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BC Sessional Papers


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Full Text

OF the
Printed by William H. Ctjllin, Printer to tlie King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1923.  Victoria, B.C., March 22nd, 1923.
To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Eeport of the Department of
Lands for the year ending December 31st, 1922.
Minister of Lands. /
Victoria, B.C., March 22nd, 1923.
The Honourable T. D. Pattullo,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Keport of the Department of
Lands for the twelve months ending December Slst, 1922.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART  I.
Report of Office Statistics       7
Pre-emption Records, etc., 1922  7
Land-sales,  1922  8
Crown Grants issued, 1922    8
Report on Coal Licences, Leases, etc., 1922   8
Pre-emptions inspected in 1922   9
Statement of Revenue     9
Summary,   1910-1922    • 11
Report of the Superintendent of British Columbia Soldier Settlement   12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., March 2nd, 1923.
G. R. Naden, Esq..
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith report of the administration of Crown lands
during the year ending December 31st, 1922.
The accompanying statements cover the various transactions connected with the disposition
of Crown lands under the " Land Act" and other Acts coming under the jurisdiction of the
Lands Branch. The statistics relating to pre-emptions, land sales and leases, the issuance of
Crown grants and coal licences and leases are embodied therein.
During the year auction sales were held at Prince George and Creston, following the
cancellation during the previous year of the delinquent agreements for sale which had been
outstanding for some time in respect to the properties in both places named.
In Prince George a careful revision was made of the valuations of the lots upon which the
sale was based, and although the number of lots sold in proportion to those offered was rather
small, still provision has been made for the disposal of the balance on application and subject
to the upset prices established at the sale.
The sale at Creston was in the shape of acreage at revised prices, and was considered very
I have, etc.,
H. Cathcaet,
Superintendent of Lands.
154 K 8
Eeport of the Minister of Lands.
Surveyed (first class)          S32.00
(second class)   10,097.86
Lnsurveyed       5,593.90
Total   16,523.76
Pre-emptions     308
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act, 1916 "   85
Purchase   196
Mineral  181
" Soldiers' Homestead Act "    8
Town lots   137
Reverted lands (other than town lots)     SS
Reverted town lots  177
Reverted mineral    33
" Townsite Proportionate Allotment Act "    3
" Dyking Assessments Act "   1
" Schools Act "    9
Soldier Settlement Board    22
Land Settlement Board   42
Miscellaneous     5
Total ,   1,295
Applications for Crown grants   1,148
Certified copies        15
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions   60,381.83
Mineral claims (other than reverted)    6,936.16
Reverted mineral claims  1,009.56
Purchase of surveyed Crown land (other than town lots)    19,087.76
Purchase of reverted land  19,174.99
Purchase of unsurveyed Crown land  3,003.50
Lands conveyed to Soldier Settlement Board   2,210.30
Lands Crown-granted to Land Settltement Board  5,186.75
Total   116.990.S5
Number of licences issued, 236; area, 151,040 acres.
Coal Leases.
Number of leases issued, 17;  area, 9,703 acres.
Sundry Leases.
Number of leases issued, 122;  area, S,476 acres. 13 Geo. 5
Office Statistics.
K 9
Alberni  205
Cariboo     146
Cranbrook  •  69
Fernie     15
Fort Fraser   215
Fort George   170
Golden   14
Kamloops     116
Lillooet     55
Nanaimo     33
Nelson   29
New Westminster  6
Omineca     27
Osoyoos    86
Peace River    45
Revelstoke     49
Similkameen     85
Skeena  12S
Slocan  5
Vancouver   389
Victoria    8
Total  1,799
Under " Coal and Petroleum Act'
Under " Taxation Act"	
Townsite lots	
Country lands	
Pre-empted lands    .
Mineral claims	
$23,801 37
46,501 21
58,364 89
6,330 11
345 25
$135,342 83
$77,499 14
78,737 95
35,815 16
1,354 45
2,680 05
$196,086 75
$23,801 37
46,501 21
135,864 03
85,068 06
35,815 16
1,699 70
2,680 05
$331,429 58
Revenue lender " Land Act.'
Sundry lease rentals,..
Grazing and hay rentals
Survey fees	
Sundry fees	
529,679 13
6,169 00
2,707 27
11,859 00
210 61
$50,625 01
$8,991 74
3,408 10
$12,399 84
$35,848 13
11,699 01
15,267 10
210 61
3,024 85
' K 10
Report of the Minister of Lands.
Revenue under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
$23,400 00
20,564 78
1,360 00
700 00
$23,400 00
20,564 78
1,360 00
700 00
$46,024 78
$46,024 78
Sundry Receipts.
$6,480 81
881 81
$6,480 81
881 81
$7,362 62
$7,362 62
$239,355 24
208,486 59
Total   $447,841 83 13 Geo. 5
Office Statistics.
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K 12
Report of the Minister of Lands.
March 31st, 1923.
G. R. Naden, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith annual report for the year 1922 of operations
under the " Soldiers' Land Act," chapter 80 of the Statutes of British Columbia, 1918, amended
by chapter 76, 1919, and chapter 85, 1920.
Southern Okanagan Irrigation Project.
Construction-work on the project has been continued during the year. The main canal
excavation was completed to the point where a considerable length of flumiug is required to
reach the Osoyoos Benches, and the concrete lining was extended to a point beyond the nursery.
A concrete spillway to the river was constructed at a point near Hester Creek.
The cement-pipe works was operated from April 1st to July, inclusive—728,500 lineal feet
being manufactured, varying in size from 6 to 24 inches in diameter.
The laying of the pipes was continued and completed in the areas offered for sale. Concrete
measuring-boxes have been installed so that the water may be measured to each individual
The repairs to the main canal near the inlet to the 76-inch inverted siphon begun in 1921
as a result of the wash-out due to the cloudburst in May of that year were completed and a new
inlet structure built with the necessary connections to the siphon. A spillway to the river was
constructed as an adjunct of the inlet structure.
For the irrigable areas above the main canal south of Oliver and within 2 miles of the
town three motor-driven centrifugal pumps were installed and have worked satisfactorily. An
area of 299 acres was ploughed, cultivated, fenced, planted out to fruit trees, and seeded down
to alfalfa.
Due to a more complete measure of control of the outlet of Okanagan Lake at Penticton,
the height of the Okanagan River through the project was kept within reasonable bounds and
the progress of the construction was not retarded nor the lowlands flooded to the extent
experienced the previous season.
The sawmill was not operated during the year. The Oliver Waterworks system has operated
most satisfactorily.
During the year the step-down sub-station erected by the West Kootenay Power and Light
Company within about half a mile of Oliver has, under an arrangement with the Department,
supplied electric current for the various pumping units and for the street-lighting of Oliver
during the winter. The residents of the community now enjoy the facilities afforded by electric
light and power.
The waterworks system in townsite of Oliver has been operating smoothly, the automatic
controlled pumps and motors working very satisfactorily.
A /telephone exchange has been installed in the town of Oliver and surrounding settled
district by the Dominion Government and operated as a part of their Okanagan system.
One hundred and fifty-two parcels of an area of 1,227.67 acres have been sold for $299,802.58.
Amount received as first payments on same is $56,710.70.
In the townsite of Oliver eighty-two lots have been sold for $21,960. Amount received as
first payments on same is $8,297.39.
The total expenditure on the project as at December 31st, 1922, is $2,600,162.39; total sales,
$297,802.58; total deposits, $56,710.70.
A very fine lot of stock has again been propagated at the nursery. Throughout the year
many settlers and visitors called to obtain first-hand information relative to fruit-growing. 13 Geo. 5     Report of Superintendent of B.C. Soldier Settlement. K 13
Balance-sheet, Nursery and Demonstration Lot, as at December 31st, 1922.
Buildings, less depreciation    $10,157 19
Plant, tools, and equipment, less depreciation    1,387 88
JFencing and fluming, less depreciation    1,101 23
Orchard and stock-on-hand   21,945 79
$34,592 09
Provincial Government     $32,996 06
Provincial Government, interest on value of land under cultivation 726 00
Surplus    870 03
$34,592 09
South Vancouver Housing under the " Soldiers' Land Act."
Three of the soldier purchasers are in good standing; one of the other five, due to bereavement, sickness, and unemployment, one is two months, one six months, one seven months, one
nine months, and one fourteen months in arrears. Negotiations are proceeding for a sale relative
to the last mentioned. All the others in arrears are paying amounts additional to the regular
monthly payments to make good the sums overdue.
Indian Tour.
Under the official recognition and assistance of the Secretary of State for India and the
Government of India, an Indian tour by a representative of the Province was arranged to interest
surplus officers of the Army in India in the Province of British Columbia, particularly the South
Okanagan Irrigation Project.
The military authorities afforded every possible facility in the way of transportation, etc.
Following an interview with General Cummings, the Commandant of Bombay District, I
proceeded to headquarters at Simla. The Cornmander-in-Chief, Lord Rawlinson, was greatly
interested in our scheme of settlement for the South Okanagan Valley, and after a long discussion
authorized his staff officers to make arrangements for a tour, which included Lucknow, Lahore,
Rawal Pindi, Karachi, Know, Poona, Bangalore, Madras, and Colombo in Ceylon. Mr. Burden,
the Secretary of State for India, and the Assistant Secretary, Mr. Pate, were both very kind
and helpful in the furtherance of the scheme for British Columbia. At every centre visited
the commandants were keenly interested and afforded every possible facility to reach the largest
number of officers.
A lecture was usually given on the first evening of arrival at a military centre, and following
that the whole of the time available was given to interviews. I found hundreds of officers
anxious to obtain information concerning the Province and obtained thirty written promises to
investigate the British Columbia scheme before I left India. During the tour and since that
time considerably in excess of 200 letters from officers interested have been received. At the
time of writing thirty-two officers from India have visited the Province and fifteen are known
to be domiciled here. These officers are practically the advance guard of a large number which
are expected to arrive via England during this spring and summer. .
K 14
Report of the Minister of Lands.
Statement of B.C. Better Housing Fund as at December 31st, 1922.
New Westminster	
North Vancouver City ..
North Vancouver District
Oak Bay 	
Point Grey	
Port Alberni  	
Port Coquitlam	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Salmon Arm City	
South Vancouver  	
West Vancouvei*   	
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$1,758,050      $1,701,500
$56,550   $2,500
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Areas of Land conveyed to the Soldiee Settlement Board of Canada.
The following lands have been reserved and conveyed to the Soldier Settlement Board of
Canada for soldiers who have applied for loans to the Board:—
Cariboo District.—Lot 4923, S.E. %, 160 acres; N.W. % Lot 8820, 160 acres; Lot 6712, 160
acres; S.E. Yi Lot 2684, 160 acres; Lot 1120, 145 acres; Lot 5725, 160 acres; Lot 5016, 115 acres;
Block A of Lot 8010, 187 acres; S. % Lot 1119, 160 acres.
Coast District.—N.W. Yi Sec. 2, Tp. 1, R. 4, 165 acres; W. Yz of S.E. % and E. Ye of S.W. %
Lot 2567, R. 5, 160 acres; S.E. Yi Sec. 18, Tp. 16, R. 5, 160 acres; N.E. % Lot 2559, R. 5, 160
Kamloops District.—Lot 2327, 180 acres.
Otter District.—Block A of Lot 28 (reconveyed), 69 acres. (Note.—Block A was conveyed
on February 17th, 1920, relinquished by the Board, and again conveyed.)
Yale Division of Yale District.—Lot 971, 157 acres.
Total, 2,458 acres.
I have, etc.,
J.  W.  Clark,
Superintendent, B.C. Soldier Settlement. .
Report of the Surveyor-General   17
Report of the Chief Draughtsman  ,  21
Report of the Geographic Division   26
Reports of Surveyors—
Vicinity of Lakelse Lake, Range 5, Coast District   31
Ranges 4 and 5, Coast District  34
Vicinity of Canadian National Railway, Cariboo District  37
Vicinity  of Barkerville  and  Van  Winkle,  and  Traverses  near   Cottonwood,   Cariboo
District    43
North Lillooet District   47
Chilcotin Valley, Cariboo and Lillooet Districts  51
North Thompson Valley, Kamloops Division of Yale District   54
South-western Lillooet District    56
Vicinity of Princeton, Yale and Kamloops Divisions of Yale District  58
Kettle River Valley, Similkameen Division of Yale District   59
Slocan and Lower Columbia Valleys, Kootenay District   60
West Kootenay District  62
Cheakamus Valley, New Westminster District   71
New Westminster District   73
Range 1, Coast and Sayward Districts   74
Queen Charlotte Islands     77
Kilbella Valley, Range 2, Coast District    79
West Coast, Vancouver Island  82
Coast Triangulation, Range 3, Coast District   83
Coast Triangulation, Ranges 3 and 4, Coast District  88
Control Survey, Range 4, Coast District   91
Control Survey, Chilko Lake, Range 1, Coast, and Lillpoet Districts  95
Clearwater Valley, Kamloops District   105
■ Photo-topographical Surveys, Nicola Valley, Kamloops Division of Yale District   108
Photo-topographical Surveys, Similkameen Valley, Kamloops, and Similkameen Divisions
of Yale District    Ill
Survey of the Boundary between the Provinces of Alberta and British Columbia  113 REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., February 20th, 1923.
To the Hon. T. D. Pattullo,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the Survey
Branch for the year ending December Slst, 1922:—
The field season was highly satisfactory from the ordinary land-survey standpoint. There
was very little wet weather to delay survey operations, but the smoke from the innumerable
forest fires throughout the Province seriously interfered with reconnaissance, triangulation,
and topographical work. This latter condition did not, however, exist on the Coast north of
Vancouver Island, where very little trouble was experienced from smoke.
Forty-four qualified surveyors *were employed during the season for various periods, ten of
these being engaged as assistants. Twenty-five parties were engaged for a more or less
extensive season, while the remainder were employed for short periods only.
The field-work of the Branch is divided into three main classes of work—namely, surveys
of Crown land for settlement purposes, control surveys, and topographical surveys.
Crown Land Surveys.—The area of Crown land surveyed totals 66,306 acres,. 18,000 acres
of which constitute lands which reverted to the Crown under the " Soldiers' Land Act" and
which were divided into parcels suitable for pre-emption. These lands are scattered throughout
the Province, generally in small areas on the outskirts of existing settlements. Owing to the
limited appropriation for surveys in recent years it has been impossible for the Branch to undertake any extensive surveys of the somewhat more remote areas of agricultural lands known to
exist in the northern districts, particularly the Peace River District. Under existing conditions
it is possible, only from year to year, to take care of the immediate requirements, and owing to
the consequent scattered nature of the work, necessitating much travelling by the various
parties, the cost per acre of survey-work is considerably in excess of the cost when large areas
in continuous blocks were being surveyed.
Furthermore, the survey of small areas adjoining previous surveys, in some instances made
many years ago, necessitates the retracement of original survey-lines which frequently are
difficult to determine, thus adding further to the cost of the work.
It is estimated that the actual cost per acre of surveys of lands for pre-emption during the
past season was approximately 80 cents per acre, as compared with a cost of about 30 cents per
acre ten years ago. It must be borne in mind, however, that in addition to the reasons for the
increased cost mentioned above, there are other reasons for the increase, such as increased cost
of labour and supplies and the more detailed requirements of the office in connection with field-
Of the area surveyed about 40,000 acres are located within the areas served by the Grand
Trunk Pacific and Pacific Great Eastern Railways. The remaining areas are still more widely
scattered in other portions of the Province, and consist, to a great extent, of lands specially
required for settlement by individuals who have signified their desire to acquire same, or special
areas of logged-off lands suitable for settlement. Areas of the latter class were surveyed on
the Cheakamus River near Squamish; on Cortes Island; Kilbella River, Rivers Inlet; Elk
River, near Fernie; and Arrow Park, AVest Kootenay. Summer home-site areas were laid out
at Lakelse Lake, situated south of the town of Terrace, on the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway,
about 95 miles east of Prince Rupert.
This work necessitated the running of 390 miles of new boundary-lines and the retracement
of 228 miles of previously surveyed lines.
As pointed out in the Annual Report for the year 1921, the surveys of pre-emptions granted
prior to the amendment of the " Land Act" in 1918 were practically all completed last year;.
consequently nearly all the lands surveyed in 1922 are vacant Crown lands.
2 K 18
Report of the Minister of Lands.
It is estimated that 059 parcels have been surveyed, of which only thirty-four were alienated
at the time of survey. The remainder will therefore be available for settlement when the
surveys are finally dealt with and gazetted.
Control Surveys.—In order to properly correlate the individual lot surveys on the maps
of the Department, so that conflicts of rights may be avoided and that future applications may
be properly cleared on these maps, it is the practice of this Branch to do each year a certain
amount of control-work.    This consists of traverse, base-line, or triangulation surveys.
Traverses are usually run along trails, streams, or shore-lines, tying in existing lots and
thus determining their relative position, and 551 miles of such surveys were carried out during
the year.
No base-line surveys were done during 1922.
Triangulation affords the most accurate means of establishing control and a considerable
amount of this work was done during the season. Two parties were engaged in the extension
of the triangulation system of the Coast inlets, aud similar work was done at Nuchatlitz Inlet,
on the west coast of Vancouver Island, and Clearwater Lake, in Kamloops District. Approximately 900 miles of shore-line were thus established.
Two. parties were engaged on triangulation, control, and reconnaissance, one in the area
south of Ootsa Lake and another in the vicinity of Chilko ljake. All of this work will be of
special value in connection with the Standard Base Map of the Province, now in course of
compilation, in addition to the main object of obtaining detailed information of economic
value concerning these comparatively little known areas.
Topographical Surveys.—The photo-topographical work was extended during the year in
accordance with the general programme of covering eventually all the grazing and irrigation
areas of the Southern Interior. This work was considerably hampered during the season owing
to smoke from forest fires.
For the purpose of reporting in more detail by the various parties, the Province has been
divided into the following main sections: Central and Northern Interior, Southern Interior, and
Mainland Coast and Vancouver Island.
The following paragraphs give the names of the surveyors in charge of the various parties
and the locations and nature of the work done by them:—
Central and Northern Interior.
The term " Central and Northern Interior " is applied to that portion of the Province lying
north of the Dominion Government Railway Belt and east of the Coast range of mountains.
Surveyor. Locality.
1. P. M. Monckton Lakelse Lake.
2. V.   Schjelderup    Upper Bulkley and Nechako Valleys.
3. J. F. Campbell Vicinity of Prince George.
4. R. W. Haggen   Vicinity of Quesnel.
5. R. C. Farrow   Northern Lillooet District.
6. W. C. Merston  Chilcotin Valley.
7. O. B. N. Wilkie  North Thompson Valley.
8. G. M. Downton Western and Southern Lillooet District.
Mr. Monckton was engaged in laying out small lots for summer home-sites at Lakelse Lake,
which, owing to the scenic attractions and the proximity of rather remarkable hot springs, are
likely to be in considerable demand, especially by residents of the City of Prince Rupert. He
also resubdivided certain lands in the same vicinity into parcels suitable for pre-emption.
Messrs. Schjelderup and Campbell surveyed lands along the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway
for settlement purposes, including the subdivision of certain lands which reverted to the Crown
under the " Soldiers' Homestead Act," previously surveyed into lots of 640 acres.
Mr. Haggen surveyed a few scattered pre-emptions mostly held by men entitled to free
grants under the " Soldiers' Free Grants Act." He also traversed portions of the Cottonwood
and Quesnel Rivers, necessitated by the staking of numerous placer leases on these streams, and
which are now recorded on departmental reference maps to prevent conflict between claims of
this description and other surface alienations.
Mr. Farrow surveyed lands in various portions of Lillooet District for settlement purposes,
the majority of his work covering hay meadows which  are  increasingly  in demand  in that 13 Geo. 5 Report of the Surveyor-General. K 19
district. Similar work was clone by Mr. Merston in the Chilcotin Valley, combined with traverse-
work tying in isolated and floating lots.
Mr. Wilkie surveyed certain unsurveyed pre-emptions in the North Thompson Valley,
together with Crown lands for pre-emption purposes. A new area was laid out by this party
in the Raft River Valley, across a low divide from Irvine Station, on the Canadian National
Mr. Downton's work consisted of miscellaneous scattered surveys in the western and
southern portions of Lillooet District, including the laying-out of a few additional lots in the
town of Lillooet.
Southern Interior.
In the Southern Interior, comprising all that portion of the Province south of the Dominion
Government Railway Belt, the following surveyors were employed:—
Surveyor. Locality.
9. P. W. Gregory Vicinity of Princeton.
10. A. H. Holland   Kettle River Valley.
11. S. S. McDiarmid  Slocan and Lower Arrow Lakes.
12. A. H. Dawson  Kootenay, Trout, and Upper Arrow Lakes.
Messrs. Gregory and Holland were employed on scattered land surveys for settlement in
their respective districts, while Messrs. McDiarmid and Dawson were engaged on miscellaneous
surveys in West Kootenay District, the former in the southern and the latter in the northern
part of the district, including an attractive subdivision in the vicinity of Arrow Park, which will
no doubt be in considerable demand when placed on the market.
In addition to the above, A. Cummings, B.C.L.S., of Fernie, laid out six parcels on the Elk
River near that town on logged-off and abandoned timber licences. A number of acreage parcels
were laid out at Creston by C. Moore, B.C.L.S., which were dealt with at a recent Government
auction sale held at Creston.
Coast and Vancouver Island.
The following surveyors were engaged on work on the Mainland Coast and Vancouver
Surveyor.       . Locality.
13. W. G. McElhanney  Vicinity of Squamish.
14. M. W. Hewett   New Westminster and Sayward District.
15. John Davidson  Sayward and Coast Districts.
16. J.  M.  Rolston    Queen Charlotte Islands.
17. A. S. G. Musgrave  Kilbella River and Rivers Inlet.
18. A. W. Harvey  West Coast, Vancouver Island.
Mr. McElhanney subdivided logged-off lands near the junction of the Cheakamus and
Cheekye Rivers. Approximately eighty parcels of about 10 acres were laid out. As these lands
are on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, only about 7 miles from Squamish, they are within
easy reach of Vancouver City and should consequently be attractive from a settlement standpoint.
Mr. Hewett was engaged on the subdivision of logged-off lands, including a good agricultural
area on Cortes Island, and home-sites near Seechelt and Skookumchuck Channel. These home-
sites are particularly suitable for men engaged in the fishing or lumbering industries who wish
to establish a home more or less convenient to their work.
Mr. Davidson made certain miscellaneous surveys in Sayward District and Range 1, Coast
District, while the greater portion of the season was spent on control surveys, including the
triangulation of Bute Inlet and tying in his work and that of the previous season to two stations
of the Geodetic Survey of Canada.
Mr. Rolston made miscellaneous surveys on Queen Charlotte Islands.
In the vicinity of Rivers Inlet Mr. Musgrave laid out a number of 40-acre parcels on
Kilbella River (formerly known as Kildalla River). These are logged-off lands consisting of
fertile river-bottom and should support a good little settlement, there being a ready market for
produce at adjacent canneries and logging camps.
Mr. Musgrave also monumented the triangulation surveys in Dean, Burke, and Labouchere
Channels, which were done before the present system of monumenting was inaugurated. :.-'.' '.'.,.'..-« Hi .  -  , :■-■■ ■ .     ■.
K 20
Report of the Minister of Lands.
Mr. Harvey made miscellaneous surveys on the west coast of Vancouver Island, including
Crown land surveys on Nootka Island, some scattered pre-emptions, and various traverse and
triangulation control surveys.
Control Surveys.
The following surveyors were engaged on work which was designed chiefly for purposes of
Surveyor. Locality.
19. J. T. Underhill    Milbank and Laredo Sounds.
20. A. E. Wright Surf Inlet and Douglas Channel.
21. F.  C.  Swannell    Lake area, south and west of Ootsa Lake.
22. R.  P.  Bishop    Chilko Lake.
23. W.  S. Drewry Clearwater Lakes.
Messrs. Underbill and Wright were engaged on the extension of the Coast triangulation
system. Several ties were made this year between this system and the Hydrographic and
Geodetic surveys, thus permitting our work to be placed into more accurate geographic position,
having up to this year been dependent upon astronomic stations at Bella Coola and Prince
Mr. Swannell continued the triangulation and topographical reconnaissance surveys on
which he has been engaged for the past three years in the lake area lying east of Gardner
Canal and south of Ootsa Lake. It is hoped that on receipt of Mr. Swannell's final returns for
the past season it will be possible to publish a map of this comparatively little known area.
Mr. Bishop was employed in a similar survey in the Chilko Lake area. It was hoped to get
a triangulation connection between the head of Bute Inlet and the 124th meridian, but owing
to smoke and weather conditions this was not effected. A good deal of information regarding
this area has, however, been obtained, and an interesting feature of Mr. Bishop's report is his
reference to a possible water-power.
Mr. Drewry was engaged on a traverse and triangulation up Clearwater Lake and River
with a view to establishing a link between surveys carried easterly from the 52nd parallel
throungh Mahood Lake and northerly from that parallel through Crown land surveys and the
triangulation of Quesnel Lake.
Photo-topographical Surveys.
Two parties in charge of R. D. McCaw and G. J. Jackson respectively were engaged on the
continuation of the photo-topographical work which was originally commenced in 1914.
Mr. McCaw covered an area south of the southern boundary of the Dominion Government
Railway Belt, extending from Salmon River to the east to the western watershed of Stump
Lake on the west.
Mr. Jackson covered the valley of Similkameen River between the Ashnola River and Hayes
Creek, and the tributary valleys of Hedley, Sterling, and Paul Creeks.
In all, about 800 square miles of territory were covered in spite of the fact that smoke
from forest fires greatly hampered the work, especially in the month of July.
The nature and utility of this work has been described in previous reports. A sketch-map
showing the areas covered up to date by this class of surveys will be found facing page 112 of
this report.
A new camera specially designed for the enlargement of the survey plates, constructed
locally this year, is proving very satisfactory. -»
Aijierta-British Columbia Boundary.
The Interprovincial Boundary Commission, consisting of A. O. Wheeler, the British
Columbia Commissioner, and R. W. Cautley, representing both the Dominion and Alberta Governments, continued their work during the year in accordance with the programme laid down at a
conference of representatives of the three Governments held in Edmonton in October, 1921. It
is anticipated that this work will be brought to a conclusion in two more seasons, when the
boundary will be completely surveyed from the International Boundary as far north as about
latitude 57°, being about 25 miles north of the north-east corner of the Dominion Government
Peace River Block. 13 Geo. 5 Report of the Chief Draughtsman. K 21
Surveyors' Reports.
General reports prepared by the various surveyors employed during the season are appended
to this report.
Private Surveys.
Surveys of Crown lands made at the instance of and paid for by private parties, such as
surveys of pre-emptions, applications to purchase or lease, coal licences, mineral claims, etc., are
known departmentally as " private surveys."
The past year shows a decrease in the acreage of private surveys dealt with by this Branch,
as shown in Table A, appended to the report of the Chief Draughtsman.
Two parties under L. S. Cokely and AV. G. McElhanney were employed during the past
season on the survey of long-term timber-sales. These surveys were made under direct instructions of this Department and paid for out of funds deposited by the purchasers. It is anticipated
that with increased activities in the pulp industry this class of work will increase in the near
Under the provisions of the " Forest Act" the time for the survey of special timber licences
finally expired on December 31st, 1922, the time having been extended over one year by the
Legislature at the 1921 session. Only forty-five licences were surveyed during the year. This
marks the end of timber licence surveys, which have been carried on more or less extensively
during the past fifteen years and which, in some years, exceeded 1,000,000 acres, giving employment to a considerable number of surveyors. The records show that 7,401,222 acres have been
surveyed as timber licences and leases to date.
A total number of 11,713 licences have been surveyed, which indicates that some 1,700 limits
which were staked and licences issued for have been abandoned or forfeited for non-compliance
with the statutory requirements.   ■
The office staff is divided into two main divisions—namely, the Survey Division and the
Geographic Division. The Survey Division deals with general correspondence, supplying survey
information, blue-prints, etc., the preparation of survey instructions, plotting of final plans from
survey returns, compiling departmental reference maps, clearing all applications, and other
incidental work.
The Geographic Division deals with the compilation and drawing of maps for reproduction,
the compilation of the Standard Base Map of the Province, the indexing of maps, plans, etc.. the
photostating of plans and other documents, the distributing of lithograph maps, and the
correspondence incidental to the Division.
The work of these divisions for the year is covered by the reports of the Chief Draughtsman
and the Chief Geographer appended to this report.
I  have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
December 31st, 1922.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the work of the Survey Division
for the year ending December 31st, 1922:—
The personnel of the staff at the end of the year numbers twenty-two, being the same as at
the end of 1921.
This includes the examination and plotting of field-notes of the various surveys received,
together with the preparation of official plans from same, and also the compilation and daily
revision of reference maps, as well as the clearance of all land and timber applications. Considerable time was also devoted to correspondence and attending to the requests and
inquiries of surveyors and the general public for information as to lands, surveys, etc., throughout the Province.
The preparation of plans, field-notes, etc., to accompany the instructions issued to surveyors
employed by the Department was also the subject of considerable work, particularly during the
months of May and June. This work is increasing and getting more complicated each year
owing to the tying-in and retracing of existing surveys.
The work of clearing of applications and inquiries for reverted lands now takes up nearly
the half of one man's time during the year. This work is somewhat complicated and necessitates considerable correspondence with the Registrars regarding descriptions and the obtaining
of copies of their registered plans.
The comparative tables of work done this year and the previous year show decreases in
some instances. This is accounted for mainly by a falling-off of private-survey work, such as
pre-emptions, purchases, and timber licences.
The following records give (as well as it is possible to do so in figures) an outline of the
work carried out.
During the year 650 field-books were received, as against 1,031 received during 1921. The
various surveys contained in these field-books consist of 889 land lots, 152 mineral claims, 45
timber licences, and 96 traverse connections or triangulations.
During the same period 938 lot surveys were plotted and found to be in order. Notice of
their acceptance duly appeared in the Gazette. Tracings of these lots were prepared and
forwarded to the respective Government Agents.
The following table gives an analysis of the acreage of the various kinds of surveys gazetted
during the year:—
Pre-emption surveys         1,268
Purchase surveys        6,160
Mineral-claim  surveys       4,637
Timber-licence surveys      37,966
Coal-licence surveys   -,       2,520
Lease surveys         3,094
Government surveys     98,841
Total     154,480
A comparison of these figures with those of previous years, as far back as 1900, may be
found by reference to Table A attached to this report.
Timber Surveys.
Field-notes covering the survey of 45 licences were received during the year, as compared
with 100 during 1921.
Right-of-way Plans.
The recording and examination of the plans of railway rights-of-way, logging railways, and
pole-lines has been carried on as heretofore. During the year 250 miles of various railway right-
of-way plans were examined and finally cleared for Crown-granting purposes.
As in previous years, clearance reports have been furnished by this Branch on all applications for lands dealt with by the Lands Department. These include 969 applications for preemption, 105 applications to purchase, 650 applications for reverted lands, 236 coal licences, 122
miscellaneous leases, 1,295 Crown-grant applications, together with 991 timber-sales and 288 hand-
logger licences.
Departmental Reference Maps.
Attached hereto, and shown as Table C, is a list of these maps, giving the price for which
the blue-prints of same can be obtained. There are now 123 such maps in use, as against 79
at the end of 1912.    During the past year 17 new maps were compiled and 1 retraced. .
13 Geo. 5
Report of the Chtef Draughtsman.
K 23
Placer Leases.
It has been decided that all placer-mining leases issued by the various Gold Commissioners
should be shown on the departmental reference maps. AArith this end in view, the twenty-five
Gold Commissioners were communicated with during the year, and detailed lists of all the leases
in good standing have now been obtained. Monthly returns to this office of new leases issued,
or cancellations effected, are now made, it is calculated that there are 885 placer-mining leases
in good standing, and these have all been shown in position on the reference maps.
Information supplied to Surveyors and Others.
A nominal charge is made for the preparation of copies of field-notes, blue-prints, etc.,
required by surveyors and others. The revenue derived for the copying of field-notes was $350,
while the sum of $1,942.70 was paid in for blue-prints. It is calculated that 274 rolls, 50 yards
each, of blue-print paper were used during the year.
The following is a statement of the blue-prints made:—
Mail and counter      1,123
Surveyor-General's Branch     3,666
Forest Branch   11,770
Other branches of Government service   19,679
Total   36,238
There were also prepared 1,295 tracings (in duplicate) to be attached to Crown grants and
122 tracings (in duplicate) to accompany land leases.
Correspondence and Accounts.
During the year 6,228 letters were received and 5,988 sent out, which does not include inter-
Departmental memoranda.
Table B, attached to this report, gives a summary of the office-work for the year 1922 and
comparative figures for 1921.
I have, etc.,
F. O. Morris,
Chief Draughtsman.
Table A.—Showing Acreages of each Class of Surveys gazetted each Year since 1900.
B.C. Govt.
*            59
2,960 *
98,841 ••
164,486 K 24
Report of the Minister of Lands.
Table B.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1922 and Comparative Figures for 1921.
Number of field-books received	
., lots surveyed 	
„ lots gazetted anad tracings forwarded to Government Agents
„ miles of right-of-way plans dealt with ■ • • •_	
,, applications for purchase cleared 	
„ applications for pre-emption cleared 	
„ reference maps compiled   	
„ Crown-grant applications cleared 	
Total number of letters received by Branch 	
„ „        Crown-grant and lease tracings made in duplicate ....
„ „        blue-prints made  	
Total revenue from sale of blue-prints  ..
Table C.—Departmental Reference Maps.
Price-list of Blue-prints.
1. West Coast, Y.X. (Barkley Sound, Southerly)     1 inch to 1
1a. West Coast, V.I.   (Toquart Harbour, Alberni Canal, and Great
Central Lake)
Ib. AVest   Coast,   V.I.   (Barkley   Sound,   Northerly,   and   Olayoquot
2. West Coast, V.I.  (Nootka District)   	
3. Belize and Seymour Inlets and Smith Sound  	
3a. Quatsino Sound and AVest Portion of Rupert District	
3b. Gilford, Cracroft, and Broughton Islands  	
3c. Nimpkish River ATalley and Lake 	
3d. Central Portion of Rupert District 	
4. Knight and Loughborough Inlets  	
4a. Sayward District, Thurlow and Quadra Islands  	
4b. Bute Inlet	
5. Texada Island and West Portion, New AArestminster District  ..
5a. Jervis and Seechelt Inlets	
5b. Howe Sound and Cheakamus River Valley	
5c. Harrison Lake and Lillooet River Aralley  	
6. Redonda Islands, Powell Lake, and Toba Inlet	
6a. Nicola Valley  	
6b. Aspen Grove and Tulameen	
6c. Princeton, Ashnola, and South Similkameen River Valleys	
7. North Okanagan and Vernon	
7a. Penticton, Kelowna, and Okanagan Lake	
7b. Oliver and South Okanagan	
8. Greenwood, Rock Creek, and Beaverdell	
9. Mission Creek and Kettle River Headwaters 	
10. Mabel Lake, Lumby, and Sugar Lake	
11. Clearwater and Murtle River Valleys 	
11a. North Thompson River A7alley *.	
12. Dean and Burke Channels and Bella Coola Valley	
12a. Dean (Salmon)  River Valley 	
12b. Kimsquit and AVest Side of Dean Channel	
13. Rivers Inlet and Fitzhugh Sound  	
14. Banks and McCauley Islands  	
14a. Graham Reach, Gardner Canal, and Kitimat Arm  	
14b. Kitlobe River and AA'est End of Eutsuk and Whitesail Lakes ....
14c. Grenville, Squally, and Douglas Channels  	
15. Moresby Island, Northern Portion   	
15a. Moresby Island, Southern Portion  i£ inch t0 \
16. Graham Island, North-east Portion    I inch to 1
16a. Graham Island, South-east Portion	
16b. Graham Islafid, West Portion 	
17. Portland Canal and Observatory Inlet	
17a. Skeena River Valley  (vicinity of Hazelton)   	
17b. Nass and Kitwancool River Valleys 	
18. Upper Fraser and Morkill River Valleys 	
18a. Tete Jaune Cache and Upper Fraser River A'alley	
„ •
... 1
,, •
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1 00
... 1
... 1
... 1 00
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1 00
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1 00
... 1
... 1
... 1 00
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1 00
... 1
... 1 00 13 Geo. 5
Report of the Chief Draughtsman.
K 25
Table C.—Departmental Reference Maps—Continued.
Price-list of Blue-prints—Continued.
19. Lower Skeena and Zymoetz River A'alleys   1
19a. Skeena and Kitsumgallum River A7alleys   	
19b. Prince Rupert, Mouth of Skeena and Nass Rivers	
20. Bulkley River Valley (Hazelton to Moricetown)   	
21. Barkerville, Willow and Bowron River Headwaters	
21a. Fraser Lake, Endako River, and South End of Stuart Lake ....
22. Bowron and Upper Fraser River Valleys (vicinity of Hutton) . .
22a. Fraser River, Fort George, South 	
22b. Portion of Nechako, Stuart, and Salmon River Valleys	
22c. Blackwater and Chilako River Valleys  	
22d. Fraser and Cottonwood River Valleys	
22e. McBride, Goat and Upper Fraser River Valleys	
23. Quesnel Lake (North and East Arm)	
■ 23a. Quesnel Forks and Swamp River	
23b. Fraser River,  Quesnel, South   	
23c. Nazko River Valley   	
24. 150-Mile House and Harpers Camp  	
24a. Anderson and Seton Lakes, Lillooet District	
24b. Lillooet District (Clinton, Bridge River and Taseko  (Whitewater)
25. Mainland Coast, Princess Royal and Adjacent Islands	
25a. Bella Bella and Milbank Sound	
26. Porcher and Adjacent Islands  	
27. Fraser River Valley  (Williams Lake and Soda Creek)   	
27a. Fraser and Lower Chilcotin River Valleys and Lac la Hache  . .
27c. Green Lake and Canoe Creek Valley 	
28. North Part of Babine and Takla Lakes i/2
28a. Stuart, Pinchi, and Trembleur Lakes and Middle River   1
28b. Nation  River  and  Lakes   	
29. Chilcotin, West of 124th Meridian   	
29a. Anahim  and  Abuntlet  Lakes   	
29b. Chilcotin River Aralley, vicinity of Alexis Creek   	
29c. Hanceville, Big Creek, and Taseko River  	
30. Bonaparte River Valley and Canim Lake  	
31. Bulkley   Valley    	
31a. Francois and Babine Lakes  	
32. Crooked River, McLeod Lake, and Upper Parsnip River	
32a. Tatlayoko Lake  	
32b. Homayjco and Klinaklini River Aralleys   	
33. Fraser River ATalley, Fort George, North  	
34. Lot 4593, Kootenay District, AVest Portion, Flathead River  ...  2
34a. Lot 4593, Kootenay District, East Portion, Flathead River  . . .
35. Saltspring, Gabriola, and Adjacent Islands    1
36. Upper Fraser River   (vicinity  of Hansard  and McGregor River
36a. Headwaters of Wapiti and Herriek Rivers  .. .	
37. Nechako River, Cluculz and Bednesti Lakes  	
38a. Groundhog Coal Area,  East of Meridian   	
38b. Groundhog Coal Area, AVest of Meridian   	
38c. Upper Nass  River  A'alley   	
39. West End of Ootsa Lake  	
39a. Eutsuk Lake	
40. Euchiniko and Tetachuck Lakes  	
41. Upper Nechako River and East End of Ootsa Lake	
42. Big Bend, Kootenay District  	
42a. Adams Lake and River 	
42b. Canoe  River Valley   	
42c. Columbia River Valley   (vicinity of Bush River)   	
43. Peace River, South of Dominion Government Block  	
43a. Peace River, North of Dominion Government Block	
44. Kiskatinaw, Murray, and Sukunka Rivers  .. .»	
44a. Wapiti, Murray, and Head of Parsnip Rivers  	
45. Foreshore of Vancouver Island  (E. & N. Railway Belt)   	
46. Saanich District and Islands  	
47. Peace River, West of Dominion Block  	
48. Parsnip and Nition Rivers   	
49. Misinchinka River and Pine River Pass  	
inch to 1 mile.
. . ..$1 00
...  1 00
)T                                            „
...  1 00
V                                            ))
...      50
...  1 00
...  1 00
... 1 00
...  1 00
..: i oo
...  1 00
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it                            ?j
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...  1 50
... 1 00
,,               ,,
... 1 00
,,               ,,
...  1 00
...  1 00
,,               ,,
...  1 00
,,               ,,
...  1 00
inch to 1 mile.
...  1 00
inch to 1 mile.
... 1 00
,,                 ,,
... 1 00
,,                 ,,
...  1 00
,,                 ,,
...  1 00
,,                 ,,
...  1 00
..                 ,,
...  1 00
.,                 ,.
...  1 00
...  1 00
,,                 ,,
... 1 00
,,                 ,,     •
...  1 00
.,                 .,
...  1 00
...  1 00
,,                 ,,     •
...  1 00
inches to 1 mi
e..      50
,,                 ,,
..      50
inch to 1 mile.
...  1 00
,,                 ,,
...  1 00
... 1 00
...  1 00
...  1 00
...  1 00
... 1 00
...  1 00
...  1 00
...  1 00
„                ,.
...  1 00
...  1 00
... 1 00
... 1 00
,,    .
... 1 00
... 1 00
... 1 00
...  1 00
... 1 00
... 1 00
...  1 00
... 1 00
... 1 00
...  1 00 Report of the Minister of Lands.
.$1 00
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1
... 1 00
Table C.—Departmental Reference Maps—Continued.
Price-list of Blue-prints—Continued.
50. Halfway   River     1 inch to 1 mile
51. Mesilinka,  Osilinka,  and Finlay Rivers     „ „
52. Atlin  Lake and vicinity    Yi inch to 1 mile
53. Telegraph Creek and Stikine River Valley     „ „
54. Upper Nass River Valley and Meziadin Lake    1 inch to 1 mile
55. Salmon River Headwaters and McLeod River    „ ,,
56. Driftwood River and North End of Takia Lake  „ ,,
57. Manson Creek  and Omineca  River     „ „     ....  1 00
58. Finlay Forks, Parsnip and Pine Rivers   „ ,,     ....  1 00
59. Ingenika and Mesilinka Rivers '  „ „    ....  1 00
15-0. Upper Elk and White River Valleys  ,,                „        1 00
15-9N. Fernie and  Crowsnest vicinity     ,. „     ....  1 00
16-9S. Elko and vicinity     „                „        1 00
16-9N. Kootenay River Valley and Cranbrook    .,                , 1 Q0
16-9S. Moyie River Valley     „                „        1 00
17-Os. Duncan Lake and North End of Kootenay Lake    „ ,,    ....  1 00
17-9N. Kootenay Lake, vicinity of Kaslo   „                , 1 00
17-9s. Nelson, .Salmon River Valley, and South End of Kootenay Lake ., „     ....  1 00
18-9N. Edgewood and Slocan River Valley   „ „     ....  1 00
18-9s^ Rossland and South End of Lower Arrow Lake    „ „    ....  1 00
18-20. Nakusp and Upper Arrow Lake    „ „    ....  1 00
21-23. Columbia and AVindermere Lakes    „                , 1 00
27-29. Columbia River Valley, Wilmer and Spillimacheen     ,, ,,    ....  1 00
30-32. Trout and Upper Arrow Lakes  ,,                , 1 00
Note.—These reference maps show lands alienated and applied for, " Timber Limits," " Coal Licences,"
etc., surveyed and unsurveyed. They are compiled from all available data and are constantly being
amended, and their accuracy is therefore not guaranteed. Tbey were prepared originally for departmental  use,  and,  having proved of value to the public, blue-prints of same are now on sale.
Victoria, February 1st, 1923.
January 2nd, 1923.
J. E. Vtnbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit the report for the Geographic Division for the year ending
December 21st, 1922.
The chief work of 1921 in connection with the Pre-emptors' Series and the enlarging of the
number of copies printed of these maps enabled us to expend more time in the preparation and
completion of new map-sheets during 1922.
One change in the number of the staff occurred during the year. Mr. Tait, who is employed
operating the multigraph, "Ditto," and mimeograph, was transferred to the direction of Mr.
Peterson's office.
In the work of the past year the organization and standard quality of ihe Division have
been maintained.
The map production for 1922 is as follows:—
Pre-emptors' Maps.
Peace River.   Corrected and properly redrawn	
Bulkley.   Reconstructed and brought up to date	
In Course of Preparation.
Fort George. Compiled and drawn. In hands of
Stuart Lake. Compilation at present in hand—about
three-fourths completed	
No. of Copies.
Date of Issue.
April, 1923
July, 1923
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
Area in Sq. Miles.
9,000 13 Geo. 5
Report of the Geographic Division.
K 27
The compilation of the Fort George area, embracing and properly combining all the old and
new surveys, represented many difficulties which were successfully surmounted, mainly, by the
Standard Base Map system.
The data available for the building-up of the Stuart Lake Sheet do not allow of the construction of a strong, permanent map-sheet throughout. The compilation and construction has been
carefully made from the available surveys and will be a great improvement on the old sheet.
Degree Sheet Semes.
No. of Copies.
Date of Issue.
Area in Sq. Miles.
Kettle Valley.    Compiled to projection.     Comprising
land  surveys, topography, etc.,   and   drawn   for
March, 1923.
4 k
2 m. to 1. in.
This is the first time a map of this area has been produced on detailed scale. The topography
appearing on the westerly portion of the map is from the photo-topographical surveys made by
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S., whilst the contoured areas shown at Beaverdell, the easterly and
southerly boundaries of the map, are from the topographical surveys of the Geological Survey
of Canada and the International Boundary Survey. The map is now in the course of printing
and the issue will be available in March, 1923.
The initial work in connection with the production of Degree Sheets covering the Rossland,
Nelson, and Cranbrook quadrilaterals is being undertaken in connection with the Standard Base
Map system, and it is hoped it will be possible to make a commencement of the compilation of
these sheets in the ensuing year.
Land Series Maps.
No. of Copies.
Date of Issue.
Area in Sq.  Miles.
Powell Lake.    Compiled to projection and drawn for
May, 1923.
4 m. to 1 in.
With the production of the Powell Lake Sheet, the south-western portion of the Province
will be entirely mapped on the scale of 4 miles to the inch. The work of the Powell Lake Sheet
proved to be more Intricate than had been anticipated. To judge from the demand, this sheet
will fill an urgent need in connection with the timber industry and development of this area.
A considerable portion of the area of this map has not before been compiled and available on
printed maps in detailed scale.   This map is now in the hands of the printer.
District and Division Series.
of Issue.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
The new map of the Province was completed by the end of 1922, in so far as the black, blue,
and red colours were concerned, and is now in the hands of the printer. The new map is on
the scale of 1/2,000,000 (31.56 miles to 1 inch), printed on one sheet, 37 by 28 inches, and is
published as " Commercial Map of B.C."
In the first "advance" issue (December 19th, 1922) the map was shown in three colours—
black, blue for the sea and tints, and red showing main roads and trails, outlining Land District
boundaries, the mountain names, and other particular features.
It is proposed to issue various series of this map, which will show the different divisions
and districts into which the Province has been subdivided for administrative purposes, such as
the land recording divisions, mining divisions, Provincial electoral divisions, Dominion electoral
divisions, assessment districts, land registry districts, and counties; and on the copies of a
portion of the main issue it is planned to show the '' precipitation " throughout British Columbia.
Sufficient of each issue will be printed to coyer the anticipated public demand. K 28
Report of the Minister of Lands.
Method of Production.—The entire work of this map, including compilation, preparation,
and drawing of the original, and the printing, has been completed within the Province; the only
thing produced outside of the Province is the paper on which the map is printed. Printing-paper
of such required grade is not as yet manufactured in British Columbia.
In the plotting of this map the polyconic projection was used.
Design of the Map.—The Province, measuring roughly 1,200 miles from the south-east corner
to the north-west corner, in width averaging about 400 miles, and about 800 miles north and
south, makes a peculiar figure which is difficult to arrange to conform with the usual printing
sizes. The present map, embracing the whole of the Province, is compact in form, the sheet
being of a size easy to handle.
The title, scale, and legend balance well with the rest of the map, and the area usually
taken up by Pacific Ocean is used for valuable general data covering tables of distances of the
Coast, roads of British Columbia, railway connections to principal points in British Columbia
and this continent, with another comprehensive table .connecting principal points in British
Columbia with those of the world.
Filling up the spaces between these distance tables there is interesting geographical data,
the type of information having been carefully selected.
On the right-hand side of the map there appears an index of post-offices, which should
make the map doubly valuable. When one does not know the location of a feature, it is usual
to hunt for it throughout the whole map before being successful in finding it. In this index of
post-offices, which is a departure from the usual indexing system, any post-office is found in a
few seconds. Commenting on the indexing system, it would appear an improvement on the
customary one of lettering the quadrilaterals A, B, and C, etc., south to north, and 1, 2, and 3,
etc., east to west. In this " geographical " system the figures actually denote the latitude and
longitude, approximately, so that these figures are applicable to any map of the same area, so
long as the latitude and longitude lines appear thereon.
An inset is given which shows the connection from the most southerly part of the Province
with Seattle. Such a connection has not appeared on the past maps of the Province, and it is
thought that this will be most useful to many. Spokane, Calgary, and Edmonton have also
been included in the map area.
The distance tables should be of value to travellers, automobile traffic, to our commercial
interests, and to those who are shipping material throughout or to and from the Province, who
can, from these tables, practically connect themselves by road, rail, or steamship with any point
of the world. Prom these small charts there are hundreds of distances obtainable, and in the
road chart the main ferries throughout the Province are noted and calculated. The main roads
and trails are clearly indicated.
For the first time upon our maps of British Columbia the parks of the Province are
In Course or Preparation.
Map of B.C..
Showing-rivers, railways, roads, trails, parks, etc.; also land districts.
i' ir ir it precipitation.
ir H ii ii forest and grazing districts.
ii ii n ii land recording divisions,
ii ii " ii mining-divisions.
H ii ii ii assessment districts.
H ii ii n Provincial and Dominion electoral divisions.
ii ii ii ii land registry districts and counties.
Geographic Series.
Upon the completion of the Powell Lake Land Series map, we were able to proceed with
the preparation of the new map of the south-western portion of British Columbia referred to in
the report of this Division for last year, and steady progress upon this new map has been made
to date.
Wall-map of British Columbia.
As early as possible after the completion of the various issues of the one-sheet map of the
Province, the compilation of a new wall-map of the Province, upon the scale of 1/1,000,000, or 13 Geo. 5 Beport of the Geographic Division. K 29
15.78 miles to 1 inch, will be proceeded with. Upon this map it is proposed to show the contours
wherever such have been reliably surveyed. The areas of the Province topographically surveyed
comprise the Alaska-B.C., the B.C.-U.S.A. International Boundaries, the B.C.-Alberta Provincial
Boundary, and those " economic" portions of the Province which have been topographically
mapped for geological, mining, timber, or reconnaissance purposes upon varying scales. The
production of this proposed map, showing contours, will be the first attempt at compiling the
topographical information into one map publication. As only reliable contour information will
be compiled into this map, besides conveying the relative difference of elevation, it will serve as
an index to the public of the particular portions of the Province of which detailed contour
information is obtainable; it will also serve as an index showing the parts of the Province which
remain to be topographically surveyed.
Geographical Naming.
The compilation in connection with the Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia has
cleared the way for the thorough revision of the geographical naming in the principal map-sheets
prepared during the past year. The time taken to carefully edit the naming in these map-sheets
interfered with the progress of the Gazetteer, but gave permanent accuracy, and absorbed less
time than would formerly have been necessary for a restricted effort at such work.
The geographical naming appearing in Dominion map-sheets of British Columbia areas,
submitted to the representative for British Columbia on the Geographic Board of Canada, was
referred to this Division to be carefully edited and passed upon, which necessitated reliable
research of data and records. Credit is due to the assistant in charge for the smooth accomplishment of this work.
In addition to individual requirements received from the Geographic Board of Canada, and
correspondence connected therewith, the following is the list of sheets edited for geographic
naming during the year :—
1. Northern Interior of B.C., Eutsuk Lake, G.S.C.
2. Barkerville Sheet, G.S.C.
3. Kettle A'alley Degree Sheet, B.C. Government.
4. Powell Lake Map, B.C. Government.
5. Alaska-B.C. Boundary Survey, names submitted by J. D. Craig.
0. Alberta-B.C. Boundary Survey names.
Although progress in the compilation of the new Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia
was retarded by the work above outlined, by the end of the year the compilation was practically
completed, the exception being the latitude and longitude location of mountain features.
The next step in this production will be the alphabetical indexing, after which the design
and editing for publication can be undertaken.
Cost-card System.
The cost-card system introduced in 1921 has proved valuable in the efficiency of the Division.
Apart from the production of departmental maps, which is of first importance with the
staff, the demands upon the Division for the departments and the public were filled and charged
for accordingly, the amount being $871.21, comprising twenty-three separate items.
This branch of work has exceeded in number the demands of the preceding year, although
during the summer there was less demand than formerly. The mounting and joining-up in
connection with photostat orders has extended considerably, whilst several new classes of work
have been accomplished, such as mounting of photographic illustrations, making up photostat
copies of valuable books and papers into book form, rebinding field-books, etc.
Work worthy of special note was the map-mounting for the loose-leaf books prepared for
the British Ambassador at Washington and for the Agent-General for British Columbia. A synopsis of the work accomplished during the year is as follows:—
Loose-leaf map-books prepared        9
Loose-leaf map-books brought up to date        2
Maps cut to fold and mounted     389
Blue-prints mounted      654
Photostat prints fitted, joined up, and mounted    685
Photostat prints trimmed only   601
Photostat copies of books arranged in book form      10
Official mails repaired     38
In addition to carrying out the map-mounting requirements of the Survey Branch, the cash
receipts and credits for the period January 1st to December 31st amounted to $1,030.48.
Photostat reproduction prepared for departmental requirement exceeded in number of
requisitions those of 1921 by about 30 per cent., whilst the number of requirements for the
public were some 15 per cent, less than those of last year.
The photostat equipment has maintained its usefulness, and has saved a large expenditure
of time which the lack of this equipment would have necessitated.
Types of reproduction have comprised official plans, field-books, Crown grants, tracings,
certificates, maps, charts, copies of old documents. Many of the photostats were reductions or
enlargements to precise measure.
Requisitions for 1922 :—
Receipts and Credits.
Departmental, 750   §2,380 00
Public, 172        635 65
Map Stock and Distribution.
The distribution of maps to public and to the departments of the Government showed an
increase in number over last year; the same is true of the number of maps received into
geographic stock. The organization of this branch of work has been maintained satisfactorily,
evidenced by the smoothness and speed with which the demands for maps have been filled.
1. The total number of maps issued to the departments and public..       17,047
2. Maps received into geographic stock          18,663
3. Cash receipts  for printed  maps  and  draughting, January 1st to
December Slst, 1922   $1,372.39
4. Credits (Lands  Department)  for  printed   maps  and   draughting,
January 1st to December 31st, 1922     $1,250.98
5. Credits (Government Agents) for printed maps       $473.10
6. Aralue of printed maps issued free to Government Agents and public,
January 1st to December 3.1st, 1922   $1,392.68
A large proportion of the requests was for single maps.    Initial correspondence from those
interested in the possibility of obtaining land in the Province was carefully dealt with.
Letters received and answered during the year totalled 1,318, this being a slight increase over
the correspondence of the previous year.
Standard Base Map.
The system of running traverse routes throughout the Province, as the skeleton for the
compilation of the Standard Base Map, referred to in report of 1921, was completed during this
year in so far as the survey data at present available will allow. The receipt of new surveys
during 1922 necessitated revising a number of the old routes. These revisions, together with the
new skeleton traverses, made a total of 2,727 miles of traverse laid down. Of these routes,
thirty-three were balanced and thirty-five computed.
The second operation of the scheme, that of plotting the skeleton routes on the scale of 1
mile to 1 inch, was carried on into those particular areas which were especially required for
mapping purposes. Twelve sheets of 30-minute area, plotting all the skeleton routes contained
in the area, were completed in 1922. These, with those completed in 1921, make a total of
thirty-three sheets. 13 Geo. 5 Vicinity op Lakelse Lake. K 31
The experience of the Standard Base Map gained to date suggests that its importance in
connection with the cohesion of our surveys and strength and permanency of our mapping
cannot be overestimated. AVhat was said in this connection in the 1921 report has been fully
borne out in our experience in 1922. Never before in the mapping of British Columbia has it
been possible to secure such accuracy, co-ordination of effort, and smoothness of working, both
in the production of our printed maps and in the preparation of new departmental reference
An especial illustration of the efficiency of the Standard Base Map system occurred during
the past year in connection with the detailed topographical surveys carried out by the Branch
in Nicola and Similkameen. The former practice required that the topographic surveyors make
a separate compilation of the land surveys, which was compiled in to their topographical survey
as well as possible. This year the Division laid out a preliminary plot of the land survey
within the areas to be topographically mapped, giving the geographical determination of control
points therein, which could be then tied into the topographic work by survey in the field. During
the summer, while the topographical surveyors were in the field, the Division proceeded with the
preparation of the 10-minute quadrangle sheets on the scale of 20 chains to 1 inch (the Standard
Base Map), covering the area being topographically mapped, these sheets being available immediately the topographers returned from the field. The report to date from the topographers is
that the scheme is very practical and highly advantageous, a saving in their time, and giving
a cohesion of surveys with accuracy and permanency not before procurable.
Land Registry Plans.
Owing to illness our librarian was absent for six months, and the work in connection with
the Land Registry plans and Central Index suffered in consequence. During the year 589 Land
Registry plans were received and indexed.
This work has proved its worth in the constant reference made to it during the year, and
the ease and speed with which the plans sought were forthcoming.
The tabulation of maps and plans for the Central Index has progressed as steadily as
possible. During the year 17 per cent, of the total number to be registered was entered. This,
with the numbers filed in former years, brings a total to date of 52 per cent.
I have, etc.,
Chief Geographer.
By P. M.  Monckton.
Terrace, B.C.,  September 10th, 1922.
J. E. Vmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows oil the work carried out by me during the
summer of 1922 :—
Work was started on June 9th and the first camp was made near the 6-Mile post on the
Terrace-Lakelse Lake Road. Here Lot 655 was subdivided into five blocks of varying acreage.
There is some very good land on Blocks D and E, which are for the most part low-lying and
consist of a black loam top sail overlying clay. The other three blocks are not so good, being
rather gravelly. There is a settler on each block, D and E, and a good deal of improvement
was being done at the time of our visit. During July all this district was swept by heavy bush
fires and a lot of the fallen debris cleaned up.
On June 19th we moved to Midler's ranch at the north-west corner of Lakelse Lake, and
commenced to work on Lot 5137, the water-front of which we subdivided into summer-home sites,
and left the remainder unsubdivided as the surface was too rough to be of any value. There
are thirteen water-front lots here, each with a frontage of about 3 chains, the depth varying
with the proximity of the hill at the back. Next, Lot 4782 was laid out into Blocks A, B, C, and
D.    This is a very broken area and only Block A is of any use at all.    Nearly all of this is at ■
K 32 Report op the Minister op Lands.
least 500 feet above the lake. Here and there is a small valley a hundred feet or so in width
and a few hundred long, which is filled with a wet, black soil; otherwise it is all granite-
outcroppings or gravel hillside. To the south of this lies Lot 4475, which was divided into Lots
6796, 6797, 6798, and 6799, each of 1(50 acres. These lots are high at the north, falling towards
the south, and much cut up by ravines and outcrops of rock, with here and there a small valley
with an acre or two of wet swamp. Lot 4473 was divided into two parts; this lot is very rough,
rising sharply from the lake-shore to a height of 700 feet along the west boundary, with slopes
of 45° and with much broken rock and many bluffs. The only land on, it is a small flat, which
is about equally divided between the two parts. On the northern of these blocks there is a
small lake of about 3 acres near the south-west corner. After completing this part of the work
camp was moved by rowboat and canoe to Lot 3987 on July 22nd. We found that Lot 421
was not suitable for summer-home sites, being too low, and so a part of Lot 3987 was
substituted and included with part of Lot 5140, the whole making a block of twenty
lots, with 3 chains or more of water-front per lot. These are the best lots we saw and
I anticipate that there will be very keen competition to obtain Lot 6, on which we were
camped. Lots 6 to 20, which front on the main part of the lake, have a good beach
and a gentle slope facing east, while the woods are open and easy to pass through. I,ots
1 to 5 face north-east and front on the arm, which is narrow and more sheltered from, the winds
and also has good sites for building. The remainder of these Lots 5140 and 3987 was in each
case left in one block and each has some good land and some mountain, without much timber
of value. The next work undertaken was the subdivision of the large area at the south end
of the lake. This had been surveyed into Lots 5139, 3989, and 3990 and had a total acreage of
about 1,300 acres, including the vacant land to the south. Practically all of this land is good;
it is flat and rather low, and no doubt at high water that part near- the lake is wet; however,
we saw it the lowest water after a very dry summer, when it all seemed quite dry. In dividing
this land I laid out Lots 6800 to 6809, which average about 140 acres, and in all cases are
accessible by water, either by Lakelse Lake or by the Clearwater or Andalas Creeks. The former,
true to its name, is a stream of very limpid water, and where it crosses the south boundary of
Lot 6809 is about 50 links wide and 5 feet deep, widening to 12 chains at the mouth. Its banks
are well defined and its current runs at about 2 miles per hour. AAre used to take our 16-foot
rowboat up to the south line with six men aboard without difficulty after cutting the overhanging boughs. The Andalas is much the same as regards size and speed, but its water is very
cloudy, as if it were glacier-water, and is very cold. The two streams flow into the lake only
a couple of chains from each other and at the mouth have deposited a shallow bank, which
extends out for several hundred yards and is covered with a thick growth of tales and goose-
grass. This is literally alive with wild duck and swans in the fall of the year. All these lots
have good soil, but are liable to flood, and should be drained or dyked; those to the south are
the best, being higher; on these the soil is all silt, covered with a thick growth of crab-apple and
willow, with scattered spruce. A subdivision of Lot 6262 was made, laying out some fifteen
lots along the water-front of the same size as in the case of Lots 5137, 5140, and 3987. These
are also very good lots. There is a good gravel beach, rather shallow, with a few rushes, but
not enough to bother. The ground rises about 15 or 20 feet to a flat bench which would make
a good buildiug-site; the soil is good, a grey clay, except at the south, where the rocky outcrops
are again in evidence. The remainder of Lot 6262 was left as one lot and has perhaps 33 per
cent, of soil that some day will be of agricultural value when the timber has been removed.
Having completed this, we hired the gasolene-launch of the Lakelse Hot Springs Hotel to tow
us and moved to the foot of the trail, which we had made, leading to Hai Lake. Thus we were
at the foot of the trail at 10 a.m. and reached Hai Lake by the same evening. This lake is a
small body of water perhaps 30 chains long and 15 wide and covering about 25 acres. It is
fairly deep and has the reputation of being the home of some very large trout, but none of our
amateur Izaak AValtons had any success. We laid out Lot 5149 into two parcels, both of them
rather rough. The south portion is of the least value, being a steep valley with some swampy
land in the middle, and falling towards the Lakelse River in the south. The northern part is
flatter and has some clay benches with rocky outcrops. About this time the weather, which
had been as dry as any surveyor could dare hope for since May, turned wet and we were in
consequence never dry again. Camp had to be moved nearer to Lot 5146 and a trail was blazed
out to the north-east corner of Lot 5149; thenee we packed over the survey-line. ' Lot 5146 seems ■ii, «iil K<*0V&!f^t-£
.,, ■- ■- -     ■---,;*-. -^\.- r:.-■■-•
,j<ijj/>... ■::-■   ;.        .....   AirrV ■■>   '" .,;■" :   "    .> ..-.,.'    Hi--,—    ;,:■■■■■
-•       •       H
'■'■'.-'....'•':'■„-. -..j**:.  . . ■   " - ■-
Lakelse Lake, showing land subdivided for summer home-sites.
■2 .
Lakelse Lake, looking south-westerly from summer home-sites  13 Geo. 5 Vicinity op Lakelse Lake. K 33
to be a better agricultural proposition than any of the others we worked on, as it is high and
dry and at the same time the ridges of rock are absent, the soil being of a clayey nature,
though in places much cut up by small ravines. This lot was divided into two blocks. Field-
work was finished on September 4th, and the next day we packed everything down as far as
the lake and camped there for the night, being met the next day by a truck which took the
party into Terrace, where it was disbanded.
All that country to the immediate west of Lakelse Lake is rough and broken. Here and
there will be found small patches of marshy land. For the rest it is either gravelly hillside, or
else bare bluffs and ridges of granite. To the west of this rise the country is a plateau, elevated
some 500 feet above the lake and containing three small lakes—Hai, Hermon, and the small
unnamed one on Lot 4473. Of the hills, the most prominent is Hermon Mountain, which rises
about 1,300 feet above Lakelse Lake. The country to the south of the lake is low and flat
and liable to flood. If the lake could be lowered here it would be ihe finest land in the valley,
but 'as it is so shallow the advantage might be more than offset by the detriment thus caused
to the fisheries.
The usual coast species. Western hemlock up to 36 inches, and for the most part rotten
at the heart when over 18 inches. Sitka spruce of good quality in places where the soil suits
it, and up to 60 inches. Balsam up to 48 inches and sound, in large quantities. Cedar of great
size (for Northern British Columbia) and often sound. A particularly good stretch can be seen
on the lower part of Lot 5138. Fir is never seen this far north. Near the lakes some very big
silver birch grow, and where the soil is rich enough cottonwood up to 60 inches occurs. Lodge-
pole pine up to 15 inches is seen at odd places in thick stands.
Being only 25 miles from the salt water at Kitirnat, this valley has more the climate of the
Coast than the Interior. At Terrace (altitude 223 feet) the rainfall averages about 35 inches
and the snowfall about 60 inches. But local conditions cause great local variations and the
snowfall records kept at the old hatchery at the outlet of Lakelse Lake showed one year with
a fall of 243 inches; at Hermon Lake the usual depth on ground in midwinter is 6 feet. This
will have cleared by early May and affords a good protection against late frosts. Lakelse Lake
freezes completely over in December and remains so until April. During the last winter the
lowest reading at the lake was 16° below zero, but this was more severe than most years, when
around 10° below would be the limit. These cold spells are alternated by warm spells, and the
south-east wind will blow for several days at a stretch and raise the temperature as high as
35°, even in January. The last frosts will occur during the third week in May, and from then
until October 1st one may rely on fairly warm weather. This year the highest reading was 89°.
October and November are the rainy months, when 50 per cent, of the fall comes.
Settlement and Accessibility.
Terrace is the distributing-point for the valley. It lies some 95 miles north-east of Prince
Rupert, on the Canadian National Railway, and is served by a daily train in either direction.
From Terrace wagon-roads radiate north 21 miles to Kitsumgallum Lake, and thence a trail reaches
59 miles to Ayansh, on the Nass; south 12 miles to Lakelse Lake; thence an old trail reaches 35
miles to Kitirnat. Westerly a road runs along the south of the Skeena 10 miles to Remo and
east 4 miles to Copper. City. A ferry gives a fairly satisfactory service to points on the south
side of the Skeena, and there is in summer a service of Fords to Lakelse Lake. To the north
of the Skeena there live about 500 people and to the south only some fifty or so. This is cwing
to lack of a bridge across the river, for there can be no doubt that the best of the land is on
the south side. At Lakelse Lake the only permanent habitations are the hatchery of the
Dominion Government and the Hot Springs Hotel, both on the east side of the lake. When the
latter is further developed it should bring a great many visitors to the lake to visit " the largest
hot springs in Canada." It is a pool about 75 feet across and has a temperature of 186° F. It
is reported to contain lithia, but whether this is so I should not like to say.
3 K 34 Report op the Minister op Lands. 1923
Within 20 or 30 miles of Terrace there are very many promising prospects, those that come
the nearest to being within the scope of the area we were working in being the various claims
on Thornhill Mountain, between Terrace and Lakelse Lake and on the east side of the valley.
Many different minerals are found and reports circulated about them, so that it is hard to sift
fact from fiction. However, there is no doubt that rich ore is to be found, as in the case of
the Iron Hat, where Dahl and Olsen took out $3,200 of free gold in a few weeks' work.
This and logging are to-day the mainstay of the valley. Around Terrace there are many
10-acre patches, partly cleared off, and their owners are making a living off them, chiefly in
small fruits, for which the valley is well suited owing to its very mild climate.
Black bear are common and are to be seen everywhere. Grizzly are also common and a very
large one was killed this year at Lakelse River. The white bear, Vrsus kermodei, is known and
one was trapped by an Indian at Kitsumgalluin Lake this spring. Deer are very rare; so are
caribou, though they have been seen. Timber-wolves are present, though not many; while in
winter coyotes are often heard and are rather plentiful. There are many grouse, both blue
and willow, and in the fall the lake teems with wild duck, geese, and swans. The fishing in
Lakelse Lake is very good, cut-throat and Dolly Varden trout predominating.
Before going out to the lake everybody had warned us against the flies, but this turned out
to be quite unjustified, as we were never seriously bothered by them, and I never found them
half so bad as they were right on the salt water in the season of 1921 on Principe Channel.
Towards the latter end of the season wasps were rather too plentiful, and everybody in the
party was often stung by them.
I have, etc.,
P. M. Monckton. B.C.L.S.
By V. Schjelderup.
Burns Lake, B.C., December 6th, 1922.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—During the season some 4,800 acres of Crown lands were surveyed and 7,200 acres
subdivided. In addition to these surveys a considerable number of miscellaneous tie-lines and
traverses were run in various parts of the district. The work was very scattered and necessitated a great deal of moving about by a variety of transportation methods, such as back-packing,
pack-horses, wagons, motor-cars, Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, motor-boats, and canoes.
Babine Lake.
About 7 miles west of the head of this lake and on the north shore some 900 acres of Crown
lands were surveyed. Two of the parcels surveyed are occupied by W. W. Hawthorn and J.
AViggens and their families. A detailed report on each of the lots surveyed has been filed with
the field-notes.
From my last year's traverse of 15-Mile Creek a tie was made to the Queeua Mineral Claim,
Lot 6285, Range 5, and one to M.P. 10-W. on the north shore of the lake.
P.R. 1310, E. Boling, between M.P. 10 and 11-W., was surveyed as was also P.R. 1521, T. G.
McAvoy, at the lower end of Babine Lake. On both these pre-emptions both garden-truck and
potatoes have been grown very successfully for several years.
Babine Lake is some 100 miles long and lies in the usual north-west and south-easterly
direction at an elevation of 2,222 feet above sea-level. The report of R. P. Bishop, B.C.L.S.,
published in the Annual Report of the Minister of Lands for the year 1921, deals with Babine 13 Geo. 5
Ranges 4 and 5, Coast District.
K 35
Lake and vicinity, where Mr. Bishop worked for the greater part of the season 1921, and was
thus able to write a more lengthy and reliable report than I might do, as my stay on the lake
was only of short duration.
While on Babine Lake a trip was made to the east end of Taltapin Lake, where Lot 5017,
Range 5, was tied in to my last year's triangulation survey of this lake, and on my way back
to Burns Lake some connection traverses were run from lot corners to posts on the old Decker
Lake-Babine Lake Trail traverse.
The mail to Fort Babine still goes in via Hazelton, while practically all the freight, both for
the Hudson's Bay Company and stores owned by Indians, goes to Babine via Burns Lake.
The distance from Burns Lake to Donald's Landing on Babine Lake is about 22 miles.
The road has this year been greatly improved by the Public Works Department, although it is
still far from being a good wagon-road. Local freighters have built a scow on Pinkut Lake
capable of comfortably carrying two teams and loaded wagons from Pinkut Landing to the end
of the lake, a distance of about 3% miles, which saves a lot of time and hard work, as until
the scow was built one had to drive the horses around the lake over an old and very poor
pack-trail, while loads and wagons (taken to pieces) were brought down the lake by boats
lashed together.
Francois Lake.
Francois Lake is 65 miles long, with an average width of XYi miles, and lies at an elevation
of about 2,375 feet above sea-level.
In Bulletin No. 10 (Land Series) full particulars of the Francois-Ootsa Lakes District have
been published. A copy of the said bulletin may be had by 'applying to the Government Agent
at Fort Fraser, B.C.
This season quite a number of subdivision-lines were run in the Francois Lake vicinity in
lots surveyed years ago, covering land then held under application to purchase, and consequently
not subdivided into quarter-sections.
On the north shore and about 6 miles west of the outlet of the lake some 1,800 acres of
Crown lands were surveyed. This area was formerly covered by T.L. 7044P, 7045P, and 7048P,
which have been abandoned owing to the fact that there is practically no timber of commercial
value on the whole area.
On the south side of the lake and 1 mile west of the mouth of the Nithi River one lot
containing some 180 acres was surveyed. The land is not exceptionally good, but it has been
staked several times for purchase.
Francois Lake may be reached from several stations on the railway. From Houston there
is a road to the west end of the lake, a distance of 36 miles. This road continues to Wistaria,
where it connects with the road from Burns Lake. The east end of the lake has an outlet by
road to Fraser Lake Station. The distance is some 0 miles. From Endako there is1 also a road
to the east end, but as yet there is no bridge across the Stellako River, so this road only serves
the people living on the north side of the lake and river. Burns Lake is the most favoured route
and by far the best for any one wishing to visit the Lakes District. The road between Burns
Lake and Francois Lake is 14% miles long and the grades are very easy. The Public Works
Department has commenced to gravel this road as the motor traffic is too heavy for a dirt road.
There is a Government ferry across Francois Lake which connects the road from Burns Lake
with the road from Francois Lake to Ootsa Lake and Wistaria. The ferry now operating on the
lake was built this year and is a model of completeness and up to date in every respect. The trip
from shore to shore, a distance of 2 miles, is made in twelve minutes.
During this last summer the cable for Francois Lake arrived and was immediately laid,
completing the Dominion Telegraph branch line from Burns Lake to Ootsa Lake and Wistaria,
and thus putting the people of this remote section of the Lakes District in direct touch with
Burns Lake and the railway.
The Prince Rupert Logging Company has again secured a contract for cutting railway-ties
on Francois Lake. The ties cut last winter were successfully brought down the lake and the
Stellako River to Fraser Lake, where they were loaded. Great assistance was rendered by the
steamer " Enterprise" in towing the ties down the lake to the head of the Stellako River.
The " Enterprise " is 16 by 65 feet and has a 30-horse-power steam-engine. ■ It was built some
years ago but only operated for a short period, since when it has been lying idle at the east end
of Francois Lake.    The present owner, Albert Irwin, has. run the steamer all summer, but as yet there is not traffic enough on the lake to warrant the operation of  such  a  boat.    The
" Enterprise " makes an average speed of 10 miles per hour and has a capacity of some 10 tons.
Bulkley' ATalley.
In this valley I surveyed a few pre-emptions; a tie-line to Lot 140, Range 5, on Canyon Creek,
and some subdivision-lines were run.
The Bulkley A'alley has shown remarkable progress during the last few years. Smithers,
incorporated under the " Village Municipalities Act," is the largest town in the valley and its
growth, especially this last year, is marvellous. The reason for this sudden activity is the
development of the mining properties acquired by Mr. Duthie, of Seattle, situated on the south
side of the Hudson Bay Mountain. The showings so far are very encouraging and the prospects
are that the property will develop into a big producer within a short period. Several other
groups of mineral claims on the Hudson Bay Mountain have been bonded over to Eastern
Telkwa, at the junction of the Telkwa and Bulkley Rivers, is another thriving little town.
It is more of a farming centre than Smithers. There are large deposits of coal on the Telkwa
River and the Betty Mine is shipping on a small scale.
At the junction of the Buck River with the Bulkley River the little town of Houston is
situated, which is the hub of Pleasant Valley and the gateway to Owen Lake and the west end
of Francois Lake.
The Attorney-General, the Hon. A. M. Manson, writes in an article on Central British
Columbia, published in the Interior News on November 16th, 1921, as follows:—
" The population of the Bulkley A'alley has increased in the last five years by at least 300
per cent, and is increasing each day. In the valley are the villages of Smithers, Telkwa, and
Houston. The two former are thriving most vigorously and are vying with each other in a
neck-and-neck race as to which shall be the hub of the valley. In the Bulkley one finds many
settlersfrom the Prairies, many from the North-western States, and a goodly number of returned
soldiers. With very few exceptions they are making a distinct success, and if you ask them why
they came they will tell you that they did not like the drought and hail and bleak winds of the
winter in the places from which they came, and although they found that the poplar and spruce
of the valley makes pioneering a little slower than on the Prairies, yet they were willing to
undertake it in view of the richness of the soil and the equable character of the climate.
" Although the thermometer drops sometimes to 20° or 30° below zero there for a day or
two, it is not accompanied by wind. The snow of the winter runs from 18 inches to 3 feet.
The timber is spruce and poplar for the most part, with open patches here and there, and costing,
according to the method of clearing in this particular locality, from $20 to $75 per acre to clear.
The day was when the Bulkley Valley was considered frosty, tout in the last few years one has
heard less and less of frost and it is no menace at all. Thorough cultivation, early grains, and
early sowing will solve that difficulty beyond a doubt. There are no crop-failures in the Bulkley.
There are crops below average and above average, but in the worst year the farmer will get by.
It is a mixed-farming country. Dairying will be its future, and where there were a few dairy
cattle a year ago to-day there are several hundred head."
Owen Lake and Miscellaneous.
Practically all the good agricultural land at Owen Lake was until a few years ago held
under application to purchase or Crown-granted. Now the greater portion of this land has
reverted to the Crown and opened up to settlement and quite a few pre-emptors have already
located here. The soil is very productive and there is a luxuriant growth of wild grass, peavine,
vetch, etc.
The settlers have cut a good trail out to the Houston-Francois Lake Road, a distance of
some 14 miles. This trail has been cut wide enough for a wagon to be taken in over it with
a small load, but the grades are so steep that even for a winter road the route is impracticable.
The distance to Houston is about 28 miles by this route. At the time I left Owen Lake last
September the construction of a road to the west end of Francois Lake had been commenced.
From Owen Lake to Francois Lake by the old pack-trail is about 12 miles.
North-east of Owen Lake and about IY2 miles distant two lots containing 800 acres were
surveyed. The quality of this land is good and there is a very fair proportion of first-class land—
i.e., open wild-hay lands. 13 Geo. 5 Vicinity op Canadian National Railway. K 37
From my surveys a tie was made to the triangulation station erected by F. C. Swannell,
B.C.L.S., on Nadina Mountain, lying immediately to the south-west of Owen Lake and being a
well-known landmark in the district.
One lot containing 100 acres was surveyed adjoining Lot 6420 on the Buck River. The land
has been applied for by A. Reopel, the owner of Lot 6420, who is a great believer in the future of
the district and a very industrious farmer.
P.R. 821, Walter Smith, situated on the north side of Cheslatta Lake and about 4 miles west
of I.R. No. 2, was surveyed during the season. The land included in this survey lies half a mile
back from the lake and about one-third of it is open wild-hay land. The late Mr. Smith was
killed at the Front.
Cheslatta Lake and vicinity was dealt with in my 1920 report, published in the Annual
Report of the Minister of Lands of the same year.
On Burns Lake I subdivided Lot 1886 and on Tchesinkut Creek Lots 3822, 3826, and 3827.
These lots have reverted to the Crown and thrown open to pre-emption.
Last winter but very little snow fell until the month of February, and the result was that
the frost went down into the ground far deeper than is usual in this northern district, and when
spring came and the snow melted only a very small percentage of the moisture went into the
ground. Thence came the warmest and driest season on record, and the district came nearer
to having a crop-failure than ever before since the first settlers commenced to till the soil some
twenty years ago. The timothy suffered worst and I doubt that the crop averaged more than
one-third of that of any ordinary season. The grain-crop turned out much better than was first
expected and so did the root-crops. The upland wild hay was, generally speaking, considerably
below the average and in places not worth cutting, but the lowland meadow and swamp hay was
good, and owing to the dry weather and the low water everywhere existing a much larger area
was cut this year than is possible to do in a customary season.
The Public Works Department was very active this year, resulting in a distinct improvement
on the trunk roads of the district. At Quick a fine new bridge was completed over the Bulkley
River, and at Houston a bridge was also built over the Bulkley River and a road constructed
connecting Houston to the eastern part of the district by a direct route. A party was in the
field for several months on a survey to determine the most suitable route for the trunk road
to be constructed next year from Burns Lake to Endako, and thus allow through traffic from
Hazelton to Ashcroft and the southern parts of the Province.
South of Burns Lake there are now eleven schools, eleven post-offices, five general stores,
three hotels, one hospital, and good roads in| all directions, and it seems but a short time since.
we thought the country was doing fine with a post-office both at Francois Lake and Ootsa Lake
and some of the pack-trails cut out wide enough to be used as winter roads. The nearest
stores in those days were Bella Coola, Aldermere, and Fort Fraser, and the only method of
transportation was pack horses.
I have, etc.,
V. Schjelderup, B.C.L.S'.
By J. F. Campbell.
Prince George, B.C., September 15th, 1922.
J. E. Vmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the general report on the surveys made and
the country covered by me during the past season. The surveys consisted of a few isolated
pre-emptions, subdivisions of land reverted under the " Soldiers' Homestead Act," a small block
in the vicinity of Averil Creek, and the completion of surveys near the Canoe River.
My surveying operations extended from some 30 miles west of Prince George, east to the
Canoe River, a tributary of the Columbia.   Naturally while moving over such an extensive terri- ■ e	
K 38
Report op the Minister of Lands.
tory many different conditions as regards soil, climate, agricultural possibilities, and topographical
features of the country were encountered.
AVest or Prince George.
The country west from Prince George and paralleling the Nechako River is essentially a
farming district and is usually classed by agriculturists as a mixed-farming country. There is
a certain amount of timber that can be profitably utilized for milling purposes, but the areas
available are so scattered that I doubt if the timber would be of much value unless it is cut
for local use. In the few places where the timber is of commercial value it is generally spruce
and Douglas fir. The principal growth, however, is poplar, which is by far the most abundant,
lodge-pole pine, spruce, balsam, birch, and a few scattered patches of tamarack in some of the
swamps. Willow and alder grow along the streams and borders of lakes, and often a scattered
growth of willow is on the hillsides. Nowhere does the timber reach any great size, the poplar
varying from saplings up to 8 inches. The spruce would average a little larger, but is scattered
and usually found in swampy depressions or close to water.
On most quarter-sections there is usually some fairly open land that the settler can clear
up the first year, gradually extending his clearing to the more heavily timbered land. It is
noticeable in clearing land that if the trees are felled in summer when the sap is in the upper
limbs, the stumps, and especially the poplar, will rot in a few. years and can be.easily removed,
but in many instances the felling is done in winter when the sap is down, making the removal
of the stumps much more difficult, as they do not rot as readily.
The actual valley of the Nechako for 50 miles west from Prince George is not wide, seldom
exceeding 2 miles, and is usually less than that distance. But the low bench lands adjoining the
river are generally called valley lands and there is little difference between the bottom land and
the land on the lower benches. The soil on the bench is usually a brown clay silt, while lower
in the valley it is a little lighter, with a mixture of fine sand. Both soils have vegetable mould
on top and support a good growth of peavine, vetch, and wild grass. In many places the peavine
and vetch attain a height of 2 or 3 feet, with creepers twice that length. In the meadows the
wild grass, especially red-top, grows to 5 feet and is very dense. Where the soil has been
cultivated timothy yields an excellent crop, and from what different farmers have told me I
should say that timothy varies between 2 and 4 tons per acre. Oats and barley seem to do well,
but I have not seen any wheat fully ripened, although I understand that farther west wheat is
a success. Aregetables are something that can be depended upon, and I do not know of a year
in which a failure has been reported, although this year in some localities the potatoes were
touched by frost early in June. This, however, is an exception; although there are occasional
summer frosts in May and June,-they generally are not severe enough to do any damage.
There is plenty of range for cattle in summer and a great abundance of wild feed. In winter
the stock requires to be fed, as the snowfall is too heavy for them to range out. The length of
the winter is variable. Some winters snow may not fall until well on in December and be off
the ground by the end of March, while other winters the snow may come late in October and
stay until early in April. For this reason it is advisable to have feed for cattle for at least
five months. The country is peculiar in its snowfall owing to the fact that the depth varies
in very short distances, and it is difficult to place the average snowfall for the whole district.
I should think it would run between 2 and 4 feet, some parts being possibly a little deeper in
a winter of heavy snows. The rainfall in summer can be depended upon, the average from
June until September, inclusive, being 1.50 inches per month, with the lightest rainfall in
September. The temperature for these four months would average 56° F., with August the
hottest month. The average mean temperature for the winter months is about 22° F. Both
the rainfall and temperature is averaged over three years.
The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway follows the Nechako River on the south bank. Wagon-
roads parallel the river a few miles back on either side, with cross-roads running to the railway.
To the south of the river the cross-roads go to the railway-stations, while on the north bank
there is usually a ferry or small boat to cross the river to the railway. More ferries are required
on the Nechako and these are being installed as traffic warrants them.
Many new settlers have located during the past few years, the majority being either from
the Prairie Provinces or the United States. Some have brought live stock and farm implements
from their former homes and expect to make permanent homes on their new locations. 13 Geo. 5 Vicinity op Canadian National Railway. K 39
East op Prince George.
The country east of Prince George for about 100 miles, and paralleling the Grand Trunk
Pacific Railway, is at present, with the exception of small areas, more adapted to the lumbering
industry than to farming. This does not apply to the west side of the Fraser River on the
stretch from Prince George to where the river bends to the east, a distance of about 40 miles.
There is a vast extent of land to the west that has at one time been subjected to a severe fire
and the present growth is principally small poplar and willow. The land is easily cleared and
quickly brought under cultivation, and there are many excellent farms in operation. The country
in that vicinity is more generally referred to as the Salman River lands, upon which I reported
some years ago.
I resurveyed three sections, Lots 815, 816, and 760jj., on the west bank of the Fraser, opposite
Shelley, on the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. The majority of the land is bottom land with
a deep rich soil. The growth of peavine and wild grass is heavy and the clearing of the poplar,
willow, and Cottonwood fairly light. It is, however, rather badly cut up by Avhat is known as
\ the Goose Country Slough, and I should think that a large part of the land adjacent to the river
and the slough would flood at high water. This is especially true of the southern half of Lot
760a and part of Lot 816.
On completion of this survey I moved to Newlands, where a pre-emption and a small tract
of vacant land was surveyed.
Newlands is on the Grand Trunk Pacific, 30 miles east of Prince George. It lies in the
centre of a long, narrow valley that has very fertile soil. This valley, evidently, an old lake
depression, extends from the Fraser River, at the mouth of the AVillow, east for 25 miles, where
the Fraser River is again reached. The Grand Trunk Pacific follows the valley and there are
five stations in the 25-mile stretch—Willow River, Giscome, Newlands, Aleza Lake, and Hansard.
The valley at one time had a very heavy growth of large fir, spruce, and balsam, but a large
part of the timber adjacent to the railway and especially in the vicinity of Newlands, has been
logged off and the land brought under cultivation. There are still large tracts of timber available
for milling purposes, notably near Eaglet Lake and Aleza Lake, and it will be many years before
the timber is exhausted.
The land fit for cultivation is principally bottom land, the soil being a deep rich black loam.
The most successful crops are timothy-hay, oats, and vegetables. The best stand of timothy and
oats I have seen this year was growing on the land adjoining that surveyed. This has been a
year of light rainfall, but even with this lack of moisture the crops in this valley appear to be
quite up to normal.
Most of the farmers have gone into mixed farming and success is attending their venture.
On the farm of W. P. Ogilvie, a mile east of Newlands, there is possibly 20 acres under cultivation, and from four to six men with teams have been employed during the past summer clearing
and making ready for the plough additional land. One of the best and most modern barns has
been built on this farm and a silo is in the process of construction. On the farm adjoining this
to the south there are 30 acres under hay and oats. Opposite Newlands Station is the farm of
J. Keenan, from which the heavy timber has been cleared, and excellent crops of hay, oats, and
strawberries are raised. The strawberries from this farm will stand comparison, both for quality
and profusion of growth, with points in British Columbia that specialize entirely in berries.
There are many other farms in the valley that are successful, and'in the older-settled parts
near the mouth of the. Willow River the amount of land under cultivation is quite extensive.
There are five sawmills in the valley, the one at Giscome being the largest in Central British
Columbia, with a cut of over 100,000 feet per day and employing a few hundred men. At the
eastern end of the valley, near Hansard, there is a lime-deposit and a plant is under construction
for the mining and burning of lime.
The snowfall in winter is heavy and cattle have to be fed about five months. 'The rainfall
is, from indications, heavier than west of Prince George, and I should judge that the snowfall
is also deeper.
Ness Lake.
Ness Lake is about 20 miles west from Prince George and 10 miles north of the Nechako
River. Two sections near the east end of the lake, Lots 971 and 972, were subdivided into
160-acre blocks.    About a quarter of the laud is an old beaver meadow that has been under water for many years. A large amount of ditching has been undertaken by the settlers and
the majority of the land is drained and will shortly be fit for cultivation. The settlers, who
are farmers from the Western States, have seen the same class of land under cultivation, and
claim that no better land is wanted if properly drained and cultivated. Only a few acres have
been seeded this year and the results obtained so far have been very promising. There are large
tracts of similar land, often mistaken for muskeg, in British Columbia, and I am sure, if similar
methods of reclaiming were used, these tracts, at present considered worthless, would soon be
producing crops.
The land in the vicinity of Ness Lake is being settled very rapidly by energetic farmers and
within a few years should be one of the best producing areas in the Fort George District. Most
of the settlers have substantial buildings and areas under cultivation varying from 2 to 20 acres.
The crops raised are those usual throughout the district—timothy-hay, oats, potatoes, berries, etc.
The road from Prince George to Ness Lake passes along the north boundary of Lot 972,
while 3 miles to the south is a road to Miworth, on the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. These
roads have been connected by the settlers with a good road along the west boundaries of Lots
972 and 971. Miworth, the nearest railway-station, is 10 miles distant, and at that point a
Government-operated ferry is on the Nechako River.
Chief Lake.
About 20 miles to the north-west of Prince George are three lakes that lie within a mile
or so of one another—Nukko Lake, Swamp Lake, and Chief Lake, of which Chief Lake is the
largest. The area surrounding these lakes is known locally as the Chief Lake District, and for
the past few years the area of land under cultivation has been steadily increasing. This is
due to the excellent quality of the soil, a market at Prince George within a day's travel, and
convenient roads. Adjoining Swamp Lake, which is the southernmost of the three lakes mentioned, and extending south-east, are seventeen sections that have reverted under the " Soldiers'
Homestead Act."   These were subdivided into 160-acre blocks.
The land in the vicinity of Chief Lake, in common with the rest of Northern British
Columbia, had at one time been covered with large spruce and Douglas fir, but with the
exception of a few hundred acres near Swamp Lake and Nukko Lake, which still have the
original growth, the prevalent timber is poplar, spruce, and lodge-pole pine. The poplar seldom
exceeds 10 inches in diameter, the average size probably being about 4 inches, while the spruce
and pine would average considerably less. The clearing of the timber would not be heavy, but
there is very little land that could be cultivated until clearing is undertaken. There are a few
beaver meadows, often erroneously termed muskeg, that could be drained and the surface moss
burnt off and put under cultivation. These will usually produce a good crop of hay the first or
second year, but unless thoroughly dry will not produce good vegetables.
The land lies on a low divide between the Nechako and Salmon Rivers and is well watered
by numerous creeks that have their sources in the many small lakes that dot the country.
The soil is clay with a small mixture of sand and varies in depth from 3 feet and greater.
Below this soil is clay, in places intermixed with light gravel.
The area is well supplied with roads, the main Chief Lake Road passing north-west through
the block surveyed, while two other roads branch from the main road, one passing along the
southern limit of the block, while the other parallels the land to the east. Both the last-
mentioned roads are in fair shape for team and wagon. I hauled 2,000 lb. from near the centre
of the block to Ness Lake along the road that passes through the southern part of the block
and had no trouble in making 2% miles an hour. Motor-cars can be used for about 15 miles
on the Chief Lake Road, and after some repairs are made to the bridges there should be no
trouble in motoring from Prince George to the lake.
There is a post-office and school at Chief Lake, but as the land surveyed lies midway between
Chief Lake and Prince George, the latter would be more convenient for the settlers on this
particular block.
Averil Creek.
Averil Creek empties into the Fraser within a mile of where the river turns south after
reaching its most northern point. A range of hills standing about 2,000 feet above the river
turns the Fraser south, and Averil Creek comes through a narrow canyon in the same range.
For a mile north along the creek there is a series of canyons, then the creek-valley widens into 13 Geo. 5 Vicinity op Canadian National Railway. K 41
a basin three-quarters of a mile wide and IY2 miles long. The land in this basin is very open,
almost prairie-like in aspect. On all sides hills rise above the basin or valley for 2,000 feet,
and for the most part are heavily timbered with spruce, fir, and balsam, although there are
occasional patches that have been swept by fire and have a dense growth of mountain-ash and
willow.    The land in this valley was surveyed into small holdings.
There are two mines in the vicinity of Averil Creek. Both these have a number of men
employed, and it is for those who may toe employed at the mines and decide to locate that
the land was surveyed, as the position nullifies it for settlement except for those immediately
interested in the mining development.
On the mine operated by the North Point Mining Company, three tunnels have been driven
into the hill. The tunnel upon which most of the work is at present concentrated is about 700
feet long and has been driven through solid rock. Silver and lead are in paying quantities and
there is also a small amount of gold. Most of the work done so far is in the vicinity of Lot
9606, about a mile west of Averil Creek. On Averil Creek, half a mile from the mouth, there
is another mine under way, and although the work and development is not as large as on the
North Point Company's property the showing is considered to be as good. About thirty claims
have been staked and a certain amount of work has been done on a few of them. J. D. Galloway,
the Resident Mining Engineer for the district, visited the properties while I was camped at Averil
Creek, and no doubt his report on this group of mines will be published in this year's Annual
Report of the Minister of Mines. Also parties from the East who are interested in the development of the property paid short visits and evidently were well satisfied with the outlook.
Averil Creek is 12 miles north of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, but as there is no road
connection all supplies have to be brought down the Fraser River from Hansard, a station on
the railway, 40 miles up-strea.m.
Canoe River.
To close my season's work I moved to the Canoe River, the most northern tributary of the
Columbia, to run the outside boundaries of some previously surveyed land, and to complete the
surveys of some pre-emptions shown on the map but not run on the ground.'
As there is no direct rail connection between Prince George and Swift Creek, the nearest
station to my work, I moved by the Grand Trunk Pacific to Lucerne. Spending the night there,
I made the balance of the trip by the Canadian National, retracing my previous day's journey
for about 50 miles, as the Canadian National and Grand Trunk Pacific use the same track from
Lucerne to Red Pass, a distance of 25 miles, and parallel one another for another 25 miles,
when the Canadian National turns south through the valley of the McLennan. These two
railways at one time had separate road-beds through the Yellowhead Pass, but during the
war the rails of one were removed from Edmonton to Red Pass, which lies at the western end
of the pass. I understand that the abandoned road-bed is to be repaired and used as a wagon-
road. If this is done there will be a few hundred miles of unexcelled road on which the grades
are so light that they will be unnoticed.
The Canoe River has its source at a glacier in the Selkirk Range, about 15 miles west of
Cranberry Lake, a short distance south-west of Mount Robson Park. Swinging in a horseshoe
bend, it empties into the Columbia near the big bend of that river. The low divide that separates
the watersheds of the Fraser and Columbia is between Cranberry Lake and Canoe River, the
distance between those two points being about 1% miles. The Canadian National Railway
follows along this divide where it passes from one watershed to the other.
The Canoe River flows through a narrow valley on either side of which rise snow-capped
mountains. In many instances the mountains rise abruptly from the valley-floor without any
intervening slope. The height of the mountains varies from 7,000 to 9,000 feet, with a few of
the peaks higher. The scenery is similar to that in Mount Robson Park, a few miles to the
north, and I have no doubt that as soon as the country is better known to tourists and connected
by good motor-roads to the Prairie and Coast cities, the valley will be one of the most favoured
in British Columbia. ITifteen miles down the valley from the Canadian National Railways are
a number of hot springs that I would liked to have visited, but the short time at my disposal
prevented this.
A large number of farms are under cultivation both in the Canoe River Valley and the
valley of the McLennan River, a few miles north. Some of the farms have 40 and more acres
under cultivation and the usual crops of hay, oats, vegetables, berries, etc., are raised.   Irrigation K 42 Report op the Minister of Lands.     • 1923
is used on many of the farms, this being necessary as the rainfall is light. Most of the water
for irrigation purposes is obtained by diverting one of the numerous mountain streams and
running it in ditches through the farm. AVhen sufficient water is obtained the stream is turned
back into its usual channel.
Some of the streams are large in size, notably Swift Creek and Packsaddle Creek, both being
about 100 feet in width and carrying a large flow of water. A mill in operation on Swift Creek
uses a water-turbine which is driven by an overflow from the creek. Some of the settlers have
water-wheels on their farms and obtain enough power to drive small saws for the cutting of
The snowfall in the valley is light, seldom exceeding 2 feet, and the cattle feed out nearly
all winter, though I noticed that all farms put up enough feed for a few months in case a severe
winter develops. There are some fairly large herds of cattle in the valley and many flocks of
sheep and all appear to be in first-class shape.
The mountain-sides up to 5,000 feet are heavily timbered with Douglas fir, pine, spruce, and
balsam, and the logging chances are easy. There are a few sawmills operating, tout there are
still good chances for more, as the timber is convenient and transportation handy.
As previously mentioned, there is considerable mining activity at Averil Creek, where galena
has been found. A few miles south of Prince George a dredging outfit is working on Government
Creek and the prospects are bright. At Fraser Lake a very good coal prospect is being worked.
Coal from this vicinity has been used in the past by the old Hudson's Bay post at Fort Fraser,
though it is only in recent years that any attempt has been made to develop it. There is always
a certain number of prospectors in the hills and occasionally a find is reported, but so far nothing
startling has been found.
The lumbering industry in the Fort George District has been dormant for a number of years,
but is now beginningNto pick up. There are vast areas of timber close to the railway to draw
from, but for the past two years the low price of lumber in the market has prevented any large
cut, and most of the mills have been closed or working part time. During the past summer most
of the mills have started cutting again and the majority will continue logging operations this
winter. The Giscome mill, the largest in Northern British Columbia, has been idle for five years,
but this summer has started cutting and logging. Other mills have started and a few new mills
have been constructed.
Game and Fish.
Game is very plentiful throughout the district. The moose are numerous and it takes very
little skill or time to find and kill one. Many were seen during the summer, but none were killed
by members of the party, as they were generally encountered in out-of-the-way places. At both
Averil Creek aud Canoe River there were many indications of grizzly bear, but none were seen.
The black bear are plentiful, but are more destructive to farm gardens than harmful to man,
although two members of the party had an unpleasant experience with one, which necessitated
the use of the axe. A few mountain-sheep were seen on the higher peaks in the vicinity of
Canoe River. Fish are plentiful in most lakes and streams, rainbow trout predominating, and
it is not difficult to make a good catch.
I have, etc.,
J. F. Campbell, B.C.L.S. 13 Geo..5
Vicinity of Barkerville and Van Winkle.
K 43
By R. AV. Haggen.
Quesnel, B.C., October 24th, 1922.
J. E. Untouch, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In accordance with your instructions of June.20th, I completed surveys of unsurveyed
pre-emptions in good standing in the Cariboo District, and also made traverses of Cunningham
Pass, Cottonwood Valley, from the Barkerville Road to near the Pacific Great Eastern Railway
Crossing, Cottonwood-Ah Bau Lake Trail to surveyed timber licences; A7an AVinkle-Swift River
Road to Lot 9884, Swift River; Barkerville-Fraser River Trail to AA'olverine Creek, tying in
surveys, and made a resurvey in Beedy Creek Valley. On the Cunningham Pass and Cottonwood
River traverses numerous placer-lease location posts were tied in.
A total of 32 miles of horse-trail was built in connection with the work, and this trail will
fill a much-felt want for settlers, prospectors, and trappers.
Indian Point and Isaacs Lake.
Three pre-emptions were surveyed in this locality. The first survey covered land at the
outlet of Indian Point Lake, which lies 7 miles north-easterly from the outlet of Bowron Lake,
to which point there is a good road, 18 miles in length, northerly from Barkerville. This trail
was built about 1912, connecting Barkerville with the mouth of Goat River; it was at that time
the intention to build a road from Barkerville to the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway to give a
shorter freight-haul, this road being some 200 miles shorter than the Cariboo Road. The building of the Pacific Great Eastern, however, altered the situation, as Barkerville is now 58 miles
from the railway at Quesnel; under the old Cariboo Road conditions the distance was about 280
At the outlet of Indian Point Lake there is a small open flat which grows good hay;
potatoes mature and gardens do well; however, in common with most pre-emptions in the Barkerville section, the area of agricultural land would be insufficient to support any one who had no
other means of earning a livelihood. There is little market for produce, but the settlers usually
raise produce and horse-feed for themselves; sell a little, and earn a livelihood by a happy
combination of farming, trapping, and guiding.
Pre-emptions were also surveyed 7 miles and 14 miles north-easterly along the old trail, one
being on the portage between Indian Point and Isaacs Lake and the other on Isaacs Lake at
the mouth of Wolverine Creek.    The holders of these pre-emptions had all enlisted.
The two last-mentioned pre-emptions can hardly be classed as agricultural land; they are
densely wooded with hemlock, spruce, cedar, and fir, and cost of clearing would be above any
possible value as agricultural land; the soil is sandy, rather lacking in nutrition, and transportation conditions are unfavourable. However, garden-patches are fairly productive'and the lands
lie in a good trapping country.
This old Goat River Trail has been little used since 1914; during construction it was in
great demand for the transportation, by pack-horse, of certain commodities which Barkerville
could supply. Along Isaacs Lake there has been a large fire since that time and the trail is
now completely blocked with windfall. In order to get my camp to Isaacs Lake it was necessary
to build an entirely new trail from Kibbee Lake to the west end of Isaacs Lake, about 10 miles;
a raft was used to convey the outfit on Isaacs Lake.
AVhile the agricultural land in this locality may not be a great asset, there is a tremendous
body of virgin timber in the locality. Tributary to Bowron River, that is on Bowron and
Indian Point Lakes, a common average is from 5,000 to 10,000 feet of spruce to the acre. On
the streams and lakes tributary to the Quesnel River, the area including Isaacs Lake, the North
Fork of Quesnel River, Quesnel Lake, and Horsefly River, the Commission of Conservation of
Canada gives the quantity as 5,736,000,000 feet B.M., the approximate percentages being:
Spruce, 40 per cent.; red cedar, 30 per cent.; hemlock, 10 per cent.; balsam, 15 per cent.; Douglas fir, 3 per cent.; and lodge-pole pine, 2 per cent.    This timber is all available for floating, by river,
to Quesnel when conditions warrant its development.
I have neither seen nor had any authentic information concerning any minerals in this
section; at a few bars on Bowron River some placer-mining has been done.
Cunningham Pass.
A traverse was made from the AVaverly Mine on Grouse Creek to the mouth of Cunningham
Pass Creek at Cunningham Creek.
A road leads all the way from Barkerville, the 5-Mile post being at the easterly boundary
of the AVaverly ground and 12-Mile at Cunningham Creek.
From the AVaverly the road descends into Antler Creek A" alley, which is followed for 3
miles; at the lower end of the Nason ground the road forks, one branch continuing up Antler
Valley to Sawmill Flat, where it connects with the Keithley trail; this section of Antler Creek
was very rich, yielding some $8,000,000 in the days of the gold-rush. At the Nason claim the
ground becomes deeper and wet and drifting was impracticable. At the Nason ground there is
a little flat leading through to Cunningham Pass Creek, and good results were obtained by
prospectors there this season. It is known as Whisky Flat, and there are a number of old
cabins still in existence there; it must have been a popular residential quarter once. The
Cunningham Pass Road leads thorugh a low pass from Antler, AVhisky Flat entering the pass
at the Yellow Lion claim, half a mile from the forks. From the Yellow Lion the drainage of
the pass is to Cunningham Creek, a tributary of Quesnel River.
The valley of Cunningham Pass Creek, and of Cunningham Creek as far as was visible,
has been fire-swept and is now wooded with poplar, growing among the brule. There would
seem to have been little mining done on the creek, though prospectors who worked there this
summer got very promising results. One company had a drill in operation at the junction of
Cunningham Pass and Cunningham Creeks, while House and Reid, of Barkerville, are busy
this fall setting up a hydraulic plant to operate on a bench of Cunningham Creek next season.
Cunningham Creek was a fairly good producer aud was worked until quite recently with good
results.    Of course, no information is available as to the prospects found by the drill.
At the divide between Cunningham and Harvey Creeks a good quartz strike is reported,
Ernest Moore having been engaged in development-work there all season; the ledge is reported
to be 60 feet in width and assays very encouraging.
This section is purely a mining area. In the Barkerville field the past season was a
poor one for hydraulicking owing to the continuous dry weather, which compelled the claims
to suspend operations much earlier than usual. On the other hand, several unexpected strikes
were made. The nicest gold I saw was taken by Al. Saunders out of quartz near the Lowhee
Mine; he made a good stake during the season, maintaining a larger average than I have ever
heard of in quartz mined by hand-work only, without even an arrastra. Leo Muller, working on
Dragon Creek, averaged 9% oz. to a set (4 by 10 feet), and McComish and Ross took out
considerable gold on 8-Mile Creek. Possibly as a result of the Cedar Creek excitement more
prospecting than usual was done during the past season and all reports are encouraging.
Van AVinkle to Swift River.
From Van Winkle, on the Cariboo Road, 44 miles from Quesnel and 14 from Barkerville, a
traverse was run over a road which follows up Last Chance Creek, crosses the head o£'*Peters
Creek, and follows down the valley of Fountain Creek to Swift River, a tributary of the Cottonwood. A pre-emption had been taken up by a returned soldier and covered some hay meadow
and open hills near the Swift River.
In this section there is considerable good land and a luxuriant growth of summer feed. At
some future date there will be a settlement between the Quesnel River and Fountain Creek;
at the present time it is too remote for settlers to make a success there. The district is evidently
quite well adapted to dairying and mixed farming; the winters are of too long duration for
cattle to be raised profitably. AVhile a surveyor can do no more than express an opinion of
virgin country, it would seem reasonable to expect that splendid hay-crops could be grown,
that hardier root-crops would do well, and that potatoes could be grown on the slopes; the
depressions would probably be subject to frost. Under present conditions the land is 60 miles
from railway; under the best conditions, say a road in a fairly direct line to Quesnel, it could 13 Geo. 5 Vicinity op Barkerville and Van Winkle. K 45
hardly be less than 40 miles, and under present conditions in the district settlers would be well
advised to locate nearer the railway.
There is gold on all the creeks in this section, though it is hardly rich enough for individual
miners to make profit. There is a probability of good dredging-ground, and one company
proposes the installation of a dredge next season on ground which was drilled this year.
Ah Bau Lake Trail.
From Cottonwood Post-office, on the Barkerville Road, a tie was run along the old trail
to Ah Bau Lake. Along this section there are numerous pine ridges, with swampy ground,
wooded with spruce, intervening. The section contains no agricultural land; in fact, it is
difficult for horses to find feed within 6 miles of Ah Bau Lake. Transportation conditions now
preelude any value attaching to the timber, but it may ultimately become of value. Some mining
has been done on Graveyard Creek, the miners making wages; a quartz ledge beyond Ah Bau
Lake a few miles is reported to contain a good deposit of galena and it has recently been
examined by engineers.
Graveyard Creek, draining out of Ah Bau Lake, is the North Fork of Cottonwood River,
entering the latter stream below the Pacific Great Eastern Crossing, the course being generally
Cottonwood River.
The Cottonwood River, which flows in a valley 500 to S00 feet deep, was traversed from
the Barkerville Road (Cottonwood Post-office) to near the Pacific Great Eastern Crossing.
The valley does not greatly belie its name, there being numerous benches lightly wooded
with aspen. These benches are narrow and gravelly and do not appear to be very well adapted
for agriculture. The lower flats and uplands are wooded with a fairly heavy growth of pine
and spruce. A few of these lower flats would be suitable for agriculture on a limited scale, and
undoubtedly root-crops would do well, while hay can be raised without irrigation. There is little
or no range land in the valley and it could not be considered suitable for stock-raising.
Between 10 and 11 miles from Cottonwood Post-office the river flows through a canyon, the
walls of which were so rugged that it was necessary to swing the traverse back a considerable
distance;  this canyon is half a mile in length, terminating in falls some 10: feet high.
From 16% miles the stream enters a series of canyons, the last of which is at the crossing
of the Quesnel-Fort George Road, 8 miles from the head of the canyon. Several of these canyons
are quite impassable near the river for a man on foot.
The top gravels along the Cottonwood Aralley are all auriferous and in some places carry
values of several dollars per yard. It seems very likely that men with rockers could average
from $4 to $7 per day for wages. The gravels are rather richer than those of the Quesnel and
Fraser Rivers, on both of which considerable work of this kind has been done. Drilling was
done on one section of the river at the head of the 8-Mile Canyon.
It is a rather general condition of river gold that it is found within the top 8 inches oh
the bars, the deeper ground carrying small values or being barren; a dredge has, of course, to
excavate a considerable depth to work ahead, and this barren ground so reduces the average per
yard as to make it unprofitable to dredge ground on which individual miners, rocking the top
gravels only, can make fair wages. The present generation does not seem to fancy this class
of work, though, and very little is being done in the district now.
Beedy Creek.
One parcel was surveyed on Beedy Creek, a tributary of the Beaver River, which drains
into the Quesnel River 30 miles from Quesnel. This parcel lies 11 miles by road and trail
from the mouth of the Beaver, and also has access from a road 12 miles in length from Mclnnes's
ranch on the Beaver Lake-Alexandria Road. Mclnnes's place is 20 miles by road from
Macalister Siding, on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
The Beedy Creek Valley contains some rich bottom land and good crops are raised; owing
to its position the activities of the settlers are pretty well confined to stock-raising, and with
beef selling at a price below cost of production, except under the most favourable conditions,
their position to-day is not good. This valley, in conjunction with the Beaver Lake District, will
probably develop into a dairying and mixed-farming section in a very short time.    The creamery K 40 Report op the Minister op Lands. 1923
at Quesnel is now an assured success, and cream is being shipped in from points down the railway as far south as Forest Grove; it will be necessary for the settlers in the Beaver Lake
section to have some arrangement among themselves for the delivering of cream to the railway.
When the district does make development along these lines it will be one of the most prosperous
farming sections in the Province.
Throughout the season we were working in a good game country; in fact, big game, moose,
bear, and deer, are decidedly on the increase at the present time; the moose continue to drift
southerly. Eleven years ago I worked on Bowron River, and the " moose country " did not then
begin within 50 miles of Bowron Lake;.about eight years ago they began to become plentiful
around Bowron Lake and on the North Fork of Quesnel River; this year I Saw two on the
Cariboo Road south of Soda Creek, and they have been seen at Clinton and Alexis Creek. I
do not think it is so much a case of changing their haunts, as there is no report of them becoming
scarce in the northern country, but probably they are becoming more plentiful from natural
increase and ranging over a larger area. The moose is in the happy position of being a good
lighter, and well able to protect itself against natural enemies.
In the Barkerville area a number of big-game hunters were in the bush this fall, and the
district becomes more popular each year as a hunting-ground.
There seem to be more deer throughout the district this year than for some time past;
caribou are reported as holding their own. Bear are quite numerous, grizzlies being frequently
seen in the Barkerville section and black bear being numerous throughout the whole district.
Of fur-bearing animals there is a diminution, beaver and musk-rats being plentiful, but
otter, marten, weasel, mink, fox, and fisher being decidedly scarcer that they were a few years
ago.    Coyotes, which used to be a great pest in the country, have decreased considerably.
Grouse, which were scarce for several years, are once more becoming very plentiful and
coveys of prairie-chicken are frequently seen.
The rabbit, a very valuable aid to economy, is once again with us, and there is less worry
concerning the winter's grub-stake than has been the rule.
Throughout the district there are numerous streams and lakes in which the fishing is good,
trout being the most-sought species. On Upper Bowron River there are schools of kokanees.
Salmon are under the ban and have been fairly scarce during the past few years, but they seem
to be rather more plentiful than latterly in this district. In the Fraser River there are sturgeon
and ling. In some of the streams there are myriads of suckers, and in these it is noticeable
that trout are becoming quite extinct.    Whitefish are fairly plentiful in some' lakes and streams.
Conditions in the district during the past year have not been good, though there has been
little unemployment. Those settlers who have dairy stock are making a living. The stock
industry is at a standstill owing to its low prices. A sawmill has operated at Quesnel throughout the season. The mining industry has been more active than usual, a number of men being
in the hills prospecting. The Penobscott claim on Cedar Creek has been a good producer all
year, and the Kitchener Mine on Keithley Creek should show good return. It will be rather
strange if other workable ground is not struck in the Cedar Creek area in the near future, as
it seems unlikely that rich ground will be found in one spot and nothing of much value elsewhere in the locality—rather contrary to placer experience.
Generally I see no reason for pessimism in regard to the future of the Cariboo and Lillooet
Districts. They contain a large aggregate area of very productive agricultural land, with
abundant summer range, and both districts are well adapted to mixed farming. Pulp-milling,
tie and pole timber are to be found in large quantities, and given favourable transportation
conditions the timber industry is bound to develop. . Placer-mining will continue to be carried
on for a nmnber of years and quartz prospects are encouraging. The non-metallic mines will
produce soda, magnesite, and epsomite as required; they will probably continue to work intermittently as market conditions warrant.
Climatically the Cariboo District is not one subject to extremes. The depth of snow varies
from IY2 to 3 feet in winter; the winters are usually pleasant, with occasional cold snaps, but 13 Geo. 5 North Lillooet District. K 47
comparatively little wind; in summer extreme heat is unusual, 80° to 90° being the extreme.
There is usually ample rain during the summer to ensure good crops, though, as is common to
all countries, there is occasionally a long dry spell.
I have, etc.,
Rupert AV. Haggen, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
By R. C. Farrow.
Arancouver, B.C., October 10th, 1922.
J. E. Vmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the surveys made by me this
season in the North Lillooet District:—
I left A'ancouver with my party on May 29th, and proceeded via Pacific Great Eastern
Railway to Clinton, my point of organization. I picked up my truck and supplies here and
proceeded by road to Green Lake, where I made my first camp.
My work this season was scattered over a very large area, extending from Green Lake on
the south to a few miles north of the Cariboo District boundary on the north, and from Sheridan
and Canim Lakes on the east to 141-Mile House on the west. This involved long and frequent
moves, though fortunately, for the most part, they were over good roads. I had altogether
twelve camps and moved my outfit over about 500 miles of road. I surveyed a total of 10,122
acres, partly the subdivision of 640-acre lots and partly original surveys. In addition, I made
a number of tie traverses and check surveys, running a total of 115 miles of line.
Southern Portion of Work.
The southern portion of the work—that is to say, all which lay south of the 100-Mile House—
was scattered over the high undulating plateau which, roughly speaking, commences along the
line of the Bonaparte River-Kelly Creek and stretches away to the north-west; bounded on the
east by Bridge Creek and the San Jose Valleys and on the west by the Fraser River. This
plateau varies in elevation from 3,600 to 4,500 feet; it rises very gradually from the south and
west, reaching an eminence in the neighbourhood of the 83-Mile House, where two rocky butts
rise on either side of the Cariboo Road, Mount Begbie on the east and Mount Rosemary on the
west, the latter having an elevation of about 4,550 feet; from here north-west it undulates with
about the same average elevation of 3,900 feet, except where it is broken by creek-valleys.
Practically the entire plateau is of glacial origin, having a drift-soil, very stony in places,
sometimes boulders and sometimes rock in place; this varies in places to a deep clay soil, there
being practically no difference between the surface and subsoil, except in the meadows. The
plateau is almost uniformly timbered with jack and lodge-pole pine, with occasional patches of fir.
The only lands of any value for settlement in this area are wild-hay meadows, which are
dotted about over the entire area and vary in size from mere pot-holes of 1 or 2 acres to extensive
meadows. Practically all these meadows are the result of beaver working and without them this
area would be useless for any form of ranching or farming. The work of these industrious little
animals, past and present, is therefore of great economic value. They are still to be found there
in considerable numbers, despite the yearly toll which the trappers take.
It is upon the meadows that the ranchers rely for hay for winter feed for stock, as it is
impossible to raise crops at that altitude in such a northerly latitude, even if the soil and water
were adequate.   Potatoes and other vegetables have been tried, but without success.
If this area is to be populated, therefore, it will be necessary to locate and survey all the
existing wild-hay meadows and improve the ones already taken up with a view to increasing
the hay-crops. As I was directed to some and found others myself within a few miles of the
Cariboo Road, between 83-Mile Creek and 93-Mile Creek, it leads one to believe that numerous
other meadows must exist in the large unmapped portion of the plateau which lies between the v
K 48 Report of the Minister of Lands.
Cariboo Road and the surveyed land along the Fraser River. This assumption is partly justified
by reports which I have received from trappers to the effect that in their trips over their trap-
lines in winter they have come across extensive open areas, although, of course, as they were
covered with snow, they were usually unable to tell whether they were lakes, meadows, or
It is extremely difficult to locate meadows in such a country, as one may pass within a
few chains of one without seeing it, and there are no eminences df sufficient height to locate
them from. I found it slow work cruising the country on foot looking for them, and it would
be scarcely quicker, though certainly easier, to do it on horseback. The ideal way of locating
them and noting their position for future reference would be from an aeroplane by photographic
Details of Work on the Plateau.
Commencing work at Green Lake, along the North Bonaparte Road I subdivided nine sections,
according to instructions; they are in undulating country, timbered with pine and some fir on
a glacial drift-soil, very stony in places; the average elevation is about 3,750 feet. Scattered
through the timber are a number of meadows of various sizes, this year mostly dry and therefore
having a sparse growth of grass, but in normal years they would probably be wet.
I then moved north-east to Sheridan Lake and subdivided two sections, both of a similar
nature to those in the vicinity of Green Lake. The only land of any value on them is under
I then moved west again to the Cariboo Road and up to the 74-Mile House, wliere I tied in
Lot 4420 to adjoining survey. Moving on to the 83-Mile House, I surveyed one Government lot
on 83-Mile Lake;  it contains a large wild-hay meadow.
Moving on again, I camped about 1% miles west of the 87-Mile House, which is now deserted.
In this vicinity I surveyed ten Government lots, all but one lying to the west of the Cariboo
Road; all contained wild-hay meadows of various sizes. This portion of the plateau is only
very slightly undulating and has a slight westerly slope. It is dotted with numerous small
lakes, most of them drained by a creek which flows in a westerly direction and appears to be
the headwaters of Dog Creek. Those lakes which are not thus drained are slightly alkaline.
The average elevation here is about 4,100 feet. The soil is a deep clay; there is no surface soil
or humus to speak of.    The country surrounding the meadow is densely timbered with jack-pine.
I then moved on and camped on 93-Mile Creek. From here I surveyed six more Government
lots, all containing large meadows; four of them are situated on 93-Mile Creek and the other
two on the Cariboo Road at about 90-Mile. The country here is exactly similar to that about
the 87-Mile House.    This completed my work on the high plateau country.
Northern Portion of AVork.
From 93-Mile Creek I moved through the 100-Mile House and up Little Bridge Creek to the
west, where I surveyed a Government lot containing a small meadow and a lot of excellent
willow bottom. In the course of this work I found it necessary to remake the tie between Lot
253 and Lot 278. The lot which I surveyed here, No. 5310, takes in the only remaining land
of any value along Little Bridge Creek.
Having completed my work here, I moved out again to the Cariboo Road and up to the
108-Mile House, where I camped. From here I surveyed one Government lot about 4 miles to
the north-east, adjoining Lot 4209 to the west. I then moved on to the 141-Mile House, where
I surveyed P.R. 2037 as Lot 8114, Cariboo District. Having completed that, I retraced jny steps
as far as the 122-Mile House, and from there tied in Lot 355 to Sections 31 and 32, Township
28, according to instructions.
From the 122-Mile House I continued back along the Cariboo Road to the 100-Mile House,
and thence in over the Canim Lake Road, and camped on Bridge Creek inside the Indian reserve
(No. 1). Here according to instructions I checked up the encroachment of the adjoining surveys
to the west and adjusted the intersection posts accordingly. It was not my original intention
to do any work on the south boundary of the reserve, but as a deputation of Indians awaited on
me and complained that Lot 5044, situated about the middle of the south boundary; encroached
on the reserve, I decided that it would be best for me to check that also whilst on the ground.
I found no encroachment, however. ;
13 Geo. 5
North Lillooet District.
K 49
I next moved by pack-train via Ruth Lake up Bradley Creek, across the divide, and camped
on the Cariboo-Lillooet District boundary, adjoining Lot 9105. Here I surveyed six Government
lots, four in Cariboo District and two in Lillooet. Of these two, Lot 5313 contains a large
shallow beaver-pond, with a large muskeg meadow at its head. This would well repay draining
and clearing up, as it would make an excellent hay meadow. The other five lots are all of a
similar character, consisting of a certain amount of willow-bottom land and slightly sloping
hillside, heavily grown with poplar and willow, with soil throughout a deep loam.
This completed my work for the season.
Character of  Country'—Forest Grove and BrjVdley'  Cheek-Murphy Lake.
Going east from the 100-Mile House on the Cariboo Road, the country undergoes a marked
•change by the time the Forest Grove area is reached. Situated in the valley of Bridge Creek,
which here is wide and deep, the natural growth is fairly heavy, consisting of fir, some pine,
poplar, birch, willow, and alder. This indicates that the rainfall is considerably heavier than
along the Cariboo Road; and such, in fact, is the claim of the local settlers. The country is
somewhat broken into undulating benches, all sloping more or less towards Bridge Creek.
There is quite a large settlement in this area now, somewhere in the neighbourhood of a.
hundred families. With the exception of one or two of the older ranchers, all are going in.
for mixed farming and dairying.
All kinds of tame hay, wheat, barley, and oats, field roots (swede turnips, mangels, etc.),.
potatoes, garden-truck, and small fruits are all grown successfully.
Practically no wild-hay meadows exist, so that all the land has to be cleared, and as the-
clearing is fairly heavy it precludes successful stock-raising, although some of the ranchers keep*
small herds and stall-feed, thus producing small amounts of high-class beef.
The district boasts of three small stores, a school, a post-office at Forest Grove, about 3 miles;
west of the Indian reserve, and another post-office at the west end of Canim Lake. It is served',
by an excellent road from the 100-Mile House and Exeter Station, on the Pacific Great Eastern;
North of the Forest Grove area lies Bradley Creek and Murphy Lake. Bradley Creek flows
through a comparatively narrow valley, with, however, a strip of excellent land along the
bottom, interspersed with occasional meadows. At present there are only three settlers in this
section, the development of which has been retarded through lack of a road. These settlers have
to resort to pack-horses for transportation. Despite this drawback, seven families have gone
into Bradley Creek Valley this summer. They are a splendid type of settler and trekked in from
Oregon with complete outfits, including stock and poultry.
The valley of Bradley Creek continues north beyond its headwaters right to Murphy Lake..
A number of small creeks rise in it and tributary valleys and flow down to Murphy Lake. The
divide between them and Bradley Creek is almost indeterminate. From the headwaters of
Bradley Creek, for about 3 miles up the valley, there is no land of any value for settlement.
Then from a short distance this side of the Cariboo boundary the valley widens and both bottom
and hillsides are excellent land, with a very heavy growth of poplar, birch, willow, and alder, and
a luxuriant undergrowth of herbs and weeds. The rainfall here is evidently eyen heavier than
in the Forest Grove area, and, as at Forest Grove, irrigation should prove unnecessary. There
is only one family above Bradley Creek at present, though R. H. Vaughan, the settler who is
there, informed me that he was expecting several friends in there next year.
Mr. Vaughan had a number of different small experimental crops in—wheat, barley, timothy,
and clover, alfalfa, field roots, and garden-truck. All have done extremely well, the stand of
wheat in particular being very heavy.
The elevation here is about 2,900 feet, about 100 feet lower than Forest Grove Post-office.
Murphy Lake is about 2,700 feet.
The whole area through which I worked this season is served, as to its main traffic arteries,
by the Pacific Great Eastern Railway and the Cariboo AVagon-road, which parallel one another
from Clinton to Williams Lake. While the railway does not give a service which entirely
satisfies the settlers, it has undoubtedly been the means of speeding up settlement and gives,
the settlers a measure of transportation which could not be done over long miles of road. K 50
Report of the Minister of Lands.
The Cariboo Road I found in splendid condition, and while not as much travelled as in
former days, it still has a considerable traffic. A daily motor-stage operates both ways between
Ashcroft and Williams Lake.
As feeders to the railway and Cariboo Road, there are various sideroads which tap the
outlying settlements; notably the North Bonaparte Road, the Lone Butte Road, and the Canim
Road, all of which were in very fair condition this year. Some of the smaller side-roads,
however, are very poor, although, of course, allowance must be made for the sparcity of
The climate of the area over which I worked varies considerably. South of the 100-Mile
House on the high plateau the summer is short and the rainfall very slight. Summer frosts
are a frequent occurrence. The winters are more or less severe. Farther north, iu the vicinity
of the 100-Mile House; Lac la Hache, and down the San Jose A'alley, which, of course, is from
400 to 700 feet lower than the plateau, the summers are longer, summer frosts are fewer and
less severe, though the rainfall is about the same.
Along Bridge Creek, in the Forest Grove and Bradley Creek areas, as mentioned before, the
rainfall is very much heavier. They have a good growing summer and summer frosts are slight
and more local in their occurrence. The snowfall here is considerably heavier than farther
west and the winters less severe. All this is probably on account not only of the lower altitude,
but also on account of the protection which is afforded by the high mountains which lie to the
north and east.
Throughout the high plateau country game is still fairly plentiful, despite its accessibility
from the Cariboo Road. Small fur-bearing animals, as well as beaver and lynx, are found, and
trappers work through the country in the winter. West of the Cariboo Road there are bear
and a few deer and moose.    Grouse were fairly plentiful throughout the district this year.
In the Forest Grove-^Canim Lake-Bradley Creek country the game is plentiful; practically
all the fur-bearing animals native to British Columbia are found there. Beaver are very
numerous. Bear, moose, and deer are also very plentiful. There is excellent fishing in both
Canim and Murphy Lakes—rainbow', silver, and cut-throat trout and ling.
The area over which I worked this summer will never be intensively settled owing to its
nature, tout it is capable of a very much greater development than at present exists. On the
high plateau it is probable that for a great many years stock-raising will be the only form of
ranching which can be profitably followed. In the valleys, and particularly to the east of the
Pacific Great Eastern Railway, there are, however, many localities which are suitable for mixed
farming, dairying, and poultry-raising, such as Sheridan and Bridge Lake, Bridge Creek Valley,
Forest Grove, Bradley Creek, and Murphy Lake. In order, however, to foster this development,
more and better roads, giving access,by the shortest possible routes to the railway, are a necessity.
The establishment of creameries would also be a big aid to development. A number of ranchers
have tried shipping cream to both Quesnel and A'ancouver, but the existing express rates render
it hardly profitable. If local creameries were established at convenient points for both collection
and shipping, there is no doubt but that the finished products could be profitably shipped. The
distance of this country from the nearest markets can thus best be overcome.
I have, etc.,
R. C. Farrow, B.C.L.S. 13 Geo. 5
Chilcotin Valley. Cariboo and Lillooet Districts.
K 51
By" W. Mekston.
A'ictohia, B.C., November 1st, 1922.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report that in accordance with your instructions I left ATictoria
on May 29th to carry out my surveys for the season. My work this year consisted of linking up
previously surveyed lands in the Chilcotin by means of transit traverse. In this connection
I have joined forty-five lots by running 170 miles of tie-line. The majority of the lots tied in
were shown on the map in approximately their correct positions, hut some, as in case of Lot
556, were shown about 6 miles out of place, while Lots 239 and 240 were shown on the wrong
side of a range of hills. In addition to running tie-lines, I surveyed eight lots containing 1,290
acres of good-quality wild hay.
AVilliams Lake.
I travelled to AVilliams Lake again this year by the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. This
line is now much more comfortable to travel on than it was last year. The trains keep more to
schedule, enabling passengers to get their meals at regular intervals. With addition of a sleeping-
coach the two days' journey from Arancouver to Quesnel would be comparatively comfortable.
I outfitted at Williams Lake, getting my first month's food from Fraser & Mackenzie, who
have the largest general store in the district.
Williams Lake is now a thriving railway and outfitting village and is to the Cariboo country
much what Ashcroft was before the days of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, when all travel
came into the country by the Cariboo Road. During my short stay I noticed three hotels, three
or four general stores, two banks, a drug-store and a butcher-shop, a garage, a barn, a church,
a school, and a Government Liquor Store.
The professions are well represented by two lawyers and a doctor, while a land surveyor
has opened up a branch office. The Government offices formerly at the 150-Mile House are now
located at Williams Lake, and a fine new building has been erected to house the Government
Agent and his staff.
Good motor-roads radiate in all directions from Williams Lake, with motor-stages running
to Ashcroft, Quesnel Dam, and the Chilcotin.
Beecher's Prairie.
My first work took me through a country locally known as Beecher's Prairie. Here thousands
of cattle graze all summer on open lands dotted with small lakes and scattered poplar. This
country was surveyed into townships some years ago and put under reserve to be used as a
common grazing area by cattle-ranchers in the vicinity. A large portion has been set aside for
a military area, and in days to come should be a valuable asset to the Dominion Government.
On completing my first ties we travelled westerly across the open prairie to the Stack Aralley
Road, then followed up this to Shell Creek and on up Macklin Creek, where five old surveys were
seen tied together. There are several settlers along the Stack Yalley- Road who appear to be
doing well with small bands of cattle. The meadows covered by surveys up Macklin Creek have
been taken up by a rancher named McRae, who has built wagon-roads to connect his various
holdings, and this year has constructed a new road from his pre-emption (Lot 5780) to some
meadows he has purchased on Narcosli Creek. The country along McRae's AAragon-road between
Callanan Lake and Narcosli Creek is very stony and, with the exception of many small scattered
meadows, is valueless. I estimated that between Lots 182 and 5780 there are approximately
640 acres of good meadow land which, if surveyed, will one of these days be taken up. At
present these surveyed meadows are being used by McRae. The cattle in this vicinity had a
hard time last winter and in one spot twelve carcasses were seen lying together. A large brown
bear had made this place his headquarters and was living on the dead meat.
Macklin Creek.
On completing the ties of McRae's meadows we moved to the Straus meadows (Lot 179),
and then ran a tie-line connecting this meadow with Moon's meadows (Lot 383) on Macklin
Creek.    The wagon-road joining these meadows follows up the South Fork of Riske Creek, which 1EP0RT   OF   THE   MINISTER   OF   LANDS.
flows-through a narrow gorge with steep jack-pine-covered side-hills for about 3 miles, then
climbs about 200 feet in half a mile to Macklin Creek.
The local Indians have constructed a dam across Macklin Creek and divert water into the
South Fork of Riske Creek by means of a ditch about half a mile long. They take water out
of the South Fork of Riske Creek again at the Toosey Indian Reserve No. 2 and use it to
irrigate their lands. All the good land around here has been alienated and there is no land
worth surveying in this vicinity.
Raven Lake.
Some 4 miles south-east of Moon's meadows (Lot 383) and across a range of hills are a
group of surveys covering Durrell's meadows. A good wagon-road connects these and runs in
a south-eastern direction to the main Chilcotin Road at Harpers Lake. I connected these meadows
by tie-line and at the same time,traversed part of the westerly shore of Raven Lake. The lake
lies at an elevation of approximately 4,000 feet; it is a mile wide and three-quarters of a mile
long. No streams could he found either entering or leaving the lake, which must be fed by
underground springs and snow-water. The general lake-level is slowly sinking and in years to
come the lake-bottom will turn into a wild-hay meadow.
The group of meadows around Raven Lake are all wild swamp-hay meadows surrounded
by small jack-pine-covered land which is valueless for agriculture. On completing my ties here,
I moved back to main Chilcotin Wagon-road and then on through Hanceville and Alexis Creek
up the Chilcotin River as far as the Siwash Bridge,
Newton's Wagon-road.
The road across the Chilcotin at the Siwash Bridge has fallen in and some difficulty was
experienced in getting my wagon across the river.
Mr. Newton, an old-time rancher, has built a good wyagon-road from the Siwash Bridge to
his hay meadow near the Nemiah Valley Road. The road leaves the Chilcotin River and climbs
about 900 feet to the general level of the surrounding country, which about here is approximately
3,000 feet, then runs 23 miles due south through small jack-pine-covered land. The soil is very
rocky and with the exception of two small pot-holes there is no water or horse-feed along the
road. The people who use the road make the drive from Newton's meadows to the Chilcotin
River in one day. About a mile to the west of Newton's meadow is a bare hill rising some
300 feet above the level of the surrounding country and locally known as Newton's Mountain.
On the top of the hill Newton has staked a mineral claim and has done some development-work,
taking out ore containing gold, silver, and copper. The claim has not been sufficiently developed
to give any idea of its future value.
From Newton's meadow a new wagon-road has lately been constructed by Indians, giving
access to the Nemiah Valley Road, which runs from Hanceville to AVhitewater Crossing and then
on .into the Nemiah Valley. The road is not very good, but passable by a Ford car. All the
meadows along this road have been taken up and the few isolated patches of dry open laud seen
were not considered worth surveying.
Anahim Cheek.
My next work took me to Macaulay's meadows on the South Fork of Anahim Creek. The
best of the land in this valley has been taken up for some years, but there are one or two open
flats, in all about 640 acres, which I consider worth surveying.
The South Fork of Anahim Creek is a small stream sunk about 20 feet below the level of
the surrounding jack-pine-covered country. At the head of the South Fork of Anahim Creek is
a large level swamp which with draining could be turned into good hay land. Macaulay used
to cut hay here, but has not used it lately. All the meadows in this vicinity are fenced with the
fences built well outside the survey-lines on Government land. The Indians know this and make a
habit of leaving gates open and bars down so their cattle and horsCs can get feed. This summer
several meadows were completely spoiled in this manner and no hay could be cut on them.
. Pelican Lake.
From one of Macaulay's meadows, Lot 148, a wagon-road runs to the north-east. I followed
it up for a distance of about 12 miles and came to a large lake not shown on any map, but locally
known as Pelican Lake.    I estimated this to be about 4 miles long and in places 2 miles wide. '
"   ' j: : *     ...UifilSlI
*fc.    r
Hay meadows, headwaters of the Nicola Basin.
Typical Chilcotin meadow.  13 Geo. 5 Chilcotin Valley, Cariboo and Lillooet Districts. K 53
There are two small islands in the lake which were covered with pelican and in the distance
looked like white ships in full sail. This lake, although containing no fish, but heaps of frogs,
is the headquarters of the pelican for the whole of this part of the country. Flights were seen
leaving Pelican Lake daily, travelling north to the Nazko and west to Chezacut Lake.
Both to the north and to the east of Pelican Lake are extensive hay meadows used by the
Indians. On one meadow alone are 640 acres of level land on which more than twelve large
haystacks were counted. In this vicinity I estimated there are about 2,000 acres of hay lands
worth surveying. The drawback to this country is that it lies at an elevation of about 3,800 feet
and would be very difficult to irrigate. Pelican Lake derives its water almost entirely from the
winter snow, and if used for irrigation purposes would soon dry up, as there are no streams
either entering or leaving the lake. A good wagon-road runs along the east shore and continues
about 4 miles to the north of the lake, running through and joining up hay meadows.
The Indians from the Anahim Indian Reserve seem to look on these meadows as an extra
Indian reserve. No Indian leases or application for leases appear to cover any of the meadows
in this vicinity, and the sooner these lands are surveyed, the less chance will there be of friction
at some future date with the Indians. I spoke to several families who were cutting hay and
told them that most likely the Government would survey these lands next year. No objections
were raised.
Upper Alexis Creek.
On completing my work around Pelican Lake, we moved up Alexis Creek and on to Bell
Creek, where I surveyed a pre-emption belonging to an old-timer called Bayliff. The wagon-road
from Alexis Creek Road to Bell Creek was the roughest piece that I encountered this summer or
that I have ever encountered. Indians will not take a wagon over this road without extra pay,
and Bayliff has never been known to get to his meadow without breaking a wheel or a king-pin.
We were comparatively lucky and escaped with a broken queen-rod.
There are six surveys on Bell Creek covering good hay meadows. Between these surveys
are small pot-holes which also grow good hay and have been cut in the past when hay was scarce.
Moving on up Alexis Creek, past Alexis Lake, we followed a fairly good wagon-road past
Morgan's place (Lot 4837) and on to a pre-emption taken up by John Maindley. I surveyed two
parcels here. The land is not much good and only a few acres of the parcels I surveyed will
grow even hay. Maindley appears to have taken up these two pieces to toe in the vicinity of
his friends rather than for the agricultural possibilities of the land. There are several small
unsurveyed meadows around here which I did not have time to survey this season.
Tautri Lakes.
I picked up my last six weeks' food-supplies at Tom Lee's store at Alexis Creek and moved
up to the Isaac meadow (Lot 531). I then ran a tie-line from the Spring meadow (Lot 8342)
through to Martin's half-way meadow  (Lot 554)  and on to Martin's far meadow  (Lot 352).
About 4 miles south of Martin's half-way meadow a wagon-road passes an old cabin and barn
built near Tautri Lake by Long Johnny. I triangulated Tautri Lake and found the three sheets
of water to toe about 7 miles long and not more than a quarter of a mile wide. The water is
very shallow and will eventually dry up from the accumulation of decaying vegetable matter.
Some years ago these lakes were comparatively deep, now it is hard to float a raft on them,
and in years to come they will turn into wild swamp-hay meadows.
Along the northern side of the first lake is a dry patch of open hay meadow where Long
Johnny cuts his hay for the winter. He was very anxious for me to survey this piece for him
and insisted that he should pay for it himself. He had an idea in the back of his mind that,
although he had no claim to the land, the payment of the survey fees would give him some sort
of a title. When I explained to him that I was only surveying for the Government and that
I could not take any pay from him, he remarked: " Government no good; they take my land
from me." As he has no claim to this piece I did not dispute his statement, especially as he
remarked that he was not feeling well and that he thought he would die this winter.
Along the north side of Tautri Lake runs a good pack-trail to McComb's meadow (Lot 9696)
on Narcosli Creek and then on to McRae's meadows (Lot 9697). At the end of these meadows is
a small lake that corresponds to the lake that Lieutenant Palmer marked on his old maps as
Taharti Lake. It is probable that McRae's meadows were at one time part of this lake, which
would then correspond very closely to the size and shape of Taharti Lake as shown on the old K 54
Report of the Minister of Lands.
maps.    According to the Indians, there is no other lake anywhere in this vicinity that could
correspond at all with Palmer's Taharti Lake.
At the west end of Tautri Lake there are about 400 acres of land worth surveying. About
6 miles to the north of Tautri Lake I surveyed four parcels of good hay meadow which I found
last year. Indians at one time or another have built a wagon-road into these meadows and put
up a small quantity of hay. One large meadow containing approximately 320 acres of open land
would require draining before any hay could be cut. The lie of the land is suitable for easy
and cheap drainage.
I saw more game this summer than I have seen during the past three seasons. Willow and
Franklin grouse were very plentiful and made a welcome change to our usual diet of pork and
beans. Prairie-chickens are not allowed to be shot this season'and are multiplying very quickly.
Several coveys containing from twenty to thirty birds were seen on the open lands north of
Alexis Creek. About 10 miles north of Alexis Creek mule-deer are plentiful, and the Indians,
with dogs, have no difficulty in getting one any time they wish. Moose are on the increase;
fresh tracks were seen almost daily. AVith the hard winter last season and consequent death
of many cattle the brown bear were numerous.
I have, etc.,
W. Merston, B.C.L.S.
By O. B. N. AVilkie.
A7ictoria,  B.C.,  January  19th,  1923.
J. E. TJmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—Having received your instructions to carry out certain surveys in the Nicola and
North Thompson A'alleys, I have the honour to submit the following report:—
Having organized my party at Merritt, in the Nicola District, from which point I completed
the surveys assigned to me there, we left for Badger Lake, in the North Thompson Valley, where
some resurveys were carried out. On completing the work at Badger Lake we moved camp to
Mud Lake, near Blue River, stopping at Louis Creek en route to survey a pre-emption at Fishtrap
Creek and an application to lease near Louis Creek.
We arrived at Blue River, a station on the Canadian National Railway, where a canoe
was obtained from Mr. Home, the Forest Ranger, by which we moved our camp outfit down
the Thompson and up the Mud River to Mud Lake and camped. A triangulation was made of
Mud Lake and a returned soldier's pre-emption surveyed. High water and smoke delayed our
operations here to some extent.
From Mud Lake the party was moved to Raft River, where several lots were laid out for
settlement and a general traverse of the valley made and tied to existing surveys in the North
Thompson Valley, near the mouth of Raft River, and also to Lot 2606, east from Irvine Station.
After completing the work on Raft River the party was reduced and some isolated surveys
were made at Blackpool, Alex Creek, Blackpines, and Clapperton Creek, Nicola. The latter
work completing my instructions, I disbanded the party at Merritt. The following is a general
description of the country covered:—
Merritt, at an elevation of nearly 2,000 feet above sea-level, in the Nicola ATalley, is a city
having a population of about 1,500 situated on a branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway 40
miles from the main line at Spences Bridge. This branch line connects Spences Bridge with
the main line of the Kettle Aralley Railway at Brookmere. At Merritt coal-mines are operated
and also several sawmills. A great deal of farming is carried on in the vicinity and cattle-
ranching in particular. The land mostly requires irrigation. In addition to cattle and general
farming, there are several silver-black fox farms, "some of which have been operating many
years.    Good roads radiate from this locality in all directions. North Thompson Atalley.
The principal town in this vicinity is Kamloops, which is situate at the junction of the
North and South Thompson Rivers. The Canadian Pacific Railway main line follows the South
Thompson and the Canadian National Railway has its route along the North Thompson. Both
are transcontinental lines and both run into Kamloops. Kamloops, which has an elevation of
1,150 feet above sea-level, is the centre of a large farming district as well as being a divisional
point for the railways.    It is about ten hours' run from Araneouver.
Good roads radiate in all directions, some of which run up the North Thompson Valley as
far as Avola, a distance of 130 miles from Kamloops, and I understand surveys are being made
with a view to extend the road system farther on. Free ferries are operated by the Government
at Vinsulla, McLure, Chinook Cove, Mount Olie, Blackpool, Raft River, Birch Island, A'avenby,
and Avola to give settlers access to the railway. The main highway from Kamloops up the
North Thompson crosses the river on a bridge at Barriere. The lower portion of the valley is
well settled and the district is dotted with good farms and comfortable homes. General farming
is carried on, but more attention is given to stock-raising.
The soil is mostly sandy loam and requires irrigation. The valley is about a mile wide,
but widens near its junction with the South Thompson at Kamloops. The timber is principally
pine, fir, poplar, alder, and willow for a distance of 50 miles up the river, after which the
character of the country changes; it has more underbrush, cedar-trees show up, and there is
more moisture generally. The soil is sandy clay on the bottoms, becoming more gravelly on the
benches. The hills on each side of the lower valley are fairly well timbered and afford good
pasture. Some good farms are scattered through the adjacent valleys. Near Raft River Crossing considerable attention is given to the growing of strawberries and potatoes are of a splendid
Settlement is more scattered beyond Vavenby; this may be due to the fact that the clearing
is harder and not that the soil is less fertile. From Avola to Blue River little settlement was
Mun Lake.
Mud Lake (elevation 2,100 feet) is situated across the North Thompson about 2 miles from
Blue River Station, on the Canadian National Railway, and can be reached only by boat or
canoe. It is a nice stretch of water about 5 miles long, surrounded by timbered mountain land.
Its shores are rocky and little agricultural laud will be found, except at the east end, where the
Mud River enters the lake. On this land some wild-hay meadows were found, but generally
there is a growth of scrub fir, spruce, cedar, and alder.
Many large dead trees are standing in the bottoms, evidently killed by too much water. The
soil in the bottoms is a clay silt and gravel subsoil. A peculiar point about the Mud River is
that the main channel is on the high side of the valley, and at high water the overflow runs
across the valley to the south side. The country was inundated when we were in there at end
of July.
Raft River.
Raft River empties into the North Thompson from the north at a point about 75 miles from
Kamloops. Birch Island Station, on the Canadian National Railway, is the nearest station;
from there a fair wagon-road crosses near the mouth of Raft River and continues south along
the Thompson Aralley to Kamloops. The distance from Birch Island to Raft River is 5 miles.
From the wagon-road a rough trail was cut following the Raft River Valley on the north side
for 15 miles, at which point it crosses to the south side and joins the trail from Irvine. The
trail reaches an elevation of 1,200 feet in order to avoid a deep canyon some 4 miles long. About
8 miles up the Raft River the valley widens and some good bottom land from a quarter to three-
quarters of a mile wide will be found.    The soil is principally sandy clay with gravel subsoil.
The lower part of the valley and above the canyon has some good patches of timber—fir,
spruce, cedar, and balsam—but the valley generally has been subject to heavy fires, which has
either burnt or killed the adjacent timber. A great deal of timber has fallen, between which
a second growth has come up and makes clearing expensive. In places vegetation is very rank;
fireweed, skunk-cabbage, berries, and grasses predominate.
About 15 miles up the valley is about lYn miles wide. In this vicinity I cut some ten
parcels for settlement.    This land has been burnt over; in some parts fairly clean, but the most X 56
Report op the Minister op Lands.
of it is covered by windfalls and second growth.    The soil is sandy clay on the bottoms and
gravelly clay on the benches.
The elevation in this vicinity lies between 2,300 and 2,500 feet above sea-level. . From Lot
4700, one of the parcels surveyed, a trail has recently been cut to connect with the North
Thompson Wagon-road on Lot 2606; this lot is about 2 miles east from Irvine Station, on the
Canadian National Railway. The distance by this trail from the wagon-road to Raft River is
5 miles. The trail rises 1,500 feet to summit of ridge; then descends 800 feet to Raft River
Valley, where there is between 2,000 and 3,000 acres of good land.
From Lot 4700 up the river many log-jams have formed, which tend to divert and make
new channels for the river. The river forks about 20 miles from its outlet, after which the
valley narrows down, being not more than a few hundred feet wide in places.
The mountain-slopes adjoining are steep and mostly burnt over. In the river small brook-
trout are plentiful, but in Skunk Lake (a small lake about a mile above the forks) the fish are
much larger (averaging 1% lb.) and are also very plentiful. A trail was cut from this lake to
connect with trail from Lot 2606 near Irvine.
Except for old pre-emptions near mouth of Raft River, no settlement has been made in the
valley, probably due to its timbered nature and the lack of trails. Raft River is a clear, fairly
swift stream about 100 feet wide and has its source in the high mountains.
I am informed game such as moose, caribou, deer, bear, cougar, and coyote are found, as
well as many fur-bearing animals, such as beaver, mink, skunk, and ermine. No frosts were
noticed till late in September; the snowfall is said to be between 2 and 3 feet.
I have, etc.,
O. B. N. Wilkie, B.C.L.S.
By G. M. Downton.
B.C., September 6th, 1922.
J. E. Vmbach, Esq.,
Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the area covered by my survey
operations in the Southern Lillooet District during the past season:—
My work this season consisted of ties in the vicinity of Empire A'alley and Dog Creek; the
survey of a pre-emption and some vacant Crown land north of Alkali Lake; some leases and
vacant Crown land near Big Bar Lake; subdivision of two sections of land which have reverted
to the Crown, and which are needed for settlement, north of Meadow Lake; vacant Crown
land on Pigeon Creek, between Meadow Lake and Dog Creek; vacant Crown land at Jesmond;
additions to the townsite of Lillooet; vacant Crown land on the Bonaparte River and Loon Lake
Creek, and the subdivision of a reverted section on the latter creek; and finally the re-establishment of two timber leases on the Birkenhead River, the boundaries of which were in question
owing to poor definition and survey, and a tie on Anderson Lake to a previously established
triangulation point.
The whole of the above surveys, with the exception of those in the townsite of Lillooet, at
the Bonaparte River, and at Anderson Lake, are in a territory confined almost entirely to cattle-
raising, and which is, owing to the general altitude and distance from markets, unsuitable at
present for any other agricultural industries, excepting possibly the raising of sheep.
The lowest altitude of any of the surveys carried out in the area above mentioned was at
2,000 feet on the Bonaparte River, the highest at Jesmond, 3,900 feet, while the average altitude
of the surveys near Meadow Lake is 3,700 feet. This limits the area to the raising of hay and
oats where water is available, and, where it is not, to range, a general term for practically all
the area not actually under cultivation or which is not capable of ever being cultivated except
under certain conditions of soil and situation under the system of dry-farming.
Such an area can never probably support any but a rather scattered population, as the
question of raising enough hay for winter feeding of cattle is the controlling factor where
water is scarce and where the lands suitable for raising hay are few and far between, and 13 Geo. 5 South-western Lillooet District. K 57
separated from one another by miles of dry upland range, and the areas where dry-farming has
been carried on with any degree of success are very limited in extent.
My work this year was very scattered and small in extent at any one point, and I therefore
took one experienced man with me and picked up local help where necessary. The country is
served with passable roads and I was able to use my car with considerable advantage, and thus
was able to cut down my travelling time and expenses.
I left Lillooet on May 29th and commenced my work at Lone Cabin Creek. The country
in this locality is exceedingly rough and mountainous, but very sparsely timbered.
The soil over a very large area of this country is a light sandy loam, very shallow in most
places, on a subsoil of boulder-clay; large water- or ice-worn boulders outcrop in many places,
while in others these large boulders lie about on the surface in enormous quantities.
The hills are rounded in outline and covered with timber, except in the case of the Marble
Mountains, a considerable limestone range lying parallel to the Fraser River on the east side,
whose summits are bare and in some cases very broken and precipitous.;
From the summits of this range an extensive view of the plateau to the east and north can
be obtained, and the impression gained is one of an immense level plain, densely wooded, and
with lakes of a considerable extent dotted about on it. The timber is almost exclusively jack-
pine, and the only variation is the fringes of willow which border small swamps and meadows
and stunted Douglas fir which crowns the summits of some of the knolls above the main plateau.
The only town in this area is Clinton, at the southern end of the plateau. The Pacific Great
Eastern Railway, running from Clinton north towards AVilliams Lake, passes some distance east
of most of the country traversed this summer, but Chasm Station, 12 miles north of Clinton, is
the nearest cattle-shipping point for the southern part of the area.
Besides Clinton, there are six post-offices in the area—Jesmond, Big Bar, Dog Creek, Alkali
Lake, Springhouse, and 70-Mile House (Cariboo Road). Neither Springhouse nor the 70-Mile
House, however, is in the area touched on this summer.
The country round Lillooet is entirely different in character. Here is the narrow valley of
the Fraser River flanked by high mountains; the bench lands on each side of the Fraser (the
altitude of which varies from 600 to 1,400 feet above sea-level) are suitable for fruit-raising, truck-
gardening, and the raising of potatoes and alfalfa. The Pacific Great Eastern Railway trayerses
the Fraser Valley at this point, and if it is not closed down for financial reasons this valley
promises to be a centre of fruit-raising in the near future, as it is the nearest point to the large
areas in the north and north-west of the Province, where fruit of all kinds, including watermelons and peaches, can be grown. The climate compares favourably with the Okanagan Valley
and the successful raising of fruit has been demonstrated for many years. My work in this area
was confined to a small addition to the townsite of Lillooet.
The last area I was in this year was on the south end of the Pemberton Portage, along the
Birkenhead River, which flows in an undefined channel through the valley and frequently floods
in the early summer. This valley contains some fine timber which is now being logged off, two
sawmills having been established here lately. The soil is sand and gravel washed down by the
river and does not appear as if it was likely to be of much agricultural value after the timber is
logged off.
The Pacific Great Eastern Railway traverses the river and has made-the problem of getting
the timber out an easy matter.
The last point I touched this season was at Anderson Lake. The agricultural land in this
locality is confined to the north end of the Pemberton Portage, which ends at the lake. The
lake-shores are uniformly precipitous and rocky and there is practically no land on either side
of the lake, which is about 12 miles long, suitable for agricultural purposes.
I finished my work on August 30th and returned to Lillooet on August 31st.
I have, etc.,
G. M. Downton, B.C.L.S. K 58
Report of the Minister op Lands.
By P. AA'. Gregory.
Princeton, B.C., December 2nd, 1922.
J. E. Vmbach, Esq.,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the following report on the surveys made by
me in the vicinity of Princeton during the past season :—
My instructions were to survey lands suitable for settlement in certain scattered localities
within the district, and also certain lands suitable for the cutting of hay at Teepee and Paradise
Lakes, etc. As more than half of the work entrusted to me involved the use of pack-horses, I
decided to hire the required horses at once and to devote my attention first to that portion of
the work, starting with the most distant operations—namely, the survey of the aforementioned
hay lands.
We left Princeton on June 22nd, travelling by wagon-road 27 miles to the Harvey Ranch, a
small ranch situated midway between the Osprey Lake and Jellicoe Sidings of the Kettle Valley
Railway, where the pack-trail leaves the road and climbs northward to the plateau upon which
the hay lands are Ideated, 1,000 to 1,500 feet in elevation above the valley.
I examined the hay lands around the Teepee Lakes, the headwaters of Galena and Siwash
Creeks and Paradise Lake, and laid off fourteen lots, comprising in area about 1,700 acres, and
embracing about 650 acres of hay land. These lands occupy the western end of a high and
narrow plateau, known as the Trepauege Plateau, extending easterly to the Okanagan watershed,
and bounded on the south by the deep valley containing Hayes Creek, flowing south-westerly to
Princeton, with its headwater lakes. Chain, Link, and Osprey, and flowing in the opposite
direction to the Okanagan is Trout Creek. On the north the plateau is bounded by the Quilchena
Valley. The plateau is approximately 15 miles wide and its elevation ranges, generally speaking,
from 4,000 to 5,500 feet above sea-level.
The particular section of it with which we became acquainted in surveying operations is
dotted with many small lakes, roughly amounting in total area to about 1,000 acres, about 400
acres being tributary to Hayes Creek and (500 acres to Quilchena Creek. They afford an excellent
opportunity of increasing water-storage with very little labour and at moderate cost.
Nearly all the lakes are protected by beaver-dams, and by reason of the flat character of the
country surrounding them the streams that drain them are tortuous, meandering sluggishly
through willow-swamps and wild-hay meadows. The largest of the meadows surveyed is the
Paradise Lake meadow, about 200 acres in extent, whilst the next in point of size is one of the
group of meadows at the head of Siwash Creek, approximately 100 acres in area.
The soil in the meadows is excellent, being- deep, rich peaty soil. This could be much
improved by breaking up and other work upon it and the hay production thereby considerably
increased. The meadows should prove of value to the stock-ranchers of the district, particularly
when, as during the present year, they And 'themselves short of feed. For the past few years
some of the local cattlemen have wintered their stock at the Siwash Creek meadows. Apart
from lakes and meadows, the remainder of the plateau comprises a succession of flats and low
hills covered with a light growth of jack-pine and occasional spruce-swamps.
The lakes are very well stocked with trout and excellent sport can be obtained in nearly
all of them, well repaying the fisherman the time and trouble taken in reaching them.
The main trail passing through the lauds surveyed leads from the Harvey Ranch on the
Princeton Wagon-road to Penask Lake and Quilchena Creek. It is undoubtedly a portion of the
old Nicola-Penticton Trail, which passed down Trout Creek to the latter town. The'country
appears to have been a favourite resort of the Indians of a few years ago for fishing and
hunting. The remains of old Indian teepees are to be found at several of the lakes, and the
Teepee Lakes evidently derive their name from this fact.
On account of the lack of any prior surveys in the vicinity-of the parcels laid off, I connected
my work to the photo-topographical stations established in the previous year by the Provincial
Government surveyors, R. D. McCaw and G. J. Jackson. My only difficulty in making these
connections was due to the poor visibility, as intense smoke from numerous forest fires that
burned in all directions during the month of July enveloped the hills on which the stations had 13 Geo. 5 Kettle River Valley. ' K 59
been erected.    So bad indeed were these fires towards the end of the month, when we were
camped at Paradise Lake, that we held ourselves in readiness to break camp at any moment.
Having completed the laying-off of these hay lands, my attention was next directed to the
running of a connecting line between an isolated group of surveyed mineral claims on Siwash
Creek and one of the near-by camera stations. The mineral claims lie on both sides of Siwash
Creek, which at that part of the country runs through a deep canyon forming the west boundary
of the Trepanege Plateau. There have been a number of mineral claims located in the vicinity
and considerable prospecting-work has been carried out in shafts, tunnels, and open-cuts. The
ore is silver-lead and the claims have the advantage of being but 5 or 6 miles from the Kettle
Valley Railway.    Placer-mining has been carried out on this creek for the past thirty years.
My remaining operations comprised the survey of lands suitable for settlement on Red
Creek, a tributary of Hayes Creek S miles north-east of Princeton, the survey of certain lands
in the vicinity of Summers and Allison Creeks, and the dividing-up, by the running of centre
lines, of certain lots at Pike Mountain in the Otter Valley.
It would appear unnecessary to here repeat,what I have already written regarding the
district and town of Princeton, to which these lands are tributary. Its accessibility by road and
railway, its mining development, its market for farming produce, have all been previously dealt
with, and reference can be made to my report on surveys carried out in 1920. The Coalmont
Colliery, located 13 miles west of Princeton, is now employing about 350 men and is shipping
more coal than any other coal-mine in the interior of the Province. The plant of the Canada
Copper Corporation near Princeton has been idle now for the past two years, and it is understood that the reason assigned to it is the inability of the mining corporation to reach an agreement with its smelting company. AVhen operating, the plant finds employment for about 400
men, and therefore the local community is anxious to see the industry again active.
I have, etc.,
P. W. Gregory, B.C.L.S.
By A. H. Holland.
A"ancouver, B.C., November 1st, 1922.
J. E. Vmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The work of the past season covered a wide stretch of country from Christina Lake
to Rock Creek, and consisted of the survey of isolated agricultural areas for which application
was being made to pre-empt either by-new settlers or by those in residence on adjoining farms
who wished to increase their holdings.
Christina Lake.
Starting at Eholt, where a few days' work was done, we soon moved to the vicinity of
Christina Lake, which the exceptionally hot weather of the past season had made the popular
summer resort for the surrounding country, and several new summer cottages were noticed, as
well as many camping-parties under canvas who had come from AVashington State and farther
for the boating, bathing, and bass-fishing, the latter of which was exceptionally good this year.
In the Christina Lake District are included the valleys of Sutherland Creek and its
tributary, Italy Creek, which have been the centre of a logging industry for twenty years and
which still supply large numbers of ties and cedar poles from their wooded slopes. Logging
and heavy forest fires in the past years have made small areas of agricultural land available
for settlement and have reduced the cost of clearing, which in any case is heavy, but where
clearings have been made, especially near Fife Post-office, the crops of apples and small fruits
have been abundant and continuous. In this area two new settlers from the mountainous districts of A'irginia had selected home-sites, and these were surveyed, together with four other
lots which cover parts of some logged timber licences which will soon revert to the Crown.
Boundary Creek.
Small areas were surveyed ou Boundary Creek, both east and west of Greenwood, but as
this part of the country is so well known it requires no further description.    It was the centre - 'i^^^^^s^^^^^^ia-^^'as^^^
K 60
Report op the Minister of Lands.
of a large mining industry for twenty years, and through the decline of that industry has been
gradually settling into a farming community, though there are still numerous prospects under
development which no doubt eventually will make as good a showing as those of the past.
Rock Cheek.
At Rock Creek, besides retracing soune old surveys of thirty years ago, one lot was surveyed.
This is situate on the bench land above the valley, where it is more or less heavily timbered with
fir and tamarack, much of which is suitable for milling, and if a small portable mill was
installed both ties and lumber could be shipped at a profit, while at the present time hauling
logs to the river will not pay. The soil on the bench land is a clay loam and where clearings
have been made good crops of grain are raised, but most of this area is used as range for a
large number of cattle and horses from the valley below.
Christian Valley.
The only lots surveyed by me for the Department which had not already been applied for
were situate on the upper waters of the East Fork of the main Kettle River, and were a
continuation of my work of 1921 in Christian Aralley. Here a further block of 880 acres was
surveyed along the river, which flows through a valley about half a mile wide between foothills, from which steep mountain ranges rise. The soil is a clay or sandy loam varying in
depth from 2 to 4 feet above a gravel subsoil, and the valley is at present covered with a thick
growth of scrub spruce and balsam up to 6 inches in diameter, which, together with a scattering
growth of large cedar, will make fairly heavy clearing. A forest fire which burned from June
to August of this year destroyed all the growth for the next 10 miles up the valley, including
a heavy growth of merchantable cedar in the bottom and on the side-hills, tout the fire was
extinguished by the first rains in August before it reached the ground covered by my surveys.
The pack-trail which was cut out by me last season has this year been continued towards
the mining camp on Lightning Peak, at the headwaters of the East Fork, the Works Department
having made a small grant for this purpose, and a number of prospectors used it on their trip
through the country earlier in the year and claim it to be the most feasible route for a wagon-
road to this camp.
The Christian Valley Settlement has increased in size during the past year, and the settlers
seem satisfied with their -holdings, as they had more moisture during the past season than farther
down the valley and their crops were proportionately better.
Through all the district covered by me this season there is little unsurveyed agricultural
land within easy access of the main highways, with the exception of certain logged or partially
logged areas at present held under timber lease, but as soon as these revert to the Crown they
should be surveyed and opened to settlement, as they cover some good bottom land.
I'have, etc.,
Arthur H. Holland, B.C.L.S.
By S. S. McDiarmid.
Robson, B.C., November 15th, 1922.
•/. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—The area in which my work lay had for its centre Robson, and comprised the Sloean
Valley, Blueberry Creek, the AVhatshan and Lower Arrow Lakes.   Each of these sections will
be dealt with separately.
Slocan Valley.
This valley is served by the Slocan branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, connecting with
the Slocan Lake steamer at Slocan City. The service consists of a mixed train that is never in
a hurry, running three days in the week. With the falling-off in output of the mines and the
policy of retrenchment inaugurated by the railway company, the present service is discouraging
to the settler, but his protest has been of no avail. 13 Geo. 5 Slogan and Lower Columbia Valleys. K 61
Much of the new settlement has been at Appledale and Perry Siding, and the people in this
neighbourhood seem ambitious and progressive. Their chief interest is in fruit-growing and
poultry and they have organized in co-operative marketing. As many of these ranchers have
needed favourable climatic and marketing conditions to help them through the pioneering stage,
and since both have failed them this year, they have need of their stock of optimism. However,
the season of 1922 cannot fairly be looked upon as a test of the possibilities of the valley and
need not discourage intending settlers. AVith sufficient moisture, either through natural precipitation or by irrigation, the soil is productive. They have the advantage in being able to ship
produce, either by train or by a very good wagon-road, to Nelson, which the pioneer in a newer
district does not have.
Quite a considerable part of the arable land is held by the Doukhobors and the racial
differences stand in the way of a community spirit developing. The English-speaking settler
finds little in common with the Doukhobor and the latter is often unable to speak except in
the Russian tongue. Until the growing generation is educated in the Provincial schools this
barrier will remain.
There is still some lumbering being carried on, mostly in valleys tributary to the Slocan
River, notably Goat Creek and the Little Slocan. The mining history of this district is too well
known to need telling and it is expected that new developments will revive the industry.
There is generally more snow and a slightly lower temperature during the winter than in
the Columbia Valley, while in summer the days are noticeably warm and never any danger
of frost.
Away from settlements deer may be seen and during the past summer grouse were very
Blueberry Creek.
The surveys on Blueberry Creek were of portions of expired timber lots considered suitable
for pre-emption. This creek empties through a narrow rocky gorge into the Columbia River just
south of the Blueberry Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway. The valley at this point is so
narrow and rough that a road into the area surveyed must start from a spot near Kinnaird.
The route at present consists of a fair wagon-road from Kinnaird to Lot 13094; thence along a
rough trail for about a mile, where it terminates in Lot 12S72.
Blueberry Creek ATalley is an ideal spot for a timber reserve. The narrow rough valley at
the mouth serves as a barrier to campers, hunters, etc., thereby reducing the fire hazard. At
present the timber is too small for lumbering, but in twenty-five years the value would be
considerable, and excepting the lots surveyed the land is quite unsuited for agricultural purposes,
but would grow trees.
The three lots of 40 acres each which were laid out are the best pieces of land I have seen,
for the most part quite level and having a deep loam soil free from stone. The surface can be
cheaply cleared and a man could grow a partial crop from the first year. Their disadvantages
lie in the isolation from school and neighbours, thus making hardships for the man with a family.
The distance from Blueberry store and post-office would be about 5 miles by the feasible wagon
route. It appeared that no irrigation would be necessary and the climatic conditions are
The only game seen consisted of grouse, but black bear are said to be fairly numerous in
this locality.
Whatshan and Lower Arrow Lakes.
The surveys made on these lakes were at points remote from settlement and where there
is little likelihood of much settlement at present. Whatshan Lake consists of three distinct
bodies of deep water which are connected by shallow tortuous channels and empties through
the Whatshan River into Lower Arrow Lake at Needles. The maps of the lake are inaccurate
in so far as they attempt to represent the shape of this body of water. The west side of the
upper lake is steep and unsuited for anything other than growing timber. The north and east
sides are flatter and when the timber has been logged off may prove attractive to settlers.
It is doubtful if there is a prettier lake in the Province and it would make an ideal summer
resort. At certain stages of the water the fishing is excellent and the sport of hunting deer
and black bear may be had. There is a good road from Needles to the south end of the lake. It is proposed by a local
lumbering company to dam the lake at the outlet for the purpose of flaming logs to Arrow Lake
during the coming season. This will deepen the water in the links between the lakes and make
the upper lake more accessible.
The lands adjacent to the North Fork of Bowman Creek and Cinnamon Creek which were
visited are unsuited to settlement or agricultural development. These areas will prove most
useful in growing timber. Pine, fir, and tamarack grow successfully, and aside from the danger
of fire from lightning should be easily protected.
I have, etc.,
S. S. McDiarmid, B.C.L.S.
By H. D. Dawson.
Kaslo, B.C., December 6th, 1922.
J. E. JJmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following general report upon the miscellaneous
surveys made by me in the Kootenay District during the 1922 season, the works including a
triangulation survey of Trout Lake, traverse ties on Boyd Creek and the. Upper Duncan River,
shore traverses on the Upper Arrow Lake, Slocan Lake, and Kootenay Lake, with triangulation
ties to scattered blocks of surveys, the subdivision of 900 acres into small parcels at Arrow
Park, and some work on the Lower Duncan River.
Trout Lake.
I organized my party in Kaslo and left on June 17th at 7 a.m. by C.P.R. steamer to Lardeau;
thence by train to Gerrard, at the south-east end of Trout Lake, arriving there at 3 p.m. A high
wind blowing down the lake made navigation for launches and small boats dangerous, and it
was 8 p.m. before we could safely leave for Haskins Point, 4 miles up the lake, ou the north
shore, where there is an old clearing and small cabin, which 1 had learnt afforded the best
camping-ground at this end of the lake.
General Description.—Trout Lake is a charming piece of water 14 miles long and from
a'quarter of a mile wide at the lower or south-east end to about 1% miles wide over the westerly
or upper half. It is fed chiefly by the Lardeau Creek, which, with its tributaries, drains approximately 100 square miles of exceedingly wild country to the north of the lake up to the Lime
Dyke Range, which includes such peaks as the Wagner, the Mohican, and the Badshot. Lardeau
Creek flows into the lake at the west end at the town of Trout Lake. There are many small
streams emptying into the lake along both shores, and the lake has its outlet into the Lardeau
River at the town of Gerrard, at the south-east end. For the most part forest-covered slopes,
steep, though not excessively so, descend to the water's edge and there is a fair amount of soil.
At the mouths of the side-creeks there are small areas of flat lands, some of which are under
water during the early summer. There is only one section on the south shore where cliffs descend
to the water's edge, and on the north shore there are occasional stretches where it is inclined
to toe bluffy.
Timber.—All around the lake there is a bench from 500 to 1,500 feet above the water-level,
on which some very excellent timber grows, and there has been a good deal of profitable logging
carried on, the timber being taken down to the lake in a number of chutes. The timber consists
of fir, cedar, spruce, and hemlock, averaging up to 3 feet on the butt.
The altitude of the lake is about 2,400 feet above sea-level and about 630 feet higher than
the Kootenay Lake and 1,000 feet higher than the Arrow Lakes. High winds in summer blowing
down the lake seem to be fairly frequent,, springing up suddenly and lasting from two to four,
hours. Owing to the narrowness of the lake there is but little danger, as either shore can be
readily reached and a stop made until the storm has died down. Frequent brief and localized
rain-storms seem to be general.    There is a peculiar charm attaching to this lake, in that outside 13 Geo. 5 West Kootenay District. K 63
of a small area near the upper end there are no mosquitoes. It is said, however, that a few are
occasionally to be found at Gerrard on Saturdays, this being the day the train comes in.
Business.—At one time this was a busy little lake. The Canadian Pacific Railway ran a
daily boat up and down the lake; the mines, logging camps, and sawmills made a good deal of
business. Now, unfortunately, the lake is deserted, few of the mines are working, and the
lumber-mills and logging camps are closed down. One shingle-mill of 60,000 capacity operates
on very short time near Trout Lake City. The boat which the Canadian Pacific Railway used
to run has been bought by the owners of this sliingle-mill, who will make an occasional run down
the lake when required. At Gerrard there is a Dominion Government fish-hatchery, having their
traps at the outlet of the lake. There is also here a hotel and dining-room and post-office. Trout
Lake City is the outlet for a considerable mining country. There is a hotel and dining-room,
post-office, school, mining recorder's office, and three general stores. The daily stage carrying
passengers and mail between Ferguson, 5 miles to the north, and Beaton, at the head of the
North-east Arm of Upper Arrow Lake, calls at the Trout Lake Hotel each trip. S. Daney operates
a freighting and packing business. There are a number of motor-launches on the lake and the
owners will usually be prepared to make a run up or down the lake on request.
Fishing.—Five-mile Creek on the south shore is the largest of the side-creeks flowing into
Trout Lake, and from here to 8-Mile or Daney Creek on the same side there is some very good
fishing. The fishing in the wider or westerly end of the lake is appreciably better than at the
narrower end, 10- to 15-lb. Dolly Ararden being taken.
Climate.—The climate is typical of the Kootenays; even in midsummer the days are not
hot and the nights are cool, and blankets are always required for sleeping. On the nights of
June 17th and 18th standing water in camp became frozen over. The lake freezes over during
the month of January and remains frozen for two months or so. The winters are long and with
excessive snowfall.
Land.—There is not much land suitable for farming purposes. The flats at the creek-mouths
are gravelly, with little soil, and many of them are under water in early summer. They are
covered with dense growths of cedar, cottonwood, and birch. The largest area that might be
used for hay and cattle is about 4 miles from Gerrard on the south shore, at present covered by
timber licence. Below Gerrard there is a small area of valley-bottom land which might be
cultivated, and back of Trout Lake City there is considerable land which should be very good
farming, but it has already been alienated from the Crown or is held under timber licence.
Mining.—The bed-rock at the lake-shore is mostly a hard metamorphosed schist with interlacing stringers of pure white quartz. On the surface gold has been panned and prospect-tunnels
have been driven at different locations, but the values do not carry down and the claims have
been abandoned. Some distance south of the lake is the northerly contact of a large granite
intrusion coming closest to the lake about 2 miles up Abrahamson Creek on Hadow Mountain.
On this south side and draining into the Lardeau River a little below the lake outlet is Mobbs
Creek, along which valley, and in what is known as the South-west Mineral Belt of the Trout
Lake Mining Division, are several deposits which have been opened up, notably the Senorita,
from which ore assaying as high as 1,000 oz. in silver has been taken. In the same belt on the
slopes of Trout Mountain are a number of deposits, including the Ethel and the Lucky Boy, both
of which have made shipments of silver-lead ore aggregating several hundred tons.
Along the north shore and on the high ridge forming the divide between the valley of
Lardeau Creek and the Trout Lake Valley, in what is known as the Central Mineral Belt of the
Division, are a large number of deposits, many of high grade, and a very large amount of
prospecting and developing has been carried on. Most of the deposits are silver-lead, some are
gold, and a few copper. The Silver Cup is the largest mine and has shipped several thousand
tons; the Triune has also shipped considerably, and the Cromwell, Fidelity, Winslow, and several
others have made shipments. The Nettie L., the largest mine in the district, is in this mineral
belt a few miles to the north-west, and is reached by wagon-road from Ferguson and Trout Lake.
There is very little doing at any of these properties outside of a few parties leasing and a
somewhat desultory prospecting, and the mining situation is very quiet. There is abundance of
mineral to be exploited, but methods .must be found by which the ores can be profitably
extracted and treated, as on account of distance from transportation and other difficulties
expenses are high. From the mining and geological standpoints the district has been most
excelleutly described by Newton W. Emmens, M.E., in Bulletin No. 2 of the British Columbia K 64 Report of the Minister op Lands. 1923
Bureau of Mines, under the title of " The Mineral Resources of the Lardeau and Trout Lake
Mining Divisions." The nature of the deposits and their size and adaptability for economical
mining have been adequately set forth. The wild upland scenery is shown in a number of very
excellent photographic views.
Trails.—There are trails, not now in very good repair, on both shores of the lake up from
Gerrard for about 2 miles, and on the north shore there is a very good pack-trail from Trout
Lake to Burg Creek, or 7-Mile, with two excellent trails branching off to the Winslow, and from
thence, on a very easy grade, easterly and up over the summit to the heart of the mineral-
bearing grounds. There are trails leading to this summit along most of the side-creeks. There
is quite a route of travel up to the summit from Gerrard; thence along the summit and down
the Winslow Trail and so to Trout Lake, or instead of coming down the AVinslow Trail, down
the Silver Cup or Brown Creek Trails to the Lardeau Creek;  thence by wagon-road to Ferguson.
Game.—Bear are plentiful, the black variety especially; goat, deer, and caribou may be
found. Blue and willow grouse and fool-hens are plentiful and a few duck on the lake and also
a few loons. In the higher altitudes ptarmigan are numerous, and fair numbers of eagles.
Whistlers are in thousands.
I completed the work on Trout Lake on July 29th and travelled with crew by way of Trout
Lake City and Beaton to Camborne by car, the outfit being taken in a relic of the old Cariboo
days in the shape of a " Cariboo wagon," hung on leather straps instead of steel springs. From
Camborne we used a pack-train for 12 miles up the Incomappleux River to a camping-ground
situate half a mile up Boyd Creek from its confluence with the river.
The valley connecting Trout Lake with Beaton, a distance of 12 miles, is a nice valley
averaging half a mile wide and contains some nice-looking ranches. The land around Beaton
is well taken up and appears to be of good quality for general farming. A good deal of it
appears to be held under timber licence and I would not think there is any unalienated Crown
land available. But when the timber is logged off there should be a large area available for
small parcels in convenient locations.
Incomappleux River Valley.
About 3 miles up from Beaton the Incomappleux River cuts deeply through a high mountain
barrier, and all the waters draining about 250 square miles of some of the wildest land in the
Kootenays, in the AA'et Belt, pass through the narrow canyon so made. The road to Camborne
has been constructed through the canyon on a trestle erected at heavy expense and considerable
difficulty, and from it magnificent views of the turbulent masses of water may be gained. Above
this barrier the valley broadens out again and in places approaches a full mile in width. There
has been, and in many portions is yet, a splendid stand of very fine cedar up to 6 or 7 feet in
diameter. Some stumps cut off 12 or 14 feet above ground-level are 5 feet across and quite
sound. Most of this area appears to be capable of supporting a large farming community, the
surface soil being, as far as could be ascertained, of considerable depth. Where side-creeks have
overflowed their normal channels the surface soil has been removed and the boulders and rocks
covering the valley-bottom are exposed. At present most of the land is held under timber licence
and land purchase and there does not seem to be any area suitable for ranching unalienated from
the Crown. About S miles up from Beaton the valley enters the Railway Belt, and from here
on up the valley-bottom is entirely within this belt.
First Explorers.—The first comers into the Incomappleux River country came in from the
Canadian Pacific Railway main line by way of the Illecillewaet River over the divide into the
headwaters of the McDougal Creek, and thence down to the Incomappleux Valley. In following
the river down towards its mouth they came to the canyon above mentioned, through which
there was no passage. These early prospectors then found themselves in circumstances of considerable danger from starvation, and it was only at great expenditures of their last remaining
energies that they returned up the valley, crossed the river by logs, and climbed a considerable
height, and thus worked past the canyon and so down to the lake-shore.
The waters of this river are thick and turbid owing to the fact that the glaciers, from
which most of the numerous tributary streams rise, overlie formations of lime, schist, and other
soft rocks easily ground up by the action of the moving ice and so carried down by the waters.
Mining.—Around Camborne, on both sides of the river and up Scott and Menhinick Creeks
on the west and Poole and Mohawk Creeks on the east, there has been considerable mining carried 13 Geo. 5 West Kootenay District. K 65
on, it being a continuation north-west of the Central Mineral Belt of the district previously
mentioned. The deposits, mostly, are gold quartz, though there is also silver-lead. Chief is the
Eva, which has produced over 30,000 tons of ore running up to $5 per ton. The Oyster-Criterion,
Silver Dollar, Beatrice, and many others have shipped at different times and there has been
expended a large amount of money in the erection of mills, tramways, etc. Farther up the
river, on the precipitous slopes of Goat Mountain, are a number of silver-lead deposits upon
which a considerable amount of development has been done. These deposits are in the Lime
Dyke Mineral Belt. Whilst near the headwaters of McDougal Creek cassiterite-tin ore deposits
have been discovered, but, although a certain amount of prospecting has been done, there has
not, to date, been found any commercial quantities of this ore. It is interesting, as there are
very few places on the North American Continent where this ore has been found. I would again
refer the reader to Mr. Emmens's interesting report on the mineral-deposits of this country, and
also to the geological reports of M. F. Bancroft, of the Dominion Geological Survey. There will
also be found reference to individual mines in the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines by
A. G. Langley, District Mining Engineer.
Survey.—My work in this country consisted in making a traverse tie from an established',
iron post on the southern boundary of the Railway Belt to a block of timber-licence surveys in
Boyd Creek Valley, and to two separate blocks of mineral claims, one high up on Goat Mountain,
and the other near the headwaters of the creek, and then making a traverse over the summit into-
the valley of the Westfall River, Upper Duncan River, to a block of timber-licence surveys lying:
in the valley-bottom.
Boyd Creek.
Boyd Creek enters the Incomappleux River from the south-east about 17 miles from Beaton,,
and is a wild, glacier-fed creek about 9 miles long, debouching from its upland sources through
a long, deep, and precipitous canyon. For the first 2 miles the trail up the valley is some
distance from the creek and ascends steeply through good stands of timber. At about the. crest,
of this steep stretch it leaves the Railway Belt and then ascends more gradually, crossing no less
than ten deep gulches. At 7 miles it crosses swathes of burnt-over country, and 8 miles im
the Devil's Gulch reaches open alpine meadow country. The Devil's Gulch is a wide, open,
grassy gulch, heading for 1% miles in a north-easterly direction and reaching the summit of"
the pass at 7,100 feet elevation. It is so named on account of a large hole, called the " Devil's
Hole," about half a mile from the summit. It occurs in the siliceous limestone of the Lime Dyke-
bedded between slates. This limestone, where it crosses the bottom of the gulch, has been
weathered away, leaving a hole about 100 feet across, 150 feet long, and 60 feet deep, with,
precipitous sides, into which a stream runs, which in August is 4 feet wide and 3 inches deep,,
and loses itself in underground channels, its outlet not being found as one stream again, although
probably it comes to the surface again as small springs lower down. There is a second hole
about 40 feet diameter and 20 feet deep lower down the gulch and numerous small holes a few-
feet wide and many feet deep. After crossing the Devil's Gulch the trail continues through belts;
of alpine timber—balsam and spruce—and open brush, up through the steep basin to the summit,,
also at 7,100 feet, over into the side of the basin of Silvertip Creek, a tributary of the Westfall,.
with a -branch trail going up to the AVinnipeg Mine at an elevation of 7,500 feet.
Scenery.—We are here in the midst of some of the wildest country in the Kootenays. In all
directions, as far as the eye can see, are fields of snow and ice, jagged crags, and deep valleys.
From the Devil's Gulch Pass Summit no less than twenty-two separate glaciers were counted,,
whilst from the Deadshot Glacier on the Goat Mountain slopes sixteen others could be counted;.
The landscape is wild in the extreme. One is led to clearly realize what a heavy proportion of the-
surface is situated away up in alpine table-lands and how small a percentage is in the valley-
bottoms and habitable. It is nature at its wildest and human interest at its minimum. Where-
possible the uplands above timber-line support luxuriant growths of mountain grasses, mosses,,
and flowers. At the time of our visit in August these flowers were at the height of their beauty,,
the profusion of blooms ranging through colours from white to the deepest crimson and to the
brightest blue.
The ascent to the pass summit in the Devil's Gulch is not so steep as are some, but on the
north-east side the descent to the Westfall River is sharp, the first 300 feet or more being a
series of rock steps and ledges 3 or 4 feet in height and quite narrow, and is such that from
the river-bottom one would scarcely judge that here was a pass at all.   The river is 2,600 feet. below the pass, or at an elevation of 4,500 feet above sea-level. From 6,000 feet down the slopes
are covered with an excessively dense undergrowth of buck-brush, salatobrush, and blueberry.
The timber is somewhat open and consists of alpine balsam and spruce, a few hemlock appearing
just near the water's edge. The country exposed to snowslides occupies a very considerable
area, and in such portions there is very dense growth of ground-slide alder and blueberry brush.
Progress horizontally or up through any of this country is arduous and slow. It took us three
and a half hours to make the return journey from the river's bank at 4,500 feet to the pass
summit at 7,100 feet, as one has to haul oneself up by the strength of the arms.
Westfall and Duncan Rivers.
The Westfall River is named after its chief explorer, and is really the West Fork of the
Upper Duncan River, joining the East River at the forks, about 38 miles up from Duncan or
Howser Lake, or 60 miles from the Kootenay Lake. It is about 18 miles long, but drains a
considerable area of country in a very wet belt, and it therefore has a considerable body of water,
above the average for that length of creek. Practically all its streams have their sources in
glaciers and its waters are thick and muddy. Fishing is not good, though, if the waters were
clear, there is nothing to prevent fish coming this far up to spawn. The Upper Duncan River
is navigable for motor-launches of small draught for 16 miles up to John Healy's ranch and
road-house. From here log-jams and sand-bars obstruct progress, but there is a good pack-trail
as far as Hall Creek for 12 miles, and a passable trail from there to Steven's Creek for 7 miles.
Although there have been trails continuing on up, through disuse they have been neglected and
there is no longer any good communication from here on up to the headwaters, a distance of 20
miles. At Hall Creek there is a good branch pack-trail up to the Red Elephant Mine, 4 miles
up, and thence on up to the Bannocktouni basin. There are then branch trails over the summits
and thence down to Gerrard, Ferguson, and Trout Lake. Travel along the summits in summertime is readily accomplished and is a delightful experience. In addition to prospecting and
trapping, some future business could be built up, when the main valleys become more readily
accessible toy auto-roads, toy utilizing for tourists these mountain trails through country of such
surpassing scenery.
Game.—Game is plentiful here, partly on account of luxuriant growths affording feed and
partly on account of present inaccessibility; bear, goat, deer, and caribou occasionally being
seen and tracks and signs are numerous. A small herd of three caribou grazing on an alpine
pasture at an elevation of about 6,500 feet, in an amphitheatre of huge crags, with glaciers and
detritus at their feet before smoothing out into pasture land, the alpine timber creeping up to
within 500 feet, in the distance the deep valley of the Duncan flanked by peaks and ice-sheets,
made a very beautiful and grand scene.
Having completed my work in this country, we returned down Boyd Creek and Incomappleux
River through Camborne to Beaton. Here we took the small 'C.P.R. boat to Arrowhead, and
there transhipped aboard the C.P.R. boat, the " Bonnington," to St. Leon, on the Upper Arrow
Upper Areow Lake.
St. Leon.—St. Leon consists of a hotel and a small number of summer cottages, owned
principally by Revelstoke people who come here with their families for the summer holidays.
They are situated on a flat about half a mile wide at the mouths of the Halfway and St. Leon
Creeks. There is but slight covering of soil over the boulders, which are exposed over large
areas, and the creeks themselves enter the lake through a large number of small channels.
The ground could not be made use of for ranching purposes, except that, in small patches,
there might be collected enough soil to make small garden-plots, with a few fruit-trees, etc.
The beach, however, is mostly covered with a good depth of fine white sand and affords good
bathing and a very pleasant summer playground for children. The hotel is now out of business
and is inhabited by the owner, an old-time prospector.
Hot Springs.—About 2 miles up the St. Leon Creek along a good trail which was formerly
a wagon-road, and at about 1,000 feet elevation above the level of the lake, or at an elevation
of about 2,400 feet above sea-level, are a number of hot springs. The writer is not aware of
the exact analysis of the water, but from inspection sulphur in appreciable amounts is present,
but not much iron or lime. At the present time the owner is making no effort, or very little,
to commercialize these hot waters as is being done at Halcyon, 6 miles to the north.    In earlier 13 Geo. 5 West Kootenay District. K 67
years the water was piped down to a bath-house constructed] adjoining the hotel, but it is now
out of repair and the pipe-line is broken in several places. , There is just one small bath-house
situated close to the springs and filled to a depth of about 3 feet by a %-inch pipe, the water
being then of just sufficient temperature to bathe in comfortably.
The Lake.—St. Leon is situated in a bay about half a mile deep and a mile across, and the
lake here is thus somewhat wider than its average, it being about 3 miles across to a sawmill
at the mouth of Pingston Creek—the mill now being closed. The mountain-slopes on either shore
are somewhat flatter than is usual in the Kootenay, and therefore the first impression received
by one accustomed to living in the Kootenays is that of openness and expanse of sky. The lake-
waters are thick and muddy owing to the great volume of glacial waters brought down by the
Columbia and in a minor degree by the Incomappleux River. The waters partially clear toward
the late fall.
Fishing.—Fishing is not good, though occasionally, it is said, 25-lb. salmon are hooked.
Ranching.—At Nakusp and up the valley toward Box lake there are considerable areas of
good clay, with other areas of good black loam, which will make good ranching country. There
is a small settlement at Galena Bay, near the North-east Arm; otherwise there are only a few
scattered ranches on the east shore, and I do not think there is, outside of the pre-emption I
surveyed about 7 miles north of Nakusp, any unalienated Crown land suitable for settlers. On
the west shore there is considerable area that could be fit for settlement at Fosthall Creek, where
the land is already held by a private company, which has subdivided its ground and sold a
number of the blocks. At this time there is but oue going concern. The soil is sandy and
liable to be dry, but there are patches of sandy clay which would likely hold the moisture
better. From a very brief visit which the writer made to this district he came to the conclusion
that it would be very difficult to make a living on any of the ranches without a good irrigation
system, but that with irrigation there should be many hundreds of acres capable of being worked
into productive and profitable ranches. Fosthall Creek drains a considerable area of country
and is of fair size, and water for irrigation could be ditched and flumed with little difficulty.
Study would need to be given to the soil to determine what crops would suit best.
Timber.—Timber does not seem to be particularly good close to the lake, but up the creeks
and on the low slopes of the hills on the west side timber is said to be good; in fact, the timber
seems to do better in the valleys of the larger creeks than it does on the lake-shores. Disastrous
forest fires have taken place from time to time, particularly on the east shores, and second
growth is now in many portions very dense.
Survey.—My work consisted of making shore traverses, tying in the surveys to the south
of Halcyon with the surveys around St. Leon, and from thence south to surveys south of Cape
Horn, and then south again to surveys north of Nakusp, on the way making triangulation ties
to two separate blocks of surveys on the west shore. About 1% miles south of Cape Horn I
surveyed a small area as Lot 12851 and made some corrections to a former survey.
Shore-line.—Practically all of the shore-line is most arduous for traversing. There are no
great prominent cliffs such as exist on the Kootenay Lake, but the whole distance is a succession
of steep or vertical bluffs up to 50 or 60 feet in height and descending sheer into the water,
alternating with small beach or boulder bays, necessitating continual careful climbing, where
a slip meant a ducking in the lake. The most prominent bluff, and by far the largest, is known
as Cape Horn, about 10 miles north of Nakusp. This is of granite and extends out into the lake
with vertical cliffs rising sheer from the water for SO feet, and in order to safely pass over, one
has to go inland some distance and climb about 300 feet. Over most of the distance I traversed,
dense second growth inland makes going even slower than on the shore bluffs.
There is no unalienated Crown land suitable for ranching adjacent to the shore-line, except
that which I surveyed, mentioned above. In time to come purchases may be made for the
purpose of erecting summer cottages. There are many little sheltered coves in the bays between
the rocky bluffs where boats could be drawn up in safety, and a few spots here and there could
be cleared and houses built and small gardens planted.
Mining.—There is a large granite area on the east side of the lake and extending out under
the water, the contact of which, with schists and slates, appears to run generally quite close
to the east shore. Most of the shore-line between Halcyon and Cape Horn is granite, with
occasional short stretches of schist and slate. The west shore-line is mostly schist and slate.
There is practically no mining on the east side in the granite, but on the west side, on Big Ledge Mountain, there is some prospecting, and a big gold ledge has been uncovered and certain
work done on it from year to year. The vicinity, of the Upper Arrow Lake does not appear to
offer as good chances to prospectors as do the other Kootenay lakes.
Transportation.—The Canadian Pacific Railway runs a boat service on the Arrow Lakes,
making the round trip from Arrowhead, on the Upper Lake, to West Robson, on the Lower
Lake, three times a week. This boat has some regular stopping calls and at other places may
be flagged, or may be hailed by boats or launches, for mail or small freight.
West Arrow Park.
From St. Leon I moved camp and outfit to Arrow Park, on the wrest shore of the Columbia
River, 14 miles south of Nakusp, to survey 960 acres into small parcels for settlement, 640 acres
being lapsed timber licences and 320 acres being cancelled purchase holdings.
This area is 2 miles long, north and south, and three-quarters of a mile wide, east and west,
and subdivision was made by east and west lines across the whole width, 10 chains apart, thus
giving sixteen parcels of 60 acres each. The reason for this was that it was found that approximately the eastern half was level ground, whilst the westerly half covered the foot-hills of a
steep and high ridge, which, other than for rough grazing, or for the timber, of which there
was an occasional very good patch, the cedar poles and firewood, it would not be worth much,
so that each parcel contains 25 to 30 acres of very good level land and the balance runs back
up the foot-hills and is more or less steep. These sixteen lots are situated very close to the
present Arrow Park Settlement and to the river; the elevation is but 1,800 feet above sea-level,
and it is generally considered that when the area is thrown open the lots will be quickly taken
up, for they contain land equal to the best in the KOotenays. For a detailed description of each
lot reference should be made to the reports attached to the surveyor's field-notes.
Ranching.—There is considerable area of very good clay lands on both shores of the
Columbia River, connecting the Upper and Lower Arrow Lakes, and there will undoubtedly,
at some future time, be large settlements in the vicinity. At West Arrow Park there are
now about thirty settlers, mostly occupying 10- or 12-acre orchard blocks. The usual Kootenay
products all grow well here, but the chief difficulty the settlers have to contend with is to
market their products and find a margin of profit after paying for packing and freighting and
other charges. They evidently suffer from lack of co-operation in the past, but strenuous
endeavours are being made to work together better. Apples are the chief crop at present, and
most of the shipments are made to Prairie points, many hundreds of cars being shipped. The
consequence is that, with other shipping centres doing the same thing, the Prairie market
becomes flooded with apples and a fall in price ensues. If the Prairie crops have been a failure
or if the price has been excessively low, as was the case this year, the farmer has little money
for British Columbia fruit; at least he will not buy sufficient to lay in a stock to last through
the winter, taking the risk of getting it frozen. What is urgently needed is the building of
Prairie storage facilities controlled by the fruit-growers themselves, from which the fruit may
be gradually released. This will no doubt come in due course; a few seasons such as this of
1922 will do a great deal to cause every fruit-grower to see the urgent necessity of combining
in organizations and protecting their interests and the future of the industry.
Stock.—A fair amount of stock-raising is also carried on and the cream shipped to Nelson
or Revelstoke, but for this purpose a 10-acre block is not large enough to grow the feed required,
with the result that feed has to be bought at prices too high to allow of much, if any, profit.
Most of the land at present settled on at Arrow Park originally belonged to a land company,
which had its holdings surveyed into 10- and 12-acre blocks and sold them at $100 per acre,
Clearing has cost from $125 to $150 per acre, and many have not more than 4 or 5 acres cleared,
with the consequence that their ground is too small to make enough to live on, and the ranchers
have to take work in the surrounding camps, sawmills, road-work, etc. The 60-acre blocks I
surveyed will enable the settlers to have a better chance of making a living. On the good flat
land there will be room for orchards of considerable size, for roots and vegetables, and still
leave a good many acres for growing hay, with 30 acres on the foot-hills which may he used for
The Future.—There are many thousands of acres in the Mosquito Creek Valley, north of
Arrow Park, at present held under timber licence, which should, when the timber has been
removed, afford space and opportunity for a large and prosperous community.    There is con- 13 Geo. 5
West Kootenay District.
K 69
slderable water flowing in small streams and brooks, and I believe this district has a bright
future before it.
Timber.—Logging operations in the district have been hi the past and are yet being carried
on successfully and with considerable profit to the operators and benefit to the settlers.
Blister-rust Disease.—Over an area approximating 100 acres the blister rust appears to have
got into the white pines which are dead or dying, whilst other types, such as fir and tamarack,
are doing well. There is considerable white pine in the Arrow Lakes country, and if it is to be
saved efforts must be made to combat this disease. I understand there are several large areas
of white pine similarly attacked, one being in close proximity to Nakusp.
Business.—West Arrow Park town consists of two stores on. Front Street, above the wharf,
a post-office, hotel, and school, and at East Arrow Park, across the Columbia River, there is also
a post-office, store, school, and in addition a church and a hospital and resident nurse, and there
are several other settlements of similar size on the banks of this river.
Wharf.—The wharf at AArest Arrow Park is causing dissatisfaction among the residents,
and apparently with some cause. It is steep and quite narrow, so that no team with wagon can
turn round, a=nd they consequently have to be backed down; then if there is any load at all they
have difficulty in stopping in time, and on 'more than one occasion team and wagon have gone
over into the river. Also the river here is swift and makes difficult landing for the boats. The
residents have been agitating for a new wharf in a better location, or at least for the present
one to be widened, and one or other certainly seems to be needed if the district is to go ahead.
Transportation.—There is transportation by the C.P.R. boats plying on the Arrow Lakes,
making the round trip up and down in two days, connecting with the Arrowhead-Revelstoke
Railway line and with AVest Robson, on the Kettle Aralley Railway from Vancouver to Nelson,
and thence by way of the Kootenay Lake boat with the Crow's Nest Pass Railway and the
Prairies. In addition, there is a road from Nakusp along the east shore, which passes through
East Arrow Park at 14 miles, Burton at 20 miles, and continues for another 15 miles along the
Climate.—The climate is about the average for the Kootenays, except that here for about a
month or six weeks in the fall there is considerable fog in the mornings, usually dispersing
about 11 a.m. The winters are not excessively cold, but there is a good deal of snow, which
first settles towards the end of November and will not have entirely melted off until the end
of April, but the temperatures will not fall much, or often, below zero. Summer temperatures
will rise up into the nineties, but seldom over 100, and the evenings are always cool and blankets
needed throughout the summer nights.    Rain falls at intervals throughout the summer.
Game.—There are more coyotes here than in the Kootenays generally, but they are not in
excessive numbers. Black bear are sometimes seen in the settlement, also deer, and back in
the hills there is fair hunting and shooting.
Fish.—Fishing in the smaller lakes and in the creeks is good, but in the Columbia River
itself is not so very good, although occasionally a good-sized salmon is caught.
Slocan Lake.
From Arrow Park my next work took us to Rosebery and the northern end of the Slocan
Lake, where we made a shore traverse along the railway-grade, connecting certain surveys north
of Rosebery with the surveys at the north end of the lake and up the Bonanza Creek Valley,
tying in two isolated surveys on the way, and making a triangulation tie to a block of isolated
surveys on the west side across the lake.
General Description.—Slocan Lake is a small lake about 25 miles long and rather over 1
mile wide, surrounded by steep high mountains, with a number of towns on the west shore,
these being busy or quiet, according to the mining situation. These towns from the north are
Rosebery, New Denver, Silverton, and Slocan City. There is a steamboat service on the lake
three times per week, although formerly daily, and Slocan City is connected by a branch railway-
line with the Kettle Valley line. Rosebery and New Denver are on the Nakusp-Kaslo line,
running through the heart of the Slocan mining country.
Fish and Game.—The Slocan Lake waters are clear and fishing is quite good. Hunting and
shooting is also good, though the proximity to the mines, whilst affording ready access by trails
to the uplands, necessarily means that the game keeps farther away.
Land and Timber.—Along the northerly end of the lake there is no unalienated land fit for
farming purposes.    On the eastern shores devastating forest fires have removed all merchantable ■
K 70
Report of the Minister of Lands.
timber. On the west shore there is more timber, but the steep bluffs and precipitous slopes
make logging operations unprofitable.
Climate.—The Slocan Lake climate is typical of the Kootenays. Heavy snowfalls and long
but not extremely cold winters are the rule, with zero weather rarely experienced for more
than a day or so at the time.   The lake does not freeze over.
Mining.—For more than thirty years the Slocan country has been known for its rich mineral-
deposits, and by this time the whole area for miles has been Crown-granted or already held
under annual assessment-work by free miners. Most of the producing mines have passed that
stage where they can be profitably operated under company management, so that a large part
of the shipments are by leasers; a noted exception is that of the Silversmith, formerly the Slocan
Star, at Sandon. Many of the leasers make very good money. The Slocan ores are generally
silver-lead-zinc, and a few known as dry ores; that is, the ores contain silver not associated
with the sulphides of the base metals—lead and zinc. Included in the list of noted mines are
the Payne, Noble Five, Ruth, Sovereign, Rosebery-Surprise, and many others.
Argenta and Lower Duncan River.
From Rosebery I took the C.P.R. train to Kaslo and took the regular Tuesday night boat
to Argenta, at the north end of the Kootenay Lake. AVe stayed in Argenta that night and next
morning moved to a rancher's house 2 miles up the valley, in close proximity to the piece of
land we surveyed, which was bounded on the north, east, and south by previously surveyed lots,
and on the west by the Lower Duncan, which is here a river of considerable size, having drained
both the Duncan River country, Duncan Lake, and the Lardeau Creek, Trout Lake, and Lardeau
River countries.
Land.—There is a large area of land here, lying in the valley at the north end of the lake,
about 2 miles wide. Originally brought down by glacial action, there is now a vast accumulation
of boulders and wash, covered by varying thicknesses of river-silt, brought down by the Duncan
and Lardeau. Near the present end of the lake the silt is of great depth, but at a distance of
2 or 3 miles back large areas have no silt whatever and bare wash is exposed. At a point nearly
opposite Cooper Creek, where the river divides, it is cutting away the east bank very rapidly,
and fears are expressed that with the high waters of this coming spring, or the near future,
the cutting will have entirely washed away the bank and exposed a deep slough, through which
the waters will then rush, tearing away a considerable area of land, at present fit for
cultivation and which is largely being used for pasture purposes. I looked into this, and without
taking any specific measurements could see that there certainly was some danger of this
About 5 miles in a straight line from the head of the lake is the junction of the Lardeau
and the Duncan, and from here the two valleys are narrower. At 9 miles in a straight line is
the south end of the Duncan or Howser Lake, 9 miles long. For 10 miles north of this lake
are many thousands of acres of flat land, submerged in the summer-time, but which, if provision
were made to prevent flooding, would be capable of supporting a large ranching community.
Game.—The flats are a favourite ground for grouse and duck shooting; deer are also sometimes seen. The country both to the east and to the west is very wild and little frequented,
and big game is numerous. Cougar are sometimes seen on the flat and their tracks higher up
in the snow are frequently seen. Black, brown, silver-tip, and grizzly bear, caribou, and goat,
are often met with by hunters.
Roads and Trails.—From Argenta, where there is a post-office and school, there is a trail—
now little used and consequently in a very bad state of repair—up Hamill Creek over the pass
summit, called Earl Grey Pass, at an elevation of about 7,500 feet; thence down Toby Creek to
Windermere, in the East Kootenay Valley. At the head of Earl Grey Pass are some very high
peaks and precipitous country, Earl Grey Peak itself being wTell over 10,000 feet. A wagon-road
extends northerly to Duncan Lake, with a branch road crossing the Duncan River by a splendid
bridge of composite steel and timber construction, up past the west side of the lower end of
Duncan Lake; thence over a low divide to Howser Station, on the Canadian Pacific Railway line
between Lardeau and Gerrard. Other than this last there is no bridge over the Duncan River,
and access to Lardeau, where there is a store, hotel, and post-office, must be by boat. The chief
settlement at Argenta is situated on the bench and is connected with the wharf by a good
wagon-road half a mile long. There is also a good trail running for 3 miles down the east
shore of the lake to a rancher's house. 13 Geo. 5 Cheakamus Valley, New Westminster District. K 71
Transportation.—The C.P.R. boat from Nelson and Kaslo calls at Argenta once a week at
midnight on Tuesdays, and also at Lardeau, where in addition another call is made on Saturdays, and from where the train runs up to Gerrard, on Trout Lake, and returns the same day.
Climate.—Curiously, the Argenta Flats enjoy a milder climate than is usual in the AVest
Kootenays; cattle and horses are able to winter out with just slight feeding; and whilst
other parts may be several feet deep in snow, this area is sometimes almost free. - The elevation
of the flats is 1,765 feet above sea-level.
Procter, etc.
From Argenta we again used the. weekly midnight boat, and, passing Kaslo, landed at
Procter, at the head of the outlet or AV'est Arm of Kootenay Lake. Here I ran some miles of
traversing on the north shore from Balfour to Queens Bay, located a number of old survey
corners, and made triangulation ties across to the Pilot Bay and Procter side, where I also ran
a traverse tie to a Dominion Government astronomical pier situated south of the C.P.R. track.
This is part of the widest section of the Kootenay Lake, although the water for a mile
outside Procter and Balfour is comparatively shallow, though so clear that at depths estimated
to be 50 feet one could see the bottoim
Business.—At Procter there are three stores, a school, church, post-office, and a hotel.
Procter is the centre of a ranching community extending for 4 or 5 miles along both shores of
the arm in a westerly direction. All land suitable for ranching has been alienated from the
Transportation.—C.P.R. boats from Nelson to Kootenay Landing and from Kaslo to Nelson
make the return trip daily, calling at Procter each way. In cold and long winters the West
Arm becomes frozen and impassable for these passenger-boats. Nelson passengers are then
transported between Nelson and Procter by train. Heavy freight between Nelson and Kootenay
Landing, Kaslo and Lardeau, consisting mostly of ore, coal, and coke, lumber, poles, and ties,
and handled at the Procter slips all the year round, and as there is a good deal of freight at
this point the switching-yards are quite busy.
Sanatorium.—At Balfour there is a large sanatorium, built by the Canadian Pacific Railway
as a hotel, but now closed. The probability is that at a future date this might again be opened
as a tourist hotel, as the situation is very fine.
Fish and Game.—Fishing is popular, but the hunting and shooting does not appear, to be
so good as on some parts of the lake-shores. Kootenay Lauding and Duck Lake, at the south
end of the main lake, is very popular for duck-shooting.
This completed the work allotted to me for this season and the party was then disbanded.
I have, etc.,
H. D. Dawson, B.C.L.S.
By W. G. McElhanney.
Vancouver, B.C., August 7th, 1922.
J. E. Umbaclt, Esq., i
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the subdivision of logged-off lands
in the vicinity of the Cheakamus and Cheekye Rivers, about 10 miles north of Squamish, at the
head of Howe Sound:—
This land at one time produced a heavy stand of fir, cedar, and hemlock, which was logged
off about ten years ago. A severe fire or a series of fires followed over part of this land, burning
off most of the debris, but this has now grown up with alder, vine-maple, young hemlock, jack-
pine, and fir. A good road from the head of Howe Sound to the Upper Squamish passes through
the centre of this tract, as well as the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, so that the land is
favourably situated for transportation. This land is higher than the general run of land in
the Squamish Valley, which suffered so severely from the disastrous floods of 1921, and consequently attention has been directed to the possibilities of the higher-lying lands.    Although 	
K 72 Report of the Minister of Lands. 1923
this land lies only on an average of about 100 feet above tide-water, yet the most of it is entirely
free from any danger of flooding. This tract appears to have been either an old bed of the
Cheekye River or of glacial origin. The Cheekye is a very tumultuous mountain stream which
at one time may have flowed down along the mountain lying to the east of this tract and down
towards Brackendale, gradually eating its way north till it joined with the Cheakamus in its
present position. The nature of the soil would either indicate this, or that a great glacial
deposit had been made over this whole territory from the high mountains to the east.
The soil is very stony, with large boulders mixed with gravel and silt. In places these
boulders are bunched together with very little deposit of silt. These boulders are now on or
near the surface and give the indication of very" stony ground. The timber in these spots has
been mostly a hard fir of only medium size, and is being reforested with jack-pine, hemlock,
balsam, and fir. In other places boulders are not so thickly congregated and silt and gravel
predominate. These spots, wdth the decayed vegetation from the forest-growth, are quite
productive. It is unfortunate, however, that the severe forest fires that have burned over the
area to the east of the Squamish Road have burned off a great deal of this vegetable matter.
In spite of this, there is in places a thick growth of vine-maple, alder, huckleberry, fireweed—
in fact, all the plant-life common to the Coast that grows over logged-off areas. A fairly good
idea ol the nature of the soil is obtained from turned-up roots of trees from cuts along the
Pacific Great Eastern Railway. In places there will be a mass of boulders and gravel and
immediately adjoining several feet in depth of good loam.
The whole tract surveyed is very dry. There is no running water over this portion, but
water can be readily obtained from the Cheekye River. During logging operations water was
obtained from this source by means of a wooden flume. This flume ran to two different places
in this area, and its position would indicate that the whole area could be served with water
from the Cheekye River. I am satisfied also that water could be obtained from the small creek
that drains Alice Lake for the same purpose. Along the position of the old flume, where water
has dripped or overflowed, the plant-life is much more luxuriant. This season has been very
dry and the ground appeared to be absolutely without moisture. The ground is very permeable
and could absorb a great quantity of water. Irrigation would almost seem to be necessary to
ensure crops, but this would be expensive for a small tract, and the best solution would be to
have a large enough plant to irrigate the whole tract. As far as a supply of domestic water
is concerned, I have very little data to judge from'. North of the Cheekye River, on Lot 1S17,
a well has been sunk to a depth of 60 feet and a good all-the-year-around supply of water
obtained. At Brackendale, I understand, water has been obtained very near the surface. Over
most of this area I think one would have to go to considerable depth to obtain water unless in
that portion near the Cheakamus River.
This land should be suitable for fruit or vegetables if water could be obtained on it. It
would be ideal for chicken-ranching. On the ranch in Lot 1817 above referred to good results
have been obtained with fruit, vegetables, and hay without irrigation, but conversation with
the owner indicated that with irrigation splendid results could have been obtained.
It was decided to subdivide this land into approximately 10-acre plots, as small acreage
seemed to be most in demand. The land slopes gradually to the north and west in the north
half and to the south and west in the south half. The whole plot is intersected with old skid-
roads and railway-grades. There is no difficulty about getting grades for roads and construction
will not be costly. Grades will run from 2 to 5 per cent., except at the1 bank to the west of the
Pacific Great Eastern Railway, where some cutting will have to be done to make a satisfactory
There is some very good land to the west of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. This is
flat, with a very heavy growth of vine-maple in the northern portion and with young hemlock
and vine-maple in the southern part. That in the northern portion is mostly silt, very easily
cut up with water, but very productive. With a very severe flood it is subject to overflow, tout
only on rare occasions. Land near the Cheakamus is being washed away rapidly. Evidently a
great deal of damage was done last year.
Portions of this land can be easily cleared. Fire has burned off all the rubbish left after
logging operations and the new growth has not attained much size. Other portions over which
fire has not travelled will be difficult to clear on account of the old debris, as well as the thick
new brush now growing up.   Cost of clearing will vary from $20 to $300 per acre.   There is .
13 Geo. 5 New Westminster District. K 73
a small patch of virgin timber of about 6 or 7 acres, containing about 75,000 feet of hemlock
and cedar, lying to the east of the Squamish Road. To the west of the road there are a few
patches of standing timber, mostly of small size and scattered, so that logging would scarcely
be warranted.
The only industry in the vicinity at the present time is the logging operation of the
Cheakamus Logging Company. This has been started recently and gives employment to about
fifty men and is likely to continue for some years. Lying to the east of the tract surveyed
there is a large quantity of timber on the Cheakamus, Cheekye, and Mamquam Rivers, and the
removal of this timber will provide a great deal of work for some years.
Climatic conditions are practically the same as those prevailing along the Coast in this
There is a railway-station within a hundred feet of this property; a school within 2 miles;
stores and post-office within 1 mile.
I have, etc.,
W. G. McElhanney, B.C.L.S.
By M. AV. Hewett.
Vancouver, B.C., September 18th, 1922.
J. E. TJmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report of the surveys made by me during
the past summer in New Westminster and Sayward Districts:—
I left Vancouver by gasolene-launch on June Sth and made camp in North-west Bay, 4 miles
west of Seechelt.
Working from here, I re-ran the outlines of Lot 1310, Group 1, N.AV.D. On this survey,
C. Pringle, one of my axemen, met with an accident which necessitated the amputation of his
leg below the knee.
On completion of this work I made a survey of the expired timber licence covering Lot
2193, Group 1, N.W.D., cutting it into three lots, and further subdividing the southerly one
of these, which fronts on the water, into nine blocks of varying sizes, with frontages on the
Government Road to Seechelt.
All these lots'are very rocky in character, but contain some land that can be brought under
cultivation. Blocks 3 to 9 of the subdivided lot, being least rocky in character and having
frontages either on North-west Bay or the Strait of Georgia, should make desirable home-sites.
Leaving North-west Bay, I proceeded to the mouth of Jervis Inlet, where I made camp on
the extreme north end of Seechelt Peninsula. Here I cut the expired timber licences covering
Lots 2727 and 2729, Group 1, N.W.D., into fourteen new lots, ten of which have frontages on
the water. These lots also are very rocky and broken in character, but are intersected by low
draws or valleys of fair land. There seems to be considerable inquiry for the small lots on the
water-front as home-sites for fishermen.
From here I also sent my assistant, H. A. Youdall, B.C.L.S., through the Skookumchuck to
examine Lot 3743, Group 1, N.W.D., with a view to determining whether the point shown on
Mr. Idsardi's plan of survey was a peninsula or, as reported, an island. His report was most
unequivocally to the effect that J# is not an island.
I then went up Jervis Inlet to the mouth of Britain River, where I made ties between
Slayathlum Indian Reserve and Lots 1903 and 2217, Group 1, N.AV.D., surveying en route four
lots on ground either previously vacant or covered by the expired Timber Licences 37342 and
44769. These lots consist partly of alluvial soil in the river-bottom and partly of the steep
adjoining hillsides.
As I reported to you in my letter of August 8th, I found a uniform low variation over the
whole area covered by this survey. Frequent readings of the needle determined this as being
from 22%° to 23° east. I have checked this by a reference to the notes of the late Mr.
Laverock's traverse of this shore made by him in 1917. K 74 Report of the Minister op Lands. 1923
Leaving Jervis Inlet, we moved up to Squirrel Cove, on Cortes Island, where I cut Lot 864,
Sayward District, into eight new lots, with approximate areas of 40 acres each. This piece of
ground was the best fitted for agriculture of any surveyed this season, being for the greater
part little broken, with fair soil and easily cleared.
On completion of this work we went into Malaspina Inlet, where we made a tie between
Lot 4200, Group 1, N.W.D., and Timber Licence 11846P and from there to Horace Point, on
Redonda Island, where we made a survey of a 20-acre home-site on ground formerly covered
by Timber Licence 2786.
From here we returned to Jervis Inlet, where I made additional ties in Britain River and
stored my rowboats for the winter, returning to Vancouver on September 13th.
Weather throughout the season was good, but very hot and smoky. Water was scarce on
most of the ground surveyed.
I have, etc.,
M. W. Hewett, B.C.L.S.
By John Davidson.
J. E. TJmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report on surveys carried out under your instructions in Range 1,
Coast and Sayward Districts.
Jackson ~Bay, Range 1, Coast District.
A closed survey was made from the head of Jackson Bay along the south boundary of Lot 36
and the east boundary of Lot 059 to Read Bay, and the shore-line was traversed from there to
Jackson Bay. This survey defined the overlap of Lot 659 on Lot 36 and located an error in the
survey of Lot 1720, which was then resurveyed.
Jackson Bay is a deep indentation running north-westerly from Sunderland Channel and
terminates in a long mud-flat, which is exposed for about 20 chains at low water. There are a
few pre-emptions along the shores of the bay, with gardens and clearings. A very good crop of
vegetables and small fruits was grown here this season.
From the head of the bay a wide flat extends in a northerly direction to Glendale Cove, a
distance of approximately 10 miles, and varies in width from 2 to 4 miles. This flat when logged
may prove to be a valuable agricultural tract.
A trail has been blazed by the Forestry Branch from Jackson Bay through this flat to
Glendale Cove. There is a post-office and general store in Jackson Bay and it is reached by a
weekly steamboat service from Arancouver. At Read Bay extensive logging operations are being
carried out and several miles of logging-railway operated.
Glendale Cove, Knight Inlet, Range 1, Coast District.
Here a survey was made to ascertain the true position of S.T.L. 1428P and I429P in relation
to Lot 360 and to each other. Glendale Cove is a narrow bay running southerly from Knight
Inlet. The east shore is high, rough, and rocky and slopes up very steeply from the water. On
it a wharf has been built up on piles to accommodate a salmon-cannery. The west shore is low
and less steep.
The cove ends in a low grass-covered flat, which is flooded at high water and broken up
by many sloughs and river-channels. This flat, which belongs to an Indian Reserve and used
by them in the fishing season, is the only agricultural land bordering on the cove.
Menzies Bay, Discovery Passage, Sayward District.
Menzies Bay is a wide shallow bay on Vancouver Island at the southern end of Seymour
Narrows. A logging-railway has been extended along the northern shore and a float set on deep
water to enable steamers to call at any stage of the tide. At present two logging companies are
operating over this road.    The bay is the outlet of several small streams which drain a large -
13 Geo. 5
Range 1, Coast and Sayward Districts.
K 75
area of hilly country covered with a good growth of merchantable timber.    This country, though
low, is so broken up by small rock ridges that the area of arable land is small.
Lot 673 was subdivided into Lots 1191, 1192, 1193, and 1194, and these lots He from 1 to 2
miles west from the beach. This area had been fire-swept just before the survey was commenced and the fire was still smouldering and blazing up in places. During the time of the
survey it spread towards Menzies Bay until even the driftwood on the beach was burnt up. Our
camp at the water's edge was guarded by fire-trenches, and each evening after the day's work
the survey party was kept busy carrying water and renewing the defences. Uultimately the only
green spot left was in the vicinity of the camp, and it became alive with grouse, pigeons, and
other birds, with their young. Many deer took to the sea near here and swam across Seymour
Narrows to Quadra Island. The land surveyed was found to be less suited for agricultural
purposes than was anticipated. A detailed report on each portion surveyed is attached to the
Von Donop Creek, Cortes Island,  Sayward District.
The resurvey of Lot 746 was completed. This lot lies on the eastern shore of a shallow
lagoon opening off Von Donop Creek. The lagoon is under cultivation as an oyster-bed. The
numerous oysters seen do not appear to have grown much since my last visit here two years
Bute Inlet.
A triangulation survey was made of Bute Inlet. On the tide-flat at the head of the inlet
a base-line was laid out, 109 chains in length, and levelled stakes 1 chain apart were driven
to support the chain. The flat is built up of gravel, fine sand, roots, and logs, and is divided
by numerous channels of a deep, swift glacial stream flowing in from the north-east.
From the base-line a triangulation system was carried down the inlet, joining on to the last
season's triangulation at the southerly end of Stuart Island; through Arran Rapids to join on
to the triangulation survey of the Yuculta Rapids; and from there down the west side of Stuart
Island, connecting the Yuculta triangulation to the Stuart Island base. A further check on
the work was made by surveying a new base-line at Orford Bay, half-way down the inlet. On
both sides of the inlet existing surveys were searched for and tied on to. The shore-line was
sketched between stations and stadia traverses run in places where necessary to obtain greater
accuracy in detail.
As many mountain-peaks as possible were trisected, but smoke haze and mist prevented a
complete record of the peaks from being obtained. The triangulation stations were permanently
marked as in last year's work.
On the south side of the Southgate River the east peak of Mount Rodney (7,883 feet) was
climbed and a cairn erected to enable Mr. Bishop, B.C.L.S., to connect his triangulation survey
through the Coast Range on to the Bute Inlet system, which in turn is connected to the Dominion
Geodetic Survey. Near the head of Bute Inlet a white-painted post 12 inches square was found
set in a rock mound and marked " U.S. Coast Survey, 1881."
Bute Inlet is, roughly, 42 miles long and 2 miles wide. Throughout, its whole length it is
bounded on both sides by steep rugged mountains from 4,000 to 8,000 feet in height, of the
typical Coast granitic formation. In many places the mountains descend precipitously into the
The principal rivers flowing into the inlet are Homathko, Southgate, and Orford. The
Homathko rises in the Central Plateau near the Chilcotin country, flows through a break in
the Coast Range, and continues down the Homathko Valley, where it is fed by many small
streams before emptying into the sea at the north-west corner of the inlet. The Homathko
Aralley appears to be a continuation of Bute Inlet, filled up with glacial drift and debris brought
down by the river. Immediately at the head of the inlet the land is low-lying, swampy, and
covered by a low growth of scrub spruce, with some willows and alder. The mouth of the river
is full of gravel and sand bars, with roots and logs.
Under favourable conditions small gas-boats can travel up-stream for 2 or 3 miles, but the
shifting sand-bars, the muddied and swift waters make navigation hazardous. Up-stream the
banks are well defined and from 3 to 5 feet high and the soil is of good quality.
The valley extends for some 20 miles to AA'addington Canyon and is from 2 to 4 miles wide.
AVhen logged off it may prove to be of agricultural value. Logging has been done here at various
times and a new camp was started there late in the year. K 76
Report op the Minister op Lands.
The possibility of a railway route up the Homathko and through the Coast Range is dealt
with in " Report on Surveys and Preliminary Operations of the C.P.R.," by Sandford Fleming,
1874 and 1877; and also in " Reports in Reference to Location and AVestern Terminal Harbour,"
The Southgate River is a much smaller stream than the Homathko and is from 100 to 150
feet wide. It is a swift stream full of fine grey silt and its mouth is full of bars. It is only
navigable by canoes. The valley near the mouth is a gravelly flat about a mile wide and
covered by a dense growth of brush. It is of little value for agricultural purposes. A logging-
railway was built some years ago up tfie valley to take out the timber logged off the first few
miles. The rails have been taken up and relaid up the Orford River Valley, where logging
operations are being actively carried on.
The Orford (formerly the Salmon River) flows through a narrow valley with steep flanking
mountains and empties into the sea at Orford Bay. For the first 2 miles from the sea the
valley is a fertile flat with deep soil and is about a mile in width. From here on the valley
narrows rapidly, taking on the typical A* shape, with gravelly flats in the bottom covered with
alder and the lower slopes of the steep mountains well timbered with good fir and cedar.
On the west side of the inlet the Bear River is the largest of a number of small streams
draining short, steep Ar-shaped valleys. These valleys are from 1 to 5 miles long and their
lower slopes carry a good growth of merchantable timber, principally fir, cedar, and hemlock.
At the mouth of the streams there is usually a short stretch of- shingle beach and occasionally
a small area of tillable soil. The remainder of the coast-line on both sides of the inlet is rugged
rocky mountain-side with frequent precipitous cliffs. Anchorage and shelter for boats is hard
to find; only Fawn Bluff and Orford Bay giving shelter on the east side from the north wind.
In the winter months the prevailing wind is from the north, and it comes sweeping out of
the Homathko Aralley as if out of a funnel, and raises a sea which occasionally prevents the
ordinary gas-boat traffic up the inlet for two weeks at a time.
The Homathko ATalley offers the only large tract of level land tributary to Bute Inlet.
This when cleared may be developed into farming land, but the lower areas are subject to
flooding in summer, and the winter climate is severe for the Coast District. The Southgate
A'alley as far as examined is of little agricultural value, and the good land at Orford Bay is
covered by an Indian Reserve.
Occasional patches of arable land from 1 to 5 acres in extent are found throughout the
remainder of the inlet; few of these will ever be cultivated, as there is little shelter for boats
to be had.
The timber in this district is above the average in quality, the cedar being particularly
good, but it covers only a small part of the area. Of the 2,600 square miles of the drainage-
basin, 2,300 square miles are above merchantable-timber line and 50 square miles of the remainder
is barren.
The only important logging is being done up the Orford River, where 6 miles of logging-
railway is being operated. The remainder of the logging, except for a small camp at Fawn Bluff
and one up the Homathko River, is being carried on by hand-loggers.
The salmon were more plentiful than last season. The Indians put up salmon for their
own use only, as owing to the anticipated small run no buyers came up.   The nearest operating
cannery was at Quathiaski Cove.
No prospecting was done this season. A report on this district is found in the Geological
Survey Summary Report for 1907.
Game and Fur.
Quite a number of mountain-goat were seen during the summer down on the shore; wolves
were frequently heard on the bars at the mouth of the Southgate River, which may account
for the absence of deer, none having been seen all summer. 13 Geo. 5 Queen Charlotte Islands. K 77
Above timber-line ground-hogs and rock-rabbits were frequently seen. Grouse were scarce,
although the weather was favourable during hatching season. Ducks seemed to be as plentiful
as in former years in spite of the numerous hunting-parties.
Marten, mink, ermine, otter, wolves, and both black and grizzly bear are in sufficient
numbers to make trapping profitable in the larger valleys.
Many tourist parties were seen during the summer, and those met with were enthusiastic
about the Coast Mountain scenery and the trout-fishing had in the feeders to the main streams.
The rainfall varies from 70 to 100 inches. July and August are as a rule dry and clear. The
remainder of the year is more or less cloudy and unsettled, except in winter, when the north
wind brings clear cold days. The snow lies about 3 feet deep in the valley flats and the
temperature is usually below zero for some time each winter.
The Union Steamship Company furnishes a bi-weekly steamer service from Vancouver to
Churchhouse and Bruce's Landing, at the mouth of Bute Inlet, and to Orford Bay, half-way
up the inlet.    At all these places there is a post-office and general store.
Stuart Island.
Stuart Island lies across the entrance of Bute Inlet and rises to a height of 880 feet in a
rocky ridge. Only a small area along the shore can be cultivated, and the greater part of this
has been made into homes by fishermen engaged in catching cod.
On the west and north sides are the Yuculta and Arran Rapids, which are only navigable
for a short time around slack water. The Yuculta is the route most favoured by tug-boats
with logs in tow from the north; the Arran is scarcely used except by local fishermen.
The rapids, while being a danger to navigation, form a favourite feeding-ground for codfish,
and several men are engaged here in supplying cod to the logging camps, the surplus being shipped
to Arancouver.
Nodales Channel.
The Dominion Geodetic Survey station on Mount Tucker was tied in to the Nodales Channel
triangulation survey and an intersection made with the A'aldes station on Mount Discovery.
It was found impractical, owing to the rounded nature of the summit of Mount Tucker and
to its heavy growth of timber, to make a tie to the Yuculta triangulation system.
I have, etc.,
John Davidson, B.C.L.S.
By J. M. Rolston.
ArANcouvER, B.C., November 30th, 1922.
J. E. Vmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on surveys made this summer. The
principal part of the work was on Queen Charlotte Islands, and consisted of groups of islands
at the entrances to Masset and Skidegate Inlets, also several pre-emptions on the east coast
between the above inlets. This territory has been reported on in detail many times, so a detailed
report is unnecessary.
At the northern end of Queen Charlotte Islands, tributary to the village of Masset, on Masset
Inlet, the country is very flat and in many places open muskeg. On the north-east coast at Rose
Spit there is a small settlement consisting of five or six families, who have good land and go in
for cattle-raising, as good feed all the year round is to be had on the sandspits along the eastern
coast. The village of Masset is not so prosperous since the war, due to the closing of the Sitka-
spruce export.    This was a thriving industry during the latter years of the Great War, as the K 78 Report of the Minister of Lands. 1923
Queen Charlotte Island spruce proved the best spruce for aeroplane uses, and in consequence the
settlers, shopkeepers, etc., were ensured plenty of work and trade.
There is a large mill at Buckley Bay, some 20 miles from Masset, which it is reported will
be operating on a very large scale next season and will give work to a large number of men.
This company claims to have a thirty-year cut of spruce.
At Skidegate Inlet, which separates Graham and Moresby Islands, there is a large cannery
belonging to the Maritime Fisheries. This cannery employs a large number of men. It is
reported they are going into the manufacture of fertilizer and oils on a large scale.
At the entrance to Skidegate Inlet there is a long strip of good agricultural land, called
" Sandsplt," which supports some twenty families. The farms here were well cultivated and
it was evident the settlers were making a success of mixed farming. They complained of not
having any cold storage on the steamers, and in consequence they could not ship meat, eggs, etc.,
to Rupert, which was their logical market.
Rumour states that a large mill was to be installed at Skidegate to cut the miles of timber
limits which stretch from Skidegate south to Cumshewa. The Indian village at Skidegate is
a revelation in Indian villages; water is laid ou and the village presents a very picturesque
appearance, and many very novel Indian curios can be obtained.
At Cumshewa Inlet the nature of the country changes to mountainous, rolling hills, timber-
covered along the deep gorges, which stretch in all directions. At the west end of the inlet
the Kelly Logging Company has several camps and was busily engaged in making up Davis rafts
to ship to the pulp-mills on the Mainland. Cumshewa Head, which we surveyed, is a barren,
rocky headland, jutting out and interrupting all the south-east gales, the bays being full of
The climate while on Queen Charlotte Islands was exceptionally fine, no rain falling for
two months and no bush fires to speak of.
The interior of these islands is hard to get to as there are very few trails, and in consequence
very little prospecting has been done. Several good claims have been staked in the vicinity of
Skidegate, copper mostly, but it is understood that coal may be developed in large quantities.
Porcher Island.
Three pre-emptions were surveyed on Porcher Island, at Jap Inlet, Oora Bay, and Kitkatla
"Inlet. The island is almost round, with high hills in the centre, and valleys running into the
bays; there is a lot of vacant land, consisting of swampy open muskeg, which, if drained, would
make good land. A ready market exists at Rupert for any produce grown. The settlers met.
with were mostly fishermen in the summer-time and farmers in the winter, which hardly afforded
them an opportunity of testing the farming possibilities of the island. Game was very plentiful,
deer being very tame, also plenty of geese on Kitkatla Inlet.
Mineral consisting of copper, high grade, has been found near Jap Inlet, but no amount of
development has been done as yet.
Smith Island.
On Smith Island, one pre-emption was surveyed at Osland, an Icelandic fisherman settlement.
This island is the centre of the canning industry, large canneries being situated along the
channel between Smith Island and the Mainland. The fishermen have small holdings for gardens
and go }n for goats and sheep. The island is a high mountain sloping to the sea on all sides,
and there is very little agricultural land or timber.
I have, etc.,
J. M. Rolston, B.C.L.S. Grass Hats at mouth of Kilbella River.    Kilbella Valley in background.
Indian dead-house, Kitnsquit, Dean Channel.  13 Geo. 5 Kilbella Valley, Range 2, Coast District. K 79
By A. S. G. Musgrave.
Atictoria, B.C., November 20th, 1922.
J. E. Vmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my report covering work carried out under your instructions in Ranges 2 and 3, Coast District, during the past season.
The first part of my season was occupied by the subdivision of the logged-off lands in the
Kilbella Aralley, Rivers Inlet; I then adjusted au old survey at the head of Smith Inlet, and
finally covered some 2,000-odd miles by gasolene-launch, setting the new type of permanent Coast
triangulation pins up the various inlets from Burke Channel northerly to Milbank Sound.
Kilbella Aralley Subdivision.
Owing to a confusion of names the Dominion Geographic Board in 1919 changed the name
of the old Kildala River and Bay in Rivers Inlet to Kilbella River and Kilbella Bay; this avoids
all confusion with the present Kildala River and Kildala Arm at the head of Douglas Channel.
The Kilbella River joins the Chuckwalla River some 100 yards before they jointly flow into
Kilbella Bay, situated about 4 miles from the head of Rivers Inlet. The Kilbella is approximately
30 miles long and flows in a general direction of south-south-west until 8 miles from the mouth,
whence it flows practically due south. Its volume is partly glacial, but it is fed and gathers
considerable volume from numerous small creeks flowing mainly from the mountains on its
easterly flank; the water is cold in midsummer, but is not milky white and contains a very
small amount of sediment. The average width from a point 5 miles up-stream to the mouth
is 250 feet and the average midchannel depth in July is about 10 feet. The current at low tide
was just sufficient to hold an ordinary Evinrude on a round-bottomed boat with six men aboard;
oars had to be resorted to at intervals. At all high tides the river is affected to a point 5 miles
up-stream and a full 23-foot tide affects it considerably farther. No falls are encountered for
at least 24 miles from the mouth.
For the first mile from the mouth the valley is about IY2 miles wide and consists of rich
grass flats and alluvial silt; these flats are subject to flooding at 23-foot tides when the river
is running at all full. Above these flats for three-quarters of a mile the timber has been partly
logged off; it is, however, only a few feet higher than the grass flats, and is therefore subject
to flooding at extreme high tides in conjunction with the fall freshets.
Owing to the above I took as the southerly boundary of the subdivision the northerly
boundary of " I.R. 2, Kildala " ; this line lies 1% miles from the mouth.
Practically the whole area subdivided has been logged off by the Pacific Mills Company,
Limited, of Ocean Falls, for pulp purposes.
The valley is flanked on either side by mountains averaging 3,000 feet in height; this
unfortunately has the effect of shutting out sunlight to the extent that in midsummer the
valley only receives direct sunlight from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. For this reason the winter snows,
when they fall to any extent, remain on the ground longer than normal.
I have prepared a general map of the whole delta which shows various sloughs and high-tide
channels; one of these channels cuts off a considerable round to the Kildala Packing Company's
wharf; this channel can be used by gasnboats of about 4- or 5-foot draught at 17-foot tides
and upwards.
The southerly group of lots lie in the broad part of the valley between the main Kilbella
and Chuckwalla Rivers; the valley here is about IY2 miles wide. From here northerly the
subdivision extends into the main Kilbella Valley, which has an average width of half a mile.
The area subdivided, while not above all possible flooding, is considerably higher than the
grass flats at the mouth. I consider that the flooding in extreme years will be more or less
confined to old well-defined slough-beds, but a very unusual year may see these overflow. Fortius reason it would be advisable for any settlers unfamiliar with the valley to carefully chose
the highest possible poiut for their houses; in the case of ten of the seventeen lots they can
build on the side-hill above all possible flooding if they wish, and in the case of the remaining
seven lots points can be selected in each case quite immune from any floods. K 80
Report of the Minister of Lands.
The subdivision is so arranged that all lots front on waterways; access by gas or row boat
is possible at all stages of the tide in all seasons of the year to Lots 1278 and 1286; at high
tide in all seasons to all other lots except Lots 1281, 1282, and 12S3, which are bounded by the
Chuckwalla and Egan's Slough. These later lots can easily be reached by a trail through Lot
1280; this trail could be made fit for all traffic at a trifling cost, as the grade is naturally perfect.
The Chuckwalla River flows with considerably greater velocity than the Kilbella; hence it
is not normally navigable beyond the gravel-bar at Lot 1280.
Egan's Slough is at present only navigable at high tide to the middle of the north boundary
of Lot 1284; beyond this point, on the Chuckwalla side, there are very considerable log-jams
which would entail much work cleaning out.
The longest water run from any lot to the Kildala Packing Company wharf is 5 miles; the
Union Steamship boats call there weekly during the summer and fortnightly during the balance
of the year. A road connecting this wharf with the subdivision would entail about 2% miles
of grading along a rocky side-hill, but the water access is so sheltered that I do not consider this
would be necessary.
Water and Rainfall.
As all lots front on main waterways ample domestic fresh water is available; it is very
cold, but does not contain sediment to any extent. One well was sunk some years ago by the
loggers in Lot 1284, water being struck at about 9 feet; the loggers state that any wells sunk
south of this point were brackish.
The annual rainfall, compiled from records kept over the period 1895 to 1906 at Findlay,
Durham & Brodie's cannery, some 5 miles away, is as follows:—
January  12.26
February  10.56
March    7.33
April     8.48
May    5.04
June  4.34
July   3.41
August     4.80
September     10.51
October    12.99
November   16.36
December   16.46
Average 112.55
Minimum annual fall  96.14
Maximum annual fall 134.58
The logged-off area is studded with large spruce and hemlock stumps to 5 or 6 feet in
diameter in places; these would entail heavy clearing cost, but very many alder and cottonwood
areas exist which should amply repay clearing.
An analysis of two typical samples of soil show that nitrogen and potash content is quite
satisfactory, also that the lime content is good. It is just possible that on portions of the land,
to get the best results, it may be necessary to introduce some form of phosphate; seaweed would
supply this, I understand, so if it is required it is not far distant.
A soil authority has given his opinion on these samples as follows: " . . . the soil
should be capable of producing high yields of our ordinary farm crops . . . the lack of
sunlight and the abundance of rain will limit the variety of crops . . . the potato is also
a crop which should do comparatively well."
The entire valley, with the exception of the land at the very bases of the mountains, is river-
silt for a depth of 10 or more feet; it contains chiefly sand and organic matter. The soil at the
base of the mountains is stony, but very rich black loam.
The market for agricultural products in a small way is as good as any inlet on the northern
Coast owing to there being in Rivers Inlet some ten active operating canneries, a sawmill, a
hospital, and many logging camps.    A very conservative estimate of the consumption of the 13 Geo. 5 Kilrella Valley, Range 2, Coast District. K 81
above from April 1st to the end of August annually, compiled by a cannery manager in the inlet,
is as follows: 25 cases of eggs per week; 2 beeves or the equivalent per week; 30 to 40 tons
of potatoes per season; fresh vegetables and small fruits in considerable quantities. All these
commodities #re at present brought weekly from Arancouver per Union Steamship boat with no
cold-storage facilities.
The whole question hinges on whether a settlement in this valley could give a constant
supply of the above, as failing this they could count on no market for their produce; in this
connection I may say that in the course of conversation with the authorities at Ocean Falls this
year I found that Bella Coola produce found a very poor market there owing to this very
reason of inconsistency.
As regards cattle-raising, winter feed would be required from October to February in all
probability; this could be readily obtained by experienced men rafting up the rich grass off the
delta during the summer, and in addition the cultivation of clover, oats, peas, and vetches. Art
experiment in stock-raising a few years ago in a somewhat similar valley at the head of
Smith Inlet proved a failure owing to the fact that Interior cattle were imported and the sudden
change to the Coast conditions proved disastrous; in addition, it is a well-known veterinary-
fact this this exceptionally rich delta-grass is injurious to stock which has not become gradually
accustomed to it. For these and many other reasons care should be exercised when sinking;
capital in stock under such conditions.
The most ideal settlers for this area would undoubtedly be married fishermen; the sole'
industry practically of this inlet is fishing; hence it would be unwise to be so optimistic as to
picture a settlement making a purely agricultural living here, but, coupled with fishing, any
settler should make a comfortable living and own a home-site close to his season's work. I may
say that while carrying out the survey many fishermen made inquiries from me as to the date
when it would be available for purchase.
Marten and fisher are the chief trapping-game; one trapper a few winters back trapped
twenty marten right on the subdivision. Deer are fairly plentiful, and bears, mostly reputed
to be grizzly, make a happy hunting-ground of the valley.
No trout or other fish were seen in the rivers; this is probably due to the fact that it is
not a salmon-spawning area, there being no storage-lakes at the source; the Owikeno River and
Lake, some 5 miles away at the head of the Inlet, being the main salmon-spawning area for the
Farther up the Kilbella River than the subdivision extends there are, I understand, some
excellent stands of spruce and hemlock, but the sharp " S " bends on the river make it difficult
to get the lumber out; in this connection a glance at the plan will show what a considerable
straightening of the river would be entailed by cutting or blasting a new channel from Station
E 32 to W 17; the question of increased velocity and consequent greater erosion would need
to be gone into more thoroughly. These sharp bends are a continual trap for snags, making the
navigation of the river risky at certain periods of the year.
Nekite River, Smith Inlet.
On completion of the Kilbella A'alley Subdivision I reduced my party and chartered a
38-foot gasolene-launch for the balance of my work along the Coast. I first proceeded to the
Nekite River, at the head of Smith Inlet, to adjust an old survey of Lot 1202. The pre-emptor
here has done very considerable work in reclaiming a large area of meadow tidal flats by dyking.
This river-valley lies some 25 miles from Margaret Bay Cannery, Smith Inlet, the nearest point
of call of the Union Steamship boats; owing to this comparative isolation and the lack of
markets in Smith Inlet it is questionable whether the pre-emptor will receive adequate return
for the undoubted hard work he has expended on it.
The soil and general conditions of this pre-emption are very similar to the Kilbella Valley,,
described in the first part of this report. K 82 Report of the Minister of Lands. 1923
Permanent Monumenting of Coast Triangulation.
In pursuance of your Department's recent policy of perpetuating, by means of the new
regulation iron pin, the triangulation stations on the main headlands of the inlets along the
Coast, I proceeded to the following inlets triangulated by Messrs. Wright, Underhil, and Smith,
B.C.L.S., a few years back: Burke Channel, North Bentinck Arm, Labouchere Channel, Dean
Channel, Cascade Inlet, Johnson Channel, Return Channel, Roscoe Inlet, Ellerslie Channel, and
Milbank Sound. In all, I established seventy-eight headlands by means of setting the regulation
iron pin with wedge in drill-holes and erecting very firm tripods and building cairns of rocks.
I have, etc.,
Arthur S. G. Musgrave, B.C.L.S.
By A. AV. Haevey.
Arictoria, B.C., December 1st, 1922.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In accordance with your instructions I have completed the work detailed, with the
exception of the subdivision of Catala Island, Espinoza Inlet, and the tie to T.L. 888, Clayoquot
District, this latter not having been commenced when I received your telegram to close down
operations for the season.
I commenced the work near Clayoquot by making a triangulation of Tofino Inlet and adjoining
waters, and also made the necessary ties on Kennedy Lake. I found that T.L. 4608, situated
on AA'indy Arm, Fortune Channel, was not surveyed in accordance with the plan. In this vicinity
the country is very rocky and precipitous, the only land of any value for agricultural purposes
being occupied by Indian reserves.
I next proceeded to Herbert Arm, Clayoquot Sound, and made the necessary connection
between the surveys there. The shores of this inlet are very steep and rocky, the only good land
being Lot 1110.    Herbert Arm does not appear to conform closely with the map.
I next completed the surveys in Hesquiat Harbour. The land on the west side of this
harbour, which is surveyed into townships, is good and generally low-lying and level, but the
lots surveyed by me to the north are poor and rough, covered with a dense growth of salal and
heavily timbered with spruce, hemlock, and cedar; this timber, however, is not of very good
quality. There are patches of good land, but these lots are situated on the foot-hills of a range
of hills about 2,000 feet high.
From Hesquiat we moved to the north end of Nootka Island and triangulated Nuchatlitz
Inlet. I also completed the surveys in that vicinity which were not completed last season. I
did not subdivide Lot 26, Catala Island, as there was more important work to be done and the
time was getting short.
I next moved to the south end of Nootka Island and retraced the east boundaries of
T.L. 1059P and 1064P; these surveys were very roughly made and are considerably off in azimuth
chainage.    I also surveyed P.R. 1009 in this vicinity.
I then proceeded to the Conuma River, Tlupana Arm, and surveyed P.R. 1127 and 1128. The
valley of this river is narrow, averaging about 15 chains in width, and the sides are very
precipitous. The land in the river-bottom is very good; the timber is poor, with the exception
of some good fir on the lower slopes. About 4 miles up the river is a narrow box canyon and
the country here becomes very rough and broken. I was informed later that there is about 1,000
acres of excellent land about a mile above this canyon, but did not see it. In the neighbourhood
of Nootka Island most of the land suitable for agriculture has been already surveyed. I was
told, however, by G. Newton, postmaster at Centre Island, that there are some good pieces of land
in Zeballos, Espinoza, and Port Eliza Inlets, in the vicinity of which few surveys have been
made. After leaving Nootka I surveyed P.R. No. 1755 in Bawden Bay. This is a very rough
and rocky piece of land, with a few patches of meadow and a little good land.
I next proceeded to Alberni and connected Section 17, Barclay District, to the W.W.W.
group of mineral claims by a traverse about 10 miles in length and tied in the adjoining surveys. 13 Geo. 5 Coast Triangulation, Range 3, Coast District. K 83
I also connected this traverse with the triangulation of part of Alberni Canal made last season.
I accomplished this by running a traverse down the Canadian National Railway grade and tied
in all existing surveys.
The last work done consisted of a triangulation of Nahmint Bay and a traverse from Lot
77n to T.L. 1003, Clayoquot District; the last-named lot is situated on the top of a very steep
mountain about 2,500 feet in height, and this was a difficult and slow piece of work, as the
clouds very seldom cleared from the mountain, even during fine weather.
I have, etc.,
A. AV. Harvey, B.C.L.S.
By J. T. Underhill.
Vancouver, B.C., November 27th, 1922.
J. E. Vmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report upon my season's work in Range 3,
Coast District:—
The work done this summer consisted of various stretches of Coast triangulation, together
with three small lot surveys. The triangulation covered Ellerslie Lake, the upper end of Ellers-
lie Channel, a small portion of Roscoe Inlet, Moss Passage, Milbank Sound, Schooner Passage,
Laredo Sound, Laredo Channel, Laredo Inlet, Deer Passage, and the easterly half of Lama
Passage. One pre-emption at the junction of Johnson Channel and Gunboat Passage was
surveyed, as also Outer Island, lying to the south-west of Price Island, and Idol Point, the
last two being beacon-sites surveyed for the Department of Marine and Fisheries. Besides the-
above, a tie was run from Ellerslie Lake to Roscoe Inlet.
Again this season, as well as defining the shore-line, an endeavour was made to tie in,
either by tangential shots, stadia, sketch, or minor triangulation, every island, islet, rock, reef,
and lagoon in the waters covered. In all, 446 stations were occupied and 110 monuments
placed. Three geodetic secondary stations were also tied in. These stations were purposely
set at or near sea-level by the Geodetic Survey, in order that the Coast triangulation might
conveniently be tied to them, and should be of great value as control points.
Ellerslie Lake, etc.
This body of water, roughly in the shape of a St. Andrew's cross, and approximately 75 feet
above sea-level, lies among the mountain ranges separating Roscoe Inlet and Ellerslie Channel.
The larger arm or main body of the lake, lying in a general north-easterly direction, is bordered
by steep snow-capped mountains, which become extremely rough at its upper end. The other
bar of the cross made by the South and North Arms of the lake are generally less rugged,
particularly the North Arm. As a whole the shores are well timbered, especially the North
and South Arms. Logging on a moderate scale was in progress in the South Arm this summer
and will doubtless be carried on in the North Arm at some future date. The timber consists
of hemlock, spruce, and cedar. The shores of the main lake carry good commercial timber only
in the valleys of the larger creeks, but are not of very great area.
At its lower end beautiful falls provide an outlet to the lake, the water falling into a tidal
lagoon some three-quarters of a mile in length. This lagoon connects by a narrow passage with
Ellerslie Bay. The entrance to the lagoon can only be entered at high-water slack owing to the
occurrence of tidal rapids. Ellerslie Lagoon and Bay are well timbered and have been already
extensively logged.
The agricultural possibilities of Ellerslie Lake, Lagoon, and Bay are negligible. Only in
the North Arm of Ellerslie Lake does any extent of comparatively level land occur—at its head
and on its westerly shore about its middle length. Owing, however, to its inaccessibility and
all too short season, it is extremely improbable that it will ever be used for that purpose.
During the winter the lake, lagoon, and generally the bay freeze up. K 84
Near the southern extremity of the South Arm a low narrow valley runs easterly to Roscoe
Inlet, distant about 1% miles. A tie traverse was run through same to connect with Roscoe
Inlet and some 4 miles of the latter body of water triangulated to provide a tie to Indian
Reserve No. 3. Roscoe Inlet from this point to its head is bordered by high rocky mountains
sparsely timbered and in many places falling precipitously to the water. The valley through
which the tie traverse was run is well timbered with small, poor-quality cedar, yellow cedar,
hemlock, spruce, and pine up to 16 inches in diameter. Underfoot the ground is soggy, consisting
of a shallow depth of muskeg and gravel caught in depressions of the underlying rock. The
divide itself is only some 350 feet in height.
Ellerslie Channel.
At the head of Ellerslie Channel a narrow bay or offshoot runs approximately 1% miles in
a northerly direction. This body of water was triangulated and the streams flowing from
Ingram and AVest Lakes tied in, as also Lot 337. The offshoot before mentioned is well
timbered on its western shore with hemlock, cedar, and spruce. Its easterly shore is mainly
rock bluffs except near its head. In this vicinity the bordering mountains have a more gentle
slope and are moderately well timbered. The discharge of the streams flowing from Ingram
and West Lakes were measured, but owing to abnormally dry weather the values obtained are
certain to be below their normal volume. Ingrain Lake is apparently backed by a fairly
extensive watershed, as it is the lowest of a chain of lakes extending back some little way into
■the mountains. The lake itself is only a quarter of a mile from Ellerslie Channel and is
approximately 70 feet above sea-level. The stream flowing from same is roughly 40 feet wide,
with a bed very much broken by large boulders, and finally plunges over a 30-foot fall to salt
West Lake was not actually visited owing to its distance inland making a traverse tie too
costly for the scope of my work. However, the stream flowing from it was examined for some
half a mile back from the shore. In its lower reaches it is roughly 40 feet wide and badly
broken by boulders. Here the stream is fast flowing and split in places by fangs of rock.
About half a mile from its mouth the bed is freer of boulders, more sandy and gravelly, and
the flow sluggish, promising a level flat valley for some further distance.
Moss Passage.
This body of water, lying between Dowager and Lady Islands, connects Milbank Sound with
Mathieson Channel. It is a little over 4 miles in length and varies in width from 7 to 30 chains.
The tides in this passage are quite strong, and at its narrowest part, which occurs about its
middle length, vary in velocity from 3 to 5 knots. During the ebb tide, when a westerly wind
is blowing, small tide-rips occur at this point and at its junction with Milbank Sound. It is
free from reefs except at its eastern end. The reef here is covered only during the higher stages
of the tide and lies slightly north of centre channel, being connected at low tide with Dowager
Island. It is easily avoided by favouring the Lady Island shore. On turning into Mathieson
Channel do not turn too quickly, as there is a small reef in this channel lying about 6 chains
off-shore, close to its junction with Moss Passage. Both these reefs are marked by kelp during
the summer.
The Lady Island shore of Moss Passage is rocky and low-lying. It is well timbered with
red and yellow cedar and scattered hemlock and spruce, ranging in size to 2 feet in diameter.
The timber is poor in quality, being stunted, knotty, and wind-swept, and of little value for
lumber purposes.
The soil appears to be mainly of a gravelly nature, varying from 6 inches to 6 feet in depth,
and in the depressions inclined to be swampy. Two pre-emptions have been taken up on this
shore and considerable clearing done in both. Neither of them was occupied during the time
I was in that vicinity, and from all appearances had not been occupied this spring.
The Dowager Island shore is similar to that of Lady Island, but more rough and broken at
its western end. Here it is slightly exposed to the surf from Milbank Sound, which has broken
up the shore and washed the nearer vegetation. Owing to the lack of running water, agricultural developments in this area are liable to suffer during dry summers. 13 Geo. 5 Coast Triangulation, Range 3, Coast District. K 85
Milbank Sound.
My work in Milbank Sound consisted "of a triangulation of that portion lying north of a
line joining Day Point to White Rocks. This section is very well charted, and any one desiring
information regarding the general lie of the shore, together with the position of reefs, rocks,
etc., cannot do better than study the chart.
Milbank Sound is well known for its rough water. Being exposed to the open Pacific, it is
seldom free from ground swell, and during south-east or south-west blows is dirty for small
craft. The stage of the tide materially affects the roughness of the sea. During the ebb, when
the water is running out of Finlayson and Seaforth Channels, a very much shorter or choppier
sea is experienced. This moderates with the change of tide. Behind Aldwich Point and Sandstone Reef temporary shelter may be bad in fair weather, but neither is safe anchorage in any
sort of a blow.
As regards the shores, the west or Price Island shore is low-lying and rocky, being deeply
indented at its southern end. Day Point, shown at the extreme south end of Price Island, is
in reality on one of a number of islands separated from Price Island by narrow and shallow
channels. The timber on Price Island is poor in quality, being scrubby and badly wind-swept.
No ground suitable for agricultural purposes was noticed, the land adjoining the water being
composed of rock-outcroppdngs, with muskeg and gravel in the depressions.
The shores of Lady and Dowager Islands bound this portion of Milbank Sound on the east.
These islands are very irregular and are fronted by numerous small islands, rocks, and reefs as
shown on the chart. Their timber and soil have already been described in dealing with Moss
To the north the sound is bordered by the shores of Swindle Island, which are steep and
rocky, with the exception of a short stretch of sandy beach lying behind Sandstone Reef. This
beautiful beach is covered by Lots 1171 and 1172. Back of this beach there appears to be a
fair stand of cedar, hemlock, and spruce, but no timber of any consequence is to be had along
the rest of the shore. Back some distance from the shore the lower slopes of the hills on Swindle
Island appear to be well timbered with fair timber. No suitable agricultural land occurs in this
vicinity, rock-outcroppings being too prevalent in the area adjoining the water.
Schooner Passage.
Schooner Passage is a narrow tortuous channel separating Price and Swindle Islands and
joins Laredo Sound to Milbank Sound. At two points the channel narrows down to about 4
chains in width, and at the more westerly narrows goes dry at extreme low water. Several
reefs occur throughout its length, more particularly in its western half. At its junction with
Laredo Sound it is blocked by small islands, islets, rocks, and reefs extending some distance
off-shore. This end of Schooner Passage is also very much indented by small bays and inlets.
Most of the reefs are easily avoided in passing through this passage, but care should be taken
to avoid a small reef in midchannel approximately 15 chains westerly of the western narrows.
While in this area this summer a small halibut-boat had the -misfortune to run on this reef,
luckily with no damage. About 3 miles from the easterly end of Schooner Passage a tidal
lagoon, known as Salt Lake, runs into the Swindle Island shore. The mouth of this lagoon is
badly blocked by reefs, and owing to the occurrence of tidal rapids the lagoon can only be
entered or left at slack water. The lagoon itself is of no great area and is broken up by islands.
The tides in the narrows are moderately strong and meet in the bay between them.
The shores of Schooner Passage are well timbered throughout, but in the main the timber
is of poor quality, being small, stunted, and wind-swept. Only in the vicinity of the Salt Lake
does an extent of good timber occur, and this area has already been partially logged. Cedar,
yellow cedar, hemlock, spruce, and scattered pine constitute the timber. The land bordering this
body of water is more free from rock-outcroppings than is generally the case on the Coast, and
in places a fair depth of soil was noticed, particularly on the Price Island shore. Inaccessibility
and lack of handy markets preclude the use of this land for agricultural purposes for some time
to come.
Laredo Sound and Channel.
Laredo Sound and Laredo Channel lie between Aristazable Island on the west, and Princess
Roval, Swindle, and Price Islands on the east. K 86
Report of the Minister op Lands.
Laredo Sound proper was scarcely touched by my work, most of it lying south of my
triangulation. As far as seen, it appears to he open in the centre, but obstructed by reef and
rocks as both shores are approached. Laredo Channel is fairly free of reefs, and those of
danger to navigation are shown on the chart. Laredo Bay, lying just north of the junction
of Meyer's Pass with Laredo Channel, has several bad reefs and rocks, and eare should be
taken in crossing this bay when entering Laredo Inlet. All rocks and • reefs "seen in this area
were tied in. On the Princess Royal side of the channel there are several small inlets and
lagoons, all of which were investigated. This water area can be very rough at times, the wind
sweeping down from the north end of the channel kicking up a very nasty sea in the' vicinity
of Surge Narrows. With a south-east blow the surf strikes in as far as the mouth of Laredo
The Aristazable Island shore is steep and rocky, except for a short stretch at its northern
end. Much of the interior of this island is barren and burnt over, and only in the creek-valleys
does any timber of any consequence occur. Poor-quality cedar, yellow cedar, hemlock, and
spruce compose the stands, the latter tree being best as to size and quality. One or two preemptions have been taken up on this shore, but apparently abandoned. While there are a few
places that give promise of being fair land, their distance from any settlement and climate are
much against them.
The easterly shore of Laredo Channel is very broken, bays, inlets, or lagoons running off
every few miles. In general it is steep and rocky and well timbered with poor-quality cedar,
yellow cedar, spruce, and hemlock. Several barren burnt-over areas, however, can be noticed
from the water. No land suitable for agriculture was seen, but it is possible that some of the
flatter portions may be required for sites for fishing purposes.
Laredo Inlet.
Laredo Inlet, some 20-odd miles in length, lies in a general northerly direction and extends
well into the interior of Princess Royal Island. It varies in width from three-quarters of a
mile to a little over 1% miles. Its mouth is blocked by two islands, thus making three entrances
to the inlet. The easterly and middle entrances are used by local launches, that to the west
being very narrow and strewn with reefs. In the inlet itself only three dangerous reefs were
noticed. Two of them lie well out in the channel off the mouth of Mellis Inlet, and the third
lies off the north end of the island at the head.
On the west side two offshoots, Mellis Inlet and the Bay of Plenty, run off. They are both
narrow and about 2 miles in length. The tides are regular in flow7, but owing to the inlet's
entrances being choked their velocity here is noticeable.
The shores are generally well timbered with fair-quality spruce, cedar, yellow cedar, and
hemlock. The better stands have already been taken up, and in one case fairly well logged.
Hand-logging has also been carried on along both shores. No land suitable for agriculture was
seen, the hills sloping fairly steeply to the water throughout its entire length.
Deer PjIssage.
Deer Passage lies between Cunningham and Chatfield Islands and connects Seaforth Channel
with Return Passage. It is an invaluable waterway for small boats, as it affords a short
connection to either Ellerslie Channel, Sister's or Roscoe Inlets. Hand-loggers or others working
in these channels use it on their way to Bella Bella, which is the closest port to them and their
source of supplies. It is approximately S miles in length and of very variable widtn, narrowing
down to some 5 chains in width at its narrowest part, which occurs close to its northern end.
At this point it is nearly blocked by two rocks. Throughout its length are a number of small
islands and rocks, but few reefs. Only in its northern end do they obstruct the channel, but are
readily avoided if care is taken.
Both shores are well timbered, more particularly the east, hut the timber as a whole is of
poor quality, being small and heavily limbed.    Spruce, cedar, and hemlock predominate.
The Chatfield Island shore is lower lying and not so steep as Cunningham Island, but both
are rocky and rock-outcroppings occur throughout the land adjoining the water. Other than for
timber purposes the land would appear to be of little use. 13 Geo. 5
Coast Triangulation, Range 3, Coast District.
K 87
Lama Passage.
My work in this channel consisted of the triangulation of that portion lying between Camp
Island and Pointer Island lights. This section has already been accurately charted, and therefore any one desiring information as to lie of the shores, rocks, etc., cannot do better than
consult the chart.
The south shore is low-lying and well timbered and is mostly taken up by pre-emptions. The
north shore is rocky and steep. It is generally well timbered with poor-quality spruce, cedar,
and hemlock. AA7ith the exception of a small area close to Camp Island light, it is doubtful if
any of this land will be required for settlement purposes.
Lot 1311.
This lot is a pre-emption close to Charlie Point, on the west side of Johnson Channel. It lies
over the valley of a small creek, with sides falling moderately steeply to the creek-bed. It is
moderately well timbered throughout with spruce, cedar, yellow cedar, and hemlock of small size.
Most of the land is gravelly, with here and there patches of richer soil, and in depression is
swampy inclined to muskeg.
Lot 1312.
This lot, being Outer Island, is situated off the south-west coast of Price Island and was
surveyed as a beacon-site for the Department of Marine and Fisheries It is covered with a
growth of spruce, hemlock, and cedar and in part with dense undergrowth. The shore-line is
steep and rocky and on it and the adjacent rocks numerous sea-lions live. The timber is valueless, being heavily limbed and wind-swept. No area of arable land other than small patches was
Lot 1313.
This lot, being Idol Point beacon-site, consists of the small peninsula, on which the light of
that name stands. It is situated on the northerly end of Dufferin Island, opposite the mouth of
Ellerslie Channel.    It is well timbered and is rocky throughout.
The area of the Coast covered this season is well known for its bad climate. This summer,
however, was a pleasant exception and was one of the driest every experienced. Very little rain
fell during the latter part of May or in June, July, or August, but the weather was beginning
to break in early September. There is a considerable difference in climate between the inner
channels and those stretches of water lying immediately adjacent to the ocean. The rain and
snowfall is very much less close to the Pacific than it is in the inner channels.
The prevailing winds of summer are westerly blows, but often their apparent direction is
otherwise, due to the lower winds following the deviating channels between the mountain ranges.
The wind usually commences to blow about S a.m., being at its maximum about 4 p.m., and
dying away at sundown.
Practically all the islands surrounding the waters triangulated are plentifully stocked with
Coast deer. As a general rule, the farther west the island lies the more thickly the deer are.
This is partly due to these islands being less hunted over and to the absence of wolves, which
seem to be on the larger inner islands only. Last winter seems to have been particularly hard
on deer in the vicinity of Ellerslie Channel and Lake. A considerable number of carcasses were
seen in this vicinity, and I presume the heavy snow covering their food, and the wolves, are
accountable for same.
A few wolves were seen on Princess Royal Island, and from accounts of those in the vicinity
there are quite a number of wolves on the island. The hand-loggers in Ellerslie Lake also reported
a fair number in that vicinity.
Bear are also numerous on Princess Royal Island and a white (Kermode's) bear was seen
by the party. Tracks of bear were plentiful in Roscoe Inlet and on the divide between Roscoe
and Ellerslie Lake.
A few grouse were seen in Deer Passage, but this bird does not appear to be plentiful
anywhere in this section of the Coast.    Plover, snipe, and gulls were breeding in great numbers K 88 Report of the Minister op Lands. 1923
on the more exposed rocks, particularly in Laredo Sound. A few geese breed in the vicinity
of Laredo Inlet, but give one the impression that they are mere stragglers who may or may not
be there another season.   No edible ducks breed in this area at all.
Few of the smaller fur-bearing animals were seen, mink being the commonest.
Trout of several varieties can 'be caught in any of the streams, the fishing in Ellerslie Lake
and Ingram Lake and its outlet being particularly good.
Fish common to British Columbia waters can be caught throughout this area, but are most
plentiful close to the open ocean. A fair number of whales, blackfish, sea-lions, and seals were
also seen.
I have, etc.,
James T. Underhill, B.C.L.S.
By A. E. Wright. \
Prince RurERT, B.C., December 3rd, 1922.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on my season's work on the northern
Coast of British Columbia :—
The waters triangulated this year consist of Estevan Sound and the unnamed sound between
the south end of Estevan Sound and the entrance to Surf Inlet; North Surf Inlet and several
unnamed islands about the entrance to North Surf Inlet; Union Pass from the north end
of Squally Channel to Grenville Channel; four lakes ou Pitt Island emptying into Union Pass;
Red Bluff Lake, on Pitt Island, emptying into Grenville Channel; Coghlan Anchorage, Kiltuish
and Kiskosh Inlets off Douglas Channel, Drum Lummon Lagoon, Jesse or Fountain Lake, Areruey
Passage, and the passages between Loretta Island and Hawkesbury and Maitland Islands. Lighthouse-sites were also surveyed on South Surf Island and near Camp Point at the south end of
Grenville Channel.
Several stations of the Hydrographie Survey were connected to in the vicinity of Surf Inlet
and at the south end of Estevan Sound, and stations of the Geodetic Survey on the summits of
Estevan and Hawkesbury Islands and on the Pitt Island shore of Otter Channel were also tied.
North Surf Inlet bears northerly into Princess Royal Island from the entrance of Surf
Inlet. It is about 6 miles long and from a quarter to a half mile wide, with some fair timber
near the head. There are several small islands north of the entrance to Surf Inlet. The largest
of these were traversed.    They are mostly of lime formation and have some fair cedar and spruce.
Estevan Sound is the southerly continuation of Nepean Sound. It varies in width from
3 miles at its north end to 6 miles at its south and is 15 miles long. The southern end is rather
shallow, partially obstructed by North and South Watcher Islands and by numerous drying
rocks. Estevan Sound is not recommended by the Admiralty, but a good channel exists tnree-
quarters of a mile east of South Watcher Island; thence northerly, keeping to the centre of
the channel.
Campania Island is about 4 miles wide and 17 miles long. The rock formation is a white
granite and its mountains rise to a height of about 2,000 feet. The western slopes are very
abrupt, descending to a level of 200 feet above the sea, with a level stretch of bare rock half a
mile wide to Estevan Sound. The west shore of Campania Island is badly cut up by inlets and
bays with innumerable small islands.
Estevan Island, or rather the Estevan Islands, lying between Estevan Sound and Hecate
Strait, are about 4 miles wide and 18 miles long. They are best divided into North, South, and
East Estevan Islands, but there are also a great number of small islands off these. The summit
of North Estevan Island, on which the Geodetic Survey has placed a station, rises to a height
of about 1,100 feet, but the greater portion of all the islands are low but rough and rocky, with
not much merchantable timber.
Union Pass is the northerly continuation of Squally Channel, separating Pitt Island from
Farrant Island and terminating in a narrow neck of water 2 chains in width at its junction with -
13 Geo. 5       Coast Triangulation, Ranges 3 and 4, Coast District. K 89
Grenville Channel. It is narrow and tortuous, though widening out in places to 30 chains. The
tides attain a velocity of 6 knots at springs and there is a depth of at least 10 feet throughout
the channel.
A chain of lakes extend north-westerly into Pitt Island, from about half-way through Union
Pass, for a distance of 7 miles, passing to the westward of Red Bluff Lake.
Red Bluff Lake extends 7 miles westerly into Pitt Island from a point 5 miles south of Lowe
Inlet on Grenville Channel. Its eastern extremity is only 100 yards from Grenville Channel and
its mean elevation 110 feet above sea-level. From the mountains south of Red Bluff Lake many
other lakes can be seen.
Coghlan Anchorage with Stewart Narrows separates Promise Island from the Mainland.
It is about 10 chains wide at its narrowest part, widening out to half a mile at its south end,
and is 4 miles long. There is an abandoned saltery about half-way through Stewart Narrows on
the Mainland side.
Douglas Channel is the southern continuation of Kitsumgallum and Lakelse Valleys. It
extends southerly from Kitirnat to Wright Sound, a distance of about 54 miles, varying in width
from 2 to 3 miles. Its east shores are Hawkesbury and Maitland Islands and its west shores
the Mainland peninsula between it and Grenville Channel. The mountains bounding it are about
4,000 feet in height, with perpetual snow on the upper slopes facing north. Extending into the
Mainland from the west shores of Douglas Channel are many inlets and lakes. The shores are
for the most part steep and bare of timber. At the mouths of the larger creeks, however, and
on certain of the gentler slopes, some fine spruce and balsam may be seen.
Kiskosh Inlet is about 6 miles north of Hartley Bay. It averages about half a mile in
width and extends north-westerly for about 6 miles. A flat, well-timbered valley extends back
for half a mile from the head, terminating in steep mountains.
Kitkiata Inlet is 14 miles north of Hartley Bay and was triangulated and reported on by
J. T. Underhill, B.C.L.S., in 1920.
Fourteen miles north-east of Kitkiata Inlet is the Drum Lummon Mine in course of development. Drum Lummon Lagoon has an entrance 5 chains wide, through which the tide runs very
strongly. It is impossible to navigate excepting for two hours at slack, which occurs two hours
after high and low tides in Douglas Channel. The lagoon is from a quarter to three-quarters of
a mile wide and about 7 miles long. There is a large stream on the south-west shore with a
drop of over 1,000 feet in three-quarters of a mile, where considerable power could be developed
should it he needed at the Drum Lummon Mine. There is also a fair quantity of spruce and
balsam of good quality on the slopes of the mountains near the head and on the flats at the
head of the inlet.
About 2 miles north of Drum Lummon Bay is an indentation called Dawson Arm. About
1Y-2 miles in this indentation divides into two inlets. Miskatlah Inlet extends north for 4 miles
and was triangulated in 1920 by J. T. Underhill, B.C.L.S., and Kiltuish Inlet, the westerly arm,
extends north-westerly for 6 miles, terminating in a flat timbered valley, fronted by mud-flats
through which flows a large creek navigable at high tide for 3 miles.
Six miles north-east of Dawson Arm, Jesse or Fountain Lake falls directly into Douglas
Channel from a height of 18 feet. Jesse Lake is about 30 chains wide and 6 miles long, with a
flat timbered valley at the head. A large creek navigable for some distance flows into the head
of the lake.   .
The eastern shores of Douglas Channel consist of Hawkesbury and Maitland Islands, separated
by Sue Channel, which is divided near its eastern end by Loretta Island. The shores of the
passage to the south of Loretta Island are well timbered, but those of the passage to the west are
bare and rocky. Both Hawkesbury and Maitland Islands are very rugged, the former rising to
a height of about 4,000 feet, with depressions between the mountains filled by small lakes.
We tied in to a monument of the Geodetic Survey on the summit of Hawdtesbury Island *at an
elevation of about 4,000 feet. South-east of Hawkesbury Island and separating it from Gribble
Island lies Verney Passage, 14 miles long and averaging a mile in width. Its shores are very
precipitous, with practically no timber. The Gribble Island shores are particularly steep, with
deep depressions between the mountains, in every case containing a lake. Awhile these lakes are
from 300 to 700 feet in elevation and close to the channel, their value from a power standpoint
is counteracted by the fact that they drop sheer into the channel, with no flat ground available
for power-stations. K 90 Report op the Minister of Lands. 1923
Fishing.—The nearest cannery to the district covered by this report is at Lowe Inlet, on
Grenville Channel, where salmon from all the seaward channels from the south end of Laredo
Channel to well up Principe Channel are taken. Salmon caught in the waters east of Douglas
Channel—i.e., Gardner Canal, etc.—are generally taken to Butedale Cannery on Fraser Reach.
No gill-nets are used, most of the salmon being caught off the mouth of the creeks by purse and
drag seines. By far the greater portion of these fishermen are Indians, though there are a few
white men and Japanese.    The fish are called for regularly by a launch or tug-boat.
Spring salmon and a large proportion of cohoes are caught by trolling from gas-boats, but
these are the only species of salmon which will take a bait. The seine fisheries at the smaller
rivers are becoming depleted just as quickly as the more-talked-of gill-net fisheries at the large
rivers, such as the Skeena and the Nass, and will soon disappear altogether if vigorous steps are
not taken to preserve them.
Logging.—There are no sawmills in the district under report and logging is carried on
altogether by hand-loggers. These men, either singly or by two's and three's, secure licences
to cut timber along a fixed distance of shore-line. They are not permitted to use heavy machinery,
and as their means of removal are limited to such tools as screw-jacks, peevies, etc., they only
take timber that can be dropped close to the water on a side-hill. It is usually necessary to
bark them and wTait until the rain has made them slippery enough to slide easily into the water.
The hand-logger usually has a gas-boat and a log float on which is built a comfortable cabin,
and the sheltered nature of most of the waterways makes it possible for him to tie his home
conveniently to his work. Practically all logs from this district are taken either to Swanson Bay
or Ocean Falls. The most-sought-after logs are spruce, as it has been impossible to sell cedar
lately.    A considerable amount of hemlock and some balsam are also cut.
As the choice timber near the salt water becomes exhausted it will become necessary to use
the scrubby growth of the side-hills, of which there Is an almost unlimited supply.
Mining.—This district is on the western fringe of the Coast Range and was formerly
considered to consist almost wholly of a white granodiorite. A great portion, however, is
composed of much older rocks, mainly granitic schists, but containing also bands of pure and
impure limestone and other metamorphosed sedimentary rocks.
Outside the Belmont Surf Inlet mines operating on Princess Royal Island, the only operating
mine is that at Drum Lummon Bay on Douglas Channel. This is still in the development stage,
though indications are very promising. When visited in August the wharf was nearing completion and preparations being made to install a larger compressor and construct a tramway.
The values are in copper ores which are in a pegmatite dyke, but there is also a considerable value in free gold, and some of the picked samples are spectacular. Many other prospects
exist, especially near the operating mines, and in the Gardner Canal District but little work has
been done on most of them.
Agriculture.—It is unlikely that farming will ever develop to the extent of being called an
industry. The patches of suitable land are too isolated and require too much preparation to be
handled economically. It is likely, however, that pieces of land will be taken up, either singly
or in small groups, by fishermen and loggers who only need small holdings and who will derive
the major part of their income from pursuits other than agriculture. Excellent vegetables are
had from such small gardens as do exist.
On Aristazable Island, on the north and south ends of Banks Island, and on portions of
Estevan and Porcher Islands are areas that will eventually be taken up in this way.
The climate in the district under report is mild, with no extremes of heat and cold. On the
outer islands the temperature never falls to within 15° of zero and never rises above 80° above.
At Kitirnat, which may be taken as the extreme, it frequently falls below 10° below zero and
probably reaches 90° above in the summer.
The rainfall varies from 80 inches near Hecate Strait to 280 inches in the midst of the
island mountains, and the snowfall varies in the same way, there being practically none on the
outer islands. At Kitirnat the climate partakes more of the characteristics of the interior, as
while the snowfall is fairly heavy, the rainfall is not so severe as farther down the channel. 13 Geo. 5 Control Survey, Range 4, Coast District. K 91
Deer are found on all the islands, but become very scarce as the head of Douglas Channel
is reached. They are very numerous on the outer islands. Goats are found on the Mainland
and on Pitt Island, but none of the other islands. Black bear are seen on the inner islands and
on the Mainland, but I have never seen any tracks on the outer islands. AVolves are quite
numerous, both on the islands and on the Mainland.
Geese and ducks are quite numerous in the fall and winter, especially on the inlets off
Douglas Channel.    '
In the area under report the only post-office is that at Hartley Bay, where the Union Steamship Company supplies weekly service.
Next to Kitirnat this is the largest Indian settlement in the district and has a Government
wharf. While there is no post-office at Lowe Inlet, mail can be got if addressed care of the
cannery. There is also a good store at Lowe Inlet, where practically all sorts of supplies can
be obtained.
I have, etc.,
A. E. Wright, B.C.L.S.
By- F. C. Swannell.
Arictoria, B.C., January 17th, 1923.
J. E. Vmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The work of the season, as planned, was to extend the main triangulation of 1920-21
north-easterly so as to connect with R. P. Bishop's station on Mount Fulton, thus giving a
direct tie from the Coast triangulations up Dean Channel and Gardner Inlet across to the line
run along the 54th parallel in the vicinity of Babine Lake. It was also proposed to establish a
main station near Natalkuz Lake and tie this by traverse or triangulation to the surveys on
Tatelkuz Lake, already tied to the line on the 53rd parallel. As the end of the line run west
along the 53rd parallel had in 1920 and 1921 been carried across to the Coast triangulation, it
was hoped to connect the 53rd and 54th parallels with a closed circuit east of the Coast Range,
and in addition check the triangulation across the Coast Range.
The Geological Survey, under S. C. McLean, haying in 1920 measured a base at Ootsa Lake
Post-office, I was further instructed to carry my own triagulation down to this as a check. Most
unfortunately, however, the road-gang, in altering the loeation of the Ootsa-Francois Road, had
destroyed the monument at one end of Mr. McLean's base, thus ruining a careful bit of work.
Had a few angles not been read from this point the previous season, no check at all could have
been obtained.
I regret to state it was impossible to complete above programme by a rigid triangulation to
Mount Fulton. The main stations, 30 to 40 miles apart, should have been read early in the
summer, but for three months smoke from forest fires made it absolutely impossible to see distant
points. In the fall we were hampered by low-lying clouds and fresh snow on the mountain
stations. Although seriously hampered by smoke, I ran a chain of minor triangles down Ootsa,
Intata, Natalkuz, Chelaslie, and Euchu Lakes, tying in several isolated surveys, connecting up
with the large block of surveyed land along Tetaehuck Lake and the surveys at Tatelkuz Lake.
Topography was taken along this belt and a reconnaissance of a very rugged mountain area at
the headwaters of the Kitlope River made.
I shall now report in detail on the country area by area, finishing with some remarks on
the results of the main triangulation.
Ootsa River and Intata Lake.
Leaving the easterly end of Ootsa Lake, the river which drains the basins of Ootsa, AVhite-
sail, Troitsa (Blue), and Tahtsa Lake is 160 yards wide, splitting into several channels running
swiftly between small islands and bars.    Half a mile down is a deep lake expansion a mile in K 92 Report of the Minister of Lands. 1923
length. The river leaves this in two channels, the smaller one to the right leading off as a
narrow bay. The main river runs to the left, is deep, and practically dead water. The two
channels unite 2% miles below Ootsa Lake, flowing swiftly over a gravel bottom, and 300 yards
farther there is a quarter of a mile of shallow rapids, 300 yards of swift good water, and
then another rapid caused by a reef of bed-rock extending clear across the river. At low
water there is only one deep narrow break in this reef not far out from a low rocky point
jutting out from the right bank. At high water these two rapids are completely drowned out.
In the fall, however, care must be taken to run both on the right-hand side. The remaining
mile and a quarter to Intata Lake is good water, although fairly swift.
Intata Lake.
This lake is 10% miles long, very narrow, and forms a flattened " S " lying south-east in
general direction. It is much longer and narrower than shown on existing maps. There is
very little beach, except at the spits of the long narrow peninsulas, which at several places
contract the lake to a quarter of a mile in width. Much of the lake is very shallow, being silted
up with mud to within a foot or so of low-water level. There is uo agricultural land along the
right or southerly -side, the country, densely wooded with jack-pine, rising steadily to a flattened
ridge about 600 feet above the lake, which near the lower end of the lake abruptly rises in a
densely wooded flat, table-topped hill, a landmark from both Ootsa and Natalkuz Lakes. The
country to the east of the lake is also useless agriculturally, broken hills jutting out into the
lake as promontories.
Five miles down one lot has been surveyed, which takes in almost the whole of the only
good piece of land adjacent to the lake. There is a fairly heavy stand of spruce and pine in
the hills at the head of the lake, but much of this was ruined this year by a fire started through
criminal carelessness on Ootsa River.
Natalkuz Lake.
The river link between Intata and Natalkuz Lakes is only a mile long, is swift, much cut
up by islands, but even at low water there are no rapids. By taking the left-hand channel
throughout, its navigation is safe and easy at any stage of the water for canoes and small
After the depressing effect produced by the worthless jack-pine country around Intata
Lake it is a pleasure to pronounce Natalkuz one of the prettiest lakes in the Northern Interior
—an effect largely produced by the long vista down the main arm, almost the whole 12 miles
of which, to the Nechako River, is flanked ou the left by an almost unbroken escarpment, the
steep grassy slopes of which are broken at rare intervals by small streams draining the plateau
and hill country behind, whose waters have built out alluvial fans into the lake.
Everywhere there are wide beaches of gravel and sand, and instead of the muddy bottom
of Intata Lake the shallows at the heal of Natalkuz Lake have a sand bottom. The lake is
Y-shaped; the long arm runs south-east 12 miles to the Nechako River, is straight, and gradually
increases in width to 1% miles just above the peninsula between the two arms of the lake. The
West Arm runs due west 5 miles from the Nechako River to Euchu River, which drains the four
large lakes to the west.
Unfortunately there is very little good land around this lake. At the head of the main
arm east of the river there is some meadow and bottom land. The fans of alluvial land below
the escarpment are very small, never over 20 acres. The plateau behind runs back for miles in
places, but its lowest elevation is 3,000 feet and most of it is jack-pine country with a few
scattered meadows.
At the outlet and down the Nechako River 630 acres of bench land has been surveyed, but
the soil is inferior, being sandy and gravelly. The land between the arms is hilly. South of
the lake for some 4. miles back is undulating jack-pine country, again worthless except for a few
small meadows.
Nechako River and Canyon.
The Nechako River flows from the south-east end of Natalkuz Lake as a beautiful clear
stream flowing smoothly over gravel bottom and averaging 125 yards in width. Running almost
east for 5 miles, it then swings in a general direction north-east to the Great Bend 23 miles
down-stream.    Here it turns sharply back on itself, running west and even south-west for 7 13 Geo. 5 Control Survey, Range 4, Coast District. K 93
miles, and then plunging abruptly north into the Grand Canyon, shortly below the entry from the
west of Lucas Creek. As far clown as this point the river is smooth-flowing but swift. The
surrounding country is mostly jack-pine bench lands quite unfit for agriculture. There is very
little burn. Occasional small areas of bottom land covered with poplar, cottonwood, and willow
occur in the river-loops, but in all it would be hard to obtain more than half a dozen quarter-
sections. The most marked topographic feature of this upper river is the line of sharply crested
moraine ridges flanking the right bank of the river for the first 3 miles and terminating in a
glacial lake, into one end of which the river has cut. The same occurs again some miles farther
down, the lakes in both cases being evidently much older than the river.
The Grand Canyon is 7 miles long, the lower 3 miles being a narrow box canyon cut down
sheer 300 feet. Above the water is not continuously bad, but the gorge is deep, and shorter box
canyons and bad chutes are frequent, particularly at the head of the canyon.
Down the lower 3 miles nothing living can go. There is one wild cascade of 60-foot drop,
and below this the river races madly in a narrow cleft, at places not 50 feet in width and often
immensely deep. A rise of 3 feet in the level of the broad river above the canyon would pile
the water 30 feet higher in this chasm.
We noted one right-handed bend where the whole impact of the raging current has cut a
cave 100 feet long and 60 feet deep into the cliff, the water swirling in boiling eddies under the
overhanging cliff. No salmon pass this canyon, needless to say. Half a mile above the stream
draining Cheslatta and Murray Lakes the gorge abruptly ends, and except for four short but
rather bad rapids the river is a broad smooth-flowing stream down to Fort Fraser. The total
drop in the 7 miles of canyon must be at least 325 feet.
Euchu and Chelaslie Lakes.
The west end of the shorter arm of Natalkuz Lake is linked to Euchu Lake by less than a
mile of river and river expansion. There is only one short riffle. Indeed, Euchu and Natalkuz
were anciently one lake, the western arm of which, now Euchu Lake, being cut off and dammed
back by alluvial deposits from Entiako River, which here enters from the south. Euchu Lake
(altitude 2,600 feet) is 12 miles long, its general direction a little south of west. Its greatest
width is a mile. Three miles from the west and on the north side a narrow river-like channel
a mile long leads into Chelaslie Lake, running 5 miles to the north-west.
Chelaslie is really on an arm of Natalkuz Lake, the connecting-link being absolutely dead
water. The east shore of Chelaslie is flanked by a high grassy escarpment which carries around
at a height of about 300 feet down Euchu Lake. There is good grazing on the slopes. The
country behind is jack-pine-covered plateau.
At the head of Chelaslie is a belt of bottom land, partly open swamp meadow, part densely
overgrown with willow. There is no land along the western shore of Chelaslie, which runs up
into the thickly wooded hills. At the foot of the lake east of the outlet is 100 acres of excellent
bottom land carrying a stand of cottonwood and poplar.    This is mostly included in Lot 338.
The only good land noted along the north shore of Euchu Lake was some 20 acres on a point
some 6 miles up the lake and a swamp meadow 7 miles up. To the south is a worthless broken
jack-pine country, with a little good land and meadow on a bay near the mouth of Tetachuck
River. This river, emptying into the west end of Euchu, is 4 miles long. A mile up, a few
hundred yards above the Bella Coola Trail crossing, navigation is stopped by falls 25 feet high.
The remainder of the river to Tetachuck Lake (altitude 2,200 feet) is a continuous boulder-
strewn rapid with two small cascades. AVe had to portage our canoe three times, the longest
carry being a quarter of a mile around and above the falls. The remaining rapids we dragged
the canoe up " light."
Chedakuz Creek.
The trail from the head of the Nechako River to Tatelkuz Lake for the first 5 miles follows
the crests of open moraine ridges, the whole surrounding country being covered with glacial
drift, with numerous small lakes in the folds and hollows. At 5 miles out the trail dips down
to Chedakuz Creek, a stream 30 feet wide and 1 foot deep emptying into the Nechako 4 miles
below Natalkuz Lake. The creek lies in a trough 200 feet below the level of the plateau. Its
course is tortuous and betrays much evidence of old beaver-work, resulting in many meadows;
the strip of bottom land is in places 20 to 30 chains wide, but is not continuous.    A thousand acres in all could be selected along 10 miles of the valley, but never more than 80 acres in any
one spot. The plateau on either side of a general level of 3,000 to 3,200 feet, is quite useless,
being typical worthless jack-pine country.
Passes to Headwaters of Kimsquit and Kitlope Rivers.
In the report for 1920 Garde Pass from Eutsuk Lake down Smaby Creek to the Kimsquit
River was described; this year Surel and Lindquist Passes were examined and the surrounding
mountains mapped.
Surel Pass (Altitude 3J960 Feel).
Surel Lake (altitude 2,980 feet) is entirely within the main Coast Range. It is 3 miles
long and drains into Eutsuk Lake by three-quarters of a mile of torrent, ending in a 90-foot fall
close to Eutsuk Lake. Into its south-west corner a large glacier creek enters; going straight
south down this for 3% miles through large swamp meadows the head of the valley is abruptly
reached; three large cascades, falling sheer from the glacier-capped mountain wall to the left,
joining forces to form the creek. The rise up to this point has been only 200 feet. Turning
sharply west up a small feeder the summit (3,960 feet) is reached, 5 miles from Surel Lake.
The descent is now down an alpine valley dropping south 2 miles and at an altitude of 3,200
feet merging into the valley of Chatsquot Creek, which latter creek heads in the huge glaciers
of Smaby Mountain. A mile and a half below the junction, at an altitude of 3,000 feet, the
Chatsquot drops into a gorge, falling 1,800 feet in IY2 miles into the wide Kimsquit Valley.
This point is at an altitude of 1,200 feet, 34 miles from Dean Channel and 11 miles from Surel
Lindquist Pass (Altitude 3,150 Feet.)
Lindquist Lake (2,915 feet), 2 miles south of the western end of Whitesail Lake, into which
it drains, runs west for 3 miles. From the west end of the lake a little over a mile, crossing the
divide at an altitude of 3,150 feet, brings one to a creek in an alpine valley running south for
3 miles; then at about an altitude of 3,000 feet swinging more westerly into a gorge; finally, 6
miles from the summit emptying into Ear Lake (1,170 feet). This lake, 2% miles in length,
drains directly into Gamsby or Tenaiko River, a main tributary of the Kitlope River, although
the lake itself is in the Kimsquit Aralley and is only separated from Chatsquot Creek by a few
hundred yards. The outlet of Ear Lake is 40 miles from Gardner Inlet and 38 miles from Dean
Regarding the descent from the summit to Ear Lake, Heretzky, who examined the pass
nearly fifty years ago, states: "The waters of the North-east Fork of the Kitlope reach Beaver
(Ear) Lake after a precipitous descent through a rugged canyon, above which the mountains
rise to towering heights. From Lake Tochquonyalla (Lindquist) to the lower valley of the
Tsatsquot a road could be carried only along the rugged slopes at a high elevation and with
excessively steep gradients."
Main Triangulation.
AA'hile not proposing to go into technical details, a few remarks as to the way in which the
separately worked-up triangulations of Eutsuk, AVhitesail, Tahtsa, and Ootsa Lakes fitted into
one main scheme may be of interest.
The 1920-21 work fixed three points commanding the plateau east of the Coast Range;
these points, marked by large cairns, are: Rhine Crag (altitude 6,312 feet), at the east end
of Tahtsa Lake; Mount Wells, south of the west end of Ootsa Lake; and Mount Swannell, in
the Fawnie Range south of Natalkus Lake. By erecting cairns on Nadina and Uncha Mountains
we bridged the gap to Mount Fulton. Three main bases and three check-bases were used. The
Eutsuk triangulation extended by a base measured by the Geological Survey gave a value of
63,000.3 feet for the distance Arete Peak — /\ 23 AVhitesail Lake. Expanding my AVhitesail
base westward, I obtained a value 63,000.0; the mean of the two results was taken and expanded
to the large triangle Chikamin Peak-Rhine Crag-Mount Wells (Stony Mountain), whose shortest
side is 24 miles. Working clown to the Tahtsa Lake triangulation, we got a value of 36,590 feet
for the distance between Rhine Crag and Huckleberry Mountain. The Tahtsa Lake base gave
36,591 as the value of this distance. These agreements are satisfactory, especially as owing to
the mountainous country the main bases were far too short. 13 Geo. 5 Control Survey, Chilko Lake. K 95
The distance Rhine Crag-Mount Wells as obtained by the Whitesail-Eutsuk triangulation
is 179,611 feet. The Ootsa Lake triangulation, based on the Geological Survey base at Ootsa
Lake Post-office, gives 179,615 feet. This is an error of 4 feet in 34 miles. The mountain bases
were much shorter, but the triangulation extension better.
Means of Access.
Intata, Natalkuz, and Euchu Lakes are readily accessible by water from the settlement along
Ootsa Lake. Chelaslie Lake may be also reached by the Bella Coola Trail, which crosses at
the foot of Ootsa Lake, striking into the head of Chelaslie Lake and following down the left-
hand shore to Chelaslie Crossing at the foot of the lake. The only land route to Natalkuz, the
Upper Nechako, and Chedakuz Creek from Ootsa Lake is a circuitous one by Indian trail from
the east end of Cheslatta Lake.
The summer of 1922 was abnormally dry, there being hardly a heavy shower in three months.
In normal years the climate and rainfall of the lake region south of Ootsa Lake is much that
of the Northern Interior Plateau in general. This year was remarkable in that there was an
entire absence of summer frost, probably on account of the dense blanket of smoke from the
forest fires by which we were surrounded. Twenty-five miles up Eutsuk Lake the rainfall would
be double that normally experienced a few miles to the east. The snowfall is four times as
much, we were informed. The rainfall rapidly becomes greater as one works westward into
the main Coast Range, until it is very heavy at the heads of the Kitlope and Kimsquit, and the
forest-growth here is typically coastal.
Deer were common along Natalkuz Lake and were frequently seen along the shore. They
were more numerous still down the Upper Nechako, where they have not been hunted. In one
afternoon, going down-stream, we encountered seven—one too tame to run away although the
canoe passed within 80 feet. During the season thirty-two were seen along the shore, casually,
during the process of the survey. Moose are moving into the country rapidly. Only four black
bear were seen and two grizzly in Surel Pass. Goat in the mountains were scarce and kept
very high, and we saw no caribou at all.
I have, etc.,
F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S.
By R. P. Bishop.
December 31st, 1922.
J. E. Vmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report on a triangulation and topographical survey carried out
this year in the neighbourhood of Chilko Lake, Tazeko (Whitewater) Lakes, and the Southgate
AArith the exception of an expedition to Whitewater, all the work was reached by back-pack
trips from the shores of Chilko Lake, which was navigated by a dug-out canoe fitted with an
Evinrude. A three-months supply of food and gasolene was cached at the commencement of
the season on the north shore of Franklyn Arm, a necessary preliminary in this part of the
country, where communication is extremely uncertain owing to flooded rivers, gales on the lake,
and absence of settled inhabitants.
Chilko Lake is best reached by way of the Chilcotin Road from AVilliams Lake', on the
Pacific Great Eastern. A telephone from AVilliams Lake to Bella Coola affords communication
to all points on the road, and, by means of its peculiar broadcasting effects, provides the
inhabitants with a means of innocent amusement which owes its chief attraction to its touches
of local colour. K 96
Report of the Minister of Lands.
From the road the shortest way to the Nemaia ATalley, near the centre of the lake, is by trail
from Hanceville, where Norman Lee's store forms a convenient starting-point for a pack-train.
As high water on the Whitewater River renders this route extremely uncertain during the
summer months, I decided, somewhat fortunately as it turned out, to go in by way of the north
end of Chilko Lake. AVe heard later that the canoe at the Whitewater crossing which I used
in 1912 had disappeared, and that nowadays the Nemaia Valley Indians, who naturally know
the ropes pretty well, avoid this trail during the summer months and come out by way of
Chilko River. I believe that the Whitewater is high during June and July and that it rises and
falls at intervals for some time later.
We motored from Williams Lake to Mr. Stewart's store at Redstone, loaded up in Mr.
Robertson's wagon, and left the main road some 6 miles farther on, a little to the east of the
Redstone Indian Reserve. Here a rough track runs a little to the west of south, crossing the
124th meridian 7 miles south of the 52nd parallel and ending at Chilko River a little above the
mouth of Brittany Creek. The southern part of this track has been cut out recently and is
very rough. The surrounding country has been reported on in the report of the survey of the
124th meridian, dated 1912. Generally speaking, it is a gently undulating gravelly plateau,
covered by scattered pine which are being continually burnt over, and carrying here and there a
few scattered meadows.
Even in June the country was very dry and the lakes nearly empty, so that I had some
difficulty in recognizing the lake just to the east of the 7-Mile post (south) on the meridian-
line, although this was very accurately sketched at the time of the survey.
At Chilko River we struck the trail which runs along the north bank. Here the wagon left
us, and, very fortunately, two Indian pack-trains happened along that very evening, so that
we had little difficulty in getting up to the lake, each outfit making a couple of trips. Travelling
light with one's own pack-train, the best way is to follow the trail all the way up the Chilko
River, leaving the main road at Newton's, or at Stewart's store.
We contemplated the possibility of having to build a boat at the lake, but at length had
the good fortune to secure a good-sized canoe which took the engine on its side. Getting the
outfit down the lake took some time, as the winds delayed us a good deal and twice swamped
the canoe. These winds, which are liable to spring up suddenly and at times blow with great
violence, usually commence at noon and die down late at night, but occasionally continue to
blow and so maroon the traveller for some days. At Franklyn Arm we left our supplies in a
cache belonging to Mr. Ducharne.
Beside the canoe we used, the Indians have one other canoe, a very small one, and Mr.
Ducharne, of Brittany Creek, has a third. There are, I believe, no other craft of any kind.
One can never depend on getting any of these canoes, as the owners may be away from the lake
for weeks at a time. Anybody wishing to spend much time in prospecting around the lake
would do well to take in a boat in pieces over the snow.
The Indians spend most of their thhe on horseback, so that the lake is practically
deserted and one may not meet a soul for months. It presents a great contrast to Babine,
where everybody travels by water and generally with the aid of gasolene.
Main Physical Characteristics.
The outstanding feature of this part of the world is, of course, the Coast Range batholith,
composed mainly of granite rocks. Inside the range lies the Northern Interior Plateau, here
about 4,000 feet above sea-level, mostly covered by glacial drift or volcanic rocks of the Tertiary
period. Between the plateau and the main range, which bears roughly north-west and southeast, are foot-hills and detached mountain-masses, some of which are almost as high as the
peaks of the main range.
Three parallel lake systems, Tatlayoco, Chilko, and Tazeko, or AAThitewater, lying due
north and south, lie partly in the mountains and partly in the foot-hills. Low passes running
east and west connect Chilko Lake to the south end of Tatlayoko and to the Tazeko Narrows.
The " Coast contact," the inner edge of the granites, described by geologists as a zone of probable
mineralization, passes close to the southern ends of these lakes. If this zone, which has so
far been very little prospected, proves rich in mineral wealth, its system of lakes and connecting
passes may eventually prove of great use in developing a system of transport. 13 Geo. 5 Control Survey, Chilko Lake. K 97
Tatlayoko, the westerly lake, is drained by the Homathko River, which breaks through
the mountain range on its way to the head of Bute Inlet. This valley has several times
been suggested as suitable for a route to the Coast, and a description and profile of the
location-lines can be found in the reports of the old Canadian Pacific Railway surveys. The
other lakes drain in the opposite direction, inland, by way of the Chilko and Tazeko Rivers,
tributaries of the Chilcotin. The Coast Range generally consists of peaks from 8,000 to 9,000
feet high, surmounted here and there by a few which run to 10,600 feet. The peculiar sameness
in height, which has been commented on in several reports of the Geological Survey of Canada,
is particularly noticeable from the peaks west of Frankiyn Arm. Deep valleys exist, but these
hide behind the hills and are difficult to pick up even when one knows their whereabouts.
Mineral Wealth.
Although detailed investigation is not within the scope of this report, the subject cannot
be altogether avoided in any general account of the natural resources of the country. The
only detailed geological survey in the neighbourhood is the Tazeko map area, which is described
in the report of the Geological Survey of Canada for 1920 by the late J. D. MacKenzie, who
makes special reference to the deposits of limonite-iron ore, to which so much attention has been
paid of late years. These deposits are also described in the Report of the British Columbia
Department of Mines for 1919 by W. Brewer and, in greater detail, by F. J. Crossland in 1920.
A reference to the recent developments in the Tazeko District is made elsewhere in this report.
A few miles to the south-east js the Bridge River map area, which is fully described in the
Geological Survey Memoir No. 130, issued in 1922. The surrounding district, which is a centre
of mining activity, has on several occasions been visited and reported on by geologists. Mr.
Bateman, who commenced the detailed survey of this map area in 1912, also made a rapid trip
through the Tazeko country to the Nemaia Valley, from which he canoed towards the south end
of Chilko Lake. His description is given in the Report of the Geological Survey for 1912. I
believe that, apart from this, the lake has not been reported on by any geologist.
Tatlayoko Lake, to the west, was described by G. M. Dawson about the time of the early
Canadian Pacific Railway survey and in 1910 by AVilliam Fleet Robertson, Provincial Mineralogist, who gives an account of the properties of the Tatlayoko Gold Mining Company's
holdings in the report of the British Columbia Bureau of Mines for 1910.
Mr. Robertson discusses the probability of mineralization along the line of the " Coast
contact" throughout the Province in general, and, speaking of Tatlayoko Lake, says: " As to
the geology of the district, the granite and other plutonic rocks forming the Coast Range
Mountains extend eastward as far as Tatlayoko Lake; on the east side of this lake are the
sedimentary rocks of the Interior, and along this contact there is a strong probability that
productive mineral deposits occur, particularly where the dykes from the main Coast upheaval
have struck off into the sedimentaries." He advises the prospector for the present to give more
particular attention to gold ores, which may be treated on the ground.
Mr. MacKenzie, in his report on the Tazeko country, says: " The recognition and mapping
of this contact was one of the most important results of the season's work, and its significance
is this: Wherever the plutonic rocks are intrusive the general geologic conditions are
favourable for mineralization to have taken place; but where the granitic mass is covered by
the overlap of volcanic flows there is no geologic reason for anticipating mineral-deposits along
the contact."
The lines of contact between the three main classes of rock—the granites, the Interior
sedimentaries, and the Tertiary volcanics—appear very clearly in the hills around Chilko Lake.
I did not go very far into the country between the end of Frankiyn Arm and Tatlayoko Lake,
but, from the appearance of the mountains there, think it highly probable that the inner contact
of the granites is not overlain by" the volcanics, and that, consequently, this may be a favourable
area for prospecting.
About a mile beyond the end of Frankiyn Arm Messrs. Ducharne and Boulanger have built
cabins and have done a good deal of work on their claims, which carry values in copper and
An outlying dyke of granite appears on the summit of Mount Nemaia, some miles away
from the main body, and the strata of the surrounding rocks here have been tipped until they
are almost vertical. Another likely-looking spot for prospecting is in a canyon about 4 miles
west of the south end of Chilko Lake, where there is a certain amount of iron pyrites.
7 K 98
Report of the Minister op Lands.
The general aspect of the pine-covered plateau and of the foot-hills is described elsewhere.
According to Indian report, fir was at one time much more plentiful throughout the country
than at present. There are, however, still considerable bodies of it around Chilko Lake, although
fires have destroyed a great deal in the last ten years. The trees, being somewhat scattered,
have in many places a beautiful park-like appearance, but are heavily branched and would not
make very good lumber.
Next to pine and fir, the most plentiful trees are spruce and balsam and, around timber-
line, the sugar-pine. At the south end of the lake we saw several large white pine, a few
hemlock, and one solitary red cedar about 8 feet high. There are a few yellow cedar in different
parts of the lake and plenty of pencil cedar and juniper.
The vegetation at the south end of the lake begins to show a few signs of nearness to the
Coast, but full development of Coast vegetation is reached with surprising suddeness 8 miles
farther on, in the valley of the Southgate, where cedar, fir, and pine grow to great size,
accompanied by yew, salmon-berry, and an abundance of devil's-club, or " bad stick," as the
Indians call it. The other extreme, typical of the Interior, commences in the Nemaia A'ailey,
where there is a good deal of bunch-grass, wild sunflower, and other vegetation typical of a dry
climate. Black, red, and mountain huckleberry are plentiful on most of the hills, and on the
" potato mountains" the Indians spend some time every year laying in a supply of the wild
Mountain-goat are fairly common and now form the most reliable supply of meat for the
hunter. There are no sheep on the west shore of Chilko Lake, but a few to the south of the
Nemaia Valley and towards the AVhitewater Lakes.
Mule-deer are pretty evenly distributed, but are far less common than formerly. The
Indians report meeting down the Southgate a '" Tenas deer," which is, I suppose, the Coast
We are told to expect many black bear and the usual ferocious grizzly, but we saw very
few tracks of either kind and only once got a glimpse of a black bear. Much to my
astonishment, I heard that several moose had been seen in the country in the last two years;
one of these beasts appeared at Frankiyn Arm last year. On the mountains ground-hog
(marmot)  are quite plentiful and are killed by the Indians for their meat and skins.
As a general rule game is far less plentiful than ten years ago, the scarcity of deer being
particularly marked. Some blame the Indians for this; others, the cougar. I believe that
within the last few years attempts have been made to boom this part as a big-game country,
and that two or three parties from the East were induced by local guides to come and try their
luck, with very disappointing results. Careful preservation might lead to a better state of
affairs. Some of the Nemaia Indians seem at length to realize that they will be the losers in
the long run if everything is exterminated, and for a time gave up shooting the sheep on the
hills to the south of their valley.
Blue grouse, willow-grouse, and fool-hen are fairly plentiful in the Interior, but we saw
nothing of the kind in the denser vegetation of the Southgate. I saw some prairie-chicken in
the Nemaia in 1912, but none this year, although I was told that there were some near Tsunia
Lake.   Ptarmigan seem to occur on all the hills.
We caught no fish in Chilko Lake, as we always had to travel too quickly to make trolling
worth while. The Indians catch a good many cookanee fish in Conni Lake, and, I believe, net
trout in Brittany Creek.
One tends to become somewhat case-hardened in this Province to magnificent scenery, and,
when describing it, to lapse into banal conventionalities which arouse in the mind of the reader
au uneasy suspicion that he has heard it all before.
Here, however, the landscape, while typical of the usual grandeur of British Columbia,
has certain characteristic features of its own, interesting both from a mountaineering as well
as from a picturesque point of view.
A great lake, nearly 4,000 feet above the sea, cuts into the heart of a mighty range; its
southern half being closely surrounded by masses of peaks, several of which are over 10.000 13 Geo. 5 Control Survey, Chilko Lake. K 99
feet in height. The result is a relief of about 6,000 feet, not so great as in the adjacent valley
of the Southgate, where it is half as much again, but, on the other hand, free to a great extent
from such abominations as devil's-club, hardhack, and other impediments due to dense vegetation. The alpinist in search of fields or peaks to conquer without a long preliminary scramble
through the bush will do well to consider the merits of Chilko Lake.
There is a great variety of peaks to suit all tastes, the jagged granite of the Coast batholith
and the castellated peaks of the Tertiary volcanics affording scope enough for the most ardent
alpinist, while the weathered Cretaceous rocks of the " red mountains " enable those of quieter
tastes to get well up and enjoy the view without too much unpleasantness.
The variety in the colours of the different classes of rocks, the low-lying glaciers, and the
wonderful blue of the lake, the dark green of the " Christmas trees," and, late in the year, the
yellow and orange of poplar, willow, and cottonwood, combine to make up a remarkable picture.
From the highest peaks to the west of the lake the Coast Range presents an extraordinary
but somewhat monotonous panorama, the peaks being too numerous and too closely packed to
afford much variety, although here and there deep and mysterious valleys lend interest from a
geographic point of view. On the east side of the lake there is much .more variety, and perhaps
the best view of all is from Mount Tatlow, which has been appropriately described as an outlying
buttress of the range. On the one hand are glimpses of Chilko and the Tazeko Lakes amidst
the peaks, and, on the other, a vista of the Chilcotin plains and many other parts of the Northern
Interior Plateau, the hills of which seem to crop up almost indefinitely in the distance, although
the surface becomes " hull down" after a hundred miles or so. Anahim Peak, the Itcha,
Ilgachuz, and Tsitsutl Mountains show up clearly from the summit, but are soon lost to view
as one descends the slopes. A view of the sunrise from Mount Tatlow is well worth the climb,
as from the upper slopes the eastern plains appear bathed in light, while the pall of darkness
still hangs over the western world.
From a practical point of view this district at the present time presents many disadvantages
to visitors. The delays to which one may be subjected on the lake on account of its stormy
nature, and the crankiness of the local craft, the uncertainty of getting the use of these craft,
and the general inaccessibility during the summer months on account of the height of the Whitewater River, are great drawbacks to those who want to make the best of a short holiday;
but with plenty of time and money these can, of course, be overcome. An interesting account
of a summer's trip by Malcolm Goddard is given in the journal of the Alpine Club of Canada
for 1912. During the course of the season's work we visited several of the cairns erected by
Mr. Goddard and triangulated on to others from a distance.
Ten families of Indians have their headquarters in the valley, but lead a semi-nomadic
existence during the greater part of the year. Like all the Chilcotins, they are born horsemen'
and do not like going where they cannot ride; consequently they seldom use the lake and avoid
the " back-pack" country to its south and west. Some twenty years ago they used to make
trips down the Southgate in order to visit the Coast or to catch salmon which ascend as far as
the forks. I believe that of late years none of the Indians have gone in this direction, possibly
because the settlement at the head of Bute Inlet no longer exists.
After a few years' residence in one place they have a tendency to move on, possibly being
influenced by the condition of the range and of the hay meadows. At preseut the main village
of the band is near the south boundary of Lot 305, but there are several old village-sites in the
The Nemaias go in largely for horses, and two members are said to own between them
several hundred of these beasts. The result is that the valley is getting overstocked and some
of the inhabitants here have moved to Brittany Creek, while another proposes to go to the
Elkin Aralley. At present the extent of the Indians' holding is not clearly defined and a good
deal of uncertainty exists on the subject. The settlement of this question, which has been
pending for some years and is now on the verge of completion, will make things much more
satisfactory both for the white men and the Indians. There seems to be a tendency, especially
on the part of the younger men, to raise cattle instead of horses; although this may be the
result of the rapid diminution of the game of the district which has taken place in recent years,
it is, at any rate, a most hopeful sign for the future and as such deserves encouragement. -
K 100 Report of the Minister of Lands. 1923
In the early summer the village is generally deserted, as nearly everybody takes to the hills
to gather wild potato or hunt meat for consumption during the haying season. They generally
use mowing-machines, but do little in the way of raising either " tame " or irrigated hay and
depend on the wild swamp meadows for their supply. They raise a few carrots and turnips
however, and some years ago had a few acres under ditch. After the hay season a good many
take to the hills to hunt the marmot, which is used both for " ground-hog robes " and for meat.
In the winter comes the trapping season.
There are at present no white settlers in Nemaia Valley or near Chilko Lake, but Mr.
Ducharne and Mr. Boulanger, who own pre-emptions on Brittany Creek, have cabins at their
mineral claims a mile from the end of Frankiyn Arm, as well as on their trap-lines in the same
Mr. Anger, a returned soldier, also of Brittany Creek, who was running a good-sized bunch
of cattle there, was drowned last year while fording the Chilko River. Mr. Atkinson is settled
at the mouth of Brittany Creek and three of the Nemaia Valley Indians are settling in this
Mr. Skinner is located north of Choelquoit (Eagle) Lake, and there are, I believe, a few
white men at the north end of Tatlayoko Lake. The district is undoubtedly capable of carrying
a larger population, as it is well suited for stock-raising; settlement will, however, be very
scattered even when the district is fully developed. The delay in the apportioning of the
Indian reserves and the difficulty of crossing the Chilko and AVhitewater Rivers during the
summer floods have kept progress back during recent years, and at present the price of beef
gives poor inducement to anybody to go in for stock-raising.
Stock-raising and Agriculture.
The whole of the district under report is too high for anything in the way of mixed
farming, but the hardier kinds of vegetables are grown. Potatoes will not stand the frost in
summer. Horses, however, can rustle for themselves all winter in the meadows and cattle require
comparatively little feed.
This region affords an interesting contrast to the agricultural districts of the Northern
Interior, as both localities have great advantages and great drawbacks.
In the mixed-farming country of the north, potatoes and oats mature without much trouble,
but the wild swamp-hay rapidly deteriorates in winter, so that animals have to be fed for half the
year. In the north in 1920 the price quoted for wintering horses was $25, but unless arrangements were made in the summer there would be no hay available and the animals would
As one goes south the wild hay stands the frost " better and better," and in the neighbourhood of Chilko Lake animals feed out all winter despite the altitude.
I wish to make it quite clear that I am not trying to " knock" either country, but, by
comparison, to show that the high and somewhat desolate plateau to the south, which has at
times been adversely reported on, has its own peculiar advantages. I will now describe it in
The country adjoining the 124th meridian was reported on by the writer in 1912. Several
of the meadows cruised during that survey have been taken up by the pre-emptors already
mentioned. Mr. Ducharne thinks that a good deal of "tame hay" could be grown away from
the meadows by utilizing the water of Brittany Creek, a stream which draws its waters from
the melting of the snows. I believe that irrigation was practised by the late Mr. Robertson
in the Nemaia Valley, where the streams also have the immense advantage of being glacier-fed,
and; in consequence, high at the time of year when they are of greatest advantage to the
Potato Mountain, Tullin, and other hills around the north end of Chilko may be roughly
described as the foot-hills of the Coast Range. In many places where the soil conditions are
favourable these support luxuriant vegetation near the timber-line, which occurs between 5,500
and 6,000 feet above sea-level. Where granite and hard volcanic rocks occur the vegetation
is less prolific.
North-east of the foot-hills the country is a comparatively level plain, broken by a few hills,
and generally surfaced by glacial drift sprinkled here and there by boulders of lava and recent 13 Geo. 5 Control Survey, Chilko Lake. K 101
volcanic rocks. This plateau is, for the greater part, more thickly wooded than the settled
parts of Chilcotin, is often burnt over, and iu parts presents a somewhat desolate appearance.
There is a good deal of open bunch-grass on the surveyed land to the north of Choelquoit Lake
and lesser patches along the Chilko River and in the Nemaia Aralley. Timber-grass is plentiful
and wild hay meadows are scattered here and there over the area. These vary greatly, some
being rocky and barren and other carrying good hay. The surveyed lands in the Nemaia Valley
are partly meadow and partly bunch-grass side-hill, the latter having been rather heavily grazed
in recent years by the horses of the Indians.
A rough wagon-road runs from Hanceville to the AVhitewater River. In the winter the
Indians sleigh as far as Nemaia Valley, but during the summer floods the Whitewater presents
a bad obstacle. Even pack-trains have given up using this route since the canoe at the crossing
has disappeared. The late Mr. Robertson commenced a bridge over the river some little way
below the ford, but this was swept away. The Brittany Creek settlers are rather keen on
having a bridge over the AVhitewater near its junction with the Chilko. I have not seen this
route and can say nothing about it. I should, however,.imagine that if a bridge could be built
near the site selected by Mr. Robertson it would be sufficiently central for all purposes. From
this point a road to Hanceville or to Big Creek would afford a far shorter route to the railway,
and would, furthermore, be useful in opening up the Whitewater Lakes country. At present
during flood-time inhabitants of both Brittany Creek and Nemaia Valley have to swim their
horses across the Chilko in the slack wrater near the lake. From this point the Nemaia Yalley
Trail strikes east to the north end of Tsunia and thence along its north-west shore to Chilko
Lake. An old trail which went through a pass in the hills to Conhi Lake is now, I believe,
covered with windfall and out of commission.
During moderate water the Chilko can be crossed by two or three fords between the lake
and the mouth of Brittany Creek. A trail follows the north bank of the river as far as the
Chilcotin Road. A rough wagon-road has been recently constructed from the main Chilcotin
Road, east of Redstone Indian Reserve, to a point on the Chilko River a little to the south of
Brittany Creek.
In August we made a trip to the East Branch of the Tazeko or AA'hitewater River in order
to tie in some mineral claims and the surveys made by the Geological Survey of Canada in the
vicinity of the iron-ore deposits there. This region was fully reported on by the late J. D.
MacKenzie in the report of that Survey for 1920. Since Mr. MacKenzie's visit to the district
there has been a good deal of excitement over a claim staked by Mr. Taylor, of Lillooet. We
turned up one Sunday morning at Mr. Taylor's place in the midst of what at first glance appeared
to be either a prayer-meeting or an intensely interesting poker-game, but proved to oe a few of
the neighbours watching Mr. Taylor wash out a pan of gold. The result quite justified their
marked attention. The gold is found in a soft, disintegrated rock and does not appear to be
at all water-worn. Mr. Taylor had a 28-foot arrastra, but found that by using it he was losing
a good deal of the gold, which is on this claim somewhat difficult to separate. The claim had
been bonded the year before to Mr. Tretheway, of Hanceville, who sent a diamond-drill to the
AVhitewater Lakes, but did not do any further work. I hear that it has been bonded again to
an outfit who are working there this winter. I do not know how much development-work has
been done on this claim. The whole of the available land in the neighbourhood seemed to have
been blanketed by wholesale stakings, so that many fortune-seekers coming in could find no
ground on which to locate. Several outfits, however, were doing genuine work, the most noteworthy being Messrs. Prosser and Davidson, of Lillooet, who were driving a tunnel on their
claim, which adjoins Mr. Taylor's on the east.
The best way to reach this part of the world during the summer is from the Lillooet direction
by way of the Bridge River AVagon-road and then by pack-train. Shalath, on the Pacific Great
Eastern, is the nearest point on a railway. The passes on the Bridge River Divide are, however,
open for a few months only in summer, and at other times one must go in by way of the Tazeko
Lakes, which are reached from Big Creek or Hanceville. The trail runs to the west of the
northerly Tazeko Lake and east of the southerly one, keeping a mile or two back from the
shore in each case.    Mr. M. Taylor and Mr. Swanson, of Lillooet, are running a motor-boat on the lake, which they brought in this spring over the snow and put together there. She is a
powerful, well-built craft, but was not very much used this year. A boat of this type would
in my opinion, be immensely valuable in opening up Chilko Lake, the south end of which lies
in a country impassable for trails and only to be opened up by water transport.
Some of the prospectors we met at Tazeko were thinking of following up the Coast contact
towards Chilko Lake. There are several valleys running in this direction which can be traversed
by pack-train—the Westwater, the Yohetta, and another valley on the north, all parallel to the
Nemaia Aralley. AVe returned to Nemaia Valley by way of the Yohetta Valley, which lies west
of the Whitewater Narrows, and strikes Chilko Lake opposite Frankiyn Arm, the trail swinging
north a mile or two' before reaching the shore of the lake and running over some broken country
towards Nemaia. Through the Yohetta ATalley the trail is good, with the exception of one soft
spot. AVe saw some bands of horses here which I was told belonged to the Stone Rancherie
Indians. There is a certain amount of bunch-grass on the slopes of the eastern end of the valley,
but the western part being thickly wooded indicates the transition from the Interior climate to
that of the Coast.
The Southgate.
On the 26th we started on a trip down the Southgate River, partly in order to find out
something about the country and partly in order to better the connection with a cairn located
by John Davidson, B.C.L.S., on Mount Rodney at the head of Bute Inlet.
Cairns had already been placed on Mount Good Hope and Mount Chilko, both of which,
as far as one could judge through the smoke, would secure a good command of the valley of
the Southgate and probably make the desired connection. As we had rigged these stations in
July, we had not " searched " for the cairn on Mount Rodney which was to be erected in August,
so I considered it advisable to climb one of the mountains some way down the river in order to
identify Mr. Davidson's cairn and, in addition, obtain a well-conditioned triangulation.
As some interesting information was obtained from this trip, I will describe it in detail.
From Frankiyn Arm there is a fair trail for some miles up 9-Mile Creek as far as the summit
of the pass. Beyond the pass is the head of one of the branches of the Southgate. Some 3 miles
farther, just below the timber-line, Mr. Boulanger has a very cosy trapping cabin, which proved
a welcome refuge during the dirty weather we several times experienced in that neighbourhood.
The- snow here must be very deep in winter, to judge from the height above ground at which
some of the trees had been cut off. Opposite the cabin is a valley coming in from the east,
through which flows another and larger branch of the Southgate. I believe that a trail once
led up this valley, past the south of Mount Meriain, to a point on the shore of Chilko Lake about
6 miles from its south end. Leaving one man at the cabin to relay up supplies for subsequent
work on the high peaks, I proceeded down the valley with Mr. Durham. The time of the year
seemed suitable, as the Nemaia A'alley Indians had told us to put off the trip till late in August
in order to avoid high water in the side-streams. Furthermore, the camp, augur, from an
inspection of the new moon, had foretold fine weather for a fortnight at least, so we set out
with great expectations of it, which, however, were not entirely fulfilled, as the mountains here
apparently consider it their duty to halt anything in the way of moisture which the westerly
winds may have forgotten to leave on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
The first few miles down-stream we found very bushy, and in only a few places could we
follow the old Indian trail or the one built by Mr. Frankiyn, for both were completely overgrown. I have not been able to find out much about Mr. Franklyn's trail beyond the fact that
he is popularly reported to have started from Bute Inlet with sixteen horses and to have arrived
in the Interior with one only. Considering the nature df the country, he may be said to have
done pretty well. The weather still being hot, the river was in full flood from the melting of
the glaciers, sweeping granite boulders down its bed with a most impressive crash and roar.
The side-streams, which were comparatively low, would probably have been impassable when
swollen by the melting of loose snow in the early summer.
On the evening of the third day from Frankiyn Arm we found our way barred by a large
river, also in full flood, coming in from the east. As this carried more water than the branch
we had been following, and afterwards proved to be longer, I will refer to it as the main
Southgate River. The junction, which I will refer to as the forks, is in the uppermost of Mr.
Green's timber-limit surveys.    The trail crosses the northerly branch by a Siwash bridge about 13 Geo. 5 Control Survey, Chilko Lake. K 103
a quarter of a mile above the forks, then follows the north bank of the river to Bute Inlet. I
believe that this part of it is in pretty fair shape.
We spent a day or two trying to bridge the main river without any luck, several 4-foot
trees going down-stream like matchwood, until heavy rain in the valley and snow on the peaks
put mountain-work out of the question, and caused us to turn our attention to the valley instead.
Water-power.—As the altitude of the forks was only a few hundred feet above sea-level, I
decided to explore the main branch of the river with a view to ascertaining whether it passed
sufficiently close to Chilko to enable the great storage capacity of that lake to be used for the
generation of water-power. For some 8 or 9 miles up-stream the barometer showed the altitude
of the river to be all that could be desired; but here we had to guess roughly at our distance
from the lake, as our position could only be obtained by dead reckoning, the great depth of the
valley precluding all view of the neighbouring peaks. " The only plan seemed to be to tie the
valley direct with the south end of Chilko Lake, so, the weather still being broken, we beat a
retreat to Frankiyn Arm, where we employed a well-earned rest in the urgent business of " make
and mend clothes."
The second trip, made direct from the south end of Chilko Lake, showed the main branch
of the Southgate River to be about 9 miles from the lake and 3,500 feet below it. Owing to the
length of tunnel necessary to make use of this head of water, any scheme to develop it may lie
outside the realm of practical politics for the present, but it will in all probability be used
The industrial development of this Coast will depend more and more on water-power,
especially as recent authoritative reports, on the subject show that electrical smelting of iron
ores is economically possible on this Coast, provided that a sufficiently large supply of cheap
power can be obtained. It seems within the bounds of possibility that, even as England attained
industrial supremacy on the Atlantic by reason of her deposits of coal and iron, this country
may rise to a similar position on the Pacific by reason of her supply of " l'houille blanche."
Reports on exploratory surveys are often referred to after even half a century, so it will not
be out of place for me to give details regarding this source of power, even if it is not likely to
be developed for some time.
In order to obtain an approximate estimate of the power available, it would probably be
necessary to take periodical measurements of the flow of Chilko River, as calculations derived
from the size of the watershed of the lake might not be of much use on account of the great
variation in rainfall in different parts of the area. The Chilko River, which is largely glacier-
fed, starts rising in the latter part of June and remains in full flood during July, August, and
part of September, The lake, which is very deep, especially at the south end, is undoubtedly
of sufficient size to regulate the flow of all available water throughout the year.
As regards the way " out," two routes present themselves, the more obvious being down
the Southgate to the head of Bute Inlet, some 30 miles away. In the other direction, to the
south-east, we have to consider the possibility of a pass through the Coast range of mountains,
through a tract of country which appears to be absolutely unknown and unexplored.
From Mount Chilko, at the south end of the lake, one has a few glimpses of the 'valley of
the Southgate, coming in from the east and south; a mysterious valley this, with its giant fir
and cedar, wandering at a low level amid the 10,000-foot peaks into the heart of the range,
unmapped and unknown, and yet within 120 miles of Vancouver. From my observations in the
field I got the impression that there might be a pass through the range at the head of the South-
gate ; and on my return to Victoria I hunted through all sources for any information about this
part of the country, but could find nothing of recent date.
Commander Mayne's Narrative.—Mr. Nation, of the Mines Department, suggested a search
through " B.C. and ATancouver Island," written in 1862 by Commander Mayne, one of the early
hydrographers of this Coast, who in 1860 was commissioned to inquire into the question of a
route to Cariboo from the Coast inlets. During the days of the gold-rush he went up the Pacific
Great Eastern route as far as the Bridge River, which he describes in some detail, and also
made numerous side-trips, always packing along his chronometer and sextant. %
In his book he continually refers to an Indian report that the Bridge, the North Fork of
the Lillooet, the Squamish, the Klahoose (Toba), and other rivers have their source in a
mountain basin, " containing four or five small lakes, in which rise all the large rivers watering
this part of the country." K 104 Report of the Minister of Lands. 1923
From the configuration of the country it seems very likely that the Southgate is one of the
" other rivers " referred to. In another part of the book he refers to a route which he thinks
leads from the head of Bute Inlet to Lake Anderson. It seems quite possible that this route
was up the Southgate River and down the Lillooet or the Bridge, as Lieutenant Mayne got his
information from Anderson Lake Indians, who every year came to the Coast to fish, visiting
Howe Sound, Jervis, Toba, and Bute Inlets. The Indian story of a pass through the mountains
here is confirmed by Mr. Downie, who went a little way up the Toba in 1859 while searching
for a route for a road to the Interior, and strongly recommended examination of the route
leading up this river to the headwaters of the Bridge. Apparently both of these routes would
have to pass through the mountain basin which Commander Mayne describes so frequently.
The triangulation is expanded from a base in the Nemaia Valley and connects the south end
of the survey of the 124th meridian, which terminates here, with the upper end of Chilko Lake
and with the Tazeko Lakes on the east and the Southgate River on the south-west. The district
is in general very mountainous, so that the work, being of a control nature, required stations
on the highest peaks in the country. These were marked by cairns from 5 to 10 feet high which
should be visible up to about 40 miles in good weather. The system affords good control for
detail mapping purposes and is now capable of rapid expansion in either direction, particularly
along the inner edge of the Coast Range, where a series of intervisible points can be easily
picked, partly on the mountains and partly on the low hills of the Northern Interior Plateau.
Owing to the presence of low-lying clouds on the higher peaks late in the season, the angle-
reading work on Mounts Chilko and Good Hope could not be completed, but, as the triangulation
scheme here consists of a series of quadrilaterals and polygons, satisfactory checks can be
obtained on the results of the calculations, which are close enough for all present purposes.
Adjustment by least squares, however, is better postponed until all angles are read.
A search was made from Mount Chilko for a cairn placed on Mount Rodney by John
Davidson during his survey of Bute Inlet, and angles were read on to an object which agreed
with Mr. Davidson's description of the station. The " Rodney" cairn was not erected when
we climbed Mount Good Hope, but I think" there is no doubt about its visibility from this point.
Certain identification can only be obtained by reading the angle between Chilko and Good Hope
at Mr. Davidson's cairn, and, as it is close to salt water where transport is comparatively easy,
I would suggest that it be read with a large micrometer theodolite. Being somewhat acute, this
angle requires somewhat careful measurement, but a better-conditioned set of triangles could be
obtained, if necessary, by erecting an intermediate station half-way down the Southgate.
This tie is of considerable importance, as it will afford a means of obtaining a very close
approximation to the true positions of a great number of the surveys in the Interior which are
connected, directly or indirectly, with the survey of the 124th meridian. Mr. Davidson's work,
being tied to the geodetic net on the Coast, will be based on " North American datum," and
the geographic position of his points will accordingly be free from the bugbear known as " local
attraction of gravity," which exercises such a disturbing influence on astronomical determinations of position in this part of the world.
Angles at all stations were read by a 5-inch Berger transit cut to twenty seconds; eight
repetitions being taken to each angle and the horizon closed wherever possible. On the mountains the instrument was read without the tripod, being screwed to the wooden board which
secures it in its box when travelling. The correction required to each angle on closing the
horizon varied from one to three seconds.
A base-line 2% miles long was measured in the Nemaia Aralley, where satisfactory expansion
was. obtained on the neighbouring hills. Measurements were taken with a heavy steel band,
1 Chain long, graduated at the end to hundredths of a link. Stakes were driven every chain by
a large mallet, their relative height obtained by a line of levels for calculating the slope
reduction. The exact points were marked by needles, which were taken out after each chainage
and placed in again the next time.
Hills had to be climbed when opportunity offered and the base postponed till October. The
rapid change of temperature when the sun rose at this time of the year proved to be somewhat
of a nuisance and necessitated very frequent readings of the thermometer. 13 Geo. 5      . Clearwater Valley, Kamloops District. K 105
Chilko, Tazeko, and a few lesser lakes were mapped by depression angles and a certain
number of photographs taken by a 5 by 4-inch film camera fitted wtih a ray-screen are being
used experimentally to contour certain parts of the map.
I have, etc.,
R. P. Bishop, B.C.L.S.
By AV. S. Drewry.
.  Victoria, B.C., February 10th, 1923.
J. E. TJmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Under your instructions to make surveys in the Clearwater Valley with the purpose
of obtaining general information and connecting scattered surveys, thus permitting the construction of a framework upon which a proper map of the important and little-known region could be
constructed, the following report is submitted:—
Clearwater River is the principal tributary of the North Thompson, which it joins some 60
miles north of Kamloops. Some years ago surveys were made on the east side of Clearwater
northerly to Murtle River, east of Mahood Lake. In 1921 a survey was carried from the
Kamloops and Lillooet boundary-line by way of Mahood Lake, connecting with the above-
mentioned surveys. A triangulation survey of Quesnel Lake had also been made, fixing points
of reference along its shores. It was intended to connect these three groups by traverses through
the valley, triangulation of Clearwater and Hobson Lakes, and a short traverse of about 6 miles
across a low divide to Quesnel Lake, incidentally tying in the various land and timber limit
surveys which had been made at various times.
After careful study of information obtained as to various routes into this out-of-the-way part
of the country, it was decided to go by way of 150-Mile House, Canim Lake, and an old Indian
hunting-trail leading from its foot northerly and easterly to Clearwater Lake near its outlet;
the route being chosen because it appeared to offer the shortest and most secure line of communication over which men and supplies could be moved. Another factor influencing the choice was
the desirability of reaching the lake as quickly as possible, so that triangulation of the lakes
might be performed in the summer season during fine weather.
On reaching Canim Lake it was found that fires were running on all sides, in one place
sweeping across trail opened by us. The trail followed from Canim Lake goes northerly to Hot
Fish Lake ; thence easterly across Deception Creek to its tributary, Spanish Creek; and then
northerly and easterly to Clearwater Lake; in all, a distance by trail of about 45 miles, much
of it over high mountains, the summit being crossed in old snow 6,080 feet above sea. It had
been intended to make a track survey of the route, but dense smoke made this impossible.
Ou reaching Clearwater Lake a small raft was constructed, with the aid of which preliminary
examination was made to find a place where the base could be measured from which to expand
the triangulation. Considerable search was necessary before suitable timber was found with
which to build a larger raft to carry camp and supplies, and construct a framework to fit the
canvas boat-skin which had been brought in to expedite triangulation-work. Signal-setting was
soon commenced and was carried on during raft- and boat-building operations, but was hampered
by smoke settling in the valley and finally becoming so dense that triangulation-work was
precluded about the end of July. During this period some 17 miles of trail passable for horses
was constructed from the foot of Clearwater Lake to its head, so that camp and supplies could
be moved with horses from that point to Hobson Lake, some 6 miles distant.
On August 4th we moved camp and supplies to the head of Clearwater Lake by raft and
commenced traverse and trail work to Hobson Lake. In about three days a heavy downpour
of rain came and cleared away the smoke, so parties were at once dispatched by boat and
raft and the lake triangulation completed expeditiously before smoke again filled the valley.
A trail having been constructed to the foot of Hobson Lake, camp was moved to that point.
The boat was taken apart, carried through, reassembled in a few hours, and. rafts constructed
in three days with which to undertake the triangulation of Hobson Lake.    The weather had —. _-—,—. , , ,—
K 106 Report of the Minister op Lands. 1923
beeii quite broken for several days and the air clear, but as soon as it ceased raining smoke filled
the valley quickly, apparently coming from two large fires, one on the East Arm of Quesnel
Lake and the other on the northerly end of Hobson Lake.
The season was now so far advanced that it became apparent the full scheme of work
contemplated could not be carried out if there were any interruptions, and smoke conditions
indicated that such would occur.
Groups of timber-limit surveys extend from the foot of Hobson Lake on one side or the
other to Quesnel Lake; so it was decided to connect these groups, determine by astronomic
observation the magnetic declination used in these surveys, and thus permit their proper orientation, confining errors to those incidental to such surveys. The traverse between Hobson and
Clearwater Lakes was completed.
Having done this, the party moved to the foot of Clearwater Lake and commenced a traverse
which eventually connected with the Mahood survey of 1921, thus completing the contemplated
programme except in its northerly part, where timber-limit surveys are used instead of more
accurate traverse and triangulation work.
The mountain trail by which the party went in was impassable owing to deep snow by
October 1st, so we went out by way of Mahood Lake, having transported our canvas boat from
Clearwater to Mahood Lake, some 15 miles.
As there is no trail along Mahood Lake, the horses were taken over a mountain about 5
miles to Candle Creek; then in the water along the lake-shore about 9 miles to the head of
Mahood Lake, from which place there is a good trail and road to 100-Mile House on the Cariboo
Method of Survey.
All triangulation stations were marked by cedar posts planted generally in cairns and
referenced by bearing trees where available. Traverse stations about a mile apart were similarly
marked, intervening stations being indicated by hubs only without bearing trees. Linear
measurements were made with a 5-chain tape read to the nearest tenth of a link. In base
measurements the tape was read to hundredths of a link. Angular measurements were made
with a 5-inch Berger transit reading to 30 seconds, readily estimated to half that amount. Each
angle was read four times and the mean taken. Angles of the traverse were invariably read
clockwise, so that no error as to the manner of deflection could arise.
The triangulation net consists mostly of quadrilaterals with diagonals observed to permit
easy angular adjustment, no side equation being used. On the whole the work is thought to be
of considerable accuracy.
Description of Country.
From Mahood Lake north the Clearwater A'alley is rather narrow, with deep bays or high
benches running back in places. Its surface is rough, being broken by lava-knolls iu the southerly part, gradually giving place to ridges of mica-schist until Clearwater Lake is reached. Here
the mountain-slopes come down more or less sharply to the lake; those on the west side being
mica-schist, as are also those on the east side until, towards the head of the lake, quartzite takes
the place of schist, and rises in the great mass of Pilpil Mountain of the Indians, extending
easterly along the south shore of Azure Lake.
Along Hobson Lake the mountain-slopes generally come steeply to the water, although in
some places high benches extend back from the lake before abrupt mountain-slopes are reached.
Time did not permit the examination of lands back from the shore, excepting those about the
foot of the lake.
Apparently there are only a few hundred acres of agricultural land in Clearwater Valley
north of Murtle River, and this is in scattered parcels, so that no important agricultural
development may be anticipated.
Timber Resources.
Between Mahood Lake and Murtle River on the south and Clearwater Lake to the north are
considerable areas carrying fine stands of cedar and some spruce. The larger part of this tract
has been burned over, and a growth of fir, poplar, birch, and some jack-pine has replaced the
cedar with which most of this country was clothed at one period.
About the foot of Clearwater Lake on the west side there is a tract some 6 miles long by 10
miles wide carrying a tremendous stand of cedar and considerable hemlock on the lower slopes, 13 Geo. 5
Clearwater Valley, Kamloops District.
K 107
with spruce and balsam above. Unfortunately a great deal of the cedar appears to be over-
matured and is probably depreciating in value, at the same time injuring the younger growth.
Midway up the lake on its east side there are a few square miles of fine cedar.
On both sides of the lake old fires have devastated some of the country, but reforesting is
well under way on by far the greater part, while the process is only beginning on some of the
more recently burned-over lands.
About the head of Clearwater Lake, northerly to Hobson Lake, there is a fine belt of timber
from 2 to 3 miles wide, consisting of cedar, hemlock, "and spruce, with some fir.
Along the west shore of Hobson Lake for a distance of about 8 miles from its foot there is
a good stand of cedar and hemlock extending back from the lake rather more than a mile. On
the east the stand of timber appeared to be principally hemlock of fair size.
Higher up on the slopes surrounding all the above-mentioned tracts of timber fit for the
saw is a dense growth of spruce and balsam, while intervening stretches on the lower levels
contain large quantities of poplar, fir, birch, and occasionally some pine, a large proportion of
all of which, except the latter, is suitable to pulp-making.
This Clearwater basin is estimated at some 1,200 square miles in area, about a quarter of
which is thought to contain timber fit for saw or pulp. The great Bridge Creek basin is not
considered in the above, although tributary to it.
AA7ater Resources.
Hobson Lake, about 20 miles long and 1 mile wide, occupies the northerly portion of the
great trough and discharges through about 6 miles of river into Clearwater Lake, the difference
in elevation of the two lakes being about 700 feet, as indicated by aneroid barometer.
About IY2 miles above Clearwater, Azure Lake, some 16 miles long, discharges through a
short run of stream into Clearwater River. Although the current is rather swift, it is possible
to take a boat from Clearwater to Azure Lake. Above this junction Clearwater River is a
succession of very swift water, rapids, and falls for about 4% miles, and on examination may
be found to offer opportunity for a considerable power-development.
Clearwater Lake is about 15 miles long, with an extreme breadth of about IY2 miles. The
water of the lake tumbles out with a fall of about 8 feet, below which is very swift water and
heavy rapids.
Some 2 miles north-east of Mahood Lake, Murtle River joins the Clearwater from the east,
coming from Murtle Lake, which is of considerable size and might be used as a great storage-
basin, from which the stream-flow could be kept up in low-water periods. There are three falls
on Murtle River, the lower one, having a sheer drop of over 400 feet, being about a mile from
the junction with Clearwater River. The fall of Bridge Creek from Mahood Lake, which is an
ideal storage-basin, to the Clearwater is rather more than 250 feet in 3 miles.
The difference in elevation of Canim and Mahood Lakes is about 500 feet, most of this fall
on Bridge Creek connecting them occurring within some 3 miles. Back of this is the large storage
capacity of Canim, Horse, and Bridge Lakes. It will thus be seen that there are great
opportunities for the generation of hydro-electric power within a short radius.
The juxtaposition of large quantities of both saw and pulp timber with great power
possibilities would seem to indicate that the whole area should be carefully examined with
development of these latent resources in view. Such industrial development would require large
capital, because the building of about 40 miles of light railway to Murtle River, and its extension
for logging purpose as required, would be necessary, as well as the construction of power plants,
saw and pulp mills, etc. The great area from which timber-supplies could be drawn would,
however, seem to make the matter worthy of more detailed examination.
The scenic beauty of Clearwater, Hobson, and Azure Lakes is very great, high glacier-
bearing mountains with fields of perpetual snow being visible from many points.
Fish- and Game.
Clearwater Lake affords excellent sport with the rod, the fish being rainbow trout of large
size, a number of those taken weighing over 3 lb. each.    Mule-deer are plentiful and may be shot K 108 Report op the Minister of Lands. 1923
whenever wanted, while black bear seem to be quite numerous.    About Hobson and Azure Lakes
there are many small bands of caribou, both along the lakes and in the mountains, where goats
also may be found.    No moose were seen, but tracks were observed at various points.
The country is difficult of access, but is well worth going into, if for sport only.
I have, etc.,
W. S. Drewry, B.C.L.S.
By R. D. McCaw.
AIctokia, B.C., December 15th, 1922.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg herewith to report upon the photo-topographical surveys carried on by me under
your instructions during the past season. Your letter of instructions, dated June 23rd, requested
that I continue the surveys in the Nicola A'alley, the area to be covered being bounded on the
north by the Dominion Government Railway Belt and on the south and east by work already
done. Westerly I was to continue as far as time and appropriation would permit. The actual
area done is bounded on the north, south, and east by the aforesaid limits, and on the west
extends to the west side of the valley of Moore Creek, a tributary flowing into the north end of
Nicola Lake. The surface measures approximately 375 square miles, being less than the average
season's work, occasioned by loss of time through smoke from forest fires. AVith this season's
work the upper part of the Nicola River watershed above Nicola Lake is complete, with the
exception of some small areas tributary to Moore and Quilchena Creeks. In addition, that part
of the Salmon River Valley south of the Railway Belt is done, having been included in this year's
Season's Operations.
I organized my field party about July 1st, starting out from Merritt as in the previous
season's work in the Nicola Valley, and commenced work on the ground in the vicinity of Salmon
Lake, a feature tributary to the Salmon River aud about 3 miles north of Chaperon Lake. For
transport a light Ford truck was used all season and pack-horses when necessary, arrangements
having been made to hire these when needed. The party consisted of myself, an assistant
surveyor, a cook, and three or four men as occasion required. I might state here that when
we arrived in the Nicola Valley a thick pall of smoke from forest fires covered the entire
country, and for the ensuing six weeks the condition was so bad that we were able to do but
little photographic work. The selection of triangulation stations was also a problem, as there
are but few days that visibility extended more than a few miles,, and apart from main stations
used previously, we were unable to select new stations that we were sure would be satisfactory.
In this regard we were rather fortunate, as all new stations chosen gave the intervisibility
On July 8th I went over to the Pennask Lake country to complete information needed to
finish the previous season's work. I was engaged upon this for several days. During my
absence my assistant, L. A. Austen-Leigh, B.C.L.S., carried on from main camp. Upon my
return the Hamilton Mountain Station was revisited and the signal there was improved. Several
camera stations were occupied prior to July 14th, although conditions were poor. From that
date until August 11 there were but a couple of days when camera-work was possible. During
the smoky periods paced traverses were done in the flat and rolling areas adjacent to Salmon
Lake. These had to be done in any event on account of the nature of the country. One long
base traverse was measured by tape. Elevations were taken with an aneroid, a stationary
aneroid in camp being used for comparison. Traverses were connected with the land surveys
where these existed, or left to be tied by triangulation or by photographic intersections. During
July we moved up the Salmon River to do the high country adjoining, the Okanagan watershed,
but, with the exception of placing some signals and running a little traverse, could do nothing. 13 Geo. 5 Photo-topographical Surveys, Nicola Valley. K 109
On August 10th all the traverses in the locality thought necessary were done, and as smoke
conditions were no better, camp was moved to the Nicola River at the mouth of Lauder Creek.
It was the intention to continue traverses in this locality. However, rain set in and cleared
the atmosphere to such an extent that photographic work was permitted. For the balance of
August there was no delay from smoky conditions, as rain fell at intervals and the atmosphere
was kept comparatively clear. During this period stations were occupied in the vicinity of
Lauder Creek, Nicola and Stump Lakes, and Moore Creek. One new main station was erected
on an open summit just south of the Railway Belt and north-west of Stump Lake. It was found
afterwards that this station and the Tahaetkun Mountain Station of 1920 were intervisible,
although at the time it was very uncertain. One main triangulation station of 1921 was
reoccupied and an auxiliary signal left to suit the present year's work.
On September 4th we moved back to Salmon Lake to endeavour to get done the photographic
work there which we were unable to do earlier. We were engaged there until September 29th,
and during the intervening period covered all of the high country to the east, up the Salmon
River and its tributaries. Very little time was lost and two days' rain was the only cause.
Tahaetkun Mountain was occupied on September 15th and readings taken to all the other main
stations used this year. Another station occupied at the beginning of the season as a camera
station was reoccupied as a main station. This is located on the south limit of the Railway Belt
near the quarter post on the south boundary of Section 19, Township 16, Range 15.
From a base camp located at the Donahoe Mines at Stump Lake on September 30th the
balance of the season's work was done. Heavy rain caused us two days' delay early in the
month, but this was more than offset by the fine, clear weather following. Other camera
stations were occupied in the vicinity and some traverse run. The remaining main triangulation
stations were occupied—namely, Hamilton Mountain and Stump Lake—and the area was finished
on October 14th.    The party was then paid off and the camp outfit stored for the winter.
The atmospheric conditions for a large part of the summer were very bad and could be
but little worse for work of this nature, and had there not been a great deal of traverse-work
needed, the loss of time would have been much greater than it was. It is difficult to estimate
the actual loss of time, as, besides the days we could not work, a number of stations had to be
occupied a second time and moves duplicated. However, for a season such as it was, the area
covered is good.
Following is a summary of stations, etc., done this year:—
Main triangulation stations       5
Photographic stations       86
Separate camera stations    170
Land ties        14
Miles paced and other traverse, about   175
Regarding the country covered this year, it may be stated that it is a grazing area. Much
is open grass land and in the timbered areas there is usually a good growth of grass and weeds,
except in the high altitudes and in parts where windfalls are thick. East of the Shallow
Valley, containing Chaperon, Index, Rush, and Salmon Lakes, the country rises in broken ridges
to the Okanagan Summit. In parts these ridges are very precipitous and along the boundary
of the Railway Belt some sheer rock walls are encountered falling to the north. There is a
considerable open area in the vicinity of the lakes mentioned and much is under hay cultivation.
The open area ceases up the Salmon River and its tributaries and jack-pine and fir cover the
slopes. The north-west slope of the Tahaetkun Mountain ridge is an old burn and in parts is
still destitute of timber-growth. Weeds and grass grow on this in profusion, affording good
summer grazing. East of the headwaters of Red Canyon Creek (Nash Creek) there are some
open hills with a good growth of grass. Most of the summit between the Okanagan and Salmon
Rivers is densely timbered and is of no grazing value. Several small lakes and meadows
To the west of Salmon Lake and south of the Railway Belt the country takes the form of a
rolling plateau, with drainage usually in a southerly direction. The highest part is under 5,000
feet in altitude and the watercourses are of very low grade. Swamps are numerous and there
are some meadows and small lakes.    The higher elevations are thickly timbered with jack-pine K 110 Report of the Minister of Lands. 1923
and patches of fir. To the south an open area extends to the Nicola River and Douglas Lake.
The latter is good grass range and in the timber there is usually a good growth of grass and
On the west side the plateau falls in open slopes to the Nicola-Stump Lake ATalley. A low
narrow ridge, part open and part timber, sepaj^ites this valley from that of Moore Creek. In
both these valleys there is considerable cultivation, hay being the chief growth. West of Moore
Creek the country rises in solid timber growth.
Other survey reports have made mention of the roads in the district, so it is hardly necessary
to state much in that regard. The main Merritt-Kamloops Road traverses the Nicola-Stump
Lake Valley and the Douglas Lake Road follows the Nicola River and Douglas Lake to the
Douglas Lake Cattle Company's ranch. From here a good road continues northerly to Chaperon
Lake and beyond to the Salmon River Valley, following this latter to Grande Prairie. A portion
of this road has been relocated and built during the past year, giving an easier gradient down
into the Salmon River Canyon of the Railway Belt. Farm roads extend all over the open
areas and it is easy to get to one point from another. A fair road extends up Moore Creek from
the main road at Nicola Lake to the 101 Ranch and connects across the ridge with the main
road again at Stump Lake. Parts of this road are very steep. ' There are several pack-trails
worthy of mention. One known as Freeman's Trail has been cut out wide and extends from
Fraser Creek easterly to the road going from Chaperon Lake to Grande Prairie. This trail gives
a short route from the Stump Lake country to Grande Prairie. A fair trail extends up the
Salmon River to Bouleau Lake. Another trail joins this some 3 miles west of the lake, coming
over from Ingram Creeks and connecting with Grande Prairie.
The grasshopper pest was very bad in the Nicola A'alley again this year and grass and grain
suffered greatly. Feed for stock was very scarce and became a serious problem for the stockmen in the locality.
In the vicinity of Stump Lake there has been considerable mining activity in the past, the
Donahoe Mines and the Mary Reynolds Mine being the chief locations. Both of these produced
silver-lead ore in varying quantities. At present both are closed down. Some new placer-gold
work was being done in the Nicola River above Douglas Lake this summer, but the result is
not very certain.
The game in the area is similar to that reported on last year. East of Salmon Lake deer
are plentiful; west of this there seems to be but few. An odd grizzly is said to exist and there
are a few black bear. Grouse seem to be numerous and prairie-chicken were seen in large flocks
in the open country. Ducks and geese are very numerous. Salmon Lake is well stocked with
trout and large catches have been made.    In the open country many coyotes were seen.
The map-work is well under way and as usual three sheets will be submitted—namely, a
topographical, triangulation, and timber-grazing sheet. Some photographs will be submitted
I have, etc.,
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S.   13 Geo. 5        Photo-topographical Surveys, Similkameen Valley. K 111
By G. J. Jackson.
Victoria; B.C., December 12th, 1922.
J. E. Umbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the photo-topographic survey
made by me during the past summer:—
The area covered was in the Kamloops and Similkameen Districts and consisted of the
valley of the Similkameen River from the mouth of the Ashnola River up to 5-Mile Greek,
including the watershed area of all the creeks flowing into it from the north and of Paul Creek
and Sterling Creek from the south. On the south-east it connects with my work of the season
•of 1920 and on the north-west with that of 1921, and to the north with that done by Mr. McCaw
in previous years while doing the Okanagan watershed.
Season's Operations.
The party was organized at Princeton on June 14th and immediately moved down to Hedley.
Our first camp was near the Nickel Plate Mine, about 4,000 feet above Hedley. The Hedley Gold
Mining Company kindly took all our equipment up on its tram-line. Here we occupied several
stations; then moved eastward, covering the headwaters of Cold, Shoemaker, 15-Mile, 16-Mile,
and 18-Mile Creeks by July 1st.
The atmosphere during this two weeks was very smoky, necessitating more stations than
usual, as long views could not be taken. Even so, the pictures are not good but can be used.
On July 1st the smoke closed in very thickly and from then until August 10th was very dense.
Although attempts to occupy stations were made on the clearest days, it proved very unsatisfactory, and Anally we gave it up and devoted our time to making compass traverses of the
various branches of 20-Mile Creek and the creeks to the westward as far as 5-Mile Creek, and
in cutting the necessary trails so that we might be able to run over the country quickly, once
the smoke cleared enough* to make it possible to occupy stations.
On August 10th it started to rain hard and continued for five days. This put out most of
the fires in the vicinity and cleared the atmosphere, so that we were only troubled by smoke
on a few occasions during the remainder of the season.
After the rain we immediately started back over the area, occupying the necessary stations.
The trails we had already cut enabled us to get over this quickly, and on September 7th we
completed the country north of the Similkameen River and moved down to Hedley.
We now worked down the river, occupying sufficient stations to cover the valley from' Hedley
to the Ashnola River. AVe then worked up Paul Creek and over into Sterling Creek, and down
it to the Similkameen River again. Then we worked up the river to 5-Mile Creek, where we
connected with last season's work.    The party was then disbanded on October 13th.
The triangulation system for the season was controlled by stations of the Geological Survey
of Canada, supplemented by new ones of our own, made in previous years.
During the season 63 dozen views were taken and the following stations occupied:—
Main triangulaiion stations        4
Main photographic stations   103
Separate camera stations   104
In addition to these, a considerable number of ties were made to land and mineral claim
surveys and 77 miles of compass traverse run. About f7 miles of new horse-trail was cut and
about 20 miles of old had to be cleared of windfalls to be made passable.
The Similkameen Aralley is served by the Great Northern Railway, which operates between
the International Boundary and Princeton, where it connects with the Kettle Aralley Railway.
The main Provincial Highway runs through Princeton, Hedley, and Keremeos, and is a
good motor-road. There is a wagon-road up 20-Mile Creek to Hedley Lake and the Okanagan
Divide, where it is joined by another from the Nickel Plate Mine, and runs down Keremeos —
K 112 Report of the Minister of Lands. 1923
Creek to the Keremeos-Penticton Road. This road was used to bring machinery and supplies
to the Nickel Plate Mine before the tram from Hedley to the mine was constructed, but it has
now fallen practically into disuse and the bridges are either rotted out entirely or are in very
bad condition. Otherwise the roads could be made passable with very little work if they were
ever needed again.
There is also a pack-trail up the main 20-Mile Creek as far as the Similkameen-Kamloops
boundary-line, where it joins a trail running east and west along the boundary, east as far as
the divide, and west to the Similkameen River at 5-Mile Creek, with a branch down to the river
at Bromley Creek. On the south side of the river ihere are trails up Paul and Sterling Creeks,
also a wagon-road for about a mile up Sterling Creek.
The only country suitable for agriculture is the bottom land and the lower benches of the
Similkameen Valley and a little up Sterling Creek. The land in the Similkameen, where water
can be put on it, is good for fruit and general farming. However, Indian reserves occupy a very
large part of the land in this section and it is not cultivated as well as it might be. The valley
is narrow, only from one-half to one mile wide, with very steep sides, which soon reach an
.altitude of 3,000 feet or more above the river. At Hedley the river is about 1,700 feet above
Up Paul Creek and on the divide between it and Sterling Creek there is quite an area of
open bunch-grass hills, suitable for cattle-grazing, and which is at present occupied by all the
cattle it can stand. However, up both creeks there are considerable areas of timber grazing
that are not used.
On the north side of the Similkameen, starting at the east end of the area, there are Cold,
Shoemaker, 15-Mile, 16-Mile, and 18-Mile Creeks; these are all short and run from the divide
in deep valleys draining comparatively small areas. On all these creeks there are patches of
good grazing right back to the divide and we observed cattle on all of them.
Then comes 20-Mile or Hedley Creek, which flows into the Similkameen at Hedley. This
drains a large area. The first 4 miles from the mouth flows in a very deep, narrow canyon;
then it forks, one branch flowing in from the west and north and the other1 from the north.
The latter, about 9 miles from the mouth, branches into several streams. There seems to be
very little grazing on any of these branches. Along the upper few milesi of most of them there
are wet meadows formed by beaver, which are covered for the most part with low willows.
The country is, to a great extent, a mass of fallen timber, with a thick growth of black pine;
hardly any grass grows and it is inaccessible for stock. On the divide near Pearson Mountain,
and again near Brent Mountain, there is good grazing around and above the timber-line, especially on the Okanagan side. In former years both these ranges were used for sheep-grazing,
but this season they appeared to be unoccupied.
Between the West Fork of 20-Mile and 5-Mile and Red Creek a large portion of the country
has been burnt in the past few years and timber is dead, although most of it is still standing.
Between the forks of Bromley Creek there is a small area of willow and alder which could be
used for sheep-grazing.
The timber over the whole higher area is for the most part black pine, with a few patches
of spruce. In the Similkameen Valley and along the lower levels there is considerable fir and
yellow pine of commercial value, and up Sterling Creek there is a very good stand of fir, spruce,
and cedar.
The area is highly mineralized, but owing to the dense brush and windfalls, particularly
up 20-Mile Creek, it is very difficult to prospect, but no doubt some day it will be quite a
mining district One of the best gold-mines in the Province to-day—the Nickel Plate Mine—
is in operation at Hedley and there are many prospects being worked in the vicinity. Near
Princeton there are large bodies of coal, some of which are now being worked. There are also
large bodies of copper, which will, no doubt, be worked when prices are more favourable.
Large game did not seem to be very plentiful, although a few deer and black bear were
seen, but I believe that after the snow comes deer are there in greater numbers. Blue grouse
and fool-hens were very plentiful on the higher hills, while a few willow-grouse were seen in
the valleys.
There are rainbow trout in the Similkameen River, although they are by no means plentiful
and not very large. In 20-Mile Creek there were plenty of small trout. Hedley Lake, the only
one of any size in this area, contains many rainbow trout up to 5 lb. in weight.    Good catches   13 Geo. 5 Interprovincial Boundary. K 113
can be made here in the late summer, but in June the popular method seems to be to gaff them
when spawning in the small creeks.
A few fur-bearing animals are found in this area, including beaver, lynx, mink, marten,
musk-rats, and coyotes, these last being the only ones at all plentiful.
The work on the maps is now in progress, and, as usual, triangulation, topographical, timber,
and grazing plans will be prepared.
I have, etc.,
G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
By Arthur O. AVi-ieeler.
December 31st, 1922.
J. E. TJmbach, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—At a conference held at Edmonton in October, 1921, at which the Dominion Government was represented by A. M. Narraway, Controller of Surveys; the Alberta Government by
A. P. C. Belyea, Director of Surveys; and the British Columbia Government by yourself, the
Commissioners being in attendance, a report was drawn up, and subsequently approved by the
three Governments, by which it was laid down that the programme for the 1922 boundary
surveys should be as follows:—
(1.) That R. W. Cautley's division shall complete the monument building and final survey
of the 43 miles run by his division in 1920 from monument 73-7 southerly to the north bank of
the Wapiti River,- and that he shall then continue the survey of the 120th meridian southerly
to the summit of the Rocky Mountains, or to a point on the meridian beyond which it would
not be practical to produce the line,by ordinary methods of survey.
* Also that, in view of the totally uninhabited nature of the country through which the as
yet unsurveyed portions of the 120th meridian will run, and the great additional cost of transporting monument material through such country, in future concrete monuments shall only
be built at intervals of approximately 6 miles, and the secondary form of monument herein
prescribed is hereby authorized for use at all intervening points.
The post is the standard Dominion Lands Survey post provided with a special cap. It
consists of a piece of 1-inch iron pipe 30 inches in length filled with concrete. A malleable-iron
foot-plate 3% inches in diameter and a bronze cap 3 inches in diameter are fastened to the
bottom and top of the post respectively. The method of use is to plant the post so that the
top of the bronze cap is flush with the surface of the ground, and to stamp the number of the
monument on the cap with dies. In practice it has been found that such a post, properly planted,
is practically irremovable except by excavation. In connection with the use of the standard
post, a system of trench and mound is also used. The use of a short rock post with similar
cap is also authorized. It is for use in rock and is cemented Into place after a hole has been
drilled for its insertion.
(2.) That Mr. Wheeler's division shall carry on the topographical work from Yellowhead
Pass northward by photographic methods as heretofore.
Me. Cautley's Survey Operations.
During the end of January and the first half of February Mr. Cautley, with two men and
a powerful team, made a trip up the Wapiti River for 37 miles from the location of the last
settler, a man named Chase, on Section 10, Township 69, Range 10, to the crossing of the Calahoo
Trail—an old Indian hunting-trail—but could get no' farther on account of the rough ice. The
point reached is 3 miles below the boundary crossing.
Having surveyed the river for 3% miles on either side of the boundary and built a substantial
log cache, the party returned and 12 tons of material—cement and gravel—were afterwards
successfully delivered at the cache.
8 K 114
Report op the Minister of Lands.
Mr. Cautley's party for the season's work consisted of himself, his assistant, A. O. Gorman,
D.L.S., and eighteen men, with a pack-train of thirty-two horses. The party assembled at Grande
Prairie on May 30th and proceeded on its way to the end of the 1920 work on the north bank of
the Wapiti River.
It was found that a considerable quantity of provisions had been stolen from the log cache,
which it was necessary to replace. On June 12th the survey had been carried across the river
and everything had been so arranged that it was possible to move the entire outfit to the south
side, which was done by means of an 11-foot canvas boat, capable only of carrying 450 lb., including the crew.
From June 12th to August 2nd the survey progressed steadily southward a distance of 31
miles, where it was left, in Township 61, on three outlying ridges to the west of a big mountain
which Mr. Cautley named Torrens Mountain, a name since approved by the Geographic Board.
Torrens Mountain is the first encountered on the 120th meridian. Its altitude above sea-level
is only 7,315 feet, but it covers a large area, consisting of an S-shaped ridge 6 miles long, with
a number of small peaks along it connected by low saddles.
The last monument on the line is a standard post, marked 61—4, surmounted by a cairn.
It is on a well-defined, rocky ridge leading direct from the summit of Torrens Mountain, from
which it is about 30 chains west and a little south. Besides the monuments on the 120th
meridian, the summit of Torrens Mountain and two other mountains to the north-west were
occupied as triangulation stations and cairns built at them. In the case of Torrens Summit a
cairn 8 feet high, with a perimeter of 27 feet around the base, was built, so as to make a very
distinct mark from distant mountain-summits to the south in the event of a connection being
made from that direction.
Bush-fire smoke prevented useful observation and photography of the country to the south.
Most of the time it was impossible to see any distance at all, and, even when the smoke lifted
a little, it was so hazy that any estimation of distances was difficult and possibly inaccurate.
Mr. Cautley reports that the country to the south is distinctly mountainous and appears to
consist of numerous isolated mountains of about 7,000 feet in altitude. How far it is along
the 120th meridian from monument 61^ to the summit of the Rocky Mountains is impossible
to say. The intervening country is so mountainous as to preclude the idea of carrying on the
survey by methods other than those adopted by the topographical division. The survey will have
to be trigonometrical, and the topography is so broken and varied that it can only be satisfactorily
mapped by the photographic method.
On August 5th Mr. Cautley's party got back to the AVapiti River camp and continued the
work still to be done. This work consisted of building forty-three monuments and precise chaining, also checking and levelling 43% miles of line which had been cut out in 1920; all of which
was completed by September 9th.
The members of the party were paid off at Edmonton as from September 17th. Mr. Cautley
and three men proceeded to Fort St. John, where he made arrangements to have the horses
wintered and arrived at Edmonton on September 30th.
During the season 31.3 miles of line were cut out and 43.5 miles of old line were cleared
out; 74.8 miles of line were precise chained; 43.5 miles of line were levelled; 7 miles of river
traverse were survey; 49 concrete monuments were built; and 27 of the new-style standard-post
type of monuments with trench and mound, were established. There was also a great deal of
painstaking topographical exploration work done.
General Description of Country.
Mr. Cautley reports that the country traversed by the 120th meridian from the north
boundary of Township 73 to the Wapiti River in Township 66 is a high, gently undulating plateau
with a slight but constant rise to the south and west, so that each succeeding height of land
crossed in a southerly direction is appreciably higher than the last.
South of the AVapiti River the same formation is found, but in a more' marked degree;
that is to say, each succeeding height of land takes on the form of a definte ridge with a more
noticeable gain in altitude, until Crooked River is reached at the southerly end of Township
62. Thus, from the height of land at the north end of Township 73 to the last height of land
before reaching Crooked River, which occurs in Township 63, or in a distance of 68 miles, there
is an irregular but constant increase in altitude amounting to 2,350 feet. 13 Geo. 5 Interprovincial Boundary. K 115
From Crooked River the line rises 2,200 feet in less than 1 mile of distance to the summit
of the first and lowest outlying ridge of Torrens Mountain, beyond which the country takes
on a generally mountainous character throughout.
The whole country has been so generally ravaged by fire that there is no timber of present
commercial value, and the soil has been burned so badly that there is no future in sight for
agricultural settlement. Most of the surface is covered with wind-fallen brule, a condition
which carries with it a constant menace of further fires to destroy the young second-growth
Mr. Cautley reports that there are, in a great many places, vigorous stands of young
spruce growing up through the brule, and gives it as his opinion that they are all doomed to be
burned before reaching commercial value, because the brule will, sooner or later, carry fire
through them. He also reports that the very heavy brule north of the AVapiti River, through
which the boundary was cut in 1920, has in the past two years been greatly reduced by fire, and
expresses the opinion that the first move towards restoration of this and similar areas must
be in the direction of clearing the brule by controlled fires, or, at least, by clearing wide enough
lanes through it to prevent fire running wild all over the country.
The main topographical feature of the district covered by the 1922 survey is AVapiti River,
and also Crooked River, which is the left fork of the main AVapiti and enters the latter at a
point 5% miles down-stream from the boundary, but only 3 miles due east from it.
The AVapiti flows in a general north-easterly direction for a considerable distance on either
side of the boundary, which it crosses in Township 66. Crooked River flows in a general due-
east direction across the boundary in Township 62, and then turns to the north, and slightly
west of north, to its confluence with the Wapiti in Township 66.
Both rivers present very similar characteristics, being swift of current and occupying deep,
narrow valleys with steep banks from 500 to 900 feet high. It seems probable from the general
appearance of the two rivers that the AA'apiti carries more water during the early summer
run-off, but during the first week of August, when Mr. Cautley crossed both rivers, there appeared
to be more water in Crooked River. He suggests as a reason that Crooked River derives a
larger proportion of its flow from glaciers.
To the south of the AVapiti River there is only one trail worthy of the name in the vicinity
of the boundary, and that is the survey trail cut last summer. The Calahoo Trail, which is
shown on several maps issued by the Department of the Interior, is merely a hunting-trail used,
as explained to Mr. Cautley by one of the half-breeds on his party, in the early spring and late
autumn when the muskegs are frozen. In the summer it is so bad that it was found impossible
to use some of it at all, and those parts of it which follow high ground are obstructed by fallen
Climatic  Conditions.
The weather throughout the entire season was most extraordinarily and uninterruptedly fine.
From May 31st to September 25th Mr. Cautley reports that he only lost five and a half days of
working-time, of which one and a half days were due to bush-fire smoke in the vicinity of
Torrens Mountain, where the trigonometric nature of the work necessitated long sights.
Due in part to the dryness of the season and probably partly to the continued presence of
bush-fire smoke, the comparative freedom from mosquitoes was incredible to those who have
spent many years in camp. Bush-fires were burning right across the boundary on the north
side of the AVapiti River all summer. On the south side no fires were encountered until
Torrens Mountain was reached, where the south-east slopes beyond the survey were on fire.
Mr. Cautley reports that there was a good deal of float-coal seen in the beds of the streams,
and a small stringer seam of coal crops out on the very summit of Torrens Mountain. Some of
the party made a small fire with it.
North of the AVapiti River there were a great many moose in 1920, but there did not seem
to be so many this year, owing probably to bush fires. South of the river is an ideal moose
and caribou country and a great many were seen. Beaver were seen on Huguenot Creek and
Hiding Creek.    On Torrens Mountain sheep, moose, deer, or caribou were seen on every occasion K 116 Report of the Minister of Lands. 1923
when an ascent was made. Several bear were seen, but they did not seem to be very numerous.
Ruffed grouse and prairie-chicken were very plentiful everywhere, and there were lots of
ptarmigan on the mountains.
Survey Operations.
The customary tests of cameras for levels and speed of plates used for photography were
made on the course laid down at Banff, and the party assembled at Jasper on June 30th and
completed organization.
July 2nd to 8th the party, in charge of my assistant, A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., travelled
to the head of Miette River, considerable time being required for cutting out trail and packing
in supplies.
Owing to the fact that north of Yellowhead Pass there was no possibility of a tie with
the Dominion Lands system of survey until the 120th meridian as surveyed south by Mr.
Cautley was reached, the Geodetic Survey of Canada had been approached and an arrangement
made by which it was proposed to extend a triangulation from Yellowhead Pass to connect with
the 120th meridian at the point named. The work was placed in charge of H. F. Lambart,
D.L.S., of the Geodetic Survey, who took the matter up with me at Banff on June 2nd and a
plan of action was arranged.
Early in June Mr. Lambart organized a party at Jasper and commenced work, using, as an
initial base, Mr. Cautley's monumented survey across Yellowhead Pass, made in 1917. The work
done during the past season was partly reconnaissance and consisted of the selection of suitable
stations for the quadrilaterals of a system of triangulation, and in obtaining necessary information to permit of the measurement of a base and the reading of angles at the various stations
The work was carried on until the" end of August and the system extended for nearly 100
, miles north-westerly from Yellowhead Pass, Notwithstanding the very smoky condition of the
atmosphere throughout the greater part of the summer, Mr. Lambart made excellent progress
and established some twenty-three stations. The completion of this triangulation, extending
along the main divide of the Rocky Mountains, should be of much utility through providing
a tie between the Dominon Lands system of surveys at Yellowhead Pass and those in the Peace
River District, quite apart from the fact that it will serve to accurately locate the stations of
the boundary survey.
The Geodetic Survey had made arrangements with the Air Board to assist Mr. Lambart
in his work, and at Mr. Lambart's suggestion I made a request to the proper authorities for a
reconnaissance flight over the region along the line of the watershed with the object in view
of ascertaining the nature of the country to be covered by the topographical division in its
progress northward.
This request was acceded to, and on July 11th an aeroplane, D.H. 4B, G — C Y D M, from
the Air Board Air Station at High River, Alberta, arrived at the landing-field at Henry House,
between the railway and the Athabaska River, about 10 miles north of Jasper. The machine
. was piloted by Captain J. H. Tudhope, of the Air Service. July 12th the Superintendent at
Jasper Park, Colonel S. M. Rogers, motored me to the landing-place and Captain Tudhope took
me on an initial flight over the vicinity of Jasper.
On the 13th I was taken from Henry House landing over the course of the Interprovincial
Boundary, the main watershed of the Rockies, from Yellowhead Pass, following Miette River
to Colonel Mountain, Moose Pass, Bess Pass, Jack Pine Pass, and Jack Pine River. Farther
north the clouds were rolling over the divide and it was too dangerous to attempt crossing the
mountains hidden in them. As a result of frequently edging away the wrong divide was
followed and we came out in view of the Fraser Aralley. An attempt was made to retrace our
course, but the clouds were getting lower and travelling was becoming more and more dangerous
amidst the close mountain surroundings. AVe had been out for nearly three hours, so Captain
Tudhope decided to return to the Fraser Valley and effect a landing somewhere. A level field
of timothy, showing like an emerald-green spot from the air, near a railway-station surrounded
by buildings, was selected and a good landing made. AVe found we were at McBride, 120 miles
from our starting-place.   Gasolene was procured and a return flight made up the Fraser Valley eroplane view of Mount Robson and Robson Pass Summit, showing Berg Lake and Lake Adolphus.
Aeroplane view uf Mount Sir Alexander  (Mackenzie)   from the south, showing glaciers, source of
Big Salmon River.     (Photos by II. F. Lambart, D.L.S., Geodetic Survey ot Canada.)  13 Geo. 5 Interprovincial Boundary. K 117
at an altitude of 8,000 feet. It was a serious matter to be practically lost amidst the clouds
in a region of high mountains, as no known landmarks could be distinguished, but the competent
skill and good judgment of Captain Tudhope brought the flight to a safe ending. Colonel Rogers
and Mr. Lambart at Jasper were greatly concerned at our protracted absence, as the plane was
long overdue for return. Some useful information was obtained which prevented loss of time
in the survey-work.
On July 16th Captain Tudhope took Mr. Lambart for a most successful flight along the
entire length of the watershed from Mount Robson to Jarvis Pass, close by where it is supposed
the 120th meridian crosses the watershed of the Rockies on its northward course. The weather
conditions were absolutely perfect and Mr. Lambart obtained a large number of photographs
from the air. Those of Mount Robson were very fine, and also of Mount Sir Alexander
(Mackenzie) and Mount Ida, the big prominently seen mountains about 100 miles north of
Mount Robson, situated a short distance south-west of Jarvis Pass in British Columbia. Jarvis
Pass was identified by the chain of lakes at its summit. Some of the views obtained will be
of considerable use to the topographical division for its map-work.
Of the trip Mr. Lambart writes: " Mount Sir Alexander will never be climbed. It is an
absolute knife-edge of snow, not even corniced along its full length. It is surrounded by a
high-level ice-field, the best approach to which is from the north. The only possible attempt at
an ascent is from the east side. I have photographs looking straight down on the peak. Mount
Ida, only a few miles away, is another Matterhorn of the Canadian Rockies and is not much
lower than Mount Sir Alexander. The mountains and wide open valleys north of Mount Bess
are easy, and the timber seems particularly vigorous. North of Jarvis Pass the country is not
excessively high, as the snow- and ice-covered mountains from here on seem to swing distinctly
more to the westward."
From July until September 7th the time was spent in occupying necessary camera stations
when the weather conditions permitted. Smoke from bush fires was very prevalent throughout
the summer and proved highly detrimental to photographic work. It would have proved
disastrous but for the following fact:—
In 1911 an expedition to the Mount Robson region was organized by the Alpine Club of
Canada under my leadership. With this expedition the Smithsonian Institute of Washington
collaborated for zoological and botanical purposes. I then made a photo-topographical survey
of the area traversed by the watershed from Yellowhead Pass to some distance north of Mount
Robson, which resulted in a preliminary map of the region. The Department of the Interior
assisted the expedition by supplying the necessary instruments and photographic plates, and
subsequently made the enlargements of the views obtained for map-work. The British Columbia
Government assisted the expedition financially.
The photographic negatives then obtained were filed with the Surveyor-General at Ottawa
and were available for use in conjunction with last season's work. Owing to this fact material
for a very full season's work was in hand and a larger area Is ready for mapping than could
possibly have been obtained otherwise, even had the weather conditions been most favourable.
The supplementary data of the 1911 survey was particularly fortunate in view of the fact that
the season of the topographical division was necessarily cut short in order to permit of Mr.
Cautley's division completing the production of the 120th meridian southward as far as possible
towards the summit of the main range.
Work was closed on September 7th and the party returned to Jasper by way of the Robson
Pass and Fraser River valley.   It was paid off at Jasper on September 14th.
In 1917 the watershed had been located and the adjacent country mapped for some 9 miles
north of Yellowhead Pass. The survey was now carried to Bess Pass and Mount Bess, 20 miles
north-west of Robson Pass and 50 miles north-west of Yellowhead Pass in direct distance.
In all, eight passes across the watershed were located, viz.: (1) Miette Pass; (2) small pass
at the head of the South Branch of Stony River; (3) Colonel Pass at the head of Colonel
Creek; (4) small pass at the head of a tributary of the East Branch of Moose River; (5)
Moose Pass; (0) Robson Pass; (7) Wolverine Pass; and (8) Bess Pass. At least three of
these should be surveyed and monumented.
On August 27th, with one man, I left the camp at Bess Pass and travelled over the Jack
Pine Pass, north of Mount Bess, and down the Jack Pine River to find Mr. Lambart and ascertain
the extent of his work and the facilities of the country ahead for travelling with a pack-train. K 118
Report of the Minister of Lands.
The second day out I met Mr. Lambart returning with his party, having closed the work for the
In all, the topographical division occupied forty-two camera stations and obtained 316 views
from which to make maps of the country covered.
Miette Pass.
This pass is situated at the headwaters of the Miette and Stony Rivers and divides them
from the headwaters of Grant Brook, a tributary of Fraser River. The pass has three distinct
passages, the most southerly draining to Miette River and Grant Brook respectively, and the
other two to Stony River and Grant Brook. They lie in open grass-land country and their
summits are practically above timber-line.   This pass should be monumented.
Stony- River Pass.
The summit is at the head of the South Branch of Stony River and is only a few miles
from Miette Pass in a north-westerly direction. It lies in a narrow valley and its chief
importance is that the direct trail from Yellowhead Pass to Colonel Creek and Moose River
crosses it.    A detail survey would not be recommended.
Colonel Pass.
This pass is at the head of Colonel Creek, a tributary of Moose River from the east. The
vicinity of the summit is a delightful spot on the Alberta side, with two little lakelets and
charming camp-grounds. The crossing is a low one and lies in timber. The descent on the
British Columbia side is steep, but horses can easily be taken across. Some 5 miles of newly
cut trail down the creek connects with the trail up Moose River. The summit of the pass is
well defined and monumenting is not recommended.
Moose Pass.
The summit is in a narrow valley filled with rock-fall and is well above timber-line. The
characteristics here are peculiar: crossing from the south, the summit is apparently reached,
when it is discovered that a small tarn in a deep basin sends its flow southward to Moose River.
The tarn is lower than the apparent summit, owing to a piled-up mass of rock debris, through
which the stream flows, having filled in the valley below it. The valley is very narrow and the
sides rise steeply from its bottom, but it would appear useful to have a monument or two placed
to define the actual summit, owing to the fact that the Moose River Trail to the Smoky River
travels across the pass.   The approaches on both sides of the summit are gradual and easy.
Robson Pass.
A wide shingle-flat with scattered bunches of small spruce fills in the space between Berg
Lake on the British Columbia side and Lake Adolphus on the Alberta side, a little over a mile
apart. The flat is at the foot of the Robson Glacier, which is divided into two tongues by a
nunatak much covered by moraine. The north face of the nunatak is free from ice, which has
now retreated on either side and leaves it as a boundary to the flat. The main flow from both
tongues is to Berg Lake, but a certain amount of water finds its way from the eastern stream
to Lake Adolphus.
The location of the watershed is something of a problem and it is thought that it will be
up the centre of the Robson Glacier to the crest of the mountain ridge that contains the ice-field
at its source. The proper location can only be decided by careful detailed survey. The whole
of the mass of Mount Robson is in British Columbia. The massif with its glaciers and glacial
lakes covers an area of over 30 square miles and measures 3 miles through at the base, where
it rises 1% miles into the air above the Grand Fork Valley.
The widespread fame of this great mountain, the highest of the range, and the spectacular
beauties of its ice-bound surroundings attract a large amount of tourist travel. On this account
it is advisable that a detailed survey should be made and the pass summit be monumented. It
is, moreover, the direct route from the Fraser River to the headwaters of the Smoky River, a
tributary of Peace River, although at the present time it is only open to pack-train travel. 13 Geo. 5 Interprovincial Boundary. K 119
Wolverine Pass.
This pass presents a most complicated bit of topography and an example of a crossing
of the watershed of the Great Divide such as has not heretofore been seen by the boundary
survey. Glaciers from Mounts AVhitehorn, Longstaff, and Gendarme here converge in a
magnificent ice-fall at the head of a valley, and the streams flowing from it spread out into
many channels and find their way to a wide, marshy, open area a mile distant, which resembles
a muskeg. They then divide in the direction of their flow, the larger quantity of water flowing
north-west to form the Beaver River, a tributary of the Fraser, and the smaller flowing northeast to form AVolverine Creek, a tributary of Smoky River.
It would be a matter of very great interest to define the watershed accurately across
Wolverine Pass, but it is doubtful whether the prospective utility of the route, as from the
Smoky to the Beaver River Valley, would at the present time warrant the cost of a detailed
survey and monumenting. It would be a difficult and lengthy operation, particularly so that
the watershed lies directly across the marshy open, which is, for the most part, under water
to the depth of several inches.
Bess Pass.
The summit of Bess Pass is reached by the valley of Bess Creek, a tributary of Smoky
River. The approach on the Alberta side is short, some 6 miles, and presents an easy grade
all the way, the route for the most part lying along the shingle-flats of the stream and crossing
the many channels intersecting them.
On the British Columbia side, however, there is a very steep descent to the bed of Beaver
River. A short distance west of the summit the trail climbs a shoulder of Mount Bess and,
having descended for several hundred feet, traverses the south-western flank of the mountain
to Jack Pine Pass. A few miles north of Mount Bess is Mount Chown, the most northerly
outstanding peak of the Rainbow Mountains group, of which Mount Robson is the central
Bess Pass is the direct line of communication from the Smoky River Valley on the east
side of the watershed to the Fraser River Valley by way of its tributary, Beaver River. At the
present time there is no trail leading from the summit of the pass to the Beaver Valley, and
the descent on the British Columbia side is more than 2,000 feet. It is thought that this pass
should be surveyed in detail and monumented.
Game and Fish.
Game is plentiful throughout the area covered by the survey. A number of moose were
seen in the AA'olverine Pass and tracks were plentiful elsewhere. AVoodland caribou frequent
the highland meadows. Small deer are plentiful. On the high crags the mountain-goat has
its home and bear are in the woods. Several species of grouse were noticed and ptarmigan in
the rocky ground on the alp-lands.    The porcupine pest was much in evidence.
Trout were caught in the upper waters of Miette River, where they are plentiful, and Mr.
Lambart reports that trout were caught in Grant Brook on the British Columbia side. There
may be fish in the Moose and Smoky Rivers, but the waters of these streams were in a very
muddy condition all summer owing to the continued dry, hot weather, and none were seen.
General Remarks.
North and south of Yellowhead Pass Summit much of the timber has been burned and is
now a dense brule. A small quantity still remains on the slopes that may be of use. Where
green timber is seen in the Moose and Smoky River Valleys it is of moderate size and not of
high economic value owing to the impossibility of getting it out. A few small stands of
apparently good cedar are located in the valley of the Fraser River tributary known as the
Grand Fork, but there is no large quantity and much of the timber along the stream and north
of its source in Berg Lake has been burned.
The area is not as yet well served by trails, and where they exist they wind through very
marshy or rough, rocky ground and climb up and down over mountain-ridges in steep ascents
or descents. The trail up Moose River is particularly bad. Much time was spent in opening
up new pieces of trail to reach necessary objectives. Beyond Bess Pass conditions grow worse,
particularly in the Jack Pine Valley, and the hills it is necessary to ascend and descend are
stupendous. K 120
Report op the Minister of Lands.
The Rainbow Mountains group, across which the survey extended, is very fine and has
attracted considerable attention the world over. Mount Robson is the climax of the group.
Besides having the distinction of being the highest peak of the main range of the Canadian
Rockies, it presents a most spectacular setting of ice and snow and many fine glaciers
descend from it. Mountain tarns of intensely blue colours are seen in the surrounding valleys
and delight the eye. There are many other ice-fields and glaciers in the vicinity and magnificent
waterfalls abound, so much so that the name " Aralley of a Thousand Falls" has been applied
to the one encircling the base of Mount Robson on the north-west.
In this magic region of natural beauties British Columbia possesses a great heritage and
one that is attracting, and will attract, tourists from many lands.
I have, etc.,
Arthur 0. Wheeler,
Interprovincial Boundary  Commissioner.
victoria, B.C.:
Printed by William H.  Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.


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