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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. T. D. PATTULLO,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1924]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
BEPORT
THE FOEEST BEANCH
OF  THE
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON". T. D. PATTULLO, Minister
P. Z. Cavebhill,  Chief' Forester
FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31ST
1923
PRINTED   Bi'
AUTHORITY op the legislative assembly.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excell'-ot Majesty
1924.  Victoria, B.C., April 29th, 1924.
To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honoftr :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Eeport of the Forest Branch
of the Department of Lands for the year 1923.
T. D. PATTULLO,
Minister of Lands. The Hon. T. D. Pattnllo,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Bm,—There are submitted herewith statistical tables with a brief comment
thereon, covering the main activities of the Branch during the calendar year 1923.
P. Z. CAVEEHILL,
Chief Forester. REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Two outstanding events have to be reported for the year 1923; they are: The visit of the
delegates to the second British Empire Forestry Conference to British Columbia; the rapid
development in almost all branches of forest exploitation through the Province.
THE BRITISH EMPIRE FORESTRY CONFERENCE.
Major-General Lord Lovat and his confreres giving such an extended time ta study of the
Canadian forest possibilities and the forestry problems, gives us another indication of the
importance to the Empire of an assured wood-supply. Conifers, or soft woods, as they are known
in the trade, are the great structural woods. Canada has the one large source of supply within
the Empire. British Columbia's position is indicated by the figures brought out aft the Conference ; she is accredited with 40 per cent, of the total stand of soft woods and 79 per cent,
of the stand suitable for sawlogs in Canada.
Three of the resolutions of the Conference are of especial interest as directly applicable to
forest conditions here.    They are:—
(1.) "Believing them to be well founded, this Conference reaffirms Resolutions 1, 2, and 3
of the 1920 Conference, which emphasize the great importance of each part of the Empire laying
down a definite forest policy, surveying its resources of timber, and ensuring that certain
elements of stability are secured in the constitution of forest policy. These resolutions are as
follows:—
" ' 1. Forest Policy.—In view of the great importance to the Empire as a whole, as well as
to each of its component parts, of producing a sustained yield of all classes of timber, of
encouraging the most economical utilization of timber and other forest products, and of maintaining and improving climatic conditions in the interests of agriculture and water-supply, each
of the Governments of the Empire should lay down a definite forest policy to be administered
by a properly constituted and adequate forest service.
" ' 2. Survey, of Resources.—Tbe foundation of a stable forest policy for the Empire and
for its component parts must be the collection, co-ordination, and dissemination of facts as to
the existing state of the forests and the current and prospective demands on them.
" ' A note descriptive of the survey which is desired is appended in Appendix A.
" ' 3. Constitution and Status.—In order to attain continuity in the development of forest
resources, it is desirable that certain elements of stability be secured in the constitution of the
forest policy.    This may be done by the following measures:—
"'(1.) The definition   (where this has not been done already)   of forest policy  in a
Forestry Act or Ordinance.
"'(2.)  The reservation for the purpose of economic management and development of
forest  land under  conditions   which  prevent  the  alienation  of  any  which  is
primarily suitable for forests except for reasons consistent with the maintenance
of the forest policy as a whole.
" '(3.)  The assurance to the forest authority of funds sufficient to carry out the accepted
policy for a series of years.
"'(4.) The grant to members of the forestry service of the status of civil servants,
with due provision for pension.
" '(5.) The appointment as the chief officers of the forestry service of persons having a
high standard of training in forestry, their selection and promotion being by
merit alone.
" '(6.) The establishment in each of the larger parts of the Empire, and for the colonies
not possessing responsible Government collectively, of an officer or officers having
special duties of advising as to forest policy and surveying its execution.' " E 6
Department op Lands.
1924
(2.) Forest-fire Protection, Canada.—"The widespread damage to timber, property, and life
resulting from uncontrolled forest fires is a menace to the economic well-being of the British
Empire, and constitutes the greatest single deterrent to the practice of forest-management. The
Conference endorses the report of its Forest Fire Protection Committee,* believing that the
forest-fire problem, though difficult, is capable of solution if the forest authorities receive full
public support and the requisite assistance from the Governments."
(3.) Silviculture in Canada.—"In view of the disastrous effects of fires, insects, and fungi
upon the supplies of standing timber, and of the results of the existing logging methods in
impoverishing the forests of their valuable species and in impairing their regeneration, this
Conference strongly recommends the application of more effective silvicultural methods to the
Canadian forests and commends the report of the Committee on Silviculture* to the earnest
consideration of the Dominion and Provincial Governments and of the timber industry."
The objective set in these resolutions has been the aim of the Forest Branch and many of
the requirements have already been met. Further public support in forest-protection to eliminate
the man-caused fires, which still account for 80 or 90 per cent, of the total, is needed. Much work
also has to be done in laying the foundation for close utilization and for the institution of the
practice of silviculture. Limited work has been done on these1 problems during the past year
and future plans call for the extension of this through the organization of Forest Experimental
Stations where concentrated effort can be made on the many problems involved. The expansion
of the industry shows that the time is rapidly approaching when economic barriers to the above
needs will be removed, and the growing of a succession of timber-crops on those areas of the
Province incapable of tillage will be accepted by all as the only justifiable policy, even at the
expenditure of considerable additional sums in securing reproduction and in protecting it until
maturity and the final harvest.
EXPANSION OF INDUSTRY.
The cut of wood products has reached the equivalent of 2,500,000,000 board-feet, or 25 per
cent, greater than the boom-year of 1920. In water-borne trade, paper produced, number of firms
operating, timber-sales executed by the Forest Branch, and in revenue collected new records were
made, details of which will be found in subsequent sections of the report.
This development does not appear to be any mushroom growth induced by high prices such
as occurred in 1920. The prices received were only slightly over those prevailing in 1022. The
better organization for foreign trade, the lessening of competition from hard pine, the gradual
conversion of the Eastern Provinces from lumber to pulp production is giving British Columbia
products a place in markets whose demands are reasonably constant and where a safe margin
of business is assured. Upon the return of prosperity to the Prairie sections, the development
of the Pacific Coast route for wheat, with the closer business relations resulting therefrom, still
greater production in lumber may be looked for.
The value of the industry rose 45 per cent., with a total income to the Province of more
than $86,000,000. This income is derived from various sources of manufacture and use as
shown in the following table:—
Estimated Value of Production.
Lumber	
Pulp and paper.
Shingles	
Boxes.
Piles, poles, and mine-props	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties 	
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the wood-using industry .
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
Logs exported    	
Totals
1920.
846,952,500
21,611,681
12,081,476
2,650,000
1,543,087
1,495,729
2,250,682
2,580,000
847,920
615,732
892,628,807
333,633,000
13,500,000
7,032,0(10
2,000,000
1,479,000
1,180,000
2,314,000
2,034,000
250,000
1,648,000
864,970,000
826,400,000
12,590,000
9,760,000
1,726,000
959,000
1,187,000
1.526,000
2,000,000
400,000
2,939,000
859,477,000
1923.
847
15
9
2.
1.
1.
600,000
018,000
869,000
072,000
200,000
500,0"0
715,000
000,000
500,000
200,000
4,;
S86,674,000
! See Appendix. 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 7
PULP AND PAPER.
The demand for pulp and paper products has remained strong. Production of newsprint and
sulphite both show a considerable advance over last year and constitute new records for the
Province. In newsprint the increase is 14 per cent, over the previous year, 5 per cent, over the
peak of 1920. In sulphite the increase is 15 per cent, over the previous year, or 8 per cent,
over 1920.
Pulp and Paper.
Pulp.
Sulphite	
Sulphate	
Ground wood
1919.
1920.
1921.
Tons.
68,502
6,519
89,725
1922.
Tons.
80,347
9,473
99,769
Tons.
92.299
16,380
108,665
Tons.
86,894
9,674
100,759
Tons.
99,878
9,932
107,266
The ground wood and some 40,000 tons of sulphite were manufactured direct into newsprint within the Province. The sulphate was also manufactured into paper, the product being:—
Product.
Newsprint...
Other papers.
1919.
1920.
1921.
Tons.
123,607
7,202
Tons.
136,832
9,792
Tons.
110,176
6,934
Tons.
124,639
7,946
142,928
7,709
WATER-BORNE TRADE.
The growth in water-borne trade in sawn lumber products has been most remarkable during
the year just passed, reaching 5-21,707 M. feet B.M., as compared with 273,146 M. feet in 1922,
an increase of 91 per cent, in the year. This business is now ten times the quantity shipped in
1917. A more vital change, however, has been in the character of material shipped. Previously
this grade took the higher grades, leaving the lower as a drug on the market. This has now
been changed and the business for the past year has absorbed practically average mill-run.
It is of interest to note the markets that are absorbing British Columbia lumber products.
The United States market, 248,611 M. feet, an increase of 200 per cent, over the previous year
and 4,800 per cent, over this trade in 1919. The trade with Japan reached 105,961 M. feet, an
increase of 45 per cent., or 2,500 per cent, over 1919. Australia shows an increase of 40 per
cent., or SOO per cent, in the past five years. Great Britain and Continent only took 16,201 M.
feet, the highest figure in three years, but a reduction of 400 per cent, from post-war trade.
Conspicuous increases are also recorded for New Zealand, China, South Africa, Philippines,
and South Sea Islands. Large quantities of British Columbia boxes are also shipped to New
Zealand, Australia, and Straits Settlements.
Water-borne Lumber Trade, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, and 1923.
Destination.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
FeetB.M.
8,516,600
*      l,'5ol,574
17,183,430
4,675,730
65,381,100
5,044,672
475,088
6,259,346
785,720
Feet B.M.
32,218,155
4,159,099
5,523,102
14,911,232
6,990,266
61,217,806
7,3S0,531
5,619,747
4,162,845
2,996,123
1,479,950
1,015,414
Feet B.M.
27,275,928
4,553,603
1,317,825
41,944,011
52,447,160
13,592,562
2,931,969
8,429,403
25,553,543
1,158,805
20,668
941,422
8,566,400
Feet B.M.
55,949,129
4,616,862
3,244,776
24,640,268
72,339,531
12,698,383
2,415,500
7,249,487
83,S56,504
94,764
30.065
1,841,578
4,269,953
Feet B.M.
78,003,423
11,252,890
717,600
36,398,234
105.916,915
16,211,290
8,221,032
4,803,236
248,611,600
4,361,139
994,341
3,665,241
677,756
1,705,394
177,041
Egypt ;>,	
Totals	
108,872,266
146,624,269
188,733,299
273,146,800
521,707,132 E 8
Department op Lands.
1924
WATER BORNE SHIPMENTS
FROM
B.C.
AS     COMPARED    WITH
TOTAL    LOG     SCALE
■
■
1918
1919
m
moi
1920
-
1922
1923
PERSONNEL.
The permanent staff has increased during the year by eleven and now numbers 234.
Increase was made in both scaling and office staff to take care of the volume of new work
due to increased production. The temporary staff shows an increase of forty-five, of which
twenty-seven was due to increase in cruising-work and the balance on account of forest-protection. 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 9
(150,000 acres =1 inch.)
}'
It is a matter for congratulation that the staff has been able to handle the greatly increased
volume of work in almost every division in an efficient manner without requiring still further
increase. While direct comparison without considering intensity of management, volume of
business, etc., cannot be made, the following diagram shows the relation of the area covered by
one fleldman In British Columbia to that in other forest organizations, and gives an indication of
staff w7hich will be required when our forest area is fully organized:—
British Columbia 1^^^^—^^^^^^^^^^^^^^™
Forest Service, j
United States \
Federal Service./
Indian Forest
Service.
European Services!
Fully organised. /
It also indicates that for the present a much greater responsibility must be placed on our
average fieldman, who must be an all-round practical man, capable of undertaking any work
which comes up in his district, whether cruising, estimating the cost of logging a certain tract
of timber, settling disputed points with an operator, or appraising pre-emption values; he must
be familiar with working of mechanical appliances; he must organize and handle fire-fighting
crews, supervise construction of trail and look-out, or report on what action is necessary to
ensure a future crop of timber after logging or fire; courteously direct a tourist to a good
camping-site, with a warning to care for his fire. Much of this work has to be done with only
meagre supervision on his own responsibility and initiative.
Careful selection of personnel through competitive examination has laid the foundation for
an efficient service, but further means of subsequent training through Rangers' meetings, inspection, and reading courses is essential. I believe a Ranger school is essential if we are to keep
up with the demands that the future will place upon the service, and it is hoped that during
the coming year it will be possible to arrange for this work to be undertaken.
Distribution of Total Force, British Columbia Forest Branch.
Permanent.
Temporary.
Forest District.
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23
481 E 10 Department of Lands. 1924
FOREST INVESTIGATION.
No matter how extensive they may be, the exhaustion of our virgin stands is only a question
of time, due to the increasing demands of the lumber market. Depletion in the East and South
and consequent shifting of the centre of lumber production to the Pacific Coast has focused
attention as never before on the forests of British Columbia. Forests are a crop and, unlike
minerals, are renewable, provided that the natural laws governing their reproduction and growth
are understood and followed. Moreover, forests will in general reproduce themselves if given
a chance, and the expensive operation of artificial regeneration or planting will be avoided.
It takes a full century to produce a timber-crop and costs for establishment will multiply several
times before the return can be secured; any unnecessary expenditure, therefore, becomes a heavy
burden on the future timber-crop.
Most of the virgin timber is logged by powerful equipment which leaves the area in what
appears to be a devastated condition. The crop of seedlings may require years to establish,
and the height growth at first is very slow on account of most of the energy being expended in
the development of the root system. Many areas which on casual observation appear barren
will be found on careful examination to be well stocked. These various factors have resulted
in the public delusion that our forest lands are left in such a condition after logging that another
crop by natural regeneration is impossible. The data gathered during the past summer indicates
that we can get a future crop from natural regeneration even where the present methods of
logging are used. On exceptional sites some changes may be necessary, but, generally speaking,
if fire is kept out of the Douglas fir-mixtures the cut-over areas will restock rapidly after the
virgin stand has been removed.
One of our most important problems is to determine the source of seed from which reproduction may be expected. It has been proven that there is considerable seed stored in the
forest floor, but the proportion which comes from green timber has not been definitely ascertained,
and it is essential to isolate and study seed-dissemination separate from the various factors of
germination. The logging operations have in the past been segregated by intervening areas of
green timber, but these are rapidly being removed and soon there will be large continuous areas
of cut-over lands which will make our problem more difficult. Within 6 chains of the margin of
settings for fir and 14 chains for hemlock, a marked increase was apparent in the amount of
reproduction. Since blocks of green timber will aid in restocking areas in case of successive
fires and also aid in their control, logging by alternate settings would help in this problem and
also minimize the danger of a general conflagration. The setting which has been left could be
logged before close of operation, but in the meantime it would have had an opportunity of seeding
down surrounding area.
In addition to the supply of seed, the requirements necessary for establishment are a
favourable seed-bed and favourable conditions for germination and growth. Nearly all the
seedlings were found to germinate among the moss and duff and very few on exposed mineral
soil, where evaporation was excessive through lack of humus cover. The northern exposure as
a rule showed better reproduction than the southern. Douglas fir establishes most rapidly,
about 70 per cent, coming in the first two seasons after logging where the slash is left. This
rapid establishment may be clue to more food being stored in the larger seed, which enables it
to force its rootlets more deeply in search of moisture than those of the smaller seeds of the
other species. This enables fir to resist drought where hemlock and cedar could not exist.
The mortality among the more shallow-rooted species is enormous the first year, but these may
require the formation of a nurse-crop of weeds and brush before any large amount can survive.
The delayed establishment may also be due to the loss of vitality through storage, or the
uncovering by erosion of seed at first buried too deeply to germinate, or seeds may be blown in
long distances from green timber. On account of these various factors the possibility of an
area restocking cannot be determined until several years after logging.
Closely related to question of seed-bed is that of " debris " left from our logging operations.
Every one is familiar with this on the Coast. It covers a large part of the forest floor and
exercises a greater or less influence on restocking, depending cm species and whether they will
germinate and develop in rotting wood or in shade under the debris. There is also the hazard
from fire which is increased by the accumulation of dry, inflammable material. A study was
undertaken to determine the quantity and character of this material and results show that in
total volume this often reaches 25 per cent, of the wood material in the stand.    In character ——^—
Hemlock showing recovery from suppression.    Height between each marker is
one year's growth.  ™
.:■■ y ~
mm
.
. lt,y.f
i
I
IB J 1-
If Mr"\U§i
y
j i    -
'Hi, ■
1 Lv''*5- 'J,fiiie   -^r--rai»*-.»|
WK_i.' *   ■• *       "■:>■
One hundred and ten years ago this stand was small seedlings amid the debris
ol a wind-throw or tire-swept area.  14 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 11
it is smaller, inferior material and broken chunks. Leak of local markets, long freight-hauls,
and keen competition in foreign markets prevents the utilization of this material at present
except in isolated cases, such as present strong demand for poles which has induced some operators to log these prior to the main operation. The fact that there is sufficient wood material
left after logging is completed to maintain ten pulp plants of 100 tons daily capacity, however,
should be sufficient to focus attention on this problem until the difficulties of handling, manufacturing, and marketing have been solved.
In considering the effect of burning this refuse broadcast on reproduction, the area was
divided into two main types.
In the pure Douglas-fir type with deep soil, burning decreased the amount of hemlock to a
greater degree than fir and increased the percentage of the latter species. The cedar and
hemlock seed cannot germinate when buried to as great a depth as fir, and a fire may destroy
practically all the hemlock and cedar seed capable of development and at the same time a large
amount of fir seed may escape injury. This would account for a larger percentage of fir in
the mixture coming In after burns than where the slash is left. In the spring the slash dries
from the top down, the surface layers becoming highly inflammable while the soil is still moist,
and fires at this season destroy least of the potential seedlings stored in the forest floor. These
studies show that broadcast burning of slash lessens the amount of reproduction, but even
though slash is burned the first season after logging when the ground is moist, there will be
sufficient seed left capable of sprouting to satisfactorily stock the areas in the pure-fir type.
In the fir-hemlock-cedar type 17 per cent, of the areas not burned and 47 per cent, of the
areas burned had less than 500 seedlings per acre. Burning in this type decreased the amount
of fir 52 per cent., hemlock 78 per cent., and cedar SO per cent. The greater mortality of seedlings following burns in this type compared with the pure-fir type is probably due to the shallow,
peaty soil characteristic of the regions where only a small proportion of fir occurs in the stand
and where little seed can be protected by the soil, as fires very often burn to rock. The studies
indicate that burning in hemlock-cedar mixtures will increase the percentage of fir, but decrease
the total amount of reproduction to a very great degree, and in many cases make a satisfactory
natural regeneration very doubtful.
On account of the great area to be covered, the many variations in type and character of
country, and the careful details necessary to the work, it was only possible during the season
to secure information sufficient to show the tendency of the various types in their reactions to
logging under different soil, climatic and topographic conditions. Further detailed studies will
be necessary to establish definitely the relation between the various single factors and the
reproduction of the stand.
Some 40,000 to 60,000 acres are cut over annually on the Coast alone, the replanting of
which would require an annual budget of $750,000 to $1,250,000. Can this expenditure be
avoided and a new»crop still assured is the problem facing our investigators. If we are to
depend on natural regeneration, what is to be required of the logging operator that will be
practicable and effective for ensuring seed-supply, a satisfactory seed-bed and protection from
the hazard of the operation?
Following on preliminary survey of the year, plans are being developed for the establishment of Forest Experimental Stations, when still closer study can be given to these important
subjects.
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY.
During the spring of 1923 the work of controlling the epidemic of bark-beetles which is
infesting the western yellow pine was continued. This control has been carried on since 1920.
The following areas were worked over during the year :—
(1.) Voght Valley.—A recleaning of areas worked during 1922 and an extension to uncontrolled areas adjacent. Total trees treated by felling and burning numbered 1.904, scaling
690 M.B.M.
(2.) Pike Mountain.—This area was also worked in 1922. A recleaning and extension was
made in 1923, covering 3,120 trees, scaling 1,635 M.B.M.
(3.) Coutlee Plateau.—Recleaned and area extended,'involving the treatment of 1,352 trees,
scaling 144 M.B.M.
(4.) Ttvelve-mile.—An entirely new area of infestation, on which 1,999 trees were treated,
scaling 596 M.B.M. E 12 Department of Lands. 1924
(5.) Adams Lake, Kamloops District.—A recleaning of 1921. and 1922 control areas between
Momich Creek and the head of the lake, involving the treatment of the following numbers of
trees over 5% square miles: White pine, 23S trees; Douglas fir, 586 trees; lodgepole pine,
8 trees;   total, 834 trees.
(6.) Midday Valley.—A crew hired by the Nicola Pine Mills, Limited, but technically supervised by the Forest Entomologist and Forest Branch officers, treated 1,435 trees on the south
side of Midday Creek, scaling 143 M.B.M.
Additional control-work was done by the holders of Timber Licences 12907, 12908, and 12909
under direction and technical supervision of the Forest Entomologist and Forest Branch officers.
The total cost of the work was $16,952.62, or $2.02 per tree.
The work was carried on as previously under the direction of Ralph Hopping, of the Division
of Entomology, Ottawa. Some excerpts from his annual report are interesting and throw
considerable light on this problem:—■
" Epidemics of forest insects, generally bark-beetles, have caused much loss in the pine
areas of British Columbia since, or at least shortly after, logging operations commenced. Losses
undoubtedly occurred before this period due to infestations which w7ere the result of fires and
wind-thrown timber, but these epidemics were few and far between. Our history of these outbreaks all over the world show that epidemic losses result from upsetting the balance provided
by nature. In our logging operations we have upset this balance. For instance, the logging
operations in Europe during the war have resulted in epidemics which are now being controlled,
and must be controlled, before their forests can be re-established. This is true not only in
France, but also in England.
" The Provincial losses, although existing in white pine, spruce, Douglas fir, and balsam types
of timber, have been greatest in lodgepole and yellow pine types, especially in the latter. About
1912 an epidemic infestation started in yellow pine 5 miles from Princeton, which in seven years
resulted in the loss of about 130,000,000 feet, board measure, of yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa)
before it died out, due probably to the slow increase of parasitic and predaceous enemies. . The
highest percentage of yellow pine killed on 1 square mile was 90 per cent., the lowest 40 per
cent. Dr. J. M. Swaine visited this area several times between 1913 and 1919, as well as the
areas around Merritt, which were just beginning to be epidemic."
An extract from the Report of the Dominion Entomologist for the year ended March 31st,
1915, page 29, gives an idea of the situation at that time, four years before any control-work
was undertaken.
" The bark-beetle infestation in yellow pine in the Okanagan District is more extensive
than at this time last year, and has spread rapidly in some parts of the infested area, while
at others, notably about Princeton, the spread appears to be less rapid than during the season
of 1913. The infested region surrounds Okanagan Lake and extends as far west as Princeton
and Nicola. The bark-beetles causing this outbreak, Dendroctonus monticolce and Dendroctonus
brevicomis, are not known to be causing serious damage east of the divide between Okanagan
Lake and the Arrow Lakes; but their appearance in any body of yellow pine, black pine, or
western white pine is to be expected sooner or later wherever these trees occur in large stands
in British Columbia. Isolated dying trees in considerable numbers or clumps of dying trees of
these species should receive prompt attention. In the districts which have been infested longest
the destruction is enormous."
Causes of Epidemic Infestations.—" The great loss already caused by the bark-beetie
outbreaks and the apparent certainty of still greater destruction demands vigorous control
measures in many districts. The proper disposal of pine-slash is a very important factor, for
the beetles frequently breed to immense numbers in such abundant supplies of breeding material
and spread thence into the green timber. It should be a settled policy in British Columbia
to burn all pine-slash each season between October and May, as an aid to bark-beetle control.
The activity of other species of bark-beetles in spruce and Douglas fir will apparently soon
render the burning of spruce and fir slash equally necessary."
During the period of the writer's control-work in the Western United States there were
numerous examples of epidemics occurring from the non-burning of yellow-pine slash. In the
Tres Ritos (Three Rivers) District of Northern New Mexico a timber-sale was made to a
lumber company to manufacture lumber and ties. The sale covered four tributaries of the
river, which we will call 1, 2, 3, and 4.   The saw-timber was marked for cutting.   The lumber 14 Geo. 5 ..    Forest Branch. E 13
company then cut the ties from 1, 2, and 4, but did not cut the saw-timber marked. At the
end of three years this saw-timber marked for cutting was nearly all dead except in tributary
3, where no tie-timber was cut. Tributary 3 was between tributaries 2 and 4. In other words,
the epidemic infestation existed only in the, tributaries where the slash from the tie-cutting
was left and not burned. Again, in California a power company slashed the reservoir-site and
left it unburned. During the next three years the pine timber on the mountain above was
about 80 per cent, killed from Dendroctonus infestation starting in the reservoir slash, as
evidenced by the infestation spreading fan-shaped from the slash, as well as the evidence of
the breeding of Dendroctonus in the slash the first year after cutting.
Here in British Columbia the epidemics have followed the centres of lumbering operations,
epidemics first occurring in our yellow pine west of Okanagan Lake, then at Princeton, and
finally in the Coldwater near Merritt.
Outside of a few infestations caused by wind-thrown timber and trees weakened by fire,
we may designate two causes as chiefly responsible for our epidemic infestations: (1) Sawlogs
left in the bush ;   (2) unburned slash.
Epidemics caused by slash—i.e., cull logs, tops, and sawlogs left on cut-over land—do not
immediately become epidemic. The rise of the infestation is at first slow, but after several
years it begins to increase rapidly. To the ordinary observer the killed area, therefore, does
not become noticeable until three or four years after the logging operation. Consequently areas
of infestation are continually appearing, either contiguous to cut-over areas or from the natural
comparatively slow spread from uncontrolled infestations, which have already started from
past logging operations. Certainly no one factor, even unburned slash, has been as responsible
for causing epidemics as that of leaving sawlogs in the bush over one year. Every year to
the present this happens, not a few logs, but often 200,000 or 300,000 feet, board measure, to
1,000,000 or 1,500,000 feet. No control operations can be thoroughly, successful until these two
tauses arc absolutely eliminated.
The lumber companies are regularly penalized, paying not only for the logging operations,
but double stumpage for sawlogs they never get to the mill. No penalty should be too great
for neglect to utilize saiologs already cut.
Control.—While the two factors, the leaving of sawlogs in the bush and the non-burning
of slash in the past, have caused, the control-work to be not as effective as it should be, nevertheless an indication of the effectiveness may be shown in the remark of one of the oldest
logging contractors in the Midday Valley, who said, " If no insect-control work had been done
here, I am convinced we should not be logging to-day in the Midday." And this man thought
our insect-control work when we began in 1920 to be " bunk," as he expressed it.
The area on the west side of the Coldwater, including the Midday Valley but not Spius
Creek, was estimated to contain about 200,000,000 feet of yellow pine, of which at least 20,000,000
has been killed, 10,000,000 of which has been cut and burned by direct control operations; and
probably between 40,000,000 and 45,000,000 cut and milled. There is therefore over 100,000,000
feet yet to be cut.
In the Aspen Grove area on the east side of the Coldwater, including Pike Mountain, is an
estimated stand of 300,000,000 feet, of which about 5,000,000 has been killed and 5,000,000 cut
and milled.
J. W. Munro, D.Sc, Entomologist, Forestry Commission, London, England, substantiates
the findings of Mr. Hopping.    He states:—
" The importance of the bark-beetle problem in Canada has long been recognized, and to
judge from the large output of literature from Canada and the United States, one might
justifiably assume that the North American bark-beetles were a race apart in their capacity for
destruction. It is therefore extremely interesting to find that while a vast amount of timber
is killed by bark-beetles, especially by members of the genus Dendroctonus, the conditions under
which these losses occur are remarkably similar to those which favour bark-beetle outbreaks
in Europe, and that except that they must be conducted on a larger scale, the same control
measures are effective in Canada as are employed in Europe.
" The chief causes of bark-beetle outbreaks are forest fires, extensive felled or logged areas,
wind and snow storms, and the presence in the forest of a high proportion of mature or overmature slow-growing trees. This last factor affecting bark-beetle infestation is not always
sufficiently realized, and it may be of interest to note that the recent outbreak of the spruce E 14 Department of Lands. 1924
bark-beetle (Ips typographus) in the Salzburg District in Austria has recently been traced to
a severe wiud-storm which occurred in 1916, and resulted in the development of an attack
which, aided by warm weather, spread by means of mature and overmature spruce growing on
first-class quality soil. One could almost apply Forstmeister Lichtenberg's account of the
Austrian outbreak to that which the delegates to the Canadian Conference saw in the Merritt
District of the Dry Belt, and my belief is that, except in extent, bark-beetle infestations in
Canada in no w7ay differ from similar outbreaks in Europe. I feel convinced that the bark-
beetle problem in Canada and in Europe, and probably also in the Himalayas, is almost wholly
a question of clean forestry. That view is by no means a new one. It was held by Altum and
Nordlinger forty years ago, but it appears to have found little support in North America until
comparatively recently. The fact is that we know more of the factors affecting bark-beetle
increase, in temperate regions at least, than we do of those affecting any other forest insects,
and the most important factor in this respect is the accumulation of large quantities of material
suitable as food and breeding-grounds. Abnormal supply may be produced in various ways—
fellings are the chief source of it in Europe, forest fires in Canada—but any factors which reduce
the vigour and vitality of the forest trees may produce it, and the bark-beetle question has been
the first to indicate that in forest entomology the forest conditions must be studied as closely
as the insect pests themselves.
" It is well known that the bark-beetles prefer sickly or felled trees to those in full vigour,
but what particular attributes such sickly or felled trees possess w7hich are so attractive to the
bark-beetles we do not know.
" Mr. Hopping's work in British Columbia undoubtedly shows that improved logging methods,
removal of overmature timber, and better forest management are the chief and only practicable
means of preventing bark-beetle outbreaks."
Enough has been said to show the effect on the spread of these insects of logging and the
leaving of cut logs or logging-slash in the woods. In order that the direct control-work might
not be negatived, the Department passed the following regulations governing the logging of
timber or special timber licences in the yellow-pine region of the Vernon District:—
1. Notice in writing of the intention to cut must be given the Forest Branch before cutting
begins on any special timber licence.
2. Forest officers may enter upon any special timber licence and mark or otherwise designate
the infested trees that must be cut during the course of logging.
3. On special timber licences where logging operations are being carried on, trees so
designated must be cut and disposed of in one of the following ways:—
(a.) If in the opinion of the operator the tree will not produce merchantable lumber,
the tree, including limbs and the bark on the stumps, must be burnt so as to
consume the bark and outer layers of wood, in which there may be insects, and
at such times and in such manner as directed by the District Forester.
(6.) Otherwise the logs shall be immersed in water, or sawn into lumber and the bark
burned immediately or removed from the woods as provided in section 4.
4. All logs cut on any special timber licence after April 1st of any year must be removed
and milled or floated before April 1st of the succeeding year. Exception to this rule may be
made in the case of logs declared by a competent forest officer to be free from infestation.
5. Slash resulting from any operation must be piled for burning concurrently, so far as
practicable, with the cutting of the timber, and all slash and debris must be burned by the
operator at his own expense, when instructed to do so by the District Forester.
6. Stumps must be utilized to as low a diameter as practicable and must not be cut higher
than the diameter of the tree at the point where it is cut, and in no case higher than 18 inches,
except in unusual cases. The bark from stumps infested with bark-beetles must be removed
and burnt.
7. Penalties for the contravention of these regulations are incorporated in Part XII.,
sections 132 to 135, of the " Forest Act," being chapter 17 of the Statutes of 1923.
White-pine Blister-rust.—Following the preliminary scouting-work carried on during 1922
to discover the extent of the spread of white-pine blister-rust, a full season was occupied by
the scouts covering the pine-belt in the Interior of the Province. As a result it was found that
the rust had' spread over the Interior west of the Columbia River Valley. It was found on
white pine in the vicinity of Canoe, Revelstoke, and Beaton, but on the alternate host  (Ribes) 14 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 15
it was found scattered along the main line of the C.P.R. throughout the entire Okanagan and
Shuswap Valleys and along the Arrow Lakes.
The scouting during 1923 confirmed the location of infection as above, and also found it
widely scattered on Rides south as far as Nelson, Kootenay Lake, and Grand Forks. Infection
on Ribes has been found more than 100 miles from the nearest w7hite pine, which shows conclusively that the spread of reciospores is practically unlimited in its range. It has not been
shown, however, that the teliospores will spread more than a few hundred yards. The cultivated
black currants are the most susceptible to infection, and the long-distance spread of the disease
seems to be from pine to black currant. The other cultivated species as well as the native
species will, however, become infected when in close proximity to infected white pines.
There are two courses we might pursue, one of which is known as " direct control," in which
all Ribes, both wild and cultivated, are eradicated in and near valuable white-pine stands, and
the other the eradication of cultivated Ribes. It seems inadvisable to start on an active
campaign along either course until further information is obtained regarding the location of
valuable stands of white pine, especially white-pine reproduction, and figures as to the number
and value of cultivated black currants in close association with white pine. It is proposed
during the season of 1924 to obtain the required information.
I have here to gratefully acknowledge the work of Mr. A. T. Davidson, of the Pathologist
Bureau, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, w7ho supervised the survey, and to Dr. H. T. Gussow,
Botanist for the Department of Agriculture, for consultation and advice.
FOREST RECONNAISSANCE.
During the field season 1923 six projects were completed, and a seventh, the survey of the
timber of a complete watershed as yet untouched by operations, well started. These projects
are discussed in some detail below.    They may be segregated into classes as follows:—
(1.) Cruising.—Queen Charlotte Island Cruises; Kootenay Lake Cruise; Horsefly Cruise;
Fraser River Cruise.
(2.) Exploratory. Reconnaissance.—Area west of Pacific Great Eastern Railway; area east
of Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
Cruising.
Queen Charlotte Cruise No. 1.—The Queen Charlotte Islands have long been noted for their
fine stands of spruce and the more accessible timber is held under licence. The islands are,
however, remote from manufacturing centres, necessitating a long tow over treacherous waters
if logs are to be marketed at existing plants. This has limited operations up to the present.
With some prospect of greater activity in the lumber business on the islands and the prospect
of one or more mills being established thereon, application .for practically all the remaining
Crown timber on Skidegate Inlet and the east coast of Moresby Island was received early this
year. These applications, consisting of comparatively small isolated blocks, constituted the
area covered by this cruise. Fifteen areas were covered, aggregating 13,549 acres, 4,119 acres
of which do not carry a merchantable stand. The total estimate on the fifteen sales was
228,505,000 feet, board measure—45 per cent, spruce, 44 per cent, hemlock, and 11 per cent, cedar.
Appraisals on this area indicate that some of them cannot be logged at a profit owing
either to small stand per acre or inaccessibility. The majority, however, constitute as good
logging chances as other areas now being operated.
Queen Charlotte Cruise No. 2 (Rennell Sound).—The timber on the west coast of Graham
Island was examined, including all the coast-line of the island from Skidegate Inlet north to
Cape Knox. It was found that north of Rennell Sound no areas of timber occurred which could
be considered merchantable under operating conditions likely to obtain for many years to come.
Located on Rennell Sound is an area of 9,171 acres, carrying a total estimated stand of
235,494,000 feet, board measure—55 per cent, spruce, 38 per cent, hemlock, and 7 per cent, cedar.
Kootenay Lake Cruise.—This cruise was undertaken to ascertain the quantity of merchantable timber on vacant Crown land adjacent to Kootenay Lake as a supply for a possible pulp-mill
to be established within the Kootenay Lake watershed.
Preliminary to an intensive cruise an extensive reconnaissance was made of the creeks
included within the Kootenay Lake drainage system in 1921 and 1923. The areas warranting
closer investigation were covered by a 5-per-eent, cruise this season.    They included Graham E 16
Department op Lands.
1924
n j ji' o n
a. isr c E
TPort Letv,
QUE
CHAR
MAP
S H OW IN G
PURVEYED     IM
Legend    J ® Rennell Sound Con:.
Queen Charlotte Isi;
GH1T I.
C. StJame^l
nds Timber- 5ale Cruise 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 17 E 18 Department of Lands. 1924
Creek,   Woodbury   Creek,   Campbell   Creek,   Akokli   Creek,   Corn   Creek,   and   Coffee   Creek,
Topographic maps and estimates were prepared separately for each area.
The total area investigated was 19,440 acres, 14,491 of which carries merchantable timber
averaging 12,000 feet, board measure, per acre. The total stand is estimated as 174,679,200
feet, board measure, in the following species and proportions: Hemlock, 33.4 per cent.; white
pine, 20.9 per cent.; spruce, 11.5 per cent.; balsam, 10 per cent.; larch, 9.7 per cent.; cedar,
8.9 per cent.; fir, 5.4 per cent.; and lodgepole pine, 0.2 per cent. In addition to this there is
an estimated stand of 5,600,000 lineal feet of cedar poles.
Logging these areas will be a difficult operation, due to the rough topography and the fact
that the timbered areas are about 5 miles back from the lake. Flumes would be the most feasible
scheme to deliver logs to the lake. Much of the merchantable timber in the lower valleys
adjacent has been burned or is held under timber licence.
Horsefly Cruise.—This cruise constituted a start on an inventory of timber values and the
preparation of maps of all timber tributary to the Fraser River by way of the Quesnel and
Cottonwood Rivers. The completed report will include maps and an estimate of the timber
on the watersheds of the McKinley, a tributary of the Horsefly draining a large lake district,
the. Horsefly River, Horsefly Lake, Quesnel Lake, North Fork of Quesnel River, and the Cottonwood River. From investigations already made it would appear that this will prove one of
the richest timber areas investigated by the Department to date.
During the past season the stands on Horsefly Lake and Horsefly River were investigated
and topographic maps and estimates prepared. In all, about 75,000 acres were covered. Of this
total, 55,876 acres carried merchantable timber averaging 19,000 feet, board measure, per acre,
a remarkably heavy average for timber situated east of the Cascades. The total stand was
1,091,646,000 feet, board measure—43.6 per ceut. spruce, 25.2 per cent, fir, 11.5 per cent, cedar,
11 per cent, balsam, 6.5 per cent, lodgepole pine, and 2.2 per cent, hemlock. Spruce and balsam
constitute more than 50 per cent, of the stand, making it an attractive proposition so far as
pulp-manufacture is concerned. The fir, of which there is a considerable amount, is reported to
be of exceptionally good quality.
It is proposed to continue work in this area next year investigating stands on the McKinley,
Quesnel Lake, and Cottonwood River.
Fraser River Cruise.—This w7ork, in the Prince George District, consisted of a 10-per-ceut.
cruise of two areas, one of 11,800 acres between Longworth and Dewey, and a second of 1,000
acres on the Little Shuswap, a tributary flowing into the Fraser at Shere.
On the first the stand was estimated at 94,000,000 feet, board measure—79 per cent, spruce,
16 per cent, balsam, and 5 per cent, cedar and other species. On the second there was found a
stand of 8,361,000 feet, board measure—S2 per cent, spruce, 12 per cent, balsam, and 6 per cent,
fir.
Exploratory Reconnaissance.
Area West of the P.G.E. Railway.—This project, as well as the one next treated, was
undertaken with a view to locating all bodies of timber of commercial importance tributary to
the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. As the object was to locate timber rather than to cruise it.
the party consisted of a Junior Forester, a cruiser, and a packer only. The small party, travelling light, was able to completely cover a very large area in a comparatively short time.
The area covered was roughly as follows: From the Bridge River on the south to the
Chilako on the north; from the Pacific Great Eastern Railway on the east to the headwaters-
of the Homathko, Klinaklini, Bella Coola, and Dean Rivers on the west. Approximately
13,500,000,000 feet of timber are reported on that area, but it is of inferior species, chiefly lodgepole pine, small spruce, and Douglas fir. The areas are scattered and it is considered not worth
the cost of further investigation at present. Ten thousand and twenty square miles are reported
as carrying a stand of 5,000 feet, board measure, per acre or less, and only 55 square miles
with more than 5,000 board-feet per acre. The better stands are found on the Blackwater River,
but there is a certain amount of timber scattered throughout.
This section will doubtless support a large ranching population and this stand of timber
will then be valuable for local building, fencing, firewood, and like uses, but at the present time
it does not warrant exploitation.
Area East of P.G.E. Railway.—Investigation of this area, a continuation of the work
described above, disclosed extensive areas of merchantable timber.    The mapping and estimating 14 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 19
of these stands required a longer time than spent on the area west of the Pacific Great Eastern
Railway, and it was found impossible to complete the work before the end of the field season.
The remainder of the area will be covered during the winter of 1923-24, after which sufficiently
definite data will be at hand to warrant plans for the accurate cruising of the more accessible
stands.
The total area covered extends roughly from the McKinley basin on the south to Barkerville
on the north, and from the Pacific Great Eastern- Railway on the west to Isaac Lake, Swamp
River, Ghost Lake, and the head of Quesnel Lake on the east. The south half of this area,
already carefully covered by extensive reconnaissance, including Swamp River, Cariboo Lake,
and Quesnel Lake, is reported to be in part as follows :— Acres. M. Ft. B.M.
Vacant Crown timber land   235,180 3,769,720
Timber  limits       79,280 2,050,240
314,460 5,819,960
Non-merchantable timber land      70,900
Burned      121,700
Water        99,100
Species occurring in order of abundance are as follows: Spruce, cedar, hemlock, balsam,
fir, lodgepole pine.
Average stand per acre appears to be about 15,000 board-feet, which an accurate cruise may
raise, as the stand average on the Horsefly River, which adjoins, averages 19,000 board-feet
per acre.
FOREST RESERVES.
The only reserve created during the year was the Inkaneep Forest, covering 244,480 acres
in the south-eastern portion of the Okanagan Valley. This reserve, established by proclamation
under section 12 of the " Forest Act," serves a double purpose, since it. is covered not only with
a valuable stand of young timber which will be of future commercial value, but also covers the
headwaters of Vaseaux, Sawmill, and Incaneep Creeks, the waters of which are important for
irrigation purposes, and the conservation of the timber on the reserve is essential for regulating
the stream-flow therein.
Two other areas were prepared for reservation, but which have not yet been set aside.
They are:—
The Kettle Valley Forest, covering 1,552,640 acres of the upper valley of the Kettle River,
and the Yahk Forest, covering that portion of the Yahk Valley lying north of the International
Boundary, covering an area of 490,000 acres.
It might be well here to reiterate that the word " reserve " may create a wrong impression.
There is no idea of locking these areas up and withholding them from use, but rather the
proclamation dedicates them to the purpose for which they are best suited—timber production—
with which may be coupled watershed-protection, prevention of floods, game, and aesthetic
purposes.
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
Besides installing an entirely new exhibit at the Canadian National Exhibition, in the form
of a bungalow of British Columbia woods, the Trade Extension Branch put up exhibits at
Windsor, Ont.; Mount Forest, Ont.; Paris. Ont.; and 518 Yonge Street, Toronto; while an
exhibit was prepared for the Canadian Exhibit Train now touring France.
As many as 2,000 people in one hour viewed the British Columbia Timber Exhibit at the
Canadian National Exhibition.
A complete grade exhibit of British Columbia commercial woods was installed at the office
of the Lumber Commissioner in Toronto and is proving very valuable in educational work
amongst architects and the building trade generally.
Thousands of stained British Columbia red-cedar shingles were distributed to architects,
builders, and retail lumbermen, and active work carried on in favour of British Columbia
shingles as against patent roofing.
Arrangements were made for the manufacture and distribution of a special type of shingle-
nail for wholesale distribution in Eastern Canada, with excellent results. The Department
arranged for testing these nails and for their introduction to the building trades. E 20 Department of Lands. 1924
A new booklet, " How to Finish British Columbia Woods," was published and freely
distributed amongst all branches of the timber industry, with splendid results.
Experiments in finishing British Columbia woods were continued and architects and builders
may now be supplied from our Toronto office with formulas to meet any shade or tone required.
Feature articles on British Columbia woods were prepared for all the leading lumber and
building trade journals and a steady publicity campaign for British Columbia woods has been
maintained.
Towards the end of the year, in co-operation with the lumber-manufacturers of the Province,
a comprehensive exhibit of British Columbia woods was sent to England for display at the
British Empire Exhibition, and a bungalow, constructed throughout of British Columbia woods,
is now being erected at Wembley Park, London.
WOODS OPERATIONS.
The year was one of great activity in the woods. The weather was favourable for logging,
although many of the camps closed down late in the season, partially on account of fire hazard
and partially because of a surplus of logs on the market. The camps remained shut down for
about two months, September and October. The production exceeded all previous years by
25 per cent, reaching equivalent to 2,500,000,000 feet B.M. This increase was general throughout the Province, as shown by district records, which are:—
Increase over 1.922— Per cent.
Cranbrook     11
Nelson        6
Vernon     66
Kamloops      18
Cariboo      90
Fort George      57
Prince Rupert     61
Vancouver     32
Sawlogs show an increase of 36 per cent, and minor forest products 12% per cent. By
species the increase is shown as follows :— Per Cent.
Fir     34
Cedar     24
Spruce  (all varieties)      40
Hemlock     39
Balsam     S3
Yellow pine    41
Larch      13
Others     10
It may be of interest to note what the year's cut represents in proportion to the total stand
as estimated by the Commission of Conservation. The following percenages give this information :— Per Cent.
Douglas fir   1.5
Cedar     0.7
Spruce     0.3
Hemlock      0.5
Balsam     0.2
Yellow pine     1.4
White pine    1.2
Lodgepole pine     0.4
Larch     1.4
In presenting these figures it must be pointed out that the estimates of the Commission
include all grades and qualities that it may be expected to log without regard of present-day
logability. We are to-day logging the more accessible and better shows, so the real depletion
of our original timber stand is faster than the above percentages indicate.
These figures also show that w7e are cutting our better timber faster than the so-called
inferior species, but that the inferior species are gradually growing in percentage.
To maintain this output the number of operations increased from 2,652 to 3,316, or 25
per cent.    Most of this increase was in the smaller class of operators. 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 21
TIMBER    SCALED
BY
DISTRICTS
CARIBOO
1921 r
1922
1923 a
1913
1920
CRANBROOKI92I
1922
1923
1919
1920
KAMLOOPS 1921
1922
1923
NELSON
PRINCE
GEORGE:
PRINCE
RUPERT
1919
I9ZO
VANCOUVER   1921
1922b
1923
VERNON
1919
I9ZO
1921
1922
1923
..   8   8   8   8
w    tf>    -^    in    M3
- n
Figures indicate Millions of Feet B.M.
Soo
(O      ffl     o
-    ~   N E 22
Department of Lands.
1924
SPECIES     CU
DOUGLAS
FIR
SPRUCE
HEMLOCK
CEDAR
WESTERN
SOFT
PINE
LARCH
ALL
OT HER
SRECIES
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
CylON O
Figures indicate Millions  of  Feet  B.M. 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
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Department of Lands.
1924
Species cut in 1923.
Forest District.
6(0^
PP3
o   ■
OS
77,685
6,635
2,176
21,324
9,727
11,529
128,976
5,651
1,004,522
1,010,173
1,139,149
>C
n
oa
psa
is .
coS
ss
Sea
.— S3
«a
0i
O    j
0>    ■
fea
Jack-pine,
M.B.M.
 #	
Larch,
M.B.M.
n
o
o
0^
oS
1
4
80
11
aj
*S
QJ
|«
OS
"4
"56
_-S
-Sea
2,841
2,525
40
8,152
32,406
3,570
49,534
29,970
494,111
524,081
573,616
461,265
450,368
31,089
31,511
28
2,563
2,505
1,770
69,466
98,030
41,521
139,551
209,017
149,247
154
135
7,631
254
8,174
49,004
275,039
324,013
332,217
238,891
1,720
2,579
108
69
4,476
13,920
53,142
67,062
71,538
38,904
10,726
2
2,209
5,449
43,404
61,790
5,119
2,544
13,168
20,831
10,352
8,552
22,980
139
15
1,893
38,447
5,557
883
176,234
66,373
2,385
36,915
76,642
63,314
Cariboo	
Totals, Interior..
33,579
19,235
677
19,912
53,491
43,774
30,785
44,887
96
54
37
222
259
421,863
Prince Rupert	
44,837
364
4,075
216,211
1,883,661
Totals, Coast....
10,352
4,439
2,099,872
Grand totals, 1923
61,790
43,630
31,183
4,635
313
243
106
2,521,735
Grand totals, 1922
846,171
34,405
18,838
39,759
2,869
1,899,158
Grand totals, 1921
821,025
151,792
195,005
32,023
41,869
45,246
2,961
1,790,017
Total Amounts of Timber scaled in British Columbia for Years 1922-23.
(Comparative Statement in Board-feet.)
Forest District.
1922.
1923.
Gain.
159,200,392
42,030,343
1,262,836
31,255,790
72,201,521
37,992,757
343,873,639
134,434,962
1,420,849,672
176,233,923
66,372,353
2,384,447
36,915,462
76,642,450
63,314,'250
17,033,531
24,342,010
1,121,611
5,659,672
4,440,929
25,391,493
421,862,885
77,989,246
216,211,036
1,883,661,360
81,776,074
462,811,688
1,555,284,634
1,899,158,273
2,099,872,396
2,521,735,281
544,587,762
622,577,008 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 25
LOGGING INSPECTION.
The inspection of logging, operations is undertaken' by the Forest Branch in order to prevent
trespass on areas not controlled by operators, to prevent infractions of the " Marking Act," and
to see that regulations and contract conditions are carried out. Reports received during the
year number a total of 6,892, an increase of 48 per cent, over 1922, or 265 per cent, over 1919.
This inspection accounted for securing information on 105 cases of trespass against the
Crown, on which penalties to the extent of §27,860.08. In addition, forty-five cases of trespass
on privately controlled timber were found and reported to owners for settlement.
Logging Inspection, 1923.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences.
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
22
55
43
115
107
265
315
88
125
41
33
42
120
240
296
277
933
199
55
97
163
355
403
667
1,289
287
58
135
266
Nelson	
Vancouver 	
Vernon 	
561
722
1,333
3,279
538
Totals, 1923	
1,010
166
2,140
3,316
2,652
6,892
Totals, 1922	
914
159
1,579
4,654
Totals, 1921	
691
186
1,331
2,208
2,796
4,053
Totals, 1920	
605
-220
1,961
2,703
Totals, 1919	
365
200
757
1,322
1,884
TRESPASSES, 1923.
TIMBER-SALES.
The sale of Crown timber during the year shows a considerable increase. Eight hundred
and fifty-two sales, covering 163,464 acres, were completed, as compared with 671 sales and
108,501 acres the previous year. These sales consist of small fractions and areas adjacent to
existing operations or sales for specialized products, such as poles, ties, etc. Sales are made
for immediate operation and short terms only. The Branch is not desirous of disposing of any
large independent bodies of timber while there is ample private stumpage offering to meet any
ordinary requirements. E 26
Department of Lands.
1924
An increase in stumpage prices equivalent to 20 per cent, is shown for all sales of log
material made. The increasing value of timber as it stands in the forest is indicated in the
following diagram, based on Government sales, and includes both stumpage and royalty:—
$300
'
VA
LUK
$275
.
5X
\NI
>IN
>v -
SI
"IM!
pEF
x«
$2-50
$2-25
$£■00
$1-75
$1-50
s
*
IA
5>
k
5
A
5
si
A
5
A
ca
M
a
m
*
A
The cut of timber from areas operated under sale remains at approximately 10 per cent,
of the total cut for the Province, and for the past year was 204,000,000 feet of sawlogs, 2,750,000
lineal feet of poles, piling, etc., 17,666 cords of bolts and wood, and 856,000 railway-ties. It is
of interest to note that most of these railway-ties are made from lodgepole (or jack-pine), a
species looked upon with contempt by laymen and until recently considered of no value. One
sale made was bid in at 16 cents per tie in addition to royalty, or the equivalent of $5.75 per
M. ft. B.M. There are hundreds of thousands of acres of lodgepole-pine stands throughout fne
Interior which will provide a large part of railway requirements in the future and which will
be an increasing source of industry and revenue for the Province. The revenue from stumpage
charged on timber cut for the twelve months -was $467,048.15, 25 per cent, over the previous year.
The Branch, in addition to above, cruised and prepared for sale some 228 areas, covering
76,000 acres, contracts for which were not executed. These areas contained equivalent to
560,000,000 feet. 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 27
TiMBEK-SALES   AWAEDED  BY  DISTRICTS,   1923.
District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
No. of
Posts,
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(No. of Cords).
No. of
Railway-
ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
22
42
108
33
95
227
281
44
2,212
8,580
22,868
5,126
13,830
33,457
67,093
10,298
682,000
14,066,284
65,008,550
7,923,691
18,446,535
82,693,915
291,604,363*
35,972,100
16,800
317,800
432,250
1,177,040
1,986,245
1,199,405
332,222
1,058,580
6,234,342
585
500
850
390
8,185
162
11,137
1,341
21,406
97,261
691,123
66,250
292,020
1,054,702
75,000
6,400
2,304,161
$       3,917 90
49,225 72
234,466 38
56,269 90
119,226 60
Prince Rupert	
313,812 03
633,620 83
103,431 48
Totals, 1923...
852
163,464
516,397,438*
23,150
$1,513,970 84
Totals, 1922...
671
108,501
249,672,808
3,304,254
149,300
41,580
880,307
}   862,888 49
Totals, 1921...
531
91,614
188,971,774
2,479,095
2,811,095
34,291
993,417
6,415,349
957,804
701,654
381,200
92,000
9   646,487 65
Totals, 1920...
594
121,690
440,649,755
245,209,300
159,659,000
240,307,057
136,345,000
86,726
52,557
$1,799,039 03
Totals, 1919...
356
61,809
2,899,000
5,000
$   654,372 99
Totals, 1918...
227
34,257
378,080
20,000
18,478
43,756
26,666
S   380,408 33
Totals, 1917...
255
133
44,914
23,318
1,517,450-
40,000
$   483,281 50
Totals, 1916...
435,810
$   259,765 12
* Includes 171,315,000 feet pulp-timber at special rates.
Average Sale Price by Species.
Saw-timber.
Douglas fir	
Cedar	
Spruce	
Hemlock	
Balsam	
White pine	
Western soft pine.
Tamarack	
Other species	
Totals .,
Figures for 1923.
Board-feet.      Price per M.
75,915,023
$1 72
61,303,504
2 25
01,703,592
1 58
43,956,950
1 14
17,580,743
1 10
4,184,830
2 85
28,211,030
1 88
5,824,365
1 80
6,402,401
1 34
345,082,438*
$1 68
Figures for 1922.
Board-feet.      Price Per M.
58,467,465
62,788,240
42,207,248
42,987,260
16,757,880
4,304,380
9,704,385
2,998,750
9,357,200
249,572,8
$1 43
1 66
1 46
1 01
1 04
1 93
1 47
1 75
SI 39
Figures for 1921.
Board-feet.      Price per M
44,835,675
41,980,000
22,588,143
40,866,166
12,834,000
1,662,500
11,009,710
8,679,480
4,516,100
$1 65
1 57
1 60
1 08
98
1 55
1 82
1 79
1 31
* 171,315,000 feet pulp saw-timber not included in this total.
Abeas cruised fok Sale but not awarded.
Forest District.
•
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(M.B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
Shingle-bolts
and
.Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
3
11
15
6
24
66
87
16
213
11,135
'     15,088
432
7,206
13,603
25,799
2,448
25,045
68,096
1,100
28,352
27,883
288,927
8,447
447,850
1,500
17.000
29,070
823,960
637,894
641,190
88,000
5,731
855
131,450
424
54,635
205
6,700
10,990
96,673
2,800
850
104,921
10,900
Totals	
228
75,924
2,138,614
193,300
233,834 E 28
Department of Lands.
1924
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1923.
Forest District.
FeetB.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
327,773
7,941,349
17,119,199
5,S27,744
6,608,987
54,045,435
104,114,873
11,488,488
6,350
19,726
311,151
348,633
873,357
456,007
324,404
413,904
279.00
2,651.50
908.50
60.00
859.20
294.50
11,769.47
844.38
16,175
22,168
335,383
32,273
68,674
359,299
13,839
8,827     -'
Totals, 1923	
207,473,848
187,217,151
2,753,632
17,666.55
856,628
Totals, 1922	
1,523,744
2,169,550
1,638,549
672,699
499,589
545,429
37,345.91
10,483.00
17,703.00
12,208.00
15,539.00
14,862.00
8,425.00
495,672
Totals, 1921	
179,780,056
168,783,812
107,701,950
113,927,610
99,078,832
831,423
Totals, 1920	
6<j.4,829
Totals, 1919   	
573,286
Totals, 1918	
146,807
Totals, 1917   	
34,937
Totals, 1916	
63,055,102
225,799
SAW AND SHINGLE MILLING.
Greater activity was also recorded in the milling end of the industry. Eighty-three per cent,
of the sawmills, representing 88 per cent, of the mill capacity, operated to a greater or less
extent, as compared with 75 per cent, of mills and 83 per cent, of capacity in 1922. In the same
time 80 per cent, of the shingle-mills, representing 95 per cent, of capacity, operated during the
year, as compared with 94 per cent, of mills, representing 96 per cent, capacity, in 1922.
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1923.
Sawmills.
SlIINGLE-MILLS.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
-a
•p
TS
•&
c3
el
B
3
s
Forest District.
■1 &
a .-a .
In >.
H.-S
bl p.
tea „
(3 rt ro
If
!§•«-
Soj
SO J
35S
Hi
ORS!
56
Hi
5.33
Hi
59
Hi
CCMJC
10
14
25
15
1,060
395
10
3
380
73
i
120
Nelson   	
32
715
9
485
13
330
3
160
22
561
1
50
17
206
25
585
7,514
387
11,273
98
15,659
16,144*
18
11
2
414
122
65
1,493
12
16
465
Totals for 1923	
352
107
72
745
Totals for 1922 •	
292
9,683
8,912
108
15,544
10,885
90
2,064
2,029
8
680
Totals for 1921	
289
79
78
6
788
Totals for 1920	
341
10,729
109
13,426
37
909
2
30 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 29
TIMBElt EXPORTS.
Export of Logs dotting Year 1923.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
F.B.M.
15,167,315
6,839,180
4,051,438
23,138
26,081,071
11,894,693
F.B.M.
49,562,141
53,704,655
3,535,298
F.B.M.
29,093,686
12,043,974
3,969,260
F.B.M.
F.B.M.
93,823,142
72,587,809
11,555,996
40,777,272
40,777,272
1,013,855
864,680
1,901,673
13,012,149
13,012,149
Totals, 1923	
107,815,949
45,971,600
34,930,525
53,789,421
38,346,199
233,668,041
Totals, 1922	
66,347,296
151,518,712
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Ties, Fence-posts, etc.
Forest District.
Cranbrook—
Cordwood ....
Poles	
Cogwood	
Mine-ties	
Railway-tits..
Mine-props   ..
Fence-posts ..
Prince George-
Poles	
Mine-props .. .
Mine-ties	
Railway-ties..
Fence-post;--...
Kamloops—
Poles	
Mine-props ...
Railway-ties..
Prince Rupert—
Poles	
Piling	
Fence-posts ..
Railway-ties	
Nelson
Poles	
Fence-posts ..
Vancouver—
Poles	
Piling	
Shingle-bolts .
Cordwood
Fence-posts . .
Pulpwood
Vernon—
Poles	
Total value, 1923
Total value, 1922
Quantity exported.
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Cords,
No.
Cords,
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Cords,
No.
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
No.
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords.
No.
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
257
672,663
160
16
908,651
8,147
7,561
382,735
1,494
14
622,249
512
1,177,570
233
50,000
869,282
332,205
77
530,104
5,025,397
5,006
4,652,932
269,467
179
736
25
223
Lin. ft.,     200,905
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
$        1,285
80,719
960
160
499,768
81,470
68,049
45,928
14,940
140
373,828
4,608
117,757
3,263
27,500
113,006
46,508
770
311,701
523,318
35,042
615,410
36,325
1,343
4,416
225
1,338
27,598
$3,037,366
$1,684,648
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
13
522,275
295,690
1,157,300
640,435
4,217,325
3,346
4,652,932
259,467
179
736
25
228
200,905
244
160,388
160
16
908,651
8,147
7,661
87,045
1,494
14
622,249
512
20,270
233
60,000
228,847
332,205-
77
530,104
808,072
1,660
PRE-EMPTION reports.
The Forest Branch during the year supplied the Lands Branch with 3,406 reports on active
pre-emptions, showing amount of improvements, extent of residence, etc. These reports are
made at an average cost of $2.50 each.
Pre-emption records examined hy districts are:—
Cariboo      1,122
Cranbrook       144
Fort George       261
Kamloops      199
Nelson      183
Prince Rupert       450
Vancouver      677
Vernon       370
Total   3,406 E 30
Department of Lands.
1924
CLASSIFICATION OF LAND FOR ALIENATION.
Examinations made of various applications for alienation under the " Land Act" to determine if areas are timber land or not within the meaning of the Act, and whether lands are
suitable for purposes of the applicant, account for 778 reports received by the Forest Branch,
covering 125,353 acres. Of this area, 41,901 acres were reported as agricultural land and
15,659 acres as timber land, which is estimated to contain 156,057 M. board-feet, or an average
of 10 M. to the acre. This represents a stumpage value in excess of $250,000 saved to the
Province through the operation of the reserve section of the " Forest Act."
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
Areas examined, 1923.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Fort George.   .
Kamloops	
Nelson 	
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver ....
Vernon	
Totals.
Applications for
Crown Grants.
11
9
170
600
912
719
973
1,535
4,909
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
No.
67
i
2
i
i
62
Acres.
7,452
1,920
325
160
160
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
No.
92
5
15
31
32
73
32
376
Acres.
13,556
618
14,705
2,411
3,756
4,803
9,197
5,736
64,782
Applications to
Purchase.
35
7
20
6
27
22
35
12
Acres.
2,288
1,388
3,194
740
'4,352
2,765
4,253
1,852
20,832
Miscellaneous.
9
5
14
6
5
17
66
17
Acres.
925
10,242
1,974
318
2,580
1,028
13,001
4,905
34,973
Classification of Areas examined, 1923.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook ..
Fort George..
Kamloops ....
Nelson	
Prince Rupert
Vancouver	
Vernon	
Totals
Total Area.
Acres.
24,391
12,848
22,705
4,513
10,688
8,756
27,424
14,188
125,513
Agricultural
Land.
Acres.
4,408
1,708
16,579
1,694
4,421
3,581
6,559
2,951
41,901
Area
recommended
for Reserve.
4,954
1,043
390
7,797
1,475
15,659
Estimate of
Timber on
Reserved Area.
M.B.M.
40,745
5,756
2,504
103,790
3,262
156,057
DRAUGHTING.
The work of the Draughting Office during 1923 has increased considerably in every department over that of the previous year, particularly in sketches to accompany timber-marks and
timber-sales. In regard to the latter, the use of the Ditto machine has proved of great value,
no less than 4,328 Ditto prints having been made, nearly all of which were of timber-sales.
In addition to the routine work, an analysis of which is given below, the staff has been engaged
in making plans for cruising parties and in the preparation of new atlas sheets, using the
reference maps of the Surveyor-General's Branch as a basis, all sheets in use being kept up
to date.
Much work has been done in regard to the furnishing of designs for auto camps, standardized
garages, workshops, tool-caches, and boat-houses, and in alterations to the structural designs for
standard launches. This, in many cases, necessitated making practically fresh designs and sets
of complete working drawings. 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 31
Analysis of Routine Work.
January	
February
March	
April.......
May	
June	
July	
August	
September....
October	
November	
December	
Totals
Timber-
sales.
23
11
19
21
34
50
50
52
46
32
Nl'.mber of Tracings made.
Timber-
marks.
207
110
126
123
111
97
Examination
Sketches.
35
42
44
31
39
44
38
29
25
44
44
50
Hand-logger
Licences.
12
3
17
39
14
41
20
12
19
5
13
6
Miscellaneous.
12
22
30
45
44
25
13
45
23
27
23
18
Totals.
188
236
259
271
237
193
207
180
227
225
220
2,732
Blue-prints
made from
S.G. Ref.
Maps.
16
48
49
99
166
160
30
66
48
27
29
29
757
TIMBER-MARKS ISSUED FOR THE YEAR 1923.
1922. 1923.
Old Crown grants  129 146
Crown grants, 1887-1908  120 147
Crown grants, 1906-1914  132 188
" Royalty Act"     291 392
Stumpage reservations     26 64
Pre-emptions under sections 28a and 28b, " Land Act "  20 45
Timber leases (50 cents royalty)     3 1
Dominion lands    58 115
Timber-sales    671 853
Hand-loggers      58 55
Special marks  3 1
Totals  1,511 2,007
Transfers and changes of marks      345 267
Hand-loggers' licences issued     288 198
CORRESPONDENCE.
Letters inward, numbered and recorded    35,500
Letters, reports, etc., received, not numbered or recorded   14,500
Total      50,000
Outward typed letters     22.000
Outward circulars, form letters, etc   25,000
Total      47.000
REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.
The revenue and expenditure of the Branch are in a most satisfactory condition as shown
by tables below. Revenue increased 8.5 per cent., reaching $3,482,365.29 during the year, which
exceeds estimates and constitutes a record within the history of the Branch.
Revenue is derived from two sources: First, ground rentals and renewal fees on timber
licences. This money is tendered to the Branch on the initiative of a timber-holder for renewal
of his rights, and requires little work on behalf of the Branch except book-keeping. There has
been a gradual shrinkage in amount so received from this source, due to the cutting-over or
dropping of timber licences. The amount on this account for the past year was $1,517,554.74,
as compared with $2,269,441 ten years ago. On the other hand, revenue, as charged, from active
operations has increased and now amounts to $2,119,033.72, as compared with $533,751 in 1914, E 32
Department of Lands.
1924
an increase of 300 per cent, in the ten years, 119 per cent, in the past five years, and 27 per cent.
over previous year.
Administration costs during the year amounted to $374,194 or 17% per cent, of the revenue
from operations, and thus shows a reduction of 4 per cent, over previous year and approximately
one-half of what it was prior to 1917.    The expedlture as shown in percentage of revenue from
operations being as follows :— Per cent.
Average for five years, 1913-17   34.0
Average for five years, 1917-21   22.0
The year 1922    21.5
The year 1923    17.5
A still better showing would have resulted but for the taking-on of new work from time
to time by the Branch, which was done in some cases under separate votes as far as field-work
was concerned.
The supervision and permanent personnel is included in the administration salaries.    Among
these new lines may be mentioned:—
Grazing, first undertaken    1919
Pre-emption inspection prior to 1919 was done by Lands Branch.
Insect-control      1920
Forest investigation and reconnaissance     1920
Forest Revenue.
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees.
Timber-licence penalty fees.
Hand-loggers' licence fees...
Timber-lease rentals	
Interests 	
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees ..   	
Scaling expenses.    	
Trespass penalty.   	
Scalers'examination fees.
Exchange	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous	
Grazing fees	
Taxation from   Orown-grant   timber
lands.	
Total revenue from forest sources
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1923
$1,283,300 77
3,750 00
100,045 86
5,300 00
102,062 40
72 22
28,383 49
431,007 99
9,933 97
3,509 00
1,477,027 24
1,160 89
667 53
11,362 99
495 00
3,168 40
1,559 17
6,907 36
83,468,714 28
13,651 01
308,041 92
83,790,407 21
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1922.
81,390,999 64
1,950 00
83,376 60
6,050 00
94,392 31
247 77
26,790 12
358,984 19
8,699 50
2,188 63
1,203,884 89
3,138 05
1,061 94
13,397 91
175 00
357 14
454 35
3,135 47
83,199,283 51
8,171 21
319,410 51
$3,526,865 23
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1921.
81,193,654 58
3,735 00
50,859 19
9,175 00
81,840 61
21 85
12,659 91
317,488 77
4,640 39
1,695 08
990,326 99
2,015 83
765 98
11,246 86
455 00
291 03
330 80
1,972 33
82,683,174 20
11,221 79
261,896 49
82,956,292 48
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1920.
$1,654,747 43
4,855 00
232,309 85
6,525 00
81,989 68
12 59
17,881 40
247,234 71
7,642 80
2,749 93
879,003 16
25,476 91
5,041 71
18,114 34
670 00
2,519 43
530 03
3,363 90
83,190,667 87
15,617 44
302,557 26
83,508,842 57
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1919.
81,236,530 41
2,790 00
49,259 95
7,250 00
85,101 37
345 10
10,045 26
219,012 08
3,763 49
1,929 71
788,746 69
64,571 19
13,072 79
7,464 12
205 00
3,550 80
280 12
1,055 67
82,494,973 75
9,500 41
251,264 82
82,755,738 98
12 Months to
Dec. 31, 1918.
81,372,789 28
4,625 00
79,605 09
2,975 00
77,748 25
69 67
7,753 84
151,598 86
1,921 73
1,152 40
698,059 27
66,304 90
9,753 29
1,599 38
315 00
1,637 91
2,813 82
1,980 70
82,472,703 39
258,105 14
$2,730,808 63
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1923.
(Amounts charged.)
Rovalty and
Tax.
Trespass
Penalties.
Seizure
Expenses.
Government Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stumpage.
Forest District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver & Is.
Cariboo .
Cranbrook ....
Prince Rupert.
Nelson   	
Vernon 	
Fort George ...
Kamloops	
81,067,827 34
1,454 56
108,822 17
159,644 70
52,644 25
38,425 36
52,026 25
18,511 20
$1,499,355 83
.$1,149,745 76
81,005,261 61
816,043 83
186 65
564 00
5,210 81
470 19
1,920 15
537 86
675 26
$25,508 75
$391 07
21 16
45 45
15 05
18 90
249 96
5 00
$ 746 59
$216 67
155 79
213 59
33 50
39 90
39 06
43 05
$ 741 56
81,933 72
8805 84
"36938
814,119 65
1,624 31
$15,743 96
897,781 95
10,931 71
8108,713 66
$103,774 90
8 219,137 26
1,358 50
19,224 51
89,761 47
31,991 IS
25,991 66
65,609 84
13,973 78
$467,048 15
81,416,323 61
2,999 71
128,787 63
267,801 42
85,154 12
66.395 97
118,462 97
33,108 29
Totals. ...
81,175 22
$2,119,033 72
Totals, 1922
814,926 63
$14,297 39
$1,326 80
$1,940 08
81,256 70
812,407 50
$11,396 11
8375,607 42
$396,303 19
$1,661,662 81
Totals, 1921
$ 516 85
$ 769 08
8114,450 43
$1,544,251 36 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 33
Fobest Expenditure, 1922-23.
Headquarters .
Cariboo	
Cranbrook    ...
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George.
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver 	
Vernon	
Totals.
Forest District.
Salaries.
$ 81,
5,
083 65
339 04
691 22
355 00
745 61
121 41
184 12
923 62
883 32
$204,326 1
Temporary
Assistance.
; 885 50
165 32
1,521 80
1,106 66
1,197 00
1,923 36
1,514 08
2,641 49
728 39
811,688 60
Expenses.
$ 24,954 52
3,836 44
5,700 47
3,647 76
6,178 27
4,490 22
24,211 17
43,004 87
4,335 35
$120,359 07
Lumber-trade extension
Reconnaissance, etc	
Insect-control	
Publicity.
Contingencies	
Grazing : range improvement .
Total.
106,923 57
9,340 80
16,913 49
11,109 42
19,120 88
18,534 99
47,909 37
93,569 98
12,947 06
$336,369 56
19,757 91
28,444 49
15,070 28
773 27
100 00
3,602 38
Grandtotal  $404,117:
The sums estimated as being required for the fiscal year 1923-24 were as follows:—
Salaries    $217,415 00
Travelling expenses and wireless telephone
Lumber-trade extension	
Reconnaissance, etc	
Insect damage:  investigation and control ..
Grazing:  range improvement 	
44.000 00
30.000 00
50,000 00
25,000,00
6,000 00
$372,415 00
In addition to this total, sums were available from the main Lands Department votes for
temporary  assistance,  office supplies,  maintenance of launches  and autos,  and  miscellaneous
expenses;   publicity, general investigations, and contingencies.    The sum of $300,000 was also
voted as the amount of the contribution of the Government to the Forest Protection Fund.
FOREST PROTECTION ACCOUNT.
Collection of the regular and second instalment of the special levy for forest-protection
was satisfactory.
The season's expenditure on fire-fighting accounts showed a marked reduction, amounting
to $327,997.60 for the nine months, which is the lowest figure for the past five years, as against
collections of $457,532.87 for the same period. The special advance made to cover deficits of
1919 and 1920 was repaid in full and the overdraught reduced by $S0,766.64. When the Government contribution on behalf of the special levy becomes available on April 1st, 1924, the fund
will have a substantial surplus to its credit.    The present standing of the fund is as follows:—
Forest Protection Fund.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1923:—
Balance (deficit) at April 1st, 1922  $ 50,013 16
Expenditure, fiscal year 1922-23  $841,407 28
Less refunds         18,251 96
 $823,155 32
Refunds of revenue   361 19
 823,516 51
$873,529 67
Collections, fiscal year 1922-23    $203,559 77
Collections under special levy, fiscal year 1922-23     163,958 11
Carried foncard     $367,517 8S $873,529 67
3 E 34
Department of Lands.
1924
Forest Protection Fund—Continued.
Brought foncard      $367,517 88 $873,529 67
Government contribution     313,697 36
Government contribution under special warrant     100,000 00
$781,215 04
Less amount transferred to Special Advance Account   191,301 47
 589,913 57
Balance (deficit) *   $283,616 10
* In addition to this deficit, the sum of $59,195.45 was owing to the Government on Marcl>
31st, 1923, in respect of Special Advance Account.
Balance (deficit) at April 1st, 1923  $2S3,616 10
Expenditure, April-Dec, 1923 (nine mos.)  $327,997 60
Less refunds          10,994 76
 $317,002 84
Refunds of revenue    567 94
 317,570 78
$601,186 88
Collections, April-Dec, 1923  (nine months)     $160,540 85
Collections, special levy, April-Dec, 1923 (nine months)      70,022 17
Government contribution, April-Dec, 1923 (nine mos.)    226,969 85
$457,532 87
Less amount transferred to Special Advance Account     59,195 45
 398,337 42
Balance  (deficit)     202.S49 46
Forest Protection Expenditure.
Fiscal Years.
1916-17.
1917-18.
1918-19.
1919-20.
1920-21.
1921-22.
1922-23.
1923-24
(9 mos., April
1st to Dec.
31st).
$144,251
3,747
7,124
$165,122
$100,304
20,111
91,470
$159,030
36,913
50,293
$198,172 35
28,397 43
165,688 80
8267,402 76
85,548 87
292,890 66
$339,163 85
25,286 68
106,891 17
8319,315 25
13,100 02
508,992 01
8237,941 06
72,706 16
17,350 38
$211,885
$246,236
8392,258 58
8645,842 29
$471,341 70
$841,407 28
$327,997 60
Expenditure by Districts for Nine Months ended December 31st, 1923.
Forest District.
Patrols.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$ 23,570 78
11,379 03
20,641 59
18,278 10
24,911 86
17,906 55
10.940 15
57,846 72
12,466 28
40,000 00
$ 3,668 84
12,926 58
1,406 55
12,081 44
4,208 10
4,959 86
31,983 87
1,470 92
$   1,244 55
2,097 88
1,820 77
2,392 42
812 94
918 58
5,877 97
2,185 37
$ 23,570 78
16,292 42
35,666 05
21,505 42
39,385 72
22,927 49
16,818 59
95,708 56
16,122 57
40,000 00
$237,941 06
$72,706 16
$17,350 38
$327,997 60 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 35
For Twelve Months, April 1st, 1922, to March 31st, 1923.
Forest District.
Patrols.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$34,624 42
14,438 42
25,790 33
21,088 28
30,872 28
22,503 98
17,790 91
124,213 55
19,471 00
8,622 08
$ 9,495 16
52,310 50
21,922 34
107,678 13
34,532 13
90,777 44
179,600 04
12,676 27
8508,992 01
$   765 13
864 70
1,675 57
1,415 16
642 60
584 76
6,072 69
1,079 42
$ 34,624 42
24,698 71
78,966 53
44,686 19
139,965 57
57,678 71
109,153 10
309,886 28
33,226 69
8,522 08
$319,315 25
$13,100 02
$841,407 28
THE SCALING FUND.
This fund, maintained by scaling fees and from which is paid all scaling expenses, remains
in a healthy condition and shows a credit balance of $47,793.48 at Decemher 31st, 1923, as
against $50,092.72 on April 1st, 1923.
When the scaling fee was reduced to 6 cents per thousand feet, board measure, it was
recognized that this fee would not cover cost of scaling, and it was considered that the surplus,
which then stood at $59,504.89, would be very materially reduced. The increased volume of
material scaled, especially during the past year, however, has somewhat reduced the per M. cost
of scaling, with the result shown above. We have now, however, reached a point where new
launches and other equipment are necessary to maintain the efficiency of the scaling organization,
aud it is pleasing to report that these can be provided from the surplus on hand.
Expenditure, fiscal year 1920-21         $102,351 10
Charges, fiscal year 1920-21    $119,464 55 	
Balance     17,113 45
$119,464 55        $119,464 55
Balance brought down    $ 17,113 45 	
Expenditure, fiscal year 1921-22     $ 89,S37 94
Charges, fiscal year 1921-22       132,229 38 	
Balance     59,504 89
$149,342 83        $149,342 83
Balance brought down     $ 59,504 89 	
Expenditure, fiscal year 1922-23    $122,963 11
Charges, fiscal year 1922-23       113,550 94 	
Balance     50,092 72
$173,055 83        $173,055 83
Balance brought down     $ 50,092 72 	
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1923  $104,277 00
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1923     101,977 76 	
Balance, being excess of charges over expenditure     47,793 48
$152,070 48       $352,070 48 E 36
Department of Lands.
1924
CROWN-GRANT TIMBER LANDS.          Area of Private *-„«.„, v«ln«
Timber Lands ™S4n,-»
(Acres). P"™ acre.
1911         824,814 $ 8 72
1912        874,715 8 60
1913        922,948 9 02
1914        960,464 9 66
1915        913.245 9 55
1916     922,200 9 73
1917        916,726 9 61
191S     896.188 9 60
1919        883.491 9 48
1920        867,921 11 62
1921        845,111 10 33
1922    '     8S7.9S0 11 99
1923        883,344 11 62
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1923.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1922.
Average Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value per
Acre since
1922.
49,337
189,270
92,917
29,732
81,101
4,908
83,191
195,711
1,660
48,610
80,901
2,660
23,346
883,344
+4,086
+ 1,576
-932
No change.
+3
No change.
-4,581
-5,733
+560
+ 1
+ 1
No change.
+383
-4,636
$25 27
14 05
19 57
11 83
4 77
3 92
16 65
3 58
13 90
14 42
5 10
31 25
20 46
Fort Steele	
No change.
No change.
No change.
Prince Rupert	
+    02
No change.
.-     33
Totals	
$11 62
-SO 37
FOREST-PROTECTION.
The fire season of 1923 was slightly below normal. The early spring brought on a fresh
growth of herbs and grasses and so reduced the early fire hazard. On the North Coast, however,
a decided lack of precipitation in this usually wet region brought in its wake a crop of fires
and a season more dangerous than usual.
A more complete system of organization was put into effect during the year. Each field
officer completed a chart of the resources (both human and material) of his district which
could be used in case of a fire emergency. This did away to a very large extent with the wasteful use of valuable time in gathering together men and equipment once a fire was reported.
A very large measure of co-operation was extended to the Department by the general public,
and especially by members of logging, telephone, and railway companies.
Perhaps the most pleasing feature of the year's development was the increase iii the number
of volunteer fire wardens who consented to take the first steps to control fires which might
break out in their vicinity. Not only did the number increase, but the value of service performed
also showed improvement, and the thanks not only of this Branch but of the general public is
due to these men who from their sense of responsibility as citizens of the Province and their
realization that timber is a national asset undertook to carry out their functions without other
reward than the satisfaction gathered in performing a public duty well. The number of volunteer fire wardens enrolled was 650, a remarkable growth when it is realized that this movement
started only three years ago.
The results obtained are shown in the various tables under this section.
Publicity.—It is now well established that forest-protection must be " sold " to the general
public in the same way as any marketable commodity, and to do this it becomes necessary to
keep the objective always to the front. This means that we must have constant publicity, and
that publicity must take new and attractive forms until " Prevent Forest Fires—It Pays "
becomes an every-day thought to the average citizen. 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 31
In addition to the usual publication of fire-law notices, advertising in the daily press and
various periodicals, publicity during the past year took the form of a " Forest-protection Week "
proclaimed by the Dominion Government. The Branch made the most of this week to give the
subject wide publicity. Through co-operation with the press many articles and editorials dealing
in a very striking manner with the necessity of protecting the forests from fire and showing
the relationship between a prosperous British Columbia and the lumbering industry carried the
message to the reading public. There can be no question that the lumbering industry should
for all time be the mainstay of prosperity in this Province, and that there cannot be a prosperous
country if this industry is robbed of raw material through burning it in large quantities yearly.
The various service clubs and boards of trade gladly received members of the staff who
addressed them on our forestry problems. The subject of forest-protection was preached from
the pulpits; it was taught in the schools. Commercial houses gave window displays portraying
the necessity of preserving the forests, and in their advertising carried our slogan, " Prevent
Forest Fires—It Pays." The general result was that the safety of our forests became a subject
more alive to the man on the street than it had been hitherto.
Later an essay competition for school-children on the subject " Our Forests and Why We
Should Protect Them from Fire" was held, forty-eight prizes being given to those who were
adjudged to have written the best essays. The prizes were divided into three groups: (1) Juniors
up to the High School Entrance class; (2) the Entrance class; and (3) High School pupils.
In each class the first prize was a cup on which was engraved the competition subject and the
name of the winner. Five second prizes, gold medals especially designed, were presented, and
for third prize ten silver medals of similar design. The competition brought 10,000 competitors
who showed a keen insight into the subject, and the high standard of the essays made the
selection of the winners a rather difficult task. All this threw an immense amount of extra
work on the field staff, but they rose loyally to the occasion. The result of this school essay
competition is that in 10,000 homes the subject of forest-protection is a live issue, and the reason
why we should protect our forests receives the concerted thought of the whole family.
Wind-shield stickers were designed and distributed. The Customs officers at all points of
entry into British Columbia co-operated in attaching these to the wind-shields of visiting motorcars.   Through this agency 150,000 of these stickers bearing forest-fire warnings were distributed.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT.
It is apparent that public opinion is veering strongly towards the side of forest-protection,
and only eighty-three informations were laid, compared with 173 in 1922. Specifically, it shows
that the knowledge of the permit laws is widening, and only thirty-five prosecutions were entered
for "burning without a permit," against 111 of 1922. Further, there were no prosecutions for
failure to equip with fire-prevention equipment, while in 1922 there were nine. The fines levied
amounted to $1,260, compared with $2,543 in 1922.
Prosecutions foe Fiee Tbespass, 1923.
Forest District.
Carihoo.	
Cranbrook	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver	
Vernon	
Totals	
Totals, 1922
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26
2 E 38
Department of Lands.
1924
FIRE    CHART.   SEASON    192 3.
RAINFALL 1   IVertical     D i vision - 1 1 nch    FIRES •.  1  Ve rt ical   Division - IO   Fi res.
TEMPERATURE-''--.1 Vertical   Division - IO. Degrees.
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Forest Branch.
E 39
FIRE    CHART.    SEASON    I9E3.
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TEMPERATURE--'"--. 1 Vertical   Division - IO  Degrees.
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Department op Lands.
1924 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 41
FIRE OCCURRENCE.
The number of fires which occurred in 1923 was 1,530, compared with 2,591 in 1922, or a
decrease of 40.95 per cent. Of this number, 673, or 43.99 per cent., were extinguished under
a quarter of an acre; 519, or 33.92 per cent., were extinguished under 10 acres. This means
that 1,192 fires, or 77.91 per cent, of the fires which occurred, were extinguished before they
had spread over a larger area than 10 acres. Again, 1,085, or 71 per cent., of tlie fires were
extinguished without cost other than patrol force.
Further classification shows that 1,396 fires, or 91.2 per cent, did less than $100 worth of
damage; 82 fires, or 5.36 per cent., did damage between $100 and $1,000; and 52 fires, or 3.4
per cent., damaged over $1,000 worth of property.
This outline is a very striking commentary on the fire risk which yearly endangers our
forests, for any one of the fires which occurred during the summer of 1923 might have fallen
into the latter class, except for the care which was exercised by the whole force, permanent,
temporary, and volunteer. The figures also show a record for fire-control with minimum damage
and expense.
NtlMBEB  AND  CAUSES   OF  FlRES,   1923.
3
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►     13
15
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6
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101
6.60
Totals	
274
17.91
262
17.12
180
11.77
154
10.06
170
11.11
35
2.29
71
4.64
173
11.31
1,530
100.0
100.0
FlKES, 1923, CLASSIFIED BY  PLACE OF ORIGIN AND  COST OF FlBE-FIGHTING.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver 	
Vernon	
Totals	
Per cent	
Totals, 1922,
Per cent	
Totals, 1921.
Percent	
Extinguished
WITH
Cost Money to
Total Cost op
Average
Cost
per Fire.
o.S
1 a.
0
a
out Cost.
extinguish.
fighting Fire.
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46
30
51
67.1
3.33
25
32.9
1.64
3,668 84
5.05
48 27
148
35
113
102
69.0
6.66
46
31.0
3.00
12,926 58
7.78
87 34
65
9
56
44
68.0
2.88
21
32.0
1.38
1,406 55
1.93
21 64
340
108
232
218
64.1
14.25
122
35.9
7.98
12,081 44
16.62
35 53
108
44
64
69
63.9
4.52
39
36.1
2.54
4,208 10
5.79
38 96
189
79
110
134
70.9
8.76
55
29.1
3.59
4,959 86
6.82
26 24
503
189
314
387
77.0
25.29
116
23.0
7.59
31,983 87
43.99
63 58
101
31
70
81
80.2
5.29
20
19.8
1.30
1,470 92
2.02
14 65
1,530
541
989
1,086
70.98
444
29.02
72,706 16
100.00
47 53
100.0
35.36
64.64
70.98
64.29
29.02
926
2,591
766
1,826
1,665
35.71
479,800 85
185 17
100.0
29.5
70.5
64.29
35.71
1,330
415
915
891
67.0
439
33.0
98,476 00
74 04
100.0
31.2
68.8
67.0
33.0 E 42
Department of Lands.
1924
CAUSES OF FIRES.
For the second year in the history of forest-protection in British Columbia lightning was
the biggest single cause of forest fires, being responsible for 274, or 17.91 per cent., of the fires
set in 1923, closely followed by those set by campers, with 262, or 17.12 per cent. Those set by
the operation of railways were 199, or 13.01 per cent., while smokers were responsible for 180,
or 11.77 per cent. Industrial operations set 170 and brush-burning 154, being respectively 11.11
and 10.06 per cent, of the total; the remainder being caused by public road-construction, miscellaneous known and unknown causes, and incendiary fires are shown to be 35, or 2.29 per cent.
NUMBEB AND  CAUSES OF FOEEST FlEES  FOE THE LAST NlNE  YEAES.
Causes.
Lightning    	
Campers and travellers	
Railway operation	
Railways under construction	
Smokers	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing) .
Public road-construction	
Industrial operation	
Incendiary	
Miscellaneous known	
Unknown causes	
Totals,.
274
262
199
180
154
12
170
35
71
173
246
626
332
355
22
203
69
202
530
2,591    1,330
126
20
119
40
64
204
304
246
227
1
7
104
32
115
310
146
97
5
129
21
140
156
1,141
134
158
104
1
ioo
2
80
15
72
224
48
209
335
48
5
59
13
55
214
67
268
121
148
12
59
22
19
148
100
305
82
17
'267
20
28
28
24
160
1,031
DAMAGE BY FIRE.
The quantity of timber killed by fire is shown as 87,271 M. feet, of which 37,891 M. feet is
salvable, leaving a net stumpage loss of 4S,3S0 M. feet, valued at $41,110. In addition, 12,800
acres of valuable reproduction and immature forests were destroyed of a present value estimated
at $32,400, and of much greater importance when we consider that it is this class of material
which is most needed to sustain our industry forty to sixty years hence, when our present mature
timber will have been largely cut. Other forms of property destroyed were logs and forest
products in the course of manufacture, $98,124; buildings, $135,995; railway and logging
equipment, $185,565; and miscellaneous damage, $197,965; or a total of approximately $700,000,
equivalent to 2S cents per M. feet on the year's production. The question, how much this loss
could be reduced by spending a part of the money involved in prevention, clearing up hazard,
improving equipment, special watchman during periods of weather hazard, is one worth the
serious consideration of every one who comes in contact with the forests and is subject to
the risk involved. 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 43
fa
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3 f7      -
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££
P Q
-a q
to
s
ft
Per
Cent.
0.74
0.90
3.76
2.39
3.09
52.38
36.18
0.56
o
©
O
8
|         540
670
2,795
1,774
2,292
38,888
26,860
413
go
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CO o
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3
Per
Cent.
0.18
36.07
0.20
1.04
1.88
47.21
13.12
0.30
o
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1 °
8
M. Feet
B.M.
164
31.H60
180
924
1,654
41,249
11,475
265
87,371
100.0
729,941
100.0
68,476
100.0
e7
U
<
Per
Cent.
5.41
15.96
2.38
4.23
9.28
34.04
27.18
1.52
o
o
o
1 °
Acres.
8,523
25,140
3,761
6,663
14,610
58,643
42,873
2,388
r-i O
o   ■
© o
t-"S
io
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co    ■
£"§
00 o
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oo ©
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2,326
1,319
2,214
52
597
1,707
404
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So
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Acres.
5,894
12,313
533
5,831
11,198
27,591
21,819
614
co to
3*3
Ol H
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nt	
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Department op Lands.
1924
FlEES,   1923,   CLASSIFIED BY   SlZE  AND  DAMAGE.
Total Fires.
Under -\ Acre.
-\ Acre to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage
Forest District.
H-S
H-*
£5
H-E
£3
o a
#3
8
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0)
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PHfc.
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4.05
7.13
%
PhhN
0. H-
P
(543
O
76
148
4 96
9.67
21
76
27.6
51.0
3.13
11.29
21
37
27.6
25.0
34
35
44.8
24.0
10.07
10.35
71
144
5
3
Cranbrook 	
1
65
340
108
4.25
22.23
7.06
31
214
29
47.7
62.9
26.9
4.61
31.79
4.31
20
91
52
30.8
26.8
48.1
3.85
17.53
10.02
14
35
27
21.5
10.3
25.0
4.14
10.35
7.99
61
315
100
3
23
6
1
2
Prince George	
2
189
12 35
54
28.6
8.02
62
32.8
11.95
73
38.6
21.60
165
14
10
Vancouver	
503
32.88
214
42.54
31.79
183
36.38 35.26
106
21.08
31.36
444
23
36
101
6.60
100.0
34
33.7
5.06
53
52.4
10.21
14
13.9
4.14
96
5
Totals	
1,530
100.0
673
43.99
100.0
519
33.92
100.0
338
22.09
100.0
1,396
91.24
82
6.36
52
Per cent   	
3.40
Totals, 1922	
2,591
637
909
1,045
2,171
253
167
Per cent	
100.0
24.6
35.1
40.3
83.8
9.8
6.4
Totals, 1921	
1,330
554
436
340
1,169
134
27
100.0
41.6
32.8
26.6
88.0
10.0
2.0
Damage to Peopeety othes than Foeests, 1923.
Forest District.
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging-
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
8 3,729
150
2J747
2,800
87,658
1,040
$98,124
$      10
50
26,100
23,250
86,585
$    900
184,315
350
$     972
6
65
456
120
190,115
6,205
37
*     972
3,745
205
505
29,867
216,165
364,763
1,427
0.15
0.60
0.04
0.08
4.83
34.99
59.07
0.24
$135,995
§185,565
$197,965
8617,649
100.00
COMPARISON  OF  DAMAGE  CAUSED  BY  FOBEST  FlRES  IN   THE  LAST   SEVEN  TEARS.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1,530
157,601
87,371
37,891
$74,238
617,649
2,591
1,568,585
729,941
117,006
$1,531,300
693,016
1,330
145,838
68,476
39,553
897,332
195,221
$292,553
1,251
389,846
229,253
49,575
$485,963
473,900
$959,863
1,141
433,797
287,520
93,559
$393,183
345,787
$738,970
910
140,085
42,886
22,387
$25,930
200,335
986
Standing timber destroyed or damaged (M. ft. B.M.)	
Amount salvable (M. ft. B.M.) 	
Damage to other forms of property..
237,289
267,186
48,133
$129,125
162,333
$691,887
$2,224,316
$226,265
$291,457
SLASH-BURNING.
The number of permits issued during the year 192.3 showed a decrease over the preceding
year. This was due to the early spring, which allowed settlers to Are and destroy large areas
of slash before the fire season opened, and in part due to the fact that the terrible Are season
of 1922 put a stop to the desire to burn during the height of the season. The total number of
permits issued was 11,554, compared with 12,120 in 1922. The total area burned over was
48,431 acres. Of the fires set under authority of burning permits, 87, or 0.75 per cent., escaped
control. Of the total acreage burned over under permit, 35,028 acres were agricultural land,
7,786 acres of logging-slash were destroyed, 4,619 acres of railway rights-of-way cleared, and
998 acres of road-slash was destroyed. 14 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
E 45
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HPh E 46 Department of Lands. 1924
SPARK-ARRESTERS.
Following an Order In Council which made compulsory the use of spark-arresters of a type
which had passed inspection, the necessary inspections were made, and five types of spark-
arresters were registered for donkey-engines and two types for locomotives. Although this
order was not too favourably received at first, the results showed that such an order was
necessary, and when it proved itself, as it did, many favourable comments were received from
operators.
WIRELESS TELEPHONE.
The wireless telephone service continued to give good service, and the total number of words
transmitted was 138,400. In view of the fact that Department launches would otherwise be out
of touch with headquarters, the value of this method of communication is apparent.
FOREST IMPROVEMENTS.
The most ambitious project undertaken was the construction of a launch for Vancouver
headquarters to replace the " R. J. Skinner," which has been in commission for the past fifteen
years. The new boat, " B.C. Forester," was built at the marine repair station of the Branch,
Thurston Bay. She has a length of 57 feet over all and 12.8 feet beam. The engine, of 50-horse-
power, full Diesel type, is a new venture for the Branch, but this type nasi already proven itself
on Coast waters in other crafts. The engine will use less than half the fuel consumed by the
ordinary gas-engine, and as the crude oil is much cheaper than gas or distillate the economy in
fuel will mean a material saving in operating expenses. The launch will be ready for commission early in the year 1924.
When it was definitely known that the expenditure for fire-fighting would be materially
reduced as compared with previous years, a programme which had for its object the opening-up
of the back areas of timber and making them accessible in case of fire was started upon. During
the summer and fall, when work of this nature could be carried on at a reasonable expense,
110 miles of new trail was constructed and 754 miles of old trail improved, and in some cases
relocated. One new look-out was erected on the top of Moyie Mountain. This now completes
the chain of Baker, Casey, and Moyie, covering the south-centre part of the East Kootenay
territories. Each look-out is connected by telephone with the main trunk lines and a fire when
spotted may be readily reported. Six cahins were built for housing Forest Branch officials when
travelling in the back country.
The fuelling arrangements at Thurston Bay Marine Station were remodelled and two tanks
erected so as to give the launches direct fuel instead of, as hitherto, refilling the launches' fuel-
tanks from drums. In addition, six new speeder-houses and garages, which also include storehouses for fire-fighting equipment, were erected and a house was constructed for the purpose
of the District Forester at Williams Lake.
MECHANICAL TRANSPORT AND EQUIPMENT.
Mechanical transport was called upon for service as follows: Railway speeders, of which
the Branch now operates fifteen, ran to the extent of 38,500 miles. The fifty-two motor-cars in
the service ran 275,000 miles, or an average of 5,288 per car, whereas the forty launches now
in commission sailed during the year 106,500 miles, making an average of 2,662 miles per boat.
In connection with our launch fleet, it is to be noted that all our repairs for the Coast section
are made at the Thurston Bay Marine Station, and as a criterion of the work done there in
the overhaul prior to the fire season it may be cited that not a single launch was out of commission during the whole of the danger period.
The portable fire-pumps again demonstrated their value, being run to the extent of 2,554
hours, which means that an excess of 4,000,000 gallons of water was used in extinguishing bush
fires.
The following equipment was added during the year: Two light-weight power-pumps;
twelve geared pumps for use on lake launches, the power being derived from the launch-engiue;
fifty-two hand-pumps, equipped with pack-boards for carrying purposes; two railway speeders
of the heavier type. 14 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 47
EQUIPMENT, IMPROVEMENTS, AND MAINTENANCE.
Cariboo.
Equipment—■
Three Ford cars    $ 1,900 00
One geared fire-fighting pump    S5 00
Three hand-pumps and pack-boards  54 00
Fire-fighting tools  427 00
One canoe  143 00
Hose for fire-fighting pumps   347 00
Total     ¥ 2,956 00
Improvements—
Canim Lake Boat and Tool House   $    118 00
Horsefly Lake Boat and Tool House   150 00
Quesnel Lake Boat-house and Shelter    925 00
Clinton Speeder-house '  175 00
Clinton Garage   625 00
Mount Begbie Lookout  417 00
District Forester's house at Williams Lake  4,309 00
Repairs to Williams Lake Ranger Station   175 00
Total     $ 6,894 00
Maintenance—
Miscellaneous     $    118 00
Cranbrook.
Equipment—
Four Ford cars    $ 2,748 CO
Two hand tank pumps and pack-boards   46 00
Hose for fire-fighting pumps   47 00
Total     $ 2,841 00
Improvements—
Bridge Creek Trail       $     463 00
Elk Valley Ranger Station       227 00
Moyie Mountain Lookout  1,029 00
Moyie Mountain Ranger Station   200 00
Sheep Creek Trail  600 00
East Fork Yahk River Trail   288 00
Camp-sites     88 00
Lizard Creek Pasture  61 00
Wigwam River Ranger Station Cabin   16 00
Total    $ 2,972 00
Maintenance—
Bridge Creek Trail     $      82 00
Elk Valley Telephone Line   256 00
Wigwam River Trail   264 00
Gold Creek Trail    192 GO
Casey Mountain Telephone Line   65 00
Lamb Creek Trail    52 00
Carried forward      $    911 00 E 48
Department of Lands.
1924
Cranbrook—Continued.
Brought forward    $    911 00
Maintenance—Continued.
Goat Mountain Trail   96 00
East Fork St. Mary River Trail   120 00
West Fork St. Mary River Trail    72 00
Elk River Trail    2S0 00
Flathead Valley Trail   252 00
Kootenay River Trail     155 00
Wildhorse Trail    252 00
Dutch Creek Trail    90 00
Total     $   2,228 CO
Kamloops.
Equipment—
Two Ford cars    $ 1,266 00
One geared fire-fighting pump  85 00
Three hand tank pumps and pack-board   64 00
Seymour Arm Evinrude and Boat   201 00
Seymour Arm Scow     151 00
Five rowboats   215 00
Total    $ 1.9S2 00
Improvements—
Seymour Arm-Columbia River Trail    :  $    229 00
Myrtle River Bridge   370 00
Grizzly Mountain Trail    275 00
Canyon Ranger Station Cabin   197 00
Camp 1 Ranger Station Cabin   59 00
Clearwater-Blue River Trail     511 OO
Adams Lake Marine Ways    221 00
Total     $ 1,862 00
Maintenance—
Barriere-Adams Lake Trail   $    378 00
Canoe River Trail    ISO 00
Adams River Wagon-road   492 00
Adams River-North Thompson Trail   1S4 00
Clearwater-Blue River Trail    104 00
Little Clearwater Ranger Station Cabin    95 00
Camp Creek Ranger Station Cabin    72 CO
Trail, Main Columbia  64 00
Canoe River Trail    155 00
Myrtle Crossing-Clearwater Lake Trail     122 00
Upper Thompson River Trail   56 00
Miscellaneous     45S 00
Total    $ 2,360 00 14 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 49
Nelson.
Equipment—
One Ford car      $ 612 00
One Evinrude fire-fighting pump and hose    535 00
One trailer for speeder  100 00
One hand tank pump and pack-board   37 00
Fire-fighting hose   531 00
Six geared fire-fighting pumps   503 00
Total    .'   $ 2,318 00
Improvements—
Chairs for Duncan River Crossing   $ 73 00
Cariboo Creek Trail  50 00
Blueberry Creek Trail     220 CO
Cambridge-Dry Creek Trail  112 00
Big Sheep Creek Trail   213 00
Hamil Creek Trail and River Crossing    93 00
Cabin at Duck Lake   212 00
West Fork Little Slocan-Grizzly Creek-Wilton Creek Trail   175 00
West Fork Little Slocan-Wilton Creek-O.P. 4 Trail  255 00
Miscellaneous     107 00
Total     $ 1,510 00
Maintenance—
March Creek-Champion River Trail   $ 56 00
Cable Crossing at Pend d'Oreille River   53 00
Haley's Landing-East River Trail  141 00
James Lake-Fish Lake Trail   50 00
Repairs to Ymir Tool-store   60 00
Miscellaneous     257 00
Total    $ 617 00
Pbince Geoeoe.
Equipment—•
One Ford car  $ 210 00
Four hand-speeders   363 00
Fire-fighting tools   481 00
One geared fire-fighting pump   85 00
Three hand tank pumps and pack-boards   54 00
One rowboat    25 00
Total     $ 1,218 00
Improvements—
Goat River Speeder-house (addition)    $ 600
Giscome Speeder-house   97 00
Summit Lake Cabin    260 00
Vanderhoof Tool-cache   198 00
Willow River Trail  272 00
Total      $    833 00
4 E 50 Department of Lands. 1924
Peince Rupeeo7.
Equipment—■
Fire-fighting hose, etc   $    152 CO
Five hand-speeders     435 00
Twelve hand tank pumps and pack-boards   210 00
Fire-fighting tools     714 CO
Launch  " Swifter "  600 00
Total   '.   $ 2,111 00
Improvements—
Burns Lake Garage   $    675 00
Terrace Speeder-house  79 CO
Smithers Garage  (moving)     46 00
Total     $    SCO 00
ArANCOTTVEE.
Equipment—
New Headquarters launch     $12,000 00
Boat and Evinrude for Hayden Lake   260 00
Three dinghies    20S 00
Nine Ford cars   ,  5,700 00
Two gasolene-speeders    2,034 00
Three bicycles  170 00
Power-grindstone at Myrtle Point    25 CO
New scow   59 00
One Evinrude fire-fighting pump and hose   565 00
Four geared fire-fighting pumps and hose   260 00
Hand tank pflmps and pack-boards   493 CO
Fire-fighting tools     1,488 00
Miscellaneous fire-fighting equipment   1,200 00
Equipment-boxes for pumps    375 00
Fire-fighting hose, etc  1,630 00
Total    $26,477 00
Improvements—
Fuel-tanks at Thurston Bay    $    767 00
Reconstruction, float at Thurston Bay   591 00
Mooring for launch " Elmera "    86 00
•Camp-fire places    240 00
Pitt River Trail   ."  823 CO
Theodosia Arm Trail    200 00
Survey, Muchalet Arm Trail    921 00
Shawnigan Lake Trail   329 00
Miscellaneous     37 00
Total      $ 3,994 00
Maintenance—
Repairs, Thurston Bay Station, etc  $ 548 00
Repairs, etc., Myrtle Point Ranger Station    190 00
Repairs, Wellbore Ranger Station    286 00
Repairs, Squamish Ranger Station   43 00
Carried foncard     $ 1,067 00 14 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 51
Vancottvee—Continued.
Brought forward   $ 1,067 00
Maintenance—Continued.
Maintenance and rent of wireless, all stations   4,517 00
Myrtle Point Telephone Line   519 00
New aerials, Vancouver Wireless    190 00
New power plant, Myrtle Point Wireless   702 00
Total     $ 6,995 CO
Veenon.    .
Equipment—
Two Ford cars    $ 1,264 00
One Star car   826 CO
Four hand tank pumps and pack-boards   71 00
Fire-fighting hose   S5 00
Total    $ 2,246 00
Improvements—
Manning Creek Trail     $ 66 00
North Fork China Creek Trail   66 CO
Upper Shuswap Trail     792 00
Little White Mountain Telephone Line and Trail    932 00
B.X. Mountain Telephone, Line  98 00
Total      $ 1,054 00
GRAZING.
Range Conuitions.
Grazing conditions during the past season on the open range have been excellent throughout
all of the grazing districts. While the rainfall was heavier than usual during the early part of
the season, the weather during the haying period was settled, and in consequence the heavy
hay-crops were harvested with very little loss. The hay-supplies left over from the mild winter
of 1922-23, together with the abundant crops this past season, provide heavy supplies for feeding
this winter.
Peices.
The prices paid for beef during the past year have been low when overhead expenses under
present methods of handling range stock are considered. The lack of proper management among
the general herds results in lack of service from good bulls, a consequent low calf-crop, lack of
growth in the beef animal, the carrying-over from year to year of numerous cows that never
bring calves, and in many other serious leaks which, if stopped, would make even present prices
appear attractive. On the average it would appear that the price for good-quality beef from
the British Columbia ranges has during the past two years been slightly higher than Calgary
stockyard prices. The British Columbia ranges cannot be surpassed for the production of
good-quality range beef. Better attention must be paid to breeding, winter feeding, dehorning,
and, in particular, more careful distribution on the open range where the cows are bred, the
calves are born, and the beef makes practically its only growth.
The prices for mutton and lamb have been very good and in many cases 11 cents per pound
at country points have been paid. The demand for small cuts of meat and the superior quality
of British Columbia mutton and lamb and its comparative scarcity is responsible for the excellent
price to the grower.
Sheep Peoduction.
The recovery of the sheep business from its chaotic condition of two years ago has awakened
a deep interest in increased sheep production in the Province.    A vigorous campaign has been E 52 Department of Lands. 1924
carried on to stimulate and keep up this interest, and the result is seen in the increase in
numbers of sheep in the Province.
Inquiries as to where sheep can be obtained are very numerous, and while a few have been
able to secure small flocks, the bulk of inquirers have not been able to purchase.
This is owing, in the first place, to local growers being unable to supply the demand for
breeding ewes, and again to the dearth of breeding ewes in neighbouring Provinces for sale.
The main source of supply for British Columbia needs are the States of Washington, Oregon,
and Idaho, in the United States, where large numbers of sheep are raised. While there is a
good home market accessible to the sheepman of those States for all of the breeding ewes he
has to spare, the British Columbia sheepman could obtain the good ewes at reasonable prices
at Washington, Oregon, and Idaho points, but he is hindered and practically prevented from
purchasing by the existence of the duty of 25 per cent, on the purchase price of all sheep brought
into Canada. This duty does not affect the market for United States breeding ewes, but it does
prevent the sheepman of the Province from stocking up. The suspension of this duty, so far as
it relates to breeding ewes, would benefit the Province greatly, for there is abundant room for
twenty times the sheep we now raise, and the necessity for importing mutton and mutton
products for home consumption requires purchases being made outside the Province to the
extent of over $500,000 annually.
AUTHOEITY.
Authority was granted to graze the following numbers of the different classes of live stock
on the Crown ranges during the 1923 season :—
n. ,..„t Cattle and Sheep and
Ulstrict- Horses. Goats.
Cranbrook     2,500 10,000
Fort George    500                	
Kamloops*  34,000 5,500
Nelson     2,C0O 500
Prince Rupert     300                 	
Vancouver     200                 	
Vernon (Nicola and Princeton)     15.C00 5,000
Vernon (Okanagan and Similkameen)     5,500 5,000
Totals      60,000 26,000
The records to date show that permits for the following numbers of stock have been applied
for for 1923 :—
t.. .  . i.                                                                                     Cattle and Sheep and
Ulstrlct-                                                                                         Horses. Goats.
Cranbrook           714 	
Kamloops—
Kamloops           943 238
Cariboo Grazing District    32,955 953
Nelson        1,748 	
Vernon   17.768 1.280
Totals     54,128 24,712
Stock in the Fort George and Vancouver Grazing Districts graze on private lands.    In
addition to these numbers a very large number of milk cows and work-horses belonging to
small settlers are allowed on the Crown ranges free of charge.
The amount of grazing fees collected for the period January 1st to December 31st, 1923, is
$13,651.01.    The receipts for grazing leases for the same period total $6,478.72.
The continued low price of beef is responsible for failure to keep up the annual payment
of fees in many cases.    Collections of current fees and of arrears are, however, rapidly cutting
down the total of amounts due.
Obganization.
The organization of the stockmen under the grazing regulations for range-management work
is extending.    The stockmen in some units of the district, where in the past co-operation received
: Includes  present Cariboo Grazing District. 14 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 53
has been somewhat lacking in spirit, are now awakening to the fact that the Government has
the range stockman's interests at heart and are keenly desirous of having proper organizations
operating in all the districts, so that their problems may be properly brought to the attenion
of the Department and be satisfactorily solved and all difficulties adjusted. The ultimate objects
to be attained and the system of organizations was very fully discussed in the report for 1921
season, and it need only be said here that a big advance has been made in this work during the
past two seasons.
Range Impbovements.
An extremely important phase of the grazing-management work is that relating to. the
improvement of the ranges. It is gratifying to note that the progress made in the organization
of the stockmen has led to such active co-operation that this office has been enabled to investigate,
examine, undertake, and carry to completion many urgent range improvements throughout the
actively co-operating districts.
The following summary of range-improvement expenditures to November 23rd, 1923, will
indicate the interest that is now being taken by the stockmen in the improvement of the range
for their benefit.
The amount available for expenditure each year equals one-third of the grazing fees collected
as required by section 11 of the. " Grazing Act."
Receipts.
Special appropriation, 1919   $5,000 00
Special appropriation, 1920*  72 11
 $ 5,072 11
Expenditures.
Drift-fence, Creston Stock-range   $   250 00
Drift-fence, Aspen Grove Stock-range        752 15
Drift-fence, Allen Grove Stock-range        140 34
Drift-fence, Lundbum Common         167 63
Experimental reseeding plot, Nicola Range  20 SO
Grasshopper-control on range  .'  65 S4     «
 1,396 75
Returned to Consolidated Revenue   $ 3,675 35
Receipts.
1919. March 31st, 1920, one-third grazing fees  $3,39S 00
1920. March 31st, 1921, one-third grazing fees  5,314 S9
1921. March 31st, 1922, one-third grazing fees  3,602 38
1922. March 31st, 1923, one-third grazing fees  2,948 99
 $15,264 26
Expenditures.
Drift-fences   $5,970 58
Mud-holes      2,614 39
Stock-trails           83S 50
Water-development           50 00
Corrals     50 00
Grasshopper-control           328 22
Experimental reseeding         103 55
Salt demonstration   31 00
 $ 9,986 24
Projects partially completed, partially paid for—
Drift-fences       1,081 51
* For the year 1920 a special range-improvement vote of $3,500 was made. This, less $72.11 expended,
was returned to the Treasury on the receipt of $3,398, representing one-third of the grazing fees for the
year April  1st,  1919,  to March 31st, 1920. E 54 Department of Lands. 1924
Total receipts under section 11, " Grazing Act, 1919 "   $15,264 26
Expenditures from established Range Improvement Fund—
Projects complete    .'   $9,986 24
Projects partially complete       1,081 51
Total expenditures to November 23rd, 1923       11,067 75
Credit balance, November 23rd. 1923   $ 4,196 51
The following summarized statement of projects completed but not yet settled for and
projects under way is indicative of the active interest now being taken in the development and
careful management of the ranges. In all of this work the most satisfactory co-operation and
interest is being taken by the stockmen and associations. Many of the projects included in
this summary will be completed by December 31st, 1923.
Projects completed, not yet paid for—
Drift-fences      $2,057 56
Mud-holes          528 50
Water-development         135 00
$2,721 06
Projects under way, not completed—
Drift-fences (estimated cost)      $   430 CO
Mud-holes  (estimated cost)           245 00
Stock-trails and bridges  (estimated cost)           140 00
Breeding-pastures	
Corrals         500 00
$1,315 00
Projects authorized, not yet begun—
Mud-holes (estimated cost) :  $   435 00
Corrals*(awaiting report)  	
Breeding-pastures (awaiting report)   	
Holding-grounds   (estimated cost)        1,S00 00
Water-development (estimated cost)     40 00
$2,275 00
Projects recommended, approval pending—
Drift-fences (awaiting report)	
Mud-holes   (estimated cost)      $   550 00
Stock-trails (awaiting report)   	
$   550 00
The cost of the above projects will be met from the credit balance and sum equal to one-third
of fees paid since April 1st, 1923.
Buening and Reseeding on the Ceown Ranges.
The further examination of burns occurring on the Crown ranges indicate the wisdom of
continued forest-protection as a means of maintaining at its capacity the range and water
thereon. The change from an open Douglas-fir type to that of the present lodgepole type now
found on the Cariboo-Lillooet Plateau is due entirely to the heavy fires of about sixty years ago.
Only the best of protection will restore it to its former valuable grazing condition.
The reseeding of this year has been restricted to a little reseeding with Chewing's fescue
and White Dutch clover at the Alberta Lake experimental area in the Lillooet District and the
establishment of an experimental area on the Fernie Stock-range, Cranbrook District.
The examinations made during the past season of the Alberta and Nicola sowings did not
disclose very satisfactory results. The fescue sown on the Alberta Lake area has made a good
growth, but it remains to be seen whether it will grow in competition with the native vegetation 14 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 55
now rapidly coming in. Unfortunately the high degree of palatability in the cultivated species
leads to heavy grazing, which is also most likely to prevent the sowing from developing successfully. There are indications also that the burning is to be followed by a very dense growth of
lodgepole, which will destroy for many years the grazing value of the area burned over.
The sowing on the Nicola area is practically a failure owing to heavy competition from
native forage. Cultivated species of forage must be given a measure of protection if they are
to establish themselves. This protection is exactly suited to the more hardy native plants;
they recover rapidly and choke out the cultivated species.
Genebal.
In spite of the general feeling that the price for range beef received is too Ww, it may be
said that the past year from a general range-management view-point was most satisfactory.
The season opened after a very mild winter with a good growth of forage, particularly heavy
on the lower or grass-producing ranges. Hay-supplies were plentiful, and those cattlemen who
came through the winter with well-fed beef were enabled to ship it early and in good condition
and reap the benefit of the better prices being paid during the early summer and before the
market was glutted by heavy shipments of beef in inferior condition.
Hay-crops during 1923 were heavy and an abundance of forage for the 1923-24 winter is
available. If beef is well fed this winter the price for early 1924 beef will be very satisfactory,
and possibly there will be an advance over 1923 prices for even the inferior offerings.
The " low " prices of the last two years have had the good effect of turning the stockmen's
attention to losses occurring on the range and due entirely to lack of supervision of the herds
during the open grazing season.
The range stockman of British Columbia is seriously handicapped in the matter of competent
help, to whose discretion he can leave the supervision of the stock when it! is on the open range
and be sure that progressive methods will govern all the important operations which necessarily
must be performed in the handling of the stock.
This lack of competent assistance suggests that all range cattlemen will do well to consider
the employment of men with the intensive and careful live-stock experience demanded by the
highly developed farming conditions of the Mother-country and who are now coming to Canada
under recently inaugurated immigration plans. It must be kept in mind that the ability to sit
on the back of a bucking horse does not make a cowman, and that a knowledge of the trails and
other physical features of a range does not constitute the experience necessary to care for cattle
on the open range in these days of heavy, all-round competition in the marketing of beef. The
work of the Department in improving the ranges and making possible better attention being
given the breeding and beef herds is having a great influence in stimulating activity where
activity is needed. From now on it is predicted there will be a great improvement in the range-
cattle industry in British Columbia. E 56 Department of Lands. 1924
APPENDIX.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FOREST FIRE PROTECTION, BRITISH EMPIRE
FORESTRY CONFERENCE, 1923.
' Report of Committee appointed to " make suggestions for better forest-fire protection in
the British Empire, with special reference to the Canadian forest-fire problem."
The Committee beg to report as follows:—
(1.) Importance of Forest-fibe Pbotection.
At the outset we draw attention to the widespread damage done by uncontrolled forest
fires both to the timber resources of various countries and provinces and to the lives and property
of settlers in forest tracts. The forest-fire problem in Canada being the particular subject
entrusted to us, this report will deal largely with that problem,- noting similar phases arising
elsewhere in the Empire as occasion warrants. Canadian forest-fire statistics and methods of
organization to meet the fire situation have already been given in detail in papers presented to
the Conference* and will therefore not be touched on in this report, which will be confined to
questions of policy. To such extent does this damage from fire militate against the practice of
forestry that no proper management can be instituted until satisfactory methods of fire-protection have been devised and inaugurated. This problem of fire-protection is believed to be the
most fundamental requirement of Canadian forestry. In particular the danger of total loss
through forest fires is the greatest single deterrent to the practice of forest-management, not
only by the State, but by private individuals or corporations, on whom to a very considerable
extent the continuous production of timber from forest lands must in future depend.
(2.) Necessity of Dedication and Concentration of Effoet.
From the forester's standpoint forest-fire protection is pure insurance against loss through
fire of capital stock in soil and timber. Reduction of expenditure to the minimum as well as
ease of attainment of adequate protection both point to the necessity of dedicating by law definite
areas as reserved forests. The permanent retention of absolute forest lands for continuous
timber production is also, of course, fundamental to proper forest policy. Neither the present
population of Canada nor the population which may be expected within the next generation
can hope to support the expenditure which would be involved in providing adequate fire-protection for the entire forest area. This being the case, it appears to us that a wise protection
policy should work towards concentration of effort on areas where soil, growth, and market
conditions provide optimum opportunity for forest-management, leaving other areas with a
modicum of protection until such time as the more valuable districts have been fully organized.
Capital values, present and future, together with risk, must in the long run determine the proper
expenditures for insurance against loss.
(3.) Peopeb Segregation of Expenditure.
We must take cognizance ol the fact that in Canada, and possibly other parts of the Empire,
additional duties devolve on the forest authorities, duties concerned primarily with the protection
of community and private property in forest regions liable to loss through uncontrolled fire in
forest and brush lands. As settlement becomes organized this duty may be relegated to communal authorities, but in the extensive unorganized areas found in Canada the responsibility
must rest for a long time with the forest authority. Except in so far as forest property is
directly or indirectly protected by such procedure, funds expended in protection of life and
property should not be considered as a part of Government expenditure of forest-management.
* See Proceedings of Second British Empire Forestry Conference. 14 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 57
We realize that the two conditions merge and no line of distinction other than one selected
on an arbitrary basis can be defined until forest policy has developed to the stage where all
absolute forest land has been permanently dedicated to forest purposes. Such purposes include
timber production, watershed (catchment area) protection, and recreational use. The point
to be stressed is that only that part of the total expenditure on fire-protection rightly debitable
to fire insurance on forest capital should be charged against forestry.
(4.) Direction of Settlement.
In the protection from fire, as in the management of any forest property, compact settlement areas are essential to success, and while this is a matter of general governmental as distinct
from purely forest policy, we think it incumbent to stress the necessity of direction of settlement
in forest regions on a community basis rather than allowing indiscriminate location with consequent increase in the fire hazard. This is particularly important at the present time because
the dedication of forest lands to timber production is just starting and will necessarily continue
over a long period of time, increasing as forest policy is defined and accepted. Indiscriminate
settlement in the interim will greatly enhance the difficulty of proper dedication in the future.
Particular stress must be laid on the fact that proper land classification and restriction of settlement to agricultural lands in forest regions is an essential of general Government policy. These
considerations apply also to conditions in Australia.
(5.)  Fire-prevention.
Fire-prevention outweighs in importance all other factors in securing adequate forest-fire
protection. No forest authority can cope with the situations developing under adverse conditions
without the whole-hearted support and co-operation of the general public. In education aud
publicity, beginning with the children in the schools and extensive enough to reach all classes of
the population, lies the only hope of attaining adequate forest-fire protection. The attention
given to this subject by forest authorities in the past has been, in general, intermittent and
casual only. In the self-governing Dominions in particular, staffs must be built up and expenditure on education and publicity largely increased if the forest resources of the Empire are to
be conserved.
Education of the young, in our opinion, is particularly important, and in this connection
it is thought that proper courses of instruction should be a part of the curriculum of all students
in training to become school-teachers. Teachers who are themselves totally ignorant of the
fundamentals of forest-fire protection cannot be expected to make any lasting impression on
their pupils.
Slash-disposal in logging operations must be secured before adequate fire-protection can be
hoped for. While this will undoubtedly mean increased logging costs, we are not convinced that
such costs will represent a total economic loss to Canada. In the first place, it may be assumed
that decreased fire hazards resulting from proper slash-disposal will permit of considerable reduction in protection expenditure, particularly fire-fighting costs. In the second place, slash-disposal
will undoubtedly facilitate removal of timber from the woods, resulting in a saving which may
in part offset cost of slash-disposal.
We feel it necessary to call attention to the carelessness of certain Government road departments, evidenced throughout Canada, in not making provision for disposal of slash resulting from
road-construction in forest regions. Slash piled contiguous to timber along routes of'travel is
particularly dangerous, as well as setting an unfortunate precedent by Governments to private
individuals and companies. •
The slash-disposal problem in Canada is divisible into two main parts—slash-disposal in
British Columbia and slash-disposal in the rest of Canada.
As regards British Columbia, in the spruce-lodgepole pine type, which covers the northern
interior and the central upper slopes of the mountains, slash-disposal offers no essential differences
from Eastern Canada. In the yellow-pine stands of the Dry Belt the accumulation of slash is
not heavy and the disposal thereof is not of primary importance from the standpoint of fire-
protection. Solution of the bark-beetle problem, however, involves slash-disposal.' We are of the
opinion that this can be done successfully only by piling and burning under proper supervision.
In the coastal forests of British Columbia the accumulation of debris after logging is so
great that broadcast burning affords the only hope of securing slash-disposal.   The hazard can E 58 Department of Lands. 1924
be materially reduced only by a hot burn. This involves intensive control. The effects of
such burning on the soil must, however, be seriously considered, particularly on thin peaty soils.
So far as the country east of the Rockies is concerned, we agree on the point that proper
slash-disposal is quite feasible. It is a fact that slash-disposal is now being practised successfully
in certain operations in Ontario and on national forests. The problem is an economic one and
can be solved only when the costs can be equalized between competitive operations. This points
to joint action by the Provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick and the Dominion
authorities for lands under their control. We endorse the suggestion that a conference be
proposed to consist of the Ministers of the Crown responsible for forest administration, together
with their Chief Foresters and Federal representatives, meeting together with representatives
of the forest industries, to lay down a fixed course of action. Such a conference should suggest
the procedure necessary to enforce slash-disposal on private lands also, because without this
the necessary results cannot be secured.
(6.) Fire-control.
While fire-prevention must be looked to as the principal factor necessary for adequate
fire-protection, fire-control must continue to play a very important part in Canada, where
unfavourable climatic conditions may result in sudden emergency periods of great danger. For
proper fire-control it is essential that forest officers should be clothed with powers adequate to
enable thein to deal with emergency situations. These powers should include, in our opinion,
authority to conscript labour at prescribed rates of pay for fire-fighting purposes.
Adequate protection of any forest region from fire presupposes complete control by the
forest authority over all forest activities on such an area. During danger seasons fire should
be set out only under permit, which should be issued only after actual inspection of the area
to be burned. Permits should contain specific detail conditions prescribing effective precautions
against the spread of fire and should be issued by one authority only in each area.
The forest authority enforcing fire-protection need not be governmental, but may consist
of municipalities, timber-owners' associations, or private corporations, providing these are
properly endowed with legislative authority and organized in accordance with governmental
requirements. It seems essential, however, that there should be only one authority operating
in any one area.
Fire reports are renowned for incompleteness and divergence of information given. It seems
essential to a proper presentation of the facts to the people at large that there should be a clear
idea between forest authorities of the essential data required in fire reports. Standardization
of forms or, at least, of details to be reported on is recommended.
We are impressed not only w7ith the value but with the necessity of using air-craft in protecting the forests of the inaccessible and uninhabited north country of Canada, where absence
of means of transportation and communication prohibits fire-detection or quick action on fire
starting, by any other means. The use of air-craft is fundamental to fire-protection in such
cases because only by their use can access to the location of the fire be obtained within a period
of time short enough to permit of successful efforts at control. Unfortunately costs of operation
are so high as to restrict use below the point of efficiency where forest authorities are required
to pay in full for services received.
In view of the importance of this subject, we feel that the attention of the Governments
should be drawn to the national necessity of providing free or at moderate rates for the use of
existing air services to the fullest extent in forest-protection work. Where Government air
service facilities are not adequate to meet all the requirements, we are of the opinion that subsidies should be granted to commercial air companies sufficient to allow them to carry out forest-
protection work at rates which are within the economic means of forest authorities.
(7.) Conclusion.
The present condition in Canada and in certain other parts of the Empire with regard to
forest-fire protection is unsatisfactory. Nevertheless, hopeful signs exist; areas of individual
fires and the amount of-timber fosses thereon are decreasing; in Canada the damage done by
fire along railways has been reduced to the stage where it now represents a minor loss only.
Therefore, after careful review of the forest-fire problems confronting forest authorities in
different parts of the Empire, and of the organization and methods designed or proposed to meet 14 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 59
such problems, while we admit the seriousness of the obstacles intervening, we desire to record
our faith in the ability of forest authorities to handle the situations confronting them, provided
they are given full public support and the requisite assistance from Government in proper legislation and funds. In this connection we would refer to Sweden and the Baltic Provinces of
old Russia, where general timber and climatic conditions are comparable to those found in
Canada, and where enlightened public sentiment is responsible for the fact that forest fires
are practically unknown.
D. Roy Cameron, Chairman.
Avila Bedard.
P. Z. Caverhill.
Owen Jones.
C. G. Trevor.
L. S. Webb.
E. J. Zavitz.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE  ON SILVICULTURE IN CANADA, BRITISH EMPIRE
FORESTRY CONFERENCE, 1923.
The Committee appointed to report on Silviculture in Canada beg to report as follows:—
1. By silviculture we understand the treatment of forests in such manner as to ensure
continuous production of timber and other forest products for the uses of trade and Industry.
It includes not only the common conception of planting, but also the direction of natural regeneration and the tending of the timber-crop to maturity. Its objects and processes are parallel
with those of agriculture, both turning to account the productivity of the soil.
2. Silviculture and protection against fire, insects, and fungi obviously go hand in hand.
Without adqeuate protection it is a waste of money to practise silviculture on a given area.
On the other hand, correct silvicultural methods facilitate protection against such enemies.*
3. A form of silviculture has been practised in Canada for several decades. In imposing a
diameter limit on licence-holders, the Provincial Governments and others doubtless had in mind
that forests were not mines to be exploited once and for all, but that by intelligent treatment
they could be made to yield continuous supplies. We have seen enough of the way in which this
treatment of the forests has worked to feel justified in stating that it has not produced the
results anticipated. It has led, for example, to the depletion of the more valuable and the
predominance of inferior species.
In other words, the development of silviculture in Canada has not kept pace with the requirements of continuous production.
Conditions Precedent to the Practice of Good Silviculture.
4. To secure good results in silviculture, definite objectives, fixity of purpose, and sustained
effort are required. In effect, this means that the State must commit itself to a definite forest
policy, and having so committed itself be content to leave that part of policy7 which deals with
timber-growing to the expert silviculturist.
5. Before the silviculturist can practise his work successfully, certain steps dependent on
forest policy have therefore to be taken. The procedure has already been successfully worked
out in a number of countries, on the following lines, viz.:—
(1.) Classification of forest areas into those which are to remain forest and those which
are suitable for other purposes.
(2.) Dedication to forestry of those parts which are to remain forest.
(3.) Demarcation of the dedicated parts so that'they are definite and tangible areas
known to all men.
(4.) Regulation of the demarcated forests under definite plans of management (working-
plans).
6. It is in the regulated forest that-silviculture finally becomes most effective and the rate
of production of timber reaches the maximum.   The forest is divided into units of convenient
* See Report of Committee on Forest Fire Protection. E 60 Department of Lands. 1924
size, processes of treatment are devised, put into operation, improved as experience directs, and
intensified as the economic conditions permit
7. In detailing the procedure which leads up to the regulated forest, we do not intend to
imply that silviculture cannot be practised in a preliminary way without going through all the
steps in order, or that for adequate reasons the steps may not be retraced. But we do insist'
that they represent the logical order of development, and that the last stage—the regulated
forest—is that to which the forest must finally come if continuous production of timber is to be
secured.
Application of General Principles to Canada.
8. We now proceed to consider to what extent these general principles are applicable at
this stage to Canadian conditions. It appears to us highly desirable in the first place that the
principle of classifying lands should be put into operation without delay. We have not failed
to observe in every province the bad effects of attempting to farm lands unsuited to agriculture.
Further, the mere fact of classifying land as permanent forest should have a moral effect in
indicating that the forest is a thing of value and something to be respected.
9. The classification of land will lead to the differentiation of large amorphous masses of
forest, held partly by the Crown, partly by lessees, and partly by freeholders. The last constitutes a very small part and may for that and other reasons be disregarded for the present.
With regard to the remainder, we see no reason why the process of dedication and demarcation
should not be applied in due course to the whole; to such areas we would apply the term
" reserved forests."  From this stage onward we envisage two lines of procedure:—
(1.) The constitution within the reserved forests of regulated State forests, and, on
licensed areas, co-operation with the licensees under conditions determined by the
Government.
(2.) The balance of reserved forest developed and protected, and portions thereof
brought under regulations as economic conditions justify.
Regulated State Forests. '
10. By the term " regulated State forests " we mean forests managed by the State for the
production of timber and other forest products. The essential part of a State forest is that all
the operations which affect the silvicultural development of the crop should be under the direct
control of technical forest officers. The question as to whether the timber Is sold on the stump
or logged by State agency is immaterial to the final conception and we can cite examples where
both methods have been followed with success.
11. It will be observed that our conception of the regulated State forest involves far more
than the ordinary conception of the term " forest reserve " in this country. We can illustrate
the difference by referring to Timagami Forest Reserve, which impressed us very strongly with
its potentialties if worked as a regulated State forest. Here is an area of more than 3,000,000
acres stocked with much overmature pine and with young and intermediate growth of different
kinds. At present the area, doubtless, produces nothing; the mature pine is gradually dying and
decaying on the stump, and this loss, which is just as real as if the timber were burned, probably
offsets the increment on the immature timber. We are prepared to state from our knowledge
of similar type of forest in Europe that the lowest yield capacity of this land under systematic
management would be 40 cubic feet per acre per annum in timber and pulp-wood. This yield
of 120,000,000 cubic feet per annum for the total area could obviously not be secured at once,
but the presence of so much mature timber makes the problem of working up to this figure in a
comparatively short time unusually easy. It may be objected that the area has been reserved
as a national playground. We reply that this restriction is not inimical to good silviculture,
and can cite numerous examples from the Vosges, Black Forest, and the Alps where the two
have been successfully combined.
Co-operation between the State and Llmlt-holdees.
12. As we see the position in Canada, it will be economically impossible, even if otherwise
desirable, to embrace within a system of regulated State forests the whole of the area which
should be dedicated to forestry. There are, however, large tracts of forests on which it appears
absolutely necessary that better methods of silviculture should be practised. How is this end
to be achieved?   We suggest that it can be brought about only by co-operation between the two 14 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 61
parties interested in the timber—viz., the State and the lessees or licence-holders. At the present
time there exists undoubtedly a large gap between the demands of rational silviculture and those
of the lumbering interest. If it is not bridged the production of timber must decline in due course,
and with this diminished out-turn very important industries will pass into decay. We suggest
that it is urgent and not impossible to find a compromise between the two parties. We do not
feel competent to advise as to the form which it should take, but we think it reasonable to
start from the assumption that if the State concedes something the timber and pulp-wood operator
should be prepared also to help in securing the permanency of his industry.
SlLVICULTCBAL   METHODS.
13. With regard to the silvicultural methods to be applied in the regulated State forests,
we desire to point out that while very many of the problems of Canadian silviculture differ in
degree from those of countries where systematic silviculture is being successfully practised,
they do not differ in general character. We see no reason, therefore, why Canadian officers
trained in the principles of silviculture should not begin at once to take charge of operations
without waiting until an exclusively Canadian technique can be laid down. Obviously, however,
time is required fully to effect the necessary changes—time for the forest officer to study conditions, to try out and perfect his proposals; time for the results of investigative work to become
apparent. By reason of the importance of the time element it is the more necessary to make a
beginning and thus to permit the full organization which will ultimately be required to develop
steadily and naturally.
The Silvicultubal Constitution of the Canadian Foeests and the Possibilities of Successful and Economic Management.
Eastern Canada.
14. The following descriptions are based on forest types, observed by us on our tour across
Canada, which we believe to present definite silvicultural problems.
15. Most of the original mixed-forest type of the Atlantic-St. Lawrence drainage-basin has
been cut over several times for the softwoods, but the hardwoods have heen cut only in close
proximity to the markets. In general the hardwoods have been left and they have filled up
the spaces formerly occupied by the softwoods. Beneath them there is an abundant regeneration
of balsam fir and some spruce, varying in size from seedlings to trees approaching merchantable
dimensions. These small softwoods constitute a very valuable asset in terms of future pulp-
wood supplies, but they are now being retarded in growth, and eventually an unnecessarily
large number will be killed by the overshading hardwoods. Enormous quantities of material
could be saved for the pulp and paper industry by the removal of the hardwoods. In certain
localities this can already be done with profit, and in others the utilization is prohibited by the
cost of transportation. We urge more extensive experiments in the transportation of hardwoods
by water or otherwise and the investigation of wider market uses of these woods in order that
their utilization may lead to the development and final use of the small pulp-wood material
through silvicultural treatment.
16. The hardwood forests that are of silvicultural concern in Eastern Canada consist chiefly
of the farm woodlots in the southern portion of Ontario and Quebec and in the Maritime
Provinces. Fire, disease, and injudicious cutting have reduced them to a low state of productivity. Since they are situated near markets, and since the farmers are experiencing serious
difficulty in getting fuel and cheap materials for building purposes, the rehabilitation of these
farm woodlots through constructive silvicultural methods constitutes a very important economic
problem. We believe the forest authorities should co-operate with the farmers in developing
and carrying out measures for the effective handling of woodlots.
17. The poplar and white birch which have taken possession of very extensive burned
areas in Eastern Canada are suppressing and crowding out the young growth of pine which
has so extensively established itself beneath the hardwood crown cover. Much of the future
supply of white pine must come from these areas, yet the young growing stock upon which such
supply depends is being effectively reduced in quantity and quality by the suppressing effect
of the overtopping hardwoods. Large areas in this condition are relatively near the markets.
Liberation cuttings must be employed on these areas if the pine is to be reserved as a valuable E 62 Department of Lands. 1924
component of the forest. Extensive areas of old burns also have an under-story of suppressed
spruce and balsam fir. These should be saved for the pulp-wood industry by similar silvicultural
treatment.
IS. Among the softwood types that of white pine is of the greatest value. Under the
present logging system there is practically no regeneration, and this tree is being crowded out
of the forest and replaced by inferior species. Since, with the exception of the use of pulp-wood
and a few minor purposes, the white pine surpasses all others in Eastern Canada in adaptability
to the varied commercial uses, a fact reflected in its leadership in stumpage value for more than
100 years; since the processes of its utilization have contributed many millions of dollars to the
national wealth, and since under proper treatment it could undoubtedly be maintained as the
leading timber tree in Eastern Canada, we believe that the initial steps should be taken at once
to place the remaining virgin stands of white pine under silvicultural management. This might
be done in a forest reserve, such as the Timagami Reserve, as pointed out above.
19. The spruce-balsam fir forests in Northern Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces
are being utilized for pulp and paper manufacture as well as for sawlog material. The system
of logging employed is such that practically no regeneration of the more valuable species follows.
As a certain portion of the area from which the forest isi thus removed, especially in Northern
Ontario and Quebec, will eventually be used for farming purposes, the method of cutting on this,
therefore, is justified, but much of the area, however, is unfit for agricultural production. The
softwood forests of the north constitute a priceless heritage, situated as they are in the midst
of a region that will undoubtedly become the centre of a large agricultural population. The
distribution of the agricultural and non-agricultural soils is such that the production of farm
crops and forest crops should go hand in hand. We believe that the " Empire of the North "
can reach its full destiny only by such purposeful direction of its natural resources, and in such
we include the treatment of the forest in such a manner as to secure continuous production.
We see no outstanding difficulties in achieving such an objective.
20. We heartily commend the forest planting of waste lands in Eastern Canada as a measure
supplemental to the intelligent management of existing forests, which latter, we emphasize,
must always constitute the main source of future supplies.
Prairie Provinces.
21. We were deeply impressed by the beneficial results of planting shelter-belts on the
prairie farms, and we urge material extension of such activities.
Western Canada.
22. The spruce-balsam fir forests of the middle and upper slopes of the Rocky Mountain
region and of the northern interior of British Columbia, although of different species composition,
are practically the same in silvicultural requirements as are the spruce-balsam fir forests already
mentioned for Eastern Canada, and apparently the same treatment will hold good! for this type.
23. The lodgepole pine forests are very extensive in Western Canada and are beginning
to be extensively exploited. The facility with which this pine reproduces and the rapidity
with which it attains merchantable size make its silvicultural treatment fairly easy. These
forests present an immediate opportunity for profitable silvicultural management.
24. The yellow pine of the interior region is the only tree of commercial importance in the
Dry Belt, where the rainfall is limited to 10 or 15 inches a year. The forest of this type is
being rapidly exploited, and at the present rate of cutting it is estimated that the supply will
be exhausted within twenty years, and this period is being materially shortened by such causes
as the ravages of bark-beetles. The method of clear-cutting now employed is not conducive
to the success of natural regeneration, and we believe from experience with a similar tree abroad
that an adequate regeneration could be secured by leaving a proper number of suitable seed-
trees.
25. The coastal forests, consisting of Douglas fir, cedar, and hemlock, are being chiefly
exploited at present under the " high-lead" type of logging, which results in the practically
complete destruction of the small trees, and leaves on the ground an enormous amount of debris
which, though it gives a certain amount of beneficial shade and shelter to the seedlings, on the
whole is detrimental to the re-establishment of the forest by natural processes.    This is due 14 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. E 63
partly to the fact that in places it covers tbe ground too completely, but chiefly to the fact that
it remains inflammable for many years and constitutes a dangerous fire risk in the application
of any method of regeneration. It appears quite evident that so long as repeated fires are
probable, little dependence can be placed upon seed stored in the soil, and therefore the logging
methods should make provision for other methods of regeneration, such as the leaving of individual seed-trees or logging in compartments small enough to permit seeding from adjacent
stands. We have seen many illustrations of magnificent regeneration of Douglas fir on burned
logged-over areas where seed-trees were left.
We may say in connection with the debris that we have been greatly impressed by the
waste in logging operations in this region and others we have visited. We realize that this is
largely the result of economic conditions, but still it represents an enormous loss in the timber-
supply, and in the interests of the Empire, as well as Canada, it should be reduced to a minimum.
Expeeiment and Research.
26. In beginning systematic silviculture in Canada, it is obviously not to be expected that
detailed systems can be laid down with final precision. The fundamental principles of silviculture are sufficient to ensure a good start. On the other hand, in experiment and research, there
exist two powerful aids, to practise which will eliminate much waste and avoid large-scale disappointment. We wish to emphasize in the business of forest production the necessity of
research and experiment which have proved their efficiency in all the industries to which they
have been applied.
We would urge in this connection that work be proceeded with along two main lines:—
(1.)  Research-work  of  a  fundamental  nature  into   the  silvicultural   characters   and
requirements of the principal species of trees, including their regeneration.
(2.)  The practical application on a commercial scale of the results obtained under (1).
27. The agency for securing progress on these lines should be (1) a staff of research
investigators and (2) an adequate staff of trained forest officers placed in charge of definite
areas of forest of manageable size; such trained officers should be in a position to carry out,
as part of their regular duties, large-scale experimental operations with the object of evolving
silvicultural systems best adapted to local conditions.
28. We have seen enough of the conditions after logging, of the ravages of fire, insects,
and fungous diseases, to convince us that without a definite objective towards continuous forest
production one of the largest Canadian industries will inevitably decline. Therefore, our appeal
is for decisive action. The matter is of such importance that the State is justified in making
expenditures for the perpetuation of the wood-using industries. We believe that the ultimate
results of an investment in such an objective would lie to the great advantage of the State, in
the increase of forest revenues, in permanency of effort, and in stability of social and political
conditions in the forest regions of the country.
(Signed)    C. D. Howe, Chairman.
A. Bedard.
P. Z. Cavebhill.
R. L. Robinson.
R. S. Tkouf.
L. S. Webb.
E. J. Zavitz.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1924.  

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