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JJrobhtte of British (Etflwmbta.
Tinted by Richard Wolfenden, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty. 267
—L J--.    -  '..*.
L.'i = '   *.J'*JW-
Name of liar, Gulch, Creek, or River.
o '■*
fl "*"*
^ 60
^   CO
<*- o
Average number
of men employed
during season.
Kate of Wages.
of Claims.
How Worked.
Description of
Value of
per ounce.
value of
yield for
the year.
Value of
per ounce.
value of
yield for
the year.
Total Divisions.
Total Districts.
2 •
Barkerville Division:
Williams Creek and tributaries	
Mosquito Creek and Red Gulch	
Hardscrabble and Sugar Creeks	
Lowhee Creek '...... ';-*.-.  	
§3.50 to
§2.50 to
. $15.75 to
[by Chinese.
*Of which §4,000 were obtained
136 locations—open cuts on vein.
tn      „
tio     „
t64      „                 „              „
t Ascertained value.
Grouse and Canadian Creeks	
Antler Creek	
Cunningham Creek (Upper)     ...?$;'■
Stevens, Beggs, and California Creeks	
Desultory •	
Lightning Creek Division:
1        Lightning Creek 	
Van Winnie, Chisholm Cree >, and Perkins Guloh.
Devil's Canyon and Slough ( reek	
Peters Creek and tributaries	
Swift River and tributaries...	
Rushon Creek and vicinity	
§3.50 to
' l'
Quesnellemouth Division:
Fraser River (from 6 miles below to 20 miles above
the town of Quesnelle)	
Quesnelle River	
16 to 16
Cottonwood River   ....     	
Hixon Creek and vicinity	
" Keithley Creek Division :
Keithley Creek	
Snowshoe Creek	
North Fork Quesnelle River	
Kangaroo Creek—Desultory	
South Fork Quesnelle River	
Do.                do.         Desultory	
Cedar Creek	
Quesnelle River (from Forks 40 miles down; no
organized companies, all desultory mining)	
Horsefly River	
Fraser River (6 miles below Quesnelle down to
Hiskie Creek)	
Fraser River—Desultory	
Dease Creek	
Thibert Creek            	
Stickeen River	
McDame Creek	
Snow Creek	
Quartz Creek	
Poor Man Creek	
Gold Creek	
Desultory mining	
Western Division:
Big Bend Subdivision	
McCulloch Creek	
y •
French Creek	
Carnes Creek—Desultory	
Columbia River	
50 f
Toad Mountain Subdivision    '';■£■:
3 00
Hot Springs Subdivision	
Eastern Division:
Bull River          	
Perry Creek	
1 (lease)
Cayoosh Creek )
Bridge River >
Osoyoos Division:
Cherry Creek	
. 82
15 to 16.50
16.50 to 17
Siwash Creek	
Similkameen Division:
Slate Creek	
Yield of Platinum for the season is estimated at 1,000 ounces @ $3.50 per ounce = $3,500.  269
Showing the actually known and estimated yield of gold and silver; the number of miners
employed; and their average earnings per man, per year, from 1858 to 1889.
(6 months)
Amount of gold
actually known
to have been exported by Banks.
S    390,265
Add one-third more
estimate of gold
carried away in
private hands.
S   130,088
l-5th 212,534
«   520,353
yield Silver.
Gold and Silver.
$ 47,873
S    520,353
1,844,618 .
Number of
per man.
$   173
* This is exclusive of over 650 white men who, during the season of 1887, were working on or prospecting for mineral claims.  53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 271
To His Honour Hugh Nelson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia:
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Mining Industries of the Province for the year 1889,
is herewith respectfully submitted.
Provincial Secretary and Minister of Mimes.
Provincial Secretary's Office,
Sth February, 1890.  53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 273
The value of the Gold exported by the Banks at Victoria during the year 1889,
is as follows :—
Bank of British Columbia $254,816
Garesche, Green & Co     188,580
Bank of British North America       47,373
Mr.  Bowron's Report.
"Richfield, November 25th, 1889.
"Sir,—I have the honour to submit, for your information, my fifteenth annual report
upon the mines and mining industry of the Cariboo District, accompanied by the customary
statistics in tabular form, from which it will be seen that the gold yield of the district taken
as a whole is a trifle under the output of last year; the number of white men engaged in
mining being about the same, while it will be observed there is a decrease in the number of
Chinese so employed.
"But little prospecting for new creeks at a distance has been done during the year. One
party of four men started late last fall down Willow River with boats, and spent the greater
part of the winter in prospecting the bars, benches, and in some instances the deep ground, on
that river and its tributaries. They found gold in nearly every place tried, but not in sufficient
quantities to pay at the present prices of supplies and consequent high cost of prospecting; but,
with railway communication, a large extent of country was traversed that it is believed would
prove remunerative.
" The Barkerville Polling Division still maintains its supremacy as the chief gold producer.
" Williams Creek, with tributaries, worked for nearly thirty years, still yields more gold
than any other creek in the Province. The gold is now taken principally from the hills and
sides of the creek by means of hydraulic pipes, as the creek channel has been pretty well
worked out by drifting, although upper-streaks are frequently found to pay, and hence the
lasting nature of the creek.
" Messrs. Taylor & Boyce, working about half-a-mile above Richfield, have been fortunate
enough to come upon a portion of the old channel of Williams Creek hitherto unworked, and
from the result of working a small piece of the ground this year have high expectations for
next year's operations.
" The Forest Rose hydraulic claim has again yielded handsome returns, which it will
undoubtedly do for many years to come. The deep ground below Cameronton, although
known to be rich, still lies, as it has done for the last dozen years, unworked, presumably
because it is beyond the ability of individual miners to operate successfully owing to lack of
drainage. This ground offers an exceptional opportunity for the investment of capital, with
a certainty of satisfactory returns if properly managed.
" On Conklin Gulch, the Gulch Hydraulic Company has made good progress with their
'cut' and laying down flume, and each season as it nears the bed-rock, the wash-up improves.
" On Stout's Gulch the Wintrip claim did fairly well, but the continual slides from the
side-hills greatly retarded progress. 274 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
" The yield of gold from Grouse Creek has been better than for some years past, principally
owing to a discovery made by Messrs. Jarvis, McAlinden and Company, which bids fair at the
present writing to be of considerable importance, and will probably lead to the opening up of
from half to three-fourths of a mile of a lead lost on this creek, as below the Heron Company,
which paid so well in 1866-7, the lead could not be found. The discovery of Jarvis and Company is apparently a channel of about twenty feet wide (with well-defined rim-rock) running
into the hill nearly opposite McAlinden's store, from which the company have already taken
some four thousand dollars, and will continue the work during the winter.
" The Waverley Hydraulic Company have made satisfactory progress and will, it is
thought, reach bed-rock with their ' out' next season, after which, it is believed, the claim
will be remunerative.
" Antler Creek has not met expectations this season,
"The Nason Company, driven out of their works last winter by an insufficiency of water
to drive their machinery, owing to the frost, started again in July, and barely got the water
out of their diggings when one of the gudgeons (a heavy casting) broke, which had to be
replaced by a new one from the foundry at Victoria ; the necessary repairs were made and the
water is once more out of the diggings, and there is now a prospect of the value of the claim
being proven.
"An attempt was made this fall by a company to reach bed-rock in the deep ground some
ten miles below Grouse Creek, where the bottom has never been reached. Eight of our best
miners endeavouring to get down without wheel and pumps, were driven out when down twenty-
six feet.    They speak of putting up machinery and making another attempt in the Spring.
"The claims on Mosquito Creek and gulches in that vicinity have done exceedingly well,
considering that they are mostly hydraulic claims and that the water supply has been light.
" In the Lightning Creek Division the gold product upon the whole has been fair, considering that there are so few of what are thought to be really good claims.
"On Rushon Creek a company of white men have very good diggings; aside from which
nearly the whole yield of this division is now produced by the Chinese.
" The Quesnellemouth Division does not make as good a showing as last year, although
the number of men (Chinese) employed is about the same.
" On Hixon Creek, Senator Reid and Company have put on a force of men, and will carry
on operations during the winter, running tunnels with the view of striking a back channel
which it is supposed runs through the hill immediately below the Quesnelle Quartz Mining
Company's mineral locations.
" I regret to say that no attempt has been made during the season to further prove the
value of the discoveries made three years ago on Goat River and other tributaries of the Upper
Fraser, which is somewhat surprising in view of the fact that it was reported, and generally
believed, that there was plenty of ground that would pay four dollars a day to the hand in that
neighbourhood. With better facilities for transport, this extensive field would support a large
" The accompanying statistics will, I believe, give a tolerably correct impression as to the
works going on in the various sections of the district in alluvial mining; but to arrive at an
estimate of the gold yield of the whole district for the twelve months of 1889, I beg to submit
the following as closely approximate:—
Barkerville         Division, 1st January to 15th November $ 78,542
Lightning Creek      „             „                 ,,                 „             41,150
Quesnelle                  „            „                „                 „            37,000
Keithley and Harvey            „                ,,                 „            61,200
Desultory, of which no account is obtainable  7,000
Whole district, from 15th November to 31st December  10,000
Making a total for the year of $234,892
" Our Quartz interests, which must be regarded as the main source from which the future
wealth of the district must flow, is a subject that should be dealt with by men experienced in
the treatment of ores; and I may here volunteer the observation that if this view were more
generally accepted, it would, I believe, be fruitful of good to the interests involved. 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 275
" Although this branch of our mining industry lias not developed to the extent anticipated
in my last annual report, I am not prepared to attach blame to any person therefor, but rather
to ray own inexperience in such matters and consequent lack of judgment in properly estimating
the difficulties and drawbacks which I am now satisfied are inseparable from the establishment
of pioneer reduction works here, as in any country so far removed from the source of supplies.
" Mr. Martin has given his best attention to the completion of the Government Test
Works here, and although, so far, but one trial test has been made of ore, viz.: that from the
Black-Jack mine, the result (although not satisfactory to Mr. Martin himself) was satisfactory
to the company, as showing that their mine is valuable, and demonstrating the fact that we
have valuable ore in the country.
"From one hundred tons of ore worked at the Black-Jack mill, $523.00 were obtained in
free gold on the plates ; and from twelve tons of the concentrates (of which there were thirty-
six tons from the one hundred tons crushed) a return of twenty-four dollars ($24.00) to the
ton of concentrates was obtained, but from the assays made of the concentrates by Mr. Martin
he was not satisfied with the percentage saved, so would run no more through until certain
appliances were added to the mill, which are now on the way from Ashcroft Station and which
he expects to have in operation two weeks after their arrival. Several lots of ore are now at
the works awaiting treatment.
" The district has been visited during the summer by Mr. Samuel Gifford, of London,
representing English capitalists, who came here at the instance of C. D. Rand and Company,
who have a number of quartz locations in the district. Mr. Gifford, being a man who has
devoted his life to the development of quartz mines in various parts of the world, is thoroughly
conversant with the treatment of ores by the most modern and improved methods, and although
from the nature of his engagements was not at liberty to give his opinion respecting the value
of our quartz mines, still, the interest he manifested in the mines, the Government Test Works,
the mining laws of the Province, <fec, <fec, warrant the belief that his visit will be productive
of great good to the district.
"The one great drawback to our advancement, with which Mr. Gifford seems to have
been impressed, is the want of railway communication, and without which, development will
necessarily be slow.
"This necessity is, however, so fully appreciated by the Government, who, having the
best interests of the district in view, will not fail to forward in every possible way the consummation of so desirable an object.
" I have, &c,
(Signed,)        "Jno. Bowron,
"To the Hon. Jno. Robson, Gold Commissioner.
"Minister of Mines."
Mr. Martin's Report.
" Government Reduction Works,
"Barkerville, B. C, 28th December, 1889.
" Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report of the work done at the above
" The works were completed about the latter part of January last, with the exception of a
few things that could not possibly be done in midwinter. It was my intention to put in
huddling troughs to concentrate the sulphurets from test lots of ore sent in for trial, but some
of the members suggested that I should apply to the Honourable Provincial Secretary for an
automatic concentrator, which they considered would give better satisfaction to depositors of
small lots of ore, and to the community. The request was granted, and, after several delays,
the concentrator arrived here on June 26th. We immediately set to work to erect it in place,
and for five days, after completing the machine, we crushed several tons of waste quartz rock
and passed it over the machine so as to thoroughly test it and instruct the men in charge how
to operate it. Everything being satisfactory, on July 22nd we commenced crushing two lots
of ore from the "Dufferin" mine—one lot of 2,600 lbs. and one of 2,300 lbs.—then followed on
with 20,300 lbs. from the "Proserpine," 20,250 lbs. from the "Forest" mine, and 19,869 lbs. 276 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
from the " Lowhee " mine. The concentrating machine did very good work, saving over ninety
per cent, of the value left in the ore, after it had passed over copper plates. The concentrates
from the above lots will be chlorinated when the "Black Jack" concentrates are finished with,
which will be some time next month.
" The roasting furnace was started on July 8th on 44,500 lbs. of concentrates from the
" Black Jack " quartz mine. Some difficulty was experienced in instructing the men how to
roast the ore successfully, but proceeding slowly and patiently for a time, we succeeded in
getting them to do their work well. It was important that this part of the operation should
be properly done, because upon it depended the success of the remaining part of the process,
" Twelve tons of the roasted concentrates were treated by amalgamation in 3,000 lb. lots,
modifying the treatment a little in each case, but in no case could we extract more than sixty
per cent of the value. The reason of this was that the mercury was broken up very fine,
which then coated the magnetic oxide contained in the roasted concentrates, and we failed to
settle and separate it from the tailings.
"■ It being impossible to estimate what the cost would be to experiment and find out the
exact way of treating these concentrates by amalgamation, I applied to the Honourable Provincial Secretary for a small chlorinating plant, which, from tests made on a small scale, I was
satisfied would work up to ninety per cent. This, with the necessary chemicals, took several
months to get here and to erect in place, so that it was not until the 9th of December that we
started the roaster on a second lot of concentrates from the " Black Jack Quartz Company,"
and the chlorinating plant on the first lot of Black Jack concentrates, which were put through
at the rate of one ton per day. Up to date we have chlorinated about fifteen tons of concentrates, which show, from assays made of the tailings, that over ninety per cent, of the gold was
extracted. We have two tons in the tub now chlorinating. Every part of the plant is working
satisfactorily. The B. 0. Mining Company's ore has been declared by competent assayers and
metallurgists to be amalgamating ore. The Island Mountain Company's ore, from tests made
in San Francisco, has also been declared a roasting and amalgamating ore. When these companies are ready to start working their mines these works will be able to test their ores
satisfactorily by amalgamation or chlorination, and to find out the proper method before they
commence erecting works for themselves, and they can have from these works well trained
men to conduct the process for them without fear of failure.
"The "Black Jack Quartz Mining Company" commenced crushing ore on June 1st in
their one-stamp Kendall Mill, and managed to put through 202 tons before the frost compelled
them to close down The ore averaged 4.50 dollars in free gold and 13.00 dollars in sulphurets
per ton of rock crushed. In blasting the rock in the shaft the sulphurets were shattered very
fine, which then mixed with the waste rock, and it was found almost impossible to separate the
ore from the waste, so that nearly all the rock taken out was sent to the mill, and accounts for
the low grade of the ore. The endeavour in this case was to develop the mine, and to mill
what ore was taken out to pay the running expenses. Sinking the shaft and milling the ore
from it cost more than double what it will cost to mine and mill the ore when the mine is
thoroughly opened. A shaft was sunk 42 feet deep and a drift of 22 feet run on the ledge,
when it was found that the ledge changed its course, which made it necessary to stope up an
incline shaft to the surface, from which the ledge can be worked to better advantage. The
incline shaft had reached within 5 or 6 feet of the surface when the mine was closed down for
the winter.
" This mine clearly shows what can be done in this district by energy aud perseverance.
"I have, etc.,
(Signed)        " E. A. Martin.
" To the Honourable John Robson,
" Minister of Mines, Victoria." 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 277
Mr.  Stephenson's Report.
" Forks Quesnelle, B. C,
" 8th November, 1889.
" Sir,—I have the honour to forward herewith the estimated yield of gold for the Keithley,
Alexandria and Williams Lake Divisions of Cariboo District.
" There was a very light snowfall in this section last winter; that, and a very dry season
during the summer months, caused a limited supply of water for hydraulic mining, which in
some instances was unfavourable, while on the other hand it enabled other places to be worked
to better advantage.
" On Keithley Creek two Chinese companies are digging ditches and preparing for
hydraulic work in the spring As the bed of the creek is getting worked out they are turning
their attention to the gravel deposits in the hill sides, and I think with fair prospects of
" On Snowshoe Creek, Messrs. Veith A Borland have just finished a ditch, and are
now getting a set of iron hydraulic pipes on the ground for the working of the Hayward claim,
which is supposed to be a continuation of the Live Yank lead, now so successfully worked by
Messrs. Anderson and Smith.
" On Harvey Creek, the Jubilee Company have been working steadily all summer, sawing
lumber, fluming the creek, building a wheel and putting down an incline. They will now soon
commence washing, the winter being the most favorable time for their work underground
drifting out the bed of the creek.
" On the North Fork of Quesnelle River, James Moore & Co. are running a tunnel at the
mouth of Spanish Creek. It will take them all the winter and well on in the spring before they
get in to where they expect to find pay. They are the only white men on the North Fork, all
the rest of the mining going on at present being done by Chinese.
" On the South Fork of Quesnelle River, a company of white men have been prospecting
during the summer, and have located some ground for hydraulic mining. The great trouble
will be to get water on the ground. To accomplish this they will either have to drive a tunnel
one mile long to bring the water from a lake, or will have to make a ditch about twelve miles
long. Either job will take considerable time and money. The company now say they are
going on with the work in the spring, just as soon as they can get accurate survey lines run
and determine which way they will bring in the water. A good supply of water would open
up several good hydraulic claims along the South Fork of Quesnelle River. At present there
is only one such claim working, and owing to the scarcity of water they do not work more than
three months in the year, while the mining season will admit of from seven to eight months
work during the year.
" On the main Quesnelle, from the Forks down, there is yet some mining going on in a
desultory manner by the Chinese. They keep moving along, working a while in one place
then in another for forty miles from here down. They draw their supplies from here, as they
can use boats on the river, which enables them to easily move from one place to another.
" From Horsefly there is nothing of moment to report. The Harper claim, so far, has not
proved successful; and there is only one claim, the "McCallum," or Discovery Company, that
is paying, none of the others having yet got into the channel.
." Along the Fraser River, in the Alexandria and Williams Lake Divisions, a distance of
about seventy miles, there are six Chinese companies working. These companies have ditches
and water rights and are permanently located, while there are also other Chinese working
along the river rocking. They generally have boats or canoes ; they carry their whole outfit
along, and keep moving up and down the river just as they find a prospect.
"I have, etc.,
(Signed)        W. Stephenson,
" The Honourable the Minister of Mines." "Government Agent." 278 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
Mr.   Crimp's   Report.
"Telegraph Creek, Cassiar,
" 19th October,  1889.
" Sir,—I have the honour herewith to enclose the mining statistics for the current year,
and also a few remarks on the mining industry of this district.
" It will be seen by the returns that there has been a material increase in the yield of
gold this year over last.
" The following statement is, I think, very near the actual amount taken out:—
Dease Creek  $11,200
Thibert   „      10,800
McDames Creek  16,360
Quartz          „        10,950
Snow             „        600
Gold              „        400
Poor Man's   „        100
Stickeen River  1,000
Desultory  3,500
Total   $54,910
"The amount would have been very much larger if the season had been more favourable
for mining, Since the middle of July there have been continuous heavy rains, which caused
the different creeks to rise so high that all the wing-dams were swept away, and the consequence was very little gold was taken out from the beds of the creeks. The principal portion
of the yield was from tunnels in the different hills.
" Very little prospecting has been done the past summer, and consequently I have no new
discoveries to report.
" Mr. Robert Highland, of Telegraph Creek, and two others fitted out a boat and went
down the Delaird River and prospected some of its tributaries. They went up the Highland
River about 140 miles and prospected in different places, but without any result. They did
not find anything that would justify their returning there again.
" The prospects for next year look as favourable, I think, as the past season has been; and
I also think there will be about the same number of miners in the district.
" There are wintering on Dease Creek four whites and thirteen Chinese, on Thibert Creek
eight whites and six Chinese, and on McDames Creek four whites and thirty-five Chinese.
Quite a few miners will winter at Telegraph Creek and Glenora Landing, on the Stickeen.
Provisions are plentiful, and at usual prices.
" I have, (fee,
" The Honourable John Robson, (Signed) "J   L. Crimp.
"Minister of Mines, Victoria, B.C." 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 279
Western Division.
Mr. Tunstall's Report.
"Revelstoke, December 1st, 1889.
" Sir,—I have the honour to forward the mining statistics for the District of West
Kootenay, for the current year.
"Big Bend Subdivision.
" The Big Bend Placer Mines have attracted little attention during the past season,
principally owing to the high cost of living. Ten cents per pound is asked for packing a
distance of seventy miles ; yet the small demand for freight and scarcity of feed for animals
seem to render this charge necessary to properly remunerate the owner of the only pack train
freighting from here to the Big Bend country.
" On McCulloch Creek, the Ophir Bedrock Flume Company has met with encouraging
results, as it has run through the old ground which had been previously worked and from
which little gold could be expected. The bank of gravel has also decreased in height, and the
boulders encountered are not so numerous. The Last Chance Company took up last summer
the ground formerly leased by the Baldhead Company, which was abandoned after running a
tunnel 1100 feet long without reaching bedrock, caused by a mistake in the survey. The
present company expects to reach the bottom of the channel about the early part of spring.
Should its exertions meet with success the remainder of the vacant ground will be recorded
and worked to advantage by small companies.
" On French Creek, Messrs. Goodwin, Hunter and others, known as the Consolation Company, obtained for a term of five years the ground formerly leased by the French Creek Tunnel
Company. Shortly after beginning work they struck gravel which returns six ounces to the
set, with every appearance of the pay being permanent.
" Near the mouth of Smith Creek, Lund & Company are hydraulicing a bench with very
good results. Frost set in before their ground sluice was cleaned up, and further work had to
be suspended for the season. About twenty-five Chinamen have been rocking on the bars of
the Columbia River during the low stage of water, and sluicing on the benches when the water
is high, but with what success could not be ascertained.
"The trail between here and McCulloch Creek will require considerable repairs next year
to render it passable. The culverts and small bridges are in a decayed and dangerous condition,
and will have to be renewed ; also localities of a marshy nature corduroyed.
" Illecillewaet Subdivision.
" Mining operations in this portion of the district have not been of an active character,
most of the miners having done merely sufficient work to hold their claims, although the principal locations compare favourably with any others in the Province. The galena ores average
from twenty to eighty ounces of silver per ton, and from fifty to seventy per cent. lead.
" The Illecillewaet Mining Company owns three locations which are considered valuable,
and a tunnel has been run two hundred feet to strike the vein. The Corbin and Kennedy
mines consist of the Happy Find, Crystal, and Corbin <fe Kennedy, No. 2, from which rich
assays have been obtained. The Selkirk Mining and Smelting Company also possesses three
good locations ; the principal one, the Lanark, has a shaft sunk to a depth of 120 feet, and a
tunnel run in over 100 feet. Considerable shipments of ore were made from this mine a
couple of years ago, with a stated profit of $65.00 to the ton. The Maple Leaf, owned by
A. F. McKinnon, is held at $80,000. A tunnel in this claim exposes a vein of galena and
carbonates of a high grade character, twenty-nine feet wide.
" The Cariboo Creek Mining Company, under the superintendence of D. Woolsey, is
running a tunnel to tap the vein running through the Maple, Quebec, and Corona, about 400
feet from the surface. The adjoining mine to the above is the Round Hill, owned by Captain
McCallum. There are several other groups of mineral claims in this subdivision which will
come to the front as work progresses on them, among which the Gold Hill locations, and
others, situated within a radius of a few miles, will prove of value with development. With
this extensive mineral wealth in its vicinity, and smelting facilities within a comparatively
short distance, the town of Illecillewaet is destined to become an important mining centre. 280 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
" Fish Creek Mines.
"The Fish Creek Mines are situated at a point about eleven miles south of the line of
railway, and are known as the Dunvegan, Alma, Mogul and Edinboro. They are owned
principally by Messrs. Boyd, Bain, Scott, and Kirkwood. The first mentioned claim is considered, by persons competent to judge, the equal in point of value of any mine in the West
Kootenay district. A tunnel has been run a distance of over 70 feet to intersect the vein
which is from 8 to 10 feet wide and contains a solid body of galena 4 feet wide, with an
assay value of 80 to 150 ounces of silver to the ton. This property was bonded last October
to Mr. J. Wilson, with a three months' option, for the sum of $75,000, with the privilege of
extracting 150 tons of ore, which will be forwarded to the sampling works at Revelstoke.
A good trail has been constructed from five miles above Illecillewaet to the mine, and a pack
train is engaged transporting ore to the railway. The facility with which ore is extracted
can be ascertained from the fact that the labour of two men in ten hours produced eleven tons.
The first carload of average ore has been sampled, with an assay return of 90 ounces of silver
to the ton, and 69 per cent. lead. This is a result which augurs well for this rich and promising section of the district, and adds to the number of first-class mines known to exist.
"North Arm of Upper Arrow Lake.
" On the north arm of Upper Arrow Lake there are ten locations, the principal ones being
the Monarch, Silver King, Gloucester, Gipsy, Belfast, Argyle, North Star, and Yellow
Jacket. Good ore has been found in some of the claims, but the mineral veins exposed will
require more work to determine their value.
" Toad Mountain Subdivision.
" In the Toad Mountain mines the Hall locations occupy a prominent position in point of
value and the amount of work done on them. The principal operations have been confined to
the Silver King, from which 40 tons of ore yielded 11,960 ounces of silver, or an average of
299 ounces to the ton. Another shipment had been packed to Nelson and was awaiting
transportation when I was there, the returns from which, I have since been informed,
amounted to 230 ounces to the ton. A tunnel 60 feet long has been run on the vein, and a
winze sunk at its extremity 50 feet, exhibiting at this depth a mass of high grade peacock ore,
of unknown width, as the opposite walls had not yet been reached. The work done on the
Kootenai, Bonanza, and American Flag, exhibit a similar richness to the Silver King on the
surface, and, so far as ascertained, are equally as rich. The lode running through these claims
is from 12 to 16 feet wide, six feet of which is of solid ore. The foot and hanging walls are
composed of dolomite of lime, the country rock being granite. The course of the ledge is east
and west, and has been traced for a distance of four miles over mountains and through intervening depressions. The following are the names of the additional locations : Victoria, Forest,
Newmarket, Dandy, Iroquois, Grizzly Bear, Jim Crow, Snow Flake, Morning, Evening, and
Tough Nut. Most of these contain ore of a more or less rich character. The body of ore in
the Dandy is three feet wide and will yield over 60 ounces to the ton, and the Iroquois, Grizzly
Bear, Evening, and Tough Nut, can ship ore of the same value. The latter was bonded by
Mr. G. B. Wright for the sum of $60,000, but owing to some misunderstanding with the
company he represented, the bond was cancelled. A shaft has been sunk to a depth of 25 feet
and a tunnel run a length of 75 feet. The width of ledge is from four to eight feet, returning
high assays. When proper facilities for transportation are supplied, work will be actively
prosecuted in these mines for the purpose of shipping ores to the smelter.
" On the right bank of Cottonwood Smith Creek, which empties into the west arm of
Kootenay Lake, a short distance below Nelson, is a group of claims owned by Dr. Labeau ;
they are the Apex, Fair-view, Uncle Sam, and Umatilla. The vein is composed of argentiferous
galena, varying from four to five feet wide, assaying as high as 80 ounces to the ton. The
development of these locations will materially increase the prosperity of the Kootenay Lake
country. On the summit of the mountain, at the head of the stream mentioned, on the left
hand side, are the mines owned by the Cottonwood Gold Mining Company, composed principally of English shareholders. They are the Ella, Golden King, and Golden Wreath. These
claims  contain  an immense  deposit of schistose slate,  over three hundred feet wide, which 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 281
assays $6.70 in gold to the ton. The surface is oxidized to a depth of several feet and is free
milling in character. The principal amount of gold in the rock is associated with sulphurets,
which will require concentrating to a value of $30.00 per ton to render profitable. The
machinery erected on the ground consists of two Huntingdon mills, with a capacity of 12J
tons, operated by an engine of 20-horse power. This plant has not been found adapted to
work ore of the character obtained ; and I was told Mr. Stanley, the superintendent, had
proceeded to England with the object of urging the erection of a 100-stamp battery, with
necessary concentrators, next season.
" Eagle Creek Subdivision.
" The Eagle Creek mines are situated about six miles west of Nelson, on or in the vicinity
of the creek of that name, and are reached by the trail in use between Nelson and the Columbia. The Eagle Creek Gold Mining Company's property consists of five locations on the right
bank, extending up stream, and are known as the Poorman, Hardscrabble, Eagle, Hard-up,
and Kootenay. This company has exhibited a great deal of energy in prosecuting its operations, which have been carried on under the able management of Mr. Nails. The ledge is gold-
bearing and is well defined, lying between walls of hornblende granite, with a dip of about 45
degrees to the west. The breadth of the vein is from 20 to 24 inches, and possesses an assay
value of $50.00 to the ton. In addition to other work performed, a tunnel has been run a
length of 130 feet, intersecting the lode at a depth of 85 feet from the surface. The machinery,
comprising a 10-stamp mill and four free concentrators of five tons capacity each, was floated
down the Kootenay River on rafts as far as the natural obstructions of the river would permit,
to a suitable place for its landing, whence a waggon road, 2\ miles long, was constructed to a
site prepared for its erection. The building is being put up and the machinery, which will be
worked by water power, will be in position to commence work in the spring. Messrs. White &,
Buchanan are the proprietors of two valuable extensions on this lode, which are considered
equally as rich as the locations referred to.
" About half mile west of Eagle Creek, John Miles owns three locations, two of which,
considering the small amount of work done, look exceedingly well. One of the claims, situated
near the summit of the mountain, has a vein about 10 feet wide lying between well defined
walls, containing galena ore which returns excellent assays in gold and silver. The other contains gold only, to what extent could not be learned, as the proprietor was absent when I
called. More work will be required to establish its permanence, as the formation is irregular
and broken up. About fifteen tons of good rock have been extracted and will be submitted
to a test in the Eagle Company's mill.
"The Copper Queen is owned by Messrs. Bai-r, Baker and Brown. It is situated on the
right bank of the Kootenay, some distance back of the river, probably a mile, and a little over
that distance above Forty-nine Creek. It is a wonderful deposit of argentiferous copper ore
from 50 to 60 feet wide, rising to a height of 30 feet above the surface for a length of between
500 and 600 feet. The ore contains silver to the extent of $26.00 per ton ; the percentage of
copper runs high. The formation is similar to the famed Anaconda mine in Montana, which
has returned large dividends to its shareholders, the foot wall being of quartzite and the
hanging wall of granite. The work done consists of open cuts run on the vein an aggregate
distance of sixty-one feet, and a cross cut forty-five feet.
" Some eight or nine men were engaged the past summer mining for gold on Forty-nine
Creek, with a return of from $1.50 to $2.00 per day, as far as can be known.
" Hot Springs Subdivision.
" The Hot Springs camp is situated on the north shore of Kootenay Lake, about 30 miles
from Nelson in a north-easterly direction. The mines seem to exist in successive tiers from
near the foot of the mountain to the summit, increasing in richness with the elevation attained.
The principal locations are noted for the extent and value of the mineral wealth they possess.
About the latter end of September I called at the Hot Springs and was surprised to find the
great improvement visible in some of the claims within a couple of months from the date of a
previous visit. The surface in places has been subjected to upheavals and slides, which broke
up and distributed the mineral lodes, rendering some of them difficult to trace, and causing the
bodies of ore sometimes to perish out without any apparent cause. But as sinking progressed
below the point of disturbance this irregularity ceased, and the veins which exhibited a tendency
to disappear have widened and become so much better defined  that no doubts are entertained 282 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
in regard to their permanence. The mining prospects of the camp never looked so promising
as they do now. The lodes pursue a northerly and southerly course, and dip to the west. The
claims first encountered on the mountain side contain a low grade galena lying in a schist
formation, with veins of an average width of eight feet, assaying about 20 ounces in silver to
the ton. Higher up a coarse cube galena exists under the same conditions as the preceding,
with a return of from forty to fifty ounces to the ton. At a still greater elevation the mineral
deposits lie in schist and lime, and contain ores of a high grade, ranging from twenty up to
thousands of ounces to the ton. Wire silver is first found at this height, and the ore bodies
exhibit the peculiarity of contracting to a few feet and widening to a breadth of thirty feet or
more. At or near the summit carbonates of a very rich character are found in a lime formation in the vicinity of the granite belt. The mineral here is is free milling, and can be treated
by the ordinary amalgamation process. The Skyline is the most valuable location found at this
altitude. It is principally owned by Mr. A. D. Wheeler, who is also the proprietor of several
other valuable claims. A shaft sunk to the depth of fifty-five feet exposes a vein eight feet
wide, composed of almost entirely high grade ore, containing native silver and black sulphides,
the latter running up to as high as $16,000 per ton. This, of course, is a choice assay. The
Union is another location with an 8-foot ledge, carrying galena and carbonates, which looks
very promising.
" The Neoshu is a recent discovery possessing very rich ore, containing native and ruby
silver, but the amount of work accomplished so far has not been sufficient to prove its permanence. Among the valuable locations which exists may be mentioned the Krao, with a shaft 75
feet deep exhibiting a ledge 12 feet wide, yielding assays of from 40 to 60 ounces in silver.
The United has an immense vein which will return from 25 to 40 ounces. The Little Donald,
owned by Messrs. Davenport and Stevens, at a depth of 75 feet, shows, I am told, 4\ feet of
solid ore of a valuable character. The Gallagher also gives good returns, one lot of ore containing thirteen tons smelted at Butte, Montana, yielding an average of 126 ounces of silver to
the ton. The Number One exhibits a strong vein four feet wide, which it still retains at a
depth of 48 feet. The ore returns large assays. This mine was bonded last fall by J.
McKay, the great California capitalist, for the comparatively small sum of $16,000 for a term
of six months. The Spokane, owned by the Pacific Bullion Co., of Spokane Falls, Wash., is a
valuable mine upon which operations will be actively prosecuted. Extending in a southerly
direction the Crow, Fledgeling, Now Then, Crescent, and Eden promise to become valuable
mining properties.
" Hendryx Mines,
" The Hendryx mines are situated on the opposite side of the lake from the Hot Springs, a
distance of about two and a half or three miles. They consist of two locations, for which
Crown grants have been issued. The principal mine is known as the Blue Bell, after the
small flower of that name which covers the ground in profusion at a certain season of the
year. At the time of my visit a tunnel had been run a distance of 305 feet to intersect the
vein at a height of 128 feet from the surface, and work was being vigorously prosecuted by
means of an Ingersoll drill and air compressor, worked by a 25-horse power engine. The great
advantage derived from using improved machinery of this kind is apparent when it is stated
that the progress made in a single shift amounted to four feet in the hardest rock, whilst by
manual labour, in the same time, but four inches would be accomplished. The lode is a mass
of solid galena 86 feet wide, which gives an average assay of 20 ozs. of silver to the ton and 23
per cent. lead. Two adits cut the lode at higher levels, which everywhere shows ore of the
same extent and quality. Another large vein, about seven feet wide, runs parallel to the main
body. The quantity of mineral in sight seems almost inexhaustible, and though of a low grade,
these mines are considered of great value, owing to the quantity and facility with which the
ore can be extracted, reducing its cost to a minimum. The large amount disbursed in development has been expended by Dr. Hendryx and his brother in a judicious manner, and to-day it
may be said the shareholders own one of the most desirable mining properties in the country.
To properly utilize this wealth the erection of a smelter in the vicinity is considered necessary,
and it is probable steps will be taken to construct one next summer.
" The number of records effected at the Revelstoke office since last report is 161 ; at Nelson 367 ; at the Hot Springs, for the three months ending October, 150. The following
comprises the exports of ore from the mines mentioned, and the returns per ton, so far as
ascertained:—Number One,  146 tons, 87 ozs. silver; Little Donald, 85 tons, 90 ozs. silver, 35 per cent, lead ; Silver King—first shipment, 40 tons, 299 ozs. silver, 20 per cent, copper ;
second shipment—30 tons, 230 ozs. silver, 20 per cent, copper; Spokane, 65 tons, 40 ozs. silver
70 per cent, lead; Delia, 20 tons, 120 ozs. silver; Skyline, 15 tons, 225 ozs. silver; Gallagher,
14 tons, 119 ozs. silver, $14 gold ; Krao, 12 tons, 95 ozs. silver, 50 per cent. lead.
" The above shipments were made, in some instances, to pay current expenses, and in
others for milling tests. The aggregate return for the 427 tons was 50,393 ozs. of silver.
The rich mineral resources of the Kootenay Lake are undoubted. No further proof is
required of its wealth than the developments exhibited in some of the mines, and the milling
results obtained from the ores shipped, The business men of the State of Washington have
not been slow in detecting the advantages offered, and every means will be taken to retain, at
least, a large proportion of the trade that will necessarily ensue.
"Nearly all the supplies needed have been hitherto procured from Spokane Falls, notwithstanding the duties imposed, as being the most accessible point for the purpose.
' " In addition to a contemplated branch line from Kootenai Station, on the Northern
Pacific, to Bonner's Ferry, on the Kootenay River, a distance of about 30 miles, the Manitoba
Railway intends to connect somewhere in the same direction. The Spokane & Northern has
also given notice of application for a charter to operate a line starting from near the mouth of
the Pen d'Oreille River, up the Salmon River Valley to Nelson.
" It is evident from the foregoing that exertions should be made to divert and retain this
tide of prosperity for the benefit of the Province at large. This can be effected by providing
railway communication between Revelstoke and Nelson. Two routes have been suggested as
being available for the purpose. That from Revelstoke, down the Columbia and up the North
Arm of Upper Arrow Lake, thence via Trout Lake and the valley of the Lardeau River, has
hitherto been considered the most favourable ; but Mr. Stewart, the engineer who explored that
portion of the country, states that a considerable elevation within the comparatively short
distance of four miles interposes too great an obstacle to be overcome. The other route,
starting from the same point and following the river and Arrow Lakes to Sproat's Landing, to
connect with the short line proposed to be built next spring, is deemed perfectly feasible.
" To accommodate the traffic during the summer months, in the absence of a railway
between the Columbia and Kootenay Lake, a waggon road, enabling freight to be carried at an
estimated cost of $10, between these two points would be considered indispensable; but this
mode of conveyance, at the best, is a poor substitute for a railway, which can expeditiously
perform the same service for about $4. The miner is thus benefited by the quicker and more
convenient means of communication to the extent of $6 per ton. The charge for freight by
steamer to Revelstoke will be $5 per ton, and the cost of smelting, Dr. Campbell states, will
be the same as demanded by the Selby Smelting Works of San Francisco, from $13 to $15 per
ton, according to the character of the ore supplied.
"The expenditure incurred by the owners of the 'Silver King,' Toad Mountain, from the
mine to Nelson, by pack train, a distance of seven miles, was $10 per ton, and from thence to
Butte, Montana, a distance of about 700 miles, including the cost of smelting, was in the
vicinity of $47 more. The cost of transportation from the Hot Springs to the same destination, exclusive of carriage by pack train from the mines to the water's edge, which varied with
the distance travelled, was $27.50 per ton, and the charge for smelting ores from that locality
ranged from $8 to $18 per ton, according to their nature.
"The survey party at present operating between the Columbia and Nelson seems to give
truth to the assurance that these two places will be connected by rail next summer; if so, with
a large and swift steamer plying on the Columbia, which is at present under construction, and
others to be placed on the route when necessary, the business will be easily controlled so long
as the Columbia remains open; but the interests at stake are too important to be interrupted
during the period the river is closed to navigation, and rail communication with the main line
of the Canadian Pacific at Revelstoke will have to be effected to afford an outlet to this rich
portion of the district.
"The remission of the duties on mining machinery cannot be too strongly urged on the
attention of the Dominion Government. It is not manufactured in Canada, and being of an
expensive nature, in addition to heavy charges for freight, an ad valorem duty of 33J per cent,
imposes a heavy burden which few companies are able to bear.
" When Mr. Mara, the member of Parliament for the district, was at Kootenay Lake, the
subject was fully discussed with some of the principal mine owners, and he promised to use his
influence for the removal of this drawback to an important industry, which, he stated,  should 284 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
be encouraged to the fullest extent. The warm interest he takes in the matter will, it is hoped,
be productive of good results. Increased prosperity means a large consumption of dutiable
goods, the revenue from which would make up in a short time for the removal of this impost
from the tariff.
" The completion of the works belonging to the Kootenay Smelting and Trading Company
inaugurates a new era of prosperity in the history of the interior of this Province. They are
situated a short distance below the town of Revelstoke, convenient to the river for the unloading of freight from steamers, and have a sampling and smelting capacity of 100 and 60 tons,
respectively. Without going into details, I may state that they are supplied with the latest
improvements, and contain all the necessary appliances for the efficient prosecution of the
work for which they are intended, with the utmost economy of labour. The best of workmanship has been expended on the buildings, which are of a substantial character, under the
supervision of Mr. R. Litster. The officers are Dr. Campbell, manager, and Mr. F. Roeser,
assayer, two gentlemen of long experience in the departments over which they preside, to
whom mine owners can entrust their business with the assurance of being honourably dealt
" The company is prepared to smelt ores at a stipulated price per ton ; or will defray all
charges on consignments, and after deducting therefor pay their cash value, based on the assays
obtained. By the latter means the poor man can reap the benefit of his own labour without
any unnecessary delay, and provide himself with means to develop his property for the purpose
of making larger shipments.
" The public works requirements of the district are as follows:—A waggon road from
Nelson to the summit of the Toad Mountain to enable the transportation of ore from the principal locations, is indispensable. The estimated distance is about seven miles, and a suitable
grade can be obtained for the purpose. The construction of a wharf at Nelson is also a great
necessity. At a low stage of water the steamers have to lie at a considerable distance from
the shore, and the inconvenience and delay of landing freight on rafts have to be experienced.
The distance from the bank to a depth of 4c|- feet is 325 feet. Mr. Giffin, the Mining Recorder
at Nelson, has submitted a plan for its construction, which will be forwarded to the Lands and
Works Department.
"At the Hot Springs a road about five miles long is required to facilitate operations.- To
obtain this great convenience the miners are willing to give pecuniary assistance to the extent
of $5,000. Trails suffice so long as prospecting is being carried on; but in the shipping of ores
economy must prevail, and the least expensive mode of carriage has to be adopted to increase
the profit on the high and medium grades of mineral, and secure satisfactory returns from
those of a less valuable character.
" I have, etc.,
(Signed)        "G. C. Tunstall,
"To the Honourable Jno. Robson, "Gold Commissioner.
"Minister of Mines."
Eastern Division.
Mr. Redgrave's Report.
" Donald, B. C, December 16th, 1889.
" Sir,—I have the honour to submit to you my report upon the mining industry of East
Kootenay District, and also statistics in reference to placer mines and mining, etc.
" Porcupine Creek.
" From this creek good prospects were found last year, and it was anticipated that quite a
large amount of gold would be taken therefrom this season. To assist the miners, and to
facilitate their getting supplies in cheaply, a good pack trail was made by the Government to
that creek, but little gold was found, and that very much scattered amongst a mass of large
boulders, which made it expensive to work. After working about three months, the miners
virtually abandoned the creek; the pay to the hand not realizing more than $2.50 to $3.00 per
day.    The creek will be worked by a number of Chinese next season. 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 285
" Quartz Creek.
" On this creek large benches of good pay dirt have been found, and it is the intention of a
number of miners to apply themselves in working the same by hydraulics in the spring.
" Wild Horse Creek.
" Owing to the low stage of water in this and other creeks, the falling off of the output of
gold for the season's work is quite apparent, as nothing like full working time was accomplished.
Six companies were hydraulicing; the interests held being thirteen in number, consisting of
hill and bench claims; four white men and forty-five Chinese being engaged; at wages of $3.00
and $2.50 per day.
"Perry Creek.
" Placer mining is here prosecuted by the Perry Creek Gold Mining Company, Limited
Liability, incorporated in 1887. Their tunnel, driven at a depth of several hundred feet under
Mount Cenis, and following the ancient bed of the stream, is now about 900 feet in. Most of
the ground encountered presents the features of a canon, with the bed-rock, owing to the great
rush of the waters, smooth and polished. Large boulders impeded the work, but wherever
gravel and clay had lodged the ground was paying well. The company run cars on iron tracks
in the tunnel, and they have machinery for driving pure air to the workings. The number of
miners employed is from ten to fifteen, under a superintendent. The output for the year 1889
was valued at $6,500, the gold assaying in San Francisco as high as $18.50 per ounce. Five
miles higher up on the same creek the said company have this year resumed work on their
shaft, constructed in 1887. This shaft is sunk in the centre of the creek, 55 feet deep, and
protected by a treble cofferdam. Having brought by pack animals, and partly on the backs of
Indians, a powerful Cornish lift pump, of a total weight of 9,000 lbs., over a most inaccessible
part of the country, it was placed in the shaft, which, by blasting through the solid bed-rock,
had been deepened to 65 feet. Water was brought by a ditch and flume, and a large wheel in
the latter, connected with the pump, kept the work clear. This consisted of drifts lengthwise
and across the channel. Though the ground traversed in all directions by these drifts seemed
most favourable for the lodgment of gold, only small quantities were found. The company
sent orders in the month of October to temporarily cease working this portion of their ground.
Of individual miners working on Perry Croek there are only two or three Chinese who are
supposed to take out moderate wages.
" Palmer's Bar.
" Only one company of four Chinese were working on this bar—sluicing.
" Moyea River.
" A company of three Chinamen working, both with sluice and hydraulic, on this river.
"Bull River.
" Two white men working with sluices upon this river.
" Fiudlay Creek.
" Nothing  has  been  done  upon   this creek during the past season.     The property of the
Findlay Creek Gold Mining Company is still considered valuable, and work will be commenced
at their hydraulic mine at an early date next spring.
"The following is the approximate amount of gold taken out of the creeks, benches, and
bars, as mentioned, viz.:—
"Porcupine Creek     , $  2,000
"Wild Horse Creek    20,000
" Palmer's Bar      1,000
" Moyea River      1,000
"Weaver Creek      2,000
"Bull River         800
"Desultory mining   by whites  and  Chinese  throughout  the  East
Kootenay District      3,000
" Perry Creek Mining Company      6,500
"Total $36,300 286 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
" The prospects for the miners are so alluring, and to those who have, especially the past
season, turned their attention to the prospecting for minerals, that very little attention is now
given to placer mining, and as the country is further explored, and minerals found, the little
placer mining which will be carried on will be relegated to Chinese and those who have little
ambition or are easily satisfied.
"Mineral Claims.
" One hundred and fifty new mineral locations have been recorded in this district during
the past season, or from January to the present time, and forty re-records of those previously
taken up. Representation work has been performed upon fifty locations, and forty-two bills of
sale, and transfers of forty-seven claims have been made and bonded to different companies
from Victoria, Vancouver, Toronto, and London, England, which are estimated of great value,
and for which a considerable amount of cash was paid, the balance to be paid at the expiration
of bonding.
" Otter Tail.
" Very little has been done in the development of the Otter Tail District, although it is
known that fine deposits of galena ore exist in large quantities, and only await capital to
prove that locality one soon to become prominent in the annals of quartz mining.
" Windermere.
" In the vicinity of Windermere two new locations were made, which are rich in copper,
assaying $25 to $45 per ton with silver combined.
" Findlay Creek.
" From a claim on this creek, the ' Thunderer,' $45 to $80 in silver, with traces of gold,
have been obtained from different assays.
"Bull River.
" A new mineral locality has been found in this part of the district by Mr. Cowan, of Fort
Steele. Three locations have been recorded, and, from samples of ore assayed in Vancouver
and other places, $9 in gold, $12 in silver, and 35 % in copper have been obtained.
" Toby Creek.
"This locality was fully reported upon last year. From discoveries made, locations
recorded, and assessment work performed upon them, it was anticipated that good results
would follow. Those expectations have been realized, and there is not a shadow of a doubt
but that it will become one of the first centres in rich mineral ores in the East Kootenay
" A great quantity of work has been done; large ledges of silver and copper ores have
been exposed; thirteen new locations have been recorded. The claims taken up last year have
been worked and bonded for a considerable amount of money, and work is progressing upon
them through the winter.
" The claims located are at a point about eighteen miles from the mouth of the creek.
This creek empties into the Columbia 1-i.iver, where steamboats continually run in the summer
months, enabling the miners to get in their supplies and forward the ore to Golden at a cheap
rate, and where a smelter is about to be erected.
" Spillemcheen.
" On Spillemcheen Mountain a number of locations were made five years ago, and a vast
amount of work has been done on the different claims located, but at the present time this
locality is overlooked on account of richer mineral being found close by. Upon this
vast lead—or mountain—of low grade ore is located the 'Rothchild' claim, and the 'Homestake,'
'Spillemcheen,' and 'Jumbo' claims, adjoining the 'Rothchild,' are continually being worked
and developed. As soon as smelting works are within easy distance, the whole mountain will
be again taken up and worked, on account of its inexhaustible mineral supply and easy access, 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 287
its location being about four miles from the Columbia River, and forty miles from the railway
at Golden, and the great and never-failing water supply, will be utilized and governed for
milling and mining purposes.
" Jubilee Mountain.
"This locality, or mountain, is situated about 2 miles from the Spillemcheen Mountain,
and within a distance of 3 miles from the Columbia River. The locators, 6 in number, first
recorded their claims two years ago, and from assays then made, of the ore then found, Jubilee
Mountain came in to prominence, the assays going so high in silver that the finders consider it
the " Eureka " and " Empyrean " of Eastern Kootenay.
"Vast ledges of silver and copper ores, 18 to 20 feet in width, have been developed and
worked, and are now in an advanced stage ; the assays obtained ranging from $50 to $400 per
ton in silver, and very high in copper. From statements of experts from England, who represent
great capitalists, the leads and deposits in this locality are pronounced as something wonderful,
and vast in extent and richness that astounds them, and they prophesy the time is not distant
when all the capital required for working these mines will be supplied in abundance, in fact is
now waiting in England for just such undertakings.
" One company of English capitalists have secured six mineral claims out of the eleven
new locations made this year, and from six which have been re-recorded.
" Development work has been performed on ten claims, and for the ' Constance' and
' Atlanta ' Crown grants have been applied for.
" The ' Lancaster ' claim is one of great prominence, shewing hundreds of tons of silver
ore in sight. An offer of $50 per ton has been made to the party owning the mine for all ore
supplied and for any amount of tons to be placed on the banks of the Columbia River. It
must be very rich ore, as it would again have to be handled three different times before getting
to the present smelter, the nearest one at the present time being Revelstoke, a distance of 120
miles from Jubilee by water and railway.
" The facilities are excellent for working claims on Jubilee Mountain, the cost of conveying
the ore to the steamboat is trifling as compared with other localities, the distance being within
two and three miles from steamboat communication.
" McMurdo District.
" Although but a small portion of this district and of its vast mineral wealth is known,
sufficient reports have been made by men well versed in mineralogy to stamp it as one of the
greatest silver bearing regions on the continent.
" A new route and building of a new trail by the Government has shortened the distance
to a little over forty miles from Golden, a station on the C. P. R. admirably situated as a
smelting point.
" The McMurdo discovery claims are located near the Glacier, which caps the head of the
canon threaded by the middle fork of the Spillemcheen River. The vein is a giant in the size
of its outcrop and very rich in sulphide ores, some samples of tetrahedrite, or gray copper,
running as high as $60 in gold and from $100 to $150 in silver.
" All the locations surrounding the discovery shew from 18 inches to 3 feet of mineralized
" The developments, which have only amounted to the annual assessments for the past
two years, prove that in depth the minerals in the vein-stone are greatly augmented both in
quantity and richness; the vein is in talcose state.
" Five miles in a south-easterly direction is a small basin-shaped depression christened
' Cariboo Basin.' About ten claims are located within its boundaries, but work has only been
performed on two; these proved to be veins of copper sulphide ores associated with ribbon
stringers of argentiferous galena.
" Across to the south-west of the canon is another depression which is evidently the
remains of a large tract of primitive table land. The melting during the glacial period has cut
the surface down by hydraulicing a passage for its pent up waters into the caflon of the middle
fork, which is called ' Carbonate Creek Mountain and Basin.'
" This mountain heads about N. W. by S. E. Its southern face and side is more or less
gored for a distance of a mile by the outcrop of an immense lode on which a considerable
amount of money for development during the past season has been expended. 288 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
" Last year a tunnel was made for a distance of 85 feet under one of the croppmgs upon
the 'Monitor' claim. The vein was very much broken and out of place; the work shewed, however, that the mountain held greater inducements for the miner than at the surface. This
lode and its mineral, which is a sulphide containing antimony, has been traced over two miles
and across the canon. It is in micaceous slates, having a dyke of granite gneiss as its hanging
wall. Running parallel to the above is another lode—the two being separated only by
about 500 feet of country rock. It is highly argentiferous galena impregnated with minute
specks of tetrahedrite, which often causes an apparent specimen of galena to run up in the
hundreds of ounces of silver. Quite a number of claims are located along its croppings, but
very little work so far has been done. Three claims on this lode have been sold this season to
a Vancouver company, who as soon as practicable will work and develop them.
" About six miles from this place is Copper Creek, where a number of claims are located.
The claim ' Southern Cross' is located here, and is pronounced a valuable mine.
" A face of mineral from three to six feet wide shews itself up and down the mountain.
Upon the eastern side of this some very fine prospects are shewn, the ' Lost Chief' shewing a
face 6 by 4 feet of mineral. A drift, 17 feet, has been made on the outcrop, and 10 tons of
fine average ore are piled and laid on the dump. During the past season a tunnel was driven 75
feet at an angle across the country rock to tap the lead 50 feet in depth from the upper drift.
The Smelting Syndicate at Revelstoke offer from $50 to $114 per ton for the ore (which is
argentiferous galena) delivered on the banks of the Columbia, some twenty miles by pack trail.
This location is in clay slate and mica shist, having an iron-stone casing on either side.
" Some distance from the ' Lost Chief' there is a small water-way discovered, and named
' Deception Creek,' during the last season. Its waters form one of the south forks of the
Spillemcheen River. Two lodes, supposed to be the continuance of the last-named vein, have
been discovered and 15 locations made. One lode is argentiferous galena ; the other is sulphide
ore, having bismuth as a base.
" In taking a retrospective view of the past 5 years, when but a few hardy pioneers were
exploring the rugged mountain sides in their quest for mineral wealth, travelling hundreds of
miles with their food upon their backs, weary and footsore from the long and weary marches,
no trails, no roads, no railways nor steamboats, unknown and unassisted, with very little knowledge of the minerals they were seeking, and, as it has been proved since, actually passing,
re-passing, and overlooking some of the rich ledges now located by others who knew more and
fared better, benefited by their trails and pathways, it is really astonishing that even so
much is known of the country or so much actual work performed. Since that time a railway
has been constructed, steamboats placed upon two large rivers, and the Government have met
the wants of the miner, the merchant, and the inhabitants by making waggon roads and trails,
and at the crossing of the rivers constructed bridges of the most substantial material and good
workmanship, so that food and powder, &c, two of the first articles required in mining, can be
obtained at fair and reasonable rates, enabling those to develop the riches that for so many
ages have lain hidden from view, and to reap a rich reward from their laborious undertaking.
" Every month which passes adds knowledge to our surroundings, and it does seem that
Kootenay is blessed with all kinds of minerals. Not far from Golden iron ore has been found
assaying 75 per cent., and of the best quality, with a mixture of silver and tin. Three miles
from the same place good prospects for coal are in view, work on which is now being performed
upon the supposed seams. Four claims were recorded the other day carrying 40 and 50 per
cent, of zinc. Slate of good quality is close by ; and a mountain of the very best lime rock is
now being worked, supplying the local market, one mile from Golden.
" In conclusion I must state that from the progress made this last summer in the development of its mineral wealth, combined with new channels of trade and commerce opened, it
has made success an assured fact—in the near future—for this highly favoured district of the
Province of British Columbia.
" I have, &e.,
(Signed)       "Stephen Redgrave,
" Recorder, dsc." 53 Vic Report of the Minister of Mines. 289
Mr. Soues' Report.
"Government Office, Clinton, B. C,
"December 21st, 1889.
" Sir,—I have the honour to enclose herewith mining statistics, and my annual mining
report, for the District of Lillooet for the year 1889.
" The total yield of gold (ascertained from reliable sources only) is $60,364. This shows
a falling off of nearly $30,000 as compared with the ascertained yield of last year.
" The decrease in yield, apparently, must be in the neighbourhood of Lillooet. Mr. A. W.
Smith, the principal buyer of gold there, writes to me that ' mining in the vicinity during the
' past season has been less prosperous than usual; that is, there has been less done. I believe
' those engaged in it have done as well as formerly, but water in some places has failed, and
' that has caused a shortage in the yield, Another cause is, many of the Chinese have left to
' work on the railroad, and others to work on farms, and many have returned to China from
' this vicinity during the past year, so that at present there cannot be half the number of
' Chinese here that there were a year ago. There are, I think, seven Chinese companies on
' Cayoosh Creek, about fifty men. They have all done well—better, I think, than an average
' of former years. I have bought only $39,000 since last December, all from Chinese labour
' except about $400.' (Mr. Smith's purchases of gold last year were nearly $60,000.) Mr.
Phair, Revenue Collector, also calls my attention to an exodus of the itinerant Chinese miners
on the banks and bars of Fraser River, and estimates the decrease in their numbers at four-fifths
as compared with the past two or three years.
" A company obtained a lease of certain abandoned mining ground on Cayoosh Creek in
the early part of the year. They have been steadily at work on it during the season, with
what success I cannot say, as the foreman declined to give me any information.
"A company has also bought the farm at the old ferry near Lillooet for the purpose of
mining it. They worked on it for a month or two this fall, and are, I understand, quite
satisfied with their purchase. Another company has also bought a farm a short distance below
Lillooet, also on the west side of the river, for a similar purpose, but as they came into possession late this fall, I believe they have not done any actual mining. On the leased ground
of the Fraser River Cable Company there has not been any work done this past season. The
available water supply owned by the company was very low during the whole of the mining
season.    I am still without any information from the lessee on St. Mary's Creek.
" The Chinese miners on Cayoosh have found gold on the banks of the Creek, which they
have been working this fall. The alluvial mining in this creek and on its banks will pay well,
I have no doubt, for many years to come. Comparatively but little mining has been done on
Bridge River and its tributaries during the past season.
" Quartz.
" There were 53 mineral locations recorded in the district during the past year, but only
a small number obtained a certificate under the provisions of the Mineral Act.
"Everything connected with the Foster Gold Mining and Milling Company's claims on the
Big Slide has been at a standstill during the past year. This remark also applies to the
locations in the eastern portion of the district, with the exception of the claim on Mad River,
North Thompson, which has been worked during the summer months, but I am unable to say
to what extent. Of the various locations in the valley of Cayoosh Creek but little work has
been done, with the exception of the Bonanza Company, which has been at continnous work, up
to a short time ago. This company has run a tunnel of nearly two hundred feet, but without
any valuable results so far.
" Work has been continuous during the season on the ledge at the west end of Anderson
Lake, referred to in my report of last year. New locations have also been made in that neighbourhood, which will be thoroughly prospected next year.
" I regret exceedingly my inability to report more favourably on mining matters in my
district for the past year. The Chinese miners are reduced to a very small number. Of
white miners there have been but very few for a number of years past, and during the past
two seasons those few have turned their attention almost exclusively to quartz mining, and so
far, I regret to say, their labour has not added to the returns. " For the precious metals, the district is to-day practically unprospected, with the exception
of a few isolated spots, and even in those very imperfectly. In conversation with Dr. Dawson,
of the Canadian Geological Survey, a short time age, he pointed out that all that portion of the
district bounded by the Fraser River, the Lillooet-Clinton and Marble Canon Waggon roads
and Hat Creeks as, in his opinion, very likely to contain the precious metals. I have my
doubts if even one really practical and observant prospector has been over any portion of it.
A still larger and equally unknown area lies on the west side of the river, bounded on the
north by the Chilcotin, west by the Cascades proper, east by the river—say fifty miles square.
I sincerely trust that both the localities indicated will at least have a commencement made on
them next year.
"I have, etc.,
" To the Honourable Jno. Robson, (Signed)        " F. Soues,
"Minister of Mines, Victoria. "Gold Commissioner"
Kamloops Division.
Mr.   Hussey's   Report
"Kamloops, Sth January, 1890.
" Sir,—I have the honour to enclose my annual mining report for the Kamloops Division
of Yale District for the year 1889.
" Stump Lake Mines.
" Of the large number of claims located in this camp assessment only has been done on a
majority during the past season. Several causes have led to this result, but the principal one
was the closing down of the Star Mining Company, followed by the burning of the quartz mill
and the destruction of other machinery connected therewith.
" The ' Mary Reynolds ' claim, owned by Mr. John Hepburn & Company, has now three
shafts—one 100 feet, one 75 feet, and one 35 feet—all on the same vein. Several drifts are
also run from the 100-foot shaft a distance of 90 feet. From this claim 3,500 lbs. of ore have
been shipped to San Francisco, and the encouraging result of $168 per ton has been obtained.
There are said to be $10,000 worth of ore on the dump, averaging from $50 to $60 to the ton.
" On the 'Jenny Long,' 'Silver King,' 'Silver Queen,' and the 'Star' Company's claims
nothing more than assessment work has been done during the past season. The principal
development work done has been on the 'Joshua,' 'Tubal Cain' and 'King William' ledges,
owned by the Nicola Milling and Mining Company, L'd. (foreign), which run through Mineral
Hill, Stump Lake.
Work done on the 'Joshua.'
Main double compartment shaft      400 feet.
Air shaft connecting with 100-foot level        85    ,,
Drifts on 100-foot level      175    „
Drifts on 200-foot level      220   „
Drifts on 300-foot level      350   „
Total  1,230 feet.
Work done on the 'Tubal Cain.'
Main double compartment shaft  220 feet.
Air shaft connecting with 50-foot level  40   „
Drifts on 50-foot level  160   „
Drifts on 116-foot level  300   „
Drifts on 220-foot level  200   „
Tunnel connecting with 116-foot drift  290   „
Tunnel to connect with 220-foot drift  400   „
Total 1,610 feet. 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 291
Work Done on the ' King William.'
Main double compartment shaft      175 feet.
Air and other shafts        75   ,,
Drifts 100-foot level    180   „
Drifts 175-foot level  102   „
Total      532 feet.
" On the other mineral claims owned by the above company considerable prospecting
work has been performed, aggregating about 200 feet of shafts and a large number of open
cuts; and on the 'Joshua,' 'Tubal Cain' and 'King William' horse whims have been used for
hoisting purposes. As the reduction machinery contemplated by the Nicola Mining Company,
L'd., is of large capacity and will require a large outlay of capital to ensure a permanent supply
of ore, they are putting in a steam hoist so as to sink the ' Joshua' 200 feet deeper and run
drifts on the 500-foot and 600-foot levels.
" The lodes have strengthened with depth, and the quantity and value of the ore have
steadily improved. The prospects are most encouraging for paying results as soon as reduction
works are erected at the mines.
" The amount of work done on Mineral Hill by the Nicola Mining Company, L'd, far
exceeds that by any other company in British Columbia, and it is to be hoped success will soon
crown the efforts of this company, as it will not only have a beneficial effect on quartz mining
in this district, but will also attract capital to other legitimate mining enterprises in other
portions of the Province.
" At Stump Lake several good locations have been made, from which samples of ore have
been taken assaying very high. Owing to lack of capital the claims are not thoroughly
" Messrs. J. M. Forney and E. H. Covey have located mineral claims in the vicinity of
Eagle Pass, and expect to be able to induce capitalists to develop the mines.
"Placer Mining.
" The placer mines on the Tranquille Creek are still being operated by Chinese exclusively. No definite information can be obtained as to the quantity of gold secured. These
mines support about thirty Chinese, who are supposed to make about one dollar per diem
during the mining season.
" Coal.
" Some development work has been done this season on the coal seams near Kamloops;
not sufficient has been accomplished, however, to say whether the find will pay to work.
" In conclusion, I must express my unbounded confidence in the future of this district as
a mineral country. Its development may be slow for a time, yet, with the production of
bullion, confidence will be inspired and development encouraged.
"I have, etc.,
(Signed)       "Frederick Hussey,
" To the Honourable Jno. Robson, Gold Commissioner.
"Minister of Mines, Victoria."
Okanagan Division.
Mr. Dewdney's Report.
"Government Office,
"Vernon,  18th December, 1889.
" Sir,—I have the honour to enclose herewith the mining statistics and my annual report
for the Osoyoos Division of Yale District.
" Cherry Creek.
" Very little has been done in the way of mining on this creek during the summer, several
of the Chinese having left for other parts of the Province, where they think steady wages are
more profitable than prospecting under difficulties, with little promise of success. "The Cherry Creek Mining Company are still running their tunnel into the hill, with good
indications ahead that they will soon strike the channel, but whether productive or not time
only will show.
" Mr. Donald Mclntyre, in company with Mr. L. W. Riske, has been busily employed this
summer erecting a quartz mill on their claims, situated on the Monashee Mountain, and I am
informed that they have a quantity of rich free milling ore on the dump ready to commence
crushing as soon as the mill is completed, which they expect will be in running order early in
the spring. Great credit is due to the indefatigable manner in which Mr. Mclntyre has for
the last twelve years worked in developing these mines.
"The Hidden Treasure Mining Company on Cherry Creek, I hear, have done little
prospecting this summer.
" Mission Creek.
" Three white men and seven Chinese have been working on this creek in a desultory
manner during the summer, with poor results.
" Rock Creek.
" I have heard very favourable reports from the McKinney Camp. Mr. John Douglas,
manager of the Douglas Mine, has struck a very rich body of ore—free milling—at a depth of
150 feet from the surface, and is now running cross drifts. He contemplates placing machinery
on the claim next summer, as he is now confident that he has a good paying mine.
"The Cariboo Mine is also turning out very rich ore, and the owners intend to put up
machinery as soon as a waggon road is built from the boundary Une to the camp. On the
other claims just sufficient assessment work has been done to hold them. There are in all about
twenty-five represented claims at this camp.
" At the mouth of Rock Creek there are about six whites and twenty Chinese working,
taking out small wages. The Hydraulic Mining Company have done a great deal of work in
getting their claim opened up, and have expended in the neighbourhood of $15,000 for that
purpose. In consequence of a severe frost setting in, the company were unable to wash up,
which was a great disappointment to the shareholders, who were anxious for some returns after
the heavy expenditure on their claim.
" Okanagan Camp.
" This camp is situated about twenty miles from Penticton. There are about sixteen
claims taken up and represented by the holders putting on assessment work.
"One claim, the 'Wide West,' was bonded for $45,000, but, from what I can learn, the
parties are unable to come to a settlement for want of funds.
"The Government, at an expense of $2,000, built a waggon road this year from Penticton
Landing to connect with the In-ka-nip-Rock Creek sleigh road, which is a great boon to the
miners and settlers, enabling them to get supplies into the settlement by teams in place of
pack animals.
" Siwash Creek.
" This creek is situated on the west side of Okanagan Lake, running through a portion of
the N. Kam-ap-lix Indian Reserve.
" There was quite an excitement over these diggings during the summer, with the usual
results, owing to exaggerated reports. A number of claims were staked off and recorded, and
as quickly abandoned.
"There are in all about twelve companies prospecting, sinking shafts, and running tunnels
into the hills through the gravel with small prospects. The only paying claim at present is
the Discovery Company. They have washed up about $1,500 for their summer's work, which,
after deducting expenses, will leave them with a small dividend.
" I have, &c,
(Signed)       "W. Dewdney,
" The Honourable John Robson, " Gold Commissioner.
"Minister of Mimes, Victoria, B.C." 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 293
" Similkameen Division.
Mr. Hunter's Report.
"Granite Creek, October 31st, 1889.
" Sir,—I have the honour to forward the annual mining statistics for the Similkameen
Division, in which you will observe that the yield of gold exhibits a decrease from that of the
previous year, principally owing to the unusually dry season and consequent scarcity of water.
" On Granite Creek the majority of claims are paying fair wages. Two companies, the
Gladstone and Pogue, have been prospecting their claim nearly the whole season, but are now
on fair pay.
" Collins Gulch is fairly worked out, although a few miners are still employed there.
' On Slate Creek mining was at a standstill on account of the scarcity of water, but late
rains have enabled miners to resume work.
" On Boulder Creek very little has been done, for the same reason.
"The dry season made it most favourable for mining on the Tulameen, and considerable
work has been done. A large number of Indians from the Fraser River have been engaged in
mining by means of rockers and have made good wages; they are scattered along the Tulameen
River, above Bear Creek.
" On the Similkameen good pay was obtained from the creek claims, but dry diggings were
a failure from the want of water.
" Very little has been done during the past year in quartz mining, the owners of mineral
claims having satisfied themselves with merely performing the necessary work to hold them.
Want of means in this instance, as in many others, is the sole excuse for the little labour
expended on them.
"I have, <fec,
(Signed,)        " Hugh Hunter,
" The Honourable Minister of Mines, " Recorder."
"Victoria. 294 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
The following table shows the output of each year from 1874 to 1889, inclusive:
Year. No. of Tons.
1874  81,000
1875  110,000
1876  139,000
1877  154,000
1878  171,000
1879  241,000
1880  268,000
1881  228,000
1882  282,000
1883  213,000
1884  394,070
1885  365,000
1886  326,636
1887  413,360
1888  489,300
1889  579,830
" Nanaimo, B. C,
31st January, 1890.
" Sir,—I have the honour, in pursuance of the ' Coal Mines Regulation Act,' as Inspector
of Mines, to respectfully submit for your consideration my Annual Report for the year ending
31st December, 1889.
" During the year the following collieries have been in operation, namely:—
"Nanaimo Colliery, of the New Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Co., Limited.
" Wellington Colliery, of Messrs. R. Dunsmuir & Sons.
" East Wellington Colliery, of the East Wellington Coal Oo.
" Union Colliery, of the Union Colliery Co.
"Very extensive and encouraging prospecting operations, involving a large outlay of
capital, have been carried on by the above-named companies, and also by the Oyster Harbour
Coal Company, during the present year, by means of diamond drills of great power (capable of
boring to 4,000 feet), to prove and establish an extension of the Nanaimo coal fields, and also
those of Comox; and the Tumbo Island Coal Company are prospecting their coal land on the
island of that name in the Gulf of Georgia by sinking a shaft.
" The output of coal for the year 1889 amounted to 579,830 12/20ths tons, produced by
the several collieries as follows :—
Nanaimo Colliery output  223,870 18-20ths tons.
Wellington Colliery „       273,383 14-20
East Wellington Colliery   „             51,372 „
Union Colliery „             31,204
Total output in the year 1889      579,830 12-20 „
Add coal on hand 1st January, 1889        10,922  15-20
Total coal for disposal in 1889      590,753    7-20 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 295
" The exports of coal by the same collieries in 1889 amounted to 443,675 tons, viz.:—
Nanaimo Colliery export  179,286 tons.
Wellington Colliery „       197,510    „
East Wellington Colliery „               43,089    „
Union Colliery „             23,790    „
Total coal exported in 1889      443,675 tons*
Add home consumption in 1889      124,574 5-20 tons.
„     On hand 1st January, 1890        22,504 2-20    „
590,753 7-20 tons.
*Several cargoes of anthracite coal, hauled over the Canadian Pacific Railroad, and shipped from Vancouver, B.C., to San Francisco, Cal., are obviously not included in this total of exports.
" The coal exported from Nanaimo, Departure Bay, and Comox, was shipped principally
to San Francisco and ports in California : other shipments were made to Oregon, Alaska,
Petropavloski, Hawaiian Islands, China and Japan (per C. P. R. steamers). H. M. navy and
U. S. war and revenue vessels have been supplied with coal, and ocean mail steamers and
other vessels calling for fuel.
"The returns of the collieries show about 124,574 tons under the head of 'home consumption' in 1889, as against 115,953 tons in 1888; but it should be understood that the coal
used in the collieries is in the most instances included in such returns.
" The following statement of output and export of coal from 1887 exhibits a very gratifying rate of progress by the coal industry of British Columbia in the year 1889; viz.:—
Output. Export.
1887      413,360 tons  334,839 tons.
1888     489,300   „     365,714    „
1889     579,830   „     443,675    „
"In previous reports I have presented statements of the various sources with quantities
of their supply of coal to the State of California, our chief foreign market, and the following
shows the same from 1887:—
1887. 1888. 1889.
Tons. Tons. Tons.
British Columbia      324,949   345,681       417,904
Australia      155,649   271,612       408,032
England and Wales        91,248   126,167       32,890
Scotland        12,615         10,680             12,727
Eastern States (anthracite, &c.)        24,102         30,118       18,950
Puget Sound      569,710   568,948       372,514
Coos Bay and Mt. Diablo        39,155         81,194             87,600*
Japan                  13,808       1,340
Total 1,217,428 1,448,208 1,351,957
*Coal from Mt. Diablo added since former reports.
" The above table affords a view of the standing of British Columbia in our best market,
and the prospects are that the Province will maintain the position which the superior quality
of its coal commands, for the future.
" I can truly say that the outlook and productive power and resources of the Province at
the beginning of the year on which we have entered appear brighter and more promising of
substantial success and prosperity, so far as the coal industry is concerned, than ever before. "NANAIMO COLLIERY.
" The coal in this colliery was in good demand up till the last two months, when the mines
had to stop work, owing to there being no ships to take away the coal.
"No. 1 Pit, Esplanade, in Nanaimo.
"This mine, forming part of the Nanaimo Colliery, belongs to the New Vancouver Coal
Mining and Land Company, Limited. The working in this pit is by what is known as the
No. 1 and No. 3 North Levels. The No. 1 Level is in a north-westerly direction about one
mile, and in this district of the mine there has not been much coal mined during the past year;
but there has been some extensive prospcting done, and the company, to all appearance, is
going to be rewarded for their perseverance, as they have now got into thick coal, that, from
the prospect and regularity of the seam, I think, will prove to be a large and profitable coal
field; they have now got into this coal 200 yards, and it averages about seven feet thick, clean
and hard. The great part of the coal got out of the mine in the past twelve months came
from No. 3 North Level, and in this Level they have the prospect of getting into the same
coal soon that they have got in No. 1 Level.
" Ventilation in this mine is very good. When I was down in December I found 49,000
cubic feet passing per minute for the use of 60 men and 14 mules. The motive power of the
above air is a Murphy Fan. There is very little gas now found here, the mine being free from
dust; and there are pipes to conduct water where required.
"No.  3 Pit (Chase River).
" This shaft takes its name from being near to the mouth of Chase River; it is about two
and a half miles from Nanaimo and forms part of the Nanaimo Colliery. The coal in this
mine has been, and is at present, hard and of a very good quality, although varying in thickness
from four to ten feet. All the workings are by way of a slope starting from near the bottom
of the shaft, the levels branching from the slope. The coal is worked here on what is termed
the pillar and stall system, for which it seems well adapted.
" Ventilation is very good; motive power, a large fan on the top of the up-cast shaft.
When I last inspected this mine there were 46,800 cubic feet of air passing per minute for the
supply of forty-six men and twelve mules, and it is well conducted into the face by brattice or
otherwise. This mine has been free from gas since it started ; the mine is also free fiom dust,
being wet throughout. In this mine, as in all the other mines of the Nanaimo Colliery, a
deputation of men is sent to examine the mine, under section 79, General Rule 31. The
finding of the condition of the mine is recorded in a book kept for that purpose, and a notice
is put up where all may see it.
"South Field Mines, Nos.  1 and 2.
" These mines are now known as the South Field Mine, both places being worked into
each other and have jointly one ventilating shaft.
" During the past year a few men have been taking out eoal along the outcrop of the No.
1 tunnel, but the bulk of the coal came out of the No. 2 slope. This slope is down over 700
yards with an easy grade until approaching near the face when it goes off with much greater
pitch. About one-half of the output of Nanaimo Colliery came from this mine. The coal is
of very good quality, and from a series of bore holes put down from the surface to the coal,
some distance ahead of the working, they have proved that they have a great extent of coal
yet before them. This is also mined on the pillar and stall system. There is now a long
range of stalls in good coal.
" Ventilation is very good ; motive power a large fan on the up-cast shaft. This mine is
ventilated on the separate split system, with two divisions to the east side and one to the west
side of the slope, the intakes being the Nos. 1 and 2 slopes with a shaft between the two slopes
for the return. The last time I was down this mine I found that there were 67,500 cubic feet of
air going past per minute for the use of 74 men and 7 mules. There is very little gas found in
this mine, and it is free from dust, being damp throughout. Here the workmen also take the
privilege of section 79, General Rule 31. 53 Vic Report of the Minister of Mines. 297
" No. 4, South Field Mine.
" This is the New Slope mentioned in a former report, situated about half a mile in a
southerly direction from No. 3 Pit. They have gone to a great expense here. The slope is
now down about 700 yards, the coal being thin in some places, and at other times no coal;
but it was reasonably expected that good coal would be found as in No. 3 Pit, coming towards
this slope the coal was hard and from five to nine feet thick ; it is, however, to be hoped that
they will come on the coal soon.
"North Field Mine,  Nanaimo Colliery.
" This is the northern part of the estate, owned by the New Vancouver Coal Mining and
Land Company, Limited, and is situated in Mountain District. In the year 1888 the company
put down a series of bore-holes to the coal, and among them was one near to their boundary
line, which adjoins the Wellington property ; the prospect they got seemed to justify them in
putting down a shaft. The contract was taken by Mr. R. Scott to find the coal. Great
preparation was made, clearing away timber and levelling off the surface, and a steam engine
was erected. Everything being in order, work was commenced in the shaft on the Sth January,
and continued without any great stoppage or drawbacks, when, on the 31st July, coal was
struck, the same as is known both here and in California as the Wellington Coal. This was
at the depth of 424 feet from the surface. In passing through the coal they found that it was
of very good quality and hard ; there were three plys of coal with rock between them, making
about seven feet of coal. The shaft was continued until they got down 445 feet from the
surface. Everything having been got in order both on top and at bottom they then started in
the coal, when, they found they had a small fault; but now that they are getting fairly started
with levels and a slope opening out to both sides they find that the coal varies in thickness
from three feet eight inches to four feet four inches, and is very hard and of a good quality.
They have got out a few thousand tons of the coal and it looks well. When Mr. Scott had
the shaft finished he received charge of opening out the mine, which is to be carried on, on
what is called the long wall system; and it appears as if it should work well, as the roof is
stronger than the roof of  this vein generally is.
" Ventilation is good ; motive power, a fan on the Murphy principle. The last time I
was down there were only four men in the mine, so that they had the fan running slow ; but
at that time there were 10,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute. There has not yet been
any explosive gas found in this mine and everything is being done to make the workings as
safe as possible.
" The shipping place from this mine will be Departure Bay Point, where a large wharf
has been erected by the company, so that the largest ships may load at any stage of the tide.
From this wharf to the mine, with sidings, there are five miles of railway of standard guage.
There is also a railway in connection with the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway.
" In starting a new work like the North Field Mine, a large outlay of capital is required,
and it is desirable that the enterprise shown by the company will meet with the success that
it deserves financially; it will also give new life to this district. I may here be permitted
to remark that the prospect of the company for coal in their several mines for the coming year
exceeds any that I have ever seen them have, and I trust that it will continue so.
"No. 3 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
" This is the pit mentioned in a previous report as being in the valley of the Millstone
River, and, as 1 have stated in former reports of this mine, is all by the way of a slope on the
south side of the shaft.
" The coal was worked on the pillar and stall plan, which is the general method in this
colliery. There are now very few stalls being worked, but there is considerable mining being
carried on at the pillars, which will last for quite a long time, as the pillars are fully one-half
of the coal. 298 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
" Ventilation is very good. When I was last down, in December, upon taking it I found
that there were 40,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute for the use of 37 men and 6 horses.
This mine is ventilated on the separate split system, going direct down the slope and returning
by way of the pillars and stalls ; motive power, a large fan. In ordinary times there is little
gas found, but sometimes, when the roof breaks when they have taken out the pillars, then
considerable gas comes away. When, however, there is the least danger the men are sent out of
the mine. Here, as in the other extensive mines of the Wellington Colliery, a deputation from
the men goes through the mine once a month, to examine all the mine to know its condition as
to its safety, and the result of their examination is recorded in a book which is left open so
that any person may see it.
"No. 4 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
" This pit is put down on the top of the bluff which overlooks the Millstone River Valley.
They have been working steadily here the greater part of the year. The coal is worked from
what are known as the north and south side workings. All the working in this mine has been
on the pillar and stall principle, excepting a small place in the south side, which is now back
again to the old style. The coal generally in this extensive mine has been very good, yet the
mine has not been without its faults. This mine and No. 3 pit are connected at different
places with open roads from one to the other, that is, on the south side. Beside the connection
they have their fan shaft, by which men could be taken out if emergency required it.
" Ventilation is very good ; motive power, a large fan on the top of the up-cast shaft,
worked by a steam engine. This mine is ventilated on the separate split system—the two
main divisions at the shaft and again further in the workings. The workings here are very
extensive, spreading over a great area, but the air is well kept under control by the overman,
so that one district is not overdone at the expense of another. After the air has travelled
round its several districts, it is again merged into one volume, and then ascends the up-cast
shaft. Sometimes I find the air passing a given place at the velocity of 1,500 (one thousand
five hundred) feet a minute, and the last time I was down, in December, I found that there
was 110,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute for the use of 150 men and 10 mules and
"This mine gives off some gas, which comes from the roof where they are taking out
pillars, but it is not allowed much chance to collect. The fireman, in going his rounds in the
mine, seldom finds any gas in the stalls. The mine is free from dust, as there is throughout
the mine, where they may be required, a regular system of pipes, so that water can be turned
on at any time, either to lay dust or in case of fire.
" In addition to the overman and fireman, there is a staff of men called shot lighters.
They use and have only safety lamps to ascertain if a place is safe and if a shot is properly
prepared before they will light it. In this mine there is a monthly examination by a deputation
of workmen made in the manner before described.
" No. 5 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
"This is the only pit of the Wellington Colliery which has a railway connection with the
Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway, and it plays a good part in supplying the Victoria market with
this famous coal. This is now about the most extensive mine in the district. The coal is
brought to the shaft from the east and west levels incline from the south, and a slope on the
north side. In all those places the coal has been and is now very good, and they send out fully
500 tons in one shift. The workings here have all been on the pillar and stall principle, except
a small piece in the slope, which seems to -work very well.
" Ventilation is very good, and well conducted into the face and where they are taking
out pillars (coal) by brattice or otherwise. When I was down in December I found that the
instrument registered 118,420 cubic feet passing per minute, that is to say : 45,230 on the
east side, 51,460 on the west side, and 21,730 cubic feet per minute passing in the slope, but
the above mentioned currents of air are again divided further in in the workings, so that each
district will have fresh air. The total number of men employed here on one shift is 195, and
14 mules. This mine is free from dust, and no expense is spared to keep it so. They have a
regular system of water works or pipes to take water to any part in the mine where they think
it may be required, and, as I have said in a previous report, the mains are along the levels and
main roads, with small pipes and hose to the stalls, with sprays of water blown off at different 53 Vio. Report of the Minister of Mines. 299
places in the mine, the air carrying the moisture along, so that everywhere it is not only damp
but wet in top, bottom, and sides. The pipes are supplied with water from a large reservoir
on the surface, the pressure being the depth of the shaft—260 feet.
" This mine is examined monthly by a deputation from the miners here, and chosen by
them, to look into and examine every part of the mine under the section and rule already
referred to.
"No. 6 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
" This pit was mentioned in a former report as No. 6 Sinking Shaft, and about 900 yards
east of No. 4 Pit. They continued at work without anything serious happening, when, about
the 1st of May, coal was struck at the depth of 340 feet from the surface. The coal was found
to be 8 feet thick, very hard, and of the usual good quality of the Wellington seam. Since
that time they have been opening out to all sides, and have now got quite a distance away
from the shaft all around. They are mining on the pillar system, as this seems to be adapted
to the purpose, all things being considered. The coal has proved to be very regular and good,
some places not quite so thick, but other places much thicker. This is now a valuable mine,
and is proving an acquisition to this district, there being a large number of men working here.
"Ventilation is good; motive power, a steam jet, but they are now preparing to erect a
fan. They are at present restricted to a certain number of men, so that the output of coal is
small to what it will be in a short time, as they are mining with all haste to get a connection
with their No. 5 Pit. Then we may expect to see the output of No. 6 Pit come to the front,
for, from what can be seen, they have here got the coal to work on.
"No.  2 Slope, Wellington Colliery.
"This is a new mine started by Messrs. Dunsmuir & Sons in the Sabiston and Home property in Mountain District, and to the east of the East Wellington Colliery. This slope is now
down 150 yards. At the top they soon got into the coal, which was about five feet thick, good
quality and hard ; but after going some distance they got down through it, which put the coal
away below the line of the slope which continued in the rock. They now again expect to get
into the coal soon. If it is as good and as thick as it was above the fault, and there is no
reason why it should not be, it will make a valuable work in this locality, as it is not far from
" This is the property of the East Wellington Coal Company. In this colliery there are
two shafts, known as No. 1 and No. 2 Pits, although both are connected by their workings
underground. By the windings of those works they are 1400 yards apart, but by a direct
course they are only about half a mile distant.    The No. 2 is west of No. 1.
" In the west side of the No. 1 shaft they are not now doing much mining, as they are only
employing a few men, coal being thin. What coal they do take out is of a first-class quality,
with a strong roof, well adapted for long wall work, which has been their method of working
since they started. In the east side they have during the past year done much prospecting,
which is looking favourable for having good coal on this side, although they have drifted
through considerable bad and barren ground.
" On August 24th there was a serious fire in this shaft. Everything went on as usual
until away in the afternoon, when volumes of smoke came out of the shaft, shortly after followed by flames. Then it was apparent that the ventilating furnace had set fire to the timbers
of the shaft, and in a short time the head gear was on fire, and a large bin of coal near the
same, while the machinery and boilers were only a few yards off. The men were got out by
No. 2 shaft, that being afterwards covered and thus shutting off the air from below. By this
time the fire engine was brought out from Nanaimo, and after placing it in the bed of the
Millstone river they commenced work. It then became evident that the fire on top was not
going to last long. As soon as possible they got No. 1 shaft covered, and in this way the fire
was put out. Considerable damage was, however, occasioned by the fire burning out some
of the shaft timbers, and also to the head gear, which took a few weeks to put in working
order. 300 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
" No. 2 Pit, East Wellington Colliery.
" In this Pit work has been going on steadily all the year, except for a few days when the
fire was at the No. 1 Pit. The coal here has kept good and continues so. The roof, however,
is not quite so strong, yet it is well adapted for long wall work, and this is the system that has
been generally worked here.
" Ventilation is good. Motive power up to the time of the fire was a furnace with a
steam jet; since that time it has been a fan, worked by a steam engine, that does its work very
well. When I was down in December, I found 20,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute
for the use of sixty men and six mules,—this being the air and men of both Pits, No. 2 being
the intake and No. 1 Pit the outlet. This mine gives off some gas, but chiefly when the roof
breaks. As the air goes along the coal face the gas has not much chance to collect and the
works are well filled up.    Every precaution is used to prevent accidents of any kind.
"You will have seen in a former report that this colliery is the property of the Union
Colliery Company. Their present mines are only a few miles from the flourishing Comox
" In this property the coal is exposed in various places, and at present they are mining at
three different places and in two veins of coal.
" No. 1 and No. 2 tunnels go into the hill, being adit levels on the south side of the railway. They are in about 500 feet each, coal being about the same quality, which is very good
and hard and on an average three feet thick. This is worked on the long wall system. The
roof is very strong.
"Ventilation is good; motive power a furnace, the air going in by the level road and
coming out by the way along the face of the workings. There is no gas found in here. The
mine is free from dust, being wet throughout.
" No.  1 Slope, Union Colliery.
" When previously reporting on this slope I stated it as being down 1000 feet. It is now
extended to about 2,000 feet. They have been considerably troubled with faults of one kind
and another. The coal, when free from faults or troubles, is about four feet high, of good
quality and very hard. The workings from this slope are at the present time by four levels,
one to the south side, and three to the north side. In some of these levels the regularity of
the coal has been and is still improving as they go in.
" Ventilation is good ; motive power a fan on the upcast shaft, built on the Murphy principle and driven by a steam engine. The last time I was down there were only three or four
men in the mine, and they had the fan running slow, as it was not required at the time to go
fast, yet I found that there were 20,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute. This mine gives off
some gas, but it has got very little chance to accumulate. There is no dust in this mine, which
is wet throughout.    Everything is in good order.
"No.  1 Shaft, Union Colliery.
" This shaft is about half a mile south of No. 1 Slope and is about forty feet deep. There
has been much prospecting done at this place, but they do not seem to have got right on the
coal yet, although it has much improved of late, and to all appearance they will get on to a
good seam soon.
" In this district the coal has not yet proved to be quite as thick as was expected, but the
quality is all that could be desired. It is to be hoped that the company's expectations will be
fully realized and that the coal may get thicker. They have put down to the coal a series of
bore-holes. These bore-holes are away ahead and to the dip of the Slope. In some of those
holes they found a good and encouraging prospect. After the large expenditure of money here,
and in view of the outlay still required to prove the property, it would be a serious matter for
the Province as well as for the Company if these mines were not a success; but it is only a
question of a short time in my belief, judging from the indications, when these mines will be
successful and when there will be flourishing collieries in this district of Comox. 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 301
" This island, lying at the south east entrance of the Straits of Georgia, is being prospected
for coal by the above named Company. They commenced by putting a bore-hole down close to
the water's edge; in this they passed through about five feet of hard coal. This prospect so
encouraged them that they went down to the dip and started to sink a shaft, in which they are
now down fully 100 feet. They have a steam engine, pit head gear, and other necessary appliances. Owing to the location of this shaft being so far to the dip of the bore-hole they do not
expect to get to the coal at less than about 600 feet from the surface. This is a large undertaking, and will take a large amount of capital to reach the coal and put everything in order.
It is to be hoped that when they get the shaft down they will find the coal as good as expected.
"There has been some very extensive boring in this district during the past year.
Amongst them was the continuation of the bore-hole referred to in my previous report in No. 2
Esplanade Shaft. This was put down to the depth of 1,263 feet, the depth of shaft being 617
feet, makes the total from the surface 1,880 feet. From not having struck any coal, there was
another bore-hole put down by the same company in the South Field. In this bore they passed
through a seam of hard coal 12 feet thick, at 469 feet from the surface. This bore has been
continued till the present time, and is 1,460 feet down. This bore shows a good prospect, and
is very encouraging.
" Exploration with two diamond drills has been in progress at Oyster Harbour and
Chemainus Bay during nearly the whole of this year. The first bore, commenced in January,
was put down at the head of Oyster Harbour, on the north-west side, and pierced a depth of
1,300 feet through sandstone and shale, and was stopped in a fine-looking sandstone. The
rocks at this place are tilted at a high angle, the cores from the bore showing a dip of some 25
degrees. While in process of boring, inflammable gas extended from this hole in sufficient
quantity to burn with a bright flame when a match was applied.
" A second bore was started on the eastern side of the harbour, which, after going down
690 feet, was stopped for want of water. The stream which fed the drill dried up and the
machinery was removed.
" A third hole was bored on the north-west side of Chemainus Bay, close to the water's edge.
This hole was sunk to a depth of 1,600 feet, using up all the rods available, and operations
were suspended. The rocks, as shown by the cores, which are sandstone, mostly, with shale
bands, are all said to be of the right kind, and we may expect to hear more of operations in
this neighbourhood.
"At Chemainus Bay, after getting down 300 feet, about the measures were found to be
lying horizontally, and very nicely bedded the whole depth of the bore.
"In and about the Coal Mines for the Year Ending 3 1st December, 1889.
"January—7th—George Brough, mule-driver, had his leg broken by getting jammed by
empty cars in No. 1 Shaft, Nanaimo Colliery.
"January 18th—Albert Williams, runner in South Field, had his leg broken by being
jammed with loaded cars.
"January 24th—Samuel Wanting was slightly injured through being jammed between
two cars in No. 5 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
" February 1st—Henry McPhee, miner, was injured about the head by a fall of rock from
the roof while at work in his stall in No. 3 Pit. Nanaimo Colliery.
"March 8th—Harry Croston, miner, was slightly injured by a fall of coal from the roof,
while at work in No. 5 Pit, Wellington. 802 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
" March 16th—Alexander Marshall, sinker, when being hoisted up the North Field sinking-
shaft, fell from the bucket and was killed.
"March 27th—Joseph Thompson, runner in No. 1 Shaft, Nanaimo Colliery, had his hand
jammed while lowering a car on an incline.
" March 27th—Gustav Karsola, miner, was slightly injured by a fall of top coal, when at
work in his stall in No. 5 Pit, Wellington.
"March 30th—James Shearer, miner, working in East Wellington Colliery, had his jaw
broken by a fall of rock from the roof.
"May 10th—Thomas Beard, miner, was injured by a fall of rock from the roof, when at
work in his stall in No. 4 Pit, Wellington.
"May 10th—Thomas J. Jones, miner in the East Wellington Colliery, was injured by
coal falling on him while at work.
"May 11th—Patrick Nearn, runner in No. 1 Shaft, Nanaimo Colliery, was injured by a
run of cars.
"May 14th—Yung (Chinaman), tracklayer in No. 1 Slope, Union Colliery, had his back
injured by a piece of rock falling on him while removing a prop.
"June 12th—John Campbell was injured in No. 4 Pit, Wellington Colliery, by being
jammed between timber and cars.
"June 24th—Thomas Lonk, miner, was slightly injured by a fall of rock while at work
in his stall in No. 4 Pit, Wellington.
"June 25th—T. Knight, miner, had his wrist broken by getting it jammed between a car
and a prop in No. 3 Pit, Nanaimo Colliery.
"June 28th—Leopold Dispeniteance, miner in No. 4 Pit, Wellington Colliery, was
severely injured by a fall of coal from the roof, while at work in his stall.
"July 6th—Wilkinson Richards, contractor in No. 3 Pit, Nanaimo Colliery, had his
back broken by being jammed in the shaft between the cage and mid-wall.
"July 9th—Nesto Newman, miner in No. 5 Pit, Wellington Colliery, was injured by
coal thrown from a shot.
"July 16th—George Phillips, mule-driver in No. 5 Pit, Wellington Colliery, had his
collar-bone broken by the cars, while taking in timber.
"August 9th—M. Bart, miner in Union Colliery, was slightly burned about the face and
hands, by firing powder while charging a shot.
"August 20th—Westley Harvey, miner, was burned on the face and hands by an explosion of gas in the No. 1 Slope, Union Colliery.
"August 26th—William Gordon, sen., a miner working in No. 3 Pit, Nanaimo Colliery,
had one leg and wrist broken and otherwise injured by a fall of coal while at work.
" August 27th—W. Dooley, miner, had his leg broken by a run of cars in No. 1 Slope,
Union Colliery.
"August 30th—Thomas Lathorn, miner, was slightly injured by a fall of coal and dirt,
while at work in No. 4 Pit, Wellington.
"September 27th—William Foxworthy, tracklayer at South Field Mine, had several of
his ribs broken by getting jammed with a run of empty cars.
"October 5th—M. Campbell, miner, had the small bone of his leg broken by a fall from
the roof, while at work in No. 4 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
"October 12th—John Dunsmuir, miner in No. 3 Pit, Nanaimo Colliery, was hurt about
the back by a fall of coal.
" October 25th—Ah Loon (Chinaman), runner in the Union Colliery, had his thigh dislocated while pushing cars.
"October 30th—Ah Yeut (Chinaman), fell from a trestle near No. 1 Tunnel, Union Colliery.
"October 31st—The above-named Ah Yeut died this day from injuries received.
"November 7th—Sandretto, a miner in No. 4 Pit, Wellington Colliery, was injured by
being jammed by a car, which he accidentally started away while loading.
"November 13th—William Brown, miner, was seriously injured by a fall of top coal on
him while at work in his stall in No. 4 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
"November 16th—John Wesley, miner in No. 5 Pit, Wellington Colliery, was injured by
a fall of coal from the top, while at work in his stall.
" November 22nd—George Codling, miner in North Field Mine, Nanaimo Colliery, was
killed by a fall of rock from the roof. He went in to the face after having fired a shot which
blew out some timber, and while in the act of putting the timber up the roof fell on him. 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 303
"November 23rd—William Anthony Farman, miner, was slightly burned on the face and
hands by an explosion of gas in No. 1 Slope, Union Colliery.
"December 16th—John Aitken, shot lighter, in South Field Mine, Nanaimo Colliery, was
severely injured about the back by a fall of rock from the roof when about to fire a shot.
" December 20th—The above named John Aitken died to-day from the injuries received.
"December 19th—Casueir Colate, runner in No. 3 Pit, Wellington Colliery, had his thigh
bone dislocated by a car running on to him when at work.
" I am sorry to have to make out such a numerous list of accidents, both serious and fatal.
There were thirty-three reported as serious, yet there were some of those so slight that the
injured parties were at work in a few days; on the other hand, there are one or two persons
that are injured to such an extent that it is doubtful whether they will ever be able to resume
their mining occupation again.
" The fatal accidents were four in number—two of them by falls of rock ; one by falling
from a bucket when being hoisted up a shaft : and one by falling from a trestle.
" Of the serious accidents in the list, thirteen were caused by cars in the mine ; six by
falls of rock; nine by falls of coal; two by shots; one in a shaft; and two by explosions of gas.
" I have inquired into all the circumstances which attended all these accidents, and in
nearly all instances went and saw the place when I knew the place had not been disturbed,
and even then in some cases I went.
" Public inquest was held whenever requisite, at which all the evidence it was possible to
obtain was taken, and as the depositions and proceedings of the inquiries so held are filed in
the Attorney-General's Office I beg leave to refer you to the same.
" With respect to all the accidents, I could not discover that any blame or negligence
could be attached to any one. You will perceive, when looking at the list, that nearly all the
accidents took place when the men were working and where they were presumed to be skilful
enough to know, at their several classes of work, when they were in immediate danger, subject
to the direction of the overman, fireman, shot firer, and any other person in authority from the
Manager ; and as the shot firer and fireman are continually travelling from one place to another,
they would in the course of their rounds be sure to have anything that they saw to be
dangerous made safe.
" You will also notice from the list of accidents that, with the exception of two persons
being slightly burned in the Union Colliery, there has not been a casualty from gas in this
district, which says a great deal for the management and ventilation of the Collieries.
" Now that the workmen in all the extensive mines send a deputation by and chosen from
themselves to examine every part of the mine (See section 79, General Rule 31), the Managers
furnishing them with all the necessary appliances required to make a complete examination, so
that no place need be missed, the workmen obtain a knowledge of the mines as to their condition with regard to safety, as the result of those inspections is posted in a conspicuous place
where all may see it.
" As Inspector, I am always ready to attend to any matter that may be brought to my
notice by any one who may have a cause of complaint.
" I will now conclude my report, hoping that the year we have entered on may be free
from any serious accident, so that all may, by using the greatest care and not running any
unnecessary risk, be saved from injury, and also hoping and trusting that this may prove a
prosperous year to our mining industry and the workmen alike.
" Appended are the Annual Colliery Returns, also Examination Questions which were*
put to candidates for certificates as Colliery Managers by the Examiners under the provisions
of the Act. It has been thought that the publication of the questions at the last examination
would prove useful as showing intending candidates the nature and scope of the examination
for certificates of Colliery Manager.
"I have, &c,
(Signed,)        "Archibald Dick,
"Government Inspector of Mines.
" The Honourable the Minister of Mines." 304
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Nanaimo Colliery Returns.
Output of Coal for 12
months ending
December 31st,  1889.
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons
sold for
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1889.
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1890.
Tons.          cwt.
223,870          18
Tons.         cwt.
40,113           11
Tons.         cwt.
179.286        —
Tons.        cwt.
5,121          14
Tons.        cwt.
9,593          1
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
$2 to $4
$1 to $1.25.
Total hands t
Miners' earnings per day
$3 to $4.
Name of Seams or Pits—South  Field  No. 2, South Field No. 3, No. 1 Esplanade Shaft, and
No. 1 North Field Shaft.
Value of Plant-
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, &c, and number of same—South Field No. 2.
worked by slope; seam 6 to 10 feet; South Field No. 3, worked by shaft; seam 5 to 10
feet; No. 1 Esplanade Shaft, worked by shaft; seam 5 to 12 feet ; No. 1 North Field
Shaft, worked by shaft; seam 4 feet 6 inches.
Description and length of tramway, plant, &c.—Railway to South Field, 5 miles with sidings;
railway to No. 1 Shaft, 1 mile with sidings ; railway from North Field Mine to wharf
at Departure Bay, 4J miles; rails are of steel, 56 pounds per yard of standard gauge,
viz., 4 feet, 8c| inches; 8 hauling and pumping engines; 12 steam-pumps; 4 locomotives;
150 coal cars (6 tons), besides lumber and ballast cars; fitting shops for machinery
repairs, with turning lathes, boring, drilling, planing, screw-cutting machines, hydraulic
press, steam hammer, etc., etc., diamond boring machinery for exploratory work (bores
to 4,000 feet) ; wharves, 1,070 feet frontage, at which ships of the largest size can load
at all stages of the tide
Samuel M. Robins,
Superintendent, The New Vancouver Coal Mining Co., Limited. 53 Vic.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Wellington Colliery Returns.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st,  1889.
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons
sold for
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1889.
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1890.
Tons.          cwt.
273,383         14
Tons.        cwt.
76,524          14
Tons.        cwt.
197,510        —
Tons.         cwt.
3,701            1
Tons.          cwt.
3,050             1
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
$2 to $3.75
$1 to $1.75
$1 to $1.25
Total hands e
Miners' earnings, per day.
Name of Seams or Pits—Wellington.
Value of Plant—$150,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, <fec, and number of same—4 shafts with slopes,
airways and levels ; 3 air shafts; seam 6 to 10 feet thick.
Description and length of tramway, plant, <fec.—12 miles of railway ; 6 locomotives ; 250 coal
waggons; 13 stationary engines ; 9 steam-pumps; 4 wharves for loading vessels, with
R. Dunsmuir & Sons.
East Wellington Colliery Returns.
Output of  coal for 12
months ending
December 31st,  1889.
Tons. cwt.
51,372 —
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
Tons. cwt.
7,636 —
No. of tons
sold for
Tons. cwt.
43,089 —
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1889.
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1890.
Number of hands employed.
Total hands employed
Wages per day.
$2.25 to $5
$1 to $1.50
$1 to $1.37
Miners' earnings, per day $3 to i 306
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Name of Seams or Pits—East Wellington No.'s 1 and 2 Shaft.
Value of Plant—$140,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, &c, and number of same—1 seam from 2jjr feet to
1\ feet; 7 levels ; 2 shafts.
Description and length of tramway, plant, &c.—4Jr miles standard narrow gauge; 2 locomotives;
31 4J-ton cars; 2 hoisting engines; 2 donkey engines; 1 steam pile driver; 1 steam
saw-mill complete, capacity, 12,000 feet per day ; 4 steam pumps.
East Wellington Coal Co.
Union Colliery Returns.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st, 1889.
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons
sold for
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1889.
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1890.
31,204 tons.
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
$2.50 to $4
$1 to $1.25
Total hands e
Miners' earni
ngs, per day.
Name of Seams or Pits -Union.
Value of Plant, 125,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, <fcc, and number of same—1 slope with airways
and levels.
Description and length of tramway, plant, &c.—11 miles of railway, 4 feet %\ inches gauge ; 2
locomotives ; 50 coal waggons; 1 diamond drill; 4 engines; 2 steam pumps; two
wharves ; one steam saw mill.
James Dunsmuir. 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 307
At Examination of Candidates for Certificates as Colliery Managers, held by the Examiners in
Nanaimo, under the provisions of the " Coal Mines Regulation Act."
Mining Act.
1. What does the Act provide in reference to the employment of boys and young persons
in coal mines ?
2. What are the requirements of the Act with regard to the working place ?
3. State the provisions of the Act as to the payment of persons employed in the mines by
4. What is the prohibition in the Act as to single shafts; and what is provided by the
Act as to the division of the mine into parts ?
5. What does the Act say respecting abandoned mines and workings ?
6. State fully what the Act provides in regard to ventilation.
7. What distance does the Act require the brattice to be kept from the face of the working place ?
8. What does the Act say as to safety lamps and lights ?
9. What kind of safety lamp do you consider the best ?    Give fully your reasons why.
10. State the restrictions and precautions to be observed under the Act in the use of gunpowder and blasting in mines.
11. What are the requirements of the Act with respect to man-holes on self-acting inclines
and other roads?
12. What are the duties of the Overman and Fireman as provided by the Special Rules'!
13. What does the Act say as to the examination of machinery, shafts, ifec. ?
14. What precaution should be taken in approaching a place that is likely to contain a
dangerous accumulation of water or gas ?
15. How  are  dusty  or fiery  mines to be ventilated?    What are the precautions to be
observed in blasting, according to the Mining Act ?
1. What is the composition and weight of the following gases: Atmosphere, Nitrogen,
Oxygen, Carbonic Oxide, Carbonic Acid, Fire Damp, and Sulphureted Hydrogen? State
their properties, how made or produced, and how they can be detected ?
2. What are the gases chiefly met with in coal mines ?
3. What proportion of air is required to render Fire Damp explosive ; what proportion is
required to give it its greatest explosive power; and what proportion of air is required to
render the mixture non-explosive ?
4. Describe a Barometer, and Thermometer, and their use in denoting changes in the
atmosphere. 308 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1889
5. To what extent are gases and vapours expanded by heat ?
6. What is meant by White Damp; how is it given off, and what peculiarities has it 1
7. What is meant by the diffusion of gases ?
8. What effect has the combustion of lights on the air of a mine ?
9. How would you ascertain if a working place or sinking shaft contained Fire Damp or
any other obnoxious gases 1
1. What are the different powers used in ventilating mines, and which do you prefer?
2. What precaution would you take when putting in a furnace against its taking fire and
igniting the surrounding strata ?
3. What is a dumb drift, and what are its uses in ventilation ?
4. If there are 10,000 feet per minute (of air) passing along an air-course, the size of
which is 6 feet by 7 feet, at what velocity is it travelling ?
5. Assuming 5 feet per second to be the proper velocity for air to travel, what must be
the size of the road when the quantity of air amounts to 24,000 feet per minute ?
6. If 20,000 feet per minute of air be passing in a mine and it is proposed to split this
into three equal currents along airways of about equal length and area, would the current in
each be sufficient to remove ordinary discharges of Fire Damp, the size of the airways being
say 5 feet by 6 feet ?
7. How is the power of the furnace estimated ?
8. Can you give a rule to find the weight of air ?
9. How is the useful effect of a ventilating fan obtained by calculation ?
10. Describe the water gauge ; its use in ventilation.
11. If with 35,000 cubic feet of air per minute the water gauge is 1.8, at what height
will it stand when the .quantity is increased to 45,000 feet ?
12. What is the motive column?
13. What is the motive column under the following circumstances ?—
Depth of down-cast and up-cast shaft, 600 feet.
Temperature of down-cast, 45 degrees.
" " up-cast,     140      "
14. What pressure per square foot does a 1.5 water gauge indicate?
15. What is the horse power expended when the ventilating current is 30,000 cubic feet
per minute, and the water gauge is 0.65 ?
16. What quantity of air will there be travelling along an airway, height 5 feet 9 inches
and width 9 feet 7 inches ; and anemometer registering 230 revolutions ?
17. There are 6 splits of air in a fiery mine, as follows :—
per sec
10 x 6
Fill in the area and of air; find the total quantities passing per minute, and state
the size of up-cast required ? 53 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 309
18. If 28,000 cubic feet of air pass along an airway 900 yards in length, how "much air
will travel if the airway be lengthened to 1,500 yards, the pressure remaining the same?
19. If the horse power of a Fan be 36, and 68,000 cubic feet of air per minute is put into
circulation, what would be the horse power required, the quantity of air being increased
130,000 cubic feet per minute?
20. What is meant by inertia 1
21. What is meant by " rubbing surface?" What is the rubbing surface of an airway
1,272 feet long, 7 feet high, and 9 feet wide?
22. Supposing a Fan to be 40 feet in diameter, width of blade 13 feet, making 40 revolutions per minute, what is the theoretical quantity of air thrown by such a fan, leaving friction
out of the question ?
General Questions on Mining.
1. If you were in search of coal, how would you endeavour to find it?
2. Describe the various methods of boring for coal.
3. What form of shaft, in your opinion, is the strongest, and what kind are usually
adopted ?
4. When there is quicksand containing a large quantity of water, what means would you
adopt to pass through it ?
5. In sinking and opening out a Colliery, what is the principle which should guide in
determining the position of the works ?
6. Explain the ordinary conditions for adopting the long wall and pillar and stall
7. In a four foot seam of coal, 80 fathoms deep, what size would you make your pillars,
having regard to the ultimate extraction of the greatest quantity of coal combined with the
safety of the workmen ?
8. Under the usual conditions of tram rails and tubs, what is the flattest gradient at which
a self-acting incline will pass 100 tons in eight hours 1 Sketch the best arrangements of it
at top.
9. In a seam having a rise of one in six, and the direction of the plane of coal being to
full rise, sketch what you consider a good form of Longwall workings, having a regard to the
ventilation, direction of the drawing, roads, &c, &c.
10. What is meant by specific gravity?
11. The specific gravity of a piece of coal 1.49,  what is the weight of a cubic foot of it ?
12. The coal in a pillar measuring 100 yards square has a specific gravity of 1.28 ; the
seam is 5 feet 6 inches thick ; the pillar lies 9 fathoms below the bottom of the shaft; what
horse power must be exercised to remove the whole of the coal clean and deliver it at the
bottom of the pit ?
13. Explain the best method of drawing coal along a level road or one not dipping
sufficiently to take away the rope.
14. Sketch a pair of levels and the mode to be adopted when approaching water in old
workings ; and state the number and length of holes you think advisable under 10, 50 and
100 fathoms pressure ?
15. Give a good reliable formula for finding the thickness of metal tubing for different
depths and sizes of shafts.
16. How would you proceed to obtain the specific gravity of a piece of coal? 310
Report of the Minister of Mines.
17. How would you proceed in case of a fiery and dusty mine to keep the mine in a safe
condition from explosions of gas and coal dust ?    State your idea of coal dust explosions.
18. In the case of a fire making such headway in a mine that you found it necessary to
wall it off, how would you proceed ?
1. What is a unit of work, and how many are there in a horse power ?
2. What power is required to raise 8,000 cubic feet of water to a height of 300 fathoms?
3. Explain the use of the syphon; its use and application in mines.
4. How many gallons a minute will an engine of 170 horse power pump from a depth of
210 fathoms?
5. To what height will a pump, whose cylinder is 12 diameter and plunger bucket 3J in
diameter, force water with a pressure of 20 lbs. of steam ?
6. Find the nominal h. p. of an engine cylinder, 30 diameter, stroke 4 feet, making 40
revolutions per minute, and 30 lbs. of steam pressure; also give effective h. p. of same, supposing 7-10 to be lost by friction.
10. What is the working load and breaking strain of 1J steel wire rope?
11. If the safety valve on your steam boilers was 4 inches in diameter, and the steam
blew off at 50 lbs.; length of lever, 36 inches ; fulcrum, 4 inches long; what weight would have
to be attached to the end of the lever, reckoning lever and valve to weigh 5| lbs.?
12. Find the situation of the fulcrum along a lever 15 feet in length, on which 2,4 cwt.
placed at one end may equipoise 30 cwt. at the other, the weight of the lever not taken into
13. In what time will an engine of 16 h. p. raise a ton of material from a depth of 170
14. What weight would an engine of the following diminsions lift: — Size of cylinder, 12
inches ; length of stroke, 18 inches; steam pressure, 50 lbs.; geared 4 to I with drum 6 feet in
diameter ?
1.  Plot the following survey and calculate are:—
N. 16 degrees,
S. 75        „
S. 69
S. 41
N. 79       „
S. 53
40 minutes W.
Distance, 160 links.
2.  Plot the following survey and calculate area; draw a line from terminal point to place
of commencement, and give bearing and distance of same :—
13 degrees,
74        „
40        „
33 minutes W.
42      „      E.
0 „ W.
0      „      W.
Distance, 630 links.
496    „
440    „
433    „
512    „
Scale—2 chains equal to 1 inch.
3.  Shew how you would head your field-book for levelling. 53 Vic.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
4. Fill in and work out the following levels :-
3.50 back sight,
5.65 fore sight,          Distance, 4.60 chains.
7.80      „
11.60      „
12.91          „
15.20     „
7.65 intermediate sight,
3.92 fore sight,                  „
21.00      „
27.00      „
In the above triangle the angles A and B are given.    A equals 122 deg. 30 min. 15 sec.
B equals 30 deg. 20 min. 15 sec.    What is the angle C ?
6.  The included angle between the lines AB and AC is 1 degree : at what distance upon
the line AB are the two lines 1 link apart, and what distance are they 12 inches?
7. Plot the following notes of a Level Book :-
Back sight.
Fore sight.
8. What is meant by contour levelling ?
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.


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