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FIFTIETH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1920-21 BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1921]

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Full Text

 FIFTIETH ANNDAL REPORT
OF
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OF   THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1920-21
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY  OF  THE  LEGISLATIVE   ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C.
Printed by William H.  Cullin, rrinter to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1921.  To the Honourable Walter Cameron .'Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg herewith respectfully to present the Fiftieth Annual Report on the Public
Schools of the Province.
j. d. Maclean,
Minister of Education.
November, 1921.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Part I.
Page.
Total Enrolment in High and Public Schools   9
Number of Divisions, Enrolment, etc., in each of the High Schools  10
Number of Divisions,'Enrolment, etc., in each of the Oity Elementary Schools  11
Number of Schools, Enrolment, etc., in each of the Rural Municipalities  13
Total Enrolment in the Rural and Assisted Schools  13
Expenditure for Education    13
Cost to Provincial Government of each Pupil on Enrolment and on Average Daily Attendance
during the Past Ten Years   15
Number of School Districts, Aggregate Enrolment, etc  15
Number of Teachers employed in the Various Electoral Districts  16
Inspectors' Reports—
High Schools    17
Public Schools   20
Municipal Inspectors' Reports—•
Vancouver  39
Reports on Normal Schools— .
Vancouver   44
Victoria  45
Report of the Organizer of Technical Education   47
Report of the Director of Elementary Agricultural Education   51
Summer School for Teachers   62
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Free Text-book Branch   66
The Strathcona Trust  68
Part II.
Statistical Returns—
High Schools    2
City Elementary Schools  14
Rural Municipality Elementary Schools   52
Rural and Assisted Elementary Schools   72
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts  94
Part III.
Names of Persons to whom Teachers' Certificates were issued   99
High School Examination—
Names of the Winners of Medals and Scholarships  104
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre  105
High School Entrance Examination—
Names of Medal-winners  106
Number of Successful Candidates at each Centre  107
High School Entrance Examination Papers    113
High School Examination Papers—
Third-class Certificate  (Non-professional)     122
Third-year Course, Commercial    134
Third-year Course, Household Science   150
Third-year Course, Technical  154
University Matriculation (Junior)  163
University Matriculation (Senior)  177  PART I.
GENERAL REPORT.  REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION,
1920-1921.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., November, 1921.
To the Honourable J. D. MacLean, M.D., CM.,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Fiftieth Annual Report of the Public Schools of British
Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1921.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education.
Enrolment.
The total enrolment in all the schools was 85,950. The number of boys was 43,442, and of
girls 42,SOS. The average actual daily attendance was 68,497. The percentage of regular
attendance was 79.69.
Number of Teachers employed.
The total number of teachers employed, including manual-training and domestic-science
instructors, was 2,734. Of this number, 251 were employed in the high schools, 1,077 in the city
graded schools, 644 in the rural municipality schools, and 762 in the rural and assisted schools.
Thirty-five high and 105 public schools were in operation in the cities; 15 high and 182 public
schools in the rural municipalities; and 2 high and 607 public schools in the rural and assisted
districts.
New Schools.
The following is a list of new schools that were established during the year:—
Cariboo District   Miocene;  1.50-Mile House.
Columbia  District    Parson.
Comox District    Lang Bay; Nimpkish River;  Okeover Arm;  Stillwater;  Suquash.
Cowichan District    Mayo.
Dewdney District  McConnell Creek.
Esquimau District   Shirley.
Fort George District  Aleza  Lake;   Hulatt;  Orange  Valley;  Penny;   Swan  Lalce;   Tate
Creek; Taylor's Flats.
Grand Forks District   Spencer.
Greenwood District   Norwegian Creek.
(The)  Islands   .Divide; Thetis Island.
Kamloops District   Adelphi;    Barriere  Valley ;    Floral   Creek ;    Lackenby ;    McLure;
Wire Cache.
Kaslo District   .Gray Creek.
Lillooet District   Blue Ridge;  Forest Grove;  70-Mile House.
North Okanagan District . . Trinity Valley.
North Vancouver District  . .Brackendale: Irvine's Landing; Wilson Creek.
Omineca  District    Decker Lake;    Driftwood;   Glentanna ;   Lake Evelyn;   Tchesinkut
Lake; Topley ; Wistaria.
Prince Rupert District .... Buckley Bay;   Firvale;   Hanall;   Lawn Hill;   Queen Charlotte.
Similkameen District   Allenby.
Slocan District   .Bellevue;   Carroll's Landing;   Passmore;   Three Forks.
South Okanagan District .. Bear Creek.
Trail District Birchbank;  Champion Creek.
Yale District   Gladwin. F 10
Public Schools Keport.
1921
HIGH SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the high schools during the year was 7,259. Of this number, 3,093 were
boys and 4,166 were girls.
The number of divisions, the total enrolment, the average actual daily attendance, and the
percentage of regular attendance in each high school are shown in the following table:—
High Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment.
Average
Actual  Daily
Attendance.
Percentage of
Regular
Attendance.
Agassiz	
Armstrong    	
Bridgeport    	
Chilliwack	
Courtenay  	
Cranbrook   	
Creston   	
Cumberland   	
Duncan   	
Enderby    	
Esquimalt   	
Fernie   	
Golden    	
Grand  Porks   	
Greenwood   	
Kamloops   	
Kaslo    	
Kelowna   	
'Ladner    	
Ladysmith    	
Langley   	
Maple Ridge	
Matsqui  	
Mission   	
Nanaimo    :	
Nelson   	
New Westminster :
Duke  of  Connaught   .
T.  J. Trapp Technical
Oak Bay  	
Peachland     	
Penticton    	
Point Grey :
King George V	
Prince of Wales	
Port  Alberni   	
Prince  George   	
Prince  Rupert   	
Revelstoke    	
Rossland   	
Salmon  Arm   	
Slocan   	
Summerland   	
Surrey   	
Trail	
Vancouver :
Britannia   	
King Edward  	
King George 	
Kitsilano	
Cecil  Rhodes	
Technical   	
Vancouver, North 	
Vancouver, South 	
Vernon 	
Victoria	
2
1
3
3
1
3
1
5
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
4
8
11
7
3
1
2
4
1
1
3
4
3
2
1
2
2
3
15
17
14
8
6
10
7
13
4
28
41
52
12S
23
77
24
38
64
30
51
60
19
74
16
110
47
84
37
70
37
30
23
54
143
194
361
228
106
17
69
183
147
17
25
81
125
75
43
12
62
42
62
507
562
457
300
236
317
206
457
97
915
23.12
36.34
42.62
100.72
18.25
67.63
18.55
34.75
53.49
26.63
4.5.60
54.57
14.74
62.39
13.13
98.33
39.09
77.83
33.65
57.67
31.99
24.61
18.74
42.55
123.01
168.87
303.90
168.00
92.11
13.04
■59.99
159.77
120.09
13.91
18.27
68.66
107.59
66.88'
34.33
9.05
49,47
32.83
50.43
431.53
476.21
381,11
265.62
194.54
254.06
174.63
393.93
83.36
7S0.28
92.48
88.63
81.96
78.68
79.34
87.83
77.29
91.45
S3.58
88.76
89.41
90.96
77.58
84.31
82.06
89.89
83.17
92.65
90.95
82.39
86.46
82.03
81.48
78.79
86.02
87.04
84.18
73.69
86.89
76.70
86.94
87.30
81.69
81.82
73.08
84.76
86.07
89.17
79.83
75.42
79.79
78.16
81.34
85.11
84.73
83.39
88.54
82.78
80.14
84.77
86.19
8S.94
85.27 12 Geo. 5
Public Schools Eeport.
F 11
CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
of
The enrolment in the city public schools was 39,650.    The number of boys was 20,223
girls, 19,427.
The number of divisions, the total enrolment, the average actual daily attendance, and the
percentage of regular attendance in each city public school are shown in the following table:—
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Alberni   	
Armstrong (Consolidated)
Chilliwack    	
Courtenay  	
Cranbrook :
Central   	
Kootenay Orchards  .
South Ward  	
Cumberland   	
Duncan   (Consolidated)   .
Enderby	
Fernie   	
Grand Forks	
Greenwood   	
Kamloops	
Kaslo  	
Kelowna   	
Ladysmith	
Merritt   	
Nanaimo :
Middle Ward   	
Quennell   	
South Ward   	
Nelson   	
New  Westminster :
F. W. Howay  	
Lord   Kelvin    	
Lord Lister	
Richard McBride . .
Queensborough    	
John  Robson   	
Herbert Spencer   . ..
Port  Alberni   	
Port Coquitlam :
Central   	
James  Park   	
Port  Moody   	
Prince  George   	
Prince  Rupert   	
Revelstoke    	
Rossland   	
Salmon Arm	
Slocan   	
Trail:
Central   	
Tadanac   	
East	
Vancouver:
Aberdeen    	
Alexandria   	
Bayview   	
Beaconsfield   	
Central   	
Children's Home  . . .
Dawson  	
Charles Dickens
Fairview 	
Total
Enrolment.
3
16
11
4
11'
1
2
12
14
'5
23
10
3
16
4
14
11
9
4
19
3
19
12
8
9
11
2
11
11
4
18
14
11
4
2
16
2
2
11
16
10
9'
21
4
27
10
14
99
566
430
166
481
28
93
50.9
500
176
915
465
84
673
167
506
420
396
172
85'5
147
767
514
304
346
430
77
420'
412
186
153
91
176
271
702
594
462
160'
61
572
43
39
490
696
409
394
933
13S
1,038
394
546
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
8*7.67
444.23
321.37
109.22
400.74
21.11
71.47
379.74
381.55
144.87
762.63
366.15
74.69
520.61
132.60
418.70
■357.79
343.36
153.89
735.75
135.60
647.73
410.93
269.25
307.60
372.76
66.19
336.89
341.2S
148.38
131.05
72.86
140.91
197.27
602.26
515.97
402.91
139.84
51.56
o
15.42
32,65
■35.76
374,44
529.62
350.43
327.02
652.94
111.42
S'55.53
345.42
447.53
Percentage of
'Regular
Attendance.
88.55
78.48
74.73
65.79
S3.31
75.39
76.80
74.60
76.31
8S.31
83.34
78.74
88.91
77.36
79.40
82.74
85.18
86.70
89.47
86.05
92.24
85.56
79.94
88.57
88,90
86.6.9
85.96
80.21
82.83
79.77
85.65
80.07
80.06
72.79
85.79
86.86
87.21
87.40
84.52
90.11
75.93
91.69
76.42
76.09
85.6-8
83.00
69.98
83,77
82.42
87.67
81.96 F 12
Public Schools Eeport.
1921
CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS—Continued.
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment.
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
Percentage of
Regular
Attendance.
Vancouver—Continued.
Franklin   	
Simon Fraser	
General Gordon  	
Grandview    	
Hastings   	
Henry Hudson  	
Kitsilano	
Livingstone	
Model    	
Mount Pleasant	
Macdonald    	
Lord Nelson  	
Florence Nightingale   .
Cecil  Rhodes   	
'Lord Roberts  	
Laura Secord  	
Seymour   	
Strathcona   	
Lord  Tennyson   	
School for the Blind   .
School for the Deaf .
Vancouver North :
Lonsdale   	
Queen Mary   	
Ridgeway   	
Vernon 	
Victoria :
Bank Street  	
Beacon Hill   	
Boys' Central	
Burnside   	
Cook 'Street   	
Sir James Douglas  . . .
Fernwood   	
Girls'   Central   	
George Jay  	
Margaret Jenkins   ....
Kingston Street  	
North Ward  ..........
Oaklands	
Quadra  Street  	
Quadra Primary   	
Rock Bay   	
South Park	
Spring Ridge   	
West   	
Child Study Laboratory
16
11
14
14
17
12
11
13
19
12
17
19
11
24
13
20
25
15
1
5
14
12
17
4
4
12
6
1
14
2
13
14
8
6
10
14
8
4
2
10
5
11
1
314
654
488
616
630
658
493
466
589
807
539
772
788
472
1,021
486
880
987
640
7
44
355
549
439
734
155
143
428
225
25
574
62
479
524
311
217
380
488
283
168
107
370
191
423
23
263.90
553.91
410.62
523.58
537.72
544.19
424.86
400.73
493.27
641.66
455.68
655.60
649.28
396.82
849.95
411.23
716.79
845.85
543.29
6.71
36.23
294,57
444.57
372.69
626.35
129.79
116.83
363.94
196.02
23.46
489.59
60.46
400.80
460.22
261.72
180.37
331.40
428.83
240.96
129.36
50.32
320.00
175.32
376.82
12.71
84.04
8-4.69
84.14
84.99
85.35
82.70
86.17
85.99
83,74
79.51
84.54
84.92
82.92
84.08
83.24
84.61
81.45
85.69
84.89
95.85
82,34
80.97
S4.89
85.33
83.73
81.69
85.03
87.12
97.84
85.29
97.51
83.67
87.82
84.15
83.12
87.21
87.87
85,14
77.00
47.02
86.48
91.79
89.08
55.26 12 Geo. 5
Public Schools Keport.
F 13
RURAL MUNICIPALITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in the rural municipality public schools during the year was 22,322. The
number of boys enrolled was 11,521; of girls, 10,801.
The following table gives the names of the several municipalities, the number of schools in
each, the number of divisions, the total enrolment, and the average actual daily attendance:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment.
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
Burnaby   	
Chilliwack ....
Coldstream   ....
Coquitlam  	
Delta   	
Esquimau   	
Kent	
Langley    	
Maple Ridge  . . .
Matsqui	
Mission   	
Oak Bay  	
Peachland   	
Penticton    	
Pitt Meadows . .
Point Grey  ....
Richmond   	
Saanich   	
Salmon Arm  . . .
Sumas   	
Summerland   . ..
Surrey  	
Vancouver North
Vancouver South
Vancouver West
14
14
2
5
11
1
2
15
9
11
9
2
2
2
2
15
6
5
2
18
5
14
3
26
2
7-
15
15
5
25
17
18
17
14
4"
15
2
52
17
7
8
29
18
164
2,445
853
78
168
463
566
169
889
582
517
531
538
120
663
49
2,019
627
1,878
232
173
344
935
650
6,470
343
1,886.42
649.18
55.20
132,22
860.96
464.07
140.02
634.73
450.47
379.93
433.90
44S.70
92.03
55.14
38.44
1,677.36
511.15
1,546.87
187.63
113.95
282.44
699.37
512.59
4,945,50
272.97
RURAL AND ASSISTED SCHOOLS.
The total enrolment in these schools for the year was 16,719.    Of this number, 8,605 were
boys and 8,114 were girls.   '
EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION, 1920-21.
Education Office:
Salaries  9    16,607 10
Expenses of office—
Books   9    160 04
Telegrams, telephones, etc  943 85
Expressage    5 95
Priating and stationer}'         6,961 35
Postage    '.       1,057 72
Furniture and repairs   461 75
Equipment and repairs   374 89
Insurance     25 50
  9,991 05
Travelling expenses  153 60
Carried foncard     9    26.751 75 F 14 Public Schools Report. 1921
Brought forward     $    26,751 75
Free Text-book Branch:
Salaries    ,  6,066 58
Expenses of office—
Telegrams and telephone      $      93 98
Printing and stationery         2,902 65
Postage    •       1,160 24
Sundries     148 96
 4,305 83
Books, maps, globes, etc  96,S65 54
Agricultural Education:
Salaries     22,985 80
Office supplies    $    814 3S
Travelling expenses         1,842 17
Grant in aid         8,694 27
Summer   school    (total    spent    during   year   $6,740.80,    but
$5,950.65 was included in report for 1919-20)     790 15
 12,140 97
Industrial Education:
Salaries     6,350 83
Office supplies    $ 1,283 96
Travelling expenses  1,143 93
Night-schools  ,  15,607 22
Summer school    6,256 77
Grant in aid   38,565 69
Grant in aid of Technical School, Vancouver  550 00
Grant in aid of Technical School, New Westminster  12,000 00
         75,407 57
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries     43,628 85
Office supplies    $ 3,047 23
Travelling expenses     18,537 51
         21,584 74
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries     25,316 45
Office supplies   $ 2,118 98
Travelling expenses   18 10
Fuel, water, and light  2,815 33
Maintenance and repairs   1,899 92
Students' mileage  3,321 35
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal students  735 00
 10.90S 68
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries   22,627 50
Office supplies   $ 2,955 60
Travelling expenses  78 70
Fuel, water, and light       3,530 31
Maintenance and repairs       3,137 12
Students' mileage       2,478 85
Allowance to teachers assisting Normal students  625 00
Incidentals    52 25
 12,857 83
Deaf, Dumb, and Blind:
Salaries of staff, tuition, maintenance, fares, etc., of students  25,645 46
Per capita grant to cities   620,551 05
Per capita grant to municipalities  392,057 60
Per capita grant to rural school districts  135,924 10
Carried forward    ,$1,561,977 13 12 Geo. 5
Public Schools Eeport.
F 15
Brought forward   $1,561,977 13
Salaries to teachers in assisted schools   425,596 45
Salaries to teachers in Esquimau & Nanaimo Railway Belt   90,355 35
School buildings, erection and maintenance of    400,083 95
Libraries     1,210 66
Manual-training equipment  223 03
Examination of teachers and High School Entrance classes (total spent during
year $21,299.33, but $17,239.45 was included in report for 1919-20)  4,059 88
Conveying children to central schools    15,329 78
Scholarships for British Columbia students   1,800 00
Contingencies and incidentals   4,686 03
Grant to University of British Columbia    426,249 99
$2,931,572 25
Amount expended by cities, municipalities, rural and assisted school districts..    4,238,457 25
Grand total cost of education    $7,170,029 50
The following table shows the cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil on enrolment
and on average daily attendance during the past ten years;—
Year.
Cost of eacb
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost of each
Pupil on
Average Actual
Daily Attendance.
1911-12
1912-13
1913-14
1914-15
1915-16
1916-17
1917-18
1018-19
1919-20
1920-21
$17
17
20
21
22
22
22
24
27
29
47
91
04
78
50
47
64
88
20
01
$23 32
23 85
25 27
26 65
28 56
27 83
27 93
31 59
36 05
36 38
The gradual growth of the schools, as well as the cost to the Provincial Government of
maintaining the same, is shown by the record of attendance and expenditure given in the
following exhibit:—
Year.
Number
of  School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Actual Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of
Attendance.
Government
Expenditure
for  Education.
1872-73  	
1877-78   	
25
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
575
582
636
665
1,028
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
67,516
72,006
79,243
85,950
575.00
1,395.50
1,383.00
3,093.46
7,111.40
11,055.65
16,357.43
23,195.27
43,274.12
54,746.76
56,692.38
59,791.39
68,497.57
55.93
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
81.09
78.73
75.45
79.69
$     36,763 77
43,334 01
18S2-83   	
50,850 63
1S87-88'   	
99,902  04
1892-93   	
1897-98	
190,558 33
247,756 37
1902-03   	
1907-OS   	
1912  13	
397,003 46
464,473 78
1,032,038 60
1917 IS   	
1,529,058 93
1918-19   	
1,791,153 47
1919 20   	
2,155,934 61
1920 21   	
2,931,572 25
1
1 F 16
Public Schools Eeport.
1921
The following table gives the number of teachers of each sex employed during 1920-21 in
the various electoral districts of the Province, and also the number of certificates of each class
held by the teachers :—
Electoral District.
© at
a c3
Alberni 	
Atlin ..'	
Cariboo    	
Chilliwack   	
Columbia   	
Comox	
Cowichan	
Cranbrook 	
Delta	
Dewdney	
Esquimau    	
Fernie	
Fort  George   	
Grand Forks  	
Greenwood 	
Islands, The	
Kamloops	
Kaslo   	
Lillooet   	
Nanaimo  	
Nelson   	
Newcastle 	
New Westminster ....
North Okanagan ....
North Vancouver   . . .
Omineca	
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke  	
Richmond    	
Rossland	
Saanich	
Similkameen   	
Slocan 	
South Okanagan . . .
South Vancouver  . . .
Trail   	
Vancouver City ....
Victoria City 	
Yale 	
Totals (1920-21)
(1919-20)
4
4
2
13
2
9
4
2
18-
11
9
3
11
3
18
3
11
7
5
14
21
9
151
29
1
-4
6
10
16
4
8
1
6
11
4
4
18
12
17
11
7
18
1
16
14
10
10
44
6
120
47
3
12
1
7
36
8
40
13
11
24
33
10
16
IS
5
6
10
40
10
6
26
11
16
39
32
39
11
10
17
61
8
30
IS
17
23
96
34
199
76
18'
433
417
490
499
1,105
976
-1.2
4
5
16
4
18
7
8
28
18
8
12
9
30
9
6
11
1
6
9
18
18
6
6
6
21
35
12
2.2
11
16
1
3
1
11
2
8
1
1
2
418
404
139
132
1
55
25
7
14
3
14
11
14
6
10
14
3
6
8
11
10
5
21
17
20
5
12
3
32
4
13
13
13
14
47
6
136
54
28
8
13
61
15
70
26
31
67
61
29
45
38
19
12
19
91
23
19
44
22
29
67
63
72
19
43
34
95
13
61
34
25
45
159
59
401
145
34
149
129
595
572
2,139
1,985
36
11
20
75
IS
84
31
88
78
75
35
55
52
22
18
27
102
33
24
52
29
34
88
SO
92
24
55
37
127
1-7
74
47
38
59
206
65
537
199
40
2,734
2,557 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Eeport. F 17
INSPECTORS' REPORTS.
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
Victoria, B.C., September 17th, 1921.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit the following report on the high schools of my inspectorate for the
school-year ending June 30th, 1921:—
This inspectorate contains the same schools which I enumerated in my last annual report,
and in addition the high school at Bridgeport, in Richmond Municipality, which was assigned to
my inspectorate at the beginning of the school-year, and the Prince of Wales High School, which
was opened last September in the Municipality of Point Grey. The Bridgeport High School has
a staff of three teachers and the Prince of Wales High School a staff of four. Increases in the
staffs of other schools were as follows: Kamloops, one teacher; Queen Mary High School, North
Vancouver, two; and in the high schools of Vancouver City that came under my supervision, four
teachers, apportioned thus : Cecil Rhodes High School of Commerce, one teacher; King George
High School, one teacher; and the Kitsilano High School, two teachers. The total number of
teachers in this inspectorate, including those in the high schools at Prince George, Prince Rupert,
and Quesnel, that were reported upon by the resident Public School Inspectors is 130.
Nine of the total number of teachers held commercial specialist certificates and two gave
instruction in physical training only. The remaining 119 teachers taught purely academic
subjects and all bull three had university degrees. Twenty-four were graduates of universities
in the British Isles, fifteen having graduated from universities in England, seven from those
in Scotland, and two from those in Ireland. The remainder were graduates of the following
Canadian universities:—    •
Acadia University   12 graduates.
Dalhousie University     11 „ :
Manitoba University      8 „
Mount Allison University       1 „
McGill University      18
McMaster University        2 „
Queen's University     10 „
Toronto University     19 „
University of British Columbia       C ,,
University of New Bfunswick      5 „
Only twenty teachers had not received professional training. In view of the fact that up
to two years ago a graduate in Arts, in Science, or in Literature of a recognized university within
the British Empire could obtain an academic certificate by passing a written examination on
the art of teaching and the school law of the Province, the percentage of teachers who have not
received any professional training is remarkably small. Now that graduates of recognized
British universities must hold certificates of approved Normal Schools, it will not be long before
every teacher who holds an academic certificate will also have training in the art of teaching.
This year, for the first time in my experience, I inspected the work of teachers who received
all their education in the public, high, and normal schools of the Province, and who graduated
in Arts from the University of British Columbia. Their intimate knowledge of the subject-
matter of the lessons taught, as well as the methods used in the presentation of lessons, reflected
credit not only upon the teachers themselves, but upon the educational system of which they
are the finished product. I examined both the academic and professional side of the work of
these teachers with profound interest, because our " schools of to-morrow " will be taught largely
by those who receive their elementary education in our public schools and who graduate from
our high schools, our Provincial University, and our Normal Schools.
In erecting new buildings and making provision for additional accommodation many School
Boards have been slow to act, chiefly on account of stringent financial conditions. In contrast
to a number of cities that have systematically voted down by-laws for school purposes, the
B F 18 Public Schools Keport. 1921
Cities of Kamloops and Nanaimo may be mentioned for having carried their money by-laws by
substantial majorities. The Nanaimo School Board has purchased the Agricultural Exhibition
Hall, which will be converted into a high school. This building is commodious, the site is an
excellent one, and the grounds are spacious. There are ten high schools in this inspectorate
occupying buildings in common with public-school classes. While this grouping of public- and
high-school pupils in one building is not conducive to the best results, yet I have found the
principals and teachers of both schools endeavouring to synchronize the times of opening,
intermission, and closing, so that instruction in one school will be interfered with as little
as possible by the entrance and exit of pupils in the other. Owing to the large increase in
attendance at Bridgeport, Cloverdale, Kamloops, and in Point Grey Municipality, it will be
only a short time until the buildings now used conjointly at these centres will be occupied
solely by high-school pupils.
Teachers are manifesting a greater interest than heretofore in the organization of school
libraries, in the selection of books adapted for the use of their pupils, and in directing their
reading so that they will become acquainted with standard authors and thereby cultivate an
appreciation of the best literature. I have observed, too, that teachers who install libraries
in their schools are themselves lovers of good books and keep abreast of the times in their
professional reading.
" The Province of Ontario," according to a statement made by its Minister of Education,
" has in proportion to population a greater number of public libraries than any country, State,
or Province in the world." In addition to its public and travelling libraries, the library of the
Department of Education at Toronto offers to every teacher in the Province, no matter how
isolated his school, the best educational works procurable. It contains upwards of 36,000 books
and 130 American, British, and Canadian monthly educational journals. These books and
periodicals refer to subjects taught in the public, high, and normal schools. The library also
has collections of pamphlets, reports, and bulletins on the history and development of education,
as well as samples of standardized tests for determining progress in various school subjects
and scales for the measurement of intelligence. It has books on science, history, art, agriculture,
psychology, the social sciences, and vocational, industrial, and technical education. This library
is at the service of teachers, inspectors, students reading for degrees in pedagogy, and persons
doing research-work in educational problems. The books are loaned for a period of two weeks
and the time may be extended further if there is no other call for the book. The only cost to
the borrower is the postage required to mail the book or periodical back to the library.
The Department of Education in this Province has been wisely helpful in the financial
assistance it has given to public- and high-school libraries; for scholarships to British Columbia
students for post-graduate study in Prance; towards Frontier College, Hands Across the Seas
movement; and in supplementing amounts expended by Boards of Trustees for high-school
laboratories. I can think of no investment, however, that would yield greater returns than the
establishment of a library somewhat similar to that in the Ontario Department of Education.
Such a library should be a centre from which would radiate new life and inspiration to every
school in British Columbia.
I have, etc.,
Albebt Sullivan,
Inspector of High Schools. 1.2 Geo. 5 Public Schools Eeport. F 19
HIGH SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
Vancouver, B.C., July 30th, 1.921.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg leave to submit the following report on the high and superior schools of my
inspectorate for the school-year ending June 30th, 1921:—
This district now comprises twenty-five high schools (with 123 divisions) and nine superior
schools. Including a number Of specialists, who did not enroll classes, 153 teachers were
employed in these schools, fourteen more than last year. I was able to make 257 visits of
inspection, having called at all schools at least twice, with the exception of the South Vancouver
School, two large Vancouver schools, and one outlying superior school. These schools were
inspected only once.
During the year new superior schools were established at loco and Nakusp, while a high
school was opened at Slocan City and a technical school at New Westminster. The Port Moody
Superior School was closed and the high-school pupils of that city were conveyed by automobile
to the New Westminster High School.
Technical work made noteworthy strides during the year. Since the inauguration of
technical high-school work in Vancouver the classes had been conducted in the King Edward
High School. During the year the Provincial Government purchased the Labour Temple and is
now leasing it to the Vancouver School Board for use as a technical school. This building is a
very admirable one for the purpose. The move from King Edward School was made on March
1st and the Vancouver Technical School was formally opened by the Honourable the Minister of
Education on the afternoon of April 4th.
The Provincial Government presented the City of New Westminster with the building
formerly used as a gaol. The School Board of that city converted this into a very satisfactory
school, remodelling the interior of the building and installing an excellent heating system; thus
came into existence the T. J. Trapp Technical School.
The Municipality of South Vancouver is to be congratulated on its excellent new high school
built during the year. This building, which was named after the Premier of the Province,
contains twelve class-rooms, a large auditorium, and a number of smaller rooms. Classes started
work here on January 17th and taxed the capacity of the building to the limit. More class-room
accommodation will be imperative at the opening of school next year.
In some of the schools, more especially in the larger graded schools at the Coast, the work
of the classes shows improvement from year to year, but I am sorry to report that in many of
the smaller schools the standing of the classes is considerably below that of previous years.
There is much good teaching in many of these schools, but because of lax grading at the end
of the first or second year pupils come up to the higher classes who are unable to cope with the
difficulties which arise in the different subjects from day to day. These not only fail to grasp
the work themselves, but act as a drag on the whole class, and consequently the well-prepared
pupils suffer also. I am firmly convinced that if a high standard of high-school work is to be
reached and maintained in future, it will be necessary for teachers at least in the smaller schools
of the Province to ask their first- and second-year pupils to write the Departmental Examination.
I am informed that it is the intention of the Department to prepare papers for Preliminary and
Advanced Junior pupils. While principals will still have the privilege of grading these classes
if they so desire, I believe it will be the part of wisdom for them to require their pupils to
submit themselves to the Departmental test.
I have, etc.,
J. B. DeLong,
Inspector of High Schools. F 20 Public Schools Eeport. 1921
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 1.
; Victoria, B.C., September 2nd, 1921.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 1 for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1921:—
The year just closed showed a slow though steady growth in the number of children of
school age within the inspectorate, and with few exceptions the accommodation already provided
was ample. At Courtenay an eight-room frame building was erected and one division added to
the school; at Cumberland a four-room addition was erected and the staff increased by one
more teacher; McGuigan School was reopened; a third division was formed at Union Bay, the
old school-house being utilized to accommodate it.
With few exceptions, the districts in this inspectorate are well provided with excellent
school buildings and the children, as a rule, have no long distances to walk to school. From
the Tsolum allotments of the Merville Settlement the children were carried to school first by
motor-car and afterwards by team, but neither -method was satisfactory, as the children were
compelled to walk too great a distance over mud roads to the conveyance. The settlers on the
Dove Creek allotments were empowered to reopen the Nikrap School in their vicinity, but this
was not attempted during the year. Until the roads in this new area are completed and rendered
passable at all times of the year, it will be impossible to formulate any permanent plan for
the schooling of the children affected.
In passing around the various school districts I have found quite a demand for men as
principals of small graded schools—a demand that is impossible to satisfy because so few young
men view the calling of the teacher with any degree of favour. While complaint is heard of
unemployment and overcrowding of other callings, the schools continue undermanned, but I
believe many a recruit would be obtained if teachers would direct the attention of pupils and
students to the need for male teachers in our public schools.
Principals of schools advancing 60 per cent, of Entrance pupils to high school without
examination have not yet in all cases absorbed the spirit of the instruction governing this
matter. Whereas in the years before this plan of promotion was adopted a principal would
invariably purge the class of all certain failures before the day of examination, at present no
such elimination of certain failures appears to be undertaken before the 60 per cent, is
struck, and it is quite within the range of possibility that the 60 per cent, thus advanced upon
recommendation contains a greater number of scholars than would have been presented for
examination under conditions previously existing.
I found the class-work usually of a satisfactory character. A noted improvement within
recent years is the greater care displayed by teachers in placing work upon blackboards, and
a greater desire on their part to render the class-room more attractive through a more general
use of wall pictures and window plants.
I have, etc.,
W. H. M. May,
Inspector of Schools.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 2.
Victoria, B.C., August 31st, 1921.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith I beg to submit a general report on the condition of the public schools in
Inspectorate No. 2 for the school-year ending June 30th, 1921.
This inspectorial division comprises roughly the islands in the Gulf from Saturna to
Gabriola; the Municipalities of Oak Bay and Esquimau; the west coast of Vancouver Island
from Port Renfrew to Port Alice on Quatsino Sound; the territory from Highland to Jordan
River, and all that country extending north from Victoria along the Esquimau & Nanaimo Railway to Qualicum Beach, including the Cities of Duncan, Ladysmith, and Nanaimo. 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 21
In the unorganized portion of this territory there are fifty-nine ungraded schools; twelve
graded schools of two divisions each, four of three divisions, one of four divisions, and one of
nine, making forty-nine graded divisions in all. There are, therefore, 108 teachers engaged in
the unorganized portion of this inspectorate as at present constituted.
In the two suburban municipalities of Oak Bay and Esquimalt there are twenty-eight
divisions with twenty-nine teachers; in the former two schools with seven teachers in each, and
in the latter one large school with fifteen teachers. In the consolidated school at Duncan, to
which are drawn by motor-vans every school-day the children in the North Cowichan Municipality, with the exception of those at Chemainus, Crofton, and Genoa Bay, there are ten divisions,
with facilities for the teaching of domestic science and manual training for all pupils in the
Intermediate and Senior Grades of the elementary schools. The School Board also made provision for the teaching of these subjects to the pupils attending the graded school at Chemainus.
Mention is made here of the facilities provided for the teaching of these subjects for the reason
that outside of where consolidation has taken place there are very few rural children who
enjoy these advantages.
In the elementary schools of Ladysmith and Nanaimo there are thirty-seven divisions in
operation, eleven in the former and twenty-six in the latter, making a total in the whole
territory of 184 teachers.
With the exception of two schools on the west coast of Vancouver Island, neither of which
presents any difficulty in visiting, but very difficult to get away from inside of the loss of ten
days, I inspected and examined all the others once, a large proportion of them twice, and a
number three times.
During the school-year ending June 30th an assisted school was established and opened on
Thetis Island opposite Chemainus; also one at Mayo, on the Canadian Pacific Railway branch
line from Duncan to Cowichan Lake, about 9 miles from Duncan; an additional room was added
to the school at Errington and occupied in the month of October; while at Langford provision
for additional accommodation was made before the close of the school-year, and a second division
will be in operation there when the schools reopen in September. Early in September, 1920, the
crowded condition of the consolidated school at Harewood necessitated the opening of another
division, and a small cottage located on 2% acres recently purchased by the School Board was
fitted up as a temporary class-room and opened early in October. The teaching staff both at
Duncan and Nanaimo was added to at the commencement of the present calendar year to meet
the increased enrolment.
At this particular stage permit me to be reminiscent for a paragraph. It is now sixteen
years since I inspected and examined the schools in this territory. In the rural portions the
school buildings of that day are gone. The small rural schools with one teacher, such as North
Cedar, Chase River, Harewood, Extension, and Parksville, are now replaced by modern buildings
of from two to nine divisions; while in places like Cassidy, Diamond Crossing, Brechin, and
Errington, with two and three divisions, there were no settlements at all. On the islands in the
Gulf, from Saturna to Gabriola, the number of schools has been increased, but in a number of
instances the cause of education would have been much better served had there been schools of
two or more divisions established instead of multiplying the number of one-roomed schools.
While there is noticeable a decided improvement in the character of the buildings, equipment,
apparatus, and general facilities for carrying on the work of instruction, much still remains to
be done in improving and beautifying the grounds. Much, however, has been accomplished along
all these lines. The children of to-day, generally speaking, are comfortably housed and very
happy in their surroundings and in their school-work. There is little or no coercion. The
relations between teacher and pupils are amicable, cordial, and natural. Nearly all schools are
the happiest of homes.
The increasing number of teachers without experience and the lack of continuity of tenure
in our rural schools have been deplored in many annual reports. The recent graduates of our
Normal Schools must get their experience somewhere and in some schools, and until School
Boards in all instances pay a sufficiently attractive salary our young teachers must in self-
defence continue, after the manner of their detractors and defamers, to sell their product in the
best available market.
The great factor in our public-school education after all is the man or woman behind the
teacher's desk.   The personality of the teacher is the great national asset, next to which come ■
.
F 22
Public Schools Report.
1921
in importance the interest, sympathy, and co-operation of the community. Considering the
apathy and indifference of many of the communities, the educational progress of the children,
whose sole inspiration is the young lady teacher, with an occasional stimulus contributed by a
sympathetic mother here and there, is nothing less than marvellous.
Let me conclude my. report with an extract from a recent magazine article:—
"Education used to be regarded as a philanthropy. Charitable schools cast their turbid
shadow on mid-Victorian literature. It was a form of charity which was withheld as far as
possible from the working-classes, lest it make them restless and dissatisfied, and was given out
only in quantities which were expected to add to the usefulness but not to the ambition of the
lower ranks of society. Deniocracy"has discredited education as a philanthropy and recognized
it as the right of every potential citizen, the only insurance against the anarchy of ignorance,
and the sole safeguard of the institutions of a free people.
" The public schools offer to all the children of Canada the opportunity to prepare for
citizenship together—the rich and the poor, those with long traditions of culture and those with
long traditions of toil—in the atmosphere and under the inspiration of the community institution.
No money can return larger dividends in real accomplishment than that added to the budget
of our public schools; nor can any community interest more certainly strengthen the best
elements in our civilization than that devoted to the improvement of the public education."
There is a moral responsibility laid upon every citizen not only to work for the betterment,
but to contribute his quota of money and service to the strengthening and improvement of every
community institution devoted to the public service. The day of exelnsivism is past and that
of public service and co-operation, let us hope, has succeeded.
In concluding a review of last year's work, perhaps the most agreeable in my experience,
permit me to express my appreciation of the unfailing courtesy and kindness extended to me by
all with whom it was my privilege to transact business connected with educational work in
this inspectorate.
I have, etc.,
A. C. Stewart,
Inspector of Schools.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 3.
Vancouver, B.C., September 2nd, 1921.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 3 for the school-
year ended June 30th, 1921:—
Inspectorate No. 3 comprised eleven Coast schools, extending from Gibson Landing to Pender
Harbour, the public schools of the Rural Municipality of Richmond, and the following public
schools in Vancouver City: Aberdeen, Beaconfield, Bayview, Children's Home (Grenfell),
Dawson, Charles Dickens, Hastings, Kitsilano, Mount Pleasant, Macdonald, and Strathcona.
This inspectorate comprised 173 class-rooms at the beginning of the school-year, but before
the end of February ten additional classes were organized in the city schools mentioned above.
One visit of inspection was made to each of the 183 class-rooms involved, and as far as time
permitted a second visit was made to rural schools. Some rural districts were visited the third
and fourth time in connection with special business.
One outstanding feature in connection with school-work during the year under review was
the shortage of suitable accommodation. School Boards have faced the situation with courage
and determination, but their repeated efforts to secure adequate funds have been defeated by a
section of ratepayers who are apparently determined to allow the efficiency of our schools to
suffer. The burden of taxation necessary during the reconstruction period through which we
are now passing has led to the repeated defeat of by-laws by which Trustee Boards sought to
secure means that would provide suitable accommodation so urgently needed. 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 23
The voters who defeated the school by-laws may have succeeded in avoiding a slight increase
in taxes, but they have also been eminently successful in increasing the burdens of the teachers,
in causing great anxiety to interested parents, and in taxing the ingenuity of those immediately
connected with school administration.
Undoubtedly we are passing through times when economy should be practised to the utmost;
but this policy of curtailment is not one of wise economy. There were over 1,400 children working on part-time system and thereby receiving only a portion of the instruction and development
to which they are entitled. By this curtailment of privileges probably 250 of these children will
have to repeat a term's work, thus adding a half-year to the period of their school-life. Primary
teachers are severely handicapped by the part-time system. Then, too, we should remember
that it can hardly be regarded as good business to pay two teachers for a full day's work when
it is known that they are working under conditions that permit of the production of only half
a day's results, no matter how strenuously the teacher may labour.
The building programme for the year was restricted and inadequate, as it provides only
for immediate requirements. In the rural districts two one-room buildings were erected, one
at Pender Harbour and the other at Sechelt. In Richmond a frame building was provided on
Sea Island for an Oriental class, and provision was made for a two-room frame building of
modern construction at Steveston. At the Strathcona School in Vancouver City an old brick
building which had been condemned was torn down, and a new eight-room building erected
largely from material obtained from the old structure. This building occupies a large area as
it is a one-story type. Provision was made for a full basement which will be urgently required
for play purposes, as the grounds at this school are altogether too small for the large number
of pupils attending. When this new building is opened, four classes, that for over two years
have occupied rooms in the attic which were dangerous and unsanitary fire-traps, will have
suitable quarters.
In order to cope with exigencies imposed by financial stress produced by the war the
Vancouver Board has decided to provide a number of cottage class-rooms. Provision has been
made for one-room buildings at Aberdeen and Bayview, and two-room buildings at Dawson,
Hastings, Mount Pleasant, and Macdonald. If these new buildings are ready for occupation
when the schools reopen, all classes will be comfortably provided for at the beginning of the
new school-year; but part-time classes will again be necessary in February unless more
accommodation is provided in the meantime.
The adoption of the cottage system, occupying as it does so much ground-space, is destroying
the usefulness of the playgrounds and detracting from their appearance. In this respect the
Aberdeen, Dawson, Macdonald, and Strathcona Schools are at present the most severely
handicapped.
The past year has been one of earnest endeavour by the great majority of our teachers.
Intense application and enthusiasm did much to overcome the disadvantages incident to lack of
suitable accommodation. There is at present a decided forward movement in the educational
world. Teachers as a rule are displaying keen interest in the welfare of the children placed
under their care. The adoption of project methods and socialized efforts are demanding more
and more attention. Actuated by a spirit of greater service and a desire to increase their own
efficiency, a large number of our teachers are attending summer schools, and taking special
courses during the summer vacations in Washington and in California, as well as in our own
Province.
I was also impressed with the amount of reading that teachers are doing in connection with
newer movements along educational lines. Among the writers that seem to receive most consideration are: Adams, Bagley, Cubberly, Dewey, Home, James, Judd, Monroe, Starch, Strayer,
Suzzalo, and Whipple. The spirit of curiosity and a desire to be more humanitarian are leading
to a careful study of the investigations of Binet, Ballard, Termen, and Anderson; and a desire
to render more efficient service and to ascertain to what degree their efforts are up to standard
has popularized such names as Curtis, Otis, Woody, Ayres, etc.
On some the effect of all this reading is disquieting and creates a feeling of dissatisfaction.
Many are being benefited, but realize that a royal road to learning has not yet been discovered;
that it is still the teacher's duty to study, work, and arouse the child's interest; that the pupils
must be led to cultivate, among other good habits, accuracy and the power to make intense
application.   We have some earnest and conscientious teachers who believe in rapid and radical F 24
Public Schools Report.
1921
changes; they are overanxious to labour in the " schools of to-morrow." Energy and enthusiasm
for the new make them so impatient with much that now exists in the present system of
education, and they fail to realize that some things are basic and thus essential in all ages.
To such teachers I would suggest a careful reading of P. Monroe's " History of Education,"
with special attention to the last chapter.
Salaries.
I am pleased to note the salary increases of the past year. The teachers in both the city
and the municipality have appreciated this liberal treatment; in the outlying districts your
Department has acted both wisely and generously.
No better way of reaching and maintaining a high salary level is within reach of teachers
than consistent effort for a higher standard of achievement. Evidently most of our teachers
are already deserving, as evinced by preceding paragraphs. However, for the sake of the few
teachers who do not recognize the signs of the time, let me quote one writer's opinion:—
" Educational outputs are not to be measured like those of factories; it is the quality, not
the amount, of manhood and citizenship that counts. The teacher on her part will command
respect in due proportion to her efficiency and the quality of her work. And as she convinces
the community of her worth and her labour so she will receive an adequate financial return.
It is time, we think, to cease shouting the rights of teachers from the housetops and to merit
the present increased salaries by sheer efficiency. The agitator who would have teachers reduce
the superintendent's authority and check the legal prerogatives of the School Board had better
get back to her text-book and supplement her last year's lesson-book with some freshly gathered
teaching wisdom."
Any salary policy of School Boards who have the welfare of their communities at heart
must decidedly rule out the consideration of reductions in salaries and of discontinuance of the
stated increases provided in existing schedules. In some communities adjustments of schedules
must be made in the direction of higher maximums for special merit and experience. And there
are numbers of smaller communities which are still below a fair schedule that will hold teachers
from going to adjoining towns only by further increase. I am pleased to report that some of the
assisted schools, where boundaries are defined, have decided to increase the teachers' salaries.
Helpful Organizations.
To those engaged iu educational work it is encouraging to find that the public at large is
displaying an increasing interest in educational work. This has been shown by the actions of
various clubs, chapters of the I.O.D.E., and Parent-Teacher Associations. Certain chapters of
the I.O.D.E. have supplied some schools with milk for children whose physical condition required
special attention. One I.O.D.E. chapter supplied over ninety volumes to start a library in one
of the COast schools situated about 30 miles from the city. The happiness and information
derived by the pupils of that favoured and favourite locality was to the teacher, before she left
the district, ample reward for the efforts she had made in the matter; but many who helped in
the good work can only hear of the delight, pleasure, and profit brought to those isolated children
by so many books rich in picture and story. The Parent-Teacher Associations have encouraged
many teachers; they have assisted in enlarging libraries and provided funds to purchase the
copy or provide frames for many of the good pictures that now adorn the walls of nearly all
our schools. The work of a foster Parent-Teacher Association for the Children's Home School
is deserving of mention.
The school as much as the home needs co-operative effort such as expressed in those
organizations. And the large city school needs it more than small schools in the town or rural
district. It has been well said by an educator: " There is no other co-operative agency so much
needed by the home. There never was a time when the need was so great for intimate connection
between home and school as at present. The conditions of modern life are so complex, opportunities for good and evil are so numerous, the occupations of the home are so meagre unless
they are related to the school, and the work of the school is so abstract unless it has a practical
outcome in the home that it is imperative for parents and teachers to get together." 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 25
School-work.
As to the charge that our schools are overrun with novelties, what shall we say?
Unfortunately a casual -survey of elementary education seems to bear out the charge. There
certainly are a host of new things being tried on children these days. To mention a few, there
are the prevocational school, the all-year school, supervised study, socialized recitations, project
method, standard tests, the Dalton plan, etc.
The general blanket excuse for all these novelties is that progress means change, that only
by trying out new ideas can we judge of their value, and thereby ensure the advancement of
the school toward higher efficiency. Undoubtedly it is true that progress means change, but
change does not necessarily mean progress. There is such a thing as change for the worse,
and it is possible to have too many and too radical changes. In other words, no educational
experiment can be justified merely on the ground that it is different and therefore means
progress. On the other hand, without experiments we cannot know the real worth of new
things in education, or whether their adoption will spell progress. So thoughtful educational
administrators are face to face with a dilemma: they cannot progress without experimenting,
and they cannot experiment without running the risk of overdoing it. They can, however, learn
much from the experiences and results obtained by overardent experimentors, and experiments
can be tried on a scale that will not upset an established system. A recent survey of educational
matters in a large neighbouring city found that some recent experiments did not stand for
progress and one of the novelties was discarded as worthless. Nevertheless, from some of these
novelties we are gaining useful information which will assist in readjusting the curriculum and
in introducing methods that will more effectively meet the requirements of rapidly changing
social and psychological conditions.
In the graded schools the work of the primary classes is conducted with skill and energy
and in a highly successful manner. There is, however, a tendency to lower the standing in
spelling. To my mind the general standing of First and Second Reader classes is not satisfactory; and the eighteen-month period spent in covering this section of elementary school-work
cannot be regarded as a period productive of adequate results. That this portion of the
prescribed course can be performed satisfactorily and efficiently is demonstrated by the work
of several capable teachers; but many teachers doing this work are weak and lacking vision.
How came they to this particular work which is generally regarded as requiring less skill or
effort than that required to teach successfully any other portion of the Public School Course?
Among them are many teachers who could not come up to the high standards required by a
capable primary supervisor, and others who, having neither ability nor aptitude for higher work,
failed as Intermediate or Senior Grade teachers. It is true that some of those weak teachers
who are doing this work get good results in spelling, reading, and drawing; they even succeed
in getting their pupils to memorize the multiplication tables, but they fail to develop number-
power ; they do not introduce geography properly nor continue the good work already started
in oral and written composition in primary classes. A supervisor for this period of work is
required in order that there may be more uniformity of purpose and that work of a higher
standard may be attained. Then pupils upon entering the Intermediate Grade will be better
equipped to meet the difficulties peculiar to that grade. Proper supervision during this period
would also save many young teachers from failure and render unnecessary some painful
dismissals.
Generally speaking, there has been an improvement in the work of Intermediate Grade
teachers. The first year's work in this grade is arduous; it requires skill, patience, and careful
preparation on the part of the teacher. Much of this burden would be removed if we had better
work in the latter part of the previous grade.
As a rule the work of the Senior Grade is satisfactory. There is, however, in some schools
a tendency toward less exact information on the part of the pupil. Some teachers attempt to
justify this on the ground that the pupils are gaining a broader information. This may be so,
but there is danger of this broad information having a shallowness akin to veneer.
It may be regarded as an open question whether principals of city schools should have the
privilege of promoting all their Entrance pupils to high school without Departmental Examinations;   or whether they should recommend a percentage as is done in large rural municipality F 26
Public Schools Report.
1921
schools? Most of our principals are using good judgment in this matter, but I have grave
doubts regarding the fitness for higher work of some of the pupils recommended from some
classes.
Since the return of the drawing supervisor there has been a decided improvement in
connection with this subject. Nature-studies are a source of worry and doubt to many anxious
and conscientious teachers. In composition-work the average results are rather discouraging.
Our senior pupils do not, as a whole, display ability in criticizing intelligently their own written
work; too many expect the teacher to discover and mark errors in spelling and omissions in
punctuation.
I have, etc.,
J. T. Pollock,
Inspector of Schools.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 4.
Vancouver, B.C., September 2nd, 1921.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 4
for the school-year ended June 30th, 1921 :•—
The following schools comprised this inspectorial district: Public schools in the Rural
Municipalities of Maple Ridge; Mission (with rural and assisted schools adjacent); Pitt
Meadows; and the Cecil Rhodes, Franklin, Florence Nightingale, General Gordon, Grandview,
Laura Secord, Livingstone, Model, Seymour, Simon Fraser, and Lord Tennyson Schools in
Vancouver City. The total number of class-rooms, including both rural and urban schools,
was 189. One visit of inspection was made to each division in the city schools, while two
visits of inspection were made to each division in the rural municipality and rural and assisted
schools. In addition to the regular visits of inspection, a considerable number of special visits
were made to the rural districts in connection with the various questions of organization,
consolidation, and school administration generally.
During the school-year under review an assisted school was established at McConnell Creek,
in the Dewdney Electoral District, and the Rural School District of Dewdney was incorporated
with the Mission Municipality School District. The Senior and Intermediate Grade pupils of
the Dewdney District are now conveyed daily by motor-van to and from the Mission Central
School.
All credit is due to the progressive citizens of Dewdney and Mission Districts, who at
a time when all schemes of consolidating schools were meeting with defeat in neighbouring
municipalities were courageous and public-spirited enough to adopt a policy that cannot fail
to provide superior facilities for the education of the children of the district.
In many respects the work of inspection during the year has been carried on much in the
same way as in the year previous. There is little to recount that has not already been written
and rewritten in reports of this character.
There is one dark and disturbing feature of our work that we cannot escape. I refer again
to the cruel overcrowding of our children in the public schools. The old woman who lived with
her numerous progeny in a shoe had large, spacious, and luxurious quarters compared to those
in which thousands of benighted children spend their hours: of school.
This theme has been given so much attention of late, both in the press and on the platform,
that there is no need to make any lengthy reference to It here. To argue that under existing
conditions the intellectual progress of the pupils is not being retarded is to give vent to mere
sophistry, and to state that the health and physical well-being of these children are not being
impaired is to ignore the inexorable laws of a universe whose maker and builder is God.
As reports on each division of every school included in this inspectorate have been forwarded
from time to time during the school-year, it would be vain repetition to make any detailed
reference to the actual work observed in the class-rooms. In concluding this brief and general
report, I shall therefore refer very briefly merely to one or two features of the work in general. 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 27
In striking and most pleasing contrast to the discouraging difficulties under which the work
was so often carried on was the splendid spirit displayed by the great majority of our teachers
in both rural and urban communities. As it has been spoken of the pioneers of Canada that
their courage rose with peril, so it may be said of our public-school teachers that they have
risen bravely, cheerfully, and uncomplainingly to meet every situation, however beset with
difficulties.
In the primary classes of the Junior Grade in the Vancouver City Schools very excellent
work was accomplished in some cases. This work is under the supervision of a special supervisor. At the end of the fall term it was possible in many schools to promote a considerable
number of pupils from the Receiving class direct to Second Primer, thereby saving a half-year
at school. In one case at the Cecil Rhodes School it was found possible and advisable to
promote two supernormal Receiving class pupils direct to First Reader, thus saving for these
pupils a whole year of public-school life.
This instance, I believe, affords an argument in favour of the introduction and stressing
of standardized tests and mental measurements in our schools. It is my opinion that, if
opportunity were given for the application and scoring of such tests as Whipple, for instance,
has designed and prepared for the segregating of gifted, accelerated, or supernormal children
as they are variously termed, a radical change would follow in the grading and classification in
our schools. These accelerated pupils would be separated from the normal children as the
subnormal pupils have been and would be given work commensurable with their abilities.
In the visiting of schools in various parts of this Province for the past ten years the
conviction has been growing upon me that in the work of the elementary school sufficient stress
is not being laid upon what are usually termed the essentials. Our Public School Curriculum
includes many branches of study. For Entrance to High School pupils are examined in eleven
subjects. In addition to these, we have manual training, domestic science, physical drill, music,
and school-gardening, all of which are necessary and fulfil an important function in the education
of the child.
In arithmetic lack of accuracy and of speed in ordinary computations and calculations is
common to all classes and grades of public schools. In testing Intermediate and Senior Grade
classes particularly, I have met with surprisingly poor results.
In the primary grades in rural schools objects are not used sufficiently in order to assist
the pupils to grasp clear concrete ideas of number. Number is too often taught in the abstract
only. Even in schools where the combinations and separations have been well taught in the
Primer classes—and this applies to city schools as well—and the extensions of the same have
been taught and tables builded in the First Reader, a weakness develops in the Second Reader
class for the simple reason that the work of the previous grades is abruptly, dropped and never
by any chance reviewed. I find a tendency, all too common in the large graded schools of the
city, for the teacher to " stick to her limit" and to refrain religiously from reviewing the work
that preceded her " limit." In a subject such as arithmetic such a policy is fatal. The retentive
powers of the children are not strong, and no matter how well foundational work in arithmetic
may have been taught by the previous teacher a lasting impression cannot be made upon the
conscious mind unless there is careful and periodical review. In the Intermediate Grade the
denominate numbers are not well taught. Here again there is lack of concreteness. To get
clear concepts of these things the children must be shown the meaning of and the necessity for
the various units of measurement, and they must be set to work to measure things, to make
actual .measurements, and to compute and to calculate the result of their individual observations.
In the Senior Grade there is far too much time spent on written problems and far too little time
given to mental calculations. Assign to the average Senior Grade class a difficult problem on
a certain page of their arithmetic, and probably 90 per cent, of the class will work it out
beautifully. Assign to the same class the problem of computing the area of a city lot, and
answers will vary from almost zero to hundreds of thousands of acres!
Under the caption of English I would, of course, include Reading, Literature, Grammar,
Composition, and Spelling. If there is one thing more than another that requires stressing in
our public schools, it is surely the study of English. The necessity for the development of
language-power must be impressed upon every teacher in the land. The power of expression,
both oral and written, attained by our pupils leaves much to be desired.
There are several reasons possibly for the rather low standing in English in rural schools
particularly.    Too often in such schools the teacher's training in English has been limited.    A much more extensive and intensive course in English for teachers-in-training should be insisted
upon. Libraries should be installed in every school in the land, so that both teachers and pupils
could have access to " whole treasures of wisdom, bright gems of thought, and golden veins
of language."
Too often the pupils get little or no opportunity for discussion. Practically all the recognized
talking is done by the teachers. In schools where dramatization methods are employed in
teaching history and literature, and where socialized methods are in vogue whereby pupils take
the main part in the discussions, one finds language-power developed to a high degree.
In concluding this report, I should like to refer very briefly to the convention of the Fraser
Valley Teachers' Institute held last November at Mission, in this inspectorial district. For a
number of years past the public- and high-school teachers of the Municipalities of Maple Ridge,
Mission, Matsqui, and Sumas have held a convention at Mission City in November of each year.
The success which has always attended this convention has been due largely to the enthusiasm
and untiring efforts of the Mission high- and public-school teachers. A particularly successful
convention was held last November. Some very able and helpful addresses were given and
papers read by visiting teachers from Vancouver and Victoria.
The teachers in these rural municipalities take the keenest interest in this institute and
receive help and inspiration from the various discussions. In a previous report I have suggested
that an institute day might be set aside each school-year for the holding in different portions
of the Province gatherings of this kind.
I have, etc.,
j H. H. Mackenzie,
Inspector of ScJiools.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 5.
Vancouver, B.C., August 30th, 1921.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Educatiaon, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 5 for
the school-year ended June 30th, 1921:—
This inspectorate comprises the following schools in Vancouver City: Alexandra, Central,
Fairview, Henry Hudson, Lord Nelson, Lord Roberts, and School for the Blind; also those in
Point Grey Rural Municipality, ten schools in and near Powell River, and the Provincial Oral
School.
For various reasons the character of the teaching in the Vancouver schools is well above
the average; nearly all the teachers had proved their worth elsewhere before they were
appointed to the city staff; they are assisted by a number of supervisors who are specialists
in their own departments; all are directed by a very capable, efficient, and conscientious Municipal
Inspector. But the progress of the pupils depends upon more than the training, ability, and
devotion of their teachers and supervisors. Many pupils are retarded by circumstances over
which the individual teacher has no control. The ratepayers still refuse to vote the necessary
money for school accommodation to meet the increase in school attendance, and therefore the
evils of part-time tuition and overcrowded class-rooms continue. Many parents take little
intelligent interest in the education of their children. Many children are addicted to the moving-
picture habit, with its late hours and unhealthy excitement, and have to some extent lost the
power of becoming interested in mere books and oral instruction. In a few schools the principals
do not spend enough time on the " supervision over the classification, time-tables, exercises,
methods, and general discipline pursued in the lower grades." But on the whole the progress
of the pupils, particularly in the primary grades, seems to compare very favourably with the
progress made in other places.
For some years good work has been done in Vancouver by psychologically testing the younger
pupils to detect the ones who are subnormal; these are removed from the ordinary class-rooms
and taught in special classes. Not only is the ordinary class no longer retarded by their presence,
but the subnormal children themselves make much better progress, attempting only subjects
within their mental powers, and taught by teachers specially selected and trained for this work. 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 29
It is to be hoped that public opinion will soon permit the School Board's psychologists to undertake a more important phase of their work—the selection of the supernormal pupils and their
segregation into special classes. These pupils are at present retarded by being subjected to
methods of teaching and a rate of class-progress necessarily planned for the more numerous
normal pupils, retarded in much the same way as the normal formerly were by being taught with
the subnormal. The progress and training of the supernormal pupil is of far greater importance
than that of the subnormal, because it is from that class the leaders of the next generation should
come.
In 1920 the public schools of Point Grey closed for the midsummer holidays with thirty-
eight divisions and reopened with forty-eight; four more were opened during the school-year.
To accommodate the new classes two modern fire-proof school-houses were completed, while two
others are now under construction, one of which will be ready for use in September. The ratepayers continue to vote money for the further construction which will be necessary to cope with
the rapidly increasing school population, part of which is doubtless attracted to Point Grey by
the excellence of its schools and school buildings.
The Powell River School has grown during the year from five divisions to seven, and two
class-rooms were added to the main building. The district is to be congratulated upon having
a School Board which does not permit the question of salary to stand in the way of obtaining a
good teacher. All supplies needed were also generously granted. The results obtained in the
school were very satisfactory during the year under review and should be even better during the
coming year.
A division was closed at Vananda and a school was opened at Stillwater.
At the beginning of the school-year the Oral School was taken over from the Vancouver
School Board by the Provincial Government and housed temporarily in the Shaughnessy School
Building; it will soon be moved into a permanent and more suitable home. The outstanding
feature of the instruction in this modern school for the deaf is that the pupils are not taught
to converse with their fingers, but are taught lip-reading and audible speech. The progress
made by the children in this art is remarkable, particularly in the principal's own class.
I  have, etc.,
Leslie J. Bruce,
; Inspector of Schools.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 6.
Vancouver, B.C., August 31st, 1921.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report on the public schools in Inspectorate No. 6 for the
school-year 1920-21.
The inspectorate comprises all the public schools in the City of Port Moody and the Municipality of South Vancouver; the assisted schools on Burrard Inlet, Howe Sound, and the schools
on the Pacific Great Eastern as far north as Seton Lake. The number of class-rooms in the
inspectorate during the year was 181.
In September, 1920, the schools of South Vancouver opened with 152 teachers engaged and
an enrolment of 6,286. In February, 1921, there was an increase of seven teachers and 172
pupils. The Gordon School was opened in February with eight divisions in operation. This
relieved the overcrowding at the Mackenzie and Tecumseh Schools. A four-room addition is
being constructed at the Richard McBride School and a four-room frame building is being
erected at the General Brock School. This building programme promises to care for the increase
in school population for the coming year at least.
In the outlying parts of the inspectorate a new four-room building is being constructed by
the Government on the new townsite at loco. The trustees of Sunnyside No. 2 School District
are enlarging the present small building and making it more comfortable for the children.
The High School Entrance Examination results this year indicate that the Course of Study
is being closely followed and a high percentage of the candidates sitting for the examination
were successful.    In the Municipality of South Vancouver 196 candidates were promoted by F 30
Public Schools Report.
1921
recommendation. One hundred and fifty pupils sat for the examination and eighty-nine were
successful. Two schools that were not entitled, under departmental regulations, to promote by
recommendation sent up twenty-three candidates and passed them all. These two schools,
Secord and Sexsmith, are deserving of special mention owing to the high standard of marks
obtained by their candidates. In the rural part of the inspectorate the results were quite
satisfactory, although not equal to the standard obtained by the larger graded schools.
In this report I must express my appreciation of the valuable work that is being carried on
by Miss A. T. G. Reid, primary supervisor in the municipal schools of South Vancouver. Her
helpful criticism, careful organization, and the splendid co-operation she has secured from the
primary teachers have resulted in increased efficiency on the part of the teachers and a most
satisfactory decrease in the number of retarded pupils in the Primer .classes. A creditable
improvement has resulted in the handling of all subjects, particularly number-work, penmanship,
and spelling.
The prizes for excellence in physical training under the Strathcona Trust Fund were awarded
as follows:—
First—Miss H. R. Anderson, 2nd Division, Lord Selkirk School, South Vancouver.
Second—Mrs.   Hazel   H.   Jex,   5th   Division,   Sir   Alexander Mackenzie School, South
Vancouver.
Third—Mr. Geo. Wate, 1st Division, Secord School, South Vancouver.
A change in the method of carrying on the physical drill has been instituted in a number of
the schools. The drill takes place at a given time, when all the divisions march to the playground. The principal supervises the drill carried on by the staff and handles the larger boys.
I find the plan a good one and it is working out quite satisfactorily. The period is also utilized
for games, open-air action-songs, etc.
Regular reports on the school-work of each teacher have been forwarded to your office from
time to time and it is unnecessary to make further comments in this report. The greater part
of my inspectorate is in the larger centres and the educational facilities are of the best to be
obtained. Trained and successful teachers are given the preference in selecting new members
to the different staffs. The careless, indifferent teacher finds that she must give a satisfactory
return or retire. This tends to add strength to the staff and increased efficiency from year to
year. Many of the teachers are availing themselves of the opportunity to become more proficient
and modern in their methods by attending the University summer school here or in the United
States. The summer school in Victoria is doing valuable work in training teachers in the
practical part of teaching by giving them assistance in subjects such as drawing, manual-arts,
penmanship, and nature-study. That these courses commend themselves to the teachers and that
they spend their vacation in self-improvement indicate the high plane on which the greater
number of the teachers place their profession.
I have, etc.,
John Martin,
Inspector of Schools.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 7.
Vancouver, B.C., September 10th, 1921.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 7 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1921:—
This inspectorate embraces all the public schools in the Cities of North Vancouver and Port
Coquitlam; the Rural Municipalities of Burnaby, Coquitlam, Delta, Kent, North Vancouver, and
West Vancouver; and the rural schools in the vicinity of Hope and those on the Coast from
Lund to Cape Scott.   There are in all seventy-five schools with a staff of 192 teachers.
With the exception of a few schools in the vicinity of Alert Bay, every class-room received
one inspection during the year. I was assigned to this inspectorate in October and began the
work of inspection early in November. Time did not therefore permit of a second visit to any
of these schools. 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 31
Owing to increased attendance a number of class-rooms were overcrowded. This condition
prevailed especially in North Vancouver City, Burnaby, and West Vancouver. The Boards
succeeded in providing relief by securing temporary quarters, but where this was not possible
certain Junior classes were placed on " double-shift"—a system that has proven very
unsatisfactory.
The ratepayers of Burnaby carried with a large majority a money by-law making provision
for a four-room building at Kingsway West, a similar one at Edmonds, and a four-room addition
at Nelson Avenue. These are now in the course of construction. When completed they should
provide ample accommodation for that rapidly growing section of the municipality. A money
by-law providing for a central school in West Vancouver failed to carry, although West
Vancouver is in urgent need of more accommodation. In North Vancouver Municipality the
Board has completed a splendid four-room brick structure at Lynn Valley.
In Kent Municipality consolidation has been in effect for over a year. The pupils from
the outlying rural districts are conveyed in motor-vans to the town school. The plan is working
well and there is no desire on the part of those concerned to revert to the old order of things.
In the Delta consolidation is being discussed. It is to be hoped that this municipality, where
conditions are ideal for such a plan, will not long delay making provision for its inauguration.
The Entrance Examinations in June were conducted at seventeen centres. The results on
the whole proved quite satisfactory. In the larger schools where pupils were promoted on
recommendation the principals exercised careful discretion. The Governor-General's bronze
medal for the district was awarded to Miss Mildred May Townley, of Kingsway West School,
Burnaby.    Miss Townley also won distinction by obtaining the highest mark for the Province.
The prizes for excellence in physical drill this year were awarded as follows:—
First—Miss M. Simmons, 7th Division, Kingsway West.
Second—Mr. J. Burnett, 4th Division, Gilmore Avenue.
Third—Miss Morrow, 3rd Division, Kingsway West.
The work in the schools throughout the year was very satisfactory. The great majority
v of the teachers are earnest, capable, and most painstaking in their efforts. Any suggestions
made were generally received in the same kindly spirit in which they were given. The teachers
generally showed a splendid disposition to co-operate in any recommendations suggested for the
betterment of their class-room work. The attitude of the teachers as a whole was most praiseworthy. There are a few, however, in the profession whose work, even when viewed in the most
kindly and sympathetic light, could not be considered as even fair. These people would be
happier in some other vocation.
In concluding, I wish to testify to the earnest and unselfish service rendered by members of
School Boards. They are to be commended for the sacrifice they make in giving, gratis, many
hours of their valuable time to serve their community. Their work has not been easy. Their
hands have been tied, as it were, by the taxpayer, reluctant to vote sufficient money with which
to carry on the work. While Boards have been handicapped and while teachers have not always
found conditions under which they laboured most pleasant, yet it is to be hoped that as this
year of reconstruction passes away a brighter future lies before us.
I have, etc.,
F. G. Calvert,
Inspector of Schools.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 8.
New Westminster, B.C., August, 31st, 1921.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 8 for the year 1920-21.
This inspectorate comprises the schools of New Westminster, of Chilliwack, and of the Rural
Municipalities of Surrey, Langley, Matsqui, Sumas, and Chilliwack; Abbotsford Superior School;
and the assisted schools of Barnston Island. Cultus Lake, and Popcum. The number of rooms
in operation during the year increased from 179 to 187; 75 of these are in New Westminster
and Chilliwack and the remainder in rural schools. ■
F 32 Public Schools Report. 1921
Besides making a number of special visits in connection with various details of organization
and administration, I was able to make one complete inspection of the work in all but two of
these schools, and in cases where circumstances demanded I have made two or more inspections
during the year. Meetings of teachers', parent-teachers', and farmers' associations in New
Westminster, Chilliwack, Abbotsford, Rosedale, Cloverdale, and elsewhere have been attended
and all possible assistance given in discussions on educational matters, and from time to time
I have been present at the regular meetings of Trustee Boards.
The most urgent problem in these rural areas is still that of providing school accommodation,
and a total increase of eight rooms in this inspectorate by no means indicates the real increase
in the number of children of school age, many classes having been seriously overcrowded during
the year. Owing to the defeat of by-laws to provide large consolidated schools in Surrey,
Langley, and Chilliwack, the School Boards have been reduced to such temporary expedients as
" double-shifts," renting disused stores and buildings, and half-time attendance, to the serious
inconvenience and detriment of educational work. Some alleviation of the situation may be
expected during the coming school-year in Surrey and Chilliwack, where the acceptance of
moderate building schemes will, at any rate, relieve these Boards of the necessity of turning away
children. And yet these schemes are purely tentative; they are not in line with modern educational ideas, and the normal growth of school population will in a very few years render further
extensions necessary. The mere addition of a second room to an overcrowded one-room school
cannot be regarded as more than a temporary makeshift, especially where the location of schools
and child population and the condition of the roads make feasible a system of better grading by
means of local consolidation. It is to be regretted that these otherwise well-informed and
enlightened rural communities have so far failed to put themselves in line with any advanced
and progressive educational policy so far as school buildings and organization are concerned.
Ambitious and costly schemes are not called for; in these days of high prices a carefully
designed, well-equipped frame building will meet all requirements; but since accommodation
must be provided, should we not demand that buildings conform with modern ideas rather than
resurrect the type of structure that satisfied our fathers and our grandfathers? Luxuri6us barns
for cattle, up-to-date silos, demonstrations of electrical appliances for farm-work, are shown at
agricultural exhibitions; but why not include exhibits of a model school building, a relief-map
of a consolidated-school district, auto-vans for transportation of the children, charts demonstrating comparative costs and efficiency? Included might also be a specimen van-driver (non-
smoker, abstainer, and thoroughly trustworthy), medical statistics showing liability to disease
of children riding as compared with those trudging on foot, mortality tables showing deaths
(if any) from accidents to vans en route, etc. A whole-hearted campaign of publicity and
enlightenment is needed, backed by the most liberal financial inducement to those districts that
will adopt and pel-severe with an advanced and progressive policy. Of all men, the Fraser
Valley farmer understands the value of co-operative and up-to-date methods in his farming and
marketing operations, though conviction probably came as a result of bitter experience and a
tedious and costly campaign; he is equally open to conviction in school matters, and he will
become just as loyal and enthusiastic a supporter of such methods in education once he is convinced of their value; his distrust of an education which drove the ambitious country child into
the city has not yet been replaced by the knowledge that the best in modern education tends to
bring the child back to the land.
Turning to actual work in the schools, detailed reports have been regularly forwarded and
only one or two salient features need be referred to here. In the ungraded and partially graded
schools of country districts—as reported last year—the work attains a surprisingly high level
when account is taken of the difficulties under which it is carried on; in two respects there
appears to be an improvement over work previously done—the ever present problems of organization and grading are being more effectively dealt with, and many teachers are making a more
deliberate and conscious effort to establish the oneness of life inside and outside of the school
and to utilize the child's home and out-of-school experiences and activities as the basis for
training. Incidentally it may be remarked that considerably larger proportion of children from
the one- and two-room schools were successful in the High School Entrance Examinations this
year. There were in these schools fewer staff changes than heretofore, and it is satisfactory to
note an increasing desire to secure the services of the more highly qualified teachers rather than
of those possessing the minimum professional standing.    During the last year or so a number of 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 33
university graduates, particularly those of our own University, have engaged in public-school
work. This is a welcome sign, for many of these young graduates bring to their duties a wide
range of interests, intellectual keenness, a broad outlook and sympathy, as well as readiness to
learn, and it is to be hoped that it will be possible to retain some of them permanently in the
ranks of our public-school teachers. Possessing qualifications enabling them to teach in high
school, they are looking in that direction for permanent positions, and the cause is not far to
seek. Owing to the mistaken idea that public-school work is easier and of less importance than
high-school work, with corresponding prejudice against the former (a prejudice originating in
older countries, where free education was long regarded as of necessity cheap education), the
unjustifiable conclusion has been drawn that in the newer countries, where public opinion
demands that the State provide the highest educational facilities for all alike, work with the
younger children must necessarily be less generously remunerated than that of the higher grades.
A teacher's salary, however, should be determined by his qualifications (including, of course,
professional training and successful experience), and local authorities should keep this in mind
when fixing remuneration if they desire to retain in their service the more highly qualified
teachers.
In the larger rural schools and in the graded city schools the usual level of achievement
has been reached, and in certain schools and classes the work has been excellent. Some of the
advantages enjoyed by larger graded schools are not utilized to the extent they should be;
staffed in the main by teachers of experience, regularly supervised by a principal, with their
carefully and accurately graded classes, they might provide ideal conditions for work of the
highest type. The reasons for undue retardation of individuals, or even of the whole classes;
the question of the supernormal child; standardized tests applied to the teaching; intelligence
tests applied to the grading—these and many other problems are occupying the attention of
investigators, and the principal or teacher imbued with professional spirit will at least inform
himself of their conclusions, and satisfy himself that nothing is left undone that can aid in
his own professional work. Education is a dynamic subject, dealing with the spiritual and
intangible, and we teachers can never sit down and say, " We know it all," whether we attribute
our wisdom to excellent Normal training or to valuable and unparalleled experience. Safety
lies in progress.
School-gardens are in operation at most schools in this inspectorate, agricultural supervisors
exercising general oversight in Surrey, Langley, Chilliwack, and New Westminster. This branch
of activity appears to be intelligently utilized, and most of the teachers recognize the great
educational value of the school-garden as providing an opportunity to base much of the formal
training upon the interests and activities of the child. In the graded schools increasing attention
is being paid to organized games and play; in the smaller schools more should be done and the
children are too much left to amuse themselves without any assistance or supervision by the
teacher. It frequently happens that a majority of the children remain during the noon recess;
supervision at that hour is not compulsory, but it is difficult to understand how a conscientious
teacher who has at heart the moral training of the pupils can afford to neglect this opportunity
of getting into closer touch with them and of observing and influencing them under out-of-school
conditions.
Only in New Westminster and in Chilliwack City and Township are manual training and
domestic science included in the curriculum; in the other municipalities provision should be
made for the inclusion of these important branches by establishing centres which children from
adjoining schools could conveniently attend. Parent-Teacher Associations are increasing in
number and activity throughout the district, and, as focusing the interests and efforts of the
ratepayers so that the local school becomes a live issue to the community, they are doing excellent
work. In addition to their primary aim of strengthening the bond between school and home,
their efforts toward the beautifying and laying-out of school-grounds, the provision of play
apparatus, the supply of hot lunches, the supplementing of school equipment by providing piano,
gramophone, library books, or pictures, and the active support of money by-laws, indicate only
some of the directions in which they are making their influence felt.
I have, etc.,
Arthur Anstey,
Inspector of Schools. F 34 Public Schools Report. 1921
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 9.
Kamloops, B.C., August 30th, 1921.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,'—I beg to submit herewith the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 9 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1921:—
The following were the number of schools in operation in this inspectorate during the
year:—■
Schools. Teachers.
City municipalities       3 29
Rural municipalities          7 8
Rural   schools         26 36
Assisted schools        71 71
Totals    107 144
Eight new assisted schools were established and in operation for the first time during this
year. Two new divisions were opened in Kamloops City School, and one each in Merritt, Lillooet,
Clinton, and Fruitlands. Canford School District was lowered to the status of an assisted
school. The schools at Rae Lake, Heffley Lake, Copper Creek, and Chase Creek were closed
throughout the year.
The number of ungraded schools in this inspectorate (90 per cent, of the total number of
schools), the extent of territory to be covered, and the difficulty of access in very many cases
rendered the work of inspection somewhat difficult. However, all the schools in operation, with
one exception, were visited once, and a second visit was made to the majority of the schools
during the year. I have endeavoured to pay special attention to the schools employing inexperienced teachers, and have confined my work in such cases mainly to assisting the teacher
in the organization of classes and to instruction in the general work of the school.
Over 20 per cent, of the teachers employed in this inspectorate during the year under
review were in charge of schools for the first time, and a number of others had had no teaching
experience previously in this Province. Frequent change of teachers has been a great detriment
to the advancement of the work in the smaller rural schools, but as the country districts become
more thickly settled and living and social conditions improve therein, it is hoped that this
condition will in a large measure disappear. I wish here to pay tribute to the courage, perseverance, and tactful ability of the teachers (many of them young girls from city homes) who
are doing the pioneer work in teaching in the more remote and isolated settlements. Many of
these teachers have cheerfully adapted themselves to new living conditions, and wherever they
have met with the hearty co-operation of the parents of their pupils they have invariably
maintained excellent schools.
During the year just closed the question of providing increased school accommodation has
been a very pressing one with the members of School Boards, especially In the larger centres.
In Kamloops City much difficulty has been experienced in finding accommodation to meet the
increase in enrolment. A new eight-room school building is now in course of construction which
will supply accommodation for the public-school pupils who are at present housed in temporary
quarters about the city and in the High School building. The old Public School building is
undergoing extensive repairs with the object of improving the heating and sanitary arrangements
of the building. Much credit is due the Kamloops Board of School Trustees, and the ratepayers
as well, for the enterprising spirit they have displayed in the matter of providing every facility
for the carrying-on of the work in the schools. Work on the projected addition to the Merritt
Public School was not proceeded with this year, but it is hoped that better accommodation will
be provided for at least two new divisions during the coming school-year. It has been found
necessary also to provide additional accommodation in several of the rural and assisted districts,
where the increase in enrolment has outgrown the old school buildings. On the whole, the
school-year just closed has been a period of expansion, and the School Boards throughout the
inspectorate, with the assistance of the Department, have been generally successful in their
efforts to provide the additional accommodation necessary to meet the demands of the growing
school population. 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 35
The quality of the work performed in the various schools in this inspectorate has been at
least equal to that of the preceding tyear. More attention is being given to the teaching of
writing and to inculcating habits of neatness and care in written exercises and note-book work.
A sincere effort is being made in a large number of the schools to lead the pupil to do his own
reasoning, and to present the work in such a manner as to appeal to the practical common-sense
as well as to the imaginative ability of the pupil. In most of the schools visited the arithmetic
and reading were usually good; history and geography, however, become too often dry and
lifeless subjects owing to the methods of presentation to the class.
High School Entrance Examinations were held in eleven centres in this inspectorate in
June last. The Governor-General's medal for the inspectorate was won by Philip Clark Fraser,
a pupil in the Salmon Arm City School. The quality of the work performed in the Senior
Division of this school throughout the year is most commendable, and the high percentage of
successful candidates from this school in the recent High School Entrance Examination, as well
as the excellent standing in all subjects, is a fair criterion of the character of the teaching.
The prizes awarded for physical training under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust for
the past school-year were as follows:—
First—Mr. Horace Hum, 2nd Division, Merritt Superior School.
Second—Miss Kathleen Lawrence, 10th Division, Kamloops Public School.
Third—Miss Margaret Wright, Louis Creek Public School.
In closing, I wish to thank the various teachers and members of School Boards throughout
the inspectorate for the many courtesies extended to me, and for their hearty co-operation in the
work of inspection and in the other duties connected with my work.    As my knowledge of
conditions in the territory over which I travel increases, the more fully I realize the difficulties
that confront the settlers in new districts in providing educational facilities for their children,
and the more I appreciate their whole-hearted efforts to facilitate in every way the work of the
Department in the establishment and administration of the schools.
I have, etc.,
A. F. Matthews,
Inspector of Sclwols.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 10.
Kelowna, B.C., August 23rd, 1921.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report  in respect of the public schools of
Inspectorate No. 10 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1921.
A steady and considerable growth has been evidenced during the past few years. In 1919
there were 129 teachers employed in the various schools of this inspectorate; in 1920 there ■
were 146; and for the present year 160. Since last September the schools at Bear Creek and
Woodville Road have been reopened and a new school established at Trinity Valley; additional
divisions have been in operation at Armstrong, Vernon, Woods Lake, Kelowna, East Kelowna,
South Okanagan, Summerland, Penticton, Naramata, Princeton, and Copper Mountain. In
addition, schools have been authorized and will be in operation during the coming term at
Trinity Creek, Ewing's Landing, Hill crest, and Oliver. During the past year the division
of teachers among the various districts was as follows:—
'Schools. Teachers.
City municipality districts      11 54
Rural municipality districts         8 31
Rural schools     21 42
Assisted schools     32 33
Totals     72 160
To accommodate the increased school population extensive building operations have been
necessary.   At Armstrong and Penticton large and fully modern school-houses have been erected; at Vernon, through the generosity of the Provincial Government, the old Court-house is being
converted into a very satisfactory four-room school; two-room buildings were completed at
Woods Lake and at Copper Mountain; while arrangements have been completed for additions
to the existing buildings at Oyama, East Kelowna, and Westbank, and for a two-room school
at Oliver. Despite these very considerable improvements, the problem of accommodation is a
critical one; in most of the urban districts every available class-room will be filled in September'
and a number of rural schools will be materially overcrowded.
The provision of high-school facilities in rural districts continues to receive a good deal
of attention, both from parents who are directly concerned and from public-spirited ratepayers
who are interested in the development of their* local districts. With this end in view, superior
schools have been established at Westbank Townsite and at Oyama, while similar arrangements
are under consideration at other points.
In general, conscientious, painstaking, and reasonably efficient class-room work has been
the rule. More frequently than in previous years extremes of good and of bad have been met,
but this is undoubtedly a coincidence rather than due to any specific reason. In most of the
graded schools good results have been secured, while a similar statement is true of a few of
the smaller schools, which have been fortunate enough to retain proven teachers or to secure
unusually capable ones. The constant migration of rural teachers, referred to in earlier reports,
still continues, as is evidenced by the presence, during the past year, in the ninety-seven classrooms of the ungraded and semi-graded schools, of 121 teachers, of whom only twenty-two were
in these schools prior to September 1st last. The salary paid by most of these schools has been
at least $1,200 per annum, yet teachers remain no longer than when the remuneration was much
less—a clear indication that the appeal of the graded school does not lie solely or chiefly in
dollars and cents.
I have, etc.,
A. R. LoRn,
Inspector of Schools.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 11.
Revelstoke, B.C., August loth, 1921.
£. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 11 for the school-year ended June 30th, 1921:—
During the year the following assisted schools were opened: Bellevue, across the Columbia
River from Burtondale; Birchbank, a few miles north of Trail; Carroll's Landing, about midway between Burtondale and Arrow Park, East; Champion Creek, about 8 miles south of
Brilliant; Norwegian Creek, between Boundary Falls and the International Boundary-line; and
Spencer, a few miles to the south and west of Grand Forks. The school at Parson, in the Upper
Columbia Valley, was reopened, and an additional division was opened in each of the following
schools: Brilliant, Grand Forks, and Trail Central. The schools at Berrydale and Moberly
were not in operation during the year, and the school at Phoenix has been discontinued owing
to the cessation of mining operations at that point. Two divisions were closed out of the Revelstoke schools, which are now being operated as one school unit under a supervising principal,
and one division of the Rossland School was also closed during the entire year. In all, there
were ninety-five schools in operation in this inspectorate during the school-year, with a total
staff of 154 teachers, a net increase over last year of three schools and two teachers. Of these
totals, seven were graded city schools with a staff of fifty-six teachers, three were graded rural
schools with a staff of nine teachers, two were graded assisted schools with a staff of six teachers,
eleven were ungraded rural schools, and the remaining seventy-two were ungraded assisted
schools.
For the first time in three years there was comparatively little interruption due to sickness,
and a correspondingly higher standard of attainment was thus made possible. A marked
improvement ih the results of the Entrance Examinations can also be noted, particularly in the
case of candidates presented by the ungraded schools. 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 37
The percentage of change in the teaching staff, while not so great as last year, is still
considerably above the average, and it is sincerely to be hoped that this veritable menace to
efficiency may speedily be reduced to a more reasonable minimum.
I have, etc.,
A. E. Miller,
Inspector of Schools.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 12.
i Nelson, B.C., September 20th, 1921.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit a report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 12 for the year
1920-21.
The assisted schools of Elk Prairie, Standard Mine, and Nine-mile Creek did not reopen
after the summer vacation owing to an insufficient number of pupils, and during the year one
division of the Moyie School was closed from the same cause.
In Cranbrook, Fernie, Bull River Bridge, Camp Lister, Corbin, Salmo, and Wardner an
additional room was added to each school to care for the increasing school population. After
being closed for two years the Gray Creek School was reopened and new schools were established
at Passmore and Three Forks. One hundred and seventy-five class-rooms were in operation
during the year.
Owing to the large number of schools and the many special trips made to different parts
of the inspectorate it was not possible for me to make two visits to each class-room, but all
classes in continuous operation throughout the year received one inspection, while a few were
given a second visit.
The extension of the boundaries of Nelson City to include Fairview brought the Hume
School under the control of the Nelson Board. A careful survey of the results of the June
Entrance Examinations would seem to indicate that the work being done in the public schools
of this inspectorate will compare favourably with anything in the Province. With two or three
exceptions, the rural and assisted schools made a very creditable showing.
In many of the schools careful and conscientious work is being done. Wherever there is
evidence of thoughtful preparation of the work by the teacher the standing of the school is almost
invariably satisfactory. Too frequently arithmetic is merely a " seat-work " subject, and insufficient mental drill in combinations, separations, and multiplication -tables is resulting in the
" counting habit." Many teachers complain of the untidiness of the work of the class, but, at
the same time, they accept the untidy work. The brighter pupils often get the larger share of
attention. Teachers should remember that our schools are not Intended to produce intellectual
phenomena and that the aim should be to assist the slower pupils to a reasonable average of
attainment.
The bridging of the gulf between the standards of the average city school and those of the
average rural school is a problem which demands the most careful consideration. The successful
rural teacher finds little difficulty in obtaining a position in a graded city school at a larger
remuneration than she would receive in the country.
From the standpoint of national development, there is no other single force in the Province
which determines to such a degree the success of the future as the teaching staff of the elementary
and secondary schools, and no other influence which should tend to so great an extent to mould
a sane public opinion.
The responsibility of the teacher is great—the remuneration should be in proportion to the
responsibility. A few teachers are not worth their salary; the majority are worth more than
they receive.
In many of the rural schools there has been a decided improvement in comfort and equipment
and -seldom have I found School Boards who were not prepared to recommend to their ratepayers
an increased budget for the coming year.
I have, etc.,
E. G. Daniels,
Inspector of Schools. F 38
Public Schools Report.
1921
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 13.
Prince Rupert, B.C., August 31st, 1921.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 13 for the year ended June 30th, 1921 :—
During this year the following assisted schools were opened: Firvale, 30 miles up the Bella
Coola Valley; Lawn Hill, on the east coast of Graham Island, Queen Charlotte; Hanall, 3 miles
east of Usk; Evelyn, 9 miles west of Smithers; Glentanna and Driftwood Creek, about 8 miles
north-west of Smithers; Topley, 32 miles west of Burns Lake; Decker Lake, 5 miles west of
Burns Lake; and Tchesinkut Lake, between Burns Lake and Francois Lake. Round Lake and
Buckley Bay Schools were reopened, and an additional room was opened in each of the following
schools: Ocean Falls, Granby Bay, Prince Rupert, Kitsumgallum, Usk, and Smithers. The schools
at Metlakatla and Inverness were not in operation and Skldegate was closed before the end of
the year.    In all, there was a net increase of thirteen teachers over the previous year.
The following schools have been established and will be in operation next term: Hunter
Island, near Bella Bella; Oona River, on Porcher Island; Kitwanga and Quick, on the Grand
Trunk Pacific; and Uncha Valley and Tatalrose, on the south side of Francois Lake. A large
percentage of this increase has been in the Omineca District, where the number of teachers this
next term will be almost 100 per cent, greater than when I took over the district two years ago.
The new school buildings at Granby Bay and Telkwa were ready for occupation at the
beginning of the year and were found both creditable and comfortable. Prince Rupert has ready
for use this fall a modern twelve-room brick school which will compare favourably with any-
other school in the Province. This will' relieve the congestion in this city which has been apparent
for several years. A three-room addition has been made to the Kitsumgallum School and two
rooms are being added to the Smithers School.
Entrance Examinations were held -at seventeen centres, where 109 candidates presented
themselves. Of these, 58 pupils, or 53 per cent., were successful. The number of candidates this
year marks an increase of 147 per cent, over that of last year, when forty-four candidates wrote
the examination. In addition, forty pupils of Prince Rupert schools were granted promotion to
high schools upon recommendation of the principal. This is also an increase of thirty-three
per cent, over the previous year.
In view of this increasing number of pupils passing the Entrance Examination, it is gratifying' to note that a superior school has been established at Smithers and that Granby Bay and
Ocean Falls are taking steps to provide high-school education for pupils who have completed the
Course of Studies of the elementary school. The new regulation pertaining to the number of
pupils required for the establishment of high and superior schools effectually meets the demand
in this district for high-school privileges.
The Governor-General's medal for the highest mark in the Entrance Examination in the
Inspectorial Districts of Prince Rupert and Prince George was won by Reid Lewis McLennan,
Borden Street School, Prince Rupert.
Prizes awarded under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust were as follows:—
First—Miss Lena Wolfenden, 2nd Division, Ocean Falls.
Second—Miss A. M. MacKinnon, 4th Division, Prince Rupert.
Third—Miss Jessie Rothwell, 3rd Division, Prince Rupert.
Reports upon the schools individually have been forwarded to you from time to time, so
further comment would be superfluous, except to say that on the whole the work of the teachers
and the spirit in which it was undertaken in the majority of schools was highly commendable
and satisfactory.
I have, etc.,
! J. M. Paterson,
Inspector of Schools. ■
12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 39
PUBLIC SCHOOLS—INSPECTORATE No. 14.
Prince George, B.C., August 12th, 1921.
8. J. Wilis, Esq,.
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 14 for the
School-year ended June 30th, 1921:—
The boundaries of Inspectorate No. 14 remain unchanged from last year. The inspectorate
comprises the schools in the Grand Trunk Railway Belt east of Endako; those in the Cariboo
and Lillooet Districts as far south as the 100-Mile House; those in the Canadian Northern
Railway Belt as far south as Blue River;  and those in the Peace River District.
During the past year there has been a steady growth in the school population throughout
the inspectorate. Schools were opened for the first time at Aleza Lake, Canim Lake, Hulatt,
Orange Valley, Miocene, Penny, Swan Lake (Peace River), Tate Creek (Peace River), Taylor's
Flats (Peace River), and Williams Lake. New schools were authorized and should soon be in
operation at Bear Head, Meadowdale, Stone Creek, Stuart Station, and Willowvale. Additional
teachers were appointed to the Prince George and Vanderhoof staffs and the school at Braeside
was reopened. The assisted schools at Hartley, Rose Valley, and Stuart River remained closed
throughout the year.
Owing to the large number of new and widely scattered settlements springing up in this
northern section of the Province my work is largely of a pioneer nature. Class-room inspection
is perhaps the smaller part of my work, a good portion of my time being taken up with organization duties. Practically all the schools, however, have received at least two visits during the
year. •
On the whole the general standing of the schools within this inspectorate is not of a high
order. This condition is due in no small measure to the fact that the teachers change so
frequently that good results are impossible. In many of the schools a new teacher, very often
a beginner, appears each year, and frequently a change of teacher is effected at the end of each
terms. A number of the schools in these northern parts are handicapped year after year by the
employment of unskilled, temporary certificated teachers, who have little knowledge of our
courses, -standards, and methods. Inability to organize the work of their class-rooms constitutes
the chief criticism of the teachers in the one-room schools of this inspectorate. Although many
of the teachers present the individual subjects comparatively well, they are unable to prepare a
well-balanced time-table in which each subject in each of the classes receives due consideration.
Although the school accommodation in many of the districts is as yet far from satisfactory,
a gradual improvement is being effected. Nearly half of the districts are now voting assessments
for the purpose of providing funds with which to operate the schools and improve school property.
A number of the assisted districts have recently erected very commendable buildings, and in one
of them, Willow River, a comfortable teacher's residence has been provided. At Vanderhoof a
modern four-room building is in course of erection, and an eight-room building is being provided
for in the Prince George District.
During the past year the teachers within this inspectorate have made a greater effort than
heretofore to teach systematically the prescribed courses in physical training. In some of the
schools the results in this department of school-work have been very commendable. The prizes
for excellence in physical training were awarded as follows:—
First—Miss E. Milligan, 5th Division,•Prince George School.
Second—Miss Drina Fraser, Fort Fraser School.
Third—Miss Marjorie Baker, 2nd Division, McBride School.
I have, etc.,
G. H. Gower,
Inspector of Schools. REPORT OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
Vancouver, B.C., August 31st, 1921.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools and high schools of this city
for the school-year ending June 30th, 1921:—
Students and Teaching Staff.
During the year there was an increase of 97S students, but owing to the lack of class-room
accommodation the net increase in the teaching forces was only fifteen. The changes in the
various staffs are indicated in the following summary:—
Public schools ,  from 409 to 416
General classes   from 392 to 399
Special classes ,       12   „    16
School   for   the   Deaf   (taken  over   by
Government)          „        4   „      0
School for the Blind       „        1  „      1
High schools       „      69   „     78
General Course   from   46 to   51
Commercial Course       „      11   „     11
Boys' Technical Course       „        9   „     13
Home Economics Course         3   „      3
Manual training   ,      23   „     18*
Domestic science       12   „     13
Special instructors  :       „        6  „      9
Total   from 519 to 534
* Last year five instructors working in the Technical Department of King Edward High
School were counted in the manual-training group. Since the opening of the Technical School
they are grouped with other Technical School teachers. The decrease at this point is therefore
only an apparent one.
School Accommodation. i
In my report for the school-year 1919-20 I spoke of the unsatisfactory results obtained in the
primary grades of the public schools from part-time tuition made necessary by a lack of adequate
class-room accommodation. For the first term of the past year an attempt was made to improve
conditions. Our schools were reorganized with an average enrolment of approximately forty-five
per class instead of forty as formerly. This resulted in a reduction of fourteen in the teaching
staff and reduced the number of part-time classes from thirty-four to two. It led, however, to
overcrowded class-rooms, making effective teaching in many instances extremely difficult—in
others impossible. In October, when the enrolment was 17,993, there were seventy-eight classrooms with an enrolment of nearly fifty and twenty-four others with fifty or more each. Notwithstanding these conditions, which were well known to the public, the school money by-laws for
amounts totalling $241,000, submitted to the ratepayers in January, were defeated. Consequently,
when 1,077 more Receiving-class pupils were enrolled in February, to overcrowded classes was
added part-time tuition—thirty-four part-time classes having to be organized for the remainder
of the year.
The presence of these two evils, part-time tuition and overcrowded classes, for the last term
of the year, and the conviction that money could not be secured by submitting money by-laws to
the ratepayers, led the Board to decide " that hereafter no 6-year-old children will be admitted
to the schools unless money be provided tb erect more class-rooms in which to accommodate them."
This drastic, though necessary, resolution brought a measure of temporary relief.   An agreement •
12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 11
was reached between the Board and the City Council permitting the former to spend a limited
amount of money for school-construction if the amount expended be taken out of the Board's
revenue for the year. This will help for a time, but it is by no means a satisfactory solution.
By erecting an inexpensive eight-room school on the Strathcona grounds from materials obtained
largely from the old school, and providing eighteen rooms in very inexpensive one- or two-room
frame buildings in districts where they are needed, we expect to have class-rooms for all public-
school pupils in September, though some classes may be overcrowded. February of the coming
year, however, will again find us with no class-rooms for about 1,000 pupils. Using for the
erection of new class-rooms moneys urgently needed to keep existing buildings in proper repair
will in the end prove an expensive expedient. The sooner, therefore, we have legislation making
it possible for School Boards to obtain sufficient funds to provide proper class-rooms for an
ever-increasing school population, and at the same time keep existing buildings in proper repair,
the better.
The congestion in the high schools was relieved by the opening of the Vancouver Technical
School on March 1st, 1921, in what was formerly the Labour Temple. This building, purchased
and remodelled by the Provincial Government and rented to the Board as a technical school, has
been well equipped and will meet the needs of technical students for a few years. The opening
of it has also left rooms, vacated by the technical students at King Edward School, for additional
high-school students in the coming year.
Survey of Sewing in the Grades.
There has been practically no supervision of sewing in the Vancouver schools since 1915;
and, as was to be expected, the work has greatly suffered. From a survey made by one of our
most competent domestic-science teachers early in the year, it was found that not more than
20 per cent, of the teaching could be regarded as satisfactory. This represented a great loss,
as there were about sixty teachers and over 1,000 girls who should be spending profitably one
half-day a week at sewing. The Board 'has consequently appointed, an expert in needlework to
be a teacher of the many lady teachers who enter our schools unprepared to teach sewing.
Physical Culture fob High-school Girls.
Another forward step taken during the year was the appointment of an instructress in
physical culture for high-school girls. The work done along this line already has abundantly
demonstrated its importance. It is to be regretted, however, that the lack of proper gymnasium
facilities will make it impossible to extend this work for some time to include all high-school
girls as it should.
Extension of Special Class-woek.
Notwithstanding the difficulties experienced in finding additional class-room- accommodation,
four more special classes were opened. It has been found that the removal of special-class
children from the ordinary classes makes it possible to increase the size of the latter and do
better work than could be done in smaller classes handicapped by the presence of subnormal
pupils. The work now being done in Vancouver in the special classes is conceded by experts
in such work to be of a very high order. I cannot speak too highly of the unfailing devotion
to duty of the members of the staff who are carrying on this important but trying work.
The Work of Supervisors.
The supervision of drawing, music, physical training and cadet-work, primary work and
special-class work was carried on throughout the year by supervisors giving full time to
supervision.
In manual training and home economics, however, the supervisors taught the greater part
of their time in high schools. The results, in consequence, were not as satisfactory as supervisors and teachers could wish. This was particularly noticeable in the Home. Economics
Department, where there was almost an entirely new staff of teachers, many of whom were
new to the work in this Province. I am pleased to report that the present School Board,
recognizing this condition, is now prepared to appoint a supervisor to devote full time to the
work. F 42 Public Schools Report. 1921
Medical Inspection.
The work of medical inspection was energetically carried on by Dr. Robert Wightman and
his staff of two lady doctors and eight nurses. The value of the work done in this department,
not only in the immediate prevention of disease but in the education of children, parents, and
the public generally along hygienic lines, cannot be overestimated. The campaign being waged
by the Medical Department of our schools to bring every school-child up to normal physically is
meeting with enthusiastic public support.
The Dental Clinics.
After seven years of absolutely free dental treatment for children of parents with small
incomes, it was found that the most of such cases were completed. Last year the work was
extended to include the children of parents with moderate incomes who could not pay ordinary
dental fees and would not accept free treatment. Many children of such parents are now cared
for in the school clinics on the payment of a nominal fee.
Night-schools.
A survey of the year's work would not be complete without reference to the night-schools.
The work in these was extended to include Third-year Electrical Engineering, Cabinetmaking,
Plumbing, Ladies' Tailoring, Salesmanship, Science Course for Teachers, and Mathematics for
Teachers. Forty-two teachers were employed and the enrolment of students reached a total of
1,686, distributed as follows :—
Continuation classes   „   128
Art and Show-card Work  ■   107
Modern Languages '     52
Music  "  158
Engineering  •  209
Carpentry and Cabinetmaking     43
Electrical Engineering   195
Commercial Courses   420
Plumbing     70
Elocution and Speaking     63
Short-story Writing ■     20
Teachers' Courses       17
Domestic Science    204
The attendance of the students and the interest taken by them in their classes was most
encouraging.
Salabies.
No great changes were made in the salary schedule in January, 1921. Salaries ranging from
$1,800 to $3,200 were increased but little; those ranging from $1,080 to $1,600 were considerably
increased, the Board considering the teachers drawing such salaries poorly paid. For the first
time, too, in Vancouver, the Board, finding it impossible to secure the services of young men
for salaries paid to ladies, made a special salary schedule for male assistants in the public
schools. This has already had the desired effect of increasing the number of young men teachers;
but the indications are that better salaries still will have to be offered if a sufficient number
of young men of ability are to be attracted to and retained in the teaching profession. Though
the present salary schedule seems in the main fairly satisfactory, the experience of the past
few months indicates a few further changes which seem desirable. I trust these will be made
in the coming year.
School Spobts and Athletics.
The importance of school sports is being more and more recognized by our teachers and
an ever-increasing number of them are interesting themselves in the physical well-being of the
children. In the opening term of the past year over 100 of our teachers spent time and money
to qualify themselves the better to carry on the work of physical training in their classes. This
work must necessarily make considerable inroads on the time for study, which is now none too
long; but it is valuable and has come to stay. May we not look forward to a six-hour school-day
in the not-distant future, with one-sixth of it devoted to the physical needs of the children under 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 43
the direction of teachers well qualified for such work?   It would be a boon to both teachers and
pupils.
Geneeal Observations.
Notwithstanding the inconveniences experienced by many engaged in the schools of Vancouver
during the past year, school-work was never carried on more enthusiastically. The manner in
which teachers strove to rise superior to adverse circumstances and the endeavours of pupils
and parents to meet philosophically trying situations rendered the administration of the schools
much easier than it otherwise would have been. The active interest in our schools of influential
public bodies was never greater, never more needed, and never more highly appreciated. While
many clubs and associations might be mentioned in this connection, the Parent-Teacher Associations are deserving of special commendation. Their efforts on behalf of the schools have been
increasing and varied, serving as a stimulus to school workers in all departments.
I am pleased to report also that for the year just closed our school-life has been characterized
by a sane, unostentatious patriotism which augurs well for the future. This-patriotism possibly
found its highest expression on June 23rd, when nearly 6,000 pupils and teachers met in Stanley
Park to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of British Columbia's entry into Confederation.
In closing, I wish to express my appreciation of the continued kindly relations that have
existed between the Education Department and the Vancouver School Board.
I have, etc.,
J. S. Gordon,
Municipal Inspector of Schools. PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
VANCOUVER PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
Vancouver, B.C., September 12th, 1921.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the report of the work of the Provincial Normal School, Vancouver,
for the school-year ended June, 1921.
Autumn Session.
The session opened on September 7th, 1920. The enrolment for the session was 239. Of this
number, 48 were taking the Advanced Course and 191 the Preliminary. During the session 3 of
the Preliminary class withdrew, and the session closed with an attendance of 48 Advanced and
188 Preliminary students. To 46 of the Advanced class Advanced diplomas were granted, while
the two remaining members of the class were granted Preliminary diplomas.
Diplomas were granted to 172 of the Preliminary class, 11 were allowed to enter the
advanced session conditionally, and 5 failed.
The opening of the session in September saw several changes on the teaching staff. Mr. Wm.
Burns retired from the position of principal at the end of August, 1920. For twenty years he
had served as principal of the Normal School. Hundreds of teachers throughout the Province
will bear testimony to his untiring and conscientious work in the Normal School. To them his
life and work will always be an inspiration. We were pleased to have Mr. Burns deliver one
lecture a week to the Advanced class until the close of the session in December.
Mr. A. E. C. Martin joined the staff in September. Mr. Martin brought to his work in the
Normal School a ripe experience in public- and high-school work in the Province.
From September to March Miss Coney was on leave in England. While there she took a
Course in Eurythmics and visited many of the English training-schools. During her absence
Miss Ida Morris filled the position of music instructress most satisfactorily.
Advanced Session.
For the first time in several years the Advanced Course only was conducted during the
winter session. The change was most welcome. While occasionally good students entered in
January for the Preliminary Course, this was the exception. Our Preliminary class in January
was, as a rule, composed largely of our own failures, together with failures from the University.
The total enrolment for the advanced session was 182. Of the 11 who passed conditionally
in December, 10 returned in January. One of these withdrew, and in February the remaining
9 were granted Preliminary diplomas. Seven withdrew during the session. Thus we finished
with an enrolment of 174. At the close of the session 169 were granted Advanced diplomas
and 5 failed.
Work for the next year was apportioned as follows: The Principal—Grammar, classroom management, registers and reports, psychology. Mr. Murphy—History and geography.
Mr. Weston—Drawing and painting. Mr. MacLean—Writing, nature-study, school-gardening,
hygiene. Mr. Macintosh—Reading, language, composition, literature, spelling. Mr. Martin—
Arithmetic, history of education. Miss Burpee-—Primary work. Miss Coney—Music. Sergt.-
Major Instructor Wallace—Physical training.
All students in attendance since September, with the exception of two, qualified for the
certificate of physical training. I consider that it would be greatly to the advantage of our
students if the Course in Physical Training could be continued throughout both preliminary
and advanced sessions. It does not seem in the best interests of our students to crowd the
entire Course of Training into twelve or fifteen weeks. We shall be very pleased if, during
the ensuing year, each of the Normal Schools of this Province has an instructor for this very
important branch of training.
During the year our students have had, on an average, thirty-five lessons to teach in the
practice schools.   I wish to take this opportunity to thank the teachers of the Model and Cecil 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 45
Rhodes for their very kindly assistance in this most important department of the training of
our students.
While our students have given close attention to their professional duties, the literary,
athletic, and social sides of Normal School life have not been overlooked. The Literary Society
has presented many entertaining and instructive programmes during the year. The Athletic
Society has fostered basket-ball, badminton, tennis, hockey, and indoor baseball. The usual
autumn and spring dances, school parties, and picnics have served to develop among the students
the best school spirit.
I have, etc.,
D. M. Robinson,
Principal.
VICTORIA PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL.
Victoria, B.C., September 26th, 1921.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the work of the Provincial
Normal School at Victoria during the school-year which ended June 30th, 1921:—
The number in attendance was:—
Sept. to Jan.  to
Dec, 1920.       May. 1921.
For the Advanced Course     14 89
For the Preliminary Course   101
Totals   115 89
Number that withdrew during the session       1 2
Number that failed to qualify  :       2 5
Number awarded diplomas    112 82
Totals  115 89
From this table it may be noted that the plan of conducting Advanced and Preliminary
Courses simultaneously was discontinued at the end of the year 1920. In this the Department
of Education has pursued a most desirable policy. The energy of the Normal School instructors
may now be concentrated upon preliminary work in the fall session and upon the more advanced
work during the spring session. This will result in more thoroughly trained teachers and hence
more efficient work in the elementary schools of the Province. .
The personnel of the staff underwent changes during the year. Mr. E. Howard Russell,
Professor of Mathematics in the Victoria Arts College, took charge of the instruction in music.
Mr. Russell's ability in this work is so well known that comment is unnecessary. Miss A. M.
Macfarlane, following the resignation of Miss Lexa Denne In July, 1920, was appointed to the
Department of Household Economics. Miss Macfarlane, who is a graduate of Macdonald
College, St. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, had given three years of excellent service in the Domestic
Science Departments of the common and high schools of the Okanagan Valley. The high
standard of the work she has done during the year has shown the wisdom of the Department
of Education in promoting her to the Faculty of this school. In July, 1920, Miss Florence N.
Maclean was appointed Secretary and Librarian. Miss Maclean, who is a graduate of this
school, is a fully certificated teacher. This qualification, combined with her superior ability in
secretarial work, has uniquely fitted her for her duties. The apportionment of work among the
other members of the staff has remained unchanged.
The generous policy inaugurated by the Department of Education of assisting members of
the staff to attend summer sessions at leading universities was put into effect in this school
during the summer of 1920, when Miss Kate Scanlan, Principal of the Model School Department,
attended the summer session of the University of California at Los Angeles.   New features that .
F 46 Public Schools Report. 1921
have appeared in the already excellent work of this teacher provide but one more instance of
proof that a true teacher is ever a learner and should be given opportunity periodically to become
a learner.
It gives me pleasure to report that it was the unanimous opinion of the Faculty that the
students who were trained in this institution during the year 1920-21 were, with few exceptions,
admirably adapted to the work of the teaching. Not only was the work of the year encouraging
and pleasant, but it was with a feeling of more than usual confidence that diplomas were granted
to these young teachers permitting them to assume the fuller responsibilities of actual service.
Nevertheless, in spite of the natural aptitude and happy temperament of these young teachers-
in-training, it was again borne in upon those in charge of their training that a more extensive
and a more thorough groundwork is necessary in knowledge of the subjects that they are going
to teach before a professional training in the art of teaching those subjects can be adequately
given. In several of these subjects they have received little, if any, instruction during their
high-school course. Hence the knowledge they have acquired in the elementary school is assumed
to be a sufficient basis for their professional training. The one-year course of Normal School
instruction is hardly long enough to provide both academic and professional training. Further,
may I again urge that, with an ever-increasing number of graduates in Arts from our Provincial
University, the demand for the establishment of a training course for high-school teachers is
becoming imperative. Were such a course established, it would provide not only much-needed
training, but it would prove to be an incentive that would turn more and more of these graduates
into the teaching profession, and thereby tend to augment a supply that at present is inadequate
to the demand.
I cannot conclude this report without once more expressing my thanks to the staffs of the
Model School, the North Ward School, and the Bank Street School for their helpful co-operation
in our work, and to all those citizens from outside our profession who by addressing our students
from time to time afforded us inspiration.
I have, etc.,
D. L. MacLaurin,
Principal. 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 47
TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE ORGANIZER.
Victoria, B.C., October 11th, 1921.
S. J.  Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit the following report on manual training, domestic science, night-
schools, and technical education for the year 1920-21:—
Manual Training and Domestic Science.
It is very gratifying to report that an increasing interest in the above subjects is taken by
school principals and teachers generally, as the complete success of the work depends in a great
measure on the way the contents of these courses, which are inseparable from home-life, are
linked up with kindred class-room studies.
The educational authorities have always maintained that manual-training and domestic-
science centres must be an integral part of the school system, and that the activities in the
workshops and cookery centres must emphasize the book lessons of the class-rooms, making them
more realistic and thus firmly fixing them in the minds of the pupils. For these reasons it is
satisfactory to know that there is a growing co-operation between the manual-training teachers
and the school staff.
Owing to the conscientious., work of the instructors, manual training is becoming firmly
established throughout the Province. The men invariably display earnestness and enthusiasm
in' conducting their work, and with very few exceptions show a commendable desire to succeed.
The fact that the Province of British Columbia has more manual-training instructors than any
other Canadian Province except Ontario is conclusive proof that the subject has gained public
confidence.
Thirteen men who wish to become manual-training instructors attended the summer-school
training class held in the Vancouver Technical School during the summer holidays. The course
of study is acknowledged by the Manual Training Teachers' Association to be of such a nature
as will effectively equip men with the essentials for conducting the manual-training work in an
elementary school centre. There was no difficulity in securing a class of school-boys of Third
Reader Grade to attend a class in woodwork, and these beginners provided the practical teaching
problems for the prospective manual instructors. This course will be followed by a series of
classes held on Saturday afternoons, thus providing an opportunity to complete 700 hours'
tuition, which is the number demanded of all candidates.
Twelve manual-training instructors from the elementary schools attended a summer school
to participate in the training which would, qualify them to teach in high schools. A reproduction
of a group of metal repousse on an adjoining page will show the standard of their work, and
will illustrate to some extent the way in which craftsmanship and artistic taste combine to
form an appreciation which may be worthily considered educational.
Classes in Manual Training and Domestic Science were conducted in the following cities:
Armstrong, Chilliwack, Cranbrook, Kelowna, Mission, Nanaimo, New Westminster, Nelson, North
Vancouver, Prince Rupert, Vancouver, Vernon, and Victoria. Similar classes were also held
in the following municipalities: Burnaby, Chilliwack, Delta, Esquimalt, Maple Ridge, Penticton,
Point Grey, Pitt Meadows, Rutland, Saanich, Summerland, and South Vancouver.
The following statistics for 1920-21 may be of interest and are here inserted:—
79 manual-training centres. 51 domestic-science centres.
62 instructors. -      46 instructors.
8,349 elementary pupils attending. 6,362 elementary pupils attending.
1,436 high-school pupils. 1,326 high-school pupils.
Domestic Science.
Although in this Sphere of activity British Columbia again ranks next to Ontario in the
number of teachers engaged, yet from the foregoing it will be observed that domestic science '
F 48 Public Schools Report. 1921
has not made the same strides as the subject of manual training, nor has it obtained such
a strong hold on public confidence. 'This is regrettable because the subject is one which is
undoubtedly necessary and worthy of a prominent place in any educational system.
The work of training domestic-science teachers in Canada has been somewhat curtailed
in recent years, and this, together with the growing demand for their services, has led to an
increasing difficulty in obtaining instructors. The existing conditions would thus seem to make
the organizing of a teachers' training class desirable. One practical way to do this would be
to select school-teachers who have had previous domestic-science training and provide a Saturday
morning class in either Vancouver or Victoria at which they could attend. Work taken at the
Saturday morning classes, supplemented by courses taken at the summer school, would give an
opportunity for very effective study to those who wish to become domestic-science teachers.
Such classes as are here alluded to have been and are being conducted for men who wish to
become instructors of manual training. An Entrance Examination is held for admission and the
Course of Study extends over 700 hours. Even the most sceptical must now concede that this
manual-training scheme has been entirely successful; therefore a similar scheme might well
be evolved for training domestic-science instructors, and the Province would thus have teachers
at their command when required.
Technical Course.
Technical schools are now organized in the Cities of New Westminster, Vancouver, and
Victoria. The Course of Study is composed of the following subjects: English, citizenship
and economics, mathematics, mechanics, physics, electricity, drawing and design, woodwork,
chemistry, sheet-metal work, forge-work, and machine-shop work.
The time-table in the Vancouver Technical School showed several classes with periods for
practical work too short in duration, but a remedy was promised when the staff was increased.
There seems to be a decided antipathy to lengthening the school-day in the technical schools.
Where practical industrial machine-work is being carried on it is difficult to see why opposition
should be made to a gradual increase in the school-day until the usual shop-day of eight hours
is reached—viz., six hours for the first year, seven hours for the second, and eight hours for
the third.
Vancouver City shows indications of being first in the Province to establish intensive trade
courses attached to labour organizations in the work of apprenticeship training. Some development along this line may be looked for next year, but a great deal of organizing is required to
be done before such can be accomplished. At present it is possible to obtain short courses in
preparation for the examinations held in navigation and for stationary engineering. Sheet-metal
workers and printers may be the next industrial people to become directly connected with the
technical school. It yet remains for a school of design to be organized, and the importance of
such an institution lies at the heart of all workmanship worthy'of the name. The school of
design should be closely associated to the technical school, as design and manufacturing should
not be divorced.
New Westminster has now a well-equipped school and the coming year will show great
advancement in the work of the pupils. The shops are roomy and all that could be desired for
practical purposes.
The workshops in Victoria also are well fitted. The Course of Study for the first year is
all that could be desired and the boys show remarkable aptitude in their work. The three cities
named have shown commendable economy in establishing and equipping the necessary places
wherein to train students along technical and industrial lines.
As a rule, boys who take the Technical Course aim at obtaining the technical leaving
certificate, but those who wish to matriculate to the University of British Columbia are taught
in a separate class, as it is necessary to rearrange the technical curriculum in the second and
third years in order to replace certain subjects by those which give matriculation standing.
Special technical papers in chemistry, physics, and practical mathematics are set for the
Matriculation Examination, but an extra science subject, together with Latin or French, must
be added in order to prepare for the requirements of the University.     ;     Course in free pattern-cutting from the Home Economics class, Summer School. 12 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
F 49
The following expenditures for technical education were made for the year 1920-21:
Administration    $    4,573 66
Correspondence classes, etc         3,511 71
Grants to night-schools, technical schools, commercial classes, etc..      97,231 24
Total     $105,316 61
Of this sum, 50 per cent, has been paid by the Dominion Government.
Household Science Course.
In addition to the Technical Course for boys, a Household Science or Home-makers' Course
for girls is organized in both Vancouver and New Westminster. The Household Science Course
consists of the following subjects: English, civics, arithmetic and mensuration, algebra, chemistry,
physics, physiology (including hygiene, child-welfare, and home-nursing), dietetics and cookery,
needlework (garment-making and textiles), drawing, design, and household arts, vocal music
and physical culture. As this course is admirably suited to those students who wish to become
school-teachers, the graduates are readily accepted as students of the Normal Schools. The
University authorities, however, do not accept any of the domestic-science subjects in lieu of
others set at the ordinary Matriculation Examinations.
There has been a steady improvement in the work accomplished by the girls attending these
classes, but lack of accommodation has heretofore handicapped the progress of the Vancouver
pupils. Now that this has been remedied by the departure of the technical students to their own
school, we must look for still further progress and for greater adherence to the subject-matter
of the Course of Study as published by the Department of Education.
Commercial Courses.
Commercial subjects also are included under the head of " Technical Education " and courses
are conducted in ten cities in the Province.   The figures  appended will explain clearly the
attendance at those classes and give some idea of the scope of the work:—
Place.
New  Westminster
Vancouver	
Victoria 	
Kamloops   	
Ladysmith    	
North Vancouver .
Nelson  	
Point Grey   ......
Revelstoke	
South Vancouver  .
Totals . . .
No. of
Technical Students
68
2S7
88
443
Commercial.
US
386
168
26
19
48
33
28
27
916
Home
Economics.
16
66
82
Ntght-schools.
Night-schools were conducted in twenty-one cities and municipalities in the Province, with
an attendance of 3,197 students.    The names of these places with the number of students in
attendance are as follows:—
Place.
Bevan	
Chilliwack  	
Coal Creek 	
Colwood   	
Duncan 	
Chemanius   	
Granby Bay     221
Happy Valley  •	
Students.
19
Courses of
Study.
2
45
6
10
1
11
1
77
3
15
1
221
10
16
1
Carried foncard
414 F 50 Public Schools Report. 1921
Place.                                                              Students. Co^y.°f
Brought forward  41.4
Merritt    28 3
Michel    •  17 2
Mission    76 5
Metchosin     13 1
Nanaimo   •  42 6
New Westminster  107 8
North Vancouver   86 6
Revelstoke    60 3
Saanich  87 3
South Vancouver •  261 8
Thrums    10 1
Vancouver     1,436 29
Victoria  564 21
Total   • 3,201
The Course of Study embraces the following subjects: English, French, Spanish, journalism,
book-keeping, typewriting, stenography, accounting, economics, salesmanship, draughting and
machine construction, mathematics, mechanical and steam engineering, building construction,
carpentry and joinery, cabinetmaking, naval architecture, navigation, electrical engineering,
telegraphy, drawing and design, dressmaking, millinery, cookery, music (choral and orchestral).
In last year's report attention was called to the importance of appointing advisory committees to assist school trustees in directing night-school classes in trade subjects to the best
advantage. So far, no such step has been taken by the Boards conducting technical work in
this Province, and co-operative effort between manufacturers and educators is thus weakened.
The system of calling in assistance from men directly connected with the industries concerned
is one which is universal in character and is recognized as responsible for the best results.
Correspondence Classes in Coal-mining and Mine-surveying.
Success continues to attend the above classes, with an enrolment of 135 students. When, in
addition, however, to receiving instruction by correspondence, a student enrols in a night-school
and obtains the assistance of a thoroughly qualified instructor as a tutor, success is doubly
assured. Experience has proven conclusively that this tutorial and correspondence method is
the only satisfactory way of dealing with classes composed of men who work on the three-shift
system. The Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir), Limited, and the Canadian Western Fuel Company, Limited, have shown confidence in the correspondence courses by enrolling and paying fees
for several boys in their employment. This gracious act was much appreciated by twenty-eight
pupils employed by the former company and sixteen pupils from the latter. The preliminary
fundamental courses for boys and young men between the ages of 15 and 23 are of primary
importance, because it is not until they reach the latter age that they are permitted to sit fo:
their first examination.
When, however, young mine-workers pursue their studies each year after leaving school, no
great difficulty need be found to prevent them passing successfully the Government examinations
to qualify as shotlighters, overmen, or even mine managers. It is interesting to know that at
the May examinations the only first-class mine manager's certificate awarded was obtained by a
student of the Correspondence School.
Lessons by Correspondence to Children who live in Isolated Parts of the Province.
These lessons are conducted in conjunction with the mining course mentioned above, and the
pupils include those who live beyond reach of any school and the children of the lighthouse-
keepers. For many years no attempt was made to offer opportunities to those who undertook
the pioneer work of the Province; now, however, we have the satisfaction of reporting that
300 pupils are participating in the benefits presented.
i I have, etc.,
John Kyle,
Organizer of Technical Education.
* 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 51
ELEMENTARY AGRICULTURAL  EDUCATION.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
Victoria, B.C., September 30th, 1921.
S. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit the following report dealing with elementary agricultural
education for the year ending September 30th, 1921 i—
As this report is being prepared two months earlier than usual, and as it has not been
possible to obtain information from all of the schools so soon after the summer holidays, it
will be found incomplete as to schools and' pupils reported as taking part in school and home
gardening.
Reports to date show that school-gardening was conducted in 119 schools by 194 teachers
with 6,199 pupils in public-school grades, and that school-supervised home-gardening was conducted in 56 schools by 77 teachers with 721 pupils. Other home projects of an agricultural
character, such as the rearing of poultry, pigs, and calves, have been carried on to a much
greater extent than in former years, especially in those districts served by District Supervisors
of Agricultural Instruction.
During the year school-gardens were discontinued in a number of schools in favour of
supervised home-gardens, whilst in others they were discontinued on account of unfavourable
gardening conditions or on account of expense. On the other hand, new school-gardens were
established, or old gardens enlarged to include additional divisions, at the following schools:
Alberni, Armstrong, Chemainus, Enderby, Nanaimo, County Line, Glenwood, Langley Prairie,
Murrayville, Peardonville, Ruskin, Albion, Trites, Summerland, Chu Chua, Cobble Hill, Arrow
Park, One-mile Creek, Rexmount, and Williams Lake. Similarly, supervised home-gardens were
reported for the first time from the following schools: Armstrong Consolidated School District,
Chilliwack Central School, Vernon Central, eight schools in Chilliwack Municipality, six schools
in Langley, three in Surrey, two schools in South Vancouver, also Cobble Hill, Cowichan,
Fauquier, Grantham, Happy Valley, Merville, One-mile Creek, Royston, Sandwick, and Williams
Lake. Notwithstanding the difficulties that the long summer vacation entails in operating
school-gardens, the fact remains that where the teachers are in thorough sympathy with the
work and have a complete grasp of its significance as an educational means, the gardens have
been completely successful from a horticultural as well as from an educational standpoint.
On account of the very late season the gardens were late in getting started, but in most cases
the work was well managed and the results quite satisfactory.
Horticultural success in school-gardening is always to be desired and should be aimed at,
but educational values are vastly more important. To estimate the value of the school-garden
in terms of the amount of produce raised would be foolishness indeed, and yet some people do
this very thing. Others regard it as a means of training boys and girls in the principles
and practice of gardening—in other words, teaching them how to make and care for gardens.
Useful as such a training might be, that is a mere incident in connection with school-gardening.
Its greatest values have to do with the development of personal ability and character. It
provides for constructive activity with a directive purpose. It encourages independence in
thinking and in doing. It develops initiative and resourcefulness. Its interests are stimulating
and wholesome. It provides a daily challenge to new activity and new conquest. It teaches
the thoughtless boy to be mindful of his fellows' interests whilst in the pursuit of his own.
It engenders the spirit of fairness and of co-operation for the common good. It fosters a pride
in one's ability to control and develop things and forces in his own wonderful environment of
nature. It teaches respect for labour and engenders habits of thrift and economy. It tends to
make a boy stronger in body, keener in intellect, self-reliant, and courageous. It makes boys and
girls more sensitive to the beauties and harmonies of nature and more reverent in their attitude
towards the sacredness of life itself. F 52 Public Schools Report. 1921
As an educational instrument, the skilful teacher will use it continuously as a means to
giving concreteness and reality to many school lessons and class exercises. The experiences
arising out of school-gardening are so numerous and so varied that practically every subject
on the curriculum will find a vitalizing and stimulating relationship in them. Garden plots,
garden observations, garden activities, and even garden products provide the best possible
occasion and much suitable material for effective work in arithmetc, reading, story-writing,
drawing and colour work, geography and other subjects, and for any teacher to say that the
school-garden hinders or obstructs his teaching in any of these branches is at once an admission
of ignorance on his part of the first principles of the science of education. Surely school-
gardening would be well worth while if for no other reason than that just mentioned—its
vitalizing effects upon the teaching of the older subjects of the curriculum. The great need
of the hour is a body of teachers not only skilful in the management of the school-garden,
but also—and this is of greater importance—capable of using it to the best advantage from an
educational standpoint.
Home Projects in Agriculture.
On account of limited area and bad gardening conditions it is not practicable to establish
school-gardens in a great many schools in British Columbia, and for this reason school-supervised
home-gardening and the home project in agriculture are being urged as supplementary to or as
an alternative with school-gardening. A new circular dealing with this branch of the work was
issued during the year and a fair commencement made. Whilst lacking some of the educational
advantages of the school-garden, such as regular and direct class-instruction under the teacher
and the constant stimulus of competition and comparison of results, it also possesses some
outstanding advantages. The home project in gardening and agriculture tends to associate
home activities with school interest, to the obvious advantage of both. The project method of
study may seem new in school-work, but it is as old as human experience. It is the method
by which all progress towards individual as well as social betterment has been made. It
consists mainly in fixing upon certain worth-while things to be investigated or to be done, and
then in a purposeful and orderly way to work—mentally and manually—towards the realization
or accomplishment of those things. It is the embodiment of educational purpose, of interest,
and of achievement. It harmonizes the interests of the two greatest and most democratic
organizations of all time—the home and the school. The project method of study is as appli
cable to other subjects in the school curriculum as it is to agricultural subjects. It is really
a great working principle in all human endeavour, including education. Every teacher could
and should make use of it as a matter of good method in teaching. The agricultural home
project has great possibilities in cities as well as in rural communities, and if properly conducted
would do much to offset the vicious and growing tendency, so apparent amongst boys and girls
of public- and high-school age, to seek mere pleasurable entertainment and gratification rather
than personal improvement and service.
Agrictjltural Clubs.
It has been found advantageous to bring together in occasional conferences boys and girls
having a common interest in certain lines of agricultural and home-project work. This has been
accomplished best by having them organized in clubs, in which case they appoint their own
officers, draw up their own regulations, and conduct their own meetings. Such organization
affords valuable practice in the rules of procedure in organized bodies, and also develops self-
control and habits of correct expression in public speaking. Although these clubs may give
special attention to some particular out-of-school interest or enterprise, such as gardening or
the raising of live stock, their aim is more broadly educational. Varied programmes are carried
out especially during the winter months with a view to the personal improvement of the
members and the maintenance of interest in school-work generally. The District Supervisors
of Agricultural Instruction are mainly concerned with these organizations and are finding them
of considerable value in their respective districts.
School Fairs.
School fairs are being held in different parts of the Province this year, but it is not possible
at this time to give the exact number.    It has been the custom in British Columbia to hold the  Dudley Durrance, West Saanich, winner in the vegetable-seed-growing contest, 1921.
The Tanner Bros.. Junior, Keating. B.C.. successful competitors in the vegetable-seed-growing
contest, 1921. 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 53
school fair in conjunction with the general agricultural fair, and in most cases this has been
found satisfactory. Practically every agricultural fair in British Columbia has its children's
or schools' department, and in not a few cases the schools' section provides the chief attraction
of the fair. Occasionally in districts where -agricultural fairs are not held the teachers organize
school fairs as separate school functions. The school fair serves a useful purpose, educationally
and socially. It, at least once in the year, serves to focus the attention of the parents and of
the general public upon the nature and quality of the work being accomplished in the schools.
Small grants have been made towards the prize-list in connection with these school fairs and
further consideration is now being given to the question with a view to establishing these grants
on a percentage basis. The largest and most successful school fairs are being held in the districts
served by District Supervisors, and the best results are obtained in those districts where the
teachers stand together in support of the undertaking. The School Boards in these districts
where school fairs are held co-operate with the agricultural associations and teachers' associations in providing prizes. In some cases private individuals have given very generous support
by offering special prizes.
The competitions are of two kinds, school or class contests and individual contests. The
former include school-garden exhibits, manual-training exhibits, domestic science, writing,
drawing, and primary grade hand-work, and the latter such exhibits as chickens, rabbits, calves,
and pigs, which usually come under club management, and such individual projects as may be
included under sewing, cooking, wood-working, and home-garden exhibits.
This year the Jersey Breeders' Association has given most valuable assistance in the
organization of Boys' and Girls' Jersey Calf Clubs. Three strong clubs were organized—one
at Chilliwack, one at Salmon Arm, and one at Armstrong—and three clubs of eight members each
in the Comox District. In arranging and financing the purchase of pure-bred Jersey calves for
the different club members, invaluable assistance has been rendered by the managers of local
banks at these points—Mr. L. W. Smith, of the Merchants' Bank at Chilliwack; Mr. S. K.
Campbell, of the Bank of Commerce at Salmon Arm; Mr. W. Smith, of the Bank of Hamilton;
and Mr. C. B. Winter, of the Bank of Montreal at Armstrong. In a more general way the
Canadian Bankers' Association has for several years been offering special prizes at most of
the fall fairs for different classes of live stock owned and raised by boys and girls.
The chief difficulty experienced this year was that of securing a sufficient number of purebred calves to meet the demand. The results this year have been so satisfactory that the
difficulty referred to will probably be even greater next year. This year it was found necessary,
after securing all the available animals from local breeders, to import a car-load from the
eastern townships of Quebec. So far not a single case has been reported where Calf Club
members have fallen down on their project of calf-raising. On the other hand, the boys and
girls have not infrequently won honours in open competition with the best stockmen exhibiting
at the fall fairs.   These clubs were all officially registered under the Department of Agriculture.
In some cases the school fair includes a series of athletic contests. At the Surrey Fair this
year a programme of sports was splendidly carried out by a committee of energetic citizens.
Every one of the numerous athletic events was keenly contested and the entire afternoon was
spent in a very interesting manner. Councillor Joe Brown did much to assist the committee in
promoting interschool contests by offering two handsome silver cups—one for the graded school
winning the greatest number of points in the sports contests and the other for the ungraded
school winning the most points. At this fair the midway faker was conspicuous by his absence,
yet no one was heard to express any regret, nor did any one seem to miss this very questionable
form of attraction.
School sports also formed an important part of the programme at the Langley Fair, which
was held at Milner.
Junior Stock-judging Competitions.
As a further development of this work and with a view to encouraging the careful study of
farm animals, arrangements were made with the executives of the three largest fairs—Vancouver,
New Westminster, and Victoria—for the holding of competitions in the judging of farm animals.
Very generous prizes were offered and the response was most gratifying. In addition to the
regular open contests in stock-judging for adults, and for boys and girls under 21 years of age,
competitions amongst teams of three—boys or girls under 18 years of age—were arranged, at F 54 Public Schools Report. 1921
Vancouver and New Westminster.   Six teams entered the competition at the Vancouver Fair,
the winners being as follows:—
First prize ($100)—Won by a team of boys from Kamloops, coached by George Hay,
B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
Second prize ($60)—Won by a team of girls from Chilliwack, coached by J. C. Readey,
B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction.
Third prize ($40)—Won by a team of boys from Comox, coached by S. H. Hopkins,
B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction.
Fourth prize ($30)—Won by a team of boys from New Westminster, coached by A. M.
McDermott, B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction.
Fifth prize  ($20)—Won by a team composed of two boys and one girl from Victoria,
coached by H. E. Hallwright, B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction.
In the individual stock-judging competition at the Vancouver Fair, in which some twenty-five
contestants took part, the awards were as follows: First, Harry Drake, Kamloops; second,
Thos. Hopkins, Courtenay; third, Frank Frolek, Kamloops; fourth, Jean Thompson, Chilliwack;
fifth, James Wright, Kamloops,
At New Westminster the competition was even more keen than at Vancouver, no less than
eleven teams entering the contest and forty-seven boys and girls in the contest for individual
judging for those under 21 years.   The winners were as follows:—
(1.) For boys or girls under 21 years of age making the highest score in the judging of
heavy horses, dairy cattle, and beef cattle: First, Lorna Ramsay, Victoria; second, Jean Thompson, Chilliwack; third, George Hodgson, New Westminster ;  fourth, Ernest Brooke, Salmon Arm.
(2.) For teams of three—boys or girls under 18 years of age—winning the highest number
of points in the judging of the same three classes of live stock, 50 points being allowed for correct
placing of animals and 50 points for written reasons. The first prize, which consisted of a
challenge cup presented by the British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association and a gold medal
to each member of the team presented by the Royal Industrial and Agricultural Society of
British Columbia, was won by the Kamloops team, composed of Harry Drake, Frank Frolek,
and James Wright, coached by George Hay, B.S.A., District Agriculturist. The second prize,
a silver medal to each member of the team, was won by the Armstrong team, composed of
Edward Patten, Dudley Pritchard, and Hector Ford, coached by J. B. Munro, B.S.A., District
Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction. The third prize, a bronze medal to each member of the
team, was won by the Chilliwack girls' team, composed of Bessie Macfarlane, Jean Thompson,
and Constance Barton, coached by J. C. Readey, B.S.A., District Supervisor of Agricultural
Instruction, Chilliwack.
A special cash prize of $30, donated by the British Columbia Dairymen's Association, for
the team making the highest score in the judging of dairy cattle was won by the Comox team,
composed of Tom Hopkins, Harry McQuillan, and Clive Davis, coached by S. H. Hopkins, B.S.A.,
District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction at Courtenay.
A special prize of $12 for first place and $8 for second, donated by A. M. Paterson, M.L.A.,
for the highest score in the judging of heavy horses was awarded as follows: First, Jack Berry,
Langley;  second, Violet Grant, Enderby.
A special prize of $10, donated by Dean Clement, of the Provincial College of Agriculture, for
the highest score made in the judging of beef cattle went to Harry Drake, Kamloops.
At the Victoria Fair the contests were altogether for individuals, with a sweepstakes contest
open to boys or girls who had won first or second place in any previous judging contest in the
Province.   The results were as follows:—
Boys or girls under 21 years of age (cash prizes) : First, Herbert Warren, Victoria: second,
Alfred Clark, Victoria;   third, Harry Doyle, New Westminster;   fourth, Cecil Dick, Victoria.
Boys or girls under 18 years of age (cash prizes) : First, Harry Drake, Kamloops; second,
Lorna Ramsay, Victoria; third, George Hodgson, New Westminster; fourth, Alfred Clark,
Victoria.
Sweepstakes for boys or girls under 18 years of age: First, gold medal and $15, Harry
Drake, Kamloops; second, silver medal and $10, Jack Berry, Langley Prairie; third, bronze
medal and $5, James Wright, Kamloops.
As the competitors came from different districts in the Province and as their selection as
members of their respective teams is determined by their proficiency in this particular branch 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 55
of their agricultural studies—-most of the competitors being members of High School Agricultural
classes in the Province—these contests in stock-judging serve to stimulate interest during the
year in agricultural studies. The exhibition executives of these three large fairs are deserving
of praise for the very generous and enthusiastic support given to these stock-judging contests
for young people engaged in agricultural studies. The executive of the Provincial Fair at New
Westminster could not have done more than they did to make the stock-judging contests successful, and also to give the youthful contestants a thoroughly good time during their visit to this
splendid exhibition. Not only did they pay the transportation of the contesting teams to the
fair, which they had promised to do, but they also granted free admission to the fair, provided
meals and lodging during their stay, and finished by tendering a complimentary banquet to the
teams and their coaches and to many others who had been actively interested in the competitions.
Referring to the banquet and to the junior stock-judging competitions, the British Columbian,
of New Westminster, in an excellent editorial in the issue of September 17th, made the following
statement:—
" There have been banquets and banquets at the exhibition, but the gathering of young men
and maidens who took part in the junior stock-judging competition with the officials of the fair,
the University men intimately connected with agriculture, and the District Agricultural Supervisors from various sections of the Province, was one of those really stimulating and inspiring
affairs which will 'have an influence far afield. The junior stock-judging competition was one of
the successes of the exhibition and, as President Nelson expressed it, one of the most practical
features."
One of the interesting things about these contests was that country-bred and city-bred boys
and girls were brought together as competitors on what might appear to be rather unequal
terms. It was shown, however, that although the highest score was awarded to a team composed
of the sons of prominent stockmen and coached by a man of recognized ability as a stock judge,
some of the honours were won by boys and girls in the city who are students in High School
Agricultural classes. The showing made by agricultural students in the Victoria and New
Westminster High Schools would help to substantiate my own contention that agricultural
science can be made a real success as a high-school subject in any high school in British
Columbia, whether rural or urban.
In reporting the results of the junior stock-judging competition held at the Vancouver Fair,
the Vancouver Province, under date of August 20th, made the following very complimentary
statement with reference to agricultural instruction in British Columbia and the ability displayed
by the young competitors in stock-judging:—
" There has been no better indication recently of the value of agricultural fairs nor no more
hopeful sign for the agricultural future of the Province than the scene in the pavilion on Friday
of six district teams of boys and girls under 18 years of age in a stock-judging competition.
. . . The young agriculturists, all students of British Columbia high and public schools, judged
horses, sheep, cattle, and swine. The written reports of the entrants in the competition showed
a versatile knowledge and a familiarity with what is required in pure-bred animals that augurs
well for the improvement of live stock in the Province."
Referring to the value of high-school instruction as carried on in British Columbia, the
report in the Province continues:—
"That this teaching is invaluable to the agricultural development of the Province is the firm
conviction of every one who has had any contact with the work. The children's practical as well
as theoretical instruction and how well they have progressed was strikingly illustrated at the
exhibition yesterday morning when confronted with several departments of stock and widely
separated types of each breed they gave judgments such as might be expected only of those who
have spent many years in the business. One of the teams, that from Chilliwack, was entirely
composed of girls. The students were selected by the elimination process in each district. It was
a decidedly interesting sight in the pavilion to see dainty young school-misses stepping around
the animals with appreciative and calculating eye picking out their weak points almost as readily
as a veteran stockman."
Agriculture in High Schools.
The regular Two-year Course in Agriculture is now being taught in fourteen high schools to
approximately 400 students, fully half of whom are girls.   That girls can profit by these courses ■
F 56
Public Schools Report.
1921
as well as boys and can make as good a showing is being demonstrated daily in these high
schools. The very creditable standing taken by the girls who entered the stock-judging contests
came as a distinct surprise to many—perhaps all but their instructors. When it comes to teaching elementary agriculture and nature- study in our public schools, these young women will
certainly be on familiar ground, and will not betray the weakness and almost helplessness in
the teaching of this subject now commonly met with amongst teachers who have had no such
preparatory training in their Public and High School Courses. Every teacher should have a
good training in science subjects in the high school, and where possible in agricultural science
as well. Very commendable alterations have been made in the Course of Study for High Schools
in recent years which permit of a more thorough grounding in the sciences, for intending
teachers particularly, but a great many boys and girls on entering high school with a view to
preparing themselves to teach are not made aware of the benefits to be derived from a study of
the science subjects as an important part of a teacher's training.
In the report of a committee composed of eighteen of the leading educationists in England,
appointed by the Prime Minister to investigate the teaching of science under the educational
system of Great Britain, the following conclusions bearing on this question are worth considering : " It is not easy to exaggerate the importance of some scientific knowledge for all
teachers, for it enables them to link up their daily lessons with the facts with which all children,
in town and country alike, are in natural and continual contact. It is extremely desirable that
there should be a much larger number of teachers in elementary schools qualified to give instruction in science and that all possible steps should be taken to increase the supply."
As suggested by this committee, one of the great values to a teacher in having a good science
training rests in the fact that it enables him to interpret to his pupils their complex natural
environment and to make more meaningful to them their daily observations and experiences.
Agriculture as taught in the high schools of this Province is closely linked up with natural
and experimental science, and can only be at its best educationally when taught in conjunction
with the sciences. It provides a wealth of opportunity for applying the principles of physics,
chemistry, and biology, and might almost be defined as science applied to the soil and its products
as seen in plant and animal life. As taught in our high schools it is an educational rather than
a vocational subject. Its vocational aspects must be regarded as secondary or incidental. The
courses are not conducted with a view to producing farmers, but rather for the purpose of helping
to develop responsible and resourceful citizens having some special knowledge of such fundamental things as the scientific production of the people's food and the economics of rural life
and industry. Vocational courses in agriculture emphasize agriculture methods in the daily
practice of farming, and can only be taught successfully in a well-equipped farm school. The
Province of Alberta has about half a dozen of these agricultural schools and there are four or
five in Eastern Canada. These are truly vocational schools where boys and girls may come to
receive further instruction and direct practical training in the latest methods of farming and
of home management. As would be expected in such vocational schools of agriculture and home
economics, most of the time is spent on purely agricultural subjects, whilst the remainder is
devoted to such subjects as English, history and civics, and science. In the fourteen high schools
in this Province where agricultural courses are offered the class time allowed so far Is approximately three hours per week. If this allotment of time could be doubled it would certainly
help greatly in making the subject the success which its importance justifies, but even with the
very limited time allowed the courses are improving and are steadily gaining in popularity.
New Appointments.
In July last two new appointments were made. Mr. Wm. H. Grant, B.S.A., a graduate of
the Ontario Agricultural College and a teacher of experience, was appointed District Supervisor
of Agricultural Instruction for Salmon Arm City and Municipality. Mr. Grant has made a good
beginning in his work in the Salmon Arm District and we are fortunate in being able to secure
him for this position.
Mr. Tom H. Jones, B.S.A., also a graduate of the Ontario Agricultural College and a specialist
in horticulture, has been appointed District Supervisor for the Penticton and Summerland
District. As fruit-growing is the leading industry in this part of the Province, Mr. Jones will
be able to put his technical knowledge of horticulture to good use in conjunction with his teaching
in the district. Winners in the Chilliwack Jersey Calf Club, 1921.
A few of the members of the Armstrong Jersey Calf Club. Bd
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Very promising high-school classes in agriculture have already been formed in the high
schools in these districts and a lively interest in the new work is being manifested generally.
Notes from the Reports of District Supervisors of Agricultural Instruction.
From J. C. Readey, B.S.A., Chilliwack District :—
" Number of students enrolled in Advanced Junior Grade Agriculture, IS; and in Matriculation Agriculture, 5. In general science thirty-two pupils are enrolled. All students who wrote
advanced agriculture last June were successful in passing.
"This year home projects were added to the work required of the students in agriculture,
with very satisfactory results. The parents as well as the students themselves have been deeply
interested in the work.
" Supervision-work includes fifteen public schools in which classes are conducted in twenty-
nine class-rooms. The garden-work and the nature-study teaching was better than in any
preceding year. No less than 130 pupils availed themselves of the offer of the choice of five
kinds of seed for home-gardening. These gardens were planned as supplementary to the family
garden. At the School Fair seventy-three exhibits were made, special prizes being offered by
the Chilliwack Parent-Teacher Association. The School Fair continues to grow. This year there
was a total of 731 entries, covering many branches of school-work, with a prize-list of $580.
The exhibit of home-garden produce and the live-stock exhibits of Jersey calves, Yorkshire pigs,
grade bacon pigs, and poultry made substantial and attractive addition this year to the features
of previous fairs.
" The organization of live-stock clubs in this district has been very successful and promises
well. In co-operation with the Provincial Department of Agriculture, the Jersey Breeders'
Association, the Dominion Poultry Association, and the Merchants' Bank of Canada, I have been
able to organize the following clubs: A Poultry Club of 120 members; a Jersey Calf Club of
23;   a Yorkshire Pig Club of 15;  and a Bacon Pig Club of 15, the latter having 54 animals.
" In conjunction with the Department of Agriculture, an office has been opened in the Courthouse in connection with the work of farm cost accounting. The field-work entailed by this,
together with the club-work, helps to bring me into intimate and practical touch with the
agricultural practice of the community, which greatly aids in the work of instruction in
agriculture in the schools and especially in the High School. This work will make available
most valuable first-hand information in the matter of production costs.
" The schools of this district were represented at the Provincial Fair at New Westminster
in the Pig Club and Jersey calf contests and by a district school-garden exhibit. A stock-judging
team composed of three girls—members of last year's High School class—entered the competitions in stock-judging both at Vancouver and New Westminster, winning second place at the
former fair and third place at the latter, with eleven teams competing. A very creditable showing has been made by the district in all contests this year."
From E. L. Small, B.S.A., Surrey Municipality:—
" In connection with the High School work this year the following projects were developed:
(1) Planning and operating of a home vegetable-garden; (2) variety and yield test for potatoes;
(3) construction and care of hotbeds; (4) home improvement by means of flowers, shrubs, and
lawns; (5) tests and records for dairy herds. The High School classes taught are as follows:
First-year Agriculture, 12 students; Second-year Agriculture, 12; General Science, 17. The
eighteen public schools of the municipality were visited regularly every two weeks. Aid was
given by teaching type lessons, providing current publications, bulletins, and by the use of
lantern-slides. Fourteen of the schools conducted successful school-gardens, with experimental
work for the advanced classes. Home projects in the growing of seeds, potatoes, corn, home
vegetable-gardens, and poultry-raising were organized in each school, and the produce was
shown at the Surrey School Fair, and later at the Provincial Exhibition at New Westminster.
" I was pleased to be able to aid in the formation of the Surrey Parent-Teachers' Association,
which did excellent work in establishing warm lunches for school-children. A local Teachers'
Association and reading circle has also been formed for the coming term.
" I wish to thank the Department of Education for the educational course which I was
allowed to attend at the Northern Normal and Industrial School Aberdeen, S.D., during the
summer months. I was particularly interested and benefited by the courses in rural leadership,
rural sociology, vitalized agriculture, and by special educational lectures delivered by prominent lecturers in the United States. Such a course must necessarily be of great help to one engaged
in rural educational work."
From J. M. Shales, B.A., B.S.A., Langley Municipality:—
The work here has made favourable progress during the year. Eight students are taking
the Advanced Course in Agriculture and thirteen the First-year Course. This year our demonstration plots gave splendid proof of the value of the drainage system planned by the class last
fall and installed during the winter. The experiments carried out by the pupils have given
some very practical and definite results of value to the district, particularly those concerned with
certain insect-controls and chemical fertilizers. The fifteen public schools of the municipality
were visited once in two weeks for the purpose of assisting the teachers in nature-study and
school-gardening. Over 300 pupils were furnished with garden seeds and other materials for
carrying on home projects in agriculture. The results of these as well as the products of the
school-garden were exhibited at the School Fair at Milner, making up the largest exhibition
ever held here. A district school-garden exhibit was staged at the Provincial Exhibition and
won first prize. A stock-judging team was trained for the competitions held at New Westminster
and Victoria Fairs."
From A. M. McDermott, B.S.A., New Westminster:—
"During the year work carried on included: (1) Instruction in agriculture for High School
classes, 29 enrolled; (2) instruction for night classes, 19 enrolled; (3) special class in agriculture
for young men attending the Technical School, 14 enrolled; (4) assistance in the teaching of
physics and chemistry in the Technical School; (5) supervision of agricultural instruction in
the city schools.
" Upwards of 3 acres of land are at our disposal for practical work. This was surveyed
in the early spring and planned to give practice in the best methods of soil-treatment, crop
rotation and management, seed production, and landscape-gardening. Demonstration-work
included milk-testing, incubation of eggs and care of poultry to early maturity, treatment and
selecting of seed for ordinary field and root crops, including potatoes for certified seed, also
experiments in the growing of grains, grasses, sugar-beets, and garden vegetables.
" During January, February, and March evening classes were held, when short courses were
given in the following branches: Soils, dairying and dairy products, poultry and live stock.
Classes were held from 7.30 to 9.30 on Tuesday and Thursday evenings, with an average of
nineteen in actual attendance. Grateful appreciation is hereby expressed to Professor Lloyd, of
the University of British Columbia; J. Benton, Head Nurseryman, Essondale; Dr. Chester,
Provincial Veterinarian at New Westminster; and C. Tice, B.S.A., Provincial Department of
Agriculture, for valuable assistance rendered during the course.
" Live-stock-judging teams were trained for competition at the exhibitions at Vancouver,
New Westminster, and Victoria. Both boys and girls took part and did very creditable work,
which seemed a fitting response to the efforts of the committees in charge of this new feature
on the programmes of the various exhibitions.
" During the year an earnest endeavour was made to fill a worthy place in the great work
of teaching, to enhance the enjoyment of life on the part of the growing youth, and by leading
young men and women through educational agriculture to properly interpret the ' natural'
world and as grown citizens to exert a corrective influence on ' unnatural' tendencies."
From J. B. Munro, B.S.A., Armstrong and Enderby:—
" All the first-and second-year students in the High School completed their Courses in
General Science and Preliminary Agriculture in June—fifteen students in the former class and
ten in the latter. This term eight matriculation students and ten in the second year are pursuing
their studies in agriculture.
" A School Fair was held last month in which both teachers and pupils took a keen interest,
Every school pupil had at least one exhibit entered. The fair was well attended by parents
and others interested. Frequent stock-judging demonstrations were held at the leading ranches
for the benefit of the students in the Agricultural class, from which a stock-judging team
composed of three girls was selected for the competition at the New Westminster Fair. I was
ably assisted in this work by Dr. C. M. Henderson; Mr. Charles Hardy, manager of the Stepney
Ranch; and Mr. George Smedley, a poultry judge of Enderby.
" Armstrong District.—All the students of the Armstrong High School have chosen agriculture in their second and third years, general science having been taken during the first year, 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 59
and very keen interest in the work is being displayed. Eight matriculation and nineteen second-
year students are enrolled in the classes.
" In addition to the class-room, garden, and laboratory studies, frequent visits have been
made to greenhouses, creamery, dairy-farms, brickyard, market-gardens, ranches, and other
places where practical first-hand information can be secured through direct observation. The
study of live stock has been the basis of our work during the spring and summer, teams of
horses, herds of cattle, and flocks of sheep being secured for nearly every lesson in the judging
and handling of animals.    Many ranchers and townsmen assisted in the work.
" Two live-stock clubs formed this year are now in existence among pupils of high and
public schools. The Berkshire Pig Club has sixteen members, eleven of whom showed pairs of
pigs at the recent Northern Okanagan Exhibition. Twelve boys and girls are members of the
Jersey Calf Club, and ten of these showed their animals at the same fair at Armstrong. In
open competition with animals owned and shown by adults, some of these calves were winners.
" A team of boys competed at the Vancouver Fair and also one at the New Westminster
Fair, where they succeeded in winning second place. The stock-judging demonstrations and
competitions have had a splendid effect on students and adults in this district."
From H. E. Hallwright, B.S.A., Victoria District:—
" The value of agriculture as a subject of general education, even when carried on in an
urban environment, is coming to be recognized more and more. The peculiar character of the
subject itself, its intimate and essential relationship to the every-day experience, even of boys
and girls living in an urban or suburban environment, seems to justify its having a place in
city high schools, and city people are coming more and more to recognize it as a balancing and
co-ordinating factor in any course of instruction. In some rural districts, on the other hand,
there is a tendency to#withhold from the children that training which is so essential to intelligent
farm practice to-day. This Is owing to an idea that so-called ' white collar ' jobs carry with them
more distinction and also greater remuneration than the tilling of the soil or the raising of
live stock, however ' honourable' such occupations might be. Agricultural instruction in Saanich
—especially that part which had to do with school-gardening—has, for several reasons, partly
economic, suffered a reverse, and the chief work carried on there during the season consisted of
home-project work in seed production. The boys and girls of Saanich have responded to this
home-project work with enthusiasm. Systematic instruction in the method of raising seed and
in arranging of exhibits for the Saanichton Fair has been carried out. Prizes consisting of
gold, silver, and bronze medals for first, second, and third prizes and a garden-cultivator for fourth
have been provided for the winners in the seed-growing contest, and a good exhibit is assured.
" Special attention has been given to the work under way in the Victoria High School. The
stimulus towards the study of live stock resulting from the junior competitions in stock-judging
instituted by the executives of the Vancouver, New Westminster, and Victoria Fairs has been
taken advantage of, and although facilities for demonstration and practice work are not all
that could be desired in the vicinity of Victoria, yet the students in agriculture, mostly drawn
from the Matriculation class, distinguished themselves beyond all expectation.
" The present Matriculation class in Agriculture numbers twelve students—six boys and six
girls—and may yet have a few more added to the number. The Junior class is the largest we
have ever had since the work was started, no less than thirty-three students—fourteen boys and
nineteen girls—having enrolled. This is the limit of our present accommodation and a few of
the late-comers had to be denied admission to the class. The predominance of girls taking the
junior year may be traced to the recognized advantages to be derived from this course by those
who are aiming to become public-school teachers, as most of the girls taking the course are
looking forward to entering the teaching profession.
" Plans are under way for conducting evening classes in Agriculture during the winter
months. These classes, which have been very successful in former years, are again being
organized for the benefit of young men and women who are unable to attend high school,
but who are desirous of obtaining technical instruction in certain branches of agriculture."
From J. E. Britton, B.S.A., Kelowna District:—
" During the school-year from September, 1920, to July, 1921, the work in Kelowna High
School consisted of teaching and general instruction-work in agriculture for a class of eighteen—
twelve boys and six girls. In addition to this, the General Science Course as outlined was taught
with the Preliminary class, and the Botany Course with the Advanced Junior class. '
F 60 Public Schools Report. 1921
" Commencing with the school term, September, 1921, two classes were enrolled for agriculture. In the Advanced Junior class there are twenty-one, consisting of ten boys and eleven
girls. The Senior class has ten boys and four girls completing the work in agriculture for
matriculation. To assist the teaching staff, the Course in General Science is again being taught
by the Supervisor, with thirteen boys and nine girls. Assistance is also given in the Botany
Course, particularly in the laboratory work for the two classes taking the subject.
" By arrangement with the Department of Agriculture, the Supervisor devotes half of his
time to work in the district as Agricultural Representative for that Department. This leaves
the first three days of the week for strictly school-work. There are many advantages in this
arrangement, but often one branch of the work claims more attention than its allotted half-
time allows, and while one helps the other in many ways, it is not always easy to turn from the
planning and thought in one department to a consideration of the other."
From V. B. Robinson, B.S.A., Vernon District:— ,
" Under the co-operative scheme existing between the Department of Education and the
Department of Agriculture, I devote half of my time to the interest of each department.
" The High School work has made satisfactory progress. There is an enrolment of twenty-
one in the first year and six in the second. The idea that a Course in Agriculture need not
necessarily be vocational, and that it is as valuable, from a citizenship point of view, to the
boy or girl not strictly connected with the farm, but who lives in a rural district, as it is to one
living on the farm, is commencing to be appreciated. An intelligent understanding and appreciation of the work will tend to make it more popular.
" The instruction commenced last year with the teachers of the public school will be
continued. Time cannot be spared to give class-room instruction to each of the upper grades
in the public schools, and this method is taken to reach the maximum number of pupils. Six
teachers undertook school-gardening this past season and the same number of gardens will be
conducted the coming year.
" My duties as Agricultural Representative have been chiefly concerned with a study of
Okanagan soil conditions and problems. Last winter I outlined the necessary procedure for
establishing a number of demonstration plots to show the uses and values of certain cover-
crops and various fertilizer treatments. In the spring these were established in several orchards
in the district. During the coming winter I expect to devote the major portion of my time to
collecting data from representative growers regarding orchard yields and methods of soil
management.
" This practical work has been of immense value to me in my teaching, permitting me to
give a local application to the most of my class-room work. I find it, however, very difficult
to maintain a proper balance between these two united and yet dissimilar fields of activity, as
there is sufficient work in either to engage one's entire time."
From W. M. Fleming, B.S.A., Duncan District:—
" During the first term ending June 20th, 1921, I had nine students in Junior Agriculture,
three in Senior, eight in First-year General Science, and nineteen in Botany. All of the students
who took general science in their first year are taking agriculture this year. The classes at the
present time are as follows: Junior Agriculture, 8 students; Senior Agriculture, 5 students;
and General Science, 28 students.
" This year the following schools under my supervision had school-gardens : Duncan Central
(five rooms), Cowichan Station, and Glenora. Seven pupils at Cowichan also had supervised
home-gardens. Very creditable progress was made at Glenora this year. This school won the
first prize at the Fall Fair, seven schools competing, for best exhibit from gardens planted at
the school.
" Plans are being prepared for improvement of the school-grounds at Chemainus, and it is
hoped that some progress will be made before the end of the year.
" As in 1920, the Education Division of the Fall Fair was specially emphasized in my work.
This section, which this year had 752 entries, now attracts the attention of many visitors and
is a feature of the exhibition.    A Pig Club having nine members is carrying on successfully.
" Extension classes were held at Somenos one night per week from December 1st to March
15th, with an average attendance of seventeen.
" My work at Duncan is divided, half-time being given to teaching and supervision and half
to Agricultural Representative work.   An office has been established in the Agricultural Hall. Section of flower-border in the High School experimental grounds at Vernon.
Junior stock-judging competition at Vancouver Fair, 1921.  12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F CI
A record has been kept of visitors to the office, and an average of 170 persons per month visits
this office for information and advice.
" During the past year satisfactory progress has been made and prospects are bright for
continued success in all lines of work."
From S. H. Hopkins, B.S.A., Comox District :—
" My work in connection with the school has been chiefly concerned with the organizing and
supervising of home-project work in home-gardening and competitions in the raising of chickens,
pigs, and calves. These have been very successful. Five schools entered the competitions in
home-gardening, each holding its own School Fair. These schools also sent exhibits to the Fall
Fair at Courtenay.
" In the chicken-raising competitions there were seventy-five competitors, whilst in calf-
raising there were twenty-four and in pig-raising ten. The judging in these competitions, with
the exception of the chickens, was done by myself. The exhibits in nearly all cases were of very
high grade and keen interest was shown by the children taking part in them. As poultry-
raising is a phase of farming somewhat neglected in this district, these competitions are very
important, as they help to arouse a keener interest in the industry and at the same time serve
to distribute good strains of poultry over the farms of the district. As yet no class-work in
general science and agriculture has been started in the Courtenay High School, as the School
Board has not yet provided the necessary equipment for teaching these subjects. I hope to have
these classes under way, however, within a few weeks."
As Mr. Grant, District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction in the Salmon Arm District,
and Mr. Jones in the Penticton-Summerland District have scarcely more than begun their work,
no report has been received. Everything seems to indicate, however, that an excellent beginning
has been made in each of these districts.
I have, etc.,
J. W. Gibson,
Director of Elementary Agricultural Education. F 62 Public Schools Report. 1921
SUMMER SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS.
Victoria, B.C., September 30th, 1921.
8. J. Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith a report on the summer school for teachers held in Victoria
from July 4th to August 5th, 1921. •   .
As in former years, most of the classes were held in the Victoria High School, where every
facility for good work is provided for all classes, excepting those in Manual Training and
Domestic Science. Accommodation was provided for the Domestic Science classes at the Central
School, whilst the Manual Training courses were conducted in the Vancouver Technical School,
chiefly on account of the fact that the great majority of students taking these courses, and the
instructors as well, live in or near Vancouver.
The Provincial University summer school was in session from July 4th to August 13th and
attracted a somewhat larger number of student teachers than last year, the total enrolment
being 134. This year, as last, the Department of Education paid the transportation of teachers
taking the courses in Vancouver as well as in Victoria.
The enrolment by classes in the Provincial Department of Education summer school was as
follows:—
Rural Science      35
Primary Grade •     60
Art      35
Manual Training       25
Home Economics       17
Music     15
Children's Literature and School Libraries     20
Total   207
As will be seen from the enrolment, the largest class of all was that established for Primary
grade teachers. This course proved to be highly successful in every way, due chiefly to the very
excellent instruction given. Professor Fred E. Coombs, M.A., who holds a high reputation in
educational circles in the East for his outstanding ability as Professor of Principles and Methods
in Primary Education in the Ontario College of Education, took full charge of the first part of
the course, which dealt with the educational basis and method of Primary Grade work. His
thorough and scholarly treatment of this important and rather difficult subject, as well as his
own fine enthusiasm and personality, will not soon be forgotten by those who had chosen this
course. The second or Manual Arts part of the course, which dealt with Primary Grade handwork, was conducted by Mr. Arthur E. Hutton, who is instructor in that branch in the Calgary
Normal School. Mr. Hutton, in the very limited time allowed, gave his students not only a new
conception of the educational bearing of Manual Arts work in the primary school, but also a
high standard of efficiency in handling it.
The third part of the Primary Grade Course consisted in the giving of instruction in
children's stories and dramatization and in daily demonstrations in methods of teaching and in
the routine of class-room management. This part of the course was conducted by Miss Belle
Dirimple, B.A., Principal of the Crown Hill Primary School, Seattle, Wash., who brought to this
work extensive experience and high personal ability. One of the class-rooms in the High School
was specially fitted up as a Primary Grade class and observation-room, where Miss Dirimple had
charge of a class of small boys and girls from 10 to 12 o'clock daily.
A new course dealing with a study of children's literature for school and home use and
the organization and management of the school library was included this year and proved to
be of real value. The course was co-ordinated with the Primary Grade teachers' course.
Instruction was given by Miss Gertrude Andrus, of Seattle, who has made a special study of
children's literature, and by Miss Ellen Howe, Assistant Reference Librarian and Special Lecturer
in Library Economy in the University of Washington.    The course included a careful first-hand 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 63
study of children's books in the special children's department of the Victoria City Library from
one to two hours daily, in addition to lecture periods conducted at the High School. The success
with which this new course was carried out is in no small measure due to the enthusiastic
co-operation and assistance given by Miss Helen Stewart, Librarian at the Victoria Public
Library, and also by Miss Clay* of the Children's Department of the Library. Mr. Killam,
Officer in Charge of the Travelling Libraries in British Columbia, also gave valuable assistance
in connection with this course.
Two special or part-time courses were conducted this year. The Penmanship Course was
taken by 126 students and the Course in Physical Training by fifty students. Mr. H. B. MacLean,
who has just completed a new writing course for the schools, was in charge of the Summer
School Course in Penmanship, and was assisted by Mr. R. W. MacKenzie, who conducted these
classes a year ago. A special course of lectures and demonstrations in writing covering one
week was also given by Mr. Frank II. Arnold, Supervisor of Writing in the schools of Spokane,
Wash. The Course in Physical Training, which included gymnasium calisthenics, folk dances,
games, swimming, hygiene, and corrective work, was conducted by Miss Margaret L. Brackett,.
Physical Director at Macdonald College, Montreal, and was highly successful. It is to be hoped
that these special courses will be continued and that they will include even larger numbers of
students as years go by.
As in previous years, Courses in Rural Science, Art, Vocal Music, and Household Economics
were conducted, the result obtained being highly satisfactory. These courses are outlined in
detail in the " General Announcement of Summer School Courses," published by the Department
and distributed to the teachers previous to the opening of the school. The subjects included in
the above courses and the instructors in charge were as follows:—■
School-gardening and Poultry-study—A. M. McDermott, B.S.A., New Westminster.
Home-project Work, School Fairs, and Club Organization—V. B. Robinson, B.S.A., Vernon.
Soil-study and Field Husbandry—J. C. Readey, B.S.A., Chilliwack.
Horticulture and Floriculture—J. E. Britton, B.S.A., Kelowna.
Plant-studies—George B. Rigg, A.M., Ph.D., Professor of Botany, University of Washington, Seattle.
Insect-studies—R. C. Treherne, B.S.A., Entomologist in British Columbia for the Dominion
Government.
Animal Husbandry and Bird-study—W. M. Fleming, B.S.A., Duncan.
Dairying and Bee-keeping—J. B. Munro, B.S.A., Armstrong.
Agricultural Chemistry and Bacteriology—J. M. Shales, B.A., B.S.A., Murrayville.
Preliminary  Art  Course,  Nature  and  Object  Drawing,  Lettering,  and   Design—W.P.
Weston, Art Master, Vancouver Normal School.
Advanced Art Course, Drawing and Painting from Objects, Applied Design, and Lettering—John  Kyle,  A.K.C.A.,  Art  Master,  and Miss  Adeline  Baxter,   Supervisor of
Drawing, Winnipeg, Manitoba. ,
Manual  Training,   Pedagogics,   Theory   and   Class-teaching,   Drawing,   Mechanics,   and
Design—Alexander S. Hamilton, Supervisor of Manual Training, South Vancouver.
Metalwork  Course—Harry A.  Jones,  Instructor  in  Metalwork,   Vancouver  Technical
School.
Preliminary Home Economics—Miss Grace Dutcher, Vernon.
Advanced Home Economics—Miss Edith Bowman, B.Sc, Technical High School, Edmonton, Alta.
Vocal Music and Elocution—Miss Ethel M. Coney, Music Mistress, Vancouver Normal
School.
It is a matter of some regret that a larger number of our public-school teachers do not avail
themselves of the splendid opportunity offered in these summer courses.   Those who attend from
year to year will testify as to the value derived from the summer courses, but these represent
only about 10 per cent, of the teachers of the Province.   A Public School Inspector in an Eastern
Province was recently reported as having stated, in reply to an inquiry regarding his supply of
teachers, that he had some good ones and some mechanical ones, and that most of the good ones
were taking summer courses, while none of the mechanical ones were.   With only one out of
every ten of our teachers in British Columbia attending summer school, one might seem justified
in asking whether a large number were not becoming too mechanical in their profession.   If the F 64
Public Schools Report.
1921
summer courses provided are not those which the majority of our public-school teachers desire,
we would do well to alter those courses, or add to them that which may perchance make an
appeal to a larger number. Certain it is that no teacher can cease to be a student and long
remain successful in his work. With a view to having the 1922 summer school serve a larger
number of our teachers, I would recommend that additional courses be offered. It has been the
usage for years in this as in other Provinces to limit summer-school instruction to the newer
subjects in education, such as nature-study, manual training, agriculture, domestic science, music,
etc., on the assumption that teachers generally were less familiar with these, and therefore needed
special instruction in them rather than in the older subjects. This situation is changing, however, and with it the function of the summer school. Without doubt there is still need of giving
special attention to the teaching of these newer subjects, and more particularly to the educational
unity which calls for the intimate correlation of these newer subjects with the older, more formal
subjects of the curriculum, but there is also need of further instruction in methods pertaining to
the older subjects themselves. The " educational waste " sometimes referred to in connection
with the teaching of the newer subjects on the curriculum, if carefuly looked into, might be
traced rather to obsolete methods in connectiou with the teaching of the older subjects.
The Normal Schools do well in the limited time at their disposal to give their youthful
graduates a reasonably good start along the line of general educational principles and of special
method, but this preparation needs subsequent development which practice in teaching alone
cannot give. It remains for the teachers' summer school or the summer session of the University
to supplement and develop the professional training so well begun in the Normal School—a sort
of post-graduate course in the science and practice of education, not limited merely to a few of
the newer subjects, but broad and generous in the courses offered.
As in former years, arrangements were made for a series of Friday evening lectures, when
the students and the public generally were privileged to listen *to lecturers of ability from
outside points. The first of these was given by Dr. Jas. W. Robertson, C.M.G., Dominion Commissioner of Boy Scouts and Chairman of the Red Cross Society in Canada, who delivered a
most illuminating and forceful address on " National Movements for Good Health and Good
Citizenship," the Honourable the Minister of Education presiding. The three following weekly
lectures were given by Dr. Coleman, Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Science in the University
of British Columbia, on " Poetry and Childhood " ; by Dr. Weir, Principal of the Provincial Normal
School at Saskatoon, Sask., on " An Educational Outlook " ; and by Dr. Haggerty, Dean of the
Faculty of Education in the University of Minnesota, on " Some Children I Have Known."
These open lectures were well attended by the students as well as by the people of the city.
The social life of the school was never better. The splendid " school spirit" which existed
throughout was a matter of frequent comment amongst the Instructors, and whether at work or
at play enthusiasm and good-fellowship were everywhere in evidence. Occasional class picnics
and excursions, together with the weekly at home and dance, helped to bring the students together
in pleasant and beneficial association. The annual summer-school picnic was again held at the
Experimental Farm at Bazan Bay, as the social and entertainment committee were a unit in
favouring this point. As in previous years, the return trip included a most delightful hour or
two at the beautiful Butchart gardens and also a basket supper at Observatory Hill, after which
a visit was paid to the observatory before returning to the city.
On Tuesday evening of the last week the students of the Music class, under the direction of
their instructor, Miss E. M. Coney, Music Mistress in the Vancouver Normal School, gave a very
pleasing and interesting programme in the Assembly Hall, and on Thursday evening an exhibition
of summer-school work was arranged in the various class-rooms of the High School. The quality
of the work displayed certainly gave ample testimony as to the skilful and painstaking work of
both students and instructors. The exhibits of work in the Manual and Art Departments were
particularly good and were greatly admired by the large number of visitors that attended.
The formal closing took place in the Assembly Hall during the same evening, Mr. S. J. Willis,
Superintendent of Education, presiding. An address was given by the Hon. John Oliver, Premier
of British Columbia, in which he expressed hearty commendation of the work of the students and
their instructors, and expressed the hope that still further branches of study might be included
in these summer courses for teachers. Immediately on the close of the meeting in the Assembly
Hall the large audience was treated to a very delightful programme of folk dances and music, 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 65
which was carried out in the gymnasium by the pupils of the Physical Training class under the
direction of their instructor, Miss Brackett, assisted by local musical talent.
The summer-school classes closed at 3 p.m. on Friday, August 5th, amidst many expressions
of appreciation from the students on behalf of the school in general and in praise of the fine
work of the instructors in particular. Certainly the 1921 summer school has set a standard for
good work on the part of both the students and instructors that will be difficult to surpass in
future schools.
I have, etc.,
J. W. Gibson,
Director of Summer School. I
F 66 * Public Schools Report. 1921
FREE TEXT-BOOK BRANCH.
Education  Department, Free Text-book Branch,
Victoria, B.C., September 30th, 1921.
8. J.  Willis, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the work of the Free Text-book Branch for
the school-year ending June 30th, 1921:—
Supplies issued.
The total number of free text-books, etc., issued during 1920-21 to the public schools
(common, graded, superior, high, night, etc.), and in connection with the Correspondence Course
established for children in isolated districts where schools cannot be maintained, was as follows:
13,087 B.C. Beginner's Reader; 2S3 Teacher's Handbook to Beginner's Reader; 12,133 B.C. Phonic
Primer; 11,270 B.C. First Reader; 11,230 B.C. Second Reader; 11,681 B.C. Third Reader; 9,859
B.C. Fourth Reader; 972 N.C. First Primer; 1,276 N.C. Second Reader; 3,257 N.C. Fifth Reader;
20,705 First Arithmetic; 17,201 Second Arithmetic; 10,986 New Method Writing Pad, Part I.;
6,471 New Method Writing Pad, Part II.; 56,218 Writing Book; 46,549 Drawing Book; 4,118
Supplementary Reader (Heart of Oak, Book I.; Art-Literature Primer; Art-Literature, Book I.;
Art-Literature, Book II.; Progressive Road to Reading, Book 3a; Robin Hood Readers) ; 68
Essentials of Health; 8,154 How to be Healthy; 2,071 Latin Lessons for Beginners; 175
Canadian Civics ; 192 Syllabus of Physical Exercises ; 561 World Relations and the Continents;
8,148 History of Canada; 340 Teaching Writing, Books 1—4; 567,320 sheets Drawing Paper,
9 by 6 inches; 24,269 sheets Drawing Paper, 9 by 12 inches; S,009 Public School Grammar;
158 Union Jacks (3-yard Jack) ; 196 Flora of Southern British Columbia ; 36 " Scrap of Paper " ;
38 " Fathers of Confederation " ; 1,904 copies Children's Story of the War; 10 Globes; 39 Maps
of British Isles; 42 Maps of Dominion of Canada; 51 Maps of World; 38 Maps of British
Columbia;  50 Maps of North America.
At prevailing retail prices the books and other supplies issued would have cost $130,436.32.
Requisitions to the number of 3,507 for the above supplies issued were required to be filled.
This called for a shipment to all parts of the Province of 698 cases and 2,786 parcels, the total
weight of which was 203,296 lb.    No shipment was lost in transit.
In addition to 3,507 requisitions filled in 1920-21 to meet the needs of the public schools
and pupils taking Correspondence Courses, the Free Text-book Branch honoured 475 requisitions
for departmental purposes and for those who required to purchase school supplies. These orders
added 8 cases and 478 parcels (weighing in all 3,556 lb.) to the list of shipments for the year.
The sum of $1,650.22 was received under this head and paid into the Provincial Treasury.
Expenditure.
The chief expenditure of the Free Text-book Branch was made up as follows:—
Text-books, etc  $69,733 66
Freight and drayage   4,294 88
Distribution (freight, boxes, etc.)    2,950 89
Salaries of staff  5,427 09
Temporary assistance   506 69
Total    $82,913 21
As already stated, the Free Text-book Branch distributed during the past school-year textbooks and other supplies which would have cost parents and School Boards $130,436.32. To
purchase and distribute these among the various schools of the Province through the Free Textbook Branch required an expenditure of $86,512.39, made up as follows:—
Text-books (laid-down cost)      $77,627 72
Distribution (freight, boxes, etc.)          2,950 89
Salaries of staff  ■       5,427 09
Temporary assistance    506 69
Total   $86,512 39 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report.      . F 67
The saving on the year's transactions is, therefore, $13,923.93. It may be explained, however,
that the outlay for postage on parcels of free text-books to various points is not included in
" Distribution." A similar remark applies to other items, such as office supplies, etc. Were these
included the saving for the year would be slightly reduced.
It may be added that a considerable stock of supplies from the previous year was on hand
at the commencement of the past school-year. This will account for the apparent discrepancy
between $74,028.54 ($69,733.66 plus $4,294.88), the amount expended to purchase and lay down
supplies for 1920-21, and $77,627.72, the amount of the laid-down cost of supplies distributed
during that period.
Night-schools.
Of the night-schools in operation during the past school-year, seven were supplied with textbooks of some kind by the Free Text-book Branch. Supplies were issued to pupils attending
these schools on the same conditions as outlined in report of 1918-19.
Returns for 1920-21.
All the annual reports of free text-books for the school-year 1920-21 are now on file, with
the exception of those from five schools. One of these schools has been closed and is therefore
unable to make this return. The present teachers of the other four schools have been requested
to advise the Free Text-book Branch as to the number of books on hand when the school opened
at the beginning of the school-year 1921-22.
The majority of the annual returns show that care has been taken to keep an accurate
record of all supplies received from this office. In some cases, however, it is quite noticeable that
little or no attempt has been made by the teacher to account for the books in his or her charge.
This is especially true of schools where there has been a change of teachers at the Christmas
vacation. It was necessary for several teachers to apply to the Free Text-book Branch to
ascertain what books had been supplied to their schools during the term before Christmas.
This would have been unnecessary if the teacher for the first half of the year had entered
the various books received at the school in the Teacher's Record Book. When the Principal's
Record and Teacher's Record Books have not been accurately kept it makes it almost impossible
for the teacher to submit the annual report.
In some instances the teachers have stated that they were unable to find several of the books
reported on hand in the schools by the former teachers. This might be obviated in future if
the teachers will count the actual number of books on hand at the close of the school-year and
verify the numbers given in their annual reports.
While the majority of the teachers in the schools appear to be taking care of the Supplementary Readers, it is evident that some of them are not looking after these books as they
should. A number of these Readers are reported missing and many are reported as unfit for
further use before they have been used for more than two or three years. These books should
last at least five years if used only in the class-room and care is taken that the pupils do not
disfigure them unnecessarily.
In the case of a few schools it was necessary to withhold their supplies until the annual
report was received. This delay could be avoided if the Secretaries of the various School Boards
made a point of securing this return from the teacher at the close of the school-year before he
or she left the district, and of then forwarding it to the Free Text-book Branch.
Free Text-books in Use.
The practice of addressing a printed inquiry to teachers about the free text-book system "as
applied to their schools was continued in 1920-21.   All important errors revealed by the various
replies received attention and.any information asked for supplied.
New Price-list.
The price-list is being revised and a copy of the new list will be forwarded to every school.
At the prices given therein teachers will be authorized to supply from the reserve stock (if
any) second copies of free text-books to pupils who may require to replace lost or destroyed
texts. The amounts obtained are to be remitted to the Free Text-book Branch at the time of
sale.
I have, etc.,
J. A. Anderson,
Officer in Charge. .
F 68 Public Schools Report. 1921
THE STRATHCONA TRUST
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust, for the
Province of British Columbia, for the School-year 1920-21.
Victoria, B.C., October, 1921.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows on the work of the Local Committee for the
school-year 1920-21:—
Instruction of Teachers in Physical Training, 1920-21.
*
During the past year, 299 physical-training certificates, Grade B (Strathcona Trust Syllabus),
were granted to prospective teachers in attendance at the Provincial Normal Schools (Vancouver
and Victoria). About 3,591 teachers and prospective teachers of this Province have now qualified
as physical-training instructors.
Physical Training, 1920-21.
The list of Strathcona Trust prizes for excellence in physical training for the school-year
1920-21 is as follows :—
High and Superior Schools.
Inspectorate No. 1  (A. Sullivan, B.A., Inspector)—■
1st  Prize—Gordon Downes, B.A., 3rd Division, Oak Bay High School.
2nd Prize—J. Grahame Darling, B.Sc, 1st Division, Bridgeport High School.
3rd Prize—Miss E. M. Cadow, B.A., 3rd Division, Nanaimo High School.
Inspectorate No. 2 (J. B. DeLong, B.A., Inspector) —
1st   Prize—H. M. Robertson, B.A., 2nd Division, Cranbrook High School.
2nd Prize—T. J. Barron, B.A., 1st Division, Nakusp Superior School.
3rd Prize—Not awarded.
Common and Graded Schools.
Inspectorate No. 1 (W. H. M. May, Inspector) —
1st  Prize—Miss Edith Chandler, Nob Hill School.
2nd Prize—Mrs. Kate Ford, 2nd Division, Beacon Hill School, Victoria.
3rd Prize—Miss Isabel B. Scobie, 2nd Division, Merville School.
Inspectorate No. 2  (A. C. Stewart, Inspector) —
1st   Prize—'Miss S. E. Hardy, 14th Division, Quennell School, Nanaimo.
2nd Prize—Miss Maud Knappet, 4th Division, Lampson Street School, Esquimalt.
3rd Prize—Miss Agnes Waugh, 2nd Division, South Wellington School.
Inspectorate No. 3  (J. T. Pollock, Inspector)—
1st  Prize—H. L. Paget, 2nd Division, Aberdeen School, Vancouver.
2nd Prize—Miss E. M. Pearson, 4th Division, Mount Pleasant, Vancouver.
3rd Prize—'Miss M. A. Williams, 14th Division, Dawson School, Vancouver.
Inspectorate No. 4 (H. H. MacKenzie, B.A., Inspector) —
1st  Prize—R. Straight, 1st Division, Lord Tennyson School, Vancouver.
2nd Prize—H. B. King, 1st Division, General Gordon School, Vancouver.
3rd Prize—H. A. Eckardt, 2nd Division, Mission City School.
Inspectorate No. 5  (L. J. Bruce, Inspector) —
1st  Prize—Miss Edith A. Middlemlss, 6th Division, Henry Hudson School.
2nd Prize—Miss Dorothy M. Martin, 3rd Division, Magee School, Point Grey.
3rd Prize—Miss Maizie A. Suggitt, 4th Division, Henry Hudson School, Vancouver.
Inspectorate No. 6 (John Martin, Inspector)—
1st  Prize—Miss H. R. Anderson, 2nd Division, Lord Selkirk School, South Vancouver. 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 69
Inspectorate No. 6—Continued.
2nd Prize—Mrs. Hazel M. Jex, 5th Division, Sir Alexander MacKenzie School,  South
Vancouver.
3rd Prize—George S. Wate, 1st Division, Secord School, South Vancouver.
Inspectorate No. 7 (F. G. Calvert, Inspector) —
1st   Prize—Miss M. Simmons, 7th Division, Kingsway West School, Burnaby.
2nd Prize—J. Burnett, 4th Division, Gilmore Avenue School, Burnaby.
3rd Prize—Miss M. C. Morrow, 3rd Division, Kingsway West School, Burnaby.
Inspectorate No. 8  (Arthur Anstey, B.A., Inspector) —
1st   Prize—W. T. Fennell, 1st Division, Herbert Spencer School, New Westminster.
2nd Prize—R. S. Shields, B.A., 1st Division, F. W. Howay School, New Westminster.
3rd Prize—Miss F. L. Whitworth, 1st Division, Murrayville School.
Inspectorate No. 9 (A. F. Matthews, M.A., Inspector) —
1st  Prize—H. S. Hum, 2nd Division, Merritt Superior School.
2nd Prize—Miss Kathleen Lawrence, 10th Division, Central School, Kamloops.
3rd Prize—Miss Margaret Wright, Louis Creek School.
Inspectorate No. 10 (A. R. Lord, B.A., Inspector)—■
1st   Prize—T. Aldworth, 1st Division, Central School, Armstrong.
2nd Prize—Miss Lillian Johnson, Okanagan School.
3rd Prize—Miss Dorothy Leckie, 6th Division, Central School, Kelowna.
Inspectorate No. 11 (A. E. Miller, Inspector)—■
1st   Prize—Miss Hazel M. Trembath, 3rd Division, Central School, Rossland.
2nd Prize—Miss Rebecca Johnston, Cascade School.
3rd Prize—Mrs. Edna H. Macpherson, Trout Lake School.
Inspectorate No. 12  (E. G. Daniels, B.A., Inspector) —
1st   Prize—Miss Katheriue Wallach, Sth Division, Central School, Nelson.
2nd Prize—Miss J. N. Corbett, 1st Division, Canyon City School.
3rd Prize—Thomas Prescott, 1st Division, Coal Creek School.
.   Inspectorate No. 13 (J. M. Paterson, B.A., Inspector) —
1st  Prize—Miss Lena Wolfenden, 2nd Division, Ocean Falls School.
2nd Prize—Miss Ann M. McKinnon, 4th Division, Central School, Prince Rupert.
3rd Prize—Miss Jessie Rothwell, 3rd Division, Central School, Prince Rupert.
Inspectorate No. 14 (G. H. Gower, M.A., Inspector)—
1st  Prize—Miss E. Milligan, 5th Division, Prince George School.
2nd Prize—Miss Drina Fraser, Fort Fraser School.
3rd Prize—Miss Marjorie Baker, 2nd Division, McBride School.
1st  prize,  $12;    2nd  prize,  $10;    3rd  prize,   $8;    amount  expended  under  this  head  for
1920-21, $472.
Physical Training, 1921-22.
For competition among high and superior schools during 1921-22 the sum of $27 has been
granted to each of the two inspectorates. This sum is to be divided into three prizes of $9 each.
For the purposes of competition and inspection the schools are to be divided into three groups
or classes, viz.: Group A, of five divisions or more; Group B, of two to four divisions, inclusive;
Group C, of superior schools and high schools containing only one division.
For competition among public schools the sum of $432 has been granted—i.e., $27 (to be
divided into three prizes of $9 each) for each of the sixteen inspectorates. For the purpose of
competition and inspection the schools in each inspectorate are to be divided into three groups
or classes, viz.: Group A, of five divisions or more; Group B, of two to four divisions, inclusive;
Group C, of all ungraded schools. As the inspectorates are divided geographically rather than
with regard to the size and classification of schools, it is realized that the above arrangement
may not completely meet the conditions in a few cases. In any inspectorate, therefore, where
this classification is found to be wholly unsatisfactory, the matter of dividing the schools into
three groups or classes for the purpose of awarding three prizes of equal value is to be left
to the discretion of the Inspector in charge. In all cases, however, the teacher and the class
are to be considered as the unit in making comparisons for granting the awards. As before, the
teacher to whom the award has been made shall be entitled to receive two-thirds of the prize;
the other one-third to be expended for a picture or some piece of apparatus (suitably inscribed) F 70 Public Schools Report. 1921
for the room in which it was won.    Only those teachers who are the holders of physical-training
certificates granted under the Strathcona Trust are eligible, to compete.
Military Drill, 1920-21.
In June thirty-eight public-school cadet corps paraded for the annual inspection, 1920-21.
The number then present was 3,658 out of a total enrolment of 4,157 boys of cadet age. Although
the report of 1919-20 shows 3,S55 cadets as present at the annual inspection, the difference is
accounted for by the elimination of all cadets not over 12 years of age at the inspection in 1920-21.
There were 5,300 cadets trained during 1920-21—a considerable increase over the number trained
during 1919-20.
The comparative rank awarded by the Inspecting Officer at the annual inspection for 1920-21
is as follows :—
Rank
Corps. awarded.
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—
King Edward High School  ?       1
No. 112. Victoria High School         2
No. 101. Vancouver  Cadet Regiment—
Britannia High School        3
King George High School        4
No. 530. Connaught High School (New Westminster)         5
No. 388. Victoria Cadet Battalion-
Boys' Central School         6
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—
Lord Tennyson School        7
Cecil Rhodes School        8
No. 388. Victoria Cadet Battalion-
North Ward School         9
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—
Aberdeen  School     10
No. 3SS. Victoria Cadet Battalion-
George Jay School    11
Sir James Douglas   12
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—
General Gordon School    13
Lord Nelson School   14
Fairview School   15
Alexandra  School     16
Grandview School    17
Franklin School   18
No. 388. Victoria Cadet Battalion-
Quadra School    19
Margaret Jenkins     20
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—
Laura Secord School    21
No. 372. Nanaimo School  22
No. 360. Kaslo School  ... . • '  23
No. 903. Kelowna  School     24
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet  Regiment—
. Dawson School (A)     25
No. 388. Victoria Cadet Battalion-
Victoria West School   26
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—
Model School  27
Macdonald School  28
Lord Roberts School  29
Henry Hudson School   30 12 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. F 71
Corns Eank
C01ps- awarded.
No. 388. Victoria Cadet Battalion—
Oaklands School        31
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—
Charles Dickens School      32
No. 854. Chilliwack School      33
No. 101. Vancouver Cadet Regiment—
Dawson School (B)     34
Simon Fraser School   ,     35
Strathcona School      36
Hastings School       37
No. 902. Cranbrook School      38
Twenty-five prizes were awarded in accordance with the schedule adopted at the last meeting
of the Local Committee held on October 24th, 1921, one-half of each prize to be paid to the
corps and one-half to the instructor, provided he is a public-school teacher qualified as a cadet
instructor. When an instructor is not a public-school teacher, one-half of the prize reverts to
the general fund of the Local Committee. The expenditure under this head for 1920-21 amounted
to $305, and was made according to the following schedule:—
1st prize     $25 14th prize    $10
2nd    ,;           20 15th     „           10
3rd    ,     18 16th     „           10
4th     „           18 17th     ,     10
5th     „           16 ISth     „           10
6th     „           16 19th     „           10
7th     „           14 20th          10
Sth     „           14 21st     „           10
9th     ,     12 22nd         10
10th     „           12 23rd    .,           10
Uth     „     10 24th     ,     10
12th     ,     10 25th     ,     10
13th     „           10
Comments by the Organizing and Inspecting Officer (Lieut.-Col. W. H. Belson) in his annual
report to the Local Committee are here noted:—
" The efficiency of the cadets is steadily improving—the improvement being specially noticeable in the larger centres such as Victoria and Vancouver.
" There were four cadet camps held in the district—at Sidney, Kelowna, Kaslo, and Cranbrook—with a total attendance of twenty-eight instructors and 1,009 cadets. This number could
have been greatly increased if funds had permitted. The camps proved an unqualified success
and both instructors and cadets were well pleased with the work carried out and the arrangements made for their comfort.
" The allowance to cadet instructors has been increased from $1 to $2 for the first fifty
cadets trained and $1 for the remainder.
" A school for qualifying teachers as cadet instructors was held at Victoria for six weeks
during the summer holidays, fifty-four teachers taking the course. Highly complimentary letters
with regard to benefits derived from the course and the treatment received from the school staff
have since been received from some of the teachers who attended."
Rifle Shooting.
From the grant for rifle shooting, 1920-21, prizes were provided for thirty-nine qualified
corps or units specified in returns—viz., $3.75 each; this amount to form cash prizes for the
three best shots in each corps or unit (1st prize, $1,50; 2nd prize, $1.25; 3rd prize, $1).
The following accordingly received grants of $3.75 each for rifle shooting, 1920-21: Vancouver
101st Cadet Regiment (King Edward High School A and B, King George High School, Britannia
High School, Henry Hudson, Alexandra, Cecil Rhodes, Charles Dickens, Lord Nelson, Simon
Fraser, Model, Laura Secord, Grandview, Hastings, Lord Tennyson, Aberdeen, Lord Roberts,
Dawson A and B, General Gordon, Strathcona, Macdonald, Fairview, Franklin, Kitsilano) ;
Victoria No. 388 Cadet Battalion  (George Jay, Sir James Douglas, Oaklands, Quadra, South F 72
Public Schools Report.
1921
Park, Boys'  Central, Victoria West,  Margaret Jenkins, North Ward) ;   Victoria High School,
No. 112 A and B;  Penticton, No. 788 A and B;  Chilliwack, No. S54.
Financial Statement for 1920-21.
The funds at the disposal of the Local Committee for 1920-21 amounted to $1,412.76 and
the expenditure for the year $923.25, leaving a balance of $489.51. Of the latter sum, $486 has
already been voted for physical-training prizes for 1921-22.
Receipts.
1920-21. Balance on hand from 1919-20  :  $   489 46
Interest to November 30th, 1920   14 00
Encashed cheques (paid into fund)    12 98
Interest to May 31st, 1921   7 57
Allowance to Secretary (added to fund)     9 85
Grant for 1920-21   878 00
$1,412 76
Disbursements.
1920-21. Prizes for physical training    $   472 00
Prizes for military drill          305 00
Prizes for rifle shooting         146 25
$  923 25
Balance on hand   $  4S9 51
Local Aid to Cadet Corps.
Authority has now been given by Statute to School Boards to make expenditures from school
funds in aid of cadet corps and of an extension of physical training. This is contained in
section 129a, "Public Schools Act" (consolidated for convenience in 1921), and is as follows:—
" The Board of School Trustees of any school district may establish and maintain an
advanced course in physical training, including gymnastic exercises or cadet instruction, or
both, and the entire cost of all necessary equipment and of maintenance shall be defrayed by
the Board of School Trustees; but where the time of any teacher is devoted wholly to such
course, that teacher shall be included in the number of teachers on which the per capita grant
payable to that school district by the Minister of Finance pursuant to section 19 or 20 of this
Act is based."
I have, etc.,
J. L. Watson,
Secretary,, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust,
i for British Columbia.

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