
not in demand; 84 size only realized $1.60, while 150 brought $3 per box; 175 and smaller
brought less than the 150 sizes. It should be the policy of apple-shippers to supply the most
popular sizes on all markets, and cater to them by packing for them at shipping-point, instead
of rolling cars loaded with varying sizes to any market that may happen to be reported bare,
irrespective of that market's needs.
Markets other than the local and Prairie markets have seen a great change in the volume
this year of British Columbia apples. The Eastern Canadian market absorbed over 300 cars,
the United States only about 100 cars, Great Britain over 500 cars, while some trial shipments
were sent to Mexico, China, Scandinavia, and other European points. The returns from Britain
were disappointing. The United States market aud Eastern Canada brought close to the
Prairie average, while the experimental point shipments all brought good returns. Greater
extension of markets will be made in 1924.
Associations'  Representatives on Prairies.
Last year the Berry-growers' Union sent a representative to the Prairies—A. F. Landry,
of Mission. This year they enlarged this to three representatives—one in Manitoba, Mr. Scott;
one in Saskatchewan, Mr. Dickie; and one in Alberta, Mr. Landry.
These representatives co-operated with this office in their work and gave splendid results.
Meetings were held in this office daily during the berry-shipping season, when the representatives of the rival brokers were present as well as Mr. Landry and your Markets Commissioner.
Telegraph reports were presented from all Prairie points telling of the supply on hand, the
amount rolling to them, and advising as to the market's possibilities. These reports were discussed and prices adjusted to suit existing conditions. If the assembling end had been coordinated to accept the advice given, and cars rolled as the market could absorb them, a standard
price would have resulted and much better returns made to the growers.
The Associated Growers suffered at the start of their shipping season, because they had
no one to represent them. At one time during the soft-fruit shipping season six American
representatives were in Saskatchewan alone, all soliciting business. When the Associated
Growers finally adopted the plan of having a representative of the shippers in every Province,
the American competition was soon driven out.
We consider this policy a good one and far more efficient than any,form of advertising.
The jobbers appreciated their work and it was the means of establishing closer co-operation
between shippers and jobbers to their mutual advantage.
We have pleasure in calling attention to the good work done by representatives of the
berry-growers and later by representatives of the tree-fruit growers.    Washington firms find I 58 Department op Agriculture. 1924
it necessary to send their representatives to the Prairies to solicit business for them and make
any adjustments on their behalf. It is equally as necessary for British Columbia to continue
this policy, and, in addition to a representative in each Province, a fourth should be appointed
to look after territory outside of their scope.
We also wish to express our appreciation to our correspondent staff at the principal Prairie
points for their accurate market reports and punctual rendering of them. During the year
1924 it is our intention to again feature retail prices in the Bulletin in addition to the f.o.b.
shipping-point and wholesale prices of fruit and produce. The spread of prices will help the
growers to arrive at a verdict as to the cost of distribution better than was possible during the
past season when retail prices were not featured.
Respectfully submitted. J. A. Grant,
Markets Commissioner.
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Live Stock Branch for the
year ended December 31st, 1923.
General Conditions.
The year 1923 has been one of excellent farm crops over nearly all districts in the Province,
although in some areas, especially in Nicola and Kamloops Districts, locusts were destructive
to grain, forage, and pasture crops. The spring was dry and favourable for getting grain-crops
seeded in good condition. This was followed by an abundant rainfall during the growing season.
The weather was not favourable for curing the first crop of hay, but was dry for grain-harvesting
and continued so into the fall, with a lack of the usual fall pasture in many districts, particularly
in the Lower Mainland. The Comox District was one district which did not get a heavy hay
and grain crop, as this district did not get its usual rainfall during the later part of the growing
Your Live Stock Commissioner endeavoured to visit as much of the Province as possible
for the purpose of studying conditions and assisting in local problems. The abundance of feed
and a consequent low market for hay aided in stimulating an interest in live stock generally,
as it was apparent that best returns could be secured by feeding hay, and in many instances
there was no other outlet.
The range was in better condition, owing to an abundance of moisture, than has been the
case for several years. In making a trip through the range country in June, we encountered
heavy rains and in many places the roads were almost impassable. The growth of grass was
exceptional, and cattle which were turned out in fair condition were fat enough for market in
June even as far north as 150-Mile House, Williams Lake, and Hanceville. The autumn was
open and very favourable for live stock until the end of November and curtailed the length of
the winter-feeding period.
The labour problem has improved, although the activity in logging camps is being felt in
many districts and farmers are unable to compete with the wages offered in the lumbering
industry. Farmers have not received prices for their produce which have been commensurate
with the cost of production. Farm implements, machinery, etc., cost practically twice as much
as they did prior to the war, with apparently little tendency toward a reduction. Under present
market conditions the farmer does not receive fair remuneration for his labour.
Compared with the present cost of production, the price of beef cattle has been very low
and there has been a tendency on the part of some ranchers to go out of business or very
materially limit their operations. The removal of the British embargo on Canadian store cattle
has probably been <*E some slight advantage, but the cost of transportation is at present too
great to affect the Canadian market to any appreciable extent. For the purpose of making
careful inquiry into prevailing conditions and discussing methods of marketing, a special meeting
of cattlemen was held in Williams Lake on June 14th and at a later date a meeting was held
at Kamloops, at which the packers were represented.    These meetings enabled the cattlemen 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 59
to get a better understanding of the problems to be solved. Winter-feeding would relieve the
market congestion in the fall, and this winter a good deal is being done along that line in the
Prairie Provinces. Unfortunately, the cattle-ranches in British Columbia are removed from
extensive grain-producing areas and grain would have to be shipped in at a comparatively high
price. Ordinarily the margin of profit in fattening cattle in this Province is not great enough
to warrant the purchase of high-priced grain for that purpose, but some feeding could be done
by farmers who grow their own feed. For the purpose of encouraging winter-feeding of cattle,
a fat-stock show has been inaugurated in conjunction with the annual bull-sale held at Kamloops. Liberal prizes have been offered and generous assistance has been secured from the
Dominion Live Stock Branch. During the coming year it will be possible to have a larger and
better fat-stock show, as a preliminary prize-list was published during the past fall and farmers
and ranchers have plenty of opportunity to select and properly fit their animals. This show
is being made as educational as possible, and the competing animals are not only placed according
to merit, but are also classified according to market grades.
There has been a good demand for first-class heavy draught horses at good prices, but the
supply of such horses is very limited. Dealers complain of difficulty in filling orders. A few
good draught horses have been sold at big prices to go to the logging camps, although this
trade usually takes a plainer type of animal. A large number of draught horses and good
farm chunks were shipped east from Alberta during the past year, but this trade has again
dropped off.
The exhibit of draught horses at some of the Coast fairs was excellent and the Clydesdale
show was very gratifying at Vancouver and New Westminster Exhibitions. The exhibit of
draught geldings at New Westminster was most favourably commented upon by A. McNeilage,
Secretary of the Clydesdale Society of Great Britain, who was present.
There has been a marked revival in light horses which appears to be general over the
greater part of Canada and the United States. This is especially true of saddle-horses, and in
many of our exhibitions the entries in saddle classes have perhaps been larger than ever before.
Riding-schools all report an increased interest and new riding-schools have been established.
Owing to the depression through which the horse-breeding industry has passed there is
a marked scarcity of good sires of all classes. Even in spite of assistance given by the Federal
Live Stock Branch, farmers seem loath to invest their money in stallions. Dull times and lack
of confidence in the future of the horse industry both contribute their effect in the present
attitude toward the horse business. We are convinced, however, that there will be a good
demand for large draught horses of good quality. Not only is there a scarcity of horses of
this class, but there is also a tendency among drayage companies to revert to horse-power
because of the greater economy when compared with trucks, especially on short hauls.
Mr. McNeilage gave an extremely interesting illustrated address on draught horses during
one evening at the New Westminster Exhibition. While this lecture was, in the main, a history
of the Clydesdale breed, the subject was handled from the standpoint of the perfect draught
horse. Those who listened to Mr. McNeilage were impressed with his great store of intimate
and unbiased information regarding this important draught breed and his fearless criticism
of fads and fashions in Clydesdale-breeding.
The number of horses in the Province increased from 51,083 in 1922 to 54,017 in 1923.
The low prices, to which reference has already been made, prevailing for beef cattle has
had the usual tendency of reducing the numbers. In 1922 we had 156,901 beef cattle in the
Province and this number was reduced to 147,001 in 1923. If this reduction were due to a
culling-out of inferior animals there would be no ill effect on the industry—in fact, it would
be a distinct benefit—but, unfortunately, during times of depression the market is discriminating
and there are many instances of the good females being sold and inferior ones being retained
in the herd.
There is a gradual improvement in the type of bulls used in the beef-raising districts, but
there is still room for great improvement in many herds. The bull-sale conducted by the
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association has afforded opportunity, especially to the smaller I 60 Department op Agriculture. 1924
operators, to secure good pure-bred bulls and has served as an education to visiting stockmen,
but many have been unable to purchase the kind of bulls they knew they needed. There is a
growing belief that the present low prices cannot long continue and doubtless there will soon
be an upward trend of the cycle.
During the period of good prices a number of pure-bred beef herds were established in the
Province, and now many of the owners are greatly discouraged and a few are disposing of
their pure-bred stock. Those who are able to continue in the business and maintain good herds
will doubtless find a profitable market in the near future.
The number of dairy cattle in the Province has been steadily increasing and we now have
117,141 head, as compared with 105,070 in 1922. The increase has mainly occurred in the newer
dairy districts and this increase will continue in a substantial manner as long as the present
low price of beef cattle prevails. There is also a wise tendency to increase the number of
dairy cows in the fruit-growing districts.
The price of dairy cows has been good and early in the autumn a sharp advance was
noted. The advance was due to an abundant hay-crop and a relatively good market for dairy
products. The Sumas Reclamation Project also had a marked effect. The Chilliwack District
has been a source of supply for dairy cattle and in former years many farmers were forced
to dispose of surplus stock just before the period of high water flooded the large area of low-
lying lands. As the result of no flooding in 1923 there was a greatly increased yield of pasture
and hay, and, hay being a low price, there was created a local demand for dairy cattle. This
condition was very obvious as we visited the district from time to time throughout the summer,
fall, and early winter.
It is a great pleasure to report that a British Columbia cow, " Agassiz Segis May Echo,"
a pure-bred Holstein owned by the Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz, secured the official
world's record for butter-fat production by producing 1,445 lb. of butter-fat in 365 days.
Excellent progress is being made in the breeding of herds of all four dairy breeds and
British Columbia is now very favourably known as the home of high-class pure-bred dairy
cattle. A number of shipments have been made to foreign countries, and of these, two consignments were sent to China by your Live Stock Commissioner. Though our breeders of purebred cattle are making excellent progress, the owners of grade herds are frequently careless
in the selection of dairy sires. This is to be regretted, and particularly so since there are so
many good pure-bred animals available. Your Live Stock Branch is carrying on a campaign
to improve this condition and results are apparent. Effort is being made to emphasize the
fact that the attention given to the selection of sires will, in large measure, affect the future
prosperity of the dairy industry.
Owing to the existing general business depression trade in pure-bred dairy cattle has been
quiet, but this is merely a time of readjustment following a period of very high prices and a
new level of normal prices will soon be established.
The past year has been a very favourable one for sheep. The price of wool has been good
and the price of lambs has also been very satisfactory. As a result there has been a keen
demand for breeding stock and the available supply has been very inadequate. The duty and
the high level of prices in the United States cut off that country from prospective buyers
and comparatively few breeding ewes of the right kind were offered for sale in Alberta. However, a considerable number of ewes were brought through from Calgary in the free-freight
The number of sheep in the Province increased from 49,745 in 1922 to 53,336 in 1923, and
there will continue to be a healthy growth of this branch of the live-stock industry as long
as present prices maintain.
The marketing of Canadian wool has presented a big problem because of the very high
tariff on our wool going into the United States, which has furnished our principal market.
The Dominion Co-operative Wool-growers' Association deserves great credit for what has been
accomplished under the circumstances. During the past year some wool has been sold in the
English markets and there is every indication that this trade will develop. Had it not been
for the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers' Association our wool market would be in a
deplorable condition at the present time.
. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 61
We are endeavouring to encourage a more extensive production of early lambs. The climate
on Vancouver Island, Gulf Islands, and Lower Mainland is favourable for early-lamb production,
and there is no doubt that the market for early lamb will expand as the production increases.
Those who have catered to this market have found it very remunerative.
Plans are being made to facilitate the purchase of sheep by farmers who wish to buy
during the coming year. A systematic survey will be made for the purpose of ascertaining
who have sheep for sale and who wish to buy. It is hoped that ewes suitable for breeding
purposes will thus be retained on the farms instead of being slaughtered.
Prices for hogs remained fairly satisfactory throughout the year and feed was also reasonable
in price. These conditions had a tendency to stimulate the hog industry and the numbers
increased from 41,738 in 1922 to 42,845 in 1923.
During the past year the Dominion Live Stock Branch undertook the work of grading the
bacon output of packing plants exporting bacon. This has been urged for some time, as it
has been felt that the grading should not be confined to live hogs. It is necessary, however,
in order to make the grading really effective, to link up the grading of the live hogs with the
grading of the cured bacon in order to satisfy producers that the grading on foot is consistent
with the final product.    Steps are now being taken to have this accomplished.
Our hog industry suffers from fluctuation according to market conditions. This is to be
expected, but more effort should be made on the part of producers to carry suitable breeding
stock. An advance in the market creates a demand for breeding stock which cannot be supplied
with the proper kind of animals under present practices. It is hoped that educational work
may be effective in stabilizing the industry and work along that line is being conducted.
The nmnber of milk goats increased from 7,500 in 1922 to 9,000 in 1923. This industry
has now become quite well established and British Columbia is looked upon as the breeding-
ground for Western Canada. A high production of milk is to be found in many flocks. Prices
are now assuming what might be called a normal level after a period of abuormal prices which
placed them beyond the reach of the people they can best serve. There is an important place
for milk goats and particularly in suburban districts.
Various attempts have been made to use Angora goats for the clearing of brush lands.
While they have been effective in this work, still they have not been extensively bred owing
to the fact that there is no well-defined market for surplus stock. Furthermore, where sheep
can be run on the lands intended for grazing they will be found to be much more profitable.
Bots' aitd Girls'  Clubs.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs were formed in many sections of the Province, and the Pig Clubs
in particular aroused great interest. Where possible competitions were held at local fairs for
club members. This work has done much to call attention to feeding and selection, and the
parents, as well as the boys and girls, derive much benefit. The Dominion Live Stock Branch
co-operated in the Pig Club work.
Our District Representatives did valuable work in coaching boys and girls for competitions
held in stock-judging at the three large fairs and are to be complimented on the creditable
showing made by the competitors.
Pure-bred Sires.
While not many pure-bred sires are sold to Farmers' Institutes, our plan fits in well with
the Federal plan of supplying sires free of charge. Whenever we have inquiries from those
who, evidently, are unacquainted with the policy of either our own or the Federal Department,
we furnish information regarding both. We find instances where, even in new districts, the
farmers prefer to purchase in order to more fully control their breeding operations. There
are many cases where the introduction of pure-bred females has been directly due to the plan
of this Department and much has been accomplished by way of promoting the breeding of
more and better live stock.
The following pure-bred sires were sold during the past year: Two Holsteins, one Ayrshire,
one Shropshire, one Yorkshire, and one Duroc Jersey. I 62 Department of Agriculture. 1924
The following brands were issued during the year 1923: New cattle-brands, 336; renewed
cattle-brands, 385; new horse-brands, 194; renewed horse-brands, 351.
Live-stock exhibits at the important fairs were very gratifying both in numbers and quality.
There were a number of exhibitors from the Prairie Provinces and from the United States,
but in spite of this strong competition our own exhibitors fared remarkably well. There has
been a steady and marked improvement in the fitting of live stock for exhibition purposes,
and the influence of fairs is very apparent in the standardizing of type within the different
Your Live Stock Commissioner officiated as a judge at a number of fairs in the Province
and elsewhere and noted a greater improvement at our own fairs than at those outside of the
Province. Undoubtedly these exhibitions are one of the greatest factors of live-stock improvement and enable both exhibitors and visitors to become acquainted with the best types. They
also stimulate a desire for good live stock and are worthy of every support.
The general conditions were reflected in the gate receipts. While the exhibitions were of
high quality as compared with previous years, the attendance was disappointing, but this
will change with the return of more prosperous times.
Exhibition managers are to be complimented on the fact that they are paying more and
more attention to educational features. As the result of a conference of fair managers, Provincial and Federal officials, there is now a definite understanding regarding the educational
work to be conducted by each at exhibitions, and this will result in greater efficiency and
greater economy as well.
At the request of the Dominion Live Stock Branch, exhibitions throughout Canada are
restricting the number of breeds in the prize-list classification for the purpose of eliminating
non-essential breeds. These restrictions were followed more closely at Victoria Exhibition than
at Vancouver and New Westminster. It is probable that the Dominion Live Stock Branch,
as a result of observations made this past year, will extend the list of recognized breeds.
British  Columbia  Stock-breeders'  Association.
During the month of June the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association arranged a
trip through the Kamloops, Cariboo, and Chilcotin Districts for the purpose of studying conditions and enabling the stockmen to become acquainted with each other's problems. In addition
to a general meeting held at Williams Lake, to which reference has already been made, many
ranches were visited en route. The benefit derived from this trip cannot be estimated, but all
were more than pleased because of the information gathered, and it is hoped that a similar
trip may be made to other live-stock sections of the Province. The great diversity of conditions
and widely varied problems has been responsible for lack of understanding and co-operation
among the membership of the association in the past, and we feel that this has now been overcome in large measure.
The fifth annual bull-sale was held in Kamloops, May 3rd and 4th. Your Live Stock Commissioner was appointed to cull the animals consigned to the sale before they were shipped to
Kamloops. A total of seventy-two animals were sold. The average prices were as follows:
Shorthorn bulls, $149.77; Shorthorn females, $128.51; Aberdeen Angus bulls, $194; Aberdeen
Angus females, $123.33; Hereford bulls, $156; Hereford females, $67.33. The highest price
obtained was $300, paid for " Marquis Champion," the champion Shorthorn bull. The fat-stock
show held in conjunction with the sale was an important feature and liberal prizes were offered.
The championship in the fat classes went to a steer shown by Captain J. C. Dun Waters and
was purchased by Charles Wilson, representing P. Burns & Co., for $450. Captain Dun Waters
announced that $350 would be contributed to a fund for prizes for Boys' and Girls' Calf Clubs.
Respectfully submitted.
W. T. McDonald,
Live Stock Commissioner. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 63
Geo. C. Hay, B.S.A.
W.'T. McDonald, M.S.A.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to attach herewith my annual report for the year 1923.
Sheep Industry.
During the past year considerable interest has been shown in the promotion of the sheep
Industry. The Agricultural Office has been visited on many occasions by sheep enthusiasts and
at all times has encouragement been given to those in a position to hope for success in the
industry. While it is quite recognized there is a big field in British Columbia for developing
the industry, yet at the same time the fact should not be lost sight of that there is not a place
for sheep on every British Columbia farm. Unless one is equipped to run a few, or a large,
number of sheep and has a personal knowledge and inclination for the business, he had better
follow the line of farming he knows best. The problem, as far as promoting the sheep industry
is concerned, is to establish the man with a knowledge and a proper place for sheep-farming.
Kamloops Bull-sale, 1923.
The Fifth Annual Kamloops Bull-sale was held on May 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, 1923. The
average prices realized were considerably in advance of those of the previous sale. This fact
was accounted for mainly because the offerings were fewer and of higher quality. Again the
Agricultural Department through the Kamloops office has looked after the management of
the event.
The sale averages were: Twelve Aberdeen Angus sold at an average price of $176.25, highest
$260; twenty-nine Shorthorns sold at an average price of $129.13, highest $300; thirty-one
Herefords sold at an average price of $113.06, highest $250; total turnover of the sale, $12,528.31.
Winners of the Challenge Cups.
Wynn-Johnson Challenge Cup.—For the best British Columbia born Hereford bull, any age,
entered in the sale. Cup to be won three years by the breeder before being owned and to be
in the possession of the winner from one sale until the next. Won by Captain J. C. Dun Waters,
Frintry, Okanagan Landing, with " Fintry Challenger," which was purchased by the Douglas
Lake Cattle Company, Limited, Douglas Lake.
Farm and Home Challenge Cup.—For the best British Columbia born Shorthorn bull, any
age, entered in the sale. Cup to be won three years by the breeder before being owned and to
be in the possession of the owner from one sale until the next. Won by P. E. French, Vernon,
with " Broadview Nonpariel,"  159378,  which was purchased by Cowan & Penrose,  Kamloops.
Hudson's Bay Challenge Cup.—For tbe best British Columbia born Shorthorn bull or female
born in the calendar year preceding the sale. For exhibition animals only. Cup to be won
three years by the breeder before owned and to be in the possession of the winner from one
sale until the next.    Won by Cowan & Penrose, Kamloops.
To encourage the better wintering and feeding of good cattle for the spring market the
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association inaugurated a fat-stock show and sale, open to
stock raisers in British Columbia only, which was held in conjunction with the sale. Valuable
prizes were offered and P. Burns & Co. guaranteed to buy all No. 1 fat cattle at two cents
per pound above the top market price in Calgary at that time. All stock entered in the fat-
stock show was bona-fide for sale and subject to the rules governing the bull-sale.
The British Columbia Shorthorn and Hereford Breeders' Associations.
The British Columbia Shorthorn and Hereford Breeders' Associations have each endeavoured
to safeguard the interests of their respective breeds as well as encourage their production.
Diplomas and prizes have been awarded to successful contestants in competitions at different
exhibitions. As Secretary of these associations your Agriculturist has dealt with the various
problems of concern to each.
Boys' and Girls' Club Work.
A very successful Pig Club competition was conducted in this district during the past year,
in which upwards of forty boys and girls contested.    The club stood second in the Provincial I 64 Department op Agriculture. 1924
scoring and the prize-money received, together with a fairly good market price, made the work
quite profitable to the contestants.
Stock-judging demonstrations and competitions were held on different occasions and great
interest was shown on the part of the younger people. A district judging team was taken to
Vancouver and New Westminster Fairs and won second and fourth places at the respective
Land Settlement Board.
Throughout the year numerous reports and appraisals on farms loans have been made for
the Land Settlement Board. This work has grown considerably and entails much more travelling
in connection with same. On account of the series of dry years in the district more calls were
made for loans from the Board.
The infestation of grasshoppers throughout the dry-farming and range areas of the Interior
has been serious this last season. Assistance in organization and poisoning was given and the
results were noticeably effective. A thousand pounds of Paris green were given to the farmers
by the Department of Agriculture, for which they were particularly grateful.
Throughout the year various meetings have been arranged and on different occasions
addresses were given on agricultural topics. Farmers' Institute meetings, Wool-growers' meetings, Breed Associations' meetings, Boys' and Girls' Club meetings, etc., have been arranged
for and assistance given.
Kamloops Creamery.
For the first couple of months of 1923 the Agricultural Office at Kamloops was the headquarters of the Kamloops District Creamery Association, which organization was operating
the local creamery under financial difficulties. Management assistance was given until the
plant was finally satisfactorily disposed of to David Spencer, Limited, Vancouver.
Various fairs throughout the Province were attended and in the capacity of judge assistance
was granted whenever possible.
As British Columbia's director of the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited, and
as director of the British Columbia Wool-growers' Association, your Agriculturist has continuously taken an active interest in the marketing of the British Columbia wool-clip.
It is probably readily conceded that the biggest agricultural problem facing this country
to-day is that of finding a satisfactory market for the products of the land. Criticism and
comment is frequently expressed regarding the very unsatisfactory state of affairs in agricultural
marketing. However, of all the remedies and cure-alls being offered, that of producers' cooperation seems to be gaining the greatest ground. Successful functioning of commodity
organizations is the market goal that agricultural departments, agricultural presses, agricultural
producers, and agricultural interests have been striving to bring about. A measure of success
has been achieved in many lines; grain-growers' efforts have accomplished much; fruit-growers'
efforts have not been without success; while dairymen, poultrymen, wool-growers, etc., also
have had their proportion of success. Therefore, considering the fact that co-operation is accomplishing much towards solving the agricultural marketing problem, wool-growers should not
hesitate to at least lend their moral support to the commodity organization that is endeavouring
to accomplish interests in common. If the organization's endeavours result in achievements
worth while, it justifies more than the moral support of the producers of the commodity it
represents. In other words, if the British Columbia wool-grower has access to a successful
commodity organization, that organization is worthy of his patronage and whole-hearted support.
What, then, shall determine a successful commodity organization? Herein perhaps there
is room for considerable difference of opinion and length of argument; but, briefly, it would
appear that since co-operative marketing associations are primarily formed for the purpose
of securing greater financial returns for the product of one's labour without necessarily increas- John Seaward, winner of first prize in Moberly and
Blaeberry (Columbia Valley)  Calf-show in 1023.
Marguerite Starrett, winner of silver cup donated
by Canadian Bank of Commerce for best pig in Cranbrook Pig-show of 1923. \~y*
Get of-sire class, Clydesdales, Provincial Exhibition, New Westminster, 1923.
" Princess Louisa," a pure-bred Guernsey owned by W. Farrell, Riverside
Farm. Eburne, B.C. Mr. Farrell is a member of the Richmond-Ladner Cow-
testing Association. This cow has completed a two-year-old record of 13,395
lb. of milk containing 625.1 lb. of butter-fat in 365 days. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 65
ing the cost of that produce to the consumer, organizations that accomplish this purpose are
successful. The commodity organization functioning in the interests of the British Columbia
wool-grower is the British Columbia Wool-growers' Association, which in turn is affiliated with
the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited, a Canadian-wide company of wool-producers'
interests having similar Provincial organizations operating in every Province. Is the wool-
growers' organization successful? Yes, because it has paid its patrons every year since its
inception a higher average price for wool than any other company or individual functioning
throughout the Province. True, there are isolated cases of where an individual has sold to
better advantage outside the association and also cases where growers have consigned to the
organization when they would have done better by selling outside. However, there is generally
satisfactory explanations for these exceptions, but from a Provincial point of view the association's average prices have always been higher, and consequently it must be classified as successful and is deserving of not only moral but practical support of all British Columbia wool-
How the organization has attained success is worthy of passing comment. Possibly what
accounts most for the success in Canadian co-operative wool-marketing has been the improvement in quality of the wool brought about through proper classifying and grading. The
uniformity of grades has increased the demand by the manufacturers of graded wools. The
payment for wool on a graded basis, apart from being a most fair method, has the effect of
making growers take in producing a higher-class product. Under the old state of
affairs, when wool was sold pretty much on a flat basis, with little or no regard to its grade
or quality, neither buyer nor grower had much respect for the product, and consequently there
was little or no market for Canadian wool. To-day the Canadian wool-grower through his cooperative organization is selling an increasing proportion of his clip on the London market (and
on the American markets when tariffs are not prohibitive), to the surprise of the wool trade that
such wools are grown in Canada. Last season some 700,000 lb. found a market in the London sales
and a very marked increase in this direction is expected this season. Much might be stated as
accounting for the success of this organization, but apart from " improving the quality of the
product for market," space only allows a passing word regarding " functioning economically." In
spite of more or less local criticisms that are offered from time to time about the operating costs
of co-operative wool-marketing in Canada, the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited, is
becoming more and more to be recognized as the most efficient marketing organization functioning
on the American Continent. This is to be expected also since, as has been stated, the associations
have been able to remit to the grower a higher average price for wool than any other concern
operating throughout the country. Furthermore, satisfaction must be general, otherwise the
organization would never have attained, in such a short time, solely on its merits, the position
it now occupies as being by far the largest wool-operating concern in Canada. Solely on its
merits, because producers are allowed the privilege of consigning their product of their own
free will and accord without contracts of any kind, members and non-members being treated
The high cost of marketing seems to be the greatest criticism offered by the critics of the
British Columbia Wool-growers' Association. On first sight costs do appear high, but when
one stops to think these include the total expenses from the growers' nearest railway-station
to the Canadian wool-manufacturing centre, which is in Eastern Canada, of which approximately
50 per cent, is freight charges, they do not appear unreasonable. It is unfortunate for Western
Canada sheep-raisers that their raw material is not being manufactured in the West, and it is
hoped that manufacturing interests will soon be establishing themselves in British Columbia and
thereby eliminate the present necessary high freight charges on Eastern wool shipments. However, it matters not whether a grower sells his wool to a buyer or consigns it to his association,
in either case his returns will be based on the market value of the wool at the manufacturing
centre.  In other words, the grower pays the freight in any case.
The association's method of handling the British Columbia clip briefly is as follows: Car-
lot shipments are assembled at Kamloops, Cranbrook, and Ashcroft for shipment East. Growers
should ship their wool collect to the nearest one of these points as early as possible after clipping.
The pooling of freight charges is an indication of the co-operative spirit of the association, and
this action places the growers in outlying districts of the Province on equal footing with the
growers more advantageously situated.
5 I 66 Department op Agriculture. 1924
Payment is made according to grade and as soon as the wool is sold. An advance of 10
cents per pound is made to any growers desiring same on receipt of their consignment at
any of the above-mentioned assembling-points. For further information regarding shipments,
etc., growers should communicate with the British Columbia Wool-growers' Association, Kamloops, B.C.
In conclusion, the co-operative wool-growers are marketing to the best advantage of producers. They are endeavouring to develop markets overseas for Canadian wool, and, probably
more important than that, are working to increase the use of Canadian wool by the mills in
this country. It is the one agency in this country through which growers can hope to build
up an effective selling organization of their own and obtain for their product the full value
of the same in the markets of the world.
The British Columbia Wool-growers' Association wants every sheep-raiser in the Province
to get behind this organization that justifies their whole-hearted, support. Things are not
perfect, but nevertheless sheep-raising is among the most profitable lines of agricultural production in Canada to-day, and, in a large measure this is accounted for by the fact that the
producers' interests are safeguarded by a successful Canadian-wide organization of their own.
Greater progress and greater prosperity will be inevitable with greater co-operation.
The above lines of work, together with frequent inquiries for. information at the office in
Kamloops, has kept your Agriculturist especially busy during the past year. An effort has been
made at all times to assist the local farmers in finding the best markets for their produce and
stock. These various lines of work conducted by the Department of Agriculture in this district
are appreciated by the local farmers and others interested, as noticed by the steady increase
of correspondence as well as the increase in number of visitors. The efforts of the Department
to develop the agricultural interests of the district are at all times greatly appreciated by all
Respectfully submitted.
Geo. C. Hay,
District Agriculturist.
Angus L. Hay, B.S.A.
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my annual report as District Agriculturist for the East
Kootenay District for the year 1923.
The past year has been a trying one for many engaged in agriculture in the East Kootenay
District, but in comparison with the few years immediately preceding, signs of improvement
in conditions are noticeable, principally due to the fact that the past season was more favourable
to crop production.
Land Settlement Board Work.
From time to time during the year considerable work was carried on for the Land Settlement Board in the way of filling out applications for loans for farmers, and making out the
necessary appraisal reports in connection with the same. This work increased considerably
during the early part of the season and entailed a great deal of travelling.
The wool from the farmers of East Kootenay was collected at Cranbrook by your Agriculturist in July, and shipped in a car-load lot to the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers' Association at Western Ontario.
Agricultural Meetings.
Throughout the year meetings were held in different parts of the district and addresses
given on agricultural topics to Farmers' Institutes, Agricultural Associations, and Boys' and
Girls' Clubs. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 67
The fairs attended during the year were Invermere, Natal, Fernie Poultry-show, Cranbrook
Women's Institute Flower and Vegetable Show, New Westminster Exhibition, Agassiz, Abbotsford, and the Kamloops Bull-sale and Show. At these your Agriculturist judged live stock
and crops at Invermere; vegetables at the Women's Institute Fair at Cranbrook; dairy cattle,
sheep, and swine at Agassiz.
Potato-inspection Work.
During the summer months some little time was spent in different parts of the district
on potato-inspection work, ten farmers having fields entered, all of which passed the field
Potato-bug Work.
Late in June the potato-bug made its first appearance for the season, and from then till
early in September poison was given out to farmers. This pest was located in several new
localities this season, being found as far west as the City of Cranbrook; and being spread over
a distance of some 90 miles, considerable time was spent in giving instructions as to methods
of control, etc.
Three different poisons were used—namely, arsenate of lead, calcium arsenate, and pyrcea;
the two latter poisons being used as dust sprays. All three poisons gave very satisfactory results,
but it was found that either pyrcea or calcium arsenate was preferable to arsenate of lead, for
three reasons; they are easier applied, give quicker results, and are less costly per acre.
Live-stock  Judging Demonstrations.
Throughout the summer months live-stock judging demonstrations were held on different
farms and great interest was taken in the work by those taking part.
A stock-judging team was taken from the Cranbrook District to the New Westminster
Exhibition and stood second as a team where eight teams were competing. In the judging of
dairy cattle first and third placings were won by Cranbrook boys where twenty-four were
Boys' and Girls' Stock Clubs.
A Boys' and Girls' Swine Club was formed in the Cranbrook District in May, in which
some thirty competitors entered. Great interest was taken in this work not only hy the competitors, but by their parents and the agricultural organizations as well. This was the case
particularly in the fall, when the Cranbrook Club, as a district display, was placed first in
the Province.
Also a very successful Calf Club was conducted in the Moberly and Blaeberry Districts, in
which ten competed.
This branch of the work has continued to increase, the correspondence being much greater
than last year, and the number of callers at the office for information on all phases of agriculture has also been on the increase.
However, the office-work has been considered of secondary importance to work throughout
the district, and as your Agriculturist has a large district to cover the work entailed considerable
travelling, which has necessitated the office being closed a great deal of the time.
Respectfully submitted.
Angus L. Hay,
W. M. Fleming.
W. T. McDonald, Esq., M.S.A.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit for your consideration the following report of my work as District
Agriculturist at Duncan for the year ended December 31st, 1923:—
Full of variety and most interesting have been the lines of work followed. The live-stock
industry has received considerable attention. I have continued to act as Secretary of the
Cowichan Stock-breeders' Association. Listings of stock for sale have been kept. These have
been advertised and inquiries in answer to the advertisements have been answered, with full
details of breeding and pedigree. Buyers have been assisted in inspecting herds and in some
cases animals have been purchased on our recommendation.
Records of cows on test for R.O.P. have been compiled and published regularly and testing
of animals encouraged whenever possible. A testing centre for grade cows was established and
is increasing in usefulness. A campaign was launched to get rid of scrubs, and while unsuccessful in finding a market for the scrubs, an interest in better stock has been awakened that will
eventually result in the replacing of many of the scrubs by better stock.
One Pig Club was organized at Courtenay. Dispersal sales of pure-bred stock required
considerable work in the preparation of extended pedigrees.
As Secretary of the British Columbia Jersey-breeders' Association, many trips were made
to attend meetings and inspect herds in different parts of the Province.
Seed-growing demanded much attention. This branch of specialized horticulture was
boomed following the war and reached its peak in 1922. Many growers did not appreciate
the necessity of a high-quality product and turned out an inferior article that damaged the
reputation of British Columbia seeds. A thorough investigation into this condition was started
and considerable progress has been made, but much remains to be done.
Bulb-growing is increasing in importance, and profiting by the experience of the sweet-pea
growers, many of the mistakes made by the latter have been avoided.
Assistance was rendered to the Soil and Crop Branch in tagging, tuber inspection, and field
inspection of certified seed-potatoes, and to the Horticultural Branch in the holding of fruit-
packing demonstrations. A close check was kept on insect pests and fungous diseases, and
when discovered these were reported promptly to the proper authorities.
Assistance was also given in the organizing and conducting of a short course in agriculture
in Duncan in February.
Frequent calls for talks were received from the United Farmers of British Columbia Locals,
and these were given at Diamond, Sahtlam, Westholme, Vimy, and Somenos. A paper was
read before the British Columbia Dairymen's Convention in New Westminster. Other organizations were also addressed, such as Girl Guides, Women's Institutes, Field Naturalists, Board
of Trade, etc., and the class in Agriculture at Victoria High School. Judging was done, of
vegetables at Vimy Institute Fair, of live stock at Alberni and Saanich, and of field crops at
The supervision of the construction of a bowling-green, drainage surveys, soil inspection,
grain, fruit, and vegetable inspection, all received attention. Publications of the Department
of Agriculture were kept on hand and distributed to inquirers.
Inquiries were also received from prospective settlers and new-comers seeking advice on
local methods. These were answered carefully and without prejudice, and for this reason
information was much appreciated by persons seeking disinterested information.
Information was prepared regularly for publication in local papers on subjects dealing
with local conditions.
Many of the farms in the Cowichan District have been visited, and the owners frequently
call in at the office to discuss such questions as fertilizers, crop-rotations, etc, and with a general
knowledge of conditions on each farm valued assistance had often been given.
Respectfully submitted.
Wm. Melvin Fleming,
District Agriculturist. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 69
R. G. Sutton.
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—From January 1st, 1923, this office has maintained a dual capacity, in that, in addition
to the regular work of the Land Settlement Board, we have been carrying on the work of
District Agriculturist. We therefore deem it wise to submit two reports for the work of the
year—the one dealing with the work of the Board and the other setting out the work performed
in capacity of District Agriculturist; giving in each suggestions and recommendations which
in our opinion will tend towards greater efficiency.
Annual Report of District Agriculturist, 1923.
During the latter part of the preceding year we had been in correspondence with Mr.
Bonavia and had arranged a series of Farmers' Institute meetings covering the district from
McBride in the east to Terrace in the west. The first meeting was held at McBride early in
February and the others followed in as rapid succession as train connections would permit.
Nine meetings were held at as many different points; the interest averaged good and the
attendance fair. A total attendance of 220 was counted for the nine meetings. "Dairying"
and " Soil-treatment" were the subjects under discussion. The general impression gathered
while on this trip was that in the larger centres, or where settlement is oldest or most advanced,
interest was most lacking; while in the newer-settled localities, where the majority of the
farmers are distinctly pioneers, the interest was best. Why this condition exists is difficult
to understand, except that it appears to arise from adverse market conditions.
We have long held the opinion that a very profitable side-line might be developed here in
the way of growing seed-grain and seed-potatoes. One man in the vicinity of Quesnel reports
growing seeds for common garden crops for a number of years and having particularly good
success with the seed of turnip, cabbage, and other plants of the Crucifera? family. We can
also report numerous cases of whole fields of oats, wheat, and barley which have yielded
splendidly and which have been grown from home-grown seed, some of it even in the third
and fourth generation. There are at present, however, certain economic reasons why it would
be unwise for any one to engage in this very extensively, but we see no reason why steps should
not be taken to establish a foundation in the work by getting a few farmers started growing
seed for local demand. To this end we made this the subject of an address delivered to the
Mud River Farmers' Institute on April 26th. Later on we had considerable correspondence
with Mr. Tice on the subject, with a view to his having the subject well in mind during his
visit here in the fall.
Towards the end of April some time was spent in examining last year's seeding of clover
and also in studying the different methods of seeding as practised on the Dominion Illustration
Stations. At first the clover-crop did not promise very well, but as the season advanced it
developed very satisfactorily. While the acreage is not very great, yet the yield averaged well
and gave every encouragement to believe the crop can be grown without difficulty here. From
observations over a period'of three 57ears we have come to the conclusion that where it has
been grown before, one can be assured of a good catch also on land that has had at least three
ploughings; especially if some form of organic matter has been turned under, it will come on
without any difficulty. The practice of seeding with the first cereal-crop or on new breaking
is, we believe, unwise and is being discouraged.
Whether or not the application of lime would improve the clover-growing possibilities of
the soil is a much-debated point, and the idea that lime would be the salvation of the farmers
here has beeu very prevalent at times; so much so that it appears that every farmers' organization in the country has at some time sent petitions to the Minister urging assistance in purchasing lime for application to the land. Up to this spring there was not thought to be any
limestone in the district near enough to transportation to be used economically, and the excessive freight rates make the purchase of agricultural lime an impossibility. As far as we could
learn, there never had been any dependable work done in the way of experiments as to the
need of lime, and while there were a number of indications pointing to the need of lime, there
were some pointing to the opposite. We could not therefore be certain as to the exact situation,
and therefore were at a loss as to any advice to be given on the subject   Following a discussion I 70
Department of Agriculture.
on this subject, we learned of a supposed limestone-deposit situated about 15 miles from here.
A visit was paid to this rock and samples were submitted for analysis. Attached is copy of
laboratory report:—
" Central Experimental Farm,
" Division of Chemistry. Ottawa, Ont., May 9th, 1923.
" R. G. Sutton, Esq.,
District Representative, Prince George, B.C.
"Dear Sir,—Be Lab'y No. 6368S: Our examination of this sample forwarded with yours
of the 27th ult. shows it to be a limestone, very hard, of a pinkish-grey or slate colour, and
of a stratified structure.   The analytical data are as follows:—
Carbonate of lime      96.29
Mineral matter insoluble in acid       3.32
Oxide of iron and alumina  30
Undetermined    09
" This is a limestone of excellent quality and eminently suitable for agricultural purposes,
either crushed for direct application or burnt to quicklime.
" Yours faithfully,
" Frank T. Shutt,
Dominion Chemist."
There are approximately 10,000 tons of rock showing above ground and appearances indicate
an unlimited quantity underneath.
On learning of this deposit of limestone, three Farmers' Institutes at once set about
petitioning the Department for assistance in making this supply available to the public. As
the stone happened to be on Crown-granted land, it was necessary to purchase the land or
to secure the owners' permission before removing any of the rock. Knowing that the Minister
would probably be here during the month of June, we had the matter held in abeyance for a
time, advising the institutes to send a delegation to meet the Minister personally.
In the interval another institute meeting was attended at Beverly and the subject of
" Care of the Dairy Cow " was discussed to an audience of about fifteen. We also spent several
days with the Supervisor of Illustration Stations, gathering as much information as possible
as to the experimental work being carried on. About this time we attempted a preliminary
soil survey. A specimen of each soil type in the district was taken; they were twelve in number.
These were classified and mounted in the window with type names, common names, and notes
of origin, formation, texture, probable fertility, and best cultural methods. This was done,
of course, as a foundation for future soil study and survey work and the mounting and descriptions in the window were for educational work. This standard will, we hope, help greatly
in classifying and comparing the soils of the district and in advising as to their advantages
and disadvantages; their uses and abuses. The accompanying sketch will serve to illustrate
the idea.
Sketch of Show-case used in Soil  Window Display.
On June 15th, during the Minister's stay in Prince George, the delegates from the institutes
met him and laid before him their need of lime and the particulars of the supply in the district,
requesting assistance in making it available.    It was also brought out during the meeting that
there were three other supposed limestone-deposits  in the neighbourhood of Ottway  Station, 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 71
5 miles from Prince George, and that the Dominion Illustration Stations in the immediate
district had two experiments with lime under way. After considerable discussion instructions
were issued to investigate and report on the other three supposed limestone-deposits; to keep
under observation the lime experiments in the district; and to the Land Settlement Board
to approach the owners of the land in question with a view to purchasing. The following
week the rock in the vicinity of Ottway Station was visited and samples taken for analysis.
Subsequently the laboratory report showed these to be only quartzite and not lime at all.
On receiving instructions that H. E. AVaby, District Poultry Instructor, would be in our
district in the latter part of June, we arranged meetings at Prince George and also at Pine
View, Vanderhoof, and Fort Fraser. During his stay all the poultry-farms in the district were
visited, and an afternoon meeting at Pine View and an evening meeting in town were held. The
attendance at the town meeting numbered about twenty, with very good interest; the attendance
at Pine View about thirty, with good interest. The day following a meeting was held at Vanderhoof and several poultry-farms visited. At these meetings no great number were present, but
interest was good and the hope was frequently expressed that Mr. Waby would return next year.
The meeting arranged for Fort Fraser was not so much of a success. It was planned as an open-
air meeting and heavy rains dispersed the crowd before the meeting began.
About July 15th a few trips were made into the country to make note of the effect of lime
application on soils under experiment and also to investigate case of injury to a field of wheat
and some other crops. Another institute meeting was attended at Salmon River, where the
subject of " Treatment of Clay Soils " was discussed; attendance here was twenty-five. Later
in August Mr. C. Tice, accompanied by Mr. Eastham, passed through the district. A day was
spent with them in visiting potato-growers and studying insects and diseases affecting same.
The first week of September was largely spent in assisting the arranging and judging of
some of the exhibits at the Prince George Fail Fair. We also helped to prepare and ship two
district exhibits—one to the Prince Rupert Exhibition and one to the New Westminster Exhibition. It is worthy to note here that one Prince George exhibitor, showing at Prince Rupert
in the field-crop classes, took seventeen firsts and two seconds with twenty exhibits. The same
week as the Prince George Fair we judged at the Vanderhoof Fair and then left for Quesnel
to judge there.    This fair, as we learned on arrival, had been cancelled earlier in the season.
During the month of October we undertook to assist several of the potato-growers in
selecting exhibits for the Provincial Potato Fair. This occupied some time, as the growers
are rather scattered and in each case they had already stored their crop for winter. All the
potatoes thus inspected were of excellent type and quality, and while moderately free from
disease, they showed considerable mechanical injury from wireworms and rough handling. A
few cases of "soft-rot" were noticed in one pit and the owner advised accordingly. The outstanding lessons learned in this work were: First, the necessity for more careful handling;
secondly, need for better cultural methods to prevent the occurrence of wireworms; and, thirdly,
the need for selecting the material for the exhibits before the crop is stored for the winter.
The following is a list of exhibitors for the district, with names of varieties and points
Geo. Oulton, Smithers: Irish Cobbler, 93; Green Mountain, 93; Early St. George, 95.
F. M. Dockril, Telkwa:   Green Mountain, 93; Gold Coin, 96; Early St. George, 94.
R. C. Stanyer, Francois Lake:   Irish Cobbler, 88% ; Early St. George, 90y2.
Roy Bishop, Prince George: Early Rose, 91% ; Sir Walter Raleigh, 91.
E. Viney, Endako :  Early Ohio, 78.
J. E. Jones, Vanderhoof: Early Rose, 70.
E. J. Letchford, Telkwa:   Gold Coin, 89%; Netted Gem, 72.
R. Andrews, Prince George:   Green Mountain, 89.
Wm. Cooper, Vanderhoof:   Wee McGregor, 89.
J. B. Manners, Prince George: Sir Walter Raleigh, 85.
T. Waldorf, Prince George:   Early Eureka, 84.
Robert Richardson, Telkwa:   Burbank, 87%.
W. T. Gair, Forrestdale:   Irish Cobbler; Early Six Weeks.
Bulkley Valley District Display: AVee McGregor and Gold Coin, 702.5.
In this matter of potatoes we see no reason why there should not be some arrangement
made whereby the growers of this district would have the same chance  in  the  growing of I 72
Department op Agriculture.
certified seed as those in other parts of the Province. AVe would therefore suggest that some
arrangement be considered whereby the required inspection can be made during the growing
We have before us a survey of crop and weather conditions prepared by A. E. Richards,
B.S.A., of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, based on his work in this district during
the summer. As we have kept in touch with his work all the year and have co-operated with
him to a considerable extent, we are quoting extracts from this survey, as they sum up very
well existing conditions during the past year.
"Fall work in general, in 1922, through Central British Columbia ceased about October
31st, but in some parts it continued much later; one case on record is that ploughing was done
on November 25th. . . . The winter was of average severity, with lowest temperature around
25° to 35° below zero. The ground froze quite hard and the snowfall was quite light, supplying
very little moisture from this source. In the spring the surface soil was comparatively dry
and sub-surface soil greatly lacking.
" Spring work in 1923 commenced April 15th and by April 25th seeding was general. Continuous fine weather followed seeding and soil-moisture declined rapidly. Crops were at a
standstill and prospects not very bright, but with June came welcome showers, which continued
periodically throughout July and August. A light frost was experienced on May 22nd, with
no harm done. One of greater severity occurred on July 31st, causing a blackening of potato-
tops and local injury to grain on areas of poor air-drainage. Summer showers interfered
slightly with haying, but weather conditions for harvesters were ideal.    .    .    ."
Average Precipitation for the District.
Months. Pl'einchts0n'
January  '.  2.27
February    1.37
March   1.50
April   0.29
May  1.23
June  2.16
July   2.09
August    2.45
September    1.14
Months of October, November, and December were not tabulated, but rainfall during this
time was plentiful.
The following table has been prepared to give all available particulars as to field crops
for the district:—
Date of
Date of
per Acre.
26     bu.
75       ,,
35       ,,
32%  „
1% tons
April   25
April    24
May       5
Aug. 15, 28
Aug. 30,  Sept. 8
Aug. 15, 31
Aug. 15, 18
July 20	
July 15	
Marquis ; Ruby.
Banner ;   \rictory ;   Abundance ;
Leader;  O.A.C.  No. 2.1.
Fall  Rye  	
Alsike : Red.
May     24
* In Bulkley Valley there is a big acreage of this crop saved for seed.
The following crops are not grown in large enough quantity to make tabulation possible;
the acreage is, however, increasing every year and they will soon take a place with regular
crops:   Peas; peas and oats; sunflowers; roots.
The bulk of the hay-crop moved this year at $25 to $27 per ton baled; oats at $30 per ton;
potatoes at $20 to $25 per ton. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 73
i The past season has been a very bountiful one as far as production is concerned, and, as
may be expected, in a year of bountiful harvest prices are low and crop movement is slow.
In some localities the place has been reached where production cannot increase any more unless
some outlet is found. Again, in some other localities there is a brisk demand for the bulk of
the local produce, but, generally speaking, the situation may be summed up by saying that we
have reached the point of overproduction. Under existing freight rates and railway facilities
the farmer is shut out from outside markets, and this will have a tendency to decrease production and seriously retard settlement.
The foregoing is as complete a summary of the purely departmental work as we can give,
and whilst the past season has been a busy one, we feel that we could render far more efficient
work if we were not so isolated from the headquarters of the Department as we are. We hope
to remedy this isolation to a certain extent by a visit to the head office early in the new year,
and also by taking whatever steps are possible, during the coming season, to keep in close touch
with the work of the Department, and not only of the Department, but with all development-
work being carried on in the Province.
Several times during the past season we made use of the window-space which was at our
disposal in the old office by mounting some form of educational exhibit; in the new quarters
we are unable to do any work of this nature, as we have no window-space at all and are somewhat cramped for room as well.
AVe believe that there is a great need for some one in the capacity of District Agriculturist
in this country. Some one who can in a measure advise and direct the agricultural growth of
a truly great country. We also believe the district is too vast, too unorganized, too new for
one man to cover properly, and we can only do our best and hope some good results may be
obtained somewhere.
R. G.  Sutton,
District Agriculturist.
Da. A. G. Knight, V.S.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit herewith the report of the Veterinary Branch for the year January
1st to December 31st, 1923.
During the year your staff has investigated a number of diseases as reported by stock-
owners ; these upon examination were found to be common ailments affecting stock and not of
an infectious or contagious nature outside of those reported and dealt with iu this report.
In outlying districts where no veterinary practitioner is available your Inspectors usually^
assist the farmer or prescribe for the treatment of the common ailments of stock, which is often
much appreciated by the stock-owner.
A few cases were found chiefly in the Cariboo District. AVhere the disease was found in
an advanced stage destruction of the animal was advised, such animals being slaughtered and
carcasses burnt or buried. As the disease lends itself to treatment in the early stages, stock-
owners are adopting this course with considerable success.
This disease, which at one time promised to give some trouble, was not reported during the
past year.
Stock-owners throughout the past year have taken an active interest in endeavouring to
clean their herds of tuberculosis. During the year 2,996 premises have been visited, 22,232 head
of cattle tested, and 1,169 reactors found.
As all tuberlin testing is carried out at the request of the stock-owner, the number of
premises visited may be taken as a criterion of the interest shown by dairymen and stock- I 74 Department op Agriculture. 1924
owners in the control of tuberculosis. The general popularity of the tuberculin test and its
wide area of adoption is shown by a perusal of the attached Appendix.
Although the percentage of reactors may seem large, this is accounted for by the fact
that stock-owners are co-operating more with the Inspectors by reporting any suspicious cases,
and also by owners desiring to clean up their diseased herds. Naturally, when testing is carried
out in such herds, a considerable percentage of reactors are found, which is greater in proportion
to the number of cattle tested than it would be if all dairy cattle in the Province were tested.
Dairymen are advised not to purchase cattle from herds where reactors have been found
or until such herds have been subjected to a succession of tests and found clean. Herds from
which reactors have been taken are a source of danger to purchasers of cattle until the remaining cattle have all passed a number of tests from the time the last reactor was taken out.
Inspection of Stables and Dairies.
In conjunction with the testing for tuberculosis, your Inspectors have also looked into the
sanitation of stables and dairies, advising the dairymen as to needed improvements. There has
been issued during the year 115 Grade A certificates, 434 Grade B, and 2,390 Grade C. Duplicates of these certificates have from time to time been handed into the Medical Health Officers
of the cities throughout the Province.
In connection with the issuance of Grade C certificates, I may say that, although the
premises did not conform strictly to the standard as laid down, yet I am satisfied that in a
good many cases a good quality of milk is produced from those stables for which Grade C
certificate is issued.
In a few cases where the stables and dairies have been found unsanitary notice has been
issued to the Medical Health Officer under whose jurisdiction such stables come, but usually
the dairyman complies with any suggestion made by the Inspector without any drastic measure
being taken.
Your Inspectors have endeavoured to make this feature of their work educational in character, and they report that year after year there is a steady improvement among the great
majority of dairymen with regard to the sanitation of their premises and better, methods are
adopted in handling their milk and other dairy products.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Chief Veterinary Inspector.
J. R. Terby.
Vr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report for the year 1923.
General Conditions.
During the opening months of the year there appeared to be brighter prospects for the
industry, but shortly before the hatching season started prices began to drop, and, to make
matters worse, the price of feedstuff's reached a slightly higher level. This state of affairs
caused the immediate dumping on the market of the majority of breeding stock of the lightweight varieties, and in many instances breeders sold off all, or practically all, of their layers
and concentrated on the rearing of young stock.
Many comparatively new-comers in the business who had the year previously launched out
into the day-old-chick business found it difficult to dispose of their hatchings. Even the old-
established and most reliable breeders engaged in this work had numerous orders cancelled.
The average market price received for eggs during the year was 28 cents per dozen, which
is the lowest received since 1905. When it is considered that the prices of feed and equipment
in 1905 were far below what they were in the year just ended, it will be understood how serious
conditions were. Towards the middle of the year, many breeders, amongst them old-timers,
further reduced their flocks and in many cases went out of poultry altogether. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 75
The prices received for day-old chicks were, on an average, 15 per cent, lower than in the
previous year. A smaller number of February-hatched chicks were sold, many beginners having
found to their cost that February-hatched chicks were harder to raise owing to weather conditions and harder to keep in lay during the ensuing fall months.
Collecting and Marketing of Eggs.
During the year the British Columbia Poultrymen's Exchange shipped out between sixty
and seventy cars of eggs, each car averaging 400 cases of 30 dozen eggs each. Quite a large
consignment of eggs was shipped to Great Britain and found favour there. Independent wholesalers also shipped out eggs to other parts of the Dominion. If it were not for these exports
the price of eggs would have been still lower.
During the year two branches of the Exchange were closed down and the business centred
at the Coast. Co-operative eggs circles, however, were formed in the Interior and proved of
assistance to those shipping eggs.
Peices of Eggs.
Following is a comparison of prices  (wholesale)  from 1905-1923, inclusive:—
Cents. Cents.
1905*     24% 1015   32%
1906    29% 1916   34
1907    31 1917   41
190S    31% 1918   50
1909   33% 1919   60%
1910   34% 1920   57%
1911   34% 1921   39%
1912   41 1922   32%
1913  35 1923   28
1914   35
* Figures supplied by ranchers from 1905 to 1911. From 1912 onwards the prices are those received
for Victoria Egg-laying Contest eggs.
It should be noted that during the latter half of 1923, owing to the operation of the Dominion
egg-grading regulations, several more grades of eggs have been introduced. During the late fall
and early winter months this had a tendency to reduce the price owing to the very large number
of small eggs being produced.
Egg-marketing Legislation.
Early in midsummer the Dominion regulations respecting the grading and marketing of
eggs came into force and Inspectors were appointed by the Federal authorities to carry out
the provisions of the Act. Much publicity was given to the Act by the Inspectors, who visited
and lectured before wholesale and retail associations in addition to addressing Poultry Associations and producers generally. Whilst it is claimed by some that the Act benefits the consumer
almost entirely, yet practically all classes of people in the business, from producers to retailers,
have welcomed the Act as a great advance towards better conditions in the industry.
The compulsory grading of eggs through the Act has undoubtedly cut down to a minimum
the importation of foreign eggs; this reduction was also assisted by the low prices of local eggs.
Owing to representations made to the Provincial Legislature by co-operative and other
associations of the Province, the Provincial " Eggs Marks Act" was repealed and a new Act
passed. The latter makes it compulsory for all foreign eggs entering the Province to be
individually stamped and graded in accordance with the Dominion regulations; it is intended
to prevent the unfair competition which has existed in the past, inasmuch as unscrupulous
dealers and others were in the habit of bringing in cheap foreign eggs and labelling them as
British Columbia products. The members of this Branch, together with other departmental
officials, were appointed to enforce the Act, and the Dominion inspection officials are working
in close co-operation with the members of this Department for the enforcement.
There has been a very large decrease in imports during the year, showing a drop of 100
per cent, from those of 1922. The aggregate total of imports into the Province shows a decrease
of $167,589, or 33 per cent. I 76 Department op Agriculture. 1924
The value of the imports of dressed poultry from outside Canada into the Province during
the year was $10,839, against $3,443 for 1922.
From other Provinces the poultry importations were valued at $227,315. Included in these
were many thousand turkeys raised in the Prairies and shipped into the Province for Thanksgiving and Christmas markets. Owing to the loss of the market in the United States the Prairie
breeders shipped almost all of their turkey-crop to this Coast, with the result that the prices
were demoralized. In one or two Provinces the Government handled the marketing of the
turkeys for the farmers. These were shipped alive in car-load lots principally to Vancouver
and New Westminster. These birds, many of them of good size, sold at 20 to 22 cents per pound
wholesale, so that Provincial turkey-raisers were forced to sell at a loss in many cases. This
flooding of the market with Prairie turkeys meant a loss of from 15 to 20 cents per pound for
local breeders. Unfortunately this state of affairs is likely to continue whilst grain is at a
low price to the Prairie farmers. Turkeys can be raised there very cheaply and successfully
owing to climatic conditions and range of country and the above-mentioned low price of grain.
Weather Conditions.
During the first three months of the year the weather was colder than during the last
three months. In fact, the weather during the end of the year was of the mildest description
and amply made up for the backwardness of conditions at the beginning. The season was
again a dry one, the rainfall being below the average for the year.
The prices received for eggs did not reach a very high point during October and November
and took a very quick drop before the end of the year. The wholesale average price for November, 1922, was 41% cents per dozen; in December, 1923, the price was 38.7 cents per dozen.
Bbeeding Opeeations.
Despite unfavourable conditions, or possibly through them, many new breeders took up
pedigree trap-nesting work during the year. The Department, as in the past, distributed trap-
nest record forms free of charge and there has been a very large increase in the number of
sheets distributed.
The Federal Government Record of Performance work, greatly assisted by the Provincial
R.O.P. Breeders' Association, reports a gratifying increase during the year of the number of
birds under test in the Province.
Through the Provincial associations the Govermnent is taking up the work of inspecting
male birds for breeding purposes in addition to the laying stock. It is gratifying to note that
many sales of pedigree stock from this Province have been made to breeders in other parts
of Canada, the United States, and other countries.
Depaetmental Work.
Early in the season, owing to the appointment of an additional Poultry Instructor, the work
of the Branch was rearranged. Owing to the resignation of the Interior Instructor, the Instructor from the Lower Mainland was removed to Nelson and the district divided into two sections.
The upper section was supplied by a new Instructor located at Salmon Arm, with a district
extending from Keremeos to Prince Rupert and from Lucerne to Sicamous. The district of
the Instructor located at Nelson comprises fi'om Rock Creek in the south-west to Revelstoke,
via the Arrow Lakes to Golden, along the C.P.R., and southwards to the International Boundary,
taking in the East and West Kootenays and the Boundary country. Much better service can
now be given to the poultry-breeders in these districts. In the Interior those engaged in mixed
farming and fruit-growing have greatly improved their methods of handling the usual farm
flock of fowls. This has been brought about mainly by the efforts of the Instructors, who make
personal visits and give demonstrations and lectures to the various farm organizations. Throughout the Province members of this Branch have been available as demonstrators and lecturers
at meetings of the United Farmers' Clubs, Farmers' and AVomen's Institutes, and Boys' and
Girls' Clubs.
As in the past, members of the Branch have officiated as poultry judges and occasionally
done other judging-work at as many fall fairs and exhibitions as possible. Practically all of
the larger fairs were visited by members of the Branch, and considerable time and expense
saved by meeting so many breeders, as well as much information gained and disseminated. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 77
Egg-laying Contest.
The twelfth Egg-laying Contest concluded on October 1st, 1923, having run for twelve months.
The twin-bird system was used again, the contest being divided into two classes, one being known
as the heavy-weight or general-purpose birds; the other as light-weights or birds kept primarily
for egg production. Two birds are sent by each competitor and one of them is placed in a pen
with a bird belonging to another contestant. The birds are so housed that in each pen there
is one bird from Class 1 and one from Class 2. As the birds in each pen lay one brown egg
and one white egg, there is no necessity for the use of trap-nests. The plan is an adaptation
of the single-bird contests held for years in Australia. In addition to the birds competing,
each contestant sends a spare bird which is housed according to its class and a trap-nest record
is kept of each bird.
The eighty birds during the twelve months laid a total of 14,121 marketable eggs, the
heavy-weights laying 7,344 and the light-weights 6,777, there being forty birds in each class.
The heaviest layer in either class was a AVhite AVyandotte hen in Class 2, which laid 262
eggs in the twelve months. The heaviest layer in Class 1 was a AVhite Leghorn, which laid
251 eggs.
The light-weight classes had twelve birds which laid over 200 eggs apiece, the poorest layer
laying 56 eggs, and one bird failed to lay a single egg.
In Class 2 fourteen birds laid 200 eggs and the poorest layer laid 76 eggs.
During the year four pens were disqualified for laying eggs under 24 oz. per dozen, average
w7eight.    Three of these pens were light-weights and one a pen of Wyandottes.
The Provincial Poultry Association presented monthly diplomas for the highest pens and
bronze medals monthly to the highest layer in each class, in addition to the usual prizes at the
conclusion of the contest.
Peovincial Poultey Association.
The annual Provincial Poultry-show, as usual, was again held in Vancouver during the
second week in January and was the culminating show of the eleven held in the Province. All
the shows were again assisted by the departmental grant, which, however, was 25 per cent,
less than in previous years. The more or less stagnant condition of trade was reflected in the
decreased number of exhibits at practically all the shows, although they were sufficiently
patronized to be able to break even in a financial way.
The members of this Branch attended the Provincial Show, and in addition acted as judges
in the various classes and were able to meet many poultry-breeders during the show. Advantage
was taken of their presence to hold a conference of the Branch officials, when work was outlined
for the ensuing year.
The annual meeting of the Provincial Association was held during the show, when the
writer and Branch stenographer were in attendance as Secretary and Assistant Secretary respectively of the association.
There are now twenty-eight active local associations in affiliation with the Provincial
association. A total of twenty-five delegates were in attendance at the annual meeting, and
as a result of their deliberations the annual show is again to be moved to the Interior and will
be held at Vernon next year.
The association again published the Breeders' Directory, in which line of work this association was a pioneer. It is interesting to note that practically every Provincial Association in
the Dominion now publishes a similar directory. An edition of 2,000 copies was printed and
distributed during the year.
As a premium and to assist the members in keeping a better check on their operations, a
poultry journal and account-book was distributed free. Other premiums included mustard-
seed, to be grown for green feed, and a book giving plans for building a home-made brooder
which has proved very helpful.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
Although there was one less Poultry Club than in 1922, yet a much larger number of
contestants finished up the year in the contests. The clubs were fairly well spread over the
Province, with the largest number of entries in the Okanagan and on the Lower Mainland.
Many of the local Poultry Associations rendered valuable assistance to the clubs formed in
their districts, and the inspection-work was carried out by members of the Branch.   Fresh rules I 78 Department op Agriculture. 1924
and regulations were brought into operation this year, the rules being simplified for the benefit
of the children. There is now only one inspection during the year. These rules proved beneficial
as a larger proportion of the children were encouraged to finish the contests.
Each succeeding spring records, if anything, a growth of such diseases as white diarrhoea
and coccidiosis amongst young chicks. With the advent of wholesale hatching in mammoth
incubators and brooding, in some cases, in lots of several hundreds, together with a craze for
progeny from high-producing stock and the more or less indiscriminate use of artificial light
during the winter months, it is significant that these diseases should be increasingly prevalent.
Members of the Branch are often placed in embarrassing circumstances by reason of the fact
that in some instances very heavy mortality from coccidiosis or white diarrhoea has appeared
in flocks of chicks recently purchased from another party. These diseases can be transmitted
through the egg, or through an infected incubator or brooder, but in most instances are transmitted through infected soil. On explaining this to parties suffering such losses, many naturally
come to the conclusion that the chicks must have been infected before reaching their ranch.
Under present conditions the damage caused by these diseases is more likely to increase than
A large number of dead fowls was sent into the Department for post-mortem examination
and suitable remedies prescribed wherever possible. A case of cercomoniasis occurred during
the year, this being the first met with by the Branch in this Province. This disease is very
seldom encountered on new ranches, but is more usual among flocks which have been running
on poultry-contaminated soils. Hence the insistence of the Branch that breeders should spread
out their flocks and give the young stock at least a change of locations while resting the soil
already used.
During the year the Branch was visited by P. A. Francis, the Poultry Commissioner of
Great Britain; he spent five months travelling from coast to coast across the American Continent,
visiting practically all the known poultry centres, agricultural colleges, and experimental stations
en route. The Branch assisted the Federal and University representatives in conducting Mr.
Francis over the leading poultry-ranches and experimental stations in the Province. Upon his
return to Great Britain his report showed that Mr. Francis considered the poultry industry in
this Province to be on a more stable footing than the industry in the South.
Owing to the continued demand for the departmental bulletins several fresh editions were
issued; in addition to the very strong demand for trap-nest record sheets, hatching, incubating,
and breeding charts were also sent out, together with breeding record forms for rabbits.
Articles were supplied by members of the Branch to Provincial farm journals and newspapers, as well as to the departmental magazine, the Agricultural Journal. The Egg-laying
Contest reports are also sent regularly to many persons outside the Province.
Owing to many requests from all parts of the Empire for information regarding the poultry
industry and prospects a circular letter was stencilled and over 100 copies sent out. Letters of
commendation regarding this letter have been received by the Branch from time to time.
The incoming and outgoing mail for the head office of the Branch shows a slight increase
over that of the previous year, apart from the additional mailing-work of the district officials.
In conclusion, the Branch notes with satisfaction that with feed costs lower than In 1922
and the price of poultry products keeping up, more satisfactory prospects can be presaged.
Respectfully submitted.
J. R. Terry,
Chief Poultry Instructor. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 79
H. Rive, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit herewith my report as Dairy Commissioner for the year 1923.
The dairy industry in British Columbia shows an appreciable growth for the year. The
weather generally was favourable and yields well up to the average of all dairy crops have
been harvested.
Prices of dairy produce have remained fairly constant, rising slightly towards the end
of the year. Prices of feeds showed less variation than usual, lowering slightly for some of
the grains.
The creameries established with Government assistance some seasons since at Vanderhoof,
Quesnel, and Golden have made progress and are stimulating the industry in their districts.
More dairy stock, pure-bred bulls, and a better understanding of dairy-fodder requirements and
feeding are required, however, before production becomes efficient and economical.
The Southern Interior is likely to show a greatly increased dairy production in the very
near future. The financially risky and soil-deplenishing single-crop policy of the past decade
is being daily proven unsound and a general desire is evinced to adopt a more mixed husbandry.
Dairy cattle are sought and calf clubs established by districts hitherto interested solely in tree-
fruits. AVith dairy, swine, and poultry products to market, the distress and discontent that
has prevailed should be dispelled.
R. J. Quirie, B.S.A., for fifteen months Dairy Instructor and Inspector with this Branch,
left the Department in September to take advanced work at the Dairy Station at Ames, Iowa.
His work while with this Branch was good and his interest in all dairy-improvement most keen.
His successor, appointed in October, F. AVasson, B.S.A., for several years with the Saskatchewan Co-operative Creameries, brings good experience in all creamery matters and will be
of value to the industry in British Columbia.
Calls have been made on all creameries and, when desired, on patrons as frequently as
possible. The isolated position of the creameries of British Columbia, those in the newer
districts particularly, and distances between them render it impossible for a small staff to
carry out the calls and inspections as frequently as is desired. In order to render efficient
service there should be calls not less often than three but preferably four times a year. Much
educational work is to be done with butter-makers and still more with patrons before our
creamery butter ranks with the butter from outside.
The duties of F. Overland, Dairy Instructor and Inspector, have kept him for the greater
part of the year on the Lower Mainland. There are to be found in this area three creameries,
two cheese-factories, three condenseries, twenty milk plants, and six ice-cream factories. He
reports as follows:—
" The creamery-men and butter-makers are keenly interested in the improvement in quality
of their butter and in the help that has been given by instructors.
" Inspection of Dairies.—Calls were made regularly on all dairy firms and many problems
dealt with. About 500 inspection visits were made to farm dairies. Advance in sanitary matters
and in the care and handling of milk is to be noted, but great improvement can still be made.
" Temperatures were ascertained.   Acidity and sediment tests of milk were made at intervals.
" Notices were served on a number of producers that changes in conditions of handling
were necessary. In these cases time was allowed for improvement and a return call made.
In every case some effort had been made to comply with instructions given.
" Condenseries.—Regular calls were made on the plants at Ladner, Abbotsford, and South
Sumas. That at South Sumas closed early in the season, but those at Ladner and Abbotsford
continued in operation through the winter. Many patrons were visited and assistance given
when possible. I 80 Department op Agriculture. 1924
" Ice-cream.—Visits were made to these plants. The past season with warm weather was
most favourable, causing an increase in output generally. The smaller confectioners of Vancouver have given up the manufacture and secure supplies from the larger firms, with the
result that a far more uniform article has been found on the market than in the past.
" Transportation.—With the extension of the Pacific Highway transportation has greatly
improved, trucks now arriving in Vancouver much earlier in the day.
" A trip to Central British Columbia was also made in the early summer, visiting all dairy
plants and factories along the Grand Trunk Pacific and in the Cariboo."
The creameries of the Okanagan A'alley and of the Coast islands were visited regularly
and much time was spent in calling on and assisting patrons by R. J. Quirie, Dairy Instructor.
The factories of the Boundary Country, Kootenay and Columbia Valleys were also given
attention.   The industry in these parts is still young, but is growing rapidly.
The manufacture of ice-cream is becoming a large and important branch of dairy-work.
The popularity of frozen dishes of various sorts is increasing at a fairly rapid rate, due largely
to well-directed advertising by the trade. The introduction by dairy firms in British Columbia
of up-to-date ice-cream-making equipment and appliances is resulting in the production of a
superior and more uniform product and in a great decrease in manufacture by local drug-stores
and others. As a means of disposing of large quantities of cream at remunerative prices,
every encouragement should be given the development of the ice-cream trade.
The manufacture of Cheddar cheese is not likely to increase to any marked extent owing
to the competition from Ontario and Alberta. The F.V.M.P.A. factory at Sardis is still the
only one of its kind in the Province. The Chilliwack factory for two foreign varieties remains
in operation.
For isolated pioneer communities, fairly compact but away from transportation and too
small to consider the establishment of a creamery, cheese-making appears advisable, providing
suitable varieties to manufacture are decided upon.
The Pacific Milk Company, Limited, Ladner and Abbotsford, and the Borden Milk Company,
of South Sumas, represent the condenseries of the Province. A considerable increase in manufacture of condensed milk is reported for the year, largely for export. An important part is
played by these institutions in maintaining on the Lower Mainland a surplus free market for
Dairy Legislation.
Nothing was done in 1923 under this head. The " Milk Act" of 1913 requires amendment
in several respects.
Testers'  Licences.
Twenty-three applicants were examined by the Dairy Branch and ninety licences were
issued.   (For the list of testers holding licences during 1923 see Appendix No. 19.)
Daisy and Cbeamery Licences.
To forty-three persons, firms, or companies buying milk or cream on the butter-fat basis
licences for business were issued. (For the list of creameries and dairies so licensed see
Appendix No. 20.)
There are now six Cow-testing Associations in the Province. (For list of associations and
officers see Appendix No. 21.) The work has made good advance during the year. The system
of signing up members adopted in 1922 has in 1923 given excellent results, putting all associations
on a sounder financial basis than heretofore. The certificate plan has also been well received,
stimulating the general interest in the work. The assistant in charge, G. H. Thornbery, reports as
follows:— 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 81
" Many calls have been made on dairymen in districts where there are Cow-testing Associations in operation for the purpose of creating a greater interest in the work. Practically all
members have been visited twice during the year. Assistance, when required, has been given
in matters connected with general organization and management, also in helping to solve some
of the many problems arising out of this work.
" This fall a new association has been started in the Upper Sumas section, which will cover
an area from the A'edder Mountain to Matsqui Prairie, including Clayburn, Abbotsford, Huntingdon, and Whatcom Road.
" The other associations located at Chilliwack, Langley-Surrey, Comox, Richmond-Ladner,
and Okanagan continue to operate as heretofore. Inquiries are being received from the Salmon
Arm District asking that steps be taken to organize an association which would enable dairymen in the districts of Grindrod, Mara, Canoe, Tappen, and Silver Creek to test their cows
regularly each month.
" The average of all lacatation periods sent in for the year 1923 is 7,124 lb. of milk and
303 lb. of butter-fat.
" The number of cows handled by each association is on the increase, and with returns
now coming in from the Richmond-Ladner Association the total number of records sent in has
nearly doubled.
" Departmental Grants.—The monthly grant of $50 to each association has been continued
during the past year and a sum of $3,100 has been disbursed uuder this heading.
" Certified Milk and Fat Records.—The plan adopted in 1922 of issuing certificates to
owners of cows that produce above a certain amount of milk and fat has met with much success.
During the past year 352 certificates were issued for records completed during 1923. This is
an increase of 45 per cent, in one year. A full report of these is being published as Dairy
Circular No. 8.
" Official Testing.—The Colony Farm has again had a large number of cows on official
test (Record of Merit) ; iu fact, testing has been in almost continuous operation throughout the
year.    Suitable men have been provided as supervisors for this work as heretofore."
Fall Fairs.
As for many years, the dairy exhibits at Vancouver, Victoria, and New Westminster Exhibitions, at Chilliwack, Richmond, and several smaller fairs were judged by officials of this
Branch. The day has arrived when outside judges should periodically be secured for the larger
exhibitions. The exhibits, largely from the Prairie Provinces, have so increased in number
that considerable time has to be devoted to this, with a consequent disturbance of the regular
work of the Branch.
British Columbia Dairymen's Association.
The affairs of this association demand, as ever, much attention from the secretary and
the clerk-stenographer. Refunds for transportation charges on pure-bred" cattle, prizes for
records in R.O.P. classes and in the Provincial Cow-testing Association classes, Get of Sire
competitions, have been among the year's activities. No summer meeting was held in 1923.
The annual convention takes place in Victoria on January 23rd and 24th.
It is the feeling that the association should soon be extended to include all branches of
the dairy industry.
Short Course.
The first short course for those employed in dairy factories in British Columbia took place
at the premises of the Fraser Aralley Dairies, Limited, Vancouver, February 19th to 28th.
Twelve students registered and ten were present during the whole of the course. The attendance
was frequently as high as eighteen and twenty, factorymen from Vancouver and elsewhere
dropping in for a session or two.
The chief subjects dealt with were cream-grading, butter-scoring, moisture and salt determinations, testing, pasteurization, neutralizers, workmanship, etc. The staff of this Branch
received most valuable co-operation and support from that of the Dairy Department of the
University of British Columbia in conducting the course. Able assistance was also furnished
by G. Scott, of the Alberta Dairy Department (through the kindness of C. Marker, Dairy Commissioner), who stayed for several days and gave addresses on topics connected with the grading,
6 I 82 Department op Agriculture. 1924
neutralizing, and general handling of cream. One afternoon was devoted to ice-cream at the
close of the course. J. E. Dunne, of the Hazelwood Ice Cream Company, Portland, gave an
intensely instructive address.
Permission to use the most convenient reception-room, ante-room, and cold storage of the
Fraser A'alley Dairies, Limited, and the courtesy of the manager, Guy Clark, is gratefully
acknowledged, as well as the consideration and interest of all its employees, many of whom
assisted materially on various occasions during the course.
One circular has been prepared and will be issued early in the year as Dairy Circular No. 8.
It is a list giving particulars of certificates issued in respect to cows completing their lactation
periods in 1923.
The advance made in quality of butter manufactured in the Prairie Provinces under the
new regulations concerning cream-graders and cream-grading in an exceedingly short time has
been most rapid. The systems employed in the three Provinces are practically uniform. The
graders are selected and appointed by the Government and work under official supervision.
An assessment levied on all creameries defrays the cost of salaries, etc.
The immediate necessity for the adoption of suitable regulations lay in the fact that each
of these three Provinces exports considerable butter and that too many seconds and too few
specials were put on the market.   The new system is going far towards remedying this condition.
The situation in British Columbia is very different. No Provincial butter is exported. Very
little passes through the hands of commission-men or brokers. By far the greatest portion of
what is manufactured is sold direct from the creameries, much of it being disposed of locally.
There has, therefore,- not been apparent the same urgency for the adoption of a govern-
mentally supervised system of cream-grading. From an educational point of view and having
in mind the average quality of butters produced in British Columbia, the need is fully as great.
Unfortunately, on the same basis, difficulty would be experienced in assessing equitably and
yet sufficiently the small newly established pioneer creameries whose annual make is still
relatively very low.
Factories corresponding to these, though rather larger, the Prairie Provinces are content
to omit from the scheme, a trifling percentage only being involved. In British Columbia, however, 00 per cent, of the creameries manufacture about or less than 100,000 lb. of butter.
The grading of cream on arrival at the creamery is an essential to the production of a
high-class butter anywhere, and it is highly advisable that grading be carried out in each
creamery and by a properly qualified grader. It would appear necessary, therefore, in the very
near future to make arrangements for the instruction, examination, and licensing of graders
in this Province, which is provided for under section 13, clause (6), "Creameries and Dairies
Regulation Act, 1920."
As stated above, a small part only of the butter manufactured in British Columbia is
marketed otherwise than directly from and by its manufacturer. There are developing during
the busy season small but gradually increasing surpluses which cannot be disposed of locally
by the small creameries of the Interior and which are usually forwarded to Vancouver to be
sold on commission. Much of this is of inferior quality, having been made for immediate consumption with little attention to keeping quality. The grading and pricing of these consignments
by regular broker or friendly agent is frequently a most thankless task. To meet this it is
intended by this Branch to send out to all creameries a questionnaire in order to obtain information as to the desirability of establishing in A'ancouver a grading-station. To commence such
work storage-space only need be secured, to be available for occasional shipments. Butters could
be graded en route to consignees or be shipped to storage, graded, and released on order. The
churning number as well as the creamery's registered number must be on each box for identification purposes.   A Provincial certificate of grade would be issued.
A grading service such as this can be of immediate and practical use to the industry from
its inception, though limited at the start, and can also be made of great educational value. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 83
The correspondence, licences, certificates, market letters, and stencil circulars sent out show
a big increase over previous years. The demand for bulletins, circulars, pamphlets, and record
sheets does not diminish.
The continued withholding of statutory increases in the name of economy cannot but discourage interest and efficiency in view of the indiscriminate generosity displayed to employees
in more-favoured departments and branches of the service.
Respectfully submitted.
Heney Rive,
Dairy Commissioner.
C. Tice, B.S.A.
Dr. D. Warnocs., F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Soil and Crop Branch.
Changes in Staff.
Owing to the resignation of W. Newton in July the work of this Branch has been continued
under the direction of this official. The position of Assistant Soil and Crop Instructor has been
filled by J. B. Munro, B.S.A., who has devoted much of his time to the study of fodder and
soil problems. E. R. Bewell, B.S.A.; F. J. AVelland, B.S.A.; and W. Sandall were temporarily
employed for seed-potato inspection work.
Seed and Potato Show.
The second annual potato-show and educational seed exhibit was held in A'ictoria from
November 12th to 17th under the direction of this Branch working in co-operation with the
Victoria Potato-growers' Association and the Victoria Chamber of Commerce. Classes were
provided for certified seed, commercial potatoes, district exhibits, Women's Institute exhibits,
and prepared dishes of potatoes. This was the first occasion that classes had been arranged
for Women's Institute exhibits. The enthusiasm and interest displayed by the ladies was particularly gratifying. It might not be out of place to mention that the potatoes exhibited in
the Women's Institute class had been produced from certified seed and had been looked after
during the year by the various competitors.
For all classes over 400 entries were received, which was a considerable increase over last
year, when 270 exhibitors competed. The district potato exhibit class was again keenly contested, eight districts competing. The cup was won by the Windermere District, which scored
771.5 points out of a possible 800. The prize for the best exhibit of certified seed in the show
was won by A. J. T. Walker, Windermere. A full report of the results of the judging was
sent out to all exhibitors at the close of the fair.
In addition to the exhibits of potatoes, some excellent displays of seeds, showing the kind
and quality of seed which can be produced in this Province, were exhibited by leading seed-
growers and Government institutions, including an exhibit by this Branch.
Special mention should be made of the fact that the staging of an exhibition such as this
requires several weeks of preparation in order to make it a success. Considerable advertising
and correspondence has to be done in order to make the event known over the entire Province
and to secure exhibitors. It might also be pointed out that during the past two years efforts
have been made to secure special prizes from outside sources; by so doing a much keener interest
in the show has been manifested by those eligible to exhibit.
Pacific North-west Potato-show.
The third annual show of the Pacific North-west Potato-growers' Association was held in
Spokane, Washington, the latter part of November. For the first time since the inception of
this organization, which is organized for educational purposes only, British Columbia took part. I 84 Department of Agriculture. 1924
Some twenty-odd exhibits were sent forward from this Province—six of which were prizewinners. In the miscellaneous certified-seed class British Columbia exhibitors captured all the
prizes. Our showing was particularly gratifying in view of the fact that the Provincial Potato-
show had been held the previous week and the best exhibits in the Province sent to it. Your
official, who last year was appointed Vice-President of the Association for British Columbia,
attended the exhibition and delivered an address on " Seed-potato Certification Work."
Potato-improvement AVork.
The seed-potato inspection and certification work started in 1921 has continued to form
an important part of the work of this Branch during the past year. The beneficial results
of this work are becoming more evident each day. The growers are not only improving the
quality of their product, but are also increasing their yields and thus lowering the cost of production, which is so essential these days. The public also are being educated to the value of
good seed. The knowledge gained in the growing of certified seed is not only of value in connection with the potato-crop, but also educates the grower to take a keener interest in other
lines of agriculture.
The interest being shown in the annual potato and seed show is largely due to the seed-
certification work.
Extent and Progress.—Two hundred and forty-two fields covering twenty districts were
inspected for certification purposes during the year. The total number of acres inspected was
175; 166 acres passed the first field inspection and 140 acres passed the second field inspection.
As a result of the first tuber inspection made last fall, it is estimated that approximately 300
tons of certified seed will be offered for sale by the growers in the spring of 1924. (See Appendix.)
Districts and Varieties.—The districts and the varieties certified in each in 1923 were as
Bradner:   Netted Gem.
Chilliwack: Netted Gem, Burbank, Green Mountain, Early St. George, Early Rose, Early
Surprise, and Jersey Royal.
Comox:   Netted Gem, Burbank, Green Mountain, Early St. George, and Irish Cobbler.
Cowichan:   Netted Gem, Green Mountain, Irish Cobbler, and Early St. George.
Errington :   Netted Gem, Green Mountain, Gold Coin, and Up-to-date.
Gordon Head and A'ictoria: Early Ohio, Irish Cobbler, Green Mountain, and Sir Walter
Grand Forks:   Netted Gem, Green Mountain, and Gold Coin.
Kamloops:   Netted Gem.
Keating:   Netted Gem, Gold Coin, Sir AA'alter Raleigh, and Early Rose.
Kelowna:   Netted Gem, Green Mountain, and Irish Cobbler.
Ladner:   Early Rose, Gold Coin, Early Ohio, and Jersey Royal.
Lulu Island:  Netted Gem and Green Mountain.
Metchosin:   Gold Coin, Up-to-date, Sir AValter Raleigh, Early Ohio, and Early St. George.
Mount Lehman :   Netted Gem.
Malakwa:   Netted Gem and Gold Coin.
Pitt Meadows:   Green AIountain, Early Rose, Beauty of Hebron, and Eureka.
Sooke:   Sir AValter Raleigh.
Surrey: Netted Gem, AA'ee McGregor, Early St. George, Early Ohio, Jersey Royal, Sutton's
Reliance, and Gold Coin.
Vernon:   Netted Gem.
AVindermere:   Netted Gem and AVee McGregor.
Soil Investigations.
A careful study of the physical characteristics and of the chemical composition of the soils
in several districts has been made with a view to ascertaining suitable farming practices, crop
rotations, and fertilizer requirements. This information has been placed on file for reference
and covers comprehensively, or in part, the following districts: (1) Toba River Valley; (2)
Powell River; (3) Kamloops and district, including the territory along the North Thompson
River to Jameson Creek;  (4) Shuswap Lakes District. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 85
During the year the existing arrangement with the Department of Mines, whereby soil
samples were analysed for this Branch, was continued, and upwards of 100 samples of soil,
lime, and fertilizers were analysed.
The various soil and crop problems arising during the year have been dealt with after
careful physical examination of the soil, a study of local conditions, and the analyst's report,
and in each case recommendations have been made to the individuals concerned.
This work has been given considerable attention and drainage surveys have been made
whenever time has permitted. Surveys have been made on approximately twenty farms at
Malakwa, Mission, Comox, and Saanich; the total area surveyed being approximately 500 acres.
In many cases underdrains have been laid or open ditches made in accordance with recommendations given following the surveys. Reports at hand from those who underdrained their
land early in the year indicate that good results have been obtained.
Lime Survey.
A fairly comprehensive examination of the agricultural-lime situation has been made and
deposits of lime lying close to most of the agricultural districts have been located and their
percentage composition ascertained by chemical analysis. In most of the districts the lime
deposits are of fairly high quality and the supply is abundant. It exists in some places as
marl, in others as a water deposit, but most often it is in the rock state and will require burning
or crushing before it can be used for agricultural purposes.
One of the chief handicaps to the use of lime in this Province is the high cost when delivered
to the farms. The high cost is partly owing to the original price, which in many instances is
more than the material is worth, and this, coupled with high freight rates over considerable
distances, makes the general use of agricultural lime impossible.
Forage-crop problems in the East Kootenays, Princeton District, Shuswap Lakes District,
Vancouver Island, and in other sections of the Province have been investigated and findings
reported to the farmers of the respective districts at public meetings addressed during the year.
Canadian Seed-growers' Association.
The annual meeting of the Canadian Seed-growers' Association held in Saskatoon was
attended by your official, who is a director and member of the Executive Council of the association. An address on the seed situation in British Columbia was presented. Much of the time
was spent in discussing matters of national importance in connection with the seed industry.
One of the most outstanding decisions arrived at was that recommending the appointment of a
Provincial Seed Board in each Province to deal with local seed matters. The question of
varieties is at present probably the most important in this connection. Other matters for future
discussion are the registration of root and vegetable seeds and elite stock seed.
Potato-growers' Organization.
During the year it was decided by the growers to form a British Columbia Certified Seed-
potato Growers' Association and your official was appointed secretary. Although this organization was formed too late to be of much assistance this year, it is gratifying to know that a
start has at last been made along the right lines. Already the association has been instrumental
in establishing a fairly uniform price for certified seed. During the year several local potato
organizations have been formed and it is expected that these in turn will be linked up with
the new central organization. To-day some ten potato organizations are functioning, whereas
in 1920 there was not one well-established potato association.
Lectures and Fall Fairs.
During the year seventy-five lectures were given relating to the management of soils and
the production of crops by officials of this Branch. A number of the fall fairs were also attended
and judges supplied. I 86 Department op Agriculture. 1924
Timely articles on soil and crop management have been published from time to time in
the Agricultural Journal. Soil and Crop Circular No. 1, " Certified Seed-potatoes—Why They
Will Pay," was published. Bulletin No. SO, " The Potato in British Columbia," is being revised
and a circular on kale and rape crops is in the course of preparation.
In carrying on the work during the past year your official wishes to express his appreciation
of the valuable assistance rendered by the various officials and stenographer-clerk attached to
the Soil and Crop Branch; also of the co-operation received from various Provincial, Dominion,
and University officials interested in soil and crop problems.
Respectfully submitted. C. Tice.
.  Chief Agronomist.
G. II.  Stewart.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—1 beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Statistics Branch for the year ended
December 31st, 1923.
Agricultural Conditions.
Owing to very favourable weather conditions throughout the year the volume of agricultural
production greatly exceeded that of the previous year and was the largest on record. The
spring of 1923 opened with mild weather in March. Some sharp frosts occurred in the fruit
districts during the month of April, which resulted in some damage being done to the tree-fruits.
The precipitation during the months of April, Alay, and June was above the average and proved
very beneficial to all crops. The weather during August and September proved generally favourable for harvesting.
The total agricultural production amounted to $59,159,798, as against $55,322,971 for the
year 1922, an increase of $3,836,827, or 6.93 per cent., in the value of production; the quantity
production, however, showed a much greater increase. Increases are shown iu meats, poultry
products, dairy products, fodders and grains, while the chief losses are to be noted in the production of vegetables and honey.
Total imports of agricultural products during 1923 amounted to $19,018,131, an increase
of $1,874,809, or 10.93 per cent. Imports from other Provinces in Canada are valued at $15,622,678,
as against $12,970,001 in 1922, while imports from foreign points are valued at $3,395,453, a
decrease of $777,868 from the year 1922.
It is estimated that the total value of exports for the year amounted to $5,886,372, this
being a slight increase over the previous year. The exports consisted chiefly of eggs, hops,
wool, dairy products, and fruits and vegetables.
The fruit-crop was the largest on record, amounting to 176,887,879 lb. and exceeding that
of the previous year by 84,952 Ib. The total value of the crop was $6,034,976, or an increase
Of 22.7 peij. cent, over the year 1922. Prices on the whole remained very unsatisfactory. The
total apple-crop was 148,161,182 lb., as compared with 147,788,262 lb. in 1922. All other tree-
fruits, with the exception of plums and prunes, showed a decreased production. This is accounted
for owing to late frosts during the blossoming season, also due to the prevalence of rains during
the harvesting season, which prevented picking and caused the fruit to rot on the trees.
Small fruits produced amounted to 11,741,809 lb., valued at $1,044,883, as compared with
a production of 9,867,862 lb., valued at $1,150,S74, in 1922, indicating an increase of 18.9 percent, in quantity, but a decrease in value of 9.2 per cent.
The total vegetable-crop amounted to 231,S83 tons, or 13,001 tons less than in 1922. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 87
The area planted to potatoes was 1,085 acres less than the previous year. The average yield
in 1923 was 5.80 tons per acre, as against 0 tons in 1922. Greenhouse tomatoes showed an
increased production. The 1923 crop amounted to 619 tons, valued at $231,549, compared with
a production of 578 tons, valued at $155,366, in 1922.
An increase of 31.9 per cent, was shown in the quantity production of rhubarb.
The area sown to grains as shown by the June census was 130,818 acres, being an increase
of 1,660 acres over the year 1922.
The production of all grains amounted to 4,925,027 bushels, valued at $3,960,837, representing
an increase in quantity production of 752,932 bushels, or 18 per cent., and an increase in value
of $480,111, or 13.7 per cent.
The prices on all grains were lower than during the previous year. The average yield of
oats was 51.50 bushels per acre, whilst in 1922 the average yield was 43.75 bushels. All wheat
yielded 24.50 bushels in 1923, as compared with 22 bushels in 1922.
The area planted to fodders in 1923 was 272,290 acres, representing an increase of 4,562
acres over the year 1922.
Fodder-crops aggregating a total of 671,556 tons, valued at $12,312,725, were produced. This
represents an increase of 152,752 tons, or 29.4 per cent., in quantity production, but with prevailing low prices the total value was $154,607 less than in 1922.
The increase in the acreage of alfalfa in recent years has been quite pronounced, there
being 17,420 acres in 1923. Clover and timothy averaged 2.30 tons to the acre, as against
1.65 tons in 1922. The average price, however, declined from $27.25 in 1922 to $20.25 per ton
in 1923.
Daiey Products.
The value of all dairy products was $9,234,576, as compared with a production of $8,001,135
in 1922, indicating an increased value of $1,233,441. There was an increase of 315,289 lb. in
butter produced, the total production in 1923 being 4,221,704 lb. The quantity of evaporated
milk manufactured was 213,199 cases, valued at $1,008,948. This represents an increase of
43,970 cases in quantity production. The quantity of ice-cream manufactured amounted to
419,701 gallons, which is 26,338 gallons more than during the year 1922. The quantity of fresh
milk consumed was 12,300,070 gallons, being 1,245,680 gallons more than during the previous
year. Pasturage conditions were very satisfactory throughout the year, which resulted in an
increased milk-flow.
Live Stock.
Live-stock statistics places the value of all domestic animals at $15,920,028, representing
an increased value of $1,369,534. Horses increased in numbers 2,934, there now being in the
Province 54,017. Dairy cattle increased in nearly all sections of the Province, and especially
in those districts where dairying had heretofore commanded little attention. The total number
of dairy cattle in the Province in 1923 was 117,143, or an increase of 12,070 over the year 1922.
Beef cattle decreased in number by 9,900. Prices were considerably lower than during the year
1922. Sheep in 1923 increased in numbers 3,591, or 7.2 per cent. During the year there has
been a conspicuous absence of ewes on the market, indicating a greater desire to increase the
flocks on the farms. Good sheep for breeding purposes are much in demand. Swine increased
in numbers by 1,107 during the year.
Poultry and eggs show a most satisfactory increase. The numbers of poultry increased
13.3 per cent. The quantity of eggs produced shows an increase of 15.5 per cent. Prices for
eggs and poultry ranged much lower than in 1922.
The number of goats now in the Province i.s placed at 9,000, which is a considerable increase
over the number in 1922.
The quantity of ail meats marketed during the year aggregated 25,028,969 lb., valued at
$1,1S8,170, as against 23,143,411 lb., valued at $1,413,911, in 1922. The chief increase was in
beef and veal.    The prices of all meats were considerably below those of the previous year. I 88 Department op Agriculture. 1924
The hop production amounted to 999,804 lb., valued at $399,922, as compared with 680,291
lb., valued at $272,360, in 1922.
The quantity of wool produced was practically the same as in 1922. Prices, however, were
more satisfactory.
The total number of letters received by the Statistics Branch during the year was 1,986,
while the total number dispatched was 1,097. Seven' circular letters, comprising in all 1,835
letters, were sent out to Farmers' Institutes, manufacturers of dairy products, etc. In addition
to these, over 1,200 crop-report forms were sent out to crop correspondents.
During the months of April, May, and June, with the assistance of F. J. Welland, a potato
survey of Vancouver Island and the Lower Alainland section of the Province was made, the
results of which have been submitted to you.
AA'eekly reports have been prepared for banking institutions, as well as numerous reports
for Boards of Trade and manufacturing and financial interests in Canada and the United States.
The Agricultural Statistics Bulletin for the year 1922 was issued early in the year and
the 1,200 copies have all been distributed to interested parties.
Considerable assistance was given to farmers in order to help them in the work of keeping
farm records.
AArith the compilation of the June census returns, the monthly reports of crop correspondents,
together with the attention given to correspondence and other routine matters, the time of your
Statistician has been fully occupied.
All of which is respectfully submitted. George H. Stewart,
W. J. Sheppard.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—I beg to submit my report as Provincial Apiarist, together with the estimated honey-
crop report, the demonstration apiaries reports, and also the reports of A. AV. Finlay and J. F.
Roberts, Assistant Apiarists, for the past season.
General Conditions.
The season of 1923, although promising well in the spring, has not been a good one for
honey production in British Columbia, the crop having fallen a good deal short of the previous
year. As will be seen by the estimated honey-crop report, the general average production per
hive is 32 lb., as against 61 lb. last year. British Columbia is not alone in harvesting a light
honey-crop, as there has been a similar experience nearly all over the American Continent.
Climatic conditions have not been favourable to the secretion of nectar by the bulk of the honey-
producing plants. Fireweed, which is the most extensive source of honey in the Province,
failed in most districts to secrete any appreciable quantity of nectar, and the dogbane, commonly
known as milkweed, one of the most important nectar-yielding plants in the Interior, also failed
to produce much honey. A report received from the Bulkley A'alley states that there has been
no honey-crop there, as no nectar was gathered after the early part of the season. Heavy
electrical storms in that territory ushered in and continued through the month of August and
the masses of fireweed failed to bloom as they usually do, as did also the goldenrod and remaining fall flowers, such as asters. The few blooms there were carried no nectar, not even the
sweet clover.
On the Lower Mainland the alsike and white clovers yielded well for a limited period,
following the flow from the maples, which was exceptionally good, and had it not been for this
the record for this territory would not have been nearly so satisfactory as the reports show.
In the irrigated districts of the Interior there was a very good surplus crop, mainly from
alfalfa arid sweet clover. Taking it on the whole, the quality of the honey was not as satisfactory as it usually is when there are uninterrupted honey-flows for longer periods. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 89
Provincial Demonstbation Apiaries.
The demonstration apiaries have made a very good showing this year in spite of the poor
season. This is the third year since this system was inaugurated, and the results obtained
clearly prove what can be accomplished, even in a poor year, in the different districts in which
they are being operated, by the use of proper equipment and the methods recommended by the
officials of the Department. Not only are the demonstration apiaries valuable from an educational standpoint and as an object lesson in showing the possibilities of better bee-keeping, but
the results obtained and placed on record from year to year will remain and be available for
indicating the most suitable districts for honey production in the Province. In a poor season
like last, when the average production for the whole of British Columbia was estimated at 32
lb. of honey per hive, the demonstration apiaries show up well with an average production of
three times as much—namely, 95 lb. per hive.    (See Appendix No. 27:)
Foul-beood Diseases.
European foul-brood has not been very much in evidence during the past season on the
Lower Alainland, where it was formerly so prevalent, very few cases having been found. A good
many hives affected with American foul-brood have been discovered in different parts of the
Province and have been dealt with by the Department officials as mentioned in other of the
reports herewith. In doubtful cases, where a microscopical examination is necessary to correctly diagnose and determine which of the two diseases is present, arrangements have been
made by which this work will be undertaken in future in Vancouver by J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, which it is anticipated will be far more satisfactory and expeditious
than having to send samples of diseased comb away to Ottawa for this purpose as formerly.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
AA'. J. Sheppard,
Provincial Apiarist.
A. W. Finlay.
W. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Nelson, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report herewith for the season of 1923.
General Conditions.
The spring of 1923 opened unusually early, with very favourable conditions for bee-keeping
on the Lower Alainland. Colonies iu protective cases built up rapidly on the abundant stores
left from the prosperous season of 1922 and began storing honey from the willows as early as
March 15th. In many instances 50 lb. of surplus honey was secured from each hive from this
source alone, and with weather conditions continuing favourable throughout April, considerable
surplus was secured from dandelions and maples. Swarming was general in the early part
of May from colonies that had not been provided with sufficient room to store the early honey.
Unfortunately this was followed by continued cold wet weather, and new swarms, lacking
sufficient stores, diminished rapidly, many dying from starvation; while many of the colonies
from which the swarms had issued at this time became queenless through the young queens
being confined to the hives too long before there was favourable weather for mating. Colonies
in single-walled hives built up to storing strength on the early honey-flow, but too late to
gather surplus from it. Under normal conditions they would have been in good shape to gather
a large crop from the clovers, etc., but the scarcity of nectar after the early part of May left
them with an overabundance of consuming bees with a shortage of stores to carry on brood-
raising. June, July, and August, the three months in which the bee-keeper usually counts on
obtaining a honey-crop from the clovers and fireweed, were very dry and hot, with no great
variation between night and day temperatures, a condition not conducive to nectar-secretion,
so that, although there was an abundance of bloom,  very little nectar was secreted  by the T 90 Department op Agriculture. 1924
flowers, and the bees wore themselves out without being able to produce more honey than they
consumed. A strong colony in a hive on scales lost 28 lb. in thirty-one days in July, which
was followed by a gain of but % to 1% lb. daily during August. The gain expected for most
of this period in this locality would be from 4 to 6 lb. daily.
Conditions similar to this were reported all along the Pacific Coast. Every district on
the Lower Alainland, however, was not affected in this manner in the same proportion. The
higher lands yielded the least honey, whilst the low-lying districts produced a fair to good crop,
this being especially noticeable in the Delta District, where the crop was fully equal to that
of last year, averaging 65 lb. per colony. The demonstration apiary at Airs. M. B. McCallan's,
Ladner, recorded a surplus of 2,400 lb. from twelve colonies, an average of 200 lb. per hive.
The good crop in this and similarly situated districts is probably due to their close proximity
to large bodies of water,-where the moisture-laden atmosphere assisted the secretion of nectar
in the clovers in spite of the hot dry season. The average production on the Lower Alainland
of 39 lb. per colony would undoubtedly have been much less but for the great improvement in
bee-keeping methods adopted in the last three or four years.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries.
The sixteen demonstration apiaries established in the Fraser A'alley in 1921 again wintered
100 per cent., and all colonies were in splendid condition in early spring, as were also those on
Vancouver Island established last year. The method of wintering these colonies has proved
so satisfactory that winter losses may be considered now to be a thing of the past. In localities
where willows, dandelions, and maples were plentiful a good crop was secured from these
sources, many colonies having as much as 150 lb. surplus in the supers in mid-Alay. Unfortunately
this was considerably reduced by the long dearth of nectar following, so that the close of the
season found them with, in many cases, less than the amount gathered in the spring and early
summer. The average of 111 lb. of surplus honey per colony in the demonstration apiaries in
the Fraser A7alley at the end of 1923, which is considered by most bee-keepers to have been a
very poor honey-year, fully establishes the value of the modern methods used in the demonstration apiaries, for not all of them are located in the best honey-producing districts. The highest
individual colony record in the demonstration apiaries for this season was 240% lb. from a hive
on scales at the Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz.
Practical field demonstrations were given in these and other apiaries by your assistant
in the early part of the season and the attendance was very good. The remainder of the season
was occupied with inspection-work in connection with bee-diseases.
All reported cases of bee-diseases were promptly attended to and practical instruction
given in methods of treatment and control. European foul-brood has entirely disappeared in
some districts where Italian stock has replaced the black bees, and very few cases were found
in other districts of the Fraser Aralley. American foul-brood was discovered in forty apiaries,
principally in Greater Vancouver and adjacent districts. Several cases were found in Surrey
Municipality and the Delta, most of which were directly traceable to one bee-keeper from South
Vancouver who was practising migratory bee-keeping. The bees in this instance had been moved
from one district to another without the owner having first obtained a certificate of inspection,
contrary to the regulations in force iu this territory, under the provisions of the " Apiaries Act,"
regarding the moving of bees. Proceedings instituted against the offender resulted in a conviction and fine.
In the early part of the season all diseased colonies found affected with American foul-
brood were treated by the shaking method, and all infected material that could not be readily
disinfected was destroyed by burning. After the close of the honey-flow, when the cost of
feeding full winter stores was in excess of the value of the bees, the owners were advised to
destroy the bees, saving only the hive-bodies, covers, etc., that could be easily flamed. Almost
without exception the bee-keepers were very willing to follow the instructions given for cleaning
up disease.
In the Upper Fraser Valley American foul-brood was found in only one apiary this season
and was promptly cleaned up. All the apiaries in which disease was treated in previous years
by your assistant were examined and found to be free from disease. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 91
Aluch interest was shown in the attractive display of honey and apiary products at the
Provincial Exhibitions at New AVestminster and A'ictoria. The section of the new wing added
to the Horticultural Building at New AVestminster, mainly for the accommodation of the honey-
producers, was again filled to capacity in spite of the poor honey season, the competitive entries
being nearly as many as last year. The honey also that was displayed in each of the district
agricultural exhibits was of very high standard and the honey displays in these competitive
exhibits have in recent years become a special feature. A special display of honey from the
demonstration apiaries, models of hives and equipment, apiary tools and appliances, together
with a collection of honey from different parts of the Province, was staged in connection with
the Provincial Government exhibits of the Department of Agriculture in the Industrial Building.
Many visiting bee-keepers were met here daily and information given them.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
A. W. Finlay.
Assistant Provincial Apiarist.
J. F. Roberts.
TV. J. Sheppard, Esq.,
Provincial Apiarist, Nelson, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report as Assistant Provincial Apiarist for the Okanagan, Shuswap,
and Thompson Valley Districts for the season of 1923.
The early part of the season was largely taken up by answering calls in various parts of
the district, notably at Vernon, where an outbreak of American foul-brood had been reported
too late last season for anything to be done. On inspecting this apiary I found a number of
colonies badly affected. All the diseased colonies were destroyed. A further outbreak occurred
later in the same apiary, as also in other apiaries in the same locality, although not in close
proximity to the first. Every effort was made to discover the source of the infection, but without
success. No bees had been shipped in to the diseased apiaries, so, presumably, it was started
by imported honey in containers that had been thrown away without having been washed out
beforehand. American foul-brood has made a sudden appearance in several parts of my district,
in most cases only one apiary in each locality being affected, Kamloops being the worst. Three
apiaries were found to be affected there. In practically all these cases the hives affected contained
package bees shipped in during the spring from California. As no trace of disease had existed
before, it would appear that package bees can, and do, in some manner, carry disease. At
Kelowna, where isolated cases of American foul-brood were found, the colonies found to be
affected were package bees shipped in this spring.
The Honey-crop.
The conditions in the spring were exceptionally good and a bumper crop of honey was
expected, but owing to the rain in June the season has been a poor one, with the exception of
a few locations where the crop has been better even than last year, notably in parts of the
Thompson Valley, especially Ashcroft. This can be explained by the fact that the 1922 season
was partly spoiled through the winter-injury to alfalfa, whilst this season alfalfa has yielded
abundantly.   A number of colonies in these districts have given well over 100 lb. per hive.
The honey-flow in most districts ceased abruptly in the middle of July, in many cases
sufficient honey only having been stored for the bees' own requirements. The majority of the
colonies have this year gone into winter quarters much stronger in young bees than usual, and
many hives had brood as late as the end of October. It is interesting to note that in parts of
the A'ernon District local bee-keepers report that alfalfa has failed to yield honey there at all.
In the Kelowna District, where the hairy vetch is extensively used as a cover-crop in the orchards,
it has been noted that this has failed to yield any surplus honey this year. It has become
apparent that in the irrigated districts of the Interior a hot dry summer produces more honey
than a wet one. I 92 Department op Agriculture. 1924
The king-birds, which caused so much havoc among the queens last season on their mating
flights, have done little or no damage this year, the reason apparently being the large number
of grasshoppers available as food.
Bee-keeping is increasing rapidly in this territory and there is danger of disease following
on owing to the practical impossibility of inspecting every colony.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
J. F. Roberts,
Assistant Provincial Apiarist.
Mbs. A'. S. AIacLachlan.
Dr. D. Warnock, F.R.C.V.S., O.B.E.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report of the Women's Institutes
of British Columbia for the year ended December 31st, 1923.
Seven new institutes were formed during 1923, as follows: Slocan Valley, Clearbrook Road,
Huntingdon, North-east Burnaby, Aldergrove, Fern Ridge, and Oliver. Since 1918 seven institutes have lapsed; they may be reorganized as times improve, but at the close of 1923 we still
have 111.
The ten committees are functioning very successfully, guided and directed by the printed
suggestions supplied by the Department, while the questionnaires on these committees have
acted as clearing-stations.
Each local convener received her questionnaire to fill out and forward to the district convener. This questionnaire consists, first, of a survey of district conditions; second, an account
of work attempted and difficulties encountered; and, third, recommendations, and suggestions
as to extension of the efforts of the organization under each head.
The district conveners summarized these reports and presented these summaries at the
district conferences, and I feel that we are on the eve of a period of very useful service to
the Province, for as this work proceeds there will be valuable data collected and tabulated,
making the AVomen's Institutes the source of reliable Provincial information.
The Secretaries prepare the institute reports, which should be, and generally are, details
of each branch of the work, and provide the substance of the programmes at the district conferences.
District Conferences.
There were four district conferences held as usual, starting in the Okanagan. The first
was held on October 23rd, 24th, and 25th. The programmes of all four consisted of reports of
the individual institutes and reports of the ten standing committees on the lines specified.
The feature of greatest interest at this conference was the lantern-slide lecture on the
Crippled Children's Fund by Dr. F. C. McTavish. AVe attempted to make the work of the
institutes through the reports of committees, with the discussions, the main part of the conference, but in this district there was an openly expressed desire for speakers on chosen subjects.
The conference of the Lower Mainland was held in Vancouver on November 6th, 7th, and
Sth. Addresses of interest were given by Dr. Lamb on "Tuberculosis," Dr. Helen McMurchy,
Mrs. Paul Smith, Airs. Spofford, Mr. Bulman, Lieut-Colonel Forster, Mrs. II. L. Bayley gave
first report on the Crippled Children's Fund, and the slide lecture on this work by Dr. AlcTavish.
On Friday, November 9th. the programme devoted to health-work was put on. The child-health
programme for British Columbia was presented by the Secretary of Women's Institutes; the
Public Health Nursing Course for British Columbia, by Miss Ethel Johns, Assistant Professor,
Department of Nursing, University of British Columbia; the functions of the Child-welfare
Division and its relation to voluntary organizations, Dr. Helen McMurchy, Director, Child-
welfare Division, Ottawa. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 93
In the evening an address on " School Nursing " was given by Miss Breeze, Chief, Nursing
Staff, Vancouver City schools. " Travelling Dental Clinic " was the subject of a paper prepared
by Miss Bertha Hall, B.Sc.N., Cowichan Health Centre.
The conference of the Kootenay and Boundary District was held in Nelson on November
13th, 14th, and 15th. Speakers of note at this conference were Dr. Helen McJIurchy, Mrs. C. S.
Squires, Mrs. AV. G. Foster, Airs. AV. D. Todd, Miss R. A. Corbett, Public Health Nurse for the
Kootenay Lake District. Friday was devoted to a meeting of the Child Hygiene Council. Dr.
Lamb, Miss Corbett, and Mrs. AV. D. Todd, who read Mrs. M. Moss's address on " Rural Dental
Clinic," were the principal speakers.
The district conference was held in A'ictoria on November 27th, 28th, and 29th. The
principal speakers were Airs. Spofford, Dr. McTavish, Airs. Lucas, Miss Hall, B.Sc.N., A. C.
Stewart, School Inspector, II. E. Hallwright, and Rev. Brice Wallace. At this conference a
request that speakers be limited to evening sessions and more time devoted to functions of the
ten committees was made.
At all conferences the majority of delegates voted in favour of proceeding with the Provincial conference.
Advisory Board.
There was one meeting of the Advisory Board held during 1923. The meeting planned for
November was postponed to 1924.
Home Economics.
I feel that perhaps it is in this committee that we have made the least progress. Thirty-
eight institutes held exhibitions of women's work either in combination with flower-shows, fairs,
or as an exhibit of itself. The classes in cookery do not seem popular, decided preference being
shown for dressmaking and millinery.
I am forced to the conclusion that that method of instruction (so-called household science)
of slowly and gravely reading off a recipe followed by actually combining the ingredients named
and cooking the mixture obtained is long since obsolete. Cookery lessons to-day must be
instruction in food values, why certain combinations are used, direct relation to health and
body-building, and such books as " The Science of Eating " by Alfred McCann and " Starving
America " by the same author would convey the information which is so much needed, while
instruction along these lines would, I am sure, be very welcome.
It is a pity that classes in canning are not being organized, as so many of our women are
asking for information on this branch. These classes could be conducted under the night-school
regulations. It really seems as though, if propery conducted under a competent instructor, this
could be of commercial value to the women, so with the crystallizing of fruits.
We have need of help in the farm homes, but unfortunately there are few, if any, reporting
financial ability to hire such.
There is a great field for useful organization-work in making a survey of farm kitchens;
in the State of Ohio this has been carried on with startling results. AVomen are becoming
interested in improving and rearranging the kitchen equipment.
Our committees might have charts, demonstration tables, etc., on exhibit at the fairs,
directing attention to the food values and the relation to body-building of the various fruits,
vegetables, and meats grown on the farms.
All reports of home economics express the wish to have this subject included in our school
curriculum, yet no one so far has reported the reading of Mr. Kyle's report found in the Fifty-
second Annual Report of the Public Schools, page 53. The report is not long and is of absorbing
interest, especially the concluding paragraph: " School authorities in progressive countries
have long since made the study of domestic science compulsory for girls, and when School
Boards refuse to install equipment a corresponding reduction is made in the education grant.
The time seems opportune in British Columbia to pass a compulsory measure for all cities of
the first and second class; such an Act would show the people of the Province that the Department of Education was behind the movement and would do much to encourage and inspire
School Boards elected in cities of the third class and in rural municipalities to'proceed with
some measure of domestic science." If our institute members would endorse that resolution
and urge this upon our legislators we would do much for that long-desired object, Home
Economics Course in our schools. I 94 Department op Agriculture. 1924
This instruction could be secured in the schools in rural municipalities and unorganized
districts by the institutes promoting and organizing public opinion. The Government will grant
$58 per month towards instructor's salary and will also assist in providing equipment up to
a total grant of $500. AVhile no one rural school district could attempt to raise the balance
of the instructor's salary, in a group of from five to seven school districts each could at the
annual school meeting vote its proportional share of the balance of the salary. This would
not work a hardship on any individual district and yet it would provide the salary required.
After the instructor has been established then the institutes and other organizations might
arrange to use her services in conducting night-school classes in " Household Science " for the
adults. There could be regular courses of instruction in food values, vitamines, etc., all working
toward the gradual establishing of a Home Experimental Station corresponding to the Farm
Experimental Station.
Public Health and Child-welfabe.
The progress of the work of this committee is perhaps the most marked of any committee
reporting. British Columbia was the first Province of the Dominion to enact compulsory medical
examination of all school-children, rural and urban. This law was passed in 1911. That the
medical inspection may be understood and appreciated—indeed, that it may be of any value—
the provisions of the Act must be understood. To bring this about we have consistently urged
that the members inform themselves on the provisions of the " Medical Inspection of Schools
Act."    I am pleased to report that an ever-increasing interest and pride is being shown.
The majority of institutes have either formed committees on this work or act as distributing
centres for literature from the Provincial and Federal Boards of Health. Eight have held health
exhibits and baby clinics. Some endeavour to hold a baby clinic on the same day and following
the medical inspection of the school-children. This is an excellent idea, because if it were
systematically carried out it would mean that a steady stream of physically fit children would
from the day they enter school be prepared to receive and profit by the instruction given in
the schools, not to mention the infinitely more important question of the well-being of child
itself, and therefore of the State.
We are making every effort through the institutes to arouse the interest of parents in the
medical inspection of their own children. The Provincial Board of Health has instructed the
Aledical Inspector to notify the teacher of his intended visit in order that the parents may be
invited to be present. There still remains a great deal of missionary work to be done in this
line. Arery few of the parents consider this inspection of sufficient importance to take the
trouble to be present. The old idea that these ailments, necessary to childhood, will be outgrown is still far too prevalent.
For the purpose of bringing home the relation of the health of the children to national
welfare we are urging a reading and discussion of the annual report of medical inspection of
schools, and especially that the figures from the local schools be noted.
No more thrilling piece of literature is published to-day than the Annual Report of the
Provincial Board of Health. It should head the list of the six'best sellers, but the Government
until recently has had difficulty in giving away a thousand copies. It is very encouraging to
be able to report that the demand for these reports is increasing, as the institutes make known
the facts and figures contained therein.
There are sixteen Public Health Nurses employed in the rural districts of British Columbia,
the establishment of which is due, either directly or indirectly, to the efforts of the Women's
Institutes. I regret to have to report that the Lower Alainland is the only institute district
that has no Public Health Nurse, nor can this condition be attributed to better health conditions,
numerous doctors, or existence of hospitals.
Checking up the figures from the last annual report of the medical examination of the
children in the schools of the following municipalities in the Lower Mainland: Burnaby, Chilliwack, Coquitlam, Delta, Kent, Langley, Matsqui, Mission, Point Grey, Surrey, North Vancouver,
and South Vancouver, let us see what a Public Health Nurse can do for school-children alone.
Please note these are rural municipalities; that is, they are country children.
17,531 were examined.
987 were found suffering from malnutrition.
62 are mentally deficient.
779 with defective eyesight. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 95
138 becoming deaf.
759 with adenoids.
4,285 with enlarged tonsils.
4,542 with decayed teeth.
982 with goitre.
1,146 with enlarged glands.
Here in the garden of British Columbia are nearly 1,000 children undernourished!
Nearly 800 cannot see well; 138 becoming deaf! AVhat chance have these children who
cannot see figures on the blackboard, and children who hear with difficulty, of keeping up with
the class-work?
Over 1,000 little children in a land actually " flowing with milk and honey," with enlarged
glands! A substantial percentage of this number may be attributed to tuberculosis. The
presence of enlarged glands is always a danger-signal which should not be overlooked, and
where these are due to tuberculosis it may still be in a curative stage.
AVhat can the Public Health Nurse do for these children needing proper food? For these
children needing glasses; for the 4.200 children with enlarged tonsils; for the 4,500 children
needing dental treatment; for the 1,100 children perhaps with incipient tuberculosis; for the
900 with goitre?
Starting with the health-cards at the schools, the nurse goes into the home explaining to
the parents the dangers of malnutrition, and, co-operating with them and with the teacher
and the voluntary organizations, establishes the hot lunch and milk-drinking in the schools.
Co-operating with parents, she has the children needing it fitted with glasses. The Public
Health Nurse makes the necessary arrangements for operative treatment for these diseased
With the financial assistance from the Departments of Health and Education and the
sympathetic support of the organizations, she organizes dental clinics that these decayed teeth
may be removed or treated. AA'ith the treatment of the tonsils, the hearing and nasal breathing
generally improve. The children with goitre are treated and these 1,100 children enlarged
glands are given the closest attention, because the nurse knows that if taken in time tuberculosis
can be cured.
This is the great work of the Public Health Nurse and she is needed in every school district
of British Columbia. Doctors and hospitals exist to cure disease. The Public Health Nurse
prevents disease. Her function is almost " an attribute of God Himself," in that it preserves
the God-given birthright—sound mind in a sound body. Therefore, so long as there are children
being born in British Columbia, Public Health Nurses are needed to promote their health and
prevent suffering and disease.
From present indications, however, I expect there will be several nurses established during
the year 1924, as many institutes throughout the Lower Alainland are realizing the need of
the Public Health Nurse, especially in relation to the health of the school-children. As the
idea of promoting health and preventing disease is gaining ground the value of school nursing
is becoming very apparent. This is directly due to the members of our institute studying the
figures published on the medical inspection of school-children.
I feel that I must mention the activities and achievements of Kelowna Institute. This
institute organized and, with assistance from the Provincial Board of Health, maintained a
Public Health Nurse in that and adjoining districts. They are hoping that the School Board
will add the nurse to the teaching staff, thereby securing the grant from the Education Department towards the salary. Nelson Institute deserves special mention, being one city institute
that lives up to institute ideals, "improving conditions of rural life, so as to make settlement
permanent and prosperous in the farming communities." Nelson during 1923 continued financial
assistance toward nursing service in the Kootenay Lake District, receiving no direct benefit.
As a direct result of the nurse's report on school-children has come a demand for treatment
for the dental defects reported. The amendment in 1920 to the " Public Schools Act" provides
for assistance to any school district employing a dentist. Taking advantage of this and with
further financial assistance from the Provincial Board of Health, Sayward AVomen's Institute
on Vancouver Island has the honour of being the first to organize a travelling dental clinic,
by which the school-children of that district received much-needed attention. Since this has
been made known there have been inquiries from other districts. I 96 Department op Agriculture. 1924
The outstanding accomplishment of the institutes in child-welfare work in 1923 was the
establishment of the Crippled Children's Fund. The honour and credit of this undertaking
belongs to Central Park, in the Lower Alainland District, one of the oldest institutes in the
Province. Responding to an appeal from a case on Hornby Island, a fund was collected, other
. cases discovered, a general appeal to all the institutes was issued in April, and by the end
of the year there had been collected the sum of $1,016, fourteen cases had been treated, and
the objective, a "Women's Institute Hospital for Crippled Children," clearly outlined. It
would not be fair to conclude the account without mention of the name of Mrs. H. L. Bayley,
Secretary, to whose indefatigable energy the success of this movement is so largely due.
Education and Better Schools.
The work of this committee is steadily growing, more and more of the institutes reporting
interest in the school surroundings and a realization of a responsibility toward the condition
and appearance of the grounds and interior of the buildings.
Twenty-three institutes held exhibitions of school-children's work jointly, either with the
fairs or flower-shows.    A'ernon again featured the bird-house exhibit.
We have called attention to the need of school-ground improvement and financial assistance
available from the Department of Education for this purpose, with the result that an increasing
number of the institutes are taking advantage of tiiis provision to the very great benefit of
the children.
While space will not permit a full account, I feel I must mention two outstanding cases,
Parksville on A'ancouver Island and Peaehland in the Okanagan.
Parksville, without irrigation, has a beautifully arranged garden and ample playground
space. These grounds lead the Province for rural school-grounds. Peaehland has the enviable
faculty of working in the greatest harmony with the Council and School Board. The grounds
have been improved, baseball diamond laid out; indeed, each year comes the cheerful account
of achievement in this line that is an example to institutes, Councils, and School Boards alike.
Many of the institutes report that members are familiar with provisions of the " Public
Schools Act," but, if so, the members see no relation between the financial assistance available
from the Department of Education towards establishing household science and manual training
and the teaching of these subjects in our schools. I have never talked with a member, visited
an institute, or attended a conference when, if this subject was mentioned, there was not a
strong desire expressed to include these subjects in the curriculum, yet here are the means
clearly stated in the Act to establish and maintain household science and manual training in
the schools of British Columbia.
Any school district desiring these subjects will receive financial assistance for one-half
the cost of equipment up to a maximum of $500 and $580 grant towards the instructor's salary.
AVhile no one rural school district could afford this, there is no reason why in a group of from
five to seven districts an instructor should not be engaged, either taking a period at each
school or having the pupils attend a centre. All this could be worked out to the great advantage
of the pupils and residents in general if the members were familiar with and understood the
provisions of the Act; that is, they knew how to interpret the Act and apply the provisions
to local conditions in each district.
We are urging the election of women on the School Boards in the hope of bringing about
a great co-operation of the institutes with the Boards, and gradually this is being done, the
majority of institutes to-day reporting one and frequently two women trustees on the Sehool
Attention is being called to the fact that taxpayers may attend the School Board meetings,
thus keeping in touch with school matters.
Consolidation of rural schools is a subject that is not receiving sufficient attention. Unfortunately the initial expense is a great obstacle and the results are not sufficiently apparent. It
seems a pity that more information is not readily available on the advantages of consolidation.
Fully half the institutes of the Province report a hot lunch or milk provided for the children,
especially those who come any distance. AVe hope the day is not far distant when no country
school in a ATomen's Institute district will be without some form of lunch-supply. Statistics
have shown that the country child is, on the whole, less healthy than the city child, and leading
all other defects is that of malnutrition.   The long distance to walk to school, the cold lunch, 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 97
and long waking hours of the country child is given as the principal causes of this condition.
The hot lunch, a glass of milk, or hot soup in the country schools is a long step towards righting
this deplorable state of affairs.
The sanitary conditions of our country schools, which, to quote an Inspector, " beggars
description," is gradually giving way before an intelligent public opinion. Attention has been
called to the necessity of providing and maintaining clean and healthy conditions. No institute
has fulfilled its obligations, has lived up to our ideals, where the sanitary conditions of the
public school is below the standard.
One of the most interesting district reports given at conferences was that of Airs. Dryden,
of Peaehland. It consisted of a summary of the report of the Superintendent of Education and
was received with rapt attention by the audience, yet all this and much more may be had upon
request. To popularize the reading of these reports, so that the facts and ideas contained
therein may become every-day topics of conversation,  is a worthy object for this committee.
There is still a great work to be done in this branch. Every school-ground should be the
beauty-spot of the neighbourhood. J. AA'. Gibson, Director, Elementary Agriculture, Department
of Education, will assist with advice and the Department with finances if any district desires
to improve and beautify the school-grounds.
The school-room should contain copies of famous paintings, portraits of great men and
women; in fact, it could be the public picture-gallery, and John Kyle, Organizer, Technical
Education, Department of Education, will assist with advice on choosing and arranging pictures.
The school-room should be the headquarters for the public library, for the children and
residents; every year books should be added. The Department of Education stands ready to
assist dollar for dollar up to a total grant of $50 every year. Yet Parksville is the only institute
that has reported receiving and using this grant. II. Killam, Travelling Library, Parliament
Buildings, is ever ready and willing to assist in the selection of books. The institutes would
be doing all this if the members were thoroughly familiar with the provisions of the Act and
the functions of the Education Department.
It is recommended to the institutes that the members ascertain from trie teacher when
the Inspector is to make his regular visit, and when his inspection of the local school takes
place, for the institute to confer with him on practical • ways and means of improving school
There is very little that can be effected through this committee, further than studying the
legislation already on the statute-books and the forward legislation affecting women and children
in other countries.
When resolutions are presented to the conference asking for some change in or addition
to existing legislation, it is always in relation to some distressing case which has come to the
notice of the women; then the request comes for a law to cover that specific case, to prevent
any such ever again.
If we would start a campaign to educate people to make wills, " Every man (and woman
too) should make his will and insure his life " is a splendid maxim which we would do well
to support. AVe are striving to make plain to our women that more is accomplished by education than legislation; in fact, that legislation can come only as a result of education.
There has been many requests for a summary of the legislation affecting women and children
passed since women obtained the franchise, which it is hoped can be supplied in 1924.
The work that our communities are able to do in this branch is ever Increasing. British
Columbia is in need of settlers not only on the land but in industries, and especially do we
need desirable settlers—settlers that can become part of the community, settlers whose traditions
and ideals are similar to our own. Recognizing this, the Federal Department of Immigration
and Colonization is looking to the Women's Institutes to act in the capacity of boards or committees of reception in the rural districts. But the authorities in Great Britain are ready to
go even farther; they are asking us what kind settlers we desire. If, then, through our immigration committees we can make surveys of the various districts, giving reliable information
on the living conditions, produce grown, and prospects, we shall receive British settlers who
can immediately become a part of the community; in short, we can choose our own neighbours.
7 It is very gratifying indeed to hear no less official than the Director of the Women's
Division, Department of Immigration, Ottawa, say that British Columbia was the only Province
in the Dominion where members of the individual institutes wrote directly to this branch.
It is not too much to say that the future of British Columbia depends in no small measure on
the attitude taken by the AVomen's Institutes on the great scheme of " Immigration within the
The members have been urged to inform themselves upon the proportion of foreign-born
in our prisons and mental hospitals. AVhen we consider that each prisoner at Oakalla and each
patient at the Alerital Hospital costs the taxpayers of British Columbia $400 a year, it will
then be ■ seen the practical relation between our immigration policy and the welfare of the
The total number of prisoners received in Oakalla Prison Farm for the year ended March
31st, 1923, was 1,484. Forty per cent, of these are foreign-born. Now, ,40 per cent of 1,484 is
594. At $400 each per year the cost to the Province would De $237,600. Our immigration laws
should prevent these undesirables from entering our country.
There were 438 patients admitted into the Alental Hospital from April, 1922, to March,
1923. Of these patients 299 are foreign-born. At $400 each we have a cost of $119,000 annually
to the Province. Again, our immigration laws should prevent the admittance of these pleople.
The Annual Report of the Mental Hospitals of the Province of British Columbia may be had
on application and all these figures are given. The report of the Medical Superintendent found
on page 9 up to and including page 12 makes interesting and informative reading.
Publicity and National Events.
When we first started on this as committee-work it was difficult to see where there was
anything more required than to give publicity in the local papers to the accomplishments of
the individual institutes.
As time has gone on, however, it has been seen that it is not enough that we give publicity
to our own local achievements, but that we who are working for home and country should
make it known to the world at large why we are working for that home and country of which
we are so proud and of whose honour and prestige we are so jealous. To be a great nation
we must have literature, poetry, and music; we must have men of achievement. All these we
find we have, but they are unknown. Our Canadian literature as expressed In the Canadian
magazines is such that we do well to be proud of it. Of what other country in the world can
this be said? " Let me emphatically state here that the publications of Canada are on as high
a plane as any published in the world. Our own native magazines aud newspapers contain as
clean and healthy matter as one could desire. I think we can be proud of them and their
influence is good.
" Canadian publishers are very discriminating, not only by desire, but because the public
demands it. Send something that is off-colour to MaeLeans, The Canadian, or any of our other
magazines and your manuscript will be returned with an 'unable to publish' slip attached.
" Our Canadian authors exhibit the same characteristic. Who can help admiring and enjoying the clean, healthy stories of such writers as Ralp Connor or W. A. Fraser? "—W. F. Harrison,
Secretary, Alagazine Publishers' Association of Canada, in Public Health Journal for Alay.
For the purpose of awakening interest in our magazines, literature, poetry, and music a
questionnaire was submitted; unfortunately a few, very few, members objected to giving information regarding the nationality of the magazines received. Just why, it is not known; but it
was surprising and not encouraging to note just what small proportion was Canadian. That
this condition might no longer be due to ignorance in regard to names and addresses of the
Canadian publications, a booklet containing this information was issued by this branch for
the information of our women in the hope that our Canadian publications would be included
in those which found their way into the country homes.
Institutes have been urged to hold one all-Canadian entertainment during the year.
Then, too, altogether too little is known of our great men—of Canadian statesmen, scholars,
physicians—and the great events in Canadian history.
It has been with a desire to encourage a national literature that we are endeavouring to
foster a support of our own publications among the members of the institutes, and we are
pleased to be able to report that already the results are becoming apparent, as letters of apprecia- 14 Geo. 5 ■       British Columbia.        , I 99
tion are being received from such publishers as MacLcans.    I hope to be able to report more
substantial progress, especially in regard to national events, by the close of 1924.
•' Industeies.
This is one of the committees which has functioned very actively and with excellent results
through the year. Starting from the model institute meeting staged at the A'ancouver Island
Conference in 1922, the British Columbia Products Bureau, co-operating with the institutes,
put this programme of British Columbia Industries on in every institute that wished it throughout the Province. Fortunately for all concerned, the services of Airs. W. D. Todd, Victoria,
were available. The campaign opened with a series of meetings on Vancouver Island, followed
by a tour of the Okanagan. The programme as it was given publicity, in the press grew in
popularity, so that when the Kootenay District was visited all were eagerly looking forward
to the meetings. »
The programme, which has been described in the annual report for 1922, was given also at
ttje Kootenay District Conference with some humorous additions.    ..
A few institutes on the Lower Alainland have been visited, going to and returning from
the three districts; the remainder will be visited early in 1924.
Altogether eighty institutes have been visited, 22,000 lines of publicity given, and the attention of all Canada directed to the force the institutes can. be in building up trade and commerce
not only in the Provinces but throughout the Dominion.
This programme showing especially the institute method, is considered by the Bureau to
be the most effective means of educating the people to the necessity of patronizing home products.
It is recognized that greater results have been received from this method than from any one
agency yet employed. It is quite true that in the person of Mrs. Todd both the institutes and
the Bureau were peculiarly fortunate, as her enthusiasm, versatility, and accomplishments all
contributed in no small measure to the wonderful success which this campaign, begun only as
a doubtful experiment, proved to be.
Following this campaign, booklets containing a directory of the industries of the Province
have been forwarded to the Secretary of each institute by the Department of Industries. Alore
information is available from the Industries Department, the annual report of which may be
had. free upon request.
As yet there have been no home industries established; yet with the night-schools through
which to receive instruction, there is no reason why such industries as pottery, basket-making,
weaving, canning, and crystallizing of fruits should not be established. A class in pottery has
carried on most successfully in Summerland, aided by the Department of Education, and to-day
a very creditable product is being turned out. The ordinary flower-pot could be made and sold
here in British Columbia. Baskets could be made from local material; local wool could be
woven and knitted into commercial products. There should be a splendid opening with the
florists on the Prairie and Eastern cities for the sale of our broad-leaved evergreen for winter
decoration, such as dagger fern, Oregon grape, cedar, box, arbutus, and snowberry.
. There is still much to be done in cementing the support of the city housewives in the purchase of British Columbia products of the fields. The country woman, while .willing to give
preference to the manufactured product, naturally expects the city woman to do the same by
the agricultural product. There should be a common meeting-ground for the city and country
women, and here is where the Local Council of Women should function. These matters—that
is, the matter of co-operation between city and country—could and should be thrashed out at
the Local Council.
It is recommended that the institutes affiliate with the nearest Local Council and through
the Local Council Committee on Agriculture bring about a better understanding between country
and city housewives.
. Agriculture.
This committee has functioned most actively. Fifty-one institutes held flower-shows or
On Vancouver Island, under the able leadership of Mrs. B. Deacon, district convener,
thirteen institutes entered the Potato Fair. The competing institutes by levying a 5 cent per
capita tax provided a first and second prize. I 100 Department op Agriculture. 1924
There were exhibits of potatoes grown from certified seed and appetizing potato-dishes.
Gordon Head Women's Institute won first prize and Lazo second. It is hoped to have the
four Women's Institute districts exhibiting at the Provincial Potato Fair, which will probably
be held in Vancouver in 1924.
The Lower Mainland institutes are keenly interested in the possibilities of the Vancouver .
Curb Market, and this was discussed at the Lower Alainland Conference.
The Okanagan is interested in scholarships for young people for the short courses given
at the University.
In the Kootenay a resolution was passed at the district conference to get in touch with
the institutes in Alberta in order to ascertain what the country women most desired in the
line of apples and other fruit, co-operating with the Associated Growers.
The reports given by the conveners for Arancouver Island and the Lower Mainland were
illuminating in the extreme, showing up the large amounts of agricultural products imported
from other countries, agricultural produce which is grown in British Columbia.
These figures were taken from the Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, and
from the interest evinced by the members present our women would certainly find the reports
from the various branches of the Department interesting and instructive. This annual report,
like all others, may be had upon request.
The majority of institutes hold flower-shows. It seems a pity that these functions major
on the prize-list rather than an advertisement of the farm product.
If each district which is famous for some products would make the flower-shows a means
of advertising those particular products, we would create or increase the demand for these
I do not think the flower-shows are used sufficiently in this relation; it seems to me they
might be of great commercial advantage if there were demonstrations on the use, let us say,
for instance, of the loganberry products, seed and bulb growing, Kootenay cherries, Lower Fraser
raspberries, etc.
The bulletins published by the Department on the various branches of agriculture are
distributed by the institutes and from all reports are greatly appreciated.
There has been an increased interest shown in the Annual Report of the Department of
Agriculture, copies of which have been sent to the institutes. The services of different officials
are frequently requested to give information and advice on the various branches.
The great need of the country women is not knowledge on how to produce—this they seem
to have, judging by the quality and quantity of produce—but a market for this produce; and
here again I earnestly recommend a closer relation through the Local Council of AVomen between
the country and city women; this to be brought about through institutes affiliating with the
nearest Local Council. This accomplished, our country women through the Agricultural Committee should make marketing conditions known. In other words, the institute delegates through
the Agricultural Committee could educate the city women to the necessity of supporting British
Columbia products of the field to the benefit of farm and city.
We hear on all sides the great desire to keep our young people on the land. AVe have
agriculture taught in our schools. We pay out for this agricultural education $25,340.75
annually, and there is the most interesting report from the Director of Elementary Agriculture,
found on page 57 up to and including page 73, giving details of the instruction and the work
accomplished in the Report of the Public Schools. It is earnestly recommended to the members
of the institutes that this report be obtained.
Community' Betterment.
The greatest activity has been shown in this branch of the work, practically every institute
reporting progress.
Salmon Arm Institute has confined all efforts to this branch, building a community hall
and rendering assistance in the school fair and to needy families in the district.
Summerland has set us all an example, beautifying the main thoroughfare, improving the
public park, and, best of all, doing this in co-operation with the City Council.
Surrey has made a good start setting out bulbs and making a garden of a plot of ground
adjoining the highway given by the British Columbia Electric.
Tappen has a long record to its credit. This little institute has for years worked quietly
in first securing land for a cemetery, improving the grounds adjoining the hall. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 101
Boswell and Sanca is another institute which, among its endeavours, has improved the
hall and grounds.
Rutland Institute has organized a Community Rally Day, when all members of the community meet.
Valdes Island, a little band of brave women, has improved the grounds and built a comfortable hall.
Barnston Island has added a play-shed to the school-grounds, and so it could go on. The
community spirit, which the institutes all through the Province are fostering, is plainly in
evidence. From the community view-point to the Provincial is not difficult, because, after all,
as the community is a collection of homes, so the Province is a collection of communities, and
as we better the community so we better the Province, and with this Provincial outlook our
local and district conveners are recommended to read the Annual Report of the Department
of Public Works. Here are reports of road-building, public buildings, generally. As we read
of the trails, roads, and bridges constructed for the use of the public, we can see that after
all the Government is carrying out on a larger scale the same community work that we as
members of our individual institutes are carrying on in our district.
Women's Institute AVork and AIethod.
We again start the year with 111 institutes. Including the balance of $8,662.92 brought
forward from last year, 103 institutes have received from various sources the sum of $46,506.49.
They have expended $39,402.18, leaving a balance on hand for the year 1924 of $7,104.31.
The total receipts include the grant made by the Department to each individual institute,
which amounted to $2,342.75; membership grant, $632.75, etc., to aid the members in holding
flower-shows, health exhibits, school-children's work, or exhibit of women's work; total, $3,172.50.
In addition to this, the Department pays towards the expenses of one delegate from each
institute to the annual district institute conferences according to the following rule: Transportation and sleeper and an allowance of $3 a day towards living expenses from the day of leaving
home to the day of returning. This amounted, including rents for halls, speakers, etc., to $1,960.99.
Seventy institutes contributed $316 to the Federated AVomen's Institutes of Canada treasury.
Sixty-three institutes contributed $1,010 in eight months to the Crippled Children's Fund.
Several individual institutes contributed to the Japanese Relief Fund and Save the Children
Fund, but by far the greater part of that $39,402.18 was spent in local community betterment,
such as halls, parks, cemeteries, and good roadways.
The institute showing the greatest cash receipt is Salmon Arm, which again leads the way
with cash received, $3,581.42.   This institute is still paying for the hall.
Kelowna takes second place this year; receipts, $1,982.18. Kelowna, as has been stated,
has maintained a Public Health Nurse in the district. Vernon ranks third, with $1,647.08.
This institute has supported the Public Health Nurse through the year 1923. Similkameen is
fourth; receipts were $1,529. AVest Saanich ranks fifth, with receipts $1,454.30. Langley Fort,
Nelson again leads the Province in unselfishness, contributing to the nursing service on
Kootenay Lake and giving the largest amounts of any one institute to the Crippled Children's
Fund; cash receipts, $1,149.06.
As an example of what the Women's Institutes can mean to the isolated districts and as
a means of linking up the distant points in one grand whole, the report of Valdes Island is
appended. Please note, with a membership of thirty this institute has felt itself a part of
the national life, contributing to the Federated Fund; a part of the Provincial life, contributing
to the Crippled Children's Fund; yet the larger part spent on the local needs and children of
the district. This is as it should be. The whole report breathes a spirit of co-operation and
goodwill that makes life worth living. Some of these members go 10 miles to attend meetings,
and every woman on the island is a member. This institute is cited because it is for such
women and such districts that the AVomen's Institute organization is intended.
Annual Report of Valdes Island Women's Institute.
" The receipts for the year were $204.65. Disbursements, $204.65, as follows: Contributed
to the Federated Women's Institute Fund, $4.50; Crippled Children Fund, $17; local needs
$112.05; child-welfare, $71.10. I 102 Department of Agriculture. 1924
"We have conveners and committees for community welfare, child-welfare, Girl Guides,
cemetery, and publicity.
" For community welfare we held three showers for the local hospital; a complete layette
shower for a temporally mother; bought articles through the Vancouver Red Cross Branch for
a lending-closet. AVe also received from the same Branch a Red Cross kit free of charge. The
contents of these are loaned to any one in the community in need of them.
" On June 30th we held an exhibition of roses, school-gardens, and children's handicraft,
which was a great success. Separate prizes were donated by our members for the Girl Guides
and Brownie exhibits.
" We spent a very pleasant day in July at a joint picnic with the members of the Whaletown Institute, and sold $5 worth of tickets for the Sayward AVomen's Institute for the sports
at the Fall Fair.
" We planted and cared for the .cemetery borders; sent bulbs and plants to each school.
We have held one parliamentary drill. There was need of help in a few farm homes. This help
was obtained through friends.
" We are familiar with the provisions of the ' Medical Inspection of Schools Act' Our
Child-welfare Committee is in touch with the Provincial Health Board. Alembers of our institute
are secretaries of two of our schools; therefore we have the report of the medical inspection.
Some of the mothers were present at the last inspection and we have asked our Medical Inspector
to notify the parents this year.
" Our Institute and Child-welfare Committee held a baby clinic; three lectures on first aid
and bed nursing. Diet folders, advisory letters, Canadian ilothers' Books, the Canadian Blue
Books, and booklets from the Cold Storage Branch were distributed. AVe really have no need
of a Public Health Nurse, as we have a hospital.
" AAre have studied the ' Public Schools Act' and have women trustees on the School Board
who are members of our institute. There are three schools in our district and consolidation
has been talked about, but nothing has been done so far. There are good sanitary provisions,
a pure-water supply and facilities for washing hands, sufficient playground space, and there
are a few pictures in the class-rooms. AVe have not provided any hot lunches, but there are
facilities to heat the lunches. At Heriot Bay the teacher's residence is quite close and she gives
the children hot milk and cocoa. We have voted an adequate sum Of money to improve the
Quathiaski school-grounds and have a new school-house. There is playground supervision and
some games, football, baseball, and a swing for the smaller children. AVe are striving for better
school-gardens; therefore we gave to each of the three schools $5 for prizes.
" We have tried to increase interest in legislation. We had several' lectures and also have
copies of Acts concerning women and' children. We are aware of the immigration laws and
have statistics on Oriental occupation and cultivation of our land to keep it in mind; we had
roll-calls on these subjects. AVe are informed as to the proportion of foreign-born in gaols,
prisons, and mental hospitals.
" We have a community hall and are clearing by voluntary work a recreation-ground. At
these ' bees' the Women's Institute and Social Club are providing the lunches.
" AVe have assisted the Girl Guides and Brownies. Also have reported each institute meeting
in our local paper and some in the Vancouver paper. AA'e are making clippings of what other
institutes are doing; that is, from Eastern institutes. AVe very seldom see reports from the
British Columbia and Arancouver Island institutes.
" A number of our members are taking Canadian magazines. We know of the publications
of the Agricultural Department, also the assistance obtainable from the Land Settlement Board,
the condition of money loans, and the stumping-powder regulations.
" AVe visit and assist new settlers as far as possible.
"British Columbia goods, Canada or British Empire goods are asked for and have been
brought up at every institute meeting during the year, but we often find our local stores stocked
with American goods, which, we believe is the fault of the wholesaler.
" There are no industries carried on by our institute so far. During the summer a sale
was held at which $131.60 was realized. After deducting the expenses it was divided in four
equal parts—one .to St. John's Church, Quathiaski, one to the hospital, one to the community
hall, and the fourth for the use of the institute.
" Anna V. Joyce,
Secretary." 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 103
The majority of institutes reporting state that they are co-operating with various Government
departments, but upon further inquiry it is found that there is a great lack of information on
these departments, what they are and what their functions are, how much of the Provincial
funds are spent by each, and what the funds are spent for. Although each department publishes
an annual report containing all of this information free upon request, no one, so far as is
known among our institute members, ever obtain copies, nor would any one reading these
reports understand their significance, or see the relation of departmental expenditure and the
expenditure of institute funds. No one feels any responsibility toward these departments. In
making criticism it is always " They spend, etc."; never, as it should be, " We spend through
our Government departments, etc." Yet all of the reports of the departments make interesting,
even fascinating, reading, second to none on the markets, if they would be taken as subjects
for reading and discussion. Further, much of the unjust criticism hurled at the heads of
departments would be obviated by an intelligent understanding of the provisions of the Acts
and a knowledge of the functions of each department. For instance, if those members who
so readily state, " So many thousand spent on hogs by the Department of Agriculture but not
one cent on the welfare of our children," would inform themselves of the facts and figures
given in the reports, they would find that, though this statement is very sensational, it Is
absolutely untrue. The Department of Agriculture does spend money on hogs, but the Department of Education spends one-sixth of the consolidated revenue of the Province on the education
of our children. Figures of Fifty-second Annual Report of the Public Schools, 1922-23, page 18:
Grand total cost of education, $7,630,009.54. Consolidated Revenue of Province, $18,359,246.
The Department of Health spends $1,790,902 for the health of the men, women, and children
of the Province.
As the institutes are the. only women's organizations subsidized by Government funds, it
is felt that the responsibilities should be a little different from other organizations. The object
of the institutes is to improve conditions of rural life so that settlement may be permanent and
prosperous in the forming communities; therefore all our efforts should be directed with an
eye single to Provincial prosperity, for as the prices of farm products are the first to feel the
effect of hard times and the last to respond to a revival of' trade, there is no possibility of
permanency or prosperity in farming communities apart from Provincial or national prosperity.
It is to bring this relation home to our members that Women's Institute work and method
has been stressed. To further facilitate this, we arranged for a course in "Civics and Citizenship," organized under the provisions of the night-school classes and conducted by Airs. Spofford.
I append herewith report of this course given at Esquimalt and presented to the Vancouver'
Island District Institute Conference:—
Report of Institute School, Esquimalt, Women's Institute.
" One of the interesting and very helpful features of the year's activities and somewhat
of an innovation in institute-work was our ' Institute School,' the object of which was that
of benefiting the members individually and of more efficiently performing the work of the
institute and of attaining its purposes.
" The school was conducted as a night-school class under the auspices of the local School
Board; it consisted of a course in ' Civics and Citizenship,' and under the capable instructor-
ship of Mrs. C. Spofford proved successful beyond our expectation. Twenty-five members,
including four gentlemen, were enrolled and the course- covered ten lessons.
" The class was opened by reading notice announcing the meeting, singing the Institute
Ode, repeating the Aims and Objects of the AA'omen's Institutes, and the roll-call was responded
to by important items bearing upon the subject of the evening's lesson.
"Realizing the importance of women, who to-day are so largely in public life, being prepared to do their work well and efficiently, the first part of each lesson was devoted to the
study of parliamentary usage, in order that the business of the regular institute meetings
might be conducted in as efficient a manner as possible. This study was not only instructive
but proved most interesting—not at all dry—and occasioned considerable discussion, and with
each lesson our desire to learn how to deal with the various exigencies likely to arise in the
course of a «neeting grew. AA'hile not going into the intricacies of parliamentary usage, the
instruction covered practically all that is necessary for the conduct of the ordinary business
of any society and the practical exemplification of each ruling as it was presented was of the I 104 Department op Agriculture. 1924
greatest value. The class not only was taught ' how the thing should be done,' but ' it did the
thing as taught.' This drill, with frequent reviewing as the lessons proceeded, helped very
materially in impressing the various rules of order, thus enabling the class to retain the
knowledge gained.
" The second part of each evening was devoted to the study of the work of the various
standing committees, the subjects which are closely allied with departments of Government
being particularly stressed. It is true that Governments may come and Governments may go,
but the various departments under which the work of any Government is conducted continues;
and for the benefit of the women of our institutes, in the discharge of their responsibilities as
citizens, it is important that they understand just how any Government functions. So wide
and far-reaching is the scope of work of the various standing committees that to exhaust a
subject in the time available would be an impossibility, but the class was impressed with the
amount of information and the many facts that could be given in the short time when these
were concisely and methodically presented. The address of each evening afforded a basis
for discussion, in which the members of the class took part very generally. In this way much
information was acquired on the work of the standing committees, which it is difficult for the
busy women in the institute to get for themselves, owing oft-times to lack of time or knowledge
of just where the necessary help can be obtained.
" So greatly impressed were the members with the benefit of the Institute School that we
are hoping to undertake another course with an extension of the subjects in the near future,
and having proved the worth of the experiment, heartily commend it as the best yet to help
out institute members in their work in the Institute Schools.
"All of which is respectfully submitted.
"(Mrs.)  E. Jacklin,
Secretary, Esquimalt Women's Institute."
The benefit accruing from such a course so appealed to the members of the four district
conferences that an outline of the ten lessons comprising the course was prepared and submitted
to the organizer of Technical Education, and is on file in that office.
The services of Airs. J. D. Gordon are available to any institute or group of institutes.
With the information and instruction comprised in these lessons, the members throughout
the Province are brought to a realization not only of the powers but the responsibilities of
voluntary organizations, and to the everlasting credit of our country women be it said that
they are measuring up to these responsibilities in greater and greater degree; they are indeed
becoming a great voluntary parliament of rural women, raising the standard of organization
endeavour not only in the Province but throughout Canada, and with the confident hope that
through such efforts they are helping in no small degree to build a new and nobler Canada.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
V. S. MacLachlan,
Secretary, B.C. Women's Institutes. 14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
I 105
Correspondence received and bispatched by the Department of Agriculture   (at A'ictoria)
for the Years ended December 31st, 1922 and 1923.
Office of the  Deputy  Minister—
Agricultural Associations 	
Secretary,  Women's  Institutes 	
Horticultural Branch  	
Live Stock Branch—
Brands  L	
Poultry Branch 	
Soil and Crop  Branch  	
Totals      ..          	
AVomen's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1923.
Vancouver Island, etc.
Lake   Hill   	
Bulb and flower show.
Exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-show and exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Health exhibit; " better babies " clinic.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's
Exhibition of women's work and school-children's   work.
Exhibition of women's work at fall fair.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's
Exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of women's work ; health exhibit.
Valdes Island	
Colwood  -	
Royal Oak 	
Garden  City  	
South  Saltspring 	
Cobble Hill 	
„   14
South   Saanich  	
Denman Island 	
West Saanich 	
Exhibition of women's work. I 106
Department of Agriculture.
APPENDIX No. 2—Continued.
Women's Institute Flower-shows, etc., 1923—Continued.
April     21
May       19
July       28
Aug. 21-22
Sept.    u-6
„   12-13
„    12-13
„    18-20
„   23-
Lower Mainland.
South Vancouver 	
Hatzic    -	
Upper  Sumas	
Barnston Island 	
Surrey    ;.	
Langley  Fort   -	
Point Grey	
Mission City 	
Strawberry Hill 	
Langley Prairie  	
Fern Ridge	
Lynn  A'alley 	
Otter District 	
Woods Lake ....
Salmon Arm 	
Mount Ida 	
Poplar Grove  	
Kaslo  and  District  ...
Willow Point  	
Nelson and District ....
Burton  City  ........'.	
New Denver  	
Crawford Bay 	
Boswell-Sanca ,	
East  Arrow  Park  	
Slocan A'alley 	
Rock Creek 	
Exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Strawberry and ice-cream social.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of women's work at Vancouver.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of women's work.
Exhibition of women's work at fall fair.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Health exhibit; " better babies " clinic.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of school-children's work.
Bird-house exhibit.
" Better babies " clinic ; health exhibit.
" Better babies " clinic ; health exhibit.
Flower-show ; " better babies " clinic.
Health exhibit; " better babies " clinic:
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of women's work.
Exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibition of women's work.
Exhibit at fall fair.
Exhibition of women's work.
" Better babies " clinic.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Exhibition of women's work.
Flower show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of school-children's work.
Exhibition of women's work. ...
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of school-children's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Flower-show ; exhibition of women's work.
Exhibit at fall fair.
Exhibition of school-children's work and children's gardens.
Flower-show; exhibition of women's work and school-children's work.
Exhibit at fair (Slocan City). , .
Exhibit at fair. 14 Geo. 5    . British Columbia. I 107
Agricultural Fairs, 1923—Grants in Aid of Prize-lists.
Circuit 1—                                          Name. Grant paid.
Qualicum District Farmers' Institute  $      25 00
South Saltspring Island AVomen's Institute   25 00
British Columbia Agricultural and Industrial Association (Victoria) 3,162 00
Nanoose Agricultural Association  '  73 00
Sayward Progressive Association   25 00
East Sooke Farmers' Institute  25 00
Shawnigan and Cobble Hill Farmers' Institute  19 00
Islands Agricultural and Fruit-growers' Association   73 00
Ladysmith Agricultural Society   130 00
Alberni Agricultural and Industrial Association   85 00
Cowichan Agricultural Society  443 00
Hilliers and District Agricultural Association  66 00
Comox Agricultural and Industrial Association   234 00
Denman Island Farmers' Institute   53 00
Lasqueti Island Agricultural Association  25 00
North and South Saanich Agricultural Society  302 00
Circuit 2—
AA'est Arancouver Agricultural and Horticultural Association  51 00
Vancouver Exhibition Association   5,595 00
Burquitlain Agricultural Association and Farmers' Institute   145 00
North Vancouver Horticultural Society and Farmers' Institute  110 00
Squamish Farmers' Institute   19 00
Langley Agricultural Association   235 00
Chilliwack Agricultural Association   994 00
The District of Surrey Agricultural Association  252 00
Alaple Ridge Agricultural Association   169 00
AVhonnock and District Farmers' Institute   45 00
Royal Agricultural and Industrial Society (New AVestminster)    6,114 00
Matsqui Agricultural and Horticultural Association   192 00
Agassiz Agricultural and Horticultural Association   126 00
Abbotsford-Sumas Agricultural Association  136 00
Delta Agricultural Society   218 00
Mission Agricultural Association   289 00
Aldergrove Agricultural Association   71 00
Richmond Agricultural and Industrial Society  1  130 00
Fern Ridge Farmers' Institute   25 00
South Vancouver Horticultural Association   82 00
Pemberton Aleadows United Farmers' Association   25 00
Circuit 3—
Kamloops District Stock-breeders' Association  333 00
Salmon Arm and Shuswap Agricultural Association   343 00
Lumby District Agricultural Society   124 00
Falkland United Farmers' Association   25 00
Armstrong and Spallumeheen Agricultural Society   649 00
Pritchard Agricultural Association  74 00
Kelowna Agricultural Society   58 00
Peaehland Farmers' Institute and Women's Institute   19 00
Circuit 4—
Windermere District Agricultural Society   114 00
Windermere and District Association of Stock-breeders  121 00
Elk Valley and Natal Agricultural Association   64 00
Revelstoke District Fall Fair   125 00
Trail Fruit Fair Association   105 00 I 108
Department of Agriculture.
APPENDIX No. 3—Continued.
Agricultural Fairs, 1923—Grants in Aid of Prize-lists—Continued.
Name. Grant paid.
Boswell Farmers' Institute   $      29 00
Fruitvale Agricultural Association  48 00
Nelson Agricultural and Industrial Association   218 00
Arrow Park Farmers' Institute and Women's Institute   30 00
Creston Valley Agricultural Association  107 00
Arrow Lakes Agricultural and Industrial Association  66 00
Grand Forks Agricultural Association  90 00
Slocan Valley Agricultural and Industrial Association  51 00
Kootenay Lake Farmers' Institute   71 00
Rock Creek Farmers' Institute   39 00
AA'inlaw United Farmers' Association   25 00
Crawford Bay Farmers' Institute and AVomen's Institute  25 00
Circuit 5—
Fort George Agricultural and Industrial Association   259 00
Graham Island Farmers' Institute   25 00
AIcBride Farmers' Institute   34 00
Northern British Columbia Agricultural and Industrial Association 247 00
Houston District Fall Fair   25 00
Terrace District Fall Fair Association   49 00
Bulkley Valley Agricultural and Industrial Association  275 00
Nechaco Farmers' Institute   50 00
Fort St. John Agricultural Association   50 00
Rolla Agricultural Society   100 00
Total   $23,855 00
Pruning-schools, 1923.
G. E. W. Clarke 	
Ben  Hoy 	
Feb. 12 to Feb. 14              	
Jan. 29 to Fab. 3 	
Feb. 5 to Feb. 10            	
Feb. 18 to Feb. 22
C. R. Barlow	
E. C. Hunt 	
C. B. Twigg 	
Feb. 28 to Mar. 2 	
Mar. 7 to Mar. 8 	
South *locan   	
Feb. 5 to Feb. 9  ■	
Mar. 6 to Mar. 9 	
Mar. 19 to Mar. 21 	
Feb. 5 to Feb. 9 	
Feb. 13 to Feb. 21 	
April 8 to April 13 	
Total number of schools, 12 ; total number of pupils, 98. 14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
I 109
Packing-schools, 1923.
H. G. Greenwood 	
Per Cent.
.Tan. 16 to Jan.  22 	
■Tan. 23 to Jan. ^0      	
Gray Creek 	
Feb. 2 to Feb. 7 ....    .     	
Total number of schools, 4 ; total number of pupils, 50 ; average proficiency, 76 per cent.
British Columbia Greenhouse Survey, 1923.
No. of Growers.
No. of Houses.
Area in Square Feet.
Lower Mainland—
690,480    '
Vancouver Island—
Exportation and Importation of Potatoes to and from British Columbia.
Potatoes exported during the Year 1.923.
Yukon, 1922 crop  	
United States, 1923 crop 	
Straits Settlements (Singapore), 1922 crop
Straits Settlements (Singapore), 1923 crop
China, 1922 crop 	
China, 1923 crop 	
Honolulu, 1923 crop 	
New Zealand, 1923 crop 	
Alexico City, Mex., 1922 crop	
Potatoes imported during the Tear 1923.
From Alberta, 1922 crop         37,166
„      Alberta, 1923 crop       184,300
„     United States, 1922 crop   1,102,534 I 110
Department of Agriculture.
•psos ypo\
-m3H uj9}S9Ai
'P93S  13801,1
oon.idg usHts
ji^g sbiSuoq
cm   :;:;!::: co co
©    :    ; ■*
mJ  8, in
fcJ « &
So o :S
i. d 5 s - ft 14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
I 111
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry in
British Columbia  (including those condemned).
Apples (boxes)  20,457
Apples (% boxes)    300
Apples   (barrels)  4
Crab-apples   (boxes)     7
Crab-apples  (%■ boxes)     	
Pears (boxes)  40,992
Pears (% boxes)  76
Yakammes (boxes)    133
Plums  (boxes)  14,575
Prunes   (boxes)     9,922
Peaches (boxes)   116,459
Apricots   (boxes)     34,366
Limes  (boxes)  50
Quince  (boxes)   ..'  21
Cherries   (boxes)     10,284
California oranges (boxes)    192,298
Australian oranges  (boxes)     	
Australian oranges (boxes) (to east of B.C. and U.S.) 	
Japanese oranges (boxes)   206,991
Japanese oranges (boxes)  (to points east of B.C.)  348,090
Chinese oranges (boxes)    565
Tangerines (boxes)   .         93
Marmalade oranges (boxes)   1,803
Lemons  (boxes)    31,854
Grapefruit  (boxes)     21,250
Pomeloes   (boxes)  789
Pineapples  (boxes)   ». 439
Persimmons  (boxes)    334
Pomegranates  (boxes)    613
Tomatoes  (boxes)  20,987
Peppers (boxes)   1,132
Egg-plants  (boxes)     85
Potatoes   (tons)     662
Sweet potatoes   (tons)     366
Yams  (tons)    59
Taro  (tons)    112
Rice  (tons)    !2  18,799
Corn (tons) ■ ;  15,979
Beans (tons)  :  1,925
Peas (tons)   665
Peanuts (tons)  2,874
Walnuts (tons)  772
Corn on cob (crates)  	
Strawberries (crates)   :  153
Vetch (tons)  '4
Hops (tons)  5
17 1 112 Department of Agriculture. 1924
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at all Ports of Entry in
British Columbia.
Apples (boxes)  	
Apples (Vi boxes)  	
Crab-apples  (boxes)   	
Pears  (boxes) 	
Pears (% boxes)  	
Plums  (boxes)   	
Prunes (boxes)	
Peaches   (boxes)   	
Quince (boxes) 	
Apricots   (boxes)   	
Cherries   (boxes)   	
California oranges (boxes) .
Chinese oranges (boxes)  	
Australian oranges  (boxes)
Grapefruit  (boxes)  	
Lemons  (boxes)  	
Pineapples  (boxes)   	
Tomatoes   (boxes)	
Peppers (boxes)  	
Potatoes   (tons)   	
Sweet potatoes   (crates)   	
Corn on cob  (crates)  	
Walnuts  (lb.)  	
Taro  (lb.)   	
Tomatoes (lb.)  	
Cabbage (tons)   	
Asparagus   (boxes)   	
Pears  (baskets)  	
Lychee  (baskets)  	
Peanuts (baskets)  	
Walnuts (baskets) 	
Mangoes   (baskets)   	
Papaias  (boxes)  	
Pineapples  (dozen)  	
130 '
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, etc., inspected at Vancouver (including
those condemned).
1923. 1922.
Apples   (boxes)      13,309 31,428
Apples (Yz boxes)    218 65
Apples (barrels)    '.  1 3
Crab-apples  (boxes)    7 3
Crab-apples (% boxes)                44
Pears (boxes)    36,783 34,535
Pears (% boxes)   61                   	
Plums  (boxes)     10,866 10,940
Prunes (boxes)   8,876 394
Peaches (boxes)   90,129 77,412
Cherries (boxes)  .«  7,605 5,208
Apricots   (boxes)     27,800 48,335
Quince (boxes)   5 66 14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
I 113
APPENDIX No. 11—Continued.
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, etc.,  Inspected at Vancouver-
Yakamines (boxes)    123
Tangerines (boxes)    83
California oranges (boxes)    146,863
Australian oranges (boxes)   	
Australian oranges (boxes) (to east of B.C. and U.S.) 	
Japanese oranges (boxes)    166,524
Japanese oranges (boxes)   (to points east of B.C.).... 307,290
Marmalade oranges (boxes)    1,803
Chinese oranges (boxes)   324
Lemons  (boxes)    24,598
Grapefruit  (boxes)     18,178
Pomeloes (boxes)  -  472
Limes  (boxes)       50
Pineapples  (boxes)     392
Persimmons (boxes)    328
Pomegranates  (boxes)     551
Tomatoes   (boxes)     18,422
'Peppers (boxes)  '   619
Egg-plants   (boxes)    •  38
Potatoes   (tons)     521
Sweet potatoes (crates)   6,107
Yams (crates)  749
Taro  (crates)     1,895
Corn on cob (crates)  	
Memorandum of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, etc, condemned at Vancouver.
Apples (boxes)  	
Apples (V2 boxes)  	
Crab-apples   (boxes)   	
Pears  (boxes)  	
Pears (% boxes) 	
Plums  (boxes)   	
Prunes   (boxes)   	
Peaches (boxes) 	
Cherries  (boxes)   	
Apricots   (boxes)   	
Quince (boxes) 	
California oranges (boxes)
Chinese oranges (boxes)  ....
Australian oranges (boxes)
Lemons  (boxes)  	
Grapefruit  (boxes)   	
Pineapples (boxes)  	
Tomatoes  (boxes)  	
Peppers  (boxes)    	
Sweet potatoes (crates) 	
Taro  (crates)  	
Corn on cob (crates) 	
Potatoes  (tons)  	
17 I 114 Department of Agriculture. 1924
APPENDIX  No.  13.
Memorandum of Imported Nursery  Stock  inspected at Vancouver   (including
those condemned).
Standard fruit-trees— 1923. 1922.
Apple    13,006 81,384
Crab-apple  541 1,087
Pear   4,537 8,633
Cherry  9,880 18,843
Plum  4,743 ' 6,072
Prune   2,930 4,955
Peach      10,445 10,453
Yakamine   11 27
Quince  88 122
Nectarine     77 249
Apricot     9,522 12,870
Fig    7 88
Persimmon   18
Walnut     228 303
Butternut    4 	
Pecan                  1
Filbert   245 70
Chestnut   4 75
Almond    10 55
Seedlings, grafts, and scions—
Fruit seedlings   404,280 234,842
Ornamental seedlings   68,724 22,510
Grafts     3,201 14,886
Scions     32 1,704
Small-fruit bushes and plants—
Cranberry-vines     2 2
Grape-vines     1,291 1,394
Currant-bushes    498 1,896
Blueberry-bushes  22 352
Gooseberry-bushes  175 92
Raspberry-canes    4,330 14,503
Loganberry-canes    665 18,005
Blackberry-canes     2,350 4,698
Strawberry-plants   122,528 73,457
Ornamental trees, etc  58,006 51,281
Rose-bushes    65,649 59,692
Plants   (herbaceous)    .'.  28,224 36,053
Roots and bulbs   2,202,051 1,714,385
Totals      3,018,324 2,395,039
Inspected at Victoria, 243,606 bulbs. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 115
Memorandum of Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver.
Standard fruit-trees—
Crab-apple    ;	
Seedlings, grafts, and scions—
Fruit seedlings 	
Ornamental seedlings	
Grafts  ..'.	
Small-fruit bushes and plants—
Ornamental trees, etc	
Roots and bulbs	
Totals    20,211 8,228 I 116
Department of Agriculture.
Memorandum of Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., inspected at Vancouver.
80,722    50-lb. sacks rice
190,372 100-lb.
300 110-lb.
3,572 112-lb.
82 150-lb.
8,300 200-lb.
88,884   44-lb. mats rice
113.572    50-lb.
341    44-lb. sacks beans
2,293    50-lb.
36,771 100-lb.
8 200-lb.
5   60-lb. sacks peas ..
7,595 100-lb.
1,212 185-lb.
096 200-lb.
1 224-lb.
57 100-lb. sacks popcorn 	
107 150-lb. „ 	
25 100-lb. sacks corn 	
2,080 185-lb. „  (■
50,540 200-lb. , I
14,847,647 lb. bulk corn J
5,741,868 lb. peanuts	
1,536,337 lb. walnuts 	
The following were fumigated:—
1,212 200-lb. sacks rice 	
105    50-lb. sacks beans  ]
■   550 100-lb. .,  i,
56 150-lb. „  J
3 100-lb. sacks peas 	
111,400 lb. peanuts 	
4,975 lb. walnuts 	
19 tons almonds (1,260 lb. in 1922).
8 tons filberts.
128 cases pineapples   (350 crates in 1922).
574 cases figs.
939 cases raisins (129 cases in 1922).
500 cases currants.
864 boxes prunes.
100 boxes dried peaches.
2,464 boxes evaporated apples.
234 lb. mixed spices.
525 lb. coriander-seed (2,315 lb. in 1922).
1 sack (200 lb.) whole ginger.
35 boxes nutmegs.
360 empty sacks (3,600 in 1922).
10,000 empty mats  (1922).
1,000 lb. chestnuts (1922).
2 bags Brazil nuts  (1922).
135 lb. pignolis nuts  (1922).
300 lb.
6 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 117
Memorandum of Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, etc., inspected at Victoria.
1923. 1922.
Rice  (tons)     1,383 1,445
Corn (tons)   2,145 3,482
Corn   (lb.)    :  1,900                    	
Beans   (tons)     20 47
Beans  (lb.)     750                    	
Peas (tons)    55 15
Walnuts (tons)   3 52
Walnuts  (lb.)    700                    	
The following were fumigated:—
Rithet's Warehouse, Victoria, B.C., rice (tons;   25                    	
Rice  (tons)                 10
Wheat  (tons)                  10
Empty baskets                10
Case bamboo sieves                1
Pieces of. baggage                3
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which no Certificates were issued.
Apples  (dried)  ..
Brazil nuts	
Brussels sprouts
Bak Choy 	
Beans   (green)   ..
Black walnuts ....
Corn in ear 	
Cinnamon-bark  ..
4 I 118 Department of Agriculture. 1924
APPENDIX No. 17—Continued.
Memorandum of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which no Certificates were issued—
1923. 1922.
Crates. Crates.
Cranberries                  995 859
Foo Gwah                 19 20
Filberts                700 1,500
Figs   (dried)                  267
Gye Choy   671 	
Gobo-roots                  1,100
Grapes            37,395 36,068
Ginger-root           51,610 49,900
Garlic              2,500 1,720
Geet Gwah                 19 iy
Gooseberries                  jj
Horse-radish                   515
Huckleberries     357
Hickory nuts   200
Passion fruit
Hazel nuts  100
Lettuce     22,049 17,799
Lychee nuts   525         ■ 2,502
Lentils      100 2,500
Melons   5,379 1>030
Mint      y2 12
Myro Bolan nuts                1,000
Maize   1
Nutmegs    1,750 1,900
Onions   17,582 29,153
Olives  10
Parsley  80 131
Peas (split)                4,000
Peas (green)    302 657
Parsnips                236
PIH nuts                500
Pine nuts   900
Pecan nuts   3,835 200
Radishes  !3G 132
Rhubarb     4,357 2,691
Raspberries     3 2 014
Rutabagas     770
Spinach   7,795 3548
Squash   55 15
Seed  (miscellaneous)     155,313
Sue Choy   '125 180
Sugar-cane  83,000 32,500
Sang Gwah  :  10 jj
Strawberries     18,463 35286
Sage-leaves (dried)                1000
Turnips    2,050                     .'	
Water-chestnuts     44,500 32,600
Water-lily rhizomes   186,205 73,196
White nuts   4,420 2,300
Water-caltrops     1,300
Watermelons  32J04 30,377 14 Geo. o
British Columbia.
I 119
Districts and Herds tested for Tuberculosis, showing Reactors.
No. of
No. tested.
Vancouver Island.
Gulf Islands.
Saltspring  Island   	
Totals                                             ...                          	
Lower Fraser Valley and Districts adjacent  to  Vancouver.
Maple   Ridge   	
Sea  Isle ;	
North   Vancouver   	
New  Westminster 	
636 I 120
Department of Agriculture.
APPENDIX No. 18—Continued.
Districts and Herds tested for Tuberculosis, showing Reactors—Continued.
No. of
No. 'tested.
Central B.C. and Coast Points.
East of Cascade Range.
Notch Hill  	
Totals   . ...
Totals   ....
Creston Valley 	 14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
I 121
APPENDIX No. 18— Continued.
Districts and Herds tested for Tuberculosis, showing Reactors—Continued.
No. of
No. tested.
McMurdo   .                                               .           	
Syringa  Creek  _ _	
Wynndel _   	
Columbia Valley and other Points.
Baynes  Lake  	
22 I 122 Department of Agriculture. 1924
Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act " for Year 1923.
Name. # Address.
Arter, A 1755 Fifty-second Avenue East, Vancouver.
Asserlind, H. E. E 2136 Union Street, Vancouver.
Atkinson, L. A 319 Hospital Street, New Westminster.
Becket, Thos 539 Langford Street, Victoria.
Bollington, G. A ^ 528 Tenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Boulter,  Wm Ladner.
Brooks, F 1723 Fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Bunting, Thos Kamloops.
Calder, Jas 882 Hamilton Street, Vancouver.
Caldwell, John  1S55 Georgia Street, East, Vancouver.
Cameron, W. C Chilliwack.
Carman, J. E Revelstoke.
Carradice, F. W 1270 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Carroll, W. J Courtenay.
Carter, Jas. N 137 Seventeenth Avenue AVest, Vancouver.
Chevalley, F R.R. No. 1, Sardis.
Clark, F. J 203 Sixth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Cooke, E. II 1170 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Coake, E. W Fraser Valley Dairies, Vancouver.
Crawford, Thos 782S Prince Albert Street, Vancouver.
Dill, C. A Vanderhoof.
Drjke, A. W Ganges.
Dudman, A 333a Thirteenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Dunn, J. S 553 Fifth Street, Nanaimo.
Egerton, W R.M.D. 4, Victoria.
Farmer, R. W Golden.
File, G. A Salmon Arm.
Fowler, R. S '. Armstrong.
Gill, Marjorie S Salmon Arm.
Grimes, G. G Chilliwack.
Hall, F. D. B Box 172, Chilliwack.
Hansen, H. M Jackson Road, Aldergrove.
Henderson, C. A Kamloops.
Holmes, J Comox.
Hooper, W. J 1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
James, D. A 1114 Broadway West, Vancouver.
Jenne, R. E Grand Forks.
Johnson, xAlfred Vernon.
Karnagel, R Salmon Ann.
Kell,  George  510 St. George Street, New Westminster.
LeWarne, A. E Royal Dairy, Victoria.
Livingstone, J. B Fraser Valley Dairies, Ltd., Vancouver.
Livingstone, J. M 23 Alexander Street, Vancouver.
Lord, T Vernon.
Magar, J. A - Sardis.
Mathason, D. W Port Haney.
McAllister, C. W 707 View Street, Victoria.
McKerricker, W. R 1924 Fortieth Avenue, South Vancouver.
McLean, H.   Vancouver.
Medd, John E 1472 Charles Street, Vancouver.
Menzies, Thomas A Sandwick.
Metcalfe, J. F 3436 Oak Street, Vancouver.
Montieth, J. W Salmon Arm.
Morse, A. M 1750 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 123
APPENDIX No. 19—Continued.
Testers' Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act " for "Sear 1923—
Name. Address.
Nelson, C. E J. M. Steves' Dairy, Vancouver.
Newland, C. G Colony Farm, Essondale.
Norton, F. H. A 1311 Broad Street, Victoria.
Outram, G. H Vanderhoof.
Overland, F 2571 Thirty-sixth Avenue  West,  Vancouver.
Parkinson, R. F Kelowna.
Paterson, W. S Kelowna.
Patten, W Armstrong.
Patterson, W. L 536 Twenty-first Avenue East, Vancouver.
Price, T. W 905 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Quaedvlieg, E Keremeos.
Quirie, R. J Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
Richards, T. E 1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Rive, Charles Courtenay.
Rive, Elias  c/o Pacific Milk Co., Ladner.
Russell, Geo. F 220 Maple Avenue, Powell River.
Scott, B. B Kamloops.
Scouten, W Chilliwack.
Sejrup, V. M Duncan.
Sellers, J. H. 1257 Eighteenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Silver, Mark R 2215 Dundas Street, Vancouver.
Stock, C 818 Seventh Avenue East, Vancouver.
Thomas, S. J Kelowna.
Thomson, J. L Armstrong.
Thornbery, G. H Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
Turnbull, Miss M Kelowna.
Valentin.  M   Vanderhoof.
Van der Wall, W Tranquille Sanatorium, Tranquille.
Washington, F. J 1.170 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Watson, J. B Sardis.
Weighill, F 1716 Duchess Street, Victoria.
Wells, B Ladner.
West, C. H Purity Dairies, Vancouver.
Westlund, Mrs. A Vancouver.
Wood, R. K 930 North Park Street, Victoria.
Woods, R. II Nelson.
Creamery or Dairy Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act " for
Year 1923.
Name. Address.
Beaconfield Dairy Co 905 Twenty-fourth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Borden Co., Ltd Sardis.
Burns, P. & Co .. Woodland Drive, Vancouver.
Caldwell's Dairy 1855 Georgia Street, East, Vancouver.
Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Association  Quesnel.
Columbia Valley Co-operative Creamery Association..Golden.
Comox Creamery Association  Courtenay.
Cooper-Seldon Co Clayburn.
Cowichan Creamery Association  Duncan.
Curlew Creamery Co., Ltd Grand Forks. I 124
Department of Agriculture.
APPENDIX No. 20— Continued.
Creamery or Dairy Licences issued under " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act " for
Year 1923—Continued.
Name. Address.
Curlew Creamery Co., Ltd Nelson.
East End Dairy  2469 Oxford Street, Vancouver.
Edenbank Creamery Co Seventeenth and Ontario Streets, Arancouver.
Ferrara Cheese Manufacturing Co Chilliwack.
Fraser A'alley Creamery  1170 Hornby Street, A'ancouver.
Fraser Valley Dairies, Ltd Eighth Avenue and Yukon, A'ancouver.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association Chilliwack.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association Sardis.
Kelowna Creamery Co., Ltd Kelowna.
Lake AArindermere Creamery, Ltd Invermere.
Nanaimo Creamery Association 625 Pine Street, Nanaimo.
Nechaco A'alley Co-operative Creamery Association .Vanderhoof.
Northern Okanagan Creamery Association Armstrong.
Northwestern Creamery, Ltd 1311 Broad Street, Victoria.
Pacific Milk Co., Ltd.  (Abbotsford)  1328 Drake Street, Vancouver.
Pacific Milk Co., Ltd. (Ladner)  1328 Drake Street, Arancouver.
Penticton -Ice & Cold Storage Co Penticton.
Quaedvlieg, Victor  Keremeos.
Revelstoke Creamery & Produce Co Revelstoke.
Royal City Dairy  :....New Westminster.
Royal Dairy 1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Royal Dairy 707 View Street, Victoria.
Salmon Arm Creamery Association  Salmon Arm.
Saltspring Island Creamery Association  Ganges.
Spencer, David, Ltd., Creamery Hastings Street West, Vancouver.
Spencer, David, Ltd., Creamery Kamloops.
A'alley Dairy, Ltd 1569 Sixth Avenue West, Vancouver.
A'ancouver Creamery Co., Ltd 23 Alexander Street, Vancouver.
A'ancouver Ice & Cold Storage Co., Ltd 11 Gore Avenue, Vancouver.
A'ancouver Island Milk" Producers' Association  030 North Park Street, A'ictoria.
A'ernon Creamery  A'ernon.
A'ictoria City Dairy Co., Ltd 1111 Fort Street, A'ictoria.
White Lunch, Ltd 124 Hastings Street West, Vancouver.
Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia, 1923.
March 17, 1913 	
April 23,  1914
June 8, 1914 	
March,  1919
$600 00
John   Pritchard,   Comox  	
H. Berry, Langlev Prairie
G. E. C.  Hooper, Eburne 	
T. G. M. Clarke, A'ernon 	
P. W. Starr, Abbotsford 	
600 00
600 00
G. Et. Medd 	
600 00
April,  1920
H.   Turnbull   	
' 600 00
November,  1923
T.  A.  Menzies  	
100 00
. 14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
1 125
Synopsis of Potato Inspection and Certification for 1923-24.
13 a
U £ tfl
-o o  .
5r ^.H
rt c 33
o o Qi
S u »
y ° C
Bradner  —
Gordon Head and Victoria
Grand Porks 	
Kamloops    ..-	
Ladner  ..
Lulu   Island   	
Mount Lehman	
Pitt Meadows 	
Sooke   ...	
Note.—The number of sacks certified  is  only an   approximate   figure,   since  the  final  tuber  inspection
had not been made at the time of preparing this report.
Report on Field Inspections made in Certified Seed-potato Districts in 1923.
Average  Percentage  of
. 0.50
Cowichan -.-
Victoria and Gordon Head 	
Grand   Porks   	
Kamloops    -	
Lulu   Island	
Mount   Lehman   	
Malakwa   -	
Vernon  —..
0.25 I 126                                     Department op Agriculture.
Report on Tuber Inspections made before Grading in Certified Seed-potato Districts in 1923.
or Wilt.
L.B. and
Net. Nee.
Chilliwack and Abbotsford ....
Lulu   Island   	
0 8
Gordon  Head  	
Central B.C	
Grand Porks 	
* Incomplete.
Report on Field Inspections made in Districts where Crops had not been entered for
Certification Purposes in 1923.
* Average percentage of disease for all districts.
No. of
Average Percentage of
Sea Island 	
Mount Lehman 	
Pitt Meadows 	
6.03* 14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
I 127
Table giving Average Percentage of those Diseases which  show  on the  Growing Crop,
also Impurities in Varieties under Certification in 1923.
Irish Cobbler 	
Early  Rose  	
Sutton's Reliance ..
Early  Surprise 	
Jones' White 	
Wee McGregor 	
Jersey Royal 	
Early St. George ..
Netted  Gem  	
Green Mountain ....
Beauty of Hebron
Early Ohio  	
Gold  Coin  	
Sir Walter Raleigh
Houlton Rose 	
Early Bovee  	
Early Six Weeks ..
0.05 I 128
Department op Agriculture.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Report for Season 1923.
(a.)   Fraser Valley.
Situation  of
Name of Owner.
Date Queen
taken during Season.
W. H. Turnbull ..	
Lb.     Lb.
(1) May,
(2) May,
(3) M-ay,
(11   May,
(2) May,
(3) May,
(1)  May,
(21   May,
(3) May,
(4) May,
(1) April,
(2) April,
(3) April,
(4) April,
(1) July,
(2) July,
(1) May,
(2) May,
(3) May,
(4) May,
Langley Prairie  	
Mrs. J. W. Berrv     .  ..
T.  L. Baker 	
J. W. Winson 	
Dominion Exp. Farm ....
Charles Moore 	
Port Hammond 	
Miss H. S. Stewart 	
Mrs. M. B. McCallan  ....
A.  W.  Finlay            	
(1) Aug.,
(2) May,
(3) May,
(4) June,
(1) May,
(2) May,
(3) May,
(4) May,
(1) April,
(2) May,
(3) May,
(4) April,
H. S. Blois 	
II. Langton Johnson 	
Carried forward ....
1        19 14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
I 129
APPENDIX No. 27—Continued.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Report for Season 1923—Continued.
(a.)   Fraser Valley—Continued.
Situation of
Name of Owner.
Date Queen
taken during Season.
Brought, forward....
Lb.     Lb.
(1)       1922
(2)       1923
(3)       1922
(1) May,     1923
(2) May,     1923
Coquitlam    -	
* Went queenless.
(Jh)   Vancouver Island.
(1)       1923
(2)        1923
(1)                 1922
(2)    1922
37 I 130
Department of
APPENDIX No. 27—Continued. '
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Report, for Season 1923—Continued.
(c.)   Kootenays.
Situation of
Name of Owner.
Date Queen
taken during Season,
A.  E.  Pittaway  	
J.  W. Cockle 	
(1)                 1921
Lb.      Lb.
|       Lb.
(2)       1921
(3)       1921
(1)                 1922
B.  Munch 	
(2)    1922
(3)         1922
(1)                 1922
Grand Porks 	
Slocan City 	
Willow  Point  	
J. A.  Hutton  	
(2)       1922
(1)         1923
J. W. Bell 	
(2)                 1923
(3)       1923
(1)       1922
(2)            1923
(3)       ..        1D23
(4)       1923
(1)       1922
B.   Townshend  	
(2)       1923
(1)       1922
(2)       ..        1922
Crawford  Bay   	
(1)   .             1922
W. J. Kidman 	
(2)       1923
(3) .    .          1923
(1)                   199"
Chas. Holt	
(2)        1923
(3)   .               1923
(1)                 1922
(2)            1922
1 14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
1 131
APPENDIX No. 27—Continued.
Provincial Demonstration Apiaries—Report for Season 1923—Continued.
(d.)   Okanagan, Shuswap, aud 'Thompson Valleys.
Situation  of
Name of Owner.
Date Queen
taken during Season.
(1) 1922
(2)       1922
(3) 1922
(4)       1922
(1) June,     1922
(2) June,    1922
(3) June,    1922
(1)       1922
(2)       1922
(1) May,      1922
(2) Aug.,     1922
(1) May,      1923
(2) May,     1922
(3) May,    .1923
(4) Aug.,     1923
Lb.     Lb.
J. F. Roberts 	
11. D.  Child         	
Mrs.  E.  A.  Lott  	
(e.)   Summary.
taken during Season.
Fraser Valley 	
Vancouver  Island	
Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys
21 I 132
Department of Agriculture.
Twelfth International Egg-laying Contest.
The Twelfh Internationa] Egg-laying contest was held under the auspices of the Poultry
Branch, Department of Agriculture, at the Exhibition Grounds, Victoria, B.C., from October 2nd,
1922, to October 1st, 1923.    The total number of eggs laid is as follows:—
Name and Address.
•31, 32
37, 38
Class 1.—-Light-weight Varieties.
R. F. Matthews, R.M.D. 1, Victoria 	
Bolivar Leghorn Ifarm, Cloverdale (First prize, $15, and second
best laying bird, $5)
P. Darbey & Son, Port Hammond  (Second prize, $10, and best
laying bird, $7.50)
J. Gartside, Cranbrook (Third prize, $5) 	
C. E.  Shepperson, Box 137, Courtenay  (Fourth prize, Canadian
Poultry Review medal)
C. P. Metcalfe, Port Hammond	
Muir Bros., Bestwick	
A. J. Solway, McKenzie Avenue, Lake I-I ill 	
D. Tancred, R.F.D. 1, Kent, Wash	
A. R. Lowe, Lake Hill 	
Nicol & Eyes, R.R. 1, Langley Prairie 	
A. Adams, 3290 Dublin Street, Victoria 	
Mrs.  G. Nurse, Agassiz	
F. E. Pullen, Whonnock 	
H. S. Cadwell, Box 16, Keremeos 	
J. Cheetham, R.M.D. 3, Victoria 	
J. C. Reid, Box 225, Whonnock 	
J. W. Bancroft, Third Avenue, Steveston 	
E. J. White, 2785 Twenty-ninth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
R. W. Robinson, Colwood 	
Class t.—Heavy-weight Varieties.
Dean  Bros.,  Keating   (First prize,  $15,  and best laying bird,
C. F.   Banfield,   662  Craigflower  Road,   Victoria   (Second   prize,
$10, and second best laying bird,  $5)
R. V. Robinson, Lavington  !--
Mrs. E. Hodgson, Alberni  (Third prize, $5)  	
G. F. Henley, Agassiz  (Fourth prize,  Canadian Poultry Review
bronze medal)
A. Cant, Appledale 	
H. C. Cooke, Borden Street, Lake Hill 	
Mrs. C. R. Welch, Port Kells	
A. F. Atkinson, Box 181, Nelson 	
W. Bradley, Langford 	
D. M. Porter, 266 Robertson Street, Victoria	
A. H. Pain, Colwood	
Spencer Percival, Port Washington	
R. Clarke, 251 Mills Street, Victoria 	
W. H. Catterall, Cordova Bay 	
A. W. Abbs, 2125 Thirteenth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
EC. D. Reid, Box 1151, Victoria 	
W. G. Kerr, Seven Oaks P.O	
C. W. Friend, 2957 Vanness Avenue, South Vancouver 	
J. Lambie, Earl's Road and Forty-fifth Avenue, South Vancouver
White  Wyandottes
Single Comb Reds	
White  Wyandottes  	
White  Wyandottes  	
White  Wyandottes
* Eggs underweight.
B.C.P.A. diploma winners :   Class 1—First, C. E.   Shepperson ;  second,   H.   S.   Cadwell;  third,   Bolivar
Farm.   Class 2—First, R. V. Robinson ; second, Dean Bros. ; third, H. C. Cooke.
B.C.P.A. bronze medal:   Class 1, C. E. Shepperson.   Class 2, Dean Bros. 14 Geo. 5 British Columbia. I 133
Twelfth International Egg-laying Contest—Summary of Results.
Duration of contest (months)  '.  12
Number of pens   40
Number of birds   80
Number of eggs laid   14,121
Value of eggs laid   $335.37
Cost of feed   $193.28
Profit over cost of feeding   $142.09
Average price of eggs per dozen  $0.28.5
Highest price received per dozen (November 14th)    $0.59
Lowest price received per dozen (March 22nd)   $0.20
Average cost to produce 1 dozen eggs   $0.16.4
Average number of eggs laid per pen  353
Average number of eggs laid per pen, Class 1   338.8
Average number of eggs laid per pen, Class 2   367.2
Average number of eggs laid per bird   176.5
Average cost of food per bird (12 months)   $2.41
Profit over cost of food per pen  $3.55
Profit over cost of feed per bird   $1.77
Eggs laid by winning pen, class 1   444
Average per bird, winning pen, Class 1  222
Eggs laid by winning pen, Class 2  484
Average per bird, winning pen, Class 2   242 I 134
Department of Agriculture.
Twelfth International Egg-laying Contest—Individual Egg Records.
Name and Address.
Class 1.—Light-weight Varieties.
A. Adams. 3290 Dublin Street, Victoria 	
J. Cheetham, R.M.D. 3, Victoria	
0, 6     R. W.  Robinson,  Colwood	
7,   8     C. P. Metcalfe, Port Hammond	
9, 10     D. Tancred, R.F.D. 1, Kent, Wash., U.S.A	
11, 12     F. E.  Pullen,  Whonnock 	
13, 14     Mrs. G. Nurse, Agassiz 	
15,16    A. R. L'owe,  Lake Hill	
17,18     Muir Bros., Bcstwick	
19, 20 E. J. White, 2785 Twenty-ninth Avenue West, Van
21, 22     H. S. Cadwell, Box 16, Keremeos 	
23, 24     J. Gartside, Cranbrook 	
25, 26     J. W. Bancroft, Third Avenue, Steveston 	
27, 28     P. Darbey & Son, Port Hammond	
29, 30     Bolivar Leghorn Farm,  Cloverdale	
31, 32     R.  F. Matthews, R.M.D.  1, Victoria	
33, 34     J. C, Reid, Box 225, Whonnock	
35, 36     Nicol & Eyes,' R.R. 1, Langley Prairie	
37, 38     C. El Shepperson, Box 137, Courtenay	
39, 40     A. J. Solway, McKenzie Avenue, Lake Hill 	
Class 2.—Heavy-weight Varieties.
1, 2 C. F. Banfield, 662 Craigflower Road, Victoria 	
3,   4 Spencer Pereival, Port Washington 	
5,   6 H. C. Cooke, Borden Street, Lake Hill	
7,   8 R. V. Robinson, Lavington    	
9, 10 W. Bradley,  Langford	
11, 12     Mrs. H. Hodgson, Alberni	
13,14    A. Cant, Appledale	
15, 10     W. H.  Catterall,  Cordova Bay	
17, 18     Mrs. C. R. Welch, Port Kells	
19, 20     A. P. Atkinson, Box 181, Nelson  	
21, 22     A. H.  Pain,  Colwood	
23,24 J. Lambie, Earl's Road and Forty-fifth Avenue,
South Vancouver
25, 26     W. G. Kerr, Seven Oaks P.O	
27,28 C. W. Friend, 2957 Vanness Avenue, South Vancouver
29, 30   ] G. P. Henley, Agassiz 	
31, 32 A. W. Abbs, 2125 Thirteenth Avenue, West Vancouver
33, 34 R. Clarke, 251 Mills Street, Victoria 	
35, 36 H. D. Reid, Box 1151, Victoria	
37, 38 Dean  Bros.,   Keating   	
30, 40 D. M. Porter, 266 Robertson Street, Victoria 	
White I,
White Leghorns
Blue  Andalusians
AVhite Leghorns ...
White Leghorns
White Wyandottes
Single Comb Reds
White Wyandottes
Barred Rocks
Single Comb Reds
Barred Rocks 	
White Wyandottes
Single Comb Reds
White Orpingtons
Single Comb Reds
White Wyandottes
White Orpingtons
38 14 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
I 135
Twelfth International Egg-laying Contest—Record of Spare Birds for First Pour Months.
Name and Address.
1,   2
3,   4
5,   6
7,   8
11, 12
15, 16
21, 22
23, 24
25, 26
27, 28
29, 30
31, 32
33, 34
35, 36
37, 38
39, 40
13, 14
21, 22
23, 24
27, 28
29, 30
33, 34
35, 36
37, 38
30, 40
Class 1.—Light-weight Varieties.
A. Adams, 3290 Dublin Street, Victoria 	
J. Cheetham, R.M.D. 3, Victoria 	
It. W. Robinson,  Colwood 	
C. P. Metcalfe, Port Hammond   	
D. Tancred, R.F.D. 1, Kent, Wash., U.S.A.	
P.  E.  Pullen,  Whonnock	
Mrs.   G.   Nurse,   Agassiz   	
A.  R.  Lowe, Lake Hill	
Muir Bros., Bestwick	
E. J.  White,  2785  Twenty-ninth Avenue  West,
H. S. Cadwell, Box 16, Keremeos	
J.   Gartside,   Cranbrook    	
J. W. Bancroft, Third Avenue,  Steveston 	
P. Darby & Son, Port Hammond   	
Bolivar Leghorn Farm,  Cloverdale	
R. P. Matthews, R.M.D. 1, Victoria 	
J. C. Reid, Box 225, Whonnock	
Nieol & Eyes, R.R. 1, Langley Prairie 	
C. E. Shepperson, Box 137, Courtenay 	
A. J. Solway, McKenzie Avenue, Lake Hill	
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
Blue Andalusians
White Leghorns  ..
White Leghorns
Class 2.—Heavy-weight Varieties.
C. P. Banfield, 662 Craigflower, Victoria 	
Spencer Percival, Port Washington 	
H. C. Cooke, Borden Street, Lake Hill	
R. V. Robinson, Lavington 	
W. Bradley, Langford 	
Mrs. E. Hodgson, Alberni 	
A. Cant, Appledale	
W. H. Catterall, Cordova Bay 	
Mrs. C. R. Welch, Port Kells   	
A. P. Atkinson, Box 181, Nelson	
A. H. Pain, Colwood  	
.1.  Lambie,  Karl's Road and Forty-fifth Avenue,
South Vancouver
W. G. Kerr, Seven Oaks P.O. 	
C. W. Friend, 2957 Vanness Avenue, South Vancouver
G. F. Henley, Agassiz  	
A. W. Abbs, 2125 Thirteenth Avenue West, Vancouver
R. Clarke, 251 Mills Street, Victoria 	
II. D. Reid, Box 387, Victoria 	
Dean Bros., Keating	
D. M. Porter, 266 Robertson, Victoria 	
White Wyandottes
Single Comb Reds
White Wyandottes
Barred Rocks  	
Single Comb Reds
Barred Rocks  	
White Wyandottes
Single Comb Reds
White Orpingtons
Single Comb Reds
White Wyandottes
White Orpingtons
1 65
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.


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