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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. T. D. PATTULLO,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1921]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
op
THE FOEEST BEANCH
OP the
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. T.  D.  PATTULLO, Minister
P. Z. CAVERHILL, Chief Forester
FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31ST
1920
printed by
authority of the legislative assembly.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
i'rinted by William H.  Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1921.  Victoria, B.C., February 10th, 1921.
To His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Eeport of the Forest Branch
of my Department for the year 1920. ■' •
T. D. PATTULLO,
Minister of Lands. The Hon. T. D. Pattullo,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There are submitted herewith statistical tables with a brief comment
thereon, covering the main activities of the Branch during the calendar year 1920.
P. Z. CAVEEHILL,
Chief Forester. '
REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
An important step in Empire forestry was taken last summer when an Imperial Forestry
Conference, attended by representatives from every part of the British Empire, convened on
July 7th at the Guildhall, London, England. British Columbia was* represented by its Chief
Forester.
The chief object of the Conference was to take stock of the Empire's timber resources and
to discuss methods of utilization, conservation, reproduction, and marketing. A foundation was
laid for the establishment of an Imperial Forestry Bureau as a clearing-house for information
regarding the Empire's timber resources and for the interchange of ideas in regard to their
development.    It was decided to hold the next Imperial Forestry Conference in Canada.
LUMBER TRADE  EXTENSION.
The trade-extension work begun in 1919 was continued throughout 1920. Our display of
the various British Columbia woods at 1 Adelaide Street East, Toronto, attracts a great deal
of attention and has produced many inquiries from wood-users.
An exhibit was again made at the Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto, in August and
September, and was again awarded the gold medal and diploma of the Canadian National
Exhibition Association.
Our Eastern Commissioner has devoted much attention to educational work amongst the
wood-using industries, particularly with regard to the value of our woods in the manufacture
of wagons, farm implements, tanks, battery-separators, pianos, etc., while he also has devoted
time to the study of the building codes of the various cities, with the result that British
Columbia woods are now being placed on a fairer basis. He has also been instrumental in
having British Columbia woods specified where formerly only imported woods were called for.
Publicity.
Advantage was again taken of the " Better Farming" movement in Saskatchewan and
33,000 " Farm Building" booklets were distributed through the Agricultural Branch of the
University of Saskatchewan, while similar booklets were mailed direct to farmers in Manitoba
and Alberta. The Department is now in touch with the Agricultural Branch of the University
of Alberta with a view to co-operative work in that Province.
Thirty thousand copies of a new booklet entitled " Uses, Strengths, and Working Stresses of
British Columbia Woods " were printed, and supplies have been sent to Eastern Canada, to
the various Canadian Trade Commissioners throughout the world, and to the Agent-General for
British Columbia in London, England.
The qualities and uses of British Columbia woods were also kept before wood-users and
dealers in Eastern Canada by means of advertising in the various trade journals.
Series of moving pictures have been prepared and will be used in conjunction with newspaper advertising carried on by the shingle and lumber manufacturers.
Watee-boene Expoet OB" Manufactueed Lumbee.
Water-borne export of manufactured lumber from British Columbia in 1920 is shown in
the appended table. It will be noted that the total shows an increase of approximately
27,000,000 feet over the record shipments of 1919. The largest gain is in shipments to Australia,
which country took over 32,000,000 feet, as against over 8,000,000 feet the previous year. H 6
Department of Lands.
1921
Lumber exported, 1919-20.
Amounts.
1919.
1920.
Feet B.M.
8,515,600
1,551,574
17,183,430
4,675,730
65,381,100
5,044,672
6,259,346
785,726
475,088
Feet B.M.
32,218,155
4,159,099
5,523,102
14,911,232
5,990,266
61,217,805
7,330,531
5,385,268
4,162,845
2,996,123
234,479
1,015,414
1,479,950
108,872,266
146,624,269
Pulp and Paper.
The pulp and paper output again shows an increase, both in volume and value, compared
with the previous year.    During the year the Department has had many inquiries regarding the
pulp and paper possibilities of the Province and-a very considerable increase in capacity in this
industry is looked for.    The output figures are as follows:—■
„   , 1919. 1920.
Pulp—   - Tons. Tons.
Sulphite    80,047 92,299
Sulphate     9,473 16,380
Ground wood   99,769 108,665
Paper—
Newsprint    123,607 136,832
Wrapping     7,202 9,792
All of the ground wood, 38,886 tons of sulphite, and 7,450 tons of sulphate pulp was manufactured into paper within the Province.
Market Notes.
In the boom in prices of all commodities following the war lumber was the last article to
start climbing and the first to revert to normal. The peak was reached in February, 1920, and
since that date the price has steadily declined.
In the latter part of the year the Oriental and Australian demand dropped owing to financial
conditions in those export markets, while economic conditions in the home market, along with
the heavy increase in railroad freight rates last September, retarded buying in Eastern Canada
and on the Prairies. The freight rates increase militates against British Columbia lumber in
the Eastern market, where lumber from across the line has now an advantage owing to the
much shorter haul.
While the price of lumber has reached bottom, other building materials and general construction costs remain almost at peak prices, with the result that, while there is a very large
demand for buildings of all kinds, there is no activity pending a general deflation in prices.
Forest Production.
The total value of the forest products of British Columbia for the year 1920 is placed at
$92,628,807, as against $70,285,094 for the previous year.
The value of the lumber cut has advanced by nearly $16,000,000, while the increase in the
value of pulp and paper produced amounts to over $9,000,000. 11 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
H 7
Estimated Value of Peoduction.
Product.
Lumber	
Pulp and paper.
Shingles	
Boxes.
Piles and poles	
Mining-props and poles	
Miscellaneous	
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the wood-cutting industry .
Product of Dominion lands	
Laths	
Logs exported	
Totals   $48,300,469
1917.
128,225.
6,835.
6,900,
1,611,
467.
546
1,425
000
034
ooo
880
695
888
815
2,145,880
142,282
1918.
$26,219,697
10,517,250
6,805,417
1,845,195
394,8271
692,547
1,773,821
1,689,810
4,953,829
120,278
148,808
$54,162,523   $70,285,094
$31,
12.
12.
000,000
554,257
801,564
142,000
769,962
762,486
1,256,520
!,091,346
1,720,000
22-
195,594
991,365
$46
21
12
2.
,952,500
,611,681
,081.476
650,000
916,089
626,998
1,495,729
J, 250,682
!,580,000
847,920
615,732
!,628,807
* Included in other items.
BEETLE CONTROL WORK.
This year we wrere able, with the co-operation of the Bureau of Entomology, to start an
active campaign for control of the pine-bark beetle which has been causing so much destruction
of western yellow pine around Penticton and Merritt.
The depredations of these two beetles (Dendroctonus brevicomis and Dendroctonus
monticolm) were first brought to the attention of the Department in 1914. In that year
Dr. J. M. Swaine, of the Division of Entomology, Department of Agriculture, studied the life
and habits of these beetles, and published Bulletin 7, giving an account of his studies and
stating how control measures could be carried out.
The beetle after spending the winter in the bark of the pine (Pinus ponderosa) emerges
from the infested trees during June and July, and returns to fresh trees in the late autumn
or early fall, cutting a long trench between the wood and bark, in which they deposit their eggs.
Control measures consist of destroying the infested trees while the broods are still in the
bark. The work was done under the direction of Ralph Hopping, of the Division of Entomology,
and consisted of co-operation with lumber companies in the affected region where logging was in
progress. These companies were induced to arrange their operations so that the largest amount
of affected timber could be logged, sawn, and the slabs destroyed. The slash also was destroyed
before the broods emerge.
On those areas on which commercial logging could not be carried out direct control measures
were instituted, the affected trees being felled, peeled, and the bark and slash burned on the
spot, thus destroying all beetles in the tree.
A crew of men under Mr. Hopping started this work on March 5th and continued until
May 27th, 1920, the work being discontinued as the broods began to emerge. A total of over
3,000 trees, not including small trees under 8 inches, of which no record was kept, were treated
in this way.    The following table gives the size, quantity, and feet board measure of the logs:—■
Based on B.C. Rule, 16-foot Logs.
Diameter.
1
Log.
Feet.
B.M.
2
Logs.
Feet
B.M.
3
Logs.
Feet
B.M.
4
Logs.
Feet
B.M.
5
Logs.
Feet
B.M.
6
Logs.
Feet
B.M.
8	
384
354
116
23
10
8
3,840
5,310
2,900
690
350
400
6
109
325
2B7
142
52
5
2
4
1
1
1
210
4,360
14,625
30,705
21,300
10,660
1,325
670
1,660
495
680
700
10	
1
36
111
295
273
89
75
46
17
3
2
2
75
3,240
12,765
44,250
55,966
23,585
25,125
19,090
8,415
1,740
1,350
1,580
12    . .
1
8
46
51
62
67
38
15
22
11
4
1
1
165
1,800
13,340
18,360
27,590
36,515.
24,700
11,325
19,250
11,000
4,520
1,265
1,410
18    .
20    	
22	
1
4
10
5
12
7
7
6
2
1
1
2
580
2,760
8,250
4,925
13,860
9,275
10,535
10,200
3,820
2,115
2,315
6,400
24	
26	
1
995
28...
30..
32	
1
2
1,645
34	
3,770
36	
38	
40	
42	
48 	
1
52	
5,500
13,490
915
87,290
197,180
327
171,240
58
Totals	
895
950
75,036
5
11,910 270 acres of infested slash were burned by the Nicola Valley Pine Lumber Company at a
cost of 20 cents per thousand on the log production.
The success of the control measures seems almost assured. Dr. J. M. Swaine, Chief of the
Division of Forest Insects, visited this area in November, and reports:—
" The results of last winter's control-work, as we observed them on this summer's inspection
trip, was surprisingly satisfactory. A reasonable amount of the same work on this area next
spring will undoubtedly bring the infestation down to normal condition, so that thereafter an
annual inspection with the cleaning-up of a few trees should prevent any further outbreak. We
should be able to finish next spring's control-work on the old area in a shorter time, and then
extend the operation to neighbouring infestations in the same forest."
Mr. Hopping, in his report on the work done, states as follows :—
" Our inspection showed very little, if any, emergence this year from infested slash. Examination of the direct control-work showed very little reinfestation in the worked area. However,
it is absolutely necessary that this reinfestation be treated before it has a chance to spread.
This can be done by a small crew of about four men. But in order to protect the whole watershed the work must be continued on the same plan as last year in the badly infested areas, at
Vogt Creek and Kingsvale, by locating an eighteen-man crew in these affected areas on April 1st,
1921.
" A rather bad outbreak below the Canyon House on the Princeton Road should also be
controlled before this crew is disbanded. This small outbreak does not cover more than a
square mile in extent, but is spreading rapidly, and if treated this spring will undoubtedly save
many thousands of dollars in control measures, aside from the immense saving in standing
timber.
" When we look backward to the loss of approximately 150,000,000 feet of timber in the
Princeton area in about six years, one is convinced that an expenditure of a few thousand dollars
each year in control-work is money well spent, and will result in a saving of many times the
amount of the expenditure."
It will be necessary to carry on control work for a number of years in order to thoroughly
complete the work already well begun.
A number of other forest-insect attacks have been reported. The Bureau of Entomology
expects giving Mr. Hopping added assistance in order to thoroughly investigate these new outbreaks, and if control is necessary and economically feasible the work will be undertaken.
GROWTH  STUDIES.
The studies of forest-growth were undertaken during the past summer, one small party
working on this project on the Northern Coast. Such studies are essential in order to secure
data on which to base our estimates of the possibilities of development in any region, and
especially in the case of pulp-development, where large investments require a more or less fixed
annual supply of raw material. If the annual growth can supply the annual needs, the industry
can be permanent; if not, it must move sooner or later for lack of raw material.
During the season 200 Sitka spruce trees on river-bottom land were studied. This site is
described as: Usually found on sandy soil overlaying a gravel or boulder subsoil, which
invariably supports alder, cottonwood, and spruce. This type is often flooded in time of freshet
and little very fine soil accumulates. The growth is indicated by the following table:-
Age—Years.
No. of Trees
per Acre.
D.B.H. In.
Volume per
Acre B.M.
45
42
40
37
35
32
30
30
27
25
25
22
22
20
20
20
17
17
17
17
17
10
13
17
20
22
25
26
28
30
32
33
34
36
37
39
40
41
42
45
46
47
1,000
7,000
15,000
20,000
90                                       	
23,500
26,000
110                                  	
28,500
30,500
32,500
140                                            	
35,000
37,000
38,500
40,500
42,500
190                                            	
44,500
46,000
210	
48,000
220   	
60,000
52,000
240   .                                        	
64,000
56,000
Four hundred trees were studied on the side-hill type, which type represents far the largest
percentage of the North Coast area and is described as below.
No. 2. The side-hill type is the most common, the soil being often a good grade of loam,
but rather shallow and overlaying old rock-slides, with a good deal of loose rock near the
surface. The predominant species is hemlock mixed with amabilis fir and often cedar. On
some of the mountain-sides there are regions of moderately sloping ground found above the first
steep slopes and rock-slides; the soil on these shoulders is often surprisingly good and well
drained. Here the timber is excellent and a considerable percentage of spruce enters into the
composition of the stand. This spruce shows a higher proportion of No. 1 grade than the river-
bottom spruce because of the greater density of the forest.
On most of the lower slopes the soil is not so good or so well drained and has much loose
rock. Here the chief admixture is cedar. In the Bella Coola Valley and around the South
Bentick Arm there is a considerable percentage of Douglas fir within this type. The side-hill
type is distinctly a commercial type, but often the logging chance is extremely poor, and sometimes, as in the case of the high, well-drained are,as of good timber mentioned, there is no way
to get the logs down.
Reproduction is natural and rapid in this type and could be depended upon without any
artificial aid.
Growth on Side-hill Type, Balsam and Hemlock.
Age—Years.
50
60
70
80
90
100.
110.
120
130.
140
150
160
170.
180
190
200
210.
220
230
240
200.
Balsam.
Average
Trees
Volume
D.B.H.
per Acre.
per Aere.
10
45
12
42
1,200
13
40
3,500
15
40
5,600
17
37
7,250
18
35
8,750
19
32
10,000
20
32
11,250
21
30
12,250
23
27
13,250
24
27
14,000
25
25
14,750
26
25
15,250
26
22
15,750
27
22
16,250
28
20
16,500
29
20
16,750
30
17
17,000
30
17
17,250
31     ,
15
17,500
32
15
17,750
Hemlock.
Average
b.B.fl.
8
10
11
13
14
15
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
26
26
27
28
28
30
30
Trees
per Acre.
67
62
57
53
50
47
45
42
37
35
32
30
30
28
25
25
22
20
20
17
17
Volume
per Acre.
400
3,000
5,000
7,250
9,250
110,000
12,250
13,760
14,750
16,000
16,500
18,250
19,250
19,750
20,500
20,750
21,000
21,000
21,000
21,000
Both Species.
Trees
per Acre.
112
104
97
93
87
82
77
74
67
62
69
55
55
50
47
45
42
37
37
32
32
Volume
per Acre.
1,600
6,500
10,500
14,500
18,000
21,000
23,500
26,000
28,000
30,000
31,250
33,500
35,000
36,000
37,000
37,500
38,000
38,250
38,500
38,750 -
H 10 Department of Lands. 1921
Methods of Study.
The results shown in the tables of growth-rate were obtained from data gathered on sample
plots taken in cut-over areas. No attempt was made to select areas showing the best growth,
but plots were chosen at random so as to come as near to the average conditions as possible,
each consisting of four-tenths of an acre, laid off with staff compass and chain.
A complete analysis was made of the growth as shown on each stump, the height, diameter
inside, and outside the bark being recorded, and the measurements of growth along the average
radius being recorded in decades. Notes were also made on the soil, topography, aspect, reproduction, and remaining standing trees on each plot.
All species within each type were twice plotted. The average diameter as plotted with the
average age, and, as before, those figures at the present age and at fifty years ago were used for
each plot; then the number of trees per acre and the ages and the results were combined.
From diameter and number of trees to the acre the volume per acre was readily computed and
a final curve made of volume on age, and the results are those tabulated in the preceding table.
Owing to the lack of second growth in the region it was impossible to check the figures in
early ages in the tables, and they can therefore be taken as approximate only. The figures are
those resulting from growth under natural conditions as prevailing in the past, and do not
represent the maximum or what could be accomplished under forest management.
The only area where the possibilities of natural reproduction could be studied was the
Bella Coola Valley, which is topographically similar to the remainder of the North Coast valleys,
but not subjected to such a heavy rainfall.
Here the forests have suffered considerably from fires caused by Indians or other travellers.
The side-hill areas are undoubtedly assured of an extremely dense cover of hemlock, with a
small admixture of Douglas fir, amabilis fir, and spruce within five years after the land has
been cleared.
Hemlock appears to be crowding out the fir, for it, takes a strong hold even where the
seed-trees are fir. It is only on occasional well-drained spots where the mineral soil has
been fully exposed and open to full sunlight that fir reproduction appears in pure patches. 11 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
H 11
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H 12
Department op Lands.
1921
TIMBER    SCALED
BY
DI STRICTS
1916
I9I?3
CRANBROOKI9I8
1919
1920
1920
1916
191?
1918
1919
1920
CARIBOO
FORT-
GEORGE
PRINCE
RUPER"
1916
1917
KAMLOOPS   1918
1919
1920
NELSON
1916
1917
VERNON 1918
1916
ISLAND
1916
1917
VANCOUVER 19181
19191
::::::::™^::::::":::::::::::3
13201	
oioomo        o        o        o        o o        o        o
oojmr^o        o        o        o        S o        o        o
o       -        oi       n       ^.10 ^       |\.       j,
Fiqures  indicate Millions of Feet  B M
0        0
o        o 11 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
H 13
SPECIES     CU
I9SO
1916
DOUGLAS
FIR
1917
1918
1919
192 O
1916
1917
spruce:
1918
1919
1920
1916
1917
HEMLOCK
1918
1919
1920
1916
1917
CEDAR
1918
1919
1930
1916
WESTERNI9I7
soft-
1918
pine:
1919
1920
.
1916
1917
LARCH
1918
1919
1920
1916
ALL
1917
OTHER
1918
species
1919
1920
................41111111
=31
-mono       o      cf     o       o      o       o
genu ^        ojro^t        lOioNcC
Figures indicate Millions of Feel B M.
Species cut, 1920.
ff
8
The quantities of the different species cut during 1920 only require comment in a few
instances. The reduction in spruce was caused by the return to normal conditions after the
war-time cutting of aeroplane material. Hemlock and balsam are being used more than
formerly in the manufacture of pulp. H 14
Department of Lands.
1921
The special efforts made to combat the pine-bark beetle ravages in the Vernon District were
responsible for the heavy cut of yellow pine, and the great demand for railroad-ties accounts
for the quantity of jack-pine logged in the Prince George District.
Species cut, 1920.
Forest District.
s
V3
g«
PS
a"
■a
oS
■vca
8*S
£s
8*
5 b'
as
E
S3
222     ■
as
at
a
s
Jjj
28,274
"428
3,527
32,984
d
S   .
£S
02~
'Is
•gB
4m
8b
C3 ^_2
•a
o
o
is  .
§S
Sa
cS
565
4
71
262
of
'o
a
02   .
S)^
,= B
OS
4
1
5
"27
,-rS
Jffl
90,987
14,120
3,924
27,504
14,159
13,377
4,190
2,505
8,702
44,799
2,786
14,494
95
33,298
3,220
789
301
3,000
18
257
16,047
19,322
38,056
52,850
181,357
1,226
316
5,626
263
675
8,106
15,761
160
9,161
173
25,255
781
10^644
"'40
126
27,841
9,399
3,420
40,660
187,119
Cariboo	
14,531
66,023
40,534
98,668
53,429
Totals, Interior..
164,071
62,982
52,197
65,213
11,591
902
450,304
8,045
175,904
563,422
737,371
38,084
31,280
313,611
108,096
9,936
33,017
151,049
203,246
222,013
10,016
3,240
27,750
'    513
5,697
25
94
233
29
4,882
5,144
202,649
273,752
1,119,763
Island.	
Totals, Coast	
382,975
445,957
386,638
272,263
41,006
65,213
6,210
31,465
9,571
25
94
40,754
36,715
27
32
55
1,596,164
Grand totals, 1920
901,442
291,585
174,573
49,112
38,736
11,616
6,046
2,046,468
Grand totals, 1919
341,605
41,932
2,855
3,636
1,758,329
Total Amounts Timber scaled in British Columbia fob Years 1919-20  (Compabative
Statement in Board-feet).
Forest District.
1919.
1920.
Loss.
Gain.
Net Loss.
Net Gain.
145,000,382
187,118,865
14,531,008
56,023,381
40,533,735
98,668,328
63,428,987
24,169,108
42,118,483
14,531,068
20,523,985
29,522,215
20,069,054
126,764,805
35,499,396
64,702,843
69,146,113
33,359,933
347,708,667
196,279,614
231,489,532
982,852,182
450,304,364
24,169,108
102,595,697
202,649,582
273,752,261
1,119,762,752
6,369,968
42,262,729
136,910,570
Totals, Coast	
1,410,621,398
1,596,164,595
185,543,267
185,543,267
1,758,329,995
2,046,468,959
288,138,964 .
11 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
H 15
TIMBER-SALES.
Timber-sales awarded by Districts.
Foreat District.
No. of Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal feet).
No. of
Posts.
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(No. of Cords).
No. of
Railway-
ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
6
47
52
50
63
93
258
25
436
6,232
9,136
24,971
10,395
13,238
49,742
7,540
260,000
9,142,000
72,798,000
55,360,000
12,543,800
93,620,000
171,960,655
24,965,300
50,650
1,300
97,350
317
3,622
3,434
343
2,915
200
74,450
1,445
75,284
65,752
5,736,950
211,584
261,829
29,200
34,750
$         953 65
Cranbrook 	
21,500
255,450
290,290
1,233,680
690,200
194,575
125,400
36,156 55
264,979 12
Kamloops	
478,812 82
80.402 93
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver and Island
Vernon 	
264,061 08
600,464 92
73,208 06
Totals, 1920...
594
121,690
440,649,755
2,811,095
149,300
86,726
6,415,349
$1,799,039 03
Totals, 1919...
356
61,809
245,209,300
2,899,000
5,000
52,557
957,804
701,654
$ 654,372 99
Totals, 1918.  .
227
34,257
159,659,000
378,080
20,000
18,478
$ 380,408 33
Totals, 1917...
255
44,914
240,307,057
1,517,450
435,810
40,000
43,756
381,200
*  483,281 50
Totals, 1916...
133
23,318
136,345,000
26,666
92,000
$  259,769 12
Competition forced up the stumpage prices all round, especially for cedar during the boom
and for tie material in the latter part of the year. The fall in yellow pine was owing to
the amount of beetle-infested timber sold off at a low rate in the special operations conducted
in the Vernon District.
Average Sale Price by Species.
Figures for 1920.
Figures for 1919.
Saw-timber.
Board-feet.
Price per M.
Board-feet.
Price per M.
93,483,893
75,223,700
141,849,200
71,176,462
25,056,500
3,457,000
20,919,000
5,437,000
4,047,000
$     2 04
2 23
2 05
1 06
1 23
2 06
1 37
2 24
1 78
57,456,450
55,655,350
9,151,000
28,836,200
17,296,000
2,257,500
7,479,900
3,019,400
4,057,500
245,209,300
$     1 48
1 54
1 56
73
82
1 63
1 50
1 55
1 18
Totals	
440,649,755
$     1 84
$     1 38
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1920.
Forest District
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
296,216
2,872,598
15,043,879
6,197,855
4,782,896
31,372,402
99,877,163
8,340,803
138,014
266,373
242,768
656,645
36,656
229,864
168,239
364
1,106
1,694
471
710
488
11,096
1,774
27,582
178,049
110,389
13,389
324,525
895
Totals, 1920.  	
168,783,812
1,638,549
17,703
654,829
107,701,950
672,699
12,208
673,286
Totals, 1918	
113,927,610
499,589
15,539
146,807
Totals, 1917	
99,078,832
545,429
14,862
34,937
Totals, 1916	
63,055,102
225,799
8,425 H 16
Department op Lands.
1921
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Peovince, 1920.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Sawmills.
•a
■O
T3
eS
cS
S
|
s
fi i?S'
Forest District.
a*?
B«
|.&
c*s a
O ^3    -
•  .- 2S
CJ2p.
tie,".
p-s
EOri
ao«
^'
£ s-SP
»SS
d
©,"3 .
d
d
aSB
d
=11
fc
OPS
fe
OPi
10
feas
fc
IDHO
12
34
87
1,450
55
20
415
5
205
1
25
9
390
1
168
3
125
34
813
11
629
7
155
33
857
4
345
6
190
1
5
170
6,226
93
12,284
29
491
6
179
Totals	
341
10,729
109
13,426
37
909
2
30
LOGGING  INSPECTION.
The greater number of inspections in 1920 was made possible by the increase in the staff,
while the relative decrease was caused by the immense increase in the number of operations
conducted and the exigencies of the severe fire season.
Logging Inspection,  1920.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants,
and Pre-emptions.
Total
Operations.
No. of
Inspections.
9
74
89
42
53
71
225
42
iii
109
27
75
94
78
229
198
1,041
219
36
149
183
120
282
380
1,385
261
37
149
110
165
355
186
1,569
132
Totals, 1920	
605
220
200
1,961
2,796
2,703
Totals, 1919	
365
757
1,322
1,884
Totals, 1918	
338
171
870
1,429
2,214
TRESPASS.
The decrease in the number of trespasses during 1920 over 1919 is very marked, ■ especially
when the total number of operations is considered, and several being caused by the reversion
of land to the Crown for non-payment of taxes without the operator's knowledge. 11 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
H 17
Trespass, 1920.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook 	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver   	
Vernon	
Totals, 1920
Totals, 1919
Totals, 1918
No. of
Cases.
Area cut
over
(Acres).
4
73
6
63
6
180
6
55
17
420
6
300
25
582
3
125
.73
1,788
87
2,454
57
412
Quantity cut.
Feet B.M.      Lineal Feet.   Cords.        Ties.
45,000
23,857
932,000
450
157,207
283,152
2,984,880
477,533
4,904,079
12,708,365
5,477,955
4,080
1,458
580
6,675
38,255
53,000
104,048
48,860
39,676
300
87
778
717
1,882
88
305
430
3.529
2,295
350
iia
6,716
87,120
44    2.
o p
$   467 70
274 50
3,131 70
309 60
1,500 30
1,308 80
9,399 35
727 90
$17,119 85
$21,730 12
$ 2,178 98
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
Areas examined, 1920.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook
Prince George.
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert,
Vancouver...
Verncn..	
Totals.
Applications for
Crown Grants.
No.
7
4
13
4
2
16
12
11
Acres.
1,089
801
2,062
923
369
2,589
1,629
1,698
11,050
Applications for
Grazing Leases.
63
1
23
7
1
87
Acres.
7,296
640
5,169
613
1,120
240
16,978
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
54
13
188
56
18
65
90
22
Acres.
8,140
1,661
29,302
9,130
2,119
8,134
10,476
3,528
72,490
Applications to
Purchase.
68
20
68
17
25
63
45
5
Acres.
6,750
6,067
22,669
1,828
3,132
17,242
6,349
1,252
65,289
Miscellaneous.
16
25
1
Acres.
640
1,368
' 6,621
2,651
2,800
160
14,230
Classification of Areas examined, 1920.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Prince George.
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver ....
Vernon	
Totals
Forest District.
Total Area.
Acres.
23,275
9,809
60,560
12,394
12,231
33,736
21,154
6,878
180,037
Agricultural.
Land.
Acres.
14,560
4,786
51,590
10,538
4,905
28,496
6,844
3,465
125,184
Area
recommended
for Reserve.
10,143
1,035
2,407
6,086
160
19,911
Estimate of
Timber on
Reserved Area
Acres.
600
83,982
9,356
30,637
71,150
824
196,549
Pre-emption Record Examinations, 1920.
Cariboo   	
Cranbrook
Prince George
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert
Vancouver
Vernon   	
92
123
963
230
101
643
161
96
Total   2,409 H 18
Department op Lands.
1921
TIMBER EXPORTS.
Export of Logs, 1920.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Total, 1920.
Total, 1919.
Fir              ...*..
2,420,744
1,564,177
38,790
8,735,199
7,496,478
241,493
48,062
2,309,105
1,853,065
139,981
13,381
720,155
39,S79
2,884,275
3,822,863
14,185,203
10,903,720
460,143
2,884,275
178,554
62,043
17,712,997
12,124,099
Spruce	
581,551
12,405,329
1,049,103
397,864
Totals, 1920	
4,013,711
7,601,474
16,621,832
4,316,532
4,558,114
28,673,938
Totals, 1919	
18,292,038
13,919,317
44,270,943
Export of Poles, Piling, Props, Ties, Fence-posts, and Wood, 1920.
Forest District.
Cranbrook—
Cordwood	
Fence-posts	
Mine-ties.........
Mine-props	
Poles and piling ..
Railway-ties	
Pulp-wood	
Prince George—
Cordwood	
Fence-posts	
Mine-ties	
Mine-props	
Poles and piling ..
Railway-ties	
Corral-poles	
Kamloops—
Fence-posts .  ...
Poles	
Nelson—
Fence-posts	
. Poles and piling ..
Pulp-wood ...
Shingle-bolts	
Vancouver and Island
Poles and piling.
Shingle-bolts
Totals, 1920..
Totals, 1919. .
Quantity exported.
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
No.,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
No.,
Cords,
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
984
7,205
118
10,933
611,474
807,491
587
64
2,021
64
964
289,762
58,538
32
4,113
920,253
13,136
4,748,307
65
118
247,846
49
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
$        6,398
79,254
1,298
114,796
73,377
484,495
6,457
576
1S.189
800
9,540
28,976
35,123
320
41,130
92,026
131,360
335,72)
620
1,062
24,784
490
$1,486,691
$1,184,973
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
984
160
7,045
118
10,933
75,669
535,805
807,491
587
64
2,021
64
954
10,630
273,132
58,538
32
4,113
817,733
102,520
7,456
5,680
2,350,261
2,398,046
520
118
247,846
49 .
11 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
H 19
FOREST RECORDS.
Forest Revenue.
12 Months to
Dec, 1920.
12 Months to
Dec, 1919.
12 Months to
Dec, 1918.
12 Months to
Dec, 1917.
12 Months to
Dec, 1916.
12 Months to
Dec, 1915.
Timber-licence rentals....
$1,654,747 43
18,114 34
879,003 16
81,989 68
26,476 91
5,041 71
530 03
232,309 85
247,234 71
4,855 00
6,525 00
12 59
$1,236,530 41
7,464 12
788,746 69
85,101 37
64,571 19
13,072 79
280 12
49,259 95
219,012 08
2,790 00
7,250 00
345 10
10,045 26
3,763 49
1,929 71
206 00
1,055 67
3,550 80
$2,494,973 75
9,500 41
251,264 82
$1,372,789 28
1,599 38
698,059 27
77,748 25
56,304 90
9,753 29
2,813 82
79,605 09
151,598 S6
4,625 00
2,975 00
69 67
$1,074,129 07
3,207 32
785,543 42
76,426 74
62,381 50
6,055 74
507 11
11,928 01
113,498 13
4,070 00
9,700 00
68 04
$1,138,879 22
893 39
456,863 29
77,040 59
32,590 20
3,158 71
1,364 84
28,524 00
68,779 87
3,670 00
7,100 00
100 09
5,235 35
1,148 74
391 89
225 00
401 80
45 22
$1,140,656 53
3,520 54
351,310 12
Scaling fees	
120,132 35
27,893 16
2,564 71
Seizure expenses	
Licence penalty	
Transfer fees       .   .
Hand-loggers' licence fees
85 71
16,692 69
67,250 42
4,400 00
5,550 00
1,117 81
137 00
Timber-sales rentals	
Timber-sales cruising ....
Timber-sales advertising..
Scalers' examination fees.
General miscellaneous....
17,881 40
7,642 80
2,749 93
670 00
3,363 90
2,519 43
7,763 84
1,921 73
1,152 40
315 00
1,980 70
1,637 91
$2,472,703 39
9,457 72
2,687 03
1,183 35
295 00
561 53
470 61
3,830 89
2,183 42
532 71
60 00
128 00
17 33
$3,190,667 87
15,617 44
302,557 26
$2,162,170 32
$1,826,412 20
$1,748,063 40
Taxation from Crown-
grant timber lands ....
258,105 14
176,163 20
179,528 56
174,495 00
Total revenue from
forest sources....
$3,508,842 57
$2,755,738 98
$2,730,808 53
$2,338,333 52
$2,005,940 76
$1,922,558 40
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1920.
(Amounts charged.)
Forest District.
Vancouver   ....
Island	
Cariboo (7 mos.)
Cranbrook 	
Prince Rupert..
Nelson.   	
Vernon	
Fort George....
Kamloops	
Totals, 1920
Totals, 1919
Royalty and
Tax.
$581,947 42
69,657 51
2,758 72
118,504 41
161,699 43
57,959 50
27,627 64
48,152 80
23,182 33
81,091,389 81
Scaling
Trespass
Fees.
Penalties.
$10,623 03
$8,231 68
2,663 59
■      673 00
727 22
30 81
139 07
937 54
1,064 88
1,398 11
2,657 22
272 00
121 43
$14,155 57
$15,284 61
$61,591 27
$14,883 57
Seizure
Ex
penses.
$20 03
18 75
10 00
10 OO
7 00
35'66
20 55
$121 33
$250 52
Scaling
Expenses.
$1,806 50
588 58
44 20
220 75
17 65
$12,055 43
Scaling Fund.
Fees.
$59,443 46
17,703 94
13,742 04
$90,889 44
*
Expenses.
$6,530 41
1,601 45
1,982 50
$10,114 36
Stumpage.
$169,852 59
666 37
10,670 61
43,245 80
14,672 64
18,227 47
43,718 35
21,774 84
$322,828 67
$159,695 09
$838,355 72
92,906 82
4,162 31
129,399 10
222,892 99
74,054 90
48,412 33
92,178 15
45,099 15
$1,547,461 47
$   977,187 13
* Scaling Fund was created by 1920 Amendment as from April 1st, 1920.
Forest Expenditure.
The sums voted for forest-work for the fiscal year 1920-21 were as follows:—
Vote 163—Salaries  $221,410 00
„    165—Travelling expenses  44,875 00
„    167—Lumber-trade extension    40,000 00
„    ISO—Reconnaissance,  etc  40,000 00
„    181—Insect damage:   investigation and control   10,000 00
„    182—Grazing:   range improvements    3,500 00
„    272—Forestry Offices and Ranger Stations  18,000 00
$377,785 00 H 20
Department op Lands.
1921
In addition to this total, sums were available from Vote 164 for temporary assistance, and
from Vote 165 for office supplies, maintenance of launches and autos, and miscellaneous
expenses; from Vote 176, publicity; from Vote 177, general investigations; and from Vote 178,
incidentals and contingencies. The sum of $150,000 was also voted as the estimated amount
of the Government's contribution to the Forest Protection Fund.
General Administrative Expenditure.
(For Nine Months, April to December, inclusive.)
Forest District.
Headquarters
Cariboo   	
Cranbrook....
Kamloops ....
Nelson	
Prince George
Prince Rupert
Vancouver....
Vernon	
Totals
Vote 163 :
Salaries.
$ 73,714 68
3,988 77
9,307 45
6,880 16
9,960 04
9,749 71
13,937 21
45,830 55
7,372 71
223180,741 28
Vote 164:
Temporary
Assistance.
! 853 20
560 00
611 86
250 00
1,009 33
2,630 84
2,189 59
1,098 93
$9,203 55
Vote 165:
Expenses.
$23,013 53
2,455 58
3,444 55
2,440 13
2,236 29
2,719 90
8,719 23
14,735 26
1,537 45
$61,265 92
$ 97,581 41
7,004 35
12,752 00
9,895 95
12,446 33
13,478 94
25,287 28
62,755 40
10,009 09
8251,210 75
Fokest Pkotection Fund.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1920:—
Expenditure, fiscal year 1919-20 $392,258 58
Less refunds         8,837 92
 $383,420 66
Brought forward from 1918-19   $ 41,184 93
Collections, fiscal year 1919-20       117,889 35
Government's contribution      117,889 35
 276,963 63
Balance (deficit)    $106,457 03
Balance (deficit)   $106,457 03
Expenditure, April to Dec, 1920 (ninemths.) $537,255 64
Less refunds (nine months)           8,031 74
529,223 90
-$635,680 93
Collections, April to December, 1920 (nine months)    $157,694 08
Government's contribution  (nine months)       157,694 08
315,388 16
Deficit on nine months' working  $320,292 77 Il Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
H 21
Forest Protection Expenditure.
Fiscal Years.
1914-15.
1915-16.
1916-17.
1917-18.
1918-19.
1919-20.
1920-21
(9 mos., April
1st to Dec.
31st, 1920).
Improvements	
$228,352
31,385
143,461
$157,432
5,151
19,449
$144,251
3,747
7,124
$100,304
20,111
91,470
$159,030
36,913
50,293
$198,172 35
28,397 43
165,688 80
$201,368 63
76,915 25
258,971 76
Totals	
$403,198
$182,032
$155,122
$211,885
$246,236
$392,258 58
$537,255 64
Expenditure by Districts for Nine Months ending December 31st, 1920.
Forest District.
Patrol.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$10,262 64
18,996 54
15,931 36
15,931 61
20,714 75
22,361 80
74,408 96
13,674 00
9,076 97
$     608 67
42,859 16
26,185 86
84.878 66
2,176 82
547 35
86,S95 27
14,920 07
$3,159 77
9,820 26
2,812 07
7,444 49
6,408 39
3,242 47
38,038 97
5,366 21
632 62
$13,930 98
71,675 96
44,929 29
108,254 76
29,299 96
26,151 62
199,343 20
33,960 28
9,709 59
$201,368 63
$258,971 76
$76,915 25
$537,255 64
Cbown-grant Timber Lands.
Area of Private      Average Value
Timber Lands. per Acre.
1911  824,814 $ 8 72
1912  874,715 8 60
1913   . 922,948 9 02
1914  960,464 9 66
1915  913,245 9 55
1916  922,206 9 73
1917  916,726 9 61
1918  896,188 9 60
1919  883,491 9 48
1920  867,921 11 62
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1920.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1919.
Average Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value per
Acre since
1919.
44,566.74
192,539.20
91,079.57
69,901.82
79,806.59
4,475.05
88,541.97
170,730.37
43,609.43
16,672.97
44,421.56
2,660.00
13,916! 66
+588.94
-8,739.24
+4,345.66
-13,687.74
+803.59
No change.
+3,029.75
-1,874.53
+ 11.00
No change.
No change.
No change.
-30.00
$21 05
13 00
14 77
7 61
3 80
3 00
12 08
3 16
11 56
3 50
5 06
25 00
27 'eo
-0.44
+0.02
-0.06
+1.25
-0.16
No change.
-2.83
-0.16
+5.58
-0.16
No change.
No change.
+13.40
867,921.27
-15,572.57
$11 62
+2.14 H 22
Department of Lands.
1921
Timber-marks.
1919. 1920.
Old Crown grants       34 108
Crown grants, 1887-1906     44 119
Crown grants, 1906-1914      44 115
" Royalty Act, 1914 "     137 330
Royalty, stumpage reservation          5 23
Royalty, Pre-emptions under sections 28a and 28b, " Land Act "... 22
Timber leases (50 cents royalty)          9 12
Dominion lands        24 49
Timber-sales     341 581
Hand-loggers'  licences        99 128
Special marks        1 2
Rights-of-way  2
Totals   738 .   1,491
Transfers or changes of marks    236 295
Hand-loggers' licences Issued   (approximate)     306 325
Correspondence.
The following table of incoming and outgoing mail fails to do full justice to the volume
of office-work, as it does not include the number of reports received, nor does it account for
the number of circulars, replies to Inquiries on status of land, requests for examinations in respect
of pre-emption, purchase, lease, and Crown-grant applications sent out, and other routine matters
which frequently take more time and labour than many of the letters recorded:—
Outgoing Mail.     Incoming Mail.
Total for 1920           17,024 32,610
Total for 1919           14,200 27,400
Work done by Forest Branch Draughting Office during 1920.
January	
February	
March	
April	
May	
June   	
July	
August	
September ...
October	
November ...
December
TotaL
Tracings.
Reference
Maps.
Portions,
of Maps.
White-
prints.
Negatives.
862
188
3
650
4
5
1,043
205
3
4
1
986
58
1
4
1
1,534
119
3
812
212
632
58
1
1
634
130
3
16
38
1,006
19
671
18
4
786
7
8
938
178
24
2
10,554
1,196
30
49
43
1,053
659
1,256
1,050
1,656
1,024
692
821
1,025
693
801
1,142
RESUME OF THE 1920 FIRE SEASON.
The opening of the fire season was marked by frequent rains which were general throughout
the Province, and up to the middle of June the fire risk was below normal. During July and
August, however, a spell of hot, dry weather intervened, during which period no rain fell. In
the Nelson,' Cranbrook, and Kamloops Districts the number of fires set by lightning was above
normal, the severity of dry, electrical storms not being equalled since 1914. During 1919 fires
caused by lightning in the Nelson and Cranbrook Districts were 17 and 33 per cent respectively;
during 1920 this total increased to 28 and 70 per cent. Lightning fires usually strike on high
ridges, making fire-fighting a difficult and costly proceeding; 304 fires throughout the Province
were reported as having started from lightning out of a total of 1,251, or 24.3 per cent, as against
10.1 per cent, for 1919. Added to this high winds were prevalent, the result being a period of
intense fire risk. It was during these two months that practically the whole of the fire-fighting
expenditure and damage was incurred. This period was one of high hazard; the slightest spark
would set forest litter on fire, and the number of fires handled shows that although the actual
period of fire risk was only of two months' duration, yet in that time the field force was engaged
night and day in a way that strained the organization to the utmost. 11 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. H 23
Publicity.
Following the policy of educating the public to the need of care with fire in the woods,
calendars carrying publicity matter designed to draw attention to the necessity of vigilance in
burning slash were printed and distributed.
All schools throughout the Province were circularized immediately preceding the summer
holidays, and the principals made a special point of instructing their pupils to be particularly
careful with fire in the woods during the hot weather.
Approximately 8,000 notices of the fire laws and logging regulations were posted throughout
the Province. Forty-five newspapers carried advertising matter relating to fire-prevention during
the months of the extreme fire hazard—June, July, and August.
The number of fires started by campers, berry-pickers, and travellers is still far too high,
but in spite of the season there has been a decrease, so that we may confidently assume that
our propaganda is bearing fruit. The public is gradually being educated in forest-protection,
as indicated by the number of fires attributed to campers and travellers, 246, or 19.7 per cent,
of the total, comparing very favourably with 27.2 per cent, in 1919. With proper care on the
part of the public this source of fire-danger could be entirely eliminated.
The total area burned during the past fire season amounts to 390,000 acres, including 50,290
acres of timber land carrying approximately 286,000 M.B.M., 50,000 M.B.M. of which is saleable;
the total loss being therefore 236,000 M.B.M., valued at $299,000. The damage to young growth
and range is estimated at $1S6,000, or a total damage to forests of $485,000, against $393,000
for 1919.
The damage to property other than forests also shows an increase, the total reported
amounts to $474,000, against $346,000, divided as follows: Products in the course of manufacture
valued at $190,500; buildings at $41,000; logging equipment and miscellaneous items worth
$242,300 were also burned.    The grand total of loss was therefore close to $1,000,000.
Six thousand eight hundred burning permits were issued throughout the Province, the area
burned over being 53,400 acres. Fifty^two permit fires escaped control, or less than 1 per cent.
Thirty-six prosecutions were brought for setting fire without a permit and other allied contravention of the " Forest Act." Of these, twenty-three convictions were gained, two persons were
convicted but allowed to go under suspended sentence, two cases are still pending, and nine
were dismissed. The test of a fire-fighting organization is shown by the number of fires
extinguished while still in the incipient stage. Three hundred and forty-five, or 28 per cent.,
of the season's fires were caught and extinguished before they had reached a quarter of an
acre in size; 391, or 31 per cent., were extinguished before reaching 10 acres. Considering the
high risk and the extensive area under the patrol of each man, this showing is most creditable.
' Mechanical fire-fighting aids were tried out and enlarged upon, with no little success—
notably the forest-fire pump. These pumps are manufactured in British Columbia, are gasolene-
engine driven, and pump from 35 to 40 gallons of water per minute through 1,000 feet of 1%-inch
hose to a head of 200 feet. These units have done some very effective work, and on several
occasions have been directly instrumental in preventing heavy loss of property and standing
timber.
A desirable feature of the use by the Department of this equipment has been the spread of
knowledge as to the value of such mechanical aids in fire-fighting to logging and mill operators,
and many firms are acquiring pumps as a necessary and integral part of their ordinary equipment. This will mean ultimately a diminution of loss and damage by fire in logging operations.
The operator with the aid of the pump can control fires in their incipient stages and completely
extinguish them before they reach dangerous proportions.
In the past lack of means of communication was a serious handicap, especially on the Coast.
Frequently it was some time after a fire was discovered before word could be sent to the Ranger,
who, out on his launch, had no means of communicating with any control-station for days at
a time. To remedy this the wireless telephones were tried out during the past fire season with
very satisfactory results. Three main stations were established, one each at Vancouver,
Vananda, and Thurston Bay. Radiating ont from these stations were five launches, equipped
with wireless telephone receiving sets, but on account of the low aerials possible on the launches
it was only possible to reply by wireless telegraph, or buzzer. So far the wireless has proved a
success, and there is hardly room for doubt that its sphere of usefulness will greatly increase
as the development of this means of communication progresses. Department of Lands.
1921
Reorganization of the field staff resulted in the addition of Assistant District Foresters at
forest offices at Vancouver, Kamloops, and Vernon, while Supervisors of Rangers were created
in the Vancouver, Prince Rupert, and Prince George Districts. The result has been a closer
supervision of the field-work and a marked increase in the general efficiency of the force.
FOREST BRANCH  ORGANIZATION.
Distribution op Total Force, British Columbia Forest Branch.
Forest District.
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Note.—General Office staff ot Forest Branch not included in the above table. Forest Branch. H 26
Department of Lands.
1921
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Department of Lands.
1921
Damage to Peoperty other than Forests, 1920.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Cranbrook	
Kamloops ...   .
Nelson   	
Prince George.
Prince Kupert.
Vancouver
Vernon	
Totals
Products in
Railway and
Process of
Buildings.
Logging
Miscellaneous.
Manufacture.
Equipment.
$         32
$     320
$   4,000
$       16
3,328
100
1,000
10
4,505
20,000
42,000
25,125
45,518
2,650
2,000
3,675
■24,760
6,925
230
200
1,900
1,215
3,225
111,908
9,050
136,737
22,374
245
792
$190,311
$41,190
$186,952
$55,447
$ 4,368
4,438
91,630
53,843
31,915
6,540
280,129
1,037
$473,900
Per Cent,
of Total.
1.0
1.0
19.3
11.3
6.7
1.4
69.1
0.2
100.0
COMPABISON   OF  DAMAGE   CAUSED   BY   FOREST   FlEES   IN   THE   LAST   SEVEN   YEARS.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1,251
389,846
229,253
49,575
$485,963
473,900
.$959,863
1,141
433,797
287,520
93,559
$393,183
345,787
$738,970
910
140,085
42,886
22,387
$ 25,930
200,335
$226,265
986
237,289
267,186
48,133
$129,125
162,333
864
161,288
50,415
2,757
$48,913
26,962
1,031
244,189
187,250
43,030
$108,873
57,774
1,832
355,124
Standing timber destroyed or damaged (M.B.M.) 	
Amount solvable (M.B.M.)	
102,804
$ 72,057
Damage to other forms of property..
364,475
$291,457
$75,875
$166,647
$436,532
Fires, 1920, classified by Place of Origin and Cost of Fire-fighting.
a
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Extinguished
Cost Mone\
TO
Total Cost of
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o
a
without Cost.
Extinguish.
Fire-fighting.
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Forest District.
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10
77.4
11.1
13.5
0.8
83,033
2,177
32.4
0.8
377 42
Prince George	
24 19
67
22
45
60
89.5
4.8
10.5
0.6
547
0.2
8 16
480
92
388
207
43.1
16.6
273
56.9
21.8
86,895
33.8
181 03
132
30
102
101
611
76.5
8.1
31
23.5
2.6
14,920
257,126
5.8
113 03
Totals	
1,251
100.0
884
30.7
867
69.3
48.8
646
51.2
100.0
205 53
Totals, 1919	
1,141
422
719
518
45.4
623
54.6
158,707
100.0
139 09
100.0
37.0
63.0
45.4
54.6
43.9
Totals, 1918	
910
100.0
332
36.5
578
63.5
510
56.1
56.1
44.0
400
44,803
100.0
49 23 11 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
H 29
Fires, 1920, classified by Size and Damage.
Total
FlRF.S
Under I Acre.
\ Acre to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
co
si
■s
C 42)
Forest District.
E-i o
H.g
Ho
H.g
Ho
H.H
fo
o o
*s on
O    V3
425(5
-. J33
"3-S
4*3
4*5
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o
o
&22
s
=2
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02.333
O   20
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2.
02    .
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02   "
6
02 .222
6
>- £
6
2.   P
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fc
O.&.
S5
O. 2s,
29 6
10.3
0,112
Z
0,222,
0,^4
Z
0.42,
0.&4
P   .
m»
O
54
107
4.3
8.6
16
11
4.6
3.2
12
29
22.2
27.1
3.1
7.4
20
67
48.2
62.6
5.1
13 0
54
96
Cranbrook	
4
7
Kamloops	
101
8.1
27
26.7
7.8
34
33.7
8 6
40
39.6
7.8
80
8
13
220
90
67
17.5
7.2
5.4
71
36
7
32.3
40.0
10.4
20.6
10.4
2.0
51
23
22
23.2
25.6
32.8
13.0
5.8
6.8
98
81
38
44.5
34.4
56 8
19.0
6.0
7.4
144
78
53
43
5
11
33
Prince Rupert	
3
480
38.4
165
34.4
47.9
146
30.4
37.2
169
35.2
32.9
423
29
28
Vernon	
132
10.5
12
9.1
3.5
75
50.8
19.1
45
34.1
8.8
121
7
4
Totals	
1,251
100.0
345
27.5
100.0
100.0
392
514
41. i
loo'.o'
1,049
107
95
3L.4
100.0
100.0
Totals, 1919	
1,141
290
374
477
10O.0
993
95
53
Per cent	
100.0
128
26.4
32.8
41.8
Totals, 1918 ...:	
910
100.0
380
100.0
402
100.0
114
71
38
100.0
14.07
41.76
44.17
Dumber and Causes of Fires, 1920.
Forest District.
'5
£1
be
13
(5
£ a)
■- H
p. cu
11
oi
O,
C
-C
a
o
^ d
CO   O
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to r"
.5-25
u o
■SfSI
02 43  ."2
11
c ■«
£8
23
02
P,
o
'E
222   O
2-
20
e
o
a
t/2   *^
go
02
222
CO
O
02
5
C
A3
02
"cl
a
"o'co
.  02     .
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V**   02
2- 44    O
3
OH
MB
MO
8
4
4
44 4=
sc
P
H
0.HO,
19
30
33
16
10
2
1
30
41
i
i
•7
9
19
21
54
107
101
4.3
8.6
8.1
154
6
30
12
i
17
220
17.5
Prince George	
8
8
51
5
2
2.
4
10
90
7.2
6
23
14
158
6
30
16
44
2
2
2
87
25
1
52
20
69
67
480
5.4
Vancouver	
38.4
31
32
38
1
3
5
7
32
5
10
132
10.5
Totals	
304
246
227
1
96
7
104
69
165
1,251
100.0
24.3
19.7
18.2
7.7
0.6
8.3
2.5
5.5
13.2
100.0
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for Last Nine Years.
Causes.
Lightning 	
Campers and travellers	
Railroad operation	
Railroad-construction	
Brush-burning, not rail road-clearing
Public road-construction	
Industrial operation	
Incendiary	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
Totals	
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
304
115
134
48
67
100
169
34
246
310
158
209
268
305
487
195
227
146
104
335
121
82
361
110
1
22
1
17
98
62
96
97
100
48
148
267
164
26
7
5
2
0
12
20
11
9
104
129
80
50
59
28
50
24
32
21
15
13
22
28
42
7
69
140
72
55
19
24
83
7
165
156
224
214
148
160
367
104
1,251
1,141
910
986
864
1,031
1,832
578
23
51
34
11
47
9
17
347 ——: "———~ : —
■
H 30
Department of Lands.
1921
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-a
EH
O
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a
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■^uuaaj qnoqqiM 33s saai^j
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Acres.
15,016
2,910
1,569
2,304
8,806
6,556
11,459
4,805
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No.
360
417
325
1,192
1,020
702
2,290
476
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Acres.
11,400
740
276
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2,397
2
5,710
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No.
298
372
296
1,139
960
699
1,827
439
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Forest Branch.
H
31
Prosecutions for Fire Trespass, 1920.
re
cu.5S
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o
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a
o
oi
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1
2
1
1
2
17 50
10 00
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver	
26
6
17
1
2
14
345 00
2
8
2
21
Totals	
34
6
22
1
2
3
$442 50
2
9
2
Totals, 1919..
29
2
1
1
2
1
13
5
4
25
$671 50
2
2
1920 IMPROVEMENTS.
Cariboo.
Two cars  $ 1,802 00
One speeder          194 00
Two pumps complete       1,164 00
$ 3,160 00
Cranbrook.
Five cars $ 4,119 00
Four pumps complete    3,012 00
Bridge Creek Trail   616 00
Canal Flats Trail    22 00
Gold Creek Trail   681 00
Hartley Creek Trail  300 00
St. Mary Trail  52 00
Wigwam and McGuire Creek Trail   852 00
Elk Valley Telephone Line   95 00
Goat Mountain Telephone Line    19 00
Natal-Michel Telephone Line    30 00
Casey Mountain Look-out  22 00
$ 9,820 00
Kamloops.
One car   $ 640 00
Two pumps complete   1,700 00
Adams River Ranger Station   8 00
Blue River Ranger Station   277 00
North Barriere Ranger Station   14 00
North Barriere-Adams Lake Trail    80 00
Momich Creek Trail     68 00
Seymour Arm-Cut-off Trail   25 00
$ 2,812 00 Department of Lands. 1921
Nelson.
Four cars  $ 3,950 00
Four pumps complete    3,277 00
Mount Donaldson Telephone Line   5 00
Big Bend Telephone Line  35 00
Duncan  River Telephone Line     18 00
Kettle Valley Telephone Line   135 00
Second Relief Telephone Line    24 00
$ 7,444 00
Prince George.
One car    $    994 00
Hand-speeders     492 00
Three pumps complete     2,677 00
Red Mountain Ranger Station   925 00
Penny Ranger House  248 00
McBride Tool-house  380 00
Stuart Lake Boat-house   164 00
Stony Lake Boat-house   76 00
Moxley Tool and Speeder House    452 00
$ 6,408 00
Prince Rupert.
One car    $ 1,012 0(t
Garage at Hazelton  .._  50 00
One speeder    516 00
Speeder-house at Hazelton     75 00
Burns Lake Ranger Station    30 00
Lakelse Telephone Line    74 00
Two pumps complete     1,486 00
$ 3,243 00
Vancouver.
Eight cars   ? 7,600 00
Carey's Garage    •.  150 00
Speeder-house at Alta Lake     185 00
Haslam Lake Trail     34 00
Pitt River Trail   444 00
Survey, Vancouver Island Trails   1,600 00
Myrtle Point Ranger Station    3,829 00
Wellboro Ranger Station   652 00
Lynn Valley Telephone Line     71 00
Myrtle Point Telephone Line    306 00
Slash-burning    175 00
Wireless installation    4,850 00
Speeder   115 00
Thurston Bay Hydro Plant   4,855 00
Sixteen pumps complete   13,173 00
$38,039 00 11 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
H 33
Vernon.
Four cars   $ 2,848 00
Four pumps complete        2,341 00
B.X. Telephone Line    77 00
Canyon Creek Ranger Station           100 00
$ 5,366 00
Victoria.
Miscellaneous   $    634 00
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF GRAZING.
Genebal Range Conditions.
The growth of forage on the open range was greatly retarded during the early part of the
season owing to the long cold spell experienced in early spring. This compelled the stockmen
in many cases to carry their stock in their winter pastures for several weeks later than usual.
While this was an inconvenience, it has resulted in benefit to the range. When the growing
season did begin the growth was rapid, and as the stock was on the lower ranges for a much
shorter period than usual before the true summer range was ready the grasses got a better
chance to mature. This restriction, or short period of grazing, caused by the late spring had
about the same effect that would follow the holding of the cattle off the range for a few weeks
after growth began in a normal year.
The prevalence of long periods of dry weather and the general dampness of the upper
ranges was responsible for the heavy growth of midsummer feed. The early rains of September
freshened up the low range and promoted a good growth of grasses for fall use. On the whole,
the season has been a good one from the view-point of good range-forage and excellent condition
of the stock. It was generally expected that hay would be abundant. In many localities the
crops have been good and they have been successfully harvested. The early rains have caught
many crops in the field and heavy loss to the stockmen has resulted. Misfortune attended the
harvesting of the hay-crop on the Kootenay meadows out from Creston. Harvesting usually
begins about August 20th, or as soon as the flood-waters receded. The season was late this year
and it was September before operations began. The rainy season began about the first of the
month, or at least three weeks earlier than usual. The consequence is that about not more
than 1,000 out of a possible 2,500 tons of hay were harvested. A heavy winter will require the
shipment of about fifty cars of hay from outside points. An open winter with little snow will
permit much winter grazing on the uncut meadows and will greatly relieve the situation.
Authorization.
Authority to graze the following number of the different classes of live stock on the Crown
ranges during 1920 season was granted:—
District.
Cranbrook	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson 7.	
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver	
Vernon I Nicola and   1
vernon ^ Princeton    f ■
Vprnon  J Okanagan and
vernon   ( similkameen
Cattle and
Horses.
Sheep and
Goats.
S.000
3,000
28,000
2,600 .
10,000
6,000
200
400
1,000
20,000
8,000
63,000
.   24,200
Season.
April 15-October 15.
April 15-October 81.
April 15-October 31.
April 15-October 31.
/ April 1-Oct. 31.
( Year April 1.
April 1-October 31.
I April 15-Nov. 15.
\ Year from April 15.
/ April 1-Nov. 30.
1 Year from April 1.
The above numbers of stock were based on the estimated capacity of the ranges under the
present methods of handling the stock, but did not take into consideration entirely unused
units.    Much of the low range is still being grazed at the wrong periods of the year, but there
has been a general awakening to the needs of the range, and the tendency is to practise better
3 H 34
Department of Lands.
1921
methods of stock-distribution on the open range. It is therefore wise to provide for this in
capacity estimates and issue permits up to the estimated grazing capacity figure if applied for.
The adverse weather conditions prevented the stockmen ill many localities from turning out
their stock at the opening of the established grazing seasons; the growth of forage being late
and the range in no condition to use. The early fall rains, however, have so improved the fall
range that longer grazing than usual after October 31st was obtained.
The reorganization of the Interior districts resulted in the creation of the Cariboo District,
which embraces all of the territory formerly in the Kamloops District west of the North
Thompson Valley and part of the Fort George District. This required the transfer of most of
the grazing business from the two latter districts to the Cariboo. The district headquarters
is now very centrally located and the change has been productive of beneficial results in the
administration of grazing.
The records to date show that permits for the following numbers of stock have been
applied for:—
No. of
Permits.
No. Stock applied for.
Amount of
Fees paid.
Cattle.
Horses.
Sheep.
Fees due.
Cranferook	
Cariboo	
72
2
208
27
63
1,738
12
29,587
1,708
1,374
160
2
1,495
110
132
2,238
6,152
.200
75
2}     442 02
4 64
9,413 18
340 56
155 46
$   154 20
2,473 20
387 04
102 59
115
16,104
852
12,712
3,031 78
2.4S8 72
487
50,523
2,751
21,377
$13,387 64
2f5,605 75
No applications have been filed for the Prince Rupert or Vancouver Districts. At the
present time very few cattle appear to be using Crown range in these districts, but as settlement
progresses this condition will change. This is particularly true of the Prince Rupert District,
which embraces the excellent Crown ranges adjacent to the Grand Trunk Pacific west from
Fraser Lake and the magnificent areas of unused range from the Francois and Ootsa Lakes
south to the headwaters of the Klinaklini River. It is hoped that an extended visit can be
made in 1921 to the actually settled regions of the Prince Rupert District with a view to
discussing the future use of the Crown ranges with the settlers and to bring the present use
under the beneficial guidance of the " Grazing Act" and Regulations. Stress of work in the
southern part of the Province, where many problems of a frictional nature between range-
users have had to be dealt with, has prevented the visit being made heretofore.
The following figures show comparative data for the seasons of 1919 and 1920 in applications filed and fees paid:—
Season.
Applications.
Cattle.
Horses.
Sheep.
Fees paid.
1919	
281
487
43,602
50,273
2,789
2,536
4,335
21,377
9 9,975 73
13,387 64
1920	
This shows a substantial increase for 1920. A total of 176 applicants whose grazing fees
amount to- $5,605.73 have not yet paid. Collections are, however, being made this winter, and
it is expected that by the close of the grazing year, March 31st, 1921, all outstanding accounts
will have been settled.
A large number of applications from sheepmen in the State of Washington for range along
the International Boundary in the Kootenay Grazing District were filed. The applicants decided
that the low grazing fee of 1% cents per head per month charged for the grazing of sheep on
the Crown ranges of British Columbia as compared with 3% and 3% cents per month on the
adjoining public ranges of the United States, together with the longer season allowed, warranted
them paying the additional Provincial personal-property tax of 25 cents per head of sheep. The
issuance of permits was arranged in accordance with the plan outlined in the memorandum to
the Grazing Committee, dated April 16th, 1920, and which, is as follows:— 11 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. H 35
"(o.) To United States men with the understanding that the permits will never be regular,
but will be discontinued when the range is in demand by local or near-by men, by Provincial
stockmen living at a distance from the range, or by stockmen from the Prairie Provinces."
This is in line with the policy of providing for the residents of British Columbia first and,
in general, Canadians before aliens. It developed, however, that the Canadian Customs required
payment of a duty of 25 per cent, of the value of the sheep before entry to the Provincial
ranges would be sanctioned by that Department. The business could not stand such a tax;
consequently the applications were recalled and the ranges which could have been used by
approximately 28,000 to 30,000 sheep in 1920 were therefore not utilized. This meant a loss in
revenue to the Province in grazing fees and personal-property tax of approximately $9,000.
Stock Associations.
The stockmen's associations which have been organized for beneficial range regulation
throughout the grazing districts have been generally active in seeking the solution of various
problems affecting the ranging of live-stock on the open range. In actual co-operative range-
work only a few of the associations have been very active. This is due entirely to the fact
that the boundary-lines of all of the stock-ranges have not yet been definitely located and the
needs of the units expressed in the form of working special rules suited to the needs of each
locality. As the accomplishment of this will take some time with the very limited and
inexperienced field assistance available at present, the efforts of the Grazing Office will be
directed particularly to the working-out and application of grazing plans on ranges where
conditions demand immediate attention, and to illustrating improved methods by actual
demonstration-work on stock-ranges where the progressive spirit is most actively apparent.
Twenty local stock associations are organized for co-operative work, and it is expected
that several more in the more outlying territory, such as the Blackwater, Francois-Ootsa Lakes,
Stuart Lake, and the Kootenay Districts, will be reached during the coming season.
Bulls and Bull Disteicts.
One" of the topics which has taken an important place in most meetings of the stockbreeders' associations organized under the Grazing Regulations has been the urgent need for
the elimination of scrub bulls from the range.
The passing of the " Good Bull " Act of 1920 has met with the approval of the great
majority of stockmen, and many associations are convinced that no time should be lost in
bringing about a condition which will make possible the enactment of a law requiring that only
registered bulls of a recognized beef breed be grazed at large oh the range. The enforcement
of the present law is, however, rendered somewhat difficult, in that a " bull of good beef type "
cannot be clearly defined by law. Consequently, the Act apparently leaves it to the Government
to define what is a bull of good beef type in each individual case when occasion demands.
In all cases where a live-stock organization has been recognized as having jurisdiction over
a unit of Crown range the procedure must provide for the passinig upon or approval of all bulls
to be turned out by the Advisory Board of the association. The Board will voice the sentiment
of the majority of the permittees regarding the suitability of any bull for open-range service,
and the Government is safe in considering the wishes of the majority in such a matter. The
existence and enforcement of the Act is having a wholesome effect, in that the scrub is rapidly
going and the stockmen are buying either registered animals or bulls of suitable grade.
The wide difference in dates of open seasons in adjoining districts, the need for taking
under control additional territory, together with a possibility that the Proclamations establishing
bull districts heretofore have been revoked by the enactment of the 1920 bull law, has made it
necessary to recommend a new Proclamation creating new bull districts in accordance with the
present and immediate future needs of the country. The whole situation has been outlined in
a full report with accompanying maps to the Department of Agriculture. At a conference held
in June the matter was fully discussed, and it was decided that the Grazing Office take the
matter up with the interested stockmen's associations in the field to ascertain their views. This
has been done during the past season, and definite recommendations have been submitted to the.
Department of Agriculture regarding the boundaries of the proposed districts and the seasons
during which bulls may be allowed to run at large thereon. The present Act makes it obligatory on the part of the Government to take the initiative
in the establishment of districts. This is as it should be, and in so far as the Crown ranges are
concerned the Grazing Office has been active in this respect. As it happens, the unfenced private
ranges lie adjacent to the Crown ranges and "■are used with them. The wishes of the majority
of range-users in a locality generally apply to this unfenced private range, so that action taken
to control the ranging of bulls on Crown range results in the inclusion of the private range within
the unit in the general bull district. Provision can be made and is being made to care for the
handling of dairy bulls on the open range by setting aside definite areas for the ranging of dairy
cattle.
This office is advising the stockmen to cull their herds with a view to eliminating the scrub
cow as well as the scrub bull. In many sections of the grazing districts the ranches are overstocked according to present methods of management. An important percentage of the cows are
so inferior that it is very evident they are unprofitable. No reluctance should be shown in
getting them to the block at the earliest possible date. Their places can be taken by high-grade
cows which will be a source of profit rather than expense.
Gbassiioppeb-contbol.
The grasshopper appeared in greater numbers on the range this season than during recent
years. Its ravages, as is usual, were confined to the open grass ranges where overgrazed conditions are noticeable. On April 1st E. R. Buckell, of the Entomological Branch, was assigned
to the Riske Creek Stock-range to carry on experimental work in poisoning the insects. He
discovered that over thirty-five species of grasshoppers were infesting the ranges under observation and that only two species would take the poison bait. The investigations also showed that
plants of the bunch-grass and fescue families of advanced growth were comparatively free from
attack, the grasshoppers preferring the short and more tender leaves of the blue-grasses, etc.
In view of these results the investigative work will be conducted along additional lines
during 1921. It is proposed to fence in a 5-acre plot, divided into two 2%-acre plots. One will
be entirely protected from grazing; the other will be grazed during the fall by sheep.
Object.—To secure absolute protection of a portion of range during the entire year, and to
secure full protection of a portion of range during the growing season, and partial protection
with fall grazing during the rest of the year.
To determine: (1) The effect of grasshopper ravages on protected and partially protected
range in comparison with effects on unrestricted grazing areas adjoining plots; (2) effects of
fall grazing on growth of vegetation on range subject to grasshopper ravages in comparison
with growth on areas totally protected from grazing.
Small quadrates will be properly protected with one of the plots.
To determine: To what extent total protection from grasshoppers promotes the growth of
the vegetation, by giving definite figures to show what precentages of increased growth are due
to protection from the grazing of stock and to protection from grasshopper ravages aside from
any advantage which may result from judicious grazing in the fall.
Costs (Material, etc.) —
140 rods Page woven wire 50 inches high at 90 cents, less 10 per cent... $113 40
140 aspen posts, average 5 inches diameter,  7 feet long; 420 2-inch
stays,   3   between   each   post.   Approximate cost of posts, stays,
freight, hauling, labour in construction         61 60
Total    £175 00
Gbazing Heeeabium.
The herbarium of the Grazing Office now contains 364 mounted specimens of the principal
forage-plants of the range, divided as follows: 116 grasses, 44 grass-like (sedges) ; 294 herbaceous plants.
Arrangements were made with Professor Davidson, of the University of British Columbia,
and the Branch of Botany at Ottawa, to positively Identify the plants collected. Sixty-one
plants have been identified and five other collections are still in the hands of the botanists, some
since early spring, no returns having as yet been received.    Notes on the distribution, flower- 11 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
H 37
ing periods, and forage values of the plants have been collected. This information is of great
value in determining the periods during which each unit of range can be used to the best
advantage.
Unused Ranges.
Unused ranges come under two divisions: (1) Unused range in settled stock-raising
localities;   (2)  Unused range in sections of the Province where settlement is sparse.
The unused condition of the former is due, first, to the failure of the stockmen to properly
distribute the stock over the range; and, second, to the lack of cultivation of large areas of
arable lands sufficient to raise hay that would winter stock enough to stock the unused range.
Such range is therefore surplus range in settled communities which in the course of time will
be supporting stock during the summer which is raised on the established ranches. This unused
range is in units which are partially used or not used at all, and includes the vast areas of
range of the Cascades south of the Chilcotin River and the higher ranges of the Rocky
Mountains in the Kootenay District.
The unutilized range in the second division of unused ranges is located in practically
unsettled regions, such as the Anahim Lake section of the Province. The vast areas of meadow
and grazing lands available for use in Anahim Lake District and north to the Blackwater slopes
and the Francois and Ootsa Lakes present a wonderful opportunity to the new settler to secure
a desirable location where he can engage in and build up a successful stock business. This
territory will undoubtedly become one of the best stock-raising sections in British Columbia.
Condition of Range Stock Industby.
Although active work along scientific lines is not generally practised in caring for the stock
on the range, the immense areas available for midsummer grazing render it possible to produce
beef of a high quality.
Progress in the production of good quality beef is, however, greatly retarded because of the
overstocking of the ranches with poor grade or scrub cows. Too many of the stockmen confine
their efforts to build up the quality of their herds to the purchase of good grade bulls. While
it is true that good bulls will, in the course of time,- show their influence on the herd, results
will be slow if the breeding cows are not severely culled. The elimination of the scrub cow is
as important a matter as the acquisition of the good bull.
The ranches, in general, are carrying too many cattle for the amount of hay raised. Too
much dependence is placed on the chance of an open winter occurring. The consequence is that
barely sufficient hay is fed the animals during the winter to keep them alive. The young growing animal does not always make even a fair percentage of the growth during the winter season
they should. It is therefore deemed advisable to keep the steers on the range over three years
in order that they may weigh in at a weight below which range practices forbid sending an
animal to market. The result is, long 3-year-olds go to the block at weights which the long
2-year-old should show.
The spring, fall, and summer ranges of British Columbia produce a variety of grasses,
sedges, and herbaceous plants unequalled in growth and quality on the North American
Continent. They lie adjacent to the ranches and long drives are unnecessary. The stock can
be handled under a drift and rotative system of grazing from the ranch over the spring-, summer,
and fall ranges and the maximum percentage of growth is possible. Cattle make their biggest
and cheapest gains in weight on 1;he open range and every effort on the part of the stockman
should be expended to obtain it. The acquisition of the good bull is part of the effort. Attention to the stock while on the range by securing proper distribution of the animals on the
various types of range during the correct periods of each season is also part of the effort. But
these efforts will not show anywhere near the possible good results if not augmented by the
expenditure of effort on the winter range. By this is meant attention to culling the herd,
breeding the heifers and cows, the handling of young and older bulls, and adequate feeding,
particularly of the young animals. In British Columbia the culling-out of the scrub cow is a
matter of primary importance. When this is done the improvement in the general herd will
soon manifest itself and will be an incentive to added effort along other lines in progressive
methods. Pride in the accomplishment of one piece of good work is a spur to other achievements.
Under progressive handling the 2-year-old steer will weigh the 1,200 lb. that is now produced
by the 3-year-old.    One year's hay is saved, which makes it possible to carry additional breeding H 38
Department of Lands.
1921
stock. The high-grade animal will dress 200 to 300 lb. more than the scrub. The price will be
better, for good meat creates additional demand for meat, and profits will be larger. Even
though the production of high-quality beef does not influence the price upward, it is certain it
will not cause a slump in any market.
Field Assistance. ,
In addition to general inspection and other range-work actually carried on in the field by
the members of the Grazing Office during 1920, it was arranged before the opening of the grazing
season that a certain proportion of the Forest Ranger's time in each grazing district would be
devoted to grazing supervision. The unusual demands upon the Rangers' time, however,
especially in pre-emption inspection work, prevented sufficient attention being given the grazing-
supervision work, although a strong effort to do so was made by the District Foresters,
particularly in the main grazing districts. As a consequence, many matters which could have
been adjusted by an immediate visit of the Forest Ranger were referred to the Victoria office,
and owing to the absence of the members of that office in the field on important work steps to
adjust the difficulties could not be at once undertaken. Such delays have a tendency to cause
dissatisfaction.
The main difficulty in the way of grazing supervision during 1920 by the Rangers appeared
to lie in the heavy tax on their time for pre-emption inspection. These inspections consume
considerable time in each individual case and largely in the office-work necessary to prepare
intelligent reports. The percentage of pre-emptions seems to be greater in the main grazing
districts, Cariboo and Vernon; consequently the grazing in the field does not receive the attention
it is planned should be given. It is believed the volume of pre-emption inspection work, and
also grazing supervision in the field needing attention each year in the Cariboo and Vernon
Districts, is large enough to warrant the assignment of a Pre-emption Inspector and also of a
qualified Ranger to handle the grazing-work in each of those districts, and it is recommended
that this suggestion be favourably considered.
Range-bubning.
The question of burning over tracts, of timbered land to increase the-area available for
grazing is being made the subject of a separate report. From intermittent observation and
study made during the past two years, as time would permit, the following impressions are
gained:—
In a general way the preliminary investigation indicates that areas it is recommended shall
be burned must be studied to determine: (1) The relative value of the timber and grazing
resources; (2) the relation of timber to grazing as a range protective cover.
Any burning undertaken must be of a light character; that is to say, it must take place
early in the season when the soil is damp enough to resist the injurious effect of heat action
and when only the surface debris, brush, and small seedlings will be destroyed. All burns must
be under absolute control.
Burning should only be undertaken when necessary, as there is generally sufficient feed for
all the stock likely to be grazed on the summer ranges for years to come.
Improved methods of handling stock and range will: (1) Show the value of and bring into
use the forage growing under the open and medium dense stands of jack-pine, thereby increasing
range capacity; (2) will improve the lower ranges; and (3) will eliminate the apparent need
for burning on the major portion, if not all, of the grazing districts where the object in view is
the increase of grazing areas.
With regard to burning to secure a rapid run-off, such burning should only be permitted
after a close investigation shows its necessity, for the reason that the total destruction of the
forest-cover is contemplated, and in comparison with the object sought the timber as a commercial
asset and the grazing value of the area would be considered as of very secondary importance.
Thos. P. Mackenzie,
Commissioner of Grazing.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Frinted by William H.  Cuxlin, Printer to the King's  Most Excellent Majesty.

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