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FIFTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1921-22 BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1922

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Full Text

 FIFTY-FIRST ANNUAL  REPORT
OP
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
of the province of
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1921-22
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
WITH APPENDICES
*M
PRINTED   BY
AUTHORITY OF THE  LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by William h. Collin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1923.  To the Honourable James Alexander Macdonald,
Administrator of the Government of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg herewith, respectfully to present the Fifty-first Annual Eeport on the
Public Schools of the Province.
j. d. Maclean,
Minister of Education.
November11922.  TABLE OF  CONTENTS.
Part I.
Page.
Superintendent's Report-  9
Inspectors' Reports—
High Schools     20
Elementary  Schools  22
Municipal Inspectors' Reports—
Vancouver    41
Victoria  43
Reports on Normal Schools—
Vancouver  48
Victoria  49
Report of the Organizer of Technical Education   50
Report of the Director of Elementary Agricultural Education   53
Summer School for Teachers  G4
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Free Text-book Branch   72
The Strathcona Trust   74
Part II.
Statistical Returns—
High Schools  2
City Elementary Schools  16
Rural Municipality Elementary Schools   54
Rural and Assisted Elementary Schools  76
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts  100
Part III.
High School Examination—
Names of the Winners of Medals and Scholarships    105
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre    106
High School Entrance Examination—
Names of Medal-winners    108
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre   108
High School Entrance Examination Papers     115
High School Examination Papers—
Preliminary Course (Junior Grade)      122
Advanced Course (Junior Grade)      132
University Matriculation  (Junior)     140
University Matriculation (Senior)      155
Third-year Course, Commercial   170
Third-year Course, Technical     184
Third-year Course, Household Science :   192  GENERAL REPORT  REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION,
1921-1922.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., November, 1922.
To the Honourable J. D. MacLean, M.D., CM.,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Fifty-first Annual Report of the Public Schools of British
Columbia for the school-year which ended June 30th, 1922.
School Population.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 85,950 to,
91,919, and the average daily attendance from 68,597 to 75,528. The high schools showed an
increase in enrolment of 1,375 ; the city elementary 'schools, 1,315; the rural municipality schools,
2,049; and the rural and assisted schools, 1,230. These figures indicate that the gain in school
population was not confined to cities, but was general throughout the Province. As a result
of the increase in attendance, 260 additional teachers were employed and 49 new schools were
opened in districts recently settled.
High and Elementary Schools.
High schools were established at Burnaby, Granby Bay, Merritt, Ocean Falls, and Powell
River. Superior schools, which provide two years' high-school instruction, were opened ati
Chase, Keremeos, New Denver, Oyama, Port Coquitlam, Robson, Ruskin, Smithers, Vananda,
Waldo, and Westbank Townsite. Altogether there were in operation 1,004 schools, consisting
of 58 high, IS superior, and 928 elementary schools.
Teachers employed.
There were 2,994 teachers, including manual-training and domestic-science instructors,
employed during the year. Of that number 301 were employed in high schools, 1,149 in city
elementary schools, 719 in rural municipality elementary schools, and 825 in rural and assisted
schools.
Class-room Accommodation.
The ever-increasing school population made it necessary to provide additional class-room
accommodation. By-laws to raise funds to meet the cost of erecting new school-houses were
defeated in some districts. However, many School Boards, in spite of difficulties, succeeded in
constructing new buildings, improving school-grounds, and providing better equipment. New
buildings were erected in the Cities of Kamloops, Nanaimo, Prince George, Salmon Arm, and
Trail, and also in the Rural Municipalities of Burnaby, Chilliwack, Delta, Maple Ridge, Oak
Bay, Penticton, Richmond, Saanich, Summerland, Surrey, South Vancouver, and West Vancouver.
High School Entrance Regulations.
The regulations governing admission to high schools were changed. For several years all
Entrance pupils attending schools in the larger cities, as well as 60 per cent, of those attending
schools of seven or more divisions in other districts, were promoted on the recommendation of
their teachers. Complaints from School Boards and high-school teachers reached the Department
to the effect that a uniform standard for admission was not being maintained, and also that
many of the pupils entering high school on recommendation were not sufficiently prepared. The
new regulations provide for promotion, without examination, of only the more studious and
advanced pupils attending schools of seven or more divisions. At least 40 per cent, of the
Entrance pupils in the large schools and all of those attending schools of fewer than seven
divisions are required to pass an examination set by the Department in arithmetic, geography,
grammar and composition, drawing, penmanship, dictation and spelling. Candidates, in order
to be successful, must obtain an average of 60 per cent, on the examination, and also produce
a statement from their teachers certifying that they have completed satisfactorily the work 0 10 Public Schools Report. 1922
prescribed for Entrance classes in British history, Canadian history, English literature, nature-
study, and hygiene. At the High School Entrance Examination held in June last 2,168 candidates
succeeded in passing, and 1,417 were promoted without examination.
High School Regulations.
The regulations governing the issuing of matriculation certificates have been modified in
order to allow persons who are actually engaged in mercantile, industrial, or other occupations
to write off one or more subjects at any June or September examination. Matriculation under
these conditions must be completed within four consecutive years.
In June last the Department held an examination for the purpose of grading pupils taking
the first- and second-year work in high, superior, and private schools. The examination was
not obligatory in the case of high schools, but was taken advantage of by a large number of the
smaller high schools.
Changes in Courses of Study.
Several changes were made in the text-books and Courses of Study during the year.
The British Columbia Readers, which were in use for nearly twenty years, were replaced by
the Canadian Readers. The subject-matter of the new Readers, authorized also in Alberta,
Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, was compiled with the greatest care and revised with equal care
by a committee of teachers representing the four Provinces. A new Course in Literature was
prescribed for Entrance pupils. ,
The MacLean Method of Muscular Movement Writing was introduced at the beginning of
the year. Inspectors report that a marked improvement in the work of the pupils is already
noticeable. Manuals and a Correspondence Course given free to teachers provide a very helpful
guide. There is, of course, a large number of teachers who have' not yet made any serious
effort to master the new system and who, in consequence, are not getting good results.
Manual Training and Domestic Science.
Classes in Manual Training were conducted at 79 centres and in Domestic Science at 51
centres. Eight thousand nine hundred and thirty pupils from the elementary schools and 1,540
from the high schools took the Manual Training Course and 6,570 elementary and 1,436 high-
school pupils took the Domestic Science Course. Classes for teacher-training were held on
Saturday afternoons in the Technical School, Vancouver, and from these classes manual-training
instructors were recruited as vacancies occurred. No classes for the training of students for
teaching domestic science have yet been established.
Technical Schools.
Technical schools were in operation in New Westminster, Vancouver, and Victoria. Trail
also is taking steps to provide technical instruction for its pupils. A splendid building, part of
which will be set aside for this work, is at present in course of construction. These schools
provide three years' work. On the completion of the course students receive a technical leaving
certificate, which should be of great assistance to them after they leave school. Students of
these schools who desire to attend the University may elect from the large number of subjects
offered a course leading to matriculation standing.
Commercial Courses are provided in eleven high schools.
Household Science Courses are given in Vancouver and New Westminster. These courses
provide instruction for girls in English and science subjects and mathematics, as well as in
hygiene, child-welfare and home-nursing, dietetics and cookery, needlework, drawing, design, vocal
music, and physical culture.
Elementary Agricultural Education.
The usual work along the lines of elementary agricultural education was pursued throughout
the year. The activities of this branch include instruction in the high and elementary schools
in agriculture, nature-study, school-gardening and home-gardening, as well as co-operation with
Boards of Trustees in the improving of school-grounds. Many school-yards were improved by
grading, draining, and the planting of trees and shrubs. Every effort was made to encourage
teachers to use their gardens as a source of material for nature lessons. Many public meetings
were addressed by the Director of Elementary Agricultural Education with reference to the 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 11
inauguration and the continuation of Agricultural Courses in the high schools. The two-year
course prescribed was taken by 457 students attending high schools, where the subject of agriculture is taught by specialists. In order to arouse a greater interest in the study of crops and
live stock, which is the basis of all agriculture, special competitions were arranged at a number
of the agricultural fairs. For the first time competitions in the judging of field crops by high-
school students were held at the New Westminster Exhibition. First place in this competition
was taken by pupils from Chilliwack and second place by those representing Surrey. Stock-
judging competitions were also held and prizes awarded.
Teachers' Bureau.
A Teachers' Bureau has been organized in connection with this Department for the purpose
of aiding School Boards in securing suitable teachers and assisting unemployed teachers in
obtaining positions. This service is free to both teachers and Boards of Trustees. During the
past year, by means of lists of vacancies published from time to time, approximately 600 teachers
were placed in touch with School Boards. Of this number of teachers seeking positions 175
were appointed direct to schools at the request of the Boards concerned. It is believed that the
work of this branch can be greatly extended and made to be of even greater service to both
teachers and school trustees.
Correspondence Courses.
Under the " Public Schools Act" a new school may be established in a district where there
are ten children of school age available for attendance. There are, however, many new settlements in the Province where there are not sufficient pupils to keep a school in operation. For
the benefit of children in these isolated districts your Department conducts a free Correspondence
Course covering the work of the elementary schools. Instruction by correspondence was given
to more than 300 pupils during the school-year. Correspondence Courses were also given in
Coal-mining and Mine Surveying, 152 students being enrolled.
Normal Schools.
All students, with the exception of University graduates, who entered Normal School in
September, 1921, were required to complete satisfactorily a continuous course of training for nine
months before they were eligible to receive teachers' certificates. This extension of the period
of professional training and the higher requirements for Normal Entrance, which have been
authorized by the Council of Public Instruction, should result in a considerable improvement
in the character of the service which will be rendered by young teachers. The Academic Course
for prospective teachers which is now being given in our high schools needs to be modified
further. Students about to enter Normal School should have a more thorough knowledge of the
subjects which they will be required to teach in the elementary schools. During the year 530
students received Normal School instruction. Of that number, 134 attended the Victoria Normal
School, of whom 127 were awarded diplomas at the end of the session. The Vancouver Normal
School enrolled 403 students, 381 being granted certificates. The policy of paying the railway
and steamboat fares of students attending Normal School makes it possible for many young
men and women living in the rural districts and in the inland towns of the Province to take
advantage of the opportunity of attending Normal School to prepare for admission to the teaching profession.
School for the Deaf and the Blind.
At the beginning of the year a school for the deaf and dumb was opened by your Department
in temporary quarters at the corner of Oak and Twenty-fourth Streets, Vancouver. When the
Boys' Industrial School was moved from Point Grey to Coquitlam, the building thus vacated
was thoroughly remodelled, cleaned, and furnished for use as a school for deaf and blind children.
There are now sixty-two children in attendance. The new quarters are adequate and suitable,
the site beautiful, and the principal and assistant teachers trained and competent instructors.
I believe the institution will render satisfactory service to the Province.
Night-schools.
Night-schools with over 4,000 pupils were conducted in thirty-four cities and rural municipalities.    The courses of study embraced business English; arithmetic; accounting; typewriting; C 12 Public Schools Report. 1922
shorthand;  mechanical  drawing;   stationary,  electrical,   and  automobile engineering;   cabinet-
making ; dressmaking; millinery and cookery; as well as a number of other subjects.
Summer Schools.
The Provincial Summer School met in Victoria from July 10th to August 11th, 213 teachers
being in attendance. This school gives teachers an opportunity of receiving from specialists
of recognized ability supplementary training in many of the school subjects. The following
courses were provided: Rural science, primary grade, art, manual training, home economics,
music, history and geography, literature and reading, physical training, and writing.
Summer Session of the University of British Columbia.
The third summer session of the University of British Columbia, of which Dean Coleman
was Director, was held during July and a part of August and was attended by nine of the Provincial Inspectors and over 200 teachers. Students with full matriculation standing are enabled
by attendance at several sessions to obtain credit for courses in first and second year in arts
and science. This policy, which was adopted for the first time this year, has been received with
favour by the teachers. In addition to the regular University courses, the summer session gives
a course in advanced commercial work for teachers holding first-class and academic certificates
who wish to prepare for certification as teachers of commercial subjects in high schools. There
were also provided last July three advanced courses in educational subjects for Inspectors,
principals of schools, and other mature students. The summer session of the University gives
teachers an opportunity of improving their academic and professional standing. Already several
' teachers who were the holders of second-class certificates have completed the additional work
required for first-class certificates.
New Schools.
Schools were opened for the first time in the following districts:—
Comox    Beaver Cove; Gowlland Harbour; Dove Creek; Reid Bay ; Blind
Channel; Menzies Bay; Oyster Bay; Vincent Bay.
Cranbrook Larchwood; St. Eugene Mission; Sullivan Hill; Wattsburg.
Esquimalt  Sooke, East.
Fort George  Bear Head; Longworth ; Meadowdale; Bear Flats; Dawson Creek,
South : Doe Creek ; Fort St. John ; Fraser Lake ; Pine View ;
Webber Lake;  Stuart Station;  Stone Creek;  Stuart River;
Willowvale.
Greenwood    Rhone ; Westbridge.
Kamloops    Squilax ; Eagle Bay.
Kaslo    Queen's Bay.
Lillooet    Felker Lake; Green Lake.
Omineca    Colleymount;  Grassy Plains;  Pratt;  Southbank;  Uncha  Valley:
Quick; Tatalrose.
Similkameen Jura ; Oliver.
Okanagan, North Hillcrest; Trinity Creek; Ewing's Landing.
Prince Rupert  Hunter Island ; Kitwanga ; Oona River. 13 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 13
High Schools.
The enrolment in the high schools during the year was 8,634. Of this number, 3,78S were
boys and 4,S46 were girls.
The number of divisions, the total enrolment, the average actual daily attendance, and the
percentage of regular attendance in each high school are shown in the following table:—
High Schools.
Agassiz	
Armstrong.	
Bridgeport	
Chilliwack	
Courtenay	
Cranbrook	
Creston	
Cumberland	
Duncan    .
Enderby	
Esquimalt	
Fernie	
Golden	
Granby Bay	
Grand Forks	
Greenwood	
Kamloogs	
Kaslo    •.   ...
Kelowna	
Ladner 	
Ladysmith	
Langley	
Maple Ridge	
Matsqui	
Merritt	
Mission   	
Nanaimo	
Nelson...■•.	
New Westminster :
Duke of Connaught	
T. J. Trapp Teennical. .. .
North Burnaby	
Oak Bav 	
Ocean Falls	
Peachland    	
Penticton	
Point Grey:
King George V	
Prince of Wales	
Port Alberni      	
Powell River	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke    	
Rossland	
Salmon Arm	
Slocan    .
Summerland .	
Surrey     	
Trail*	
Vancouver :
Britannia	
King Edward	
King George	
Kitsilano  	
High School of Commerce.
Technical :
Vancouver, North	
Vancouver, South	
Vernon	
Victoria	
Numher of
Divisions.
13
7
1
5
1
1
4
5
1
1
2
4
4
3
2
1
3
2
3
16
17
13
10
7
13
9
16
4
32
Total
Enrolment.
34
69
53
140
29
97
26
40
68
34
45
77
13
19
76
15
147
51
104
38
69
42
54
21
30
74
162
213
471
202
30
149
15
19
116
234
159
26
19
29
101
123
101
54
12
68
55
78
610
609
472
364
298
406
274
565
109
1,026
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
31.08
57.70
44.61
117.78
23.03
83.73
20.98
34.67
56.38
28.54
36.17
66.96
10.71
17.03
66.36
11.34
123.89
41.97
95.30
32.57
53.91
33.08
44.68
17.64
28.15
56.96
138.42
186.63
404.21
153.64
22.14
131.84
13.49
16.87
101.75
201.78
138.01
22.45
15.12
21.79
92.69
108.04
96.59
45.36
10.98
54.95
49.87
66.96
543.52
540.63
416.27
330.49
247.47
342.87
250.97
496.22
95.07
888.50
Percentage of
Regular
Attendance.
91.41
83.62
84.17
84.13
79.41
86.32
80.69
86.67
82.91
83.94
80.37
86.95
82.38
89.63
87.31
75.60
84.28
82.29
91.63
85.71
78.13
78.76
82.74
84.00
93.83
76.97
85.44
87.62
85.82
76.59
73.80
88.48
89.93
88.79
87.71
86.23
86.79
86.35
79.58
75.14
91.77
87.82
95.63
84.00
91.50
80.81
90.67
85.84
89.10
88.77
88.19
90.79
83.04
84.45
91.59
87.83
87.22
86.51 C 14
Public Schools Report.
1922
City Elementary Schools.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 40,965. The number of boys was 21,176;
of girls, 19,789.
The number of divisions, the total enrolment, the average actual daily attendance, and the
percentage of regular attendance in each school are shown in the following table:—
Alberni 	
Armstrong (Consolidated)	
Chilliwack   	
Courtenay	
Cranbrook:
Central	
Kootenay Orchards	
South Ward	
Cumberland	
Duncan (Consolidated)	
Enderby	
Fernie 	
Grand Forks	
Greenwood	
Kamloops    	
Kaslo	
Kelowna	
Ladysmith    	
Merritt	
Nanaimo :
Middle Ward	
Quennell	
South Ward	
Nelson :
Nelson	
Hume	
New Westminster:
Central	
Lord Kelvin	
Lord Lister    	
Richard McBride	
Queensborough	
Herbert Spencer	
Port Alberni	
Port Coquitlam :
Central    	
James Park    	
Port Moody	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke	
Rossland	
Salmon Arm	
Slocan      .   ...
Trail :
Central	
Tadanac	
East	
Vancouver:
Aberdeen	
Alexandra »
Bayview	
Beaconsfield	
Central        ...
Dawson   	
Charles Dickens	
Fairview	
Franklin	
Number of
Divisions.
3
15
11
5
12
1
2
13
17
5
23
11
3
17
4
14
11
9
4
19
3
19
5
22
8
10
12
2
12
4
4
3
6
7
21
15
11
5
2
15
•2
2
11
16
10
10
21
27
11
15
S
Total
Enrolment.
112
534
408
209
542
28
83
511
540
167
939
453
80
735
142
554
436
368
182
863
138
789
189
851
311
364
462
73
430
173
160
94
186
279
751
620
454
169
60
579
36
41
487
675
434
418
865
1,016
453
574
350
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
92.88
464.89
343.06
174.77
477.61
25.11
78.92
453.21
430.35
155.19
817.26
413.55
74.76
601.85
123.96
'477.77
393.00
334.40
164.54
766.74
126.25
672.51
164.43
754.65
270.42
328.99
413.53
61.63
390.40
151.82
142.37
77.35
163.53
231.60
674.15
563.09
409.98
160.73
51.35
527.69
35.77
38.76
396.32
600.06
365.25
385.07
700.48
852.00
398.99
501.34
304.49
Percentage of
Regular Daily
Attendance.
82.92
87.05
84.08
83.62
88.11
89.67
95.08
88.69
79.69
92.92
87.03
91.29
93.45
81.88
87.29
86.24
90.13
90.88
90.40
88.84
91.48
85.23
87.00
88.67
86.95
90.38
89.50
84.42
90.79
87.7
88.98
82.28
87.91
83.01
89.76
90.82
90.30
95.10
85.58
91.13
99.36
94.53
81.37
88.89
84.15
92.12
80.98
83.85
88.07
87.34
86.99 13 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 15
City Elementary Schools—Continued.
Vancouver—Continued.
Simon Fraser	
General Gordon	
Grandview	
Grenfell	
Hastings	
Henry Hudson	
Kitsiiano	
Livingstone	
Model	
Mount Pleasant  ....
Macdonald	
Lord Nelson	
Florence Nightingale
Cecil Rhodes	
Lord Roberts.   	
Laura Secord	
Seymour	
Strathcona	
Lord Tennyson	
Vancouver North :
Lonsdale	
Qeeen Mary	
Ridgeway	
Vernon	
Victoria :
Bank Street	
Beacon Hill	
Boys' Central	
Burnside	
Cook Street	
Sir James Douglas....
Fernwood	
Girls' Central	
George Jay	
Margaret Jenkins ...
Kingston Street	
North Ward	
Oaklands	
Quadra Street ..*....
Quadra Primary	
Rock Bay	
South Park	
Spring Ridge..   	
West	
School for the Blind	
School for the Deaf	
Totals	
Number of
Divisions.
17
12
14
4
16
17
12
10
13
20
14
18
19
13
25
14
21
29
15
9
15
13
20
4
4
12
6
1
15
2
12
13
9
5
11
14
8
6
3
10
5
12
1
7
Total
Enrolment.
696
528
593
135
702
687
493
425
540
809
571
793
765
535
1,031
518
937
1,177
683
380
539
447
860
149
170
453
227
22
572
60
474
4S4
343
195
401
506
291
222
171
341
191
422
8
52
40,965
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
608.26
454.44
524.02
124.68
621.41
578.51
437.41
372.32
492.40
706.87
496.13
688.52
667.93
443.75
897.79
467.41
807.96
1,011.35
585.30
326.74
507.31
420.63
748.42
127.30
123.90
368.75
193.90
20.92
491.14
58.72
401.22
426.88
284.24
164.79
336.73
449.77
250.11
185.17
96.16
289.07
167.12
389.87
7.17
40.93
35,642.29
Percentage of
Regular
Attendance.
87.39
86.06
88.36
92.35
88.51
84.20
88.72
89.95
91.18
87.37
86.88
86.82
87.31
82.94
87.07
90.23
86.22
85.92
85.69
85.95
94.12
94.10
87.02
85.43
72.88
81.40
85.41
95.09
85.86
97.86
84.64
88.19
82.86
84.50
83.97
88.88
85.94
83.40
56.23
84.77
87.49
92.38
89.62
78.71
87.00 C 16
Public Schools Report.
1922
Rural Municipality' Elementary Schools.
The enrolment in the rural municipality elementary schools during the year was 24,371.
The number of boys enrolled was 12,641;   of girls, 11,730.
The following table gives the names of the several municipalities, the number of schools in
each, the number of divisions, the total enrolment, and the average actual daily attendance:—
Municipality.
Burnaby 	
Chilliwack	
Coldstream	
Coquitlam	
Delta	
Esquimalt	
Kent	
Langley	
Maple Ridge	
Matsqui	
Mission	
Oak Bay	
Peachland	
Penticton	
Pitt Meadows....
Point Grey	
Richmond	
Saanich	
Salmon Arm ....
Sumas	
Summerland.   ...
Surrey	
Vancouver, North
Vancouver, South
Vancouver, West
Totals.   .
Number of
Schools.
14
15
2
5
11
1
2
16
9
11
9
2
7
7
15
7
5
2
19
6
14
5
180
Number of
Divisions.
70
31
2
8
16
16
5
26
18
19
17
14
4
21
3
62
20
56
8
7
10
35
20
178
12
678
Total
Enrolment.
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance
2,756
904
66
206
498
581
178
962
612
530
557
572
107
775
62
2,477
745
1,926
229
163
340
1,078
714
6,913
420
24,371
2,352.85
741.37
50.58
171.77
429.51
506.38
155.53
751.53
500.54
434.60
435.70
457.73
94.12
670.56
56.42
2,198.55
625.60
1,618.24
185 34
133.82
282.97
875.02
604.19
6,216.67
356.09
20,905.66
Rural and Assisted Elementary Schools.
The total enrolment in these schools for the year was 17,949.    Of this number, 9,22S were
boys and S,721 were girls.
Expenditure for Education, 1921-22. .
Education Office:
Salaries     ?     18,356 15
Expenses of office—
Books $        90 78
Telegrams, telephones, etc        1,022 29
Expressage     179 19
Printing and stationery        7,973 17
Postage           1,025 40
Furniture and repairs  5 00
Equipment and  repairs     490 98
Insurance     25 50
         10,812 31
Travelling expenses    599 75
Free Text-book Branch:
Salaries     5,071 33
Expenses of office—
Telegrams and telephone  $       130 61
Printing and stationery          3,821 06
Carried forward    ?    3,951 67 ?     34,839 54 13 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
0 17
Brought forward  .' $    3,951 67 $    34.S39 54
Free Text-book Branch—Continued.
Expenses of office—Continued.
Postage           1,783 78
Furniture,   etc  460 98
  6,196 43
Books, maps, globes, etc  84,680 11
Agricultural Education:
Salaries     28,511 67
Office supplies $    1,044 52
Travelling expenses        2,124 56
Grants in aid        9,345 24
Summer school           6,039 36
         19,153 68
Industrial Education:
Salaries     6,962 45
Office supplies   $    1,879 55
Travelling expenses          1,316 31
Night-schools      17,679 93
Summer school ,        9,292 19
Grants in aid  '.      27,243 74
 57,411 72
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries     49,474 74
Office supplies    $    5,081 77
Travelling   expenses         20,208 85
 25,290 62
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries  25,905 00
Office supplies   $   3,264 31
Travelling expenses    800 00
Fuel, water, and light           2,281 01
Maintenance and repairs   ;        2,699 49
Students' mileage          2,494 30
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal students        1,317 50
         12,856 61
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries     23,475 14
Office supplies    $   2,337 14
Travelling expenses   421 20
Fuel,  water,   and  light           3,012 05
Maintenance and repairs      13,615 25
Students' mileage           2,464 80
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal  students   ....:  855 00
Incidentals   3 50
         22.708 94
Deaf, Dumb, and Blind:
Salaries     12,830 58
Office supplies ?      502 27
Travelling expenses          1,000 60
Fuel, water, and light   692 59
Maintenance  and  repairs     398 57
Furniture, etc        4,534 97
Provisions, etc        9,886 32
Education of blind children          3,061 80
Incidentals  26 60
 20,703 72
Carried forward  ?  431,000 95 0 18
Public Schools Report.
1922
Brought fonoard 	
Per capita grant to cities	
Per capita grant to district.municipalities 	
Per capita grant to rural school districts	
Salaries to teachers in assisted schools 	
Salaries to teachers in Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Belt
School buildings, erection and' maintenance   	
Libraries   	
Manual-training equipment	
Examination of teachers and High School Entrance classes .
Conveying children to central schools 	
Grants to Frontier College, etc	
Incidentals   	
Grant to University of British Columbia  	
431,000 95
670,594 28
442,399 15
147,048 75
472,005 15
97,640 35
379,902 46
1,865 88
624 92
21,843 82
24,283 37
3,250 00
4,278 87
445,000 00
$3,141,737 95
Amount expended by cities, district municipalities, rural and assisted school
districts     4,691,840 25
Grand total cost of education   $7,833,578 20
The following table shows the cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil on enrolment
and on average daily attendance during the past ten years:—
Year.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Average Actual
Daily Attendance.
1912-13	
$17 91
20 04
21 78
22 50
22 47
22 64
24 88
27 20
29 01
29 33
$23 85
1913-14 	
25 27
1914-15	
26 65
1915-16	
28 56
1916-17	
27 83
1917-18 	
27 93
1918-19	
31 59
1919-20	
36 05
1920-21             	
36 38
1921-22	
35 70
The gradual growth of the schools, as well as the cost to the Provincial Government of
maintaining the same, is shown by the record of attendance and expenditure given in the
following exhibit:—■
Year.
Number
of School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of
Attendance.
Oovernment Expenditure for
Education.
•
1877-78 	
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
575
582
636
665
716
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
67,516
72,006
79,243
85,950
91,919
1,395.50
1,383.00
3,093.46
7,111.40
11,055.65
16,357.43
23,195.27
43,274.12
54,746.76
56,692.38
59,791.39
68,497.57
75,528.38
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
81.09
78.73
75.45
79.69
82.16
$     43,334 01
1882-83	
50,850 63
1887-88	
99,902 04
190,558 33
1892-93	
1897-98 	
247,756 37
397,003 46
464,473 78
1602-03	
1907-08 	
1912-13	
1,032,038 60
1,529,058  93
1,791,153 47
2,155,934 61
1917-18 	
1918-19	
1919-20   	
1920-21 	
2,931,572 25
3,141,737 95
1921-22	 13 Geo. 5
Public Scliools Report.
C 19
The following statement shows the number of teachers of each sex employed during 1921-22
and 1920-21, and also the number of certificates of each class held by the teachers:—
Number of Certificates of each Class.
Number of Teachers
of each Sex.
Total.
Academic.
261
118
39
64
First.
Second.
533
372
312
Third.
Temporary.
Special.
Male.
Female.
High Schools	
Urban Municipalities	
Rural Municipalities	
Rural and Assisted	
285
135
128
99
119
156
13
10
14
165
27
104
40
184
191
132
193
117
958
587
632
301
1,149
719
825
Totals, 1920-21....
482
433
54S
490
1,217
1,105
374
418
202
139
171
149
700
595
2,294
2,139
2,994
2,734
The reports which follow deal more fully with various phases of educational work in the
schools of the Province.
I have the honour to be,
i Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
, Superintendent of Education. C 20 Public Schools Report. 1922
INSPECTORS' REPORTS.
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
Victoria, B.C., August 31st, 1922.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg leave to submit herewith my report on the high and superior schools of
Inspectorate No. 1 for the school-year ending June 30th, 1922.
This inspectorate contains the following schools: Abbotsford, Bradner, Bridgeport, Chase,
Chilliwack, Cloverdale, Courtenay, Cumberland, Duncan, Esquimalt, Golden, Granby Bay,
Kamloops, Ladner, Ladysmith, Langley, Matsqui, Merritt, Mount Lehman, Nanaimo, Oak Bay,
Ocean Falls, Point Grey Municipality (King George V., Prince of Wales), Port Alberni, Prince
George, Prince Rupert, Quesiiel, Revelstoke, Salmon Arm, Smithers, Vancouver City (King George,
Kitsilano, Vancouver High School of Commerce), Vancouver North, and Victoria.
In January the superior school at Merritt was raised to the status of a high school. Superior
schools were opened at the beginning of the school-year at Chase, on the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, just east of Kamloops, and at Smithers, on the Grand Trunk Pacific,
about 225 miles'east of Prince Rupert. High schools were opened at Granby Bay (Anyox) and
at Ocean Falls. Both of these newly established high schools as well as the Prince Rupert
High School and the superior school at Smithers were reported upon by Mr. H. C. Fraser, B.A.,
who was appointed in August last to the inspectorial staff with headquarters at Prince Rupert.
Immediately prior to his appointment as Inspector of Schools Mr. Fraser was principal of the
high school at Chilliwack. The superior school at Quesnel and the high school at Prince George
were inspected by Mr. G. H. Gower, M.A., the resident Inspector for the Prince George District.
New buildings were opened during the year at Cloverdale and Nanaimo, while at Salmon
Arm a new high-school building is in course of construction. The high-school classes at Courtenay
and Merritt are now conducted in the new public-school buildings recently opened at these
centres.
While the- boundaries of my inspectorate have not been extended in the past three years,
yet the teaching staff has increased considerably, there being in this inspectorate at the present
time 162 teachers. The salaries paid to a number of these teachers indicate that School Boards
realize the fact that the most effective way of retaining the services of a competent staff is to
pay its members good salaries. Five assistant teachers received $3,010 each per annum, two
$3,150, and one received $3,458. The following annual salaries were paid to each of eight
principals: $3,440; $3,500; $3,600 ; $3,650; $3,710; $3,720; $3,884; $3,924. The principals of the
Victoria High School and the King George High School, Vancouver, are now free principals who
devote their time almost exclusively to organizing, correlating, and supervising the work of their
schools.
The change in English Literature texts for the Preliminary and Advanced Courses has been
appreciated by teachers of the Junior Grade. Instruction in the Advanced Junior classes has
greatly improved as a result of the enriched Course in English Literature. Now that there are
only twenty lessons instead of thirty prescribed in Siepmann's French Course, Book 2, more
time should be devoted to oral French. In lieu of these ten chapters an elementary text, " French
Life," by Allen and Schoell, has been substituted. As there are comparatively few teachers in
the Province who do not use the.direct method in teaching French, it should be only a short time
until an oral test is given on the examination in this subject. Teachers, generally, are pleased
to have certain topics assigned them for special attention in the teaching of Junior Matriculation
history. Six or seven topics are usually assigned for the year's study, the remainder of the textbook being used as " introductory and connecting matter." In view of this reduced prescription
of work it seems hardly necessary to have optional questions on the Junior Matriculation
history paper.
The regulations governing Junior and Senior Matriculation Examinations have been amended
so as to allow those who are actually engaged in mercantile, industrial, or other occupations to
write on one or more subjects at any June or September examination, provided that the candidate's application is accompanied by a certificate from his employer, stating that it was impossible 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 21
for the candidate to attend the regular clay sessions of a high school.    Matriculation under these
conditions must be completed within four consecutive years.
Departmental Examinations were held in June on the first- and second-year high-school
subjects. The examinations were held primarily for the purpose of grading pupils in superior
schools as well as for testing pupils of private schools who wished to enter a high school. The
examinations were compulsory for superior schools, but optional for high schools. On the
Preliminary Course, Junior Grade, Examination, 467 candidates in the Province wrote and 278
passed; on the Advanced Course, 365 wrote and 232 passed. The Revelstoke High School was
the only one in this inspectorate which sent up candidates for the first-year examination, and
the Langley High School was the only one, in addition to Revelstoke, which presented candidates
for the second-year examination. In the case of Revelstoke the Departmental Examination was
considered to be an essential test, because there had been three successive principals in the
previous year. At Langley the principal and assistant teacher were both leaving at the end of
the term. Promotions in all other high schools were made by the teachers themselves in
accordance with the clause in the rules and regulations which states: " The principals of all
high schools shall hold promotion examinations at the end of the school-year or during the
school-year, or at both times. These examinations should take the form of either oral or written
tests. The promotion lists should, however, be largely determined by the assistant teachers who
have taught the pupils." The foregoing clause is based on the sound principle that those who
are in daily contact with their pupils, and who test their ability and achievement from time
to time, should be the ones best qualified to make promotion within the school.
The results of the recent examinations show that principals and teachers have exercised
good judgment in making promotions. Out of 1,561 candidates who tried the Junior Matriculation Examination, 1058 passed and 309 were granted supplemental. The number of candidates
who tried the Junior Matriculation Examination is a fair proportion of the high-school enrolment,
which is 8,634, an increase of 1,375 pupils over the previous year. These figures show that an
increasing proportion of those who complete the Public School Course are now taking advantage
of the privileges offered in our High School Course.
I have, etc.,
A. Sullivan,
Inspector of High Schools.       i
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
Vancouver, B.C., August 18th, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the high and superior schools of my district
for the school-year ending June 30th, 1922:—
This district now embraces in all twenty-eight high and seventeen superior schools, containing 156 divisions and employing 179 teachers, an increase of twenty-six teachers over the previous
year. I was able to make 275 visits of inspection, but found it impossible to inspect all schools
twice.
During the year a new high school was opened in North Burnaby, the Powell River Superior
School was raised to the status of a high school, while new superior schools were established at
Keremeos, New Denver, Oyama, Port Coquitlam, Robson, Ruskin, Vananda, Waldo, and West-
bank Townsite. It is very interesting to note the opening of so many new superior schools. 'The
trustees in districts where superior and one-room high schools have been established are finding
it increasingly difficult to secure and retain teachers, yet because of the earnestness and diligence
of the pupils and the conscientious work of the teachers the majority of these schools are doing
very valuable work and are worthy of every encouragement.
Because of the financial stringency of the last few years School Boards have experienced
great difficulty in providing accommodation for their high-school pupils. During the last year
by-laws which will be the means of providing adequate high-school accommodation have been
passed by the City of Trail and by the following rural municipalities: Burnaby, Maple Ridge,
and Summerland. New high-school buildings are urgently needed in Agassiz, North Burnaby and
Mission. C 22 Public Schools Report. 1922
A very considerable number of teachers from this district enrolled for the summer courses
conducted this year by the University of British Columbia. Teachers who are anxious through
the instrumentality of summer courses to add to their knowledge of subject-matter and to bring
freshness and vigour to their class-room work are learning that for the accomplishment of this
purpose it is no longer necessary to go outside the Province. This summer the courses on education, school organization, and educational measurements were so arranged that it was found
possible for the School Inspectors to take up these courses after they had finished their work
in connection with the Department Examinations. This privilege was highly appreciated by the
Inspectors, as evidenced by the fact that nine of them availed themselves of the opportunity
offered.
At the last examination there was put into force the new regulation by which the superior-
school pupils are required to write the Departmental Examination for promotion from the first
to the second and from the second to the Junior Matriculation year. Although this was left
optional with high-school principals, it is very interesting to note that of the twenty-two high
schools of this district lying outside Greater Vancouver fourteen sent up their pupils for the
Government Preliminary Examination, while of the twenty-one high schools with Advanced
Junior pupils thirteen took advantage of the Departmental Examination for grading purposes.
In my tours of inspection of recent years I have been strongly impressed with the marked
manifestation of an ever-increasing interest in and an ever-growing appreciation of secondary
education. Pupils in great numbers are flocking to our high schools demanding accommodation
and tuition. Parents and pupils seem to realize more than ever before that self-education,
commendable as it is, involves so much expenditure of time and effort that few can attain it.
It is therefore to the high schools of to-day we must look for to-morrow's leaders of our country's
affairs. To this end trustees and teachers are doing their best to equip our high-school pupils
for the discharge of their duties as citizens and for the fulfilment of their destiny as individuals.
I have, etc.,
J. B. DeLong,
Inspector of High Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
Victoria, B.C., September ISth, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 1 for the year
ending June 30th, 1922:—
For the year 1921-22 this inspectorate embraced all the schools in the City of Victoria and
those on Saltspring, Mayne, Galiano, Pender, and Saturna Islands. The number of schools and
of teachers engaged was:—
/ Schools.        Teachers.
City of Victoria          19 151
Islands         14 15
Totals          33 106
With the exception of that on Pender Island, where a second division was opened in February,
the schools on the islands were all of the ungraded class. Eight of these were on Saltspring,
three on Galiano, and one on each of the other two. The total enrolment in May for the eight
schools on Saltspring was 153 pupils, and for the three on Galiano 34 pupils; Mayne had 27,
Pender 36, and Saturna 9 pupils enrolled. The classification of the pupils in these schools was
good, and the class-room work, except in a few instances, was quite satisfactory.
In the graded schools of the City of Victoria the character of the work was much the same
as that of previous years, grading from poor to excellent, according to the teaching ability of
the person in charge. During the year there developed a stronger tendency towards the elimination of the weakest members of the staff and to a more careful scrutiny of the qualifications
of candidates before making new appointments. If this policy is continued much greater
uniformity should soon appear in the work of parallel grades throughout the city schools.    There 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 23
appears to have been a tendency for the weaker teachers to gravitate towards the First and
Second Reader classes, and for many of these teachers to narrow down the scope of the work,
especially in geography and arithmetic. The more detailed outline given in the " Course of
Study " for the teaching of nature-study and geography in the Second Reader and the elimination of the prohibition regarding the teaching of formal multiplication and division to pupils
of the First Reader should lead to fewer retarded pupils in the Intermediate Grade. Heretofore
the teaching of nature-study and geography has been conducted in the First and Second Reader
classes with little or no defined aim, with the result that much of the work that might have been
accomplished in these classes had to be undertaken by the teachers of the Intermediate Grade.
The application of the multiplication tables learnt to simple problems in multiplication and
division should help to fix those tables in the child's mind and remove the necessity, as so often
happens, for relearning them upon returning to school after the summer vacation.
The change in the regulation governing the entrance of pupils to the high school was
generally approved of by principals and teachers of Entrance classes in the city, though many
of them felt that it would be difficult for the lowest 40 per cent, of the class to obtain an
average of 60 marks over the five papers of examination. The results, however, were gratifying
on the whole, and the next examination will be approached with greater confidence. Victoria
principals have at all times been conservative in recommending pupils for places in the high
school, and if the attainments of those entering the high school in recent years did not average
as high as those who entered formerly under examination the fault lay in the need of a stimulus.
The principals and teachers worked just as faithfully when the pupils were exempt from examination as they did under former conditions, but the pupils did not bring the same degree of
concentration to bear upon their work when they knew that no final test was to be undergone.
Under the present regulation the pupils have not only the stimulus of examination hut also the
added one of ranking sufficiently high in the estimation of the principal to be counted amongst
the 60 per cent, exempt from examination.
Reports upon the work of the individual teachers have been forwarded to you from time
to time; all classes were inspected once during the year, and, with few exceptions, two visits
were paid to each room. ,
I have etc.,
W. H. M. Mat,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
, Victoria, B.C., September loth, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public schools in District
No. 2 for the school-year ending June 30th, 1922:—
For the year under review this district comprised the Rural Municipalities of Saanich, Oak
Bay, Esquimau, and North Cowichan, the Cities of Duncan and Ladysmith, together with all
the rural and assisted schools in the unorganized territory lying south and east of a line drawn
from Banfield to 5 miles north of Ladysmith, on the east coast of Vancouver Island, numbering
fifty-nine school buildings, presided over by 156 teachers.
As near as possible all the rural and assisted schools were inspected twice, while 20 per
cent, of the teachers received a third and in a few cases a fourth visit.
While very few schools had to be closed on account of epidemics, yet the attendance during
the winter months declined because of the prevalence of colds and mumps. In a number of
schools the attendance frequently fell to 50 pw cent, of the enrolment, nor in all my experience
have I found so many of the teachers absent from illness and substitutes in charge of the classes.
For nearly three months of the school-year many of the teachers were simply teaching a procession of pupils. The winter, as every one knows, was unusually long and cold for this Coast,
where ordinarily children are able to attend school with considerable regularity.
The teachers in nearly every case realized the effects of this irregularity and loss of time
on the progress of their pupils, and with commendable zeal and energy undertook during the
remaining months of the school-year to make up for the time lost.    Notwithstanding all that 0 24 Public Scpiools Report. 1922
was done, however, by both teachers and pupils, to mitigate the untoward circumstances arising
from sickness and other causes, the result of the examinations for entrance to high school clearly
showed that irregularity of attendance as a contributing factor to failure is exceedingly difficult
to overcome.
In this district 347 pupils wrote the examination for entrance to a high school, of whom
203, or about 60 per cent., were successful. Perhaps the most gratifying feature, at least to me,
about the examination was the comparatively large number of successful candidates from small
but remote schools with but one and two teachers. But here again comes in the very sad and
pathetic feature—the inability of the successful pupils from the remote district to continue his
or her studies owing to the absence of high-school facilities.
In organized communities like Saanich, for instance, where no high school yet exists, the
municipality bears the cost of secondary education for its' successful pupils, but in the unorganized portions of the Province the local district is unwilling, but more frequently unable, to finance
the secondary education of the successful candidate from, the remote district.
General Remarks.—In practically all our schools there is too much book-work and too little
oral and mental work. In the lower grades especially there is too much written work. There
are too many written tests and examinations. Pupils are frequently required to write when
they have no ideas on the subject assigned for written work, and as a consequence their attempts
at written reproductions in history, geography, or story simply confirm them and habituate them
to incorrect spelling, bad English, and faulty construction. In fact, excessive written work in
any grade of public-school work simply illustrates the law of diminishing returns. It has been
estimated that upwards of 75 per cent, of the world's business is transacted orally, and the
schools in preparing children for life's duties should devote an equal proportion of school-time
to oral and mental instruction.
Written work, on the other hand, should be formal, with due regard to neatness, correct
spelling, and good penmanship, while the subject-matter treated in the written exercise should
be familiar to the pupils from having been orally reproduced by these in former occasions.
Instruction of this character, however, is more difficult than mere book-work, as it entails and
involves much previous thought and preparation on the part of the teachers. There must be
skill in questioning and the questions must tend to draw the child out and lead him on from
one step to the other, for thus is he trained to think and give expression to his thought.
I have, etc.
A. C. Stewart,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 3.
Nanaimo, B.C., September, 11th, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent, of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 3
for the year ended June 30th, 1922 :—
This inspectorate, which was formerly part of Inspectorates Nos. 1 and 2, was instituted
at the beginning of the school-year with headquarters at Nanaimo. It comprises that portion
of Vancouver Island between Cassidy and Oyster River; the west coast from the Alberni Canal
to Cape Scott;  and ten schools around Alert Bay.
There are in this inspectorate seventy-two schools with 159 teachers, each of which was
visited at least once during the year, with the exception of Suquash, where weather conditions
made a boat landing impossible.    In all, 230 visitSiOf inspection were paid during the year.
No new schools were established during the year, but new divisions were opened at Nanaimo,
Nanaimo Bay, Harewood, South Wellington, Cumberland, Grant Mine, and French Creek. Schools
were in operation for the first time at Suquash, Beaver Cove, and Dove Creek. Schools are to be
opened at Camp No. 3, near Headquarters, and at Oyster River. McGuigan, the school at old
Camp No. 3, was burned when the camp was wiped out in the Merville fire and will not be
reopened.
The Comox Valley, the Parksville District, and the Alberni District undertook the study of
consolidation of schools quite seriously during the year.    Many public meetings were held and 13 Geo. 5 . Public Schools Report. C 25
in several school districts it was most favourably considered, voted upon, and carried. Other
districts voted it down, but the leaven is at least working. Many of these districts are most
favourably situated for consolidation, with the best of roads, and I believe it will only be a
matter of a short time before several localities will adopt it.
Prizes awarded under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust were as follows:—
Group A—Miss Agnes Waugh, 2nd Division, South Wellington.
Group B—Gerald O'Connor, 1st Division, Parksville.
Group O—Miss Edith Chandler, Nob Hill.
In conclusion, might I express my appreciation of the kindly courtesy everywhere extended
to me on my visits, and to thank the teachers and School Boards for their hearty co-operation
in the many phases of educational work.
I have, etc.,
J. M. Paterson,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 4.
Vancouver, B.C.. October 12th, 1922.
<S. •/. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 4 for the school-year ending June 30th, 1922:—
The following schools comprise the inspectorial district: Eleven assisted schools along the
Coast, extending from St. Vincent Bay to Roberts Creek, East; the graded school, Howe Sound,
at Gibson's Landing; and the following schools in Vancouver City : Aberdeen, Bayview, Beacons-
field, Dawson, Charles Dickens, Simon Fraser, Grenfell, Hastings, Kitsilano, Livingstone, Mount
Pleasant, Macdonald, and Strathcona.
The school at St. Vincent Bay, 20 miles north-west of Pender Harbour, was established early
in the New Year. The growth in the school population at" Howe Sound increased to such a
degree that an additional teacher was necessary when school "reopened in September. Provision
has been made for another class-room forming a part of the main building.
Accommodation in the Vancouver City Schools, mentioned above, was generally satisfactory
until February. When the new pupils were received it became necessary to resort to the use
of basement and attic rooms that had heen temporarily abandoned. A number of new rooms
have been provided at different centres by continuing the cottage system; but the Board has
not been able to adopt! a building programme that would provide suitable and sufficient
accommodation, owing to the defeat of money by-laws.
As a rule the rural and assisted schools in this district have had a change of teachers
every year, some of them two and three during twelve months. I am pleased to report that
more than half the teachers employed in these have decided to remain for another year. Length
of service generally brings an increase of salary. In some cases, where boundaries are defined,
the Board has given a supplement to the salary paid by the Government.
The pupils of rural and assisted schools require more material for supplementary reading.
This could be accomplished with very little additional expense if provision was made for greater
variety. If, instead of sending three, six, or even a dozen books of the same title, at least six
series were available for choice, the school libraries! would be much richer in picture and story.
The city schools are no better in this respect. Apart from the one or two Readers that are
studied intensively, there is no need for each child having the same kind of Reader. Let us
have fewer books of the same edition, but greater variety, and more silent reading.
The introduction of the new syllabus of physical training caused some interruption in the
teaching of this subject, as many teachers hesitated to use the new exercises until a new outline
of the work had been issued by the supervisor. However, the change has been effected, and, on
the whole, it is appreciated by the majority of teachers. In some of the city schools there is a
decided tendency to spend too large a proportion of the time, allotted to this phase of school-
work, in dancing exercises. In order that the exercises may have the effect intended, certain
training is necessary.    This training may be divided roughly into three parts:   First, formal exercises and gymnastics; secondly, indoor and outdoor games, athletics, etc.; and, thirdly,
dancing. It is the duty of principals to see that physical-training lessons are properly taught
and regularly conducted.
Fire-drill is another feature of school activities that requires more attention and consideration in some schools. I am pleased to say that fire-drill is held with a fair degree of regularity.
During the winter months there is, however, a tendency to neglect this matter. In nearly every
case, I found the principals and teachers alike devoting their entire attention to " seeing how
quickly " the building could be emptied, the whole performance becoming one of mere routine.
A drill of this kind is too important a matter to be allowed to degenerate into a routine exercise.
There should be variation from time to time as to the exits used by different classes; and the
person in charge should be able to halt the whole exercise at any time. In this way special
instructions could be given, such as would in all probability be necessary in case of an actual
fire if some of the exits were cut off. There is not much danger of a serious fire in many of
our larger schools; but there is danger of panic from some cause which in itself might be
harmless. The increasing number of frame buildings, heated by stoves, on almost every school-
ground makes the need for precaution in the matter greater every year. School principals might
secure suggestions and assistance from those in charge of the fire-halls in the vicinity of their
schools.
The new Writing Course has, I believe, been a success. Many teachers write better than
they did a year ago, and thousands of children are now learning to apply principles that improve
their penmanship.
The supervision of over 200 class-rooms was not a light task, but meeting so many earnest
and capable teachers was a source of pleasure and encouragement. The remarkable growth of
the professional attitude among teachers is increasing from year to year. The increasing interest
of the general public in child-welfare and educational movements is clearly demonstrated by the
activities of various clubs, orders, and associations. Almost every large school has a Parent-
Teacher Association. Through these various organizations thousands of children are assisted in
many ways; teachers are encouraged in their work and brought into closer contact with parents
and the general public.
In closing, I wish to thank the,various teachers and members of School Boards throughout
the inspectorate for the many courtesies extended to ine and] for their hearty co-operation.
I have, etc.,
J. T. Pollock,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 5.
Vancouver, B.C., September 15th, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 5
for the school-year ending June 30th, 1922:—
Inspectorate No. 5 comprises the schools in the Rural Municipalities of Maple Ridge,
Matsqui, Mission (with rural and assisted school districts adjacent), Sumas; Abbotsford Rural
School District; and in Vancouver City the Cecil Rhodes, Florence Nightingale, General Gordon,
Grandview, Laura Secord, Model, Seymour, and Lord Tennyson Schools. At the close of the
school-year this inspectorate included 195 divisions—124 divisions in Vancouver and 71 rural
school divisions in the Fraser Valley.
A visit of inspection was made to each division, and as far as time permitted a second visit
of inspection was made to the rural schools. In addition to these regular visits, many special
visits were made to rural districts in connection with the departmental administration of these
schools generally. ,
There has been very little extension-work in the way of erecting new school buildings to
provide for the steadily increasing school population in the urban section of this inspectorate.
In the Rural District of Abbotsford the School Board, led by its progressive secretary, has
accomplished much. A rural school area has been formed by uniting, for school purposes only,
a portion of the Rural Municipalities of Matsqui and Sumas with the Abbotsford Rural District. 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 27
The scheme has been endorsed by the Department of Education and the Provincial Government
has come to the financial aid of the School Board of the Abbotsford Rural School District, so
that a four-room addition is being placed to the present four-room building at Abbotsford. When
completed, the Abbotsford District will be provided with a splendid modern eight-room school
buildirfg that will serve well for some years to come the educational needs of both high-school
and public-school pupils in this portion of the Fraser Valley.
Detailed reports on the work as observed in each school and each division of a school have
been forwarded periodically to the Superintendent of Education. Only a few general observations will be made in this brief report.
I note that it is a time-honoured custom in reports of this nature for Inspectors to express
deep gratification at the great advance made in the work of the schools from year to year. One
is almost forced to the conclusion that in comparatively recent times our schools must have been
in a deplorable state, but that now happily we must be close to " ultimate truth " and perfection
itself. That many reforms and progressive movements have been brought about in the general
administration of our schools I recognize gladly and rejoice, but in so far as making an assessment of the work done in the class-rooms is concerned, I do not see that the work of the
school-year under review differed materially from that of the previous year. Nor under present
conditions, in both urban and rural schools, can we hope for progress as rapid as we could wish.
There must first be more and better accommodation in the matter of school buildings to relieve
the overcrowding of children in class-rooms. The people of the rural communities must learn
to recognize the advantage of consolidating their scattered one-room schools into centralized
institutions where their children may have full advantage of a liberal education, and where
manual training, domestic science, and school-gardening take their rightful place in the
curriculum.
Teachers must have the fullest training possible and some means must be found to induce
capable teachers to sojourn for more than one season in a rural community. In city schools
there must be more supervision of the teaching in the different class-rooms by the principal.
Whether the principals of these large schools should be free to supervise part time, whole time,
or only when their own class is with the manual-training or domestic-science teachers is not for
me to discuss in this particular report, but I do wish to state the fact emphatically that in many
of the larger schools in Vancouver City included in this inspectorate there will never be anything
like the desired efficiency until there is more frequent and thorough supervision of the different
class-rooms by the principal.
In detailed reports to the Superintendent of Education I have borne testimony to the
splendid administrative qualities and the excellent technique in teaching possessed by several
principals of city schools. These men have become imbued with the spirit of the new education,
and by taking special Summer School Courses in the new movements in education have acquired
a skill and expert knowledge along the lines of mental measurements, standard tests, and the
science of supervision. In these schools, at the limited time at their disposal, several principals
have done remarkably good work in raising the standard in such subjects as arithmetic and
spelling, and have improved the standing in English by stressing " silent reading."
To the staff of these schools, however, young inexperienced teachers just out of Normal
School have from time to time been appointed. I have noted cases where some of these novices
were not only weak in class-management, but did not display a knowledge of the requirements
of the Course of Study.
I am persuaded that it would be sound educational policy to appoint young graduates from
the Normal Schools direct to the staff of a large graded school, provided the principal of that
school supervises closely the work of the new beginner. There are principals in Vancouver
exceptionally well qualified to give these new beginners the very help they need, hut few, if any,
of such beginners are given the full supervision they require.
In previous reports I have referred to the progress being made in the different subjects
of the curriculum in the school. Reviewing the situation generally, there is but little to add.
I must hasten, however, to express my gratification at the truly excellent progress being made
by the teachers as a body with the New MacLean Method Writing. The introduction of this
system into the public schools of the Province marks an epoch, and the enthusiasm with which
the teachers as a body are taking up this system of writing and the splendid results being
achieved must be a source of gratification to the author and to the Department of Education
as well. C 28 Public Schools Report. 1922
Ini the Course of Study just received I am also gratified to note the outline of a Course in
Geography for the Junior Grades. I feel sure that teachers generally will appreciate this outline
very greatly and that progress will assuredly be reported henceforth in geography.
In reference to nature-study, it is a matter of regret that there are so few school-gardens in
the portion of the Fraser Valley included in this inspectorate. In these municipalities- many
of the boys might be encouraged to remain upon the land if school-gardening and agriculture
were given more prominence in their work while at school.
As a means of raising the standing in English and as a means of vitalizing the work in
literature, history, geography, and arithmetic, I would strongly recommend teachers to put into
practice the method of the socialized recitation. I must refrain in this brief report from going
into an exposition of this method, as I am strongly tempted to do, for I know that if this method
is adopted intelligently it will vitalize the work in many class-rooms. A little book written by
Doctor William Whitney, entitled " The Socialized Recitation," will give any teacher who wishes
to adopt this helpful method all the information necessary. The A. S. Barnes Company are the
publishers.
In closing this report, may I urge all teachers to become students of " the new education."
The new education, with a new psychology that has proved that education consists solely in
bringing out of a person what is in him, in him individually, as revealed by his instincts and
interests, his temperamental, his elemental qualities, and thus puts new emphasis upon the
importance of each child having a rich, varied sensory experience, before school and out of
school and during school. And with the new education, with its new psychology, new sociology,
new curriculum, and new methods, we have learned a new plan of measurements; we are made
familiar with motivation, whereby conditions are brought about and subject-matter or educational activity is introduced in such a way that pupils are moved to learning and acting by their
own desire, for the purpose of obtaining or attaining something they want or know they need
at the time; and we are made familiar with the project method and the socialised recitation.
But in acquiring skill in and expert knowledge of all these various achievements of the new
education, let it not be forgotten, and, with all their getting, let teachers hold fast to this, that
all these need to be supplemented in the education of children by as much common-sense, as
much thought and sympathy, and by as much fine teaching and training by parents and teachers
as have always been necessary.
Teaching is needed and testing is needed; but no matter how efficient the testing and
measuring may become, and how much it may assist in teaching, teaching is and will continue
to be more important than testing.
I have, etc.,
H. H. MacKenzie,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 6.
Vancouver, B.C., September 12th, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report of the public schools of Inspectorate No. 6 for the
school-year ended June 30th, 1922:—
This inspectorate comprises the following schools in Vancouver City: Alexandra, Central,
Fairview, Franklin, Henry Hudson, Lord Nelson, Lord Roberts, and School for the Blind; also
those in Point Grey Rural Municipality, ten schools in or near Powell River, and the Provincial
Oral School. At the end of the school-year there were in the inspectorate 206 teachers. Each
school was inspected at least once during the year, and all the rural schools and nearly all the
schools of Point Grey were inspected twice.
Olsen Lake School was reopened, Vananda Rural School became a superior school, and
Powell River Superior School became a high school. In Vancouver the overcrowding continues,
with its natural consequences. In pleasing contrast stands Point Grey, which has opened during
the year two modern fire-proof school-houses, containing twenty class-rooms, and which has
under construction twelve more class-rooms.    Even this amount of building has not sufficed to 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 29
care for the increased attendance, and it has been found necessary to put up a few temporary
frame buildings.
The work done by the teachers of Vancouver and Point Grey continues to improve. This year
the improvement in the writing is marked,, particularly in classes taught by teachers who had
taken the Summer School Course in that subject. The results in arithmetic and nature-study are
still •disappointing. The one-room rural schools, while still handicapped by frequent changes of
teachers, did better work than during the previous years. Powell River School is practically a
city school, and very good work is being done there; much credit is due to the Board for the
excellent school facilities provided for the children of that locality.
The Provincial Oral School continues to do excellent work. During the year it was moved
from rented premises to a suitable home in West Point Grey.
I have, etc.,
Leslie J. Bruce,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. S.
Vancouver, B.C., September 15th, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. S for the school-year 1921-22 :—
This inspectorate comprises all the public schools in the City of North Vancouver; the Rural
Municipalities of Burnaby, Delta, Richmond, North Vancouver, and West Vancouver; and the
rural schools in the vicinity of Hope and those on the Coast from Lund to Sayward. Seventy-six
schools were in operation during the year, with a staff of 209 teachers. Fifty of these schools
are ungraded, seven are schools of two divisions, three are schools with three divisions, four are
schools with four divisions, and the remaining twelve are larger graded schools in the city or
rural municipalities varying from five to sixteen divisions.
New schools were opened during the year at Gowland Harbour, Menzies Bay, Oyster Bay,
Read Bay, Refuge Cove, and Upper Sayward. The school at Thurlow Island was reopened, but
the school at Wellbore Channel remained closed throughout the year. In practically every rural
municipality in this inspectorate there were additional appointments to the teaching staff. These
increases are a fair indication of the steady increase in the population in these districts.
During the year all schools received one inspection. The rural schools received a second
inspection, and a few divisions in the rural municipalities were also inspected a second time.
In Burnaby Municipality a four-room, one-story frame building was opened at Edmonds, a
similar one at Kingsway West, and four additional rooms were completed at Nelson Avenue.
At the present time four rooms are being added to the Gilmore Avenue School. In Richmond a
new two-room school was opened at Steveston. At Capilano, in North Vancouver Municipality,
the two-room building was destroyed by fire in December, but the Board has erected on the same
site a modern four-room building. In West Vancouver a three-room building was erected at
Twenty-second Street. The ratepayers during the year generously supported a money by-law to
provide for the enlargement of this building to an eight-room structure. When this building is
completed the Board plans to consolidate the classes to secure greater efficiency. In Iviorth
Vancouver City and in Kent Municipality the money by-laws failed to carry, and the Boards
were compelled to abandon their building programmes to provide additional accommodation so
urgently required.
The High School Entrance Examinations in June were conducted at fifteen centres. The
following is a tabulation of the results:—
Number of candidates  receiving certificates on recommendation  of their
principals  163
Number of candidates writing on the examination   340
Number of successful candidates    198
Total number of candidates who received certificates of admission to high
school   361 Thus, out of a total of 503 candidates, 361 received diplomas. This is over 71 per cent,
a record quite equal to that of former years, even though the standard was raised from 50 to
60 per cent.
For the purpose of awarding the prizes for excellence in physical training under the
provisions of the Strathcona Trust, the schools in the inspectorate were divided into three
groups. Group A comprised all schools of five or more divisions. The prize was awarded to
Miss M. A. Gray, 2nd Division, Kingsway West School, Burnaby. Group B embraced all schools
of two to four divisions inclusive. The prize was awarded to Mrs. M. Scott, 1st Division, Schou
Street School, Burnaby. Group C comprised all ungraded schools. The prize was awarded to
Miss E. G. Martin, Hardwicke Island School.
In a number of schools, especially the larger graded schools, the teachers have introduced
with marked success the MacLean Method of Muscular Movement Writing. Those teachers who
took advantage of the Summer School or the Nig*ht School classes and succeeded in mastering
the " Movement " are obtaining splendid results. In those schools where it was carefully taught
in all grades, and supervised by the principal or well-qualified teacher on the staff, the results
obtained were excellent. There are yet too many teachers attempting to do this work whose
efforts are futile.    No teacher can teach that which he does not know or has not mastered.
No subject is in more urgent need of improved methods of teaching than the subject of
English. The lamentable attempts on the part of too many of our pupils to express themselves
either orally or in writing is too clear an indication of a lack of method in presenting this subject
in an effective way—a subject that is of such vital importance to every child. A few teachers,
I am pleased to say, are obtaining splendid results in this subject, but in all such cases there is
always a clear and definite method pursued.
In conclusion, I wish to say that during the. year much splendid work has been accomplished.
The Boards of School Trustees, in spite of many difficulties, have succeeded in erecting new
buildings, adding new class-rooms, improving the grounds, and providing better equipment.. The
principals and teachers have been most earnest and painstaking in their work, and although they
have not always laboured amid pleasant surroundings, yet they have given loyal and devoted
service.
I have, etc.,
F. G. Calvert,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 9.
New Westminster, September 15th, 1922.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 9 for the year 1921-22.
This inspectorate comprises: (a) The city schools of New Westminster, Chilliwack, and
Port Coquitlam; (b) those of the Rural Municipalities of Chilliwack, Coquitlam, Langley, and
Surrey; (c) the schools at Alvin, Barnston Island, Essondale, Popcum, together with the Provincial Boys' Industrial School at Port Coquitlam. The number of rooms in operation during
the year increased from 187 to 192, 84 of these being in New Westminster, Chilliwack, and Port
Coquitlam, and the remainder in rural schools; it should be pointed out that the increase in
school attendance has been greater than these figures would indicate, many of the classes being
very large. These schools may be divided among two groups—the graded city schools, in which
about one-third of the teachers are engaged, and the rural schools, which employ the remainder;
and it will be convenient to report on these groups separately.
In the cities, as in the rural districts, the ever-increasing child population has presented
problems of accommodation; in New Westminster relief has been found by utilizing school
libraries, teachers' rooms, and medical officers' quarters, and at the time of my inspection
twenty-seven classes had an attendance of forty pupils or over; new buildings will be needed
at an early date, and some of the older schools should be rebuilt or otherwise brought up to
the level of-modern sanitary requirements. At Chilliwack pupils from the municipality were
withdrawn from the old eight-room Central School and accommodated in the excellently
appointed four-room Robertson  School,  built by  the Township  Board just outside the  city; 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 31
but already the attendance of township pupils taxes this new building almost to the limit, while
the city school has again overflowed into two outside rooms. Apart from overcrowding, these
larger graded schools are generally well provided with necessary equipment. The School trustees
realize their obligation to the children as well as to the ratepayer, and while leaving technical
details to the teaching staff, they have shown commendable energy and determination in ensuring
adequate supplies and equipment; and in staff appointments, organization, and general support
of principals and teachers they have made every effort to secure effective work.
There is a wide variation between the quality of the work done in these larger schools.
One could name some in which a very high standard is reached, while in others my reports have,
shown that with all the advantages of close grading and supervision the work is defective, and
there is far too much unnecessary retardation of pupils. The remedy lies in a more thorough
and effective supervision of the class-teaching and its results, and in the adoption of a more
rigorous system of " child-accounting," a system whereby the reasons for slow progress of the
individual child may be noted, intelligently studied, and remedied; and, no less important,
whereby the bright pupil may be advanced as rapidly as his ability and interests demand.
Some principals and teachers need reminding that businesslike methods are required even in
education, and that one valuable justification of this costly public service would lie in demonstrating the fact that it actually accomplishes what is expected of it. So far as the seven-year
Public School Course is concerned, it should be satisfactorily covered in seven years by ordinary
children, and in a year or two less or more by those who are respectively more brilliant or
duller; some, unfortunately, will not cover it at all, and for these special classes are provided.
As professional men and women, we should make it our business to see that such demonstration
of efficiency is forthcoming.
In the rural areas there has been definite amelioration of the overcrowding mentioned in
my last report. Reference has already been made to the new four-room school in Chilliwack
Municipality; in Surrey a new high-school buildifrf has temporarily relieved the congestion at
Cloverdale, and the construction of eleven new class-rooms at various points (with three or four
more in contemplation) serves to indicate the extent of the pressure; in Langley the high-school
pupils have been withdrawn from the four-room school at Murrayville, two rooms have been
added at Langley Prairie, and a new building at South Aldergrove, but there is still need of
additional and more suitable accommodation in several of the schools; at Cheam View, 18 miles
north-east of Chilliwack, a new assisted school is to be opened after the holiday. All these new
buildings and additions have been made with the aid of the usual grants from the Department,
grants that would have been materially increased had a policy of consolidating existing schools
been adopted; certain areas readily lend themselves to a partial consolidation, perhaps of
Intermediate and Senior Grades, and there are indications that public opinion will soon demand
the more efficient type of education thus rendered possible. Results in these smaller schools are
usually quite inferior to those obtained in well-managed graded schools, and one reason for this
is the frequent change of teacher, with all the lack of continuity that such changes entail.
In nearly all these schools there are instances of retardation, and no one can be held responsible
for the condition; for rarely indeed does the incoming teacher find a record of each child showing
date of entry to the school, details of attendance, time spent in each grade, reasons for non-
promotion, and other data which would enable her to gauge the situation and to adopt the
remedial measures demanded. Salaries are not wholly responsible for these frequent changes,
though trustees are beginning to realize the economy of paying salaries high enough to retain
efficient and experienced teachers in the smaller schools ; the conditions of work are discouraging
and could be greatly improved by better classification, the older pupils attending larger central
schools, and the younger ones continuing at the junior schools near their homes.
What was said in regard to city trustees and their realization of the importance of their
duties applies equally, to these Rural Boards, and their unremitting services are not always
appreciated by the rural voter; they have to walk warily lest their efforts towards efficiency and
true economy be misinterpreted as extravagance and waste, though the outlook even in this
respect is hopeful.
Throughout the year you have received detailed reports of conditions in the class-rooms;
in both city and rural schools the teachers have shown themselves animated by earnestness
and sympathy in their work; they vary in ability, but one finds them giving of their best and
ready to profit from the advice one is able to offer.    Where results are obviously disappointing C 32 Public Schools Report. 1922
and inadequate, it is usually the organization that is at fault, though one does occasionally find
instances of neglect or inability to assign suitable seat-occupations, and of disinclination, to
supervise and correct with the children the product of their activity. Such conditions are
usually hopeless; for if a teacher has not sufficient interest to supervise, read over, point
out weaknesses, have the children correct the work, and preserve it for comparison, why should
the child find it worth while to make that supreme effort that is essential? We need to
remember that it is the child's effort, not ours, that counts, and that we are successful in our
training of children just in proportion as we enable them to do without our aid. One sometimes
finds too low a standard of achievement accepted in the school; apart from the joy of work
well done, surely common-sense would dictate the policy of exacting nothing short of the best
the pupils are capable of, and it would be well if teachers could sometimes visit other rooms
and see for themselves what others are accomplishing under similar conditions; mere display
of specimens of work is not sufficient.
Many teachers from this inspectorate avail themselves of the Summer Courses at the
British Columbia University, in Victoria, or in the United States. Attendance at these holiday
courses involves sacrifice, but ample compensation is found in the stimulus resulting not only
from the lectures and courses, but from vital contact with other personalities engaged in the
same profession. Some such continuance of professional training is essential if the teacher's
work is to retain its freshness and vigour, quite apart from the advisability of ascertaining
whether or not educational method has made any advance since the days when he himself
attended Normal School.
In Surrey, Langley, Chilliwack, and New Westminster school-gardening forms part of the
curriculum and is carried on under direction of the District Agricultural Supervisors; apart
from the value of regular visits from these Supervisors, the work possesses distinct educational
merit. The school exhibits in the various fairs were highly creditable and we're comprehensive
in their, scope; garden produce, experimenral work in seed, plant, and stock-raising, stock-
judging, manual work in various mediums, drawing and colour-work, photography, penmanship,
written compositions, and essays—all found a place. It is difficult to overestimate the value of
including among the school exercises some of the recreative, artistic, and musical pursuits
whose appeal is universal, though more directly made to those children whose development lies
along the emotional and aesthetic side.
In conclusion, it may be said that there is a steady and unmistakable improvement in the
work of these schools; this opinion is not based upon examination results, although, in so far
as examination results may be regarded as evidence of completion of that part of education
which falls to the lot of the public school, these results entirely bear out this opinion.
I have, etc.,
Arthur Anstey,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 10.
Kamloops, B.C., September 11th, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 10 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1922 :—
Last year a new adjustment of the boundaries of the Revelstoke, Nelson, Okanagan, and
Kamloops Inspectorial Districts was made necessary by the establishment of a new inspectorial
district in the Interior, with headquarters at Cranbrook. As a result of this readjustment the
Kamloops Inspectorate now extends east and west from Squilax to North Bend, and includes
ail the territory on both sides of the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway between these
points as far north as the 70-Mile House on the Cariboo Road and south to Aspen Grove. The
district includes, as well, all the schools in the valley of the North Thompson River and along
the main line of the Canadian National Railway to the line of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report.
The following was the number of schools actually in operation throughout this district during
the year just closed:—
Schools.        Teacliers.
City municipality schools        2 27
Rural schools      23 32
Assisted schools      68 69
Totals        93 128
Seven new assisted schools were established and in operation for the first time during the
year, and a 2nd Division opened in the Little Fort School District. The schools at .Chinook
Cove and at Pinantan, which had been closed for several years through lack of pupils, were
opened and are again in operation. The 2nd Division in Clinton School was closed throughout
the year, owing, mainly, to lack of accommodation, but provision has been made for the reopening
of this division at the beginning of the new term.
During the year the school accommodation throughout the inspectorate has been extended
and materially improved in very many instances. The ratepayers in assisted districts, with very
few exceptions, are alive to the necessity for providing bright and attractive surroundings for
their pupils, and are doing all within their means to erect good school buildings. A fine spirit
of co-operation has been displayed in many of these districts in the erection of school buildings
which have become community centres for the social and other public activities in the settlements. In one or two cases the zeal for providing facilities for large public gatherings has
induced ratepayers to erect large class-rooms out of all proportion to the number of pupils in
the district. The result of this has been that these class-rooms are hard to heat in winter, and
have entailed a heavy expense for upkeep to the ratepayers. I would draw the attention of
trustees, especially those in the newer and outlying settlements, to the necessity for providing
suitable boarding and lodging accommodations for the teacher. I believe that such a course
would go far towards solving the problem of retaining the services of efficient teachers from
year to year in rural schools, and that provision for boarding the teacher in the best possible
surroundings in the settlement should be made before the teacher is engaged. Schools in which
teachers are handicapped in their work through lack of proper equipment and school supplies
are, happily, becoming rarer each year. The teacher's influence, if exerted in the right direction
and with careful judgment, can go far towards procuring suitable furnishings and equipment
for the class-room. In a number of districts in this inspectorate during the year just closed
school buildings have been renovated, playgrounds and outbuildings improved, and new equipment and furnishings for the class-rooms provided. These schools in every case have been in
charge of teachers who have gained the enthusiastic support of the trustees and ratepayers by
the high quality of their work in the class-room, and by their deep interest in all that pertains
to the advancement and welfare of their pupils.
The necessity for providing additional accommodation for the school population in the rural
districts and city municipalities has been responsible for the erection of several fine school
buildings in this inspectorate during the past year. A new' Government-built school-house was
opened in Ashcroft at the beginning of the spring term. This building, equipped with all modern
conveniences and erected on a new site with ample space for playgrounds, is a credit to those
who are responsible for its construction. In the two city municipalities in this inspectorate the
school accommodation has been increased by the erection of a six-roomed building in Merritt
and an eight-roomed brick building in Kamloops. The latter building has been so planned as
to utilize for a fine assembly-hall the space usually given over to corridors in these buildings.
The majority of the schools in this inspectorate were visited twice during the year. Six
schools in isolated parts of the district were not inspected, as three of these were closed temporarily on the date of visit, and the difficulties of travel and lack of time proved obstacles in
the case of the others.
The character of the work performed by the teachers in this inspectorate during the year
just closed has been at least as satisfactory as that performed in preceding years. In those
schools where the teachers have remained on for two or more years the work has invariably
been of a higher quality and the progress much more marked than in the schools where a new
teacher has been engaged each year. I am glad to report that more teachers from year to year
are striving to bring home to their pupils the practical application of what they are taught in
the class-room.    Interest is being added to the study of geography and nature-study by drawing C 34 Public Schools Report. 1922
on the pupil's personal knowledge of the countryside adjacent to his home. Interest in history
has been stimulated by correlating this subject with the geography and literature lessons, and
by more vivid representations of life as it existed in the past. In arithmetic, also, teachers
are beginning to make the work more practical by assigning to the pupil tasks in actual
measurements, business methods, etc., so that he may bring to the solution of a problem the
work of his own hand and brain. In too many schools, however, the presentation of this
subject still lacks the lucidity and practicability which is necessary to bring it within the
comprehension of all the pupils. In nearly 50 per cent, of the schools which I visited this
year I found boys and girls in the Senior Grade whose ideas were very vague concerning the
actual meaning of such phrases as "per cent." and "express the area of a surface," etc.
A meeting of the Kamloops District Teachers' Association was held in the Stuart Wood
School, Kamloops, on January 3rd and 4th, the beginning of the spring term. This date was
chosen so as to entail as little expense as possible on teachers attending the meeting who would
be at that date en route from their homes to their schools. Inspiring and helpful addresses
were given by Inspector Miller, of Revelstoke; Mr. John Kyle, of the Education Department;
Mr. H. B. McLean, of the Normal School, Vancouver; Mr. Harry Charlesworth, of Victoria;
Miss Curtis and Mr. A. Cullen, of the Kamloops teaching staff; Dr. Irving, Chairman of the
Kamloops School Board; and by several others. The topics on the programme had a special
bearing on the problems that commonly confront the teacher in the small rural school; and,
judging from the nature of the discussions and the generally expressed opinion of those attending the meetings, the " small convention," with its opportunities for free and informal discussion
and the interchange of opinions on the every-day work of the school-room, is of no small value
to the teacher.
High School Entrance Examinations were held in eight centres in this inspectorate in June
last. The Governor-General's medal for this district was won by Miss Mary H. Glasgow, of
Salmon Arm Public School. This is the second consecutive year that the medal has been
awarded to a pupil from this school. One hundred and forty-four pupils wrote from this
inspectorate; and of this number 73 candidates were successful, an average slightly greater
than 50 per cent. This is a somewhat higher average than was made by the Province as a
whole. This result is the more creditable, inasmuch as nearly 50 per cent, of those writing in
this inspectorate came from small rural and assisted schools in which the teacher has to give
instruction in the work of all the grades.
The following teachers were awarded the prizes for physical training under the provisions
of the Strathcona Trust for the school-year ended June 30th :—
Large graded schools—Miss Eva F. Payne, 14th Division, Kamloops Public School.
Small graded schools—Mrs. C. M. Venables, 3rd Division, Fruitlands School.
Ungraded schools—Miss Eleanora Piggott, Robins Range School.
In conclusion, I wish to remark that throughout the year just closed I have met with fewer
matters of a controversial nature arising out of school affairs in the districts in this inspectorate
than I have yet encountered since taking over this work. I wish to take this opportunity also
of thanking the teachers, trustees, ratepayers, and ail others with whom I have been brought
into contact in the course of my work for their courtesy, kindly consideration, and hearty
co-operation in the cause of education in this Province.
. I have, etc.,
A. F. Matthews,
i Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No.' 11.
Kelowna, B.C., August 23rd, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report in respect of the public schools of
Inspectorate No. 11 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1922.
As a result of the readjustment of inspectorates in September last, this district now includes
the Okanagan Valley from Vernon to the International Boundary-line, the Similkameen, and the 13 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 35
valley of the Kettle River east to Eholt.    It comprises a territory 120 miles from north to south
and 150 from east to west, within which the following schools are included:—
Schools. Teachers.
City municipality districts        4 37
Rural municipality districts         8 39
Rural schools      20 41
Assisted  schools        43 44
Totals        73 161
During the year new schools or divisions were in operation at Vernon (3), Penticton (6),
Oliver (2), Ewing's Landing, Westbank Townsite, Oyama, Summerland, Rutland, Jura, Rhone,
Westbridge, Blue Springs, Naramata, and Shuswap Falls, necessitating an increase of twenty-two
teachers. In addition, assisted schools have been authorized at Blakeburn, Despard, South
Kelowna, and Joe Rich Valley.
All class-rooms were inspected once and forty-six of the smaller schools received a second
visit. The usual changing of teachers took place. In September there were new teachers in
seventy-four of the eighty-eight rural class-rooms and in January an additional thirteen.
The table below, furnishes certain statistical details. It is of interest to note that the type
of certificate held appears to have little bearing on the amount of salary received, a condition of
affairs which does not offer encouragement to the teacher who is anxious to improve her prates-,
sional standing; the most important consideration in arriving at a basis for salary adjustments
is efficient class-room work, but, other things being equal, the teacher with the higher certificate
will do the better work. It is also significant that the highest per capita salary cost is in the
assisted schools, though the average salary paid in these schools is low; this furnishes a very
obvious argument for consolidation where such a solution is practicable.
of
«s
K —
- o
Oi   U
39
32
25
14
0.     .
Oi-T-
a 1,
O t.
° S
«'£.
OC P*
Average Salaries.
Certificates, with Average Salary for each.
Class
of
Men.
Women.
All.
Academic.
First.
Second.
Third.
Temporary.
Men.
Women.
Men.
Women.
Men.
Women.
Men.
Women.
Men.
Women.
City   municipality 	
Rural    municipality. ...
$30.40
39.90
51.43
66.65
$1,955
1,628
1,498
1,043
31,310
1,232
1,218
1,008
$1,379
1,295
1,306
1,016
$2,403
1,603
1,020
$1,320
1,320
1,420
1,020
$2,000
1,412
1,080
$1,410
1,265
1,228
1,035
$1,500
1,260
1,140
31,288
1,226
1,113
994
$1,177
$1,380
1,320
1,035
$1,248
1,000
1,205
1,024
31,400
1,400
1,000
31,200
1,000
Average.
$1,456
$1,190
$1,244
$1,729
$1,300
1,522
$1,279
$1,300
$1,192
SI,107
31,228
$1,050
The following recapitulation shows the results obtained in the Entrance examinations by
the various types of schools in this inspectorate:—
c
o   .
e
o
o
T3
q
Schools.
c
V
n 2
_u
1
P.
C  Oi
CD
g
o
2 o
oo
ci
"rf
A
A
03 d
<
O
■- o
O ft
a
o
H
89
105
58
67
49
20
59
55
59
64
58
52
54
49
47
63
57
55
58
54
64
298
273
267
17
11
57
63
54
60
44
268
These results, when compared with the general average for the Province, are reasonably
satisfactory. The records of the individual schools, which are in the hands of the teachers
concerned, show clearly that it is possible for any type of school to have a fair percentage of
its total enrolment pass this examination. It is equally clear that the examination possibilities
of the graded school are higher than those of the semi-graded, and that the latter, in turn, are
superior to the ungraded. I have, etc..
A. R. Lord,
Inspector of Schools. C 36 Public Schools Report. 1922
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 12.
Revelstoke, B.C., September 9th, 1922.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—I beg to submit herewith the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 12 for the school-year which ended on June 30th, 1922:—
The assignment of an additional Inspector to the Interior of the Province, with headquarters
at Cranbrook, resulted in giving me a much more compact district, which now includes the
Upper Columbia Valley from Windermere to Golden; the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway from Field to Notch Hill; the Lower Columbia Valley from Revelstoke to Deer Park
(near the foot of Lower Arrow Lake), along with the Trout Lake section of the Lardeau
District; the Okanagan Valley as far south as Armstrong; and the settlements scattered along
the main Shuswap Lake from Sicamous to Lee Creek.
During the year the following assisted schools were opened in this district: Eagle Bay, on
Shuswap Lake, about 18 miles above Sorrento; Hillcrest, between Enderby and Salmon Arm;
and Trinity Creek, about 9 miles south-east of Enderby. An additional division was opened in
the Revelstoke School at the beginning of February. The schools at Ferguson, Gerrard, and
Parson were not in operation during the year, and the services of one teacher were dispensed
•with when the consolidation of the Armstrong and Spallumcheen School Districts went into
effect. In all, there were ninety-one schools in operation in this district during the year, with
a total staff of 135 teachers, the gains exactly balancing the losses in both schools and teachers
as compared with the figures for last year. Of these totals, one was a consolidated (city and
rural municipality) school with fifteen teachers; three were graded city schools with a staff
of twenty-four teachers; seven were rural municipality schools (one graded), with a staff of
eight teachers; five were graded rural schools, with a staff of thirteen teachers; ten were
ungraded rural schools;   and the remaining sixty-five were ungraded assisted schools.
On the whole the work done in these schools may be regarded as satisfactory, the great
majority of the teachers proving themselves at least reasonably capable and efficient. At the
end of June thirty-eight pupils were promoted to high school without examination on the recommendation of their principals, while of 185 duly recommended pupils who wrote the Entrance
Examination, ninety-two were successful, a percentage of 49.73. The following schools passed
100 per cent, of their recommended pupils :—City : Enderby. Rural municipality : Oanoe, West
Salmon Arm. Rural: Arrowhead, Mara, Nakusp, Notch Hill, Tappen. Assisted: Ashton Creek,
Blaeberry, West Demars, Hendon, Needles, Sproat, Sunnybrae, Trout Lake. None of the
unrecommended pupils, of whom twelve in all from this district took the examination, were
successful. Marion Betty Bryant, of the 1st Division, Enderby, ranked third in the whole
Province in this examination, with 432 marks out of a possible 500, and was awarded one of
the Governor-General's medals.
The Armstrong-Spallumcheen consolidation scheme appears to be working out very satisfactorily. There has been a little grumbling with regard to the expense, and there were a good
many difficulties connected with the transportation problem during the winter months, when
conditions in this respect were just about as unfavourable as they could be; but when the
benefits of better housing, improved attendance, and more efficient teaching are fully realized
there should not be much inclination to return to a system that at its best deprived many
children of the opportunity of securing anything like an adequate preparation for the business
of life.
The extent to which the schools are being handicapped by the apparently increasing tendency
of teachers to move about may be understood when it is stated that 31 per cent, of the positions
in the city and consolidated schools, 62 per cent, of those in the rural municipality schools, and
67 per cent, of those in the rural and assisted schools of! this inspectorate experienced a change
of teachers between June, 1921, and March, 1922, most of these changes taking place, of course,
during the 1921 midsummer vacation.
In closing, it may be of some slight interest to note that during the last four years I have
travelled 33,234 miles in the course of my official duties.
I have, etc.,
A. E. Miller,
Inspector of Schools. 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 37
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 13.
Nelson, B.C., August 19th, 1922.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 13 for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1922:—
As a result of the rearrangement of inspectorial districts made in August, 1921, this
inspectorate comprises: (1) The City of Nelson; (2) the section along the line of the Great
Northern Railway southward to the International Boundary; (3) the valley of the Slocan Lake
and River; (4) the Kootenay River Valley west of Nelson; and (5) the areas defined generally
as the Rossland, Trail, and Grand Forks Districts.
During the year additional rooms were opened at Grand Forks, Trail, and Robson, while
the schools at Christina Lake, Columbia Park, and Sand Creek were reopened after several years
of inactivity. New Denver and Robson were raised to the status of superior schools and the
school at Birchbank was closed for lack of attendance.
A very creditable two-room building was erected at Castlegar, while one-room additions
were constructed at Fruitvale and Salmo. The ratepayers of Park Siding built a small but
comfortable school, of which they are justly proud. The building at Rosebery was, unfortunately,
burned in February, but arrangements are being made to begin class-work in September in a
new and more commodious structure.
The percentage of change in the teaching staff of the rural schools has been much lower
than last year, with a corresponding increase in efficiency, and this inspectorate has had but
few teachers of the " chronic itinerant " class.
As every class-room in continuous operation during the year has had at least two inspections,
it has been a much easier matter than formerly to form an opinion of the work of the various
teachers. The standard in arithmetic, primary reading, and penmanship has shown, on the
whole, a satisfactory improvement.
I am more than ever convinced that the success of a teacher depends less on unusual
intellectual attainments than on the willingness to spend the time and effort necessary to plan
out in careful detail the work of the following day.
The majority of the teachers have shown a very commendable attitude toward their -work,
and I have, in many cases, been greatly encouraged by the evident increase in the effectiveness
of their teaching.
Without some reference to the work of the School Boards this report would be incomplete.
Much of my district being new to me, I met many Boards for the first time. Practically without
exception I have found these men and women to be earnestly and unselfishly endeavouring to
make the school of greater service to the community. I wish to express my appreciation of the
courtesy and friendly spirit of co-operation which they have shown to me.
I have, etc.,
E. G. Daniels,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 14.
Cranbrook, B.C., September 7th, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 14
for the school-year ending June 30th, 1922.
This inspectorate was reduced in size somewhat during the summer of 1921, and now
extends from Sandon and Willow Point on the west to the Intel-provincial Boundary, and from
Cooper Creek at the northern end of Kootenay Lake and Larchwood School at Skookumchuck
southward to the International Boundary. C 38 Public Schools Report. 1922
During the year 65 schools employing 129 teachers were in operation; these consisted of
the following:—
Schools.        Teachers.
City municipalities   (3)          5 43
Rural schools      22 46
Assisted  schools        38 40
All schools were visited once during the year and most of the rural schools received a second
inspection, the total number of visits being 201.
Owing to the increase in school population it has been necessary to open several new
schools, and in the cities School Boards have had to face the difficulty of providing additional
accommodation. Plans for an eight-room addition to the Central School in Cranbrook are being
prepared, and this will take care of the increased enrolment there for some time. In Fernie,
after making use of all the temporary accommodation available, it has been necessary to put
classes on the " double-shift" system. It is to be hoped that a by-law soon to be submitted
to the ratepayers will remedy this unfortunate state of affairs. New assisted schools opened
during the year were Queen's Bay and Johnson's Landing, on Kootenay Lake; Sullivan Hill,
near Kimberley; Larch wood School, at Skookumchuck; and Wattsburg, near Cranbrook; while
the Mirror Lake School near Kaslo, which had been closed for some time, iwas reopened.
Additional divisions were added to the Cranbrook, Creston, Erickson, Wynndel, and Waldo
Schools. The Roosville and Wanklyn Schools and 2nd Division, Wardner School, did not
reopen in September last and the Caithness School was closed at Christmas.
Owing to the shortage of qualified teachers it was necessary to issue fifteen temporary
certificates to teachers in this inspectorate. Some of them did very good work, -while others
were very much handicapped through lack of training.
The frequent change of teachers has been dealt with in many previous reports. Several
School Boards in this area have now provided teachers' residences, and it is gratifying to note
that in almost every instance where this has been tried the teachers have remained for a second
year or longer.
With few exceptions I found the teachers making a conscientious effort in their work.
Of all the subjects on the curriculum, perhaps the least satisfactory results were obtained in
arithmetic, although more time was devoted to this subject than any other. This was mainly
due to the fact that too large a part of the time given to arithmetic was spent in seat-work.
Too little time was devoted to oral questioning, by means of which the pupils are taught to
acquire the habits of thinking and reasoning. Lack of speed and accuracy in this subject was
also noticeable.
A marked improvement was apparent in the pupils' writing. This I attribute to the
introduction of the MacLean System of Writing, which has been a very helpful guide even
to those teachers who have not yet qualified. As more teachers become proficient a greater
improvement can be expected in the penmanship of the pupils.
Generally speaking, the results of the Entrance Examinations were satisfactory, the
candidates of Cranbrook, Fernie, Kaslo, and Sandon Schools doing particularly well. The
Governor-General's medal for the district went to Willie Duncan, of the Fernie Public School.
This boy has also the distinction of being highest in the Province.
I regret that more teachers did not enter their classes in the physical-drill competition.
I believe it was not clearly understood that the Strathcona Trust Committee had established
a most equitable basis of competition. The prizes for excellence in physical training were
awarded as follows :—
Large graded schools—Miss M. M. Blankenbach, 2nd Division, Cranbrook.
Small graded schools—Mr. S. O. Harries, 1st Division, Coal Creek.
Ungraded schools—Miss M. S. Balfour, Argenta School.
A forward step was made by the Fernie Public School in the direction of visual instruction.
The staff and pupils of this school have purchased a Victor high-power stereopticon, and already
■over 300 slides have been made, covering geography, history, nature, and literature. These are
supplemented by slides obtained at a very low rental from the Extension Department of the
University of Alberta.
The present movement towards visual education has had a remarkably rapid growth. The
picture is coming to be considered and demanded as a mental stimulus of unequalled value in
schools and colleges, in social centres and industrial organizations.    There was a time when 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 39
" text-books " were viewed with scepticism and apprehension. Strange as this period in the
history of text-books now appears, we are in exactly the same period in the history of " text-
films " and " text-slides." Warnings are still heard occasionally against " making education
easy," but we see more clearly every day that pictures, and above all the motion picture, will
make education easy only in the sense that we can now achieve more quickly all that has
previously been achieved in education, and thus open the way to a richer, deeper, and broader
training for the nation without the expenditure of any more time than before.
I have, etc.,
V. Z. Manning,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 15.
Prince Rupert, B.C., September 12th, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 15 for the
school-year ended June 30th, 1922 :—
This inspectorate is comprised of the schools in the Electoral Districts of Atlin, Prince
Rupert, and Omineca as far east as Endako. Many of these schools are in remote sections and
quite isolated; consequently much time is spent in travel. Nevertheless, with the exception of
Atlin, Discovery, and Telegraph Creek, which were not reached ■during the year, all the schools,
except those on Queen Charlotte Islands and Surf Inlet, were twice inspected.
The following schools were in operation for the first time: Colleymount, Uncha Valley,
South Bank, Grassy Plains, and Tatalrose, in the Francois Lake country; Kitwanga and Quick,
on the Grand Trunk Pacific; Hunter Island, 30 miles south of Ocean Falls; Oona River, on
Porcher Island; and Pratt, near New Hazelton. Additional divisions were opened at Granby
Bay, Ocean Falls, Smithers, and Prince Rupert. Altogether there were sixty-four schools,
employing 105 teachers.
Schools have been authorized at Palling, near Burns Lake; at Woodmere, near Telkwa; at
Woodcock, on the Grand Trunk Pacific; and at Premier, near Stewart. These schools will be
ready for opening at the beginning of next school-year. Other petitions are coming in. All this
is indicative of the rapid development of Northern British Columbia, especially of the Omineca.
Early in the year high schools were opened at Granby Bay and Ocean Falls. A superior
school established at Smithers was opened in September. On account of the remoteness of this
district your Department requested me to visit these schools, as well as the high school at
Prince Rupert. Regrading was necessary in some cases in the new schools; irregularities were
eliminated; in general fairly good work was being done. At Prince Rupert a Commercial Course
was given for the first time. Senior Matriculation work will be carried on in this school next
year.    The high-school inspection was a pleasing break in the year's routine.
At Prince Rupert the new Booth Memorial School was abandoned at Easter and temporary
quarters were fitted up in the basements of the other schools. In spite of this interruption,
however, good work was done in all the grades, 78 per cent, of those taking the Entrance
Examination passing successfully. This building is now being repaired and will be ready for
occupation again next school-year.
High School Entrance Examinations were held at nineteen centres, 139 pupils presenting
themselves. Of these over 60 per cent, were successful. The Governor-General's medal for this
district, which includes the whole of Northern British Columbia, was won by Ralph Edwin
Spencer, a pupil of the school at Port Simpson taught by Mr. Burnett Woodward. A close
second was Harriette Blanche Harrison, of Wistaria, one of the most isolated schools in this
inspectorate.
Prizes for excellence in physical training were awarded! as follows :—■
Schools of more than four divisions—Miss Mary Gladwell, 16th Division, Prince Rupert.
Schools of from two to four 'divisions—Miss Lena Wolf enden, 1st Division, Ocean Falls.
Schools of one room only—Mr. Joseph Dilworth, New Hazelton.
In conclusion, allow me to say that the majority of the teachers in this inspectorate did
fairly faithful work during the year.    Many of them were in charge of their first school;  not a C 40 Public Schools Report. 1922
few had temporary certificates only; some were in lonely places with poor equipment and poor
accommodation; yet in most cases they were able to adapt themselves to pioneer conditions and
to experience the joy of a year's work well done. Several of the teachers with temporary certificates did splendid work. Still the average school district prefers a Normal School graduate.
By beginning early and taking advantage of the excellent service supplied by the Department's
Teachers' Bureau, nearly every school has been provided with a regularly trained teacher for
September, 1922. I have, etc.,
H. C. Fraser,
Inspector of Schools.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 16.
Prince George, B.C., August 21st, 1922.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 16 for the
school-year ending June 30th, 1922:—
This inspectorate comprises the schools in the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Belt east of
Endako; those in the Cariboo and Lillooet Districts as far south as the 100-Mile House; and
those in the Peace River District.
During the year the following assisted schools were opened: Webber Lake, north-east of
Vanderhoof; Bear Head, south-east of Fort Fraser; Meadowdale, south-east of Vanderhoof;
Willowvale, near Fort Fraser; Stone Creek, on the Pacific Great Eastern grade south of Prince
George; Stuart Station; Longworth; Fraser Lake; Pine View, near Prince George; Felker
Lake, south of Williams Lake; Fort St. John; Doe Creek, Peace River; South Dawson Creek,
Peace River; and Bear Flats, Peace River. Schools were authorized and should soon be in
operation at Baker Creek, west of Quesnel; Fort St. James; North Dawson Creek, Peace River;
and Canyon Creek, on the Pacific Great Eastern grade south of Prince George. The school at
Stuart River was reopened and an additional teacher was appointed to the Prince George staff.
As in previous years, a good portion of my time has been given up to organization duties
throughout this sparsely populated northern inspectorate. However, about 150 regular inspection
visits have been made.
The general standing of the schools within this inspectorate has not changed materially
since my last report was submitted. On the whole, fairly good results are being obtained in
the graded schools, whereas, on the other hand, conditions are far from satisfactory in many
of the ungraded districts. As noted in previous reports, the most important problem that faces
the rural district is how to retain the services of a competent teacher. Twenty-six out of the
sixty-nine assisted schools within this inspectorate were in charge of teachers holding temporary
certificates, many of whom had little knowledge of actual teaching. The great majority of those
teachers who are qualified do not remain sufficiently long in the schools to make a definite
impression on the children. Only nineteen of the teachers in the ungraded schools returned after
the last summer vacation. While such conditions continue in the rural districts satisfactory
results cannot be expected.
It is pleasing to note that steady progress is being made throughout the inspectorate towards
providing niore suitable school accommodation for the children. Trustees and others are taking
a keener interest than formerly in seeing that the children are housed in comfortable, sanitary
quarters. In practically all the newrer districts suitable school buildings have been erected,
while in a number of the older settlements needed repairs have heen effected to school property.
As yet, however, little has been done towards improving school-grounds, although in a few
instances a very commendable showing has been made. The improved and well-kept grounds
in the Swan Lake District, Peace River, serve as an excellent example of what a progressive
Board can accomplish. The liberal policy of the Department of granting financial aid in the
erection of buildings in assisted districts and the system of advancing quarterly any assessment
voted by a district for school purposes have contributed materially towards the betterment of
school conditions in this section of the Province.
I have, etc.,
G. H. Gower,
Inspector of Schools. 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 41
REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
Vancouver, B.C., August 16th, 1922.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Vancouver for the school-
year ending June 30th, 1922 :—
There was an increase of 934 in the school population during the year—545 in the public
schools and 389 in the high schools. This necessitated the increases in the various staffs
indicated in the following table:—
Public-school  teachers      from 416 to 437
Ordinary classes    from 399 to 418
Special classes ,     16   „     18
School for the Blind       „       1   „       1
High-school teachers    ,      7S   „     87
General Course    from   51 to   55
Commercial Course        „     11   „     12
Boys' Technical Course        „     13   ,,    17
Home Economics Course        „       3   „      3
Manual training    »       18   „    20
Domestic science        ,,     13  ,,    14
Special instructors          „       9   „     11
Total     from 534 to 569
School Organization.
A glance at the above table might lead one to suppose that the public-school teaching staff
was increased unduly for the actual increase in the number of public-school pupils. This large
increase, however, was necessitated by the overcrowded condition of classes at the close of
the previous year. It has long been the policy of the Vancouver School Board to organize the
ordinary public schools with an average enrolment of about forty per class. For the year just
closed they have been able to adhere to that policy and provide full-time tuition for all pupils.
In the high schools the lack of sufficient class-rooms permitted an increase of only nine
teachers, or one for every forty-three of increase in enrolment. This left a number of classes
too large to permit of best work being done.
Building Programme.
Never in the history of Vancouver was more class-room accommodation provided for as little
money as during the past year; but of this one cannot boast. The style of building erected was
the cheapest possible, consistent with comfort—prices ranging from $1,000 to $800 per classroom. These buildings were all paid for, as were those of the previous year, out of capital
funds provided by the City Council, on the understanding that the Board consent to a reduction
of their estimates for current, revenue. The amount thus diverted might have been spent
advantageously on the upkeep of school property.
It is quite evident this policy should not be continued indefinitely, for two reasons: There
is a limit to playground space, which is too rapidly being covered by small one-room schools, and
property worth $5,000,000 cannot continue to be neglected without great loss. Recognizing this,
the trustees appealed to the ratepayers in January for $50,000 to purchase a high-school site
in the West End, $400,000 to erect thereon a modern high school, and $20,000 for furniture and
equipment. The carrying-out of this programme would have done much to improve the accommodation in both public and high schools; but these by-laws were defeated—another evidence of
the futility of.expecting a School Board "to provide sufficient school accommodation to all
children in the district between 6 and 16 years of age inclusive" under existing financial
arrangements. C 42 Public Schools Report. 1922
Class-room Work.
The general class-room work for the year was carried on in the usual way. Results, as
indicated in a measure by departmental examination returns, were quite satisfactory in most
schools.
The increase of two in the staff of special instructors did much to improve the domestic-
science work. In September Mrs. A. C. Huggard, of the Model School staff, was appointed
supervisor of sewing and did much during the year to have the teaching of this subject in the
grades greatly improved. The one thing, however, mos? manifest in her monthly reports was
the great necessity of having grade teachers properly trained to teach sewing if it is ever to be
taught properly by them.
In January the Board was fortunate in securing a well-qualified domestic-science and art
teacher, Miss D. McKenzie, of New Zealand, to take Miss E. Berry's place in the Home Economics
classes. This left the latter free to supervise the domestic-science work, which was needing
supervision badly, as it was being carried on by teachers no two of whom were similarly trained.
Considerable difficulty has been experienced in securing and retaining the services of well-
qualified domestic-science teachers. This no doubt will continue to be the case as long as this
Province depends on the importation of these teachers. It seems to me the time has come for
their training locally, and that this might be done at no great cost.
•
Salaries.
Notwithstanding the general downward tendency in the cost of living, in wages and in
salaries, the Vancouver School Board made no reductions. In a few instances they made
increases that were found necessary—vice-principals' maximum salaries were increased to
$2,400; salaries of domestic-science and art teachers in high schools were advanced to la
maximum of $2,450 from $1,800; and a schedule was drawn up for high-school principals
providing for initial salaries of $3,300, rising to $4,000 in five years.
School for the Blind.
On May 1st, 1916, the Vancouver School Board, with the approval of the Education Department, opened a boarding-school at 1238 Melville Street, in which to educate blind children.
The work done in this school for over six years ,by the teacher, Mrs. Thos. Burke, has been of
a high order. The School Board, however, is pleased that the Education Department is now
taking over the school to conduct it on a larger scale to serve the entire Province. At its closing
exercises in the Aberdeen Auditorium on June 27th many citizens were present, and all expressed
themselves as pleased with the splendid work Mrs. Burke had done. The children, who gave the
entire programme, clearly demonstrated that they had been well trained not only in reading
and writing, but in vocal and instrumental music, calisthenics, typewriting, public speaking, and
general deportment.    Our best wishes follow Mrs. Burke and the children who have now left us.
School Inspection.
An interesting experiment was made last year by the Vancouver School Board in arranging
for an exchange of Inspectors with the New Zealand Education Department. Assistant Municipal
Inspector T. A. Brough, of this city, exchanged with Inspector N. R. McKenzie, of Wellington,
New Zealand, who has given valuable service in many ways. Most of his time has been devoted
to inspectorial work in the class-rooms of newly appointed teachers, to whom his visits have
proved very helpful. He has also rendered good service in a wider field in familiarizing people
in this part of the Empire with conditions in his own country. In public gatherings and in
teachers' and trustees' meetings, Mr. McKenzie's contributions to discussions on educational
questions have been always welcome. He has left us with the assurance that he profited by
his year's sojourn here. We believe the Vancouver schools have profited as well, and that
Mr. Brough will return to take up his work the better for his experiences in New Zealand.
School Attendance.
The school attendance for the past year has been good for those actually enrolled. There
has been a strong tendency, however, for children to drop out of school on the completion of
their fourteenth year, as formerly, notwithstanding the fact that the compulsory age is now to
the end of the fifteenth year.    It has been found almost impossible to keep many 15-year-old 13 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 43
pupils in school, especially if they have not been promoted to high school. This fact, coupled
with the probability that this class of student will greatly in'crease in number as a result of
a higher standard of scholarship being demanded for high-school entrance, has prompted the
Vancouver School Board to offer, with your approval, a new course of study for such students.
The present indications are that this course will prove a very valuable one.
Various School Activities.
Various school activities, not referred to above, such as cadet-work, special class-work,
physical culture, medical inspection, dental work, school athletics, manual training, and night-
school work, were carried on satisfactorily throughout the year. The most cordial relations
were also maintained between the various forces working in the interests of the schools.
I have, etc.,
J. S. Gordon,
Municipal Inspector of Schools.
VICTORIA CITY SCHOOLS.
Victoria, B.C., October 6th, 1922.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report of Victoria City schools for the year ending
June 30th, 1922:—
The number of pupils attending during the school-year was as follows :—■
September
October   . .
November
December
January   .
February
March   . .
April
May   ....
June
Graded
Schools.
1921.
1922.
Totals
52,778
High
School.
1,436
College.
697
Total.
5,247
981
6,228
5,284
1,000
97
6,381
5.239
988
100
6,327
5,006
947
100
6,053
5,473
958
100
6,531
5,389
954
100
6,443
5,345
936
100
6,381
5,337
921
100
6,35S
5,281
896
6,177
5,177
855
6,032
',.011
The staff of teachers comprised the following number:—
Graded schools—
Academic     152
Manual training and domestic science   12
Supervisors    4
High School (including Technical)     38
College   	
Medical officer (part time)
Nurses   	
Dental officer   ,
Attendance officer 	
6
1
2
1
1
Total        217 C 44 Public Schools Report. 1925
The total expenditure in 1921 was distributed as follows :—
Victoria College :  $ 16,524 55
High School   112,648 50
Graded schools   318,050 81
Night-schools    3,784 11
Interest and sinking fund   94,462 58
Total    ,   $545,470 55
Of this amount the Government contributed $102,139.20.
Graded Schools.
Good class-room accommodation was provided generally; the great majority of the rooms
being spacious and well lighted, with satisfactory facilities for heating and ventilation.
However, conditions surrounding the use of two assembly-rooms and a Sunday-school room
were not satisfactory. The poor lighting and inadequate blackboard space in these rooms
handicapped the work of the teachers and the progress of the pupils.
Under existing conditions the Fernwood Primary School site is not suitable, as during the
wet weather of fall and winter the pupils have not sufficient playground space.
It is anticipated that the above objectionable features will be removed temporarily by a
readjustment of district boundaries, the removal of Fernwood buildings to North Ward District,
and requiring pupils to attend the schools within their own district. It is also hoped that in
the near future financial conditions will permit the erection of a new six-room building in place
of the present unsatisfactory Spring Ridge School-house. Such accommodation is necessary to
solve the problem of congestion in that neighbourhood and to give the pupils of that district
reasonable educational facilities.
During the year a conscientious effort was made by teachers generally to raise the quality
of class-room work. They were directed to give particular attention to the foundational subjects,
especially composition and arithmetic. The character of the work observed certainly seemed to
demand greater emphasis on fundamentals even at the expense of minor subjects. Each subject
in the Cqurse of Study has undoubtedly an educational value, but these must be considered
relatively. The principal aim should be to secure the highest standard of efficiency in those
subjects upon which the academic and vocational future of the pupil depends. If .this standard
cannot be attained by reducing the time allotted to certain minor subjects it may be necessary
to drop some of them altogether.
The Department's new regulations governing High School Entrance Examinations were
favourably received by all principals and teachers concerned. This change will tend to maintain
a uniform standard of proficiency and prevent pupils entering high school who are not sufficiently
prepared. Considering the number of pupils who were absent during the winter months on
account of illness, the record of Victoria pupils who wrote on the June Entrance Examination
was satisfactory on the whole, but the percentage of passes in two schools particularly was low.
These schools will be carefully investigated and an effort made to strengthen the work.
Competition in sports was organized and conducted by the Victoria and District School
Sports Association. The Cloverdale (Saanich) School team led in the senior football series,
while Oaklands secured first place in the junior. The senior boys' basket-ball series was won
by North Ward; senior girls', by North Ward; and junior girls', by Victoria West. The Gyro
Club of Victoria endeavoured to revive interest in lacrosse by providing sticks to school teams.
Esquimau won the school championship in this game. The annual field-day held in May was
attended by a large number of children and parents. As Sir James Douglas and Oaklands were
a tie for first place, the latter school continues to hold the challenge cup. All games were played
under the supervision of teachers who are endeavouring to promote clean healthy sport in the
schools.
High School.
The High School opened in September, 1921, with an enrolment of 981 students. The
principal, Mr. H. H. Smith, B.A., formerly Superintendent of Public Schools, Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan, was relieved of all teaching duties so that he might have sufficient time to
organize carefully the work of the school, supervise the staff, and attend to general administrative duties.    Results have justified  this policy.    It would  be  unreasonable to  expect  any 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C -15
person to perform efficiently the duties of principal of so large a school and at the same time
carry on as class instructor.
As a result of a careful inspection by High School Inspector Sullivan, the Principal, and
the Municipal Inspector, it was considered advisable by the Board to make a number of changes
in staff at the close of the fall term. This action has strengthened the school materially, but
the interest of the school may demand further changes before a thoroughly satisfactory condition
of affairs is established. It is only by means of a competent staff that successful work can be
accomplished.
While the results of the Matriculation Examinations constitute but one among many factors
that must be considered in evaluating the work of a school, it is an essential factor and one
which weighs heavily with the general public. From that angle the success of the Victoria
Lligh School was most gratifying during this last year. In all, 146 students wrote on the June
examinations, 145 taking the complete examinations and one a single paper—chemistry. Of this
number, 115 made a complete pass, 1 passed on the single paper attempted, 21 passed with
supplementals, and 9 failed. An analysis of the supplementals reveals 4 students who failed
in two subjects, 1 who failed in three subjects, and 16 who failed in a single subject. The
number of failures in each subject, including the 9 who failed outright, is as follows: Composition, 4; algebra, 7; history, 6; physics, 3; botany, 4; geometry, 4; Latin authors, 9;
English literature, 6; chemistry, 7; Latin composition, 4; French translation, 1; French
grammar, 3.
Towards the close of June uniform promotion examinations in the preliminary and junior
years were held. Special efforts were made to prepare fair examination papers, yet sufficiently
searching to maintain a reasonably high standard of scholarship. To ensure greater uniformity
in assigning values to the answer papers, the marking was done in groups, in separate rooms
for each group, and with a chairman for each group. In this way more reliability as to the
rating of students was guaranteed. After the results were tabulated a revision committee of
five, composed of the principal and a representative from each of the departments of English,
mathematics, science, and languages, held several meetings to consider the many special cases
that necessarily come up for consideration. When the work of the revision committee was
completed it was found that there were a large number of failures, especially of those who
secured their totals but failed in single subjects. To meet this contingency students were
granted the privilege of writing one or two supplemental examinations the first week in September, providing they had secured the necessary total. In the majority of instances the
students availed themselves of this opportunity and many were able to pass into the next year.
As a further measure to obviate the necessity for repetition of the year's work, with the
paralysing effect upon the interest of students, classes for repeaters were formed so that they
might proceed with new work after they had been brought up to the standard in their previous
year's work. This measure could be taken only in those cases where there were a sufficient
number of repeatersi to form a class.
Enrolment in the Technical Department will continue to be handicapped as long as shop-
work receives no credit in connection with University Matriculation Examinations. The careful
effort required to work out projects in the shops develops the student mentally as much as, if
not more than do certain subjects included in the Matriculation Course of Study, and surely it
is better to discover and develop mechanical aptitudes rather than force a student to routine
study of a subject for which he has no aptitude or inclination. The application and the habit
of work inculcated in the shops will have a far more lasting effect on the future life of the
student than some of the academic work recognized by the University.
The appointment of a trained specialist with business experience to take charge of the
Commercial Department should bring this work to a higher standard of efficiency.
With the removal of the College to another building, there will be ample accommodation for
Saanich students for some years to come. The Board has fixed the fee for this service at a
rate which they hope will induce the Saanich authorities to continue to send their pupils to
this school.
Attention was also given to other school activities. In athletics one Provincial school
championship—girls' basket-ball—was won, and teams in hockey and rugby were the runners-up
for Provincial honours. On the whole, however, outside of basket-ball, there were too few
students participating in athletic games.    This is accounted tor, at least in part, by the lack C 46 Public Schools Report. 1922
of proper accommodation in the way of athletic grounds. When the High School grounds have
been graded and made suitable for outside sports, it will be possible to develop more interest
and secure better results in the field of athletics.
Under the able direction of Mr. Dilworth, the Matriculation students staged " As You Like
It" for two evenings in a very acceptable manner. The performance was very creditable,
revealing some splendid talent among the student body.
The two debating societies, " Beta Delta" for boys and " Portia" for girls, carried on
quite successfully, but there was not as widespread an interest in debating as is both desirable
and possible.
Four successful social functions were held during the year. These were open to all students,
but under the auspices of representative student organizations.
Victoria College.
The increase in the attendance at Victoria College seems to indicate the growing confidence
in the work of this institution.    The following is a record of the enrolment since the opening of
the College in September, 1920, and for the purpose of comparison a statement of the attendance
at the Senior Matriculation class in the High School in 1919:—
High School—
Senior Matriculation, 1919   29
College—
First-year Arts, 1920-21    63
Second-year Arts, 1920-21    13
— 76
First-year Arts, 1921-22   SI
Second-year Arts, 1921-22     19
—100
First-year Arts, 1922-23   94
Second-year Arts, 1922-23    21
—115
The results of the examinations were very satisfactory to the College staff and to the
Faculty of the University.    There were only two complete failures in the first year and two
in the second year.
In the session 1920-21 the College occupied part of the third floor of the High -School
building, an arrangement which, creating as it did a divided authority in one school, was not
to the best advantage of either High School or College. Last year, however, the Board of
School Trustees was able to rent, for the use of the College, the former residence of the late
Hon. Robert Dunsmuir, known as Craigdarroch. This is an ideal place for an institution of
this kind. Not only is there ample accommodation in it for some years to come, but its internal
beauty and the dignity of its architecture must exercise a refining influence on the minds of
the students.
General,
There is no doubt that the city is experiencing great difficulty in securing sufficient revenue
to meet expenditure, and consequently the Board of School Trustees has been subjected to a
great deal of criticism regarding the cost of education. The Board fully appreciates the situation
and is endeavouring to administer the schools at the lowest possible cost without impairing
efficiency. In view of the existing discrepancy in salaries paid by Victoria as compared with
other parallel cities, it would be false economy to reduce salaries. This undoubtedly would
result in the loss of some of our best teachers. Good schools require good teachers and better
schools better teachers, and almost invariably the better salary commands the better teacher,
the same as in the business world.
At the close of the school-year the graded-schools staff was reduced by thirteen teachers;
the High School, 2 teachers; manual training, 1 teacher; and domestic science, 1 teacher.
This will necessitate higher class enrolments, which condition, however, has been accepted
without protest by the teaching staff. To do effective work it was considered necessary to
appoint one additional school nurse.
Some plan will have to be adopted to exclude from High School indifferent students who
are marking time. These are not only wasting their own time, but retarding the progress
of others. 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 47
However, the Board realizes its responsibilities to the ratepayers and the whole situation
will be carefully investigated to see if further economies can be effected before deciding upon
next year's estimates.
Acknowledgment is due principals and teachers for faithful and zealous co-operation.
They were always ready to give time and effort unsparingly to all school activities.
Acknowledgment is also made to High School Inspector Sullivan and Inspector May for
their co-operation and assistance.
I have, etc.,
George H. Deane,
Municipal Inspector of Sctiools. C 48 Public Schools Report. 1922
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
VANCOUVER PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
8. J. Willis, Esq., Vancouver, B.C., June 8th, 1922.
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the report of the work of the Provincial Normal School, Vancouver,
for the school-year ended June, 1922.
At the opening of the fall term on September 6th, 1921, 346 students enrolled, 293 young
ladies and 53 young men. During the term eight withdrew, several on account of ill-health,
one received an appointment in the University, and one moved to Saskatchewan. At the close
of the term in December diplomas were awarded to thirty students (twenty young ladies and
ten young men) who held their University degrees. In December three students were advised to
withdraw.    During the Christmas vacation one of the young men students died.
At the opening of the winter term in January 361 enrolled, 311 young ladies and 50 young
men. During the term three withdrew. Thus we closed in May with an attendance of 358.
To 351 of these diplomas were awarded.
The total enrolment for the session was 403. This was far above the enrolment of any
previous session; it was far above the number which we can comfortably accommodate. While
the members of the staff have always been pleased at a large enrolment, I do not think any
member of the staff wishes a repetition of the past session. During previous sessions we have
considered that efficient work could not be accomplished where there was an enrolment as high
as fifty students per class. During the past session we found it necessary to have six classes
of sixty students each. Only the very splendid attitude of the students towards existing
conditions made it possible to carry on. Perhaps the most serious objection to such a large
enrolment was the lack of opportunity for practice-teaching. With only twenty class-rooms
available two mornings a week for practice-work, it was impossible to give our students the
usual number of lessons in teaching in the Model Schools.
The session just closed presents two very gratifying features—the large number of University
graduates enrolled and the greatly increased number of young men in attendance. Forty
University graduates secured their diplomas during the session. In the great majority of cases
these were excellent students. To fifty-eight young men diplomas have been awarded, fourteen
of whom were University graduates. A yearly addition of forty University graduates will surely
strengthen the teaching profession in the Province. Is it not possible for these University
graduates to secure some practical high-school teaching during their Normal training? With a
small additional expenditure in the way of allowance to high-school teachers for services similar
to those of teachers in the Model Schools, it seems possible to so supplement the present training
of graduates as to fit them for service in the high schools as well as in the elementary schools.
Is it necessary to add to the present Course in Theory to fit graduates for service in high schools?
In the matter of physical training the past session marks a decided improvement. We were
pleased to have the physical-training instructor for the full session. In spite of the fact that
classes were entirely too large, very satisfactory work was done. At the close of the session
all students except fourteen qualified for Grade B certificate in physical training. The revised
syllabus of physical exercises will undoubtedly prove very acceptable to both teachers and pupils
of the schools.
The staff for 1921-22 remained the same as for the previous session. During the fall term
Miss Burpee was at Columbia College, New York, taking a course in primary work. Miss Bertha
Winn filled the position of primary teacher during Miss Burpee's absence.
Before concluding my report I wish to thank the teachers of the Model and Cecil Rhodes
Schools for their very helpful co-operation in the training of our students. To the Board of
School Trustees of Vancouver City I also wish to extend thanks for the privilege granted to our
students of observing work in the schools of the city. To the principal and staff of each of
the following schools—Roberts, -Dawson, Tennyson; Fairview, Mount Pleasant, Strathcona, King
Edward High, and Commercial—we extend our hearty thanks for the courtesy and assistance
given to our students during these sessions of observation. This privilege was, I am sure, the
source of real inspiration to many of our students. I have, etc.,
D. M. Robinson,
Principal. 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 49
VICTORIA PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
Victoria, B.C., September 9th, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report of the Provincial Normal School at
Victoria during the school-year which ended June 30th, 1922:—
The number of students who attended during the year was 134. During the session, September to December, 1921, there were 125 in attendance. Of this number, one withdrew during the
session, three failed to do satisfactory work and were required to discontinue at the end of
December, while 121 had done work of sufficiently high standard to enable them to proceed to
the work of the next session. Seven of these, being graduates in Arts, were awarded Normal
diplomas.    Seven others decided not to return for the session, January to May, 1922.
At the opening of the session in January, 1922, however, fifteen who had in some previous
year taken one session of Normal training returned to complete their course. Four graduates
in Arts began training for the first time. This made an enrolment of 126. One of these continued
in attendance for a few days only. At the completion of the session in May five failed to. qualify
and 120 were granted Normal diplomas. Thus it will be seen that 127 were awarded Normal
diplomas during the year.
The personnel of the teaching staff remained the same as during the year 1920-21, with
the exception that Sergeant Bain replaced Sergeant-Major Wallace as instructor of physical
training. The apportionment of work among the members of the staff also remained unchanged.
It is most pleasing for me to report that it would be difficult to find instructors who would work
more faithfully than my colleagues on this staff, or who would be more untiring in their efforts
to assist these teachers-in-training to prepare for their chosen profession. The enthusiasm and
zeal they have shown cannot but be amply reflected in the work of the young teachers who
have received instruction under them. This efficient service was further supplemented by the
excellent assistance received from the staffs of the Model School, the North Ward School, and
the Bank Street School. In addition, Colonel Lome Drum from the staff of Military District
No. 11 delivered an extensive series of lectures on " First Aid to the Injured." By his genial,
kindly manner, and the thorough organization of his work, Colonel Drum aroused the interest
and admiration of all who heard him.
While the class-room instruction and the practical teaching provided a strenuous year's work,
time w^as found for the various activities of the Literary Society, the Athletic Association, for
social functions, and for lectures from visitors of prominence. In these ways one may look back
on the year's work with a degree of satisfaction. Nevertheless, one cannot help but feel that the
training of teachers in this Province is rendered less effective from the following reasons: Many
who enter for training are too young and immature to undertake the responsible duties of a
teacher. Almost all have had insufficient instruction in the subject-matter of the prescribed
subjects of the Elementary School Course. Graduates in Arts wTho purpose entering high-school
teaching are receiving' their training, not in the subjects they are going to teach, but in the
subjects of the Elementary School Course.
I have, etc.,
D. L. MacLaurin,
Principal. TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE ORGANIZER.
Victoria, B.C., September 13th, 1922.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the work of manual training, domestic science,
night-schools, and technical education for the year 1921-22:—
Manual Training and Domestic Science.
Classes in the above subjects were conducted in the following cities: Armstrong, Chilliwack,
Cranbrook, Kelowna, Mission, Nanaimo, New Westminster, Nelson, North Vancouver, Prince
Rupert, Vancouver, Vernon, and Victoria. Similar classes were also held in the following
municipalities: Burnaby, Chilliwack, Delta, Esquimalt, Maple Ridge, Penticton, Point Grey,
Pitt Meadows, Rutland, Saanich, Summerland, and South Vancouver.
Manual-training statistics from these places are as follows:—
79 manual-training centres. 51 domestic-science centres.
62 instructors. 46 instructors.
8,930 elementary pupils attending. 6,570 elementary pupils attending.
1,540 high-school pupils 1,436 high-school pupils.
The manual-training instructors in their various centres are as a rule doing serious and
conscientious work; moreover, they are not resting on their oars, as attendance at summer school
and Saturday classes will prove. The advanced work in metal was of a very high order.
Classes for teacher-training were also held on Saturday afternoons in the Technical School,
Vancouver, and from this class manual instructors are recruited as vacancies occur. Great
credit is due to the Manual Training Teachers' Association for the active interest displayed in
assisting to make these classes successful, and the fact that manual training has become firmly
established in the Province as an educational subject, and not one of merely mechanical accomplishment, is largely due to the attitude of its members.
It will be observed from above figures that the centres for domestic science are not so
numerous as for manual training, nor is the Domestic Science Teachers' Association as active
in furthering their aims in the community as the Association of Manual Instructors.
Work of an increasingly practical nature in cookery, laundry-work, sewing, and dressmaking
is being accomplished throughout the Province. Good teachers, however, are not readily obtainable, and so far the Department of Education has established no Saturday classes at which
instructors may study and advance themselves.    This condition we hope to rectify before long.
Technical Schools.
Technical schools are organized in the Cities of New Westminster, Vancouver, and Victoria.
Next year we hope to be able to report on the establishment of an additional school in the
industrial city of Trail. The three-year course of study in these schools is composed of the
following subjects: English, citizenship and economics, mathematics, mechanics, chemistry,
physics, electricity, drawing and design, woodwork, sheet-metal work, and machine-shop work.
At the end of the three-year course examinations are held for the Technical Leaving
Certificate which is awarded by the Department of Education. This certificate is expected to
have considerable weight with employers when engaging workers. At the same time an opportunity is given those students who develop a desire to attend University so to arrange their
studies that they may prepare themselves for the University Matriculation Examination.
In the near future specialized trade courses will be operated successfully, great interest
being already displayed by men engaged in plumbing, sheet metal, printing, and engineering.
Household Science Course.
A course of the above nature is organized both in Vancouver and New Westminster. It
embraces the following subjects: English, French or Latin, civics, arithmetic and mensuration,
algebra,  chemistry, physics, physiology   (including hygiene,  child-welfare,  and home-nursing), 13 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 51
dietetics and cookery, needlework (garment-making and textiles), drawing, design, and household
arts ;  vocal music, physical culture.
This course, is admirably suited to students who wish to become school-teachers and those
who obtain the Home economics Leaving Certificate have the privilege of entering Normal School
and of becoming teachers of the second class.
Commercial Courses.
Commercial subjects are included under the head of " Technical Education " and courses are
conducted in eleven cities in the Province.
A training class for teachers of commercial subjects was established at the summer school,
and it is both desirable and timely that this work should be developed in a similar manner to
that already successfully conducted for manual instructors and teachers of technical subjects.
A table showing the number of students attending Technical, Household Science, and Commercial Courses, together with the number of teachers engaged in the work of instruction, is
appended herewith:—
Night-schools.
Night-schools are conducted in thirty-four cities and municipalities in the Province. The
courses of study embrace the following: Business English and arithmetic, accounting, commercial
law, typewriting, shorthand, salesmanship, show-card writing, economics, mathematics, mechanical
drawing, stationary engineering, automobile engineering, ignition, electrical engineering, navigation, ship-building, carpentry and joinery, cabinetmaking, plumbing, sheet-metal working, drawing
and design, pharmacy, dressmaking, millinery, and cookery.
The names of the cities and municipalities with the number of pupils are as follows:—
Albert Head  15
Agassiz    19
Burnaby    IS
Chilliwack     42
Cartier   30
Colwood  15
Champion Creek   11
Duncan     32
Esquimalt    14
Granby Bay   27S
Happy Valley   82
Kamloops  87
Langley    10
Langford   13
Michel  46
Minto  27
Metchosin  49
Mission  17
New AVestminster   158
Nanaimo     63
Nelson     134
Osland  10
Penticton   94
Port Coquitlam  49
Prince George  IS
Powell River     44
South Vancouver  375
Saanich     86
Sooke   15
Trail   13
Union Bay    20
Vancouver 1,517
Victoria    651
Wynndel  14 C 52 Public Schools Report. 1922
Correspondence Classes in Coal-mining and Mine-surveying.
The courses of study for above are of immense value to men who are working under the
three-shift system. The effectiveness of the tuition is considerably increased,' however, when
members of the Correspondence classes also attend night-school tutorial classes. The courses of
study are as follows:—
No. 1. Preparatory Mining Course for boys who have reached their fifteenth year and
have left school.
No. 2. Course in Arithmetic and Mathematics.
No. 3. Course for Fireboss, Shiftboss, or Shotlighters (third-class papers).
No. 4. Course for Overman's papers (second class).
No. 5. Course for Mine Manager's papers  (first class).
No. 6. Course in Mine-survey Work.
There are 152 students enrolled in these courses and the work is meeting with satisfaction.
Lessons by Correspondence to Children w'iio live in Isolated Parts oe the Province.
In conjunction with the mining courses mentioned above, lessons by correspondence are given
to over 300 pupils who live in districts beyond the reach of schools, including the children of
the Coast lighthouse-keepers. Reports from School Inspectors, missionaries, and others lead us
to believe that this work is highly appreciated by those who are doing the pioneer work of the
Province.
The total expenditure made by the Province during the year on the work reported upon,
exclusive of manual training, domestic science, and teaching school subjects by correspondence,
amounted to $5S,508.10. Of this sum, 50 per cent, was returned as a grant by the Dominion
Government.
I have, etc.,
John Kyle,
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.   13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 53
ELEMENTARY AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
Victoria, B.C.,  September 30th, 1922.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit herewith the following report dealing with elementary
agricultural education for the year ending September 30th, 1022:—
The usual lines of work conducted under this branch have been pursued throughout the year.
The activities include: (1) Work in the public schools in elementary agriculture, nature-study,
school and home gardening, and other home-project work; (2) agricultural instruction in high
schools in supervised districts; and (3) co-operation with School Boards in the improving of
school-grounds.
It is almost self-evident that in these days of inevitable increase in the cost of education any
subject in the curriculum of public and high schools which is not compulsory is likely to come
in for more or less criticism, and such subject must justify its existence on its own merits, and
quite properly so. The teaching of agriculture in the schools of this Province is not as yet
compulsory', and there are practical as well as theoretical reasons for this; and yet the feeling
is growing amongst School Boards and amongst the people generally that if the education of
to-day has any relationship whatever to the welfare of the people of to-morrow, then agriculture,
both educationally and vocationally, is a subject that must not be neglected.
During the past year it has fallen to my lot to interview many School Boards and to address
many public meetings with reference to the inauguration, or in some cases the continuation, of
agricultural courses in the schools. The chief difficulty met with in the great majority of cases
is that encountered everywhere in connection with all great public utilities—financial stringency.
This, of course, is not likely to be a permanent condition, and in any case is likely to prove
beneficial in years to come. The idea that school subjects that are optional are not so important
as those that are compulsory is being entertained by a great many people, and this is an additional
reason why some School Boards delay in establishing agricultural courses.
On account of the tardiness of a number of teachers in sending in their semi-annual reports
on rural-science work, it is not yet possible to give complete information relative to the number
of teachers and pupils who took part in school and home gardening this year. Approximately
150 schools have engaged in this work during the present year, with over 200 teachers. A large
number of schools, whilst not enrolled as doing special work in rural science such as would
entitle them to special grants, are nevertheless doing very good work in that subject. It is
possible that the recent regulations with respect to subjects for written examination for entrance
to high school may tend to lessen the amount of time and work expended upon nature-study,
as the Entrance candidates no longer write on that subject. On the other hand, many teachers
will doubtless do better work in that subject, not having to worry over a difficult impending
examination;.
Chabactek and Extent op the "Wobk in Public Schools.
Year by year some space has been given in this report to an explanatory statement bearing
upon the real meaning and place of agricultural education in relation to public and high schools,
with a view to removing certain misapprehensions and mistaken conclusions which are all too
common amongst the people and even amongst the teachers themselves. Truth is that agricultural
education as it relates to elementary schools is the most natural thing in the world. It is something that all boys and girls are more or less concerned with all the time, quite irrespective of
schools and elaborated courses of study. It has its real beginning in pre-school life when the
child begins its quest for knowledge of the things of the natural world round about. This marks
the nature-study stage or aspect of agricultural education and might be termed environmental
education. From the entirely informal and incidental observations of pre-school days it becomes
more definitely and purposefully joined up with other lines of school-work in the Junior Grades
under the guidance of the teacher, and it is unfortunately true that at this point in too many
schools real nature-study and all that it stands for abruptly ends. C 54 Public Schools Report. 192S
Modern educationists agree that all true education must have relationship to the environment
and experience of the individual. The environment of all children in British Columbia is
agriculture to some extent, and there is, I am glad to say, a growing tendency amongst city
teachers to take advantage of the agricultural character of the environment of city children.
Parks, gardens, boulevards with their fine trees and shrubs, vacant and cultivated lots, florists'
shops, markets, etc., all serve to perpetuate, even in cities, that fundamental relationship of
man to the earth. Thus nature-study may to some extent find its own agricultural subject-
matter even in our largest cities, and it is to the best interests of the Province that all city
boys and girls be given every possible opportunity of gaining first-hand knowledge of the
elements of agriculture based upon direct, observational study of such agricultural features
as are to be found in or adjacent to our cities.
There comes a time in the school-life of every -boy and girl when there should be a more
definite direction and concentration of interest upon those things in science and industry that
have most to do with the production of the great material necessities of life—food, clothing, and
home-making. At this stage, usually the Intermediate Grade of the public school, the more
general environmental studies just referred to lead into the more definite and more systematized
studies of agriculture, manual training, and home economics. The economic as well as the
scientific aspects of the study of nature now receive emphasis, and we have nature-study applied,
which is agriculture. And yet to some people these subjects are classified as " frills " or nonessentials. But they should do a little more thinking on the subject. To say that these subjects
have no normal or essential place in the education of boys and girls is to deny that food
production, clothing, and home-making are fundamental to the life of a people. Neither are
these subjects lacking in their cultural or educational value. The mental and moral training
and significance resulting from the proper handling of these subjects in school is as real as
that resulting from the study of any other subject whatsoever. Indeed, there is every reason
for saying that these subjects can and should be made the central subjects of the curriculum,
standing as they do at the centre of life interests and experiences which are universal and
which have so much to do with the world's great economic necessities. Closely associated with
these subjects and deriving a new interest from this association would stand the subjects of
expression and computation of numerical values—the three R's. When so related the latter,
which so many people have erroneously termed the " fundamental " subjects in primary education,
have a new meaning and also a new interest for children. When such a co-ordination of subjects
has been established—these " tool " subjects employed continuously in natural relationship to
those subjects which represent every-day human experience and activity—teaching will become
more efficient and there will be conservation alike of energy, time, and money.
Agricultural Instruction in High Schools.
The teaching of agriculture in high schools is now well established in all of the Provinces
of the Dominion, and is meeting with greater success year after year. This is due partly to the
fact that better-qualified teachers are being employed than formerly, resulting in more efficient
instruction, and partly to a better understanding of the real nature and value of the work on
the part of parents and school trustees.
Our policy in this Province has always been to limit the teaching of agriculture to those high
schools having the services of a specialist in agriculture. Whilst this policy has restricted,
somewhat, the number of students who are in a position to choose this subject, it has, at the
same time, made for greater,efficiency and thoroughness of work, and has undoubtedly given to
the subject a better'standing educationally in the Province. The limiting factors to the expansion
of agricultural instruction in high schools in this as in other Provinces are the scarcity of
properly trained teachers and the lack of funds to carry on the work. The enrolment in First-
and Second-year High School classes for the year is as follows: Armstrong, 35; Chilliwack, 39;
Cloverdale, 28; Duncan, 19; Enderby, 10; Kelowna, 47; Langley, 24; New Westminster. 71;
Penticton, 59; Rutland, 5; Salmon Arm, 27; Summerland, 29; Vernon, 21; Victoria, 43 ; making
a total of 457 students enrolled. The work at Vernon and Enderby has recently been discontinued,
we trust temporarily, as very good work was being done in both schools. The work has just been
started at Rutland and other Boards are considering at the present time the starting of agricultural courses. J 3 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 55
Three District Supervisors who were attached to our staff last year are at present holding
positions with the Department of Agriculture—namely, Mr. W. M. Fleming, B.S.A., as District
Agriculturist with headquarters at Duncan; Mr. T. H. Jones, B.S.A., in the employ of the
Horticultural Branch at Penticton; and Mr. J. B. Munro, B.S.A., Soil and Crop Instructor in
the Department of Agriculture, Victoria. Mr. II. E. Hallwright, B.S.A., formerly District
Supervisor for the Victoria and Saanich District, has gone into private educational work.
In three cases district instruction and supervision has been discontinued, High School Courses
in Agriculture only -being retained. In these cases the instructors are graduates in agriculture
employed by the School Boards. In addition to agriculture they also teach other high-school
subjects, chiefly science. School Boards employing such specialists receive a grant from the
Department on account of salary and agricultural equipment. The instructors so placed are
Mr. H. O. English, B.A., B.S.A., Victoria High School; Mr. J. W. Edwards, B.A., B.S.A., Duncan
High School;  and Miss Martha S. MacKechnie, B.S.A., Armstrong High School.
The examination results for the past year in agriculture have been highly satisfactory-
Of the eighty-two students who wrote on matriculation agriculture all passed in that subject,
and only nine failed in the other subjects, five of these belonging to one school. The examination
papers are set and examined by the Provincial Agricultural College. Of the fifty students who
wrote on first-year agriculture all but one passed, and the highest mark made by that one was
his mark in agriculture. The course is by no means ail easy course, as some students were led
to believe a- few years ago, but it is an exceptionally interesting course and one which allows
free scope for the exercise of the best pedagogical methods. It is to this latter fact that the
success of the classes in agriculture may be mainly attributed.
High-school Students' Judging Competitions.
In order to arouse a greater interest in the study of crops and live stock as the basis of all
agriculture, special competitions have been arranged at several of the leading agricultural
exhibitions in the Province. These competitions were begun last year and have been continued
and extended during the present year. The live-stock-judging competitions are open to individual
boys or girls under 21 years of age, and to teams of three boys or girls 18 years of age or under
representing any recognized district in the Province. A large majority of the contestants are
students in the various High School Agricultural classes in which classes animal husbandry is
a subject of instruction. To be chosen one of a team of three to uphold the honour, not only
of the class but also of the district, is an incentive to good work during the year on the part
of all agricultural students. This year, as last, team competitions were held at the Vancouver
and New Westminster Exhibitions only. The competition in judging at the Vancouver Exhibition
was confined to the judging of four breeds of dairy cattle. In this competition a team of boys
from Kamloops, coached by Mr. George Hay, B.S.A., the same team that won such high honours
last year, again won first prize ($100). The Chilliwack team, coached by Mr. J. C Readey, B.S.A.,
won second prize ($60), with Armstrong, coached by Mr. J. B. Munro, B.S.A., third ($40), and
New Westminster, coached by Mr. A. M. McDermott, B.S.A., fourth ($30), and Langley, coached
by Mr. J. M. Shales, B.A., B.S.A., fifth ($20).
The junior stock-judging competitions held under the auspices of the Royal Agricultural and
Industrial Society of British Columbia are becoming an attractive feature at the Provincial
Exhibition at New Westminster. The executive of the society have generously supported the
movement and have had the hearty co-operation of the leading stockmen of the Province. The
Royal Agricultural and Industrial Society not only paid return transportation for the members
and coaches of the competing teams coming from all parts of the Province, but also tendered
a complimentary banquet to them, and to the judges and committee in charge, at the close of
the competitions. Many of the leading citizens, of New Westminster have also rendered very
practical and very timely assistance by opening their homes for the entertainment of the
members of the various teams.
The two events most keenly contested were the individual contests for boys and girls under
21 years of age and the team contests for boys and girls 18 years of age and under. Three classes
of live stock were judged in each case, twenty minutes being allowed for placing and writing
reasons on score-cards provided. In the individual contest no less than fifty-one boys and girls
took part, with the following results: First prize ($12), E. L. Mottley, Kamloops; second prize
($10), J. C. Berry, Langley; third prize ($8), Rae Pirrie, Sperling; fourth prize ($6), Raymond
Newby, Sardis;  fifth prize ($4), Dan Frolek, Kamloops. 0 56 Public Schools Report. 1922
In the team contests nine districts were represented. The first prize, which consisted of a
handsome silver trophy donated by the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association, together
with a gold medal for each member of the team, presented by the Royal Agricultural and Industrial Society, was captured by the New Westminster team, composed of Gerald Murphy, Wilfrid
Brown, and Chas. Douglas, coached by Mr. A. M. McDermott, B.S.A. The second team prize,
which consisted of a silver medal for each member, was won by the Chilliwack team, Wilfrid
Graham, Raymond Newby, and John Kirkness, coached by Mr. J. C. Readey, B.S.A. The third
prize, consisting of a bronze medal for each member of the team, was won by two teams with
equal points to their credit, a team of girls from Armstrong, Frances Swanson, Mary Anderson,
and Evelyn Murray, coached by Mr. J. B. Munro, B.S.A., and a team of boys from Kamloops,
E. L. Mottley, Dan Frolek, and John Furiak, coached by Mr. Geo. Hay, B.S.A.
The special prize awarded by Mr. A. D. Paterson, M.L.A., for the highest score made by
any member of a team in the judging of draught horses was won by E, L. Mottley, of the
Kamloops team, with Wilfrid Brown, of New Westminster, second. The specials in the judging
of beef cattle were awarded as follows: First prize, donated by Chas. Hardy, Esq., of Armstrong,
was won by Jack Downey, of the Salmon Arm team, whilst the second prize, also donated by
Mr. Paterson, was won by E. L. Mottley, of the Kamloops team. The specials in the judging of
dairy cattle were awarded as follows: First prize, donated by Dean Clement, of the University
of British Columbia, was won by Christina McGregor, of the Surrey team, and the second
prize, donated by E. A. Wells, Esq., was won by Raymond Newby, of the Chilliwack team.
Competition in the Judging op Field Crops.
For the first time competitions in the judging of field crops along lines similar to that
followed in stock-judging were held at the New Westminster Exhibition. The British Columbia
Association of Agronomists generously donated a handsome trophy to be held from year to year
by the winning team. Medals for the individual members of the winning teams were presented
by the Royal Agricultural and Industrial Society, as in the case of the live-stock judging. The
winners were as follows: First prize (Agronomy trophy and individual gold medals), won by
the Chilliwack team, composed of Wilfrid Graham, Raymond Newby, and John Kirkness, trained
by Mr. J. C. Readey, B.S.A. Second prize (individual silver medals), won by the Surrey team,
Mildred Calkins, Ella Dinsmore, and Isobel Oxenham, trained by Mr. E. L. Small, B.S.A. The
third prize (individual bronze medals), won by the Kamloops team, E. L. Mottley, Dan Frolek,
and John Furiak, trained by Mr. Geo. Hay, B.S.A.
Students' Field-cbop Competition.
A most valuable line of experimental work was instituted this year in connection with the
various High School classes in Agriculture by Professor Paul Boving, head of the Department
of Agronomy of the University of British Columbia, and his associate professor, G. C. Moe. in
conjunction with the Department of Education. These gentlemen have put a great deal of
thought into the planning of this competition in the production of better field crops, and no
amount of work has seemed too great for them in bringing it to a successful conclusion. During
the coming year no doubt this particular work will be prosecuted with enthusiasm. The particular crops chosen for this year's work were the U.B.C. Banner oat and the U.B.C. Spud
potato, two of the best selections derived from the University experimental plots at Point Grey.
This competition serves not only ,to provide an excellent project in scientific agriculture, but
also to make available to the farmers in the different parts of the Province through those high
schools conducting the work improved strains of two of our most staple field crops. This
represents only one of the many practical benefits derived by a community from the teaching
of practical and scientific agriculture in our secondary schools.
Very complete instructions were prepared by Professor Boving and sent to all the agricultural
instructors, together with a sufficient supply of the oats and potatoes mentioned to supply the
members of the classes in agriculture. The seed was planted and the plots cultivated as directed
under the immediate supervision of the local District Supervisor, but full responsibility for the
preparation, planting, and care of the crop was assumed by the competitor personally. At the
close of the growing season a local competition was first held, from which the four best entries
were sent to compete in the district competition at the Provincial Fair at New Westminster.
Diplomas were awarded to the three leading districts exhibiting both oats and potatoes, and .
Preparing to plant, Duncan Consolidated and High School garden.
Agricultural students visit a poultry-farm,  Langley, B.C.  13 Geo. 5 Public Scpiools Report. C 57
the district ohtaining the highest total score received the Boving-Moe trophy, which will be
held for one year, and which will eventually become the permanent property of the first district
to win it three times with or without intervals. It was won for the first time by the Chilliwack
District, the four successful competitors being Florence Anderson, Everett McFarlane, Norman
MeFettridge, and Austin Wrinch, under the supervision of Mr. J. O. Readey, District Supervisor
for the Chilliwack District.
Agricultural Clubs.
The home-project method of teaching agriculture is becoming more widely established
throughout the United States and Canada. It has the advantage of bringing into harmony
the interests of home and school—that is, an economic interest lending itself to educational
purposes. In order to stimulate a greater interest in such projects and to ensure sustained
effort on the part of the students, the same project is sometimes assigned to the members of
a class or of a group of volunteers, who formulate or agree to certain regulations governing
their procedure. In other words, they may form a club designated in accordance with the
character of the common project chosen. For example, they may be so organized under the
name of a poultry club, a calf club, a home-garden club, etc. This method of instruction, for
the club is or should be primarily educational in its character, is being introduced into many
of our schools, and more especially in connection with the high-school agricultural classes, and
with very satisfactory results. Divorced from regular and constant school supervision, the club
project has really little value, becoming as it too often does a mere " stunt" of a trinsically
economic character. Speaking of the value of agricultural clubs as an educational agency,
Dr. Bricker, Professor of Agricultural Education in the State University of Ohio, made the
following statement, which those actually engaged in the work will heartily endorse: "To be
most serviceable," he says, " as an aid to education, the agricultural club needs to become a
recognized auxiliary to the public schools, under its control and management, and contributing
to its best teaching. Under the patronage of the public schools, the club idea seems destined
to reach its highest function of serving public education and industrial development among the
young people of the country. In this relationship both its efficiency and its economy will be
best served."
During the past year or two our District Supervisors have been devoting some time to the
preparation of project outlines not only for their own classes in agriculture, but also as an aid
to the teachers in the rural schools of their respective districts. Such outlines serve to provide
definite lines of work, having not only a distinctive purpose agriculturally and socially, but also
having very important and positive educational value, including as it does the intimate correlation of many subjects in the curriculum. A handbook for public-school teachers based upon this
principle and illustrative of this method of teaching is urgently needed at the present time.
Improvement op School-grounds.
During the year numerous requests have come in from School Boards for assistance in the
improving of school-grounds. It is now six or seven years since the first start was -made in the
planning and planting of school-grounds, and the results already obtained amply justify the
expenditures made. The maintenance of the Provincial Schools Nursery at Essondale is essential
to the successful prosecution of this line of school improvement and development.
In such a period of rapid school expansion as that which we are now experiencing, necessitating the erection of many new school buildings, careful supervision of school-sites and the
proper location of school buildings is needed. During the year I have been called upon to plan
the improvements to be effected on various school-grounds, some of which were new grounds.
It is obvious that such plans should be under way before the buildings are erected, but only
rarely is this done. The proper placing of school buildings has never yet had the careful
attention which its importance demands, and it would seem reasonable that the Department
should exercise closer inspection or supervision in this matter in view of the fact that public
funds are generously expended in the erection of school buildings, and that the welfare of the
school-children for many years to come requires such supervision and control.
Since making my last report on this subject the following schools have received assistance
in, the matter of grounds improvement, including suitable collections of ornamental trees and
shrubs: Edith Cavell, Queen Mary, and Lloyd George Schools in Point Grey; Steveston, English,
and General Currie Schools in Richmond; Nelson Avenue, Burnaby West, and Edmonds Schools
in Burnaby ;  Lord Lister and Queensborough Schools in New Westminster;  Rosedale and Sardis C 58 Public Schools Report. 1922
in Chilliwack ; nine public schools in Surrey ; Langley Prairie; Broadview ; Salmon Arm ;
Chemainus; Duncan Consolidated; Courtenay; Armstrong, Nanaimo, and Kelowna High Schools;
Vernon Central;   Rutland;   Invermere.
In some instances the teachers and pupils not only take good care of the trees and shrubs
supplied, but study them observationally from year to year. This systematic study and care
gives not only an intimate knowledge of the varieties planted, but tends towards the development
of a keener and more intelligent appreciation of -beautiful surroundings, whether at home or at
school. Incidentally it does a good deal to develop respect for the school property and to engender
a spirit of pride in and loyalty to the institution.
Whilst the School Board is in, every case officially responsible for the protection and the
improvement of school buildings and grounds, a great deal of assistance has been given 'by such
organizations as Parent-Teacher Associations and Women's Institutes. These organizations have
already done much towards improving school conditions in many practical ways. Their moral
support is also generously given in all movements tending towards the bettering of conditions
for our boys and girls, physical as well as educational.
In helping to maintain good school-grounds by protecting and systematically caring for the
planting material supplied, praise is due to many of the school janitors and caretakers. In some
instances it is wholly due to the personal interest and constant attention of these men that
beautiful school-grounds are maintained year after year. All honour to these men and may
their tribe increase. To all such men and women this gentle art of garden-culture is but the
expression of a refined ideal such as we cannot but covet for every teacher and every pupil in
attendance at our schools.
Extracts prom- the Reports op District Supervisors op Agricultural Instruction.
From Mr. J. C. Readey, B.S.A., Chilliwack City and Municipality:—
" High School.—There has been a steady increase in the proportion of students entering
high school who choose the agricultural option. This year 50 per cent, of those entering have
chosen this subject, and this! is very gratifying when it is remembered that agriculture, with
much prejudice against it, both as a vocation and as an educational subject, must win its place
amongst the older subjects with their well-established position and traditions. All students
taking the June examinations in agriculture were successful.
" Public Schools.—There are now sixteen schools under my supervision. In these sixteen
schools thirty-five rooms are visited. As far as possible the afternoons are reserved for this
work, which consists of the preparation of topical outlines of study, consultations with teachers,
both in their schools and at teachers' meetings, teaching of nature-study and agriculture topics
in the various classes, arrangement for clubs, distribution of club material and literature, purchase of supplies, as seeds, and supervision of the school-garden work. The East Chilliwack
School did not operate a garden during the past season, because of the alterations and improvements that were being made to the school-grounds. All teachers speak of the interest, and even
delight, that the pupils take in this branch of their work. A number of teachers find, in this
interest, the key to the child's best educational improvement. The supervision of this work
necessitates a mileage approximately of 600 miles per month.
" School Fair.—The School Fair was held this year, as in previous years, in conjunction
with the Chilliwack Agricultural Exhibition, from whom we received a grant of $400. If one
may judge from the statements made by those who visited the School Fair, a very creditable
showing was made. Each year a committee of teachers gives a good deal of thought to the
preparation of the prize-list. It has been the aim of these teachers to produce a prize-list that
will direct the work of the school along true educational lines. Every department of the
curriculum is now represented. The entries this year numbered 786. Ribbon badges were given
as recognition of individual competition. Winnings were credited to the various schools and
the cash prizes were paid to the schools, the money to be used by the school rather than by
the individual competitor.
" Clubs.—Calf-raising, pig-raising, chicken-raising, gardening, and photography were the
activities engaged in by the school-children this year in addition to the regular school-work.
This work is very much assisted by the various local Live Stock and Poultry Associations arid
by others interested in gardening and photography. British Columbia University men and local
experts have given freely of their time for organization and instruction purposes. A membership
of 280 pupils altogether took part in this work. 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 59
" A Review.—The work has now been under way in this district for seven years. A brief
review may be interesting. The introduction of agriculture into the High School Course and
of nature-study into the Public School Course has not been unattended by difficulties and vicissitudes. Many of these difficulties came through a misunderstanding, on the part of the people,
of the object of the work. That this misunderstanding has been largely removed is proved by
the hearty support which the work now receives from the responsible bodies and from the Board
of Trade and the various agricultural organizations of the district. Of the students taking
agriculture during the first six of the seven years, 42 per cent, have been girls. City residents
attended to the number of 7.26 per cent. Of those who entered the course, 7.26 per cent are
now teachers; 2.10 per cent, are in banks; 3.15 per cent, are attending Agricultural College;
17.8 per cent, are on farms; 9.5 per cent, are at University courses other than agriculture and
in various other occupations. There remains 10.5 per cent, whose present occupation is not
known. If we eliminate the girl students and those whose parents reside in the city from the
list of those who might reasonably be expected to return to the farm, we find that of those who
remain and who might be expected to return to the farm 35.41 per cent, are now thus actively
engaged. While this is all very gratifying, the fact remains that the agricultural interests of
the Province are best served not only by the return of our young people to the land, but also
by instilling into the mind of all our young people, no matter what their vocation, an appreciation
of the value and dignity of agriculture. In no other place can such an appreciation be given so
well as in our public and high schools. When these young people, thus trained, come -into
responsibility they will look with sympathy on any measure which aims to remove from
agriculture the social and economic stigma which now attaches to it in the minds of many
people."
From Mr. E. L. Small, B.S.A., Surrey Municipality:—
" High-school Work.—The incoming class in Agriculture numbers eighteen students, one of
i the largest classes to date. The new class in General Science has an enrolment of twenty-seven,
almost double that of last year. A new high school was constructed during the year and a
spacious room was equipped for agricultural and science work. Home projects, excursions, the
study of individual farms, and the training during the summer of crop- and stock-judging teams
have all contributed towards making the course attractive and practical.
" Last spring a suitable piece of land for experimental work was secured near the school.
This has been a great aid to us in the teaching of agriculture. Of the experiments conducted,
perhaps the most interesting one was that in which various fertilizers were used in mangel-
growing. It was shown very plainly that the soil was in need of phosphoric-acid fertilizer, while
other kinds gave but very little benefit. Another experiment showed that alfalfa-seed treated
with the proper bacteria before planting gave no better results in this particular soil than
untreated seed.
" Public-school Work.—Regular visits were made throughout the year to the public schools.
Surrey Municipality now has eighteen public schools and thirty-five class-rooms. It was found
that much more efficient work could be accomplished when detailed monthly nature-study outlines
were supplied to each room. An effort was made to arouse interest and encourage correlation
with other subjects by holding special weeks, such as ' Milk Week,' ' Bird Week,' etc.
" Gardens were conducted only at schools where soil and other conditions were favourable.
This eliminated failures. It is pleasing to note that teachers and pupils are each year showing
more skill in selecting and preparing material for exhibition. Every effort is being made to
encourage teachers to use their gardens as a source of material for nature lessons.
" Home clubs were also successful among the public-school children and included such
activities as mangel-seed growing, potato-variety tests, home vegetable-gardens, and poultry-
raising. A school-fair section in conjunction with the Agricultural Association's exhibition
gave all an opportunity to exhibit their produce and compete for various trophies.
" An active interest was shown in school-ground improvement, nine school-yards were
improved by grading, draining, and planting of trees and flowers. This branch of work has
been much appreciated by the citizens, who very often aided in the work by forming bees and
organizing a community day at the school.
" Outside the sphere of nature-study and elementary agricultural supervision, I have been
pleased to assist in such activities as would tend to make rural schools and communities more
efficient.    Among these I would like to mention the formation of Parent-Teacher Associations, 0 60 Public Schools Report. 1922
Local Teachers' Associations, school sports, playground equipment, municipal school picnic, and
hot lunches for school-children."
From Mr. J. E. Britton, B.S.A., Kelowna and Rutland District:—
" In accordance with the former agreement, half-time has been devoted to the duties of
Agricultural Representative for the Department of Agriculture. This has made it possible to
meet many more of the farmers of the district, but a natural development of the work as
Representative demanded more than the time allowed, and with the schools' work also growing
it was quite evident that some new arrangement would soon need to be made. In June it was
decided by the School Board concerned that the District Supervisor should devote full time to
school-work in the Kelowna and Rutland Schools.
" Home projects in poultry and seed-growing were commenced in the spring and a poultry
club organized under the auspices of the Kelowna Poultry Association. Members of the association supplied sittings of eggs free to each club member, and have arranged a splendid list of
prizes for the exhibitors at the Fall fair.
" A poultry crate-feeding project was conducted during the fall, which terminated iu a
chicken dinner given by the Agricultural class. All of the work, from rearing the chickens to
fattening, preparing for the oven, and serving the dinner, was performed by the agricultural
students. In the crate-feeding operations careful weights and records were kept of the amounts
fed and gains made.
." The growing of certified seed-potatoes and selected North-western Dent seed-corn comprised
the class projects conducted on the school-grounds this year.
" The shrubs and trees planted last year have made very good growth. A new lawn has
been made on one-half of the former agriculture grounds and it now accommodates three courts
of tennis.
" A judging team of three boys attended the New Westminster Fair in 1921 as guests of
the Fair Association and to compete in the junior stock-judging competition. This visit to the .
fair and the generous and kindly treatment tendered the boys while there was greatly appreciated
and aroused wonderful enthusiasm in agricultural interests. The boys have since matriculated
from the high school, and it is of interest to note that each one is planning to enter the
University in agriculture."
From Mr. J. M. Shales, B.A., B.S.A., Langley Municipality:—
"My work in Langley during the past year has included the giving of classes in the regular
Two-year High School Course, supervision of public-school nature-study, school and home gardening, organization of school fair, numerous public lectures, and executive work for various local
organizations. In addition, this year pure-bred live-stock and poultry clubs have been organized,
and an ever-increasing number of consultations given to farmers of the municipality on practically
every branch of agriculture.
" High School.—The value of agriculture as an educational subject, which develops the mind
of the student by teaching him in terms of his every-day surroundings rather than in terms of
the abstract and remote, is becoming more apparent each year. One-third of the present public-
schools teaching staff in Langley are graduates of our High School Course in Agriculture, and
by their east of adaptation to the needs of rural schools ahd interesting and practical methods
of teaching the course in nature-study and elementary agriculture have emphasized to a surprising
degree the technical value of the instruction given in our High School Course.
" Public Schools.—The sixteen public schools of the district were visited once in two weeks
by schedule as in the past, and assistance given in making more effective the teaching of the
Nature-study Course. This was accomplished by the teaching of type lessons, help in organizing
the work, and lantern-slide talks, using the lantern purchased with prizes won by school-garden
exhibits at the Provincial Exhibition.
" Twelve school-gardens were conducted with more than the usual success, in spite of the
dry season. The continual change of teachers and the still further extension of the ungraded-
school system in this municipality are great impediments to the effective supervision and use of
the school-garden as a teaching medium.
" Home Clubs.—Home competitions were conducted in the growing of various field crops,
including Yellow Intermediate mangels for seed, Gold Coin potatoes, U.B.C. Spud, and U.B.C.
Banner oats. Live-stock work was organized on a club basis this year and is proving to be
one of the most promising branches of the work here.    Our initial attempts included Pure-bred 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 61
Holstein and Pure-bred Guernsey Calf Clubs, comprising eight and six members respectively;
a Pure-bred Berkshire Pig Club with twelve members; and Pure-bred White Leghorn and
White Wyandotte Poultry Clubs of eighteen members. So popular have the clubs already
become that in future it may be necessary to withdraw some of our attention from other phases
of the work if they are to be developed and expanded as they should be.
" School Fair.—The School Fair in conjunction with the local Agricultural Exhibition was
organized and carried out with interest and success. An exhibit from the school-gardens of
the district was staged at the Provincial Exhibition, and stock-judging teams were trained and
entered in competition at this and Vancouver Exhibition.
" Our most hearty thanks are due to the members of the staff of the Faculty of Agriculture
of the University of British Columbia and to officers of the Provincial and Dominion Departments
of Agriculture, who by their ready and unstinted assistance when requested have made it possible
to carry on all the above work, in spite of the vast multiplicity of details involved."
From Mr. Wm. M. Fleming, B.S.A., Duncan and Cowichan District:—•
" During the year school-ground improvement was given considerable attention. At
Chemainus, following an approved plan, flowering shrubs and trees were set out by the
principal and senior pupils under my supervision. These were attended to regularly and in
spite of the dry season are doing well.
" At Duncan two plots, 10 by 225 feet and 10 t>y 145 feet, were planted by the senior pupils
in shrubs, perennial flowers, and trees.
" Five divisions of the consolidated school planted school-gardens. Each pupil was allotted
a space 4 by 12 feet. These were planted and cared for by the pupils under supervision, and
exhibits from these were shown at the Fall Fair. Most of the produce was donated to the
Hospital.    Some experimental work was done with potatoes and with vegetable-seeds.
" The flowering shrubs set out four years ago were pruned by the high-school pupils. These
shrubs have provided a succession of bloom all summer and have made the school building much
more attractive.
" A Pig Club and three Poultry Clubs were organized under the Provincial Boys' and Girls'
Club regulations."
From Mr. A. M. McDermott, B.S.A., New Westminster:—
" The work of the District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction during the past year has
been developed along various lines, and seems to show over the previous year a widening field
of influence, as well as an increase in the number of students choosing this subject as a science
option for Matriculation Examination.
" With the opening of the last school-year, twenty-three were enrolled in High School classes
in Agriculture and twenty-five in Technical High School classes in the subject. Of this number,
seven proceeded to Matriculation Examination and the entire number were successful. In all
classes great interest in the subject was evident and added to the pleasure of the work. Beside
this number in regular agriculture, the work in physics and chemistry of the Household Science
classes in the same building was taken over, giving four periods per week to sixteen students.
" Growing out of the numerous requests for assistance in agriculture and nature-study from
teachers in the city schools, a class in Rural Science—so called—very similar to that of the
preliminary work in the summer school, was organized. The work covered was based upon the
course of study for the classes taught by teachers in attendance. An average of thirteen took
advantage and did commendable work. The course was carried out during the months January
to April, inclusive, with a requirement of 100 hours' attendance for those desiring to receive
credit. Classes were held two afternoons per week from 4 to 6 o'clock. After completing the
prescribed course on the approval of the Director, those who had satisfactorily completed the
course were allowed to enter advanced rural-science work in the summer school. A detailed
report of this work is presented elsewhere.
" During the winter months also several educational lectures were given in various parts
of the district under the auspices of young people's and church organizations.
"School-gardens correlated with other school-work were conducted in all the city schools,
upwards of fifteen classes taking part.
" Much time during the year was given to supervision of the teaching of nature-study and
elementary agriculture in the class-room. Teachers were assisted by the teaching of type lessons,
by providing materials and information for lessons, and by criticism and constructive suggestion as to choice and arrangement of class-work. It is felt that next to the formal teaching of
agriculture this is the most valuable phase of the supervisor's work. The noticeable improvement
in work done by these teachers, as well as the spoken word of appreciation, seems to bear out
this conviction.
" At the close of summer school junior live-stock judging teams were trained for the
exhibition at Vancouver and for the Provincial Exhibition at New Westminster. Material was
also selected, collected, and arranged for the district school agricultural exhibit at the latter
place.
" Throughout the entire year an earnest attempt has been made in these and in other ways
to assist wherever and whenever possible every organization and movement which make for
community uplift and betterment. As our work becomes more firmly established some fruits
of labour appear to be evident."
From Mr. J. B. Munro, B.S.A., Armstrong and Enderby :—
" Work at Enderby.—During the six months ending June 30th, 1922, agriculture was taken
by all students of the Advanced Junior and Matriculation classes in the Enderby High School.
Eleven Advanced Junior students and eight matriculants wrote their final examinations in June.
All successfully passed in agriculture.
" In addition to covering the work outlined in the course of study, several home projects
were conducted by matriculation students. These projects included timely local marketing
problems and pertinent questions dealing with agricultural economics in the district.
" Two Poultry Clubs organized at Enderby had a total membership of twenty-two students
from the Entrance class of the public school and from the two lower forms of the high school.
Considerable assistance in this work was given by Miss M. V. Beatty, principal of the public
school; by the late Geo. Smedley, Mayor of Enderby; and by Mr. Tom Robinson. Mr. L. G.
Tyler, manager of the local branch of the Bank of Hamilton, also took a keen interest in Poultry
Club matters and was instrumental in establishing a Jersey Calf Club among the boys and
girls of Enderby and Grindrod this year.
" Owing to considerable doubt existing as to the possibility of continuing the Enderby High
School after the summer vacation, agriculture was discontinued here at the end of June.
" Work at Armstrong.—Evidence of the popularity of agriculture as a high-school subject
at Armstrong may be gathered from the fact that during the past three years every student of
the Advanced Junior class has chosen agriculture as an optional science subject. Seventeen
pupils completed advanced junior agriculture in June and sixteen are now enrolled in the present
second form. All the seven students writing matriculation agriculture last June were successful
in that subject. Out of the twelve students now taking matriculation-work at Armstrong eleven
have chosen agriculture. The other student has come into Armstrong from a school where
agriculure was not taught.
" Agricultural students at Armstrong conducted home projects during the spring term, one
of the most important of which was the compiling of a poultry census throughout the Municipality
of Spallumcheen. Previous to this any estimate of the probable number of laying hens in the
district was largely a matter of guesswork.
" More than eighty boys and girls in the high and public schools at Armstrong have this
year engaged in live-stock club activities. The local Pig Club has a membership of thirty;
there are thirty-four members in the Barred Rock and White Wyandotte Clubs; and eighty
boys and girls have joined the Jersey Calf Club this summer in addition to the twelve that
purchased calves in 1921. The 1921 club is continuing its work and arrangements have been
made for all heifers to be entered on official test in the beginning of their lactation periods.
" Several local ranchers and business-men have taken keen interest in the live-stock work
carried on by the students. The local Poultry Association has encouraged Poultry Club work
by awarding ten cash prizes for club exhibits at the Northern Okanagan Exhibition.
"■ So impressed were the directors of the Northern Okanagan Exhibition Association with the
importance of the junior live-stock work as conducted at Armstrong that at their last annual
meeting they appointed four of the agricultural students as directors in the association. These
boys, along with the two school principals and the District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction,
constitute the committee on live-stock club exhibits. The junior section of the local live-stock
show is expected to he the leading feature of the 1922 fair at Armstrong.
" Several judging demonstrations were held at local ranches during the spring term. A team
of three advanced junior high-school boys from Armstrong competed in the stock-judging contest I'llii '
■-   " - -• ■■■.-..■     .■■-■■
Pentieton's tine public schools, showing- a corner of their beautiful grounds.
The oldest school in British Columbia, Craigflower, Saanich. Students at work cleaning up the new grounds. Armstrong and Spallumchoen Consolidated School.
When work becomes play.     Pulling stumps with the tug-oE-war rope,  Armstrong Consolidated
School grounds. 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 63
at Vancouver Exhibition in August, winning third place.    At New Westminster three girls from
the Matriculation class won the bronze medals in the district team competition.
" Experimental work conducted in the school-garden has given positive results. The silage
tests with corn and sunflowers have been of practical value to farmers visiting the garden.
Visitors to tills particular spot were numerous throughout the whole summer. For the first time
the apple trees in the high-school garden have borne fruit and fairly good crops of currants and
gooseberries were harvested as well.
" Agriculture as a high-school subject is popular among the students of the Armstrong High
School. Parents, prominent business-men, and ranchers have taken keen interest in the agricultural work being carried on, and there is every indication that agriculture will continue to be
one of the most important subjects taken at this centre."
From Mr. V. B. Robinson, B.S.A., Vernon District:—
" My time at Vernon was equally divided between work in the schools and work for the
Horticultural Branch of the Department of Agriculture.- The three days per week devoted to
school-work were employed not only in teaching agriculture in the high school, but also in
assisting the public-school teachers in their nature-study and school-gardening activities.
" This year the Boys' and Girls' Club idea was employed in carrying out the school-garden
and nature-study work with some of the classes of the public school. Two School-garden Clubs
were established as well as Insect and Wild-flower Study Clubs. A large Boys' and Girls' Pig
Club was organized with the assistance of the Provincial organizer of the Dominion Live Stock
Branch. Considerable interest was shown in this club by the members and their parents. Such
movements assist greatly in awakening an interest in agricultural instruction in the schools.
" On September 1st I was transferred to the Summerland-Penticton District as District
Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction."
From Mr. W. H. Grant, B.S.A., Salmon Arm District:—
" The work as outlined in the High School Courses of Study was carried on for the school-
year, September 6th, 1921, to June 30th, 1922. Three hours per week, divided into four periods,
was the time allotted to this work. The students seemed greatly interested in the subject and
no difficulty was apparent in grasping it. Experimental work was carried out in the laboratory
and on plots at home, as no land convenient to the school was available.
" The time-table for the present year calls for four forty-five-minute periods in each of the
classes. In addition, I am taking general science with the Preliminary class and chemistry with
the Advanced Junior and Matriculation classes.
" Public Schools.—The Salmon Arm City Public School is a graded school of five divisions,
in four of these divisions nature-study and agriculture has been taught for the past year, a very
successful school-garden has been operated, and with one division home-gardens were used. The
individual teachers carried on the work and I took one period a week with each division. This
policy is being continued for the coming year.
" In the Municipality of Salmon Arm there are six one-roomed schools and one two-roomed
school. Visits were made to each school every two weeks and instruction given in nature-study
and agriculture. In one school a school-garden was operated, while in all the others home-
gardens were used. Great enthusiasm on the part of teachers and pupils has been shown
throughout the year, and on last inspection the pupils' home-gardens made a very creditable
showing.    A School Fair in connection with the District Fall Fair has already been arranged.
" Club-work.—This year several very successful agricultural clubs have been in operation,
as follows: Poultry Clubs at Salmon Arm, Salmon Arm West, and Canoe; also a Jersey Calf
Club and Berkshire Pig Club at Salmon Ann.
" Judging Demonstration.—Demonstrations in the judging of live stock have been carried on
in different parts of the district and a judging team from here competed at New Westminster
Exhibition in September, 1921.    It is expected that a team will also be entered this year.
" Considerable work has been done throughout the tlistrict in the way of lecturing on
agricultural subjects and in encouraging more up-to-date methods of farming. The attitude
in this district seems to be very receptive towards this line of work."
I have, etc.,
J. W. Gibson,
Director of Elementary Agricultural Education. G 64 Public Schools Report. 1922
SUMMER SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
Victoria, B.C., September 30th, 1922.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith a report on the summer school for teachers held hi Victoria
from July 10th to August 11th, 1922.
Summer courses for public- and high-school teachers, although of recent origin, have already
become widely established and have had a most beneficial influence in raising the standard of
the teaching profession. Teachers everywhere, and they are by no means the poorest teachers
either, are realizing the need of supplementary training in many of the school subjects, and
are glad of the opportunity of receiving such instruction now regularly given by specialists of
recognized ability. In these days of rapid change and, we trust, of rapid advancement, the
person who will find it most difficult to keep up with the procession is probably the teacher, and
certainly that teacher is to be pitied and must inevitably fall behind who considers that his or
her education for the great profession of teaching has been finished on the completion of the
Normal Course. Fundamental principles never change, but the methods of their application are
continually changing, and the task of harmonizing the art of teaching with the science of
education must always stand as a challenge to the teacher.
The conditions, climatic and otherwise, to be found in Victoria are most congenial and in
every way suitable for summer study. The number of teachers who attend our summer school
as visitors from the Prairie Provinces is steadily increasing, and there is no doubt as to the
growing popularity of Victoria as a centre for summer students.
Enrolment bt Courses.
Following is the enrolment in the nine courses offered:—
Rural Science    IS
Primary Grade Course    56
Art     35
Manual Training   18
Home Economics    25
Vocal Music        8
History and Geography   21
English Literature and Reading    40
Physical Training (Strathcona B Certificate)      29
Some of the students in physical training were also registered in other courses. The total
number of students completing attendance for the five weeks was 234. The Manual Training
classes were held in the Vancouver Technical School, as the facilities for work are better there
than in Victoria and most of the students and instructors live in or about Vancouver.
Each of the above courses occupied from three to five hours per day. In addition to these
regular or full-time courses, two special or part-time courses were given, each requiring one hour
per day—namely, Penmanship and Folk-dancing. The Penmanship Course was taken by 127
students and Folk-dancing by 76. These classes were 'both highly successful and were deservedly
popular with the students. The largest registration in full-time courses was that in the Course
for Primary Grade Teachers. This is a comparatively new course, having been offered for only
two years previously. We were particularly fortunate in having in connection with this course
the services of such a prominent educationist as Dr. J. H. Putnian, Senior Inspector of Schools
for Ottawa. His lectures and class conferences were thoroughly enjoyed by all who were
privileged to attend. Other new instructors were Mrs. Margaret Potts, Directoress of the
Montessori School of Calgary, who conducted with high efficiency the Demonstration class of
Primary Grade children; Miss Fannie Twiss, Director of Household Science for Saskatchewan,
who conducted the Teacher-training class in that subject; Mr. E. H. Murphy, of the staff of
the Vancouver Normal School, who gave for the first time in the history of the summer school 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 65
a well-organized Course in History and Geography; Miss Christina Buchanan, who conducted
the Demonstration class in Intermediate Grade subjects; Professor F. G. C. Wood, of the
Provincial University, who handled the Course in English Literature with the second largest
class in the school; Dr. Nathan Fasten, head of the Department of Zoology and Physiology in
the Oregon State College of Agriculture, who gave Courses in Animal Biology ; Professor S. E.
Beckett, of the Provincial University, who lectured in Rural Sociology; and Mr. C. F. Connor,
M.A., Science Master in the King Edward High School, Vancouver, who gave a new Course in
Agricultural and Household Chemistry: Sergeant-Major Wallace, of Victoria, and Miss L. K.
Cotsworth, who conducted the Course in Physical Training.
I have great pleasure in testifying as to the high character of the work carried on by these
new instructors. New courses under new conditions are always attended by unforeseen difficulties,
but the efficiency and dispatch with which these instructors handled their respective programmes
was most gratifying to those in charge of the school.
Most of the Instructors, however, have been with us in past years, some of them not having
missed a single session since the introduction of summer schools in British Columbia in 1914, and
others for one or two years only, These men and women have given only their best in the
service of education not only in the summer session, but throughout the entire year, and it is
largely due to their loyalty and their efficient work that our Provincial Summer School has
achieved so much of success. It is fitting that I should make special mention of the invaluable
assistance rendered during this as, indeed, during eve'ry other summer school for teachers held
in British Columbia by my colleague and co-worker, Mr. John Kyle. My duties as Director
of the School have been lightened and rendered more pleasant by reason of the untiring efforts
of Mr. Kyle in the interests of every student and instructor concerned. The instructors just
referred to, who have been with us in former years, and the subject taught by each are as
follows:—
H. B. MacLean, Vancouver Normal School—Writing and Penmanship.
W. P. Weston, Vancouver Normal School—Art.
Miss Ethel M. Coney, Vancouver Normal School—Vocal Music.
Mrs. H. Arkley Martin, South Vancouver—Advanced Sewing and Needlework.
Alex. S. Hamilton, South Vancouver—Theory and Practice in Manual Training.
Harry A. Jones, Technical School, Vancouver—Metalwork.
J. C. Readey, B.S.A., Chilliwack—Study of Soils.
J. E. Britton, B.S.A., Kelowna—Horticulture.
Dr. Geo. B. Rigg, University of Washington—Botany.
E. L. Small, B.S.A., Cloverdale—Field Husbandry and Poultry-keeping.
A. M. McDermott, B.S.A., New Westminster—School-gardening and Methods in Rural
Science.
W. H. Grant, B.S.A., Salmon Arm—Animal Husbandry and Dairying.
Charles E. Scott, Vancouver—Advanced Art.
R. W. MacKenzie, Vancouver—Penmanship.
Arthur E. Hutton, Calgary Normal School—Manual Arts.
John Fraser, Technical School, Vancouver—Sheet-metai and Forge Work.
John R. MacLean, Burnaby—Wood-turning.
Miss Alice B. Marcellus, Prince Rupert—Domestic Science.
I wish also to make public acknowledgment of the valuable service rendered by Miss Helen
Stewart, Librarian, Victoria Public Library, and Miss Margaret Clay, Assistant Librarian, in
selecting and lending many valuable reference books for the use of students and instructors.
The only regret is that we were not able to avail ourselves of the services of these ladies in the
giving of a full Course in Children's Books and School Libraries—a course that was carefully
planned, but which was finally withdrawn because of the small number of applicants. We hope
to be able to offer a similar course again next year, however.
Special Social and Educational Features.
As in former years, weekly entertainments of an educational character were held in the
auditorium of the High School, all of which were open to the public. The first of these was a
demonstration in children's chorus-work by the Lampson Street School Choir, Esquimalt, under
the direction of its trainer and organizer, Mr. Fred Waddington, and assisted by Mrs. Hollinrake C 66 Public Schools Report. 1922
Brick, soloist, and Mr. Drury Pryce, violinist. The chorus-work of these young boys and girls
seems well-nigh perfect. In the few concerts given during the past year in Victoria and in
their own school they have won a well-merited reputation, which they fully sustained at the
High School, although working under disadvantages occasioned by the midsummer vacation.
It is to be hoped that as a result of this demonstration of children's choral work, together with
the instruction given in vocal music, we shall have more and better singing in our schools.
On the evening of July 2Sth the Rev. Dr. Crummy, of Winnipeg, known throughout Canada
as the students' preacher and as a keen educationist, delivered a most appropriate lecture on
"A Canadian Ideal in Education." One other evening was given up to a very successful literary
and musical recital by Miss Clare Powell, assisted by Mr. Mark Sampson and accompanied by
Mr. F. T. C. Wickett, Victoria.
The weekly students' at home and dance was well organized and proved to be one of the
most enjoyable features of the summer school. Two general school picnics were held—one at
the Gorge Park and the other at Deep Cove. Special mention should be made of the kindness
and generosity of the executive of the Vancouver Island Amateur Athletic Association in extending to the teachers in attendance at the summer school complimentary membership in their
association during their stay in the city. As last year, the students paid a visit to the beautiful
Butchart gardens and also to the Dominion Astronomical Observatory on the return trip from
Deep Cove. Year after year it is being demonstrated at our summer schools that if Victoria is
an ideal spot for summer study it is also ideal for summer recreation.
Closing Exhibition and Entertainment.
The formal closing of the 1922 summer school took place in the High School on Thursday
evening, August 10th. Early in the evening the corridors and class-rooms were thronged with
interested visitors, who inspected the many excellent specimens of work exhibited by the
students in connection with the various courses. At 8.30 a programme was given in the assembly-
hall, consisting of demonstrations of games, singing, and dramatization by the Primary Grade
children under the direction of Mrs. Potts, and also of methods employed in the teaching of
music by the Music class under the direction of Miss Coney. Mr. S. J. Willis, Superintendent of
Education, presided, and took occasion to express his appreciation of the excellent work accomplished by the students during their five weeks' course and of the value of summer courses
generally. The large audience then adjourned to the gymnasium to witness a very interesting
programme of school games and folk-dancing given by the pupils of Miss Cotsworth's class. The
great variety of dances and the cleverness and dispatch with which they were conducted gave
ample testimony as to the thoroughness and also the versatility of the instructor. A social hour
which closed with the singing of " Auld Lang Syne " brought to a close what has been spoken
of as the best summer school ever held in British Columbia.
In reviewing the students' registration cards, certain facts have come to light wnich
may be of special interest. Of the thirty-nine cities in British Columbia, all but seven were
represented at the summer school, as shown by the following list: Alberni, 1; Armstrong, 4;
Chilliwack, 2; Courtenay, 3 ; Cranbrook, 3 ; Cumberland, 1; Duncan, 2 ; Enderby, 1; Fernie,
4; Grand Forks, 3; Greenwood. 1; Kamloops, 4; Kaslo, nil; Kelowna, 1; Ladysmith, nil;
Merritt, 1; Nanaimo, 4; Quesnel, nil; Nelson, 4; New Westminster, 8 ; Port Alberni, nil; Port
Coquitlam, nil; Port Moody, 1; Prince George, 1; Prince Rupert, 5; Revelstoke, 6; Rossland,
5; Salmon Arm, nil; Slocan, nil; Trail, 3; Vancouver, 17; North Vancouver, 6; Vernon, 1;
Victoria, 21; making a total of 113 teachers altogether attending from city schools. Of the
twenty-six rural municipalities, all but eleven were represented, as follows: Burnaby, 6; Chilliwack, 1; Coldstream, nil; Coquitlam, nil; Delta, 2; Esquimalt, nil; Kent, nil; Langley, nil;
Maple Ridge, 1; Matsqui, nil; Mission, 1; Oak Bay, 1; Peachland, nil; Penticton, 1; Pitt
Meadows, nil; Point Grey, 3; Richmond, 1; Saanich, 6; Salmon Arm, 2 ; Sumas, nil; Summer-
land, 2; Surrey, nil; North Vancouver, nil; South Vancouver, 3; West Vancouver, 1; North
Cowichan, 1;  making a total of 32 teachers altogether coming from rural municipalities.
The rural and assisted schools of the Province furnished sixty-eight teachers altogether and
there were twenty-one visiting teachers, mostly from points outside the Province. It would
appear from our records that only about 10 per cent, of our public- and high-school teachers
are attending summer courses. It should be possible to double this percentage within the next
year or two, and to this end we shall hope to have the hearty co-operation of School Inspectors,
school trustees, and the teachers themselves through their own Provincial organizations. 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 67
Following is a complete list of the students attending the last summer school, with the
schools in which each was employed last term, grouped according to courses:—
Summer School Registration, 1922.
(1.) Rural Science Course.
*Beattie, Mabel Violet   Enderby.
Bell, Ralph Kennedy  .Armstrong.
f Bertrand, Clemence Soda Creek.
*Godson, Mabel  Central School, New Westminster.
tto'rdon-Cumining, Ronald R Pineview, Prince George.
*Greig, Alex. M. D Ellisby, Vanderhoof.
♦Heap, Dora Eve  Camp 3, Headquarters.
Jones, William    New Michel.
fKelly,  Charlotte   Cobble Hill.
fKlein, Gretha  Victoria.
"Lawrence, Kathleen  Kamloops.
♦Morten, Elizabeth M. (Mrs.)  Duncan.
tNikolson, Rhoda C.  (Mrs.)    Champion Creek.
fRamsay, James  Sidney.
Sykes, William A. M Gleneden, Salmon Arm.
*Wilson, Isabel   Chilco.
Wright, Gertrude Constance  Craigflower, Saanich.
*Wright, Mary Edith  Nimpkish River.
(2.) Primary Grade Course.
*Abey, Olive Valentine  Nelson.
*Adams, Edith Lilian  Selkirk, Revelstoke.
*Apps, Kathleen, N. G Selkirk, Revelstoke.
*Ashburne, Rosa L. E. R Central School, New Westminster.
*Baillie, Annie Taylor   Union Bay.
Blackwood, Isabelle Kennedy  Slocan.
*Blake, Mabel Nellie  School for Deaf, Vancouver.
*Brown, Ida Maddella   Beaton.
*Coates, Jos. Hy. Leonard ; Bridesville.
*Cobeldick, Elsie Mae  Seymour, Vancouver.
Cruikshank, Winifred Grace  Victoria.
*Cummin, Geraldiue V West Vancouver.
DeCew, Ida Lois  Vancouver.
*Elliott, Kathleen Marie   Summerland.
Feakes, Harry James   Kelowna.
t Fleming, F. Evelyn   South Vancouver.
*Fleury, Ida Mae  Fort Steele.
*Fraser, Marie C Ridgeway, North Vancouver.
tHarris,  Edith L Burnside, Victoria.
Henderson, Laura  Cranbrook.
*Hibbard, Helen M Prince Rupert.
James, Elsie May  Chilliwack.
James, Lillias O Edmonds Street, Burnaby.
♦Laing, Dorothy R Victoria.
*Laing, Lelia M Victoria.
*Long, Elizabeth C.  ..; East Gabriola.
Longworth, Grace Taylor  Sunnyside Cannery.
*Lorden, Rosalind E. G Victoria.
*Lynn, Annie  Tappen Valley.
♦Maloney, Rita A Prince George.
Merrix, Albert Ronald  Lennoxville, P.Q.
fMilne, Eleanor E Vancouver. C 68 Public Schools Report. 1922
Summer School Registration—Continued.
(2.) Primary Grade Course—Continued.
*Minckler, Cora E Parson's Hill, Chilliwack.
♦Mordon, Mary Evelyn  Lonsdale, North Vancouver.
fMoulton, Muriel Emma  Lord Kelvin, New Westminster.
Munro, Mary Anne  McLean, Rossland.
*MacDonald, S. Bertha South Wellington.
*McDonald, Sivris Mearl   Wellington.
■fMcKee, Josephine Margaret   Greenwood. •
♦Parker, Mona I Gibson's Landing.
♦Payne, Eva F Kamloops.
Peel, Verna B Chase.
♦Perry, Alice J Prince Rupert.
♦Postill, Eleanor A.  (Mrs.)    New Westminster.
Robinson, Elsie R Edmonton, Alta.
♦Rogers, Victoria Elizabeth  Nanaimo.
♦Rylett, Mary E Cascade.
*Sheepy, Janet   Vancouver.
♦Smith, Ruby North Kettle River.
♦Steele, Marion M Nanaimo.
Turner, Phyllis W North Bend.
Waites, Aldyth M Victoria.
Wallace, Etta Hamilton  Victoria.
Warner, Gertrude Vancouver.
♦Wilkinson, Lillian   Victoria.
fWithers, Ida Sayers* Vancouver.
(3.) Art Course.
Colnian, Alice Jean   Cumberland.
Douglas, Norma Pearl    Fernie.
Edwards, Rhys T Columbia Gardens.
tEtter, Enid  Nelson.
t Faulkner, Phyllis D ■ Merritt.
Ferguson, Hazel Ina   Bassano, Alta.
♦Forster, George   Richmond.
Garner, Robert    Armstrong.
f Herkins, Hildred Margaret  Fernie.
fHogan, Etta Maud  Fernie.
♦ Jessop, Edith  Nanaimo.
♦Jones, Dorothy May   West Vancouver.
fLettice,  Edith    Prince George.
tMarshall, Christine R Maple Ridge.
•tMarshall, Millicent P Alberni.
Martin, Ella G Hardwicke Island.
fMercer, Clara M Hedley. [Vancouver.
MeConnell, Hazel E University of British Columbia,
McDiarmid, Florence L Hendon, North Okanagan.
♦fMcElwain, Lena M Hunter Island.
♦fMcMurray, Margaret  Extension.
Pollock, Thressa   Rossland.
Potter, Winifred A Golden.
Regan, Olivia Stoney Plain, Alta.
Robson, John C Rossland.
Simpson, Frederick John  New Westminster.
Stewart, Ruth O Granby Bay.
♦Stuart,- Jessie A Grand Forks.
Thomas, Isabel A Penticton. 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 69
Summer School Registration—Continued.
(3.) Art Course—Continued.
♦Thomson, Charlotte McG Pender Island.
tWells, Winnifred   Provost, Alta.
tWestling, Tyra Melvia   Point Grey.
♦fWhittaker, Helen H Coal Creek.
♦Widdowson, Lily A Campbell River.
fWilliamson, Elsie E Capilano, North Vancouver.
(4.) Manual Training Course.
Bennett, John W Calgary, Alta.
Burgess, Albert E Nanaimo.
Condon, John E Armstrong.
Cunliffe, William   Ladner.
Hill, Henry  New Westminster.
Jones,  George    North Lonsdale, North Vancouver.
Kitchen, Charles H Vancouver,
McLean, Peter Ross    Vancouver.
Rippon, John J Victoria.
Sager, John Earl   Chilliwack.
Sievers, Geo. Win Burnaby.
Stewart, Carroll Alex Victoria.
Tripp, V. Edward New Westminster.
Watson, John Henry  Point Grey.
Whitelaw, James   New Westminster.
Williams, Wm. John   Trail.
Wishart, Alfred West Summerland.
Ross, Donald 	
(5.) Home Economics Course.
Blankenbach, Marian Ethel   Victoria.
Briand, Annie   Willowvale, Fort Fraser.
Bromley, Mercy G.  (Mrs.)    Granby Bay.
tCampbell, Helen L Vancouver.
Darlington, Ella  (Mrs.)    Tofino.
Davidson, Janet P Duncan.
tFinlay, Vera Irene Vancouver.
Greggs, Edna Mary   Vancouver.
tHague, Eleanor  Port Moody.
James, Vera Alexandra   Ladner.
♦Juniper, Annie B New Zealand.
tMartin, Charlotte  Victoria.
Martyn, Anna L Vancouver.
MacEachern, Mary  Calgary, Alta.
fMcKinnon, Annie S Sooke.
McKinnon, Mary H Sooke.
♦Richter, Juanita L Ingram Mountain.
Russell, Elizabeth A Bassano, Alta.
Sainsbury, Flora G. ...: Burnaby.
Sargent, Bessie M Chilliwack.
Streeter, Catherine Burnaby.
Swann, Evelyn  (Mrs.)    Cowichan.
♦Thompson, Winnif red E Eholt.
Grant, Mary  Vancouver.
Pike, E. St. Clair  Bowser. C 70 Public Schools Report. 1922
Summer School Registration—Continued.
(6.) Music Course.
♦Anderson, Christian S ". .Mitchell Bay, Malcolm Island.
Bossi, Oiga L Victoria.
♦Goldart, Vivienne Minnie  : Pender Island.
♦fKeatley, Nora K Salmo.
♦f Mercer, Annie M  New Westminster.
Preston, Mary  (Mrs.)   Calgary, Alta.
♦Stuart, Edna M Grand Forks.
fVerreau, Marie J Creston.
(7.) History and Geography Course.
♦Bird, Margaret (Mrs.)    Kamloops.
♦Bissett, Marguerite C Fernie.
♦Blankenbach, Mehitabel Maud  Cranbrook.
♦tCampion, Flora I Camp Lister, Creston.
♦Carter, Audrey A Topley.
♦Curley, Ellinor H Fort Steele.
♦Forslund, Freda Mary   Edgewood.
♦tHinsley, Gladys M Point Grey.
♦flrwin, Lilias M. (Mrs.)   North Vancouver.
♦Mills, Sarah A.   Prince Rupert.
♦Montgomery, Helen H Revelstoke.
♦fMoore, Verle  (Mrs.)    Crescent Valley.
♦fMuir, John N Swift Creek.
♦fMaclnnes, Grace I Chemainus.
♦Mclntyre, W. E.  (Mrs.)    Victoria.
♦f O'Connell, Daniel Patrick   Francois Lake.
♦Shotton, Annie L Kamloops.
Williams, John   Lumby.
fWilson, Emeline A Armstrong.
♦Woodland, Amy Cranbrook.
♦York, Alice M Alert Bay.
(8.) Literature and Reading Course.
tArmstrong, Francis Allan   South Vancouver.
f Ault, Kathleen S Courtenay.
Bekker, Petra C. H Saanich.
*Boyer, Alonzo B Michel.
fCarroll, Leila Louisa  Courtenay.
Cathcart, Isabella Oak Bay.
Creelman, Laura May  Revelstoke.
♦Duncan, Jeane Mae  Victoria.
♦tEckardt, Harold Alexander Mission City.
Fraser, Florence J. S Rossland.
Gibson, L. Grace Edmonton, Alta.
♦Gilley, Helen F Burnaby.
♦Greenwood,  Marie   Broadview,  Salmon Arm.
♦Hamilton, Florence O South Vancouver.
♦Hardwick, Margaret S Vancouver.
♦Harrigan, Margaret E Grand Forks.
♦Lane, Arthur R South Wellington.
♦Lucas, Edith Ethel   South Saltspring Island.
♦Malcolm, Mabel  Revelstoke.
♦Matheson, Chas. W Gowland Harbour.
♦Munro, Janet L Trail.
Murray, Paul  Elk Bridge. 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 71
Summer School Registration—Continued.
(8.) Literature and Reading Course—Continued.
♦McGregor,  Marjorie H Nelson.
♦tMackenzie, Mina E Fruitvale.
O'Brien, Alice I Red Deer, Alta.
♦Barbery, Nina  Saanich.
♦Preston, Margery   Denman Island.
fRoberts, Jessie C Victoria.
♦Robertson, Agnes Cassidy.
♦Robertson, Archibald P Kimberley.
Russell, Annie C Point Grey.
Sanson, Margaret H Victoria.
♦Seaton, Bessie P Vernon.
♦Seater, Jean  Revelstoke.
♦Sjolander, Agnes Saanich.
f Stubbs, Wm. George  Courtenay.
♦Trembath, Hazel M Rossland.
♦fTurner, Janet Carr   Vancouver.
♦Van Kleeck, H. Ruth   Trail.
♦-{Wilson, Margaret McD Nelson.
(9.) Physical Training Course (Strathcona B. Certificate).
Armstrong, Frank A South Vancouver.
Barron, Elizabeth A. F Victoria.
♦Bell, Elizabeth M     Vananda.
Bertrand, Clemence  Soda Creek.
Cathcart, Isabella Oak Bay.
Edwards, Rhys T Columbia Gardens.
♦Hamilton, Florence O South Vancouver.
Herkins, Hildred Margaret  Fernie.
♦Houldsworth, Florence   MacRonie, Sask.
Hogan, E. Maud  Fernie.
Irwin, Lilias M. (Mrs.)    North Vancouver.
Lettice, Edith Prince George.
♦Mason, Emily M Victoria.
♦MacKenzie, Mildred  Saanich.
McKinnon, Flora Tranquille.
McGill,  Winifred    Victoria.
McKee, Josephine Margaret   Greenwood.
♦McMorris, Ellen E	
Muir, John N Swift Creek.
Pike, E. St. Claire  Bowser.
Ramsay, James  Sidney.
Simpson, Frederick J New Westminster.
♦Tingley, A. Laura   Ocean Falls.
Verreau, Marie J Creston.
♦Walker, Bertha (Mrs.)  Prince Rupert.
♦Walton, Jean C.  (Mrs.)    Edmonton, Alta.
Westling, T. Melvia  Point Grey.
Wilkie, Ada Edmonton, Alta.
Worswick, I. W	
Note.—Names marked ♦ indicates special course in writing and penmanship. Names
marked f indicates that the special course in physical training was taken in conjunction with
regular course.
I have, etc.,
J. W. Gibson,
Director of Summer Schools. C 72 Public Schools Report. 1922
FREE TEXT-BOOK BRANCH.
Education Department, Free Text-book Branch,
Victoria, B.C., September, 1922.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the work of the Free Text-book Branch for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1922:—
The total number of free text-books, etc., issued during 1921-22 to the public schools
(common, graded, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence
Course established for children in isolated districts where schools cannot be maintained, was
as follows: 12,833 B.C. Beginner's Reader; 400 Teacher's Handbook to Beginner's Reader;
12,261 B.C. Phonic Primer; 13,245 B.C. First Reader; 13,171 B.C. 'Second Reader; 12,759 B.C.
Third Reader; 9,575 B.C. Fourth Reader; 3,988 N.C. Fifth Reader; 13,947 First Arithmetic;
10,996 Second Arithmetic; MacLean Method Writing Books—19,882 Compendium No. 1; 20,287
Compendium No. 2; 1S,385 Compendium No. 3; 25,119 Compendium No. 4; 20,093 Senior
Manual; 1,263 Commercial Manual; 3,195 Teachers' Manual; 47,941 Drawing Books; 1,783
Supplementary Readers (Heart of Oak, Book One; Art-Literature Primer; Art-Literature,
Book One; Art-Literature, Book Two; Progressive Road to Reading, Book 3a ; Robin Hood
Reader); 232 Essentials of Health; 9,722 How to be Healthy; 2,458 Latin Lessons for Beginners;
70 Canadian Civics; 2,830 Syllabus of Physical Exercises; 262 World Relations and the Continents ; 9,262 History of Canada ; 563.570 sheets Drawing Paper, 9 by 6 inches; 39,692 sheets
Drawing Paper, 9 by 12 inches; 9,070 Public School Grammar; 208 Union Jacks (3-yard Jack) ;
170 Flora of Southern British Columbia ; 56 " Scrap of Paper " ; 56 " Fathers of Confederation " ;
82 Maps of British Isles; 106 Maps of Dominion of Canada; 102 Maps of the World; 82 Maps
of British Columbia; 93 Maps of North America.
At prevailing retail prices the books and other supplies issued would have cost $143,902.89.
Requisitions to the number of 4,342 for the above supplies issued were required to be filled.
No shipment was lost in transit.
In addition to 4,342 requisitions filled in 1921-22 to meet the needs of the public schools and
pupils taking Correspondence Courses, the Free Text-book Branch honoured 310 requisitions for
departmental purposes and for those who required to purchase school supplies. The sum of
$1,914.40 was received under this head and paid into the Provincial Treasury.
As already stated, the Free Text-book Branch distributed during the past school-year
text-books and other supplies which would have cost parents and School Boards $143,902.89.
To purchase and distribute these among the various schools of the Province through the Free
Text-book Branch required an expenditure of $95,212.33, made up as follows:—
Text-books  (laid-down cost)      $87,152 13
Distribution  (freight, boxes, etc.)          2,439 87
Salaries of staff        4,986 33
Temporary assistance   634 00
Total      $95,212 33
The saving on the year's transactions is, therefore, $48,690.56. It may be explained, however,
that the outlay for postage on parcels of free text-books to various points is not included in
" Distribution." A similar remark applies to other items, such as office supplies, etc. Were these
included the saving for the year would be slightly reduced.
In view of the large saving for the people of the Province effected by the Free Text-book
Branch in the purchase and distribution of the free text-books, I would recommend that a
Provincial book-store be established to operate in conjunction with the Free Text-book Branch;
this book-store to purchase the prescribed public-school text-books which are not supplied free
to the pupils and to sell them to the children in the rural and assisted school districts where
difficulty is often experienced in securing the authorized books. These books could be sold at
their laid-down cost at the Free Text-book Branch plus a sufficient sum to cover the cost
of distributing them.    During the school-year 1921-22 many of the teachers in these districts 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 73
forwarded money to this Department with the request that we purchase and forward certain
books to them which they were unable to secure in their vicinity.
The establishment of a Provincial book-store would enable the Department to place these
books in the hands of the children at a much lower figure than they are required to pay at the
■present time. It would also save the delay in securing prescribed books caused by the children
trying to purchase them in their neighbourhood and finally having to procure them through the
Free Text-book Branch.
Night-schools.
Of the night-schools in operation during the past school-year, six were supplied with textbooks of some kind by the Free Text-book Branch. Supplies were issued to pupils attending
these schools on the same conditions as outlined in report of 1918-19.
Returns for 1921-22.
The annual reports of free text-books for the school-year 1921-22 are all on file, with the
exception of those from thirteen schools. Steps have been taken to secure these " outstanding "
reports, and it is hoped that they will be forwarded to the Free Text-book Branch in the course
of a few days.
The principals and teachers of some schools were very backward in sending in their annual
returns this year. In several cases it was necessary to withhold the supplies ordered on the
June requisition from the schools in order to secure the annual report. This delay, which is
brought about by the neglect of the teacher, is not fair to the pupils, as it holds them back in
their work. If the Secretaries of the various School Boards would make sure that this return
has been made out and forwarded to the Free Text-book Branch before the teacher leaves the
district it would be unnecessary to hold back any free text-book supplies.
It is still evident from the annual reports that some teachers are not keeping a proper
record of the books in their charge. If the Teachers' and Principals' Record Books are not kept
accurately it is almost impossible for the teacher to submit the annual return.
In many cases sufficient care is not being taken of the school-flag. A large number of schools
have ordered new flags before they have used their present one two years. These flags must
last at least three years before a new one is supplied free of charge. Some schools, however,
have managed to make their flag last as long as five or six years. This shows that it is not
unreasonable to expect each flag to last for three years if the principal or teacher takes proper
care of it.
It would be of great assistance to the Free Text-book Branch if the teachers or principals
would always quote their school attendance in the various grades when submitting an order for
supplies. The space at the head of the requisition form provided for this purpose is frequently
not filled in, while it is but rarely that the attendance is given if the order is submitted in the
form of a letter.
The old quarters of the Free Text-book Branch were found to be inadequate for our
requirements, and early in May, 1922, we moved into our present quarters on Menzies Street.
The new location is much more suitable in every way than the old one. We have a larger
storage-space and better shipping facilities and also larger office accommodation.
The work of the Free Text-book Branch was somewhat hampered during the school-year
1921-22 by the late arrival of the Arithmetics, Writing Manuals, and Canadian Histories from
the publishers;   the last book just arriving in time to be issued with the supplies for January.
I have, etc.,
J. A. Anderson,
Officer in Charge. C 74 Public Schools Report. 1922
THE STRATHCONA TRUST.
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust,  for the
Province of British Columbia, for the School-year 1921-22.
Victoria, B.C., November, 1922.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows on the work of the Local Committee for the
school-year 1921-22 :—
Instruction of Teachers in Physical Training, 1921-22.
A total of 480 students have qualified for Grade B physical-training certificates since last
report, as under :—
Normal School, Vancouver   336
Normal School, Victoria     116
Summer School, Victoria       28
This is an increase of 181 certificates over the number issued in 1920-21. About 4,071
teachers and prospective teachers of this Province have now qualified as physical-training
instructors.
Owing to the constantly increasing number of students attending the Normal Schools at
Vancouver and Victoria an additional instructor iu physical training for 1922-23 has been
provided for each of these schools. It is expected to secure a still higher state of proficiency
among the students as a result of this increased supervision.
Physical Training, 1921-22.
The list of the winners of Strathcona Trust prizes for excellence in physical training for
the school-year 1921-22 is as follows:—
High and Superior Schools.
T. S. Whittemore, B.Sc, 4th Division, Oak Bay High School; J. Grahame Darling, B.Sc,
1st Division, Bridgeport High School; Miss C. N. Burridge, B.A., 2nd Division, Nelson High
School; T. J. Barron, B.A., 1st Division, Nakusp Superior School. (Note.—Two prizes not
awarded.)
Graded, Schools (Five Divisions or more).
Roy S. Shields, B.A., 1st Division, Central School, New Westminster; Miss V. J. Matheson,
4th Division, Central School, Chilliwack; Miss M. Gray, 2nd Division, Kingsway West School,
Burnaby; Miss Katharine Wallach, 7th Division, Central School, Nelson; Miss Mary Gladwell,
16th Division, Central School, Prince Rupert; Miss E. Milligan, 5th Division, Central School,
Prince George; Miss Elizabeth Thomas, 4th Division, Ellis School, Penticton; Miss M. M.
Blankenbach, 3rd Division, Central School, Cranbrook; Miss Eva F. Payne, 14th Division,
Central School, Kamloops; Miss A. N. Anderson, 11th Division, Victoria West School, Victoria;
Miss E. A. F. Barron, 2nd Division, Girls' Central School, Victoria; Tom Aldworth, 1st Division,
Consolidated Schools, Armstrong; Miss Agnes Waugh, 2nd Division, South Wellington School;
Miss Annie L. Bigney, 6th Division, Lord! Roberts School, Vancouver; Miss Georgia H. Patrick,
Sth Division, Central School, Vancouver; Robert Straight, 1st Division, Lord Tennyson School,
Vancouver; Miss Jessie Roy, 23rd Division, Strathcona School, Vancouver; Miss M. M. S.
Taylor, 6th Division, Hastings School, Vancouver; Miss E. M. Pugh, 2nd Division, Sexsmith
School, South Vancouver; Miss M. A. Batcheler, Sth Division, Sexsmith School, South Vancouver ; Miss B. H. Killop, 7th Division, Selkirk School, South Vancouver; Miss A. M. Brown,
3rd Division, Willows School, Oak Bay. 13 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 75
Graded Schools (Two to Four Divisions).
Miss Eileen V. Cass, 1st Division, Fairfield Island School, Chilliwack; Mrs. M. Scott, 1st
Division, Schou Street School, Burnaby; Miss M. E. McKenzie, 1st Division, Fruitvale School;
Miss Lena Wolfenden, 1st Division, Ocean Falls School; Miss F. A. Horwood, 2nd Division,
South Fort George School; Miss Irene Huntley, 2nd Division, Naramata School; S. O. Harries,
1st Division, Coal Creek School; Mrs. C. M. Venables, 3rd Division, (Fruitlands School; Miss
R. M. Nachtrieb, 1st Division, Beacon Hill School, Victoria; Miss E. S. Scales, 3rd Division,
Golden School; Gerald O'Connor, 1st Division, Parksville School; Miss Dorothy A. Lockie, 2nd
Division, Port Haney School; Miss Georgina E. Milley, 3rd Division, Howe Sound School;
Miss M. P. Kinnaird, 1st Division, Royal Oak School, Saanich.
Ungraded Schools.
Miss E. G. Martin, Hardwicke Island School; Mrs. M. E. Rylett, Cascade School; Joseph
Dilworth, New Hazelton School; Miss Mary Mellish, Big Lake School; Miss Jeanne Collet,
Killarney School; Miss M. S. Balfour, Argenta School; Miss Eleanora Piggot, Robins Range
School; Miss R. J. Glaser, Mount Ingersoll School; Miss Edith Chandler, Nob Hill School;
Miss Ella J. Cavalsky, Westview School; Miss Edna N. Ferries, Dunach School, Matsqui;
Mrs. Ida Wyrill, Shirley School.
Three prizes of $9 each awarded to each of the eighteen inspectorates; amount expended
under this head for 1921-22, $468.
Physical Training, 1922-23.
For competition among the various schools during 1922-23 the sum of $27 has been granted
to each of the eighteen inspectorates. This sum is to be divided into three prizes of $9 each.
For purposes of competition and inspection the schools are to be divided into three groups or
classes, viz.: Group A, of five divisions or more; Group B, of two to four divisions, inclusive;
Group C, of schools containing only one room or division. In any inspectorate where this
classification is found to be unsatisfactory the matter of dividing the schools into three groups
or classes for the purpose of awarding three prizes of equal value is to be left to the discretion
of the Inspector in charge.
In all cases, however, the teacher and the class are to be considered as the unit in making
comparisons for granting awards. The full amount of the award is to be expended for a picture
or 'some piece of apparatus (suitably inscribed) for the room in which the prize was won.
Only those teachers who are the holders of physical-training certificates granted under the
Strathcona Trust are eligible to compete.
Military Drill, 1921-22.
The following report on military drill for the year 1921-22 was submitted to the Local
Committee by Captain J. M. Gumming, Inspector, Cadet Services:—
" Number of school cadets trained during the year 1921-22  5,807
Number of boys of cadet age  5,524
Number of boys of cadet age at annual inspection   5,083
Number of school cadet corps  (active)           55
" The above figures show a very substantial increase both in number of cadets trained and
also in the number of active school cadet corps from the previous year.
"This growth is attributable to the fact that: {a.) Fifty-four school-teachers were qualified
as school cadet instructors during the summer of 1921, and in several instances were instrumental
in forming cadet corps at the schools to which they became attached. (6.) General enthusiasm
among cadets following the very successful camps held during the summer of 1921.
" As no Cadet Instructors' Course and no camps were held during the summer of 1922, it is
not expected that a similar increase will be noted during 1922-23.
" Greater stress is being laid on the inclusion of physical training as a part of the Cadet
Syllabus of training.
" At the annual inspection in June, 1922, the rank of each of the various corps was decided
on the basis of 1,000 points, made up as follows: General standard (appearance, steadiness,
turnout), 100; strength (based on strength in parade at inspection as against establishment),
100; battalion drill (company, platoon, section), 200; manual of arms, 100; officers, 50; noncommissioned officers, 50; physical training, 200; musketry, 100; care of equipment, 25 ; general
work (first aid, signalling, gymnastic woTk, etc.), 75. C 76 Public Schools Report. 1922
" The comparative rank awarded is as follows: No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment
(Technical High School (E), 858; Technical High School (D), 846; King Edward High School,
843; Britannia High School, 836; General Gordon School, 804) ; No. 388, Victoria Cadet Battalion (Boys' Central School, 795) ; No. 112, Victoria High School, 792; No. 388, Victoria Cadet
Battalion (North Ward School, 758) ; No. 949, ♦Mission, 755 ; No. 938, ♦Gilmore Avenue (Burnaby),
725; No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment (Henry Hudson School, 718; Kitsilano SchooL 715;
Lord Tennyson School, 712; Lord Nelson School, 701; King George High School, 695) ; No. 388,
Victoria Cadet Battalion (Victoria West School, 690) ; No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment
(Aberdeen School, 678; Model School, 677); No. 388, Victoria Cadet Battalion (Margaret
Jenkins School, 675) ; No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment (Fairview School, 666; Macdonald
School, 65S; Franklin School, 642; Cecil Rhodes School, 635) ; No. 788, Penticton, 635; No. 892,
Vernon, 630; No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment (Alexandra School, 628; Simon Fraser, 625) ;
No. 854, Chilliwack, 615; No. 952, Enderby, 615; ♦No. 950, Merritt, 605; No. 101, Vancouver
Cadet Regiment (♦Central School, 600; Charles Dickens School, 600; Lord Roberts School, 5S5;
Grandview School, 574) ; No. 695, Nelson, 560; ♦No. 988, T. J. Trapp Technical (New Westminster), 555; No. 611, Lord Selkirk (South Arancouver), 540; No. 388, Victoria Cadet Battalion
(Sir James Douglas School, 530) ; No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment (Laura Secord School,
530; Strathcona School, 526); No. 360, Kaslo, 520; No. 604, Richard McBride (South Vancouver), 518; No. 530, Connaught High School (New Westminster), 510; No. 101, Vancouver
Cadet Regiment (Dawson School (A), 492) ; No. 388, Victoria Cadet Battalion (George Jay
School, 489; South Park School, 480) ; *No. 349, Esquimalt, 465; ♦No. 975, Central School
(New Westminster), 462; No. 38S, Victoria Cadet Battalion (Oaklands School, 452) ; No. 101,
Vancouver Cadet Regiment (Dawson School (B), 445; Livingstone School, 444); No. 903,
Kelowna, 440; No. 26S, Tecumseh School (South Vancouver), 436; No. 38S, Victoria Cadet
Battalion (Quadra School, 432) ;  No. 101, Vancouver Cadet Regiment (Hastings School, 409).
♦ Corps comparatively new and in many cases have not yet had time to cover in the Syllabus
all the work on which the examination was conducted. In view of the fact the high standard
attained by Mission, Gilmore Avenue (Burnaby), Central (Vancouver), and Merritt Cadet Corps
is especially commendable."
Twenty-five prizes were awarded in accordance with schedule adopted at the last meeting of
the Local Committee held November 7th, 1922, one-half of each prize to be paid to the corps and
one-half to the instructor, provided he is a public-school teacher qualified as a cadet instructor.
When an instructor is not a public-school teacher, one-half of the prize reverts to the general
fund of the Local Committee.
The expenditure under this head for 1921-22 amounted to $298, and was made according to
the following schedule: 1st prize, $25; 2nd prize, $20; 3rd and 4th prizes, $18; 5th and 6th
prizes, $16; 7th and Sth prizes, $14; 9th and 10th prizes, $12; 11th to 25th prize, inclusive,
$10 each.
Rifle Shooting.
From the grant for rifle shooting, 1921-22, prizes were provided for forty-two qualified corps
or units specified in returns—viz., $3 each; this amount to form cash prizes for the three best
shots in each corps or unit (1st prize, $1.25;  2nd prize, $1;   3rd prize, 75 cents).
The following accordingly received grants of $3 each for rifle shooting, 1921-22: No. 101,
Vancouver Cadet Regiment (Britannia High School, King Edward High School (A) and (B),
King George High School, Technical High School (A) and (B), Aberdeen, Alexandra, Cecil
Rhodes, Charles Dickens, Dawson (A) and (B), Fairview, Franklin, General Gordon, Grand-
view, Hastings, Henry Hudson, Laura Secord, Livingstone, Macdonald, Model, Nelson, Roberts,
Simon Fraser, Strathcona, Tennyson) ; No. 112, Victoria High School (A) and (B) ; No. 388,
Victoria Cadet Battalion (George Jay, Sir James Douglas, Quadra, South Park, Boys' Central,
Margaret Jenkins) ; No. 695, Nelson; No. 7S8, Penticton; No. 854, Chilliwack; No. 949, Mission;
No. 903, Kelowna ; No. 952, Enderby; No. 360, Kaslo.
The expenditure under this head for 1921-22 amounted to $126.
Financial Statement for 1921-22.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Coiniinittee for 1921-22 amounted to $1,446.16 and the
expenditure for the year $892, leaving a balance of $554.16. Of the latter sum, $486 has already
been voted for physical-training prizes for 1922-23. 13 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 77
Receipts.
1921-22. Balance on hand from 3920-21    $ 489 51
Interest to November 30th, 1921   16 61
Interest to May 31st, 1922    7 57
Allowance to Secretary (added to fund)    10 00
Grant for 1921-22  926 47
$1,450 16
Disbursements.
1921-22. Prizes for physical training     $ 468 00
Prizes for military drill    298 00
Prizes for rifle shooting   126 00
Encashed cheque   (paid into fund,  1920-21)   presented for
payment     4 00
$   896 00
Balance on hand     $  554 16
I have, etc.,
J. L. Watson,
Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust
for British Columbia.

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