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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA COMMISSION ON HEALTH INSURANCE, ETC. (APPOINTED UNDER "PUBLIC INQUIRES ACT"… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1920

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 .
PROVINCE  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA
COMMISSION ON HEALTH INSURANCE, ETC.
(Appointed under " Public Inquiries Act "
November 19th,  1919)
REPORT ON MOTHERS' PENSIONS
WITH APPENDIX
PRINTED by
authority of the legislative assembly.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Wtilliam H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1920.  REPORT ON MOTHERS' PENSIONS.
Vancouver, B.C., March 22nd, 1920.
To the Lieutenant-Governor in Council,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Pursuant to Commission dated the 19th day of November, 1919, your Commissioners
appointed thereunder immediately held an organization meeting and adopted an itinerary for
the holding of public meetings throughout the Province. Over 1,500 notices of hearings were
mailed to the following: Members of the Legislative Assembly; all branches of all soldiers'
organizations, including their auxiliaries; women's organizations, Labour Unions, employers
of over 100 employees, medical practitioners, Medical Associations, hospitals, Farmers' Institutes,
Boards of Trade, Municipal Clerks, Lodges of Fraternal Societies, Manufacturers' Associations,
insurance organizations, and individuals who were believed to have some special knowledge of the
subjects under investigation. Fublic hearings were held in the following cities and towns:
Princeton, Fernie, Cranbrook, Nelson, Rossland, Trail, Grand Forks, Prince Rupert, Golden,
Revelstoke, Kamloops, Vernon, Nanaimo, Victoria, New Westminster, Chilliwack, and Vancouver.
The public was notified of the itinerary through the medium of nineteen newspapers
circulating in the districts visited. The meetings on the whole were well attended and a great
deal of interest shown in the subject of mothers' pensions. Nearly all women's organizations
throughout the Province had representatives speak on their behalf. At all the hearings the
representatives of these organizations were first requested to present their views, and then
individuals presented theirs. The evidence was taken by a Court reporter and later transcribed.
It comprises two volumes containing 845 pages, the originals of which will be filed with you on
the termination of the inquiry into the other subjects under investigation. An inquiry was made
into the operations of mothers' pensions laws in other parts of Canada and United States, and
a summary of this legislation is appended to this report.
The Peinciple or Mothers' Pensions.
The rearing of children has become recognized as one of the most responsible and precarious
relationships of life. The woman in business is assured of a fairly steady and certain income
to meet her needs. The mother, while engaged in rearing small children, is considered to be
rendering an important service to the State, but the living provided her is dependent on the
length of life of her husband, his character or health. Should he die or be sent to prison or
become totally incapacitated, the mother's living is ended, save and so far as he has been able
to anticipate and provide for the future needs of his family. The aim of a mothers' pension
scheme is to provide financial assistance to a mother of one or more children when that mother
is deprived of the support of her husband either on account of his death, desertion, total
incapacity, or for other causes. The assistance is given for the purpose of making it possible
for the mother to remain in her home and maintain it for the welfare of her children, instead
of breaking it up and allowing the children to be placed in an institution at the public's expense.
The necessity for home preservation is imperative not only for the welfare of the child, but in
the interest of the State. Payments made by the State toward securing home-life for the child
are made for value received in the form of services rendered by the mother in rearing her children
for the State. The mother becomes the State's agent for the purpose of rearing and educating
the children, and she receives assistance on their behalf for that purpose. Mothers who were
deprived of their husband's maintenance through industrial accidents a few years ago, when
pensions were not provided under the old " Workmen's Compensation Act," have long since used
up any amount paid them. These widows and the widows of men who lost their lives in the
" flu " epidemics are the victims of social calamities which, under our present system, they are
expected to bear alone. The mothers' assistance scheme has as one of its principal aims the
relief of such mothers for their own sakes and for the sake of providing home-life for their
children.
T3 ■
T 4 Commission on Health Insurance, etc. 1920
Chilo Institutions.
The life of a child in a State institution is more or less a closed book to the average person.
The child is delivered at a tender age to an institution usually called a "home," but with the
majority of qualities missing which make up home-life. On account of lack of influence these
parentless children are herded into meagrely furnished quarters where they cannot be given
the individual care which is so essential to the development of thought and character. Most
children are understood only by their mothers. To their mothers they are very dear. A tired,
worried, and overworked instructor (all institutions appear to be understaffed) does his or her
best to supply parental attention; these at best are but a poor substitute for a mother, and the
individual child receives but scaut consideration. AH children require the sympathy which only
a mother can give, and when that sympathy is denied they grow up lacking an understanding
of human nature which is bound to react upon them throughout life. A child who has had the
benefits of a mother's love and teachings will later on weather the storms of temptation and
false ideals much better than one who has been deprived of this necessary factor in his development through having been reared in an institution. The mother is in sympathy with her child
and acts as its constant teacher, whereas teaching in an institution is of a routine character
and necessarily lacks the exchanges of confidences so essential to the development of a child's
mentality.
Most institutions where children are brought up are not large enough to have a resident
physician or trained nurse. Thorough medical inspections are rarely made and physical defects,
even when noted, frequently, for lack of funds, go uncorrected. Adequate dental care is seldom
provided. Personal instruction in the establishment of habits of cleanliness and health is
frequently neglected. Soap, towels, wash-cloths, brushes, and combs are generally used in
common by the children, and this tends to the spread of infectious diseases. Bathing facilities
are inadequate. Habits of unclean mind spread among children. Unsuitable garments are
wrorn. The coarsest bedding is used. Bleak and barren buildings, usually in undesirable
localities, house these children and afford little inspiration to an impressionable child. The
result is we have an " institutionalized product" lacking normal training, without individuality,
and quite unprepared for the tasks and trials which lie before him.
Arguments for and against Mothers' Pensions.
The general criticisms of Mothers' Pension Acts as operated elsewhere were summarized at
a Conference on Social Insurance held in Washington in 1916, and are to the'effect:—
(1.)  That pensions tend to pauperize the individual on the one hand, and, on the other,
offer a corrupting possibility to office-holders, while at the same time tending to
relieve relatives and friends of moral responsibility at the taxpayers' expense:
(2.) That the administration of relief to dependent families can better be done by
private agencies, because more attention is given to investigation and to proper
supervision;  that the services of friendly visitors and of trained and experienced
social workers are needed;   that it is comparatively easy to raise money from
private sources for  dependent  mothers who are mentally  and morally fit and
otherwise efficient home-keepers:
(3.)  It is urged that social insurance or some other more equitable and satisfactory
system should be evolved which  would meet the twofold  object of  relief  and
prevention.
Advocates of the mothers' pension form of administration admit there is an element of
truth in the first objection enumerated, but they contend that private agencies have not a record
for administration equal in efficiency to that under Government control and supervision.    These
private agencies have not yet satisfied the public of their ability to meet the need.   Forty-two
States and Provinces have considered it advisable to place mothers' pensions under Government
control.   Private charities are always complaining of deficits.   They cannot assure a mother
with little children, whose need will extend over long periods, that she can place dependence on
a definite monthly amount to keep her from worry, strain, and premature break-down.    A system
of mothers' pensions should provide at least for one woman on each investigating committee or
Local Board, who could do as much visiting as the recipients of the pension might require.    It
is possible that social insurance might make special provision to meet the needs of indigent 10 Geo. 5
Keport on Mothers' Pensions.
T 5
mothers, but the chief objection to this arrangement would be that the cost of mothers' pensions
is usually considered to be a municipal and State expenditure, while the cost of social insurance
is generally divided among the employer, employee, and the State.
Among the benefits that would be expected from a Mothers' Pension Act would be:—
(a.) The maintenance of the home, thereby providing maternal care and moral influence
for the children:
(b.) An improved physical and educational standard:
(c.)  The arresting of juvenile delinquency and tendency toward criminality!
(d.) The removal from the mother of temptation to dishonesty or immorality:
(e.) The improvement of the physical condition of the mother through the provision of
proper food, clothing, and shelter, and by diminishing the fear of want:
(/.)  The assurance to the mother that she will not be forced to lose her children because
she has lost her husband:
(g.)  The reduction of the number of inmates in child institutions and the consequent
saving in the cost of upkeep of these:
(h.) The recognition.of the obligation of the State to women who become the mothers
of its future citizens :
(i.)   The systematic investigation of needy cases and the discharge of the duty of the
State to those mothers and children:
(j.)   The elimination of the stigma of "charity" begotten by dependence upon relief
given by private individuals and child-welfare organizations and the fostering of
a ■wholesome spirit of self-respect.
Mothers' Pensions a Recent Development.
Mothers' pensions in America are of comparatively recent origin. Missouri, Illinois, and
California led the way in 1911. Their schemes met with general success, and pension laws,
though differing in detail, are in force in thirty-nine of the United States of America and in
Alaska and Hawaii. The Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta have mothers'
pension laws in force, and the Ontario Legislature now has the question before it for consideration. A brief summary is given below of the laws operating in our Prairie Provinces and
an outline of the proposal as recommended for Ontario.
Manitoba.—In this Province, where the " Mothers' Allowance Act" has been in force for
nearly three years, there were in October last 351 families drawing benefits averaging $54.51 per
month per family. The total cost for the second year of the operation of the Act was $81,284.95,
but it is expected that the expenditures will run higher for the current year. The allowances
made are claimed to be the highest in America. The regulations provide that "while each
municipality must appoint a committee of not less than three persons, of whom one must be
a woman, five in most places would be advisable, two of whom should be women, whose duty
it is to receive applications for allowances, investigate all applications received, forward a
complete record of all investigations to the Provincial Government, and supervise every family
receiving an allowance. Members of municipal committees receive no remuneration beyond
expenses."
Saskatchewan.—In this Province there were at the end of February of this year ISO widows
and 664 dependent children receiving benefits under the " Mothers' Pension Act," averaging $25
per month per family, the cost for the year being $54,000. The maximum allowed is $30 per
month per family.
Alberta.—At the end of last year this Province was making allowances to 244 widows and
800 children, averaging between $37 and $38 per month per family, and amounting to $111,264
for the year. The Act provides " there shall be appointed by the Council in every city and
town in the Province one or more inspectors whose remuneration shall be fixed and paid by
the Council, and whose duty it shall be to receive applications for assistance under this Act;
to inquire into any case brought before his or her attention, and generally to do and perform
such matters and things as may be required by this Act, or by any regulations passed
thereunder."
Ontario.—The proposed scheme which has been placed before the Legislature by expert
investigators provides for a central bureau to supervise the work of the committees provided
by municipalities for local administration.    The Government will pay the expenses of head- T 6
Commission on Health Insurance, etc.
1920
quarters and will make an annual grant for payment of allowances. Each municipality will be
expected to pay half the allowance for recipients in its district. If the widow has an income
of sufficient amount she will be ineligible to share in the allowance. . Widows with two or more
children under fourteen years of age will receive an allowance that will be sufficient to meet the
cost of living. The proposals do not fix any maximum allowance per family other than that to
be determined by the cost-of-living budget. The mother and dependent children are permitted
to participate even if they own property up to $2,000 or cash or securites (other than household
goods) up to $500. The recommendations call for the Act to be administered by a Provincial
Committee of five members who are paid per diem allowance only during the time of the regular
sessions. This committee is to enlist local co-operation in all centres. It is recommended that
widows, wives of inmates of insane asylums, and wives of men who are totally incapacitated
should participate. Divorced women, wives of prisoners, and unmarried mothers are not
included.
The Demands of this Province.
The need for mothers' pensions was drawn very forcefully to the attention of the Commission by the various witnesses who testified at its hearings in all parts of the Province. State
assistance for indigent mothers of young children was endorsed by seventy-seven women's
organizations, twenty-four fraternal societies, thirty-four labour organizations, six other organizations, ten ministers of the gospel, thirteen doctors, four insurance agents, and forty-six private
individuals. Witnesses everywhere welcomed tbe idea of granting pensions to those mothers
who, through no fault of their own, found themselves unable to support their children and
educate them to become useful citizens. No witness anywhere appeared before the Commission in opposition to the principle of mothers' pensions. Regrets were expressed on all
sides that the subject of mothers' pensions had not been investigated long ago. Widespread
demand was made for the immediate crystallizing into legislation of recommendations along
the lines set out in this report. A profound conviction was shown by the public-spirited citizens
for progressive legislation in keeping with the spirit of the times.
It is generally recognized that, with the cost of living as high as it is, the average wage-
earner cannot from his income make adequate provision, in the event of incapacity, to guarantee
the maintenance of his home and the education of his children. In such event he must necessarily leave their upbringing and education to the mercy of the State. These children, if they
receive proper home care and education, will make the useful citizens of to-morrow. It can
therefore be seen that public funds spent on education cannot be considered as philanthropy.
The vast sums of money spent annually on education is primarily in the interest of the State
itself, it being apparent that the more enlightened the individual becomes, the more enlightened
and progressive the State. The benefit to the individual must be achieved in order to accomplish the greater benefit and advancement to the State. Before school age is reached education
by the State of her dependent and neglected children should be along hygienic, mental, and moral
lines. This can only be accomplished by supplying to the mothers, guardians, or institutions
entrusted with the care of these children sufficient financial assistance "to enable every child
to get the sporting chance to make good," so often referred to by the Prince of Wales in his
sporting addresses on the functions of the State.
The late Theodore Roosevelt once said that " unless this place is made a good place for all
of us to live in it will not be a good place for any of us to live in." We must make it a good
place for the children of our hapless sister or it will not be a good place for our own children.
In order to make it such a place we must do everything within our power to remove the obstacles
which confront the penniless widow in her efforts to secure for her children the inalienable right
of opportunity with those more fortunately situated.
Cost.
With a view to arriving at the number of women and children who might make claim for
benefits under a Mothers' Pension Act, the Commission carried on investigations through municipal clerks, police, and women's organizations of the Province. From fifty-three municipalities,
representing 91 per cent, of the population of the Province, reports show 258 widows and 593
children as probable applicants for State assistance. If this average prevailed throughout the
unreported districts there would be 284 widows and 652 children in the dependent class. Your
Commission is of the opinion that this number would be reduced could a more careful inquiry 10 Geo. 5
Report on Mothers' Pensions.
T 7
have been made into each case. Such inquiry under this Commission would have been impracticable. We are of the opinion that a number of these cases reported are now in receipt of
pensions under the " Workmen's Compensation Act" or under the " Pensions Act" of Canada.
The following table shows the cost of supplying mothers' assistance in the various States
and Provinces enumerated below:—
State or Province.
ropulation
Last
Census.
Number of
B'amilies
benefiting.
Number of
Children
benefiting.
Total
Expenditure.
No. of Indigent
Families per
1,000 Population.
Average
Monthly
Allowance
per Family.
California   	
3,578,858
340,073
054,314
2,844.342
8,496,537
1,429,537
7,665,111
2.333,860
363,487
455,614
485,432
374,663
3,000
258
358
1.660
7,411
64S
1,816
2,051
218
351
ISO
244
8,000
652
980
4,346
21,339
1,949
6.408
6,098
629
664
800
$   540,000
43,235
102.060
301.454
1,891,929
66,535
306.276
309,814
46,383
81,284
54,000 v
111,000
0.66
0.76
0.38
0.59
0.S7
0.46
0.24
0.89
0.66
0.78
0.36
0.66
$15.00
14.00
23.70
15.00
21.00
Oklahoma   	
Alberta   	
8.57
14.00
12.50
17.80
54.51
25.00
38.00
From the foregoing table of the twelve States and Provinces enumerated this Province
might expect 243 families to be found in the indigent class. On the estimate of our own three
Prairie Provinces 235 families might qualify for assistance. The cost of such assistance at the
rate of $55 per month per average family would be $155,100, of which the municipalities should
pay one-half. The Ontario investigators estimate in various ways the cost of mothers' pensions
to that Province. These estimates run from $383,745 to $1,027,064. On a similar basis British
Columbia might be expected to pay anywhere between $59,960 and $160,479.
Administration Problems.
In this Province, where Juvenile Courts exist only in the larger centres and where the
County Court holds sessions only in a limited number of cities and towns, it would be inconvenient and inadvisable to have the Act administered through either of these Courts. The
preferable and more economical system adopted by many of the American States and by Alberta
and Saskatchewan is by a responsible and experienced Superintendent in one of the Government
departments. This Superintendent with necessary assistants need be the only salaried officials.
Regulations made by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council should prescribe, limit, or extend the
powers of tbe Superintendent, and could adopt the necessary forms and the nature of reports
required from the applicants for relief and from the Local Boards receiving applications.
Local Boards in each muncipality should receive all applications for assistance within their
municipality, give these applications prompt and thorough investigation, and pass their recommendations and correspondence on to the Superintendent. The homes of women receiving
benefits should be visited periodically by a member or members of the Board, preferably women,
to see that proper home-life is being maintained, the health of the children safeguarded, and
that those of school age are making satisfactory progress. The assistance granted should not
cover a longer period than six months without a renewal of application. Any change in the
financial or other status of the assisted families should be reported promptly by the Local
Boards. The Local Boards should consist of one member appointed by the Provincial Government, one hy the Municipal Council, and a third selected at a meeting of the women's organizations of the municipality called by the Chairman of the;School Board, or failing a selection,
then such member could be appointed by the School Board. The work of the Local Board would
not be burdensome and the position should be honorary rather than remunerative. Throughout,
the Province there should not, according to the law of average, be more than sixty indigent
families per 100,000 population. In a municipality of 3,000 or 4,000 people it would not be an
irksome duty for the Local Board to keep in intimate touch with the two or three families
assisted. Abuses under this scheme would be reduced to a minimum by having the representatives of the Local Boards selected from among local people, who would thereby have an
intimate knowledge of the conditions existing in the particular families. T 8 Commission on Health Insurance, etc. 1920
Since nearly the entire population of British Columbia is resident in the municipalities, any
pension scheme should utilize local machinery for the purpose of investigating the cases coming
up for consideration. In only three or four municipalities does the population exceed 15,000
people. In these the relief officers, under the supervision of the Municipal Councils, have at
present a fairly complete knowledge of all cases of genuine need. In the smaller municipalities
the police, the members of the Municipal Council, and the School Board are usually familiar
with the history and financial standing of all needy and worthy residents of their communities.
With a little instruction in the provisions, aims, and administration of the Act, Local Boards
could efficiently carry on the work assigned to them.
Since one of the chief aims in giving assistance to indigent mothers is to guarantee to their
dependent children proper care while securing an elementary education, the administration
should come under the Department of Education. The Superintendent appointed to administer
the Act should devote his or her whole time to the work of organizing the Local Boards, instructing them in their duties, checking their recommendations, keeping awards uniform, and in
maintaining a central office in which a complete record of every case is kept.
At the present time the municipalities are carrying on a limited amount of relief-work among
dependent mothers. Any system should recognize the responsibility of the municipality for a.
portion of the cost of education of children. The Commission believes that the contribution by
the municipality should be one-half of the allowance provided under the Act, the Province to bear
the other half as well as the cost of administration. All allowances should be made through
the office of the Superintendent and a refund subsequently made by the municipality to the
Provincial Treasury. Inasmuch as the municipality and the Provincial Government will both
be contributing under the Act, both should have representation on the Local Board.
Recommendations.
After a close examination of the laws operating elsewhere, and after studying the needs of
this Province, we recommend that a scheme for mothers' assistance should be along the following
lines :—
1. That an application for assistance should be considered from any indigent person who
is:—■
(a.) A widow ;  or
(b.) A divorced woman;   or
(c.) A married woman whose husband is an inmate of a penal institution or a Government mental hospital in this Province;  or
(d.) A woman whose husband is totally incapacitated from work through sickness or
accident arising in this Province;  or
(e.) A deserted mother;   or •
(/.)  An unmarried mother;  or
(g.) Any other person whom the Superintendent may deem to constitute a case for
assistance within the meaning of the Act:
Provided that said indigent mother makes application to the Local Board in the municipality
in which she has been a resident for at least six months immediately prior to becoming indigent,
but no such indigent person should receive benefits under the Act unless :—
(1.)  Applicant is a British subject;  and
(2.)  Has  been  a  resident of  this  Province  for  eighteen  months prior  to  becoming
indigent;   and
(3.) In the case of a mother, having one or more children under the age of sixteen
living with her;   and
(4.) Applicant is, in the opinion of the Superintendent, a person of good moral character
and a fit and proper custodian for such child;  and
(5.)  That it is in the best interest of said child or children that applicant have custody
of them;   and
(6.) That applicant is without the necessary means with which to support such child
or children.
2. All applications made by persons for benefits under the Act' should be verified by statutory
declaration, and should contain the following information :— 10 Geo. 5
Beport on Mothers' Pensions.
T 9
(a.) Applicant's name, the date of death, divorce, desertion, incapacity, or incarceration
of the father of the children to benefit, the father's name, the names of the children,
the dates and places of their birth, and the time and place of applicant's marriage
(if any) :
(b.) Applicant's residence and length of time that she has been a British subject, a
resident of the Province, municipality, and the address or addresses of her place
or places of abode for the five years prior to making application, and showing
dates as nearly as can be of the various changes of address:
(c.) A statement of all property belonging to applicant and to each of the children,
which statement should include any future or contingent interests which any
proposed beneficiary may have:
(d.) The names, relationships, and addresses, as far as possible, of applicant's relatives
and those of the father of the children to benefit.
3. All applications should be made in duplicate; one copy to be kept on file by the Local
Board and the other to he forwarded by the Local Board to the Superintendent, together with
necessary recommendations signed by the members or a majority thereof. If satisfied that the
case is a proper one for assistance under the Act, the Superintendent should recommend to the
Minister of Education payments in monthly instalments to the applicant as to the Superintendent
may seem fit and necessary. When any such recommendation is approved by the Minister of
Education, the applicant mentioned therein may be paid out of the moneys appropriated by the
Legislature for that purpose the sum specified in the recommendation. The Superintendent
should keep a complete and proper record of all moneys expended, and at the end of every three
months should cause to be forwarded to each municipality a statement of all moneys expended
during the next preceding three months in respect of any persons held to be residents for the
purposes of the Act in such municipalities; and the municipalities should forthwith reimburse
the Government for the amount so shown to be due. Power should be given municipalities to
levy a special tax to finance their share of the cost.
4. In unorganized districts the Superintendent should make or cause to be made inquiries
as to the necessity of rendering assistance under this Act to any applicant who is a resident of
an unorganized district and who, if a resident of a municipality, would have been entitled to
apply for assistance; and the Superintendent could in such cases make recommendations to the
Minister of Education that relief be granted; in the event of the same being granted, one-half
of the total cost should be borne out of the consolidated revenue of the Province and the other
half to be taken out of the taxes collected in the unorganized districts. For the purposes of
administration an applicant should be considered to be a resident of the municipality or unorganized district in which she was last a resident for a period of six months immediately prior to
becoming indigent. In ease of dispute as to whether or not the applicant is a resident of a
particular municipality or district the decision of the Superintendent should be final.
5. Assistance under the Act should not exceed in any case the sum of $42.50 per month for
a woman and one child and $7.50 per month for each additional child. Assistance should cease
in case of remarriage of the mother or her removal from the Province.
6. No sum payable as an allowance should toe capable of being assigned, charged, or attached.
7. In the event of death of any mother the assistance should cease, but an allowance not
exceeding $7.50 per month for each child might, on the recommendation of the Superintendent,
be made to the guardian of such children; provided that if a dependent female relative of the
children or other person approved by the Superintendent for the purpose continues to maintain
the home of the deceased mother for the express benefit of the orphan or half-orphan children,
such dependent relative or approved person may, on the recommendation of the Superintendent,
receive the full award which would have been paid to the deceased mother.
8. No assistance should be allowed to any applicant if it is shown that the applicant and
proposed beneficiaries are individually or jointly the owners of real estate of an assessed value
greater than $1,500 and $500 in cash or convertible securities (exclusive of necessary household
furniture), or to any person wTho is in receipt of a pension or other award or allowance under
the " Workmen's Compensation Act," " Pensions Act," or other Act, or from any source, except
in so far as such pensions, award, or allowance is smaller in amount than the amount which
would be payable under the Act, and assistance should only; continue so long as the recipients
thereof are residents of the Province. 9. A special maternity allowance not in excess of $50 should toe made to any assisted mother
who gives birth to a legitimate child during her dependency, and such child should be placed on
the list of beneficiaries at once and monthly allowances made for it under the Act.
10. It is further recommended that tbe Act be known as the " Mothers' Assistance Act," and
that by reason of its urgency and the insistent demand this Act be introduced and passed at the
present session of the Legislature.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
CECELIA SPOFFORD.
T. BENNETT GREEN.
D. McCALLUM.
E. S. H. WINN,
Chairman. 10 Geo. 5
Report on Mothers' Pensions.
T 11
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