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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. T. D. PATTULLO,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1922

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
BEPORT
OF
THE FOEEST BEANCH
of the
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. T. D. PATTULLO, Minister
P. Z. Cavekhill, Chief Forester
FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31ST
1922
PRINTED   BY
AUTHORITY OP THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1923.  ■     I .	
Victoria, B.C., March 27th, 1923.
To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch
of the Department of Lands for the year 1922.
T. D. PATTULLO,
Minister of Lands. The Hon. T. D. Pattullo,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There are submitted herewith statistical tables with a brief comment
thereon, covering the main activities of the Branch during the calendar year 1922.
P. Z. CAVEKHILL,
Chief Forester. f
The future ot the industry depends on  stands like this.  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The fire season, with its outstanding hazards, risk, losses, and efforts at control, is the
most notable occurrence of the year. The whole Pacific Coast region was visited by the
driest and most hazardous season on record. We have had bad seasons before; 1914, 1919, and
1920 all stand out as above normal in risk and loss, but in these seasons the area of high hazard
was more or less circumscribed as shown by the fire statistics. The year just passed produced
a crop of fires 25 per cent, greater than our previous record and ISO per cent, over the average
of the past ten years.
Fire occurrence in previous outstanding years was:—
Year.
Southern
Interior.
Coast,
Northern
Interior.
1914	
Per Cent.
56
45
45
38
Per Cent.
14
49
39
34
Per Cent.
30
6
1920    	
16
1922	
28
Cost of fire-fighting is similarly divided :-
Year.
1914
1919
1920.
1922.
Southern
Interior.
76
65
Per Cent.
14
23
Northern
Interior.
7
1
2
28
These figures disclose the general distribution of the hazard and wider area covered as
compared with previous years.
The expenditure and losses are also greatly increased, as might be expected, but it is a
matter for congratulation that increase in expenditure over 1921 is less than in adjoining regions,
whereas our records of losses compare very favourably indeed. The more specific details on the
season will be found in the forest-protection section of this report.
The lessons of the year are:—
In forest fires it is the unexpected that happens.    It is necessary to always be prepared.
We will not have conquered the fire situation until forest-protection is a national slogan.
Every citizen has an individual responsibility in this question. This responsibility is now
laid down in the " Forest Act."
That given weather conditions favourable to the spread of fire it is almost impossible for
human agencies to control a fire once well started.    Every effort should be made for prevention.
That the seriousness of the forest-fire situation is justification for the most drastic action
for control.
PERSONNEL.
No work undertaken by the Forest Branch is of greater importance to the safeguarding and
building-up of our forest properties than that of building up the personnel of the organization.
The vast distances in the Province, the great mountains, barriers to direct and rapid communication, and the need of extreme economy in all Government enterprises means that much of the
work must be done apart and alone by the Ranger or Supervisor. The men must have the integrity,
the knowledge not only of wood technique, but Government policy, to be able to act as responsible
agents of the Government in any emergency that may crop up in relation to forest matters.
The duties imposed on a forest officer are many and varied. He must consider the forest,
not as a mine to be worked, but as a field to be harvested, tilled, and replanted.    Often without L 6
Department of Lands.
1923
time to consult a superior he must in cases of forest Are organize large crews; he must appraise
stunrpage values of a tract of Crown timber at the request of logging companies, settle a grazing
dispute, examine and report on a pre-emption, or prevent a trespass. Much depends on his own
loyalty and integrity, as the work cannot he closely checked without doing it all over. The only
means to efficient administration is to build up an organization which can carry the responsibility
with credit to themselves and the country.
The Branch is attempting this work by a careful selection on a competitive basis of personuel,
and subsequent training through conferences of Rangers and District Foresters, where policy is
explained, common problems discussed, and solutions arrived at; by correspondence and reading
courses on forestry subjects for fieldmen; by requiring field officers to plan their work in
advance; by organizing the headquarters staff as a mobile force for field inspection and support
for field officers; by personal contact of superior and subordinate officers on the ground to carry
policy into the field and at the same time, from observation of field conditions, to so mould our
policy that the best is obtained. Results so far have been marked and the work cannot help but
gather momentum as it goes along.
The staff now consists of 218 on the permanent rolls. This is increased during the fire season
by approximately 200 temporary Assistant Hangers and patrolmen. The direct organization for
the year is given below.
Distribution of Total Force, British Columbia Forest Branch.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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Totals	
428
In addition to this organization, the Branch, through co-operation with the public, enrolled
honorary Fire Wardens, who in case of need pledged themselves to take that initial action to
control any forest fire. The work done and the spirit in which these men undertook their
responsibility for the public good is greatly appreciated by the Branch, and I have great pleasure
in bringing to the attention of the public that in a number of cases the action taken by the
honorary Fire Wardens has stopped what might have developed into a dangerous conflagration.
CONDITIONS OF THE INDUSTRY.
The industry during the year has given fresh indications of strength and has more than
fulfilled the predictions of a year ago. Being largely deprived of its former local markets, it
has again demonstrated the ability to go out and secure a larger percentage of the world's
timber trade. The off-shore business increased 45 per cent, over 1921 and is now over six times
the volume of 1917. Much of the increase went directly to the United States markets, especially
California and Atlantic seaboard, in direct competition with material secured nearer home.
As predicted a year ago, the period of deflation had been passed and the year has shown a
steady increase in volume of business. The cut, 1,899,000,000 board-feet, is only second to the
boom-year of 1920.   Prices on an average were somewhat lower than in 1921, but this has been 13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 7
offset somewhat by the cleaning-up and reduction of lower grades held in yards from previous
years' business.    Yard stocks have also been reduced, especially in mountain districts.
The year 1923 would appear to offer more promise than ever before. The demand remains
strong, price is strengthening, and money is more readily available for development. The
grain-crop, while not removing all the difficulties of the Prairie farmer, 1ms materially helped
the situation, and with the promise of a good harvest for 1923 the Prairie market should recover
later in the year. The manufacturer, if he has not made a profit, has been able to readjust his
operation, so that he is now running without loss and is able to meet competition in the markets
of the world.
it might be well at this point to sound a warning. It should be remembered that this trade
will not stand any great inflation in prices. In the foreign markets now open British Columbia
lumber will come into keen competition with substitutes and lumber from other regions and be
replaced by them, or the cost of building will be pushed so high that average incomes will not
be able to pay a rent sufficient to yield returns on the investment. Either will immediately kill
the business, and we must needs go through another 1920 and a long slow building-up process to
regain the lost ground. What our lumber trade now needs is tranquility and steady growth—
not booms and periods of depression.
Estimated Value op Production.
Product.
Lumber .  	
Pulp and paper	
Shingles	
Boxes   	
Piles, poles, and mine-props	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties	
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the wood-using industry.
Laths and other miscellaneous products 	
Logs exported	
Totals	
1919.
$31,000,000
12,554,257
12,801,564
2,142,000
1,532,448
5,256,520
2,091,346
1,720,000
195,594
991,365
$70,285,094
1920.
$46,952,500
21,611,681
12,081,476
2,650,000
1,543,087
1,495,729
2,250,682
2,680,000
847,9-J0
615,732
$92,628,807
1921.
$33,533,000
13,500,000
7,032,000
2,000,000
1,479,000
1,180,000
2,314,000
2,034,000
250,000
1,648,000
$64,970,000
1922.
$26,400, 000
12,590,000
9,750,000
1,726,000
959,000
1,187,000
1,526,000
2,000,000
400,000
2,939,000
$59,477,000
WATER-BOKNE trade.
The year witnessed a still further growth of our water-borne business, especially with
California and the Atlantic seaboard. The total of this trade reached 273,000,000 feet, or an
increase of 45 per cent. Noteworthy increases were recorded in trade with Japan—72,000,000
feet, or 40 per cent, over the previous year; Australia, 56,000,000 feet, or more than double
1921;  and the United States, 83,000,000 feet, or over three times that of the previous year.
This trade now equals 25 per cent, of the lumber produced, and at the present rate should
soon rise to 40 per cent., which, if it can be maintained, will have a material effect on stabilizing
conditions in the industry. The greatest care, however, must be exercised to retain our existing
markets and not to drive these customers into other fields or to adopt substitutes.
Water-borne Lumber Trade, 1919, 1920, 1921, and 1922.
Destination.
Australia ^	
New Zealand	
South America 	
China	
Japan	
United Kingdom and Continent..
South Africa	
India and Straits Settlements —
United States	
Philippine and Hawaiian Islands .
West Indies and Cuba	
South Sea Islands	
Mexico	
Egypt	
Totals    108,872,266    146,624,269     188,733,299     273,146,800
Feet B:M.
8,515,600
' 1,55L574
17,183,430
4,675,730
65,381,100
5,044,672
475,088
5,259,346
785,726
Feet B.M.
32,218,155
4,159,099
5,523,102
14,911,232
5.990,266
61,217,805
7,330,531
5,619,747
4,162,845
2,996,123
1,479,950
"l.oisjiU
Feet B.M.
27,275,928
4,553,603
1,317,825
41,944,011
52,447,160
13,592,562
2,931,969
8,429,403
25,553,543
1,158,805
20,668
941,422
' 8,666,466
Feet B.M.
55,949,129
4,516,862
3,244,776
24,640,268
72,339,531
12,698,383
2,415,500
7,249,487
83,856,504
94,764
30,065
1,841,678
4,269,958 L 8
Department op Lands.
1923
WAr
rER BO
.A.S     C OJ
TOTAL
RNE SHIPMENTS
FROM
B.C.
MF>^RED    WITH
LOG     SCALE
■
•
■
1917
1918
■
■
1919
1920
•
-
1921
1922 i sos. Crows nest Fire.-
A
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FOREST  FIRES
KOOTENAY   DISTRICT
History Recorded"
on
YELLOW   PINE  13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 9
PULP AND PAPER.
Pulp and paper has shown a remarkable recovery, especially in demand for newsprint, the
production of this paper being 14,500 tons greater than in 1921, or an increase of 13 per cent.
Sulphite production was 18,000 tons, or an increase of 20 per cent. The beginning of 1923 saw
not only a strong demand but increasing prices. Production figures in British Columbia for the
past four years are:—
Pulp and Paper.
Pulp.
Sulphite
Sulphate
Ground wood
Tons.
80,347
9,473
99,769
92,299
16,380
108,665
Tons.
68,502
6,519
89,725
Tons.
86,894
9,674
100,759
All the ground wood and 35,000 tons of sulphite were manufactured into newsprint, the
product being:—
Newsprint.  ..
Other papers.
123,607
7,202
136,832
9,792
110,176
6,934
Tons.
124,639
7,945
FOREST INVESTIGATION.
t
Yellow Pine.
Owing to the relatively high commercial importance of yellow pine (pinus ponderosa) and
the rapidly diminishing supply, the Forest Branch undertook during the year a study to determine
the principal characteristics shown by the species throughout its range, the rate of growth, and
the effect of fire, logging, and insects on the crop prospects of the future.
The species ranges from Chinook Cove on the North Thompson River to the International
Boundary, and from the Cascades to the main Rocky Range, being confined more particularly
to the valleys and lower slopes in what is known as the Dry Belt, where lack of moisture prevents
too keen a competition with the more persistent fir, wdth which it associates.
The open nature of our pineries is largely due to fire. Thirteen fires occurred in one area
in 193 years (see plate). The reproduction between successive fires did not reach a sufficient size
to survive the succeeding conflagrations. Since reproduction grows more rapidly and attains
fire-resistance earlier on the better sites, it may establish itself there when it would not survive
on the poorer. Two per cent, of the pine in merchantable stands are badly fire-scarred. This
lessens the vigour and seeding capacity, decreasing the normal reproduction. In many pole
stands over half the trees show fire-damage. The fertility of our pine lands varies with the
moisture content, which largely depends on the water-holding capacity of the soil. When the
duff is removed by fire and the winds sweep through the open stands there is excess evaporation,
resulting in less favourable conditions for germination and growth.
Pine is not a frequent seeder. The seeds germinate in the fall, resulting in a large mortality
from winter-killing. The combination of a good seed year, a favourable seed-bed and conditions
for germination, and sufficient time between successive fires to attain resistance is necessary for
successful establishment of a new crop. In tne past these conditions have only occurred at long
intervals.
It is desirable in the Dry Belt to perpetuate pine rather than its main associate, Douglas
fir. The latter species when associated with pine, on sites adapted to the pine, is subject to
shake and the product is wholly inferior to the more valuable pine. On the moister sites and on
the margins of the pine-belt fir is encroaching. Fir.ia a more frequent seeder, disseminates its
seed farther, and can endure more shade than pine. The more frequent concurrence of conditions
for establishment accounts for the preponderance of fir reproduction in the virgin pine-fir type. L 10
Department of Lands.
1923
The general opinion that ground fires do little damage to our pineries is an economic misfortune.
The prevention of burns is necessary for the improvement of these stands.
The leaving of slash in early logging operations for yellow pine has been responsible for large
areas of potential forest lands bearing no returns. The leaving of slash upset the balance of
nature, in that beetles found in this half-green slash ideal conditions for breeding, multiplied
more rapidly than their parasites, until at present they are depleting the stands to a greater
extent than operators and fire combined. Seven per cent, of the trees on plots studied were killed
by insects. Broadcast burning, on account of the small spread between operating cost and the
selling-price of lumber seemed the only practical method of getting rid of slash, and in an effort
to stop the infestation large areas were broadcast-burned. In most cases only defective, deformed
trees remained, all young growth being killed by fire. Regeneration strips showed the following
proportions of seedlings :—
Areas not burned, S3 per cent, pine, 17 per cent. fir.
Areas burned, 21 per cent. pine. 79 per cent. fir.
Sufficient trees were left to seed the burned areas. The seedlings existing on these areas
were found to be only one to ten as on areas not burned, this being mostly due to advanced
reproduction on the unburned areas which had been destroyed with the burning. The increase
in the value of pine and the subsequent increase in returns from our timber lands makes it now
financially possible to pile and burn the slash, removing the danger from insects with least
damage to young growth and soil.
Yield tables give the fundamental data required for the determination of the value of forest
lands, the appraisal of damages to forest property, the choice of rotations, the choice of species,
and the relative profit from expenditures for all forestry operations on different sites. The
following yield tables, prepared from data secured during the investigation, are based on even-
aged fully stocked stands and form a basis of comparison of permanent value under the present
changing conditions:—
Normal Yield Table, Western Yellow Pine  (pinus ponderosa).
Based on 129 plots (average Y2 acre) scattered through commercial range in British
Columbia. Site determined from height growth. Merchantable volume of trees over 9.5 inches
D.B.H. compiled from standard volume table based on D.B.H. and total height.
Site 1.
Age.
Average Maximum Height.
Average D.B.H,
No. Trees over
9.5" D.B.H.
per Acre.
Volume B.F.
per Acre.
80	
P0
92
102
109
114
119
122
125
13.3
16.0
18.6
20.9
22.4
23.3
23.8
24.0
80
68
61
56
52
49
46
44
12,500
20,750
28,600
100	
120	
220	
38,000
40,000
41,600
Site 2.
Age.
Average Maximum Height.
Average D.B.H.
No. Trees over
9.6" D.B.H.
per Acre.
Volume B.F.
per Acre'.
80	
%i2
74
82
89
93
96
99
101
10.4
12.6
14.9
17.0
8.8
19.9
20.5
20.9
119
91
79
71
65
60
58
56
6,000
10,750
15,500
20,500
24,300
27,200
100	
120	
140	
160	
180	
200	
220	
31,200 13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 11
Site 3.
Age.
Average Maximum Height.
Average D.B.H.
No. Trees over
9.5" D.B.H.
per Acre.
Volume B.F.
per Acre.
80	
48
57
64
68
71
73
75
76
'9.7
11.3
12.9
14.1
15.3
16.1
16.6
136
101
89
80
77
75
73
100.	
5,000
7,200
120	
160-	
9,750
12,150
14,400
16,300
17,800
180	
200	
220 '	
To check up on the yield tables and other data gathered during the past summer, eight
experimental plots, which can be re-examined at periodic intervals, were established. Certain
of these plots will be cut over under different systems to determine the effect of various plans
of management.
The combined factors which influence growth determine the site quality. The average
maximum height of a stand at any age was found to be an expression of the productive capacity
of an area. There is almost cessation of height growth at maturity, so the height of mature
dominant trees can also be used as an indication of site. Strips run through average stands
show that our pine areas are only yielding one-quarter of their producing capacity.
Just as good yellow pine exists 50 miles north of Kamldops at the limit of commercial stands
as any place within the region. On an operation at Chinook Cove cutting-trees run four 16-foot
logs to the thousand; one specimen measured 14 inches D.B.H. and 153 feet in height. It was
a surprise to find this class of material so far north; however, the best pine is found in the
valley-bottoms and moist places. The indications are that the northern limit of pine is due to
its inability to compete with the more shade-enduring prolific species.
Since our virgin stands consist mainly of mature timber and advance reproduction, we will
be faced in the near future with large areas of young growth and very little saw material. The
Vernon District contains the main reserve, one mill cutting about half of the total output for
the Province. There is probably thirty-five years' supply of yellow pine of all grades, and only
ten to fifteen years' supply of merchantable timber of the quality being cut at the present time.
There is still considerable waste, mainly due to cutting standard-length logs and the use of sound
pine for logging improvements where inferior material is available.
In order that another crop may be assured from natural reproduction, the following should
act as a guide in the management of our pineries:—
All young growth should be guarded in logging operations.
Where advanced reproduction is not of sufficient size to resist a ground fire, seed-trees should
be left as an assurance of natural reproduction in case of fire.
Where no reproduction exists, seed-trees should be left.
Where the area is a pine-fir mixture, as many fir as practical should be removed, favouring
the more valuable pine.
Trees to be cut should be blazed below stump-height and branded with a distinctive mark.
All slash should be piled on the stumps and tops away from young growth and burned at a
time when least damage will be done to advanced reproduction. L 12
Department of Lands.
1923
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Forest Branch.
L 13
Volume Table, Western Yellow Pine (Pinus ponderosa).
Basic trees scaled in 16.4-foot logs to nearest one-tenth inch and top diameter shown, in
cubic feet. Compiled from taper curves. Based on data collected throughout the commercial
range of yellow pine in British Columbia. Values within heavy lines based on reliable data.
Check against basic trees, 0.3 per cent.
Total Height (Feet).
0J
tu
H
CQ
D.B.H.
40.
so.
60.
70.
80.
90
100.
110.
120.
130.
140.
150.
Q
Volume (Cubic Feet).
o
H
10
6
11
17
8
10
12
19
6
35
56
130
116
101
108
72
68
51
39
25
14
8
2
1
22
25
34
12
14
19
16
23
29
40
7.3
38
48
14
26
34
46
58
71
86
30
39
53
67
82
98
116
136
8.2
53
73
16
24
33
42
51
44
' 60
76
92
111
130
153
176
8.5
79
101
18
66
84
102
123
144
170
196
222
110
133
160
188
221
255
289
325
367
409
452
20
50
61
74
87
102
117
93
112
135
159
187
216
245
275
9.2
143
172
202
238
276
312
349
395
441
487
22
122
.148
173
204
235
24
184
216
255
294
334
374
423
472
522
9.9
26
102
119
137
155
175
10.2
28
30
156
177
200
226
252
279
32
200
225
255
285
316
267
300
338
376
416
34
250
283
316
350
36
311
347
384
38
40
Trees-
4
16
45
173
188
145
131
72
43
113
4
832 L 14
Department of Lands.
1923
Volume Table, Western Yellow Pine  (Pinus ponderosa).
Basic trees scaled in 16.4-foot logs to top diameter shown. B.C. Dog Rule. Stump-height,
18 inches. Compiled from taper curves. Based on data collected throughout the commercial
range of yellow pine in British Columbia. Values within heavy lines based on largest number
of trees.    Check against basic data, 0.35 per cent.
Total Height (Feet).
cn
cu
CD
h
S3
40.
50.
60.
70.
80.
90.
100.
110.
120.
130.
140.
150.
10
30
50
70
100
35
40
50
95
60
110
6
35
56
130
116
101
108
72
68
51
59
25
14
8
2
1
7.5
125
190
12
60
90
80
120
165
210
7.8
210
265
14
150
195
245
335
430
530
170
225
280
380
500
610
720
850
8.2
300
390
•
16
130
175
240
310
245
320
435
560
690
810
950
1,100
8.5
420
580
18
350
480
620
760
900
1,060
1,220
1,400
8.8
630
810
1,000
1,180
1,370
1,590
1,830
2,090
2,360
2,630
2,910
20
290
370
460
540
640
750
530
6F80
840
1,000
1,160
1,340
1,540
1,770
9.2
870
1,070
1,270
1,480
1,710
1,970
2,250
2,540
2,930
3,130
22
750
920
1,090
1,260
1,470
9.5
24
1,170
1,360
1,580
1,880
2,110
2,410
2,710
3,030
3,350
9.9
26
630
740
860
990
1,120
10.2
28
10.6
30
980
1,130
1,290
1,450
1,630
11.0
32
1,270
1,450
1,630
1,830
2,030
1,690
1,930
2,180
2,430
2,690
11.3
34
1,610
1,820
2,030
2,250
11.6
36
2,000
2,230
2,470
2.710
12.0
38
12.3
40
12.6
42
4
16
45
173
188
145
131
72
43
13
4
832
Bower Coast.
The forest-investigation programme on the Lower Coast consisted of the establishment of a
number of permanent and temporary sample plots on cut-over lands in the district for the purpose
of studying:—
(1.) The rate of growth of the different species on representative sites at various ages for
individual trees and for stands.
(2.)  Natural regeneration on logged-over lands.
(3.)  Stem analysis for height, diameter, and volume tables.
(4.)  Seed dissemination from fir seed-trees.
(5.)  Hemlock utilization.
Nineteen permanent plots were located, surveyed, and all young growth recorded and tagged
with metal tags during 1921 and 1922. A wide range of age classes was selected, running from
1 to 100 years, of the principal species—fir, cedar, and hemlock. The plots varied in area from
one-tenth to one acre, according to the objects for which they were established. Permanent
scribed posts were placed at the four corners of each plot, the lines blazed between, and the
plot tied into the nearest surveyed lot.
Each tree 4 inches diameter and over on the plot was accurately measured to the nearest
tenth of an inch and a numbered metal tag affixed to the trees at the point of measurement.
In addition to these measurements, the species, height, crown class, and any peculiarities were
recorded for each tree opposite the number corresponding to that on the metal tag.
A number of reproduction plots of one square rod in area were located within the sample
plots and each corner was marked by a post. Accurate count of all seedlings and saplings under
4 inches in diameter was made on these sub-plots and recorded according to species and height. " /        \
■ ■'■  ■■■■-. -,        " ■ t     '"':- -";■*    •■'
-
The flre-Iiuo.    A lire has cleaned out reproduction to centre of picture.
Good reproduction under seed-trees.  13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 15
A careful sylvicultural description of the area on which the plot is established was made and
the history of the stand described as fully as possible.
These plots will be measured periodically, probably every five years, and actual increment
worked out for ten-year periods, together with the rate of height growth, diameter growth, and
rate of mortality from suppression of the various species in pure and mixed stands.
It is intended to extend and develop a systematic chain of these permanent sample plots,
covering the main species on various classes of absolute forest lands throughout the Province.
Natural Regeneration after Logging.—A number of permanent plots were also established
for the study of regeneration conditions resulting after the cutting of the original stand.
Permanent plots are located on: (1) Areas cut over and followed by spring or fall burning;
(2) areas cut over and not burned; (3) areas burned immediately after logging operation;
(4) areas burned over some time after reproduction had commenced following logging; (5) areas
in virgin stands where openings have been made due to the large blow-down of January, 1921.
In conjunction with this intensive study on specially selected plots, instructions were sent
out in 1922 for a reconnaissance by ranger districts on an intensive scale of all areas of
reproduction in the district.
Maps of the district on the scale of 2 inches to the mile were supplied each Ranger and a
legend drawn up for uniform notation of reproduction. All logged areas were grouped and
denoted by distinctive hatching as:—
(a.) Logged, unburned: (1) No reproduction; (2) scattered reproduction; (3) good reproduction.
(b.) Logged, burned: (1) No reproduction; (2) scattered reproduction; (3) good reproduction.
Species, age, and size of reproduction were noted.
A study of conditions on permanent sample plots applied to these areas of reproduction will
supply information of considerable accuracy as to the amount and age of second growth and
the annual increment on logged-off lands in this district. This will enable calculations affecting
rate of cutting and rate of replacement to be made.
Stem Analysis.—A number of temporary sample plots were laid out for the purpose of
securing material for stem analysis. Growth figures indicating a financial rotation of seventy
years on certain sites yielding from 60 to 70 M. feet B.M. per acre were worked out in one
instance for use as a rough guide for future expectation,
The following tables show the increase in growth in height, D.B.H. (diameter at breast-
height), and volume in ten-year periods for the average tree of the three most common Coast
species on a quality 2 site at Wellbore Channel. This area is situated near sea-level and has a
gentle slope with a south-eastern exposure. The type is mixed hemlock, fir, and cedar in the
following proportions : Hemlock, 49 per cent.; fir, 35 per cent.; and cedar, 18 per cent. While
the data from which these tables were compiled are based on too scanty a number of tree-
measurements to be applicable to the whole southern coastal region, nevertheless the tables may
be taken as giving a fair indication of growth for these species on a quality 2 site similarly
situated.
Fir (based on 129 Trees).
Age in Years.
Height in
Feet.
Diameter B.H.
in Inches.
Volume in
Cubic Feet.
10   	
12.0
28.0
45.6
' 63.0
80 0
92.0
102.0
110.0
117.0
124.0
0.8
8.3
4.2
6.2
8.4
10.1
11.6
12.9
14.1
15.4
20                                               	
0.8
30                     	
2.0
40	
5.0
60    	
11.1
17.0
70                                                             	
24.0
90..                                         	
32.0
41.0
100.   .                                                   	
52.0 ■
L 16
Department of Lands.
1923
Cedar  (based on 71 Trees).
10.
20..
30..
40..
50..
60..
70..
80..
90..
100..
110..
Age in Years.
Height in
Feet.
5
13
23
33
37
41
47
53
59
63
67
Diameter B.H.
in Inches.
0.4
1.2
•2.3
3.7
4.4
5.0
6.1
7.3
9.0
10.5
13.0
Volume in
Cubic Feet.
0.90
1.60
2.80
3.60
4.20
6.50
9.75
14.20
18.50
28.20
Hemlock  (based on 190 Trees).
Age in Years.
Height in
Feet.
Diameter B.H.
in Inches.
Volume in
Cubic Feet.
10   :	
8.2
20.0
32.0
46.0
61.0
71.0
79.0
86.0
90.0
95.0
99.0
103.0
0.5
1.3
2.5
4.1
6.1
7.5
8.8
10.0
10.7
11.5
12.3
13.0
20   	
30	
40	
2.70
50	
60	
9 40
70	
19.30
90	
100.    :	
110 ;	
120	
Seed Dissemination.—Two permanent plots were laid out during 1922 for the study of seed
dissemination. Areas were selected where it was considered that the soil had been so heavily
burned that all seed in the litter was destroyed. On these areas Douglas fir seed-trees had been
left standing and the reproduction resulting must come from the seed-trees.
It was found that the maximum radius of seed dissemination from a fir-tree 175 feet high
was 325 feet against the prevailing wind, 525 feet with the wind, and 400 feet to right and left.
This covered an oval area of about 13 acres on practically level land. The percentage of seed
on each of six consecutive zones was as follows:—
Mean radius in direction of wind:   (Feet) 71;  142;  213;   284;   355;  426.
Percentage of total seed disseminated:  29.3;  23.2;  19.5;  2.2;  9.7;   6.1.
The effective radius of seeding was 300 feet; beyond this distance the seedlings were too
sparse to ensure a fully stocked stand.
Utilization.—Investigations were conducted during 1922 into the utilization of hemlock on the
Lower Coast. Results appeared to indicate that from 40,000,000 to 50,000,000 feet of this species
suitable for pulp and lumber, in addition to small trees of other species, were being wasted
annually in this district.
Modern methods of logging break down and destroy all standing trees not taken out.   The
prevailing price for hemlock has not made close utilization of this species attractive; consequently
only the choicest in size and quality ever reached the market.   As this species is found in
mixture in practically all stands being operated to-day, and as the percentage admixture is
increasing as the centre of logging moves north, the waste in hemlock, which should be utilized
in our pulp, box, and lumber mills, will increase from year to year unless active steps are taken
to bring about a closer utilization.    One of the operations studied gave the following figures for
material wasted in logging and left in the woods:—
Material Quantity wasted
  per Acre.
Hemlock, 12 to 20 inches D.B.H  2,000 F.B.M.
Hemlock piling         400 lineal feet.
Fir piling          600
Cedar poles           400 „
Mine-timbers          400 „ 13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 17
The value of these products now left on the ground in this district would probably total
upwards of $5,000,000 per year if harvested and a satisfactory market found for the product.
Tn addition to this loss an additional fire hazard is created on logged-over lands owing to the
existence of this material, which makes control of operation fires expensive and difficult and
adds to the general cost of operations.
VOLUME TABLES.
During the year the following volume tables were compiled from the general data available
in the Department, and for the time being can be taken as the most accurate tables available
within the range of the species. As general tables these will now supersede those previously
published. In the table for Sitka spruce the diameter of trees over 50 inches was taken at top
of root swelling to avoid the excessive taper found in large trees of this species.
South Coast Volume Table, Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia).
Based on measurements of mature trees felled during logging operations on Lower Coast
and Vancouver Island. Stump-height, 2.5 to 6 feet according to diameter; 32-foot logs and
B.C. Rule. Compiled by frustum form factor method. Check against basic trees, 0.3 per cent.
Not applicable to young stands.
Number of 32-foot Logs.
TopD.I.B.
1.
H-
2.
2J.
3.
31,
4.
41.
5.
51.
6.
Basis.
16  	
75
80
85
130
150
165
195
190
225
265
305
340
385
435
495
555
245
296
355
415
480
545
625
705
795
885
970
1,065
1,170
8.5
8.8
9.2
9.6
9.9
10.2
10.6
11.0
11.3 -
11.6
12.0
12.3
12.6
12.8
13.1
13.4
13.6
13.8
14.1
14.3
14.5
14.7
15.0
15.2
15.4
15.6
16.0
18	
375
460
530
620
71(1
810
915
1,030
1,145
1,270
1,400
1,540
1,690
1,820
1,930
20 ...
545
650
765
875
1,000
1,130
1,270
1,415
1,570
1,730
1,910
2,090
2,250
2,420
2,660
2,860
3,070
3,310
640
770
905
1,040
1,190
1,345
1,510
1,690
1,880
2,070
2,270
2,480
2,680
2,910
3,170
3,410
3,680
3,940
4,200
4.520
4,800
5,080
5,410
22 ...
24	
26	
47
28	
1,380
1,560
1,750
1,960
2,180
2,400
2,630
2,890
3,150
3,400
3,680
3,970
4,280
4,580
4,900
5,250
5,580
5,930
6,290
6,650
36
30	
21
32	
1,190
2,230
2,480
2,730
3,000
3,270
3,580
3,900
4,200
4,540
4,870
5,220
5,590
5,970
6,370
6,780
7,180
7,590
7,820
53
34	
57
36	
17
38	
40  	
•
42	
3,650
4,030
4,390
4,720
5,090
5,470
5,860
6,300
6,700
7,150
7,600
8,070
8,540
8,980
4,030
4,480
4,890
5,230
5,720
6,060
6,490
7,020
7,430
7,940
8,450
8,960
9,490
10,040
67
44	
44
46	
42
48	
61
50 .
52	
34
21
54	
37
56	
16
58	
19
60	
18
62	
64  	
4
66	
3
68 	
1
	
17
Basis.
1
50
87
107
159
145
93
62
20
Total
730 L 18
Department of Lands.
1923
North Coast Volume Table, Sitka Spruce (Picea sitciiensis).
Based on measurements of windfalls, and trees felled during logging operations on North
Coast and Queen Charlotte Islands. Stump-height, 2.5 feet up to 50 inches, D.B.H. Above
50 inches D.B.H. stump-heights range to 10 feet on account of butt swelling and diameter taken
at stump-height. 32-foot logs and B.C. Rule. Compiled by frustum form factor method. Check
against basic trees, 0.4 per cent.
D.B.H.
Number of
32-foot Logs.
1.
li
2.
21-
3.
31.
4.
41.
5.
5J.
6.
10	
55
no
7.5
12	
65
125
1S5
7.8
4
14	
75
140
220
8.6
4
16	
90
175
255
345
9.1
11
18	
100
210
315
420
53
5
9.6
18
20	
115
250
375
520
65
J           76
)
10.2
14
22	
295
455
610
77
0           92
)
10.7
18
24	
350
530
710
90
I        1,07
)
11.3
20
26	
400
605
810
1,03
I        1,24
i      1,47
)
11.8
15
28	
450
685
920
1,17
I        1,42
)       1,70
1
12.5
22
30	
770
1,050
1,33
3        1,63
)        1,94
)
12.9
23
32	
850
1,180
1,51
D        1,84
1        2,18
1
13.4
32
34	
930
1,310
1,69
)        2,07
i        2,45
)        2,99
)
14.0
33
36	
1,470
1,87
I        2,32
)        2,72
i        3,15
)
14.4
22
38	
1,640
2,11
)        2,58
)        3,02
1        3,50(
)
15.0
25
40	
1,810
2,32
)        2,84
i        3,34(
3,86
)
15.6
14
42	
1,990
2,55
)        3,111
)        3,68
)        4,24(
)        4,800
16.2
24
44	
2,77
1        3,39'
4,01
4,63
)        5,240
16.7
12
46	
2,98
i        3,68'
4,36'
6,051
)        5,720
17.3
9
48	
3,23
)        3,971
4,71(
5,37
)        6,200
17.8
17
50	
3,47
)        4,28
5,09
5,90(
'        6,710
18.3
11
52	
3,73
)        4,62
5,51
)        6,36(
)        7,240
8,130
18.9
10
54	
4,03
l        4,9S
5,92
6,87(
)        7,810
8,750
19.4
10
56	
4,32
1        6,33i
6,34(
7,36(
8,370
9,390
20.0
11
58	
5,761
6,751
7,93(
8,960
10,040
20.0
2
60	
6,11
7,22
8,43<
9,540
10,740
11,83(
20.0
3
62	
7,66(
8,97(
1      10,130
11,400
12,62(
20.0
1
64	
8,111
9,49i
10,740
12,150
13,401
20.0
2
66	
8,671
10.15C
11,480
12,970
14,361
20.0
4
68	
10,75(
12,150
13,740
16,241
20.0
1
70	
11,88
13,000
14,610
16,17(
20.0
2
72	
12,111
13,760
15,390
17,10(
20.0
2
74	
12,821
14,570
16,470
18,261
20.0
1
76	
13,711
15,440
17,420
19,321
20.0
78	
14,381
16,280
18,630
20,431
20.0
1
80	
17,280
19,510
21,601
20.0
1
82	
18,190
20,580
22,801
20.0
3
84	
19,240
21,980
24,13(
20.0
86	
20,040
22,940
25,411
20.0
1
88	
21,430
24,220
26,891
20.0
90	
ii
I
22,370
25,500
28.38C
j
20.0
1
Basis.
(
27
42
17
)             75
25
Total
404 13 Geo. o
Forest Branch.
L 19
Coast Volume Table, Western Hemlock  (Tsuga heterophylla).
Based on measurements of felled trees and windfalls, North and South Coast and Vancouver
Island. Stump-height, 2.5 to 4 feet; 32-foot logs and B.C. rule. Compiled by frustum form
factor method.   Check against basic trees, 0.2 per cent.
D.B.H.
io	
12	
14	
16	
18	
20	
22	
24	
26	
28	
30	
32	
34	
36	
38	
40	
42	
44	
46	
48	
50	
62	
54	
56	
58	
60	
Basis.
Number of 32-foot Logs.
1.
li
2.
21.
3.
SJ.
4.
a.
5.
65
no
70
130
'ii
)    '.'.'.
75
155
231
...
80
ISO
28(
)    37(
)    470
90
205
32.
44(
555
230
371
421
)    51(
)    581
)    645
)    740
'780
910
'920
1,080
46
)    65<
)    840
1,040
1,230
51(
)    72(
1    940
1,160
1,380
66
)    81(
)   1,050
1,300
1,540
62
)    89
)   1,150
1,420
1,690
1,960
68
)    97(
)   1,260
1,560
1,850
2,140
1,06(
)   1,370
1,700
2,020
2,360
2,680
1,151
>   1,500
1,860
2,230
2,590
2,940
1,23(
)   1,620
2,010
2,390
2,780
3,170
1,33(
)   1,760
2,180
2,600
3,010
3,470
1,44(
1   1,890
2,360
2,800
3,280
3,710
1,65
)   2,040
2,550
3,000
3,520
4,010
1,66
)   2,190
2,750
2,940
3,150
3,350
3,660
3,260
3,500
3,750
4,010
4,290
4,550
4,880
3,800
4,060
4,370
4,670
4,990
5,330
5,660
4,360
4,650
4,990
5,320
5,690
6,050
8,440
8
5,160
32
6,010
3
6,850
1
8
36
)     9
1    158
59
Top D. LB.
7.5
7.8
8.2
8.5
8.8
9.2
9.5
9.9
10.2
10.6
11.0
11.3
11.6
12.0
12.3
12.6
12.8
13.1
13.4
13.6
13.8
14.1
14.3
14.5
14.7
15.0
Total
5
16
17
39
50
49
60
51
37
40
23
25
15
23
12
7
4
480
Cubic-foot Volume Table, Western Hemlock  (Tsuga heterophylla).
Based on measurements of windfalls from all types, Kitirnat Valley, 1921. Stump-height,
2.5 feet; 32-foot logs. Compiled, by frustum form factor method from taper curves. Check
against basic trees, 0.4 per cent.
Number
of 32-foot Logs.
Top
D.I.B.
D.B.H.
1
11.
2.
21.
3.
31.
4.
ii.
5.
51.
6.
Basis.
8	
9
2
6
0
5.
0
5
13
18
23
30
37
44
53
61
]
Ii
2
3
4(
41
51
7(
s
9<
Oi
2
!
1   30
39
50
62
74
)   88
102
118
i   135
152
171
189
207
228
250
'47
eo
74
89
106
123
141
162
182
206
227
248
274
300
328
355
383
416
447
484
524
86
103
123
143
165
189
213
240
265
289
319
350
382
414
447
486
522
565
ell
163
188
216
243
274
303
331
365
400
436
473
510
656
596
646
698
6.0
6.0
6.3
6.6
6.9
7.2
7.5
7.8
8.1
8.4
8.7
9.0
9.3
9.6
9.9
10.2
10.6
10.8
11.1
11.4
11.7
12.0
12.3
4
10    1
12    1
9
14    5
16           5
18   ;
26
20   :
19
22	
17
24	
212
243
263
309
342
372
411
450
490
532
574
626
671
727
785
11
26 . ...      	
19
28	
8
11
34	
413
456
500
646
591
638
695
745
808
872
1
10
36	
502
550
600
660
702
765
820
889
959
6
38	
6
40	
4
42	
5
44	
4
46	
835
895
970
1,046
2
48     	
3
50	
2
52	
1
8
18
4
42
31
21
1
219 General Volume Table, Amabilis Fir (Abies amabilis).
Based on measurements of windfalls, and trees felled during logging operations on North
and South Coast and Vancouver Island. Stump-height, 2.5 feet; 32-foot logs and B.C. Rule.
Compiled by frustum form factor method.    Check against basic trees, 0.4 per cent.
D.B.H.
10	
12	
14	
16	
18	
20	
22	
24	
26	
28	
30	
32	
34	
36	
38	
40	
42	
44	
46	
48	
50	
52	
54	
56	
58	
60	
Basis.
Number of 32-foot Logs.
Basis.
1.
11-
5
21.
3.
31.
4.
41.
5.
65
110
5
70
130
]
90
16
75
165
g
30          31
0
15
85
185
2
80          37
5           475
24
90
210
I
30           46
0           570
31
95
240
I
80           si
0        ■  670
810
33
260
•1
30           6(
3           770
940
34
290
i
80           68
0           870
1,080
1,280
35
b
30           76
0           990
1,220
1,450
27
(
10           86
0        1,120
1,380
1,640
1,880
15
t
70           95
0        1,230
1,520
1,810
2,100
16
7
30        1,05
0        1,360
1,690
2,010
2,320
22
1,15
0        1,500
1,850
2,220
2,570
22
1,26
0        1,650
2,030
2,440
2,830
10
1,37
0        1,790
2,220
2,650
3,080
11
l,4f
0        1,960
2,430
2,900
3,360
3,860
5
1,62
0        2,130
2,650
3,140
3,680
4,160
5
1,75
)        2,290
2,870
3,380
3,970
4,510
4
1,88
0        2,460
3,100
3,340
3,590
3,850
4,220
3,660
3,980
4,290
4,610
4,940
5,270
5,670
6,030
4,280
4,620
4,990
5,370
6,760
6,160
6,590
7,010
4,910
5,300
5,700
6,110
6,570
7,020
7,490
7,980
1
2
1
1
i
1
6
!
.4
54             5
S             87
49
38
9
1
336
Top
D.I.B.
7.5
7.8
8.2
8.5
8.8
9.2
9.5
9.9
10.2
10.6
11.0
11.3
11.6
12.0
12.3
12.6
12.8
13.1
13.4
13.6
13.8
14.1
14.3
14.5
14.7
15.0
Volume Table, Western White Pine (Pinus monticola).
Based on scaled contents of 170 felled trees, Southern Interior, to top D.I.B. shown. Logs
scaled as cut by B.C. Rule. Average trimming allowance, 0.4-foot. Average stump-height,
2.5 feet.   Compiled by frustum form factor method.   Check against basic data, 0.5 per cent. low.
Number of 16-foot Logs.
Top
D.I.B.
D.B.H. Class.
1.
2.          3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Basis
No.
Trees.
Volume, B.F.
10	
25
30
35
60      ....
80       130
100       160
120       200
140       240
160       290
190       340
390
440
510
570
630
180
230
280
340
410
490
560
640
740
830
930
1,030
1,130
1,240
1,360
43
300
370
450
640
640
740
850
970
1,100
1,230
1,360
1,510
1,660
1,810
1,970
2,120
44
670
790
920
1,050
1,200
1,360
1,530
1,700
1,890
2,080
2,260
2,450
2,650
2,860
3,060
940
1,090
1,260
1.440
1,630
1,820
2,040
2,260
2,480
2,700
2,940
3,180
3,430
3,670
1,670
1,900
2,120
2,370
2,630
2,890
3,140
3,430
3,710
4,010
4,280
7.5
7.8
8.2
8.5
8.8
9.2
9.5
9.9
10.2
10.6
11.0
11.3
11.6
12.0
12.3
12.6
12.8
13.1
13.4
13.6
12            	
4,
4,
4
250
570
900
14	
21
16	
18	
20	
22	
28
18
20
18
24	
22
26    	
9
28	
30	
11
7
32     	
34	
36	
38	
40   	
42	
44	
46	
48	
25
43
12
-   3 T<~—C   ■-. ,'-■'. ■.
13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 21 "..-..."
L 22
Department of Lands.
1923 13 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. L 23
FOREST RECONNAISSANCE.
Wigwam River Cruise.
Early in 1922 an inquiry was received for a sale of the timber in the valley of the Wigwam
River and tributaries, East Kootenay District, to form part of the supply for a proposed pulp-mill
to be erected near Elko. The reconnaissance started on March 1st and finished on May 15th,
having covered a total timbered area of 13,551 acres, bearing a total stand of 209,355,100 hoard-
feet. Of this total stand, spruce comprised 50 per cent.; balsam, 8 per cent.; lodge-pole pine,
20 per cent.; Douglas fir, 16 per cent.; tamarack, 5 per cent.; and cedar, 1 per cent. The spruce,
balsam, and lodge-pole pine will be used for pulp and the Douglas fir, tamarack, and cedar for
sawlogs. The total amount of pulping species is therefore 162,200,000 board-feet, or 74 per cent,
of the total.
All the merchantable timber in the Wigwam Valley lies within a mile of the main river and
its tributaries. The hills are steep, but with smooth, firm surface and little rock-outcrop. The
Wigwam River averages a drop of 60 feet per mile, while its tributaries, rising high up in the
mountains, have a much steeper fall. Snow-logging is most feasible. Several of the tributary
streams will need flumes, while the Wigwam can be driven to its mouth.
Lodgepole Cheek Area.
The largest tributary of the Wigwam River is Lodgepole Creek. A separate cruise and
report was made on the timber within its valley on the same basis as for the Wigwam. General
topographic conditions were found to be similar to those in the main valley. A total stand of
112,951,200 board-feet of timber was found on a merchantable area of 3,633 acres. Spruce formed
53 per cent.; balsam, 13 per cent.; lodge-pole pine, 6 per cent.; Douglas fir, 13 per cent.;
tamarack, 10 per cent.; and cedar, 5 per cent. The average stand per acre on the merchantable
area was found to be 31,000 hoard-feet, with eleven or twelve logs per thousand.
Upper Elk River Area.
Upon the completion of the Wigwam River and Lodgepole Creek cruises, and as the result
of the same inquiry, the 'reconnaissance party moved on to the Elk River above Natal, where
several large bodies of Crown timber were cruised. A total area of 14,479 acres was covered,
containing a total stand of 291,404,672 board-feet, of which spruce comprises 73 per cent.;
balsam, 10 per cent.; lodge-pole pine, 15 per cent.; and Douglas fir, 2 per cent. Total pulp
species is thus 98 per cent, of the stand, or 285,073,572 board-feet. The areas included in this
cruise are vacant Crown lands lying outside the alienated lands, the latter taking in by far the
greater part of the valley.   The work was completed on August 30th.
The Elk River Valley and its tributary valleys vary in width from % to 3 miles, with
practically all the timber cruised lying within IV2 miles of its tributaries. The mountains rise
steeply, as a rule, from the valley-floor, hut surfaces are regular and not too broken for profitable
logging. Stands average 20,000 hoard-feet per acre, witli a maximum of 70,000 board-feet.
Logs will run eleven or twelve per thousand.
The timber can be skidded or hauled to the subsidiary or main streams, flumed or driven to
the Elk River, and driven down the Elk to their destination. A railway has been surveyed
through the valley and easy grades can be found. A common carrier or logging-railway might
profitably be considered for handling this timber. A map was prepared to accompany this
cruise, showing the topography in 100-foot contours and the location of the timber.
Flathead Reconnaissance.
Following the close of the Elk River reconnaissance, au extensive cruise of the Flathead
Valley was made. This area comprises the watershed of the Flathead River north from the
International Boundary to Corbin. It presents a fairly easy logging chance, all the timber being
within skidding or easy hauling distance of the creeks. Many of these can be flumed for short
distances, while chutes will take care of a large portion of the timber.
The area covered by this reconnaissance contains a grand total of about 1,250,000,000 board-
feet of timber, of which 71 per cent., or about 900,000,000 board-feet, is on vacant Crown lands.
In addition, knowledge was obtained of another 250,000,000 board-feet in tributary valleys not I
L 24 Department of Lands. 1923
examined. Of the total amount, spruce makes up 60 per cent.; balsam, 5 per cent.; lodge-pole
pine, 15 per cent.; Douglas fir, 10 per cent.; and tamarack, 10 per cent. This gives a total of
SO per cent, pulping species, or about 1,250,000,000 board-feet.
This area in itself would supply a pulp-mill of 100 tons daily capacity for forty or fifty years.
Suitable locations for such a mill can be found, either close to existing railways or made accessible
by an easily constructed branch line.
, Khimat Area.
During 1921 the vacant Crown lands in the Kitirnat Valley were cruised, but it was found
impossible at that time to complete one of the tributaries—namely, the Clearwater River. A small
party was organized in the spring of 1922 and commenced work on May 12th. A total area of
4,099 acres was cruised, bearing a stand of 79,086,900 board-feet of timber, of which 52 per cent,
is hemlock, 33 per cent, balsam, 13 per cent, spruce, and 2 per cent, cedar, or practically all
species suitable for pulp purposes.
This cruise was made on a 5-per-cent. basis and a map prepared showing 100-foot contours,
timber types, and streams. Elevations were carried in from tide-water by aneroid barometers,
being checked several times during the reconnaissance. The topographic Abney level and trailer
tape were used for measuring distances and elevations on the cruise strips. Volume tables
constructed for the Kitirnat Valley by a special party in 1921 were used and checked for local
application.
The topography presents a series of high benches, one rising steeply above another, and
dissected by many steep and deep ravines. However, the difficulties of logging the area are not
great.    The timber would be removed by logging-railway, as the river is not drivable.
Nass Riveb Area.
During 1921 some 31,000 acres were cruised in the Nass River Valley. Reports showed
additional large bodies of timber farther up the river, and these were partly cruised to the
extent of 75,000 acres during 1922. The Tseax Valley, a tributary of the Nass, contains 24,000
acres of this, and the east side of the Nass, between the Tseax and Cranberry Rivers, the balance.
A total stand of 888,000,000 board-feet was found, of which hemlock made up 46 per cent.;
spruce, 27 per cent.; balsam fir, 14 per cent.; cedar, 9 per cent.; and lodge-pole pine, 4 per cent.
This makes a total for the Nass below the Cranberry and Kinskooch Rivers of 1,350,000,000
board-feet.
Further large bodies of timber extend more or less continuously to the headwaters of the
Nass. Judged by present-day standards, the stands become progressively smaller and of less
merchantable character, but will eventually prove of great value for pulp-manufacture.
Stands reported after an extensive reconnaissance in 1913, corrected on a basis of comparison
with the accurate figures obtained during the past two years, indicate additional timber chiefly
hemlock and spruce, on the upper reaches of the river to the extent of 4,000,000,000 board-feet.
Actual logging of those areas already cruised will present no unusual difficulties. Most of
the timber is found on moderately sloping benches along the river, extending back to 5 miles in
width, and on the mountain-sides. For the most part the mountains are not nearly so precipitous
as many chances now being logged on the Lower Coast. The climate is very moderate and
logging operations will be possible, except for about two months in the spring and a like period
of heavy rains before the freeze up in the fall.
Transportation facilities present the only obstacle to immediate utilization of these
5,000,000 M. feet of timber. The Nass River below Aiyansh is broad, shallow, and badly
obstructed by islands. It is drivable during two months in the spring and a like period during
the fall. Improvements necessary will consist chiefly of sheer-booms around islands and sandbars. For 20 miles above Aiyansh the river is narrow, deep, and swift and will present no
difficulties to driving. Above this again it takes on the character of the lower river. The
tributaries are not drivable.
There is possibly an alternative route to the Canadian National Railway at Terrace for all
timber on the Tseax and on the Nass above Aiyansh. Levels over the existing survey are
sufficiently accurate to indicate this possibility, but a careful survey by competent engineers
would be necessary to definitely decide on this course.   This route would tap a large body of   13 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. L 25
timber on the Kitsumgallum, for delivery at a mill situated on Kitsumgallum or Mud Lake,
approximately 15 miles from the Canadian National.
CjiPiLANo Cruise.
A detailed cruise of the unalienated timber in the Capilano watershed was undertaken during
the year as a result of an application to purchase this timber for logging purposes. The City
of Vancouver and adjacent municipalities are dependent on this watershed for a part of their
water-supply, and it is of the utmost importance that logging operations conducted therein should
be so regulated as to cause the least deleterious effect on the watershed, either as to the quantity
or purity of the water derived therefrom.
The object of the cruise was to determine the quality, quantity, and Value of the timber
therein, and if possible to devise some means of logging without impairment of the watershed
value.
The Capilano is a typical mountain stream, the valley being bordered by steep slopes extending up to an extreme elevation of 6,200 feet. The timber is situated along the valley-floor and
extends up the slopes to an elevation of 3,500 feet, where it is replaced by scrubby, unmerchantable species, which, however, will serve for watershed-protection. The timber along the main
valleys and the lower reaches of the side-valleys is already alienated and is being logged, the
Crown timber being found along the higher slopes and the upper reaches of the tributaries,
especially along the East Fork and Sisters Creek. The stand, estimated at 230,000,000 feet,
consists of: Cedar, 57 per cent.; hemlock, 17 per cent.; balsam, 10 per cent.; other species,
16 per cent.
Logging can easily be conducted through extension of the logging-railway and system already
employed by the Capilano Timber Company, some -of the upper slopes being operated by hand-
logging methods down to where they can be reached by the sky-line. The chief concern, however,
. is in establishing a new crop which will protect the slopes from erosion and maintain the porosity
of the soil to equalize run-off. Reproduction on areas already logged was found unsatisfactory,
and in order to ensure a new crop on this site artificial reforestation will have to be resorted to
in order to assist the scanty natural growth. Any scheme of reforestation should include all the
lands in the valley. The risk of fire makes it impossible to undertake the planting of the higher
Crown lands without including the lower valley now held in private hands. Such a scheme
would also require assurance of sufficient appropriations to replant year by year the area logged
over, and to provide an adequate system of forest-protection. The timber value in the valley
is more than sufficient for this purpose, and it is estimated that in seventy-five years a new
crop of timber would be of sufficient size to permit of relogging the valley.
FOREST RESERVES.
During 1922 there were established, under authority of section 12 of the " Forest Act," four
forest reserves, totalling approximately 1,250,000 acres, covering the higher elevations of the
watershed of Okanagan Lake. The areas so reserved have been carefully examined, a cover
map and a contour map prepared, and areas which are suitable for agriculture have, so far as
possible, been eliminated. It is from streams which have their sources on these reserves that
the fruit-growing districts of the Okanagan District receive their water-supply for irrigation.
The double purpose of having certain areas not in demand for other purposes dedicated to
growing timber, which at the same time preserve the run-off of water needed and used in
iirigation, is served by the creation of these reserves.
To produce a crop of merchantable timber requires a long period of years, probably more
than a century in most parts of the Province. It also requires the expenditure of funds for the
re-establishment of new stands either by natural or artificial means, and the protection and
administration of the area while trees are growing to maturity. A more or less fixed and
unalterable policy with regard to lands which are to be used for growing timber is therefore
necessary. Forest reserves are created to fix definitely and permanently an area of land to be
used for the purpose of growing timber and to preserve the forest-cover, which regulates the
flow of streams. It is not intended that the resources within forest reserves should be locked
up, and other legitimate uses of the areas, not incompatible with the principal reasons for their
reservation, are desirable and should be encouraged. Forest reserves should be regarded as a
public resource. They are in the nature of fields set aside for the production of the only
crop capable of yielding a return on investment, " timber." L 26
Department of Lands.
1923 Exhibit, 51 Yonge Street, Toronto.    Royal Red Cedar Shingles, with
Western White Pine trim.
Dining-room in P.vitish Columbia Lumber Commissioner's Exhibit, 51 Yonge Street,
Toronto. Western Larch Floors; Western Hemlock Panelling; Red Cedar Ream
Ceiling ; Cottonwood Celling Panels.  13 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. L 27
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
The outstanding accomplishment in this field has been the completion of the splendid permanent
exhibit of British Columbia woods at 51 Yonge Street, Toronto, in the business centre of the
city. This exhibit includes two large rooms finished in British Columbia woods and completely
furnished, so that architects and builders can easily visualize the effects obtainable. An exterior
is also shown, featuring red cedar shingles for roofing and side-walls. The other woods featured
are Douglas fir, western hemlock, western white pine, larch, and cottonwood ply-wood. The
exhibit is very effective and is attracting large numbers of potential purchasers of British
Columbia forest products. The exhibit was installed by the lumber and shingle manufacturers
of the Province in co-operation with the Forest Branch.
Very effective changes were made in our exhibit at the Canada National Exhibition at
Toronto.    The exhibition was visited by 1,372,500 people this year.
A large number of architects and builders were visited this year in order to show them
samples and give them information personally pertaining to our woods and the best methods
of using them. Very effective work in this way was done with school architects and small-house
builders. Heretofore 3X shingles have been used almost universally in Eastern Canada. This
year two cars of Royal shingles were sold in Toronto as the result of trade-extension work
there: Western hemlock, for which it is highly desirable to create a market in order that it may
be logged with the other species with which it occurs, is proving very popular with those builders
and architects who have tried it. One architect, after seeing our exhibit-room finished in hemlock,
specified it for interior finish and floors in a large housing development scheme. Every builder
who has used it is very well pleased.
In the railway field a large order for railway-cars has been placed specifying Douglas fir for
car material. This item had previously been specified in,a foreign wood, but was changed, due
to tests made for the railways by the Lumber Commissioner, which proved Douglas fir the more
suitable wood.
Considerable effort has been made to find markets for our lower grades and waste material.
Progress in this work was shown by the fact that a market has been found which will at present
consume all the waste from cross-arm manufacture, and when developed will take approximately
2,000,000 feet per year in small clears for stave-manufacture. Eastern Canadian manufacturers
now using Douglas fir for stave stock formerly imported all their lumber requirements for that
purpose. The market for fir shop should develop rapidly, and this will take care of a large
quantity of large knotted stock which will grade shop, but is at present going into No. 1 and
No. 2 common.
Several thousand bulletins showing the uses of British Columbia woods have been distributed
on the Prairies and in Eastern Canada. All of the architects, builders, and retail lumbermen in
Ontario have been sent bulletins. A new bulletin has been prepared, giving information as to
how to finish British Columbia woods and containing illustrations of interiors and exteriors in
which they have been used, together with tables for architects, engineers, and builders showing
the safe loads for various-sized joists and beams of British Columbia woods.
Advertising calling attention to the uses of British Columbia woods has been carried in a
few selected trade and professional journals.
Trade-extension work will be largely confined to Ontario and Quebec during 1923. A study
of railway uses and the market for shop lumber will be made. All of the leading architects
and engineers in the two Provinces will be visited and as much work as possible done with
individual builders and contractors. .
L 28
Department of Lands.
1923
TIMBER    SCALED
BY
DISTRICTS
1918
1919
CRANBROOK 1920
1921
1922
19 2 OP
CARIBOO 1921
1922
1918
^„„^_,       1919
"™«   SS"
1922
1918
1919
PRINCE 920I
RUPERT      \H<*
1922;
1918
1919
KAMLOOPS    I920|
1921
1922!
NELSON
VERNON
1918
1919
I920|
1921
I922|
I9IS
1919
19201
1921
I922|
1918
1919
VANCOUVER  I920|
1921
19221
o
o
o
<5~
o
CO
o
o
o
10
o
(0
o
o
o
CD
o
0)
o
o
o
o-
o
o
o
CJ
o
o
CO
o    o
?      10
Figures  indicate Millions of Feet  B.M. 13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I, 29
SPECIES     CUT
1922
DOUGLAS
FIR
SPRUCE
HEMLOCK
CEDAR
WESTERN
SOFT
PINE
LARCH
ALL
OTHER
SPECIES
:™.:::!ai
1918
1919
1920
192
1922
1918
1919
I920
192
1918
1919
1920
1921
192201
1918
I9I3;
1920
192
1938
wowo       o
njiQNo       o
-        OJ
o
o
ro
O
O
. o
o o
io     <a
o
o
IV-
o
o
CO
o
o
01
OOO
OOO
o      =    cu
Figures indicate Millions of Feet B.M. L 30
Department of Lands.
1923
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Forest Branch.
L 31
LOG-SCALE.
The timber scaled during the year shows an increase of 109,000,000 feet, or 6 per cent. The
quantity of sawlogs, however, increased from 1,4S1,000,000 feet to 1,645,000,000 feet, or 10 per
cent. Hewn ties fell from 3,856,203 in 1921 to 2,543,763 during 1922. The increase in sawlog
production was chiefly in the Vancouver and Cranbrook Districts. Vernon and Prince Rupert
showed a distinct falling-off.    All districts showed a falling-off in ties and minor products.
The table of species cut discloses the gradual increasing percentage of hemlock and other
inferior species used, thus: Hemlock increased from 8 per cent, in 1915 to 10 per cent, in 1918
and 12 per cent, in 1922; balsam from 0.01 per cent, in 1915 to 2 per cent, in 1922; lodge-pole
pine from 0.07 per cent, in 1915 to 2 per cent, in 1922.
Species cut in 1922,
Forest District.
=c! -J
•a*
§S
os
■am
ii ■
MS
Sri
o   •
SS
So
OJ     .
as
HH
ii
s
IN
t-S
c
5>  .
%s
2 sj
•ss
ai
C
'e-s
J3'S
rt ^
•a
o
c
£  .
gs
JjCQ
O     ■
OS
OJ
HH
<fi     ■
t. "^
is
66,287
1,073
4,351
16,071
10,168
8,589
106,539
1,540
1,416
9,090
25,480
833
38,359
25,648
120
23,316
2,502
2,616
552
1,645
9
7,964
1,849
70
1,664
Id
139
12,982
1,125
2,434
27,089
43,630
7,904
2,299
16,212
7
26,422
8,986
11,283
9
2
330
32,078
271
10
159,200
1,263
42,030
31,256
72,202
37,923
Prince George	
"hi
7,167
373
39,759
30
150
10
12
221
Totals, Interior
54,754
9,608
19,301
209,982
229,283
238,891
195,005
3,732
20,610
23,164
23,164
43,774
451
343,874
Prince Rupert	
5,052
734,580
739,632
24,182
398,724
422,906
52,946
41,547
94,493
9,401
25,771
35,172
	
2
7,981
7,983
375
2,043
134,435
1,420,849
Totals, Coast..
39,759
45,245
2,418
233
243
106
1,555,284
Grand totals, 1922.
846,171
821,025
461,265
450,368
149,247
38,904
32,023
43,630
34,405
2,869
1,899,158
Grand totals, 1921.
151,792
41,869
18,838
30,785
2,961
1,790,017
Total Amounts of Timber scaled in British Columbia for Years 1921-22
(Comparative Statement in Board-feet).
Forest District.
1921.
1922.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Loss.
Net Gain.
161,038,620
43,689,461
4,539,924
31,379,605
89,374,662
52,740,408
159,200,392
42,030,343
1,262,836
31,255,790
72,201,521
37,922,757
1,838,228
1,659,118
3,277,088
123,815
17,173.141
14,817,651
382,762,680
343,873,639
38,889,041
38,889,041
171,264,991
1,235,989,694
134,434,962
1,420,849,672
184,859,978
36,830,029
1,407,254,685
1,555,284,634
148,029,949
Totals for B.C	
1,790,017,365
1,899,158,273
109,140,9 08
TIMBER-SALES.
The sale of Crown timber is one of the most exacting functions of the Branch. With the
staking of timber licences many small fractions of timber were left in the hands of the Crown,
in addition to the larger bodies in the more remote and inaccessible valleys. It is not the policy
of the Branch to force these reserves on the market in competition with private holdings, but
where tracts are isolated and form a natural logging unit with existing operations a sale must
he made to avoid loss through excessive overhead in opening a new operation at a later date.
Many small operators are also dependent on Crown stumpage to meet their requirements.
Although several pulp inquiries reached the Department, no large sales were put through.
The total number of sales completed reached 671, covering 108,501 acres and containing
249,000 M. feet of saw-timber in addition to minor products. The quantity of timber scaled from
sales was 187,000 M. feet, an increase of 10,000 M. feet over 1921.   The average stumpage on •
L 32
Department op Lands.
1923
all species received from sales made during the year was $1.39, to which must be added the
royalty reserved under the " Boyalty Act" to arrive at the true value the Government received
for this timber. A comparison of prices for species and years is given in the second table
hereunder.
Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1922.
Forest District.
No. of Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
No. of
Posts.
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordvvood
(No. of Cords).
No. of
Railway-
ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
Caribooo	
Cranbrook	
Fort George.  ......
Kamloops	
13
39
44
15
58
182
284
36
1,311
6,242
6,933
4,583
6,785
25,087
50,324
7,236
611,188
6,667,340
13,625,587
14,195,480
14,619,980
62,559,793
119,108,000
18,255,440
235,500
217,265
2,028,520
363,825
352,764
106,380
895
4,828
963
4,000
2,680
1,100
24,654
2,460
28,810
133,982
20,757
80,550
606,493
9,7i5
880,307
*         1,916 60
23,167 34
52,060 53
34,246 97
74,707 35
Prince Rupert	
Vernon	
180,017 93
448,049 08
48,722 69
Totals, 1922.
671
108,501
249,572,808
3,304,254
41,580
S      862, S88 49
Totals, 1921.
531
91,614
188,971,774
2,479,095
34,291
993,417
6,415,349
$      646,487 65
Totals, 1920.
594
356
121,690
440,649,755
245,209,300
2,811,095
2,899,000
378,080
149,300
86,726
$   1,799,039 03
Totals, 1919.
61,809
5,000
20,000
40,000
52,657
18,478
43,756
957,804
701,654
381,200
92,000
1     654,372 99
Totals, 1918.
227
34,257
159,659,000
240,307,057
t      380,408 33
Totals, 1917.
256
133
44,914
1,517,450
$      483,281 50
Totals, 1916.
23,318
136,345,000
435,S10
26,666
*      259,769 12
Average Sale Price by Species.
B'lGL'RES FOR 1922.
Figures for 1921.
Figures for 1920.
FlGURF.S FOR 1919.
Saw-timber.
Board-feet.
Price per M.
Board- feet.
Price per M.
Board-feet.
Price per M.
Board-feet.
Price per M.
Douglas fir	
58,467,465
62,788,240
42,207,248
42,987,260
16,757,880
4,304,380
9,704,386
2,998,750
9,357,200
249,572,808
$1 43
1 66
1 46
1 01
1 04
1 93
1 47
1 75
78
SI 39
44,835,675
41,980,000
22,588,143
40,866,166
12,834,000
1,662,500
11,009,710
8,679,480
4,516,100
$1 65
1 67
1 60
1 08
98
1 56
1 82
1 79
1 31
93,483,893
75,223,700
141,849,200
71,176,462
25,056,500
3,457,000
20,919,000
5,437,000
4,047,000
440,649,755
S2 04
2 23
2 06
1 06
1 23
2 06
1 37
2 24
1 78
57,456,450
55,655,350
69,151,000
28,836,200
17,296,000
2,257,600
7,479,900
3,019,400
4,057,500
245,209,300
$1 48
1 64
Spruce."	
Balsam	
1 56
73
82
1 63
Tamarack	
1 50
1 65
1 18
Totals	
188,971,774
$1 46
SI 84
81 38
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1922.
Forest District.                         .a
Feet B.M.
Lineal feet.
Cords.
Ties.
867,620
4,9S9,759
12,020,634
1,529,128
5,424,796
58,244,446
92,830,481
11,310,287
32,410
212,966
120,522
562,502
314,078
142,709
138,557
1,523,744
467.00
1,111.00
884.00
164.00
1,318.85
1,059.00
31,686.71
655.36
2,056
28,885
118,919
124,854
57,924
158,968
743
3,323
Totals, 1922	
187,217,151
179,780,056
37,345.91
495,672
Totals, 1921	
2,169,550
1,638,549
672,699
499,589
545,429
10,483.00
831,423
168,783,812
17,703.00
654,829
Totals, 1919   	
107,701,950
12,208.00
15,539.00
14,862.00
Totals, 1918	
Totals, 1917	
113,927,610
99,078,832
63,055,102
146,807
34,937
Totals, 1916	
226,799
8,425.00 13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 33
LOGGING INSPECTION.
The number of logging operations have doubled during the last four years, there being
2,652 in 1922 as compared with 1,322 during 1919. Inspection of these operations is essential
to assure proper segregation and marking of the logs and to prevent trespass. These inspections
are a protection to the private timber-holder as well as to the Crown, since any trespass occurring
on private lands is reported to the owner for settlement. During the year 4,654 inspection reports
were received by the Branch from its field staff, as compared with 1,884 in 1919, or an increase
in this work of 147 per cent, in four years.
The result of inspection is disclosed in the trespass table hereunder, that whereas the number
of trespasses caught have increased, the quantities cut have been materially reduced. In addition
to the ninety-eight cases of trespass against the Crown, thirty-four cases were reported to private
owners for settlement.
Logging Inspection, 1922.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
10
52
39
120
53
173
403
64
914
115
44
16
29
71
179
157
192
750
185
26
81
110
299
210
480
1,197
249
2,662
40
93
161
406
253
699
2,633
369
Totals, 1922	
159
1,579
4,654
Totals, 1921	
691
186
1,331
2,208
4,053
605
365
220
1,961
2,796
2,703
Totals, 1919	
200
757
1,322
1,884
TRESPASSES, 1922.
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut over
(Acres).
Quantity cut.
bo
a
HH   J-
o s
.  N
°'£
55 05
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
4
8
5
14
4
30
7
26
98
98
73
35
141
127
117
17
379
67
176
1,059
90,000
436,210
798,183
436,555
694,090
127,040
420,803
45,960
16,420
14,965
6,920
7,178
7,460
29
216
'83
8
40
17
2,198
672
5,328
1,825
19,297
1
'2
'6
7
S     149 60
1,934 33
2,964 55
1,356 84
236 75
3,323 70
506 82
.  5,933 81
Totals, 1922	
3,002,881
98,903
2,591
1,639
1,882
88
27,022
21,605
16
10
$16,406 30
1,938
1,788
3,222,673
209,395
104,048
48,860
$15,924 22
Totals, 1920	
4,904,079
6,716
10
$17,119 85
Totals, 1919	
87
2,454
12,708,365
87,120
8
921,730 12
3 L 34
Department oe1 Lands.
1923
SAW AND SHINGLE MILLS OF THE PROVINCE, 1922.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
d
8
26
9
34
21
23
136
35
Operating:, Estimated
Daily Capacity,
M.B.M.
6
55
•a
OJ
§
s-i .
SO"
HH 5jjj'
onoo
0
55
Shut down, Estimated
Daily Capacity,
M.B.M.
0
55
•a
a
eS
1 £
H.-H   .
- « *H
» ft .
ji'"^s
44
1,215
323
680
519
550
5,748
604
9,683
8,912
i
11
"i
92
120
595
'75
14,754
19
9
2
10
2
20
26
2
95
295
65
355
85
621
473
65
2
6
45
635
Totals for 1922	
292
108
15,544
90
2,054
8
680
289
79
10,885
78
2,029
6
Totals for 1920	
341
10,729
109
13,426
37
909
2
30
TIMBER EXPORTS.
Export of Logs dubing Yeae 1922.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
7,390,114
3,860,485
669,602
45,824
28,668
33,441,110
27,791,458
4,569,217
387,038
158,472
25,812,208
7,243,737
1,737,697
74,072
62,811
816,238
30,796,845
1,397,464
6,335,652
66,643,432
38,895,680
7,692,754
30,796,845
1,904,398
Fir	
Totals, 1922	
11,894,693
66,347,295
34,930,525
38,346,199
151,518,712
Totals, 1921	
10,457,378
42,860,296
18,524,059
18,374,774
90,216,507 13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 35
Export of Poles, Piling, Mine-pkops, Ties, Fence-posts, Shingle-bolts, and Coedwood.
Forest District.
Cranbrook—
Cord wood....
Poles	
Piling-	
Mine-props .
Fence-posts .
Mine-ties	
Railway-ties..
Prince George—
Poles	
Piling	
Mine-props ..
Fence-posts..
Cordwood....
Mine-ties	
Railway-ties..
Kamloops—
Poles	
Piling	
Fence-posts...
Nelson —
Poles	
Piling	
Fence-posts...
Prince Rupert—
Poles	
Vancouver—
Poles	
Piling	
Fence-posts..
Shingle-bolts
Vernon—
Poles	
Piling	
Total, 1922,
Total, 1921 .
Quantity exported.
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Number,
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Number,
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
1,147
37,940
159,370
3,725
7,019
48
962,605
212,570
6,295
1,275
459
48
48
354,679
767,125
23,950
243
Lin. ft., 3,989,618
Lin. ft., 2,884
Cords, 4,611
Lin. ft.,    190,775
1,842,074
55,760
2,940
2,195
522,981
32,680
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
$    8,030
4,553
19,124
37,250
63,171
1,440
510,180
25,508
755
12,750
4,131
336
1,440
187,979
76,712
2,395
2,430
398,962
288
323
19,078
184,207
6,576
29,400
21,950
62,758
3,922
$1,684,648
$1,773,034
Where marketed.
United States.
92,500
588,165
2,938,122
2,701
190,775
1,842,074
55,760
2,940
2,195
513,011
32,680
1,147
37,940
66,870
3,725
7,019
48
962,605
6,295
1,275
459
48
48
354,679
178,960
23,950
243
1,051,496
2,884
1,910
1,970
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
The work of land classification and inspection of pre-emptions was carried on as in previous
years. Some 129,481 acres of land were examined, of "which 14,S4S were recommended for reservation as timbered land; 41,066 acres were found to he suitable for agriculture. Pre-emption
inspection for the information of the Lands Branch totalled 3,266 reports during the year.
Areas examined, 1922.
Forest District.
Applications for
Crown Grants.
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
No.
3
2
4
6
5
16
19
6
Acres.
640
333
605
834
690
2,458
2,264
1,051
No.
103
i
3
4
Acres.
9,666
641
'656
'565
No.
147
6
143
11
26
5
21
22
Acres.
21,760
890
21,954
1,342
3,475
2,725
3,393
3,264
55,803
No.
55
12
19
4
27
20
26
20
Acres.
8,802
2,876
5,675
614
2,868
3,200
1,463
4,903
No.
9
2
8
2
20
11
41
4
97
Acres.
1,171
5,057
465
1,093
6,949
215
6,253
1,671
Totals	
61
8,875
111
11,528
381
183
30,401
22,874 L 36
Department of Lands.
1923
Classification of Areas examined, 1922.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Fort George...
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver ....
Vernon	
Forest District.
Totals.
Total Area.
Acres.
42,039
9,156
29,340
3,883
13,982
7,254
12,373
11,454
129,481
Agricultural
Land.
Acres.
4,956
1,258
20,524
2,024
3,159
4,053
3,480
1,612
41,066
Area
recommended
for Reserve.
653
7,517
40
2,122
855
2,399
1,199
14,848
Estimate of
Timber on
Reserved Area.
M.B.M.
970
67,063
5,724
19,874
28,026
5,852
127,509
Pre-emption Record Examinations, 1922.
Cariboo   716
Cranbrook     99
Kamloops   180
Nelson  174
Prince George •  436
Prince Rupert  582
Vancouver   '.  752
Vernon     327
Total  3,266
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY.
The Control of Forest Insects.—During the past summer further work was carried on in
controlling the epidemic of bark-beetles which is infesting the western yellow pine in the Vernon
District, and has been the cause of killing millions of feet of standing timber over the past few
years. This is a continuation of the work carried on during 1920 and 1921. During 1922 three
distinct areas were worked over by parties under the direction of forest officers:—
(1.) In the Voght Valley an area of about 2% square miles was covered with direct control
and 4,502 trees, scaling 894 M. feet, were treated by felling the trees and peeling and burning
the hark and slash on the spot.
(2.) An area north of Kettle Valley Railway between the sidings of Stirling and Phalia,
covering approximately 2 square miles, was covered and 2,619 trees, scaling 1,045 M. feet, were
treated.
(3.) On the Coutlee Plateau lying south and east of Merritt an area of 72 acres containing
536 infested trees, scaling 225 M. feet, were treated. Due to the late spring the work was not
commenced until the middle of April and was finished up when the beetles commenced to emerge
in large numbers towards the end of June.
In the Kamloops District direct control was followed up on the isolated areas at Adams
Lake and Rock Creek; in all, 415 trees were treated in the district.
In addition to the areas enumerated above, the lessees of Timher Licences 12907 and
12908P, located on Pike Mountain, carried out their own control measure under our supervision.
The beetle-infested trees were marked for cutting by forest officers.
In the Midday area slash resulting from the logging operations of the Nicola Pine Mills,
Limited, was left to serve as a trap for the fresh broods and was burned during May and June
by the company.
The work is being carried on as heretofore under the direction of Ralph Hopping, of the
Division of Entomology, Ottawa.    He reports in part as follows:—
"The entomological aspect was practically the same in 1922 as 1921, except that unworked
areas showed an increase in some instances of 300 per cent, and demonstrated the necessity of
covering the epidemic areas as soon as possible in order to check this tremendous increase.
Every year's work has demonstrated that instead of this enormous increase we have reduced
the loss on all worked areas at least 80 per cent.   The controlled area in Midday Valley, although   13 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. L 37
not worked in 1922, showed only 16.7 per cent, reinfestation in spite of the menace from heavily
infested timber on Timber Sale X2076.
" The Kingsvale area worked in 1921 showed very little infestation, probahly not more than
10 per cent. The most notahle factor recorded was the occurrence of a beetle usually killing
individual limbs on trees known as Pityogenes carinulatus. This beetle, usually of secondary
importance, increased so rapidly in the epidemic area of Voght Valley that many trees not
attacked by Dendroctonus or any other beetle on the hole of the tree had every limb killed.
This, of course, added to the mortality in the area and emphasized the necessity of immediately
controlling the bulk of the infestation in epidemic area."
White-pine Blister-rust.—The white-pine blister-rust, a disease that affects all five needle
(white) pines, was discovered during the fall of 1921 to be present in the Province. On account
of the lateness of the season little work could be done that year, but a hurried examination
established the fact that the disease was present on imported eastern white pines in the neighbourhood of Vancouver. No trace was found in the limited portion of the Interior that could
be covered.
The possibility that this destroyer of white pines that has caused enormous damage in the
Eastern Provinces and States should become prevalent among the white pines of British Columbia
caused considerable alarm. Action was at once taken by the Department of Agriculture to
establish a quarantine against white-pine seedlings entering the Interior from the Coast. The
peculiar fact that this rust has an alternate host in the plants of the gooseberry and currant
family made it also necessary to quarantine them.
Plans were made for a complete survey of the Province in 1922. Beginning in April, on
the Coast, the Forest Branch co-operated with the Dominion and Provincial Departments of
Agriculture in scouting for the white-pine blister-rust. Before the middle of the summer it had
been found on white pines and currant-hushes throughout the range of the white pine on the
Coast, both on western white pine (Pinus montieola) and imported eastern white pine (P.
strobus).
At the end of July the scouting-parties were moved to the Interior, and between then and
the end of the field season in October a thorough search for the rust was made throughout the
white-pine belt. This included the valleys of the Shuswap, Columbia, and Kootenay Rivers,
from Chase, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, to Cranbrook, in the East
Kootenays. The rust was found in spots in the northern end of this belt, notably near Lumby,
Revelstoke, Canoe, Heaton, Taft, Craigellachie, Malakwa, Solsqua, Sicamous, Salmon Arm,
Tappen, Notch Hill, Mara, Grindrod, and Enderhy, but the infections were not widespread.
However, the season was too late to determine the extent of the attack on pine, the infection
found being mainly on currants.
The season's scouting has shown that the white-pine blister-rust has secured a firm hold
on the Coast, but may not yet be widespread in the Interior. Another season's scouting will
have to be done before the absolute extent of the disease east of the Cascades can be determined,
and what control measures, if any, are deemed advisable. As western white pine is one of the
most valuable species in the Province, though not the most widespread, any effort possible to
control the spread of this disease should he taken.
Grateful acknowledgment is made to the various officers of the United States Department of
Agriculture for their assistance and advice in scouting for this disease.
FOREST FINANCE.
It is gratifying to record that while collections for the year increased 19 per cent, or more
than $500,000, expenditure on general administration showed a decrease. For the nine months
of the fiscal year to December 31st, 1922, expenditure was $315,474.05, as compared with
$351,570.13 the previous year.
The amount of revenue derived from licence fees and rentals is gradually diminishing,
while trie revenue from active operations is increasing with the development of logging and
the increasing value of stumpage and royalty. It must be borne in mind, however, that whereas
the collection of rentals and licence fees is a simple matter, the safeguarding of our revenue
from operations can only be done by a vigilant field staff through inspection, scaling, and a close
appraisal of stumpage values. -
L 38
Department of Lands.
1923
Forest Protection Fund.—The extra hazardous fire season caused another heavy drain on
the Forest Protection Fund, which made it necessary to call a special levy under provision of
section 26 of the " Forest Act." This levy amounted to 3% cents per acre on timber land, which
together with the Government contribution of $338,100 will liquidate the accumulated deficit
to date.    The collection of the levy has been most satisfactory.
Forest Revenue.
12 Months to
Dec, 1922.
12 Months to
Dec, 1921.
12 Months to
Dec, 1920.
12 Months to
Dec, 1919.
12 Months to
Dec, 1918.
12 Months to
Dec, 1917.
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-lease rentals	
$1,390,999 64
13,397 91
1,203,884 89
94,392 31
3,138 05
1,061 94
454 35
83,376 60
358,984 19
1,950 00
6,050 00
247 77
26,790 12
8,699 60
2,188 63
175 00
3,135 47
357 14
$1,193,654 58
11,245 86
990,326 99
81,840 61
2,015 83
765 98
330 80
50,859 19
317,488 77
3,735 00
9,175 00
21 85
12,659 91
4,640 39
1,695 08
455 00
1,972 33
291 03
$1,654,747 43
18,114 34
879,003 16
81,989 68
25,476 91
5,041 71
530 03
232,309 85
247,234 71
4,855 00
6,525 00
12 59
17,881 40
7,642 80
2,749 93
670 00
3,363 90
2,519 43
§1,236.530 41
7,464 12
788,746 69
85,101 37
64,571 19
13,072 79
280 12
49,259 95
219,012 08
2,790 00
7,250 00
345 10
10,045 26
3,763 49
1,929 71
205 00
1,055 67
3,550 80
$1,372,789 28
1,599 38
698,059 27
77,748 25
56,304 90
9,753 29
2,813 82
79,605 09
151,598 86
4,625 00
2,975 00
69 67
7,753 84
1,921 73
1,152 40
315 00
1,980 70
1,637 91
$1,074,129 07
3,207 32
785,543 42
76,426 74
62,381 50
Licence penalty	
6,055 74
607 11
11,928 01
113,498 13
4,070 00
Hand-loggers' licence fees
Timber-sales cruising ...
Timber-sales advertising.
Scalers' examination fees.
General miscellaneous ...
9,700 00
68 04
9,457 72
2,687 03
1,183 35
295 00
561 53
470 61
$3,199,283 51
8,171 21
319,410 51
$2,683,174 20
11,221 79
261,896 49
$2,956,292 48
$3,190,667 87
15,617 44
302,567 26
$2,494,973 75
9,500 41
251,264 82
$2,472,703 39
258,105 14
$2,162,170 32
Taxation from Crown-
176,163 20
Total revenue from
forest sources	
$3,526,865 23
$3,508,812 57
$2,755,738 98
$2,730,808 53
$2,338,333 52
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1922.
(Amounts charged.)
Scaling Fund.
Forest
Royalty and
Trespass
Stumpage.
Total.
District.
Tax.
Penalties.
Expenses.
Expenses.*
Fees.*
Scaling
Scaling
Expenses.
Fees.
Vancouver
and Island..
?    844,692 10
$ 4,702 19
$   136 35
$   420 46
$ 1,228 66
$11,424 71
$ 96,852 33
$192,475 82
$ 1,151,932 62
1,208 75
145 50
29 85
5 00
1,500 43
2,889 53
Cranbrook ...
105,291 69
1,351 61
25 95
280 94
11,844 65
118,794 84
Prince Rupert
81,699 07
3,042 58
182 05
114 05
711 42
982 79
6,922 57
74,457 48
168,112 01
42,396 i4
3,257 54
1 92
125 85
23,894 52
69,676 27
29,034 18
374 10
19,093 90
48,502 18
Fort George..
34,913 75
947 68
987 42
34,720 74
71,569 59
Kamloops	
10,509 78
2,053 11
3 00
t 1,933 72
$103,774 90
17,619 88
30,185 77
Totals	
$1,149,745 76
$14,926 63
$1,326 80
$   516 85
$ 1,940 08
$ 1,256 70
$12,407 50
$375,607 42
$ 1,661,662 81
Totals, 1921
$ 1,005,261 61
$ 1,091,389 81
$14,297 39
$15,284 61
$     769 08
$11,396 11
$114,450 43
$ 90,889 44
$396,303 19
$ 1,544,251 36
Totals, 1920
$   121 33
$ 2,677 68
$14,155 57
$10,114 36
$322,828 67
$ 1,547,461 47
*On scales made by Rangers, etc
Forest Expenditure.
The sums voted for the fiscal year 1922-23 were as follows:—
Vote No. 171—Salaries  $218,120 00
„        173—Travelling expenses and wireless telephone  50,250 00
„        175—Lumber-trade extension    20,000 00
„       176—Reconnaissance, etc  30,000 00
„        177—Insect damage:  investigation and control  10,000 00
„       178—Grazing:  range improvement  6,000 00
$334,370 00 13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 39
In addition to this total, sums were available from Vote No. 172 for temporary assistance,
and from Vote No. 173 for office supplies, maintenance of launches and autos, and miscellaneous
expenses; from Vote No. 186 for publicity ; from Vote No. 187, general investigations; and from
Vote No. 188, contingencies. The sum of $300,000 was also voted as the amount of the contribution of the Government to the Forest Protection Fund under Vote No. 174.
General Administrative Expenditure.
(For Nine Months, April to December, inclusive, 1922.)
Forest District.
Headquarters.,
Cariboo	
Cranbrook
Kamloops	
Nelson.......
Prince George.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver
Vernon	
Totals
Vote 171:
Salaries.
$ 66,459 12
3,630 79
9,100 81
5,999 97
11,057 26
11,163 52
39,327 65
58,390 15
7,243 26
$212,372 53
Vote 172 :
Temporary
Assistance.
$     342 60
100 00
665 80
416 66
564 00
1,114 33
592 42
1,632 78
352 16
$  5,780 76
Vote 173:
Expenses.
$13,833 56
3,854 09
6,043 47
3,217 61
4,509 03
3,520 98
18,757 91
39,731 14
3,852 98
$97,320 77
Total.
80,635 28
7,584 88
15,810 08
9,634 24
16,130 29
15,798 83
58,677 98
99,754 07
11,448 40
$315,474 05
Forest Protection Fund.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1922:—
Deficit brought forward from fiscal year 1920-21   $360,690 22
Expenditure, fiscal year 1921-22  $471,341 70
Less refunds        14,143 51
    457,198 19
$817,888 41
Collections, fiscal year 1921-22 ...'.  $192,601 31
Government contribution     324,777 02
$517,378 33
Government loan (special advance)       300,000 00
$817,378 33
Less amount transferred to Special Advance A/c.      49,503 08
 i   767,875 25
Balance  (deficit) *     $ 50,013 16
* In addition to this deficit, the sum of $250,496.92 was owing to the Government on March
31st, 1922, in respect of Special Advance Account.
Balance (deficit) at April 1st, 1922 :  $ 50,013 16
Expenditure, April-Dec, 1922 (nine mths.)  $722,865 86
Less refunds       11,290 72
 $711,575 14
Refunds of revenue  316 39
 711,891 53
$761,904 69
Collections, April to December  $158,438 40
Collections under special levy        29,065 79
Carried forward     $187,504 19 $761,904 69 L 40
Department of Lands.
Forest Protection Fund—Continued.
Brought forward    $187,504 19 $761,904 69
Government contribution     232,677 02
Government contribution under special warrant     100,000 00
$520,181 21
Less amount transferred to Special Advance A/c.     15,303 08
504,878 13
Balance  (deficit) *      $257,026 56
* In addition to this deficit, the sum of $235,193.84 was owing to the Government on December
31st, 1922, in respect of Special Advance Account.
Forest Protection Expenditure.
Fiscal Years.
1915-16.
1916-17.
1917-18.
1918-19.
1919-20.
1920-21.
1921-22.
1922-23.
(9 mos., April
1st to Dec.
31st, 1922.)
$157,432
5,151
19,449
$144,251
3,747
7,124
$100,304
20,111
91,470
$159,030
36,913
50,293
$198,172 36
28,397 43
165,688' 80
$267,402 76
85,548 87
292,890 66
$339,163 85
25,286 68
106,891 17
$219,166 85
Fires	
12,707 95
490,991 06
Totals	
$182,032
$155,122
$211,885
$246,236
$392,258 58
$645,842 29
$471,341 70
$722,865 86
For Twelve Months, April, 1921, to March, 1922, inclusive.
Forest District.
Victoria	
Cariboo	
Cranbrook
Kamloops....
Nelson	
Prince George
Prince Rupert
Vancouver
Vernon	
Undistributed.
Totals.
$ 21,889 76
14,126 45
33,019 82
28,377 20
32,338 51
24,027 54
16,822 02
107,740 66
20,821 89
40,000 00
$339,163 85
4,028 15
22,900 14
2,713 94
44,339 64
2,607 96
692 30
16,348 56
14,360 48
$106,891 17
Improvements.
2,064 57
1,446 91
1,591 80
2,486 37
3,545 43
532 11
12,287 40
1,332 09
Total.
$ 21,889 76
20,219 17
57,366 87
32,682 94
79,164 52
30,080 93
18,046 43
135,376 62
36,514 46
40,000 00
$25,286 68   $471,341 70
By Districts for Nine Months ending December 31st, 1922.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook....
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George.
Prince Rupert
Vancouver....
Vernon 	
Victoria 	
Totals
Patrol.
$ 11,
20,
16,
23,
15,
12,
84,
181 87
147 68
642 15
809 94
494 30
476 38
288 37
748 10
378 06
$219,166 85
Fires.
$ 9,484 62
51,990 34
21,922 34
106,909 96
34,090 34
86,627 45
167,294 14
12,671 87
$490,991 06
Improvements.
*
765 13
864 70
1,675 57
1,338 09
392 60
519 75
6,072 69
1,079 42
$12,707 95
Total
$ 21,431 62
73,002 72
40,240 06
132,057 99
49,977 24
99,623 58
257,655 20
28,499 39
20,378 06
$722,365 86 13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 41
Crown-grant Timber Lands.
Area of Private
Timber Lands
(Acres).
1911   824,814
1912   874,715
1913   922,948
1914   960,464
1915   913,245
1916    t     922,206
1917   916,726
1918   896,188
1919   883,491
1920   867,921
1921    :     845,111
1922        887,980
Average Value
per Acre.
$ 8 72
8 60
9 02
9 66
9 55
9 73
9 61
V 60
9 4S
11 62
10 33
11 99
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment   District.
Alberni ".	
Comox	
Cowichan	
Fort Steele   	
Golden 	
Kettle River	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke  	
Rossland (district merged with others)..
Slocan	
Vancouver	
Victoria	
Totals.
Acreage,
1922.
45,251
187,694
93,849
29,732
81,098
4,908
87,772
201,444
1,100
48,609
80,900
2,660
22,963
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1921.
i change.
+1,334
-1,100
i change.
-200
+393
-373
+16,592
-68
i change.
-16,673
+36,450
> change.
+6,514
+42,869
Average Value
per Acre.
$25 89
15 61
19 68
11 83
4 77
3 92
15 93
4 17
20 90
14 40
6 15
31 25
20 79
11 99
Change in
Value per
Acre since
1921.
+$5 17
+ 2 45
+ 2 92
+ 80
+ 97
+ 95
+ 3 42
+ 79
+ 4 39
+ 2 88
-  1 82
+ 6 25
+$1 l
Report on Timber-marks for the Year 1922.
1921.
Old Crown grants   106
Crown grants, 1887-1906  73
Crown grants, 1906-1914  83
" Royalty Act"     240
Stumpage reservations  26
Pre-emptions under sections 28a and 28b, " Land Act "  53
Timber leases (50 cents royalty)    3
Dominion lands     36
Timber-sales    524
Hand-loggers  140
Special marks ;  1
Rights-of-way  2
Totals  1,287
Trespass and changes of marks   350
Hand-loggers' licences issued  370
1922.
129
120
132
291
26
20
3
58
671
58
3
1,511
345
288 .
L 42
Department op Lands.
1923
Correspondence.
Letters inward, numbered and recorded  29,500
Letters, reports, etc., received, not numbered or recorded  12,500
Total  42,000
Outward typed letters  21,000        i
Outward circulars, form letters, etc  23,000
Total  44,000
FORE ST-PROTECTI ON.
The fire season of 1922 was abnormal throughout the Province. A long, cold winter, during
which little snow fell, froze the ground deeply in every forest district in the Province. The
spring was late and cold, with the result that the early vegetation did not start until late May
or early June. As a result of this the previous year's ground-cover was left in a condition that
tended to spread the early spring fires rapidly. Late in May the weather broke suddenly to hot
and dry, and this was not followed by the rains which usually prevail in the month of June.
The vegetation that did start was soon dried and left the forest-floor a veritable tinder-heap for
the spread of any fire which might occur. The season, as a matter of fact, was the driest of
which we have record, the prolonged drought being alike disastrous to the farmer and the forest.
The result of these conditions was a fire situation frought^with the gravest danger which
might have at any moment developed a conflagration of which the disasters at Merville and
Lang Bay would have been mere details.
Causes of Fires.—The causes of fires show that the travelling public is still the biggest single
factor in causing the outbreak of fires. Campers and travellers are responsible for 626, or 24.2
per cent, of the total. Brush-burning is responsible for 355, or 13.7 per cent; railway operations
for 332, or 12.4 per cent.; lightning for 246, or 9.5 per cent.; while industrial operations and
miscellaneous known causes are each responsible for 203, or 7.8 per cent. Sixty-nine fires are
known to be of incendiary origin, and public road-construction for 22, or less than 1 per cent.,
while the remaining 536 fires started from causes unknown.
It seems incredible that the travelling public should year after year head the list in starting
fires, but it is to be hoped that the educational work that is being assiduously carried on, assisted
by the stern prosecution of known offenders, will result in a decreased number of fires as time
progresses.
Number and Causes of Fires, 1922.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Kamloops	
Nelson .. 	
Prince George....
Prince Rupert....
Vancouver 	
Vernon	
Totals	
Per cent.
a
ei
■»
rf
0)
bo
o
k
■a
5 o
Ifr
•a
O
3 s
rt
O
io
c
'3
bo
3
*hS
§•!
ii    tH
OH
o
il o
Ph'S
p 'hh
to O
£■?
!§
ShO
•^'5 **
•=33-5
tt o <y
B co
oS
— o
P-t   VI
II
(5
'•a
a
0)
O
□
o
c
•Jfl
a
3
o
6
81
2
15
2
2
5
42
155
46
52
33
13
1
9
18
6
56
234
44
9
86
14
2
16
4
8
183
118
83
103
41
7
6
4
17
33
412
5
117
36
46
.   8
3
11
16
65
307
53
18
65
7
6
13
105
257
9
172
30
158
1
172
3
131
207
883
18
59
24
13
1
4
203
11
10
202
20
160
246
626
332
355
22
69
536
2,591
9.5
24.2
12.8
13.7
0.8
7.8
2.7
7.8
20.7
100.0
5.9
9.1
7.1
15.9
11.8
9.9
34.1
6.2 13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 43
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Nine Tears.
Lightning1	
Campers and travellers	
Railway operation	
Railways under construction	
Brush-burning, not railway-clearing.
Public road-construction	
Industrial operation	
Incendiary	
Miscellaneous (known causesj	
Unknown causes	
Totals	
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
246
164
304
115
134
48
67
100
626
308
246
310
158
209
268
305
332
283
227
146
104
335
121
82
2
1
22
1
17
355
126
96
97
100
48
148
267
22
20
7
5
2
5
12
20
203
119
104
129
80
59
59
28
69
40
32
21
15
13
22
28
202
64
69
140
72
55
19
24
536
204
165
1,251
166
1,141
224
214
148
160
2,691
1,330
910
986
864
1,031
1914.
169
487
361
98
164
11
50
42
83
367
FOREST-FIRE PUBLICITY.
Between 80 and 90 per cent, of the fires originate from human causes, mostly due to carelessness or the procrastination of taking precautionary measures until too late. Eliminate these
fires and much of the problem is solved. The work conducted by the Forest Branch with this
end in view is along the line of educational publicity, and the past season was as follows:—
Early in the season the Department arranged with the Canadian Forestry Association to
send its Forests Exhibits car on a tour through Vancouver Island and that portion of the Province
south of the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The car had models which portrayed
in miniature the principal wood-manufacturing industries of Canada, and was specially designed
to show the necessity for preventing fires in the woods. A lecturer accompanied the car, and
gave lectures, illustrated by moving pictures, to show the necessity of forest-protection. Schoolchildren were especially invited, and lectures were also given to different schools and moving-
picture houses. The proprietors of the moving-picture houses throughout the Province co-operated
splendidly, lending the theatres free of charge, and in many cases lending the lecturer a standard
moving-picture projector and operating it as well. Upwards of 70,000 people visited the car and
attended these lectures. The benefit of this sort of educational work is difficult to measure, but
there is but little doubt that it did much good. Even though throughout the season the number
of fires increased, it is hard to say what might have been the result in these years of exceptional
hazard if it were not for this and other educational work that is being carried out along forest-
protection lines. We must bring our citizens to the point where they realize that the forests
are our chief natural asset, that their welfare largely depends on the welfare of our timber land,
and that in careless use of fire they are not merely burning brush, hut are destroying real wealth
in which they themselves have a vital interest.
Advertisements during the fire season were again carried in local newspapers. Posters,
calendars, and envelopes were printed and distributed and forest-protection literature was
supplied to schools; also publicity by the press was given to prosecutions. All is helping to
mould public opinion more favourably to forest-protection.
FIRE OCCURRENCE AND CONTROL.
The weather charts which follow show very clearly the causes for the rapid spread of fires,
which in the season of 1922 reached the record number of 2,591. The fact that 1,546 fires, or
almost 60 per cent, of the fires which broke out, were extinguished before they reached 10 acres
in size is a convincing record of the work put in by the field and organizing staffs, when the
fire conditions were taken into consideration.
The total number of fires fought amounted to 2,591, of which number 637, or 24.6 per cent.,
were extinguished before they had reached a quarter of an acre in size; 909, or 35.1 per cent., were
extinguished before they grew to be of 10 acres; while 1,045 spread over 10 acres before they
were finally extinguished.    Classification according to damage done shows that 2,171 fires, or
83.8 per cent., were extinguished before the damage done amounted to $100; 9.8 per cent, before
$1,000 damage was done; and 6.4 per cent, of the total did damage over the $1,000 mark.   Again,
64.9 per cent, of the fires, or a total of 1,665, were caught and extinguished by patrol forces
without additional cost. Such figures speak for themselves; and while there is an increase in
the percentage of fires which burned property over those of 1921, it is felt that in view of the
conditions which existed during the past season, credit is due to the field staff, who in spite of the
numerous calls day and night were able to come out of the season as well as these records show. L 44
Department of Lands.
1923
FIRE    CHART.  SEASON    1922.
RAINFALL  1  1 VERTICAL  DIVISION =   MNCH.   FIRES^ 1 VERTICAL  DIVISION - IO FIRES
TEMPERATURES   IVERTICAL   DIVISION = IO DEGREES.
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•<1 13 Geo. 5                                             Forest Branch.                                                        L 45
FIRE    CHART.  SEASON    1922.
RAINFALL I 1 VERTICAL  DIVISION-   1 INCH: FIRES        1 VERTICAL  DIVISION- IO FIRES
TEMPERATURE           1 VERTICAL   DIVISION - IO DEGR EES
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Department of Lands.
1923
FIRE    CHART. SEASON    1922.
RAINFALL 1   1 VERTICAL   DIVISION-   1 INCH.
FIRES/M VERTICAL DIVISION- IO FIRES.
TEMPERATURE/'^ 1 VERTICAL  DIVISION = IO DEGREES.
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Forest Branch.
L 47
FlEES,   1922,   CLASSIFIED BY PLACE OF  OEIGIN   AND   COST  OF FlBE-FIGHTING.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Kamloops  	
Nelson	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver	
Vernon	
Totals	
Per cent....
Totals, 1921
Per cent...
Totals, 1920
Per cent....
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766
1,826
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1,330
415
915
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31.2
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384
867
100.0
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Extinguished without
Cost.
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135
236
231
123
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5.22
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48
Cost Money to
extinguish.
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176
76
135
276
55
926
35.71
439
33.0
646
51.2
cc c
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1.85
6.79
2.93
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2.12
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Total Cost of
fighting Fire.
5 M«
HS.S
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9,484 62
1.9
61,990 34
10.8
21,922 34
4.6
102,307 32
21.3
34,068 84
7.1
88,977 40
18.6
158,378 12
33.1
12,671 87
2.6
479,800 85
100.0
98,476 00
257,126 00
Average Cost
per Fiee.
61 19
222 18
119 79
248 31
110 97
346 21
179.36
79.19
185 17
74.04
205.53
Fires, 1922. classified by Size and Damage.
Total
Fires.
Undrr i Acre.
\ Acre to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
Forest District.
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7.7
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11.7
6.7
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8.6
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77
45
99
175
176
308
50
74.1
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24.6
24.0
57.1
68.4
34.8
31.3
10.9
7.4
4.4
9.5
16.7
16.8
29.5
4.8
115
208
159
316
246
205
774
148
35
16
17
65
25
36
50
9
5
10
7
31
36
16
59
3
Totals	
2,591
100.0
100.0
637
24.6
100.0
909
35.1
436
32.8
100.0
1,045
40.3
100.0
2,171
83.8
253
9.8
167
6.4
Totals, 1921	
1,330
100.0
654
41.6
340
25.6
1,169
88.0
134
10.0
27
2.0
Totals, 1920...   .
1,251
100.0
345
27.6
392
31.3
514
41.1
1,049
83.8
107
8.6
95
7.6
DAMAGE BY FIRE.
The appalling loss by fire this year is shown in the total of almost 729,000,000 feet of timber
killed, of which 117,000,000 feet will be salvaged, causing a net stumpage loss of over $1,500,000.
Other forms of property destroyed amounted to $693,016, of which total, $232,783 was the loss of
logs, shingle-bolts, and other forest products; $127,587 damage to buildings; $217,270 was the
value of railway and logging equipment destroyed; and miscellaneous damage to the extent of
$115,376 was done. The fact that this huge loss of property, largely logging equipment and
property in and around logging operations, again stresses the fact that the hazard in the woods
was unusually high, as the property was destroyed in places where fire-fighting gangs, in the
persons of the logging crews, were instantly available and every known effort was made to
control the situation. L 4S
Department of Lands.
1923
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Forest Branch.
L 49
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1922.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert
Vancouver 	
Vernon 	
Totals
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
33,600
30
60,600
31,230
1,650
106,418
90
$232,783
Buildings.
$   1,250
1,200
375
30,500
6,490
9,890
73,382
5,500
$127,587
Railway and
Logging-
Equipment.
$   5,500
1,000
600
210,270
$217,270
Miscellaneous.
$   3,404
2,070
106
3,370
3,525
4,118
98,658
125
$115,37i
Totals.
$   4,919
42,270
511
94,470
41,245
16,158
487,728
5,715
$693,016
Per Cent,
of
Total.
0.7
6.1
0.07
13.7
5.9
2.4
70.3
0.83
100.00
Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in the Last Seven Years.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
2,591
1,568,585
729,941
117,006
-   $1,531,300
693,016
$2,224,316
1,330
145,838
68,476
39,553
$ 97,332
195,221
$292,553
1,251
389,846
229,253
49,575
$485,963
473,900
$959,863
1,141
433,797
287,520
93,559
$393,183
345,787
$738,970
910
140,085
42,886
22,387
$   26,930
200,335
986
237,289
267,186
48,133
$129,125
162,333
864
161,288
Standing timber destroyed or damaged (M. ft. B.M.) '
Amount salvable (M. ft. B.M.).	
50,415
2,767
$ 48,913
Damage to other forms of property.
26,962
$226,265
$291,467
$75,875
SLASH-BURNING.
The late spring, followed by a hot, dry summer, greatly interfered with the burning of
slash; but in spite of this, 59,396 acres of slash was destroyed by the Department and private
interests, and 103,700 acres of slash was burned over during the course of several fires.
A total of 12,120 permits to burn was issued, compared with 12,730 last year, a decrease
of 610, or 5 per cent.
These figures show that the permit system does not hold up the farmer and prevent land-
clearing, but rather encourages burning at the proper time. The farmer knows that he will not
be allowed to burn should the season become dangerous, and consequently hurries his clearing
at a time when it is safe.
Of the total of 12,120 permits issued, 163, or 1.3 per cent., escaped control, showing that
reasonable care is exercised in regard to these privileges by the field staff and permittees in
regard to granting permits and the privilege so granted. .
L 50
Department of Lands.
1923
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Forest Branch.
L 51
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT.
The enforcement of the law against fire trespass is a matter which is receiving every possible
attention, and wherever there was clearly cause the offenders were prosecuted. One hundred
and thirty-five convictions were recorded during 1922, as against 61 in 1921, while the fines levied
amounted to $2,543, as compared with $1,029 in 1921. In a few cases stiff fines were levied; the
penalty meted out for leaving a camp-fire burning in one instance was $150.
It must be understood that the person who wilfully or carelessly causes a fire is guilty of
an offence and detrimental to the public welfare. The Department has the same obligation in
bringing these offenders to justice as in fighting the fire which results from these actions.
The amendments to the " Forest Act" provide for an increase in the minimum fine for such
offences, and the Forest Branch has every intention of rigorously enforcing these provisions. In
this I believe we have the support of the majority of law-abiding citizens. Thanks is due to the
Provincial and various municipal authorities who co-operated with the Branch during the past
fire season.
■Prosecutions for Fibe Trespass, 1922.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver 	
Vernon 	
Totals	
Totals, 1921 .
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79
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1,029 50
7
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7
FLYING OPERATIONS.
The use of air-craft during the season of 1922 was subjected to a very severe test. The
very smoky condition of the atmosphere, commencing as early as June 1st, restricted their use
by restricting the visibility from the machine. Later on it became difficult and sometimes
dangerous to navigate, owing to the pall of smoke which hung over the whole district.
The results obtained from the use of air-craft in our opinion fully justified the expenditure
incurred, and the uses to which air-craft were put bore out the methods and plans formulated
in conjunction with the Air Board officials.
The mention of air-craft in this district must be coupled with an appreciation of the wonderful personality and work of Major O. McLaurin, who was in charge of the Air Station at Jericho
Beach, and who gave his life towards the end of the season in the cause of flying. To Major
McLaurin's personal efforts can be attributed a great measure of the success which was obtained.
He personally did a great deal of the flying for fire-protection work, and his experience and
wonderful sense of direction was called on many times to overcome difficulties which few others
would have faced. He was on the job twenty-four hours in the day, and on more than one
occasion he got out of his machine and helped fight fires of his own free will,-to make things
a success. In spite of the handicap of obsolete types of machines and of flying operations many
miles from his base, he rendered a service to the cause of forest-protection in this district that
will not be forgotten.
An appreciation is also due to the staff of the Jericho Air Station for the excellent co-operation rendered the Forest Service throughout the trying period of the 1922 fire season.
The plans for 1922 proposed the use of air-craft principally on: (1) Supervision of fire-
fighting; (2) transportation of fire-fighters and equipment; (3) general supervision of a field
staff spread over 22,000,000 acres; (4) fire-detection. L 52 Department of Lands. 1923
Possibly the most outstanding feat of the season was the transporting of fire-fighters to
Buttle Lake in the centre of Vancouver Island. This fire was reported on July 2Sth. To get
into this lake with a crew of men would have required a two-day trip and construction of about
14 miles of trail over a difficult country. By the time the crew arrived in all probability the fire
would have been of such a size that it would have been impossible to have taken in sufficient
additional men to have fought it. The big machine and emergency fire-fighting equipment were
wired for. The equipment consisted of a portable pump and set of tools. These were loaded
together with 1,200 feet of hose, a sixteen-man tent, six shovels, six mattocks, six axes, camp
outfit, and provisions for six men for two weeks. Four fire-fighters were carried also, in addition
to the crew of the machine. The total load on this trip was 4,895 lb. Visibility was very poor,
but the machine rose to the height of 1,000 feet and hit across Vancouver Island in the direction
of Buttle Lake. The route following the Campbell River to Campbell Lake was taken, crossing
the Campbell River fire; then following the Elk River and landing in Buttle Lake about fifty-
four minutes from Campbell River. Equipment and personnel were put ashore at the fire in
collapsible boats. The machine then returned to Campbell River and picked up three more
fire-fighters and took them in to the fire. The fire-fighters were landed at 4 in the afternoon,
fought fire all night, surrounded the fire with a fire-trench, and got the pump into action. The
fire was practically under control in the morning. The crew were left on the fire for two more
days, and on the fourth day the machine wrent in and took out the crew and equipment. The
gasolene taken in for the portable pump was used as extra fuel and one man was left to patrol
the fire.
The total flying-time for the seascn of 1922 was 105 hours 51 minutes. One hundred and
ninety-seven passengers wore transported, a total of 6,606 miles.
WIRELESS TELEPHONE.
The hazardous season is reflected no less in the record of the Department's wireless telephone
service than in the other tables compiled. For instance, during the month of July a total of
1,150 messages were transmitted, containing 51,000 words. During the year a total of 4,690
messages were transmitted (which number does not include the necessary relays), or a total of
177,266 words. With the growing use of the wireless telephone it is expected that improvements
will be made, especially in the smaller or portable sets, which will greatly extend the usefulness
of this aerial communication.
EQUIPMENT.
The standardization of mechanical equipment has proceeded with satisfactory results, ■ as
borne out by the saving in time in obtaining and applying spare parts at less cost and increasing
the efficiency thereby.
Two standard types of launch have heen evolved and adopted, and in each type the whole
equipment is standard, from the lines of the hull to the cooking-utensils. Parts of engines or
equipment are thus interchangeable between the launches of each type and between the types.
These are showing a great improvement in efficiency and economy of operation over previous
years' transportation costs. Motor-cars used are two-seater Ford cars, with a standard Forest
Branch delivery-box attached, capable of carrying a load up to 800 lb. The parts for these are
readily obtained in all parts of the Province. Standard types of pumps are in use, and the
equipment and parts of the several forest fire-fighting units are identical with one another.    .
The number of launches maintained on the Coast, amounting to twenty-seven out of a total
of forty-two, were kept in running-order mainly by the Department's repair station at Thurston
Bay, Sonora Island, and in addition to the ordinary repair-work several launches were entirely
rebuilt. The station machine-shop also kept forty forest-fire pumps in working-order, and considerable repair-work was carried out with the utmost efficiency and the least loss of time.
During the fire season forty-two launches covered a total of 103,711 miles, or an average of
2,593 miles per launch.
The fifty-one cars used by the Department covered a total of 271,203 miles, or an average
of 5,317.7 miles per car in the same period. Thirteen Forest Branch railway speeders ran a
distance of 39,528 miles, averaging 3,040.6 miles each. The total distance covered for six months
(April to September, inclusive) for all transportation units above mentioned was 414,542 miles.
Pump-hours run were 4,932, which means that the amount of water pumped on fires amounted
to  (at 30 gallons per minute)  8,877,600 gallons, 44,388 tons.    The service given by these units 13 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. L 53
was uniformly good, and instances abound showing where the use of these pumps saved valuable
property and timber.
Fire-fighting equipment was kept up to strength; the only departure this year was the use
of portable hand-power tank pumps holding 5 gallons of water, which proved to be extraordinarily
useful in extinguishing spot and smudge fires.
IMPROVEMENTS AND MAINTENANCE, 1922.
The following amounts, were spent on improvements and maintenance, by districts:—
Cariboo.
Improvements—
Launch " Poplar "      $     606 00
One Ford car  764 00
One outboard motor  175 00
$ 1,545 00
Cranbrook.
Improvements—
Two Ford cars   $ 1,411 00
One fire-fighting pump and equipment  900 00
Bridge Creek Trail   107 00
Lizard Patrol Station   73 00
Inlet Creek Trail   164 00
9-Mile Lake Ranger Station   77 00
Wigwam River Trail  300 00
McQuarrie Creek Trail  125 00
Bugaboo River Trail   120 00
Camp-sites  73 00
$ 3,350 00
Maintenance— 	
Bridge Creek Trail  $     128 00
Casey Mountain Telephone Line   34 00
•     Elk Valley Telephone Line  70 00
Baker River Trail   120 00
Elk River Valley Trail   350 00
Flathead Valley Trail  270 00
Kootenay River Trail   220 00
Bugaboo River Trail  120 00
$ 1,312 00
Kamloops.
Improvements—
One Ford car  $    717 00
One fire-fighting pump and equipment  706 00
Two hand-pumps   •  28 00
One rowboat for Humamilt Lake  99 00
Clearwater-Blue River Trail    39 00
Bear Creek Ranger Station Cabin  244 00
New engine for launch " Aspen "   785 00
$ 2,618 00
Maintenance— • 	
Clearwater-Blue River Trail   $      14 00
Pyramid Trail  28 00
Adams-Seymour River Arm Trail  27 00
Carried forward   $      69 00 L 54 Department of Lands. 1923
Kamloops—-Continued.
Brought forward    $      69 00
Maintenance—Continued.
Albas-Humamilt Lake     4 00
Main Seymour River Trail   27 00
Main Columbia River Trail  4 00
Canoe River Trail   ,  124 00
Barriere-Adams Lake Trail  11 00
Birch Island Telephone Line  9 00
Big Bend Telephone Line  21 00
Seymour River Ferry   29 00
$    298 00
Improvements— Nelson.
Two Ford cars  $ 1,445 00
One fire-fighting pump and equipment   747 00
Five hand-pumps  70 00
One gasolene-speeder  512 00
One launch (" Juniper ") and boat-house "  300 00
Duncan River Crossing at Boulder   137 00
$ 3,211 00
Maintenance— ■	
Duncan River Crossing No. 2   $      94 00
Lardeau Trail   79 00
Hamil Creek Trail  ,  109 00
Duncan River Trail  63 00
Lardeau Telephone Line   30 00
Davis Creek Trail   13 00
Fry Creek Trail   9 00
Hooker Creek Trail   68 00
Gray Creek Trail    96 00
Grizzly Creek Trail   84 00
Green Mountain Trail  4 00
Black Rock Trail   24 00
West Fork Trail   84 00
Big Slide Trail  12 00
Rest Creek Trail  8 00
Hilltop Creek Trail   32 00
$    809 00
Prince George.
Improvements—■
Two outboard motors   $    255 00
One hand-speeder   177 00
$    432 00
Maintenance— 	
Hose for fire-fighting pump    $      81 00
Prince Rupert.
Improvements—
One Ford car  $    730 00
Four outboard motors  606 00
One hand-speeder   93 00
$ 1,429 00 13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 55
Prince Rupert—Continued.
Maintenance—
Smithers garage  $      38 00
Vancouver.
Improvements—
Six Wonder pumps  $ 2,850 00
One Wonder gear-pump    75 00
Hose, discharge, suction, and fastenings  3,686 56
Miscellaneous equipment, fire-fighting   212 80
Four new launches—
" Balsam "     2,794 05
" Cherry "    2,787 82
" Cottonwood"     5,123 31
" Yew "     250 00
One Elto outboard motor  175 55
Six new cars   4,345 90
Garage lean-to, Victoria   10 00
Two dinghies  83 86
" Alanbee " wireless  244 50
One rowboat  74 50
Chemainus Trail  381 75
" Cottonwood " wireless   :  542 47
Elk Trail  100 00
Mooring, " W. Hemlock "   20 30
Various Island trails  8 29
$23,766 66
Maintenance— 	
Wellbore Ranger Station  $      29 80
Thurston Bay Station  56 06
Myrtle Point Station   63 57
Pitt River Cabin  60
Cowichan Lake Boat-house  1 20
Lynn Creek Cabin   3 30
Squamish Ranger Station   108 60
Heriot Bay-Roy Line  31 32
Myrtle Point Telephone Line  96 12
Thurston Bay Float  37 14
Repairing tools   296 26
Thurston Bay chimneys   96 31
Myrtle Point House repairs    115 61
$    935 89
Vernon.
Improvements—
Two Ford cars   , ■  ¥ L494 00
One fire-fighting pump and equipment   695 OO
Two rowboats    207 00
One outboard motor  175 00
$ 2,571 00
Maintenance—
B.X. Telephone Line   $        9 00 L 56 Department of Lands.
GRAZING.
The grazing season of 1922 opened with the live stock in fair condition and the forage on
the ranges making a good growth. As the season advanced, however, very dry conditions were
experienced, which prevailed throughout the entire season, very little or no rain falling from
April to about the end of September. The result was a shortage of feed on the overgrazed areas
of low range, the early drying-up of water, and a general shortage in the growth of hay-crops
in many sections of the country. As a result of this shortage of crops the stockmen of the
Nicola District, where dry conditions were particularly bad, petitioned both the Provincial and
the Dominion Governments to secure low rates on shipments of hay from outside points in order
that the stockmen might profitably ship in supplies needed for winter feed. Fortunately, however,
the September rains started a good growth of grass, both on the range and in pastures, and the
mild weather which has prevailed generally throughout the Province up to the first week of
December will carry the cattle a long way into the winter on the open range and pastures, and
it is hoped that the supplies of hay, even though short in some sections, will be sufficient to
bring the cattle through the winter in good condition.
Prices for Beef Cattle.
The average prices paid for prime steers and best feeders on the Western Canadian markets
during the past year were around $6.70 and $4.80 per 100 lb. respectively. While these prices
are not far below the general average of pre-war prices, they are profit-bearing even though
production costs are still high.
The great majority of heef animals raised on the range are of mediocre quality and generally
reach market in only fair condition and take their place in the " lower grades." They are so
numerous that they cut down the average in price, the result being that animals which might
be profit-bearing are required to pay the loss incurred in raising and marketing the profitless
ones.
Inattention to the cattle while on the open range renders it impossible for the average range
stockman to evenly distribute his beef over the market during the summer months. The market
is glutted with low-conditioned animals after the general fall beef ride and the effect on the
prices is demoralizing.
The production of inferior stuff that is difficult to sell at anything like satisfactory prices is
actually overproduction on the part of the rancher, even though he has a surplus of range and
hay crops for winter feeding. There is an eager market for the high-grade animal, but it is
only through unremitting attention to the cattle on the range and. to the protection of the range
itself that the range stockman can reach this market. It will not pay to raise beef unless it is
of high quality. There are so many leaks in the handling, or rather lack of handling cattle on
the open range that any prices received which appproximate the average of present and pre-war
prices for the medium or lower grades will hardly pay expenses. The stopping of the leaks will,
however, mean the equivalent of at least a 50-per-cent. increase in revenue, producing a satisfactory profit.
Sheep Production.
The production of sheep is not being given the attention it should. There is a splendid
opportunity for every rancher to augment his profits and benefit his ranch by keeping a small
farm flock. The surplus of farm flocks may be banded together and grazed as community flocks
in charge of herders during the summer months. Some of the finest sheep-range in the West
is to be obtained in British Columbia. Many cattlemen are talking of changing from cattle to
sheep.   This is not advised unless they are familiar with the range-sheep business.
Organization.
A great deal of the time of the Grazing Office force has been taken up in the organization-
work among the stockmen. The Assistant Commissioner of Grazing spent the fore part of the
season in Nelson and Vernon Districts and brought about the organization of the following
associations: The Grand Forks Association, Grand Forks; the Stock-breeders' Association of
Greenwood Riding, Rock Creek;   White Lake Association, White Lake.
Three other associations were organized—the Big Bar Association at Jesmond, the 4-Mile
Association at Penticton, and the Riske Creek Stock-breeders' Association.   The Fraser Lake 13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 57
range-users and the Barrett Lake range-users are also organizing for range management and
development work.
The ultimate aim of the organization of stockmen was covered very fully in my report for
1921. An important phase of this corporation work, however, is that it deals with the improvement of the ranges. It is advisable, in order that the best results may be secured, to arrange
for consultation with Advisory Boards of the Stock Associations regarding all range-improvement
work undertaken. It is very difficult to do this where large associations operate; that is to
say, where these associations have jurisdiction over a large area of range, such as the Lillooet
Stock-raisers' Association with jurisdiction over the range within the Lillooet Electoral District,
and the Nicola Association with jurisdiction over the range commonly known as the Nicola
District. It has been very difficult to secure a proper representation of range-users at the
meetings of these large associations, and in consequence the discussion of work proposed for
portions of various districts has not always resulted in satisfactory suggestions regarding the
work. The reason for this was that the people most vitally affected by the proposed improvements would probably not be in attendance at the meetings, often on account of the distance
which they were required to travel. These large districts are, however, being split up into
smaller units, and range committees selected for each unit for the primary purpose of discussing
with the Department the range improvements proposed for each unit of range. This work is well
under way and in a very short time I hope to have every distinct unit of range in each grazing
district properly represented by a range-improvement committee.
Range Improvements.
Much progress has been made in the range-improvement work. The attention of the stockmen, individually and collectively, has been called to the importance of the work by correspondence and at meetings, yet it has in some sections been very difficult to secure their co-operation.
Dangerous mud-holes on the range take a very heavy toll annually from the herds turned out
to graze. The worst of these dangerous places are generally known to the stockmen or their
employees. Although each individual user of the Crown range has been written asking for
information regarding any needed range improvements, no response at all from some localities
has been received. As far as it has been possible for this office to do so, the location of dangerous
mud-holes and other necessary improvements have been ascertained by field investigation. The
apathy of the stockmen may be due to the fact that many do not seem to fully realize that a
fund is available each year for improving the ranges used by their stock.
This condition is gradually being changed, however, and I am very confident that the close
of 1924 will see all units of the main grazing districts co-operating with the Government in its
efforts to improve the ranges for the benefit of the live-stock interests.
The following is a record of improvement-work completed to November 30th, 1922, that
completed or under way, but not paid for, and of projects authorized and planned to begin at
once, or as early as possible in the season of 1923:—
Receipts.
1920. Sum equal to one-third of 1919 grazing fees collected $3,398 00
1921. Sum equal to one-third of 1920 grazing fees collected    5,314 89
1922. Sum equal to one-third of 1921 grazing fees collected
to November 30th     3,602 38
 $12,315 27
Expenditures.
Drift-fences   $4,501 00
Mud-holes    ,  1,268 49
Trails     594 50
Spring development  97 50
Grasshopper-control     328 22
Reseeding  91 80
Salt demonstration  ■■  31 00
      6,912 51
By Balance, November 30th, 1922  $ 5,402 76 L 58
Department of Lands.
1923
Detailed List of Range Improvements completed to November 30th, 1922.
Date.
Nov. 24, 1920	
June 18,1921	
April   8,1922	
Oct.  30,   ,	
ii    30,   ii    	
Dec.  21, 1920	
July  14,1921	
Dec.   9    ii
June 13, 1922!!!!.
July 20,   ■	
11    31,   11    	
May  17, 1921	
Nov.   1,   1	
Oct.   31,1922	
June 18,1921	
May 17,   it    	
Oct.   14,   11    	
11    14,   11    	
May,       1922	
Sept. 30,   11   	
Total exp
District.
Cranbrook	
Vernon	
it        	
11        	
Kamloops	
Vernon	
Cariboo	
11      	
it      	
Vernon	
Cariboo	
Vernon	
Prince Rupert	
Kamloops	
enditures to Novem
Kind of Improvement.
Drift-fence .
Mud-hole	
Mud-holes (2).
(3).
(2).
(1).
(1).
Trail..
Spring; development.
Grasshopper-control.
Artificial reseeding-...
Salting demonstration .
ber 30th, 1922	
Creston Valley Stock Range..
Lundbum Common	
Allen Grove    :...
Crater Mountain   	
Armstrong	
Heffley Range	
Nicola Range, Green Lake .
Lac la Hache	
Restone 	
Big Bar Range	
Churn Creek, Big Bar Basin.
Baynes Pass	
Crater Mountain	
Nicola Lundbum Common.
Riske Creek Range	
Lillooet Stock-range	
Lower Nicola Range....
Barrett Lake Range	
Heffley Stock Range.
Cost.
$   200 00
4,101 00
49 50
70 00
80 00
63 00
221 25
223 85
50 00
175 00
535 39
$
259 50
175 00
150 00
$
20 95
48 95
21 90
$4,501 00
1,268 49
594 50
97 50
328 22
91 80
31 00
$6,902 57
Projects completed but not yet paid for, pending Inspection Reports.
Date.
District
Kind of Improvement.
Name.
Estimated Cost.
May, 1922 ....	
Fennell.. $150 00
11            50 00
$200 00
125 00
Aug,    ii    	
Projects authorized for 1922, Progress not yet reported.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook...
Vernon 	
n       	
Cariboo	
Cranbrook...
Vernon 	
n       	
Total
Kind of Improvement.
Drift-fence	
Drift-fence (corral).
Trail	
Spring development..
Baker Range	
Cranbrook Range. 	
4-Mile Range	
Green Lake Range, Nicola.
Allen Grove Range	
Lac la Hache, 141-Mile	
Waldo Range.	
Vavenby Range 	
Allen Grove (5 springs)	
Estimated  Cost.
$   100 00
25 00
40 00
300 00
165 00
75 00
100 00
200 00
125 00
$1,130 00
Projects listed to Date for Execution during 1928,
District.
Vernon..
Cariboo..
Total.
Kind of Improvement.
Drift-fence..
Mud-holes,.
Name.
Allen Grove, Keremeos Range....
Canoe Creek Range (5)	
Dog Creek-Pigeon Range (4),...
Alkali Lake (3)	
Bowe ,
39-Mile Reservation	
Gang Ranch	
Lac la Hache Range	
(2)	
St. Peter's Spring, Alkali Range..
Estimated Cost.
$    76 00
575 00
285 00
175 00
200 00
300 OO
46 00
75 00
40 00
25 00
$2,840 00 13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 59
Land Reservations.
Area. Purpose.
E. % Sec. 8, Tp. 14, Lillooet District )
W. % Sec. 9, Tp. 14, Lillooet District } Watering-place
Lot 1687, Lillooet District 	
S.E. Yi Sec. 23, Tp. 78, Lillooet District  Control bad mud-hole.
Area near 'Williams Lake, Cariboo District, shipping-point Beef holding-ground.
59-Mile, temporary, pending detailed examination, Lillooet
District (this examination is now made)  „ „
Springhouse Stock-range, Lillooet District   Spring and fall range.
Big Bar Stock-range   ,, ,,
Lot 1706, Kamloops District  Water.
Coutleau Plateau, temporary, Kamloops District    Spring and fall range.
Lot 4502, Green Lake Range, Kamloops District  „ „
Water Resekvations,
Area. Purpose.
St. Peter's Spring, Alkali Lake Range, Lillooet  Water for stock.
Eleven springs, Big Bar Range, Lillooet, listed June 14th,
1922, File 038883	
Small stream on holding-ground at Williams Lake  „
Spring on Lot 1687, Lillooet District  „
China Gulch Spring, Lillooet District  „
Water on Lot 1706, Kamloops District  „
Water on Lot 1398, Kamloops District  .,
Water on Lot 3902, Kamloops District  „
Water on Lot 4066, Kamloops District  „
Water on Lot 2118 (S.), Yale District	
Btjbning and Reseeding on the Ceown Ranges.
No range-burning work was undertaken during the past season. It is believed that the
experiments now under way at Lower Nicola in the Vernon District and Alberta Lake in the
Lillooet District will be sufficient for the time being, in that they will give ample figures in the
course of time to show results following the effect of burning on the grazing ranges. The
experiments were under observation during the past season, but, of course, it is too early to
give any definite information without figures.
No further reseeding was undertaken during the past season. Fifty pounds of seed was,
however, shipped to the ranges of the Barrett Lake District for experimental work there.
A definite plan for reseeding experiments has been arranged for with Mr. Barrett, of Barrett
Lake, and it is hoped to find some hardy grass that will be suitable for these ranges for use
in finishing off range beef. Observations at the experimental ranges at Lower Nicola and Alberta
Lake showed no results in the early part of the year, apparently on account of the dry conditions
prevailing. The Alberta Lake area was examined on October 10th, a few weeks after the first
heavy rainfall in September, and showed a surprising growth of the grasses and clovers sown,
with the exception of sweet clover. Fescue in particular showed a surprising growth, and there
was every indication that the white or Dutch clover will establish itself. A portion of this area
was fenced at the time the experiment was established in order that areas entirely protected
from grazing, as well as areas on the outside range, could be closely observed and figures obtained
regarding the growth on protected areas as well as on areas subject to heavy grazing. It was
well that this fencing was done, for the examination of the range made in October showed that
the cattle were congregating very heavily around the experimental plot and had kept the cultivated plants sown outside of the fenced plot cut down very closely; in fact, they seemed to
neglect the native forage so long as they could obtain the cultivated species. It is quite possible
that this heavy grazing outside of the fence will prevent the cultivated grasses and clovers from
establishing a root system, with the result that they are very apt to weaken and die. This
indicates that wherever any seeding is done on the range with cultivated species, protection
during the growing months, or from April to August, must be given the plants if benefit is to L 60
Department of Lands.
1923
be derived from expenditures in reseeding ranges. It will be impossible to think of building
drift-fences all over the range for this purpose for many years to come; consequently the only
way in which this protection can be given is through the organization of the stockmen and the
introduction by them of proper control measures. This could be brought about by the employment of herders and the distribution of salt in such a way that the stock will be compelled to
graze on the different divisions of each unit of range, in accordance with the grazing plan
formulated to bring about the protection of reseeded areas.
Geasshopper-contbol.
On April 1st of the past season E. R. Buckell, of the Department of Agriculture, was
assigned to the Nicola District with the view of studying the damage resulting from the grasshoppers in that locality and devising means whereby they could be controlled. Mr. Buckell was
in charge of the work on the Riske Creek Range during 1920 and 1921, and is in consequence
well qualified for the work. I have not yet received a copy of his report, but have discussed
the situation with him, and understand that the Nicola Range is infested with varieties which
may be easily controlled by poisoning. The difficulties in the way of doing effective work are
the extent of the area and the limited means at his disposal. He secured good co-operation from
the stockmen and ranchers of the vicinity, and, I believe, is prepared to make definite recommendations to his Department in reference to the control of grasshoppers on the Nicola as well as
on other ranges where the damage they do is particularly severe.
Diseases or Live Stock.
The stockmen of British Columbia are very fortunate in being very free from losses of stock
on the ranges due to diseases or poisonous plants. The investigations of this office show that
possibly the greatest losses occur in mud-holes, which are very prevalent in some portions of the
grazing districts. These, however, are being located and fenced with all possible speed. An
examination of the ranges has disclosed very few poisonous plants growing in such quantities
that they are at all dangerous to stock. The most dangerous plants on the range are water-
hemlock, larkspur, and death-camas. Death-eamas is not very prevalent except on some portions
of the range close to the International Boundary, and is not at all dangerous unless the stock
have been confined and are very hungry when turned on to the range. The month of May is
the most dangerous period. The giant larkspur, which poisons cattle and horses, but not sheep,
has never been discovered in sufficient quantities in the general grazing districts to be injurious.
Water-hemlock seems to be dangerous only during the dry seasons, when the small lakes and
water-holes become so dry that the roots are exposed.
Stockmen have been complaining of sickness and death among their cattle, due to eating
forage growing within the timber, which they claim is not palatable and dangerous at various
periods of the season. A close examination of the ranges has failed to disclose any forage of a
dangerous nature, outside of a few plants which may be classed as poisonous, or plants that
would cause the condition or symptoms described in sick cattle. The symptoms prevalent among
sick cattle show conclusively that sickness is due entirely to an insufficient supply of proper
salts in the food. Very little of the forage growing on the ranges in the West furnish sufficient
salts for the cattle growing on these ranges. This is particularly true in the case of the eow with
the growing calf, and ewes with lambs. Experiments carried on by various Governments and
experimental stations have proven conclusively that live stock needs a certain quantity of good
salt each day. On the ordinary ranges of the West this quantity should be at the rate of about
1 lb. per head per month. If the stock does not get this salt it will naturally seek licks furnishing salts in different forms, which are usually very injurious and lead to indigestion and the
general breakdown in the health of the stock on the range.
The failure to provide the proper salt and distribute it at the right places over the range
results in a heavy loss to the stockmen. Without this salt the cattle congregate at areas where
they can secure alkali or other salts. These areas are generally on or in the vicinity of the
spring and fall range, but growth of forage on these ranges is retarded and the ranges are so
seriously overgrazed that the growth of the stock is further prevented. The ranges are damaged
so that there is generally very little forage available for fall use, which means that the stock
are forced into the feeding-yards from three weeks to a month before they should be taken there. —I
13 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
L 61
Mismanagement of this kind results in a heavy all-round loss, which could easily be averted by
intelligent organization in range-management work.
Tbespass.
The Grazing Office has found it necessary to take action against certain persistent trespassers
who fail to take out grazing permits for the use of the range, thereby taking from their neighbours range allotted to the regular permittees and appropriating to themselves the benefit of
range improvements constructed for the authorized users of the range.'
The following cases were tried during the past season: C. Kostering, Cariboo District;
W. Grinder, Cariboo District;   A. Doyle, Cranbrook District.
Evidence for use in the prosecution of other trespassers has been collected and is being
placed in the hands of the legal department for action. W'hile it is essential that the regular
users of the range be protected, it is hoped that the trespass regulation will not have to be
evoked by this office for the purpose of compelling those who insist on using the range without
permit, to the detriment of the regular grazing permittee, to deal fairly with their neighbours
and also apply for and secure grazing permits.
WORK DONE BX FOREST BRANCH DRAUGHTING OFFICE.
During the past twelve months the staff of the Draughting Office has been engaged in not
only preparing the general routine plans, but in compiling data for reconnaissances undertaken
last year. Considerable work is entailed in this respect, as all possible information that could
be of use to the cruising parties, such as bearing trees, must be given by the draughtsmen.
The main routine work has consisted of the preparation of plans for timber-sales, timber-
marks, examination sketches, and hand-logger licences. In addition, numerous sketches for
various purposes were made, most of them requiring bearing trees.
Also a large number of reference maps were blue-printed from time to time, and portions
of maps. Every office in the different forest districts was kept supplied with blue-prints of
reference maps, and a special effort was made to furnish the district offices with copies of every
new map, prepared by the Surveyor-General's Branch, directly the map was available. The
number of reference maps (including portions of maps) that were blue-printed for the Forest
Branch was 575, and the number of plans prepared for blue-printing amounted to 2,136; from
these 10,400 prints were made.
All atlas and operation maps have been kept up to date; this has necessitated the preparation of several new ones and a constant revision of those in use.
Number of Tracings made.
Blue-prints
Month.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Hand-logger
Licences.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
S.G. Ref.
Maps.
19
15
21
8
9
17
11
16
20
17
48
33
58
115
97
43
70
78
47
55
56
76
80
91
866
34
43
43
43
67
34
33
60
39
36
65
35
11
12
29
47
35
13
40
22
24
24
10
9
18
11
22
9
44
34
6
4
21
40
11
8
140
196
212
150
225
176
137
157
160
193
214
176
104
11
35
19
28
July	
141
6
23
20
10
39
140
234
532
276
228
2,136
575
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Williaji H. Citllin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1923.

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