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FORTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1919-20 BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1921

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Full Text

 FORTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OP   THE   PROVINCE   OP
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1919-20
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by William H.  Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1921.  To Colonel the Honourable Edward Gawler Prior,
A Member of the King's Privy Council for Canada,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg herewith respectfully to present the Forty-ninth Annual Report on the
Public Schools of the Province.
j. d. Maclean,
Minister of Education.
November 30th, 1920. . :
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
I'ART   I.
Page.
Total Enrolment in High aud Public Schools    9
Number of Divisions, Enrolment, etc., in each of the High Schools   10
Number of Divisions, Enrolment, etc., in each of the City Elementary Schools  11
Number of Schools, Enrolment, etc., in each of the Rural Municipalities  13
Total Enrolment in the Rural and Assisted Schools    13
Expenditure for Education    14
Cost to Provincial Government of each Pupil on Enrolment and on Average Daily Attendance
during the Past Ten Years    15
Number of School Districts, Aggregate Enrolment, etc  15
Number of Teachers employed in the Various Electoral Districts   16
Inspectors' Reports—
High  Schools  17
Public Schools  21
Municipal Inspectors' Reports—
Vancouver     39
Victoria     42
Reports on Normal Schools—
Vancouver    45
Victoria   46
Report of the Director of Elementary Agricultural Education  4S
Summer School for Teachers   68
Report of the Organizer of Technical Education   83
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Free Text-book Branch   SS
The Strathcona Trust  91
Part II.
Statistical Returns—
High Schools  2
City Elementary Schools   12
Rural Municipality Elementary Schools  4S
Rural and Assisted Elementary Schools  66
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts  86
Part III.
Names of Persons to whom Teachers' Certificates were issued   91
High School Examination—
Names of the Winners of Medals and Scholarships   97
Number of Successful- Candidates at each Centre   98
High School Entrance Examination—
Names of Medal-winners   99
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre  99
High School Entrance Examination Papers   104
High School Examination Papers—
Third-class Certificate (Non-professional)  114
Third-year Course, Commercial ._  158
Third-year Course, Household Science   172
Third-year Course, Technical   177
Intermediate Grade  127
Senior Grade  136
Senior Academic Grade   148
University Matriculation (Junior)  185
University Matriculation (Senior)    200  PART I.
GENERAL REPORT. - REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION.
1919-1920.
Education Office.
Victoria, B.C., November, 1920.
To the Honourable J. D. MacLean, M.D., CM.,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit' herewith the Forty-ninth Annual Report of the Public Schools of
British Columbia for the school-year ending June 30th, 1920.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
,                                                                         S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education.
Enrolment.
The total enrolment in all the schools was 79,243.    The number of boys was 39,772, and of
girls 39,471.    The average actual daily attendance was 59,791.39.    The percentage of regular
attendance was 75.45.
Number of Teachers employed.
The total number of teachers employed,  including manual-training and domestic-science
instructors, was 2,557.    Of this number, 234 were employed in the high schools, 1,032 in the city
graded schools, 588 in the rural municipality schools, and 703 in the rural and assisted schools.
Thirty-two high schools and 98 public schools were in operation in the cities;   14 high and
182 public schools in the rural municipalities;   and 2 high and 594 public schools in the rural
and assisted districts.
New Schools.
The following is a list of new schools that were established during the year:—
Alberni District Baimbridge and Red Gap.
Cariboo District Chilcotin and Rose Lake.
Comox District Merville, Mitchell Bay, Myrtle Point, McGuigan, and Wellbore Channel.
Fort George District Collishaw,  Dawson  Creek,  Ellesby,  Lake District,  Lee,  Loos,  Mud
River, and Stuart River.
Grand Forks District Brown Creek and Rock Mountain.
(The) Islands District Gabriola, East;   Hardwick Island;    Saturna Island;   and Galiano,
South.
Kamloops District Anderson  Creek,  Chase Creek,  Lower;  Clifton,  Lee Creek,  Paxton
Valley, Raft River, Vinsulla, and Westsyde.
Lillooet District Red Lake, Rexmount, and Seton Lake Portage
North Okanagan District.. Heywood's Corner, Richland, and Shuswap Falls.
Omineca District Bulkley, North; Bulkley South * Francois Lake * Francois Lake South
Alexander Manson, Nithi River, and Round Lake.
Revelstoke District Eagle Valley, Tomkawatla, and Twin Butte.
Similkameen District Inglee.
South Okanagan District.. Fir Valley.
The following schools were reopened:—
Alberni District Hillier.
Comox District No. 8 Mine.
Cranbrook District Loco and Meadowbrook.
Fort George District  Cariboo.
Kaslo District Gerrard.
Lillooet District Big Bar, Bonaparte North, Empire Valley, and Pavilion.
North Okanagan District.. Sunnyslde and Woodville Road.
Prince Rupert District Haysport.                                                                                    . 'ublic Schools Keport.
1920
HIGH   SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the high schools during the year was 6,636.   Of this number, 2,826 were
boys and 3,810 were girls.
- The number of divisions, the total enrolment, the average actual daily attendance, and the
percentage of regular attendance in each high school are shown in,the following table:—
High Schools.
Agassiz	
Armstrong . .
Bridgeport .
Chilliwack..
Courtenay..
Cranbrook..
Creston	
Cumberland
Duncan	
Enderby .
Esquimalt	
Fernie	
Golden	
Grand Forks	
Greenwood	
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Kelowna	
Ladner 	
Ladysmith	
Langley 	
Matsqui	
Mission   	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster.
Oak Bay	
Peachland    	
Penticton	
Point Grey	
Port Alberni	
Prince George....
Prince Rupert....
Revelstoke	
Rossland	
Salmon Arm	
Summerland	
.Surrey     	
Trail'	
Vancouver :
Britannia	
King Edward.
King George..
Kitsilano  ....
Cecil Rhodes .
Vancouver, North
Vancouver, South.
Vernon	
Victoria	
No. of
Total
Divisions.
Enrolment.
1
24
2
40
2
34
4
125
1
15
2
76
1
20
2
48
2
63
1
27
3
59
3
63
1
20
3
71
1
17
4
100
2
44
3
85
2
36
3
73
Q
43
2
24
2
43
4
145
7
197
13
449
4
122
1
16
2
59
7
224
1
21
1
28
3
73
4
107
3
51
2
46
3
64
2
36
3
63
15
504
27
885
13
448
6
205
6
224
5
171
11
386
4
84
26
878
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
18.77
29.69
30.16
97.50
11.89
60.04
16.71
41.32
45.97
22.26
48.62
54.46
15.81
61.77
14.64
82.18
36.12
65.61
30.20
56.18
33.92
18.54
34.10
115.21
169.76
371.75
95.29
11.75
45.76
182.09
17.56
19.09
59.10
96.08
40.13
34.74
45.87
27.77
51.00
415.23
711.57
358.29
174.61
166.73
133.02
322.32
65.91
704.68
Percentage
of Regular
Attendance.
78.24
74.24
88.71
78.00
79.28
79.00
83.56
86.10
72.97
82.48
82.41
86.45
79.09
87.01
86.16
82.18
82.10
77.18
83.89
76.96
78.88
77.26
79.30
79.45
86.17
82.79
78.11
73.47
77.57
81.29
83.63
68.21
80.96
89.79
78.70
75.52
71.68
77.14
80.95
82.38
80.40
79.97
85.17
74.43
77.79
83.50
78.46
80.26 11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 11
CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the city public schools was 37,416.' The number of boys enrolled was
18,961;   of girls, 18,455.
The number of divisions, the total enrolment, the average actual daily attendance, and the
percentage of regular attendance in each city public school are shown in the following table:—
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment.
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
Percentage of
Regular
Attendance.
Alberni   	
Armstrong (Consolidated)
Chilliwack  	
Courtenay   	
Cranbrook:
Central   	
Kootenay Orchards  .
South  Ward   	
Cumberland   	
Duncan   (Consolidated)    .
Enderby  	
Fernie    	
Grand Forks  	
Greenwood   	
Kamloops  	
Kaslo     ».	
Kelowna   	
Ladysmith   	
Merritt   	
Nanaimo:
Middle Ward	
Quennell  	
South Ward	
Nelson   	
New Westminster:
F. W. Howay  	
Lord Kelvin	
Lord Lister  	
Richard McBride  ...
Queensborough   	
John Robson   	
Herbert Spencer   ....
Phoenix    	
Port Alberni  	
Port Coquitlam:
Central   	
James Park  	
Port Moody   	
Prince George  	
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke:
Central   	
Selkirk   	
Rossland   	
Salmon Arm   	
Slocan   	
Trail:
Central   	
Tadanac   	
East   	
Vancouver:
Aberdeen   	
Alexandra   	
Bayview   	
Beaconsfield   	
3
15
10
10
1
2
11
12
5
22
9
3
14
4
12
11
4
18
3
19
12
8
8
10
2
11
10
3
4
4
2
6
6
17
7
9
12
4
2
13
2
2
11
17
9
95
485
407
133
436
24
81
474
424
180
881
395
89
580
154
447
402
347
169
814
124
714
445
304
360
414
72
410
346
38
165
133
77
188
234
665
261
330
484
147
74
538
33
39
473
710
377
315
73.67
349.04
301.32
104.13
349.23
20.36
57.07
391.37
314.87
128.51
671.07
330.90
71.56
416.26
118.06
353.25
345.04
256.30
155.25
683.51
114.50
584.42
365.50
244.41
282.90
342.22
52.40
327.62
293.38
37.64
125.34
111.37
58.11
143.79
137.50
532.88
217.37
284.26.
418.97
114.50
60.07
444.20
30.37
37.25
343.45
571.85
310.43
265.17
77.54
71.96
74.03
78.29
80.09
84.83
70.45
82.56
74.26
71.39
76.17
83.77
80.40
71.76
76.66
79.02
85.83
73.86
91.86
83.96
92.33
81.85
82.13
80.39
78.58
82.66
72.77
79.90
84.79
99.05
75.96
83.73
75.46
76.48
58.76
80.13
83.28
86.13
86.56
77.89
81.17
82.56
92.03
95.50
72.61
80.54
82.34
84.18 .
.
C 12
Public Schools Report.
1920
CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS—Continued.
Schools.
Vancouver—Continued.
Central   	
Children's Home	
Dawson   	
Charles Dickens  	
Fairview   	
Franklin    	
Simon Fraser	
General   Gordon   	
Grandview   	
Hastings  	
Henry  Hudson   	
Kitsilano   	
Livingstone   	
Model	
Mount Pleasant  	
Macdonald   	
Lord Nelson  	
Florence Nightingale  . . .
Cecil Rhodes  	
Lord Roberts 	
Laura Secord  	
Seymour   	
Strathcona   	
Lord Tennyson   	
School for the Blind  .. .
School for the Deaf ....
Vancouver, North:
Lonsdale  	
Queen Mary	
Ridgeway   	
Vernon  	
Victoria:
Bank Street	
Beacon Hill  	
Boys' Central  	
Burnsid'e   	
Cook Street  	
Sir James Douglas	
Fernwood   	
Girls' Central   	
George Jay  	
Margaret Jenkins  	
King's Road	
Kingston Street  	
North Ward   	
Oaklands	
Quadra Street 	
Rock Bay	
South Park   	
Spring Ridge  	
West   	
Child Study Laboratory
Number
Average
Percentage of
of
Actual Daily
Regular
Divisions.
Attendance.
Attendance.
21
769
565.06
73.48
3
135
101.44
•    75.14
27
1017
810.16
79.66
9
376
319.45
84.96
16
577
480.14
83.21
7
270
226.42
83.86
17
684
550.47
■80.48
11
456
371.83
81.55
14
599
499.50
83.39
14
544
461.41
84.63
15
600
502.13
83.69
13
500
414.39
82.88
11
427
352.52
82.56
13
554
441.26
79.65
18
748
589.05
78.75
12
522
403.00
77.20
17
716
601.21
83.97
18
729
606.86
83.25
10
447
358.02
80.09
25
1089
847.23
77.79
12
440
363.96
82.72
19
846
638.76
75.50
22
936
743.67
79.45
15
632
524.06 •
82.92
1
8
6.96
87.00
5
41
28.13
68.61
9
316
257.63
81.53
11
452
352.92
78.08
12
420
346.07
82.40
16
654
531.45
81.26
4
150
122.23
81.49
4
157
110.21
70.20
13
472
372.02
78.82
6
237
198.17
•a3.62
1
33
30.98
93.88
12
497
402.71
81.03
2
82.
61.95
75.55
13
507
397.38
78.38
13
464
394.90
85.11
8
303
227.86
75.20
4
170
125.39
73.76
6
232
177.08
76.33
10
349
292.49
8.3.81
13
457
362.54
79.33
8
283
233.93
82.66
1
44
25.44
57.82
10
368
310.15
84.28
5
210
162.07
77.18
10
396
330.30
83.41
1
14
12.45
88.93 —
11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 13
RURAL  MUNICIPALITY  PUBLIC  SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the rural municipality public schools during the year was 19,724. The
number of boys enrolled was 10,028;   of girls, 9,696.
The following table gives the names of the several municipalities, the number of schools in
each, the number of divisions, the total enrolment, and the average actual daily attendance:—
Municipality.
Burnaby  	
Chilliwack	
Coldstream	
Coquitlam	
Delta	
Esquimalt	
Kent	
Langley	
Maple Ridge	
Matsqui	
Mission	
Oak Bay	
Peachland	
Penticton	
Pitt Meadows....
Point Grey	
Richmond	
Saanich	
Salmon Arm .....
Sumas	
Summerland.   ...
Surrey	
Vancouver, North
Vancouver, South
Vancouver, West
Number
of
Schools.
14
14
2
5
11
1
4
14
9
11
8
2
2
2
2
6
7
15
7
5
2
19
5
13
2
Number
of
Divisions.
51
26
2
7
15
15
7
23
17
18
15
13
4
14
2
38
17
50
9
27
16
149
8
Total
Enrolment.
2,067
759
83
146
440
566
166
763
548
446
404
503
107
567
56
1,538
593
1,789
225
143
289
856
514
5,888
268
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
1,640.35
561.89
50.12
101.55
329.14
457.15
141.02
526.50
394.05
312.04
311.44
413.22
76.08
424.85
40.59
1,183.08
424.73
1,390.21
156 09
99.59
206.54
551.74
394.37
4,870.44
192.89
RURAL  AND  ASSISTED  SCHOOLS.
The total enrolment in these schools for the year was 15,467.    Of this number, 7,957 were
boys and 7,510 were girls. 'ublic Schools Report.
EXPENDITURE  FOR EDUCATION, 1919-20.
Education Office: »
Salaries      $    14,511 40
Expenses of office—
Books      $    91 59
Telegrams and telephone         447 86
Expressage     75 19
Printing and stationery       6,893 83
Postage    '.     1,325 76
Furniture and repairs           690 39
Insurance     31 90
  9,556 52
Travelling expenses   '.  444 10
Free Text-book Branch:
Salaries     6,411 13
Expenses of office—
Telegrams and telephone   ?  103 61
Sundries  34 45
Printing and stationery      2,156 65
Postage           823 64
Furniture        127 00
 3,245 35
Books, maps, globes, etc  77,359 71
Agricultural Education:
Salaries         20,124 75
Expenditure  26,533 90
Industrial Education:
Salaries     3,817 50
Expenditure     14,639 65
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries     40,070 00
Office supplies, etc  1.8S9 29
Travelling expenses     15,520 22
Provincial Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries :         25,470 00
Office supplies, etc  $1,650 24
Travelling  expenses     34 85
Fuel, water, light     2,099 55
Maintenance and repairs of buildings, grounds, etc     1,964 19
Mileage re travelling expenses of students      2,380 10
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal School students       997 50
.  9,126 43
Provincial Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries     16,220 00
Office supplies, etc   $2,678 15
Travelling expenses        204 34
Fuel, water, light      1,834 75
Maintenance and repairs of buildings, grounds, etc     7,915 92
Mileage re travelling expenses of students      3,886 10
■ Allowance to teachers assisting Normal School students      524 50
 17,043 70
Deaf, Dumb, and Blind:
Tuition, maintenance, fares, etc  18,161 58
Carried forward      $   320,145 29 11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 15
Brought forward   $  320,145 29
Per capita grant to cities   580,871 16
Per capita grant to municipalities   355,875 35
Per capita grant to rural school districts   125,048 90
Salaries to teachers in assisted schools   367,351 75
Salaries to teachers in Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Belt  79,868 75
Grants to libraries    519 27
Grants in aid of manual-training equipment  1,971 83
Examination of teachers and High School Entrance classes  18,717 99
Erection of new buildings, maintenance and repairs of school buildings  1S6,407 41
Conveying children to central schools  9,331 41
Contingencies and incidentals '  4,825 50
Grant to University of British Columbia   105,000 00
$2,155,934 61
Amount expended by cities, municipalities, rural and assisted school districts. . 3,314,245 76
Grand total cost of education    $5,470,180 37
The following table shows the cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil on enrolment
and on average daily attendance during the past ten years:—
'
Year.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Average Actual
Daily
Attendance.
1910-11     	
1911-12 	
$15 86
17 47
17 91
20 04
21 78
22 50
22 47
22 64
24 88
27 20
$22 25
23 32
1912-13	
23 85
1913-14	
25 27
1914-15	
26 65
1915-16	
28 56
1916-17 	
27 83
1917-18	
27 93-
1918-19 	
31 59
1919-20	
36 05
The gradual growth of the schools, as well as the cost to the Provincial Government of
maintaining the same, is shown by the record of attendance and expenditure given in the
following  exhibit:—■
Year.
Number
of School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of
Attendance.
Government
Expenditure
for Education.
1872-73	
25
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
*359
*374
*410
*419
*432
575
582
636
1,028
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
62,263   '
64,624
64,570
65,118
67,516
72,006
79,243
575.00
1,395.50
1,383.00
3,093.46
7,111.40
11,055.65
16,357.43
23,195.27
43,274.12
49,377.70
52,821.72
50,870.25
52,577.12
54,746.76
56,692.38
59,791.39
55.93
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
79.30
81.73
78.78
80.74
81.09
78.73
75.45
$36,763 77
1877-78 	
43,334 01
1882-83	
50,850  63
1887-88 -
99,902  04
1892-93 	
190,558 33
1897-98 	
1907-08 	
247,756 37
397,003 46
464,473 78
1912-13 	
1,032,038  60
1913-14	
1914-15	
1915-16 	
1,248,163 44
1,407,990 32
1,452,999  99
1916-17 	
1,463,405  78
1,529,058 93
1,791,153 47
2,155,934 61
1917-18	
1918-19	
1919-20	
* Including assisted schools with defined   boundaries. Public Schools Report.
1920
The following is a list in tabular form of the number of teachers employed during 1919-20
in the various electoral districts of the Province; the number of male and female teachers is
also shown as well as the class of certificate held:—
Electoral  District.
Academic.
First
Class.
Second
Class.
Third
Class.
TemP°-   Special,
rary.        r
Male.
Female.
Total.
Alberni	
2
5
14
10
7        	
9
29
38
Atlin	
2
1
3
4
3
/
10
Cariboo	
3
1
8
2
4         	
6
12
18
Chilliwack	
11
8.
31
17
5               2
13
61
74
Columbia	
3
3
6
2
4        	
5
13
18
Comox	
9
10
36
17
4         	
12
64
76
Cowichan	
4
7
9
5
1                 1
6
21
27
Cranbrook 	
5
5
11
7
4                1
5
28
33
Delta	
6
5
31
26
4               2
12
62
74
Dewdney	
5
14
22
23
1                1
11
55
66
Esquimalt	
5
8
8
9
2               2
o
29
34
Fernie	
7
18
12
11
5       	
12
41
53
Fort George	
7
5
14
9
11
19
27
46
Graud Forks ....
4
6
6
6
2        	
3
21
24
Greenwood	
2
3
4
4
4        	
5
12
17
(The) Islands ....
1
3
9
6
6        	
9
16
25
Kamloops	
9
10
32
34
9       	
7
87
94
Kaslo	
6
8
6
5
5        	
11
19
30
3
8
3
7
22
11
2
12
2
7     '	
          2
1               3
4
8
7
15
41
21
19
5
8
49
Nelson	
28
Newcastle	
2
5
17
6
2               1
9
24
33
New Westminster.
16
25
28
3
           8
20
60
80
North Okanagan. .
12
16
27
14
3               4
13
' 63
76
North Vancouver.
12
13
29
25
3              3
15
70
85
3
9
1
11
5
16
2
5
6       	
7 2
4
10    -
13
40
17
Prince Rupert....
50
Revelstoke	
5
4
23
4
2       	
5
33
38
Richmond  	
14
18
49
18
2               5
25
81
106
Rossland	
3
1
7
4
1               2
3
15
18
9
8
14
10
36
19
8
5
          3
3              2
12
11
58
36
70
Similkameen ....
47
4
14
11
4
1        	
14
20
34
South Okanagan . .
11
9
21
8
2               3
13
41
54
South Vancouver..
19
32
92
28
2             15
43
145
188
Trail	
4
13
25
10
6               1
8
51
59
Vancouver City...
148
127
178
15
3             49
140
380
520
Victoria City	
33
47
72
18
         17
49
138
187
Yale	
1
5
19
14
3        	
6
36
42
Totals (1919-20)
417
499
976
404
132           129
572
1,985
2,557
,/      (1918-19)
376
453
873
388
140          102
486
1,846
2,332 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 17
INSPECTORS'   REPORTS.
HIGH SCHOOLS.
Victoria, B.C., July 29th, 1920.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the following report on the high-school work
of my inspectorate for the school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
Shortly after the opening of the fall term the Province was divided into two high-school
inspectorates—No. 1 with headquarters at Victoria and No. 2 with headquarters at Vancouver.
This division was necessary owing to the large increase in the number of schools since the
appointment in 1910-11 of the first Provincial Inspector of High Schools. At that time therein
were eighty-three teachers doing high-school work, while immediately after the opening of the
school-year 1919-20, when the second Inspector was appointed, there were approximately 255
teachers. In June, 1911, there were 2,077 students, while in June, 1920, there were 6,789, thus
showing that both the number of teachers and pupils had more than trebled in ten years. The
number of teachers in this inspectorate for the year just ended was 120, of whom forty-five were
women and seventy-five men.
That part of the Province which came under iny supervision includes the following territory
and schools:—
District. High Schools.
Vancouver Island  Courtenay,    Cumberland,   Duncan,   Esquimalt, ' Ladysmith,
Nanaimo,   Oak   Bay,   Port   Alberni,   Sidney    (superior
school), and Victoria.
Vancouver City "Cecil Rhodes High School of Commerce," " King George,"
and Kitsilano.
North Vancouver City North Vancouver.
Point Grey Municipality   " King George V."
Delta  Municipality    Ladner.
Fraser Valley—
Ahbotsford  Ahbotsford (superior school).
Chilliwack Municipality ...Chilliwack.
Langley Municipality   Langley (formerly Belmont).
Matsqui Municipality  Bradner   (superior school),  Matsqui,  and Mount  Lehman
(superior school).
Surrey Municipality  Surrey (formerly Cloverdale).
Main Line of C.P.R Golden,  Kamloops,  Merritt   (superior  School),  Revelstoke,
and Salmon Arm.
The high schools in the more northern part of the Province were also included in Inspectorate
No. 1, but owing to the length of time necessary tp make a visit to these schools the Department
of Education requested the resident Public School Inspectors to visit the high schools within
their respective districts; consequently the Prince Rupert High School was inspected by
Mr. J. M. Paterson, B.A., and the Prince George High School and the Quesnel Superior School
were inspected by Mr. G. H. Gower, M.A.
A number of teachers of this inspectorate took advantage of the courses in education offered
at the first summer school of the University of British Columbia, where Dr. Pakenbam, Dean
of the Faculty of Education, Toronto, delivered lectures on " School Administration" and
" Modern Movements in Education," and Dr. Silcox, Principal of the Normal School, Stratford,
Ontario, gave lectures on the " History and Science of Education." A few of the teachers who
taught languages also availed themselves of the privilege of refreshing their knowledge of
English, French, and Latin, while some of those who were engaged in teaching science took
the Course in Physics, Chemistry, and Botany.   These teachers spoke highly of the summer
B 0 IS Public Schools Report. 1920
school, and their teaching evinced the fact that they had gained from their respective courses
not only knowledge, but inspiration.
In accordance with the terms of clause (i), section 9, of the " Schools Act," copies of my
reports upon the teachers' methods and class-management were forwarded to the Department
of Education and duplicates sent to the teachers and to the Trustee Boards. As a rule the
teachers appreciated these reports, even though they were not always favourable. In many
instances I did not " deliver " reports to the teacher at the time of inspection. The spirit of
the Act, if I interpret it aright, is that the teacher, in particular, shall have in writing within
a reasonable time the Inspector's report concerning his or her work. The Inspector, if he is
a wise judge, will frequently take time to weigh all the evidence before he hands down judgment.
With regard to the request of the Trustees' Association that all schools should be inspected
twice in the year, I may say that in my opinion some schools should be inspected twice, others
need be visited only once, while others should be inspected at least three times in the year.
Again, the time spent in each class-room need not always be of the same duration. In a school
of six teachers there are, say, four whose standing is unquestioned; of the other two, one
may have received his degree and professional training in another part of the Dominion and
5is therefore unfamiliar with our methods and the Course of Study; the other teacher may
have difficulties in class-management. Undoubtedly one should spend just as much time with
the two latter as he should with the first four. With some teachers an Inspector might spend
an hour in order to give encouragement or to commend good work. With others he should
spend a day, so that he might wisely assist and advise or fairly and impartially condemn.
Almost without exception I found teachers anxious for helpful suggestions and glad to receive
information concerning books that would help them in their work. The desire of every live
teacher is that he may improve his professional standing and widen his knowledge, so that he
may make his own life and that of his pupils fuller, richer, and happier.
As this is my first report in four years, .1 should like to pay tribute to the teachers and
students of our high schools who took part in the Great War, not only to those who went
overseas, but to those who, although compelled to remain at home, directed the energies of the
students along various lines, such as knitting socks,"working in S.O.S. groups, and making up
parcels of comforts for the troops. The " Honour Rolls " of teachers and students are to be
seen to-day in all high schools of the Province.
It was not until after the Armistice, when " nominal rolls " for educational purposes were
compiled, that the military authorities understood fully how large a number of teachers and
students from the schools and colleges of Canada had taken part in the war. When it became
clear that demobilization on any considerable scale could not begin for some time, the commanding officers realized that educational training must supplant to a very large extent military
training—that " the pen should supersede the sword "—in order that the men might be kept
profitably busy and be better prepared for their return to civilian life.
My duties as educational officer of the 4th Canadian Division brought me into contact
with large numbers of young men whom I had formerly taught or inspected in the schools of
the Province. The 4th Division had as great a number of original infantry units from British
Columbia as there were in the other three divisions. In the 10th Brigade there was the 47th
. (New Westminster) ; in the 11th Brigade, the 54th (Kootenay) and the 102nd (Comox) ; in
the 12th Brigade, the 72nd Seaforths (Vancouver). As these battalions were fairly representative of British Columbia, the report of educational activities in the division of which they
formed an important part should be as interesting to teachers and to the people of the Province
as a report of the way in which the several subjects of the High School Course- were taught
during the past year.
On November 27th, 1918, the Commander of the Canadian Corps summoned to his headquarters at Gosselies, Belgium, his four divisional commanders with their general staff officers
(training) and the corps and divisional education offiqers temporarily appointed. At this
conference General Sir Arthur Currie laid emphasis upon the importance of weaving education
into the life of the Canadian soldier. He also spoke of the difficulties to be met in doing this,
and expressed the belief that by dint of the energy, organizing ability, and resource that had
won victories on the battle-field they would be equally successful in the educational field.
Between December 1st and December 11th the educational organization was set in motion.
Before the end of the month thirty educational officers were working in brigades and battalions, 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 19
and seventy-two instructors were appointed in units. Information lectures on the educational
scheme were given to battalions, etc., by their commanding officers. Classes in reading, writing,
arithmetic, and French were begun in practically all units. Six thousand men in the division
heard lectures on " Agriculture," " Mining," " Motor Mechanics,'.' " The History and Geography
of Canada," "Canadian Citizenship,"-" Waterloo," and "The History of Belgium."
Instruction in trades, motor mechanics, etc., did not actually begin until the division occupied
its permanent headquarters in the " La Hulpe" area, about 8 miles from Brussels, where the
troops remained approximately four months prior to their departure for England. In this area
there were numerous small villages in and around which the various units were billeted. The
Belgian people loaned (often after the manner in which "benevolences" were loaned to
Edward IV.) their school-houses, workshops, lecture-halls, small agricultural schools, and rooms
in private dwellings for the furtherance of the army educational scheme. The proximity of the
division to Brussels gave excellent opportunity for co-operation with the University there.
Lectures including the following subjects were arranged for advanced students: " Art, Ancient
and Modern," " European Canal Systems," " Professional and Technical Education, Belgium,"
and " Local Self-government." In addition to the foregoing, lecturers from the University of
London, from English private schools, and from Eton Public School gave talks on a variety
of subjects to the several units during the school Christmas vacation.
In each infantry battalion there were on an average twenty men who could neither read
nor write. This meant that there were about 300 men in the division who required the most
elementary instruction. It was therefore resolved by the G.O.'s commanding corps, divisions,
and brigades that, no matter how illiterate a man may have been when he joined the Canadian
Corps, he should not return to be a Canadian citizen without having had an opportunity of
learning to read and write the English language. Men in this " category " were compelled to
parade for instruction. With others, attendance at classes was optional, but nearly all took
advantage of the privileges accorded them. A few there were, however, who preferred the
ordinary " parades," " guards," and " fatigues." As in civil life, free libraries and free schools
had no attraction for them. The majority, however, improved their minds by attending classes
and lectures, and, above all, by reading books, of which there were upwards of $50,000 worth
in the division, together with blue books on agriculture, fishing, education, forestry, or mining
from every Province of the Dominion.
This, then, is a brief outline of educational training in the 4th Canadian Division, the only
one, in fact, which had a favourable opportunity of carrying on such work. The First and
Second Divisions marched to the Rhine; the Third and Fourth Divisions were halted, on their
march thither, in Belgium. The Third Division was the first to leave for Canada and the Fourth
Division was the last to leave for home, remaining, as already stated, in the same area for a
period of four months.
This scheme of educational training had as its rnain " objective " the raising of the standard
of Canadian citizenship. It was organized and carried into effect by officers and men who had
fought in the forward area. Other reports contain the stories of their victories in battle; this
report contains an outline of their first triumph after war in the arts of peace.
I have, etc.,
2 Albert Sullivan,
Inspector of High Schools.
Vancouver, B.C., July 24th, 1920.
S: J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the high schools of my inspectorate for the
school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
At the beginning of the past school-year the high schools, of the Province were divided into
two inspectorates. The district assigned to me embraced the following high or superior schools:
Britannia and King Edward High Schools of Vancouver, South Vancouver, New Westminster,
Powell River, Howe Sound, Port Moody, Bridgeport, the schools along the north shore of the
Fraser as far as Agassiz, as well as the schools of the Similkameen, Okanagan, Boundary, and
Kootenay Districts.   In all, 139 teachers came under my supervision.   Two hundred and eighty- two visits of inspection were made during the year. For the first time since I took up the work
of high-school inspection four years ago I was able to make at least two inspections of all high
schools in my charge. In the case of one superior school my second visit had to be abandoned
because of difficulties .of transportation, but all other superior schools were inspected twice.
During the year superior schools were established at Howe Sound and Powell River, the
superior school at Haney was closed, and Creston was raised to a high school.
Owing to the defeat of the school by-laws the Vancouver high schools are sadly in need of
increased class-room and science-laboratory accommodation. The Nelson School Board deserves
special commendation for the splendid chemical and physics laboratories established there during
the year.
Technical high-school work continues to show progress. At the King Edward High School
the number of pupils enrolled in the boys' technical classes at the time of my visit was 263, an
increase of forty-two over the previous year. Third-year work in Household Economics and
Fourth-year work in the Boys' Technical Course were taken up for the first time. The School
Board and citizens of New Westminster deserve special mention for the interest they are taking
in technical work, an interest manifested by the passing by a substantial majority of the
by-law for a technical high school in that city. Owing to the passage of this by-law and the
generosity of the Provincial Government in presenting New Westminster with a Government
building, a technical high school in that city for next year is assured.
It is unnecessary for me in this report to go into particulars regarding the methods used
by the teachers in presenting the different subjects. Suffice it to say that the vast majority
of the teachers are efficient and exceedingly conscientious.
I have been pleased to note that debating and sports are meeting with more and more
encouragement each year, especially in the high schools throughout the Interior, where until
very recently little interest was shown in these .phases of school activities. It was my pleasure
to be present on the final day of the annual competition in field sports for the high schools of
Greater Vancouver. The interest manifested on that day by teachers and trustees, the enthusiasm of the vast throng of spectators, and the excellence of the work of the young athletes
should be a source of encouragement to all who have at heart the physical well-being of our
young people.
A considerable number of the high-school teachers of my inspectorate have enrolled for one
or more of the summer courses being given for the first time by the University of British
Columbia. In the past our high-school teachers who wished help in certain subjects found it
necessary to attend summer courses at some university outside the Province. I am confident
they appreciate the opportunity they now have of securing this assistance in their own Province.
During the year the Education Department has brought about several changes in connection
with the work of our high schools, the most important being the following:—
(1.) The old Intermediate, Senior, and Senior Academic Courses were cancelled. In future
third- and fourth-year high-school pupils will be expected .to follow the Junior and Senior
Matriculation Courses.
(2.) The qualifications for an academic teacher's certificate have been changed. To obtain
this certificate an applicant must now hold a degree in Arts, in Science, or in Literature of
recognized Canadian, British, or colonial universities and a diploma of a British Columbia
Normal School or of a Normal School or Training College approved by the Council of Public
Instruction.
I have, etc.,
J. B. DeLong,
Inspector of High Schools.   • 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 21
INSPECTORATE No. 1.
Victoria, B.C., November 1st, 1920. «
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit, the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 1 for the
school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
This inspectorial district remained the same as last year and may be defined broadly as
embracing the Cities of Victoria, Courtenay, Cumberland, Alberni, and Port Alberni; the Rural
Municipality of Saanich; and the rural schools in the Alberni and Comox Valleys and on the
peninsula of Saanich.
The school at No. 8 Mine was reopened and the name changed to " Puntledge "; No. 7 Mine
was also changed, the school now being called " Bevan." New schools were established at
Bainbridge and MeGuigan's; the building at the last-named place was burnt in the spring and
the school was not in operation at the end of the year. New divisions were added in all the
municipalities. The ratepayers at Royston added a teacherage to their school. The new
divisions and schools increased the number of grade teachers to 245.
Schools continue to devote more time to arithmetic than to any other subject; furthermore,
the best portion of the day is usually set apart for this subject; and yet the results are seldom
satisfying. Some of the reasons for these poor results are: An insufficient knowledge of fundamentals : the introduction of the written problems at too early a stage—oftentimes before the
child is able to read the words of the problem; the class-teaching of principles and the blackboard-working of examples already understood; the acceptance of slovenly work. With more
thought and preparation on the part of the teacher and greater attention to the weaker members
of the class, better work could be secured in shorter periods.
It seems to me that the language lessons might be made more profitable than they usually
are. Formal language lessons are given in a very conscientious manner, and, in class, children
are often very expert in the detection of grammatical errors; literary selections also are studied
with greatest care. But the lessons learnt in class are seldom applied to the child's every-day
speech. Some of the children seem ashamed to use good English, and I fear that this feeling ♦
will continue until more of our teachers realize that responsibility does not end with the formal
. lesson; that the child's application of the matter learned and not his ability to pass' a test is
the measure of the success or failure of the language lesson. Where the children realize that
the teacher sympathizes as little with incorrect forms of speech as she does with unseemly
conduct, the tone of the school is always good.
The past year has seen the formation of Parent-Teacher Associations at several of the
schools in Saanich and Victoria. In some of the schools associations have been active for some
years, and their extension to all the schools will undoubtedly awaken the public conscience to
a much more sympathetic interest in the educational problems of these municipalities.
I have, etc.,
W. H. M. May,
Inspector of Schools.
INSPECTORATE No. 2.
Victoria, B.C., August 10th, 1920.
S. j. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report upon the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 2 for the school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
With the exception of Victoria City, Saanich Municipality, Comox Valley, Alberni Valley,
Denman Island, James Island, and the territory lying to the north of Alert Bay, Inspectorate
No. 2 embraces all the schools on Vancouver Island and the adjacent Gulf Islands. In this area
there are twenty-five graded schools and fifty-two ungraded schools, employing in all some
167 teachers. .
C 22
Public Schools Report.
1920
• School Accommodation.
Among the new schools erected during the school-year under review may be mentioned
that containing three class-rooms in the North Cedar School District, together with the assisted
schools in the Saturna Island and South Galiano School Districts.
The Red Gap School District was created and an assisted school established therein.
The new school at Errington, completed during the summer of 1919, was occupied for the
first time at the beginning of the school-year under review. Owing to the rapid settlement of
the district in question, largely 'by returned soldiers and their families, the need for additional
accommodation became apparent before the end of the school-year. Steps were at once taken
to provide the necessary accommodation.
At the Willows, Oak Bay Municipality, a splendid new brick and concrete building comprising eight class-rooms is about completed, and will be occupied at the beginning of the
forthcoming school term. In addition to the foregoing, the school at Hillier was reopened, as
also was the Retreat Cove School. The small Montrose School at Craig's Crossing was closed
owing to the lack of a sufficient number of pupils necessary to maintain the attendance required
by law.
Much-needed improvements were effected to the Burgoyne Bay School, as well as to the
Pender Island School and school buildings.
School Equipment.
Nearly all the small isolated schools in this inspectorate are now provided with modern
single desks, together with necessary wall-maps and globes. Practically all reasonable requirements in the way of class-room equipment have been met as far as possible whenever they
became known.
Class-room Work.
All things considered, the work done in the various ungraded schools in this inspectorate
must be deemed satisfactory. A majority of the teachers showed themselves to be energetic,
hard-working, and efficient. There are still a number, however, who are merely " keeping school,"
and with such teachers the day's work is only a question of the number of hours between 9 a.m.
and 3 p.m. Such teachers are, I believe, becoming fewer in number. More frequent inspection
would, I feel sure, materially improve this condition of affairs. Many an " average " teacher
might, with a little useful advice and practical assistance, become a really excellent teacher
and a power for good not only in the school itself, but in the community as a whole.
The teacher's work must be pulsating with life and enthusiasm. If these be lacking, what
hope is there of arousing and maintaining the interest of the pupils, and hence what possibility
is there of obtaining good results? In such an event what excuse can such a one offer for the
incumbency of a position of such grave importance not only to the individual child and its
parents, but to the nation at large.
Arithmetic
Of the subjects upon the curriculum, possibly the least satisfactory results are being obtained
in arithmetic and writing, notwithstanding the fact that far more time is devoted weekly to
the former than to any other subject. To my mind, this is due largely to the fact that much
too great a proportion of the time devoted to arithmetic is spent by the pupils in seat-work.
Undoubtedly, insufficient attention is devoted by many teachers to oral arithmetic, through
which alone, by skilful questioning, pupils may be kept mentally active and alert, and thus be
led not merely to do mechanical work accurately and quickly, but also to acquire the habits
of thinking and reasoning through the frequent practice of oral problems and other arithmetical
exercises. The need for more oral work in this subject is just as marked in the graded schools
of this inspectorate as it is in the ungraded schools.
Writing.
Many teachers are now making a really definite and sustained attempt to teach writing.
These teachers are realizing that, with the will to succeed, success in teaching writing by the
muscular-movement method may be achieved. In the past, very little, if any, effort has been
made to really teach writing.   However, as I have said, teachers are more generally bending 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 23
their energies towards success in this art, and the result, I feel certain, will at least be a
distinct improvement in the penmanship in the schools in this inspectorate. " 'Tis a consummation devoutely to be wished."
School-gardening.
Few schools in this inspectorate have made any definite attempt to institute work in this
department. In some cases the school-grounds do not permit of this work being carried on, and
in such instances the School Boards concerned are almost invariably unable to undertake the
expense of additional ground for this purpose. In other districts there is distinct apathy with
regard to this form of education, while in still others there is direct opposition manifested by
the ratepayers. Among the schools where gardening is systematically followed are Parksville,
Cowichan, and Bench. Little, if any, attempt along this line of endeavour is being made elsewhere in this inspectorate. Before leaving this topic, however, I must not forget to mention
the progressive spirit displayed by the ratepayers and School Board of the Harewood School
District, when they secured at considerable expense some 3 acres of land which they have graded
and levelled. It is the intention to use this property for school-gardening as well as for purposes
of recreation.    The ground will be laid out in accordance with a well-devised scheme.
Consolidation. .
During the school-year under review an earnest effort was made to consolidate the schools
in the North and South Cedar, North Oyster, and Cassidy School Districts. On the score,
however, of a probable increase in school taxes should consolidation obtain, the ratepayers of
North Oyster and South Cedar opposed the project. The latter unquestionably had the most to
gain by the proposal, in view of the fact that the contemplated central graded school would
undoubtedly have been erected in South Cedar School District. The ratepayers of North Cedar
and Cassidy School Districts voted in favour of consolidation.
During August of the present year the ratepayers of Cobble Hill School District, by a vote
of practically 2 to 1, favoured consolidation of the schools in the Cobble Hill, Mill Bay, Sylvania,
and Shawnigan School Districts. A subsequent attempt to carry the project at a meeting in
the Mill Bay School District unfortunately proved abortive. I regret exceedingly that consolidation has not been effected in either of the cases mentioned. More especially do I deplore the
check which the movement has received in the last-mentioned instance, since I am strongly of
the opinion that no territory in British Columbia could be so cheaply-and advantageously
consolidated for school purposes as that contiguous to the Cobble Hill School District. I am
assured, however, that the matter will not be allowed to drop in this instance, and I feel
convinced that within a comparatively short period of time consolidation will be effected.
While upon this subject, it is gratifying to note that the consolidation effected between
Duncan City and North Cowichan School Districts is proving eminently successful. The ratepayers concerned, as well as the members of the Duncan Consolidated School Board, are to be
congratulated upon the splendid success they have achieved.
Physical Drill.
All, or nearly all, of our teachers are now qualified to act as instructors in physical training.
Many exhibit the energy and snap necessary to render the exercises indulged in of real practical
value to their pupils, while others again, I regret to say, perform the exercises in question in a
dull and lifeless manner, which results in the time thus spent being absolutely wasted. The
course is an excellent one, and cannot but be beneficial alike to teacher and pupils if it is carried
out with the requisite verve and action.
In this connection, may I point out that interest in the annual physical drill competition
as carried out under the conditions laid down by the committee of the Strathcona Trust appears
to be greatly diminishing. This is due, I think at least in part, to the fact that ungraded
schools are brought into direct competition with graded schools, some of which are of very large
size.
It appears to me to be hardly fair to ask the smaller graded schools—i.e., schools of from
two to four divisions—to compete with those comprising from eight to twelve or more divisions;
and if this be so, what possible chance of excelling has the ungraded school in competition with
the larger graded school? C 24 Public Schools Report. 1920
This competition was instituted, I presume, for the purpose of maintaining interest and
enthusiasm in physical drill with a view to increased efficiency. Under present conditions,
I regret to say, it is apparently having the opposite effect. However, I understand the local
committee of the Strathcona Trust is about to take action with a view to the establishment of a
more equitable basis of competition.
I have, etc.,
W. N. Winsby,
Inspector of Schools.
INSPECTORATE No. 3.
Vancouver, B.C., November 15th, 1920.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 3 for the
school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
Inspectorate No. 3 comprised the schools of Burnaby, about thirty Coast schools, and the
following in Vancouver City: Aberdeen, Bayview, Beaconsfield, Children's Home, Dawson,
Hastings, Kitsilano, Macdonald, Mount Pleasant, and Strathcona.
A marked increase in the school population during the year, which necessitated the establishment of new schools in outlying districts and demanded a substantial increase in the number of
teachers necessary to carry on the work in the schools of the larger centres of population,
indicates the return of a period of Provincial growth and expansion. The high cost of labour
and material, however, has prevented building operations keeping pace with the required
demands. Two assisted schools were opened on Hardwick Island. Both of these owe their
present existence to the logging industry; it is quite possible that new settlements will be
established at these points when the timber is removed. The assisted school at Sechelt was
moved farther north to provide educational facilities for the children living in the vicinity of
North-west Bay; another was established in the Wilson Creek locality, which will provide for
children east of Sechelt and west of the Elphinstone District. Owing to the number of children
of school age now residing in the neighbourhood of Pender Harbour, it was necessary to open
another school which will accommodate the children living on the north shore of the harbour.
In the Municipality of Burnaby it was necessary to employ five additional teachers during
the year owing to the increased attendance. Class-rooms were crowded in several schools.
As it was impossible to provide sufficient accommodation, some classes were operated on the
part-time system for a portion of the year. In Vancouver City conditions with regard to
accommodation have become acute. When the schools opened in September, 1919, there was
a staff of 386 teachers in the public schools. This number had to be increased during the school
year of 1919-20 to 409 owing to the large increase in attendance, caused chiefly by the admission
of six-year-old pupils in February. When we consider that thirty-four classes, comprising
approximately 1,400 pupils, were operating on part-time system, the deplorable loss in time and
efficiency becomes very apparent. .
The .School Boards realize the necessity of adopting an extensive building programme,
but owing to the defeat of by-laws have been unable to secure the necessary funds to improve
the existing conditions.
As my work of inspecting was abruptly terminated for the year about the middle of
February by an acute sickness, my report on the year's work must of necessity be of a very
general nature. May I not, however, take this opportunity to express my gratitude to your
Department for the kindly consideration shown to me; I also wish to thank my colleagues
in the Vancouver office who so generously and without complaint assumed heavier responsibilities,
by attending to specials and making arrangements for examinations connected with the schools
under my charge.
It is pleasing to note that school games were well organized in both Burnaby and the city
schools. Not only did the boys take a keen interest in baseball, lacrosse, football, and basket-ball,
but there were also Girls' Leagues abounding in enthusiasm for baseball and basket-ball. While
the advantages to the schools of organized play and games are recognized by many, I am
afraid few realize the amount of time devoted to the work and the energy expended by the 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 25
teachers who look after this phase of school-life. The requirements of the Strathcona Trust
have been complied with fairly well. In some schools the time-tables provide for all classes
having the physical-drill exercises during the same period. This plan has the great advantage
of preventing interruptions that must take place when one class is at drill while classes in
adjoining rooms are receiving instruction or engaged in reading exercises. There is also a
stimulating effect to the efforts when a whole school is exercising at the same time. The district
prizes awarded for excellency in this subject will be found elsewhere in the report of the
Secretary to the Strathcona Trust.
The teaching staffs have been strengthened to no small degree by the return to the class-room
of so many men who had been away on service overseas. There is also a marked desire among
teachers to raise the status of their profession. During the summer vacation many took advantage of short courses for teachers in Washington and in California, as well as in our own
Province. The large number of pupils receiving High School Entrance certificates at the July
examination may be regarded as an indication of the character of the work.done in the Senior
Grades. In the Intermediate Grade there are the old difficulties peculiar to this period of
school-work, but the number of teachers acquiring skill in dealing with them is increasing.
The experiment made by Miss Trembath, the primary supervisor, in introducing the Young and
Field Primer may now be regarded as a success. The Primer is beautifully illustrated and its
literary value is good. The lessons are such as awaken interest; the children soon read with
natural expression, and take delight in the action sentences and dramatization. I hope to see
this book used extensively, for it is an excellent Primer.
Early in the year the Vancouver schools sustained a distinct loss in the death of Mr. George
P. Hicks, who for fifteen years directed the musical work. He was a man of sterling character
and a faithful supervisor who will be kindly remembered by all who came in contact with him.
I have, etc.,
J. T. Pollock,
Inspector of Schools.
INSPECTORATE No. 4.
Vancouver, B.C., November 12th, 1920.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit the following-report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 4
for the school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
The following schools comprised this inspectorial district: Public schools in the Rural
Municipalities of Coquitlam, Maple Ridge, Mission (with rural and assisted schools adjacent),
Pitt Meadows, Richmond, and West Vancouver; the schools in Port Coquitlam; and the Cecil
Rhodes, Franklin, Grandview, General Gordon, Laura Secord, Model, Seymour, Simon Fraser,
and Lord Tennyson Schools in Vancouver City.
One visit of inspection was made to each of the 211 class-rooms involved, and as far as time
permitted a second visit was made to rural schools.
The past school-year has been in some respects the most trying for all truly concerned with
the education of the young. I refer to the lack of sufficient and proper accommodation for our
school-children in both urban and rural communities. One might see children crowded into
ill-ventilated, poorly lighted class-rooms, their health endangered by the germ-laden atmosphere
and their lives endangered through inadequate means of escape in the event of fire.
Time was vyhen Canadians considered no effort too arduous, no sacrifice too great in the
cause of education. In the pioneer days of the Eastern Provinces the church, the school, and
the home were the bulwarks of the nation. These things were considered of first importance
and first things were put first. Is that spirit of our fathers dead or does it but sleep? I fondly
believe it is slumbering only, and that with a reawakened conscience our people will see to it
that Canadian educational standards shall be second to none. C 26 Public Schools Report. 1920
Vancouver City Schools.
In direct contrast to the depressing, discouraging features of the work occasioned by the
overcrowding, the " double-shift," and lack of accommodation generally, is the splendid attitude
of the teachers towards their work and the truly excellent character generally of the work
performed by the teachers and principals, in many cases under most trying conditions. In many
of the schools visited most encouraging and gratifying results of the work of the Parent-Teacher
Associations were evident. All honour and credit is due to these Parent-Teacher Associations,
who are endeavouring to stress the " oneness of school and life," and through whose instrumentality so much is being done to vitalize the school-work and to make school-life more pleasant
and more congenial for pupils and teachers.
As detailed reports on the work of each school have been forwarded to the Education Office
from time to time, I shall confine myself in this brief and general report to a few observations
upon the work of the schools as a whole.
Progress and the progressive spirit may be marked in the Vancouver schools by noting the
installation of libraries, libraries not only for the pupils, but also for the teachers as well, where
a teacher may find access to the latest pedagogical works; the application of standardized tests
as far as time will permit; the introduction of folk-dancing; organized and supervised play;
perfect system of discipline; and even open-air classes. Worthy of every commendation are
those principals who, anxious to keep in touch with progressive movements in modern education,
at their own expense in their vacation time attend the Teachers' Summer School Courses given
at the Universities of Washington and California.
During the year cards were sent out by the Education Department to the schools throughout
the Province for the purpose of ascertaining the number of retarded, normal, and accelerated
pupils in each class-room. The returns showed that a very large percentage of the pupils were
in the retarded class. To successfully solve this problem of retardation in the schools calls
for special and specific work on the part of a principal. It means that a principal of a large
school must carry on a perpetual survey of his particular school. Standardized tests and
measurements must be applied to determine and to locate the weakness in each subject taught
in each class-room, and the results must be carefully scored in order that remedial methods of
teaching may be applied wherever required.
There is just one final reference which I may make in regard to city schools, and that is
I am convinced that the establishment of kindergarten classes, say for children from five to six
years of age, should be no longer delayed in all our urban centres.
Rural Schools.
In our rural schools, as in our city schools, we are confronted with the problem of accommodation. The situation in many rural municipalities has been brought about by the refusal of the
ratepayers to endorse the various schemes of consolidation of schools devised by their respective
Boards of School Trustees.
The problems of the rural schools have been discussed academically, theoretically, practically, and even prayerfully and tearfully in the annual reports of School Inspectors from time
immemorial, and, so far as I am able to judge, these problems, like the poor, are always with us.
The lack of any scheme of beautification of school-grounds, unsanitary outbuildings, insufficient equipment, and apathy on the part of the people themselves still characterize conditions
in many outlying rural and assisted school districts. To these districts young inexperienced
teachers still come as Inembers of a sort of migratory species; their movements not quite
synchronizing with those of Nature's creatures, however, for in soft September days they come
and in balmy June they flit away. And there is sadness in their passing, for in these lonely glens
the soughing of the wind in the pines, the murmuring of the mountain streams seem to unite
in the ancient lament, " Cha till shinne tuille "—" we return no more."
Undoubtedly this annual and often semi-annual change in teachers is one of the chief factors
in retarding progress in the rural school.
Many of the problems of rural school life might be solved by the formation of Parent-Teacher
Associations. There is some real missionary-work here for members of active, progressive
associations in our cities. Spread the gospel of co-operation in educational work throughout
the land. 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 27
In many rural districts no interest is taken in school affairs because the parents have no
part in school activities. Give the parents a part to play, a work to do, and they will play their
part and perform their work with interest. Apathy and indifference will be supplanted by
interest and enthusiasm. Where parents, teachers, and trustees work together in harmony for
the improvement of educational conditions we shall find better-equipped school buildings, sanitary
and pleasant surroundings, and such improved conditions that the young teacher who under
former conditions would here sojourn but for a season will now be induced to remain, realizing
now that she has not come to the bitter waters of Mara, but has in truth journeyed to the wells
and the palm trees of Elim.
,        . I have, etc.,
H. H. Mackenzie,
Inspector of Schools.
INSPECTORATE No. 5.
Vancouver, B.C., November 13th, 1920.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 5 for
the school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
This inspectorate comprises thirty-five schools on the Coast and along the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway, those of Point Grey Rural Municipality, and the following in Vancouver
City: Alexandra, Central, Charles Dickens, Fairview, Henry Hudson, Livingstone, Lord Nelson,
Lord Roberts, School for the Blind, and School foj the Deaf.
In the rural and assisted schools, with few exceptions, the conditions are not satisfactory.
Because the builders have no knowledge of school requirements, assisted-school buildings are
nearly always very badly planned. Hardly one of these schools has a library, though for years
the Provincial Treasury has paid one-third of the money expended in establishing a library or
adding thereto; now that practically one-half of the cost is borne by the Treasury, it is to be
hoped that the School Boards will avail themselves of-this opportunity to obtain something at
half-price. In the greater number of these schools the salaries paid are too low to attract
capable and experienced teachers. Some of the teachers were unable to make and follow a
time-table that would keep the various classes profitably employed while at their seats. In
nearly all cases the pupils had been graded too high by the previous teacher. As might be
expected, the standing and progress of pupils in the ungraded rural schools was usually far
below that of pupils in the other schools of the district.
The work done in the Vancouver schools was well up to the usual high standard, particularly
in the primary grades, which were in charge of a special supervisor, and in the Senior Grades,
where the principals were often in closer touch with the work than they were in the lower
grades. In all the schools reading, spelling, drawing, and physical training were generally very
well taught throughout all grades. But in arithmetic the pupils were often slow and inaccurate
in the performance of the fundamental operations; in many of the lower classes the pupils were
permitted to count long after they should have formed the habit of relying upon instant "and
accurate knowledge of the addition combinations. Nature-study, geography, and history were
sometimes taught rather badly because the teacher did not possess a sufficiently full knowledge
of the subject.
In Vancouver City the school attendance continues to increase, yet the ratepayers continue
their refusal to provide for additional school accommodation. As the result a number of classes
were on half-time, and thereby retarded. Other classes were housed in attics and basements,
some of which were ill-ventilated and otherwise unsuited for use as class-rooms.
Praise is due to the Rotary Club, which has provided at its clinic building a well-equipped
class-room for children who show symptoms of predisposition to tuberculosis. The Vancouver
School Board has provided a teacher for this class. The intention is that the children may take
a course of treatment by means of rest, open air, and hot lunches, and yet not find, on returning
to their regular school, that the rest has caused them to fall so far behind their class that they
must lose a term. . -—-^—^——^————
C 28
Public Schools Report.
1920
In Vancouver, Point Grey, and Powell River the teachers' salaries were considerably
increased during the year, though the increase since 1914 is not commensurate with the increase
received in other professions nor with the increase in the cost of living.
The rapid increase in the school attendance in Point Grey Rural Municipality is being met
by the ratepayers and School Board; two large modern school-houses and one frame building
are ready for occupancy, and another large school-house is under construction.
I have, etc.,
Leslie J. Bruce,
Inspector of Schools.
INSPECTORATE No. ft
Vancouver, B.C., November 13th, 1920.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit an annual report on the public schools throughout Inspectorate No. 6
for the school-year 1919-20.
The inspectorate comprises all the public schools in the Cities of North Vancouver and
Port Moody, the Municipalities of Delta, North Vancouver, and South Vancouver, with the rural
and assisted schools on Burrard Inlet.    The number of divisions embraced in the area were 225.
The growth in school population is evident in every district. Increased accommodation has
had to be provided in every section of the inspectorate. A new school is in course of construction
at Lynn Valley, in North Vancouver Municipality; the Queen Mary School in North Vancouver
has been enlarged; an addition has been built and opened in Port Moody; while in South
Vancouver the completion of a new high school will provide for the overflow public-school
population in one section of the municipality.
In North and South Vancouver part-time classes have had to be carried on owing to the
lack of school facilities. This condition is not at all satisfactory, but lack of room has made
it necessary. Every school building is filled to overflowing. A building programme on a large
scale faces every city and municipality.
The regulation issued by the Council of Public. Instruction, providing for promotion to high
schools of candidates in schools of seven divisions or over, affected a number of the schools in
North and South Vancouver Municipalities. The parents and teachers in the districts affected
have expressed their approval and satisfaction at the change. The results, in as far as they
may be judged at present, show that the teachers are to be trusted to make their recommendations carefully and promote only those who are fitted to proceed with high-school work. The
schools sending candidates to sit at the High School Entrance Examination have kept up their
usual high percentage of promotion, and the marks obtained have, with few exceptions, indicated
efficient teaching.
Reports have been sent to your office at regular intervals showing the character of teaching,
progress, and conditions prevailing at the schools throughout the district. There is no reason
for'repeating in this report recommendations presented to you during the year. The majority
of the schools are in populous centres and they are in the hands of the most experienced and
successful teachers available. The school trustees have met the teachers in a generous and
appreciative manner by granting substantial increases in salary. The negotiations for new
schedules have been carried on with great fairness and good temper on both sides. The spirit
of co-operation augurs well for the future harmonious relations so desirable between the trustees
and teachers.
The prizes for excellence in physical training under the Strathcona Trust Fund were
awarded as follows :—
First—Miss Gladys A. Nutt, 4th Division, Queen Mary School, North Vancouver.
Second—Miss H. R. Anderson, 2nd Division, Van Home School, South Vancouver.
Third—Mrs. Hazel M. Jex, 7th Division, Sir A. Mackenzie School, South Vancouver.
I have noted an increased interest and better results in the schools where every scholar in
the school takes the physical exercises in the open air.    The children perforin the exercises with 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 29
more vim and splendid spirit is exhibited when they unite in suitable games, races, dances, etc.
A closer bond and a better understanding are established between teacher and pupil when they
meet together for exercise on the playground.
I have, etc.,
John Martin,
Inspector of Schools.
INSPECTORATE No. 7. . t
New Westminster, B.C., October 30th, 1920.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report on Inspectorate No. 7 for the year 1919-20.
This inspectorate comprises the schools of New Westminster, of Chilliwack, and of the
Rural Municipalities of Surrey, Langley, Matsqui, Sumas, and Chilliwack; Ahbotsford Superior
School;   and the assisted schools of Barnston Island, Cultus Lake, and Popcum.
The total number of rooms in operation during the year was 178, 69 of these being in New
Westminster and Chilliwack and 101 being in rural schools of three rooms or under. These
figures indicate that the bulk of my work has been in the rural areas, and the problem of the
municipalities included in this inspectorate is precisely that rural-school problem which presses
for solution all over this continent, every phase of which may here be studied at first hand.
Curtailed capital expenditure during the war period, resulting in lack of accommodation; an
unexampled growth of child population during the subsequent two years; and the opinion that
heavy capital expenditure is only warranted if a permanent and up-to-date school system is
thereby secured; these are the outstanding features of the problem as here presented. The-
country schools are rapidly becoming overcrowded; in Surrey, Langley, and Chilliwack this is
particularly the case. Temporary expedients involving the use of unsuitable buildings, basements, and " double-shifts " are at present in operation. Money by-laws, providing for consolidation have been rejected in Surrey, Langley, and Chilliwack, partly because the schemes
submitted were regarded as too ambitious and costly, partly because of the dissatisfaction
already referred to, and partly through distrust of the possibility of auto-transportation until
better roads are available. Meanwhile the child population is suffering from lack of educational
facilities, and the need becomes daily more acute. All credit is due the trustees of these
municipalities, for although busy men they have given much time and anxious thought to the
problems confronting them and have endeavoured through the by-laws to give effect to what
they considered feasible solutions. There is, however, no reason to doubt but that some form
of consolidation, carefully adjusted to local conditions, will solve these problems with equal
success as has attended the application of similar methods in the other Provinces of the
Dominion and in the United States; in this Province, indeed, we may expect still greater success,
for we have the advantage of learning from the experiences of other districts, experiences which
have in some cases extended over many years.
In two areas special difficulties of organization have been encountered—viz., at Chilliwack,
where an attempt has been made to combine the city and rural municipalities with the object
of providing a large modern consolidated school to serve both districts; after protracted
negotiations no final decision has yet been reached in the matter. The second is in the rural
school district of Ahbotsford, where the inclusion of pupils from the adjoining municipalities
of Matsqui and Sumas has so taxed the accommodation that a new and larger building has
become necessary; here again no decision has yet been reached as to the proposal for incorporation of the town and for consolidation with the neighbouring municipalities.
So far as actual work in the schools is concerned, the year has been comparatively uneventful.
As my reports have indicated, the teachers are in nearly all cases giving earnest, faithful service,
the success attending their efforts depending upon their experience, their determination to keep
abreast of modern educational thought, and the physical conditions under which their work is
carried on. Many attended-the summer schools in Victoria and Vancouver; those in the Matsqui
and Chilliwack areas attended the November Teachers' Institute at Mission; the various local
federations have held meetings on matters of professional interest and have been addressed by
various educationists.    As regards class-teaching in the larger graded schools, these—possessing C 30
Public Schools Report.
1920
almost a monopoly of experienced teachers and supervised by a principal—reach in general a
creditable and in many cases a high standard; there should, however, be a more definite aim
to train the pupils in resourcefulness, initiative, and independent effort; cut-and-dried methods
and material could perhaps be more frequently discarded in favour of setting the children to
work on problems and projects suited to their capacity, the teacher abandoning the didactic
attitude and becoming an observer, guide, and final court of appeal; thus the spirit of
co-operation toward a common end would secure individual effort toward a social objective.
Success along this line would remove some of the more commonly criticized defects in the
product of our graded schools. In the ungraded schools the commonest weakness appears to
lie in organization. It is in these schools that we find the lower salaries paid and the less-
experienced teachers employed, whereas the exact opposite should be the case. The usual
practice in these ungraded or partially graded schools requires the children to spend a very
large proportion of their time in seat-occupations, and the inexperienced teacher often fails to
realize that this seat-occupation should possess interest, should be motivated, and should be
definitely connected with the subject-matter studied; that mere "busy-work" is valueless or
worse. This criticism is by no means of universal application, for in many of these rural schools
effective work is being done; indeed, when one considers the difficulties of insanitary and
unsuitable buildings, poor equipment, frequent change of staff, and irregular attendance, it is
surprising that so many of these schools attain the high standard they do.
In some of the schools attempts are being made to organize games and to supervise the
children's play, and the value of such efforts cannot be overestimated; teachers should recognize
that, for purposes of character-training as well as of physical development, organized games
provide opportunities that cannot be surpassed, and Trustee Boards should supplement their
efforts by providing wherever possible suitable grounds and equipment.
In New Westminster and Chilliwack manual training and domestic science are included in
the curriculum, and in January the citizens of New Westminster carried a money by-law making
provision for a technical school. This school provides an alternative to the usual high-school
work, admission being granted to boys and girls qualified for entrance to high school, and also
to any retarded public-school pupil who has passed the compulsory school age. In the rural
municipalities no provision has yet been made for manual training or domestic science; pending
the adoption of some form of consolidated schools, there is no reason why these important
branches should not be introduced and the children conveyed to the centres from schools in
the outlying districts, a system which has been found quite satisfactory in other parts of the
-Province. School-gardens are in operation at the majority of the schools, the work in Surrey,
Langley, and Chilliwack being in charge of agricultural supervisors. Excellent school exhibits
were displayed at New Westminster and other local fairs, class-room work, manual training,
domestic science, school-gardening, and agriculture all being represented, as well as individual
projects of hog, poultry, and stock-raising by the pupils; there is no doubt but that school-garden
work, intelligently utilized in relation to other branches of study, has a high educational value.
Two meetings of the Fraser Valley Trustees' Association were held during the year, and
there are local branches of the Teachers' Federation in Surrey, Langley, and Chilliwack; cordial
co-operation between these bodies cannot fail to contribute toward efficiency in school-work.
Parent-Teacher Associations are active in New Westminster, Ahbotsford, Chilliwack, and Rose-
dale ; in the latter place the association has assumed responsibility for providing hot lunches
for pupils from a distance.
In conclusion, it may be repeated that the most urgent need in this inspectorate is that
of providing school accommodation; the need can be met by establishing consolidated rural
schools wherever possible, and in the more sparsely peopled areas by means of well-equipped,
modernized, one-teacher schools (perhaps with teacher's residence attached) in charge of
experienced " rural-minded " teachers who will make their homes among the community. Heavy
expenditure will be entailed, but these communities will furnish the necessary funds when they
appreciate the advantage to the children of up-to-date education, and when they realize that
they will receive suitable service in return for the money expended.
I have, etc.,
Arthur Anstey,
Inspector of Schools. -
■
11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 31
INSPECTORATE No. 8.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—-I have the honour to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 8 for the school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
There were in operation throughout this inspectorate during the year fifteen municipal
schools with a staff of forty-one teachers, and ninety-eight rural and assisted schools with a
staff of 106 teachers, making a total of 113 schools employing 147 teachers. Two schools were
closed which were in operation during the previous year—viz., Chase Creek and Hat Creek,
both assisted schools. The following twelve schools were established and in operation for the
first time: North'Bonaparte, Paxton Valley, Clifton, Westsyde, Raft River, Rexmount, Seton
Lake Portage, Lee Creek, Brookmere, Waleach, Vinsulla, Red Lake, and Canoe (Rural Municipality of Salmon Arm). Three additional divisions were opened in Kamloops, one in Merritt,
one in Salmon Arm City, and one in Ashcroft. Harrison Hot Springs School, in Kent
Municipality, was closed early in the term, and the pupils there conveyed to Agassiz School,
where a new division had been made necessary by the increase in school population. This
experiment in consolidation in Kent Municipality School District has been such a success that
the School Board has felt justified in extending the scheme so as to consolidate McBride and
Agassiz Schools at the beginning of the new school-year. There are a number of other districts
in this inspectorate where conditions exist similar to those in Kent Municipality, and where it
is quite feasible to consolidate the schools in contiguous districts. The main objection to
consolidation, I have found, is the fear of increased taxation; but I believe that when the
ratepayer* begin to realize what consolidation means in the way of better grading of classes,
larger equipment, and better teaching, with less frequent change of teachers, they will realize,
also, that the small increase in the cost of operation is more than offset by the gain in efficiency
through consolidation.
Owing to the increase in school population the School Boards in the towns and cities have
had to face the difficulty of providing additional accommodation for new divisions after the
opening of the schools in September. In many cases temporary quarters for new classes were
obtained, and in Agassiz and Salmon Arm it was necessary to move the high-school classes from
the public-school buildings in order to accommodate the increased attendance in the public
schools there. One of the old school-buildings in the City of Merritt has been partly rebuilt
and several new class-rooms added, which, in addition to providing necessary accommodation
for new pupils, will greatly facilitate the work of supervision by the principal of the school.
A new public-school building is urgently needed in the east end of Kamloops City; at present
three divisions of the public school are being carried on in temporary quarters, which are but
poorly adapted for the accommodation of pupils.
Throughout the year I have given much attention to the defining of boundaries for assisted
school districts, and to the readjustment of the boundaries of old districts so as to provide
territory for the establishment of new schools. In several cases the trustees in the old-established
school districts have protested against the exclusion from their district of assessable property,
which, naturally, increases the rate of taxation in the district thus curtailed. However, it is
only reasonable to expect that, as the settlement of the country increases, some of the older
school districts, which originally were very large in extent of country included within their
boundaries, will have to be curtailed to permit of the formation of new districts in order to
meet the growing needs of our school population. I believe, also, that it is to the advantage
of assisted schools to have the boundaries of their districts^egularly defined. In many cases
the burden of the upkeep of the school in unorganized districts falls on two or three of the
ratepayers, frequently resulting in a lack of proper equipment and care; moreover, the question
of the selection of a school-site, which is a frequent source of controversy in new districts, is
the more difficult of settlement when the boundaries of the district served are not definitely
known. I am glad to report that in many cases where schools have been recently established
the people interested requested that the boundaries of the new districts be defined and gazetted.
Permit me to draw the attention of trustees to the sections in the " Schools Act" governing
the holding of the annual school meeting and the business to be transacted there.    Care should O 32 Public Schools Report. 1920
be taken to see that the notices for this meeting are properly posted and that the election of
trustees, the levying of assessment, and other necessary matters are attended to, and that the
minutes of the meeting are properly kept and a copy forwarded to the Department. In the great
majority of cases I have found that the trustees are thoroughly conversant with the Act, but in
several districts neglect to comply with one or several of these details has caused a loss of time
in preparation for the work of the new school-year, and in a few cases has delayed the opening
of the school. As a general rule, throughout this inspectorate, the Boards of School Trustees
are keenly interested in all that pertains to the wTelfare of the schools under their charge, and
are doing all in their power to supply the equipment and accommodation necessary for the
proper carrying-on of the work in the schools. This progressive spirit in school affairs is
manifested in the improvement to school property, increased equipment, and a general desire
to facilitate the work of the teacher. It is pleasing to report that in nearly all the newly
established school districts creditable school buildings have been erected, and in a number of
the older school districts the school property has been greatly improved, old buildings repaired,
and the school-rooms made bright and attractive.
Throughout the year there has been a general improvement in the quality of the work
performed in both graded and ungraded schools. The teachers are, on the whole, a hard-working,
conscientious body of men and women who are anxious to make a success of their work and to
raise the standing of the schools under their charge. There is a marked improvement in the
teaching of writing, neatness in exercise-work, and in the methods of appeal made to the
common-sense of the pupil by a practical application of the principles-taught in the various
subjects of the curriculum. Many teachers have found difficulty in adapting themselves to the
teaching of the new course in nature-study. To such I have pointed out that, in my judgment,
the course is mainly suggestive, and consequently much depends on the methods of teaching
and the amount of enthusiasm displayed by the teacher in the work. The capable te%cher will
take care that the pupils make their own observations, and will lead them to make deductions
from these. It is my experience that the reading to a class by a teacher of notes, very often
of a technical character, from a text-book on nature-study is of very little value from the
standpoint of practical teaching. Teach pupils to keep records of their own, to contain all
things of interest to children or to the community in the world of nature. " The aim will be
to form the habit of observation rather than to collect information, but the facts will have a
value and interest of their own." Through time it may be possible that the pupil will be led
to do something on his own account in the line of research-work—to blaze his own trail whither
his natural inclinations lead him. Moreover, nature-study readily lends itself to correlation
with many subjects. Drawing and colour-work may be taught in connection with the illustrations in the record-book; number-work and arithmetic with the enumeration and actual
measurements that are required in observation and in school-gardening. Geography, especially
elementary geography, is in its simplest conception merely nature-study, and history is largely
a product of geographical and climatic conditions. In short, nature-study may be made a sort
of common medium for correlating many of the other subjects on the course in such a way as
to cause the pupil to see the connection these subjects bear to one another, and how and why
they are of interest to him in his every-day life.
High School Entrance Examinations were held at thirteen centres in this inspectorate in
June last. I am pleased to report that the rural schools in general had much better results
than they had the preceding year. The Governor-General's medal for the inspectorate was won
by Garnet Russel Hardy, a pupil in Agassiz Public School, this being the second consecutive year
that this school has made the highest mark in this inspectorate in the Entrance Examinations.
The prizes awarded for physical training under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust for
the past year were as follows:—
First—Mr. J. A. Chambers, Division 1, Salmon Arm Public School.
Second—Mr. Albert Cullen, Division 2, Kamloops Public School.
Third—Miss Elsie Edmonds, Nicola Public Schoool.
I have, etc.,
A. F. Matthews,
Inspector of Schools. 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 33
INSPECTORATE No. 9.
Kelowna, B.C., November 1st, 1920.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to  submit  herewith my  annual  report in  respect  of the  public  schools  of
Inspectorate No. 9 for the school-year ending June 30th, 1920.
During the year schools were in operation as follows:—
Schools. Teachers.
City  municipalities   (4)        12 49
Rural municipalities   (4)        10 29
Rural  schools       20 34
Assisted schools      34 34
Totals      76 146
The school at Bear Creek was closed throughout the year. New schools were established
at Inglee, Heywood Corners, and Fir Valley; Sunnyside and Westbank were reopened; additional
divisions were in operation at Enderby, Armstrong, Vernon, Kelowna, Summerland, Naramata,
Penticton, Cawston, and Keremeos. With nine exceptions, all rural schools were visited twice;
graded schools received one inspection. East Kelowna School was raised to the status of a
regularly organized district, and a superior school was authorized at Princeton.
Increased attendance has necessitated the provision of additional class-room accommodation;
one-room additions have been made to the buildings at Cawston and at Keremeos, and a fairly
satisfactory two-room structure has been provided by the local district at Copper Mountain.
Thoroughly complete buildings are in process of construction at Penticton and in the Armstrong
Consolidated District, while a two-room school of the usual Government type will be in readiness
at Woods Lake at an early date. A pleasing feature of the past year has been the interest
manifested by many Rural School Boards in the appearance of their buildings and grounds; in
a considerable number of cases extensive improvements have been made at a very considerable
expense.
The work done by the majority of teachers has been good, yet in at least the majority of
ungraded schools the results are not satisfactory. As an evidence of this the following
statistics will be of interest:—
In fifty-two of the one-room schools there were 928 pupils in attendance—464 boys and 464
girls—or an average of slightly over seventeen per teacher. Of these pupils, 23 per cent, had
made normal progress since first entering school; 4 per cent, had gained one or more terms;
30 per cent, had been retarded one year, 19 per cent, two years, 12 per cent, three years, 5 per cent,
four years, while the remaining 7 per cent, ranged from five to eleven years. In the ten semi-
graded schools of two, three, or four rooms, with twenty-six teachers and an average attendance
of twenty-four pupils per room, 28 per cent, were normal in respect of progress; 5 per cent, were
accelerated; 29 per cent, were retarded one year, 21 per cent, two years, 11 per cent, three years,
4 per cent, four years, and 2 per cent, five or six years. These figures are based on the actual
ages of the pupils and on the classes in which they were grouped by their respective teachers;
no systematic attempt was made to ascertain the reliability of the grading, but had such an
analysis been secured it is probable that the proportion of retarded pupils would have been found
to have been much greater. One school so closely approaches the above percentages that it may
be considered typical; this school is situated in a prosperous and old-settled district where social
and living conditions offer much in the way of attraction; the children are of normal intelligence
and in the majority of instances have always attended this school, and have attended it with
reasonable regularity. Last term there were thirty-six pupils in attendance; their respective
classes and ages were:—
Receiving—5 pupils, aged 5, 6 (two), 7, and 14 years;
Primer Two—6 pupils, aged 6, 7 (two), and 8 (two) years;
Reader One—5 pupils, aged 8 (two), 9 (two), and 10 years;
Reader Two—7 pupils, aged 10, 11  (four), 13 and 14 years;
Reader Three, Junior—9 pupils, aged 11 (two), 12  (three), 13  (three), and 14 years;
c C    34:
Public Schools Report.
1920
Reader Four, Junior—2 pupils, aged 13 and 16 years;
Reader Four, Senior—2 pupils, aged 15 and 17 years.
A number of contributing causes enter into the production of such a condition, but the most
serious one is evidenced in the fact that during the year the seventy-eight class-rooms referred
to were in charge of 112 teachers, and of these 112 teachers twenty-three have returned to the
same school for the present term; in only sixteen of these rooms has there been no change of
teacher from September, 1919, until the present date.
The rural-school problem is the most serious question confronting educational administration
in this Province. The solution is to make the country school as congenial in respect of remuneration, of living conditions, and of working conditions as the graded urban school. In one of
these matters at least distinct progress is being made, and at the present time there are a
considerable number of teachers in rural schools who are in receipt of as substantial salaries
as are their sisters in the cities. In June, 1919, the average salary paid in the rural schools—
as distinct from the assisted class—was $834.21; in June, 1920, it had increased to $1,019.21;
for the present term the relatively high figure of $1,248.95 has been reached. Unfortunately,
in other respects no such progress can be reported; in one or two localities residences have been
provided. In many sections, however, a residence is not and will not be practicable. For the
last-mentioned difficulty, that of working conditions, there is not and will not be a solution so
long as ungraded schools remain ungraded. In the last analysis the conscientious teacher finds
her reward in the realization of a duty well performed; the knowledge that satisfactory results
cannot be obtained is a vital factor in the constant changing of teachers from one school to
another.
A real attempt to give to the country children the greatest possible educational opportunity
is being made at Armstrong, where the graded school of that city is being consolidated with
the eight rural schools of the adjoining municipality of Spallumcheen. The legal union has
already taken place and the consolidated school will be in actual operation as soon as the new
building, now under construction, has been completed. The result will be watched with interest
by the many districts in this inspectorate, where a similar plan is entirely feasible.
I have, etc.,
A. R. Lord,
Inspector of Schools.
\
INSPECTORATE No. 10.
Revelstoke, B.C., September 30th, 1920.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 10 for the school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
During the year the following assisted schools were opened: Brown Creek, about fourteen
miles up the North Kettle River from Grand Forks; Eagle Valley, between Sicamous and
Solsqua; Rock Mountain, a few miles from Bridesville; Tonkawatla, about seven miles from
Revelstoke, on the west side of the Columbia River; and Twin Butte, about twelve miles east
of Revelstoke, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The Christian Valley, Gerrard,
and Myncaster Schools, all of which had been closed for longer or shorter periods, were reopened,
and an additional division was opened in each of the following schools: Glenbank, Nakusp,
Revelstoke (Selkirk), Rossland (MacLean), and Trail (Central). The Deadwood and Parson
Schools were not operated during the year, nor was the Cook Avenue School, Rossland, all the
pupils of the last named having found accommodation at the new MacLean School. Two divisions
of the Phoenix School also remained closed throughout the year. In all, there were ninety-two
schools in operation in this inspectorate during the school-year, with a total staff of 152 teachers,
a net increase over last year of five schools and eight teachers. Of these totals, nine were graded
city schools with a staff of sixty teachers, three were graded rural schools with a staff of nine
teachers, two were graded assisted- schools with a staff of five teachers, and the remaining
seventy-eight were ungraded rural or assisted schools. 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 35
The standard of excellence noted in previous reports was fairly well maintained, but a
recurrence of the influenza epidemic interfered seriously with the work. Due largely to the
visits of this dread malady, the percentage of candidates who succeeded in passing the Entrance
Examination was lower than for many years. In not a few instances, however, the poor
showing of candidates in this respect can be attributed to the fact that teachers are frequently
inclined to be unduly optimistic regarding the attainments of pupils prepared by them for this
examination.
It is a matter of grave concern that the number of teachers changing positions at the end
.of the school-year under review is by far the largest on record, and it is to be hoped that more
stable conditions in this respect may speedily return. For surely, in these days of unsettling
restlessness, nothing is more sorely needed than that the teachers of the rising generation should
display those qualities of steadiness and quiet self-control so essential to the restoration of a
saner mental outlook.
I have, etc.,
A. E. Miller,
Inspector of Schools.
INSPECTORATE No. 11.
Nelson, B.C., October 26th, 1920.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 11 for the school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
During the school-year under review there were eighty-four schools in operation in the
inspectorate with a staff of 167 teachers. In the five cities of Cranbrook, Fernie, Kaslo, Nelson,
and Slocan sixty teachers were employed. Of the rural schools, fifteen were graded with a
staff of forty-four teachers and sixty-three were ungraded. Many of these rural schools are in
very remote and isolated districts, serving settlements at small lumbering or mining camps.
New schools were opened at Cooper Creek and Argenta. Both of these are situated in the
Lardeau region at the northern end of the Kootenay Lake. New divisions were added at Fruit-
vale, Canyon City, Wycliffe, Jaffray, Procter, and Hume.
Practically every school was inspected once during the year and a few received a second
inspection, but owing to the large number of class-rooms and the vast territory to be covered
it was found impossible to give each class a second inspection.
The majority of the schools in the inspectorate remained open during the whole year and
the work met with but litle interruption; consequently many teachers were able to overcome
in a measure the loss sustained by the various classes during the previous year owing to the
influenza epidemic. The great majority of the teachers were exceedingly earnest in their efforts,
and the work on the whole throughout the year was highly satisfactory.
It is pleasing to note that during the year salaries in many of the districts were substantially
increased. This increase did not pertain to the teachers of the city schools only, but many
teachers in the rural schools received an advance. The salaries of teachers in the Kootenay,
while in many cases by no means commensurate with services rendered, yet compare very
favourably with those paid in other parts of the Province. The amendment to the " Schools
Act," whereby ratepayers in an assisted school district are permitted to supplement the teacher's
salary, will prove a boon. By this amendment means are provided whereby the trustees in these
assisted schools are often able to retain the services of an efficient teacher.
The results of the Entrance Examinations showed considerable improvement over those of
previous years. The city schools of the inspectorate maintained their enviable record of previous
years. The principals of Cranbrook, Fernie, and Nelson City Schools continued to exercise the
same judicious care in making their recommendations for entrance to the high schools. The
results in the rural schools showed marked improvement. This was very gratifying. The
Governor-General's bronze medal for this inspectorate was awarded to Miss Jean Glendinning,
of the Hume School. C 36
Public Schools Report.
1920
The prizes for excellence in physical drill were this year awarded as follows:—
First—Cranbrook Central, 1st Division, R. S. Shields;
Second—Nelson Central, 6th Division, Miss O. Bealby;
Third—Fernie Central, 5th Division, Miss E. C. Stott.
While the prizes were allotted to the above-mentioned divisions, yet there were other divisions
that were deserving of special mention.    Among these were Division 2,  Cranbrook Central;
Division 10, Nelson Central;   and Division 2, Hume.
I wish to testify to the earnestness of the teaching staff and the kindly spirit in which
criticisms were received, and to express my deep appreciation of the kindly courtesy extended
to me on my visits to the various districts. I have always found that members of the Boards
generally are anxious to discuss school affairs, that improvements might be effected and the
children of the districts given every facility to secure the best education possible. These persons
who serve without remuneration and give freely of their time in the best interests of the
community are deserving of great praise and commendation.
I have, etc.,
F. G. Calvert,
Inspector of Schools.
INSPECTORATE No. 12.
Prince Rupert, B.C., November lOtfi, 1920.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 12 for the school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
This inspectorate, which formerly included the Electoral Districts of Atlin, Prince Rupert,
Omineca, Fort George, and Cariboo as far south as Soda Creek, was at the beginning of the year
broken up into two, and now includes the Electoral Districts of Atlin, Prince Rupert, and
Omineca as far east as Endako.
During the year forty-four schools employing seventy-one teachers were in operation; these
consisted of the following:—
Schools.      Teachers.
City municipalities          1 18
Rural schools         6 15
Assisted schools      37 38
Totals       44 71
All the schools were visited once, except those in the neighbourhood of Atlin, and of those
visited all but twelve received a second visit, the total number of visits for the year being 120.
Schools were in operation for the first time at Round Lake, North Bulkley, Francois Lake,
Francois Lake South, and Alexander Manson (Ootsa Lake). During the year a school was
established and began operation at South Bulkley. Additional divisions were opened at Prince
Rupert, Kitsumgallum, and Burns Lake. Schools have been authorized and will be in operation
in the near future at Glentanna and Sealey's, near Smithers, and at Decker Lake.
The great influx of settlers into the Terrace, Bulkley, and Francois-Ootsa Districts is
creating a great demand for new schools.
Entrance Examinations were held in June last at ten centres, when forty-four candidates
presented themselves. Of these, twenty-three were successful. In addition, thirty pupils of
Prince Rupert Public School were promoted to the high school without examination on the
recommendation of the principal. The Governor-General's bronze medal wras w-on by John
McCaul, of Granby Bay Public School.
Prizes awarded under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust were as follows:—
First—Miss Mary Gladwell, LL.A., Division 2, Prince Rupert.
Second—Miss Lena Wolfenden, Division 2, Ocean Falls.
Third—Miss Annie M. McKinnon, Division 4, Prince Rupert.
High-school privileges are being sought after by the people of the Bulkley and Bella Coola
Valleys.    In these localities numbers of pupils have passed Entrance, but not enough at either 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 37
place to warrant the establishment of a superior school.    However, with the great increase in
population in some centres, this will in a short time be remedied.
In general the work of the teachers was found to be of a very satisfactory character, though
in some cases carried on under trying circumstances, due to a lack of proper facilities.
I have, etc.,
.    - J. M. Paterson,
Inspector of Schools.
INSPECTORATE No. 13.
i
Prince George, B.C., September 1st, 1920.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 13 for the
school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
Inspectorate No. 13 embraces the schools in the Grand Trunk Railway Belt east of Endako;
those in the Cariboo and Lillooet Districts as far south as the 100-Mile House; those in the
Canadian Northern Railway Belt as far south as Blue River; as well as those in the Peace River
District.
Considerable development has taken place within the bounds of this inspectorate during the
past year, and in consequence it has been necessary to establish a number of new schools.
Schools have been set in operation for the first time at Alexis Creek (Chilcotin), Collishaw,
Ellesby, Lake District, Lee, Loos, Mud River, Nithi River, Pouce Coupe, Rose Lake, and Stuart
River; schools have been authorized and will probably open at the beginning of the autumn term
at Anderson (Peace River), Big Lake, Greer Valley, Longworth, Miocene, Taylor's Flats (Peace
River), and Williams Lake. Additional teachers were appointed to the schools at McBride,
Prince George, and Vanderhoof; and the school at Engen was reopened. The Braeside and
Castle Rock Schools were closed.
Although practically all the schools within my inspectorate were visited twice during the
past school-year, a considerable portion of my time was spent in what might be termed
organization-work. I travelled approximately 9,000 miles inspecting schools, readjusting difficulties, investigating petitions for new schools, and endeavouring to keep those schools already
established in operation. Throughout the year there has been a shortage of duly qualified
teachers in these parts, and as a result a large number of unskilled, temporary-certificated
teachers found their way into the schools. The chief problem in these northern schools is
how to retain the services of efficient teachers. Only 10 per cent, of the teachers within the
bounds of this inspectorate returned to their schools after the last summer vacation, and
25 per cent, of the class-rooms experienced a change of teachers during the school-year. Under
such conditions anything like really good results cannot be expected. In my judgment two
causes contribute largely to the fact that teachers do not remain long in the rural districts.
Jn the first place, the salary is not sufficiently attractive to encourage teachers to leave the more
settled parts of the Province and take up work in the outside districts; and, secondly, the
accommodations provided for the teacher in many of the districts are anything but satisfactory.
Until salaries are higher and some provision is made for comfortably housing the teacher
(perhaps by erecting a teacher's residence) conditions in the rural schools of this inspectorate
are not likely to improve materially.
My observations throughout the past year, largely in rural and assisted schools, have quite
confirmed an opinion expressed in a previous report, to the effect that sufficient reading-matter
is not supplied to our Intermediate Grade pupils. In my judgment suitable History and
Geography Readers should be in the hands of Intermediate Grade pupils. In the schools
to-day under my care the Intermediate Grade pupils are not receiving a sufficient training in
either history or geography to enable them to undertake the Senior Grade work in these subjects
intelligently.
On the whole, the manual work of the school-children within this inspectorate is inferior,
and many of the teachers are not paying sufficient attention to this department of school-work. C 38
Public Schools Report.
1920
In most class-rooms an examination of the exercise-books of the pupils indicates pretty well the
nature of the school-work generally.
The policy of the Education Department of granting financial aid to assisted school districts
towards the erection and furnishing of the first school-house is proving an excellent one. As a
result a better type of school-house is being erected and the buildings are more suitably equipped.
The plan of advancing quarterly to rural and assisted districts any assessment voted is also
working out very satisfactorily. In a number of the districts trustees have taken advantage
of the system and they have found it a great aid in solving their financial difficulties.
I have, etc.,
G. H. Goweb,
Inspector of Schools. 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 39
REPORT OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
VANCOUVER SCHOOLS.
Vancouver, B.C., October 30th, 1920.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Vancouver for the school-
year ending June 30th, 1920 :—
School Accommodation.
Each year brings to Vancouver the problem of providing adequate school accommodation,
and each year that problem is becoming more difficult to solve. In January, 1919, the ratepayers
of the city were asked to endorse money by-laws for sums amounting to $604,000, to be used
in providing the increased school accommodation and equipment deemed necessary to carry on
properly during the school-year 1919-20. They voted only $60,000, or rather sanctioned the
transfer of this amount, voted in 1913, but remaining unexpended. The greater part of this
small sum was spent at once to provide a number of one-room cottage schools to accommodate
the increased school attendance for the term ending June 30th, 1919.
When schools opened in September,' 1919, the accommodation in both the public and the high
schools was found to be very unsatisfactory. In the former many good rooms were overcrowded
and a number of unsuitable rooms had to be used; in the latter six classes had to be conducted
on the double-platoon system. In this way three class-rooms were made to do double duty,
accommodating three classes from 8 a.m. to 1 p.m., and three others from 1 p.m. to 6 p.m. This
system proved very unsatisfactory, especially for the afternoon classes. Consequently steps
were taken to erect a new eight-room high school in the Kitsilano District. This school was
opened on January 5th, 1920, making conditions in high schools fairly satisfactory for the
remainder of the school-year. In the public schools, however, conditions became worse when
6-year-old pupils were received in February. There were S13 of these, making twenty-three
additional classes. For six classes only could rooms be secured. The remaining seventeen
had to be taken for part time, sharing rooms with seventeen other classes also on part time.
This part-time tuition has been found very unsatisfactory. It costs more than full-time
work, but produces poorer results. To obviate the necessity for it in the last term of the year
under review, the ratepayers were asked to vote, on September 29th, 1919, $498,000 for increased
school accommodation. This they refused to do. They were again asked for $305,000 in June,
1920, and again they refused. In this connection, I wish to point out, as I did in my last annual
report, that it is absolutely impossible to administer properly a school system where a comparatively small number of ratepayers can prevent the providing of proper school accommodation
for thousands of children. Unless a remedy be found at once for such a state of affairs, school-
work in this city will suffer greatly;  it will cost more and be less effectively done.
Teaching Staff.
During the year the teaching staff was increased from 482 to 519 because of increased school
attendance and the expansion of school-work. The increases in the various staffs were as
follows:—•
Public schools      from 3S1 to 409
General classes     from 365 to 392
Special classes        „      10   „     12
School for the Deaf       „        5  „      4
School for the Blind  ' ,        1  „      1
High  schools      from    63 to    69
General Course    from    43 to    46
Commercial Course       „       11   „    11
Boys' Technical Course ,        7   „      9
Home Economics Course       „        2   „      3 C 40
Public Schools Report.
1920
Manual training   from    20 to   23
Domestic science       ,.      12   „     12
Special instructors.         6   „      6
Total   from 482 to 519
Special Classes.
A second full year's work in special classes for retarded pupils has further demonstrated the
necessity for them. The work was but little extended, however. The teaching staff was increased
only from ten to twelve, although there must have been in the city over 300 school-children who
should have been receiving instruction in such classes. Lack of additional class-rooms stood in
the way of necessary expansion in this as in other work.
One important step forward was taken during the year on behalf of retarded pupils in
the appointment of a social-service worker to work for them. This official's duty is to act as
a kind of guardian for such children while attending school, and more especially after leaving
school to go to work. By keeping in close touch with the children and their parents she can
give advice that will materially help in placing the young workers advantageously and ensure
their persevering in suitable work when it is obtained. By keeping in close touch with the
employers of such workers as are trained in our special classes she can instruct them as to how
these young people may be most profitably employed, thus helping all concerned. I feel certain
that this is valuable work and that it will be well done by the Board's first appointee, Miss
Frances Clark.
The School for the Blind continued to do good work; but no extension of it was possible.
In fact, the present building in which the school is conducted is inadequate for its one teacher
and seven pupils, and better accommodation cannot be secured till trustees find some way of
obtaining money for capital expenditure.
Work among the deaf suffered during the year from lack of proper class-room facilities.
For the first term its five classes were comfortably housed in a rented dwelling; but, when
the owners refused to rent for a second term, the school, reduced to four classes, had to be
crowded into two rooms in the Kitsilano High School.
Medical Inspection and Dental Work.
The medical staff was increased by the appointment of an additional nurse during the year.
It now includes the Chief Medical Officer, who gives full time to the work, two lady assistants
working half time, and eight nurses on full time.
To the dental staff no addition was made. Five men working three hours per day continued
to treat free of charge all children coming from homes where the family income did not
exceed $4 per member per week. By the close of the first term it was found that nearly all
such children had been cared for. It was then decided to offer free treatment to families having
an income of not more than $5 per member per week.
Physical Training and Cadet-work.
Substantial progress was made in both physical training and cadet-work. A committee
of public-school principals in conjunction with Captain A. C. Bundy drew up a syllabus providing
that twenty minutes per school-day be devoted to instruction along these two important lines.
This has been very generally followed and with good results.
The marked growth in the cadet movement is indicated in the following table showing the
relative strength of the 101st Schools Cadet Regiment in June, 1920, as compared with June,
1919:—
Year.
Corps.
Band.
Battalions.
Instructors.
Staff.
Total
Establishment.
Increases.
1919    	
1920   	
23
24
1
1
5
6
24
25
6
8
1920
2614
694 11  Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 41
The close of the war and the return of a number of cadet instructors has made this expansion
possible.    It has also done much to improve the character of the work done.
The Work op Supervising.
Difficulty was experienced in keeping the manual-training and domestic-science work on
as high a plane as could be desired, as the supervisor in each of these departments had to teach
the greater part of the time. The entire absence of supervision of sewing in public-school classes
is to be regretted, as many teachers come poorly prepared, if prepared at all, for the teaching
of this subject.
The supervision of physical training and cadet-work by Captain A. C. Bundy, of primary
work by Miss E. J. Trembath, and of special-class work by Miss A. J. Dauphinee was well done.
Early in the year our schools sustained a great loss in the death of Mr. Geo. P. Hicks;
Chief Supervisor of Music, a faithful and efficient worker. For fifteen years in the service of
the Board he had done much to encourage the study of music in the schools. Considerable
difficulty was experienced in securing his successor. Not until January of this year was a man
found to carry on in the person of Mr. F. W. Dyke, an experienced and well-trained teacher and
a musician of unquestioned ability. Under his direction we may expect the teaching of music
in the schools to be well done.
In no department of our school-work was more well-directed, intelligent effort put forth last
year than in the teaching of drawing. The supervisor, Mr. Chas. H. Scott, on his return from
the Front, after three and a half years of service, found, as was to be expected, that the work
in his department had suffered during his absence. He at once set about most energetically to
improve conditions, and did so by various means. Finding the work of properly supervising
drawing in over 400 class-rooms an impossible task for one man, he devised a scheme whereby
we hope to have ultimately in each school a teacher well qualified to supervise the drawdng of
his own school under Mr. Scott's general supervision.
- To make this possible Mr. Scott is giving teachers a drawing course of two hours per week
for one year. On the satisfactory completion of this course, which has been approved by you,
a teacher will receive a special drawing certificate from your Department. I am pleased to
report, in this connection, that twenty-nine teachers began this course last April and twenty-
seven are still taking it. By this means I anticipate that more assistance will be available for
the teachers of drawing in our schools in future than there has been in the past.
Night-schools.
The eleventh session of the night-schools, from October 1st, 1919, to March 31st, 1920,
proved a very satisfactory one. Classes were conducted in five centres, fifty-five courses were
offered, and thirty-seven teachers were employed. The total enrolment was 1,581, distributed
as follows: Continuation classes, 144; Modern Languages, 60; Art, 110; Music, 139; Engineering, 215 ; Electricity, 249; Domestic Science, 179; Commercial Work, 413 ; -Elocution, 37;
Short-story Writing, 35.
Teachers as Students.
The school-year 1919-20 was marked by much activity among teachers in their efforts to
qualify themselves more fully for their work. Our supervisors have been teachers of teachers;
our principals arranged for a course of seven lectures during the year on important educational
questions by educational experts. These were well attended and were very helpful. The number
of teachers taking summer courses was large—some taking work locally, others going to Seattle
or even to California.
New Experiments.
Last year, for the first time in Vancouver, fees were collected from high-school students.
This innovation was regarded by certain members of the Board as a matter of necessity rather
than a matter of choice. Funds were needed for high schools and it was thought they could not
be secured in any other way. After one term's experimenting in the charging of fees it was
decided to discontinue the practice. While something may be urged in favour of high-school
tuition fees in exceptional cases, I am convinced the practice should ordinarily be avoided.
For a number of years there has been a strong sentiment in certain quarters in favour of
lengthening the noon hour, but the majority of parents, teachers, and pupils did not favour it. }ublic Schools Report.
1920
After the school-day of uniform length throughout the year (from 9 a.m. to 3.15 p.m.) was
decided upon in Vancouver in 1918, it became apparent that the lengthening of the noon hour
might more reasonably be expected. Consequently a plebiscite of the parents was taken on
the question early in 1919, only to be defeated. The .Board then decided to experiment with
a noon intermission of one hour and fifteen minutes for May and June, 1919, and take another
plebiscite later. The result of this was a vote of 6,140 in favour of the lengthened intermission
and only 1,511 against it. After more than a year's trial the new arrangement is meeting with
general approval.
Salaries.
Teachers' salaries, which for years have been the highest paid in British Columbia, were
again advanced 14 per cent, in January, 1920, thus keeping Vancouver still in the lead. The
present schedule, providing salaries ranging from $1,083 to $3,705, looks well on paper, but is
not really as good a schedule as that of eight years ago. In one important particular it is
unsatisfactory—it holds out little inducement to capable young men to enter or remain in our
schools as assistants.    Our schools have suffered on this account.
School Sports and Athletics.
Keen interest continued to be taken throughout the year in school sports and athletics, both
in the public and high schools. In the latter, however, the number of students taking part was
far too small, especially among the girls. This condition will likely continue until a qualified
physical-training instructress is secured. It is possible provision will be made next year for the
appointment of such an official.
General School Activities.
The past school-year has been one of ever-increasing harmony and co-operation between the
different agencies concerned in carrying on school-work. Parents and teachers are being drawn
closer together as they more fully realize they can be mutually helpful. The knowledge that"
parents and teachers are working together in their interests is also having a beneficial effect
on children. Never have I found a better tone in schools than was to be found in Vancouver
last year.    This I attribute largely to a better understanding between the home and the school.
I have, etc.,
J. S. Gordon,
Municipal Inspector of Schools.
VICTORIA SCHOOLS.
Victoria, B.C., July 1st, 1920.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to make the following report on the condition and progress of the
Victoria City schools for the year 1919-20:—
Attendance.
The school attendance from October to June, inclusive, of the years 1918-19 and 1919-20 is
shown in the following table:—■
1918. Attendance.
October     5,269
November (schools closed)
December  4,571
1919.
January     2,868
February      5,420
March     5,524
April     5,576
May    5,463
June   5,292
1919. Attendance.
October    5,873
November   5,749
December   5,479
1920.
January  5,919
February     5,680
March     5,655
April    ,  5,66S
May    5,550
June     5,321 11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
In my last report I stated that the schools were closed part of the time from the middle of
October, 1918, to the end of January, 1919, owing to the prevalence, of influenza in the city,
which accounts for the small attendance in the months of December, 191S, and January, 1919,
as shown in the above table.
The total increase in attendance at the city schools in June, 1920, over June, 1919, is
twenty-nine.
Accommodation.
In August, 1919, the special school, under Miss Winn, was moved from its former quarters
on the Central School grounds to a much more commodious building on the corner of Pandora
Avenue and Fernwood Road. From every point of view this was a very salutary change.
In March, 1920, Miss Winn was relieved of a portion of her too arduous duties by the appointment of a part-time assistant.
In August, 1919, the School Board authorized the building of a four-roomed annex to the
Sir James Douglas School, and the contract for its erection was subsequently awarded for the
sum of $10,734. A similar annex has also been built at Oaklands for $10,371. Both annexes
have been occupied for the year under review and have given much-needed relief to much-
congested school districts.
In October, 1919, Quadra Manual Training Centre was opened. This enabled instruction
to be given to pupils of Quadra Street District who previously had to go to North Ward and
other schools. The Oaklands, Margaret Jenkins, and Sir James Douglas Schools are considerably
handicapped at present with respect to both manual-training and domestic-science work, their
pupils having to go to other centres for this instruction.
H.R.H. the Prince oe Wales.
In September, 1919, H.R.H. the Prince of Wales visited Victoria, where he was acclaimed
with enthusiasm, due partly to his high position, but very much more to his great personal
charm, which has gained for him the affection of the citizens of every part of the Empire which
he visited. The children of Victoria schools, by invitation, were present at his reception on
the grounds of the Parliament Buildings, and doubtless carried away with them pleasing-
recollections of their future Sovereign.
Technical Education.
On November 12th, 1919, a special committee from the City Council waited on the School
Board and urged the introduction of technical training in the schools. The Board had already
in mind the starting of such classes, but this backing from the City Council was greatly
appreciated, more especially as it meant an increase in the estimates. On January 7th, 1920,
the Board approved of the first purchase of technical equipment, consisting of one rip-saw,
one 12-inch jointer, and one band-saw, at a cost of $1,375. The Technical School was opened
in September, 1920, and is doing excellent work under the able direction of Mr. William Binns.
Dental Clinic.
On November 12th, 1919, the School Board took the initial steps towards the formation of
a dental clinic, and Dr. Mason was appointed school dentist conditional on the passing of
necessary legislation authorizing dental expenditures. Such authority having been granted by
an amendment to the " Schools Act" last Session, Dr. Mason commenced his duties in April, 1920.
Assistant Nurse.
Beginning with the new year (1920), Mrs. Jean Osborne assumed the duties of assistant
school nurse.
Mr. George Jay.
At the expiration of his term of office as school trustee last January, Mr. Jay declined to
offer himself for re-election, to the great regret of the School Board and all others with whom
he was officially connected, and the following resolution was carried unanimously at a meeting
of the Board held on January 14th, 1920 :—
"That this Board hereby expresses its appreciation of the great work done in the interests
of the Victoria City schools by Mr. Jay during his continuous service on the Board for upwards C 44 Public Schools Report. 1920
of nineteen years; and, further, that the Chairman of the Board and the Municipal Inspector
be requested to frame a letter giving suitable expression to the above sentiments."
I may be permitted to add that, having been in the service of the School Board during the
whole of the time of Mr. Jay's tenure of office as trustee, and knowing the keen and intelligent
interest he took in every matter relating to the schools, and the progressive policy he always
advocated in education matters, I can conceive of no more serious loss than that which our
schools sustained when Mr. Jay retired from the School Board.
Mr. C. B. Deaville's retirement at the same time and that of Mr. R. W. Perry were also a
distinct loss to the Board and the schools.
Victoria College.
For some years negotiations were carried on between the Board of School Trustees and
the Board of Governors of the University of British Columbia, with the view of recovering the
affiliation which Victoria lost owing to the establishment of the University, but the School Board
always found themselves confronted by an intelligible reluctance on the part of the Board of
Governors to decentralize the work of the University. That view was not held by a majority
in the Senate, who last year passed a resolution recommending the granting of affiliation to
Victoria under certain conditions.
It seems to me to be unnecessary here to recall to your recollection each step in the negotiations which resulted in Victoria receiving the desired affiliation. The documents relating to
them are in file in your office.
The final step consisted in the acceptance by the Board of Trustees of the Senate's conditions,
and the consequent affiliation of Victoria College with the University of British Columbia.
Later the School Board appointed Mr. Edward B. Paul, Principal, and Professor E. Howard
Russell, Professor Percy Elliott, Miss Jeanette A. Cann, and Mme. Sanderson-Mongin as the
staff of the new College.
Malnutrition in the Schools.
On the recommendation of Nurse Muriel Grimmer, a room was set aside at the Boys' Central
School for the purpose of assisting the Dr. O. M. Jones Chapter, I.O.D.E., to distribute to undernourished children milk which was supplied free of cost by the British Columbia Dairymen's
Association and Vancouver Island Milk Producers' Association. The reports, from the school
physician and school nurse indicate the complete success of this most praiseworthy attempt to
improve the physique of children whose parents were unfortunately unable to give them proper
diet.
Salaries.
Several interviews between the School Board and the teachers resulted in a considerable
increase in the salary schedule.
Resignations.
In December, 1919, the George Jay School suffered a serious loss by the resignation of
Miss Etta B. Andrews, a faithful and most successful teacher.
In June, 1920, Mr. A. G. Smith, Principal of the High School for the last four years, resigned
to take an important position in the Sprott-Shaw School in this city. I need not remind you
of the splendid work of Mr. Smith, both as assistant in and principal of the High School.
You, like myself, have worked in the same school with him, and know well his high scholarship
and his success as a teacher. During his rule as principal the High School flourished greatly,
and no complaint was ever brought to me about the manner in which he performed his duties.
His resignation was accepted with much regret by the Board.
At the end of June I resigned my position as Municipal Inspector of Schools, an office I held
for the last twelve years.   During that time I received much kindness from trustees, teachers,
and the public generally, for which I am most grateful.
, I have, etc.,
Edward B. Paul,
Municipal Inspector of Schools. 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 45
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
VANCOUVER PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
Vancouver, B.C., July 1st, 1920.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to forward the accompanying report of the Provincial Normal School, Vancouver,
for the school-year ending May, 1920:—
Summer Session.
During this session there have been 257 students in attendance, of whom 137 received their
Preliminary diplomas; 45 were, on request of the Faculty, allowed further time; 42 failed;
and 2 withdrew.
The work of this session was very heavy upon the Faculty. Mr. Murphy resumed his
position on his return from active service on September 1st, but was unable to attend to his
duties until December 1st. During the month of October Mr. MacLean was absent at his old
home in Prince Edward Island on account of his father's death. The rest of the staff had
therefore additional work on their hands, which, I need not say, was willingly undertaken.
Winter Session.
During this session there have been 222 students in attendance. Of this number, Preliminary
diplomas have been granted to 43 and Advanced diplomas to 154, while 25 have failed or withdrawn, several of whom have been obliged to leave from ill-health.
The arrangements for practice-wrork and instruction are still greatly hindered by the holding
of Preliminary and Advanced classes in the same session. We had in the winter session four
classes of Advanced students and one of Preliminary. In the majority of cases the Preliminary
students could have attended in September had they been so inclined, and better work would
have been accomplished at each session had all students been of the same grading.
Entrance Qualieications.
At the commencement of this session a number of students were admitted, who had to write
on supplemental examinations for either matriculation or higher standing. Some of these were
successful, but others were not; consequently there are now here eighteen students who have
no non-professional standing of any kind. By advice of their high-school teachers these students
did not write for their Junior Grade, and having now no matriculation they are disqualified as
teachers, but by the consent of the Department were allowed to continue here this session.
I would suggest that a regulation be made that in future no student should be eligible for
admission to the Normal School unless that student is the holder of a certificate of Junior Grade
standing or of full matriculation. We find that students who have to face again their nonprofessional examinations are unable to devote their whole attention to the professional side
of their work, and consequently are inefficient students.
Strathcona Trust—Physical Drill.
All the students of the first session received training in physical drill from Instructor
Wallace. At the close of the session an examination was held by Major Belson for any who
were leaving in December, 1919, and thirty-six diplomas were granted. The Department having
arranged that the instructor should be transferred to the Victoria Normal School from February
until the end of the session, another examination was held by Major Belson early in February
and 147 diplomas were granted. The present class of Preliminary students is now left without
any special instructor in the subject of physical drill, and although this is being taught by our
regular staff after hours, yet the taking away of the drill instructor has thrown additional
classes upon the staff during school-hours, being equivalent to a reduction of our staff by one
member. I trust the Department will be able to replace an instructor next session. By present
arrangement of one instructor for two schools, however the arrangement may be made, part C 46 Public Schools Report. 1920
of the students in each school will have no special instruction, or the staff will have to provide
it at the expense of other subjects of equal importance.
In addition to the usual drill, it would be of great advantage if our boys were obliged to
take cadet drill in order .to be proficient to train others in the future. If the Department will
make this compulsory there would be no difficulty in carrying out the necessary training while
the students are attending the school, but this must be made an essential part of their course
in order to obtain the greatest benefit from such an arrangement. Trustees in many schools
are requiring their male teachers to train pupils in habits of discipline, and the fact that the
teacher is capable of doing this is proved by his possession of the necessary training and
knowledge himself. Hence, I beg to ask the special consideration of the Department to this
matter, both for the benefit of the students and of the community.
Domestic Economy' and Manual Training.
We are still deficient in any means to teach either of these branches. Surely, if they are
requisite for Normal School students in Victoria, they are equally so for students in this
institution. I sincerely trust that the Government will at an early date be in a position to
remedy this defect, and even to carry on a special course for training teachers for these subjects.
The people of the Province are gradually awakening to the value of an education along these
lines and are offering to support their teaching, but meanwhile we have to import our teachers
or to send our students to other Provinces to study the approved methods; this can be done as
well in our Normal Schools were the proper facilities provided. It would appear, however, from
the experience of other Provinces, that any special training for these subjects should be given
only after the student has proved teaching ability in the ordinary course.
First Aid.
Four classes in First Aid were held during the winter session, and eighty-four students
obtained their diplomas for proficiency in this subject.
In conclusion, I can only again thank, on my own behalf and of that of the whole Faculty,
the teachers of our two Model Schools for their combined endeavours to aid us in the best
manner possible for the benefit of our student teachers.
I have, etc.,
William Burns,
Principal.
VICTORIA PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
Victoria, B.C., October 30th, 1920.
ig. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the work done in the Provincial
Normal School at Victoria during the school-year which ended June 30th, 1920:—
Sept. to Jan. to
Dec, 1919.      May, 1920.
Number enrolled for the Advanced Course     25 105
Number enrolled for the Preliminary Course   114 12
Totals      139 117
Number that discontinued attending during the session _..      4 3
Number not awarded diplomas        2 8
Number awarded diplomas   133 106
Totals    139 117
It was with no small sense of relief that I welcomed in September, 1919, an addition to the
strength of our teaching staff in the person of Mr. B. S. Freeman, B.A.   Mr. Freeman, who had ..'' '
11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 47
been principal of the Armstrong High School, entered upon his duties with the full enthusiasm
and ripe experience of a teacher who had given years of most efficient service in his profession.
It is with regret that I have to record that Miss Ida Morris, L.R.A.M., who had charge of the
teaching of music for four years, found it necessary to resign her position that she might return
to her home in England. Our school lost thereby an instructress whose influence on the students
was always ennobling. With these changes the work of the year was apportioned as follows:
The Principal—Psychology, history of education, class management and school law, English
literature, arithmetic, and a portion of the work in English grammar and language. Mr. V. L.
Denton—History, geography, and reading. Mr. Hy. Dunnell—Drawing and colour-work, writing,
woodwork, and manual arts. Mr. B. S. Freeman—Language, English grammar, nature-study,
and school-gardening. Miss Lexa Denne—Household science, hygiene, and first-aid to the injured.
Mr. E. Butterworth (substitute)—Music.   Sergeant-Major Instructor Wallace—Physical training.
At the close of the year in July, Miss Denne, upon her return to her home in Ontario, found
that the failing health of her father would prevent her from returning and accordingly resigned
her position. I cannot speak too highly of the work done by Miss Denne during the four years
and a half that she was a member of the staff. Not only this school, but the Province at large,
has lost a forceful leader in the important realm of household economics.
In retrospect of the year's work there has been sufficient reason, I believe, to feel that every
effort has been faithfully made to send forth carefully trained young teachers possessing a full
sense of responsibility of the importance of the work they have undertaken. Various social
functions, an active Athletic Association, and a well-organized Literary Society have helped in
this work of development. In addition to these, two series of lectures were given that could not
fail to broaden the mental vision of these young teachers and to assist them to view their work
in its proper relation to other educational institutions of human endeavour. The first was a
series of lectures, during the fall session, on the value of reading and the functions of public
libraries, given by Miss Helen Stewart, Miss Margaret Clay, and Mr. Herbert Killam. The
second series, during the spring session, was given by a number of prominent citizens of Victoria
and embraced a variety of excellent topics. Our thanks are gratefully accorded to all who thus
assisted. To the staffs of the Model School, the North Ward School, and the Bank Street School
we are again indebted for their faithful service in connection with the practical teaching of our
students.
There is one point relative to the existing conditions under which we are now working that
should receive immediate consideration. Graduates in Arts are now required by the provisions
of the " Public Schools Act" to take Normal training. Almost all of these are preparing to
enter the profession as teachers in high schools. The training they receive is entirely associated
with elementary school-work. While it is true that in this training they should and do receive
instruction in principles of teaching applicable to all grades, it is obvious that a better training
would be given were that training associated directly with the grade and subject-matter of the
schools that they purpose entering. At the present time there is no school in this Province
training teachers for high-school work. As an ever-increasing number are being graduated each
year from our Provincial University who desire such training, it would seem expedient to
establish a school for the training of high-school teachers at once.
In concluding this report, it gives me pleasure to express my sincere appreciation of the
progressive plan initiated by the Department of Education, whereby the instructors in our Normal
Schools are' given financial assistance to enable them to attend summer sessions at leading
universities for the purpose of promoting their professional efficiency and deepening their
enthusiasm.
I have, etc.,
D. L. MacLaurin,
Principal. C 48
Public Schools Report.
1920
ELEMENTARY AGRICULTURAL  EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
Victoria, B.C., November 30th, 1920.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report dealing with elementary agricultural
education for the year ending December 31st, 1920:—
Its Place in the Public Schools.
It is generally conceded that the public schools are not directly concerned with vocational
education. In other words, they have not been established for the purpose of training boys and
girls in special lines of work whereby they might earn a living. That is something which
naturally comes later on in connection with technical and trade schools and to some extent in
high schools. It is true, however, that in the latter years of the public school boys and girls
should have such lines of work as tend to develop useful and healthful interests, and a discovery
on their part of possible lines of activity into which they might enter with reasonable chances
for success. To this extent public-school work might be said to be prevocational, and it is at
this stage that such subjects as manual training and elementary agriculture are of outstanding
importance.
No doubt the earliest type of education was that which had to do with the training of boys
and girls in .the home. It was largely a matter of individual instruction in ways and means
of doing things. It was, of course, too narrowly vocational, although it had the rare merit of
calling into play most of the faculties of the individual. He at least learned to do by doing and
not infrequently became possessed of great personal skill. This rather primitive and utilitarian
type of training was followed by what might be regarded as the opposite extreme—reading,
memorizing, and reciting lessons learned from books—a type of training which aimed chiefly
at the development of the human mind, the intellect. It found no place for the consideration
of the more practical affairs of life and livelihood. With the invention of printing it soon
became quite easy and quite natural for one generation of scholars to bequeath or assign to
the next, in printed form, that which seemed to them good in the way of subjects of instruction.
In this way the importance of subjects and the subject-matter of instruction was overestimated
and the larger question of suitability of instruction to the individual needs as a social being
almost ignored. Surely the school of to-day owes a duty to its boys and girls in helping them
to discover what they can best do when school-days are over. That the modern public school
can so function without sacrificing any element of strength which it has hitherto possessed is
the belief of leading educationists of the day. After having made careful observation for
themselves individually, and after having examined, under oath, scores of prominent teachers,
in all parts of Canada, the Royal Commission on Technical Education and Industrial Training
reported as follows : " There was a general agreement of opinion, as expressed to the Commission,
that elementary education in Canada affords satisfactory preparation for entering secondary
schools, but that it does not give the kind of training or the kind of knowledge which should
be possessed by those who leave school at 14 years of age, or thereabouts, and enter upon
industrial, agricultural, or housekeeping occupations. Considerable changes have been introduced
during recent years to give such pupils a more specific preparation for their life-work. Manual
training has been introduced partly with this object in view and partly for its cultural influences
on the general powers of the pupils. Domestic science finds a place in the programme chiefly
for its practical value; school-gardens have been taken up and nature-study has been extended,
particularly for the purpose of cultivating the powers of observation and increasing the knowledge of the children concerning the things of nature which lie close to them and all about them."
The Commission's recommendation in this point is " that the experiences of the school should
tend more directly towards the inculcation and conservation of a love of productive, constructive,
and conserving labour." 35
mk
9m
•r ■■■■ ■ f»i r*
Training-garden, Victoria Normal School, 1920;    B. S. Freeman, B.A.. Instructor.
try
^i^'i^s^:
Normal School-garden, Victoria,  1920.
High School class in Agriculture, Enderby, B.C.    Starting out on a rarm excursi.  11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 49
Agricultural education, in so far as it pertains to the public school, is neither technical
nor vocational in the now accepted meaning of those terms. This does not mean that the
information gained by even young boys and girls is not quite correct and scientific, as well
as immediately applicable to the great occupation of food production. It deals with subject-
matter and materials that are intrinsically interesting to children—soils, plants, insects, birds,
sunshine, water, and tools to work with; but it does not presuppose that all of the boys that
are trained in and through the use of these things are to make their living by them. Agricultural education in the public schools aims at personal development in the individual pupil.
It stands for realism and for symmetry in education. Its informational content is indeed
intrinsically valuable, but its developmental and character-forming values are of still greater
importance. Whilst it is true that much of the experimental work conducted in school and home
gardens is of interest and some of it doubtless of practical value to agriculturists in the vicinity
of the school, it is not intended to " show the people how to farm," nor does it lay any special
claims to " last-minute " methods in horticultural practice. School- and home-gardening aims
to be educational first of all; after that it may be profitable from an economic standpoint.
A visit to a school fair will convince even the most persistent critic that economic values are
not wanting in the pursuit of school- and home-garden work. Many an up-to-date farmer has
been brought to acknowledge the relative superiority of his son's exhibit as shown at the fair
in comparison with his own, and has rejoiced in the fact that the school had done something
to develop in the boy a true manliness as well as an abiding interest in worthwhile affairs
at home.
It will readily be seen, therefore, that agricultural education as defined in terms of
educational purposes and method is not for rural districts only. It is equally applicable to
urban districts. It is true that the principle of " teaching in terms of environment 'and of
home interests " may require that certain topics such as those dealing with farm animals will
be modified or omitted in the larger city schools, and will give place to other topics which are
more closely associated with city life, but in the main it is possible, and it certainly is desirable,
that city boys and girls be given every possible opportunity to become acquainted at first-hand
with the cultivation of the soil and with growing plants and animals. Some City School Boards
have appreciated the. great importance of this branch of education for growing boys and girls
in city schools. The Ottawa City School Board, for example, a few years ago thought it worth
while to purchase an acre of land within easy walking distance of two large public schools at
a cost of $13,000. The reason for this comparatively large expenditure is well set forth by
Dr. J. H. Putman, Senior Inspector of Schools for Ottawa, who in his annual report on this
particular point says: " My recommendation to make this purchase was not based upon a sudden
impulse, nor was it born of a war-time enthusiasm for gardening by city folk. It was based on
a conviction that many things which all city children ought to know can be taught only through
an actual experience. It was based upon a belief in the same principle which has given us
manual-training rooms and domestic-science rooms for the education of children through their
motor activities. It was based upon the same principle that moves us to provide laboratory
practice for students in physics or chemistry, or biology. ... At the present time we cannot
build even one school-room or manual-training room or domestic-science room for $13,000. Surely
an acre of school-garden is worth as much for educational purposes as a single class-room." It is
to be hoped that every city school in British Columbia will soon be equipped in similar manner
for carrying on studies out-of-doors, the importance of which has long since been established.
The Course oe Study.
The new Nature Study Course has now been in use for a year. It has met with some
criticism from the standpoint of the amount of work prescribed, but it has also called forth
much favourable comment, especially from teachers who have.had a good deal to do with nature-
study in public-school work, and who have had special training in the subject. A great many
teachers have stated that their second impressions of the course were better than their first.
As previously mentioned, a revision of the course will shortly be arranged, when an attempt
will be made towards a better classification of the subject-matter, together with a greater
elaboration of that part which deals with methods in teaching the Nature Study Course. It is
now evident that some steps should be taken to further assist the teachers of the Province by
supplying suitable helps for the teaching of nature-study.    Source-books for obtaining informa-
iD C 50
Public Schools Report.
1920
tion on special nature topics are needed by all teachers. A bibliography of such books has been
published and some School Boards have made a good beginning in supplying certain of these.
But it is equally important that certain appliances for illustration and demonstration should also
be furnished. Good pictures and illustrative charts are in great demand in supplementing
observational study of natural objects, and especially of living creatures, such as birds, insects,
and animals generally. Then, also, in preliminary and advanced grade work a certain amount
of experimental work is essential and calls for some inexpensive apparatus which, however, is
not usually in the average school. I would therefore strongly recommend that School Boards
furnish their teachers with adequate appliances for making this important subject vital and
successful in every way.
School- and Home-gardens.
Gardening under difficulties was the experience of people, generally, throughout the Province
this year. A late cold spring followed by a very dry summer spelled ruin in a good many cases,
and especially so in cases where special care was not given at the right time. In spite of these
adverse conditions the majority of school-gardens turned out well, and were a credit to the
young gardeners and their teachers. As always happens, a certain number of gardens suffered
through sheer neglect—neither teachers nor trustees displaying much interest in them, and no
adequate provision having been made for taking care of them during the midsummer vacation.
After making due allowance for abnormally bad weather conditions there still remains the fact
that there were some preventable failures this year. It is evident that the change of teachers
has a bad influence in this as in other branches of school-work, also the midsummer promotion
of pupils may have had something to do in lessening the interest on the part of the pupils
themselves. If, however, 75 per cent, or more of the school-gardens were well up to the standard
of the average home-garden, and many of them quite superior to the average home-garden, it
would seem reasonable to suppose that almost all could be carried through successfully.
As an example of successful intensive cultivation on soil of scarcely average fertility, the
Oaklands school-garden of Victoria is deserving of special mention. The area in vegetables
this year was a little less than one-quarter acre. During the dry spell an ordinary garden-
sprinkler was used, but cultivation was carefully attended to. Principal R. H. Mclnnis, who
for several years past has made a real success of school-gardening, reports on the production
end of the work as follows:—
" During the past season owing to intensive cultivation a very heavy yield was produced,
including over 3,000 lb. of carrots, 800 lb. of beets, 700 lb. of beans, 700 lb. of onions, 100 lb.
of parsnips, and over 2,000 lb. of tomatoes, of which 600 lb. were sold as ripe tomatoes. Marrow,
squash, pumpkins, cucumbers, melons, corn, cabbages, cauliflower, and potatoes were also grown.
The cabbage and cauliflower were plants secured from Australia known as the Swedish Giant.
Some of the cauliflower-plants at maturity weighed 15 lb. An exhibit was placed in the fall fair
and was successful in taking first prize."
The experience of the last few years in this work has shown that occasionally school-gardens
have been started under conditions that foredoomed them to failure. This was nothing more
or less than an instance of enthusiasm in the interests of a splendid movement overlooking or
overcoming good judgment. With more experience on the part of teachers cases of this kind
will largely disappear.
More attention is being given in some districts to the school-supervised home-garden as a
basis for the study of nature and for demonstrations of agricultural processes. This school-
home project method in elementary agriculture is gaining ground rapidly in many districts, and
especially in American schools. It is now in operation in all of the Provinces of Canada, and
although, for obvious reasons, it is not equal to the school-garden as a teaching device, it can
nevertheless be made use of in many cases where school-gardens are not practicable. Our policy
in this Province has always been to institute school-gardens only under such conditions as
readily permit of successful operation and to encourage home-project work in gardening and
agriculture, more especially for pupils of Intermediate and Senior Grade, not so much as an
alternative, but as a very desirable application at home of principles and practices learned in
connection with the school-garden in the earlier years at school.
School-gardening was conducted by 243 teachers with 7,258 pupils, and home-gardening by
45 teachers with 692 pupils. 11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 51
Following is a list of the school and home gardens for the year 1920 :-
Home-gardens.
School..
Div. No.
No. of
Pupils.
Teacher.
Cities.
Chilliwack:
Central 	
Duncan  (Consolidated) :
Central 	
22  •   •   •
Merritt:
Central 	
Port Coquitlam:
James Park 	
Vancouver:
Tennyson   	
Municipalities.
Chilliwack :
Rosedale 	
Strathcona 	
Langley:
East Langley	
Lochiel   	
Patricia	
West Langley  	
Matsqui:
Ridgedale  	
Mission:
Mission City  	
Point Grey:
Kerrisdale   	
Richmond :
Bridgeport  	
Saanich:
North Dairy	
Saanichton  	
West Saanich  	
Surrey:
Anniedale	
* Clayton 	
Hall's Prairie  	
Johnston Road  	
Mud Bay  	
Newton	
Springdale  	
Strawberry Hill  	
Tynehead   	
South Vancouver:
Mackenzie   	
Rural and Assisted.
Columbia Gardens  	
Comox   	
Denman Island  	
Galiano Island	
Lazo	
Nakusp  	
Needles	
Pouce Coupe:
Central 	
Sidney 	
Div.
Div.
Div.
I.
X.
II.
IV.
I.
II.
I.
I.
I.
I.
I.
I.
II.
I.
II.
V.
III.
I.
I.
I.
I.
I.
II.
I.
I.
I.
I.
II.
I.
I.
III.
I.
I.
II.
I.
II.
I.
I.
II.
I.
I.
I.
2
38
45
37
36
41
13
36
o
9
5
22
3
6
15
37
19
22
19
20
5
2
3
4
3
4
7
7
7
2
29
11
21
16
22
14
6
25
20
13
10
21
P. H. Sheffield.
Ruth Agar.
Catherine Ritchie.
Irma Creeden.
A. E. North.
Emma M. Cox.
E. W. Maxwell.
Sarah Davis.
John Eason.
Chas. C. Watson.
M. E. Fletcher.
A. Olson.
Beth Laffere.
Jessie A. Crawford.
Lucy Owen.
Albert H. Webb.
H..A. Eckardt.
Zella K. Topper.
Mary V. Climie.
Kathleen McNeely.
M. K. Offerhaus.
Agnes Sjolander.
M. C. Bissett.
F. Ardiel.
Margaret Mann.
M. E. Philp.
Ivy Davis.
B. L. Keller.
Jennie Bryson.
Marguerite M.  Steele.
Winnifred C. Henderson.
Eileen Gregory.
M. I. Lyness.
Frances R. Milne.
W. Barchard.
Lilian Hood.
M. E. Graham.
Ancilla Stewart.
D. Campbell.
F. W. Hicks.
V. W. Hildredge.
,W. P. Calhoun.
J. F. Nicoll.
M. C. Simmons.
David Hoyle. C 52
Public Schools Report.
1920
School-gardens.
School.
Div. No.
No. of
Pupils.
Teacher.
Cities.
Alberni  	
Armstrong (Consolidated) :
Central  	
Hullcar 	
Knob Hill	
Larkin   	
Pleasant Valley	
Chilliwack:
Central 	
Div.
Cranbrook:
Central
Duncan (Consolidated)
Central	
Crofton
Merritt:
Central
New Westminster:
F. W. Howay
Lord Lister
-     22 	
Richard McBride
Que'ensboro    ....
Herbert Spencer
John Robson
I.
I.
I.
I.
I.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
IX.
X.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
I.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
I.
II.
III.
I.
II.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
III.
IV.
V.
54
16
32
38
30
24
32
33
52
34
33
34
34
36
34
31
35
29
40
41
31
35
31
38
46
29
13
30
47
38
45
52
25
22
46
56
42
30
36
34
36
40
41
28
34
32
34
32
33
45
35
36
36
30
37
33
John Howitt.
T. Aldworth.
M. M. S. Taylor.
J. H. Leonard Coates.
E. Corson.
Grace W. Killip.
P. H. Sheffield.
M. Williams.
M. E. Jackson.
A. M. Rogers.
Mary Johnston.
Ethel M. Cawley.
Ruth R. Barr.
Maude E. Carmichael.
Ruth Agar.
Roy S. Shields.
Amy Woodland.
Ida M. Howard.
Sybil D. White.
Mabel Cartwright.
Wm. Stacey.
Catherine Ritchie.
Catherine F. Mackenzie.
Irma Creeden.
Myra Bradshaw.
J. Mabel Knocker.
L. E. Morrissey.
Constance M. Batten.
Bertha T. Ball.
Helen Currie.
A. E. North.
M. H. Walsh.
L. Lambert.
F. Eickhoff. %
B. M. Bournes.
L. M. Lane.
G. E. Banford.
H. Frances Gilley.
Evelyn B. Newby.
R. S. Gilley.
C. M. Rennie.
A. Mildred Mercer.
H. I. Turnbull.
G. S. Summers.
Edna E. Knight.
Margaret B. McLean.
Phyllis Dockerill.
G. L. Flynn.
W. T. Fennell.
Wm. Plaxton.
Helen P. Davidson.
Ruth M. Gregg.
Frances R. Murphy.
Margaret Wilson.
Myrtle E. Mack.
Alice M. Mercer. 11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 53
School-gardens—Continued.
School.
Cities—Continued.
Port Coquitlam:
James Park  	
Vancouver:
Dawson   	
Fairview    	
Grandview  	
Mount Pleasant  	
Tennyson   	
2) 	
Vernon:
Central  	
Victoria:
Burnside    	
52 	
22 	
George Jay   	
Kingston  Street  	
Oaklands   	
22 	
22 *   -   -   *	
22 	
22 	
Municipalities.
Burnaby:
Armstrong Avenue	
Barnet   	
Gilmore Avenue  	
22 	
Kingsway   East   	
Nelson Avenue   	
Riverway East  	
Sperling Avenue  	
Chilliwack:
Camp Slough	
Cheam    	
22 	
East Chilliwack   	
Fairfield Island	
Lotbiniere    	
22 	
Parson's Hill	
Rosedale  	
Sardis  	
Strathcona  	
Sumas    	
Vedder Creek	
Yarrow   	
Coquitlam:
Millside  	
Langley:
Aldergrove 	
East  Langley   	
Langley Prairie	
No. of
Pupils,
Teacher.
Div.
Div.
I.
II.
I.
VI.
XII.
III.
IV.
V.
III.
IV.
V.
I.
II.
III.
V.
V.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
I.
I.
I.
II.
I.
I.
I.
I.
II.
I.
II.
I.
II.
I.
I.
II.
I.
I.
II.
I.
II.
III.
I.
II.
I.
I.
II.
I.
I.
37
36
30
36
33
29
36
3S
16
32
32
32
31
33
36
25
34
29
28
32
31
29
14
42
37
39
33
20
32
30
34
16
28
12
19
44
16
14
25
37
28
40
38
36
15
11
14
16
33
26
65
Emma M. Cox.
E. W. Maxwell.
Lili J. U. Laursen.
Jessie J. Anderson.
Louise Bampton.
E. A. Murphy.
Louise J. Brunton.
Sarah Davis.
Wm. 0. Wilson.
Bessie P. Seaton.
W. L. Seaton.
Wm. H. Wilson.
Jean Poison.
Margaret Stewart.
C. Lena Harris.
Ellen G. Lawson.
R. H. Maclnnes.
D. J. Thomas.
Gertrude Dixon.
Anna Hendry.
Bina  Brynjolfson.
Gladys L.  Cale.
A.  J. McKenna.
Stanley J. Griffiths.
D. M. Moore.
Jessie M. McKenzie.
D. H. H. Lowther.
Edward I. Oantell.
Mary L. Black.
Annie Fetterly.
Lena H. Nowlan.
Alice H. Taylor.
L. L. Mitchell.
Orpah McKenzie Hanson.
V. I. Monkhouse.
J. Stanley Henderson.
Marion V. Sleightolm.
S. E. Houston.
John Eason.
Georgina M. McManus.
Wm. Robertson.
Mary A. Macdonald.
Edith H. Hutchison.
Chas. C. Watson.
M. E. Whitworth.
Mary C. Hardy.
H. B. Manuel.
Gladys Parker.
Marjorie Mclnnes.
M. E. Fletcher.
Erwin E. Barnes. C 54
Public Schools Report.
1920
School-gardens—Continued.
School.
Div. No.
No. of
Pupils.
Teacher.
Municipalities—Continued.
Langley—Continued.
Langley  Fort   	
Lochiel   	
Milner	
Murrayville   	
Patricia   	
Springbrook  	
West Langley  	
Maple Ridge:
Webster's Corners   	
Matsqui:
Clayburn    	
Matsqui    _.
Ridgedale    	
Mission:
Hatzic    	
Mission City  	
22 	
22  *	
Oak Bay: "
Monterey Avenue  	
22 	
2 2 "  • *  *  *
Pitt Meadows:
Pitt Meadows   	
Point Grey:
Kerrisdale   	
22 	
22 	
H 	
Richmond:
Bridgeport   	
>j 	
English  	
Lulu   	
Mitchell   	
Steveston   	
Saanich:
Cedar Hill 	
22 	
}t 	
Craigflower   	
Gordon Head 	
Keating   	
Mackenzie Avenue  	
Div.
I.
II.
III.
I.
I.
II.
I.
III.
I.
I.
I.
I.
II.
I.
II.
I.
II.
I.
II.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
I.
II.
III.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
I.
I.
I.
I.
I.
II.
III.
I.
II.
III.
I.
II.
I.
II.
I.
II.
III.
. 24
31
29
19
42
41
28
40
36
28
25
31
29
35
39
35
15
22
27
19
37
19
33
29
29
31
36
48
30
34
43
37
47
11
35
36
33
43
23
17
37
29
35
36
7
20
41
19
23
17
39
15
23
46
45
Miss J. D. Forrester.
„ F. A. McLeod.
„    M. L. Traves.
Annie Olson.
Constance Wright.
A. O. Mufford.
F. L. Whitworth.
Margaret Hamilton.
Beth Laffere.
M. A. McLellan.
Jessie A. Crawford.
Annie L. Thompson.
George E. Apps.
M. Pauline Jones.
Grace E. Busby.
Effie MacLean.
M. Olive Carter.
Lucy E. Owen.
Wm. A. Stafford.
Helen Bates.
Albert H. Webb.
Harold A. Eckardt.
Eunice Sewell.
Caroline Murray.
Zella K. Topper.
F. G. Dexter.
Isabel Cathcart.
Lydia White.
Ida M. Hocy.
Ethel B. Park.
H.  E. Patterson.
Mary V. Climie.
Hazel M. Smith.
C. H. Anderson.
Helena Estabrooks.
Pearl L. McKay.
Rachel Laing.
Margaret Hodge.
— Grant.
Henry Bayley.
Marjorie E. Elder.
G. T. Evans.
I
Nellie Jones.
Elsie Creeden.
Jessie V. Brusky.
Marguerite Ozard.
Jean Sangster.
Mildred Beattie.
Christina E. Williams.
Elizabeth M. Shampenny.
E. M. Armstrong.
Mildred MacKenzie.
J. O. Welch.
R. Drennan.
Mary MacKinnon. 11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 55
School-gardens—Continued.
School.
Municipalities—Continued.
Saanich—Continued.
North Dairy  	
Prospect Lake
Royal Oak . . .
Saanichton
Strawberry Vale
Tolmie
West Saanich
Sumas:
Kilgard 	
Straiton   	
Surrey:
Anniedale
Clayton    	
Crescent   	
Hall's Prairie
Johnston Road
Kensington  Prairie
Mud Bay .
Newton . ..
Springdale
Strawberry Hill  . . .
Surrey Centre  	
Tynehcad   	
Westminster, South
White Rock	
South Vancouver:
Carleton    . . .
Mackenzie
McBride
Norquay
Rural and Assisted.
Ashton  Creek
Barnston Island  . .
Bella Coola  	
Big Bar  	
Big Bar Mountain
Box  Lake   	
Brisco  	
Comox    	
Di\7. No.
Div.
No. of
Pupils.
Div.
I.
24
II.
7
I.
30
I.
26
II.
13
I.
19
II.
21
I.
28
II.
16
III.
26
II.
41
III.
37
IV.
41
V.
38
VI.
38
VII.
25
I.
32
II.
39
I.
24
I.
13
I.
17
I.
21
I.
26
I.
35
II.
35
I.
30
I.
24
II.
27
I.
30
I.
29
I.
16
II.
28
I.
39
I.
30
I.
37
I.
19
I.
61
II.
32
I.
36
II.
45
III.
35
I.
36
II.
34
III.
35
II.
48
III.
41
I.
36
II.
47
VIII.
38
I.
9
I.
16
I.
15
I.
10
I.
12
I.
26
I.
19
I.
30
II.
16
Teacher.
M. K. Offerhaus.
J. E. Dunnett.
H. Cumberbirch.
M. P. Kinnaird.
Maggie Anderson.
Agnes Sjolander.
Victoria E. Lemmax.
Wm. McMichael.
Edith Bi'rkett.
Margaret Beckwith.
Nadine Berton.
E. M. Beane.
Annie C. Main.
Violet A. Harmon.
Marion G. Service.
Eleanor C. Haddow.
M. C. Bissett.
J. E. Anderson.
F. E. Lawrence.
Ina M. Fraser.
Florence W. Ardiel.
Margaret Mann.
Grace Hardacre.
Harry L. Webb.
Marion E. Philp.
Ivy Davis.
C. E. Somerville.
Gwendolyn Robson.
B. L. Keller.
Jennie S. Bryson.
M. M. Steele.
Winnifred C. Henderson.
Eileen Gregory.
Florence E. Clarke.
M. I. Lyness.
S. E. Parton.
Edgar F. Clarke.
Jean M. McLeod.
Alex. Martin.
Robt. R. Smith.
Lucy E. Hindle.
S. J. Clarke.
J. O. McLean.
Frances R. Milne.
Mabel E. Smith.
L. A. Corral.
J. A. Hamilton.
Florence O. Hamilton.
Grace W. Miller.
Caroline Paradis.
Miriam Peck.
W. A. M. Sykes.
Eliza P. Simms.
Kathleen O' Sullivan.
Ida Wyrill.
M. Rickey Tuttle.
Lilian Hood.
M. E. Graham. C 56
Public Schools Report.
1920
School-gardens—Continued.
School.
Div. No.
No. of
Pupils.
Teacher.
Rural and Assisted—Continued.
iv. I.
L
I.
I.
I-
L
L
II.
II.
I.
L
I.
II.
III.
I.
I.
I-
I-
I-
I.
II.
L
L
19
26
12
8
17
13
18
39
22
71
11
7
29
12
13
15
19
18
16
20
42
11
17
Enderby, North	
Erie           ,
Emily R. Gary.
Guy Algernon Johnson.
Edward W. Tanner.
Hilliers          ,
Catherine B. Hallowes.
Catherine B. Hallowes.
G. E. Sparkes.
A. J. Clotworthy.
M. E. Kneeshaw.
W. W. C. O'Neill.
M. I. Weatherhead.
Thos. J. Barron.
W. P.  Calhoun.
Ethel B. Livingstone.
Nob Hill	
Otter Point  	
Pouce Coupe North          ,
J. F. Nicoll.
Catherine C. Battison.
Stella Keenan.
Eileen Cass.
Clare Braden.
W. T. Arthurs.
Wm. de Macedo.
Elizabeth Mowat.
Helen Kier.
School Fairs.
School competitions are steadily growing in popularity as they improve in quality. They
constitute an objective towards which both teachers and pupils work, and they afford an
excellent opportunity for the general public to learn something of the character and excellence
of the work done in the schools along certain lines. In some cases the school fair is held strictly
and exclusively as a school function, but so far we have found it most satisfactory when held in
conjunction with and as a department of the regular annual agricultural fair. The different
Agricultural Society executives have given every consideration to the Schools' Fair Department
and have made generous provision for displaying exhibits. One of the most notable examples of
this fine spirit of co-operation is that of Chilliwack. For several years the school fair has been
made a real feature in that fine exhibition. The fair authorities were finding it increasingly
difficult to arrange for adequate accommodation for school exhibits. After carefully sizing up
the situation in consultation with the teachers of the district it was decided to erect a special
building to accommodate all school exhibits. This at once became a real community project.
Funds were raised to meet the cost of materials and a good deal of the labour was donated in
erecting the building, the boys of the Manual Training classes with their instructor giving
valuable assistance. A very timely and a very pleasing contribution towards the cost of the
building was that made by the teachers and pupils of the city and municipality. Feeling as
they did that the Agricultural Society was undertaking the erection of this school-fair building
chiefly in the interests of the schools, they unanimously voted to return all prize-moneys won
at the 1920 School Fair to the society, the same to be applied towards defraying the cost of the
building. What often appears like insurmountable difficulty invariably melts away when all
the forces of a community unite in a common purpose as in the case just mentioned at Chilliwack.
There is every likelihood that other districts will undertake similar achievements before another
year. Throughout the Province the Women's Institutes are zealous of good works in all matters
pertaining to the betterment of school conditions and have done a good deal to encourage
agricultural education and kindred subjects. This year, for example, the Women's Institute
at Salmon Arm became responsible as an organization for carrying through the school fair.
The school-fair event of the Province, however, promises to be that held in conjunction with the
Provincial Exhibition at New Westminster. At this exhibition the district school exhibits have
already made a splendid showing, and will eventually represent all districts in the Province. North Dairy School-garden, Saanich, 1920.
The North Dairy School-garden  exhibit,  1920. -^.•■:-::-i:^':- a:">.
31k IW
School garden at Cowichan Station,  V.I.    Mr.  Bow.vcr. teacher.
School-grounds improvement.    A good start at Lonsdale School, North Vancouver. 11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 57
Last year the schools of the Chilliwack District won first place, and this year the premier
honours went to the schools of New Westminster City. A handsome silver shield has been
awarded by the Provincial Exhibition authorities for the best district school-garden exhibit.
The Entomological Society of British Columbia has also very generously provided a beautiful
cup to be awarded to the school exhibiting the best collection of insects, properly named, and
mounted. This cup will become the property of the first school winning it three years in
succession. It has been won for the first time by the John Norquay School, South Vancouver.
The Entoniological Society is also lending valuable assistance to this Department in furnishing
subjects for making lantern-slides to be loaned to schools as an aid in the study of insects.
Some very excellent school fairs were held in different parts of the Province this year. Those
reported to date are: Chilliwack, Cowichan Station, Langley, Mission, New Westminster, Point
Grey, Richmond, Salmon Arm, Surrey, Gifford, and Victoria.
School-grounds Improvement.
During the year several School Boards have taken up the question of improving their
school-grounds, and it is becoming more and more evident that there is a large and growing
field of work of this kind awaiting development. The old-fashioned idea that the education
of children has to do solely with class-rooms and text-books is steadily and surely giving place
to the more modern idea of education as the development of the whole individual, or, as
Professor John Dewey puts it, " helping the growing of a helpless young animal into a happy,
moral, and efficient human being." Men everywhere are coming to realize that amongst the
most important agencies that make for true development and educational " growth " are playgrounds, gardens, manual-training rooms, and gymnasia. There are comparatively few really
good school-grounds in British Columbia, due mainly to the fact that in the past no standard
of requirements as to area and general suitability were set. Some very expensive buildings have
been set on grounds altogether too small and most unsuitable for outdoor games or instruction.
Such mistakes will doubtless be continued unless definite steps are taken by the Department to
establish a standard as to size and suitability of grouuds which must be met by School Boards
before funds are granted for the building or enlarging of schools. In some cases this will
certainly mean paying a high price for lack of judgment and foresight on the part of School
Boards in the past. It will also mean spending much money that otherwise might have been
saved for other purposes in making the best of a bad job. Be that as it may, one thing seems
evident, and that is, with the rapid multiplication of Parent-Teacher Associations the best
interests of the boys and girls are going to be looked after on the playground as well as in
the school-room.
During the year development-work has been done on the following school-grounds: West
Burnaby, Courtenay, Esquimalt, General Currie, Naramata, Oyama, Peachland, Rossland, and
Salmon Arm. Plans are now under way for grounds improvement at Armstrong Consolidated
School, Robson, Point Grey, Saanich (Cloverdale and Craigflower), South Wellington, Steveston,
and Summerland. Everything points to the fact that many School Boards are ready to undertake the improvement of school-grounds and will gladly accept the assistance given by the
Department in connection with this work. In many cases Parent-Teacher Associations are
rendering valuable assistance to School Boards along this and other lines.
Agriculture in High Schools.
When it was decided a year or so ago to place agriculture as an optional subject in the
second and third years of the High School Course instead of -in the first and second years
as formerly, some doubt as to whether the change was advisable was expressed. It was
feared that a smaller number of students would take the subject. The results so far,
however, seem to justify the change, especially where the students who take' general science
in the first year of high-school work take agriculture in the second and third, and this is
usually the case. The only regret is that the Course in Agriculture cannot be established
in every high school in the Province. Its value as a course of instruction lies not so much
in the value of the information gained, although, of course, that is important, as in the
habit of mind, or point of view which this study develops in young students. The direct
method of teaching is followed as far as facilities for this kind of teaching permit. Practical
problems bearing directly on the science of agriculture, problems entering into the daily experi- '
C 58
Public Schools Report.
1920
ences of the pupils, many of which are vital to the progress of the country and of the nation,
are subjected to direct investigation in the laboratory and experimental plot. Boys and girls
of high-school age become greatly interested in first-hand investigational study and soon become
devoted to it. To be able to understand and to apply nature's laws and forces brings a new
realization of personal power and also of personal responsibility to young people. The securing
of positive and tangible results in experimental work as a result of the careful execution of an
intelligent and purposeful plan of action develops added ability to attack and solve new problems
and to form proper conclusions. This is one of the reasons why the proper study of agricultural
science increases the ability of young students to accomplish good results in the pursuit of other
studies. From this standpoint the study of agriculture has much in its favour as a truly cultural
study, quite apart from any economic significance which it may have. It is to be regretted that
so many people, even some very good teachers, miss so much of the real significance of agriculture
as a school subject. Surely a subject which is capable of such wide application in education,
as well as in the all-important industry in Canada, needs no apology for its appearing in the
curriculum of studies for public or high schools. As a high-school subject occupying a place,
sometimes rather grudgingly given, as an optional subject, it has made good in every way, and
the boys and girls who have chosen it have no regrets to offer. A glance at the records in all
subjects of those who have completed the Two-year Course in Agriculture goes to show that
that subject has not been to them a " retardation " subject, but rather that it appears to have
worked to the general advantage of the students taking it. This is not merely a coincidence.
It is due partly to the intrinsic value of the information gained which sheds a new light upon
many daily experiences hitherto meaningless, but most of all to the attitude of mind towards
the problems of the school which the scientific method develops in those who follow it. The
educational results so "far are most gratifying, and would be even more in evidence if ways and
means could be found to give to this subject more periods or longer periods in the time-table.
Also ways and means should be found in the near future for starting this subject in many
additional high schools. During the year just past high-school students in different parts of
the Province where agriculture has not yet been, introduced have expressed a desire to take
the subject. The solution of the difficulty is not easy. It is chiefly a matter of securing and
paying a sufficient number of competent instructors. We hold to the view that only graduates
in agriculture should be employed to give instruction in that subject in high schools. Some of
the other Provinces hold a different view. I am firmly convinced that a careful investigation
covering the various Provinces of Canada will result in complete vindication of our policy in
this matter.
District Supervisors of Agricultural Instruction.
It is with feelings of deepest regret that I am called upon to report the loss of one of our
most highly esteemed district supervisors, W. J. Austin, B.S.A. His death, which occurred on
the last day of February, came to his many friends as a great shock, as he had been ill but a
few days. His work was always of a high order, and in his death we have lost one who in his
devotion to duty and his quiet but efficient methods contributed much to the success of our work
in the Okanagan. Mr. A. M. McDermott, B.S.A., then in the service of the Department of
Education, Saskatchewan, was engaged to complete the year's work at Vernon and Kelowna
which Mr. Austin had .been carrying on up to the time of his death.
The Kelowna-Vernon field has since been divided. In August last Mr. J. E. Britton, B.S.A.,
for some years district supervisor at Armstrong and Enderby, was sent to Kelowna, where he is
now working in conjunction with the Department of Agriculture, by arrangement devoting part
of his time to the work amongst the farmers and fruit-growers as agricultural representative,
and part to the usual lines of instruction in the schools of the immediate district.
Mr. V. B. Robinson, B.S.A., was appointed to.Vernon and district at the same time and under
a similar arrangement with the Department of Agriculture. By this arrangement the district
supervisor is able to come into more intimate contact with the various local problems of his
district. Incidentally the educational part of his work will be benefited, in that it will become
more closely associated with these problems as the supervisor becomes more intimately acquainted
with the people.
Mr. J. B. Munro, B.S.A., was appointed to the Enderby-Armstrong position left vacant by
the transfer of Mr. Britton to Kelowna. .
11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 59
Mr. A. M. McDermott, B.S.A., was appointed at New Westminster and is conducting his
High School Agricultural classes in the new Technical School, where excellent accommodation
has been provided. Plans are now under consideration whereby Mr. McDermott will also give
instruction in elementary agriculture to boys in the new Industrial School to be opened shortly
at Essondale. The importance of the work which has so recently been established, and which
is so earnestly carried on by our district supervisors, has not yet been fully appreciated. New
movements in education are always viewed with a certain amount of distrust or suspicion.
It is probably better so, although it does make the task of those upon whom the responsibility
of initiating the new work is placed more difficult and trying. Our several district supervisors
have each had many difficulties to meet, and I cannot pay too high a tribute to them at this
time for the splendid spirit in which they have met opposition and sometimes discouragements,
not to speak of grossly unfair criticism on certain occasions. They are men who first of all
possess unbounded faith in the great cause of rural education along agricultural as well as other
lines. In their untiring zeal for the general improvement of rural conditions and especially of
educational conditions in their respective districts, they have frequently had to " bear and
forbear " in the interests of the cause for which they unalteringly stand, laying aside their own
personal feelings and seeking only the advancement of the work assigned them.
Extracts from the Reports of the District Supervisors of Agricultural Instruction.
From Mr. J. C. Readey, B.S.A., Chilliwack City and Municipality:—
" The work of the past year has included the supervision of the teaching of nature-study,
elementary agriculture, and school-gardening in the public schools and instruction in agriculture
in the High School. Besides these regular duties, I have acted as Chairman of the Building
Committee for the new School Fair Building, managed the School Fair at Chilliwack, prepared
and supervised the school-garden exhibit at the Provincial Exhibition, New Westminster, and
acted as Secretary for the joint meetings of the School Boards of Chilliwack City and Chilliwack
Municipality during the campaign for the consolidation of these two school districts and the
erection of a modern consolidated school. I have also taught the Elementary and Advanced
Soil Study classes at the summer school held at Victoria in July and August.
" The Public-school Work.—I am pleased to report improvement in this department of the
work. I believe the improvement is due to a growing familiarity with the new Course of Study
and a better understanding of it on the part of the teachers, to the loyal support given the work
by the Chilliwack Teachers' Association, to the stimulus of the School Fair, and to the fact that
there were fewer changes of teachers than usual. It is gratifying to report, too, that a number
of the teachers are coming to us who took the Course in Agriculture when it was first offered
in the high schools.
" The work in the gardens has been better done than in any preceding year. This does not
mean that production was improved; the late spring and unusually dry summer prevented that;
but the work has been done with greater interest and with less need for supervision than before.
It is true that the gardens are not yet used as fully as they might be, either in connection with
nature-study or as an aid to other subjects, but this will be overcome as time goes on and the
pupils of to-day with their wider experience in this work become the teachers of to-morrow.
My supervision includes fifty-six classes in twenty-nine rooms.
" The High-school Work.—Eight students wrote the Matriculation Examinations in June
and were successful. There was a total enrolment of fifteen in the new class in September,
eleven boys and four girls.
" Owing to the very prolonged wet season following school opening the incoming class has
been unable to do the usual amount of garden-study done in previous years. In some cases, as
in the selection of mangels and onions, it has been possible to bring the material indoors. Besides
the growing of the common field crops for class-room work, the garden programme included the
cultivation of such crops as broom-corn, sorghum, lupine, rust-resistant wheats, hull-less oats, and
seedling potatoes. The fruit section of the garden has npw come into bearing. Twenty jars of
raspberries, currants, gooseberries, cherries, and plums from the garden were put up by the
students of the Domestic Science class.   Apples and pears are also bearing.
"The practice of conducting excursions with the Matriculation class to local farms for the
study of the various departments of the work was extended this year.   A special appropriation C GO
'ublic (Schools Keport.
1920
was made by the School Board for the hiring of conveyances. A large seven-passenger car and
my own were sufficient. These excursions and the use of the lantern I have found to be very
effective methods of teaching.
" This year school-home projects are being added to the High School Course in Agriculture.
" The School Fair.—This year the Chilliwack Agricultural Association erected a building
on the fair-grounds, 40 by SO feet, at a cost of $1,600, for the exclusive use of the School Fair.
The children participated in this achievement by refunding the amount of their prize-money,
amounting to about $500, to the Fair Directorate and helped with some of the lighter work of
construction. The hauling of the lumber, grading of the site, and erecting of the frame for the
building was done by way of the old-fashioned ' bee,' a splendid example of goodwill and
co-operation. Next season the association will erect a stable for the calf, pig, chicken, and other
live-stock exhibits from the schoools.
" The School Fair is a feature of the work that deserves encouragement; If the rivalry
engendered is kept wholesome and a few fundamental rules enforced, the School Fair may be
made a very strong and stimulating factor in our schoools.
" Our thanks are due to the poultrymen and live-stock men of the district for their very
cordial welcome to their farms for the first-hand study of agriculture. Their hospitality has been
a very pleasant experience for the class and myself. Our thanks are due, too, to the two School
Boards for their generous and loyal support of the work."
From Mr. E. L. Small, B.S.A., Surrey Municipality:—■
" Last June five students secured their standing in the science of agriculture at the Matriculation Examinations.    This term there are ten taking first-year work.
" Whenever possible, class-room instruction is supplemented by practical demonstrations or
excursions. During the year insects were studied and classified, while infected plants wrere
treated. Various classes of seeds were secured from feed-stores in order that the students might
learn the kinds of weed-seeds that are being introduced into the Province by this means.
Poultry plants and dairy-barns were visited in order to study their construction and observe
the system of care and feeding. Pupils tested milk from their home herds, using the Babcock
test.    A system of drainage was worked out for the school-grounds.
" The University of British Columbia conducted an agricultural short course for the farmers
of the district early in the year. Classes were arranged so that the students of the High School
Agricultural class could attend both afternoon and evening sessions. Since this course came
near the close of the second year of study it proved very instructive and was thoroughly enjoyed
by the class. •
" It is very unfortunate that the present school-site does not afford an opportunity for
experimental gardening; however, home projects of various kinds were included in the course.
The following are the main projects undertaken: Care and planting of the home vegetable-
garden ; growing named varieties of bulbs and sweet peas; root-seed production; caring for a
pig or calf and the hatching and rearing of chickens.
" In the High School I have charge of the First-year General Science as well as the
Agriculture.
" I consider the General Science Course excellent for first-year students. The subject-matter
bears such a close relation to the lives of the pupils and opens up such a large number of
Important branches of science in such an interesting manner that every member of the class
shows an eagerness to learn more of subjects included in the course.
"Public Schools.—A schedule by which each of the twenty public schools could be visited
every two weeks was used throughout the winter months. Assistance in teaching the prescribed
Course in Nature Study was given, by the teaching of type lessons, by supplying useful bulletins
and nature-books for reference. Lantern-slides also proved to be a great help in visualizing
nature-work. A portable lantern was used and the windows were covered with black oilcloth.
If a series of slides were secured and circuits were arranged among the supervisors, it would
not be at all difficult to give the rural schools the advantages of lantern illustrations for purposes
of visual instruction.
" As more helps are placed in the school library and nature materials are supplied, more and
better teaching of nature-study will follow. r^ffi^-la^H^S
,,,,2- T.X
School  Pair Building, Chilliwack,  B.C.     Erected 1920.
Boys and girls making use of the bulletins sent out by Mr. Robins*  11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 61
" School and Home Gardens.—Nine of the twelve school-gardens were very successful from
the production standpoint. Professor Boving, of the University of British Columbia, judged and
scored the standing crops in June, and this score was considered in the School Fair awards.
" A number of permanent perennial flower borders were started this year and flowers were
given greater prominence than during the war period, when food production was the main issue.
" Proper fertilization and cultivation of the soil, early planting and proper summer care
figured largely in producing satisfactory school-gardens this year. All teachers have been
encouraged to use the gardens as the basis of class-room instruction in nature-study and other
subjects.
" Home gardens and projects were organized in all the schools. Seeds and eggs were
distributed and lessons were taught to aid the classes in carrying out the work. In every case
excellent prizes were offered for the finished product at the School Fair.
" School Fair.—The School Fair grows in favour from year to year. It is held in connection
with the Agricultural Association's exhibition and has been a large factor in developing that
institution. Over half the main building has been given over to school exhibits, and the
association supplies the greater amount of the prize-money. Classes are furnished for all
departments of school-work; this year over 300 entries were made. Three silver cups and a
shield have been donated for special contests by persons interested in the work."
From Mr. J. E. Britton, B.S.A., Kelowna District :—
" The agricultural work in the Kelowna School District since September of this year has
been conducted under a new system, whereby the instructor in Agriculture devotes half-time to
the school-work and half-time with the office of the Department of Agriculture as District
Agriculturist. This arrangement appears to be a satisfactory one, as it brings the school
instructor in Agriculture in close contact with the farms and farmers of the district.
" Four mornings of the week are given to teaching in the High School. Second-year Botany
is taught to a class of thirty-two pupils, General Science to a class of twenty-three, and Agriculture to a class of eighteen. Agriculture receives four hours per week. The class consists of
six girls and twelve boys, all members of the second year in High School.
" A large area of ground has been brought under cultivation for agricultural work, but last
spring it was considered advisable to seed part of this to grass and convert it into a playground.
Owing to the exceptionally dry,, weather there was a very poor stand of grass, but later a good
stand of weeds. Practically no crop was growm. The entire area has now been cleared off,
manured, and ploughed ready for the spring. The front half will be made into lawn, surrounded
with shrubs and herbaceous perennials, for a girls' playground. The balance of the ground will
be devoted to agricultural work, including the growing of different types of fruits, grains, grasses,
and vegetables.
" Quite a large supply of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, trees, and vines were given to the
school in 1918 by the Department of Education. These have all made splendid growth and have
required some thinning-out. Another border has been started to use the surplus and cover an
unsightly fence. More shrubs have been planted close to the school building and considerable
pruning and fall cultivation made.
" The Course of Study for the term has included the following subjects : Soils; animal life;
insects and birds; orcharding; fruiting habits and pruning; dairying. Flowering bulbs were
planted in pots for winter bloom, which included a study of bulbs.
" Unfortunately the laboratory equipment is quite meagre- and not at all satisfactory for
good laboratory-work. It has been impossible to obtain additional apparatus and equipment
for this year, but it is expected that all that is necessary, will finally be secured and that in
the near future a very strong department in science will be built up."
From Mr. H. E. Hallwright, B.S.A., Victoria and Saanich :—
" In connection with the public-school work the policy of correlating agricultural instruction
with other subjects in the curriculum has been continued. This can best be accomplished when
public-school agriculture is treated as nature-study. The ' natural' method of teaching this
subject is attended with a good deal of difficulty in the case of some teachers, but it is usually
found that the successful handling of this subject is coincident with successful teaching in every
other subject.   The success of the school-garden as a means of instruction is dependent not only C 62 Public Schools Report. 1920
upon the degree of efficiency reached in the school, but also upon the esprit de corps found in the
community. Teachers sometimes grow depressed in this branch of the work on account of
occasional adverse criticism, chiefly by persons who have jumped to wrong conclusions as a
result of insufficient and superficial observation. On the whole, the teachers have made substantial progress, and given reasonable support by the parents they are sure to succeed.
" We have been fortunate in developing a school-garden plan on the rotation system, which
seems to meet our local clinnatic conditions. This plan includes the essentials of farm-management and provides for both winter and summer production. It includes seed-growing as an
important branch, and also makes a strong feature of soil-improvement by the use of green
manures intelligently supplemented by commercial fertilizers. This was found to be absolutely
necessary in order to overcome the difficulty of obtaining barnyard manure. The plan is working
well. Not only is the fertility of the soil being maintained equal with that of ' new land,' but
the general productiveness is increasing from year to year. The importance of keeping the
ground occupied all the time is emphasized, as certain weeds will bloom and ripen seed during
the winter in this locality. There is yet much work to be done in discovering the best cover-
crops and green manures, especially for use during the winter months, but already some good
results have been obtained, thanks to the enterprise and industry of the management of the
Dominion Experimental Farm at Sidney, V.I. Every aspect of support and encouragement has
been afforded me from them, both in the matter of advice as to local problems and stock for
use in the school-gardens.
" Whilst all the schools in Saanich have done very good work this year, one school, North
Dairy, is deserving of special mention. This school has a comparatively large garden owing to
the fact that it was previously a three-roomed school and has now been reduced to two rooms
by the withdrawal of some of the pupils who are now attending the new Cloverdale School.
Despite the reduction in numbers, the school-garden work has gone ahead in a truly remarkable
way. All of the work, with the exception of installing a tile drain and a little of the heavier
digging, was done by the pupils assisted only by their teachers. The bigger boys also did the
work of installing the drain, which work I personally superintended. The soil was a particularly
inflexible clay with a tendency to become quite sour until the drain was laid. The improvement
thus effected has been in itself a valuable object-lesson in the district.
" The enthusiasm of the principal, Miss Offerhaus, and of her loyal assistant, Miss Dunnett,
together with the energy and application of their high-spirited army of boys and girls, has
resulted in the adoption of a comprehensive, all-the-year-round scheme of gardening and garden-
study. The efficient working-out of the school time-table has in no sense been impaired, but has
rather been strengthened by the garden-studies, better work being accomplished in the same time.
" With the organization of an energetic Parent-Teacher Association a real community spirit
is manifesting itself, with the school as its logical centre and its best interests the main objective.
An expansion and enrichment of school-life is becoming evident as a result of this sympathetic
and intelligent co-operation of parents, teachers, and pupils.
" Other schools of the district have maintained a high standard of work in school-gardening.
Keating, perhaps, holds the banner for uniformity, having won all honours in 1918 and coming
second ever since. The Butchart cup, awarded for the best school-garden and the best exhibit
made from that garden, was won in 1919 by Saanichton. The Rotary cup, awarded to the school
making the best exhibit of farm and garden seeds, was won this year by North Dairy. A gold
medal given by myself for home production of seeds was won this year by Harold Holyoake, of
the same school.
" Altogether the progress of this branch of education in Saanich is satisfactory and gives
promise of better results for the future as its function becomes better known and understood by
the people generally, and when all of the teachers receive the support and co-operation already
given in some cases.
" The work carried on in the Victoria High School is showing improvement under the change
in the course from first- and second-year students to second- and third-year students taking
agriculture. On accocunt of this change there is only one class now in attendance, consisting
of six girls and eight boys. Instruction is made as direct and practical as possible and special
attention is given to the keeping of accurate records of all work done. The course is gaining
in popularity as its place in the curriculum is more fully understood.   The preliminary prepara- 11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 63
tion during the first year afforded by the Course in General Science has raised the standard of
the work considerably, and the Course in Agriculture as outlined is now more easily followed.
" As has been customary in the past, a four-months evening Course in Agriculture for young
men and women who have left school has been started. The classes are being held in the
agricultural laboratory class-room, and to some extent the same methods are employed as in
the case of the regular day pupils. The students taking these night classes have displayed most
commendable loyalty and earnestness in their attendance and in their work."
From Mr. S. H. Hopkins, B.S.A., Courtenay and Merville Districts:—
" My duties in my former field of work, Duncan and North Cowichan, ended in January last,
when my successor, Mr. W. M. Fleming, B.S.A., arrived. I have spent most of the time since
then helping, in various ways, the soldier settlers and their families in the new settlement at
Merville. Early in the year I put on a series of lectures and demonstrations in the new school-
house at Merville. The meetings were held twice a week for a period of six weeks. The
subjects dealt with included soils and soil-treatment; systems of farming best suited to local
conditions; field crops; gardening and horticulture; pests and diseases; live stock, care and
feeding; cattle-judging; poultry-raising and poultry-judging. The attendance throughout was
exceedingly good, the members ranging from eighty to a hundred adults at each meeting.
" Visits were paid to settlers on their different allotments, and all assistance possible
rendered Captain Bishop, Chief Surveyor, who was most anxious to block out the 14,000 acres
comprised in the area to the best advantage for agricultural purposes.
" On the opening-up of spring I supervised the putting-in of the crop on the 150 acres of
levelled land and later on the harvesting of the same.
" Visits were made as time permitted to other farmers outside the Merville area, and
lectures delivered by request at several outside points. Judging was done at Parksville, Alberni,
and Duncan Fairs.
" Last spring we succeeded in getting local farmers to bring in co-operatively a scow-load
(45,000) cement drain-tiles; and this fall we have arranged for a shipment of at least five
car-loads of lime for the local farms.
" Very little school-work has been attempted so far, as no regular visits could be paid to
rural schools owing to other work. Accommodation for teaching agriculture in the Courtenay
High School will not be available until the new.year. Next year it is planned to organize home
projects chiefly, such as home-gardens, poultry, calf, and pig raising, with stock-judging competitions for older pupils.
" On first coming to this district arrangements were made with the editor of the Comox
Argus to insert each week an agricultural column entitled ' Farm Topics' in this the local paper.
Suitable topics have been prepared week by week and have no doubt been of some value even
as news articles."
From Mr. J. M. Shales, B.S.A., Langley Municipality:—
" Satisfactory progress has been made in all branches of the work during the past year, and
special efforts to bring the importance of rural science and elementary agriculture before the
attention of the public seem to be bearing fruit. In this district it would appear that the people
are coming to have a better understanding of what our work stands for and of the results their
co-operation would make possible. This is very encouraging, and it is hoped that as the work
proceeds results of a far-reaching value may be obtained.
" High Schools.—In the High School we have this year a class of eleven pupils, eight girls
and three boys, taking first-year work. Fair progress is being made, and all teaching is given
as practical a trend as possible. Some very good results were obtained in the experimental work
undertaken on the High School plots, but results were not generally satisfactory. A thorough
system of underdrainage along with liming will be applied to this ground in an effort to make it
more productive for the coming season.
'-' Rural Schools.—The fourteen rural schools were visited by schedule once in two weeks,
and supervision given the teaching of nature-study and rural science. Good results are evident
where teachers have been in the same school for any considerable time. I believe that the
constant changing in the personnel of the teaching staffs in rural schools is by far the most
serious obstacle in the way of substantial progress in our work, as well as in general studies. C 64 Public Schools Report. 1920
»
Several good reference books have been added to the libraries of all schools this year.    Special
note-books, various bulletins and pamphlets, and other materials have also been distributed.
" School-gardens.—The nine school-gardens of the district have given fair results in spite
of the very late spring. Where it is evident that satisfactory results cannot be obtained on
present sites, new locations will be sought for the coming year. The preliminary work of
ploughing, grading, and fencing has been done at County Line School preparatory to opening
a new garden in the spring. The school-gardens appear to be popular with the people and
teachers, and certainly are so with the children.
"Home Projects.—This is a very important branch of the work in Langley, and serves
better than any other to establish a healthy relationship between the school-work and the
people. This year a poultry-raising competition was conducted, and over ninety sittings of
eggs from a high laying strain of pure-bred White Leghorns were distributed among the children
of the various schools. The results were generally very satisfactory, and many excellent exhibits
of these birds were shown at the fair. The contest also served to distribute the very best kind
of breeding stock throughout the district,
" The mangel, potato, and corn competitions were received again this year with undiminished
enthusiasm. Twenty-eight children grew mangels and seed, seventy-eight grew potatoes, and
fifty-six turned their efforts to corn-growing.
" School Fair.—As usual, the School Fair was held in conjunction with the Langley
Agricultural Exhibition. The number and quality of the exhibits once more demonstrated
the value and the popularity of the School Fair as an institution. A downpour of rain in the
afternoon prevented the parade and sports which had been planned, but the other features
were carried out without interruption.
" A stock-judging competition was a new departure this year and proved a very popular
feature. Previous instruction in the subject had been given in the schools, and this was applied
in the judging of an easy class of dairy cows. About twenty boys and girls took part, and some
very creditable work was done.
" A district school-garden exhibit was taken to the Provincial Exhibition in New Westminster, where it won second place. This prize of $75 will be used toward the purchase of a
projection lantern, which will be of great assistance in teaching agriculture and nature-study
in the schools of the municipality."
From Mr. W. M. Fleming, B.S.A., Duncan and Cowichan Districts :—
" At the midsummer examinations six students wrote on matriculation agriculture and were
successful. In addition to the regular First-year class in Agriculture, which consists of eight
boys and three girls, I have three boys taking Second-year Agriculture. They hope to get
matriculation standing next midsummer. I have also a class of nine first-year students taking
general science and a class of nineteen second-year students taking botany.
" The Course in Agriculture seems to be attractive to the students. The class-room has
beeii remodelled to some extent; tables have been substituted for the double desks and experimental work is now possible in the laboratory. A fair amount of equipment is on hand. More
will be purchased next year. Although an improvement in class-room conditions has been
effected, all classes in high-school work suffer from lack of an up-to-date laboratory for all
science-work.
" Rural Schools.—After consolidation was effected the previous year the public-school work
was concentrated in Duncan and Chemainus. General supervision of the teaching of agriculture
and nature-study in these schools was maintained. Assistance was given to the teachers in
planning their lessons. A common-school garden was planned and prepared in which each of
the five senior rooms of the consolidated school had a share. No work in school-gardens was
done at Chemainus this summer, but a general plan of school-grounds improvement is being
worked out for 1921. This will include a school-garden for each room and the planting of
trees, shrubs, etc., to improve the appearance of the front of the grounds.
" The School Fair.—At the Cowichan Agricultural Society's Fall Fair, on account of the
many changes in the personnel of the staff of high school, consolidated school, and outlying rural
schools of the district, I took over much of the work of getting out the exhibits for this fair.
Under the able supervision of Mrs. Morten, of the Duncan Public School staff, the entire prize- 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report.
list was revised and enlarged. As a consequence a splendid educational exhibit was put on at
the fair.    The entries numbered 741 and the work has been placed on a more permanent footing.
"The best gardens in,the district were at Cowichan Station. Mr. Bowyer has been carrying
on this work there for several years and steady progress has been made. Unfortunately,
Mr. Bowyer resigned at midsummer and left the district, but the fruits of his work remain
and the work should still go on. Both school-gardens and home-gardens were planted in this
district. I inspected these gardens twice during the summer and assisted in judging garden
products at the Cowichan Station School Fair. The winners at this fair competed at Duncan
later with marked success.
" Arrangements are now being made for the holding of night classes in Agriculture, which
will start immediately following the Christmas vacation."
From Mr. A. M. McDermott, B.S.A., New Westminster and Essondale:—
" My work as district supervisor began April 17th, when I reported for duty as supervisor
in the Kelowna-Vernon District. This field was already well organized under the capable
direction of the late Mr. W. J. Austin, B.S.A. Many instances were soon to show how much his
helpful influence meant in the lives of students and fellow-workers. Arriving in the field as
I did when the spring was well advanced, I gave almost entire time to the work of classes in
the respective high schools at Vernon and Kelowna and to the practical work at these two centres.
" At Vernon there were two classes—one in Botany, the regular work leading to matriculation;  the other, Second Year in Agriculture.
" The work at this point was somewhat handicapped through the distance of the Agricultural
class-room from the High School and lack of sufficient equipment. All the students were successful in Departmental Examinations in Agriculture.
"The area given to practical work for classes in High School was carefully planned and
planted as seemed best in keeping with good principles of soil-fertility, rotation of crops, etc.,
in that district.
" A large school-garden had in former years been conducted in connection with the class-work
of the Central School under Mr. Austin's supervision. This year, however, Mr. Fulton, principal
of the school, planned extensive work, particularly in growing cucumbers as a school project.
Entire charge of the scheme was given over to Mr. Fulton, with every freedom for best work in
the interests of school agriculture.
" At Kelowna classes in Elementary Science and Agriculture came under my direction.
I found many evidences of the value of practical work in this department, all of which would
be enhanced by the closest co-operation of teachers with the supervisor..
" I assisted in the summer school at Victoria during July and early August.
" On completion of summer school I began work as Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction
in the New Westminster District. Considerable time was spent in gaining familiarity with the
territory in order to organize my work in its best interests. Class-room and office accommodation
is provided in the Technical High School, not yet completed. Our work here consists of three
phases:—
"(1.)  The regular High School Course in Agriculture taken by twenty-six students.
"(2.) A Special Course in Agriculture for boys in attendance at the Technical School.
Twelve boys are taking this course and have manifested a very keen interest in it, which is
evidenced by the fact that they attend the classes outside of regular class-hours.
"(3.) Short courses in agriculture and related subjects for those beyond the public-school
age who are not attending school.
" I wish, in conclusion, to express sincerest appreciation of the helpful sympathy received
at the hands of my co-workers in my efforts to become familiar with conditions in this Province
in organizing such lines of work as may serve the community's best interests."
From Mr. J. B. Munro, B.S.A., Armstrong, Enderby, and Spallumcheen:—
" All of the first- and second-year pupils in the high schools of Armstrong and Enderby are
enrolled in the General Science and Agriculture classes. There are fifteen General Science
and seventeen Agriculture students at Armstrong, and fifteen General Science and twelve
Agriculture students at Enderby. In addition to the regular work covered, we have at each
of these schools formed Junior Agriculture Clubs having definite practical aims for social and
E C 66
Public Schools Report.
1920
educational betterment. Besides the regular members of the executives of these clubs, each has
an official whose duty it is to keep the local papers informed of all high-school items of interest
to the reading public. In this way we are linking up the high schools with their respective
communities, besides giving the pupils training in journalism and stimulating their interest in
the local press.
" Throughout the term I have taken weekly classes with the Senior Grades of the public
schools of Armstrong and Enderby. In these schools we are conducting school-gardens and a
part of our work has been the preparation for spring planting. The six rural schools of the
municipality I visit twice a month when the roads are navigable. In these schools the lessons
have been taken with the higher grades directly, but also in a general way for the bigger pupils
of the lower grades. School-gardens were attempted in several of these sections during last
term, but owing to very dry weather and lack of attention during the summer vacation they
have not been a success. In each of these schools wTe have arranged to conduct home-gardens.
This change is made for two reasons: After next June all the rural sections will be sending
their children to the new consolidated school at Armstrong, hence the school-gardens would be
useless; also we plan to have the public grow such crops, under supervision, as will be eligible
for entry at the School Fall Fair in 1921.
" The school-garden in Armstrong was not a success this year for the reasons already
mentioned, but at Enderby a really good garden was conducted. Our biggest difficulty with the
gardens this fall has been the extremely wet weather, which made harvesting difficult and the
curing of the crops almost impossible. However, some very good results were obtained in the
experiments at Enderby, and the findings were published in the local papers for the guidance of
the public.    We are looking forward to a good year's work."
From Mr. V. B. Robinson, B.S.A., Vernon District:—
" As my duties are divided between the Department of Education and the Department of
Agriculture, I have endeavoured to so apportion my time as to give equal attention to the work
assigned under the two departments. In connection with the school-work three main lines
of activity have been carried on: (1) Teaching agriculture in the high schools; (2) aiding the
teachers of town and rural schools with their nature-study and elementary agricultural teaching;
(3) Boys' and Girls' Club work.
" At present twelve students are enrolled in the High School class in Agriculture. Although
the work has been somewhat hampered owing to the lack of equipment, the students seem to
be making satisfactory progress, and we expect in the near future to have such additional
equipment as is necessary and which will greatly facilitate the work. In carrying out the work
assigned in the course I have endeavoured to make the laboratory-work as practical as possible.
We have been able to make occasional trips to the neighbouring ranches for practical demonstrations.    A demonstration in cream-testing was conducted at the Vernon Creamery.
" I have been able to render some assistance to the teachers of the district by way of
supplying them with helps in the teaching of nature-study and elementary agriculture. During
my visits to the schools I have endeavoured to present to the teachers methods of handling
nature-study, keeping in mind that each problem presented should be of such a nature as to
require independent thinking and constructive work on the part of the child, and that it be
interesting, simple, and yet progressive. I have used with success the nature-booklet idea, and
am recommending it to the teachers, and enlarging its scope so as to take in agricultural work
as well as nature-study. To interest the teachers and pupils and to show in concrete form
some of the things that can be done with nature-study subjects, I have prepared three series of
ten projects each on apples, poultry, and horses. Large charts are used illustrating various
aspects of the subject.
" I have also arranged on behalf of the Vernon teachers a series of lectures on nature-study
topics, which were given as follows:—
, " Tuesday, October 12th—' The Value of Entomology and its Importance in Relation
to Farm, Field, and Forest Life.'   By R. C. Treherne, B.S.A.
" Tuesday,  October 26th—' Collecting,  Preserving,  and Methods  of  Studying Insects.'
By R. C. Treherne, B.S.A.
" Tuesday, November 2nd—' Live Stock as a Basis for Nature-study Lessons.'    By J. B.
Munro, B.S.A. Miif Flooser JBorder
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and   Systematizing  Nature-study  Literature.'
New  Year.)    'Materials  and
" Tuesday,  November  16th—' The  Place  of Horticulture  in  Nature-study.'    By  J.  E.
Britton, B.S.A.
" Tuesday,  November  30th—' Collecting
By V. B. Robinson, B.S.A.
"Tuesday,  December 14th—(Postponed  until  after the
Methods in Nature-study.'    By J. W. Gibson, M.A.
" As it is more difficult to bring the rural-school teachers together for such a series, I have
arranged to distribute bulletins such as may be of direct assistance to them in their work.
From forty to sixty bulletins are packed into a folder and loaned to a school for a period of
two weeks.    The bulletins selected are of interest to the children, the teachers, and the parents.
I hope by spring to be able to include all of the local schools in the lending circuit..  In some
cases parents send away for copies of bulletins which they find of special value to them.    The
teachers are also very appreciative of this form of assistance.
" Believing that a sound education should include instruction that will fit the child for its
civic and social duties, I have started a Boys' and Girls' Club at Vernon. The membership is
open to all boys and girls who are interested in agricultural education, the meetings being held
twice a month. Already we have had some very interesting sessions, one of which took the
form of a party in honour of the Agricultural class of the Armstrong High School, another a
debate, and the rest special lectures. As adjoining districts are also organizing, we are looking
forward to this as a valuable means towards the furthering of the cause of agricultural
education."
I have, etc.,
J. W. Gibson,
Director of Elementary Agricultural Education. C 68
Public Schools Report.
1920
SUMMER SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS.
-    Victoria, B.C., November 30th, 1920.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith a report on the summer school-for teachers held in Victoria
from July 5th to August 6th, 1920.
As in former years, the Victoria School Board lent their very valuable aid in placing at
our disposal the High School and also the Boys' Central and Fernwood Schools. Without such
ample accommodation as that afforded in the Victoria High School it would be difficult indeed
to conduct summer-school work successfully.
The principle of offering special opportunity for teachers to increase their efficiency along
certain chosen lines of educational work has been widely adopted, and can be said to have passed
the experimental stage. In every Province in Canada and in practically all of the States of
the American Union summer sessions for teachers are now regularly held. In the great majority
of cases these summer sessions are held in connection with or under the direction of Provincial
or State Universities. Usually the Provincial Departments of Education and their respective
Provincial Universities work in close co-operation in planning and maintaining summer schools
for teachers. In all such cases the classes offered are partly professional and partly academic.
This year for the first time the University of British Columbia, assisted by the Provincial
Department of Education, offered summer courses of instruction. As stated in the announcement
of the University summer school, three main purposes were in view: (1) To assist high-school
teachers who are giving instruction in science and in French; (2) to assist teachers who wish
to qualify themselves to hold a first-class certificate in covering part of the work prescribed for
Senior Grade; and (3) to provide courses in education for all persons who may be qualified
to take them. Altogether 128 students were enrolled—a much larger number than was expected,
showing conclusively that the University's decision to hold the school was amply justified.
The University authorities should feel encouraged with the splendid response given by the
teachers of the Province to their first summer school offer, and doubtless they will not only
continue the summer courses, but will also extend them in an ever-widening appeal to the young
men and women of the Province who may be privileged to attend.
As in the case of the Victoria summer school, the Department of Education paid the transportation expenses of students attending the courses offered at the University.
In view of the fact that at least one course previously offered at the Victoria summer school
was this year given at the University summer school, and also assuming that a number of
teachers attended other courses given at the latter school who otherwise would have attended
the Victoria school, we did not expect that our attendance at the Victoria summer school would
quite equal that of previous years. This, however, did not prove to be the case, as our
attendance at the 1920 summer school was slightly ahead of 1919. Following is the enrolment
by classes:—
Summer School Enrolment, 1920.
Rural Science—Preliminary      33
Rural Science—Advanced        8
Primary Grade Work and Manual Arts      49
Art, Preliminary       23
Art, Advanced       8
Manual Training, Preliminary         6
Manual Training, Advanced       12
House Science, Preliminary      12
Household Science, Advanced     21
Vocal Music and Elocution       12
Total enrolment   184
The Primary Grade and Manual Arts Course attracted an unusually large number of
teachers this year.   On the other hand, two courses were withdrawn on account of the small 1
!> Rural Science class engaged in tree-study, Victoria Summer School,  1920.
A day of fun and frolic—the class picnic—Victoria Summer School, 192
1920. 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 69
registration in them. These courses were Advanced Music and Hygiene and Public Health.
Both of these courses were offered for the first time, and it is a matter of some regret that
such valuable courses had to be abandoned for lack of students.
Two part-time or auxiliary courses were added this year, viz.: (1) Physical Training and
(2) Penmanship. These courses proved so popular that it became necessary to form two large
classes in each. One hour per day was given up to these subjects. The students who took these
courses were also each enrolled in some one of the other courses. The Course in Physical
Training included class-room and gymnasium calisthenics, together with school games and
playground-work. Altogether forty-eight students took the course. The instructor, Mr. W. A.
Alldritt, Physical Director of the Y.M.C.A., entered most heartily into the work and succeeded
in making it recreative and interesting as well as valuable to the teachers from practical and
educational standpoints. Mr. R. W. Mackenzie, instructor in penmanship at the Sprott-Shaw
Business College, himself an experienced teacher in public-school work, conducted the course in
penmanship in a most satisfactory manner. That such a course was well advised is amply shown
by the fact that such a large number of students, sixty-one in all, were enrolled in it.
During the last week of the School two series of special lectures were given—one by Arthur
Anstey, B.A., Inspector of Schools, dealing with " The Problem of the Ungraded School," and
the other by O. J. Kern, Professor of Agricultural Education, Lhiiversity of California, on " Rural
Agricultural Education." These two series of five lectures each were attended by the entire
student body and were thoroughly enjoyed and appreciated.
Special evening addresses were delivered by Dr. Pakenham, Dean of the Faculty of
Education, Toronto University, and Dr. Vrooman, Director of the Tuberculosis Clinic, Vancouver. One evening was devoted to a very interesting demonstration in the use of the non-
inflammable educational moving-picture film, by Mr. A. N. Anderson, local representative of the
Pathescope Company of Canada. A good deal of interest was manifested on the part of
students and instructors present in this new and important addition to modern teaching methods.
The social and recreational side of summer-school life received a good deal of attention,
owing to the fact that very little opportunity is afforded during the regular routine of summer-
school work for the students to become acquainted with each other. Class excursions, picnics,
at-homes, and informal dances were arranged weekly, and these functions proved of very
considerable value in promoting a spirit of sociability at once pleasurable and profitable to
students and instructors alike. On the last Saturday the class outing took the form of an
excursion to the Experimental Farm grounds at Bazan Bay, where a basket picnic was held,
followed by some enthusiastically contested games and sports. Later in the afternoon the
excursionists returned to Tod Inlet and enjoyed a couple of hours in the beautiful Butchart
Gardens. This proved a very delightful experience for all. At about 6 o'clock the company
proceeded by train to the Dominion Observatory grounds, where supper was arranged, after
which Dr. Plaskett welcomed the students and explained to them the use and operation of the
giant telescope. At 10 o'clock, after a very strenuous but thoroughly enjoyable day, the party-
returned by special train to Victoria.
On Thursday evening, August 5th, the formal closing of the summer school was held in the
Assembly Hall, where a mixed programme of addresses and musical numbers was given. The
Department of Education was represented by Mr. S. J. Willis, Superintendent, who acted as
chairman, and who also spoke to the students assembled on the great value of special preparation
on the part of teachers. The University of British Columbia was represented by President Klinck
and Dr. G. G. Sedgewick, Director of the University summer school, each of whom gave brief
addresses. During the evening an exhibition of summer-school work was held in various classrooms in the High School, which was open to the public. Music and dancing was carried on in
the gymnasium during the latter part of the evening.
The work of the summer school throughout was characterized by earnestness on the part
of both students and instructors and by a heartiness and good-fellowship which helped to make
the school so successful. Class-hours were not overlong—the 25-hour week being adhered to
with few exceptions—and this made possible a fair amount of needful recreation outside of
class-hours. Such a regulation tends to overcome the temptation to overwork at summer school,
and, indeed, it is the opinion of those directly engaged in summer courses that even teachers
who feel their energy somewhat depleted as the result of a hard year's work may take a summer
course and be benefited physically as well as mentally and socially thereby.    This is true C 70 Public Schools Report. 1920
especially when the teachers attending take full advantage of the opportunities offered for
outdoor recreation and physical training. If more teachers in our Province realized this the
attendance at summer school would be considerably increased.
OUTLINE OF COURSES GIVEN.
1. RURAL SCIENCE.
(a.)  Preliminary or First-year Course.
Methods  in   Rural  Science.
(Instructor:   ,T. W. Gibson, M.A., Director of Elementary Agricultural Education, Victoria.)
The place and value of nature-study  in the school;   its  relationship  to science  and to
agriculture;   nature-study  in  relation  to  school-gardening;    special   method  in  nature-study;
the school excursion, its use and management;   correlation of nature-study with other school
subjects; teachers' aids and school equipment for nature-study ; time-table, class-management, etc.
School and Home Gardening.
(Instructor:   H. B. MacLean, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.)
The planning of school and home gardens;   preparation and planting of gardens;   suitable
varieties, according to climatic conditions and to grades;  garden equipment suitable for schools;
garden  records;   examples  of correlation;   practical  instruction  in  the  making and care of
gardens.
Soil-study  and   Field   Husbandry.
(Instructor:   J. C. Rcadey, B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction, Chilliwack.)
First-hand laboratory and field studies dealing with the origin, formation, and classification
of soils;   elementary soil physics;   the management of soils—tillage and rotation, maintenance
of fertility, etc.;  the most important field crops and their cultural requirements, such as cereals,
fodder grasses, and root crops ;  crop improvement.
Horticulture  and   Floriculture.
(Instructor: J. E. Britton, B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction, Armstrong.)
Principles and methods of plant propagation as illustrated by garden varieties; the planning,
care, and management of the home-garden; best varieties for domestic use in vegetables and
flowers, with special cultural requirements; leading varieties of tree and bush fruits to be
recommended for planting in main districts of British Columbia; cultural practices and requirements, with special reference to soft fruits and bush fruits.
Poultry-keeping.
(Instructor :   A. M. McDermott, B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction, Kelowna.)
Common breeds  of poultry—characteristics  and classification;   care  and management of
poultry for egg production and for meat production;   incubation and brooding;   housing and
general equipment;  poultry pests and remedial measures.
Plant-study.
(Instructor:   George B. Rigg, A.M., Ph.D., Professor of Botany, University of Washington, Seattle.)
Collecting and mounting of specimens obtained locally;  classification of plants found locally,
using a botanical key;   the use of wild plants, including trees and shrubs, as material for
nature-study; plant structures in relation to life processes.
Insect-study.
(Instructor:   R.  C. Treherne,  B.S.A., Entomologist for the Dominion Government.)
The biological relationship of insects;  elementary anatomy of insects and function of parts;
methods for the collecting and preservation of insects;   field studies with insects, with special
attention to those orders assigned for study in the new nature-study course;  simple classification
and identification;   principles of control for injurious insects.
Bird-study.
(Instructor :   W. M. Fleming, B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction, Duncan.)
Methods in bird-study suitable for schools;  important life-habits of birds, nesting, feeding,
migration, etc.;   adaptation of form to life-habits and environment;   identification and classification ;   economic relationships of birds. 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 71
(b.)  Auvanced or Second-year Course.
Group A.
Methods in  Rural Science.
(Instructor:   J. W.  Gibson, M.A.)
The consideration of problems connected with rural-science work in rural and urban schools;
special method in nature-study;   topics to be suggested in part by students taking the course.
Special School-gardening, School-supervised  Home-gardening, and   Related  Home Projects.
(Instructors:   H. B. MacLean ;  A. M. McDermott.)
Special garden and elementary science projects; detailed studies of agricultural home
projects;  rural school improvement organizations and club-work.
Soil-study;   Agricultural   Physics  and   Chemistry.
(Instructors:   J. C. Readey, B.S.A.;   J. M. Shales, B.S.A., District Supervisor of
Agricultural Instruction,  Murrayville.)
Conservation of soil-fertility; fertilizers; drainage and irrigation; principles of dry-
farming; selected topics from the work prescribed in elementary science and agriculture for
Intermediate and Senior Grade (new nature-study syllabus).
Group B.
Animal   Husbandry.
(Instructor:   S. H. Hopkins, B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction, Courtenay.)
Types and most important breeds of horses, cattle, sheep, and swine;  housing, care, feeding,
and management of live stock;   animal health;   the live-stock industry and its importance in
general agriculture.
Dairying.
(Instructor:   S. H. Hopkins, B.S.A.)
Feeding and care of the dairy herd;   hulk-secretion;   the testing and separating of milk;
principles of butter-making;   milk utensils and the handling of milk;  dairy buildings.
Group C.
Horticulture  and   Landscape  Gardening.'
(Instructor:   J. E. Britton, B.S.A.)
Review of first-year work;  the principles underlying such horticultural practices as pruning,
budding, and grafting, with demonstrations ; the planting, cultivation, and fertilizing of orchards;
the spraying of fruit-trees for the control of insects and of plant-diseases;  selection and arrangement of the best varieties of trees and ornamentals for school and home grounds.
Bee-keeping.
(Instructor:   W. M. Fleming, B.S.A.)
Life-history of the honey-bee; relationship of bees to seed and fruit production; the beekeeper's equipment; management of bees—swarming, hiving, and feeding; winter care; common
bee-diseases and remedial measures.
Group D.
Botany.
(Instructors:   Dr.  Rigg;   Mr.   Shales.)
Identification and classification of local species continued;   the study of plants in relation
to environment;   growth and work of root, stem, and leaf;   the life-history of various types
of flowerless plants (Nature-study Syllabus, pages 38 and 39) ;  the nature and work of bacteria;
some common plant-diseases, with methods of control.
Entomology.
(Instructor:   R. C. Treherne, B.S.A.)
Representative insects of common families, life histories and habits;  identification of insects
continued;   control of insects by natural and by artificial methods;   value of parasitism and
predaceous insects;   important insecticides and how made;  field studies with insects continued. 2. PRIMARY .GRADE COURSE.
(Instructors:   William II. Binns, Supervisor of Technical Education. Victoria; Miss Eunice
Copeland, Principal, Franklin Primary School. Seattle, Wash. ; Mrs. Amy Ward, North
Vancouver; Miss B. M. Coney, Music Mistress, Vancouver Normal School.)
Lectures.
The Curriculum for Primary Grades. Play materials and their use; equipment for Primary
Grade work; general methods underlying primary education, including such topics as principles
of class-management, the laws of learning—interest, effort, activity; discipline and moral training, the hygiene of childhood, etc.
Story-telling and Dramatization.
The rhymes and stories contained in Book I., Young and Field Literary Readers.
Songs and Stories.
Suitable for various months of the year.
Manual Work.
Paper folding and cutting; clay or plasticene modelling; thin cardboard-work; brush-work;
blackboard drawing;   the use of the sandboard.
Nature-study.
Plants and animals.     ,
For purposes of demonstration in methods of teaching certain lines of Primary Grade work
a volunteer class of boys and girls belonging to Primary Grade was organized at the Fernwood
School.   The children attended during the forenoon only.
3. ART COURSE.
(Staff of Instructors:   John Kyle, A.R.C.A., Art Master;   Charles II.  Scott, Dip. G.S.A.,
Art Master;   W. P. Weston, Art Master;   James P. Sinclair, Art Master.)
(a.) Preliminary Course,    (b.) Advanced Course.
(a.) Preliminary—eor Work in the Primary, Intermediate, and Senior Grades.
Object  Drawing.
With pencil, crayon, pen, brush; principles of construction; relation of construction to
memory drawing; methods of teaching; tests; light and shade; tone studies; blackboard
drawing.
Nature Drawing.
With pencil, pen, brush; construction of plant forms; leaves, flowers, and natural-history
specimens;  blackboard drawing.
Design.
Geometrical construction in patterns; decorative motifs; principles of design; naturalistic
and conventional styles; colour; colour harmonies; the appreciation of good form; development of taste;   blackboard drawing.
Geometry and  Lettering.
Work from problems contained in Blair's Drawing Book IVa, Third Edition.
(b.) Advanced—High School Course.
This course is open to those students who obtained a first-class in the Preliminary Course
of 1914, 1915, 1917, 1919, or who can satisfy the authorities that they possess the necessary ability
to profit by the instruction.   High-school teachers are specially invited to join this class.
Drawing and Painting from Objects.
Flowering plants; natural-history specimens ; study of light and shade, tone, colour, and
composition;   blackboard drawing. m  11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 73
Design.
Decorative motifs; principles of design; naturalistic and conventional styles; suitability
of design to purpose;   colour harmonies from nature;   historic styles of ornament.
Applied  Design.
Designing objects to be made of wood and metal; decoration of same by stains, gesso, metal,
repousse, embroidery, and applique work;   leather-work.
Geometry and  Lettering.
Work from problems contained in Blair's Drawing Book No. Va, Third Edition.
4. MANUAL TRAINING.
(Staff of Instructors:   William H. Binns;   Alexander S. Hamilton;   Harry A. Jones.)
(a.)  Manual Arts,  Primary and Intermediate.    (6.)   For Manual Instructors who have
not Permanent Certh'icates.    (c.)   For Certified Manual Training Instructors.
(a.)   Manual Arts, Primary and Intermediate Grade Hand-work.
Pedagogics.
The child and the work; organization and equipment; lesson plans and methods of
presentation;   Manual of School Law on Primary and Intermediate Grade work.
Applied   Work—Paper  Folding  and  Cutting.
Process—To illustrate arithmetical and geometrical truths.
Design—Colour harmonies and contrasts.
Projects—Square, oblong, triangle, etc.
Thin Cardboard-work.
Process—Use of ruler, drawing pattern, cutting out, decorative design, folding, pasting.
Projects—Trays, boxes, booklets for school-work, mounts, book-marks, desk-blotters.
Heavier Cardboard-work.
Process—More accurate drawing, development of patterns, use of ruler, compasses, set-
squares, calculations.
Projects—Book-covers, simple portfolios, envelopes and files, booklets, desk-pads, boxes,
section booklets and their sewing.
Mat-weaving.
Various designs and colour combinations.
Clay or Plasticene Modelling.
Process—Acquaintance with material, study of type forms and models.
Projects—-Common objects and their relation to type forms and models; flowers, fruit
and vegetables.
Drawing.
Sketching the various views of objects made in paper, cardboard, and plasticene. The
decoration of the project; discussion on taste and beauty; brush-work decoration; blackboard
practice.
Story-telling  and   Dramatization.
See Course I.
The Use of the Sandboard.
Scenes for each month and for special occasions.
(6.) For Manual Instructors who have not Permanent Certificates. C 74 Public Schools Report. 1920
First and Second Year.
This course was designed to give manual instructors who have temporary certificates an
opportunity to become fully qualified.
Pedagogics.
Education; the teacher; the child—(a) mentally, (o) physically; education methods;
manual training; reasons for and against manual training; forms of manual training; the
models to be used ; preparing a lesson ; the Herbartian steps ; methods for tool lessons ; class-
management ;  organization and discipline.
Drawing.
Lettering; projection of points, lines, and objects; sections and sectional views; conventions;
isometric and oblique projection; construction of scales; making working drawings; faults
in finished drawings.
Design.
The purpose of design; modification of rectangular outline; practical consideration—fitness,
limitations of material and tools; aesthetic considerations—symmetry, proportion, harmony; the
straight line and curved; decoration—stamping, recessing, inlaying; designing a one-piece model;
criticism of good and bad forms;  designing a two-piece model;  complex models.
Blackboard Practice.
Written work and figuring; geometrical figures and solids; sketching tools; diagrams
illustrating lessons.
Tree  Botany.
Summary of main division of vegetable kingdom; position of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
and distinguishing characteristics of these subdivisions.
Increased attention was paid to the principles and methods of class-teaching.
A class of boys attended the manual-training centre for lessons. Practical demonstrations
were given in teaching such subjects as the following: Measurements; geometry; draughting;
mechanics of the tools;  commercial value of various woods.
Teaching devices were made and practice given in design, construction, and decoration.
(c.) For Certificated Manual-training Instructors.
This course was designed to give certificated manual-training teachers an opportunity to gain
a British Columbia diploma and become qualified to teach in high schools and vocational classes.
First Year—Preliminary Metalieorlc Course for B.C. Manual-training Teacher's Diploma.
Sheet-metal   Work. •
Sheet-bending; sheet-cutting; wiring; soft soldering; false wiring; lap-joint; hatchet
soldering;  clinched joint;  grooved joint.
Stretch-outs.
Cylinder ;  tray; box;  truncated pyramid.
Bench-work.
Setting-out; cutting out with cold-chisel; filing; draw-filing; drilling; convex and concave
filing; countersinking; annealing; cold ' bending; riveting by means of a rivet; tinning;
matting;  polishing.
Forge-work.
Cutting stock with hardy; calculation of stock; drawing out; hot bending; shaping;
hardening and tempering. 11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 75
Drawing arrel  Design.
Designing and decorating metalwork projects.
Wood-turning.
Second Year.
Sheet-metal  Work.
Wiring curved edge, etc.
Stretch-outs.
Truncated cone;  cylinder sections;   intersections of cone.
Bench-work.
Clinching;   riveting by reducing.
Forge-work.
Cutting with hot set;  bending with pegs ;  twisting;  hot punching;  upsetting.
Machine-work.
Hand-turning; machine-turning—rough and finished turning, knurling, taper-turning; shaper
—shaping hammering-block.
Drawing and Design.
Designing and decorating metalwork projects.
Wood-turning.
5. HOME ECONOMICS.
(Staff of Instructors :   Miss Alberta Macfarlane;   Mrs. Carter;   Mr. E. W. Hamilton-Smith, M.A.,
Science Master, Victoria High  School.)
(a.)   To equip Rural-school Teachers  with the Necessary Knowledge to  teach  Home
Economics in Rural Schools.    (6.)  To train  School-teachers who wish to graduate
as Teachers of Home Economics,    (c.)  A Science Course in Chemistry of Foods and
in   Advanced   Needlework   and   Dressmaking   eor   Certificated   Teachers   of   Home
Economics who wish to qualify for Teaching in High Schools or Vocational Classes.
(d.) Course in Needlework and Cookery for the Grade Teacher.
(a.) Practical Lessons on Home Economics specially arranged for Rural Schools.
(In close correlation with the school text-books on Nature Study and Health.)
Cookery.
Food and its effect on man;  food principles;  food accessories.
Theory—A study of carbohydrates; digestion and absorption. A study of fats; the fuel
value of foods. A study of proteins; mineral matter and acids; the preservation of foods.
Balanced meals.
Practice—Kitchen equipment; measurement of ingredients; the preparation, cooking, and
serving of meals ;  the school lunch;  invalid cookery;  the kitchen-garden.
Needlework.
Theory—Sewing equipment; household textiles; materials for under and outer garments ;
ready-made and home-made garments;  sewing, darning, patching, knitting.
Practice—Hand and work drills; various stitches ; seams; button-holes; tapes ; patching;
darning;   draughting patterns and garments.    " Boy Scout" course in sewing.
Home-nursing and  Hygiene.
The invalid's room;   treatment of common ailments;   emergencies;   personal hygiene.
Sanitary Science.
Heating, lighting, .and ventilation; water-supply; disposal of waste; methods of living;
infection and disinfection. (6.)   A Course of Lessons in the Theory -and Practice of Cookery and Needlework for
School-teachers who wish to graduate as Teachers of Home Economics.
Preference given to those teachers who passed the course in 1919.
First Year—Work covered in 1919 (not repeated).
Home  Management.
Comprising: Washing of dishes and saucepans; care of white wood; care and cleaning
of metals in daily use; care, cleaning, and disinfecting of sink; dust and its removal; laying
the table; construction, management, and cleaning of kitchen range, with simple study of
combustion and use of coal and wood respectively.
Practical   Cookery—Methods  of  Cooking.
(1.) Boiling and Steaming—Applied to cereals, vegetables, fresh and salt meat, fish, plain
sauces, puddings (in which suet is used), stock, soup, and beef tea.
(2.) Roasting and Baking—Milk puddings, plain pastry, beef, mutton, small plain biscuits
and cakes, yeast bread and large plain cakes (with lining of tins).
(3.)  Frying—Shallow fat.
(4.)   Stewing—Meat (beef and mutton) and fruit (fresh and dried).
(5.)  Reheating Cooked Food.
Theoretical  Cookery.    (Based on practical work.)
Reasons for cooking food; effects of applying heat to food; different methods of cooking
food (e.g., boiling, steaming, etc.), and the effects of these on food.
Food Principles—Use of food to the body; dietetic value of meat, fish, milk, butter, cheese,
eggs, cereals, sugar, fats (e.g., suet, lard, crisco, margarine), and beverages; different foods
in combination.
Needlework.
Work covered in the grades; followed by hemstitching, button-holes, household sewing,
pillow-slips, towels, etc., making and repairing kitchen linen;  patching and darning.
Second Year—Course of Work for 1920.
Home  Management.
Household brooms and brushes—choice, cost, and care; cleaning painted, varnished, and
polished wood; various cleansing agents—use, economy, cost; ventilation—value of fresh air,
chimneys, doors, windows; choice, cost, and care of linoleum and oilcloth; water—source of
supply, pipes, cisterns, storage, etc.; drainage—where pipes go, simple tests for faulty drains;
table setting and service.
Practical  Cookery.
Recapitulation of the methods taught during the first year, with additions; boiling, steaming,
simmering, roasting, baking, broiling, stewing, sauteing, deep and shallow frying, braising, pot-
roasting;  simple meals.
Theoretical Cookery.
Foods and their use to the body; the perfect food; proteids, carbohydrates, fats, mineral
matter; importance of mixed diets, well balanced and varied; need for forethought in planning
meals; planning, purchasing, cooking, and serving a luncheon for a family of four; economy of
the larder;  care of the meat-safe, cost, fixture, inexpensive substitutes.
Laundry-work.
Arrangement of household washing—washing, boiling, and plain ironing of household linens
and underwear; removal of stains and bleaching; consideration of water, soap, soap-powders,
soda, borax, starch, and laundry blue. 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 77
Needlework.
Draughting—i.e., free cutting and .making undergarments; repairing, patching, darning
flannels, prints, and coloured goods;   knitting.
Teaching   Methods.
Presentation of the lesson; making a time-table and course of work; correlation of the
subject with the class-work taught by the grade teacher;  practice lessons.
(c.) Home Economics: A Science Course in Household Physics and Chemistry and in
Advanced Needlework and Dressmaking for Certificated Teachers of Home Economics
who wish to qualify for Teaching in High Schools or Vocational Classes.
First Year.
Household  Physics and  Chemistry.
Work covered based upon course assigned in Household Science for First-year High
School.
Laboratory-work.
Needlework.
Sewing for elementary and high schools; free cutting; use of commercial patterns;
draughting from measurements ;   dressmaking.
Second Year.
Household  Physics and Chemistry.
Work covered based upon the course assigned in Physics and Chemistry of the Household
Science Course for Second-year High School.
Practical work in laboratory.
Hygiene.
Draughting and  Dressmaking.
Millinery.
Art in the  Home.
(d.) Course in Needlework and Cookery for the Grade Teacher.
Needlework.
Elementary and Advanced, as specified in the courses of study for British Columbia; work
to be correlated to Drawing and Design.
oookery.
As it affects the course of study in Health and Hygiene; work following the lessons in
" The Essentials of Health."
6. VOCAL MUSIC AND ELOCUTION.
(Staff  of  Instructors:   Miss  E.  M.   Coney,   Music  Mistress,  Provincial  Normal   School,
Vancouver;   F.  T.  C.  Wickett,  Instructor in  Music,  New  Westminster.)
First-year Course.
Voice-culture for Children.
The voice—its use and preservation; the importance of deep breathing; how to cultivate
head voice; vowels and consonants—their treatment; intelligent singing—correct phrasing,
expression, interpretation; rythmic training dealing with simple musical forms; singing out
of tune—its cause and cure; breaking of the voice—signs and treatment; two-part singing,
with balance of voices;  compass of voices, choice of songs, giving of pitch, conducting. ■ : ! ' : '    •    •     . ' " I
C 78 Public Schools Report. 1920
Musical   Knowledge.
Knowledge and use of modulator and stave; the various time signatures, with simple
and compound time and the monosyllabic time names; formation of the scale; staff modulator
drill in all keys to syllables and alternatives to sol-faing with key signatures; transition ; chordal
practice—major and minor chords;  ear—training in time and tune.
Suggested Work for the Various Grades.
(a.) Primary—Rote songs, including song games; tone matching and song sentences;
rhythm taught by hand swinging, clapping, etc.;   hand signs.
(6.) Junior, Intermediate, and Senior—Voice-culture—children trained to sing sweetly.
and without strain, with practice in deep breathing; tune—modulator drill, followed by staff
notation exercises; time—children to be trained to appreciate common variations of simple
rhythm; time names to be taught; time and tune taken in the form of " study " songs; ear-
training—from imitation of simple patterned phrases to the writing down of phrases in time
and tune;   songs—unison and two-part;   chordal training.
Vocal   Eurythmics.
Nature of the study ; sounds of the English language; thought in diction; vowels with the
neutral vowel sound " Uh " ; nasal resonance; the subordinate vowel sounds ; the effect of the
" r " sound upon the vowels; the diphthongs or combined sounds; the semi-vowels; consonants ;
practice in declamatory work.
SPECIAL COURSES.
(1.)  Physical Training. *
(Instructor:   W. A. Alldritt, Physical Director, Y.M.C.A., Victoria.)
Class-room and gymnasium calisthenics;   folk dances;   school games and playground-work;
rules and referee-work with reference to such games as football, baseball, basketball, tennis, etc.
(2.) Writing and Penmanship.
(Instructor:   R. W. Mackenzie, Instructor in Penmanship, Sprott-Shaw Business College, Victoria.)
A special class in writing and penmanship will be held daily from 11.30 to 12 a.m. and
from 3 to 3.30 p.m.    The muscular-movement method will be used and instruction given in the
teaching of writing as prescribed in  the course of study for public  schools.    All  students
attending the summer school will have the opportunity of enrolling in one of these classes.
(3.) The Problem of the Ungraded School.
A series of five lectures by Arthur Anstey, B.A., Inspector of Schools.
Organization of time-table;  correlation and presentation of the subjects of the curriculum.
(4.)  Rural and Agricultural Education.
A series of six lectures (illustrated) dealing with the most important phases of the rural
problem in its educational and social aspects, by O. J. Kern, Professor of Agricultural Education,
University of California, Berkeley.
Names of Summer-school Students by Courses.
Following are the names of the teachers who attended the Victoria summer school of 1920:—
Rural Science, Preliminary.
Apps, Kathleen N. G   Glenniore School, Matsqui.
Barker, Mildred U   North Kettle River.
Beattie, Mabel V   Enderby, Div. 1.
Brewis, Ernest    Sirdar.
Campbell, Beatrice   Alberni.
Chandler,   Miriam      Cloverdale School, Saanich.
Chute, Nellie V   Alexander Robinson School, Maple Ridge.
Davis, Sarah    Tennyson School, Vancouver.
Devereaux, Augustus    Tecumseh School, South Vancouver. -
11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 79
Rural Science, Preliminary—Continued.
Driver, Edith   Dragon Lake.
Fraser, Drina      Hall's Landing.
MacDonald, Sherley A    Summerland, Div. 1.
McLean, Florence ,   McLean School, Rossland.
McManus, Georgina M   Rosedale School, Chilliwack.
Mercer, Alice M   John Robson School, New Westminster.
Mercer, A. Mildred   Lord Lister School, New Westminster.
Milley, Elfreda      Pender Harbour.
Muir, John N   Inverness.
O'Brien, Bertha   Grand Forks.
O'Neill, W. Walter C. . .. • • • ■  Kitsumgallum School, Terrace.
Piggott, Kathleen E   Heywood's Corner.
Robson, John Calvert   McLean School, Rossland.
Rogers, Ethel K -.   Quennell School, Nanaimo.
Soule, Mary E   Coldstream.
Staples, Mary E   McGuire.
Steele, Marguerite M   Port Kells School, Surrey.
Stubbs, George W   Courtenay, Div. 1.
Tame, Margaret N   Lucerne.
Tapping, Mary E  Twin Butte.
Tibballs, Rhoda C   Blaeberry.
Verchere, Alberta    Mission.
Whistler, Henrietta K.  .,    Sardis School, Chilliwack.
Young, James W   McBride.
Rural Science, Advanced.
Cunningham, Mary B  Essondale.
Howitt, John    Alberni.
Jones, Wm  Usk.
Kier, Catherine M  Port Simpson.
Piggott, Elnora    Armstrong.
Sykes, Wm. A. M  Bella Coola School, Hazenborg.
Thomas, David John   Oaklands School, Victoria.
Wyrill, Ida   Box Lake School, Nakusp.
Primary Grade and Manual Arts.
Aird, Olive M  Burnside School, Victoria.
Ballantyne, Hazel  McKenzie Avenue School,  Saanich.
Bassett, Mildred F  Sidney.
Bates, Helen E  Hatzic.
Beattie, Mildred   ,  Craigflower School, Saanich.
Binney, Katharine    Boundary Falls.
Bossi, Olga L.  Alexandria.
Briand, Annie  Wanklyn School, Cranbrook.
Burnes, Irene M  Ganges jjarbour.
Chrow, Mildred  Rocky Point.
Cook, Dora L  Ladner School, Delta.
Cook, Freida L  Brechin School, Nanaimo.
Coursier, Olga E. M  Selkirk School, Revelstoke.
Crompton, Amy  Wellbore Channel.
Curtis, Marguerite L  Kamloops.
Fraser, Gladys  Armstrong!
Gilpin, Bertha Mae  Trail.
Hall, Carrie   Grand Forks.
Hamilton, Margaret H  Murrayville School, Langley.
Jardine, Jean C  Vernon. C 80 Public Schools Report. 1920
Primary' Grade and Manual Arts—Continued.
Jennings, Phyllis E  Cloverdale School, Saanich.
Johnson, Marion F  Strathcona School, Vancouver.
Jones, Mary Pauline   Clayburn School, Matsqui.
Lettice, Edith  Cartier.
Mackechnie, Flora    Children's Home, Vancouver.
Mackenzie, Eileen S  Castlegar.
Marquart, W. Marie  Rossland.
Marshall, Christine  Alexander Robinson School, Maple Ridge.
McLennan, Annie   Cranbrook.
Miller, Elizabeth J  Cawston.
Moffat, Dorothy M  White Rock School, Surrey.
Moore, Isabel   Hollyburn School, West Vancouver.
Morten, Elizabeth M  Duncan.
Newman, Elizabeth M  Trail.
Oswald, Jean   Richard McBride, New Westminster.
Parfitt, Violet  Cloverdale School, Saanich.
Parton,  Sara E  South Westminster School, Surrey.
Philip, Mary Brown  General Gordon School, Vancouver.
Porter, Jessie  Marpole School, Point Grey.
Ramsay, Margaret A  Vernon.
Robertson, Bernice  Kinnaird.
Robertson, Mary   Castle Rock, Cariboo.
Scobie, Isable B  Grantham School, Comox.
Shampenny, Elizabeth  Gordon Head School, Saanich.
Simister, Margaret V r  North Saanich.
Smith, Elsie K  Victoria.
Vars, May G  Ferguson School, Kaslo District.
Watson, Muriel F  Lonsdale School, North Vancouver.
Wood, Mabel V  Kelowna.
Art Course, Preliminary.'
Allan, Agnes M  Boswell.
Beck, Florence M  Rosebery.
Bell, Jean C  Vernon.
Bekker, Petra C. H  Glade.
Bertrand, Clemence   Blue River.
Creelman, Laura M  Revelstoke.
Forster, George   (Returned soldier).
Foy, Alma E  Arrowhead.
Gilchrist, Dorothy E  Whonnock School, Maple Ridge.
Lantz, Theresa S  Armstrong.
Marshall, Millicent  No. S Mine.
Martin, May   Ladner School, Delta.
Mills, Sarah A  Prince Rupert, Div. 1.
Murchison, Alice A .%>  Duhamel School, Willow Point.
New, Winifred M  Falkland.
Parkes, Jessie F. B  Franklin School, Vancouver.
Reid, Clifford D  (Returned soldier).
Richter, Jaunita L  Rock Mountain.
Schofield, Dorothy L  Trail.
Sprinkling, Ivy G  Margaret Jenkins School, Victoria.
Stanton, Victoria A  Trail.
Tervo, Esther F  Port Hardy.
Wilson, Allie L  Edmonton (visitor). 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report.
Art Course, Advanced.
Barron, Thomas J  Nakusp.
Beattie, Hester E  Mount Pleasant School, Vancouver.
Bentley, Eleanor M  Agassiz School, Kent.
Macfie, Mabel T  Hollyburn School, West Vancouver.
Matheson, Vinnie J  Selkirk School, South Vancouver.
Mercer, Ellen A  Oaklands School, Victoria.
Shearman, Arthur Evans   Henry Hudson School, Vancouver.
Wolfenden, Lena  Ocean Falls.
Manual Training, Preliminary.
Cam,  Archibald    (Returned soldier), Victoria.
Charles, Alfred H. .  „ „
Cornish, Alfred J  „ „
Finlayson, Alexander  Laura Secord School, Vancouver.
McCahill, James A  (Returned soldier), Victoria.
Robson, Alexander M  „ South Vancouver.
Manual Training, Advanced.
Crabb, Chas.  General Gordon School, Vancouver.
Hale, Montague  Walter Moberly School, South Vancouver.
Hill, Henry  Ladner School, Delta.
Lawrence, Frank     Queen Mary School, Point Grey.
Lowe, Frederick    (Returned soldier), Vancouver.
Parker, J. Whitfield  Shaughnessy School, Point Grey.
Plenderleith, Wm. A  Boy's Central School, Victoria.
Somerville, John G  Duncan Consolidated School, Duncan.
Taylor, George L  (Returned soldier), Vancouver.
Watson, John H  Model School, Vancouver.
Van Groesbeck, J. R  Selkirk School,  South Vancouver.
Williams, Wm. J  Trail.
Household Science, Preliminary.
Bruce, Hannah B  South Vancouver.
Climie, Mary V  Kerrisdale School, Point Grey.
Keast, Ada    Girls' Central School, Victoria.
Martyn, Anna Letitia    Lund.
Matheson, Agnes Helen  Vancouver.
Newman, Rachel D  Trail.
Procunier, Irene   Revelsttfke.
Richards, Jennie   Collishaw.
Sleightholm, Marion V  Lotbiniere School, Chilliwack.
Spence, Annie J  Outlook School, Grand Forks.
Sutherland, Agnes    Tonkawatla School, Revelstoke.
Tomlinson, Hila     Eagle Valley.
Household Science, Advanced.
Allan, Ada    Chesterfield School, North Vancouver.
Anderson, Christina S  Central Pouce Coupe School, Pouce Coupe.
Austin, Jane  Horizon, Saskatchewan.
Blankenbach, Marian E  Girls' Central School, Victoria.
Bromley, Mercy G  Anyox.
Clark, Helen B  Vancouver.
Darlington, Ella   Gill School, Alberni.
Davidson, Janet P  Lord Kelvin School, New Westminster.
Hadden, Edith C  Whonnock School, Maple Ridge.
F Household Science, Advanced—Continued.
Jackson, Margaret     McKay.
Leavens, Retta I   Nelson Avenue School, Burnaby.
Lee, Phyllis Joyce   Vancouver.
Mackinnon, Alice Cumming    Lampson Street School, Esquimalt.
MacLean, Mary Isabel     Mission.
Marshall, Vera Frances   Vancouver.
Muchall, Evelyn T '   Lethbridge, Alta.
Noble, Islay Barbara      Hatzic.
Pierce, Margaret E   Lord Nelson School, Vancouver.
Reilly, Belle H   Walter Moberly School,  South Vancouver.
Robinson, Ada Lillie  ;   Norquay School, South Vancouver.
Sherriu, Alice M   Rossland.
Vocal Music and Elocution.
Allan, Mabel R  North Bulkley.
Bell, Elizabeth M  Fernie.
Huddleston, Hilda    Craigflower School, Saanich.
Keenan, Stella K  Otter Point.
Neate, Winifred     Prince George.
Noble, Alice L  Kitsilano School, Vancouver.
Ozard, Marguerite J  Craigflower School, Saanich.
Painter,  Emily'  Fairview School, Vancouver.
Stone, Sylvia L  Prince Rupert.
Sewell, Eunice A  Mission.
Sjolander,  Agnes     Saanichton School, Saanich.
I have, etc.,
J. W. Gibson,
Director of Summer School 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 83
TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE ORGANIZER.
Victoria, B.C., July 1st, 1920.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on manual training, domestic science, night-schools,
and technical education generally for the year 1919^20:—
Manual Training and Domestic Science.
The two subjects above mentioned have for some years been closely scrutinized by school
authorities and the public generally, in order to find whether the expense of equipping centres
and time spent by the pupils therein were justified by the results obtained.
Strenuous opponents of the subjects referred to have appeared on one or two School Boards,
who seemed determined to put a stop to an expenditure which seemed to them to be wasteful
and excessive. It is gratifying to know that the result of having the limelight thus thrown
directly on the subjects has been to establish them more securely than ever in the school
curriculum.
A close relationship between the class-room studies and the problems of the workshop
characterizes the work of the Province as a whole. The school principals have been enjoined
to visit the manual-training centres regularly and interest themselves in the activities of the
pupils. It is from the problems of the workshop that many excellent vital tests in arithmetic,
mensuration, and English can and should be originated. Many school principals testify to the
sound instruction in drawing and arithmetic which come directly from industrious application
in the manual-training centres.
Although it is regrettable that more time cannot be spent on the supervision and examination
of pupils' work, yet it is satisfactory to know that manual-training instructors, as a whole, are
attacking their problems in a progressive spirit and with a specific purpose in view. Each one
possesses a scheme of work wherein the projects are carefully arranged in order of difficulty
and with a due regard to creative interest. Moreover, there is nothing stereotyped about their
schemes, each one having reasoned out the subject for himself and produced a succession of
problems which naturally reflects his individuality.
Improved record sheets and monthly report forms, which will be better arranged than those
at present issued, will be ready for use next term. It is fitting that work which is being carried
out so admirably throughout the Province should have its records kept in an absolutely fair
and reliable manner. All pupils, however, should own their portfolios which contain their
drawings and record sheets, so that in transferring them from one school to another their work
may be carried in safety. It will thus be- possible for instructors to continue the work begun
by the pupils at other centres with some degree of satisfaction.
The decision of the Council of Public Instruction to issue special technical teachers'
certificates has met with the approval of those manual instructors who have been engaged
in advanced work of a practical nature. In a similar way a certificate will be issued to those
instructors who have been taking steps to equip themselves for the work which has to be done
in high-school manual-training centres.
The time has now come when all manual-training certificates should be graded and forms
should be issued at once for the training record of each man in order that a decision may be
arrived at as to the qualifications required for giving manual instruction hi elementary schools,
manual instruction in high schools, and teaching practical work in technical schools.
Domestic Science.
The subject of domestic science, or, as most of the instructors prefer to term it, home
economics, is one which is taught in a satisfactory manner in most centres. The Course of Study
as laid down by the Department of Education wisely permits an arrangement of lessons which C 84
Public Schools Report.
1920
will suit local conditions, and many of these schemes are admirably prepared with due regard
to both practice and theory.
In some instances the entire sewing lessons for the year are taken during the first three
months of the course, in which time the required outfit for the cookery lessons is finished.
In others the outfit is completed at the end of the Junior Third year, in which case cookery
lessons begin with the Senior Third session. It is well when the latter method can be carried
out, but no fault can be found with the pupils who are being taught by-the former.
Instructors of domestic-science subjects are trained in different institutions in different
Provinces and countries; consequently the qualifications upon which they obtain their certificates
vary greatly. It is, therefore advisable to grade the certificates. The teacher who has taken
a four-year college course should be given a higher class of certificate than the one who has
only spent half that time in training. As in the case of manual-training instructors, the grading
might well be divided into three: i.e., those who are qualified to teach home economics in
elementary schools, those who are fitted to teach in high schools, and those who are qualified
to give instruction in technical schools. The last group requires teachers who have a thorough
knowledge of bacteriology and the chemistry of foods, and who have the necessary training
to enable them to teach the mechanics of household equipment and other closely allied subjects
which go to make up a Home Economics Course.
Fully qualified instructors have been finding their way to the West during the past year;
therefore it was not thought advisable to proceed with the training of teachers for domestic-
science subjects at the summer school. A class for those grade teachers who had begun training
the previous year was organized, and their studies were continued to embrace the cookery scheme
usually taught in the elementary school during the second year of the course. When this training
course is completed at next summer school it may not be necessary to commence another class,
at least not until a scarcity of instructors is once again felt in the Province, when a change of
policy may be advisable.
The training which rural-school teachers obtained in domestic science, and which bore
directly on the problem of supplying hot lunches to children who could not go home during the
lunch hour, has as far as we know been fruitless. No evidence of rural-school activity in this
direction has been heard of. Such work necessitates extra labour, and teachers are evidently
not anxious to shoulder the burden without extra remuneration, similar to that which is being
paid to those who undertake the work of school-gardening. Should a Provincial supervisor of
domestic science be appointed she would be able to give special attention to this phase of the
work, together with that of supervising centres which are at present inspected all too seldom.
City supervisors have been dispensed with in Vancouver and Victoria, the trustees in these cities
evidently throwing the inspection of their centres directly on the shoulders of the Provincial
Government. It would seem to be the right thing to do to engage the services of a thoroughly
trained progressive teacher of home economics who would be competent to inspect the classes
already in existence, as well as organize new classes in cities and municipalities where they do
not at present exist.
High School Technical Course.
Four years ago the above course was commenced at King Edward High School, Vancouver,
and at that time it was fully expected that a technical school would be built before the third
year of the course could be completed. The accommodation and equipment which have up to
the present been provided are not adequate for the training of fourth-year pupils. Its absence
makes that type of training impossible which would be of real assistance to the industrial
workers, and besides, it limits the scope of the work which should be undertaken at night-school.
The enthusiasm of the staff and pupils is encouraging, and they look forward hopefully to
the time when a technical school will be provided which will be in keeping with the size and
industrial importance of the city.
Owing to the lack of machinery the number of hours spent in practical work are fewer
than they ought to be, for in order to earn Dominion grants for technical education 75 per cent,
of the pupil's time must be occupied in practical work and related subjects. The equipment
referred to makes such a condition impossible. There should also be more time given to a study
of design. While excellent work in mechanical drawing is being accomplished, yet recognition
must be made of the fact that an appreciation of beauty and a reliable taste are essential
qualities to industrial success.   No time should be lost in remedying this defect in the course. Schsme of work in Sewing as carried out in the Elementary Schools of
Point Grey Municipality.
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7M l  ij-R r35 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. C 85
The students who desire to write for matriculation to the University are registered in a
separate class and time is given to the study of French. These students, however, have a special
paper set at the matriculation examination in practical mathematics and trigonometry, as well
as in chemistry, physics, and mechanics. Moreover, technical draughting and work in wood and
metal count in their favour. During the year 140 boys were engaged in first-year work, 95 in
the second year, and 31 in the third year, making a total of 226 students.
The condition which has led to overcrowding in class-rooms and workshops is greatly to be
deplored, for while in the technical schools of the world to which people look for guidance
one finds classes having an average of twenty pupils, yet in King Edward High School the classes
are twice that number. It is to be trusted that steps will be taken before long to reduce the
numbers in each class and give the instructors an opportunity to do their work under the best
possible conditions. Until such time as ample accommodation is provided it will be impossible
to admit retarded pupils from the elementary schools. There is great work to be done with
such pupils, and it seems most probable that the equipment of the technical school must be
used for that purpose. Prevocational or junior technical training is to be found in almost every
Province in the Dominion, and in Ontario and Quebec extraordinary progress has been made
in recent years in this direction.
The school trustees of Victoria are planning dtit workshops for a High School Technical
Course to commence in September, and the School Board in New Westminster is taking steps to
remodel the Provincial Gaol, which is standing unused, as they intend to equip the building as
a technical school. Both cities have already purchased considerable equipment of a thoroughly
practical kind and everything points to a year of sound progress. " Festina Lente" must,
however, be the motto for technical education in British Columbia, because it rs difficult to
obtain the services of efficient instructors who have knowledge of theory, skill of hand, and
training for teaching. There are real financial difficulties also in the way, but the public are
gradually awakening to the fact that the well-being of the people depend upon their training;
that industrial growth and progress depend upon the appropriate education and training which
the workers receive. There is still, however, a lack of co-operation between Boards of Trade,
Manufacturers' Associations, and school trustees. On the subject of technical education these
public bodies should be working as one man.
Home-makers' Course.
The course which bears the above noble title is the one which parallels the technical course
for boys in King Edward High School, Vancouver. It has now been organized three years, but
its growth has been considerably curtailed owing to the lack of accommodation and needful
funds. The attendance is as follows: Twenty-four girls in the first-year work, fourteen in the.
second, and eight in the third.
At present only students who have no intention of entering university enrol to study the
economics of the home, for no special matriculation examination has so far been arranged with
the University authorities. Nor is there much hope for any electives until such time as a Home
Economics Department can be organized in the University of British Columbia. The studies
in the Home-makers' Course are of such a nature that they will be found to be an excellent
preparation for the prospective school-teacher. The leaving certificate from the Home-makers'
Course is therefore accepted as the entrance certificate to Normal School. The subjects are as
follows: English, French or Latin, arithmetic and algebra, cookery, physiology and laws of
health, bacteriology and chemistry of foods, physics and mechanics of household utensils, dressmaking and millinery, drawing and design.
An improvement on this course of study would be to increase the number of periods in
arithmetic and decrease those in algebra. Strenuous endeavours should be made to obtain
access to a laboratory in which individual experimental work in the chemistry of foods could
be undertaken. This, with the addition of music and physical culture, two subjects which were
included in the original course of study, would complete one which would not only be par
excellence in the preparation of a home-maker, but would also be unequalled for the prospective
teacher or potential industrial worker.
When a Home Economics Department becomes an accomplished fact in the University of
British Columbia, the Home-makers' Course will also be that most suitable for the girl who
desires to engage in the profession of nursing or of medicine. Public Schools Report. 1920
Night-schools.
Night-schools during the past year show a slight improvement on the previous years, but
even at best the enrolment falls far short of what might be expected. The cities where the
attendance is highest only enrolled a proportion of fifteen students to every thousand inhabitants,
while in the Province of Ontario some cities rise to twice that proportion.
School trustees are, as a rule, apathetic and slow to grasp the possibilities of the work.
They fail to realize that their duties do not end with the day-schools, but that they must continue
to provide the necessary opportunities for study to those who are over school age and engaged
in occupations during the day. Indeed, the twentieth-century idea is the compulsory continuation
day-school built and staffed for the training of boys and girls of adolescent years who are
engaged in industrial pursuits.
The voluntary system has failed to bring forth an average attendance at night-schools in
keeping with the necessities of the times, for never in the history of the world has knowledge
and intelligence been so imperative in the industrial world as it is to-day.
Voluntary attendance at night-schools failed in Great Britain, France, Switzerland, and in
Germany, and in consequence thereof each of these countries has been compelled to pass a
compulsory-attendance law under which yormg men and women between the years of 14 and
18 must leave work during the day for eight hours per week to attend continuation schools.
The Province of Ontario has followed suit in this respect and has taken a census of boys
and girls under IS who have left school. By the year 1922 the Ontario Department of Education
expects to have these young people under their control at continuation schools, and preparations
for that purpose are now being undertaken.
It will thus be seen that we are only on the threshold of a great educational movement
which is industrial in character and is taking the place once held by the apprenticeship system.
The success of voluntary night-schools will be found to be in direct ratio to the amount of
business acumen possessed by school trustees and directors. It is very desirable that the same
tactics be adopted as are used by business colleges and schools run by private enterprise; in
other words, school trustees require to advertise their wares.
The statistics for night-schools held during the year 1919-20 are as follows:—
Cities. Students.       Courses.
Cumberland          11 1
Chilliwack       96 7
Coal  Creek          28 2
Fernie           32 2
Merritt          45 2
Nanaimo           77 5
North Vancouver      152 7
Ocean  Falls          15 2
South Vancouver      213 7
Union Bay        10 1
Victoria        514 22
Vancouver    1,275 22
The courses of study embrace the following subjects: English, French, Spanish, journalism,
book-keeping, typewriting, stenography, accounting, economics, salesmanship, drafting and
machine construction, mathematics, mechanical and steam engineering, building construction,
carpentry and joinery, cabinetmaking, naval architecture, navigation, electrical engineering,
telegraphy, drawing and design, dressmaking, millinery, cookery, music, choral and orchestral.
In order that night-school courses of study may be of the utmost practical value it is
customary in European countries for school trustees to call in the assistance of advisory
committees. These are composed of men and women engaged directly in the work for which
students are being trained, and experience proves that increased teaching efficiency and greater
trade interest and support are the direct result of such co-operation.
So far little has been accomplished in this direction in British Columbia. The committees
appointed before the war seem to have ceased to exist, but it is to be sincerely hoped that in
the larger centres of population some revival will be made without delay.   ^^^■^^^^^^^^■^H
Rural school equipment for lessons on foods and with which a hot lunch may be prepared.
A group of agricultural projects in manual training, Ladner.  11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 87
Correspondence Courses in Coal-mining and Mine Surveying.
Continued success seems to attend the correspondence classes for the students of coal-mining
who intend to sit for the examinations arranged and conducted by the Department of Mines.
This success is considerably increased when the students also join a night-school and obtain
the assistance of a thoroughly qualified instructor as a tutor. Such a tutorial method is the
only way in which mining subjects can be satisfactorily taught at night-school, for regular
attendance by men who are subject to the three-shift system is an impossibility.
The preliminary courses for boys and young men between the age of 15 and 23 are of great
importance, for it is at the latter age that they are permitted to sit for their first examination.
A little reflection and study of the courses referred to will at once show what a boon these
lessons may be to the thoughtful and ambitious young coal-worker, and with what ease it is
possible to continue studies after leaving school and gradually and surely make way towards
a mine manager's certificate. These classes commenced in April, 1919, and at present there
are 110 students enrolled. To show the confidence which the coal companies have in the tuition
received, the Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir), Limited, enrolled and paid for twenty-eight boys,
while the Canadian Western Fuel Company, Limited, paid fees for sixteen boys. No classes
are more deserving of support nor are more highly appreciated by those who take advantage
of them.
Lessons by Correspondence to Children who live in Isolated Parts of the Province.
The organization of the Correspondence Courses in Coal-mining gave the Department of
Education the means of assisting families of settlers whose attendance at school was found to
be impossible. The lighthouse-keepers had also been seriously concerned for a long time about
the want of educational advantages for their children; consequently when the offer to give
instruction by correspondence was made a ready response came forth. The pupils now number
182. Free text-books are supplied and evidence comes from the most unexpected quarters of
the inspiration which the lessons bring to the homes of those who are doing the pioneer work
of the Province.
I have, etc.,
John Kyle,
Organizer of Technical Education. FREE TEXT-BOOK BRANCH.
Education Department, Free Text-book Branch,
Victoria, B.C., November 30th, 1920.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the work of the Free Text-book Branch for
the school-year ending June 30th, 1920:—
Supplies issued.
The total number of free text-books, etc., issued during 1919-20 to the public schools
(common, graded, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence Course
established for children in isolated districts where schools cannot be maintained, was as follows:
10,795 B.C. Beginner's Reader; 57 Teacher's Handbook to Beginner's Reader; 7,097 B.C. Phonic
Primer; 8,556 B.C. First Reader; 9,193 B.C. Second Reader; 10,625 B.C. Third Reader; 7,025'
B.C. Fourth Reader; 844 N.C. First Primer; 753 N.C. Second Primer; 302 N.C. Second Reader;
72 N.C. Fourth Reader; 3,194 N.C. Fifth Reader; 8,850 First Arithmetic; 7,704 Second Arithmetic ; 5,100 Third Arithmetic; 14,908 New Method Writing Pad, Part I.; 9,168 New Method
Writing Pad, Part II.; 69,994 Writing Book; 53,939 Drawing Book; 1,360 Supplementary
Reader (Heart of Oak, Book I.; Art Literature Primer; Art Literature, Book I.; Art Literature,
Book II.; Progressive Road to Reading, Book 3a) ; 2,334 Universal Spelling Book; 9,409 Public
School Speller (Western Canada Series) ; 152 Essentials of Health; 6,267 How to be Healthy;
448 Elementary Agriculture and Nature Study; 1,968 Latin Exercises; 7,842 First Steps in
English; 196 Canadian Civics; 211 Syllabus of Physical Exercises; 433 World Relations and
the Continents; 6,493 History of Canada; 194 Teaching Writing, Books 1-4; 449,935 Sheets
Drawing Paper, 9 by 6 inches; 32,147 Sheets Drawing Paper, 9 by 12 inches ; 6,96S Public School
Grammar; 170 Union Jacks (3-yard Jack) ; 203 Flora of Southern British Columbia ; 57 " Scrap
of Paper "; 59 " Fathers of Confederation " ; 17,922 copies Children's Story of the War; 57
Globes ; 60 Maps of British Isles ; 67 Maps of Dominion of Canada ; 58 Maps of World; 56 Maps
of British Columbia;  67 Maps of North America.
At prevailing retail prices the books and other supplies issued would have cost $S6,171.09."
Requisitions to the number of 2,184 for the above supplies issued were required to be filled.
This called for a shipment to all parts of the Province of 925 cases and 1,754 parcels, the total
weight of which was 180,920 lb.     No shipment was lost in transit.
In addition to 2,184 requisitions filled in in 1919-20 to meet the needs of the public schools
and pupils taking Correspondence Courses, the Free Text-book Branch honoured 470 requisitions
for departmental purposes and for those who required to purchase school supplies. These orders
added 9 cases and 484 parcels (weighing in all 3,051 lb.) to the list of shipments for the year.
The sum of $1,386.68 was received under this head and paid into the Provincial Treasury.
Expenditure.
The chief expenditure of the Free Text-book Branch was made up as follows:—
Text-books,  etc   $44,267 16
Freight and drayage       3,8-14 36
Distribution  (freight, boxes, etc.)          2,356 61
Salaries of staff        5,702 85
Temporary assistance          663 28
Total  $56,804   26
As already stated, the Free Text-book Branch distributed during the past school-year textbooks and other supplies which would have cost parents and School Boards $86,171.09.   To :	
11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 89
purchase and distribute these among the various schools of the Province through the Free Textbook Branch required an expenditure of $62,392.33, made up as follows:—
Text-books   (laid-down cost)     $53,669 59
Distribution  (freight, boxes, etc.)          2,356 61
Salaries of staff        5,702 85
Temporary assistance   663 28
Total   $62,392 33
The saving on the year's transactions is, therefore, $23,778.76. It may be explained, however,
that the outlay for postage on parcels of free text-books to various points is not included in
distribution. A similar remark applies to other items, such as office supplies, etc. Were these
included the saving for the year would be slightly reduced.
It may be added that a considerable stock of supplies from the previous year was on hand
at the commencement of the past school-year. This will account for the apparent discrepancy
between $48,081.52 ($44,267.16 + $3,814.36), the amount expended to purchase and lay down
sullies for 1919-20, and $53,669.59, the amount of the laid-down cost of supplies distributed
during that period.
Night-schools.
Of the night-schools in operation during the past school-year, four were supplied with textbooks of some kind by the Free Text-book Branch. Supplies were issued to pupils attending
these schools on the same conditions as outlined in report of 1918-19.
Returns for 1919-20.
With nine exceptions, all annual reports of free text-books for 1919-20 are now on file.
All schools, but one, failing to make the necessary returns have been closed owing to the
attendance falling below the required number. While the majority of the annual returns show
that considerable care had been taken to keep an accurate record of all supplies furnished,
some are, however, far from being satisfactory in this regard. These unsatisfactory returns
come for the most part from schools where there has been a change of teachers during the
year. Inaccurate returns are largely due to failure on the part of the teacher to enter in the
Teacher's Record all shipments received; to keep an accurate record of all text-books issued
to pupils; to verify by actual count supplies reported to be in the reserve stock at the close
of the term. If these three simple matters received careful attention, this .Branch would be
saved endless trouble endeavouring to adjust unsatisfactory returns.
The returns for some schools show that there has been a good deal of laxity in the matter
of caring for Supplementary Readers and library books supplied for the teacher's reference.
Each year instructions have been issued that on no account must these books be removed from
the school-house, but, judging from the number of these books reported " missing," it would
appear that in many instances these instructions have not been complied with. In some cases
the loss of such books is no doubt due to the fact that a suitable book-case which can be locked
has not yet been provided for the safe-keeping of supplies furnished by the Free Text-book
Branch.
In a few instances it was found necessary to withhold supplies until the annual report
was received. To avoid delay in receiving supplies for the following term, School Boards would
be well advised to see that this return has been forwarded before the teacher leaves the district
for the summer vacation.
Receipts.     «
With two exceptions, all receipts for the past year are now on file. Considerable difficulty
was experienced, as in previous years, in securing the prompt return of receipts for shipments.
In quite a number of cases as many as three requests were necessary before the desired receipt
was returned. As usual, many copies were required to be furnished to replace receipts claimed
to have been "mislaid," "lost in the mails, etc." It is very hard to understand the lack of
business promptitude in this matter on the part of some school officials.
It may be added that a neighbouring Province has completely solved the problem of securing
the prompt return of receipts by compelling the School Board to pay for the shipment unless
receipt for same has been returned within thirty days. C 90
5ublic Schools Report.
1920
Free Text-books in Use.
The practice of addressing a printed inquiry to.teachers about the free text-book system as
applied to their schools was continued in 1919-20. All important errors revealed by the various
replies received attention and any information asked for supplied.
New Price-list.
A new price-list, revised August, 1920, has been forwarded to every school. At prices given
therein teachers are authorized to supply from the reserve stock (if any) second copies of free
text-books to pupils who may require to replace lost or destroyed texts. The amounts obtained
are to be remitted to the Free Text-book Branch at time of sale.
The Children's Story of the War.
In the reports of 1917-18 and 1918-19 it was very strongly urged that steps be at once taken
to have the fifty-six numbers of " The Children's Story of the War " bound so as to form a
permanent addition to the school library. As yet, this has been done only in a very few schools,
as is shown by the great number of negative replies in answer to question 14 (6) (printed
inquiry) recently received. In the face of what would appear to be vain repetition, it is once
more urged that the various numbers of this work be bound for the sake of their better
preservation. Any information in connection with this matter will be furnished on application
to this Branch.
In conclusion, it is desired to express an appreciation of the very valuable assistance
rendered by principals in large centres in helping to meet a very trying situation which occurred
in January, 1920, when owing to the wholly unexpected demands made for supplies at that time,
the Free Texthook Branch was unable to furnish some of the items asked for on all requisitions
presented.
I have, etc.,
J. L. Watson,
Officer in Charge. .
11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 91
THE STRATHCONA TRUST.
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust, for the
Province of British Columbia, for the School-year 1919-20.
Victoria, B.C., November, 1920.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows on the work of the Local Committee for the
school-year 1919-20 :—
Instruction oe Teachers in Physical Training, 1919-20.
During the past year, 278 physical-training certificates, Grade B (Strathcona Trust Syllabus),
were granted to prospective~teachers in attendance at the Provincial Normal Schools (Vancouver
and Victoria). About 3,292 teachers and prospective teachers of this Province have now qualified
as physical-training instructors.
Physical Training, 1919-20.
The list of Strathcona Trust prizes for excellence in physical training for the school-year
1919-20 is as follows :—
High and Superior Schools.
(A. Sullivan, B.A., and J. B. DeLong, B.A., Inspectors.)
1st   Prize—Gordon Downes, B.A., 4th Division, Oak Bay High School.
2nd Prize—Miss M. A. Brockwell, B.A., 2nd Division, Armstrong High School.
3rd Prize—J. G. Darling, B.Sc, 1st Division, Bridgeport High School.
1st prize,  $18;   2nd prize,  $15;   3rd prize,  $12;   amount expended  under  this head for
1919-20, $45.
Common and Graded Schools.
Inspectorate No. 1 (W. H. M. May, Inspector) —
1st   Prize—Miss J. H. Louden, 4th Division, Port Alberni School.
2nd. Prize—Miss J. V. Bruskey, 3rd Division, Cedar Hill School, Saanich.
3rd Prize—Miss A. C. Main, 4th Division, Tolmie School, Saanich.
Inspectorate No. 2 (Lieut.-Col. W. N. Winsby, Inspector) —
1st  Prize—Miss S. E. Hardy, 13th Division, Quennell School, Nanaimo.
2nd Prize—Miss K. S. Parrott, 11th Division, Quennell School, Nanaimo.
3rd Prize—Miss E. Bauld, 7th Division, Ladysmith School.
Inspectorate No. 3 (J. T. Pollock, Inspector) —
1st  Prize—Miss Jessie Abel, 13th Division, Dawson School, Vancouver.
2nd Prize—Mrs. M. A. Williams, 14th Division, Dawson School, Vancouver.
3rd Prize—Miss O. Wells, 6th Division, Kingsway West, Burnaby.
Inspectorate No. 4 (H. H. MacKenzie, B.A., Inspector) —
1st   Prize—H. B. King, 1st Division, General Gordon School, Vancouver.
2nd Prize—R. Straight, 1st Division, Lord Tennyson School, Arancouver.
3rd Prize—Miss K. L. Chappell, 3rd Division, Central School, Port Coquitlam.
Inspectorate No. 5 (L. J. Bruce, Inspector) —
1st   Prize—Miss E. A. Middlemiss, 6th Division, Henry Hudson School,. Vancouver.
2nd Prize—Miss J. C. Dunse, 3rd Division, Powell River School.
3rd Prize—Miss Hilda Crombie, 12th Division, Lord Nelson School, Vancouver.
Inspectorate No. 6 (John Martin, Inspector) —
1st  Prize—Miss G. A. Nutt, 4th Division, Queen Mary School, North Vancouver.
2nd Prize—Miss H.  R.  Anderson,  2nd Division,  Sir Wm.  Van  Home School,   South
Vancouver.
3rd Prize—Mrs.  II.   M.   Jex,   7th  Division,   Sir  Alexander  MacKenzie   School,   South
Vancouver. Inspectorate No. 7 (Arthur Anstey, B.A., Inspector) —
1st   Prize—W. F. Fennell, 1st Division, Herbert Spencer School, New Westminster.
2nd Prize—Miss H. Davidson, 3rd Division, Herbert Spencer School, New Westminster.
3rd Prize—Miss M. Williams, 2nd Division, Central School, Chilliwack.
Inspectorate No. S (A. F. Matthews, M.A., Inspector) —
1st   Prize—J. A. Chambers, 1st Division, Salmon Arm School.
2nd Prize—A. W. Cullen, 2nd Division, Kamloops Central School.
3rd Prize—Miss E. Edmonds, Nicola School.
Inspectorate No. 9 (A. R. Lord, B.A., Inspector) —
1st   Prize—T. Aldworth, 1st Division, Central School, Armstrong.
2nd Prize—Miss M. F. Macdonald, 2nd Division, Keremeos School.
3rd Prize—Miss R. P. McCaul, 7th Division, Central School, Vernon.
Inspectorate No. 10 (A. E. Miller, Inspector) —
1st   Prize—W. P. Calhoun, 2nd Division, Nakusp School.
2nd Prize—Miss R. Johnston, Cascade School.
3rd Prize—Miss D. F. L. Debney, Ingram Mountain School.
Inspectorate No. 11 (F. G. Calvert, Inspector) —
1st   Prize—R. S. Shields, 1st Division, Central School, Cranbrook.
2nd Prize—Miss O. Bealby, 5th Division, Central School, Nelson.
3rd Prize—Miss E. C. Stott, 5th Division, Central School, Fernie.
Inspectorate No. 12 (J. M. Paterson, B.A., Inspector) —
1st  Prize—Miss M. Gladwell, L.L.A., 2nd Division, Central School, Prince Rupert.
2nd Prize—Miss L. Wolfenden, 2nd Division, Ocean Falls School.
3rd' Prize—Miss A. M. McKinnon, 4th Division, Central School, Prince Rupert.
Inspectorate No. 13 (G. H. Gower, M.A., Inspector) —
1st   Prize—Miss E. H. Brannick, 2nd Division, Prince George School.
2nd Prize—Miss E. Milligan, 4th Division, Prince George School.
3rd Prize—Miss A. Macphail, Williams Lake School.
1st prize,  $12;   2nd prize,  $10;   3rd prize,  $9;    amount  expended  under  this  head  for
1919-20, $403.
Physical Training, 1920-21.
The terms of the competition for physical-training prizes have already been announced to
all public-school teachers in the Province. They are similar to the terms for 1919-20. For
competition among the high and superior schools the sum of $60 has been granted. This sum
has been provided as for two inspectorates; that is, $30 each, to be divided into three prizes—
viz., 1st, $12; 2nd, $10; 3rd, $8. The sum of $420 ($30 to each of the fourteen inspectorates)
has been made available for common or graded schools, the prizes to be the same as those in
high and superior schools. As before, the teacher to whom the award has been made shall be
entitled to two-thirds of the prize; the other third to be expended for a picture or some piece
of apparatus (suitably inscribed) for the room in which it was won. Only those teachers who
are holders of physical-training certificates granted under the Strathcona Trust are eligible
to compete.
Military Drill, 1919-20.
In June, thirty-seven of the thirty-nine active public-school cadet corps in M.D. No. 11
paraded for the annual inspection for 1919-20. The number of cadets then present was 3,855
out of a total strength of 4,186, all absentees being accounted for. This is a marked gain over
1918-19, when only 2,590 cadets paraded for inspection out of a total enrolment of 3,085. In the
competition for the Governor-General's Challenge Shield, awarded to the Province with the
greatest number of cadets in proportion to the school population, British Columbia held second
place for 1918-19.    No announcement has yet been made for 1919-20.
The comparative rank awarded by the Inspecting Officer at annual inspection for 1919-20
is as follows :—
Corps. Marks.
No. 388. Victoria Cadet Battalion-
Boys' Central School       97
No. 112. Victoria High School     96 11 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report.
Corps. Marks.
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—■
King Edward High School   95
No. 530. Connaught High School  (New Westminster)     95
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—■
General Gordon School    95
Cecil Rhodes School   94
Franklin School   93
No. 388. Victoria Cadet Battalion—
Sir James Douglas School   93
No. 101. Vancouver Cadef Regiment—
Lord Tennyson School  92
Britannia High School    90
Lord Nelson  90
No. 3SS. Victoria Cadet Battalion-
North Ward School   87
George Jay School    87
Margaret Jenkins School   87
Quadra School   87
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—
King George High School   85
Fairview School    85
Henry Hudson   84
Aberdeen     84
No. 788. Penticton     82
No. 580. Revelstoke  80
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—
Grandview School   75
Laura Secord   74
Macdonald   72
No. 388. Victoria Cadet Battalion-
South Park School   70
Victoria West School   70
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—
Alexandra School    65
No. 372. Nanaimo     60
No. 388. Victoria Cadet Battalion—
Oaklands     55
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—
Lord Roberts School    55
Dawson School (a)   50
Hastings School   50
Lord Strathcona School  50
Charles Dickens School  '.  48
Model School    45
Kitsilano School    45
Dawson School  (b)     45
Twenty-five prizes were provided in accordance with the schedule adopted at the last meeting
of the Local Committee held on October 15th, 1920, one-half of each prize to be paid to the corps
and one-half to the instructor, provided he is a public-school teacher- qualified as a cadet
instructor. When an instructor is not a public-school teacher, one-half of prize reverts to the
general fund of the Local Committee. The expenditure under this head for 1919-20 amounted
to $288, and was made according to the following schedule:— Public Schools Report.
1920
1st prize      $25
2nd „      	
3rd „      	
4th „      	
5th ,	
6th ,	
7th „      	
8th „      	
9th „      	
10th „	
11th ,	
12th „      	
13th „
525
14th prize
20
loth    „
18
16th     „
18
17th'   „
16
18th     „
16
19th     „
14
20th     „
14
21st     „
12
22nd    „
12
23rd    „
10
24th     „   •
10
25th     „
10
$10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10 -
10
10
10
10
Comments by the Organizing and Inspecting Officer (Lieut.-C'ol. W. H. Belson) in his annual
report to the Local Committee are here noted:—
"Some 1,540 partly worn uniforms have been issued for the use of cadets by the Militia
Department, and there are now ' on charge ' to the various corps in M.D. No. 11, 3,450 Ross rifles
(D.P.)  and 185 Ross miniature rifles.
" The general standard of training showed an improvement over that for 1918-19. The
keenness displayed by the various instructors has placed the cadet movement on more solid
ground. While there has been a marked increase in the number of cadets trained during 1919-20,
this has been gained chiefly in Penticton, Vancouver, and Victoria. The rural corps have fallen
off owing to the difficulty of securing instructors who are also school-teachers.
" Three authorized cadet camps each of six days' duration were held in the Province during
July, 1920. No less than 450 cadets attended the Vancouver camp, while 250 were accommodated
ill Victoria and 70 in Penticton. Unfortunately the camps were not authorized until after the
school holidays had begun, otherwise a very much larger attendance would have been secured.
The re-establishment of cadet camps will, it is confidently expected, have a favourable effect upon
recruiting. The 101st Vancouver Cadet Regiment is very well organized. Physical drill is
practised for twenty minutes daily in all the Vancouver schools. On three days of the week,
however, the boys substitute military for physical drill.
" The condition of the 388th Victoria Cadet Battalion is also very satisfactory. The steady
improvement is no doubt due to the enthusiasm and well-directed energy of Captain Ian St. Clair,
the Supervisor.
" The Militia Department has now increased the instructional allowance to $1 per cadet
inspected, and also makes a grant of $1 for every serviceable uniform. School Boards generally
are displaying much interest in cadet work and are fostering the movement to the best of their
• ability. The feeling towards this class of training seems to have improved wonderfully throughout the Province."
Rifle Shooting.
From the grant for rifle shooting, 1919-20, prizes were provided for thirty-six qualified
corps or units specified in returns—viz., $3.75 each; this amount to form cash prizes for the
three best shots in each corps or unit (1st prize, $1.50; 2nd prize, $1.25; 3rd prize, $1). The
following accordingly received grants of $3.75 each for rifle shooting, 1919-20: Penticton School,
No. 7SS; Vancouver 101st Cadet Regiment (Britannia High School A and B, King Edward High
School A and B,'King George High School, Aberdeen, Alexandra, Cecil Rhodes, Charles Dickens,
Dawson A and B, Fairview, Franklin, Simon Fraser, General Gordon, Grandview, Hastings,
Henry Hudson, Kitsilano, Laura Secord, Model, Macdonald, Lord Nelson, Lord Roberts, Strathcona, Lord Tennyson) ; Victoria Cadet Battalion, No. 388 (Boys' Central A, B, C, D, Burnside.
Oaklands, Victoria West, Victoria High .School No. 112, A and B). The amount.expended under
this head was $135.
Financial Statement for 1919-20.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Committee for 1919-20 amounted to $1,360.46 and
the expenditure for the year to $871, leaving a balance of $489.40. Of the latter sum, $480 has
already been voted for physical-training prizes, 1920^21. .
11 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
C 95
Receipts.
1919-20. Balance on hand from 1918-19   $   497 71
Interest to November 30th, 1919 .,  13 93
Allowance to Secretary  (added to fund)    10 00
Interest to May 31st, 1920   7 66
Uncashed cheque (Phoenix returned and paid into the fund) 5 00
Grant for 1920-21   826 16
$1,360 46
Disbursements.
1919-20. Prizes for physical training, 1919-20    $   448 00
Prizes for military drill, 1919-20  288 00
Prizes for rifle shooting, 1919-20   135 00
$   871 00
Balance on hand  $   489 46
Local Aid to Cadet Corps.
Authority has now been given by Statute to School Boards to make expenditures from school
funds in aid of cadet corps and of an extension of physical training. This is contained in
section 129a, "Public Schools Act" (consolidated for convenience in 1919), and is as follows:—
" The Board of School Trustees of any school district may establish and maintain an
advanced course in physical training, Including gymnastic exercises or cadet instruction, or
both, and the entire cost of all necessary equipment and of maintenance shall be defrayed by
the. Board of School Trustees; but where the time of any teacher is devoted -wholly to such
course, that teacher shall be included in the number of teachers on which the per capita grant
payable to that school district by the Minister of Finance pursuant to section 19 or 20 of this
Act is based."
I have, etc.,
J. L. Watson,
Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust,
for British Columbia. 

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