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FORTIETH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1911. BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1912

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   FORTIETH   ANNUAL   REPORT
-OF  THE-
Public   Schools
-OF   THE   PROVINCE   OF	
BRITISH   COLUMBIA,
1911.
BY   THE   SUPERINTENDENT   OF   EDUCATION,
WITH    APPENDICES.
THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH t'OLMBIfl.
PRINTED   BY   AUTHORITY   OF
THE   LEGISLATIVE   ASSEMBLY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by William H.  Cullin, Printer to tine King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1912.  2 Geo. 5 Public Schools Repobt. A 3
PUBLIC   SCHOOLS   REPORT.
1910-11.
To His Honour Thomas Wilson Paterson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
Mat rrT please Your Honour :
I beg  herewith   respectfully  to present  the  Fortieth   Annual Report on the Public
Schools of the Province.
HENRY ESSON YOUNG,
Minister of Education.
November, 1911.  2 Geo. 5 Public Schools Repobt. A 5
PART   I.
GENERAL   REPORT.  2 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
A 7
REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION,
1910-1911.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., November, 1911.
To the Honourable Henry Esson Young, M.I)., LL.D.,
Minister of Education :
Sir,—I beg to submit the Fortieth Annual Report of the Public Schools of British
Columbia for the school-year ending June 30th, 1911.
The total enrolment in all the colleges and schools was 45,125, an increase of 5,303 over
that of the previous year. The number of boys was 23,277, and of girls 21,848. The grand
total days' attendance made by all the pupils enrolled was 6,024,268, an increase of 521,831.
The average actual daily attendance was 32,163, an increase of 4,069. The percentage of
regular attendance was 71.27, the highest in the history of the public schools.
COLLEGES.
The enrolment during the year in the McGill University College of British Columbia,
one branch of which is situated in Vancouver and the other in Victoria, was 180. Of this
number 115 were boys and 65 were girls.
The number of divisions, the total enrolment, the total actual daily attendance, and the
percentage of regular attendance in each branch institution are shown in the following table :—
Colleges.
No. of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment.
Actual
Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of Regular
Attendance.
6
2
152
28
133.95
25.88
88.12
92.42 Public Schools Repobt.
1911
HIGH  SCHOOLS.
*
The enrolment in the high schools during the year was   1,988.     Of this numher 940
were boys and 1,048 were girls.
The number of divisions, the total enrolment, the total actual daily attendance, and the
percentage of regular attendance in each high school are shown in the following table :—
High Schools.
Armstrong	
Chilliwack	
Cumberland	
Duncan	
Golden	
Grand Forks	
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Kelowna	
Ladysmith	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster.
Peachland    	
Revelstoke	
Rossland	
Salmon Arm	
Summerland	
Vancouver :
Britannia	
King Edward.
Vancouver, North
Vernon	
Victoria	
No. of
Divisions.
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
3
5
1
2
2
1
1
6'
IS
1
2
12
Total
Enrolment.
Actual
Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of Regular
Attendance.
49
52
24
22
15
23
39
17
21
26
50
72
175
18
34
32
17
17
194
677
17
28
369
35.52
31.24
21.27
15.54
8.37
17.46
29.10
13.20
15.13
21.31
39.08
56.00
135.10
11.05
28.43
25.38
11.65
11.90
144.97
527.68
13.22
18.81
283.16
72.44
60.07
88.62
70.63
55.80
75.91
74.61
77.64
72.04
81.96
78.16
77.77
77.20
61.38
83.61
79.31
68.53
70.00
74.72
77.94
77.76
67.17
76.73 2 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
A 9
GRADED   CITY   SCHOOLS.
A graded school consists of at least two divisions, having as its teaching staff a principal
and at least one assistant. The total enrolment in graded city schools was 24,673, and the
actual daily attendance 18,717.    The number of boys enrolled was 12,734, of girls 11,939.
The following table gives the names of the several graded city schools, the number of
divisions in each, the total enrolment, the actual daily attendance, and the percentage of
regular attendance :—
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Total
Enrolment.
2S5
465
347
180
643
321
107
347
140
231
468
216
600
270
64
117
649
434
533
434
36
281
140
273
495
382
140
27
47
211
502
563
808
660
714
674
216
717
493
743
1,166
211
113
780
912
625
896
430
Actual Daily
Attendance.
Percentage of
Regular
Attendance.
Population of
City according
to Census of
1911.
7
9
7
4
13
7
3
7
3
5
8
4
10
4
1
2
14
9
11
10
1
5
3
6
12
8
3
1
2
4
8
11
16
14
14
11
5
13
9
14
21
4
3
15
16
12
16
8
227.41
312.59
254.84
126.66
508.06
238.77
67.99
241.88
102.17
170.29
354.70
125.55
433.34
192.81
45.82
94.07
491.63
340.55
379.36
338.76
25.71
180.20
85.50
229.52
415.83
288.35
111.79
14.84
31.96
162.44
320.03
456.86
573.06
505.35
583.37
515.02
152.34
740.04
386.11
580.77
880.03
164.62
95.30
588.77
636.47
477.80
619.26
318.86
79.79
67.22
73.44
70.36
79.01
74.38
63.54
69.70
72.97
73.71
75.79
58.12
72.22
71.41
71.59
80.82
77.29
78.46
71.17
78.05
71.41
64.12
61.07
84.06
84.00
75.48
79.85
54.96
68.00
76.98
63.75
81.14
70.92
76 56
81.70
76.41
70.52
78.31
78.16
75.47
78.01
84.33
75.48
69.78
76.44
69.11
74.15
1,657
2,365
1,237
835
Fernie	
1,287
1,577
Greenwood	
3,772
Merritt	
Nanaimo :
Central	
Middle Ward	
North Ward	
1,663
I   8,305
4 563
South Ward	
New Westminster :
■i
Girls'	
| 13,394
Queensborough	
]
1,512
Rossland :
4,184
3,010
|  2,827
Cook Avenue 	
Trail	
189
1,450
1
Vancouver :
Grand View	
Hastings    ...
I
Model	
j- 100,333
i
Roberts	
Seymour	
J A 10
Public Schools Repoet.
1911
GRADED CITY SCHOOLS.—Concluded.
Schools.
Vanconver, North :
Central        \
Moodyville /   '
Vernon	
Victoria :
Boys'	
Douglas	
Fisguard Street.
George Jay	
Girls'	
Kingston Street
North Ward ...
Rock Bay	
South Park	
Spring Ridge
West	
Number
of
Divisions.
12
11
10
7
12
2
8
4
8
Total
Enrolment.
586
371
561
227
54
350
489
350
609
75
345
224
326
Actual
Daily
Attendance.
420
59
294.32
472
43
179
38
33
97
276.28
374
30
273
74
455
63
59
73
287
94
135.27
265
99
Percentage of
Regular
Attendance.
71.77
79.33
84.21
79.02
62.90
78.93
76.54
78.21
74.81
79.64
83.46
60.38
81.59
Population of
City according
to Census of
1911.
7,781
2,671
31,620
RURAL   MUNICIPALITY  SCHOOLS.
The total enrolment in these schools for the year was 9,372. Of these 4,879 were boys
and 4,493 girls.
The following table gives the names of the several municipalities, the number of schools
in each, the number of divisions, the total enrolment, and the actual daily attendance :—
Municipality.
Burnaby  	
Chilliwack	
Coldstream	
Coquitlam	
Cowichan, North. .
Delta	
Kent	
Langley	
Maple Ridge	
Matsqui	
Mission	
Oak Bay	
Peachland	
Pentieton	
Point Grey	
Richmond	
Saanich .   	
Saanich, North ...
Salmon Arm	
Spallumcheen	
Sumas	
Summerland	
Surrey	
Vancouver, North.
Vancouver, South.
Number
of
Schools.
7
13
1
4
8
10
3
13
9
1
1
1
4
6
12
2
4
4
15
3
Number
of
Divisions.
13
19
1
5
10
13
4
14
11
10
9
4
2
4
9
11
17
3
7
13
4
6
15
4
55
Total
Enrolment.
450
590
21
159
280
377
150
431
440
315
272
150
50
184
335
326
619
85
273
386
116
185
495
140
2,543
Actual Daily
Attendance.
304.44
364.45
13.19
95.77
195.00
277.98
99.66
242.78
267.94
194.64
202.63
111.87
40.80
121.87
238.62
257.96
386.55
61.67
166.06
274.42
62.81
118.30
262.13
88.71
1,S02.17 2 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.                                      A 11
RURAL AND ASSISTED
SCHOOLS.
The total enrolment in
 .0.	
these schools for the year was
8,912.    Of these 4,609 were hoys
and 4,303 were girls.    In the following list of rural and assisted schools the names in italics
are " assisted schools " :—
Abbotsford,
Campbell River,
Esquimalt,
Ainsworth,
Canyon City,
Essington,
Alberni,
Garlin Siding,
Extension,
Alberni, New,
Carson,
Fairview,
Albert Canyon,
Cascade,
Fanny Bay,
Alert Bay,
Castlegar,
Ferguson,
Alexandria,
Cedar, East,
Field,
Alice Siding,'
Cedar, North,
Flagstone,
Anaconda,
Cedar, South,
Fort George, South,
Anarchist Mountain,
Chase,
Fort Steele,
. Arrowhead,
Chase River,
Foster's Bar,
Arrow Park, East,
Chasm,
French Creek,
Arrow Park, West,
Clayoquot,
Fruitlands,
Ashcroft,
Clinton,
Fruitvale,
Athalmer,
Coal Creek,
Gabriola, North,
Atlin,
Columbia Gardens,
Gabriola, South,
Balfour,
Colwood,
Galena,
Bamfield,
Comaplix,
Galena Bay,
Barnes Creek,
Commonage,
Galiano,
Barnston Island,
Comox,
Gambler Island,
Baynes Lake,
Corbin,
Georgetown,
Beaton,
Cortex Island,
Gill,
Beaver Creek,
Courtenay,
Glenbank,
Beaver Point,
Cowichan,
Glenemma,
Begbie,
Cranberry Marsh,
Glenora,
Bella Coola,
Crawford Bay,
Golden,
Bella Coola, Lower,
Crescent Valley,
Goldstream,
Bench,
Creston,
Grande Prairie,
Beresford,
Cultus Lake,
Granite Siding,
Big Creek,
Deadwood,
Grantham,
Big Eddy,
Deer Park,
Hall's Landing,
Black Mountain,
Denman Island,
Harewood,
Blue Springs,
Departure Bay,
Harper's Camp,
Boundary Falls,
Discovery,
Harrop,
Bowen Island,
Ducks,
Hatzic Prairie,
Box Lake,
Duhamel,
Hazelton,
Brechin,
Edgewood,
Hedley,
Bridesville,
Edith Lake,
Heriot Bay,
Brisco,
Edwards Creek,
Hidden Lake,
Britannia Beach,
Eholt,
Highland,
Burgoyne Bay,
Elko,
Hilton,
Burton,
Elk Prairie,
Hope,
Burtondale,
Ellison,
Hope Station,
Cache Creek,
Empire Valley,
Horse Creek,
Camborne,
Enderby, North,
Hosmer,
Campbell Creek,
Erickson,
Howe Sound,
Campbell Creek, South,
Erie,
Hume, A 12
Public Schools Report.
1911
Ingram Mountain,
Inverness,
Isabella Point,
■/affray,
Kaleden,
Kedleston,
Keefers,
Kelowna, East,
Keremeos,
Kettle Fiver, North,
Lac la Hache,
Lancaster,
Lazo,
Lillooet,
Little Fort,
Louis Greek,
Lumby,
Lund,
Lytton,
Mabel Lake,
Malahat,
Malakwa,
Malcolm Island,
Mara,
Martin's Prairie,
Marysville,
Masset,
Mayne Island,
Meadow Spur,
Metchosin,
Michel,
Midway,
Minto,
Mirror Lake,
Mission Creek,
Monte Creek,
Montrose,
Morris Valley,
Mountain,
Moyie,
Myers Flat,
Myncaster,
MacKenzie,
Nakusp,
Nanaimo Bay,
Nanaimo, North,
Nanaimo, South,
Naramata,
Needles,
New Denver,
Nicola,
Nicola Lower,
Nicomen,
Nicomen, North,
Nikrap,
North Bend,
Northfield,
North Thompson, West,
Notch Hill,
Ocean Falls,
Okanagan,
Okanagan Centre,
Okanagan Falls,
Okanagan Landing,
Okanagan, South,
01 alia,
Otter Point,
Oyama,
Oyster,
Oyster, East,
Oyster, North,
Parksville,
Paterson,
Pender Island,
Perry Siding,
Pine Grove,
Popcum,
Porcher Island,
Port Kusam,
Port Moody,
Powell River,
Princeton,
Proctor,
Qualicum,
Quatsino,
Queen Charlotte,
Quesnel,
Reiswig,
Renata,
Richland,
Roberts Creek,
Robson,
Rock Creek,
Rock Creek, Lower,
Rocky Point,
Roosville,
Rosebery,
Rose Hill,
Sahtlam,
Salmo,
Salmon River,
Salmon Valley,
Sandspit,
Sandwick,
Savona,
Seymour Arm,
Shawnigan,
Shuswap,
Shuswap Falls
Shuswap, North,
Sicamous,
Silver Creek,
Silverton,
Similkameen,
Simpson,
Sirdar,
Sloan,
Soda Creek,
Sooke,
Spence's Bridge,
Squamish,
Squamish, Lower,
Stewart,
Sunnyside,
Tappen Siding,
Telegraph Creek,
Three Valley,
Thrums,
Trout Lake,
Tulameen,
Ucluelet,
Union Bay,
Valclez Island,
Van Anda
Vesuvius,
Vesuvius, North,
Waldo,
Wapta,
Wardner,
Wasa,
Watmore,
Wattsburg,
Wellington,
Westbank Townsite,
Whaletown,
Williams Lake,
Williams Siding,
Wilmer,
Windermere,
Winlaw,
Wood's Lake,
Wye iffe,
Yalel
Ymir,.
The total number of teachers employed was 1,179, an increase of 142. Of this number 16
were employed in the colleges, 71 in the high schools, 499 in the city graded schools, 263 in
the rural municipality schools, and 330 in the rural and assisted schools. The percentage
of regular attendance throughout the Province was 71.27. 2 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. A 13
The expenditure for education proper during the year was :—
Per capita grant to city municipality school districts    $274,086  65
Royal   Institution   for   the   Advancement   of   Learning   of
British Columbia  5,000 00
Per capita grant to rural municipality school districts  145,972 95
do               rural school districts  76,647  80
Salaries of teachers in assisted schools  92,321  35
Salaries of teachers in Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Belt      36,009  30
do                     night-schools  4,272 00
Incidental expenses  665 85
Grants to school libraries  164 30
Education Office  15,927 03
Free text-books  24,776 44
Inspection of schools  26,761  07
Normal School  12,993 09
Education of deaf and dumb  2,120 76
$717,718 59
Less Fees for teachers' certificates  1,985 00
'15,733 59
The cost of construction of new school-houses, furniture, repairs and improvements
generally to school property for the year was $286,074.40. The total cost to the Provincial
Government for all purposes of education during 1910-11 was :—
Education proper    $715,733 59
Department of Lauds      286,074 40
$1,001,807 99
In addition to this amount, the incorporated cities, rural municipality and other school
districts spent the following sums over and above the per capita grants received from the
Treasury:—
Cities of the First Class.
New Westminster   $ 50,020 06
Vancouver  616,479 29
Victoria  182,234 66
Cities or the Second Class.
Cranbrook  7,433 71
Fernie ,  24,12179
Grand Forks  7,649 71
Ladysmith  5,759 40
Nanaimo  12,604 82
Nelson  23,983 41
Revelstoke.  31,530 04
Rossland  10,674 65
Vancouver, North  86,444 29
Vernon  24,011 43
Cities of the Third Class.        .  -
Chilliwack  8,897 49
Cumberland  3,209 25
Enderby  2,698 32
Greenwood  3,317 80
Kamloops ...     8,036 50
Kaslo  3,570 10
Kelowna  11,977 46
Phoenix  14,172 30
Prince Rupert  5,593 16
Sandon  620 92
Slocan  711 07
Trail  3,239 03 A 14 Public Schools Repobt. 1911
Rural Municipalities.
Burnaby  $ 19,914 2S
Ohilliwack  4,743 60
Coldstream    1,053 90
Coquitlam  2,065 35
Cowichan, North  3,468 85
Delta  4,598 58
Kent  1,502 85
Langley  4,027 53
Maple Ridge  5,139 88
Matsqui  2,354 18
Mission  3,568 00
Oak Bay  3,588 35
Peachland     2,139 40
Penticton  2,957 38
Point Grey  7,507 12
Richmond  8,60187
Saanish  7,119 35
Saanich, North    1,570 50
Salmon Arm  3,305 20
Spallumcheen  13,496 16
Sumas ,  862 85
Summerland  2,590 90
Surrey  5,398 71
Vancouver, North  5,120 12
Vancouver, South  295,250 00
Other School Districts.
Rural districts and assisted schools  78,778 53
$1,639,714 10
Amount expended by Provincial Government     1,001,807 99
Grand total cost of education $2,641,522 09
The grand total cost of education for the year 1909-10 was $1,917,236.30.
The cost to the Government of education proper in the several electoral districts was:
Alberni   $    11,686 85
Atlin  3,751 00
Cariboo  4,854 45
Chilliwack  23,948 90
Columbia  8,104 20
Comox  19,250 55
Cowichan  10,495 05
Cranbrook  9,342 40
Delta  23,687 80
Dewdney    17,900 75
Esquimalt  6,613 50
Fernie  16,159 45
Grand Forks  7,825 05
Greenwood      5,257 10
(The) Islands  6,919 45
Kamloops  24,019 50
Kaslo      5,289 20
Lillooet  3,199 35
Nanaimo City  17,404 60
Nelson City  8,700 15
Newcastle  14,090 05
New Westminster Cily                  18.975 00
Okanagan   43,248 90
Revelstoke  12,828 55
Richmond  58,282 35
Rossland City    6,760 00
Saanich     11,68175
Similkameen  8,255 35
Skeena  12,363 70
Slocan  9,945 75
Vancouver City (including Hastings)        117,210 85
Victoria City  43,814 95
Yale  12,304 65
Ymir  21,532 75
$ 625,703 90 2 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
A 15
The following table shows the cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil on enrolment and on average daily attendance during the past ten years :—
Year.
Cost of each
pupil on
enrolment.
Cost of each
pupil on
average actual
daily
attendance.
1901-02	
$15 29
16 20
16 07
15 82
14 66
13 57
13 94
14 70
15 36
15 86
$23 48
1902-03 	
24 27
1903-04	
24 28
1904-05 	
22 95
1905-06 	
21 44
1906-07	
20 37
1907-08	
20 02
1908-09 	
21 01
1909-10	
21 78
1910-1911	
22 25 A 16
Public Schools Repoet.
1911
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Public Schools Report.
1911
The gradual growth of the schools, as well as the cost of maintaining the same, is fully
shown by the record of attendance and expenditure given in the following exhibit: —
Compaeative Statement of Attendance and Cost of Public Schools from
1872-73 to 1910-11.
Year.
1872-73 ..
1873-74 . .
1874-75 ..
1875-76 . ,
1876-77 ..
1877-78 ..
1878-79 ..
1879-80 . .
1880-81 . .
1881-82 . .
1882-83 ..
1883-84 . .
1884-85 ..
1885-86 ..
1886-87 ..
1887-88 .
1888-89 ..
1889-90 ..
1890-91 ..
1891-92 ..
1892-93 . .
1893-94 ..
1894-95 . .
1895-96 ..
1896-97 ..
1897-98 ..
1898-99 ..
1899-1900
1900-01 . .
1901-02 ..
1902-03 ..
1903-04 . .
1904-05 ..
1905-06 ..
1906-07 ..
1907-08 . ,
190S-09 ..
1909-10 . .
1910-11 ..
Number
of School
Districts.
25
37
41
41
42
45
45
47
48
50
59
67
76
86
95
104
109
123
141
154
169
178
183
193
199
213
224
231
245
257
268
t252
t248
t257
J167
189
197
211
211
enrolment.
1,028
1,245
1,403
1,685
1,998
2,198
2,301
2,462
2,571
2,653
2,693
3,420
4,027
4,471
5,345
6,372
6,796
8,042
9,260
10,773
11,496
12,613
13,482
14,469
15,798
17,648
19,185
21,531
23,615
23,903
24,499
25,787
27,354
28,522
30,039
33,314
36,227
39,822
45,125
Average
actual daily
attendance.
575
767
863
984
1,260
1,395.50
1,315.90
1,293.93
1,366.86
1,358.68
1,383.00
1,808.60
2,089.74
2,481.48
2,873.38
3,093.46
3,681.14
4,333.90
5,134.91
6,227.10
7,111.40
7,785.50
8,610.31
9,254.25
9,999.61
11,055.65
12,304 32
13,438.41
15,098.28
15,564.25
16,357 43
17,060.93
18,859.41
19,506.23
20,017.02
23,195.27
25,350.63
28,094.16
32,163.24
Percentage
of
attendance.
55.93
61.60
61.51
58.39
63.06
63.49
57.19
52.56
53.16
51.21
51.36
52.88
51.89
55.50
53.75
48.54
54.16
53.89
55.45
57.80
61.85
61.72
63.86
64.00
63.29
62.64
64.13
62.41
63.93
65.11
66.76
66.16
68.94
68.39
66.63
69.62
69.97
70.54
71.27
Expenditure
for education
proper.
$36,763
35,287
34,822
44,506
47,129
43,334
*22,110
47,006
46,960
49,268
50,850 63
66,654  15
71,151
79,527
88,521
99,902
108,190 59
122,984 83
136,901
160,627
190,558
169,050
189,037 25
204,930 32
220,810
247,756
268,653
284,909
312,187
365,492
397,003
414,383 43
433,005 17
418,227
407,937
464,473
532,809
612,052 74
715,733 59
77
59
28
11
63
01
70
10
69
63
52
56
08
04
73
80
33
18
38
37
46
10
17
15
46
97
85
78
84
*Half-year.
flncluding only those in which a school was in operation during the year.
JThe consolidation of school districts by the formation of rural municipality districts has reduced the
number from 257 in 1905-06 to 167 in 1906-07. 2 Geo. 5
Public Schools Report.
A 25
The following is a list in tabular form of the number of teachers employed during 1910-11
in the various electoral districts of the Province; the number of male and female teachers is
also shown as well as the class of certificate held :—
Alberni	
Atlin	
Cariboo	
Chilliwack	
Columbia	
Comox	
Cowichan	
Cranbrook 	
Delta	
Dewdney	
Esquimalt	
Fernie	
Grand Forks	
Greenwood	
(The) Islands  	
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Lillooet	
Nanaimo	
Nelson City	
Newcastle	
New Westminster City.
Okanagan 	
Revelstoke	
Richmond	
Rossland City	
^Saanich	
Similkameen	
Skeena	
Slocan 	
Vancouver City (including Hastings)	
Victoria City	
Yale	
Ymir	
Academic.
7
3
1
3
3
8
13
5
9
4
1
S9
21
212
First
Second
Third
Class.
3
Class.
Class.
5
6
1
r>
1
1
12
12
9
4
1
1
5
5
6
2
3
5
3
3
2
0
16
9
8
13
4
1
5
4
12
2
7
6
3
2
3
1
1
1
2
6
5
10
14
2
1
1
2
16
6
4
6
2
3
7
3
13
15
5
20
20
16
5
4
6
24
59
11
3
5
1
4
10
5
4
3
5
4
6
3
1
8
83
67
6
26
34
10
3
4
9
4
6
13
275
347
188
Temporary.
Male.'
Female.
3
5
13
2
1
1
5
3
8
9
37
2
3
9
8
8
21
4
6
12
6
4
13
12
8
35
8
5
29
2
2
10
3
7
21
1
6
8
1
4
5
5
6
8
S
11
33
3
3
6
3
1
4
4
7
23
2
5
12
7
6
17
9
27
32
54
12
4
6
18
9
23
89
3
10
1
4
17
1
7
6
6
9
12
5
4
13
10
75
180
3
32
62
7
8
15
6
i
26
157
323
856
Total.
18
3
6
46
12
29
18
17
43
34
12
28
14
9
14
44
9
5
30
17
23
41
81
24
112
13
21
13
21
17
94
23
33
1,179 A 26 Public Schools Report. 1911
INSPECTORS'    REPORTS.
HIGH SCHOOLS.
Victoria, B.C., September 4th, 1911.
Alexander Robinson, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education,   Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the high schools and high-school work done
in the superior schools of the Province for the year ending June 30th, 1911:—
During the year there were in operation twenty-three high schools with seventy-five regular teachers, and eight superior schools with eight teachers doing high-school work.
All these schools were inspected the first term of the year, and reports on them were forwarded to the trustees as, well as to yourself. During the last term, three months of which I
had to devote to other work, I found it impossible to inspect all of them. I therefore had to
content myself with the inspection of the superior schools and those high sohools in which I
considered most assistance could be given.
Besides reporting to the Department and to Trustee Boards, I have discussed high-
school conditions with the teachers individually and collectively, and have thus endeavoured
to see high-school work from their view-point as well as to have them view it from mine.
Generally speaking, the teachers with whom it is my pleasure to work are manifesting a
keen interest in their students and are working hard for them. This is particularly noticeable
in the superior schools and in the smaller high schools where a teacher has to teach all, or nearly
all, the subjects of the Course of Study and come into personal contact with every student in the
school. It is most gratifying to find so many teachers in these schools knowing well not only
the many subjects they have to teach, but knowing equally well the weaknesses and difficulties
of their various students in these subjects. It tells one who knows the scope of their work of
faithful study at home, as well as of close attention to duty in the class-rooms. In too many
cases these teachers are working under great disadvantages. Their class-rooms are often poor
and the equipment for certain work inadequate or entirely lacking.
In a few of these smaller sehools poor work was done as a result, in most cases, of the
teachers' mental inertia. There are some college graduates who seem possessed of the idea
that their student days are over, now that they have graduated and received an appointment
to a high-school position. To all such I would strongly recommend either a change of attitude
towards high-school work or work in some other sphere.
In the larger high schools is to be found a great range of teaching ability among the
members of the staff. There are many very capable and very faithful teachers among them ;
but there are also enough poor ones to prevent these schools from ranking as first class. The
work of these latter is so far from satisfactory in some cases that there is practically no remedy
save in a change of teacher. It will be well for School Boards, however, in these larger
centres to realize that they cannot hope always to improve conditions by a mere change of
teachers. To dismiss a poor teacher and expect to secure a good one at the same salary the
poor one was receiving is to court disappointment in the majority of cases, for while there are
scores of teachers in the Province holding certificates entitling them to teach in high schools,
the number likely to succeed as teachers in large graded high schools is comparatively small.
These schools present special difficulties and require teachers with a special and comparatively rare combination of qualifications. In them are to be found many young people who
are there not because they love study, but because their parents wish them there. Their
interest is not in study, but in one or other of the numerous counter-attractions, often baneful
ones, that a large city offers. The great requirement for a successful teacher under such
conditions is the power to arouse and maintain the interest of young people in study. This
can be found most surely in men or women of sound scholarship, with a natural love of study
and a deep interest in young students, with unlimited patience and courage in the presence of 2 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. A 27
difficulties and a clear understanding of the temperament of the city youth. To secure a
teacher of this kind, School Boards must be prepared to pay larger initial salaries than those
now offered. To secure second or third-rate teachers for a comparatively low salary in the
expectation that they can be successfully trained to do satisfactory work by supervising
principals is a great mistake. Even if they can ultimately be got to do fair or good work, too
much has to be sacrificed in the process of their transformation. An intelligent, thoughtful
community would never tolerate having the time of their sons and daughters of high-school
age wasted in the class-room of a novice who is being trained for his life-work.
It is a serious matter to have weak teachers anywhere. It is particularly unfortunate to
find them in large graded high schools where scores of students come under their influence,
and where the standing and tone of the entire school may be lowered by them. Not until the
present percentage of weak teachers in our large high schools has been replaced by strong ones
can we expect these schools to do the efficient work that is reasonably expected of them.
In discussing high-school work with teachers and others, the present Course of Study
has very naturally been a favourite topic. Many teachers have expressed the opinion that the
Curriculum is now overcrowded. I have found very little unanimity of opinion, however,
among them as to what subject or subjects they think should be removed from the present
course. In fact, greater unanimity has been found on the question of what should be added.
As a change in this direction would necessitate a lengthening of the time for students to
complete their High School Course, a strong sentiment exists among our best teachers in favour
of broadening the Curriculum and devoting four years to the preparation of students for
Matriculation, instead of three as at present. This would enable students to enter the
University at eighteen years of age—early enough, it seems to me, for the average student.
Among those outside the teaching profession one finds a strong sentiment in favour of
technical training and a remodeling of the present High School Curriculum in consequence.
In too many cases this sentiment is not as rational as it is strong. Too many people are of
the opinion that a course of study is practically useless unless it supplies the student with a
fund of knowledge that will make the earning of money rapidly, and at an early age a certainty.
The commercial value of a study alone appeals to them. They lose sight of the fact that to
learn how to live is just as important as to learn how to earn a living.
It is to be regretted that so many people can be found to-day insisting that there is very
little in our present High School Course to help young people for their life-work. On the
one hand, this tends to increase among mentally inactive students, who most need mental
training, their antipathy to study. It is a difficult task to develop the reasoning faculties of
a youth, for example, by the study of geometry if he has the idea that the study is useless.
On the other hand, this outcry against the present High School Course in certain quarters
encourages students, who need no such encouragement, to drop out of school as soon as our
law allows, at fourteen years of age, to begin life's work with little knowledge and with -very
little skill.
That our present High School Curriculum might be modified and made more suitable
for the majority of students, who will not enter the teaching profession or what are commonly
called the learned professions, is quite possible. Such modifications, however, should be made
with extreme caution. A certain amount of technical training for high-school students might
be insisted upon; but that training, it seems to me, should be complementary to work now
being done in the earlier years, not a substitute for it. With all the modern labour-saving
machines, and with more intelligent and more skilful artisans than ever before as a result of
the teaching in the present public and high schools and the training in prospective technical
schools, there can be no good reason for allowing, much less for encouraging, boys and girls
becoming bread-winners, even if fairly skilled ones, at fifteen or sixteen years of age.
Proposals to modify our present High School Curriculum by the introduction of all sorts
of subjects into it, and to allow a youth of fourteen to choose his own course, I regard as
unwise. Most boys and girls have very vague ideas, at the time of entering high school, as to
what they will make their life-work, or as to what kind of training will best fit them for any
particular vocation later in life. Again, many will choose, when allowed to choose, the ea.Bj
rather than the profitable course. There is little likelihood of making strong men and women
out of students whose natural inertia is thus encouraged.
For the first two years' work of the High School Course I believe there should be, as at
present, few elective subjects. The compulsory technical training too should be comparatively
limited and of a character calculated to develop powers and habits essential in every walk of A 28 Public Schools Report. 1911
life, as well as to popularize those vocations in which the majority of people should engage.
The manual training and domestic science and art work carried on in a few of our largest
public schools is technical training of this character which I think might be continued with
advantage for two years in our high schools.
The facilities, too, for teaching botany and physical science should be greatly improved,
especially in superior schools and the smaller high schools. The course might then be extended
beyond its present range, even if the subjects remained compulsory for those taking the
ordinary course. It might also be made more practical and more interesting, leading the
youth from the school garden or the laboratory to the garden or the farm.
In the high-school studies of the third and fourth years considerable optional work might
safely be included, providing it be a fair equivalent for the work in the place of which it is
taken. By the time the student reaches his third year he should have more definite and
more intelligent plans for the future. He will also undoubtedly be better equipped mentally
for specializing in the studies best suited to prepare him for his chosen life-work.
When the Provincial University is opened, it is expected it will give considerable attention
to horticulture, agriculture, forestry, mining, and other industries for which the Province is
well adapted. If it does, the high-school work outlined above should prepare students well
for pursuing any course open to them in such a university.
The little technical training that has already been attempted in our high schools calls for
some consideration. A commercial course of two years' work is prescribed by the Council of
Public Instruction, and may be taken during the first two years in any school where the local
authorities make provision for it by engaging a qualified teacher or teachers, and by providing
the necessary equipment for the work. One hundred and one students started to take this
course last year. Of these, only forty-seven presented themselves for examination at the close
of the year, and only twenty-nine of these were successful. These are not encouraging statistics for the advocates of technical training in the high schools for young students. They rather
justify one in the opinion expressed above that many of those starting to specialize at the
early age of fourteen along technical lines, have no strong conviction as to what they mean to
make their life's work, and that others who started out in this course considering it easier
than the ordinary course, but finding it none too easy, embraced the earliest opportunity of
dropping out of school work altogether. It is in view of such facts as these that I strongly
recommend young students not to be in too great haste entering upon their life's work, and
those interested in students not to encourage them to esteem too lightly the valuable mental
discipline that they may obtain by pursuing the ordinary high-school work for at least two
years before beginning to specialize along technical lines.
I have, etc.,
J. S. Gordon,
Inspector of High Schools.
INSPECTORATE No. 1.
Victoria, B.C., November, 1911.
Alexander Robinson,   Esq.,
Superintendent of Education,   Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 1 for
the school-year ending June 30th, 1911 :—
This inspectorate comprised the City Municipalities of Nanaimo and Ladysmith, with
staffs of seventeen and eight teachers respectively; the Rural Municipalities of North Cowichan,
Oak Bay, Saanich, and North Saanich, with ten, four, eighteen, and three teachers respectively;
and fifty-six rural and assisted schools employing seventy teachers, making a total of 130
teachers in all districts. The Municipality of North Saanich will cease and determine on
December 31st, 1911, a retrograde step in my opinion.
During the year there was sufficient extension and alteration work to lead me to believe
that School Boards were beginning to realize the need, both on educational and hygienic
grounds, of improving buildings and equipment. In a number of schools, however, the old
conditions still remained—insufficient lighting; obsolete desks, which were frequently not 2 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. A 29
fastened to the floor : out-of-date maps; inadequate blackboard accommodation; dirty floors,
walls, windows, and stoves; useless or no window-shades ; no satisfactory means of ventilation;
and insanitary closets. These conditions were well known to the respective Boards, but they
failed to realize that some of the chief functions of School Boards are to provide, without
placing too great a burden of taxation on the district, suitable accommodation for the school
children and to secure and endeavour to retain efficient teachers. It cannot be urged as an
excuse for the continuance of the old conditions that the school rates are high, for search at
the Assessor's office proved the rate of taxation to be low. Owing to conditions beyond the
control of the Department, some of these schools receive greater proportionate assistance than
other Provincial schools, but apparently such conditions only tend to make the slumber of
inactivity more profound. Nothing short of compulsion or an educational earthquake will, it
appears, ever awaken and move some Boards to progressive action. To accelerate the movement of progress, I recommended, conditionally, special financial assistance to a few Boards who
had given some tangible evidence of an earnest and an endeavour to improve the accommodation
and maintain their schools in a state of comparative efficiency. It has been of great assistance
to me in my inspectorial work to feel that the Department is ever ready and willing to aid
School Boards in bettering conditions, so that the children will not suffer the evils of bad
lighting, bad ventilation, inadequate equipment, and other defects as yet too common in some
of the schools in this inspectorate.
The accommodation in the City of Nanaimo was unsatisfactory. During my inspection I
found over sixty pupils in actual attendance in each of five divisions, and in one of these
there were seventy-one present the afternoon of my visit. The destruction by fire of the
Convent no doubt accounted for an unexpected increase, but this city is in urgent need of
modern school premises. Some of the rooms are utterly unfitted to be used as class-rooms.
The School Board seemed to recognize the necessity for new premises, and in the near future
will probably submit to the people for ratification a by-law to this end. During the year a
number of rooms were furnished with single desks.
Overcrowded conditions prevailed to a certain extent in other schools, particularly in the
primary divisions. It is a mistake to expect primary teachers to successfully handle almost
double the number taught by senior-grade teachers. I believe the actual number in attendance in any division should not exceed forty. This may not always be possible, but some
attempt should be made to reduce the size of some of the divisions in our city schools.
Some of the school-houses in the Rural Municipality of Saanich were out of date and
provided poor accommodation. A progressive policy is needed in this fine municipality, and I
think the School Board should work out some comprehensive plan of improvement and give
the people of the district an opportunity of showing whether they wish to remain in a state
of obsolescence or keep abreast of the times educationally.
The Oak Bay school trustees are to be commended for the manner in which they have-
improved the school premises. Their grounds promise to be among the most attractive on
Vancouver Island. This Board fully appreciated the value of brightening the environment
of the children, and was probably the only one in my inspectorate to grant any money towards
adorning the walls with pictures. I trust other Boards will follow their example during the-
present school-year. I fear, however, there will be very little general effort to improve the:
appearance of school premises until the Department makes it worth while.
I am pleased to report that the attendance on the whole was fairly regular. In some of
the rural districts there was still room for improvement in this respect. Sometimes a child
was kept away for the most trivial cause or at the caprice of the child itself. Regular attendance in rural districts is just as essential for satisfactory progress as in city districts. The
return of absent pupils is generally attended hy a wearisome repetition of work already
taught, and too often the general progress of the class is regulated by the pace of the irregular
and slower members. I am still of the opinion, expressed in a former report, that in all
districts regular .attendance should be required, subject to certain exemptions, from all children
who are reasonably convenient to a public school, and it should be the business of school
trustees to see that all children of school age within their district receive a common-school
education.
The great majority of the teachers I found faithful and conscientious in the discharge of
their duties, and it was gratifying to note that in the majority of cases the tone and standing
of the schools were satisfactory. Three or four schools, however, had the misfortune to be in
charge of utterly incompetent teachers, under whose regime school-work was demoralized and A 30 Public Schools Report. 1911
little or no progress made. Hereafter, when such wretched work comes under my observation,
I shall deem it my duty to recommend summary dismissal, under section 102 of the " School
Act." The Province might be protected to some extent from such incompetents if only interim
certificates were issued to applicants with no professional training, such certificates to be made
permanent only on proof of successful work in this Province.
In ungraded schools new teachers were frequently handicapped by having no information
concerning the work covered during the previous term. In both ungraded and graded schools
a permanent record of the work done in each subject should be kept in sufficient detail to
clearly indicate the course of instruction throughout the term. At the close of the term this
record should show the complete classification and should contain any recommendations or
suggestions which would benefit the incoming teacher. Occasionally I found that the outgoing
teacher, in order to please the pupils or parents, had been guilty of the reprehensible practice
of making premature promotions. This was most unfair and always created a great deal of
trouble for the succeeding teacher.
Rural schools continue to be handicapped by a frequent change of teachers. The work
in the average ungraded school is arduous, and very often the social conditions and environment are not congenial. The continued expansion of the cities provides so many vacancies
that the successful teacher has little difficulty in securing a position. The only way by which
rural districts can retain good teachers seems to be by making the salary sufficiently attractive.
In regard to the subjects of instruction, I may say that not enough attention was given
to mental arithmetic and oral composition. Some teachers, instead of having their pupils
memorize only selections and passages of literary merit, had them attempt to commit to
memory all the poetry that was read. Others failed to realize that their main endeavour in
nature-study should be to guide the pupils to systematic habits of observation, and in hygiene
to train them to form systematic habits of health. In the majority of the schools physical
exercises were taught, but a number of teachers who failed to appreciate the hygienic value
of this subject attempted no systematic work. I hope, next year, that the boys in some of
the rural districts will receive the benefit of instruction in manual training.
I have, etc.,
George  H. Deane,
Inspector of Schools.
9
INSPECTORATE No.  2.
Vancouver, B.C., December 16th, 1911.
Alexander Robinson,  Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No.
for the school-vear ending June 30th, 1911 :—
The territory embraced by this inspectorate, and especially those parts of it which
comprise the City of North Vancouver and the Rural Municipalities of Burnaby, Point Grey,
North Vancouver, and South Vancouver, continued, throughout the twelve months under
review, the great growth which has been so marked in recent years. With this expansion
calls for increased school accommodation became more insistent. The School Boards fully
realized the necessity of adequately meeting these demands. By-laws were submitted to the
ratepayers, who voted the funds necessary for purchasing sites, enlarging existing schools, and
erecting and equipping new schools.
North Vancouver outgrew the accommodation provided at the Central School and new
buildings became imperative. A frame school of eight rooms was erected on Lonsdale Avenue
between Twenty-first and Twenty-second Streets, and one of two rooms in the east end of the
city. Only four rooms of the Lonsdale School have yet been finished. A fire-proof building,
located on a site of four acres on the corner of Ridgeway and Ninth Streets, is at present in
course of construction. In its design an effort has been made to eliminate nothing that would
add to the comfort of the pupils or the efficiency of the school.    In Burnaby a two-room school 2 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. A 31
was built on the Hamilton Road in the early part of the year. Contracts were let later for
three schools of two rooms each, one on Vancouver Heights, one on Armstrong Avenue, and
the third in North Central Park. The four-room schools at East Burnaby and West Burnaby
have reached the limit of their capacity and their extension has become an immediate necessity.
To meet additional requirements in Point Grey, the Kerrisdale and the West Point Grey
Schools were enlarged to four rooms and two rooms respectively. In the Rural Municipality
of North Vancouver a two-room school was built at North Lonsdale. A frame building of
four rooms, which will be steam-heated and modern in other respects, is in course of erection
at Lynn Valley. In South Vancouver the largest building programme in the history of its
schools was carried out. Three eight-room brick buildings, the Lord Selkirk at Cedar Cottage,
the Tecumseh on Wilson Road near Victoria Road, and the General Wolfe on Ontario Street
between Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Avenues, were constructed and made ready for
use. All have improved systems of heating and ventilating, a fairly complete equipment, and
ample light. Towards the end of the year, owing to the rapid growth of the school population
of Cedar Cottage, the enlargement of the Lord Selkirk School to sixteen rooms was decided
on. This building, now nearing completion, is the largest public school yet erected in the
municipality. The overcrowding at the North Arm School has been overcome by the erection
of a four-room frame building. An addition of four rooms each was made to the Collingwood
and the South Hill Schools. This did not relieve the situation very long at either place and
temporar}' buildings had to be provided. At Collingwood additional property was bought for
the purpose of enlarging the grounds, and on this a fine eight-room brick building, which will
soon be ready for occupation, is being constructed.
The class-rooms generally are cheerful and attractive. It is rare to find a room whose
walls are without neatly framed pictures. Potted plants, too, are to be found in most of the
rooms. I am also pleased to report that increased interest in the improvement of the grounds
is being displayed. As a first step in a scheme which includes the planting of trees and
shrubs, the grounds of the schools in Burnaby, Point Grey, and South Vancouver, are being
ploughed, graded, and fenced.
One hundred and twenty-two teachers were employed on the 30th of June, being thirty-
five more than at the end of the previous year. Of tnis increase, South Vancouver added
seventeen to its staff; North Vancouver, Burnaby, and Point Grey, four each; Hastings,
Richmond, and North Vancouver (Rural Municipality), two each. The schools at Eburne,
Kerrisdale, and Lynn Valley were promoted to the rank of graded schools. North Lonsdale,
in the Rural Municipality of North Vancouver, opened a school for the first time in January.
A school was also opened at the same time on the Hamilton Road, in Burnaby Municipality. Hastings has been annexed to the City of Vancouver, and is no longer a part of this
inspectorate.
I am convinced from observation in the class-room that too little time is devoted to
training the children in acquiring right habits of study. Teachers assign tasks too frequently
without giving the assistance and direction which are so necessary to intelligent preparation.
Children like to work when they are given the right kind of help. Usually an attempt is
made to give too exhaustive information, and, as a consequence, lessons are overloaded with
details and the important and the trivial become confused in the pupils' minds. This leads
to a lack of thoroughness, fosters overwork, and makes school-life distasteful. When tasks
are not too hard and are really worth doing, children, if wisely directed, will go about them
willingly. They beeome interested and happy when they find they are acquiring power to
attack and solve new problems and new difficulties. The best teachers are definite in stating
what is to be done, and take pains to show their pupils how to prepare lessons, select subject-
matter, and do independent work. Right habits of study lighten the work of the class-room
and make it more enjoyable for teacher and pupils.
The failure of some teachers is due to want of capacity to test their own work effectively.
They are incapable of studying the mental development of each child, and consequently never
know what their pupils are acquiring. These teachers usually work hard, prepare lessons
carefully, and give lengthy explanations, yet inability to find out whether or not every
child—the slow as well as the quick—has got hold of the things they tried to teach renders
them incapable of successfully directing the efforts of their pupils or of giving satisfactory
service. During the recitation period they do too much, and so long as the children are
orderly and appear attentive, few other demands are made on them. Under these circumstances the recitation neither arouses interest nor provokes thought. A 32 Public Schools Report. 1911
Teachers are aiming at a higher standard in the subject of reading, and nearly all attempt
to get distinct enunciation, fair expression, and a thorough understanding of the passages
read. The teaching of arithmetic is also undergoing an improvement. More attention is
being given the four fundamental rules with the view of securing greater accuracy and
rapidity. New processes and new principles are taught through oral class-instruction, which
in nearly all schools precedes the written work. The subject, however, is still receiving a
share of time out of all proportion to its importance. In many class-rooms fully one-fourth of
the time is devoted to its study. In teaching geography, wall-maps are not relied on as much
as they formerly were. Sketch-maps, which are much more effective in maintaining interest,
are filled in by the teacher as the lesson advances. The importance of getting the children
themselves to draw memory maps has not yet been fully appreciated by all the teachers. Too
much of the time that is set apart for the study of history is being spent in learning isolated
facts and unimportant events. Very little discrimination is shown in some schools. The
great movements and achievements in the history of the nation are not emphasized sufficiently,
and the great men that were associated with the development of the Empire are lost in a
crowd of persons that rendered little service.
I have, etc.,
J. D. Gillis,
Inspector of Schools.
INSPECTORATE NO. 3.
Vancouver, B.C., November, 1911.
Alexander Robinson, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report on the schools of Inspectorate No. 3
for the year ending June 30th, 1911:—
Inspectorate No. 3 included the schools on the Mainland of British Columbia from
Vancouver City to Stewart, together with those on the islands north of Vancouver, including
the Queen Charlotte Group; those in the Comox Valley, on Vancouver Island ; and those on
the north side of the Fraser River between Vancouver and Nicomen.
The number of teachers employed in this inspectorate during the year was eighty-four.
In several parts of the inspectorate there was a marked increase in the school population,
necessitating additional teachers in established schools and the opening of a number of new
schools. Prince Rupert, the banner city of the north, added two teachers to the staff, while
Port Moody, Mission City, and Hatzic added one each. At each of these places there is now
a fine, new, up-to-date school-house suitable to the requirements of the district. Schools were
put into operation for the first time at Stewart, Sandspit (Moresby Island), Sloan, Ocean
Falls, Nikrap, Powell River, Roberts Creek, Lake Buntzen, and Stave Falls.
The only schools closed through lack of pupils were Metlakatla, Campbell River, and
Lower Squamish.
Next year it will be necessary to open schools at Nob Hill, near Comox; No. 7 Mine,
near Cumberland ; Headquarters (the base of operations of the Canadian Western Lumber
Company, Vancouver Island), Gillis Bay (Texada Island), and Lower Squamish, now called
Newport. An additional room is now under construction at Courtenay, and another at
Hammond, where the attendance in one room reached sixty.
In very few districts in this inspectorate has any effort been put forth to improve the
school buildings or make the surroundings more attractive. Few parents seem to realize how
much of their young lives their children spend at school, how impressionable these young minds
are, and how necessary it is that the surroundings should be such as will add to their comfort,
cheerfulness, and happiness. In many assisted school districts the buildings provided are so
ill-suited to the purpose that it seems a pity to permit such badly lighted, ill-ventilated, and
poorly furnished quarters. Great credit is due Maple Ridge, Howe Sound, and Lower Bella
Ooola for their school gardens and beautiful rows of shade-trees that add so much to the
general appearance of the school and its surroundings. 2 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. A 33
In too many districts little interest is taken by the trustees in the absolutely necessary
business of the Board. Few, if any, meetings are held, and no attention is given to the correct
order of procedure. The secretary is generally left to do anything that seems unavoidable.
In such districts the tone of the school is deplorable, and the unfortunate teacher becomes
discouraged, or, like the trustees, indifferent to the success of the school and the welfare of the
children.
In regard to the work done in the different schools, I shall say little here, as you have my
report furnished the Department at the time of my visit.
The teacher on " permit" or without any training for the work has about disappeared.
Most of our young teachers, native-born, have had at least a short course in our Provincial
Normal School, while those from outside have had their training elsewhere. This is noticeable in readier organization, classification, and general handling of the classes. And yet there
are not a few who are leaving little impress on the pupils; who go on from month to month
in a certain routine of work, forgetting to look inwardly on the effect it is having on the young
minds; failing to realize that the object of all true teaching is to elevate and not depress, to
give power, and to aid in strengthening and developing the child Is it that the effort
necessary to good teaching is too great a demand for the reward, or have these teachers not
yet awakened to a sense of their responsibility 1 Where I have met thoughtful, enthusiastic,
conscientious teachers, alive to their opportunities, I have found creditable results, at least in
most subjects of the course. In rural schools the pupils are progressing very slowly in the
subject of drawing. This is partly due to the failure of the trustees to provide the necessary
apparatus for teaching. Oral history has not yet attained the place it deserves as a fruitful
field for language-work.    Written composition is also very weak.
In conclusion, I wish to say the inducement offered teachers in this inspectorate is very
inadequate. Several districts, wealthy in every sense of the word, are at the annual meeting
voting such meagre sums for school purposes that in some cases the individual tax hardly pays
the cost of collection. The Government has shown its willingness to do its share. It rests
with these districts to do theirs, to secure more permanent teachers, efficient, and able to raise
the standard and tone of the school and advance the welfare of the whole community.
I have, etc.,
Thomas Leith,
Inspector of Schools.
INSPECTORATE No. 4.
New Westminster, B.C., August 5th, 1911.
Alexander Robinson, Esq.,
Superintendent oj Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the following report on the public schools
of Inspectorate No. 4 for the school-year ending June 30th, 1911:—
This inspectorate includes the Cities of Chilliwack and New Westminster; the Rural
Municipalities of Chilliwack, Langley, Matsqui, Sumas, and Surrey; the Abbotsford Rural
School and the assisted schools at Barnston Island and Cultus Lake.
In the public schools of New Westminster City thirty-six teachers were employed and
1,718 pupils enrolled, showing an increase over the previous year of two teachers and 151
pupils. The average enrolment was forty-seven and the average daily attendance 35.75. In
Chilliwack City there were seven teachers on the public-school staff and an enrolment of 285
pupils, an increase of one teacher and thirty-nine pupils. The average enrolment was forty
and the average daily attendance 32.65.
The number of teachers employed in- the rural municipality schools was 64, apportioned
as follows: Chilliwack, 19; Langley, 14; Matsqui (including Abbotsford), 12; Sumas, 4; and
Surrey, 15. The same number of class-rooms was in operation as in 1909-10. The Upper
Sumas School was not reopened, but a new school was established at White Rock, in Surrey
Municipality. The total enrolment in the schools of the rural municipalities was 2,056,
representing an increase of forty-four pupils for the year. While there was an increase in the
enrolment, there was a decrease in the average daily attendance, which was 1,213.14 in 1909-10
and 1,208.64 in 1910-11.
3 A 34 Public Schools Report. 1911
With reference to the rural municipality schools, the very small increase of forty-four in
the total enrolment and the slight decrease in the average daily attendance seem at variance
with the general prosperity throughout the district. It is due, in a large measure, to the fact
that many of the settlers, with their families, have taken advantage of the prices offered for
their land and have left the district. The farms sold have been subdivided, but the purchasers
have not yet settled in their new homes. When the fall term opens several schools which
have scarcely been able to maintain the minimum number of pupils will be comfortably filled,
and those which have maintained only an average attendance will, in some instances, be overtaxed. The coming year will doubtless witness a larger influx of settlers, and consequently a
greater increase in the enrolment of pupils than any previous year in the history of this
section of the Province.
In order to provide for this increased attendance, two additional rooms have been built
at Abbotsford, making in all four class-rooms. New two-room schools have just been completed
at Belmont and Fort Langley. Preliminary steps are now being taken for the erection of a
four-room school at Cloverdale. By-laws have also been passed for the erection of two eight-
room schools in New Westminster City. At each of the places named, wise provision has
been made for grounds of adequate area. Abbotsford has 2-| acres, Belmont 5 acres, Clover-
dale 3ijj- acres, Langley 4 acres, and the two schools in New Westminster will have a total of
8J acres. In a Province where land is plentiful, neither the children of the city nor the
country should be confined in a small playground, nor, as is too often the case, should they be
obliged to play on the street or the country cross-roads. In no better way can the ratepayers
of a section show practical evidence of faith in its future than by setting aside two or more
acres of land for a school-site.
The work of the teachers has, in the main, been characterized by earnestness and intelligence. Fully 80 per cent, have attended Normal School, and show the effect of the training
received in the way they organize their classes and present their lessons. Perhaps the most
perplexing problem which has to be solved by the teacher of the ungraded school is that of
keeping the pupils profitably engaged while at their seats. Obviously the time and attention
of the teacher are almost entirely taken up with the recitations of the different classes, each
of which must spend much of the day either in studying from the book or in doing written
work. The teacher must see that the pupil while studying is not forming bad habits by wasting
time over the work, and should so plan to supervise the written exercise that it may be the
best of which the pupil is capable. The problem is particularly difficult where the work in
history and geography is largely oral. The lesson, after providing material for oral composition, may be profitably used as seat-work, if the pupil, before being asked to reproduce it, be
questioned in such a manner as to lead him to group the facts into paragraphs. Often the
pupil is sent to his seat, directed to reproduce some lesson in nature-study, reading, or history.
He has not been led by thoughtful questioning to arrange his ideas on the subject into groups.
As a result of this and the certainty that his teacher will not read the composition critically,
both the pupil's writing and his sentence-structure bear the mark of carelessness. In order
to prevent the formation of bad habits, both in method of study and in style of composition
and penmanship, all written exercises assigned pupils should be thoughtfully planned and
carefully corrected.
While the schools have suffered more this year than in the past from the too-frequent
change of teachers, much good work has been accomplished. One evidence of this is found in
the results of the Rural and Urban Entrance Examinations. In all, 184 candidates wrote at
the five centres and 120 succeeded in passing—an average of 65 per cent. Exceptionally
good results were obtained at Abbotsford, Belmont and Chilliwack. At the Urban Entrance
Examinations a pupil of the Chilliwack Public School won first place in the Province. A year
ago a similar honour was obtained by a pupil of the same school.
In concluding this report, I wish to express my appreciation of the hearty manner in
which teachers and trustees have carried out suggestions which have been made from time to
time for the improvement of their schools. An increased interest in educational matters has
begun to manifest itself in many quarters, and the schools are keeping pace with the marked
progress throughout the district.
I have, etc.,
Albert Sullivan,
Inspector of Schools. 2 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. A 35
INSPECTORATE No. 5.
Kamloops, B.C., November 30th, 1911.
Alexander Robinson, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 5 for
the school-year ending June 30th, 1911 :—
Inspectorate No. 5 included all the territory on both sides of the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, from Harrison River to Sicamous, together with the Cariboo Road and the
Nicola and Similkameen Valleys.
This district includes a very large area which is sparsely settled. In many parts it is
now receiving a fair share of the development taking place throughout the Province, Owing
to the increase of population, assisted schools were opened at the following places : Harper's
Camp, in the Cariboo; Empire Valley, in the Chilcotin; Barrier River, on the North Thompson;
North Shuswap, near Chase; Seymour Arm, on Lake Shuswap; and South Fort George.
Assisted schools were also recommended for Alexandria and Chimney Creek, in the Cariboo ;
Five-mile Creek and Coalmont, near Princeton ; and Sorrento, near Notch Hill. If the people
in these localities do their duty, these schools should be in operation next year.
The year just closed has been one of considerable activity in the erection and enlargement
of school-houses. At the beginning of the school-year a two-room building was opened at Chase,
while at Agassiz a similar one was completed toward the end of the year. At Tappen Siding
a one-room building was erected. Arrangements were made for new schools at Hope, Long
Lake, Lytton, West Salmon Arm, and Spence's Bridge, most of which are now under construction. At Merritt the number of teachers was increased from two to four, and owing to the
rapid growth of this new town it was considered necessary to provide an additional building
with four class-rooms. Two teachers were added to the staff at Kamloops, and the School
Board is now confronted with the problem of providing more accommodation.
The Rural Examination for entrance to a high school was held at Agassiz, Ashcroft,
Clinton, Hedley, and Nicola. The work of a few schools was most creditable, but the results
as a whole were far from satisfactory. The Urban Examination, held at Kamloops, and Salmon
Arm, showed that the pupils had been more carefully instructed.
The work in many schools is retarded owing to the lack of proper equipment. During
the year I made a persistent effort to have this defect remedied, and as a result old blackboards
were replaced in many schools by hyloplate, and new maps, sets of drawing models, and
apparatus for nature-study were also provided. Trustees are slow to realize that good work
cannot reasonably be expected when the teacher is not supplied with the necessary aids to
effective teaching.
Frequently there is considerable delay, owing to insufficient funds, before much-needed
repairs and improvements can be effected. Before the annual meeting, the trustees should
have a knowledge of the requirements for the coming year and levy accordingly, making an
allowance for incidentals. If this were done each year, there would be fewer complaints from
teachers, less discomfort among the pupils, and a decided improvement in the appearance of
many schools.
In this district one of the chief obstacles in the way of educational achievement is the
frequent changing of teachers. The action of the Department in raising the salaries of the
teachers in the assisted schools has already had a beneficial effect. If trustees and parents
would make an earnest effort to increase the salaries, and thereby retain the services of good
teachers for a greater length of time, the general standing of the schools would be much
improved.
With few exceptions, I have found the teachers faithful and energetic in the discharge of
their duties. There were a few failures, due not so much to the inability to teach as to lack
of interest and enthusiam in the work. The majority, however, were making earnest and
intelligent efforts to improve their schools. Their work was carefully planned, and the lessons
taught created interest and produced mental activity. They endeavoured also to train their
pupils in forming habits that develop strong, noble characters.
I have, etc.,
J. T. Pollock,
Inspector of Schools. Revelstoke, B.C., November 6th, 1911-.
Alexander Robinson, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate
No. 6, for the school-year ending June 30th, 1911 :—
The year has been one of steady progress. The graded schools, as a rule, have done
satisfactory work, while the character of the work done in the ungraded schools, on the
average, has been an improvement on that of former years.
In many districts the trustees have shown commendable enterprise in looking after the
welfare of the schools entrusted to their charge, but in a few instances very little effort has
been made to improve existing conditions, which in some cases are not at all creditable to the
community. In many districts, too, the trustees are not sufficiently alert in the matter of
securing teachers, and as a result of their carelessness in this regard some of the smaller
schools are forced to remain closed for considerable periods when they should be in operation.
Trustees who have tried the plan of advertising in May or June for a teacher required in
August have seldom experienced any difficulty in securing a suitable teacher in readiness for
the re-opening of the schools after the midsummer vacation.
There is still a marked tendency among teachers in the rural districts to change from
one school to another all too frequently, to the detriment not only of the pupils in these
schools, but also of such teachers themselves. A much greater measure of success is usually
to be attained by a teacher who will remain in a school for a considerable time, and solve all
the problems presented by the difficulties of that school, than by one who is in the habit of
seeking fresh fields and pastures new every term.
The British Columbia Association of School Trustees held their annual convention at
Kelowna last autumn. There was a good attendance of trustees from the different parts of
the Province and a very interesting programme was presented.
From the standpoint of the teachers the most important event of the school-year was the
meeting at Vernon in April of the Okanagan and North Kootenay Teachers' Institute.
A most useful and interesting programme had been arranged, and all the papers and addresses
were of a uniformly high standard of excellence. About 125 teachers were present, all of
whom went away with the feeling that the Institute was one of the best and most helpful
ever held in the Province. The next meeting of the institute will be held in 1913, during
Easter week.
I have, etc.,
A. E.  Miller,
Inspector of Schools.
INSPECTORATE No. 7.
Nelson, B.C., November 15th, 1911.
Alexander Robinson, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the public schools of Inspectorate No. 7 for
the school-year ending June 30th, 1911 :—
In this inspectorate (which comprises all Southern Kootenay) 141 schools were in session
during the year. At the beginning of the year new schools were opened at Elk Prairie,
Flagstone, Canyon City, Lower Rock Creek, and Balfour. The continued growth and
settlement of the country required schools to be opened during the year at Crawford Bay,
Proctor, and Crescent Valley, while another was granted at Columbia Park just before the
summer holidays. In addition to this, a new division was opened at Cranbrook, one at
Fernie, and two at Nelson; and the status of the Columbia Gardens and Canyon City
Schools was raised to that of regularly organized school districts. 2 Geo. 5 Public Schools Report. A 37
The school buildings and equipment vary from the most primitive in some of the assisted
school districts to elaborate structures in some of the cities. That more habitable buildings
could well be provided in several of the assisted school districts is quite obvious. In the
regularly organized rural districts a few of the old school buildings are small and of an obsolete
type, but all the new schools built by the Government are spacious and commodious, although
frequently insufficiently lighted. It may also be observed that, in those parts of the Crow's
Nest District where soft gaseous coal is used, a stove is most unsatisfactory for heating purposes
in the school-room. Thus it may be suggested that, in all two-roomed schools at least, the
installation of a furnace would effect a great improvement. Moreover, the placing of the open-
latticed ventilators in the gable-ends of school buildings has, in this district, proved a failure.
In some instances so much snow has blown in and melted that the ceilings in new buildings
have been much damaged. Again, although the school buildings in